Science.gov

Sample records for oil environmental evaluation

  1. Vertical pump turbine oil environmental evaluation

    SciTech Connect

    Culver, G.

    1991-04-01

    In Oregon low-temperature geothermal injection well construction, siting and receiving formations requires approval by the Water Resources Department (OWRD). In addition, the Oregon Department of Environmental Quality (ODEQ) has regulations concerning injection. Conversations with the OWRD and ODEQ representatives indicated they were very concerned about the potential for contamination of the geothermal (and cooler but hydraulically connected) aquifers by oils and grease. Their primary concern was over the practice of putting paraffin, motor oils and other hydrocarbons in downhole heat exchanger (DHE) wells to prevent corrosion. They also expressed considerable concern about the use of oil in production well pumps since the fluids pumped would be injected. Oregon (and Idaho) prohibit the use of oil-lubricated pumps for public water supplies except in certain situations where non-toxic food-grade lubricants are used. Since enclosed-lineshaft oil-lubricated pumps are the mainstay of direct-use pumping equipment, the potential for restricting their use became a concern to the Geo-Heat Center staff. An investigation into alternative pump lubrication schemes and development of rebuttals to potential restrictions was proposed and approved as a contract task. (SM)

  2. Evaluating environmental liabilities in oil and gas operations

    SciTech Connect

    Alderman, J.H.

    1995-06-01

    In operating oil and gas properties or when trading these properties, environmental liabilities must be considered. The purpose of this paper is to provide guidance in identifying these liabilities and on making a risk analysis of the liability. Identifying an environmental liability is important. However, it is also necessary to determine what are the potential costs and how will costs effect operations or the trade.

  3. First evaluation of foraminiferal metabarcoding for monitoring environmental impact from an offshore oil drilling site.

    PubMed

    Laroche, Olivier; Wood, Susanna A; Tremblay, Louis A; Ellis, Joanne I; Lejzerowicz, Franck; Pawlowski, Jan; Lear, Gavin; Atalah, Javier; Pochon, Xavier

    2016-09-01

    At present, environmental impacts from offshore oil and gas activities are partly determined by measuring changes in macrofauna diversity. Morphological identification of macrofauna is time-consuming, expensive and dependent on taxonomic expertise. In this study, we evaluated the applicability of using foraminiferal-specific metabarcoding for routine monitoring. Sediment samples were collected along distance gradients from two oil platforms off Taranaki (New Zealand) and their physico-chemical properties, foraminiferal environmental DNA/RNA, and macrofaunal composition analyzed. Macrofaunal and foraminiferal assemblages showed similar shifts along impact gradients, but responded differently to environmental perturbations. Macrofauna were affected by hypoxia, whereas sediment grain size appeared to drive shifts in foraminifera. We identified eight foraminiferal molecular operational taxonomic units that have potential to be used as bioindicator taxa. Our results show that metabarcoding represents an effective tool for assessing foraminiferal communities near offshore oil and gas platforms, and that it can be used to complement current monitoring techniques. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Environmentally friendly lubricating oil candidate.

    PubMed

    Ozgülsün, A; Karaosmanoğlu, F

    1999-01-01

    Synthetic lubricating oils based on renewable sources, excluding petroleum, have a great importance among all of the lubricating oil alternatives that are included in the research field about clean and environmentally friendly lubricating oil technologies. One of the environmentally friendly lubricating oils is a vegetable oil-based product. In this study, the esterification product of oleic acid with a fraction of molasses fusel oil as a lubricating oil candidate was determined according to the American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM) standard tests. The results indicate that the ester product can be used as an environmental friendly lubricating oil or lubricating oil additive.

  5. Oil spill environmental forensics: the Hebei Spirit oil spill case.

    PubMed

    Yim, Un Hyuk; Kim, Moonkoo; Ha, Sung Yong; Kim, Sunghwan; Shim, Won Joon

    2012-06-19

    After the Hebei Spirit oil spill (HSOS) in December 2007, mixtures of three types of Middle East crude oil (total 12,547 kL) were stranded along 375 km of coastline in Western Korea. Emergency responses together with 1.3 million volunteers' activity rapidly removed ca. 20% of spilled oil but the lingering oils have been found along the heavily impacted shorelines for more than 4 years. The HSOS was the worst oil spill case in Republic of Korea, and there were many issues and lessons to be shared. In this study, we summarized some of the oil spill environmental forensic issues that were raised after the HSOS. Rapid screening using on-site measurement, long-term monitoring of multimedia, fingerprinting challenges and evaluation of the extent of the submerged oil were introduced, which supported decision making process of oil spill cleanup, mitigation of debates among stakeholders and provided scientific backgrounds for reasonable compensation.

  6. Mathematical modeling-guided evaluation of biochemical, developmental, environmental, and genotypic determinants of essential oil composition and yield in peppermint leaves.

    PubMed

    Rios-Estepa, Rigoberto; Lange, Iris; Lee, James M; Lange, B Markus

    2010-04-01

    We have previously reported the use of a combination of computational simulations and targeted experiments to build a first generation mathematical model of peppermint (Menthaxpiperita) essential oil biosynthesis. Here, we report on the expansion of this approach to identify the key factors controlling monoterpenoid essential oil biosynthesis under adverse environmental conditions. We also investigated determinants of essential oil biosynthesis in transgenic peppermint lines with modulated essential oil profiles. A computational perturbation analysis, which was implemented to identify the variables that exert prominent control over the outputs of the model, indicated that the essential oil composition should be highly dependent on certain biosynthetic enzyme concentrations [(+)-pulegone reductase and (+)-menthofuran synthase], whereas oil yield should be particularly sensitive to the density and/or distribution of leaf glandular trichomes, the specialized anatomical structures responsible for the synthesis and storage of essential oils. A microscopic evaluation of leaf surfaces demonstrated that the final mature size of glandular trichomes was the same across all experiments. However, as predicted by the perturbation analysis, differences in the size distribution and the total number of glandular trichomes strongly correlated with differences in monoterpenoid essential oil yield. Building on various experimental data sets, appropriate mathematical functions were selected to approximate the dynamics of glandular trichome distribution/density and enzyme concentrations in our kinetic model. Based on a chi2 statistical analysis, simulated and measured essential oil profiles were in very good agreement, indicating that modeling is a valuable tool for guiding metabolic engineering efforts aimed at improving essential oil quality and quantity.

  7. Mathematical Modeling-Guided Evaluation of Biochemical, Developmental, Environmental, and Genotypic Determinants of Essential Oil Composition and Yield in Peppermint Leaves1[W][OA

    PubMed Central

    Rios-Estepa, Rigoberto; Lange, Iris; Lee, James M.; Lange, B. Markus

    2010-01-01

    We have previously reported the use of a combination of computational simulations and targeted experiments to build a first generation mathematical model of peppermint (Mentha × piperita) essential oil biosynthesis. Here, we report on the expansion of this approach to identify the key factors controlling monoterpenoid essential oil biosynthesis under adverse environmental conditions. We also investigated determinants of essential oil biosynthesis in transgenic peppermint lines with modulated essential oil profiles. A computational perturbation analysis, which was implemented to identify the variables that exert prominent control over the outputs of the model, indicated that the essential oil composition should be highly dependent on certain biosynthetic enzyme concentrations [(+)-pulegone reductase and (+)-menthofuran synthase], whereas oil yield should be particularly sensitive to the density and/or distribution of leaf glandular trichomes, the specialized anatomical structures responsible for the synthesis and storage of essential oils. A microscopic evaluation of leaf surfaces demonstrated that the final mature size of glandular trichomes was the same across all experiments. However, as predicted by the perturbation analysis, differences in the size distribution and the total number of glandular trichomes strongly correlated with differences in monoterpenoid essential oil yield. Building on various experimental data sets, appropriate mathematical functions were selected to approximate the dynamics of glandular trichome distribution/density and enzyme concentrations in our kinetic model. Based on a χ2 statistical analysis, simulated and measured essential oil profiles were in very good agreement, indicating that modeling is a valuable tool for guiding metabolic engineering efforts aimed at improving essential oil quality and quantity. PMID:20147490

  8. Environmental consequences of oil production from oil sands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rosa, Lorenzo; Davis, Kyle F.; Rulli, Maria C.; D'Odorico, Paolo

    2017-02-01

    Crude oil from oil sands will constitute a substantial share of future global oil demand. Oil sands deposits account for a third of globally proven oil reserves, underlie large natural forested areas, and have extraction methods requiring large volumes of freshwater. Yet little work has been done to quantify some of the main environmental impacts of oil sands operations. Here we examine forest loss and water use for the world's major oil sands deposits. We calculate actual and potential rates of water use and forest loss both in Canadian deposits, where oil sands extraction is already taking place, and in other major deposits worldwide. We estimated that their exploitation, given projected production trends, could result in 1.31 km3 yr-1 of freshwater demand and 8700 km2 of forest loss. The expected escalation in oil sands extraction thus portends extensive environmental impacts.

  9. Used motor oil passes environmental problem

    SciTech Connect

    Brinkman, D.W.; Gottlieb, M.; Koelbel, K.

    1982-08-09

    Purposes of this study were to determine the amount of oil used, oil change practices, disposal methods involved, perceived harmfulness of various disposal methods, and attitudes toward recycling used motor oil. Survey was taken to verify claims made that the do-it-yourselfer (DIY), who changes his own automotive oil, has caused significant environmental problems by dumping the oil down sewers, on the ground, or into landfills as part of their trash. Results show that more than two-thirds of DIYs would save their oil for recycling if it were picked up at their house or if they had a suitable container for bringing it to a recycling center.

  10. ENVIRONMENTAL 1 CRUDE OIL CLEANER

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Technical product bulletin: this surface washing agent is used in oil spill cleanups on solid surfaces including beaches, rocks, machines, buildings, and tools. The oil and cleaner form a loose emulsion that can be rinsed away.

  11. Environmental assessment of used oil management methods.

    PubMed

    Boughton, Bob; Horvath, Arpad

    2004-01-15

    The 1 billion gal of used oil generated in the U.S. each year are managed in three primary ways: rerefined into base oil for reuse, distilled into marine diesel oil fuel, and marketed as untreated fuel oil. Management of used oil has local, regional and global impacts. Because of the globally distributed nature of fuel markets, used oil as fuel has localized and regional impacts in many areas. In this paper, the human health and environmental tradeoffs of the management options are quantified and characterized. The goal of this study was to assess and compare the environmental impacts and benefits of each management method in a product end-of-life scenario using a life-cycle assessment (LCA) approach. A life-cycle inventory showed that 800 mg of zinc and 30 mg of lead air emissions may result from the combustion of 1 L of used oil as fuel (50-100 times that of crude-derived fuel oils). As an example, up to 136 Mg of zinc and 5 Mg of lead air emissions may be generated from combustion of over 50 M gal of California-generated used oil each year. While occurring elsewhere, these levels are significant (of the same magnitude as reported total stationary source emissions in California). An impact assessment showed that heavy metals-related toxicity dominates the comparison of management methods. Zinc and lead emissions were the primary contributors to the terrestrial and human toxicity impact potentials that were calculated to be 150 and 5 times higher, respectively, for used oil combusted as fuel than for rerefining or distillation. Low profits and weak markets increasingly drive the used oil management method selection toward the untreated fuel oil market. Instead, both the rerefining and distillation methods and associated product markets should be strongly supported because they are environmentally preferable to the combustion of unprocessed used oil as fuel.

  12. Evaluation of leaf-derived extracts as an environmentally sustainable source of essential oils by using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry and enantioselective gas chromatography-olfactometry.

    PubMed

    d'Acampora Zellner, Barbara; Lo Presti, Maria; Barata, Lauro Euclides Soares; Dugo, Paola; Dugo, Giovanni; Mondello, Luigi

    2006-02-01

    In consideration of the world's present environmental situation and the threat of species extinction, investigations concerning alternative sustainable sources of natural substances represent an extremely important issue. In this respect, the present research is focused on the analytical evaluation of Brazilian rosewood (Aniba rosaeodora Ducke) leaves, as an alternative source (with respect to wood) of rosewood essential oil and, as such, of natural linalool, which is extensively used in perfumery. Enantioselective-gas chromatography-olfactometry (Es-GC-O) was used as a tool for the simultaneous stereodifferentiation and olfactive evaluation of the volatile optically active components present in the analyzed samples. In addition to Es-GC-O analyses, direct olfactive analyses were also performed, enabling the evaluation of the global aroma exerted by each sample and the influence of each linalool antipode, as also other minor compounds. The samples were also submitted to gas chromatography-mass spectrometric analysis, thus establishing their chemical profiles. The assessment of enantiopure chiral compounds through Es-GC-O, along with direct olfactive analyses, confirmed that the leaves are a potential substituent for wood in the extraction of Brazilian rosewood essential oil, representing a sustainable nonwood source of natural linalool.

  13. Evaluating Environmental Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stokking, K.; van Aert, L.; Meijberg, W.; Kaskens, A.

    This book is the English version of "Evaluating Environmental Education" which was developed and financed by the Netherlands Ministry of Agriculture, Nature Management and Fisheries. The book is divided into three chapters. Chapter 1 focuses on the purpose of evaluation, evaluation of environmental education programs, and outlines the 13-step…

  14. Environmental control technology for shale oil wastewaters

    SciTech Connect

    Mercer, B.W.; Wakamiya, W.; Bell, N.E.; Mason, M.J.; Spencer, R.R.; English, C.J.; Riley, R.G.

    1982-09-01

    This report summarizes the results of studies conducted at Pacific Northwest Laboratory from 1976 to 1982 on environmental control technology for shale oil wastewaters. Experimental studies conducted during the course of the program were focused largely on the treatment and disposal of retort water, particularly water produced by in situ retorting of oil shale. Alternative methods were evaluated for the treatment and disposal of retort water and minewater. Treatment and disposal processes evaluated for retort water include evaporation for separation of water from both inorganic and organic pollutants; steam stripping for ammonia and volatile organics removal; activated sludge and anaerobic digestion for removal of biodegradable organics and other oxidizable substances; carbon adsorption for removal of nonbiodegradable organics; chemical coagulation for removal of suspended matter and heavy metals; wet air oxidation and solvent extraction for removal of organics; and land disposal and underground injection for disposal of retort water. Methods for the treatment of minewater include chemical processing and ion exchange for fluoride and boron removal. Preliminary cost estimates are given for several retort water treatment processes.

  15. Optimal investment in environmental protection: An analysis of oil spill risk

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, D.J.

    1992-12-01

    Large offshore oil spills can devastate marine ecosystems and disrupt shoreline economies. This research evaluates oil spill risk in Hawaii and applies stochastic programming methods to reveal opportunities for efficiency gains through investment in environmental protection. Results indicate that Hawaii could substantially reduce expected losses from future oil spill by increasing oil spill preparedness and by investing in preventative measures.

  16. Oil-free bearing development for high-speed turbomachinery in distributed energy systems - dynamic and environmental evaluation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tkacz, Eliza; Kozanecka, Dorota; Kozanecki, Zbigniew; Łagodziński, Jakub

    2015-09-01

    Modern distributed energy systems, which are used to provide an alternative to or an enhancement of traditional electric power systems, require small size highspeed rotor turbomachinery to be developed. The existing conventional oil-lubricated bearings reveal performance limits at high revolutions as far as stability and power loss of the bearing are concerned. Non-conventional, oil-free bearings lubricated with the machine working medium could be a remedy to this issue. This approach includes a correct design of the machine flow structure and an accurate selection of the bearing type. Chosen aspects of the theoretical and experimental investigations of oil-free bearings and supports; including magnetic, tilting pad, pressurized aerostatic and hydrostatic bearings as well as some applications of oil-free bearing technology for highspeed turbomachinery; are described in the paper.

  17. Oil shale development and its environmental considerations

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Stone, R.T.; Johnson, H.; Decora, A.

    1974-01-01

    The petroleum shortage recently experienced by many nations throughout the world has created an intense interest in obtaining new and supplemental energy sources. In the United States, this interest has been centered on oil shale. Any major action by the federal government having significant environmental effects requires compliance with the National Environmental Policy Act of 1969 (NEPA). Since most oil shale is found on federal lands, and since its development involves significant environmental impacts, leasing oil shale lands to private interests must be in compliance with NEPA. For oil shale, program planning began at approximately the same time that NEPA was signed into law. By structuring the program to permit a resource and technological inventory by industry and the federal agencies, the Department of the Interior was able simultaneously to conduct the environmental assessments required by the act. This required: 1. Clearly defined program objections; 2. An organization which could integrate public policy with diverse scientific disciplines and environmental concerns; and 3. Flexible decisionmaking to adjust to policy changes as well as to evolving interpretations on EPA as clarified by court decisions. This paper outlines the program, the organization structure that was created for this specific task, and the environmental concerns which were investigated. The success of the program has been demonstrated by meeting the requirements of NEPA, without court challenge, and by industry's acceptance of a leasing program that included the most stringent environmental protection provisions ever required. The need for energy development has spurred the acceptance of the program. However, by its awareness and willingness to meet the environmental challenges of the future, industry has shown a reasonable understanding of its commitments. The pros and cons of development were publicly considered in hearings and analyzed in the final environmental statement. This

  18. Environmental regulations handbook for enhanced oil recovery

    SciTech Connect

    Madden, M.P. ); Blatchford, R.P.; Spears, R.B. )

    1991-12-01

    This handbook is intended to assist owners and operators of enhanced oil recovery (EOR) operations in acquiring some introductory knowledge of the various state agencies, the US Environmental Protection Agency, and the many environmental laws, rules and regulations which can have jurisdiction over their permitting and compliance activities. It is a compendium of summarizations of environmental rules. It is not intended to give readers specific working details of what is required from them, nor can it be used in that manner. Readers of this handbook are encouraged to contact environmental control offices nearest to locations of interest for current regulations affecting them.

  19. Oil Bypass Filter Technology Performance Evaluation - January 2003 Quarterly Report

    SciTech Connect

    Laurence R. Zirker; James E. Francfort

    2003-01-01

    This report details the initial activities to evaluate the performance of the oil bypass filter technology being tested by the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) for the U.S. Department of Energy's FreedomCAR & Vehicle Technologies Program. Eight full-size, four-cycle diesel-engine buses used to transport INEEL employees on various routes have been equipped with oil bypass systems from the puraDYN Corporation. Each bus averages about 60,000 miles a year. The evaluation includes an oil analysis regime to monitor the presence of necessary additives in the oil and to detect undesirable contaminants. Very preliminary economic analysis suggests that the oil bypass system can reduce life-cycle costs. As the evaluation continues and oil avoidance costs are quantified, it is estimated that the bypass system economics may prove increasingly favorable, given the anticipated savings in operational costs and in reduced use of oil and waste oil avoidance.

  20. Oil Bypass Filter Technology Performance Evaluation - First Quarterly Report

    SciTech Connect

    Zirker, L.R.; Francfort, J.E.

    2003-01-31

    This report details the initial activities to evaluate the performance of the oil bypass filter technology being tested by the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) for the U.S. Department of Energy's FreedomCAR & Vehicle Technologies Program. Eight full-size, four-cycle diesel-engine buses used to transport INEEL employees on various routes have been equipped with oil bypass systems from the puraDYN Corporation. Each bus averages about 60,000 miles a year. The evaluation includes an oil analysis regime to monitor the presence of necessary additives in the oil and to detect undesirable contaminants. Very preliminary economic analysis suggests that the oil bypass system can reduce life-cycle costs. As the evaluation continues and oil avoidance costs are quantified, it is estimated that the bypass system economics may prove increasingly favorable, given the anticipated savings in operational costs and in reduced use of oil and waste oil avoidance.

  1. Information to help reduce environmental impacts from freshwater oil spills

    SciTech Connect

    Fritz, D.E.; Steen, A.E.

    1995-12-31

    The American Petroleum Institute (API) has been working since 1990 to provide information to help the response community minimize the impact of spills to pared jointly with the US inland freshwater. Projects have included a manual, pre National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), to give guidance on the cleanup techniques that will minimize environmental impacts on spills in freshwater habitats. Nearing completion are a literature review and annotated bibliography of the environmental and human health effects of oil spilled in freshwater habitats. The use of chemical treating agents for freshwater spill applications is being studied with input from other industry and government groups. A project has begun, with funding from API, the Louisiana Applied Oil Spill Research and Development Program, NOAA, the Marine Spill Response Corporation (MSRC), and the US Department of Energy, to evaluate in situ burning of oil spilled in marshes.

  2. Evaluating technologies of oil spill surveillance

    SciTech Connect

    Hover, G.L.

    1993-07-01

    Surveillance and monitoring of oil in the marine environment imposes a broad spectrum of remote sensing requirements. At the US Coast Guard Research Development Center, the environmental safety branch is sponsoring oil spill remote sensing research in four areas of technology: Synthetic aperture radar (SAR), Frequency-scanning microwave radiometry (FSR), Laser fluorosensing (LFS), and Forward-looking infrared (FLIR) imagers. SAR technology uses sophisticated signal processing to overcome prior limitations, providing images of higher and more uniform spatial acuity which may enable interpreters to more-readily distinguish petroleum slicks from others. The ability to determine the distribution of oil thickness within a slick is necessary when an estimate of oil volume is desired. Scientists at MIT have formulated a new approach to radiometric oil thickness measurement that takes advantage of recent advances in electronic component technology. The initial data collected with a prototype FSR instrument have validated the FSR concept and more work is ongoing. The Coast Guard is co-funding a program to demonstrate and evaluate the capabilities of an airborne laser fluorosensor to support oil spill response operations. During a controlled test, the instrument successfully demonstrated an ability to detect oil on water, ice, and various beach surfaces. Additional testing included different oil types and allowed for weathering. Data analysis is ongoing. Recent developments in infrared imager technology have produced a wide variety of off-the-shelf, portable cameras that could potentially provide a rapid-response spill assessment capability. The R D Center has been involved in the testing of many of these sensors.

  3. Field evaluations of marine oil spill bioremediation.

    PubMed Central

    Swannell, R P; Lee, K; McDonagh, M

    1996-01-01

    Bioremediation is defined as the act of adding or improving the availability of materials (e.g., nutrients, microorganisms, or oxygen) to contaminated environments to cause an acceleration of natural biodegradative processes. The results of field experiments and trials following actual spill incidents have been reviewed to evaluate the feasibility of this approach as a treatment for oil contamination in the marine environment. The ubiquity of oil-degrading microorganisms in the marine environment is well established, and research has demonstrated the capability of the indigenous microflora to degrade many components of petroleum shortly after exposure. Studies have identified numerous factors which affect the natural biodegradation rates of oil, such as the origin and concentration of oil, the availability of oil-degrading microorganisms, nutrient concentrations, oxygen levels, climatic conditions, and sediment characteristics. Bioremediation strategies based on the application of fertilizers have been shown to stimulate the biodegradation rates of oil in aerobic intertidal sediments such as sand and cobble. The ratio of oil loading to nitrogen concentration within the interstitial water has been identified to be the principal controlling factor influencing the success of this bioremediation strategy. However, the need for the seeding of natural environments with hydrocarbon-degrading bacteria has not been clearly demonstrated under natural environmental conditions. It is suggested that bioremediation should now take its place among the many techniques available for the treatment of oil spills, although there is still a clear need to set operational limits for its use. On the basis of the available evidence, we have proposed preliminary operational guidelines for bioremediation on shoreline environments. PMID:8801437

  4. Proof-of-Concept Oil Shale Facility Environmental Analysis Program

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-11-01

    The objectives of the Project are to demonstrate: (1) the Modified In- Situ (MIS) shale oil extraction process and (2) the application of CFBC technology using oil shale, coal and waste gas streams as fuels. The project will focus on evaluating and improving the efficiency and environmental performance of these technologies. The project will be modest by commercial standards. A 17-retort MIS system is planned in which two retorts will be processed simultaneously. Production of 1206-barrels per calendar day of raw shale oil and 46-megawatts of electricity is anticipated. West Virginia University coordinated an Environmental Analysis Program for the Project. Experts from around the country were retained by WVU to prepare individual sections of the report. These experts were exposed to all of OOSI's archives and toured Tract C-b and Logan Wash. Their findings were incorporated into this report. In summary, no environmental obstacles were revealed that would preclude proceeding with the Project. One of the most important objectives of the Project was to verify the environmental acceptability of the technologies being employed. Consequently, special attention will be given to monitoring environmental factors and providing state of the art mitigation measures. Extensive environmental and socioeconomic background information has been compiled for the Tract over the last 15 years and permits were obtained for the large scale operations contemplated in the late 1970's and early 1980's. Those permits have been reviewed and are being modified so that all required permits can be obtained in a timely manner.

  5. Proof-of-Concept Oil Shale Facility Environmental Analysis Program

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-11-01

    The objectives of the Project are to demonstrate: (1) the Modified In- Situ (MIS) shale oil extraction process and (2) the application of CFBC technology using oil shale, coal and waste gas streams as fuels. The project will focus on evaluating and improving the efficiency and environmental performance of these technologies. The project will be modest by commercial standards. A 17-retort MIS system is planned in which two retorts will be processed simultaneously. Production of 1206-barrels per calendar day of raw shale oil and 46-megawatts of electricity is anticipated. West Virginia University coordinated an Environmental Analysis Program for the Project. Experts from around the country were retained by WVU to prepare individual sections of the report. These experts were exposed to all of OOSI`s archives and toured Tract C-b and Logan Wash. Their findings were incorporated into this report. In summary, no environmental obstacles were revealed that would preclude proceeding with the Project. One of the most important objectives of the Project was to verify the environmental acceptability of the technologies being employed. Consequently, special attention will be given to monitoring environmental factors and providing state of the art mitigation measures. Extensive environmental and socioeconomic background information has been compiled for the Tract over the last 15 years and permits were obtained for the large scale operations contemplated in the late 1970`s and early 1980`s. Those permits have been reviewed and are being modified so that all required permits can be obtained in a timely manner.

  6. Environmental effects of soil contamination by shale fuel oils.

    PubMed

    Kanarbik, Liina; Blinova, Irina; Sihtmäe, Mariliis; Künnis-Beres, Kai; Kahru, Anne

    2014-10-01

    Estonia is currently one of the leading producers of shale oils in the world. Increased production, transportation and use of shale oils entail risks of environmental contamination. This paper studies the behaviour of two shale fuel oils (SFOs)--'VKG D' and 'VKG sweet'--in different soil matrices under natural climatic conditions. Dynamics of SFOs' hydrocarbons (C10-C40), 16 PAHs, and a number of soil heterotrophic bacteria in oil-spiked soils was investigated during the long-term (1 year) outdoor experiment. In parallel, toxicity of aqueous leachates of oil-spiked soils to aquatic organisms (crustaceans Daphnia magna and Thamnocephalus platyurus and marine bacteria Vibrio fischeri) and terrestrial plants (Sinapis alba and Hordeum vulgare) was evaluated. Our data showed that in temperate climate conditions, the degradation of SFOs in the oil-contaminated soils was very slow: after 1 year of treatment, the decrease of total hydrocarbons' content in the soil did not exceed 25 %. In spite of the comparable chemical composition of the two studied SFOs, the VKG sweet posed higher hazard to the environment than the heavier fraction (VKG D) due to its higher mobility in the soil as well as higher toxicity to aquatic and terrestrial species. Our study demonstrated that the correlation between chemical parameters (such as total hydrocarbons or total PAHs) widely used for the evaluation of the soil pollution levels and corresponding toxicity to aquatic and terrestrial organisms was weak.

  7. Public Hearing or `Hearing Public'? An Evaluation of the Participation of Local Stakeholders in Environmental Impact Assessment of Ghana's Jubilee Oil Fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bawole, Justice Nyigmah

    2013-08-01

    This article investigates the involvement of local stakeholders in the environmental impact assessment (EIA) processes of Ghana's first off-shore oil fields (the Jubilee fields). Adopting key informants interviews and documentary reviews, the article argues that the public hearings and the other stakeholder engagement processes were cosmetic and rhetoric with the view to meeting legal requirements rather than a purposeful interest in eliciting inputs from local stakeholders. It further argues that the operators appear to lack the social legitimacy and social license that will make them acceptable in the project communities. A rigorous community engagement along with a commitment to actively involving local stakeholders in the corporate social responsibility (CSR) programmes of the partners may enhance the image of the partners and improve their social legitimacy. Local government agencies should be capacitated to actively engage project organisers; and government must mitigate the impact of the oil projects through well-structured social support programmes.

  8. Public hearing or 'hearing public'? an evaluation of the participation of local stakeholders in environmental impact assessment of Ghana's Jubilee oil fields.

    PubMed

    Bawole, Justice Nyigmah

    2013-08-01

    This article investigates the involvement of local stakeholders in the environmental impact assessment (EIA) processes of Ghana's first off-shore oil fields (the Jubilee fields). Adopting key informants interviews and documentary reviews, the article argues that the public hearings and the other stakeholder engagement processes were cosmetic and rhetoric with the view to meeting legal requirements rather than a purposeful interest in eliciting inputs from local stakeholders. It further argues that the operators appear to lack the social legitimacy and social license that will make them acceptable in the project communities. A rigorous community engagement along with a commitment to actively involving local stakeholders in the corporate social responsibility (CSR) programmes of the partners may enhance the image of the partners and improve their social legitimacy. Local government agencies should be capacitated to actively engage project organisers; and government must mitigate the impact of the oil projects through well-structured social support programmes.

  9. Critical review, comparative evaluation, cost update, and baseline data development services in oil shale mining, in-situ liquefaction, and above ground retorting processes from the environmental, permitting, and licensing viewpoints. Volume I. Oil-shale retorting process engineering

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-12-15

    The present volume is the first of a series of three constituting the title study. It provides a brief but thorough description of six Oil Shale Retorting Processes, namely: Paraho, Tosco II, Oxidental Modified In-Situ, Rio Blanco, Union Oil, and Superior Oil. The processes are treated at Unit Operations level, including operations such as Mining, Crushing, Screening, Conveying, Hydrogenation (or Upgrading), Hydrogen Manufacturing Plant, Amine Treating, Low-Btu Gas Treating, Tail Gas Treating, Sulfur Recovery, Wastewater Treatment, Sour Waste Stripping, Refining, Spent Shale Disposal, etc. The present first volume of the study provides most process engineering information required in order for Control Requirements, at specific points of a given unit operations flowsheet, to be fully assessed. Flow sheets for unit operations presented in the present Volume I are only conceptual and qualitative. Some quantitative data on volumeric flow rates of specific flow streams are occasionally given. However, no systematic effort has been presently made to develop a numerical data base on process flow streams. This has been done in a much more systematic and thorough manner in another FMR study performed on behalf of DOE under title Source Terms for the Health and Environmental Effects Document (HEED) for Oil Shale - 1982. Additional original quantitative analysis has been performed by FMR towards developing material balances for specific oil shale feeds into specific retorting processes.

  10. The social and environmental context of argan oil production.

    PubMed

    de Waroux, Yann le Polain

    2013-01-01

    In recent decades, argan oil has become one of the most expensive cosmetic oils on world markets. This review outlines the social and environmental context of the argan boom, highlighting its consequences on local livelihoods and conservation. It examines the claims that the argan oil boom has benefited the local population and that it encourages the conservation of argan woodlands.

  11. Evaluation of Biodiesel Obtained from Cottonseed Oil

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Esters from vegetable oils have attracted a great deal of interest as substitutes for petrodiesel to reduce dependence on imported petroleum and provide a fuel with more benign environmental properties. In this work biodiesel was prepared from cottonseed oil by transesterification with methanol, us...

  12. Evaluating mineral oils for lowtoxicity muds

    SciTech Connect

    Burton, J.; Ford, T.

    1985-07-29

    This article is intended to help drilling personnel become familiar with bioassay and physical testing methods, which are considered important in evaluating mineral oils for oil mud applications. The methods discussed are: marine bioassay; flash point; viscosity; pour point; aniline point; and aromatics content. Since there are currently no set rules for how mineral oils should be tested for oil mud use, it is up to the individual user of mineral oils to understand the analytical methods. It is important, the authors say, that test data be compared on a consistent basis.

  13. Evaluating Environmental Chemistry Textbooks.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hites, Ronald A.

    2001-01-01

    A director of the Indiana University Center for Environmental Science Research reviews textbooks on environmental chemistry. Highlights clear writing, intellectual depth, presence of problem sets covering both the qualitative and quantitative aspects of the material, and full coverage of the topics of concern. Discusses the director's own approach…

  14. Are environmental risk estimations linked to the actual environmental impact? Application to an oil handling facility (NE Spain).

    PubMed

    Valdor, Paloma F; Puente, Araceli; Gómez, Aina G; Ondiviela, Bárbara; Juanes, José A

    2017-01-30

    The environmental risk analysis of aquatic systems includes the evaluation of the likelihood that adverse ecological effects may occur as a result of exposure to one or more stressors. In harbor areas, pollution is provided by a complex mixture of substances with different levels of toxicity, persistence and bioaccumulation, which complicates the hazards characterization and their multiple effects. A study of the relationship between the environmental impact and the environmental risk assessment at a specific isolated oil handling facility was undertaken. The environmental risk of the oil handling facility, considering the consequences of specific pollutants, was estimated and the associated environmental impact was quantified based on a 'weights of evidence' approach. The contamination quantified at the potentially affected area around the monobuoy of Tarragona has proved to be related with environmental risk estimations but the lines of evidence obtained do not allow us to assert that the activity developed at this facility has an associated environmental impact.

  15. Uncertain environmental costs and the optimum rate of oil recovery

    SciTech Connect

    Dabirian, S.; Wong, D.C.

    1995-10-01

    The socially optimal rate of oil recovery from a known reservoir is analyzed when enviromental costs are uncertain and planners are either risk neutral or risk averse. It is shown that the rate of oil recovery has the same characteristics whether environmental costs are certain or uncertain. In either case, the rate of oil recovery falls monotonically to zero over the time horizon. However, the planner`s attitude toward risk is an important consideration. Risk averse planners, as a rule, begin oil recovery at a higher rate, reduce the rate of recovery more rapidly, and complete the oil recovery in a shorter time than risk neutral planners. 7 refs., 2 figs.

  16. Real Time Oil Reservoir Evaluation Using Nanotechnology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Li, Jing (Inventor); Meyyappan, Meyya (Inventor)

    2011-01-01

    A method and system for evaluating status and response of a mineral-producing field (e.g., oil and/or gas) by monitoring selected chemical and physical properties in or adjacent to a wellsite headspace. Nanotechnology sensors and other sensors are provided for one or more underground (fluid) mineral-producing wellsites to determine presence/absence of each of two or more target molecules in the fluid, relative humidity, temperature and/or fluid pressure adjacent to the wellsite and flow direction and flow velocity for the fluid. A nanosensor measures an electrical parameter value and estimates a corresponding environmental parameter value, such as water content or hydrocarbon content. The system is small enough to be located down-hole in each mineral-producing horizon for the wellsite.

  17. DEVELOPMENT AND APPLICATION OF PROTOCOLS FOR EVALUATION OF OIL SPILL BIOREMEDIATION (RESEARCH BRIEF)

    EPA Science Inventory

    Protocols were developed and evaluated to assess the efficacy and environmental safety of commercial oil spill bioremediation agents (CBAs). Test systems that simulate oil slicks on open water or oiled sandy beaches were used to test the effectiveness of CBAs. Gravimetric and gas...

  18. DEVELOPMENT AND APPLICATION OF PROTOCOLS FOR EVALUATION OF OIL SPILL BIOREMEDIATION (RESEARCH BRIEF)

    EPA Science Inventory

    Protocols were developed and evaluated to assess the efficacy and environmental safety of commercial oil spill bioremediation agents (CBAs). Test systems that simulate oil slicks on open water or oiled sandy beaches were used to test the effectiveness of CBAs. Gravimetric and gas...

  19. Environmental Impact of Estonian Oil Shale CFB Firing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Loosaar, J.; Parve, T.; Konist, A.

    Oil shale based power production has been the basement of Estonia's energetical independency and economy for over 60 years. At the same time oil shale power plants emissions still give the biggest share of Estonian stationary source pollution, having significant impact to the environment. Thanks to the introduction of oil shale large scale CFB firing, reduction of the total environmental impact was achieved in last years.

  20. Evaluation of vetiver oil and seven insect-active essential oils against the Formosan subterranean termite.

    PubMed

    Zhu, B C; Henderson, G; Chen, F; Fei, H; Laine, R A

    2001-08-01

    Repellency and toxicity of 8 essential oils (vetiver grass, cassia leaf, clove bud, cedarwood, Eucalyptus globules, Eucalyptus citrodora, lemongrass and geranium) were evaluated against the Formosan subterranean termite, Coptotermes formosanus Shiraki. Vetiver oil proved the most effective repellent because of its long-lasting activity. Clove bud was the most toxic, killing 100% of termites in 2 days at 50 micrograms/cm2. The tunneling response of termites to vetiver oil also was examined. Vetiver oil decreased termite tunneling activity at concentrations as low as 5 micrograms/g sand. Tunneling and paper consumption were not observed when vetiver oil concentrations were higher than 25 micrograms/g sand. Bioactivity of the 8 oils against termites and chemical volatility were inversely associated. Listed in decreasing order of volatility, the major constituents of the 8 oils were: eucalyptol, citronellal, citral, citronellol, cinnamaldehyde, eugenol, thujopsene, and both alpha- and beta-vetivone. Vetivor oil is a promising novel termiticide with reduced environmental impact for use against subterranean termites.

  1. Environmental Compliance. Program Evaluation Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fardig, Diane

    This report provides formative-evaluation information about the processes followed by Florida's Orange County Public Schools (OCPS) to comply with national, state, and local governmental environmental regulations. Specifically, the report examines the effectiveness of the Environmental Compliance (EC) team, which monitors OCPS response to…

  2. Conflicting energy and environmental policies: The portsmouth oil refinery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choi, Yearn Hong

    1984-03-01

    This case study presents the series of decision-making processes surrounding a current environmental issue—the Portsmouth oil refinery in Virginia. Crude oil must be refined before it can be used as fuel. Additionally, some oil must be desulfurized for use other than as gasoline. In 1977, the nation imported about one million barrels of oil a day. Although the US Department of Energy has emphasized the critical need for greater east coast refinery capability, the east coast is to supply only 25% of its refined oil needs. In the same year, the east coast met its demands for petroleum products from three sources: (a) refinery production, 22.7%, (b) product imports, 28.0%, and (c) products from the Gulf Coast, 49.3%.1 The energy program after the Arab oil embargo has an objective of encouraging the construction of oil refineries and petrochemical plants in the United States rather than abroad. The tariff is higher on imports of refined oil products than of crude oil, and new refineries are allowed to import a large proportion of their requirements tarifffree. The US federal government does not directly regulate the locations for oil refineries or methods of desulfurization. The oil import program, however, does influence decisions concerning location of desulfurization facilities and refineries, and air and water pollution standards affect methods of refining, besides making desulfurization necessary.

  3. Oil Bypass Filter Technology Evaluation - Third Quarterly Report, April--June 2003

    SciTech Connect

    Laurence R. Zirker; James E. Francfort

    2003-08-01

    This Third Quarterly report details the ongoing fleet evaluation of an oil bypass filter technology by the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) for the U.S. Department of Energy’s FreedomCAR & Vehicle Technologies Program. Eight full-size, four-cycle diesel-engine buses used to transport INEEL employees on various routes have been equipped with oil bypass filter systems from the PuraDYN Corporation. The reported engine lubricating oil-filtering capability (down to 0.1 microns) and additive package of the bypass filter system is intended to extend oil-drain intervals. To validate the extended oil-drain intervals, an oil-analysis regime monitors the presence of necessary additives in the oil, detects undesirable contaminants and engine wear metals, and evaluates the fitness of the oil for continued service. The eight buses have accumulated 185,000 miles to date without any oil changes. The preliminary economic analysis suggests that the per bus payback point for the oil bypass filter technology should be between 108,000 miles when 74 gallons of oil use is avoided and 168,000 miles when 118 gallons of oil use is avoided. As discussed in the report, the variation in the payback point is dependant on the assumed cost of oil. In anticipation of also evaluating oil bypass systems on six Chevrolet Tahoe sport utility vehicles, the oil is being sampled on the six Tahoes to develop an oil characterization history for each engine.

  4. Evaluation of the oil spill risk analysis as presented in St. George Basin Sale 89 EIS

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1985-05-31

    The report describes and evaluates the current approach to the oil-spill risk analysis as conducted for St. George Basin Sale 89. An oil spill trajectory analysis (OTSA) model was developed for the U.S. Minerals Management Service to calculate the risk of oil spills damaging environmentally sensitive resources. The purpose of the report is to review the Minerals Management Service oil-spill risk analysis as presented in the Lease Sale 89 EIS.

  5. Environmental, resource conservation, and economic aspects of used oil recycling

    SciTech Connect

    Brinkman, D.W.; Whisman, M.L.; Weinstein, N.J.; Emmerson, H.R.

    1981-04-01

    In order to provide current and updated information, the case for burning used automotive lubricating oil versus re-refining it has been reevaluated based upon the 1980 American economy and energy conservation posture. In these comparisons, the environment is considered within four scenarios ranging from unrestricted burning of used oil without government constraints to complete prohibition of burning thereby funneling all used automotive lube oils to re-refining. Two other areas have been reevaluated in the context of burning versus re-refining of automotive lube oils in the US. These are the material and energy advantages to be realized in terms of resource conservation through either burning or re-refining and an estimation of the economics and profit potential currently available in the disposition of used lube oil. It was found that environmental concerns as presently regulated do not alone provide a persuasive case for re-refining over burning of used automotive lubricating oil. However, in view of the increased use of paraffinic crude oil for the manufacture of automotive lubricating oil, production costs will rise and product yields will be lower. In this context, this study shows that the energy required to produce. As a produce a gallon of lube oil from paraffinic crude oil is greater than that to produce a gallon of lube oil from used lubricating oil. As a result, the re-refining of collectible used automotive lube oil could conserve 43 to 76 trillion Btu's per year, equivalent to 7 to 12 million barrels of imported crude oil worth between a quarter and a half billion dollars. Additionally, this study indicates that new technology such as solvent/distillation re-refining would provide a 26 percent after-tax return on investment based upon 1980 markets and costs.

  6. Challenges for environmental education evaluation.

    PubMed

    Monroe, Martha C

    2010-05-01

    The articles in this special issue cover a range of practices in environmental education evaluation, from program evaluations to training and organizational impact. This article reflects on this collection and offers six recommendations on three broad themes that the issue's authors identify as shortcomings or opportunities for change: capacity building, program theory, and learning organizations. Copyright 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Public health implications of environmental noise associated with unconventional oil and gas development.

    PubMed

    Hays, Jake; McCawley, Michael; Shonkoff, Seth B C

    2017-02-15

    Modern oil and gas development frequently occurs in close proximity to human populations and increased levels of ambient noise have been documented throughout some phases of development. Numerous studies have evaluated air and water quality degradation and human exposure pathways, but few have evaluated potential health risks and impacts from environmental noise exposure. We reviewed the scientific literature on environmental noise exposure to determine the potential concerns, if any, that noise from oil and gas development activities present to public health. Data on noise levels associated with oil and gas development are limited, but measurements can be evaluated amidst the large body of epidemiology assessing the non-auditory effects of environmental noise exposure and established public health guidelines for community noise. There are a large number of noise dependent and subjective factors that make the determination of a dose response relationship between noise and health outcomes difficult. However, the literature indicates that oil and gas activities produce noise at levels that may increase the risk of adverse health outcomes, including annoyance, sleep disturbance, and cardiovascular disease. More studies that investigate the relationships between noise exposure and human health risks from unconventional oil and gas development are warranted. Finally, policies and mitigation techniques that limit human exposure to noise from oil and gas operations should be considered to reduce health risks.

  8. The Environmental Impacts of Offshore Oil Drilling

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rose, Mary Annette

    2009-01-01

    This article presents the author's critique on Stephen L. Baird's article in the November 2008 issue of "The Technology Teacher", which describes a contemporary debate about opening more U.S. land and coastal regions to oil and gas exploration and production (E&P). While Baird's thesis epitomizes the goal of a technologically literate citizen, his…

  9. The Environmental Impacts of Offshore Oil Drilling

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rose, Mary Annette

    2009-01-01

    This article presents the author's critique on Stephen L. Baird's article in the November 2008 issue of "The Technology Teacher", which describes a contemporary debate about opening more U.S. land and coastal regions to oil and gas exploration and production (E&P). While Baird's thesis epitomizes the goal of a technologically literate citizen, his…

  10. Estonia`s oil shale industry - meeting environmental standards of the future

    SciTech Connect

    Tanner, T.; Bird, G.; Wallace, D.

    1995-12-31

    Oil shale is Estonia`s greatest mineral resource. In the 1930s, it was used as a source of gasoline and fuel oil, but now it is mined primarily for thermal generation of electricity. With the loss of its primary market for electricity in the early 1990s and in the absence of another domestic source of fuel Estonia once again is considering the use of a larger proportion of its shale for oil production. However, existing retorting operations in Estonia may not attain western European environmental standards and desired conversion efficiencies. As a reference point, the Estonian authorities have documented existing environmental impacts. It is evaluating technologies to reduce the impacts and is setting a direction for the industry that will serve domestic needs. This paper provides a description of the existing oil shale industry in Estonia and options for the future.

  11. Environmental cleanup of oil production sites in southern Illinois

    SciTech Connect

    Vendl, K.A.; Basso, T.C.; Bengal, L.E.

    1996-12-31

    On January 2, 1988, a 4 million gallon aboveground oil storage tank collapsed in Pennsylvania, resulting in a spill of approximately 3.8 million gallons of diesel fuel. Of that amount, approximately 750,000 gallons entered the Monongahela River. On March 23, 1989, the Exxon Valdez, loaded with 1.26 million barrels (54 million gallons) of crude oil struck the rocks of Bligh Reef near Valdez, Alaska. As a result, more than 11 million gallons of crude oil was released into Prince William Sound within 5 hours of the event. The environmental damage and massive cleanup efforts were the most visible effects of these spills. However, one of the most important, but least discussed outcomes was the enactment of the Oil Pollution Act (OPA), which George Bush signed into law on August 18, 1990. The Oil Pollution Act contains many provisions; one of them is the strengthening of the national response system by providing better coordination of spill contingency planning among federal, state, and local authorities. Another provision is the increase in liability for parties responsible for costs and damages resulting from oil spills. In situations where there is no responsible party, OPA provides funding for the Oil Spill Liability Trust Fund. In this fund, there is $50 million in an emergency appropriation which can be used to contain and remove oil discharges that affect or threaten to affect the surface waters of the United States.

  12. Administrator's Environmental Education Evaluation Manual.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    South Dakota Univ., Vermillion. School of Education.

    Evaluation instruments to assess existing attitudes and interests concerning the environment are compiled. Baseline data will be gathered from teachers, administrators, parents, and community members through a set of four pretests administered prior to initiation of the Interlakes Environmental and Outdoor Education Project. All instruments serve…

  13. 7 CFR 632.50 - Environmental evaluation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 6 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Environmental evaluation. 632.50 Section 632.50... Environmental evaluation. (a) Environmental evaluation is an integral part of planning used by NRCS in..., evaluation of reasonable alternatives, and identification of significant environmental impacts. Major points...

  14. 7 CFR 632.50 - Environmental evaluation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 6 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Environmental evaluation. 632.50 Section 632.50... Environmental evaluation. (a) Environmental evaluation is an integral part of planning used by NRCS in..., evaluation of reasonable alternatives, and identification of significant environmental impacts. Major points...

  15. Environmental Compliance for Oil and Gas Exploration and Production

    SciTech Connect

    Hansen, Christine

    1999-10-26

    The Appalachian/Illinois Basin Directors is a group devoted to increasing communication among the state oil and gas regulatory agencies within the Appalachian and Illinois Basin producing region. The group is comprised of representatives from the oil and gas regulatory agencies from states in the basin (Attachment A). The directors met to discuss regulatory issues common to the area, organize workshops and seminars to meet the training needs of agencies dealing with the uniqueness of their producing region and perform other business pertinent to this area of oil and gas producing states. The emphasis of the coordinated work was a wide range of topics related to environmental compliance for natural gas and oil exploration and production.

  16. Environmental effects of offshore oil production

    SciTech Connect

    Middletich, B.S.

    1981-01-01

    The papers deal with two major categories of oil field impacts: hydrocarbon and sulfur discharges from producing platforms; and the effects of the structures themselves in the marine environment. The studies can also be broken down into those that deal with the fate of the polluting discharges (dispersion, degradation, consumption); and those that deal with the affected organisms themselves. Some studies used control sites to compare effects near the platforms. Others analyzed composition, density, and quality of organisms throughout the field, offering comparisons between control sites and oil field sites. The presence of pollutants in particulates was studied and measured. Effectiveness of degradation of petro pollutants by bacteria is also examined. Biocides used in the working stream to control sulfur oxidizing bacteria were treated briefly. Effects of the structures and potential pollution was also described for the fouling community, i.e., barnacles, etc. Effects of the presence of the structures on migratory and resident birds are examined for hundreds of species constantly using the area as a fly-way or habitat.

  17. Field Measurement and Model Evaluation Program for Assessment of the Environmental Effects of Military Smokes: Field Study of Fog-Oil Smokes

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1988-01-01

    Table 2.3 Summary of Particle Size Data Impactor No. Flow Rate Location dM MMAD ag (Lore) (x.y) (;Am), (;’) 6 1.4 (25,0) 0.61 0.34 2.06 7 1.2 (50,0) 1.27...The mass median aerodynamic diameter ( MMAD ) indicates the particle size at which 50% of the cumulative mass occurs. The aerodynamic diameter is the...2 1 0 - 1 1 0 0 1 01 Particle Size ( microns ) Figure 2,18 Log-probability plot of the cumulative size distribution of a laboratory-generated oil

  18. Oil, Floods, and Fish: The Social Role of Environmental Scientists

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lesen, Amy E.

    2012-01-01

    The environmental and social effects of hurricane-related flooding and the recent oil disaster in southeastern Louisiana, and the current global crisis in world fisheries, are case studies that reveal the need for scientific work that is carried out and disseminated with conscious attention paid to the important relationship between scientists,…

  19. Oil, Floods, and Fish: The Social Role of Environmental Scientists

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lesen, Amy E.

    2012-01-01

    The environmental and social effects of hurricane-related flooding and the recent oil disaster in southeastern Louisiana, and the current global crisis in world fisheries, are case studies that reveal the need for scientific work that is carried out and disseminated with conscious attention paid to the important relationship between scientists,…

  20. Oil Bypass Filter Technology Evaluation, Fourth Quarterly Report, July--September 2003

    SciTech Connect

    James E. Francfort; Larry Zirker

    2003-11-01

    This fourth Oil Bypass Filter Technology Evaluation report details the ongoing fleet evaluation of an oil bypass filter technology by the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) for the U.S. Department of Energy’s FreedomCAR & Vehicle Technologies Program. Eight four-cycle diesel-engine buses used to transport INEEL employees on various routes have been equipped with oil bypass filter systems from the puraDYN Corporation. The bypass filters are reported to have engine oil filtering capability of <1 micron and a built-in additive package to facilitate extended oil-drain intervals. To date, the eight buses have accumulated 259,398 test miles. This represents an avoidance of 21 oil changes, which equates to 740 quarts (185 gallons) of oil not used or disposed of. To validate the extended oil-drain intervals, an oil-analysis regime evaluates the fitness of the oil for continued service by monitoring the presence of necessary additives, undesirable contaminants, and engine-wear metals. For bus 73450, higher values of iron have been reported, but the wear rate ratio (parts per million of iron per thousand miles driven) has remained consistent. In anticipation of also evaluating oil bypass systems on six Chevrolet Tahoe sport utility vehicles, the oil is being sampled on each of the Tahoes to develop a characterization history or baseline for each engine.

  1. The evolving environmental obstacles and liabilities in drilling and operating oil and natural gas wells

    SciTech Connect

    Deatherage, S.D.

    1995-06-01

    Government agencies, landowners, lenders, and investors to name a few interested parties increasingly scrutinize companies drilling for and producing oil and natural gas to evaluate their potential impact on the environment and the resulting liabilities. Concerns range from how a planned drilling operation will affect wetlands and aquatic ecosystems to the potential economic effect on an investment in a producing field from governmental or private lawsuits. In this paper, I will discuss the potential environmental obstacles and liabilities that may be presented to oil and gas companies now and in the future as their activities continue to present environmental risks. I will discuss four general categories: (1) environmental permits, licenses, or other governmental authorizations necessary to begin or continue operations, (2) civil and criminal sanctions incurred for failure to comply with environmental statutes and regulations, (3) remedial obligations imposed by environmental laws, and (4) lawsuits by landowners and others claiming property damage or personal injury due to alleged environmental contamination. Many oil and gas companies are not only assessing the effect of environmental legal liabilities on their business but also developing some form of environmental management system to address these risks.

  2. Characterization and environmental relevance of oil water preparations of fresh and weathered MC-252 Macondo oils used in toxicology testing.

    PubMed

    Sandoval, Kathia; Ding, Yan; Gardinali, Piero

    2017-01-15

    Comprehensive characterization of exposure media used in toxicology studies is still an area of significant divergence when evaluating potential oil spill impacts. When preparing exposure media used for toxicology testing, small variations in simple parameters such as mixing energy, oil type and loading can significantly affect the concentration of the oil components to which test organisms are exposed. The key goal of this study was compare and contrast the physical and chemical compositions of oil water mixtures prepared using fresh and weathered Macondo-related oils under different conditions of mixing and in the presence/absence of chemical dispersants. All samples were assessed for the presence of droplets, droplet size distribution, and detailed chemical composition including polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and total petroleum hydrocarbon by fluorescence (TPHF). Preparations were also tested for stability over a 96h period relevant to acute toxicity tests. The results indicate that water accommodated fractions (WAFs) produced consistent, droplet free solutions with concentration that represented the soluble components of the oil used. As expected, chemically-enhanced WAFs (CEWAFs) and high-energy WAFs (HEWAFs) generated large amounts of micron-size droplets and their chemical composition corresponded closely with that of the whole oil. However, the HEWAFs were highly dynamic, and unlike CEWAFs, much of the oil resurfaced within few hours of the initial preparation. Viscosity and lack of dispersability are the limiting factors for preparation of CEWAFs with weathered oils, in contrast HEWAFs did effectively introduce large amounts of weathered oil droplets in the test media. Despite this benefit, droplet sizes significantly decreased in HEWAFs with increase in weathering of the oil creating an additional variable to consider. Because the contribution of small droplets to toxicity is a topic that needs further investigation, the interpretation of

  3. Combustion performance evaluation of air staging of palm oil blends.

    PubMed

    Mohd Jaafar, Mohammad Nazri; Eldrainy, Yehia A; Mat Ali, Muhammad Faiser; Wan Omar, W Z; Mohd Hizam, Mohd Faizi Arif

    2012-02-21

    The problems of global warming and the unstable price of petroleum oils have led to a race to develop environmentally friendly biofuels, such as palm oil or ethanol derived from corn and sugar cane. Biofuels are a potential replacement for fossil fuel, since they are renewable and environmentally friendly. This paper evaluates the combustion performance and emission characteristics of Refined, Bleached, and Deodorized Palm Oil (RBDPO)/diesel blends B5, B10, B15, B20, and B25 by volume, using an industrial oil burner with and without secondary air. Wall temperature profiles along the combustion chamber axis were measured using a series of thermocouples fitted axially on the combustion chamber wall, and emissions released were measured using a gas analyzer. The results show that RBDPO blend B25 produced the maximum emission reduction of 56.9% of CO, 74.7% of NOx, 68.5% of SO(2), and 77.5% of UHC compared to petroleum diesel, while air staging (secondary air) in most cases reduces the emissions further. However, increasing concentrations of RBDPO in the blends also reduced the energy released from the combustion. The maximum wall temperature reduction was 62.7% for B25 at the exit of the combustion chamber.

  4. Toxicity evaluation of crankcase oil in rats

    PubMed Central

    Arise, R.O.; Tella, A.C.; Akintola, A.A.; Akiode, S.O.; Malomo, S.O.

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of crankcase oil on the cellular and functional integrity of rat skin. Thirty (30) rats were randomly grouped into six viz groups A-F. Group A (base-line control) received 2 ml of distilled water. 2.5 %, 5.0 %, 7.5 %, and 10.0 % v/v of the crankcase oil were prepared using unused oil as solvent and 2 ml of the concentrations were topically administered to groups C-F respectively for seven consecutive days. Group B served as positive control and received 2 ml of the unused oil. The rats were sacrificed 24 hours after the last administration, and blood and part of the skin were collected. Alkaline phosphatase (ALP), acid phosphatase (ACP), superoxide dismutase (SOD) and malondialdehyde level in the blood and skin samples collected were evaluated. Elemental analysis of the crankcase oil was also carried out. The result revealed high lead, iron and chromium levels. Blood lead concentration of rats was significantly (P<0.05) high after seven days of administration. ALP level in skin and serum increased significantly (P<0.05) with the concentration of crankcase oil. There was a significant decrease (P<0.05) in skin ACP activity while it increased significantly (P<0.05) in the serum. Similar results were observed in the SOD levels of the serum and the skin. The level increased significantly (P<0.05) in groups D-F when compared with controls. The MDA concentration of both serum and skin were significantly (P<0.05) elevated. This suggests toxic potential of used lubricating oil and its potential predisposition to cancer. PMID:27366138

  5. Toxicity evaluation of crankcase oil in rats.

    PubMed

    Arise, R O; Tella, A C; Akintola, A A; Akiode, S O; Malomo, S O

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of crankcase oil on the cellular and functional integrity of rat skin. Thirty (30) rats were randomly grouped into six viz groups A-F. Group A (base-line control) received 2 ml of distilled water. 2.5 %, 5.0 %, 7.5 %, and 10.0 % v/v of the crankcase oil were prepared using unused oil as solvent and 2 ml of the concentrations were topically administered to groups C-F respectively for seven consecutive days. Group B served as positive control and received 2 ml of the unused oil. The rats were sacrificed 24 hours after the last administration, and blood and part of the skin were collected. Alkaline phosphatase (ALP), acid phosphatase (ACP), superoxide dismutase (SOD) and malondialdehyde level in the blood and skin samples collected were evaluated. Elemental analysis of the crankcase oil was also carried out. The result revealed high lead, iron and chromium levels. Blood lead concentration of rats was significantly (P<0.05) high after seven days of administration. ALP level in skin and serum increased significantly (P<0.05) with the concentration of crankcase oil. There was a significant decrease (P<0.05) in skin ACP activity while it increased significantly (P<0.05) in the serum. Similar results were observed in the SOD levels of the serum and the skin. The level increased significantly (P<0.05) in groups D-F when compared with controls. The MDA concentration of both serum and skin were significantly (P<0.05) elevated. This suggests toxic potential of used lubricating oil and its potential predisposition to cancer.

  6. Evaluation of nonwoven polypropylene oil sorbents in marine oil-spill recovery.

    PubMed

    Wei, Q F; Mather, R R; Fotheringham, A F; Yang, R D

    2003-06-01

    Mechanical recovery of oil by oil sorbents is one of the most important countermeasures in marine oil-spill response. Polypropylene is the ideal material for marine oil-spill recovery due to its low density, low water uptake and excellent physical and chemical resistance. Different forms of polypropylene nonwoven sorbents were evaluated in this study in terms of initial oil-sorption capacities and oil-retention properties. The investigation revealed that the fibre diameter, sorbent porosity and oil property are the most important factors in the oil-sorption performance of polypropylene nonwoven sorbents.

  7. Effects of environmental factors on edible oil quality of organically grown Camelina sativa.

    PubMed

    Kirkhus, Bente; Lundon, Aina R; Haugen, John-Erik; Vogt, Gjermund; Borge, Grethe Iren A; Henriksen, Britt I F

    2013-04-03

    The aim of the present study was to evaluate the potential for the production of edible oil from organically grown camelina ( Camelina sativa L. Crantz), focusing on the influence of environmental factors on nutritional quality parameters. Field experiments with precrop barley were conducted in Norway in the growing seasons 2007, 2008, and 2009. Trials were fully randomized with two levels of nitrogen (N) fertilization, 0 and 120 kg total N ha(-1), and two levels of sulfur (S) fertilization, 0 and 20 kg total S ha(-1). Weather conditions, that is, temperature and precipitation, were recorded. Additional experiments were performed in the years 2008 and 2009 to evaluate the effects of replacing precrop barley with precrop pea. Seed oil content was measured by near-infrared transmittance, and crude oil compositions of fatty acids, phytosterols, tocopherols, and phospholipids were analyzed by chromatography and mass spectrometry. Results showed significant seasonal variations in seed oil content and oil composition of fatty acids, tocopherols, phytosterols, and phospholipids that to a great extent could be explained by the variations in weather conditions. Furthermore, significant effects of N fertilization were observed. Seed oil content decreased at the highest level of N fertilization, whereas the oil concentrations of α-linolenic acid (18:3n-3), erucic acid (22:1n-9), tocopherols, and campesterol increased. Pea compared to barley as precrop also increased the 18:3n-3 content of oil. S fertilization had little impact on oil composition, but an increase in tocopherols and a decrease in brassicasterol were observed. In conclusion, organically grown camelina seems to be well suited for the production of edible oil. Variations in nutritional quality parameters were generally small, but significantly influenced by season and fertilization.

  8. Evaluating plant and plant oil repellency against the sweetpotato whitefly

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The sweetpotato whitefly, Bemisia tabaci is a major insect pest of vegetables world-wide. We evaluated the effect of commercial plant oils – garlic oil, hot pepper wax, and mustard oil against B. tabaci. Cucumber plants served as the control. Additional treatments included no plants or oil (clear ai...

  9. Environmental effects of fog oil and CS usage at the Combat Maneuver Training Center, Hohenfels, Germany

    SciTech Connect

    Brubaker, K.L.; Rosenblatt, D.H.; Snyder, C.T.

    1992-03-01

    In response to environmental concerns at the Combat Maneuver Training Center (CMTC), Hohenfels, Germany, the US Army 7th Army Training Command commissioned a scientific study by Argonne National Laboratory to investigate specific issues. The study involved three parts: (1) a field study to determine if fog oil and CS (a compound named after its discoverers, B.B. Carson and R.W. Stoughton) were accumulating in the CMTC environment, (2) a screening of selected soil samples for the presence of US Environmental Protection Agency priority pollutants, and (3) a literature review of the health effects of fog oil and CS, as well as a review of training practices at CMTC. No fog oil or fog oil degradation products were detected in any soil, sediment, or vegetation sample collected at CMTC. Trace quantities of one or more priority pollutants were tentatively detected in three of eight soil and sediment samples. However, the priority pollutant concentrations are so low that they pose no environmental or health hazards. No evidence of widespread or significant contamination in the training areas was found. Crucial data needed to fully evaluate both acute and chronic health effects of civilian exposures to CS at CMTC are not available. On the basis of the available literature, long-ten-n health effects in the civilian population near CMTC that could result from the use of fog oil and CS during training activities are believed to be negligible.

  10. IOGCC/DOE oil and gas environmental workshop

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-05-16

    The Interstate Oil and Gas Compact Commission (IOGCC) in cooperation with US Department of Energy (DOE) has developed a workshop format to allow state regulatory officials and industry representatives the opportunity to participate in frank and open discussions on issues of environmental regulatory compliance. The purpose in providing this forum is to assist both groups in identifying the key barriers to the economic recoverability of domestic oil and gas resources while adequately protecting human health and the environment. The following topics were discussed, groundwater protection; temporarily abandoned and idle wells; effluent discharges; storm water runoff; monitoring and compliance; wetlands; naturally occurring radioactive materials; RCRA reauthorization and oil pollution prevention regulation. At the conclusion, all of the participants were asked to complete a questionnaire which critiqued the day activities. A discussion of each of the issues is made a part of this report as is a summary of the critique questionnaire which were received.

  11. Use of an environmental specimen bank for evaluating the impact of the Prestige oil spill on the levels of trace elements in two species of Fucus on the coast of Galicia (NW Spain).

    PubMed

    Villares, Rubén; Real, Carlos; Fernández, José Angel; Aboal, Jesús; Carballeira, Alejo

    2007-03-15

    In the present study we investigated possible contamination by trace elements due to the oil slick caused by the shipwreck of the Prestige oil tanker, in two species of brown macroalgae (Fucus vesiculosus and Fucus ceranoides) collected from the coastal area most severely affected by the spill (Galicia, NW Spain). The oil slick apparently did not cause significant increases in the concentrations of the trace elements studied, except vanadium. It appears that the magnitude of terrestrial inputs to coastal waters is sufficiently high to mask the inputs of trace elements from the fuel. The observed exception of V suggests that bioaccumulation of this element by the two species of Fucus may be used to indicate exposure to petrochemical products similar to the Prestige fuel. The findings of the study are another example of the importance of the existence of Environmental Specimen Banks for studies of this type.

  12. III: Use of biomarkers as Risk Indicators in Environmental Risk Assessment of oil based discharges offshore.

    PubMed

    Sanni, Steinar; Lyng, Emily; Pampanin, Daniela M

    2017-06-01

    Offshore oil and gas activities are required not to cause adverse environmental effects, and risk based management has been established to meet environmental standards. In some risk assessment schemes, Risk Indicators (RIs) are parameters to monitor the development of risk affecting factors. RIs have not yet been established in the Environmental Risk Assessment procedures for management of oil based discharges offshore. This paper evaluates the usefulness of biomarkers as RIs, based on their properties, existing laboratory biomarker data and assessment methods. Data shows several correlations between oil concentrations and biomarker responses, and assessment principles exist that qualify biomarkers for integration into risk procedures. Different ways that these existing biomarkers and methods can be applied as RIs in a probabilistic risk assessment system when linked with whole organism responses are discussed. This can be a useful approach to integrate biomarkers into probabilistic risk assessment related to oil based discharges, representing a potential supplement to information that biomarkers already provide about environmental impact and risk related to these kind of discharges. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Oil spills: Environmental effects. (Latest citations from the Selected Water Resources Abstracts database). Published Search

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-12-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning environmental impacts of oil spills primarily resulting from ship wrecks and oil drilling or exploration. Oil spills in temperate, tropic and arctic zones which affect fresh water, estuarine, and marine environments are included. Cleanup operations and priorities, computer modeling and simulation of oil spills, oil spill investigations, and prediction of oil slick movement in high traffic shipping lanes are among the topics discussed. Microbial degradation of oils, and toxicity studies of oils and oil dispersants affecting aquatic plant and animal life are considered. (Contains 250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

  14. Oil spills: Environmental effects. (Latest citations from the Selected Water Resources Abstracts database). Published Search

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-01-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning environmental impacts of oil spills primarily resulting from ship wrecks and oil drilling or exploration. Oil spills in temperate, tropic and arctic zones which affect fresh water, estuarine, and marine environments are included. Cleanup operations and priorities, computer modeling and simulation of oil spills, oil spill investigations, and prediction of oil slick movement in high traffic shipping lanes are among the topics discussed. Microbial degradation of oils, and toxicity studies of oils and oil dispersants affecting aquatic plant and animal life are considered. (Contains 250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

  15. An Experimental Evaluation of Oil Pumping Rings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Eusepi, M. W.; Walowit, J.; Cohen, M.

    1981-01-01

    The design and construction of a reciprocating test vehicle to be used in evaluating hydrodynamic oil pumping rings are discussed. In addition, experimental test data are presented for three pumping ring designs that were constructed from Tin-Based Babbitt (SAE 11), Bearing Bronze (SAE 660), and Mechanical Carbon Graphite (Union Carbide Grade CNF-J). Data of pumped flow rate versus delivered pressure, as well as friction loss, are reported for the following conditions: frequencies of 10, 35 and 45 Hz; strokes of 25.4 mm (1.00 in.), 38.1 mm (1.50 in.) and 50.8 mm (2.00 in.) oil inlet temperature of 49 degrees (120 degrees); and pumping ring close-in pressures of 10.3 MPa (1500 lb/square inch. A 20W40 automotive oil was used for all tests. The maximum delivered pressure was 11 MPa (1600 lb/square inch. An analysis of hydrodynamic oil pumping rings was performed and the results of the analysis were compared to measured test data.

  16. Exxon Valdez oil spill restoration plan. Final environmental impact statement

    SciTech Connect

    1994-09-01

    The purpose of the proposed action analyzed in this final environmental impact statement (FEIS) is to restore, insofar as possible, the injured natural resources and thereby the services they provide that were affected by the Exxon Valdex oil spill (EVOS). The purpose of this document is to analyze the effects of proposed uses of the remaining funds (approximately $620 million as of February 1994, after final reimbursements) in accomplishing the mission of the Trustee Council.

  17. Environmental problems and technology needs related to oil production

    SciTech Connect

    Browne, L.W.

    1985-06-01

    More stringent regulations based on potential health and environmental impacts have added responsibility on the oil producer and the states. The author describes the potential for soil and water contamination from several sources, including well drilling and well completion chemicals, corrosion, and disposal of brine and other fluid waste. He cites pit lining and solidification techniques now under study and the possibility of land farming. He also cites the information about ground water, soil characterization, plant growth, etc. that is needed. The Geologic and Engineering Environmental Information Data Base should be a valuable tool in solving some of the problems.

  18. Shale Gas and Oil in Germany - Resources and Environmental Impacts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ladage, Stefan; Blumenberg, Martin; Houben, Georg; Pfunt, Helena; Gestermann, Nicolai; Franke, Dieter; Erbacher, Jochen

    2017-04-01

    In light of the controversial debate on "unconventional" oil and gas resources and the environmental impacts of "fracking", the Federal Institute for Geosciences and Natural Resources (BGR) conducted a comprehensive resource assessment of shale gas and light tight oil in Germany and studied the potential environmental impacts of shale gas development and hydraulic fracturing from a geoscientific perspective. Here, we present our final results (BGR 2016), incorporating the majority of potential shale source rock formations in Germany. Besides shale gas, light tight oil has been assessed. According to our set of criteria - i.e. thermal maturity 0.6-1.2 %vitrinite reflectance (VR; oil) and >1.2 % VR (gas) respectively, organic carbon content > 2%, depth between 500/1000 m and 5000 m as well as a net thickness >20 m - seven potentially generative shale formations were indentified, the most important of them being the Lower Jurassic (Toarcian) Posidonia shale with both shale gas and tight oil potential. The North German basin is by far the most prolific basin. The resource assessment was carried out using a volumetric in-place approach. Variability inherent in the input parameters was accounted for using Monte-Carlo simulations. Technically recoverable resources (TRR) were estimated using recent, production-based recovery factors of North American shale plays and also employing Monte-Carlo simulations. In total, shale gas TRR range between 320 and 2030 bcm and tight oil TRR between 13 and 164 Mio. t in Germany. Tight oil potential is therefore considered minor, whereas the shale gas potential exceeds that of conventional resources by far. Furthermore an overview of numerical transport modelling approaches concerning environmental impacts of the hydraulic fracturing is given. These simulations are based on a representative lithostratigraphy model of the North-German basin, where major shale plays can be expected. Numerical hydrogeological modelling of frac fluid

  19. [Efficiency evaluation of capsaicinoids to discriminate bio-waste oils from edible vegetable oils].

    PubMed

    Mao, Lisha; Liu, Honghe; Kang, Li; Jiang, Jie; Liao, Shicheng; Liu, Guihua; Deng, Pingjian

    2014-07-01

    To evaluate the efficiency of capsaicinoids to discriminate bio-waste oil from edible vegetable oil. 14 raw vegetable oils, 24 fried waste oils, 34 kitchen-waste oils, 32 edible non-peanut vegetable oil, 32 edible peanuts oil, 16 edible oil add flavorand and 11 refined bio-waste oils were prepared and examined for capsaicinoids including capsaicin, dihydrocapsaicin and nonylic acid vanillylamide. The detection results of the above samples were statistically tested based on sample category to assessment identify the effectiveness of the bio-waste oils with capsaicinoids. As a indicator, capsaincin was possessed of high detection sensitivity and has the highest efficiency to discern kitchen-waste oils and refined bio-waste oils samples from edible non-peanut vegetable oil correctly. The accuracy rate of identification were 100% and 90.1% respectively. There is the background in peanut oil. CONCLUSION Capsaicin added in cooking process can be retained in the refining process and hardly be removed in the refining process. In the case of fully eliminating the background interference, capsaicinoids can effectively identify bio-waste oils and edible vegetable oil in combination.

  20. Multicomponent Evaluation Test of Harbor Oil Spill Recovery System.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    current need exists within the Navy for a systematic evaluation of available oil spill recovery components individually and in combination as an oil...to fill this Navy need. The main emphasis of this program currently underway at NCEL is a comparative evaluation of oil spill containment booms...skimmers, and related equipment resulting in the recommendation of a harbor oil spill recovery system for Navy use.

  1. Exxon Valdez oil spill environmental restoration series. Irregular report

    SciTech Connect

    1995-06-01

    On March 24, 1989, the supertanker Exxon Valdex ran aground on a well-marked reef in Prince William Sound. Within a few hours 10.8 million gallons of Alaska North Slope crude oil had leaked into one of the most bountiful and diverse marine ecosystems in the world. This environmental disaster resulted in a court settlement that included $900 million to be administered by the joint state and federal Exxon Valdex Oil Spill Trustee council for damage assessment and restoration. The National Technical Information Service is making these studies available to the public as they are released by the Trustee Council. Of particular interest to oil companies, environmental groups, education institutions and large public libraries, this peer-reviewed collection will include about 70 damage assessment reports followed by 40 to 50 restoration study documents each year through the year 2001. The initial damage assessment papers are due for release in May 1995. NTIS is offering the material both on demand when each study is released and also as a standing order. By choosing the standing order plan, customers save handling cost and ensure automatic shipping of the entire series as soon as each report is available.

  2. An evaluation of oil spill responses for offshore oil production projects in Newfoundland and Labrador, Canada: Implications for seabird conservation.

    PubMed

    Fraser, Gail S; Racine, Vincent

    2016-06-15

    Seabirds are vulnerable to oil pollution, particularly in cold-water regions. We investigated the response of small spills (<7.95m(3)) at offshore production platforms in Newfoundland, a region recognized for seabird diversity and abundance. In three environmental assessments for oil production operations Environment Canada requested monitoring and mitigation of small spills potentially impacting seabird populations; suggestions supported by two independent reviews. An industry spill response plan states that operators would collect systematic observations on spills and deploy countermeasures where possible. Operators' spill reports were obtained under an Access to Information request. There were 220 daytime spills with sheens (out of 381 spills; 1997-2010). Of these, six reported time to oil dispersion and eleven the presence or absence of seabirds. Industry self-reporting has not permitted an evaluation of the impact of chronic oil spills on seabirds. We recommend that independent observers be placed on platforms to systematically collect data on spills and seabirds.

  3. ENVIRONMENTAL REGULATIONS AND TECHNOLOGY: MANAGING USED MOTOR OIL

    EPA Science Inventory

    This document provides information on managing used oil properly. In each chapter, a different aspect of used oil management is considered. A description of used oil is included, and the document emphasizes the importance of proper used oil management practices.

  4. ENVIRONMENTAL REGULATIONS AND TECHNOLOGY: MANAGING USED MOTOR OIL

    EPA Science Inventory

    This document provides information on managing used oil properly. In each chapter, a different aspect of used oil management is considered. A description of used oil is included, and the document emphasizes the importance of proper used oil management practices.

  5. Study of the environmental hazard caused by the oil shale industry solid waste.

    PubMed

    Põllumaa, L; Maloveryan, A; Trapido, M; Sillak, H; Kahru, A

    2001-01-01

    The environmental hazard was studied of eight soil and solid waste samples originating from a region of Estonia heavily polluted by the oil shale industry. The samples were contaminated mainly with oil products (up to 7231mg/kg) and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs; up to 434mg/kg). Concentrations of heavy metals and water-extractable phenols were low. The toxicities of the aqueous extracts of solid-phase samples were evaluated by using a battery of Toxkit tests (involving crustaceans, protozoa, rotifers and algae). Waste rock and fresh semi-coke were classified as of "high acute toxic hazard", whereas aged semi-coke and most of the polluted soils were classified as of "acute toxic hazard". Analysis of the soil slurries by using the photobacterial solid-phase flash assay showed the presence of particle-bound toxicity in most samples. In the case of four samples out of the eight, chemical and toxicological evaluations both showed that the levels of PAHs, oil products or both exceeded their respective permitted limit values for the living zone (20mg PAHs/kg and 500mg oil products/kg); the toxicity tests showed a toxic hazard. However, in the case of three samples, the chemical and toxicological hazard predictions differed markedly: polluted soil from the Erra River bank contained 2334mg oil/kg, but did not show any water-extractable toxicity. In contrast, spent rock and aged semi-coke that contained none of the pollutants in hazardous concentrations, showed adverse effects in toxicity tests. The environmental hazard of solid waste deposits from the oil shale industry needs further assessment.

  6. Oil Bypass Filter Technology Evaluation, Eighth Quarterly Report, July - September 2004

    SciTech Connect

    Larry Zirker; James Francfort; Jordan Fielding

    2004-11-01

    This Oil Bypass Filter Technology Evaluation quarterly report (July--September 2004) details the ongoing fleet evaluation of an oil bypass filter technology being conducted by the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) for the U.S. Department of Energy’s (DOE) FreedomCAR & Vehicle Technologies Program. Eight INEEL four-cycle diesel engine buses used to transport INEEL employees on various routes and six INEEL Chevrolet Tahoes with gasoline engines are equipped with oil bypass filter systems from the puraDYN Corporation. The bypass filters are reported to have engine oil filtering capability of <1 micron and a built-in additive package to facilitate extended oil-drain intervals. This quarter, the eight diesel engine buses traveled 82,123 miles. As of the end of September 2004, they had accumulated 580,848 miles since the beginning of the test and 516,401 miles without an oil change. This represents an avoidance of 43 oil changes, which equates to 1,505 quarts (376 gallons) of new oil not consumed and, furthermore, 1,505 quarts of waste oil not generated. Two buses had their oil changed this quarter due to the degraded quality of the engine oil, as determined by the low total base numbers. This quarter, the six Tahoe test vehicles traveled 40,762 miles. As of the end of September 2004, the six Tahoes have accumulated 150,205 total test miles. The Tahoe filter test is in flux because of the engine cleaning or flushing that is occurring. The recycled oil used initially in the Tahoe testing was replaced with a 10W-30 Castrol oil, however only three vehicles have been flushed (one servicing event with the new oil) and restarted on testing.

  7. The statistical analysis of evaluating crude oils

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Janier, Josefina Barnachea; Sati, Muhammad Salman B. Mohd; Razali, Radzuan B.; Shafie, Afza Bt.; Karim, Samsul B. A.

    2014-10-01

    Crude oil is a naturally occurring mixture, consisting predominantly of hydrocarbon with other elements such as sulphur, nitrogen, and also metal. Since crude oils are taken from different parts of the world, it is necessary to know its composition for quality control in the oil and gas industry. This paper presents the statistical analysis of six acquired crude oil samples by comparing the coefficient of correlation of hydrocarbon components in these samples to standard diesel oil (SDO). Through Gas Chromatography Mass Spectrometry (GCMS) experiments, the hydrocarbon components in the six crude oil samples' retention time, abundance value and concentration were found. These were compared with those of the components of standard diesel oil (SDO). The results showed a high positive correlation in retention time between the samples and the standard diesel oil (SDO), low negative correlation on the concentration of hydrocarbon components, and low negative correlation on the abundance value.

  8. Study design considerations in evaluating environmental impacts

    Treesearch

    Stan T. Lebow; Paul A. Cooper; Patricia Lebow

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of this chapter is to make the reader aware of how choices in study parameters may influence the outcome of treated-wood environmental impact evaluations. Evaluation of the leaching and environmental accumulation of preservatives from treated wood is a complex process. and many factors can influence the results of such studies. In laboratory studies, the...

  9. 7 CFR 632.50 - Environmental evaluation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... in planning when NRCS or the land user can make decisions concerning further action are: (1) After an... Environmental evaluation. (a) Environmental evaluation is an integral part of planning used by NRCS in developing each reclamation plan under this program. Planning includes site inventory and analysis...

  10. Oil Bypass Filter Technology Evaluation Ninth Quarterly Report October–December 2004

    SciTech Connect

    Larry Zirker; James Francfort; Jordan Fielding

    2005-02-01

    This Oil Bypass Filter Technology Evaluation quarterly report (October–December 2004) details the ongoing fleet evaluation of oil bypass filter technologies being conducted by the Idaho National Laboratory (INL; formerly Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory) for the U.S. Department of Energy’s FreedomCAR & Vehicle Technologies Program. Eight INL four-cycle diesel-engine buses used to transport INL employees on various routes and six INL Chevrolet Tahoes with gasoline engines are equipped with oil bypass filter systems from the puraDYN Corporation. This quarter, three additional buses were equipped with bypass filters from Refined Global Solutions. Oil bypass filters are reported to have an engine oil filtering capability of less than 1 micron. Both the puraDYN and Refined Global Solutions bypass filters have a heating chamber to remove liquid contaminate from the oil. During the quarter, the eleven diesel engine buses traveled 62,188 miles, and as of January 3, 2005 the buses had accumulated 643,036 total test miles. Two buses had their engine oil changed this quarter. In one bus, the oil was changed due to its degraded quality as determined by a low total base number (<3.0 mg KOH/g). The other bus had high oxidation and nitration numbers (>30.0 Abs/cm). Although a total of six buses have had their oil changed during the last 26 months, by using the oil bypass filters the buses in the evaluation avoided 48 oil changes, which equates to 1,680 quarts (420 gallons) of new oil not consumed and 1,680 quarts of waste oil not generated. Therefore, over 80% of the oil normally required for oil-changes was not used, and, consequently, the evaluation achieved over 80% reduction in the amount of waste oil normally generated. The six Tahoe test vehicles traveled 39,514 miles, and as of January 3, 2005 the Tahoes had accumulated 189,970 total test miles. The Tahoe filter test is in transition. To increase the rate of bypass filter oil flow on the Tahoes

  11. [Evaluation of occupational exposure to mineral oil].

    PubMed

    Gaweda, E; Kurpiewska, J; Benczek, K M; Kijeńska, D

    2000-01-01

    The results of measurements of mineral oil concentrations in the air of selected workposts in five plants, taken in 1996-99, are presented. Absorption spectrometry in IR was used for determining mineral oils. In order to collect oil mist on a glass filter a personal sampling or stationary method was used. The results obtained show that the level of exposure to mineral oils in Polish industry is rather low. In few cases only oil mist was present in the air in amounts exceeding the Polish MAC value of 5 mg/m3. It was also noted that the situation has improved during the recent years.

  12. Tribological performance evaluation of oil mist lubrication

    SciTech Connect

    Shamim, A.; Kettleborough, C.F. )

    1994-09-01

    In this research work, the tribological performance of oil mist lubrication (pure mist), as applied to rolling element bearings, was investigated. In the first part of this research, tests were conducted to compare the performances of oil mist and conventional oil sump lubrication in terms of operating temperature and friction with variation of load and speed. In the second part, the two methods of lubrication were compared directly under endurance test conditions. The oil mist lubricated high-precision angular contact test bearings ran cooler by about 10 C. Also, the oil mist lubricated bearings had about 25 percent less friction. In the third part, endurance tests were conducted to investigate the influence of oil mist lubrication on the life of rolling element bearings. Weibull and maximum likelihood analysis of the endurance test data indicated that, in addition to savings in energy, oil mist lubrication provides better wear and fatigue protection to the test bearings compared to conventional sump lubrication.

  13. 77 FR 66626 - Deepwater Horizon Oil Spill; Draft Early Restoration Plan and Environmental Review

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-11-06

    ... Deepwater Horizon Oil Spill; Draft Early Restoration Plan and Environmental Review AGENCY: Interior. ACTION... Addressing Injuries Resulting from the Deepwater Horizon Oil Spill, the Federal and State natural resource... oil spill, which occurred on or about April 20, 2010, in the Gulf of Mexico. The purpose of this...

  14. 78 FR 8184 - DEEPWATER HORIZON Oil Spill; Final Phase II Early Restoration Plan and Environmental Review

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-05

    ... DEEPWATER HORIZON Oil Spill; Final Phase II Early Restoration Plan and Environmental Review AGENCY: Interior... Addressing Injuries Resulting from the DEEPWATER HORIZON Oil Spill (Framework Agreement), notice is hereby... services injured or lost as a result of the DEEPWATER HORIZON oil spill, which occurred on or about April...

  15. Environmental impact of oil development in northern Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Leopold, Luna Bergere

    1969-01-01

    It is reported that in the spring of 1969 a high official of one of the oil companies was flying over the area of oil development in the vicinity of Prudhoe Bay. He is quoted as saying "If the American people could see what we are doing to their land here, they would want to abolish the use of the reciprocating engine."The last really large area of wilderness in the United States is the' Brooks Range and the Arctic Coastal Plain which stretches from that range to the Arctic Ocean. The proving of the  exploratory oil wells which have been drilled on the coastal plain in the vicinity of Prudhoe Bay makes it virtually certain that this heretofore mostly unknown country will rapidly and vigorously be exposed to a variety of changes caused by the influx of men and their equipment. Even within the first four months of 1969 the whole aspect of the central part of the region has been importantly changed by the drilling programs of several large oil companies.So suddenly was this change brought about that no long-range plans have been developed either to soften the effect of such development on the natural environment or even to record the progress of these effects. Yet the absence of a plan provides an inadvertent potential advantage in that there has' been no history of increasingly firm Federal policy which, in other places, has often made it difficult to take newly conceived action in line with the increasing societal interest in environmental preservation. The lack of firm Federal policy provides here a unique opportunity for the application of new rules and investigative techniques aimed at minimizing the adverse effects on the environment while5.at the same time, not unduly hindering the development of the natural resources.But the speed with which the changes are being wrought makes it imperative that the principles applicable here to environmental protection or preservation, be enunciated immediately and that from these principles flow farsighted regulations which

  16. Quality evaluation of noble mixed oil blended with palm and canola oil.

    PubMed

    Choi, Hyesook; Lee, Eunji; Lee, Kwang-Geun

    2014-01-01

    Noble blended oils (canola: palm oil = 3:7, 4:6, 5:5, 6:4 and 7:3) were prepared and their frying qualities were evaluated. Frying qualities such as fatty acid composition, acid value, peroxide value, viscosity, smoke point, color, antioxidant activity, and sensory evaluation were measured to elucidate the optimum blend ratio of canola and palm oil. The ratio of unsaturated to saturated fatty acid of the blended oils was higher than that of palm oil after frying 50 times. The blended oil (3:7, Ca: Pa) had a relatively high oxidative stability and its peroxide values were 44.2-70.7 meq/kg after frying. The 3:7 (Ca: Pa) blended oil had excellent flavor, taste, and texture compared to those of the other frying oils as a result of a sensory evaluation of raw and fried potatoes. The results suggest that the 3:7 (Ca: Pa) blended oil is a good alternative oil for frying potatoes.

  17. Evaluating environmental justice under the National Environmental Policy Act

    SciTech Connect

    Bass, R.

    1998-01-01

    Environmental justice refers to the fair treatment and meaningful involvement of all people regardless of race, color, national origin, or income with respect to the development, implementation, and enforcement of environmental laws. To avoid inequities in future federal activities, President Clinton issued Executive Order (EO) 12898, which requires federal agencies to consider environmental justice in carrying out their missions. Guidance issued by the Executive Office of the President requires every federal agency to consider environmental justice in conducting impact evaluations under the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA). Thus, an environmental justice analysis is a highly focused form of social impact assessment that must be conducted within the framework of NEPA. The specific purpose of such an analysis is to determine whether a proposed federal activity would impact low-income and minority populations to a greater extent than it would impact a community`s general population. This article explains the development and implementation of EO 12898 and explores what federal agencies are doing to incorporate environmental justice into their NEPA procedures. It also includes recommendations for other authorities to consider when incorporating environmental justice into their environmental impact assessments.

  18. Bioanalytical evaluation of Cinnamomum zeylanicum essential oil.

    PubMed

    Saleem, Muhammad; Bhatti, Haq Nawaz; Jilani, Muhammad Idrees; Hanif, Muhammad Asif

    2015-01-01

    This manuscript describes the antioxidant activity of essential oil of Cinnamon (Cinnamomum zeylanicum) bark extracted by supercritical fluid extraction (SCFE), hydro distillation and steam distillation. The cinnamon bark essential oil exhibited a wide range of total phenolic contents, total flavonoid contents, reducing power, inhibition of linoleic acid peroxidation and DPPH radical-scavenging activity (IC50). Bioactivity of cinnamon essential oil was assayed against various bacterial strains including Bacillus subtilis, Escherichia coli, Pastrurella multocida and Straphylococcus aureus and fungal strains including Aspergillus niger and Aspergillus flavus. More essential oil yield was obtained using SCFE in comparison to other methods. The oil extracted by SCFE was dominated by cinnamaldehyde, limonene, copaene, naphthalene, heptane, bicyclo[4.2.0]octa-1,3,5-triene and 2-propenal. Due to the presence of cinnamaldehyde in the essential oil of cinnamon bark it acts as a good antioxidant and antimicrobial agent.

  19. DISPERSANT EFFECTIVENESS ON OIL SPILLS - IMPACT OF ENVIRONMENTAL FACTORS

    EPA Science Inventory

    When a dispersant is applied to an oil slick, its effectiveness in dispersing the spilled oil depends on various factors such as oil properties, wave mixing energy, temperature of both oil and water, and salinity of the water. Estuaries represent water with varying salinities. In...

  20. DISPERSANT EFFECTIVENESS ON OIL SPILLS - IMPACT OF ENVIRONMENTAL FACTORS

    EPA Science Inventory

    When a dispersant is applied to an oil slick, its effectiveness in dispersing the spilled oil depends on various factors such as oil properties, wave mixing energy, temperature of both oil and water, and salinity of the water. Estuaries represent water with varying salinities. In...

  1. Toxicological evaluation of arachidonic acid (ARA)-rich oil and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA)-rich oil.

    PubMed

    Lewis, Kara D; Huang, Weifeng; Zheng, Xiaohui; Jiang, Yue; Feldman, Robin S; Falk, Michael C

    2016-10-01

    The safety of DHA-rich oil from Schizochytrium sp. and ARA-rich oil from Mortierella alpina was separately evaluated by testing for gene mutations, clastogenicity, and aneugenicity, and by conducting 28-day and 90-day dietary studies in Wistar rats. The results of all genotoxicity tests were negative. The 28-day and 90-day studies involved dietary exposure to 1000, 2500, and 5000 mg per kg bw of the DHA-rich and ARA-rich oils and two control diets: water and corn oil (vehicle control). There were no treatment-related effects of either the DHA-rich or ARA-rich oils on clinical observations, body weight, food consumption, behavior, hematology, clinical chemistry, coagulation, urinalysis parameters, or necropsy findings. Increases in cholesterol and triglyceride levels were considered related to a high oil diet and non-adverse. The no observable adverse effect level (NOAEL) for both the DHA-rich and ARA-rich oils was 5000 mg per kg bw, the highest dose tested. The results confirm that these oils possess toxicity profiles similar to those of other currently marketed oils and support the safety of DHA-rich oil from Schizochytrium sp. and ARA-rich oil from Mortierella alpina for their proposed uses in food. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Evaluation of sensor arrays for engine oils using artificial oil alteration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sen, Sedat; Schneidhofer, Christoph; Dörr, Nicole; Vellekoop, Michael J.

    2011-06-01

    With respect to varying operation conditions, only sensors directly installed in the engine can detect the current oil condition hence enabling to get the right time for the oil change. Usually, only one parameter is not sufficient to obtain reliable information about the current oil condition. For this reason, appropriate sensor principles were evaluated for the design of sensor arrays for the measurement of critical lubricant parameters. In this contribution, we report on the development of a sensor array for engine oils using laboratory analyses of used engine oils for the correlation with sensor signals. The sensor array comprises the measurement of conductivity, permittivity, viscosity and temperature as well as oil corrosiveness as a consequence of acidification of the lubricant. As a key method, rapid evaluation of the sensors was done by short term simulation of entire oil change intervals based on artificial oil alteration. Thereby, the compatibility of the sensor array to the lubricant and the oil deterioration during the artificial alteration process was observed by the sensors and confirmed by additional laboratory analyses of oil samples take.

  3. A systematic quality assessment of Environmental Impact Statements in the oil and gas industry.

    PubMed

    Anifowose, B; Lawler, D M; van der Horst, D; Chapman, L

    2016-12-01

    The global economy relies heavily on oil and gas resources. However, hydrocarbon exploitation projects can cause significant impacts on the environment. But despite the production of numerous Environmental Impact Statements (EISs) to identify/mitigate such impacts, no study has specifically assessed the quality of EISs for both onshore and offshore oil and gas projects, with tested hypotheses. To address this research gap, our paper, for the first time, develops a modified Lee and Colley evaluation model to assess the quality of 19 sampled oil and gas project EISs produced from 1998 to 2008 in Nigeria. Our findings show that Project Description and Communication of Results are the main areas of strength. However, Environmental Impact Prediction, and Project Decommissioning, were among the key areas requiring attention. A key finding, though, is that Mann-Whitney tests suggest that there is no evidence that the quality of EISs for the latter period (2004-2008) is higher than that of the earlier period (1998-2004). We suggest that periodic systematic review of the quality of submitted/approved EISs (c. every 3-5years) should be established to monitor trends in EIS quality and identify strong and weak areas. This would help to drive continual improvement in both the EIA processes and the resultant EISs of technical engineering projects. Such reviews have the potential to illuminate some of the underlying problems of, and solutions to, oil and gas exploration, production and transportation, and their related environmental impacts. This suggested change would also be useful internationally, including for the burgeoning exploration and production of unconventional hydrocarbon resources. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Safety evaluation of Algal Oil from Schizochytrium sp.

    PubMed

    Fedorova-Dahms, I; Marone, P A; Bailey-Hall, E; Ryan, A S

    2011-01-01

    The safety of Algal Oil from Schizochytrium sp. was evaluated by testing for gene mutations, clastogenicity and aneugenicity, and in a subchronic 90-day Sprague-Dawley rat dietary study. The results of all genotoxicity tests were negative. The 90-day study involved dietary exposure to 0.5, 1.5, and 5 wt.% of Algal Oil and two control diets: a standard low-fat basal diet and a basal diet supplemented with 5 wt.% menhaden oil (the fish oil control). There were no treatment-related effects of Algal Oil on clinical observations, body weight, food consumption, behavior, hematology, clinical chemistry, coagulation, or urinalysis parameters. Increased mean liver weights and alveolar histiocytosis were observed in both the fish oil control and the high-dose Algal Oil-treated animals and were not considered to be adverse. Algal Oil was bioavailable as demonstrated by the dose-related increase of DHA and EPA levels in tissues and plasma. The no observable adverse effect level (NOAEL) for Algal Oil under the conditions of this study was 5 wt.% in the diet, equivalent to an overall average Algal Oil intake of 3250 mg/kg bw/day for male and female rats. Based on the body surface area, the human equivalent dose is about 30 g Algal Oil/day for a 60 kg adult.

  5. Optimization and Evaluation of a Fluorescence Oil Spill Detector. Volume 1. Laboratory Measurements and Field Evaluation.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    The work described in this report was directed at maximizing the detection range of an automatic fluorescence oil spill detector and evaluating the...detection capabilities of this detector against a wide range of petroleum oils. On the basis of this evaluation, a Scanning Oil Spill detector was

  6. Puget Sound 1999 Area Oil Spill Exercise: Evaluation Report

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1999-05-01

    This report serves as the Navy’s formal evaluation for the 1999 Puget Sound Area Oil Spill Exercise. The report includes exercise results, lessons...effort to organize and respond to a worst-case oil spill and to test the response strategies set forth in the region’s Area Contingency Plan and...exercises, and predetermining where the command center should be established in the event of a real oil spill .

  7. EVALUATING ENVIRONMENTAL DECISION SUPPORT TOOLS.

    SciTech Connect

    SULLIVAN, T.

    2004-10-01

    Effective contaminated land management requires a number of decisions addressing a suite of technical, economic, and social concerns. These concerns include human health risks, ecological risks, economic costs, technical feasibility of proposed remedial actions, and the value society places on clean-up and re-use of formerly contaminated lands. Decision making, in the face of uncertainty and multiple and often conflicting objectives, is a vital and challenging role in environmental management that affects a significant economic activity. Although each environmental remediation problem is unique and requires a site-specific analysis, many of the key decisions are similar in structure. This has led many to attempt to develop standard approaches. As part of the standardization process, attempts have been made to codify specialist expertise into decision support tools. This activity is intended to facilitate reproducible and transparent decision making. The process of codifying procedures has also been found to be a useful activity for establishing and rationalizing management processes. This study will have two primary objectives. The first is to develop taxonomy for Decision Support Tools (DST) to provide a framework for understanding the different tools and what they are designed to address in the context of environmental remediation problems. The taxonomy will have a series of subject areas for the DST. From these subjects, a few key areas will be selected for further study and software in these areas will be identified. The second objective, will be to review the existing DST in the selected areas and develop a screening matrix for each software product.

  8. Evaluation of catmint oil and hydrogenated catmint oil as repellents for Tribolium castaneum and Tribolium confusum

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Catmint oil and hydrogenated catmint oil were evaluated as repellents for adult Tribolium casteneum (Herbst), the red flour beetle, and T. confusum (Jacqueline DuVal), the confused flour beetle, using both a traditional method of visual assessment of distribution and a video recording method to dete...

  9. Puget Sound 1999 Area Oil Spill Exercise: Evaluation Report.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1999-05-01

    This report serves as the Navy’s formal evaluation for the 1999 Pugent Sound Area Oil Spill Exercise. The report includes exercise results, lessons...effort to organize and respond to a worst-case oil spill and to test the response strategies set forth in the region’s Area Contingency Plan and

  10. Evaluation of Bulk Modulus of Oil System with Hydraulic Line

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hružík, L.; Vašina, M.; Bureček, A.

    2013-04-01

    The aim of the paper is to experimentally measure and ealuate bulk modulus of oil/steel pipe system and oil/hose system. The measurement was performed using experimental device on the basis of a measured pressure difference depending on time. Bulk modulus is evaluated from pressure change with known flow and volume of line. Pressure rise is caused by valve closure at the line end. Furthermore, a mathematical model of the experimental device is created using Matlab SimHydraulics software. Time dependencies of pressure for the oil/steel pipe system and the oil/hose system are simulated on this mathematical model. The simulations are verified by experiment.

  11. Oil/Water Separator Test And Evaluation.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1995-11-01

    oil spill recovery operation. The separators tested were the Alfa-Laval OFPX 413 disk-stack centrifuge. Conoco Specialty Products’ Vortoil Oilspill Separation System, International Separation Technology’s Intr-Septor 250 and a simple gravity tank. Separation performance was documented for a range of influent oil/water ratios, using crude and a water-in-oil emulsion. Simulated sea motion, the addition of emulsion breaker, and debris in the influent were other variables included in the test program. Observations on separator operability, reliability, maintenance

  12. 76 FR 35009 - Draft Oil and Gas Management Plan/Environmental Impact Statement for Big South Fork National...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-15

    ... National Park Service Draft Oil and Gas Management Plan/Environmental Impact Statement for Big South Fork.... ACTION: Notice of Availability of a Draft Oil and Gas Management Plan/ Environmental Impact Statement for..., announces the availability of the draft oil and gas management plan/environmental impact statement (OGMP...

  13. Improving environmental assessments by integrating Species Sensitivity Distributions into environmental modeling: examples with two hypothetical oil spills.

    PubMed

    Bejarano, Adriana C; Mearns, Alan J

    2015-04-15

    A three dimensional (3D) trajectory model was used to simulate oil mass balance and environmental concentrations of two 795,000 L hypothetical oil spills modeled under physical and chemical dispersion scenarios. Species Sensitivity Distributions (SSD) for Total Hydrocarbon Concentrations (THCs) were developed, and Hazard Concentrations (HC) used as levels of concern. Potential consequences to entrained water column organisms were characterized by comparing model outputs with SSDs, and obtaining the proportion of species affected (PSA) and areas with oil concentrations exceeding HC5s (Area ⩾ HC5). Under the physically-dispersed oil scenario ⩽ 77% of the oil remains on the water surface and strands on shorelines, while with the chemically-dispersed oil scenario ⩽ 67% of the oil is entrained in the water column. For every 10% increase in chemical dispersion effectiveness, the average PSA and Area ⩾ HC5 increases (range: 0.01-0.06 and 0.50-2.9 km(2), respectively), while shoreline oiling decreases (⩽ 2919 L/km). Integrating SSDs into modeling may improve understanding of scales of potential impacts to water column organisms, while providing net environmental benefit comparison of oil spill response options.

  14. An environmental approach for used oil management in Asian cities: a Bangkok' s experience.

    PubMed

    Leong, Shing Tet; Laortanakul, Preecha

    2003-11-01

    This paper addresses increasing concern about the pollution threat of used oil being illegally dumped and the impact of oil on air pollution and freshwater ecosystems in Asian countries. Used oil is a very serious waste management problem. These results call for management action such as maximising the collection and recovery of used oil. The Thai government recognizes the need to recycle used oil and has been active in encouraging programs to accomplish this goal. Thus unless new approaches and incentives are developed, used oil generation may become an increasing serious problem to our environment. The purpose of this study is to examine the technical and economic feasibility, of recycling used oils. In addition, this paper briefly discusses the problems to be overcome and outlines potential mechanisms for providing the necessary disposal controls in order to maximize the protection to public health and environmental quality from potential hazards posed by used lube oil disposal.

  15. Investigation on environmental factors of waste plastics into oil and its emulsion to control the emission in DI diesel engine.

    PubMed

    Kumar, P Senthil; Sankaranarayanan, G

    2016-12-01

    Rapid depletion of conventional fossil fuel resources, their rising prices and environmental issues are the major concern of alternative fuels. On the other hand waste plastics cause a very serious environmental dispute because of their disposal problems. Waste plastics are one of the promising factors for fuel production because of their high heat of combustion and their increasing availability in local communities. In this study, waste plastic oil (WPO) is tested in DI diesel engine to evaluate its performance and emission characteristics. Results showed that oxides of nitrogen (NOx) emission get increased with WPO when compared to diesel oil. Further, the three phase (O/W/O) plastic oil emulsion is prepared with an aid of ultrasonicater according to the %v (10, 20 & 30). Results expose that brake thermal efficiency (BTE) is found to be increased. NOx and smoke emissions were reduced up to 247ppm and 41% respectively, when compared to diesel at full load condition with use of 30% emulsified WPO.

  16. DISPERSANT EFFECTIVENESS ON THREE OILS UNDER VARIOUS SIMULATED ENVIRONMENTAL CONDITIONS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The complexity of chemical and physical interactions between spilled oils, dispersants and the sea, necessitates an empirical approach for describing the interaction between the dispersant and oil slick which may provide a guide to dispersant effects on oil slicks. Recently, US ...

  17. Modified vegetable oils for environmentally friendly lubricant applications

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Synthetic lubricant base oils offer improved stability and performance characteristics over refined petroleum oils, but at a price. Most of the biodegradable synthetic oils are chemical esters that offer superior thermal and oxidative stability [8.9]. Prices for these niche products are higher tha...

  18. Oil Recovery from Water under Environmentally Relevant Conditions Using Magnetic Nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Mirshahghassemi, Seyyedali; Lead, Jamie R

    2015-10-06

    Large oil spills and oily wastewater discharges from ships and industrial activities can have serious impacts on the environment with potentially major economic impacts. Current oil remediation techniques are inefficient and may have deleterious environmental consequences. However, nanotechnology offers a new route to potentially remediate oil pollution. In this study, a cheap and facile hydrothermal method was developed to synthesize polyvinylpyrrolidone-coated magnetite nanoparticles to separate a reference MC252 oil from oil-water mixture under environmentally relevant conditions. Fluorescence and Proton nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy results showed near 100% oil removal from oil-water mixture in the ultrapure water under optimum condition. Based on gas chromatography-mass spectrometry data, approximately 100% of lower molecular mass alkanes (C9-C21) were removed within 10 min of magnetic separation and by increasing the separation time to 40 min, greater than 67% of C22-25 alkanes were removed. Moreover, nanoparticles removed near 100% oil from synthetic seawater solutions in the presence and absence of fulvic acid showing excellent oil removal capacity of the nanoparticles under different conditions. Results show that these nanoparticles can be utilized to remove oil over a short time with a high removal efficiency under environmentally relevant conditions.

  19. Environmental effects of fog oil and CS usage at the Combat Maneuver Training Center, Hohenfels, Germany. [2-chlorophenylmethylene

    SciTech Connect

    Brubaker, K.L.; Rosenblatt, D.H.; Snyder, C.T.

    1992-03-01

    In response to environmental concerns at the Combat Maneuver Training Center (CMTC), Hohenfels, Germany, the US Army 7th Army Training Command commissioned a scientific study by Argonne National Laboratory to investigate specific issues. The study involved three parts: (1) a field study to determine if fog oil and CS (a compound named after its discoverers, B.B. Carson and R.W. Stoughton) were accumulating in the CMTC environment, (2) a screening of selected soil samples for the presence of US Environmental Protection Agency priority pollutants, and (3) a literature review of the health effects of fog oil and CS, as well as a review of training practices at CMTC. No fog oil or fog oil degradation products were detected in any soil, sediment, or vegetation sample collected at CMTC. Trace quantities of one or more priority pollutants were tentatively detected in three of eight soil and sediment samples. However, the priority pollutant concentrations are so low that they pose no environmental or health hazards. No evidence of widespread or significant contamination in the training areas was found. Crucial data needed to fully evaluate both acute and chronic health effects of civilian exposures to CS at CMTC are not available. On the basis of the available literature, long-ten-n health effects in the civilian population near CMTC that could result from the use of fog oil and CS during training activities are believed to be negligible.

  20. Behavioral patterns of environmental performance evaluation programs.

    PubMed

    Li, Wanxin; Mauerhofer, Volker

    2016-11-01

    During the past decades numerous environmental performance evaluation programs have been developed and implemented on different geographic scales. This paper develops a taxonomy of environmental management behavioral patterns in order to provide a practical comparison tool for environmental performance evaluation programs. Ten such programs purposively selected are mapped against the identified four behavioral patterns in the form of diagnosis, negotiation, learning, and socialization and learning. Overall, we found that schemes which serve to diagnose environmental abnormalities are mainly externally imposed and have been developed as a result of technical debates concerning data sources, methodology and ranking criteria. Learning oriented scheme is featured by processes through which free exchange of ideas, mutual and adaptive learning can occur. Scheme developed by higher authority for influencing behaviors of lower levels of government has been adopted by the evaluated to signal their excellent environmental performance. The socializing and learning classified evaluation schemes have incorporated dialogue, participation, and capacity building in program design. In conclusion we consider the 'fitness for purpose' of the various schemes, the merits of our analytical model and the future possibilities of fostering capacity building in the realm of wicked environmental challenges. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. 24 CFR 58.47 - Re-evaluation of environmental assessments and other environmental findings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... HUD ENVIRONMENTAL RESPONSIBILITIES Environmental Review Process: Environmental Assessments (EA's) § 58... EA or an EIS if its evaluation indicates potentially significant impacts. (3) Where the recipient...

  2. The Exxon Valdez oil spill: Initial environmental impact assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Maki, A.W. )

    1991-01-01

    The March 24, 1989, grounding of the Exxon Valdez on Bligh Reef in Prince William Sound, Alaska, was unprecedented in scale. So too was Exxon's response to the oil spill and the subsequent shoreline cleaning program, including the employment of more than 11,000 people, utilization of essentially the entire world supply of containment booms and skimmers, and an expenditure of more than two billion dollars. In the days immediately following the Valdez spill, Exxon mobilized a massive environmental assessment program. A large field and laboratory staff of experienced environmental professionals and internationally recognized experts was assembled that included intertidal ecologists, fishery biologists, marine and hydrocarbon chemists. This field program to measure spill impacts and recovery rates was initiated with the cooperation of state and federal agencies. Through the end of 1989, this program has resulted in well over 45,000 separate samples of water, sediment, and biota used to assess spill impacts. This paper provides initial observations and preliminary conclusions from several of the 1989 studies. These conclusions are based on factual, scientific data from studies designed to objectively measure the extent of the impacts from the spill. Data from these studies indicate that wildlife and habitats are recovering from the impacts of the spill and that commercial catches of herring and salmon in Prince William Sound are at record high levels. Ecosystem recovery from spill impacts is due to the combined efforts of the cleanup program as well as natural physical, chemical, and biological processes. From all indications this recovery process can be expected to continue.

  3. Marine Environmental Emergencies in the North Pacific Ocean: Lessons Learned from Recent Oil Spills.

    PubMed

    Yim, Un Hyuk; Short, Jeffrey

    2017-07-01

    Increasing marine vessel traffic, and oil and gas exploration and development throughout the North Pacific basin brings increasing risks of oil spills. Recognizing the serious challenges presented to response authorities, this Special Issue was organized by the North Pacific Marine Science Organization to provide an introduction to the current state of scientific understanding regarding the environmental effects of oil spills. Because interactions of spilled oils with biota and their habitats are complex, the most serious environmental damages from these spills are not necessarily those of greatest immediate concern by the public. Our overarching goal for this Special Issue is to provide an efficient introduction to the most important ways that oil spills can harm biota, habitats, and ecosystems through invited, targeted mini-reviews augmented by original research articles. We provide a brief background on the challenges posed by large oil spills to response authorities, summarize findings from the articles published in this Special Issue, and highlight some key research needs.

  4. The effect of environmental factors on stable isotopic composition of n-alkanes in Mediterranean olive oils

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pedentchouk, Nikolai; Mihailova, Alina; Abbado, Dimitri

    2014-05-01

    Traceability of the geographic origin of olive oils is an important issue from both commercial and health perspectives. This study evaluates the impact of environmental factors on stable C and H isotope compositions of n-alkanes in extra virgin olive oils from Croatia, France, Greece, Italy, Morocco, Portugal, Slovenia, and Spain. The data are used to investigate the applicability of stable isotope methodology for olive oil regional classification in the Mediterranean region. Analysis of stable C isotope composition of n-C29 alkane showed that extra virgin olive oils from Portugal and Spain have the most positive n-C29 alkane delta13C values. Conversely, olive oils from Slovenia, northern and central Italy are characterized by the most negative values. Overall, the n-C29 alkane delta13C values show a positive correlation with the mean air temperature during August-December and a negative correlation with the mean relative humidity during these months. Analysis of stable H isotope composition of n-C29 alkane revealed that the deltaD values are the most positive in olive oils from Greece and Morocco and the most negative in oils from northern Italy. The deltaD values of oils show significant correlation with all the analyses geographical parameters: the mean air temperature and relative humidity during August-December, the total amount of rainfall (the same months) and the annual deltaD values of precipitation. As predictor variables in the Categorical Data Analysis, the n-C29 alkane deltaD values show the most significant discriminative power, followed by the n-C29 alkane delta13C values. Overall, 93.4% of olive oil samples have been classified correctly into one of the production regions. Our findings suggest that an integrated analysis of C and H isotope compositions of n-alkanes extracted from extra virgin olive oil could become a useful tool for geographical provenancing of this highly popular food commodity.

  5. DOE report assesses environmental impact of waste oil industry

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1987-07-01

    Most current methods of used oil and unused waste oil utilization and disposal create risks of contaminating air, water, or soil with substances that pose hazards to human, animal, and plant life. Recent actions taken to regulate used oil may create severe constraints on those who generate, collect, and handle used oil, such that many of them may leave the market. This may lead to decreased availability of sound disposal options resulting in increased improper disposal of used oil. The U.S. EPA has tried several times to classify used oil as a hazardous waste. The rationale for proposing such a regulation was that its implementation would force more energy recovery through fuel reprocessing and lube oil re-refining. The release of 61-128 million gal/year of used oil into the environment would likely threaten ground and surface waters with oil contamination, thereby endangering drinking water supplies and aquatic life. Therefore, in its latest attempt to classify used oil as a hazardous waste, EPA concluded that such a listing would discourage recycling or reuse.

  6. Environmental significance of biocatalytic conversion of low grade oils

    SciTech Connect

    Lin, M.S.; Premuzic, E.T.; Lian, H.; Zhou, W.M.; Yablon, J.

    1996-09-01

    Studies dealing with the interactions between extremophilic microorganisms and crude oils have led to the identification of biocatalysts which through multiple biochemical reactions catalyze desulfurization, denitrogenation, and demetalation reactions in oils. Concurrently, the oils are also converted to lighter oils. These complex biochemical reactions have served as models in the development of the crude oil bioconversion technology to be applied prior to the treatment of oils by conventional chemical processes. In practical terms, this means that the efficiency of the existing technology is being enhanced. For example, the recently introduced additional regulation for the emission of nitrogen oxides in some states restricts further the kinds of oils that may be used in burners. The biocatalysts being developed in this laboratory selectively interact with nitrogen compounds, i.e. basic and neutral types present in the oil and, hence, affect the fuel NOx production. This, in turn, has a cost-efficient influence on the processed oils and their consumption. In this paper, these cost-efficient and beneficial effects will be discussed in terms of produced oils, the lowering of sulfur and nitrogen contents, and the effect on products, as well as the longevity of catalysts due to the removal of heteroatoms and metal containing compounds found in crudes.

  7. Evaluating the FSU's upstream oil sector

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-11-01

    This paper reports that development of oil resources is the leading basic industry of the former Soviet Union (FSU). Its rapid development, which has plateaued and trailed off in recent years, began with the post-World War II period. In the mid-1940s, the old USSR produced only 18 million t (132.12 million bbl, or 361,973 bpd) of oil annually. During 1974, production of 470 million t (9.452 million bpd) made the USSR the leading nation among 80 oil-producing countries. By 1980, the production level was over 600 million t (12.033 million bpd) before peaking at 624 million t (12.548 million bpd) in 1987.

  8. Environmental data from laboratory- and bench-scale Pressurized Fluidized-Bed Hydroretorting of Eastern oil shale

    SciTech Connect

    Mensinger, M.C.; Rue, D.M.; Roberts, M.J.

    1991-01-01

    As part of a 3-year program to develop the Pressurized Fluidized-Bed Hydroretorting (PFH) Process for Eastern oil shales, IGT conducted tests in laboratory-scale batch and continuous units as well as a 45-kg/h bench-scale unit to generate a data base for 6 Eastern shales. Data were collected during PFH processing of raw Alabama and Indiana shales and a beneficiated Indiana shale for environmental mitigation analyses. The data generated include trace element analyses of the raw feeds and spent shales, product oils, and sour waters. The sulfur compounds present in the product gas and trace components in the sour water were also determined. In addition, the leaching characteristics of the feed and residue solids were determined. The data obtained were used to evaluate the environmental impact of a shale processing plant based on the PFH process. This paper presents the environmental data obtained from bench-scale tests conducted during the program.

  9. Environmental data from laboratory- and bench-scale Pressurized Fluidized-Bed Hydroretorting of Eastern oil shale

    SciTech Connect

    Mensinger, M.C.; Rue, D.M.; Roberts, M.J.

    1991-12-31

    As part of a 3-year program to develop the Pressurized Fluidized-Bed Hydroretorting (PFH) Process for Eastern oil shales, IGT conducted tests in laboratory-scale batch and continuous units as well as a 45-kg/h bench-scale unit to generate a data base for 6 Eastern shales. Data were collected during PFH processing of raw Alabama and Indiana shales and a beneficiated Indiana shale for environmental mitigation analyses. The data generated include trace element analyses of the raw feeds and spent shales, product oils, and sour waters. The sulfur compounds present in the product gas and trace components in the sour water were also determined. In addition, the leaching characteristics of the feed and residue solids were determined. The data obtained were used to evaluate the environmental impact of a shale processing plant based on the PFH process. This paper presents the environmental data obtained from bench-scale tests conducted during the program.

  10. Application of an oil spill fates model to environmental management on Georges Bank

    SciTech Connect

    Anderson, E.L.; Spaulding, M.L.

    1981-01-01

    A general discussion of the construction of an oil spill fates model and its application in environmental management for risk assessment, spill forecasting and impact assessment decision making is presented. An overview of the ASA-URI oil spill fates model which includes drifting, spreading, evaporation, dispersion, and subsurface transport is given, taking particular note of the requirements for environmental data defining the current and wind fields in the study area. A series of simulations of oil spills using three crude oils (Statfjord Norway, Venezuelan, and Nigerian) over four seasons and two spill locations within the North Atlantic Outer Continental Shelf (OCS) lease area are performed and discussed in detail. Two representative spill events are modelled: a 68 million gallon well blowout of thirty days duration, and 20 million gallon tanker spill of five days duration. Oil types are defined by seven fractional partitions and specific gravity. Model output consists of the temporal and spatial distribution of surface spillets and subsurface concentrations as well as a time dependent mass balance of the oil in key environmental areas; sea surface, atmosphere, and water column. The simulations suggest that the time of spill inception is the most critical parameter in determining the spatial distributions of spilled oil, while oil type is the most important parameter in defining the partitioning of oil mass in the environment.

  11. Environmentally responsive surface-modified silica nanoparticles for enhanced oil recovery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Behzadi, Abed; Mohammadi, Aliasghar

    2016-09-01

    Environmentally responsive surface-modified nanoparticles are colloidal nanoparticles coated with, at least, two physicochemically distinct surface groups. Recent advances in the synthesis and production of nanoparticles have enabled the production of environmentally responsive surface-modified nanoparticles with both hydrophilic and hydrophobic surface groups. These nanoparticles act like colloidal surfactants. In this paper, environmentally responsive surface-modified silica nanoparticles are synthesized and used for enhancement of oil recovery. For this purpose, silica nanoparticles are coated with polyethylene glycol chains as hydrophilic agent and propyl chains as hydrophobic agent at various quantities, and their ability to modulate oil-water interface properties and oil recovery is examined. Oil-water interfacial tension and water surface tension are decreased by 50 % in the presence of silica nanoparticles coated with both agents. Measuring oil-drop contact angle on oil-wetted glass slides and carbonate rock sections, after aging in various surface-modified silica nanofluids, indicates that the wettability of various oil-wetted surfaces is modified from strongly oil-wet to water-wet. Flooding nanofluids to glass micro-models and pore-level investigations demonstrate that surface modification of silica nanoparticles, specially, with both hydrophilic and hydrophobic agents improves considerably their performance in increasing oil recovery and wettability alteration.

  12. Workshop in environmental issues associated with western hemisphere oil and gas production

    SciTech Connect

    1994-12-31

    Representatives from several U.S. and Latin American oil and gas companies, and government representatives, met in Montevideo, Uruguay, on May 4-6, 1994, to discuss regulation, cooperation, and management of environmental issues associated with oil and gas production. This report presents a brief summary of the topics discussed at the meeting.

  13. 77 FR 75119 - Dakota Prairie Grasslands, North Dakota; Oil and Gas Development Supplemental Environmental...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-12-19

    ... Forest Service Dakota Prairie Grasslands, North Dakota; Oil and Gas Development Supplemental... environmental impact statement. SUMMARY: In June of 2003, the Dakota Prairie Grasslands Record of Decision for Oil and Gas Leasing on the Little Missouri and Cedar River National Grasslands was signed. This...

  14. [Scientific basis of environmental health contingency planning for a coastal oil spill].

    PubMed

    Kim, Young Min; Cheong, Hae Kwan; Kim, Jong Ho; Kim, Jong Hun; Ko, Kumsook; Ha, Mina

    2009-03-01

    This study presents a scientific basis for the establishment of an environmental health contingency plan for dealing with accidental coastal oil spills and suggests some strategies for use in an environmental health emergency. We reviewed the existing literature, and analyzed the various fundamental factors involved in response strategies for oil spill. Our analysis included data derived from Hebei Spirit oil spill and used air dispersion modeling. Spill amounts of more than 1,000 kl can affect the health of residents along the coast, especially those who belong to vulnerable groups. Almost 30% of South Korean population lives in the vicinity of the coast. The area that is at the highest risk for a spill and that has the greatest number of people at risk is the stretch of coastline from Busan to Tongyeong. The most prevalent types of oil spilt in Korean waters have been crude oil and bunker-C oil, both of which have relatively high specific gravity and contain volatile organic compounds, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, and metals. In the case of a spill of more than 1,000 kl, it may be necessary to evacuate vulnerable and sensitive groups. The government should establish environmental health planning that considers the spill amount, the types of oil, and the distance between the spot of the accident and the coast, and should assemble a response team that includes environmental health specialists to prepare for the future oil spill.

  15. Environmental benefits of advanced oil and gas exploration and production technology

    SciTech Connect

    1999-10-01

    THROUGHOUT THE OIL AND GAS LIFE CYCLE, THE INDUSTRY HAS APPLIED AN ARRAY OF ADVANCED TECHNOLOGIES TO IMPROVE EFFICIENCY, PRODUCTIVITY, AND ENVIRONMENTAL PERFORMANCE. THIS REPORT FOCUSES SPECIFICALLY ON ADVANCES IN EXPLORATION AND PRODUCTION (E&P) OPERATIONS.

  16. Environmental contamination in the oil fields of western Pennsylvania

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Albers, P.H.; Belisle, A.A.; Swineford, D.M.; Hall, R.J.

    1985-01-01

    The effects on freshwater wildlife of chronic exposure to oil field discharges are not well known. Collections of wastewater, aquatic invertebrates, fish, salamanders, and small mammals were made in several streams in the oil fields of western Pennsylvania during 1980-81. Estimates of the petroleum content of two wastewater discharges were high (21.9 and 8.4 ppm) and one was low (0.3 ppm). Water conductivity was inversely related to aquatic invertebrate biomass. Hydrocarbons accumulated in significantly greater amounts in crayfish, fish, and small mammals from collection sites with oil extraction activity than from sites without oil extraction activity. Estimates of total petroleum in invertebrates, trout, and suckers averaged between 200 and 280 ppm for oil extraction sites and between 8 and 80 ppm for sites without oil extraction activity: Oil extraction activity did not affect metal accumulation by fish. Oil and wastewater discharges in oil fields disrupt community composition and can cause an overall reduction in stream productivity.

  17. Environmental and Health Effects Review for Obscurant Fog Oil

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1993-09-01

    of kerosene is about 0.80 g/cm 3 . A deodorized and decolorized form of kerosene, called Deobase, is used in cosmetics and as an insect spray (MERCK...specifications and is referred to as "new" fog oil. Pre - 1986 fog oil is referred to as "old" fog oil and use of this conventionally refined fog oil is not...and no population/community structure changes are anticipated. Because of differences in volatilization, deposition, and biotic response under extreme

  18. Environmental impacts in the life cycle of olive oil: a literature review.

    PubMed

    Banias, Georgios; Achillas, Charisios; Vlachokostas, Christos; Moussiopoulos, Nicolas; Stefanou, Maria

    2017-04-01

    The production of olive oil is considered to be one of the largest agricultural business sectors in the Mediterranean area. Apart from its significant impact on the economies of countries in Southern Europe, Northern Africa and Middle East, olive oil production also involves considerable social and environmental considerations. However, despite such importance, the environmental effects of olive oil production have not been studied as much other agricultural productions and farming systems, which are more characteristic of central and northern Europe. We present a thorough and systematic literature review of scientific publications with respect to the use of environmental tools in the life cycle of olive oil. The analysis takes into consideration the farming of olive trees, the manufacture of olive oil, packaging, transportation and reverse logistics. To that end, journal publications up to 2015 in this specific field are recorded and, at the same time, the most important environmental impacts are revealed and a gap analysis is carried out. The analysis conducted reveals that farming of olive trees (with pesticide use and waste/by-product production being the 'hottest' topics) and the manufacturing of olive oil (concentrating mostly on waste/by-product production and management) are the phases with the highest environmental focus from the scientific community. Moreover, gaps in the literature are detected mostly with respect to fuel consumption and the use and promotion of renewable energy sources in olive oil production. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry.

  19. Pesticide residues in essential oils: evaluation of a database.

    PubMed

    Klier, B; Knödler, M; Peschke, J; Riegert, U; Steinhoff, B

    2015-01-01

    In the context of a revision of the European Pharmacopoeia (Ph. Eur.) general monograph Essential oils (2098), the need to include a test for pesticides is being discussed. According to published literature, some oils, mainly those produced by cold pressing (e.g. citrus oils), can contain relevant amounts of pesticide residues, whereas distilled oils showed positive findings in only a few cases. Recent evaluation of a database containing 127 517 sets of data compiled over 8 years, showed positive results in 1 150 cases (0.90 per cent), and the limits of Ph. Eur. general chapter 2.8.13 Pesticide residues or Regulation (EC) 396/2005, both applicable to herbal drugs, were exceeded in 392 cases (0.31 per cent, equivalent to 34.1 per cent of the positive results), particularly in cases of oils produced by cold pressing. From these results, it can be concluded that a general test on pesticides in the Ph. Eur. general monograph on essential oils is not required for most oils used in medicinal products. Therefore, it is proposed to limit the testing of essential oils for pesticide residues to those cases where potential residues are more of a concern, either due to the type of production process or to those processes where pesticides are actively used during cultivation of the plant (e.g. as documented according to Good Agricultural and Collection Practice (GACP)). Furthermore, in order to assess any potential risk, an approach using the Acceptable Daily Intake (ADI) can be made.

  20. Sublethal health effects in laboratory rodents from environmentally relevant exposures to oil sands contaminants.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez-Estival, Jaime; North, Michelle A; Smits, Judit E G

    2015-12-01

    Increasing activity of oil sands extraction and processing in northern Alberta is marked by ongoing controversy about the nature and extent of associated environmental impacts. Bitumen contains a mixture of toxic chemicals, including metals and residual polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), whose release into the environment poses a distinct risk to the surrounding environment, plus wildlife and human health. In the present study, the authors evaluated several subclinical biomarkers of exposure and effect to mixtures of metals (Pb, Cd, and Hg) and/or PAHs (3 alkylated forms) at environmentally relevant concentrations (100-fold and 10-fold higher than the maximum dissolved concentrations found in snow, to simulate a worst-case scenario), using laboratory mice as a model for future studies of small mammals in the wild. Both metals and alkyl-PAHs exposure were associated with 1) increased relative liver, kidney, and spleen size; 2) alterations in the homeostasis of the antioxidant vitamins A and E in liver; and 3) compromised glutathione redox status in testes, with results also indicating synergistic interactions from co-exposure. The combination of morphometric and oxidative stress biomarkers provide reliable and sensitive measures of the response to contaminant exposure in a mammalian model, suggesting associated physiological costs. Based on the present experimental study, the authors propose that wild small mammals will prove to be valuable sentinel species reflecting sublethal health effects from oil sands-related contaminants. The present study's results also present a basis for the interpretation of future field data. © 2015 SETAC.

  1. An evaluation of collaboration in environmental education

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peticolas, Alison Brice

    This study examines the role collaboration can play in addressing current challenges and limitations in environmental education. The research literature suggests that one needed strategy in improving environmental education is the development of partnerships between formal and nonformal educators. Yet, one of the challenges to provider models of environmental education is the lack of connection between participating teachers and environmental education providers, resulting in a lack of commitment on the part of classroom teachers. This dissertation proposes that collaboration can play a major role in creating strong field based environmental education that has the commitment of classroom teachers. In 2001--2002, 21 teachers participated in LandPaths' In Our Own BackYard environmental education program. These teachers participated in a collaborative process that was designed to respond to teacher concern about a proposed change to the program. At the completion of the collaborative process teachers participated in an evaluation of the collaborative process. The aims of the evaluation were four-fold (a) to identify the features teachers felt established the process as collaboration and (b) to compare those features to a critical definition of collaboration, (c) to evaluate the success of the collaborative design, and (d) to assess the impact of the process on teacher commitment to the program. The results of the evaluation showed that the teachers identified three main elements that contributed to their feelings of collaboration, (a) they felt that they were working with the LandPaths staff in finding a solution to the problem, (b) the process was open and inclusive, and (c) they were making meaningful contributions to a credible process. The evaluation of the process showed that the collaborative process was appropriate for this situation particularly the element of meeting individually with teachers. Finally, most teachers articulated an increase in commitment to

  2. 40 CFR 227.4 - Criteria for evaluating environmental impact.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... impact. 227.4 Section 227.4 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) OCEAN... Impact § 227.4 Criteria for evaluating environmental impact. This subpart B sets specific environmental... of direct environmental impact. ...

  3. Offshore Oil: Environmental Impacts on Land and Sea

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baldwin, Pamela L.

    1974-01-01

    Presents a counter position to that provided in SE 512 127 in which the author emphasizes that there are too many problems yet to be solved (related to offshore oil development) to proceed with full-scale development of offshore oil drilling. (PEB)

  4. Offshore Oil: Environmental Impacts on Land and Sea

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baldwin, Pamela L.

    1974-01-01

    Presents a counter position to that provided in SE 512 127 in which the author emphasizes that there are too many problems yet to be solved (related to offshore oil development) to proceed with full-scale development of offshore oil drilling. (PEB)

  5. Can a GIS toolbox assess the environmental risk of oil spills? Implementation for oil facilities in harbors.

    PubMed

    Valdor, Paloma F; Gómez, Aina G; Velarde, Víctor; Puente, Araceli

    2016-04-01

    Oil spills are one of the most widespread problems in port areas (loading/unloading of bulk liquid, fuel supply). Specific environmental risk analysis procedures for diffuse oil sources that are based on the evolution of oil in the marine environment are needed. Diffuse sources such as oil spills usually present a lack of information, which makes the use of numerical models an arduous and occasionally impossible task. For that reason, a tool that can assess the risk of oil spills in near-shore areas by using Geographical Information System (GIS) is presented. The SPILL Tool provides immediate results by automating the process without miscalculation errors. The tool was developed using the Python and ArcGIS scripting library to build a non-ambiguous geoprocessing workflow. The SPILL Tool was implemented for oil facilities at Tarragona Harbor (NE Spain) and validated showing a satisfactory correspondence (around 0.60 RSR error index) with the results obtained using a 2D calibrated oil transport numerical model.

  6. Ecological evaluation of oil-contaminated soils (Sakhalin) using enchytraeidae

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kovaleva, E. I.; Yakovlev, A. S.; Nikolaenko (Kegiyan), M. G.; Makarov, A. O.; Makarov, A. A.

    2017-03-01

    The ecological status of oil-contaminated soils of Sakhalin and their background analogues has been evaluated with the use of soil invertebrates. The survival rates of Enchytraeus albidus in soils with different textures and the contents of organic carbon and nutrients have been compared. The indicative role of soil mesofauna ( Enchytraeus albidus) for the ecological evaluation of oil-contaminated soils with due account for their properties has been shown. The permissible residual concentration of oil hydrocarbons in some soils of Sakhalin—acid brown forest soils (Umbrisols), high-moor peat soils (Histosols), acid meadow alluvial soils (Fluvisols), cultivated meadow soddy soils (Anthrosols), and mucky-podzolic surface-gleyed soils (Gleysols)— has been determined from data on the response of Enchytraeus albidus to different levels of the soil contamination with oil hydrocarbons.

  7. Oxidative stability and sensory evaluation of microencapsulated flaxseed oil.

    PubMed

    Barroso, Ana Karina Mauro; Pierucci, Anna Paola Trindade Rocha; Freitas, Suely Pereira; Torres, Alexandre Guedes; Rocha-Leão, Maria Helena Miguez da

    2014-01-01

    Cold pressed flaxseed oil was microencapsulated by spray drying using an emulsion containing modified starch. The fatty acid composition, moisture, water activity, wettability, water holding capacity, water solubility, crystallinity, and particle size distribution of the microcapsules were determined. The stability of the microcapsules and the crude oil were assessed. An acceptance test was used for the sensory evaluation of a powdered supplement containing the microcapsules. The fatty acid composition was not significantly affected by the microencapsulation. The moisture, water activity, wettability, water solubility and crystallinity were appropriate for dry powders. The microcapsules had no cracks and showed better oxidative stability compared with the crude oil. Storage under vacuum prevented oxidation of the microcapsules. In sensory evaluation, all quality scores of the supplement containing microcapsules were mid-range or higher. The microencapsulation improved the oxidative stability of the oil and this procedure was satisfactorily applied in powdered food.

  8. Evaluating minerals of environmental concern using spectroscopy

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Swayze, G.A.; Clark, R.N.; Higgins, C.T.; Kokaly, R.F.; Eric, Livo K.; Hoefen, T.M.; Ong, C.; Kruse, F.A.

    2006-01-01

    Imaging spectroscopy has been successfully used to aid researchers in characterizing potential environmental impacts posed by acid-rock drainage, ore-processing dust on mangroves, and asbestos in serpentine mineral deposits and urban dust. Many of these applications synergistically combine field spectroscopy with remote sensing data, thus allowing more-precise data calibration, spectral analysis of the data, and verification of mapping. The increased accuracy makes these environmental evaluation tools efficient because they can be used to focus field work on those areas most critical to the research effort. The use of spectroscopy to evaluate minerals of environmental concern pushes current imaging spectrometer technology to its limits; we present laboratory results that indicate the direction for future designs of imaging spectrometers.

  9. A multidimensional environmental evaluation of packaging materials.

    PubMed

    Huang, Chien-Chung; Ma, Hwong-Wen

    2004-05-25

    To reduce environmental damage, the properties of environmental issues must be understood. Most previous research has performed relevant assessment either qualitatively or quantitatively. This paper provides a new comprehensive evaluative framework to integrate these two types of approaches. Three methods are combined: (1) life cycle assessment (LCA), a quantitative method, to assess environmental loading, (2) analytic hierarchy process (AHP), a qualitative method, to obtain opinions from experts, and (3) cluster analysis to integrate the results of the former two methods. This new framework could provide integrated information and avoid a bias towards either qualitative or quantitative approach. To present the process of this new evaluative framework, packaging materials are selected as the case study in this paper.

  10. Strategies for Evaluating Complex Environmental Education Programs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Williams, V.

    2011-12-01

    Evidence for the effectiveness of environmental education programs has been difficult to establish for many reasons. Chief among them are the lack of clear program objectives and an inability to conceptualize how environmental education programs work. Both can lead to evaluations that make claims that are difficult to substantiate, such as significant changes in student achievement levels or behavioral changes based on acquisition of knowledge. Many of these challenges can be addressed by establishing the program theory and developing a logic model. However, claims of impact on larger societal outcomes are difficult to attribute solely to program activities. Contribution analysis may offer a promising method for addressing this challenge. Rather than attempt to definitively and causally link a program's activities to desired results, contribution analysis seeks to provide plausible evidence that can reduce uncertainty regarding the 'difference' a program is making to observed outcomes. It sets out to verify the theory of change behind a program and, at the same time, takes into consideration other influencing factors. Contribution analysis is useful in situations where the program is not experimental-there is little or no scope for varying how the program is implemented-and the program has been funded on the basis of a theory of change. In this paper, the author reviews the feasibility of using contribution analysis as a way of evaluating the impact of the GLOBE program, an environmental science and education program. Initially conceptualized by Al Gore in 1995, the program's implementation model is based on worldwide environmental monitoring by students and scientists around the globe. This paper will make a significant and timely contribution to the field of evaluation, and specifically environmental education evaluation by examining the usefulness of this analysis for developing evidence to assess the impact of environmental education programs.

  11. Inland oil spills: Options for minimizing environmental impacts of freshwater spill response

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-09-01

    Selecting appropriate protection, response, and cleanup techniques, both before and following an oil spill, affects the ultimate environmental impact and cost resulting from a spill. The American Petroleum Institute (API) and the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) jointly developed this guide as a tool for contingency planners and field responders to identify response techniques that have minimal ecological impacts and also minimize the impact of the oil. The guide provides information on 29 response methods and classifies their relative environmental impact for combinations of four oil types and twelve freshwater environments and habitats. Spill topics of special concern in freshwater settings are also discussed, including public health, conditions under which oil might sink in freshwater, oil behavior in ice conditions, permafrost, and use of firefighting foams.

  12. Environmental effects of the Deepwater Horizon oil spill: A review.

    PubMed

    Beyer, Jonny; Trannum, Hilde C; Bakke, Torgeir; Hodson, Peter V; Collier, Tracy K

    2016-09-15

    The Deepwater Horizon oil spill constituted an ecosystem-level injury in the northern Gulf of Mexico. Much oil spread at 1100-1300m depth, contaminating and affecting deepwater habitats. Factors such as oil-biodegradation, ocean currents and response measures (dispersants, burning) reduced coastal oiling. Still, >2100km of shoreline and many coastal habitats were affected. Research demonstrates that oiling caused a wide range of biological effects, although worst-case impact scenarios did not materialize. Biomarkers in individual organisms were more informative about oiling stress than population and community indices. Salt marshes and seabird populations were hard hit, but were also quite resilient to oiling effects. Monitoring demonstrated little contamination of seafood. Certain impacts are still understudied, such as effects on seagrass communities. Concerns of long-term impacts remain for large fish species, deep-sea corals, sea turtles and cetaceans. These species and their habitats should continue to receive attention (monitoring and research) for years to come. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. An otter tragedy. [Environmental effects of oil spills

    SciTech Connect

    Raloff, J.

    1993-03-27

    Otters appear to be the most vulnerable of all marine mammals to oil; oil reduces the insulating value of their fur by as much as 70% and otters are extremely vulnerable to oil poisoning through inhalation of hydrocarbon fumes, ingestion of petroleum, and absorption through the skin. After the Exxon Valdez accident in Alaska's Prince William Sound, dramatic efforts were made to rescue and rehabilitate otters and other sea animals. One hundred ninety seven of the treated otters were released back into the wild. However, soon after the release, wildlife biologist Lisa Rotterman reported an unprecidented die-off of never-oiled otters. Many of the treated otters may have carried a potentially novel herpesvirus, but whether this caused the die-off is controversial. It is also hard to separate symptoms of sickness, stress, and fear from oil toxicity. Overall the findings suggest a generic regimen for all oiled otters: antibiotics, vitamin and mineral supplements, and prompt administration of fluids. Assessing which animals need care is an urgent need. Strict quarantine, short captivity time, and protected handling of oiled animals are further suggestions.

  14. Environmental implications of oil spills from shipping accidents.

    PubMed

    Rogowska, Justyna; Namieśnik, Jacek

    2010-01-01

    Since ancient times, ships have sunk during storms, either as a result of collisions with other vessels or running onto rocks. However, the ever-increasing importance of crude oil in the twentieth century and the corresponding growth in the world's tanker fleet have drawn attention to the negative implications of sea transport. Disasters involving tankers like the Torrey Canyon or the Amoco Cadiz have shown how dramatic the consequences of such an accident may be. The effects of oil spills at sea depend on numerous factors, such as the physicochemical parameters of the oil, the characteristics of the environment affected, and the physical, chemical, and biological processes occurring there, such as evaporation, dissolution, dispersion, emulsification, photo-oxidation, biodegradation, and sedimentation. The combination of these processes reduces the concentrations of hydrocarbons in sediments and water and alters the chemical composition of spilled oils. In every case, oil spills pose a danger to fauna and flora and cause damage to sea and shores ecosystems. Many of the petroleum-related chemicals that are spilled are toxic, otherwise carcinogenic or can be bioaccumulated in the tissues of marine organisms. Such chemicals may then be biomagnified up the marine food chain from phytoplankton to fish, then to seals and other carnivorous sea mammals. Moreover, oil products can be accumulated and immobilized in bottom deposits for long periods of time. Oil spills are particularly dangerous when they occur in small inland seas that have intense sea traffic, e.g., the Baltic Sea.

  15. Environmental Impacts and Recovery After the Hebei Spirit Oil Spill in Korea.

    PubMed

    Yim, U H; Khim, J S; Kim, M; Jung, J-H; Shim, W J

    2017-07-01

    The Hebei Spirit oil spill (HSOS) on December 7, 2007 was the worst oil spill recorded in Korea, with the release of approximately 10,900 tons of crude oil and 375 km of coastline polluted along the west coast of Korea. Cleanup operation was conducted by official and contract responders as well as volunteers for massive oil containment and removal of heavy accumulations of stranded oil. Together with the oil cleanup, a long-term environmental impact assessment (EIA) of the HSOS was initiated based on the Marine Environmental Management Act, which covers oil contamination in a multimedia environment, toxic effects on organisms, and ecosystem injury. This review summarizes the long-term monitoring results of HSOS EIA focused on (1) pollution status of seawater, sediment, and bivalves, (2) ecotoxicological effects, and (3) ecosystem recovery. Overall, concentrations of petroleum hydrocarbons in the environment indicated that their concentrations were well down to at or near background or pre-spill contamination levels at most sites after 1 year. The potential toxic effects of residual oils in sediments have decreased to background levels in most coastal areas of Taean. The entire ecosystem in the most affected area of the Taean coasts appear to be considerably, but not fully, recovered at present, namely after 8 years of the HSOS. The presence of lingering oil and elevated contamination levels at several sites still require continuous long-term monitoring.

  16. Adequacy of environmental information for outer continental shelf oil and gas decisions: Georges Bank. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-01-01

    Georges Bank, a large, shallow marine bank with important fishery resources and possibly important oil and gas resources, lies east of Massachusetts in the territorial waters of both the United States and Canada. The Department of the Interior has planned since 1974 to lease parts of the north Atlantic outer continental shelf (OCS)--including part of Georges Bank--for oil and gas exploration. As a result of public concern about the environmental impacts of oil and gas production on the U.S. OCS, Congress declared a moratorium on drilling on Georges Bank and an area to the southwest. The report--by the NRC's Committee to Review the Outer Continental Shelf Environmental Studies Program and its panels on physical oceanography, ecology, and socioeconomics--reviews the adequacy of information bearing on the potential environmental impacts of OCS oil and gas activities for the Georges Bank sale area.

  17. Offshore disposal of oil-based drilling-fluid waste: An environmentally acceptable solution

    SciTech Connect

    Malachosky, E.; Shannon, B.E.; Jackson, J.E.; Aubert, W.G.

    1993-12-01

    Oily cuttings and waste fluid are byproducts of oil-based drilling muds. In such difficult drilling environments as the Gulf of Mexico, where oil-based fluids often are preferred, personnel safety, environmental, and economic concerns are exacerbated by the necessity to transport these cuttings and fluids to shore for disposal. This paper describes a process for on-site preparation and subsequent disposal of a slurry of cuttings by annular pumping. The disposal includes all cuttings and waste oil mud generated during drilling with oil-based fluids. Wastes are displaced down a casing annulus and into permeable zones below the surface casing setting depth. Descriptions of environmental and safety problems arising from onshore disposal, benefits of annular pumping, and equipment used for slurry preparation and pumping are described. This technique eliminates the need for platform cuttings storage, cuttings transportation to shore, and the environmental effects of onshore disposal.

  18. Evaluating Payments for Environmental Services: Methodological Challenges

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Over the last fifteen years, Payments for Environmental Services (PES) schemes have become very popular environmental policy instruments, but the academic literature has begun to question their additionality. The literature attempts to estimate the causal effect of these programs by applying impact evaluation (IE) techniques. However, PES programs are complex instruments and IE methods cannot be directly applied without adjustments. Based on a systematic review of the literature, this article proposes a framework for the methodological process of designing an IE for PES schemes. It revises and discusses the methodological choices at each step of the process and proposes guidelines for practitioners. PMID:26910850

  19. Evaluating Payments for Environmental Services: Methodological Challenges.

    PubMed

    Le Velly, Gwenolé; Dutilly, Céline

    2016-01-01

    Over the last fifteen years, Payments for Environmental Services (PES) schemes have become very popular environmental policy instruments, but the academic literature has begun to question their additionality. The literature attempts to estimate the causal effect of these programs by applying impact evaluation (IE) techniques. However, PES programs are complex instruments and IE methods cannot be directly applied without adjustments. Based on a systematic review of the literature, this article proposes a framework for the methodological process of designing an IE for PES schemes. It revises and discusses the methodological choices at each step of the process and proposes guidelines for practitioners.

  20. Evaluation of synthetic aperture radar for oil-spill response. Final report, June 1992-September 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Hover, G.L.; Mastin, G.A.; Axline, R.M.; Bradley, J.D.

    1993-10-01

    This report provides a detailed evaluation of synthetic aperture radar (SAR) as a potential technology improvement over the Coast Guard's existing side-looking airborne radar (SLAR) for oil-spill surveillance applications. The U.S. Coast Guard Research and Development Center (RD Center), Environmental Safety Branch, sponsored a joint experiment including the U.S. Coast Guard, Sandia National Laboratories, and the National Oceanographic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), Hazardous Materials Division. Radar imaging missions were flown on six days over the coastal waters off Santa Barbara, CA, where there are constant natural seeps of oil. Both the Coast Guard SLAR and the Sandia National Laboratories SAR were employed to acquire simultaneous images of oil slicks and other natural sea surface features that impact oil-spill interpretation. Surface truth and other environmental data were also recorded during the experiment. The experiment data were processed at Sandia National Laboratories and delivered to the RD Center on a PC-based computer workstation for analysis by experiment participants. Synthetic aperture radar, Side looking airborne radar, Oil slicks.

  1. Evaluation of Pyrolysis Oil as Carbon Source for Fungal Fermentation.

    PubMed

    Dörsam, Stefan; Kirchhoff, Jennifer; Bigalke, Michael; Dahmen, Nicolaus; Syldatk, Christoph; Ochsenreither, Katrin

    2016-01-01

    Pyrolysis oil, a complex mixture of several organic compounds, produced during flash pyrolysis of organic lignocellulosic material was evaluated for its suitability as alternative carbon source for fungal growth and fermentation processes. Therefore several fungi from all phyla were screened for their tolerance toward pyrolysis oil. Additionally Aspergillus oryzae and Rhizopus delemar, both established organic acid producers, were chosen as model organisms to investigate the suitability of pyrolysis oil as carbon source in fungal production processes. It was observed that A. oryzae tolerates pyrolysis oil concentrations between 1 and 2% depending on growth phase or stationary production phase, respectively. To investigate possible reasons for the low tolerance level, eleven substances from pyrolysis oil including aldehydes, organic acids, small organic compounds and phenolic substances were selected and maximum concentrations still allowing growth and organic acid production were determined. Furthermore, effects of substances to malic acid production were analyzed and compounds were categorized regarding their properties in three groups of toxicity. To validate the results, further tests were also performed with R. delemar. For the first time it could be shown that small amounts of phenolic substances are beneficial for organic acid production and A. oryzae might be able to degrade isoeugenol. Regarding pyrolysis oil toxicity, 2-cyclopenten-1-on was identified as the most toxic compound for filamentous fungi; a substance never described for anti-fungal or any other toxic properties before and possibly responsible for the low fungal tolerance levels toward pyrolysis oil.

  2. Evaluation of Pyrolysis Oil as Carbon Source for Fungal Fermentation

    PubMed Central

    Dörsam, Stefan; Kirchhoff, Jennifer; Bigalke, Michael; Dahmen, Nicolaus; Syldatk, Christoph; Ochsenreither, Katrin

    2016-01-01

    Pyrolysis oil, a complex mixture of several organic compounds, produced during flash pyrolysis of organic lignocellulosic material was evaluated for its suitability as alternative carbon source for fungal growth and fermentation processes. Therefore several fungi from all phyla were screened for their tolerance toward pyrolysis oil. Additionally Aspergillus oryzae and Rhizopus delemar, both established organic acid producers, were chosen as model organisms to investigate the suitability of pyrolysis oil as carbon source in fungal production processes. It was observed that A. oryzae tolerates pyrolysis oil concentrations between 1 and 2% depending on growth phase or stationary production phase, respectively. To investigate possible reasons for the low tolerance level, eleven substances from pyrolysis oil including aldehydes, organic acids, small organic compounds and phenolic substances were selected and maximum concentrations still allowing growth and organic acid production were determined. Furthermore, effects of substances to malic acid production were analyzed and compounds were categorized regarding their properties in three groups of toxicity. To validate the results, further tests were also performed with R. delemar. For the first time it could be shown that small amounts of phenolic substances are beneficial for organic acid production and A. oryzae might be able to degrade isoeugenol. Regarding pyrolysis oil toxicity, 2-cyclopenten-1-on was identified as the most toxic compound for filamentous fungi; a substance never described for anti-fungal or any other toxic properties before and possibly responsible for the low fungal tolerance levels toward pyrolysis oil. PMID:28066378

  3. Improving landscape-level environmental impact evaluations.

    SciTech Connect

    Walston, L.J.; LaGory, K.E.; Vinikour, W.; Van Lonkhuyzen, R.L.; Cantwell, B.

    2012-04-01

    New spatial data and advancements in GIS tools allow much more comprehensive and quantitative analyses of the large datasets required when making programmatic evaluations of the ecological effects of proposed activities that cover a large area or region. Understanding the environmental impacts of proposed human developments is critical to making appropriate siting decisions and designing mitigation strategies to reduce impacts on important resources. Impact analyses conducted under the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) in Environmental Impact Statements (EISs) or Environmental Assessments (EAs) are intended to determine the resource-specific impacts of proposed activities of federal agencies and their alternatives using the best available information. Impacts to ecological resources are often a primary focus of these analyses. Information used in NEPA analyses include some measure of the known or probable presence of plants and wildlife in the project area, with special emphasis placed on threatened, endangered, and other special-status species. Site-specific information pertaining to ecological resources is usually easier to obtain for small-scale activities such as a local facility, road, or transmission upgrade project, where the ability to conduct fieldwork is more often feasible. However, site-specific data is more difficult-and sometimes impossible-to obtain for proposed activities that could affect a large area or region. These types of analyses often are considered in programmatic NEPA documents, in which a federal agency evaluates the implementation of a broad program or plan. Under these programmatic evaluations, the exact location and size of developments are often not known. Because obtaining quantitative information for ecological resources at such large spatial scales is difficult, programmatic impact evaluations typically rely on sketchy or partial information such as recorded species occurrences, species ranges, and general habitat

  4. Challenges and opportunities for evaluating environmental education programs.

    PubMed

    Carleton-Hug, Annelise; Hug, J William

    2010-05-01

    Environmental education organizations can do more to either institute evaluation or improve the quality of their evaluation. In an effort to help evaluators bridge the gap between the potential for high quality evaluation systems to improve environmental education, and the low level of evaluation in actual practice, we reviewed recent environmental education literature to reveal the challenges and opportunities for evaluating environmental education programs. The literature review identified strategies for confronting the challenges in environmental education evaluation, as well as notable opportunities for increasing the quality of evaluation in environmental education. Copyright 2009. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  5. Rational application of chemicals in response to oil spills may reduce environmental damage.

    PubMed

    Tamis, Jacqueline E; Jongbloed, Ruud H; Karman, Chris C; Koops, Wierd; Murk, Albertinka J

    2012-04-01

    Oil spills, for example those due to tanker collisions and groundings or platform accidents, can have huge adverse impacts on marine systems. The impact of an oil spill at sea depends on a number of factors, such as spill volume, type of oil spilled, weather conditions, and proximity to environmentally, economically, or socially sensitive areas. Oil spilled at sea threatens marine organisms, whole ecosystems, and economic resources in the immediate vicinity, such as fisheries, aquaculture, recreation, and tourism. Adequate response to any oil spill to minimize damage is therefore of great importance. The common response to an oil spill is to remove all visible oil from the water surface, either mechanically or by using chemicals to disperse the oil into the water column to biodegrade. This is not always the most suitable response to an oil spill, as the chemical application itself may also have adverse effects, or no response may be needed. In this article we discuss advantages and disadvantages of using chemical treatments to reduce the impact of an oil spill in relation to the conditions of the spill. The main characteristics of chemical treatment agents are discussed and presented within the context of a basic decision support scheme.

  6. Environmental Conditions in Northern Gulf of Mexico Estuaries: Before and After the Deepwater Horizon Oil Spill

    EPA Science Inventory

    When conducting an environmental assessment to determine the ecological effects of the Deepwater Horizon (DWH) Oil Spill in the Gulf of Mexico (GOM), baseline environmental data is essential to establish ecosystem condition prior to the incident. EPA’s National Coastal Assessment...

  7. Environmental Conditions in Northern Gulf of Mexico Estuaries: Before and After the Deepwater Horizon Oil Spill

    EPA Science Inventory

    When conducting an environmental assessment to determine the ecological effects of the Deepwater Horizon (DWH) Oil Spill in the Gulf of Mexico (GOM), baseline environmental data is essential to establish ecosystem condition prior to the incident. EPA’s National Coastal Assessment...

  8. Evaluation of the environmental impact of the urban energy lifecycle based on lifecycle assessment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Chen; Su, Meirong; Yang, Zhifeng; Liu, Gengyuan

    2014-03-01

    Energy resources have environmental impact through their entire lifecycle. The evaluation of the environmental impacts of the energy lifecycle can contribute to decision making regarding energy management. In this paper, the lifecycle assessment (LCA) method is introduced to calculate the environmental impact loads of different types of energy resources (including coal, oil, natural gas, and electricity) used in urban regions. The scope of LCA includes the production, transportation, and consumption processes. The pollutant emission inventory is listed, and the environmental impact loads are acquired through the calculation of environmental impact potentials, normalization, and weighted assessment. The evaluation method is applied to Beijing, China, revealing that photochemical oxidant formation and acidification are the primary impact factors in the lifecycle of all energy resources and that the total environmental impact load increased steadily from 132.69 million person equivalents (PE) in 1996 to 208.97 million PE in 2010. Among the energy types, coal contributes most to the environmental impact, while the impacts caused by oil, natural gas, and electricity have been growing. The evaluation of the environmental impact of the urban energy lifecycle is useful for regulating energy structures and reducing pollution, which could help achieve sustainable energetic and environmental development.

  9. Environmental life cycle optimization of essential terpene oils produced by the macroalga Ochtodes secundiramea.

    PubMed

    Pérez-López, Paula; Jeffryes, Clayton; Agathos, Spiros N; Feijoo, Gumersindo; Rorrer, Gregory; Moreira, María Teresa

    2016-01-15

    The macroalga Ochtodes secundiramea is a well-known producer of essential terpene oils with promising biological activities and similar applications to those of microalgal biocompounds in the pharmaceutical, food or cosmetics sectors. This study assesses the environmental impacts associated with the production of five essential terpene oils (myrcene, 10Z-bromomyrcene, 10E-bromo-3-chloromyrcene, apakaochtodene B and acyclic C10H14Br2) by O. secundiramea cultivated in a closed airlift photobioreactor with artificial illumination. The results of the life cycle assessment (LCA) allowed analyzing the effect of implementing a semi-continuous operation on several stages of the life cycle of the products, which may lead to impact reductions from 1% up to 25%. Regarding the most problematic aspects of the process, the cultivation in the photobioreactor (S4) was identified as the main stage responsible for the environmental burdens, with contributions ranging between 60% and 80% of the total impacts for a semi-continuous production maintained during one year of operation. The electricity supply is the key activity affecting eight of the ten assessed categories and involves between 50% and 60% of the impact of the process. S4 is the main cause of the high energy requirements, with 86% of the total electricity consumption. Additionally, several scenarios aiming at improving the environmental profile of the system were evaluated. The application of LCA finally led to the proposal of two optimized scenarios with improvements between 8% and 40% with respect to the baseline case study. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. The Exxon Valdez oil spill; The environmental health response to man-made disasters

    SciTech Connect

    Wade, R.

    1990-01-01

    The environmental health professions faced many challenges in 1989, among them the protection of public health in the wake of both natural and man-made disasters. Following hurricanes in the Caribbean and southeast United States, the earthquake in northern California and the Exxon oil spill in Alaska, environmental health officials and consultants were confronted with extraordinary problems concerning housing, drinking water, hazardous materials spills, solid waste management, waste water management and sanitation. This article discusses the environmental health response to one of these events - the Exxon Valdez oil spill.

  11. An evaluation of known remaining oil resources in the state of California. Volume 2, Project on Advanced Oil Recovery and the States

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-10-01

    The Interstate Oil and Gas Compact Commission (IOGCC) has conducted a series of studies to evaluate the known, remaining oil resource in twenty-three (23) states. The primary objective of the IOGCC`s effort is to examine the potential impact of an aggressive and focused program of research, development, and demonstration (RD&D) and technology transfer on future oil recovery in the United States. As a part of this larger effort by the IOGCC, this report focuses on the potential economic benefits of improved oil recovery in the state of California. Individual reports for seven other oil producing states and a national report have been separately published by the IOGCC. The analysis presented in this report is based on the databases and models available in the Tertiary Oil Recovery Information System (TORIS). Overall, well abandonments and more stringent environmental regulations could limit economic access to California`s known, remaining oil resource. The high risk of near-term abandonment and the significant benefits of future application of improved oil recovery technology, clearly point to a need for more aggressive transfer of currently available technologies to oil producers. Development and application of advanced oil recovery technologies could have even greater benefits to the state and the nation. A collaborative, focused RD&D effort, integrating the resources and expertise of industry, state and local governments, and the Federal government, is clearly warranted. With effective RD&D and a program of aggressive technology transfer to widely disseminate its results, California oil production could be maximized. The resulting increase in production rates, employment, operator profits, state and Federal tax revenues, and energy security will benefit both the state of California and the nation as a whole.

  12. An evaluation of known remaining oil resources in the state of Kansas and Oklahoma. Volume 5, Project on Advanced Oil Recovery and the States

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-11-01

    The Interstate Oil and Gas Compact Commission (IOGCC) has conducted a series of studies to evaluate the known, remaining oil resource in twenty-three (23) states. The primary objective of the IOGCC`s effort is to examine the potential impact of an aggressive and focused program of research, development, and demonstration (RD&D) and technology transfer on future oil recovery in the United States. As part of a larger effort by the IOGCC, this report focuses on the potential economic benefits of improved oil recovery in the states of Kansas, Illinois and Oklahoma for five other oil producing states and a national report have been separately published by the IOGCC. The analysis presented in this report is based on the databases and models available in the Tertiary Oil Recovery Information System (TORIS). Overall, well abandonments and more stringent environmental regulations could limit economic access to Kansas` known, remaining oil resource. The high risk of near-term abandonment and the significant benefits of future application of improved oil recovery technology, clearly point to a need for more aggressive transfer of currently available technologies to domestic oil producers. Development and application of advanced oil recovery technologies could have even greater benefits to the state and the nation. A collaborative, focused RD&D effort, integrating the resources and expertise of industry, state and local governments, and the Federal government, is clearly warranted. With effective RD&D and a program of aggressive technology transfer to widely disseminate its results, oil production could be maximized. The resulting increase in production rates, employment, operator profits, state and Federal tax revenues, and energy security will benefit both the state of Kansas, Illinois and Oklahoma and the nation as a whole.

  13. An evaluation of known remaining oil resources in the state of New Mexico and Wyoming. Volume 4, Project on Advanced Oil Recovery and the States

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-11-01

    The Interstate Oil and Gas Compact Commission (IOGCC) has conducted a series of studies to evaluate the known, remaining oil resource in twenty-three (23) states. The primary objective of the IOGCC`s effort is to examine the potential impact of an aggressive and focused program of research, development, and demonstration (RD&D) and technology transfer on future oil recovery in the United States. As part of a larger effort by the IOGCC, this report focuses on the potential economic benefits of improved oil recovery in the states of New Mexico and Wyoming. Individual reports for six other oil producing states and a national report have been separately published by the IOGCC. The analysis presented in this report is based on the databases and models available in the Tertiary Oil Recovery Information System (TORIS). Overall, well abandonments and more stringent environmental regulations could limit economic access to New Mexico`s known, remaining oil resource. The high risk of near-term abandonment and the significant benefits of future application of improved oil recovery technology, clearly point to a need for more aggressive transfer of currently available technologies to domestic oil producers. Development and application of advanced oil recovery technologies could have even greater benefits to the state and the nation. A collaborative, focused RD&D effort, integrating the resources and expertise of industry, state and local governments, and the Federal government, is clearly warranted. With effective RD&D and a program of aggressive technology transfer to widely disseminate its results, oil production could be maximized. The resulting increase in production rates, employment, operator profits, state and Federal tax revenues, and energy security will benefit both the states of New Mexico and Wyoming and the nation as a whole.

  14. Environmental impact assessment: An international evaluation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hollick, Malcolm

    1986-03-01

    Experiences with environmental impact assessment (EIA) in a number of countries are discussed in the light of both explicit and implicit goals and objectives. Adequate environmental information is not always available to decision makers because of failure to apply EIA to all relevant decisions, the continuing inadequacies of prediction and evaluation techniques, the failure to consider alternatives adequately, and the bias of some EISs. EIA frequently results in changes to proposals and may result in stricter environmental management conditions in some cases, but some people regard it as a failure because it has not stopped development. Generally, EIA leads to better integration of environmental factors into project planning. Open procedures and freedom of information encourage responsiveness to EIA procedures, which can be weakened by discretionary powers and lack of access to the courts by public interest groups. However, legal standing may have side effects that offset its advantages. EIA can encourage cooperation and coordination between agencies but does not ensure them. Similarly, it can have a limited role in coordinating interstate and international policies. In the long term, the success of EIA depends on adequate monitoring, reassessment, and enforcement over the life of the project. EIA has generally opened up new opportunities for public participation, and may help to reduce conflict. EIA procedures need to be integrated with other environmental protection and development control programs, and various means exist for reducing its cost to developers and the public.

  15. Performance evaluation of NEEM oil and HONGE Oil as cutting fluid in drilling operation of mild steel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jyothi, P. N.; Susmitha, M.; Sharan, P.

    2017-04-01

    Cutting fluids are used in machining industries for improving tool life, reducing work piece and thermal deformation, improving surface finish and flushing away chips from the cutting zone. Although the application of cutting fluids increases the tool life and Machining efficiency, but it has many major problems related to environmental impacts and health hazards along with recycling & disposal. These problems gave provision for the introduction of mineral, vegetable and animal oils. These oils play an important role in improving various machining properties, including corrosion protection, lubricity, antibacterial protection, even emulsibility and chemical stability. Compared to mineral oils, vegetable oils in general possess high viscosity index, high flash point, high lubricity and low evaporative losses. Vegetable oils can be edible or non-edible oils and Various researchers have proved that edible vegetable oils viz., palm oil, coconut oil, canola oil, soya bean oil can be effectively used as eco-friendly cutting fluid in machining operations. But in present situations harnessing edible oils for lubricants formation restricts the use due to increased demands of growing population worldwide and availability. In the present work, Non-edible vegetable oil like Neem and Honge are been used as cutting fluid for drilling of Mild steel and its effect on cutting temperature, hardness and surface roughness are been investigated. Results obtained are compared with SAE 20W40 (petroleum based cutting fluid)and dry cutting condition.

  16. Environmental assessment of oil degasification at four Strategic Petroleum Reserve facilities in Texas and Louisiana

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-09-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) proposes to treat gassy oil at four Strategic Petroleum Reserve (SPR) storage sites to lower the gas content of the stored crude oil and help ensure safe transfer of the oil during drawdown. The crude oil is stored underground in caverns created in salt domes. The degree of gassiness of the oil varies substantially among sites and among caverns within a site. This environmental assessment describes the proposed degasification operation, its alternatives, and potential environmental impacts. The need for degasification has arisen because over time, gases, principally methane and nitrogen, have migrated into and become dissolved in the stored crude oil. This influx of gas has raised the crude oil vapor pressure above limits required by safety and emission guidelines. When oil is drawn from the caverns, excess gases may come out of solution. Based on preliminary data from an ongoing sampling program, between 200 and 350 million of the 587 million barrels of crude oil stored at these four sites would require processing to remove excess gas. Degasification, a commonly used petroleum industry process, would be done at four crude oil storage facilities: Bryan Mound and Big Hill in Texas, and West Hackberry and Bayou Choctaw in Louisiana. DOE would use a turnkey services contract for engineering, procurement, fabrication, installation, operation and maintenance of two degasification plants. These would be installed initially at Bryan Mound and West Hackberry. Degasification would be complete in less than three years of continuous operations. This report summarizes the environmental impacts of this gasification process.

  17. Early socio-political and environmental consequences of the Prestige oil spill in Galicia.

    PubMed

    García Pérez, J D

    2003-09-01

    The controversial form in which the oil industry is run has once more caused a huge disaster--this one affecting the Galician coastal environment and economy. Oil-spill clean-up operations have been managed in Europe with some success but with considerable economic, environmental and social costs. The oil industry often avoids fully or even partially compensating those affected. The lack of both political will and political power has let the culprit (the oil industry) off the hook. This paper considers the spill of the Prestige to assess whether the balance of power between affected people and the oil industry can be changed. The paper examines the growing awareness of environmental issues among ordinary people in Spain, through the massive involvement of volunteers concerned with the damage done to the environment and to the livelihoods of fishing communities in Galicia. To understand these growing public concerns and the strength of opinion, the paper examines the details of the decisions taken by the central Spanish and local governments and the way these have informed the clean-up operations, the character of the oil companies involved and the feeling of impotence in the face of such disasters. The conclusion here is that the operations of the oil industry should be tightly regulated through EU legislation, and that this can come about as a result of organised political pressure from those affected by the oil spill, from the mass of volunteers, as well as from public opinion at large.

  18. 7 CFR 650.5 - Environmental evaluation in planning.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 6 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Environmental evaluation in planning. 650.5 Section...-Assisted Programs § 650.5 Environmental evaluation in planning. (a) General. Environmental evaluation (EE) integrates environmental concerns throughout the planning, installation, and operation of...

  19. Effect of accelerated environmental aging on tensile properties of oil palm/jute hybrid composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jawaid, M.; Saba, N.; Alothman, O.; Paridah, M. T.

    2016-11-01

    Recently natural fibre based hybrid composites are receiving growing consideration due to environmental and biodegradability properties. In order to look behaviour of hybrid composites in outdoor applications, its environmental degradation properties such as UV accelerated weathering properties need to analyze. In this study oil palm empty fruit bunch (EFB) and jute fibres reinforced hybrid composites, pure EFB, pure jute and epoxy composites were fabricated through hand lay-up techniques. Hybrid composites with different layering pattern (EFB/jute/EFB and Jute/EFB/jute) while maintaining 40 wt. % total fibre loading were fabricates to compared with EFB and jute composites. Effect of UV accelerated environmental aging on tensile properties of epoxy, pure EFB, pure jute, and hybrid composites were assessed and evaluate under UV exposure. Tensile samples of all composites were subjected to accelerated weathering for 100h, at temperature (75°C), relative humidity (35%), Light (125 W/m2), and water spray off. Obtained results indicated that there is reduction in tensile strength, modulus and elongation at break values of hybrid and pure composites due to degradation of lignin and fibre-matrix interfacial bonding.

  20. 24 CFR 58.47 - Re-evaluation of environmental assessments and other environmental findings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... assessments and other environmental findings. 58.47 Section 58.47 Housing and Urban Development Office of the... HUD ENVIRONMENTAL RESPONSIBILITIES Environmental Review Process: Environmental Assessments (EA's) § 58.47 Re-evaluation of environmental assessments and other environmental findings. (a) A responsible...

  1. Evaluating oil, gas ventures in W. Siberia: Feasibility studies

    SciTech Connect

    Krug, J.A. ); Connelly, W. )

    1993-02-08

    This article discusses the methodology and calculations used in performing the economic evaluations for a typical western Siberia oil project venture. The discussion of taxes, funds, depreciation, and costs assumes the venture is a stock company and that economics are calculated on a project basis. Most ventures available to western companies are delineated oil fields that are not yet developed or producing. The authors focus on this type of property. The required elements for an economic evaluation include original-oil-in-place (OOIP) and recoverable reserves; development plan and associated production forecast; and capital requirements and operating costs. The level of evaluation-i.e., screening, preliminary feasibility study, Technical Efficiency of Organization (TEO), or full feasibility study-determines the detail needed for each of these elements. Several economic analyses of a venture should be made to evaluate the sensitivity of alternative development plans, joint venture deal terms, capital requirements, operating costs, product prices, and taxation variables. The first three parts of this five part series dealt with (1) log and core data, (2) reservoir description and (3) flow tests and reservoir performance, and provided a technical foundation for the evaluation of oil and gas ventures in western Siberia.

  2. Aceclofenac oil drops: characterization and evaluation against ocular inflammation.

    PubMed

    Katara, Rajesh; Sachdeva, Sameer; Majumdar, Dipak K

    2017-06-19

    Ocular inflammatory diseases, such as uveitis, scleritis, episcleritis and dry eye syndrome are commonly treated with eye drop formulations. In the present study, attempts were made to prepare aceclofenac oil formulations to evaluate its transcorneal permeation and anti-inflammatory effect. Ophthalmic solutions of aceclofenac with or without (0.5% v/v) benzyl alcohol were formulated in different vegetable oils and permeation studies were carried out. Aceclofenac ophthalmic solution in linseed oil containing benzyl alcohol exhibited maximum permeation (4.42% in goat, 4.26% in sheep and 3.94% in buffalo) through corneas under study. The partition characteristics of aceclofenac in linseed oil reinforced the results of permeation studies. The optimized formulation (linseed oil containing benzyl alcohol) showed better stability profile. Linseed oil aceclofenac formulation showed significant inhibitory effect on ocular inflammation induced by arachidonic acid in rabbit eyes (p < .05) and hence it can be considered as a potential approach for treatment of ocular inflammatory conditions.

  3. Endocrine-Disrupting Chemicals and Oil and Natural Gas Operations: Potential Environmental Contamination and Recommendations to Assess Complex Environmental Mixtures

    PubMed Central

    Kassotis, Christopher D.; Tillitt, Donald E.; Lin, Chung-Ho; McElroy, Jane A.; Nagel, Susan C.

    2015-01-01

    Background Hydraulic fracturing technologies, developed over the last 65 years, have only recently been combined with horizontal drilling to unlock oil and gas reserves previously deemed inaccessible. Although these technologies have dramatically increased domestic oil and natural gas production, they have also raised concerns for the potential contamination of local water supplies with the approximately 1,000 chemicals that are used throughout the process, including many known or suspected endocrine-disrupting chemicals. Objectives We discuss the need for an endocrine component to health assessments for drilling-dense regions in the context of hormonal and antihormonal activities for chemicals used. Methods We discuss the literature on a) surface and groundwater contamination by oil and gas extraction operations, and b) potential human exposure, particularly in the context of the total hormonal and antihormonal activities present in surface and groundwater from natural and anthropogenic sources; we also discuss initial analytical results and critical knowledge gaps. Discussion In light of the potential for environmental release of oil and gas chemicals that can disrupt hormone receptor systems, we recommend methods for assessing complex hormonally active environmental mixtures. Conclusions We describe a need for an endocrine-centric component for overall health assessments and provide information supporting the idea that using such a component will help explain reported adverse health trends as well as help develop recommendations for environmental impact assessments and monitoring programs. Citation Kassotis CD, Tillitt DE, Lin CH, McElroy JA, Nagel SC. 2016. Endocrine-disrupting chemicals and oil and natural gas operations: potential environmental contamination and recommendations to assess complex environmental mixtures. Environ Health Perspect 124:256–264; http://dx.doi.org/10.1289/ehp.1409535 PMID:26311476

  4. Holistic environmental assessment and offshore oil field exploration and production.

    PubMed

    Salter, E; Ford, J

    2001-01-01

    According to UK Government surveys, concern for the environment is growing. Environmental regulation of the industry is becoming wider in its scope and tougher in its implementation. Various techniques are available to assess how the industry can drive down its environmental impact and comply with environmental regulation. Environmental Assessments (EA) required by European law do not cover the whole life cycle of the project that they are analysing. Life Cycle Analysis (LCA) was developed to assess the environmental loadings of a product, process or activity over its entire life cycle. It was the first technique used in environmental analysis that adopted what was described as a holistic approach. It fails this approach by not assessing accidental emissions or environmental impacts other than those that are direct. Cost Benefit Analysis (CBA) offers the opportunity to value environmental effects and appraise a project on the basis of costs and benefits. Not all environmental effects can be valued and of those that can there is considerable uncertainty in their valuation and occurrence. CBA cannot satisfactorily measure the total environmental risk of a project. Consequently there is a need for a technique that overcomes the failures of project-level EA, LCA and CBA, and assesses total environmental risk. Many organizations such as, the British Medical Association, the European Oilfield Speciality Chemicals Association, the Royal Ministry of Petroleum and Energy (Norway) and Shell Expro now recognize that a holistic approach is an integral part of assessing total risk. The Brent SPAR case study highlights the interdisciplinary nature required of any environmental analysis. Holistic Environmental Assessment is recommended as such an environmental analysis.

  5. Evaluation of Reservoir Wettability and its Effect on Oil Recovery.

    SciTech Connect

    Buckley, J.S.

    1998-01-15

    We report on the first year of the project, `Evaluation of Reservoir Wettability and its Effect on Oil Recovery.` The objectives of this five-year project are (1) to achieve improved understanding of the surface and interfacial properties of crude oils and their interactions with mineral surfaces, (2) to apply the results of surface studies to improve predictions of oil production from laboratory measurements, and (3) to use the results of this research to recommend ways to improve oil recovery by waterflooding. During the first year of this project we have focused on understanding the interactions between crude oils and mineral surfaces that establish wetting in porous media. As background, mixed-wetting and our current understanding of the influence of stable and unstable brine films are reviewed. The components that are likely to adsorb and alter wetting are divided into two groups: those containing polar heteroatoms, especially organic acids and bases; and the asphaltenes, large molecules that aggregate in solution and precipitate upon addition of n-pentane and similar agents. Finally, the test procedures used to assess the extent of wetting alteration-tests of adhesion and adsorption on smooth surfaces and spontaneous imbibition into porous media are introduced. In Part 1, we report on studies aimed at characterizing both the acid/base and asphaltene components. Standard acid and base number procedures were modified and 22 crude oil samples were tested. Our approach to characterizing the asphaltenes is to focus on their solvent environment. We quantify solvent properties by refractive index measurements and report the onset of asphaltene precipitation at ambient conditions for nine oil samples. Four distinct categories of interaction mechanisms have been identified that can be demonstrated to occur when crude oils contact solid surfaces: polar interactions can occur on dry surfaces, surface precipitation is important if the oil is a poor solvent for its

  6. Environmental evaluation of municipal waste prevention

    SciTech Connect

    Gentil, Emmanuel C.; Gallo, Daniele; Christensen, Thomas H.

    2011-12-15

    Highlights: > Influence of prevention on waste management systems, excluding avoided production, is relatively minor. > Influence of prevention on overall supply chain, including avoided production is very significant. > Higher relative benefits of prevention are observed in waste management systems relying mainly on landfills. - Abstract: Waste prevention has been addressed in the literature in terms of the social and behavioural aspects, but very little quantitative assessment exists of the environmental benefits. Our study evaluates the environmental consequences of waste prevention on waste management systems and on the wider society, using life-cycle thinking. The partial prevention of unsolicited mail, beverage packaging and food waste is tested for a 'High-tech' waste management system relying on high energy and material recovery and for a 'Low-tech' waste management system with less recycling and relying on landfilling. Prevention of 13% of the waste mass entering the waste management system generates a reduction of loads and savings in the waste management system for the different impacts categories; 45% net reduction for nutrient enrichment and 12% reduction for global warming potential. When expanding our system and including avoided production incurred by the prevention measures, large savings are observed (15-fold improvement for nutrient enrichment and 2-fold for global warming potential). Prevention of food waste has the highest environmental impact saving. Prevention generates relatively higher overall relative benefit for 'Low-tech' systems depending on landfilling. The paper provides clear evidence of the environmental benefits of waste prevention and has specific relevance in climate change mitigation.

  7. Environmental evaluation of municipal waste prevention.

    PubMed

    Gentil, Emmanuel C; Gallo, Daniele; Christensen, Thomas H

    2011-12-01

    Waste prevention has been addressed in the literature in terms of the social and behavioural aspects, but very little quantitative assessment exists of the environmental benefits. Our study evaluates the environmental consequences of waste prevention on waste management systems and on the wider society, using life-cycle thinking. The partial prevention of unsolicited mail, beverage packaging and food waste is tested for a "High-tech" waste management system relying on high energy and material recovery and for a "Low-tech" waste management system with less recycling and relying on landfilling. Prevention of 13% of the waste mass entering the waste management system generates a reduction of loads and savings in the waste management system for the different impacts categories; 45% net reduction for nutrient enrichment and 12% reduction for global warming potential. When expanding our system and including avoided production incurred by the prevention measures, large savings are observed (15-fold improvement for nutrient enrichment and 2-fold for global warming potential). Prevention of food waste has the highest environmental impact saving. Prevention generates relatively higher overall relative benefit for "Low-tech" systems depending on landfilling. The paper provides clear evidence of the environmental benefits of waste prevention and has specific relevance in climate change mitigation.

  8. An Environmental Evaluation of Household Garbage Processors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haruki, Kazuhito

    The garbage emitted from households and industries has constantly increased for the recent years, and its treatment cost has been financially burden to the municipal government. Many municipal governments recommend their households to purchase household garbage processors in order to reduce the volume of garbage transferred to and incinerated at their facilities. Actually, there are 1,535 municipal governments, which subsidize their households to purchase electrical garbage processors and/or containers. These subsidies should be assessed from various points of view such as cost and benefit of municipal governments and households, and also global or local environmental loads. An environmental planning department of a city office sent questionnaires to households to investigate utilizations of subsidized processors and/or containers. An environmental organization of citizen supported the department with designing a questionnaire form and analyzing data collected by the questionnaire. In this paper, the processes of designing the form and analyzing the data are explained, and then the evaluation of the subsidy is presented. The conclusions are as follows: Electrical garbage processors would be beneficial for local environmental problems such as lack of final landfill site. However, the processors would increase the CO2 emission, unless the electricity consumption can be improved.

  9. An evaluation of known remaining oil resources in the state of California: Project on advanced oil recovery and the states. Volume 2

    SciTech Connect

    1993-11-01

    The Interstate Oil and Gas Compact Commission (IOGCC) has conducted a series of studies to evaluate the known, remaining oil resource in twenty-three (23) states. The primary objective of die IOGCC`s effort is to examine the potential impact of an aggressive and focused program of research, development, and demonstration (RD&D) and technology transfer on future oil recovery in the United States. As part of a larger effort by the IOGCC, this report focuses on the potential economic benefits of improved oil recovery in the state of California. Individual reports for seven other oil producing states and a national report have been separately published by the IOGCC. Several major technical insights for state and Federal policymakers and regulators can be reached from this analysis. Overall, well abandonments and more stringent environmental regulations could limit economic access to the nation`s known, remaining oil resource. The high risk of near-term abandonment and the significant benefits of future application of improved oil recovery technoloy, clearly point to a need for more aggressive transfer of currently available technologies to domestic oil producers. Development and application of advanced oil recovery technologies could leave even greater benefits to the nation. A collaborative, focused RD&D effort, integrating the resources and expertise of industry, state and local governments, and the Federal government, is clearly warranted. With effective RD&D and a program of aggressive technology transfer to widely disseminate its results, California oil production could be maximized. The resulting increase and improvement in production rates, employment, operator profits, state and Federal tax revenues, energy security will benefit both the state of California and the nation as a whole.

  10. An evaluation of known remaining oil resources in the state of Louisiana: Project on advanced oil recovery and the states. Volume 5

    SciTech Connect

    1993-11-01

    The Interstate Oil and Gas Compact Commission (IOGCC) has conducted a series of studies to evaluate the known, remaining oil resource in twenty-three (23) states. The primary objective of die IOGCC`s effort is to examine the potential impact of an aggressive and focused program of research, development, and demonstration (RD&D) and technology transfer on future oil recovery in the United States. As part of a larger effort by the IOGCC, this report focuses on the potential economic benefits of improved oil recovery in the state of Louisiana. Individual reports for seven other oil producing states and a national report have been separately published by the IOGCC. Several major technical insights for state and Federal policymakers and regulators can be reached from this analysis. Overall, well abandonments and more stringent environmental regulations could limit economic access to the nation`s known, remaining oil resource. The high risk of near-term abandonment and the significant benefits of future application of improved oil recovery technoloy, clearly point to a need for more aggressive transfer of currently available technologies to domestic oil producers. Development and application of advanced oil recovery technologies could leave even greater benefits to the nation. A collaborative, focused RD&D effort, integrating the resources and expertise of industry, state and local governments, and the Federal government, is clearly warranted. With effective RD&D and a program of aggressive technology transfer to widely disseminate its results, Louisiana oil production could be maximized. The resulting increase and improvement in production rates, employment, operator profits, state and Federal tax revenues, energy security will benefit both the state of Louisiana and the nation as a whole.

  11. An evaluation of known remaining oil resources in the state of New Mexico: Project on advanced oil recovery and the states. Volume 6

    SciTech Connect

    1993-11-01

    The Interstate Oil and Gas Compact Commission (IOGCC) has conducted a series of studies to evaluate the known, remaining oil resource in twenty-three (23) states. The primary objective of die IOGCC`s effort is to examine the potential impact of an aggressive and focused program of research, development, and demonstration (RD&D) and technology transfer on future oil recovery in the United States. As part of a larger effort by the IOGCC, this report focuses on the potential economic benefits of improved oil recovery in the state of New Mexico. Individual reports for seven other oil producing states and a national report have been separately published by the IOGCC. Several major technical insights for state and Federal policymakers and regulators can be reached from this analysis. Overall, well abandonments and more stringent environmental regulations could limit economic access to New Mexico`s known, remaining oil resource. The high risk of near-term abandonment and the significant benefits of future application of improved oil recovery technoloy, clearly point to a need for more aggressive transfer of currently available technologies to domestic oil producers. Development and application of advanced oil recovery technologies could leave even greater benefits to the nation. A collaborative, focused RD&D effort, integrating the resources and expertise of industry, state and local governments, and the Federal government, is clearly warranted. With effective RD&D and a program of aggressive technology transfer to widely disseminate its results, New Mexico oil production could be maximized. The resulting increase and improvement in production rates, employment, operator profits, state and Federal tax revenues, energy security will benefit both the state of New Mexico and the nation as a whole.

  12. An evaluation of known remaining oil resources in the state of Illinois: Project on advanced oil recovery and the states. Volume 3

    SciTech Connect

    1993-11-01

    The Interstate Oil and Gas Compact Commission (IOGCC) has conducted a series of studies to evaluate the known, remaining oil resource in twenty-three (23) states. The primary objective of die IOGCC`s effort is to examine the potential impact of an aggressive and focused program of research, development, and demonstration (RD&D) and technology transfer on future oil recovery in the United States. As part of a larger effort by the IOGCC, this report focuses on the potential economic benefits of improved oil recovery in the state of Illinois. Individual reports for seven other oil producing states and a national report have been separately published by the IOGCC. Several major technical insights for state and Federal policymakers and regulators can be reached from this analysis. Overall, well abandonments and more stringent environmental regulations could limit economic access to the nation`s known, remaining oil resource. The high risk of near-term abandonment and the significant benefits of future application of improved oil recovery technoloy, clearly point to a need for more aggressive transfer of currently available technologies to domestic oil producers. Development and application of advanced oil recovery technologies could leave even greater benefits to the nation. A collaborative, focused RD&D effort, integrating the resources and expertise of industry, state and local governments, and the Federal government, is clearly warranted. With effective RD&D and a program of aggressive technology transfer to widely disseminate its results, Illinois oil production could be maximized. The resulting increase and improvement in production rates, employment, operator profits, state and Federal tax revenues, energy security will benefit both the state of Illinois and the nation as a whole.

  13. An evaluation of known remaining oil resources in the state of Kansas: Project on advanced oil recovery and the states. Volume 4

    SciTech Connect

    1993-11-01

    The Interstate Oil and Gas Compact Commission (IOGCC) has conducted a series of studies to evaluate the known, remaining oil resource in twenty-three (23) states. The primary objective of die IOGCC`s effort is to examine the potential impact of an aggressive and focused program of research, development, and demonstration (RD&D) and technology transfer on future oil recovery in the United States. As part of a larger effort by the IOGCC, this report focuses on the potential economic benefits of improved oil recovery in the state of Kansas. Individual reports for seven other oil producing states and a national report have been separately published by the IOGCC. Several major technical insights for state and Federal policymakers and regulators can be reached from this analysis. Overall, well abandonments and more stringent environmental regulations could limit economic access to the nation`s known, remaining oil resource. The high risk of near-term abandonment and the significant benefits of future application of improved oil recovery technoloy, clearly point to a need for more aggressive transfer of currently available technologies to domestic oil producers. Development and application of advanced oil recovery technologies could leave even greater benefits to the nation. A collaborative, focused RD&D effort, integrating the resources and expertise of industry, state and local governments, and the Federal government, is clearly warranted. With effective RD&D and a program of aggressive technology transfer to widely disseminate its results, Kansas oil production could be maximized. The resulting increase in production rates, employment, operator profits, state and Federal tax revenues, energy security will benefit the state of Kansas and the nation as a whole.

  14. An evaluation of known remaining oil resources in the state of Wyoming: Project on advanced oil recovery and the states. Volume 9

    SciTech Connect

    1993-11-01

    The Interstate Oil and Gas Compact Commission (IOGCC) has conducted a series of studies to evaluate the known, remaining oil resource in twenty-three (23) states. The primary objective of die IOGCC`s effort is to examine the potential impact of an aggressive and focused program of research, development, and demonstration (RD&D) and technology transfer on future oil recovery in the United States. As part of a larger effort by the IOGCC, this report focuses on the potential economic benefits of improved oil recovery in the state of Wyoming. Individual reports for seven other oil producing states and a national report have been separately published by the IOGCC. Several major technical insights for state and Federal policymakers and regulators can be reached from this analysis. Overall, well abandonments and more stringent environmental regulations could limit economic access to Wyoming`s known, remaining oil resource. The high risk of near-term abandonment and the significant benefits of future application of improved oil recovery technoloy, clearly point to a need for more aggressive transfer of currently available technologies to domestic oil producers. Development and application of advanced oil recovery technologies could leave even greater benefits to the nation. A collaborative, focused RD&D effort, integrating the resources and expertise of industry, state and local governments, and the Federal government, is clearly warranted. With effective RD&D and a program of aggressive technology transfer to widely disseminate its results, Wyoming oil production could be maximized. The resulting increase and improvement in production rates, employment, operator profits, state and Federal tax revenues, energy security will benefit both the state of Wyoming and the nation as a whole.

  15. An evaluation of known remaining oil resources in the state of Texas: Project on advanced oil recovery and the states. Volume 8

    SciTech Connect

    1993-11-01

    The Interstate Oil and Gas Compact Commission (IOGCC) has conducted a series of studies to evaluate the known, remaining oil resource in twenty-three (23) states. The primary objective of die IOGCC`s effort is to examine the potential impact of an aggressive and focused program of research, development, and demonstration (RD&D) and technology transfer on future oil recovery in the United States. As part of a larger effort by the IOGCC, this report focuses on the potential economic benefits of improved oil recovery in the state of Texas. Individual reports for seven other oil producing states and a national report have been separately published by the IOGCC. Several major technical insights for state and Federal policymakers and regulators can be reached from this analysis. Overall, well abandonments and more stringent environmental regulations could limit economic access to Texas` known, remaining oil resource. The high risk of near-term abandonment and the significant benefits of future application of improved oil recovery technoloy, clearly point to a need for more aggressive transfer of currently available technologies to domestic oil producers. Development and application of advanced oil recovery technologies could leave even greater benefits to the nation. A collaborative, focused RD&D effort, integrating the resources and expertise of industry, state and local governments, and the Federal government, is clearly warranted. With effective RD&D and a program of aggressive technology transfer to widely disseminate its results, Texas oil production could be maximized. The resulting increase and improvement in production rates, employment, operator profits, state and Federal tax revenues, energy security will benefit both the state of Texas and the nation as a whole.

  16. An evaluation of known remaining oil resources in the United States: Project on advanced oil recovery and the states. Volume 1

    SciTech Connect

    1993-11-01

    The Interstate Oil and Gas Compact Commission (IOGCC) has conducted a series of studies to evaluate the known, remaining oil resource in twenty-three (23) states. The primary objective of die IOGCC`s effort is to examine the potential impact of an aggressive and focused program of research, development, and demonstration (RD&D) and technology transfer on future oil recovery in the United States. As part of a larger effort by the IOGCC, this report focuses on the potential economic, social, and political benefits of improved oil recovery to the nation as a whole. Individual reports for major oil producing states have been separately published. The individual state reports include California, Illinois, Kansas, Louisiana, New Mexico, Oklahoma, Texas, and Wyoming. Overall, well abandonments and more stringent environmental regulations could limit economic access to the nation`s known, remaining oil resource. The high risk of near-term abandonment and the significant benefits of future application of improved oil recovery technoloy, clearly point to a need for more aggressive transfer of currently available technologies to domestic oil producers. Development and application of advanced oil recovery technologies could leave even greater benefits to the nation. A collaborative, focused RD&D effort, integrating the resources and expertise of industry, state and local governments, and the Federal government, is clearly warranted. With effective RD&D and a program of aggressive technology transfer to widely disseminate its results, domestic oil production could be maximized. The resulting increase and improvement in production rates, employment, operator profits, state and Federal tax revenues, energy security will benefit the nation as a whole.

  17. An evaluation of known remaining oil resources in the state of Oklahoma: Project on advanced oil recovery and the states. Volume 7

    SciTech Connect

    1993-11-01

    The Interstate Oil and Gas Compact Commission (IOGCC) has conducted a series of studies to evaluate the known, remaining oil resource in twenty-three (23) states. The primary objective of die IOGCC`s effort is to examine the potential impact of an aggressive and focused program of research, development, and demonstration (RD&D) and technology transfer on future oil recovery in the United States. As part of a larger effort by the IOGCC, this report focuses on the potential economic benefits of improved oil recovery in the state of Oklahoma. Individual reports for seven other oil producing states and a national report have been separately published by the IOGCC. Several major technical insights for state and Federal policymakers and regulators can be reached from this analysis. Overall, well abandonments and more stringent environmental regulations could limit economic access to Oklahoma`s known, remaining oil resource. The high risk of near-term abandonment and the significant benefits of future application of improved oil recovery technoloy, clearly point to a need for more aggressive transfer of currently available technologies to domestic oil producers. Development and application of advanced oil recovery technologies could leave even greater benefits to the nation. A collaborative, focused RD&D effort, integrating the resources and expertise of industry, state and local governments, and the Federal government, is clearly warranted. With effective RD&D and a program of aggressive technology transfer to widely disseminate its results, Oklahoma oil production could be maximized. The resulting increase and improvement in production rates, employment, operator profits, state and Federal tax revenues, energy security will benefit both the state of Oklahoma and the nation as a whole.

  18. Oiling the friction: environmental conflict management in the Niger Delta, Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Ibeanu, O

    2000-01-01

    The Niger Delta, a sensitive ecosystem rich in biodiversity, has witnessed considerable violence as a result of the tense relationship among oil companies, the Nigerian state, and oil-bearing communities. Environmental damage from the extraction and movement of fossil fuels is a central point of dispute among the parties while the precise extent of ecological damage remains unknown. Drawing on numerous interviews while living and working in the Niger Delta, Doctor Okechukwu Ibeanu analyzes the management of conflicts surrounding petroleum production in the region, including the role of state violence and contradictory perceptions of security held by Delta communities and the oil companies and their partners in the Nigerian federal government.

  19. Endocrine-disrupting chemicals and oil and natural gas operations: Potential environmental contamination and recommendations to assess complex environmental mixtures

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kassotis, Christopher D.; Tillitt, Donald E.; Lin, Chung-Ho; McElroy, Jane A.; Nagel, Susan C.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Hydraulic fracturing technologies, developed over the last 65 years, have only recently been combined with horizontal drilling to unlock oil and gas reserves previously deemed inaccessible. While these technologies have dramatically increased domestic oil and natural gas production, they have also raised concerns for the potential contamination of local water supplies with the approximately 1,000 chemicals used throughout the process, including many known or suspected endocrine-disrupting chemicals.Objectives: We discuss the need for an endocrine component to health assessments for drilling-dense regions in the context of hormonal and anti-hormonal activities for chemicals used.Methods: We discuss the literature on 1) surface and ground water contamination by oil and gas extraction operations, and 2) potential human exposure, particularly in context of the total hormonal and anti-hormonal activities present in surface and ground water from natural and anthropogenic sources, with initial analytical results and critical knowledge gaps discussed.Discussion: In light of the potential for environmental release of oil and gas chemicals that can disrupt hormone receptor systems, we recommend methods for assessing complex hormonally active environmental mixtures.Conclusions: We describe a need for an endocrine-centric component for overall health assessments and provide supporting information that using this may help explain reported adverse health trends as well as help develop recommendations for environmental impact assessments and monitoring programs.

  20. Endocrine-Disrupting Chemicals and Oil and Natural Gas Operations: Potential Environmental Contamination and Recommendations to Assess Complex Environmental Mixtures.

    PubMed

    Kassotis, Christopher D; Tillitt, Donald E; Lin, Chung-Ho; McElroy, Jane A; Nagel, Susan C

    2016-03-01

    Hydraulic fracturing technologies, developed over the last 65 years, have only recently been combined with horizontal drilling to unlock oil and gas reserves previously deemed inaccessible. Although these technologies have dramatically increased domestic oil and natural gas production, they have also raised concerns for the potential contamination of local water supplies with the approximately 1,000 chemicals that are used throughout the process, including many known or suspected endocrine-disrupting chemicals. We discuss the need for an endocrine component to health assessments for drilling-dense regions in the context of hormonal and antihormonal activities for chemicals used. We discuss the literature on a) surface and groundwater contamination by oil and gas extraction operations, and b) potential human exposure, particularly in the context of the total hormonal and antihormonal activities present in surface and groundwater from natural and anthropogenic sources; we also discuss initial analytical results and critical knowledge gaps. In light of the potential for environmental release of oil and gas chemicals that can disrupt hormone receptor systems, we recommend methods for assessing complex hormonally active environmental mixtures. We describe a need for an endocrine-centric component for overall health assessments and provide information supporting the idea that using such a component will help explain reported adverse health trends as well as help develop recommendations for environmental impact assessments and monitoring programs.

  1. Environmental liability and life-cycle management of used lubricating oils.

    PubMed

    Guerin, Turlough F

    2008-12-30

    Used oil handling, as a business, requires an extensive understanding by management that environmental liabilities exist through its supply chain. Findings from a review of the legal requirements of operating a used oil handling business were: understanding the transfer of ownership of used petroleum hydrocarbons is critical to any such business and how this is documented; used oil handlers are responsible for providing training to their staff, including site personnel and any third party waste contractors, and for communicating best practice procedures relating to the management of used petroleum hydrocarbons to all those individuals and organisations involved in business relationships that the used oil handling companies have; used oil handlers should audit the performance of any third party contractors that it engages to conduct work on behalf of its customers. Hypothetical situations of a company planning to enter the used oil handling market are described in relation to petroleum hydrocarbon wastes it handles to illustrate the range of potential liabilities. Companies proposing to establish a used oil handling business should ensure that they provide accurate advice to its employees, its customer's employees and to its third party contractors, all of which may be responsible for handling used petroleum hydrocarbons as part of the service it intends to provide, and that it has a well documented system addressing how environmental issues are managed.

  2. Environmental risk analysis of oil handling facilities in port areas. Application to Tarragona harbor (NE Spain).

    PubMed

    Valdor, Paloma F; Gómez, Aina G; Puente, Araceli

    2015-01-15

    Diffuse pollution from oil spills is a widespread problem in port areas (as a result of fuel supply, navigation and loading/unloading activities). This article presents a method to assess the environmental risk of oil handling facilities in port areas. The method is based on (i) identification of environmental hazards, (ii) characterization of meteorological and oceanographic conditions, (iii) characterization of environmental risk scenarios, and (iv) assessment of environmental risk. The procedure has been tested by application to the Tarragona harbor. The results show that the method is capable of representing (i) specific local pollution cases (i.e., discriminating between products and quantities released by a discharge source), (ii) oceanographic and meteorological conditions (selecting a representative subset data), and (iii) potentially affected areas in probabilistic terms. Accordingly, it can inform the design of monitoring plans to study and control the environmental impact of these facilities, as well as the design of contingency plans.

  3. Microcosm evaluation of autochthonous bioaugmentation to combat marine oil spills.

    PubMed

    Nikolopoulou, Maria; Eickenbusch, P; Pasadakis, Nikos; Venieri, Danae; Kalogerakis, Nicolas

    2013-09-25

    Oil spills can be disastrous to any ecosystem. Bioremediation through bioaugmentation (addition of oil-degrading bacteria) and biostimulation (addition of nutrients N&P) options can be a promising strategy for combating oil spills following first response actions. However, bioaugmentation is one of the most controversial issues of bioremediation since nutrient addition alone has a greater effect on oil biodegradation than the addition of microbial products that are highly dependent on environmental conditions. There is increasing evidence that the best way to overcome the above barriers is to use microorganisms from the polluted area, an approach proposed as autochthonous bioaugmentation (ABA) and defined as the bioaugmentation technology that uses exclusively microorganisms indigenous to the sites (soil, sand, and water) to be decontaminated. In this study, we examined the effectiveness of an ABA strategy for the successful remediation of polluted marine environments. A consortium was enriched from seawater samples taken from Elefsina Gulf near the Hellenic Petroleum Refinery, a site exposed to chronic crude oil pollution. Pre-adapted consortium was tested alone or in combination with inorganic nutrients in the presence (or not) of biosurfactants (rhamnolipids) in 30-day experiments. Treatment with fertilizers in the presence of biosurfactants exhibited the highest alkane and PAH degradation and showed highest growth over a period of almost 15 days. Considering the above, the use of biostimulation additives in combination with naturally pre-adapted hydrocarbon degrading consortia has proved to be a very effective treatment and it is a promising strategy in the future especially when combined with lipophilic fertilizers instead of inorganic nutrients. Such an approach becomes more pertinent when the oil spill approaches near the shoreline and immediate hydrocarbon degradation is needed.

  4. Bayesian inference-based environmental decision support systems for oil spill response strategy selection.

    PubMed

    Davies, Andrew J; Hope, Max J

    2015-07-15

    Contingency plans are essential in guiding the response to marine oil spills. However, they are written before the pollution event occurs so must contain some degree of assumption and prediction and hence may be unsuitable for a real incident when it occurs. The use of Bayesian networks in ecology, environmental management, oil spill contingency planning and post-incident analysis is reviewed and analysed to establish their suitability for use as real-time environmental decision support systems during an oil spill response. It is demonstrated that Bayesian networks are appropriate for facilitating the re-assessment and re-validation of contingency plans following pollutant release, thus helping ensure that the optimum response strategy is adopted. This can minimise the possibility of sub-optimal response strategies causing additional environmental and socioeconomic damage beyond the original pollution event. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Oil Based Drilling Fluid Waste: An Overview on Environmentally Persistent Pollutants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Siddique, Shohel; Kwoffie, Lorraine; Addae-Afoakwa, Kofi; Yates, Kyari; Njuguna, James

    2017-05-01

    Operational discharges of spent drilling fluid, produced water, and accumulated drill cuttings from oil and gas industry are a continuous point source of environmental pollution. To meet the strict environmental standard for waste disposal, oil and gas industry is facing a numerous challenges in technological development to ensure a clean and safe environment. Oil and gas industry generates a large amount of spent drilling fluid, produced water, and drill cuttings, which are very different in every drilling operation in terms of composition and characterisation. This review article highlights the knowledge gap in identifying the different sources of waste streams in combined drilling waste. This paper also emphasises how different chemicals turn into environmentally significant pollutants after serving great performance in oil and gas drilling operations. For instance, oil based drilling fluid performs excellent in deeper drilling and drilling in the harsh geological conditions, but ended with (produces) a significant amount of persistent toxic pollutants in the environment. This review paper provides an overview on the basic concepts of drilling fluids and their functions, sources and characterisation of drilling wastes, and highlights some environmentally significant elements including different minerals present in drilling waste stream.

  6. 39 CFR 775.9 - Environmental evaluation process.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 39 Postal Service 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Environmental evaluation process. 775.9 Section 775.9 Postal Service UNITED STATES POSTAL SERVICE ENVIRONMENTAL REGULATIONS NATIONAL ENVIRONMENTAL POLICY ACT PROCEDURES § 775.9 Environmental evaluation process. (a) All actions—(1) Assessment of actions...

  7. 39 CFR 775.9 - Environmental evaluation process.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 39 Postal Service 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Environmental evaluation process. 775.9 Section 775.9 Postal Service UNITED STATES POSTAL SERVICE ENVIRONMENTAL REGULATIONS NATIONAL ENVIRONMENTAL POLICY ACT PROCEDURES § 775.9 Environmental evaluation process. (a) All actions—(1) Assessment of actions...

  8. Evaluating the communication of environmental permitting decisions in diverse communities.

    PubMed

    Caron, Rosemary M; Rezaee, Michael E

    2012-01-01

    Environmental communication plays a critical role in addressing the public's growing awareness and apprehension about environmental health risks. Although opportunities for public participation in environmental health assessments have greatly increased, environmental communication among key stakeholders is an evolving process. The authors evaluated the communication that occurred among a state environmental agency, six Title V operating facilities, and the public concerning environmental permitting decisions perceived to impact environmental and human health. The authors identify environmental concerns of diverse communities, analyze communication among key stakeholders regarding environmental permitting decisions, and propose recommendations for practitioners to improve environmental communication strategies among these key stakeholders in either urban or rural communities.

  9. Four-ball wear test for engine oil evaluation

    SciTech Connect

    Gates, R.S.; Hsu, S.M.

    1980-11-01

    In this study, several procedures using the four-ball wear tester have been evaluated using the ASTM engine reference oils. Based on the experimental results the following conclusions can be reached: (1) the normally used slow-sliding and fast-sliding 4-Ball wear procedures did not rank the reference oils correctly; (2) the oxidation coupled slow-sliding wear test procedure gave encouraging results to correlate with engine tests; (3) the step-loading seizure procedure correlated the five reference oils correctly. Both the oxidation-wear coupled and seizure test procedures will be examined further. Wear debris analysis and differential infrared spectroscopy will be used to investigate the mechanism in these procedures.

  10. Nanocapsules Containing Neem (Azadirachta Indica) Oil: Development, Characterization, And Toxicity Evaluation.

    PubMed

    Pasquoto-Stigliani, Tatiane; Campos, Estefânia V R; Oliveira, Jhones L; Silva, Camila M G; Bilesky-José, Natalia; Guilger, Mariana; Troost, Johann; Oliveira, Halley C; Stolf-Moreira, Renata; Fraceto, Leonardo F; de Lima, Renata

    2017-07-19

    In this study, we prepared, characterized, and performed toxicity analyses of poly(ε-caprolactone) nanocapsules loaded with neem oil. Three formulations were prepared by the emulsion/solvent evaporation method. The nanocapsules showed a mean size distribution around 400 nm, with polydispersity below 0.2 and were stable for 120 days. Cytotoxicity and genotoxicity results showed an increase in toxicity of the oleic acid + neem formulations according to the amount of oleic acid used. The minimum inhibitory concentrations demonstrated that all the formulations containing neem oil were active. The nanocapsules containing neem oil did not affect the soil microbiota during 300 days of exposure compared to the control. Phytotoxicity studies indicated that NC_20 (200 mg of neem oil) did not affect the net photosynthesis and stomatal conductance of maize plants, whereas use of NC_10 (100:100 of neem:oleic acid) and NC_15 (150:50 of neem:oleic acid) led to negative effects on these physiological parameters. Hence, the use of oleic acid as a complement in the nanocapsules was not a good strategy, since the nanocapsules that only contained neem oil showed lower toxicity. These results demonstrate that evaluation of the toxicity of nanopesticides is essential for the development of environmentally friendly formulations intended for applications in agriculture.

  11. Environmental contaminants in oil field produced waters discharged into wetlands

    SciTech Connect

    Ramirez, P. Jr.

    1994-12-31

    The 866-acre Loch Katrine wetland complex in Park County, Wyoming provides habitat for many species of aquatic birds. The complex is sustained primarily by oil field produced waters. This study was designed to determine if constituents in oil field produced waters discharged into Custer Lake and to Loch Katrine pose a risk to aquatic birds inhabiting the wetlands. Trace elements, hydrocarbons and radium-226 concentrations were analyzed in water, sediment and biota collected from the complex during 1992. Arsenic, boron, radium-226 and zinc were elevated in some matrices. The presence of radium-226 in aquatic vegetation suggests that this radionuclide is available to aquatic birds. Oil and grease concentrations in water from the produced water discharge exceeded the maximum 10 mg/l permitted by the WDEQ (1990). Total aliphatic and aromatic hydrocarbon concentrations in sediments were highest at the produced water discharge, 6.376 {mu}g/g, followed by Custer Lake, 1.104 {mu}g/g. The higher levels of hydrocarbons found at Custer Lake, compared to Loch Katrine, may be explained by Custer Lake`s closer proximity to the discharge. Benzo(a)pyrene was not detected in bile from gadwalls collected at Loch Katrine but was detected in bile from northern shovelers collected at Custer Lake. Benzo(a)pyrene concentrations in northern shoveler bile ranged from 500 to 960 ng/g (ppb) wet weight. The presence of benzo(a)pyrene in the shovelers indicates exposure to petroleum hydrocarbons.

  12. Oil/water separator test and evaluation. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Murdoch, M.A.; Bitting, K.R.; Nordvik, A.

    1995-11-01

    Four oil/water separators were tested in 1992 in a project jointly sponsored by the U.S. Coast Guard RD Center and the Marine Spill Response Corporation. The objective of the test program was to evaluate the performance of oil/water separators under a variety of conditions that replicated operating conditions expected during an offshore oil spill recovery operation. The separators tested were the Alfa-Laval OFPX 413 disk-stack centrifuge. Conoco Specialty Products` Vortoil Oilspill Separation System, International Separation Technology`s Intr-Septor 250 and a simple gravity tank. Separation performance was documented for a range of influent oil/water ratios, using crude and a water-in-oil emulsion. Simulated sea motion, the addition of emulsion breaker, and debris in the influent were other variables included in the test program. Observations on separator operability, reliability, maintenance requirements, safety and transportability also were documented. Complete test results and analysis are included in the report. Recommended system improvements, based on manufacturers` input and performance analysis also are included. Test methods and parameters are fully documented in the report.

  13. 78 FR 19212 - Notice of Availability of a Supplemental Draft Environmental Impact Statement for Effects of Oil...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-29

    ... authorizing the take of marine mammals incidental to oil and gas exploration activities in the Arctic Ocean... Draft Environmental Impact Statement for Effects of Oil and Gas Activities in the Arctic Ocean AGENCY... Statement (Supplemental DEIS) for the Effects of Oil and Gas Activities in the Arctic Ocean.'' Publication...

  14. 78 FR 47408 - Notice of Intent to Prepare an Environmental Impact Statement for Oil and Gas Leasing and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-05

    ... RMPs for other field offices in California with oil and gas leasing and development (Bakersfield, Palm Springs-South Coast, Mother Lode, and Ukiah Field Offices). The outcome of this effort to prepare an oil... Bureau of Land Management Notice of Intent to Prepare an Environmental Impact Statement for Oil and Gas...

  15. 78 FR 16655 - Draft Damage Assessment, Restoration Plan and Environmental Assessment for the T/B DBL 152 Oil...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-18

    ... Assessment for the T/B DBL 152 Oil Spill in the Gulf of Mexico AGENCY: National Oceanic and Atmospheric... and Environmental Assessment for the T/B DBL 152 Oil Spill in the Gulf of Mexico, Request for Comments... restoring natural resource injuries resulting from the November 11, 2005, T/B DBL 152 oil spill in the...

  16. 24 CFR 58.47 - Re-evaluation of environmental assessments and other environmental findings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Re-evaluation of environmental....47 Re-evaluation of environmental assessments and other environmental findings. (a) A responsible... circumstances and environmental conditions which may affect the project or have a bearing on its impact, such...

  17. Final report on evaluation of cyclocraft support of oil and gas operations in wetland areas

    SciTech Connect

    Eggington, W.J.; Stevens, P.M.; John, C.J.; Harder, B.J.; Lindstedt, D.M.

    1994-10-01

    The cyclocraft is a proven hybrid aircraft, capable of VTOL, lifting heavy and bulky loads, highly controllable, having high safety characteristics and low operating costs. Mission Research Corporation (MRC), under Department of Energy sponsorship, is evaluating the potential use of cyclocraft in the transport of drill rigs, mud, pipes and other materials and equipment, in a cost effective and environmentally safe manner, to support oil and gas drilling, production, and transportation operations in wetland areas. Based upon the results of an earlier parametric study, a cyclocraft design, having a payload capacity of 45 tons and designated H.1 Cyclocraft, was selected for further study, including the preparation of a preliminary design and a development plan, and the determination of operating costs. This report contains all of the results derived from the program to evaluate the use of cyclocraft in the support of oil and gas drilling and production operations in wetland areas.

  18. Whole cell bioreporter application for rapid detection and evaluation of crude oil spill in seawater caused by Dalian oil tank explosion.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Dayi; Ding, Aizhong; Cui, Shuangchao; Hu, Cheng; Thornton, Steven F; Dou, Junfeng; Sun, Yujiao; Huang, Wei E

    2013-03-01

    Accidents involving the release of crude oil to seawater pose serious threat to human and animal health, fisheries and marine ecosystems. A whole cell bioreporter detection method, which has unique advantages for the rapid evaluation on toxicity and bioavailability, is a useful tool to provide environmental risk assessments at crude oil-contaminated sites. Acinetobacter baylyi ADPWH_alk and ADPWH_recA are chromosomally-based alkane and genotoxicity bioreporters which can be activated to express bioluminescence in the presence of alkanes and genotoxic compounds. In this study, we applied Acinetobacter ADPWH_alk and ADPWH_recA bioreporters to examine six seawater and six sediment samples around the Dalian Bay four weeks after an oil tank explosion in Dalian, China in 2010, and compared the results with samples from the same sites one year after. The results of bioreporter detection suggest that seawater and sediments from five sites (DB, NT, JSB, XHP and FJZ) four weeks after the oil-spill were contaminated by the crude oil with various extents of genotoxicity. Among these six sites, DB and NT had high oil contents and genotoxicity, and JSB had high oil content but low genotoxicity in comparison with an uncontaminated site LSF, which is located at other side of the peninsula. These three sites (DB, NT and JSB) with detectable genotoxicity are within 30 km away from the oil spill point. The far-away two sites XHP (38.1 km) and FJZ (31.1 km) were lightly contaminated with oil but no genotoxicity suggesting that they are around the contamination boundary. Bioreporter detection also indicates that all six sites were clean one year after the oil-spill as the alkane and genotoxicity were below detection limit. This study demonstrates that bioreporter detection can be used as a rapid method to estimate the scale of a crude oil spill accident and to evaluate bioavailability and genotoxicity of contaminated seawater and sediments, which are crucial to risk assessment and

  19. Population Size, Growth, and Environmental Justice Near Oil and Gas Wells in Colorado.

    PubMed

    McKenzie, Lisa M; Allshouse, William B; Burke, Troy; Blair, Benjamin D; Adgate, John L

    2016-11-01

    We evaluated population size and factors influencing environmental justice near oil and gas (O&G) wells. We mapped nearest O&G well to residential properties to evaluate population size, temporal relationships between housing and O&G development, and 2012 housing market value distributions in three major Colorado O&G basins. We reviewed land use, building, real estate, and state O&G regulations to evaluate distributive and participatory justice. We found that by 2012 at least 378,000 Coloradans lived within 1 mile of an active O&G well, and this population was growing at a faster rate than the overall population. In the Denver Julesburg and San Juan basins, which experienced substantial O&G development prior to 2000, we observed a larger proportion of lower value homes within 500 feet of an O&G well and that most O&G wells predated houses. In the Piceance Basin, which had not experienced substantial prior O&G development, we observed a larger proportion of high value homes within 500 feet of an O&G well and that most houses predated O&G wells. We observed economic, rural, participatory, and/or distributive injustices that could contribute to health risk vulnerabilities in populations near O&G wells. We encourage policy makers to consider measures to reduce these injustices.

  20. Anti-dermatophyte efficacy and environmental safety of some essential oils commercial and in vitro extracted pure and combined against four keratinophilic pathogenic fungi.

    PubMed

    Ibrahim, Sahar Yassin; Abd El-Salam, Magda Magdy

    2015-07-01

    Establish new biocontrol practices with low persistence in the environment against dermatophyte causing mycosis. Antimycotic activity of twenty-six plant-derived commercial essential oils (EOs) was evaluated against four dermatophyte keratinophilic fungi (Microsporum canis, Epidermophyton floccosum, Trichophyton rubrum and Trichophyton mentagrophytes). Commercial EOs which showed the strongest mycelial growth inhibitions were selected and re-extracted in vitro from fresh plant samples. Minimal inhibition concentration (MIC) and antifungal index (AI) of pure and combined extracted oils and were evaluated. All samples were collected and examined during the year of 2014. The results revealed that commercial EOs of Prunus armeniaca, Prunus dulcis var. amara, Olea europaea and Mentha piperita were the most potent antidermatophyte. The mixture of the extracted four oils was the strongest fungicides followed by the alternative two-oil combined extractions then pure extracted oils. MIC was at 50, 25 and 12.5 μg/disc for pure oils, two-oil combinations and four-oil mixture, respectively. Achieved values of AI were found variable. Using of natural products like plant-derived EOs instead of chemotherapy on pathogens can be regarded as an environmental safety mode of diseases control.

  1. 40 CFR 35.1620-3 - Environmental evaluation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Environmental evaluation. 35.1620-3 Section 35.1620-3 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY GRANTS AND OTHER FEDERAL... Freshwater Lakes § 35.1620-3 Environmental evaluation. Phase 2 applicants shall submit an evaluation of the...

  2. 40 CFR 35.1620-3 - Environmental evaluation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Environmental evaluation. 35.1620-3 Section 35.1620-3 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY GRANTS AND OTHER FEDERAL... Freshwater Lakes § 35.1620-3 Environmental evaluation. Phase 2 applicants shall submit an evaluation of the...

  3. 40 CFR 35.1620-3 - Environmental evaluation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Environmental evaluation. 35.1620-3 Section 35.1620-3 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY GRANTS AND OTHER FEDERAL... Freshwater Lakes § 35.1620-3 Environmental evaluation. Phase 2 applicants shall submit an evaluation of the...

  4. 40 CFR 35.1620-3 - Environmental evaluation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Environmental evaluation. 35.1620-3 Section 35.1620-3 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY GRANTS AND OTHER FEDERAL... Freshwater Lakes § 35.1620-3 Environmental evaluation. Phase 2 applicants shall submit an evaluation of the...

  5. 40 CFR 35.1620-3 - Environmental evaluation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Environmental evaluation. 35.1620-3 Section 35.1620-3 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY GRANTS AND OTHER FEDERAL... Freshwater Lakes § 35.1620-3 Environmental evaluation. Phase 2 applicants shall submit an evaluation of the...

  6. Evaluating the efficiency of environmental monitoring programs

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Levine, Carrie R.; Yanai, Ruth D.; Lampman, Gregory G.; Burns, Douglas A.; Driscoll, Charles T.; Lawrence, Gregory B.; Lynch, Jason; Schoch, Nian

    2014-01-01

    Statistical uncertainty analyses can be used to improve the efficiency of environmental monitoring, allowing sampling designs to maximize information gained relative to resources required for data collection and analysis. In this paper, we illustrate four methods of data analysis appropriate to four types of environmental monitoring designs. To analyze a long-term record from a single site, we applied a general linear model to weekly stream chemistry data at Biscuit Brook, NY, to simulate the effects of reducing sampling effort and to evaluate statistical confidence in the detection of change over time. To illustrate a detectable difference analysis, we analyzed a one-time survey of mercury concentrations in loon tissues in lakes in the Adirondack Park, NY, demonstrating the effects of sampling intensity on statistical power and the selection of a resampling interval. To illustrate a bootstrapping method, we analyzed the plot-level sampling intensity of forest inventory at the Hubbard Brook Experimental Forest, NH, to quantify the sampling regime needed to achieve a desired confidence interval. Finally, to analyze time-series data from multiple sites, we assessed the number of lakes and the number of samples per year needed to monitor change over time in Adirondack lake chemistry using a repeated-measures mixed-effects model. Evaluations of time series and synoptic long-term monitoring data can help determine whether sampling should be re-allocated in space or time to optimize the use of financial and human resources.

  7. Methods and Metrics for Evaluating Environmental Dredging ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This report documents the objectives, approach, methodologies, results, and interpretation of a collaborative research study conducted by the National Risk Management Research Laboratory (NRMRL) and the National Exposure Research laboratory (NERL) of the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency’s (U.S. EPA’s) Office of Research and Development (ORD) and the U.S. EPA’s Great Lakes National Program Office (GLNPO). The objectives of the research study were to: 1) evaluate remedy effectiveness of environmental dredging as applied to contaminated sediments in the Ashtabula River in northeastern Ohio, and 2) monitor the recovery of the surrounding ecosystem. The project was carried out over 6 years from 2006 through 2011 and consisted of the development and evaluation of methods and approaches to assess river and ecosystem conditions prior to dredging (2006), during dredging (2006 and 2007), and following dredging, both short term (2008) and long term (2009-2011). This project report summarizes and interprets the results of this 6-year study to develop and assess methods for monitoring pollutant fate and transport and ecosystem recovery through the use of biological, chemical, and physical lines of evidence (LOEs) such as: 1) comprehensive sampling of and chemical analysis of contaminants in surface, suspended, and historic sediments; 2) extensive grab and multi-level real time water sampling and analysis of contaminants in the water column; 3) sampling, chemi

  8. Evaluation of massage with essential oils on childhood atopic eczema.

    PubMed

    Anderson, C; Lis-Balchin, M; Kirk-Smith, M

    2000-09-01

    Childhood atopic eczema is an increasingly common condition in young children. As well as being irritating to the child, it causes sleepless nights for both the child and the family and leads to difficulties in parental relationships and can have severe effects on employment. A group of eight children, born to professional working mothers were studied to test the hypothesis that massage with essential oils (aromatherapy) used as a complementary therapy in conjunction with normal medical treatment, would help to alleviate the symptoms of childhood atopic eczema. The children were randomly allocated to the massage with essential oils group and both counselled and massaged with a mixture of essential oils by the therapist once a week and the mother every day over a period of 8 weeks. The preferred essential oils, chosen by the mothers for their child, from 36 commonly used aromatherapy oils, were: sweet marjoram, frankinsence, German chamomile, myrrh, thyme, benzoin, spike lavender and Litsea cubeba. A control group of children received the counselling and massage without essential oils. The treatments were evaluated by means of daily day-time irritation scores and night time disturbance scores, determined by the mother before and during the treatment, both over an 8 week period; finally general improvement scores were allocated 2 weeks after the treatment by the therapist, the general practitioner and the mother. The study employed a single case experimental design across subjects, such that there were both a within-subject control and between-subjects control, through the interventions being introduced at different times. The results showed a significant improvement in the eczema in the two groups of children following therapy, but there was no significant difference in improvement shown between the aromatherapy massage and massage only group. Thus there is evidence that tactile contact between mother and child benefits the symptoms of atopic eczema but there is no

  9. U.S. DOE FreedomCAR & Vehicle Technologies Oil Bypass Filter Technology Evaluation Second Quarterly Report January - March 2003

    SciTech Connect

    Larry Zirker; James E. Francfort

    2003-05-01

    This report details the ongoing fleet evaluation of an oil bypass filter technology by the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) for the U.S. Department of Energy's FreedomCAR & Vehicle Technologies Program. Eight full-size, four-cycle diesel-engine buses used to transport INEEL employees on various routes have been equipped with oil bypass filter systems from the PuraDYN Corporation. Because of the reported filtering (down to 0.1 microns) capability of bypass filter systems, the technology is intended to extend oil-drain intervals. To validate the extended usability of the oil, an oil analysis regime is used to monitor the presence of necessary additives in the oil, to detect undesirable contaminants and engine wear metals, and to evaluate the fitness of the oil for continued service. The eight buses have accumulated 101,000 miles to date and some preliminary results are reported. The INEEL light-duty vehicle fleet is also being evaluated to identify candidate vehicles for inclusion in the test fleet.

  10. Challenges and Opportunities for Evaluating Environmental Education Programs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carleton-Hug, Annelise; Hug, J. William

    2010-01-01

    Environmental education organizations can do more to either institute evaluation or improve the quality of their evaluation. In an effort to help evaluators bridge the gap between the potential for high quality evaluation systems to improve environmental education, and the low level of evaluation in actual practice, we reviewed recent…

  11. Preface--Environmental issues related to oil and gas exploration and production

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kharaka, Yousif K.; Otton, James K.

    2007-01-01

    Energy is the essential commodity that powers the expanding global economy. Starting in the 1950s, oil and natural gas became the main sources of primary energy for the rapidly increasing world population (Edwards, 1997). In 2003, petroleum was the source for 62.1% of global energy, and projections by energy information administration (EIA) indicate that oil and gas will continue their dominance, supplying 59.5% of global energy in 2030 (EIA, 2007). Unfortunately petroleum and coal consumption carry major detrimental environmental impacts that may be regional or global in scale, including air pollution, global climate change and oil spills. This special volume of Applied Geochemistry, devoted to “Environmental Issues Related to Oil and Gas Exploration and Production”, does not address these major impacts directly because air pollution and global climate change are issues related primarily to the burning of petroleum and coal, and major oil spills generally occur during ocean transport, such as the Exxon Valdez 1989 spill of 42,000 m3 (260,000 bbl) oil into Prince William Sound, Alaska.

  12. Forensic source differentiation of petrogenic, pyrogenic, and biogenic hydrocarbons in Canadian oil sands environmental samples.

    PubMed

    Wang, Zhendi; Yang, C; Parrott, J L; Frank, R A; Yang, Z; Brown, C E; Hollebone, B P; Landriault, M; Fieldhouse, B; Liu, Y; Zhang, G; Hewitt, L M

    2014-04-30

    To facilitate monitoring efforts, a forensic chemical fingerprinting methodology has been applied to characterize and differentiate pyrogenic (combustion derived) and biogenic (organism derived) hydrocarbons from petrogenic (petroleum derived) hydrocarbons in environmental samples from the Canadian oil sands region. Between 2009 and 2012, hundreds of oil sands environmental samples including water (snowmelt water, river water, and tailings pond water) and sediments (from river beds and tailings ponds) have been analyzed. These samples were taken from sites where assessments of wild fish health, invertebrate communities, toxicology and detailed chemistry are being conducted as part of the Canada-Alberta Joint Oil Sands Monitoring Plan (JOSMP). This study describes the distribution patterns and potential sources of PAHs from these integrated JOSMP study sites, and findings will be linked to responses in laboratory bioassays and in wild organisms collected from these same sites. It was determined that hydrocarbons in Athabasca River sediments and waters were most likely from four sources: (1) petrogenic heavy oil sands bitumen; (2) biogenic compounds; (3) petrogenic hydrocarbons of other lighter fuel oils; and (4) pyrogenic PAHs. PAHs and biomarkers detected in snowmelt water samples collected near mining operations imply that these materials are derived from oil sands particulates (from open pit mines, stacks and coke piles). Crown Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. 77 FR 34405 - Environmental Documents Prepared for Oil, Gas, and Mineral Operations by the Gulf of Mexico Outer...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-11

    ... Bureau of Ocean Energy Management Environmental Documents Prepared for Oil, Gas, and Mineral Operations... implement the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA), announces the availability of NEPA-related Site... oil, gas, and mineral-related activities that were proposed on the Gulf of Mexico, or...

  14. 78 FR 12085 - Environmental Documents Prepared for Oil, Gas, and Mineral Operations by the Gulf of Mexico Outer...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-21

    ... Bureau of Ocean Energy Management Environmental Documents Prepared for Oil, Gas, and Mineral Operations... (BOEM), Interior. ACTION: Notice of the Availability of Environmental Documents Prepared for OCS Mineral... were prepared during the period October 1, 2012, through December 31, 2012, for oil, gas, and...

  15. 77 FR 18263 - Environmental Documents Prepared for Proposed Oil, Gas, and Mineral Operations by the Gulf of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-27

    ... Bureau of Ocean Energy Management Environmental Documents Prepared for Proposed Oil, Gas, and Mineral... Management, Interior. ACTION: Notice of the availability of Environmental Documents Prepared for OCS Mineral... Significant Impact (FONSI), prepared by BOEM for the following oil-, gas-, and mineral-related...

  16. 77 FR 802 - Environmental Documents Prepared for Oil, Gas, and Mineral Operations by the Gulf of Mexico Outer...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-01-06

    ... Bureau of Ocean Energy Management Environmental Documents Prepared for Oil, Gas, and Mineral Operations..., Interior. ACTION: Notice of the availability of environmental documents prepared for OCS mineral proposals..., 2011, for the following oil-, gas-, and mineral-related activities that were proposed on the Gulf...

  17. 78 FR 72096 - Environmental Documents Prepared for Oil, Gas, and Mineral Operations by the Gulf of Mexico Outer...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-02

    ... Bureau of Ocean Energy Management Environmental Documents Prepared for Oil, Gas, and Mineral Operations... (BOEM), Interior. ACTION: Notice of the availability of environmental documents prepared for OCS mineral... were prepared during the period July 1, 2013, through September 30, 2013, for oil, gas, and...

  18. Is chemically dispersed oil more toxic to Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua) larvae than mechanically dispersed oil? A transcriptional evaluation

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background The use of dispersants can be an effective way to deal with acute oil spills to limit environmental damage, however very little is known about whether chemically dispersed oil have the same toxic effect on marine organisms as mechanically dispersed oil. We exposed Atlantic cod larvae to chemically and mechanically dispersed oil for four days during the first-feeding stage of development, and collected larvae at 14 days post hatch for transcriptional analysis. A genome-wide microarray was used to screen for effects and to assess whether molecular responses to chemically and mechanically dispersed oil were similar, given the same exposure to oil (droplet distribution and concentration) with and without the addition of a chemical dispersant (Dasic NS). Results Mechanically dispersed oil induced expression changes in almost three times as many transcripts compared to chemically dispersed oil (fold change >+/−1.5). Functional analyses suggest that chemically dispersed oil affects partly different pathways than mechanically dispersed oil. By comparing the alteration in gene transcription in cod larvae exposed to the highest concentrations of either chemically or mechanically dispersed oil directly, the chemically dispersed oil affected transcription of genes involved nucleosome regulation, i.e. genes encoding proteins participating in DNA replication and chromatin formation and regulation of cell proliferation, whereas the mechanically dispersed oil most strongly affected genes encoding proteins involved in proteasome-mediated protein degradation. Cyp1a was the transcript that was most strongly affected in both exposure groups, with a 60-fold induction in the two high-exposure groups according to the RT-qPCR data, but no significant difference in transcriptional levels was observed between the two treatments. Conclusions In summary, dispersants do not appear to add to the magnitude of transcriptional responses of oil compounds but rather appear to lower or

  19. Feasibility evaluation of downhole oil/water separator (DOWS) technology.

    SciTech Connect

    Veil, J. A.; Langhus, B. G.; Belieu, S.

    1999-01-31

    to operators, particularly to small or medium-sized independent U.S. companies. One of the missions of the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE's) National Petroleum Technology Office (NPTO) is to assess the feasibility of promising oil and gas technologies that offer improved operating performance, reduced operating costs, or greater environmental protection. To further this mission, the NPTO provided funding to a partnership of three organizations a DOE national laboratory (Argonne National Laboratory), a private-sector consulting firm (CH2M-Hill), and a state government agency (Nebraska Oil and Gas Conservation Commission) to assess the feasibility of DOWS. The purpose of this report is to provide general information to the industry on DOWS by describing the existing uses of simultaneous injection, summarizing the regulatory implications of simultaneous injection, and assessing the potential future uses of the technology. Chapter 2 provides a more detailed description of the two major types of DOWS. Chapter 3 summarizes the existing U.S. and Canadian installations of DOWS equipment, to the extent that operators have been willing to share their data. Data are provided on the location and geology of existing installations, production information before and after installation of the DOWS, and costs. Chapter 4 provides an overview of DOWS-specific regulatory requirements imposed by some state agencies and discusses the regulatory implications of handling produced water downhole, rather than pumping it to the surface and reinjecting it. Findings and conclusions are presented in Chapter 5 and a list of the references cited in the report is provided in Chapter 6. Appendix A presents detailed data on DOWS installations. This report presents the findings of Phase 1 of the simultaneous injection project, the feasibility assessment. Another activity of the Phase 1 investigation is to design a study plan for Phase 2 of the project, field pilot studies. The Phase 2 study plan is

  20. Lubricants based on renewable resources--an environmentally compatible alternative to mineral oil products.

    PubMed

    Willing, A

    2001-04-01

    The development of lubricants like, e.g. engine and hydraulic oils was traditionally based on mineral oil as a base fluid. This fact is related to the good technical properties and the reasonable price of mineral oils. The Report to the Club of Rome (W.W. Behrens III, D.H. Meadows, D.I. Meadows, J. Randers, The limits of growth, A Report to the Club of Rome, 1972) and the two oil crises of 1979 and 1983, however, elucidated that mineral oil is on principle a limited resource. In addition, environmental problems associated with the production and use of chemicals and the limited capacity of nature to tolerate pollution became obvious (G.H. Brundtland, et al., in: Hauff, Volker (Ed.), World Commission on Environment and Development (WCED), Report of the Brundtland-Commission, Oxford, UK, 1987), and the critical discussion included besides acid rain, smog, heavy metals, and pesticides also mineral oil (especially oil spills like the case Exxon Valdes). A disadvantage of mineral oil is its poor biodegradability and thus its potential for long-term pollution of the environment. From the early development of lubricants for special applications (e.g. turbojet engine oils) it was known, that fatty acid polyol esters have comparable or even better technical properties than mineral oil. Subsequently, innumerable synthetic esters have been synthesized by systematic variation of the fatty acid and the alcohol components. Whereas the alcohol moiety of the synthetic esters are usually of petrochemical origin, the fatty acids are almost exclusively based on renewable resources. The physico-chemical properties of oleochemical esters can cover the complete spectrum of technical requirements for the development of high-performance industrial oils and lubricants (e.g. excellent lubricating properties, good heat stability, high viscosity index, low volatility and superior shear stability). For a comprehensive review of their technical properties see F. Bongardt, in: Jahrbuchf

  1. Environmental hazard of oil shale combustion fly ash.

    PubMed

    Blinova, Irina; Bityukova, Liidia; Kasemets, Kaja; Ivask, Angela; Käkinen, Aleksandr; Kurvet, Imbi; Bondarenko, Olesja; Kanarbik, Liina; Sihtmäe, Mariliis; Aruoja, Villem; Schvede, Hedi; Kahru, Anne

    2012-08-30

    The combined chemical and ecotoxicological characterization of oil shale combustion fly ash was performed. Ash was sampled from the most distant point of the ash-separation systems of the Balti and Eesti Thermal Power Plants in North-Eastern Estonia. The fly ash proved potentially hazardous for tested aquatic organisms and high alkalinity of the leachates (pH>10) is apparently the key factor determining its toxicity. The leachates were not genotoxic in the Ames assay. Also, the analysis showed that despite long-term intensive oil-shale combustion accompanied by considerable fly ash emissions has not led to significant soil contamination by hazardous trace elements in North-Eastern Estonia. Comparative study of the fly ash originating from the 'new' circulating fluidized bed (CFB) combustion technology and the 'old' pulverized-fired (PF) one showed that CFB fly ash was less toxic than PF fly ash. Thus, complete transfer to the 'new' technology will reduce (i) atmospheric emission of hazardous trace elements and (ii) fly ash toxicity to aquatic organisms as compared with the 'old' technology. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Perspective: big oil, rural poverty, and environmental degradation in the Niger Delta region of Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Aaron, K K

    2005-05-01

    The Niger Delta region of Nigeria is richly endowed with both renewable and non-renewable natural resources. It contains 20 billion of Africa's proven 66 billion barrels of oil reserves and more than 3 trillion cubic meters of gas reserves. Oil and gas resources of the Niger Delta account for over 85% of the nation's gross domestic product (GDP), over 95% of the national budget, and over 80% of the nation's wealth. Paradoxically, the Niger Delta remains the poorest region, due largely to the ecologically unfriendly exploitation of oil and gas and state policies that expropriate the indigenous peoples of the Niger Delta of their rights to these natural resources. The ecological devastation occasioned by the activities of oil transnational corporations (TNCs) have rendered farming and fishing useless, previously the main occupations of these rural people. The people of the Niger Delta are deprived of their share of the wealth on which the entire nation depends; they "benefit" only from compensation for incidents of oil pollution. At the same time, occurrences of oil spills in the Niger Delta region have increased. In this article, it is argued that the ecologically unfriendly activities of oil TNCs, and the state's petroleum development policies, lead to poverty in the Niger Delta, and poverty in turn leads to environmental degradation. It is the dynamics of this interconnectedness that we wish to explore.

  3. The Environmental Education Voice of the Oil and Forest Industries, 1958-1977.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bavec, Nancy; And Others

    1979-01-01

    Reported is the analysis of a stratified random sample of oil and forestry industry advertisements in selected magazines over a 20-year period. The objective of the research was to characterize the tenor of the imparted environmental messages and trends. (RE)

  4. The Environmental Education Voice of the Oil and Forest Industries, 1958-1977.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bavec, Nancy; And Others

    1979-01-01

    Reported is the analysis of a stratified random sample of oil and forestry industry advertisements in selected magazines over a 20-year period. The objective of the research was to characterize the tenor of the imparted environmental messages and trends. (RE)

  5. U.S. Department of Energy FreedomCAR & Vehicle Technologies Program Oil Bypass Filter Technology Evaluation Fifth Quarterly Report October - December 2003

    SciTech Connect

    Larry Zirker; James Francfort

    2004-02-01

    This Oil Bypass Filter Technology Evaluation quarterly report (October-December 2003) details the ongoing fleet evaluation of an oil bypass filter technology by the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) for the U.S. Department of Energy's FreedomCAR & Vehicle Technologies Program. Eight four-cycle diesel-engine buses used to transport INEEL employees on various routes have been equipped with oil bypass filter systems from the puraDYN Corporation. The bypass filters are reported to have engine oil filtering capability of <1 micron and a built-in additive package to facilitate extended oil-drain intervals. To date, the eight buses have accumulated 324,091 test miles. This represents an avoidance of 27 oil changes, which equate to 952 quarts (238 gallons) of new oil not conserved and therefore, 952 quarts of waste oil not generated. To validate the extended oil-drain intervals, an oil-analysis regime is used to evaluate the fitness of the oil for continued service by monitoring the presence of necessary additives, undesirable contaminants, and engine-wear metals. The test fleet has been expanded to include six Chevrolet Tahoe sport utility vehicles with gasoline engines.

  6. WIPP Recertification - An Environmental Evaluation Group Perspective

    SciTech Connect

    Allen, L. E.; Silva, M. K.

    2003-02-25

    The Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP), a repository for defense transuranic (TRU) waste, was built and is operated by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE). The WIPP Land Withdrawal Act (LWA) required initial certification of compliance of the WIPP by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). In addition, a recertification decision is required by the LWA every five years, dated from the initial receipt of TRU waste. The first TRU waste shipment arrived at the WIPP on March 26, 1999, and therefore the first recertification application is due from DOE to EPA by March 25, 2004. The Environmental Evaluation Group (EEG) provides technical oversight of the WIPP project on behalf of the State of New Mexico. The EEG considers the first recertification as a precedent setting event. Therefore, the EEG began the identification of recertification issues immediately following the initial certification decision. These issues have evolved since that time, based on discussions with the DOE and EEG's understanding of DOE's ongoing research. Performance assessment is required by the EPA certification and its results are needed to determine whether the facility remains in compliance at the time of the recertification application. The DOE must submit periodic change reports to the EPA which summarize activities and conditions that differ from the compliance application. Also, the EPA may request additional information from the DOE that may pertain to continued compliance. These changes and new information must be considered for recertification performance assessment.

  7. Environmental Conservation. The Oil and Gas Industries, Volume One.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Petroleum Council, Washington, DC.

    Prepared in response to a Department of the Interior request, this report is a comprehensive study of environmental conservation problems as they relate to or have impact on the petroleum industry. It contains the general comments and conclusions of The National Petroleum Council based on an analysis of detailed data. For presentation of key…

  8. Environmental Conservation. The Oil and Gas Industries, Volume One.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Petroleum Council, Washington, DC.

    Prepared in response to a Department of the Interior request, this report is a comprehensive study of environmental conservation problems as they relate to or have impact on the petroleum industry. It contains the general comments and conclusions of The National Petroleum Council based on an analysis of detailed data. For presentation of key…

  9. Chemical composition and anticancer activity of essential oils of Mediterranean sage (Salvia officinalis L.) grown in different environmental conditions.

    PubMed

    Russo, Alessandra; Formisano, Carmen; Rigano, Daniela; Senatore, Felice; Delfine, Sebastiano; Cardile, Venera; Rosselli, Sergio; Bruno, Maurizio

    2013-05-01

    Salvia officinalis L. can be found worldwide and its leaves are commonly used as ingredient in food industry. Sage essential oil is applied in the treatment of a range of diseases and has been shown to possess different biological activities. The objectives of our research were to study the effects of environment on crop, chemical composition and anticancer activity on S. officinalis essential oil. Sage was cultivated at eighteen experimental sites in south-central Italy (Molise) in different growing environments. The essential oils (S1-S18), extracted by hydrodistillation, were analyzed by GC and CG/MS. Results show that the main components were α-thujone, camphor, borneol, γ-muurolene and sclareol for all the samples, but the percentages of these compounds varied depending on environmental factors such as altitude, water availability and pedo-climatic conditions. The growth-inhibitory and proapoptotic effects of the eighteen sage essential oils were evaluated in three human melanoma cell lines, A375, M14, and A2058.

  10. Strategic Petroleum Reserve, West Hackberry oil storage cavern fire and spill of September 21, 1978: an environmental assessment. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Taylor, A

    1980-02-29

    This report summarizes an environmental assessment of the fire and oil spill at the Strategic Petroleum Reserve site, West Hackberry, Louisiana. Subjective identification of oil contaminated habitats was supported by a more rigorous classification of samples utilizing discriminant analysis. Fourteen contaminated stations were identified along the shore of Black Lake just north and west of Wellpad 6, encompassing approximately 9 hectares. Seasonal variation in the structures of marsh and lake bottom communities in this contaminated area were not generally distinguishable from that of similar communities in uncontaminated habitats along the southern and southeastern shores of Black Lake. The major impact of spilled oil on the marsh vegetation was to accelerate the natural marsh deterioration which will eventually impact animals dependent on marsh vegetation for habitat structure. Vanadium, the predominate trace metal in the oil, and pyrogenic products due to the fire were found at the most distant sampling site (5 km) from Cavern 6 during Phase I, but were not detected downwind of the fire in excess of background levels in the later phases. Remote sensing evaluation of vegetation under the plume also indicated that stress existed immediately after the fire, but had disappeared by the end of the 1-year survey.

  11. Air dispersed essential oils combined with standard sanitization procedures for environmental microbiota control in nosocomial hospitalization rooms.

    PubMed

    Gelmini, Fabrizio; Belotti, Luciano; Vecchi, Sara; Testa, Cristian; Beretta, Giangiacomo

    2016-04-01

    Environmental bacterial contaminant microorganisms are an ongoing problem in hospitals. Essential oil vapours (EO) may help reducing this type of contamination. Aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of nebulized selected essential oils (EO) in reducing the microbial contamination in residential health care house rooms. The study was carried out in a two-story 112-bed tertiary care structure (approximately 1060 m(2)). Contamination in rooms and corridors was monitored for a total of n=5 months, including a starting baseline sampling and one end-study point, and without combined treatment (standard sanitization alone). Contact slides were collected for microbiological analysis. Reductions in both bacterial and fungal contamination were observed between rooms cleaned using standard sanitization alone or in combination with essential oils nebulization (average 90% decrease for total count, P<0.01; 90% for yeasts and molds, P<0.05). Decreases of antibiotic (70%), mucolytic (100%), bronchodilators (100%), and steroidal (67%) and non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (33%) prescriptions were observed, with no adverse effects on patients. The selected EO composition is effective in reducing both the environmental microbial contamination and pharmaceutical drugs consumption in a nosocomial health care house. This study demonstrates that aerial EO diffusion combined with standard sanitization procedures, has great potential to reduce the microbial contamination in critical hospital environments such as hospitalization rooms. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Environmental components of OCS policy committee recommendations regarding national oil spill prevention and response program

    SciTech Connect

    Groat, C.G. ); Thorman, J. )

    1991-03-01

    The Exxon Valdez oil spill of March 24, 1989 resulted in thousands of pages of analytical reports assessing the environmental, organizational, legal, procedural, social, economic, and political aspects of the event. Even though the accident was a transportation incident, it had a major impact on the public and political perception of offshore oil operations. This caused the OCS Policy Committee, which advises the Secretary of the Interior and the Minerals Management Service on Outer Continental Shelf resource development and environmental matters, to undertake a review of the reports for the purpose of developing recommendations to the secretary for improvements in OCS operations that would insure maximum efforts to prevent spills and optimal ability to deal with any that occur. The Committee felt strongly that 'a credible national spill prevention and response program from both OCS and non-OCS oil spills in the marine environment is needed to create the political climate for a viable OCS program.' The report of the Committee described eight essential elements of this program; four of these focused on the environmental aspects of oil spills, calling for (1) adequate characterization of the marine and coastal environment, including both information and analysis, accessible to decision makers, (2) the capacity to restore economic and environmental resources as quickly as possible if damage occurs, (3) a mechanism for research on oil spill impacts, and (4) a meaningful role for all interested and responsible parties, including the public, in as many of these activities as possible, from spill prevention and contingency planning to environmental oversight of ongoing operations and participation in clean-up and restoration activities.

  13. U.S. Department of Energy FreedomCAR & Vehicle Technologies Program: Oil Bypass Filter Technology Evaluation Seventh Quarterly Report April - June 2004

    SciTech Connect

    Larry Zirker; James Francfort; Jordan Fielding

    2004-08-01

    This Oil Bypass Filter Technology Evaluation quarterly report (April–June 2004) details the ongoing fleet evaluation of an oil bypass filter technology by the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) for the U.S. Department of Energy’s (DOE) FreedomCAR & Vehicle Technologies Program. Eight INEEL four-cycle diesel engine buses used to transport INEEL employees on various routes and six INEEL Chevrolet Tahoes with gasoline engines are equipped with oil bypass filter systems from the puraDYN Corporation. The bypass filters are reported to have engine oil filtering capability of <1 micron and a built-in additive package to facilitate extended oil-drain intervals. This quarter, the eight diesel engine buses traveled 85,632 miles. As of the end of June 2004, the eight buses have accumulated 498,814 miles since the beginning of the test and 473,192 miles without an oil change. This represents an avoidance of 39 oil changes, which equates to 1,374 quarts (343 gallons) of new oil not consumed and, furthermore, 1,374 quarts of waste oil not generated. One bus had its oil changed due to the degraded quality of the engine oil. Also this quarter, the six Tahoe test vehicles traveled 48,193 miles; to date, the six Tahoes have accumulated 109,708 total test miles. The oil for all six of the Tahoes was changed this quarter due to low Total Base Numbers (TBN). The oil used initially in the Tahoe testing was recycled oil; the recycled oil has been replaced with Castrol virgin oil, and the testing was restarted. However, the six Tahoe’s did travel a total of 98,266 miles on the initial engine oil. This represents an avoidance of 26 oil changes, which equates to 130 quarts (32.5 gallons) of new oil not consumed and, consequently, 130 quarts of waste oil not generated. Based on the number of oil changes avoided by the test buses and Tahoes to date, the potential engine oil savings if an oil bypass filter system were used was estimated for the INEEL, DOE

  14. 40 CFR 227.4 - Criteria for evaluating environmental impact.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... impact. 227.4 Section 227.4 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) OCEAN DUMPING CRITERIA FOR THE EVALUATION OF PERMIT APPLICATIONS FOR OCEAN DUMPING OF MATERIALS Environmental Impact § 227.4 Criteria for evaluating environmental impact. This subpart B sets specific...

  15. 39 CFR 775.8 - Environmental evaluation guidelines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 39 Postal Service 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Environmental evaluation guidelines. 775.8 Section... POLICY ACT PROCEDURES § 775.8 Environmental evaluation guidelines. (a) Approach. When dealing with proposals which may have an impact on the human environment, environmental coordinators, planners,...

  16. 39 CFR 775.8 - Environmental evaluation guidelines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 39 Postal Service 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Environmental evaluation guidelines. 775.8 Section... POLICY ACT PROCEDURES § 775.8 Environmental evaluation guidelines. (a) Approach. When dealing with proposals which may have an impact on the human environment, environmental coordinators, planners,...

  17. 76 FR 9849 - Comprehensive Environmental Evaluations for Antarctic Activities

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-02-22

    ... Comprehensive Environmental Evaluations for Antarctic Activities SUMMARY: The Department of State gives notice of the availability of two draft Comprehensive Environmental Evaluations (CEEs) for activities.... SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: Article 3 of Annex I to the Protocol on Environmental Protection to the Antarctic...

  18. 40 CFR 227.4 - Criteria for evaluating environmental impact.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 26 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Criteria for evaluating environmental impact. 227.4 Section 227.4 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) OCEAN... Impact § 227.4 Criteria for evaluating environmental impact. This subpart B sets specific...

  19. 40 CFR 227.4 - Criteria for evaluating environmental impact.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 26 2012-07-01 2011-07-01 true Criteria for evaluating environmental impact. 227.4 Section 227.4 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) OCEAN... Impact § 227.4 Criteria for evaluating environmental impact. This subpart B sets specific...

  20. Current environmental, health, safety, and socioeconomic research activities related to oil shale: draft

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-09-01

    This document was prepared for DOE Resource Applications. It provides a compilation of information on current environmental, health, safety and socioeconomic research activities related to oil shale. The information is the most recent available through August 29, 1980. Included are the following: (1) project title; (2) adminstering agency; (3) contractor; (4) project status; (5) funding level; (6) project schedule; (7) deliverable; and (8) key personnel. The data contained in these reports can be used in environmental impact analyses relating oil shale to various incentives given in the Alternative Fuels Bill. The information provided was obtained from computer search printouts, review of respective agency documents and communication with agency personnel. A complete list of references is provided. The sponsoring organizations include the Department of Energy, the Environmental Protection Agency, the Department of Agriculture, and the Department of Interior.

  1. Marine oil pollution: federal program review. Environmental impact of offshore oil and gas development. Technology for oil and hazardous materials

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1981-04-01

    As part of its responsibility in assuring that the Federal marine pollution program is well coordinated and directed, the Interagency Committee on Ocean Pollution Research, Development, and Monitoring (COPRDM) organized a review to examine the elements of the Federal program that deal with petroleum pollution in the marine environment. Virtually all agencies that are concerned with marine pollution also are concerned with oil and are conducting research in one or more oil-related problem areas according to their individual agency mandates. The entire program had never been viewed as a whole. Consequently, this review was undertaken for the purpose of determining the overall relevance and adequacy of current program directions. This document is intended as a tool for sharpening the focus of the Federal program for petroleum-related studies.

  2. Evaluation of Some Finishing Properties of Oil Palm Particleboard for Furniture Application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ratnasingam, J.; Nyugen, V.; Ioras, F.

    The finishing properties of particleboard made from the Empty-Fruit Bunch (EFB) of oil palm (Elaeis guineensis Jacq.) were evaluated for its suitability for furniture applications, using different coating and overlay materials. The results found that the thick plastic-formica overlay provided the best surface finish, in terms of surface smoothness, adhesion strength and impact resistance. Although the polyurethane lacquer provided an acceptable finish, its quality and performance is not comparable to that of the thick plastic overlay. Despite the fact that the use of such overlay material may render the material not aesthetically appealing and limit it to concealed applications or where the thick overlay material is tolerated, its cost competitiveness and environmental friendliness may be able to position the oil palm particleboard as a substitute for the conventional wood-based particleboard in the furniture manufacturing industry.

  3. Evaluation of processing factors for selected organic contaminants during virgin olive oil production: Distribution of BTEXS during olives processing.

    PubMed

    López-Blanco, Rafael; Gilbert-López, Bienvenida; Rojas-Jiménez, Rubén; Robles-Molina, José; Ramos-Martos, Natividad; García-Reyes, Juan F; Molina-Díaz, Antonio

    2016-05-15

    The presence of BTEXS (benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, xylenes and styrene) in virgin olive oils can be attributed to environmental contamination, but also to biological processes during oil lipogenesis (styrene). In this work, the processing factor of BTEXS from olives to olive oil during its production was evaluated at lab-scale with an Abencor system. Benzene showed the lowest processing factor (15%), whereas toluene and xylenes showed an intermediate behavior (with 40-60% efficiency), and ethylbenzene and styrene were completely transferred (100%). In addition, an attempt to examine the contribution of potential sources to olives contamination with BTEXS was carried out for the first time. Two types of olives samples were classified according to their proximity to the contamination source (road). Although higher levels of BTEXS were found in samples close to roads, the concentrations were relatively low and do not constitute a major contribution to BTEXS usually detected in olive oil.

  4. Applying the Analytic Hierarchy Process to Oil Sands Environmental Compliance Risk Management

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roux, Izak Johannes, III

    Oil companies in Alberta, Canada, invested $32 billion on new oil sands projects in 2013. Despite the size of this investment, there is a demonstrable deficiency in the uniformity and understanding of environmental legislation requirements that manifest into increased project compliance risks. This descriptive study developed 2 prioritized lists of environmental regulatory compliance risks and mitigation strategies and used multi-criteria decision theory for its theoretical framework. Information from compiled lists of environmental compliance risks and mitigation strategies was used to generate a specialized pairwise survey, which was piloted by 5 subject matter experts (SMEs). The survey was validated by a sample of 16 SMEs, after which the Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP) was used to rank a total of 33 compliance risks and 12 mitigation strategy criteria. A key finding was that the AHP is a suitable tool for ranking of compliance risks and mitigation strategies. Several working hypotheses were also tested regarding how SMEs prioritized 1 compliance risk or mitigation strategy compared to another. The AHP showed that regulatory compliance, company reputation, environmental compliance, and economics ranked the highest and that a multi criteria mitigation strategy for environmental compliance ranked the highest. The study results will inform Alberta oil sands industry leaders about the ranking and utility of specific compliance risks and mitigations strategies, enabling them to focus on actions that will generate legislative and public trust. Oil sands leaders implementing a risk management program using the risks and mitigation strategies identified in this study will contribute to environmental conservation, economic growth, and positive social change.

  5. Environmental Accounting Using Emergy: Evaluation of Minnesota

    EPA Science Inventory

    Often questions related to environmental policy are difficult to resolve successfully, because robust solutions depend on accurately balancing the needs of both human and natural systems. To accomplish this end the socioeconomic and environmental effects of policies must be expre...

  6. Environmental Accounting Using Emergy: Evaluation of Minnesota

    EPA Science Inventory

    Often questions related to environmental policy are difficult to resolve successfully, because robust solutions depend on accurately balancing the needs of both human and natural systems. To accomplish this end the socioeconomic and environmental effects of policies must be expre...

  7. 24 CFR 58.47 - Re-evaluation of environmental assessments and other environmental findings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... EA or an EIS if its evaluation indicates potentially significant impacts. (3) Where the recipient is... assessments and other environmental findings. 58.47 Section 58.47 Housing and Urban Development Office of the....47 Re-evaluation of environmental assessments and other environmental findings. (a) A responsible...

  8. 24 CFR 58.47 - Re-evaluation of environmental assessments and other environmental findings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... EA or an EIS if its evaluation indicates potentially significant impacts. (3) Where the recipient is... assessments and other environmental findings. 58.47 Section 58.47 Housing and Urban Development Office of the....47 Re-evaluation of environmental assessments and other environmental findings. (a) A responsible...

  9. Evaluation of Environmental Profiles for Reliability Demonstration

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1975-09-01

    passes directly over components6 FA-O Forced Air and Oil - Forved air, (as above) plus oil -to- air, heat exchanger in cold plate CP Cold Plate...togeth,’ an are referre! to as "amtien’ cooleld WRA’s. S -mLia-ly, the WhA’s which are forced air, forc(?d air and oil , or cold Flate cold’fave been...04 r4 3H-4c 02 I- T-.4 u- 4H3045 4 C43 U43~..4.) ~0 83C C0 C:0 IQ4 jP z) -45-~: 0 0 (U V-4 e, . + . V) 43 -4 C: 0 s.C lz z ca 49 024343430 - .C: 05- u

  10. Evaluation of replacement thread lubricants for red lead and graphite in mineral oil

    SciTech Connect

    Jungling, T.L.; Rauth, D.R.; Goldberg, D.

    1998-04-30

    Eight commercially available thread lubricants were evaluated to determine the best replacement for Red Lead and Graphite in Mineral Oil (RLGMO). The evaluation included coefficient of friction testing, high temperature anti-seizing testing, room temperature anti-galling testing, chemical analysis for detrimental impurities, corrosion testing, off-gas testing, and a review of health and environmental factors. The coefficient of friction testing covered a wide variety of factors including stud, nut, and washer materials, sizes, manufacturing methods, surface coatings, surface finishes, applied loads, run-in cycles, and relubrication. Only one lubricant, Dow Corning Molykote P37, met all the criteria established for a replacement lubricant. It has a coefficient of friction range similar to RLGMO. Therefore, it can be substituted directly for RLGMO without changing the currently specified fastener torque values for the sizes, materials and conditions evaluated. Other lubricants did not perform as well as Molykote P37 in one or more test or evaluation categories.

  11. Environmental Drivers of Differences in Microbial Community Structure in Crude Oil Reservoirs across a Methanogenic Gradient

    PubMed Central

    Shelton, Jenna L.; Akob, Denise M.; McIntosh, Jennifer C.; Fierer, Noah; Spear, John R.; Warwick, Peter D.; McCray, John E.

    2016-01-01

    Stimulating in situ microbial communities in oil reservoirs to produce natural gas is a potentially viable strategy for recovering additional fossil fuel resources following traditional recovery operations. Little is known about what geochemical parameters drive microbial population dynamics in biodegraded, methanogenic oil reservoirs. We investigated if microbial community structure was significantly impacted by the extent of crude oil biodegradation, extent of biogenic methane production, and formation water chemistry. Twenty-two oil production wells from north central Louisiana, USA, were sampled for analysis of microbial community structure and fluid geochemistry. Archaea were the dominant microbial community in the majority of the wells sampled. Methanogens, including hydrogenotrophic and methylotrophic organisms, were numerically dominant in every well, accounting for, on average, over 98% of the total Archaea present. The dominant Bacteria groups were Pseudomonas, Acinetobacter, Enterobacteriaceae, and Clostridiales, which have also been identified in other microbially-altered oil reservoirs. Comparing microbial community structure to fluid (gas, water, and oil) geochemistry revealed that the relative extent of biodegradation, salinity, and spatial location were the major drivers of microbial diversity. Archaeal relative abundance was independent of the extent of methanogenesis, but closely correlated to the extent of crude oil biodegradation; therefore, microbial community structure is likely not a good sole predictor of methanogenic activity, but may predict the extent of crude oil biodegradation. However, when the shallow, highly biodegraded, low salinity wells were excluded from the statistical analysis, no environmental parameters could explain the differences in microbial community structure. This suggests that the microbial community structure of the 5 shallow, up-dip wells was different than the 17 deeper, down-dip wells. Also, the 17 down-dip wells

  12. Environmental Drivers of Differences in Microbial Community Structure in Crude Oil Reservoirs across a Methanogenic Gradient.

    PubMed

    Shelton, Jenna L; Akob, Denise M; McIntosh, Jennifer C; Fierer, Noah; Spear, John R; Warwick, Peter D; McCray, John E

    2016-01-01

    Stimulating in situ microbial communities in oil reservoirs to produce natural gas is a potentially viable strategy for recovering additional fossil fuel resources following traditional recovery operations. Little is known about what geochemical parameters drive microbial population dynamics in biodegraded, methanogenic oil reservoirs. We investigated if microbial community structure was significantly impacted by the extent of crude oil biodegradation, extent of biogenic methane production, and formation water chemistry. Twenty-two oil production wells from north central Louisiana, USA, were sampled for analysis of microbial community structure and fluid geochemistry. Archaea were the dominant microbial community in the majority of the wells sampled. Methanogens, including hydrogenotrophic and methylotrophic organisms, were numerically dominant in every well, accounting for, on average, over 98% of the total Archaea present. The dominant Bacteria groups were Pseudomonas, Acinetobacter, Enterobacteriaceae, and Clostridiales, which have also been identified in other microbially-altered oil reservoirs. Comparing microbial community structure to fluid (gas, water, and oil) geochemistry revealed that the relative extent of biodegradation, salinity, and spatial location were the major drivers of microbial diversity. Archaeal relative abundance was independent of the extent of methanogenesis, but closely correlated to the extent of crude oil biodegradation; therefore, microbial community structure is likely not a good sole predictor of methanogenic activity, but may predict the extent of crude oil biodegradation. However, when the shallow, highly biodegraded, low salinity wells were excluded from the statistical analysis, no environmental parameters could explain the differences in microbial community structure. This suggests that the microbial community structure of the 5 shallow, up-dip wells was different than the 17 deeper, down-dip wells. Also, the 17 down-dip wells

  13. Environmental drivers of differences in microbial community structure in crude oil reservoirs across a methanogenic gradient

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Shelton, Jenna L.; Akob, Denise M.; McIntosh, Jennifer C.; Fierer, Noah; Spear, John R.; Warwick, Peter D.; McCray, John E.

    2016-01-01

    Stimulating in situ microbial communities in oil reservoirs to produce natural gas is a potentially viable strategy for recovering additional fossil fuel resources following traditional recovery operations. Little is known about what geochemical parameters drive microbial population dynamics in biodegraded, methanogenic oil reservoirs. We investigated if microbial community structure was significantly impacted by the extent of crude oil biodegradation, extent of biogenic methane production, and formation water chemistry. Twenty-two oil production wells from north central Louisiana, USA, were sampled for analysis of microbial community structure and fluid geochemistry. Archaea were the dominant microbial community in the majority of the wells sampled. Methanogens, including hydrogenotrophic and methylotrophic organisms, were numerically dominant in every well, accounting for, on average, over 98% of the total Archaea present. The dominant Bacteria groups were Pseudomonas, Acinetobacter, Enterobacteriaceae, and Clostridiales, which have also been identified in other microbially-altered oil reservoirs. Comparing microbial community structure to fluid (gas, water, and oil) geochemistry revealed that the relative extent of biodegradation, salinity, and spatial location were the major drivers of microbial diversity. Archaeal relative abundance was independent of the extent of methanogenesis, but closely correlated to the extent of crude oil biodegradation; therefore, microbial community structure is likely not a good sole predictor of methanogenic activity, but may predict the extent of crude oil biodegradation. However, when the shallow, highly biodegraded, low salinity wells were excluded from the statistical analysis, no environmental parameters could explain the differences in microbial community structure. This suggests that the microbial community structure of the 5 shallow, up-dip wells was different than the 17 deeper, down-dip wells. Also, the 17 down-dip wells

  14. Breaking the link between environmental degradation and oil palm expansion: a method for enabling sustainable oil palm expansion.

    PubMed

    Harmen Smit, Hans; Meijaard, Erik; van der Laan, Carina; Mantel, Stephan; Budiman, Arif; Verweij, Pita

    2013-01-01

    Land degradation is a global concern. In tropical areas it primarily concerns the conversion of forest into non-forest lands and the associated losses of environmental services. Defining such degradation is not straightforward hampering effective reduction in degradation and use of already degraded lands for more productive purposes. To facilitate the processes of avoided degradation and land rehabilitation, we have developed a methodology in which we have used international environmental and social sustainability standards to determine the suitability of lands for sustainable agricultural expansion. The method was developed and tested in one of the frontiers of agricultural expansion, West Kalimantan province in Indonesia. The focus was on oil palm expansion, which is considered as a major driver for deforestation in tropical regions globally. The results suggest that substantial changes in current land-use planning are necessary for most new plantations to comply with international sustainability standards. Through visualizing options for sustainable expansion with our methodology, we demonstrate that the link between oil palm expansion and degradation can be broken. Application of the methodology with criteria and thresholds similar to ours could help the Indonesian government and the industry to achieve its pro-growth, pro-job, pro-poor and pro-environment development goals. For sustainable agricultural production, context specific guidance has to be developed in areas suitable for expansion. Our methodology can serve as a template for designing such commodity and country specific tools and deliver such guidance.

  15. Breaking the Link between Environmental Degradation and Oil Palm Expansion: A Method for Enabling Sustainable Oil Palm Expansion

    PubMed Central

    Smit, Hans Harmen; Meijaard, Erik; van der Laan, Carina; Mantel, Stephan; Budiman, Arif; Verweij, Pita

    2013-01-01

    Land degradation is a global concern. In tropical areas it primarily concerns the conversion of forest into non-forest lands and the associated losses of environmental services. Defining such degradation is not straightforward hampering effective reduction in degradation and use of already degraded lands for more productive purposes. To facilitate the processes of avoided degradation and land rehabilitation, we have developed a methodology in which we have used international environmental and social sustainability standards to determine the suitability of lands for sustainable agricultural expansion. The method was developed and tested in one of the frontiers of agricultural expansion, West Kalimantan province in Indonesia. The focus was on oil palm expansion, which is considered as a major driver for deforestation in tropical regions globally. The results suggest that substantial changes in current land-use planning are necessary for most new plantations to comply with international sustainability standards. Through visualizing options for sustainable expansion with our methodology, we demonstrate that the link between oil palm expansion and degradation can be broken. Application of the methodology with criteria and thresholds similar to ours could help the Indonesian government and the industry to achieve its pro-growth, pro-job, pro-poor and pro-environment development goals. For sustainable agricultural production, context specific guidance has to be developed in areas suitable for expansion. Our methodology can serve as a template for designing such commodity and country specific tools and deliver such guidance. PMID:24039700

  16. Nutritional evaluation of microalgae oils rich in omega-3 long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids as an alternative for fish oil.

    PubMed

    Ryckebosch, Eline; Bruneel, Charlotte; Termote-Verhalle, Romina; Goiris, Koen; Muylaert, Koenraad; Foubert, Imogen

    2014-10-01

    The purpose of this work was to evaluate the nutritional value of the total lipid extract of different omega-3 long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids producing photoautotrophic microalgae in one study. It was shown that microalgae oils from Isochrysis, Nannochloropsis, Phaeodactylum, Pavlova and Thalassiosira contain sufficient omega-3 LC-PUFA to serve as an alternative for fish oil, which was used as the 'golden standard'. In the microalgae oils an important part of the omega-3 long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids are present in the polar lipid fraction, which may be favourable from a bioavailability and stability viewpoint. Consumption of microalgae oil ensures intake of sterols and carotenoids. The intake of sterols, including cholesterol and phytosterols, is probably not relevant. The intake of carotenoids is however definitely significant and could give the microalgae oils a nutritional added value compared to fish oil.

  17. A multifrequency evaluation of active and passive microwave sensors for oil spill detection and assessment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fenner, R. G.; Reid, S. C.; Solie, C. H.

    1980-01-01

    An evaluation is given of how active and passive microwave sensors can best be used in oil spill detection and assessment. Radar backscatter curves taken over oil spills are presented and their effect on synthetic aperture radar (SAR) imagery are discussed. Plots of microwave radiometric brightness variations over oil spills are presented and discussed. Recommendations as to how to select the best combination of frequency, viewing angle, and sensor type for evaluation of various aspects of oil spills are also discussed.

  18. Essential oils analysis. I. Evaluation of essential oils composition using both GC and MS fingerprints.

    PubMed

    Oprean, R; Tamas, M; Sandulescu, R; Roman, L

    1998-12-01

    The chemical nature of essential oils makes them suitable for analysis using a gas chromatography-mass selective detector (GC-MSD). Mass spectra (MS) libraries can not be used as unique and absolute criteria for the identification of chromatogram peaks. The wide variety of MS of the libraries, recorded in different conditions, can lead us to erroneous results. In order to increase the reliability of the analytical results, we used as identity criteria, both GC fingerprints resulted from the relative retention indices (RRI) and the recorded MS of the separated compounds. The two criteria have been quantified by their correlation with the standards. A new parameter called global composition evaluation index (I(GCMS)), which resulted from a well-balanced average of the two criteria, has been defined. Because the comparison of the results of the MS with databases is more accurate than the RRI, we considered that the ratio of the two criteria must be at least GC:MS 1:2. A database containing RRI of about 600 components, widely found in essential oils composition and separated on HP-5 column, was created. Two macros based on the Microsoft Excel spreadsheet were also created. The program offers the best 20 matches of each compound with the combined MS and RRI library. The composition of Romanian Acorus calamus L. essential oil was established and the results were compared with those obtained by 'classical' methods.

  19. Preparation and evaluation of minoxidil foamable emu oil emulsion

    PubMed Central

    Shatalebi, M.A.; Rafiei, Y.

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this work was to develop and evaluate a minoxidil foamable emu oil emulsion with the purpose of improving minoxidil permeation into the skin, increasing hair growth, reducing skin irritation, and increasing consumer compliance. Minoxidil was dissolved in a solvent system comprising ethanol: glycerin: lactic acid: water (10:20:5:65). The foamable emulsion was prepared by mixing the oil phase with minoxidil solution using different amount of various emulsifiers. Seventeen formulations were prepared and the most stable foamable emulsion was selected and evaluated for various pharmaceutical parameters such as homogeneity, pH, stability to centrifugal stress, freeze-thaw and foamability. The adopted formulation showed good pharmaceutical characteristics. In vitro release rate of the formulations were evaluated using Franz diffusion cell using phosphate buffer pH 7.4 and ethanol as the receiver medium at sink condition. The release rate of formulations was found to obey Higuchi kinetic model. Experimental animal study was performed to evaluate hair growth potential of the formulation. Different cyclic phases of hair follicles, like anagen, and telogen phases, were determined at one month period. Histological study after treatment with adopted formulation exhibited greater number of hair follicles in anagenic phase (96%) which were higher as compared to marketed 5% minoxidil solution (Pakdaru® 70%) and the control group (42%). From animal study it was concluded that the selected formulation exhibited a significant potency in promoting hair growth in comparison with marketed 5% minoxidil solution Pakdaru®. PMID:25657781

  20. Preparation and evaluation of minoxidil foamable emu oil emulsion.

    PubMed

    Shatalebi, M A; Rafiei, Y

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this work was to develop and evaluate a minoxidil foamable emu oil emulsion with the purpose of improving minoxidil permeation into the skin, increasing hair growth, reducing skin irritation, and increasing consumer compliance. Minoxidil was dissolved in a solvent system comprising ethanol: glycerin: lactic acid: water (10:20:5:65). The foamable emulsion was prepared by mixing the oil phase with minoxidil solution using different amount of various emulsifiers. Seventeen formulations were prepared and the most stable foamable emulsion was selected and evaluated for various pharmaceutical parameters such as homogeneity, pH, stability to centrifugal stress, freeze-thaw and foamability. The adopted formulation showed good pharmaceutical characteristics. In vitro release rate of the formulations were evaluated using Franz diffusion cell using phosphate buffer pH 7.4 and ethanol as the receiver medium at sink condition. The release rate of formulations was found to obey Higuchi kinetic model. Experimental animal study was performed to evaluate hair growth potential of the formulation. Different cyclic phases of hair follicles, like anagen, and telogen phases, were determined at one month period. Histological study after treatment with adopted formulation exhibited greater number of hair follicles in anagenic phase (96%) which were higher as compared to marketed 5% minoxidil solution (Pakdaru® 70%) and the control group (42%). From animal study it was concluded that the selected formulation exhibited a significant potency in promoting hair growth in comparison with marketed 5% minoxidil solution Pakdaru®.

  1. Building Environmental Educators' Evaluation Capacity through Distance Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fleming, M. Lynette; Easton, Janice

    2010-01-01

    Evaluation capacity building (ECB) is seldom mentioned in the environmental education (EE) literature, but as demonstrated by the lack and poor quality of EE evaluations, is much needed. This article focuses on an online course, Applied Environmental Education Program Evaluation (AEEPE), which provides nonformal educators with an understanding of…

  2. Reliability evaluation of oil pipelines operating in aggressive environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Magomedov, R. M.; Paizulaev, M. M.; Gebel, E. S.

    2017-08-01

    In connection with modern increased requirements for ecology and safety, the development of diagnostic services complex is obligatory and necessary enabling to ensure the reliable operation of the gas transportation infrastructure. Estimation of oil pipelines technical condition should be carried out not only to establish the current values of the equipment technological parameters in operation, but also to predict the dynamics of changes in the physical and mechanical characteristics of the material, the appearance of defects, etc. to ensure reliable and safe operation. In the paper, existing Russian and foreign methods for evaluation of the oil pipelines reliability are considered, taking into account one of the main factors leading to the appearance of crevice in the pipeline material, i.e. change the shape of its cross-section, - corrosion. Without compromising the generality of the reasoning, the assumption of uniform corrosion wear for the initial rectangular cross section has been made. As a result a formula for calculation the probability of failure-free operation was formulated. The proposed mathematical model makes it possible to predict emergency situations, as well as to determine optimal operating conditions for oil pipelines.

  3. Evaluation of the acute toxicity of Orimulsion and Fuel Oil No. 6 using standard estuarine species

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, I.C.; Kosalwat, P.; Baldwin, L.; Kostecki, P.T.

    1995-12-31

    Fuel Oil No.6 is a typical fuel used nationwide by power plants in the generation of electricity and orimulsion is an alternative fuel also used for this purpose in facilities in Canada, Japan and the United Kingdom. Orimulsion is currently being evaluated for combustion in the US by Florida Power and Light Company. Several cute and partial life cycle toxicity tests were conducted in order to assess the potential aquatic toxicity and environmental consequences of an accidental Orimulsion spill in seawater. Environmental studies conducted using Orimulsion indicate that in the case of a spill into seawater, Orimulsion will become a bitumen particle suspension in seawater and a floating slick is not expected to form. Therefore, the typical acute effects associated with oil slicks were not anticipated for the dispersed bitumen. In the case of Orimulsion, all of the bitumen can be assumed to be in the water column following an accidental spill. Therefore, Orimulsion potential environmental impacts are expected to be observed primarily on organisms inhabiting the water column. Test species included mysid shrimp, inland silversides, polychaetes, amphipods, eastern oysters, and sheepshead minnows.

  4. Evaluating the relative environmental impact of countries.

    PubMed

    Bradshaw, Corey J A; Giam, Xingli; Sodhi, Navjot S

    2010-05-03

    Environmental protection is critical to maintain ecosystem services essential for human well-being. It is important to be able to rank countries by their environmental impact so that poor performers as well as policy 'models' can be identified. We provide novel metrics of country-specific environmental impact ranks - one proportional to total resource availability per country and an absolute (total) measure of impact - that explicitly avoid incorporating confounding human health or economic indicators. Our rankings are based on natural forest loss, habitat conversion, marine captures, fertilizer use, water pollution, carbon emissions and species threat, although many other variables were excluded due to a lack of country-specific data. Of 228 countries considered, 179 (proportional) and 171 (absolute) had sufficient data for correlations. The proportional index ranked Singapore, Korea, Qatar, Kuwait, Japan, Thailand, Bahrain, Malaysia, Philippines and Netherlands as having the highest proportional environmental impact, whereas Brazil, USA, China, Indonesia, Japan, Mexico, India, Russia, Australia and Peru had the highest absolute impact (i.e., total resource use, emissions and species threatened). Proportional and absolute environmental impact ranks were correlated, with mainly Asian countries having both high proportional and absolute impact. Despite weak concordance among the drivers of environmental impact, countries often perform poorly for different reasons. We found no evidence to support the environmental Kuznets curve hypothesis of a non-linear relationship between impact and per capita wealth, although there was a weak reduction in environmental impact as per capita wealth increases. Using structural equation models to account for cross-correlation, we found that increasing wealth was the most important driver of environmental impact. Our results show that the global community not only has to encourage better environmental performance in less

  5. Evaluating the Relative Environmental Impact of Countries

    PubMed Central

    Bradshaw, Corey J. A.; Giam, Xingli; Sodhi, Navjot S.

    2010-01-01

    Environmental protection is critical to maintain ecosystem services essential for human well-being. It is important to be able to rank countries by their environmental impact so that poor performers as well as policy ‘models’ can be identified. We provide novel metrics of country-specific environmental impact ranks – one proportional to total resource availability per country and an absolute (total) measure of impact – that explicitly avoid incorporating confounding human health or economic indicators. Our rankings are based on natural forest loss, habitat conversion, marine captures, fertilizer use, water pollution, carbon emissions and species threat, although many other variables were excluded due to a lack of country-specific data. Of 228 countries considered, 179 (proportional) and 171 (absolute) had sufficient data for correlations. The proportional index ranked Singapore, Korea, Qatar, Kuwait, Japan, Thailand, Bahrain, Malaysia, Philippines and Netherlands as having the highest proportional environmental impact, whereas Brazil, USA, China, Indonesia, Japan, Mexico, India, Russia, Australia and Peru had the highest absolute impact (i.e., total resource use, emissions and species threatened). Proportional and absolute environmental impact ranks were correlated, with mainly Asian countries having both high proportional and absolute impact. Despite weak concordance among the drivers of environmental impact, countries often perform poorly for different reasons. We found no evidence to support the environmental Kuznets curve hypothesis of a non-linear relationship between impact and per capita wealth, although there was a weak reduction in environmental impact as per capita wealth increases. Using structural equation models to account for cross-correlation, we found that increasing wealth was the most important driver of environmental impact. Our results show that the global community not only has to encourage better environmental performance in less

  6. Future Oil Spills and Possibilities for Intervention: A Model for the Coupled Human-Environmental Resource Extraction System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shughrue, C. M.; Werner, B.; Nugnug, P. T.

    2010-12-01

    The catastrophic Deepwater Horizon oil spill highlights the risks for widespread environmental damage resulting from petroleum resource extraction. Possibilities for amelioration of these risks depend critically on understanding the dynamics and nonlinear interactions between various components of the coupled human-environmental resource extraction system. We use a complexity analysis to identify the levels of description and time scales at which these interactions are strongest, and then use the analysis as the basis for an agent-based numerical model with which decadal trends can be analyzed. Oil industry economic and technological activity and associated oil spills are components of a complex system that is coupled to natural environment, legislation, regulation, media, and resistance systems over annual to decadal time scales. In the model, oil spills are produced stochastically with a range of magnitudes depending on a reliability-engineering-based assessment of failure for the technology employed, human factors including compliance with operating procedures, and risks associated with the drilling environment. Oil industry agents determine drilling location and technological investment using a cost-benefit analysis relating projected revenue from added production to technology cost and government regulation. Media outlet agents reporting on the oil industry and environmental damage from oil spills assess the impacts of aggressively covering a story on circulation increases, advertiser concerns and potential loss of information sources. Environmental advocacy group agents increase public awareness of environmental damage (through media and public contact), solicit memberships and donations, and apply direct pressure on legislators for policy change. Heterogeneous general public agents adjust their desire for change in the level of regulation, contact their representatives or participate in resistance via protest by considering media sources, personal

  7. [Hygienic environmental characteristics and population health in areas of production of heavy oils and natural bitumen].

    PubMed

    Ivanov, A V; Korolev, A A; Tafeeva, E A

    2001-01-01

    The paper deals with the impact of production of heavy oil and natural bitumens on the environment and human health. It provides a sanitary characteristics of the degree of ambient air pollution, the quality of reservoir and drinking water and soil in the areas of production of heavy oil and natural bitumens. Human health was studied in all age groups by medical and demographic indices and diseases. Hydrocarbons, hydrogen sulfide, carbon oxide were found to be the leading pollutants in these areas. Production of heavy oil and natural bitumens pollutes surface and underground water-bearing horizons, which is a cause of worse conditions for the population to use water due to a 1.8-fold increase in water hardness and a 1.2-fold increase in the content of sulfates, chlorides, and nitrates, as compared to 1987-1991. The production of heavy oil and natural bitumens is a large source of soil pollution. The greatest soil pollution was observed in the areas of bitumen production by intraseam burning and vapour-heat exposure. There was a relationship of respiratory disorders to sulphur dioxide (r = 0.5-0.73) and hydrogen sulfide (r = 0.6-0.82), of blood and blood-forming organ diseases to nitrogen oxide (r = 0.58-0.79), and of nervous and sensory diseases to sulphur dioxide (r = 0.73-0.82). The study provided sanitary recommendations for environmental sanitation and health promotion in the areas of production of heavy oil and natural bitumens.

  8. Evaluation of Environmental Profiles for Reliability Demonstration

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1974-11-01

    conditions based on cold day/ coldest mission and hot day/ hottest mission. The indicated duration at temperature extremes were referenced to laboratory...comparisons of lab- field reliability differences with environmental differences Indicate that temperature rate of change, vibration method, and the...Criteria 7 Equipment Description 9 ENVIRONMENTAL ANALYSIS 31 Demonstration 31 Field 38 Temperature & Cooling Air 39 Moisture 57 Vibration

  9. An Evaluation of Select Test Variables Potentially Affecting Acute Oil Toxicity.

    PubMed

    Echols, Brandi S; Smith, A; Gardinali, P; Rand, G

    2016-02-01

    In the wake of the Deepwater Horizon incident (2010) in the Gulf of Mexico, an abundance of research studies have been performed, but the methodologies used have varied making comparisons and replication difficult. In this study, acute toxicity tests with mysids and inland silversides were performed to examine the effect of different variables on test results. The toxicity test variables evaluated in this study included (1) open versus closed static test chambers, (2) natural versus artificial diluent, (3) aerated versus nonaerated test solution, and (4) low versus medium energy water-accommodated (WAF) mixing energies. The use of tests using natural or artificial diluent showed no difference in either toxicity test or analytical chemistry results. Based on median lethal concentrations (LC50) of WAFs of unweathered oil (MASS), mysid tests performed in closed chambers were approximately 41 % lower than LC50 values from open-chamber studies, possibly a result of the presence of low-molecular weight volatile aromatics (i.e., naphthalenes). This research also showed that using a medium-energy WAF (with a 20–25 % vortex) increases the number of chemical components compared with low-energy WAF, thus affecting the composition of the exposure media and increasing toxicity. The comparison of toxic units as a measure of the potential toxicity of fresh and weathered oils showed that weathered oils (e.g., Juniper, CTC) are less toxic than the unweathered MASS oil. In the event of future oil spills, these variables should be considered to ensure that data regarding the potential toxicity and environmental risk are of good quality and reproducible.

  10. [Saskatchewan Oil and Gas Environmental Fund]. Annual report and financial statements 1997--1998

    SciTech Connect

    1998-12-31

    Annual report of the Fund, established by the Provincial Government in 1989 to replace the well deposit system and to provide the government with a means to address unique oil and gas related environmental problems. The Fund guarantees the proper drilling, completion and abandonment of wells, including surface restoration, and allows the government to respond to a major spill or environmental problem when liability for the problem cannot initially be determined. This report describes the purpose of the Fund, and summarizes its activities. A financial statement is included.

  11. Evaluating the oil sands reclamation process: Assessing policy capacity and stakeholder access for government and non-governmental organizations operating in Alberta's oil sands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Patterson, Tyler

    . In an effort to discern the overall status of reclamation in the oil sands this study explores several factors essential to policy capacity: work environment, training, employee attitudes, perceived capacity, policy tools, evidence based work, and networking. Data was collected through key informant interviews with senior policy professionals in government and non-government agencies in Alberta. The following are agencies of interest in this research: Canadian Association of Petroleum Producers (CAPP); Alberta Environment and Sustainable Resource Development (AESRD); Alberta Energy Regulator (AER); Cumulative Environmental Management Association (CEMA); Alberta Environment Monitoring, Evaluation, and Reporting Agency (AEMERA); Wood Buffalo Environmental Association (WBEA). The aim of this research is to explain how and why reclamation policy is conducted in Alberta's oil sands. This will illuminate government capacity, NGO capacity, and the interaction of these two agency typologies. In addition to answering research questions, another goal of this project is to show interpretive analysis of policy capacity can be used to measure and predict policy effectiveness. The oil sands of Alberta will be the focus of this project, however, future projects could focus on any government policy scenario utilizing evidence-based approaches.

  12. Preparation of Jojoba Oil Ester Derivatives for Biodiesel Evaluation

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    As a result of the increase in commodity vegetable oil prices, it is imperative that non-food oils should be considered as alternative feedstocks for biodiesel production. Jojoba oil is unusual in that it is comprised of wax esters as opposed to the triglycerides found in typical vegetable oils. A...

  13. Evaluation and characterisation of Citrullus colocynthis (L.) Schrad seed oil: Comparison with Helianthus annuus (sunflower) seed oil.

    PubMed

    Nehdi, Imededdine Arbi; Sbihi, Hassen; Tan, Chin Ping; Al-Resayes, Saud Ibrahim

    2013-01-15

    The physicochemical properties, fatty acid, tocopherol, thermal properties, (1)H NMR, FTIR and profiles of non-conventional oil extracted from Citrullus colocynthis (L.) Schrad seeds were evaluated and compared with conventional sunflower seed oil. In addition, the antioxidant properties of C. colocynthis seed oil were also evaluated. The oil content of the C. colocynthis seeds was 23.16%. The main fatty acids in the oil were linoleic acid (66.73%) followed by oleic acid (14.78%), palmitic acid (9.74%), and stearic acid (7.37%). The tocopherol content was 121.85 mg/100g with γ-tocopherol as the major one (95.49%). The thermogravimetric analysis showed that the oil was thermally stable up to 286.57°C, and then began to decompose in four stages namely at 377.4°C, 408.4°C, 434.9°C and 559.2°C. The present study showed that this non-conventional C. colocynthis seed oil can be used for food and non-food applications to supplement or replace some of the conventional oils. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Evaluation of chosen fruit seeds oils as potential biofuel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Agbede, O. O.; Alade, A. O.; Adebayo, G. A.; Salam, K. K.; Bakare, T.

    2012-04-01

    Oils available in mango, tangerine and African star seeds were extracted and characterized to determine their fuel worthiness for biofuel production. Furthermore, the fuel properties of the three oils were within the range observed for some common oil seeds like rapeseed, soybean and sunflower, which are widely sourced for the production of biodiesel on an industrial scale. The low iodine values of the oil extend their applications as non-drying oil for lubrication purposes, however, the fuel properties exhibited by the oils enlist them as potential oil seeds for the production of biofuel and further research on the improvement of their properties will make them suitable biofuel of high economic values.

  15. Environmental nickel exposure from oil refinery emissions: a case study in Ecuador.

    PubMed

    Harari, Raúl; Harari, Florencia; Forastiere, Francesco

    2016-01-01

    Nickel is a strong skin and respiratory sensitizer and a recognized carcinogen. Oil refineries are important sources of atmospheric emissions of toxic pollutants, including nickel. Populations residing close to oil refineries are at potential risk. The aim of this study was to evaluate the exposure to nickel in a population living close to the largest oil refinery in Ecuador, located in the city of Esmeraldas. We recruited 47 workers from the oil refinery as well as 195 students from 4 different schools close to the plant and 94 students from another school 25 km far from the industry. Urinary nickel concentrations were used to assess the exposure to nickel. Students from the school next to the oil refinery showed the highest urinary nickel concentrations while workers from the refinery showed the lowest concentrations. Median nickel concentrations were > 2µg/L in all study groups. The populations living close to the oil refineries are potentially exposed to nickel from atmospheric emissions. Further studies investigating nickel-related health effects in the population residing close to the refinery of Esmeralda are needed.

  16. Thermal edible oil evaluation by UV-Vis spectroscopy and chemometrics.

    PubMed

    Gonçalves, Rhayanna P; Março, Paulo H; Valderrama, Patrícia

    2014-11-15

    Edible oils such as colza, corn, sunflower, soybean and olive were analysed by UV-Vis spectroscopy and Multivariate Curve Resolution with Alternating Least Squares (MCR-ALS). When vegetable oils were heated at high temperatures (frying), oxidation products were formed which were harmful to human health in addition to degrading the antioxidants present, and this study aimed to evaluate tocopherol (one antioxidant present in oils) and the behaviour of oxidation products in edible oils. The MCR-ALS results showed that the degradation started at 110°C and 85°C, respectively, for sunflower and colza oils, while tocopherol concentration decreased and oxidation products increased starting at 70°C in olive oil. In soybean and corn oils, tocopherol concentration started to decrease and oxidation products increased at 50°C. The results suggested that sunflower, colza and olive oils offered more resistance to increasing temperatures, while soybean and corn oils were less resistant.

  17. Environmental legal implications of oil and gas exploration in the Niger Delta of Nigeria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Orubebe, Bibobra Bello

    Nigeria is an African country endowed with a wealth of oil and gas resources, and they are mainly found in the core Niger Delta (home to the Ijaw and Ogoni indigenous, ethnic minorities). Since Great Britain granted Nigeria political independence on October 1, 1960, successive Nigerian governments (military and civilian) have been dominated by the majority ethnic groups (Hausa-Fulani, Yoruba, and Ibo). Significantly, the government adopted a socialist-based model of absolute state ownership over oil and gas resources. The socialist model formed the basis of Nigeria's business collaboration with multinational oil and gas corporations from Europe and the United States (notably Shell, Chevron Texaco, Agip, Exxon Mobil, Total, and Elf). This model is fraught with contradictions and has led to unacceptable consequences, including policies that allow exploitation of natural resources without reference to environmental sustainability. When oil was first struck in 1956 at Oloibori (Ijaw area), people thought it would bring prosperity and an improved quality of life. Sadly, the opposite has occurred. Forty-nine years of hardship, agonizing pain, debilitating anger, extreme poverty, poisoned rivers, destroyed occupations, devastated environment, and stunted growth of the youth are the negative impacts of oil and gas exploitation in the Niger Delta. In other words, oil and gas exploration and production have visited a full range of evils---socio-political, economic, and cultural---upon the indigenous Niger Delta people. Furthermore, the wealth extracted from the area is used by the state and multinational corporations to enhance their own wealth and quality of life. Revenue has been conspicuously looted and misappropriated by political leaders at the expense of the Niger Delta environment and its people. This confluence of exploitation and injury has led to social upheavals and armed rebellions, all capable of precipitating the disintegration of the country. In this

  18. 76 FR 38673 - Environmental Documents Prepared for Proposed Oil, Gas, and Mineral Operations by the Gulf of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-01

    ... Proposed Oil, Gas, and Mineral Operations by the Gulf of Mexico Outer Continental Shelf (OCS) Region AGENCY... availability of environmental documents prepared for OCS mineral proposals by the Gulf of Mexico OCS Region... Impact (FONSI), prepared by BOEMRE for the following oil-, gas-, and mineral-related activities...

  19. 76 FR 16632 - Environmental Documents Prepared for Proposed Oil, Gas, and Mineral Operations by the Gulf of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-24

    ... Proposed Oil, Gas, and Mineral Operations by the Gulf of Mexico Outer Continental Shelf (OCS) Region AGENCY... Environmental Documents Prepared for OCS Mineral Proposals by the Gulf of Mexico OCS Region. SUMMARY: The Bureau...), prepared by BOEMRE for the following oil-, gas-, and mineral-related activities proposed on the Gulf...

  20. 76 FR 11809 - Environmental Documents Prepared for Proposed Oil, Gas, and Mineral Operations by the Gulf of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-03

    ... Proposed Oil, Gas, and Mineral Operations by the Gulf of Mexico Outer Continental Shelf (OCS) Region AGENCY... availability of environmental documents prepared for OCS mineral proposals by the Gulf of Mexico OCS Region... Impact (FONSI), prepared by BOEMRE for the following oil-, gas-, and mineral-related activities...

  1. 76 FR 54782 - Environmental Documents Prepared for Proposed Oil, Gas, and Mineral Operations by the Gulf of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-02

    ... Proposed Oil, Gas, and Mineral Operations by the Gulf of Mexico Outer Continental Shelf (OCS) Region AGENCY... Availability of Environmental Documents Prepared for OCS Mineral Proposals by the Gulf of Mexico OCS Region... Impact (FONSI), prepared by BOEMRE for the following oil-, gas-, and mineral-related activities...

  2. 75 FR 67994 - Environmental Documents Prepared for Proposed Oil, Gas, and Mineral Operations by the Gulf of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-04

    ... and Enforcement Environmental Documents Prepared for Proposed Oil, Gas, and Mineral Operations by the... for OCS mineral proposals by the Gulf of Mexico OCS Region. SUMMARY: The Bureau of Ocean Energy... following oil-, gas-, and mineral-related activities proposed on the Gulf of Mexico. FOR FURTHER...

  3. 75 FR 8304 - Notice of Public Scoping Meetings for the Environmental Impact Statement on the Effects of Oil...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-02-24

    ... Environmental Impact Statement on the Effects of Oil and Gas Activities in the Arctic Ocean AGENCY: National... of oil and gas activities (e.g., seismic surveys and exploratory drilling) in the Arctic Ocean (U.S....nmfs.noaa.gov/pr/permits/eis/arctic.htm . FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Michael Payne, Office of...

  4. Third-Party Evaluation of Petro Tex Hydrocarbons, LLC, ReGen Lubricating Oil Re-refining Process

    SciTech Connect

    Compere, A L; Griffith, William {Bill} L

    2009-04-01

    This report presents an assessment of market, energy impact, and utility of the PetroTex Hydrocarbons, LLC., ReGen process for re-refining used lubricating oil to produce Group I, II, and III base oils, diesel fuel, and asphalt. PetroTex Hydrocarbons, LLC., has performed extensive pilot scale evaluations, computer simulations, and market studies of this process and is presently evaluating construction of a 23 million gallon per year industrial-scale plant. PetroTex has obtained a 30 acre site in the Texas Industries RailPark in Midlothian Texas. The environmental and civil engineering assessments of the site are completed, and the company has been granted a special use permit from the City of Midlothian and air emissions permits for the Texas Commission on Environmental Quality.

  5. Evaluation of water saturation in oil-bearing shaly sands

    SciTech Connect

    Martinovic, S.; Vojnovic, V. )

    1990-06-01

    The physical properties of shaly formations are difficult to evaluate because the shale component strongly affects geophysical well log and laboratory test data. This is particularly true in the case of water saturation. On the other hand, the accuracy of in-situ hydrocarbon estimates depends directly on the accuracy of water saturation values. The most important interpretation models for water saturation rely on double-layer models. These interpretation models compute highly probably water saturation values of oil-bearing shaly sands using sound mathematical and physical postulates. Certain disadvantages, such as the inability to evaluate some crucial parameters directly from geophysical well logs, simplifications along the system-model line, inherent deficiencies of logging techniques, etc., give rise to errors and other problems which are more or less solved at this stage of development. A simple program for water saturation of oil-bearing shaly sands was designed and tested. The program uses equations based on double layer models. Program listing and test results also are presented.

  6. A procedure for evaluating environmental impact

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Leopold, Luna Bergere; Clarke, Frank Eldridge; Hanshaw, Bruce B.; Balsley, James R.

    1971-01-01

    The procedure does not limit the development of detail in any specific aspect of the environment; a separate expanded matrix for any environmental aspect can easily be developed within the framework provided.

  7. Environmental concerns and future oil and gas developments in Coastal Wetlands of Louisiana

    SciTech Connect

    John, C.J.; Harder, B.J.; Groat, C.G. )

    1993-09-01

    Recent studies have confirmed that much oil and natural gas have been overlooked and increases in future recoverable reserves will come from drilling in these areas. Increased production will result from identifying unexploited compartmentalized reservoirs, new infield reservoirs, and bypassed reservoirs, and by using enhanced recovery technologies for hydrocarbon recovery in incompletely drained reservoirs previously left unproduced for economic reasons. Most of southern Louisiana's hydrocarbon reserves underlie coastal wetland areas of the state. Major environmental concerns associated with the future development of existing reserves are canal dredging and destruction of wildlife habitat, use and disposal of oil-based muds, mitigation for wetland damage, and the recent emerging issue of surface contamination by naturally occurring radioactive materials with potential liabilities and future remedial regulation. To reduce wetland environmental damage caused by access canals to drilling sites, the Coastal Management Division of the Louisiana Department of Natural Resources instituted a geologic reviews program to review drilling permit application in the coastal wetlands. This process provides a mechanism for state and federal agencies to comment on the requested drilling permit. As a result of this process, the total average wetland disturbed area has been reduced from 767 ac per year in 1982 to approximately 76 ac per year in 1991. Average lengths of access canals also have been reduced by approximately 78% during the period. Oil and gas companies are becoming increasingly aware of the environmental consequences of drilling in wetlands and are considering them in planning for development activities. In the current climate of increasing public consciousness about the environment, addressing environmental concerns in the planning state will go a long way in helping alleviate future environmental problems.

  8. Environmental hazard evaluation of amalgam scrap.

    PubMed

    Fan, P L; Chang, S B; Siew, C

    1992-11-01

    Amalgam scrap was subjected to two different Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) extraction procedures to determine if it presents an environmental hazard. The results indicate that concentrations of mercury and silver in the extracts do not exceed the EPA's maximum allowable concentrations. It was concluded that amalgam scrap is not a hazardous solid waste. Proper handling of amalgam scrap disposal by recycling is, however, highly recommended.

  9. [Health and environmental licensing: a methodological proposal for assessment of the impact of the oil and gas industry].

    PubMed

    Barbosa, Eduardo Macedo; Barata, Matha Macedo de Lima; Hacon, Sandra de Souza

    2012-02-01

    Bearing in mind the importance of the impacts of the oil industry on human health, this article seeks to present a methodological proposal for analysis of these aspects in environmental impact assessment studies, based on the established legal parameters and a validated matrix for the hydroelectric sector. The lack of health considerations in the environmental impact assessment was detected in most of the 21 oil production enterprises analyzed, that were licensed in the period from January 1, 2004 through October 30, 2009. The health matrix proved to be an appropriate methodological approach to analyze these aspects in the environmental licensing process, guiding decisions and interventions in socio-environmental management.

  10. Failure Analysis and Regeneration Performances Evaluation on Engine Lubricating Oil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, X. L.; Zhang, G. N.; Zhang, J. Y.; Yin, Y. L.; Xu, Y.

    To investigate the behavior of failure and recycling of lubricating oils, three sorts of typical 10w-40 lubricating oils used in heavy-load vehicle including the new oil, waste oil and regeneration oil regenerated by self-researched green regeneration technology were selected. The tribology properties were tested by four-ball friction wear tester as well. The results indicated that the performance of anti-extreme pressure of regeneration oil increase by 34.1% compared with the waste one and its load- carrying ability is close to the new oil; the feature of wear spot are better than those of the waste oil and frictional coefficient almost reach the level of the new oil's. As a result, the performance of anti-wear and friction reducing are getting better obviously.

  11. Evaluation of artificially-weathered standard fuel oil toxicity by marine invertebrate embryogenesis bioassays.

    PubMed

    Bellas, Juan; Saco-Álvarez, Liliana; Nieto, Óscar; Bayona, Josep María; Albaigés, Joan; Beiras, Ricardo

    2013-01-01

    wWeathering of petroleum spilled in the marine environment may not only change its physical and chemical properties but also its effects on the marine ecosystem. The objective of this study was to evaluate the toxicity of the water-accommodated fraction (WAF) obtained from a standard fuel oil following an environmentally realistic simulated weathering process for a period of 80 d. Experimental flasks with 40 g L(-1) of fuel oil were incubated at 18°C with a 14 h light:10 h dark photoperiod and a photosynthetically active radiation (PAR) intensity of 70 μE m(-2) s(-1). Samples were taken at four weathering periods: 24 h, 7, 21 and 80 d. WAF toxicity was tested using the sea urchin (Paracentrotus lividus) and mussel (Mytilus galloprovincialis) embryo-larval bioassays and the aromatic hydrocarbons levels (AH) in the WAF were measured by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry. In contrast with the classic assumption of toxicity decrease with oil weathering, the present study shows a progressive increase in WAF toxicity with weathering, being the EC(50) after 80d eightfold lower than the EC(50) at day 1, whereas AH concentration slightly decreased. In the long term, inoculation of WAF with bacteria from a hydrocarbon chronically-polluted harbor slightly reduced toxicity. The differences in toxicity between fresh and weathered fuels could not be explained on the basis of the total AH content and the formation of oxidized derivatives is suggested to explain this toxicity increase.

  12. Evaluation of the environmental impact of Brownfield remediation options: comparison of two life cycle assessment-based evaluation tools.

    PubMed

    Cappuyns, Valérie; Kessen, Bram

    2012-01-01

    The choice between different options for the remediation of a contaminated site traditionally relies on economical, technical and regulatory criteria without consideration of the environmental impact of the soil remediation process itself. In the present study, the environmental impact assessment of two potential soil remediation techniques (excavation and off-site cleaning and in situ steam extraction) was performed using two life cycle assessment (LCA)-based evaluation tools, namely the REC (risk reduction, environmental merit and cost) method and the ReCiPe method. The comparison and evaluation of the different tools used to estimate the environmental impact of Brownfield remediation was based on a case study which consisted of the remediation of a former oil and fat processing plant. For the environmental impact assessment, both the REC and ReCiPe methods result in a single score for the environmental impact of the soil remediation process and allow the same conclusion to be drawn: excavation and off-site cleaning has a more pronounced environmental impact than in situ soil remediation by means of steam extraction. The ReCiPe method takes into account more impact categories, but is also more complex to work with and needs more input data. Within the routine evaluation of soil remediation alternatives, a detailed LCA evaluation will often be too time consuming and costly and the estimation of the environmental impact with the REC method will in most cases be sufficient. The case study worked out in this paper wants to provide a basis for a more sounded selection of soil remediation technologies based on a more detailed assessment of the secondary impact of soil remediation.

  13. A technique for evaluating the oil/heavy-oil viscosity changes under ultrasound in a simulated porous medium.

    PubMed

    Hamidi, Hossein; Mohammadian, Erfan; Junin, Radzuan; Rafati, Roozbeh; Manan, Mohammad; Azdarpour, Amin; Junid, Mundzir

    2014-02-01

    Theoretically, Ultrasound method is an economical and environmentally friendly or "green" technology, which has been of interest for more than six decades for the purpose of enhancement of oil/heavy-oil production. However, in spite of many studies, questions about the effective mechanisms causing increase in oil recovery still existed. In addition, the majority of the mechanisms mentioned in the previous studies are theoretical or speculative. One of the changes that could be recognized in the fluid properties is viscosity reduction due to radiation of ultrasound waves. In this study, a technique was developed to investigate directly the effect of ultrasonic waves (different frequencies of 25, 40, 68 kHz and powers of 100, 250, 500 W) on viscosity changes of three types of oil (Paraffin oil, Synthetic oil, and Kerosene) and a Brine sample. The viscosity calculations in the smooth capillary tube were based on the mathematical models developed from the Poiseuille's equation. The experiments were carried out for uncontrolled and controlled temperature conditions. It was observed that the viscosity of all the liquids was decreased under ultrasound in all the experiments. This reduction was more significant for uncontrolled temperature condition cases. However, the reduction in viscosity under ultrasound was higher for lighter liquids compare to heavier ones. Pressure difference was diminished by decreasing in the fluid viscosity in all the cases which increases fluid flow ability, which in turn aids to higher oil recovery in enhanced oil recovery (EOR) operations. Higher ultrasound power showed higher liquid viscosity reduction in all the cases. Higher ultrasound frequency revealed higher and lower viscosity reduction for uncontrolled and controlled temperature condition experiments, respectively. In other words, the reduction in viscosity was inversely proportional to increasing the frequency in temperature controlled experiments. It was concluded that cavitation

  14. Airborne imaging sensors for environmental monitoring & surveillance in support of oil spills & recovery efforts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bostater, Charles R.; Jones, James; Frystacky, Heather; Coppin, Gaelle; Leavaux, Florian; Neyt, Xavier

    2011-11-01

    Collection of pushbroom sensor imagery from a mobile platform requires corrections using inertial measurement units (IMU's) and DGPS in order to create useable imagery for environmental monitoring and surveillance of shorelines in freshwater systems, coastal littoral zones and harbor areas. This paper describes a suite of imaging systems used during collection of hyperspectral imagery in northern Florida panhandle and Gulf of Mexico airborne missions to detect weathered oil in coastal littoral zones. Underlying concepts of pushbroom imagery, the needed corrections for directional changes using DGPS and corrections for platform yaw, pitch, and roll using IMU data is described as well as the development and application of optimal band and spectral regions associated with weathered oil. Pushbroom sensor and frame camera data collected in response to the recent Gulf of Mexico oil spill disaster is presented as the scenario documenting environmental monitoring and surveillance techniques using mobile sensing platforms. Data was acquired during the months of February, March, April and May of 2011. The low altitude airborne systems include a temperature stabilized hyperspectral imaging system capable of up to 1024 spectral channels and 1376 spatial across track pixels flown from 3,000 to 4,500 feet altitudes. The hyperspectral imaging system is collocated with a full resolution high definition video recorder for simultaneous HD video imagery, a 12.3 megapixel digital, a mapping camera using 9 inch film types that yields scanned aerial imagery with approximately 22,200 by 22,200 pixel multispectral imagery (~255 megapixel RGB multispectral images in order to conduct for spectral-spatial sharpening of fused multispectral, hyperspectral imagery. Two high spectral (252 channels) and radiometric sensitivity solid state spectrographs are used for collecting upwelling radiance (sub-meter pixels) with downwelling irradiance fiber optic attachment. These sensors are utilized for

  15. Oil Bypass Filter Technology Evaluation Eleventh Quarterly Report: April -June 2005

    SciTech Connect

    Larry Zirker; James Francfort; Jordan Fielding

    2005-09-01

    This Oil Bypass Filter Technology Evaluation quarterly report (April–June 2005) details the ongoing fleet evaluation of engine oil bypass filter technologies being conducted by the Idaho National Laboratory (INL) for the U.S. Department of Energy’s FreedomCAR & Vehicle Technologies Program. Eleven INL four-cycle diesel-engine buses and six INL Chevrolet Tahoes with gasoline engines are equipped with oil bypass filter systems. Eight of the buses and the six Tahoes are equipped with oil bypass filters from the puraDYN Corporation; the remaining three buses are equipped with oil bypass filters from Refined Global Solutions. Both the puraDYN and Refined Global Solutions bypass filters have a heating chamber to remove liquid contaminates from the engine oil. During the April to June 2005 reporting quarter, the eleven diesel engine buses traveled 85,663 miles. As of June 30, 2005, the buses had accumulated 829,871 total test miles. During this quarter, seven regularly scheduled 12,000-mile bus service events were performed. Bus 73449 had its oil accidentally changed on 5/17/05 during servicing. Two buses had mechanical problems which required the oil to be changed: Bus 73446 had an injector failure and Bus 73413 had a broken “dip stick” fitting on the oil pan, both of which introduced contaminants. Buses 73432 and 73433 began the idling phase of the INL Diesel Engine Idling Wear-Rate Evaluation Test. Throughout the 35 months of evaluation, only six oil changes were performed on the INL buses because of degraded oil quality from normal operations. This is a 90% reduction of oil consumption (490 gallons saved) and a concurrent 90% reduction (490 gallons) of waste oil generation. Another six oil changes were performed due to mechanical problems and accidental oil changes. The six Tahoe test vehicles traveled 28,688 miles, and as of June 30, 2005, the Tahoes had accumulated 260,116 total test miles.

  16. Effects of environmental stresses on the responses of mangrove plants to spent lubricating oil.

    PubMed

    Ke, Lin; Zhang, Chunguang; Guo, Chuling; Lin, Guang Hui; Tam, Nora Fung Yee

    2011-01-01

    The influence of different environmental stresses, including salinity (5-35‰), tidal cycle (6/6, 12/12 and 24/24 h of high/low tidal regimes) and nutrient addition (1-6 times background nitrogen and phosphorus content) on Bruguiera gymnorrhiza and Aegiceras corniculatum grown in sediment contaminated with spent lubricating oil (7.5 L m(-2)) were investigated. The oil-treated 1-year-old mangrove seedlings subject to low (5‰) and high (35‰) salinity had significantly more reduction in growth, more release of superoxide radical (O2·-) and higher activity of superoxide dismutase (SOD) than those subject to moderate salinity (15‰). Extended flooding (24/24 h of high/low tidal regime) enhanced O2·- release and malondialdehyde (MDA) content in both oil-treated species but had little negative effects on biomass production (P>0.05) except the stem of A. corniculatum (P=0.012). The addition of nutrients had no beneficial or even posed harmful effects on the growth and cellular responses of the oil-treated seedlings. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Evaluation of an Oil Spill Trajectory Model Using Satellite-tracked, Oil-Spill-Simulating Drifters

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2003-09-01

    remained on the ocean surface and ran predominantly downwind. Oil spills with higher wax and asphaltene content tend to persist on the sea surface as a...consolidated mass more than the oils with lower concentrations of wax and asphaltene . The drifters replicate the motion of oil spills persisting

  18. Who lives near coke plants and oil refineries An exploration of the environmental inequity hypothesis

    SciTech Connect

    Graham, J.D.; Beaulieu, N.D.; Sussman, D.; Sadowitz, M.; Li, Y.C. )

    1999-04-01

    Facility-specific information on pollution was obtained for 36 coke plants and 46 oil refineries in the US and matched with information on populations surrounding these 82 facilities. These data were analyzed to determine whether environmental inequities were present, whether they were more economic or racial in nature, and whether the racial composition of nearby communities has changed significantly since plants began operations. The Census tracts near coke plants have a disproportionate share of poor and nonwhite residents. Multivariate analyses suggest that existing inequities are primarily economic in nature. The findings for oil refineries are not strongly supportive of the environmental inequity hypothesis. Rank ordering of facilities by race, poverty, and pollution produces limited (although not consistent) evidence that the more risky facilities tend to be operating in communities with above-median proportions of nonwhite residents (near coke plants) and Hispanic residents (near oil refineries). Over time, the radical makeup of many communities near facilities has changed significantly, particularly in the case of coke plants sited in the early 1900s. Further risk-oriented studies of multiple manufacturing facilities in various industrial sectors of the economy are recommended.

  19. The Non-Impact of Scientific Reviews of Oil Sands Environmental Impact Assessments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kienzle, S. W.; Byrne, J.

    2008-12-01

    Schindler (Science, Vol. 192: 509; 1976) stated that Environmental Impact Assessments authors "conduct the studies regardless of how quickly results are demanded, write large, diffuse reports containing reams of uninterpreted and incomplete descriptive data, and in some cases, construct "predictive" models, irrespective of the quality of the data base." Schindler offered a solution: "If we are to protect both our resources and scientific integrity, environmental scientists must seek to put their studies on a scientifically credible basis-to see that problems, terms of reference, funding, time constraints, reports, and conclusions are all within a bona fide scientific framework." When the first scientific panel was formed in 2003 by the Mikisew Cree First Nations (MCFN), Alberta, to objectively review EIAs of proposed oil sands mining projects, the scientific panel uncovered many severe omissions, errors, and a significant lack of substance that could not withstand scientific scrutiny. Neither the Terms of Reference for two major oilsands projects, estimated to be worth approximately CND 15 billion, nor the EIAs (one single EIA was over 11,000 pages long) contained the terms "climate change", "trend analysis", or "risk analysis", and nearly all environmental impacts were described by the proponents as "negligible". The Hydrology Section (over 950 pages in length) of one EIA did not contain a single peer-reviewed scientific publication. In summary, nothing had changed since Schindler's observations 27 years earlier. Since 2003, the authors have reviewed more than a dozen EIAs of proposed oilsands projects in northern Alberta. The "non-impact" of scientific reviews on the quality of EIAs and the insincerity of the stewards of the land are very sobering: apart from cosmetic improvements in the requirements of the Terms of Reference and the writing of the EIAs, no meaningful improvement of scientific content has been made. Key environmental concerns around water

  20. Integrated assessment for establishing an oil environmental vulnerability map: case study for the Santos Basin region, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Romero, A F; Abessa, D M S; Fontes, R F C; Silva, G H

    2013-09-15

    The growth of maritime transport and oil exploitation activities may increase the risk of oil spills. Thus, plans and actions to prevent or mitigate impacts are needed to minimize the effects caused by oil. However, tools used worldwide to support contingency plans have not been integrated, thus leading to failure in establishing priority areas. This investigation aimed to develop indices of environmental vulnerability to oil (IEVO), by combining information about environmental sensibility to oil and results of numerical modeling of spilled oil. To achieve that, a case study concerning to oil spills scenarios in a subtropical coastal area was designed, and IEVOs were calculated and presented in maps, in order to make the information about the areas' vulnerability more easily visualized. For summer, the extension of coastline potentially affected by oil was approximately 150 km, and most of the coastline presented medium to high vulnerability. For winter, 230 km coastline would be affected, from which 75% were classified as medium to high vulnerability. Thus, IEVO maps allowed a rapid and clearer interpretation of the vulnerability of the mapped region, facilitating the planning process and the actions in response to an oil spill.

  1. Evaluative Appraisals of Environmental Mystery and Surprise

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nasar, Jack L.; Cubukcu, Ebru

    2011-01-01

    This study used a desktop virtual environment (VE) of 15 large-scale residential streets to test the effects of environmental mystery and surprise on response. In theory, mystery and surprise should increase interest and visual appeal. For each VE, participants walked through an approach street and turned right onto a post-turn street. We designed…

  2. Evaluative Appraisals of Environmental Mystery and Surprise

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nasar, Jack L.; Cubukcu, Ebru

    2011-01-01

    This study used a desktop virtual environment (VE) of 15 large-scale residential streets to test the effects of environmental mystery and surprise on response. In theory, mystery and surprise should increase interest and visual appeal. For each VE, participants walked through an approach street and turned right onto a post-turn street. We designed…

  3. A Procedure for Evaluating Environmental Impact.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leopold, Luna B.; And Others

    This report contains one of the first procedures available to environmental impact statements. The heart of the system is a matrix which is general enough to be used as a reference checklist or a reminder of the full range of actions and impacts on the environment that may relate to any proposed action. This comparatively simple system is intended…

  4. U.S. Department of Energy FreedomCAR & Vehicle Technologies Program Oil Bypass Filter Technology Evaluation - Sixth Quarterly Report, January - March 2004

    SciTech Connect

    U.S. Department of Energy; Larry Zirker

    2004-06-01

    This Oil Bypass Filter Technology Evaluation quarterly report (January-March 2004) details the ongoing fleet evaluation of an oil bypass filter technology by the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) for the U.S. Department of Energy's FreedomCAR & Vehicle Technologies Program. Eight four-cycle diesel-engine buses used to transport INEEL employees on various routes have been equipped with oil bypass filter systems from the puraDYN Corporation. The bypass filters are reported to have engine oil filtering capability of <1 micron and a built-in additive package to facilitate extended oil-drain intervals. This quarter, the heavy-duty buses traveled 88,747 miles, and as of the end of March 2004, the eight buses have accumulated 412,838 total test miles without requiring an oil change. This represents an avoidance of 34 oil changes, which equates to 1,199 quarts (300 gallons) of new oil not consumed and, furthermore, 1,199 quarts of waste oil not generated.

  5. Quantitative evaluation of oil-leg potential in gas reservoirs

    SciTech Connect

    Lisk, M.; Krieger, F.W.; Eadington, P.J. ); O'Brien, G.W. )

    1996-01-01

    Oil bearing fluid inclusions in sandstone represent hidden oil shows. The frequency of quartz grains containing these inclusions (GOI number) reflects maximum palaeo-oil saturation irrespective of the present fluid phase. In this way fluid inclusion data can be used to both identify palaeo-oil columns and to map original oil water contacts (OWC) in wells where oil has been displaced by later gas charge. Studies conducted on gas fields from the North West Shelf of Australia have shown that substantial oil columns were once present. Moreover, detailed GOI mapping has been used to define the location of the original OWC in these reservoirs allowing the height of the palaeo-column to be determined and an estimate to be made of original oil in place (OOIP). At Oliver-1 in the Timor Sea the reservoir is presently filled to spill with a 164m gas, and 14.5m oil, column. GOI mapping has, however, delineated a 96m thick palaeo-oil column within the gas leg. This is almost seven times thicker than the present oil leg which suggests that perhaps 170-190 million barrels of oil were displaced from this structure. In the Pepper gas field in the Carnarvon Basin GOI mapping has demonstrated the presence of a gross palaeo-oil column between 15 and 30 m thick, suggesting that between about 50 and 70 million barrels of oil has been displaced. This is more oil than that reservoired in any of the surrounding oil discoveries, which emphasizes the importance, from an exploration standpoint, of defining these remigration pathways.

  6. Quantitative evaluation of oil-leg potential in gas reservoirs

    SciTech Connect

    Lisk, M.; Krieger, F.W.; Eadington, P.J.; O`Brien, G.W.

    1996-12-31

    Oil bearing fluid inclusions in sandstone represent hidden oil shows. The frequency of quartz grains containing these inclusions (GOI number) reflects maximum palaeo-oil saturation irrespective of the present fluid phase. In this way fluid inclusion data can be used to both identify palaeo-oil columns and to map original oil water contacts (OWC) in wells where oil has been displaced by later gas charge. Studies conducted on gas fields from the North West Shelf of Australia have shown that substantial oil columns were once present. Moreover, detailed GOI mapping has been used to define the location of the original OWC in these reservoirs allowing the height of the palaeo-column to be determined and an estimate to be made of original oil in place (OOIP). At Oliver-1 in the Timor Sea the reservoir is presently filled to spill with a 164m gas, and 14.5m oil, column. GOI mapping has, however, delineated a 96m thick palaeo-oil column within the gas leg. This is almost seven times thicker than the present oil leg which suggests that perhaps 170-190 million barrels of oil were displaced from this structure. In the Pepper gas field in the Carnarvon Basin GOI mapping has demonstrated the presence of a gross palaeo-oil column between 15 and 30 m thick, suggesting that between about 50 and 70 million barrels of oil has been displaced. This is more oil than that reservoired in any of the surrounding oil discoveries, which emphasizes the importance, from an exploration standpoint, of defining these remigration pathways.

  7. Evaluation of economic loss from energy-related environmental pollution: a case study of Beijing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Chen; Su, Meirong; Liu, Gengyuan; Yang, Zhifeng

    2013-09-01

    With the growth of energy consumption, energy-related environmental pollution has become increasingly serious, which in turn causes enormous economic loss because of public health damage, corrosion of materials, crop yield reduction, and other factors. Evaluating economic loss caused by energy-related environmental pollution can contribute to decision making in energy management. A framework for evaluating economic loss from environmental pollution produced during energy production, transportation, and consumption is proposed in this paper. Regarding SO2, PM10, and solid waste as the main pollutants, economic losses from health damage, materials corrosion, crop yield reduction, and solid waste pollution are estimated based on multiple concentration-response relationships and dose-response functions. The proposed framework and evaluation methods are applied to Beijing, China. It is evident that total economic loss attributable to energy-related environmental pollution fluctuated during 2000-2011 but had a general growth trend, with the highest value reaching 2.3 × 108 CNY (China Yuan) in 2006. Economic loss caused by health damage contributes most to the total loss among the four measured damage types. The total economic loss strongly correlates with the amount of energy consumption, especially for oil and electricity. Our evaluation framework and methods can be used widely to measure the potential impact of environmental pollution in the energy lifecycle.

  8. Evaluation and Characterization of Malabar Tamarind [Garcinia cambogia (Gaertn.) Desr.] Seed Oil.

    PubMed

    Choppa, Tharachand; Selvaraj, Chinnadurai Immanuel; Zachariah, Abraham

    2015-09-01

    The objective of this study is to evaluate the chemical compounds present in the Malabar tamarind seed oil. The oil was extracted from the seeds of Malabar tamarind fruits collected from NBPGR Regional station, Thrissur. The seeds yielded 46.5 % of oil. Parameters such as the peroxide value, iodine value, saponification value, and acid value of the extracted Malabar tamarind seed oil were determined. These values were used to predict the quality of fatty acid methyl esters present in the oil. UV absorption spectroscopy of the oil showed hypsochromic shift, and the maximum absorbance was at 269 nm. The Fourier Transform Infrared Spectrum revealed the presence of olefin hydrogen and carbonyl group of ester compounds in the oil sample. The evaluation of the chemical compounds in the oil using gas chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry (GC-MS) revealed that, a total of five fatty acid methyl esters were present in the oil sample. Among the five fatty acid esters present in the Malabar tamarind seed oil, Methyl 16-methyl heptadecanoate (54.57 %) was found to be the predominant compound. This study also supports the presence of olefins in the long chain fatty acids from Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) data. There is a significant correlation between the properties and the characteristic profile of the oil sample. This study is the first report that shows Malabar tamarind as a promising source of oil seeds.

  9. Environmental assessment for the Strategic Petroleum Reserve Big Hill facility storage of commercial crude oil project, Jefferson County, Texas

    SciTech Connect

    1999-03-01

    The Big Hill SPR facility located in Jefferson County, Texas has been a permitted operating crude oil storage site since 1986 with benign environmental impacts. However, Congress has not authorized crude oil purchases for the SPR since 1990, and six storage caverns at Big Hill are underutilized with 70 million barrels of available storage capacity. On February 17, 1999, the Secretary of Energy offered the 70 million barrels of available storage at Big Hill for commercial use. Interested commercial users would enter into storage contracts with DOE, and DOE would receive crude oil in lieu of dollars as rental fees. The site could potentially began to receive commercial oil in May 1999. This Environmental Assessment identified environmental changes that potentially would affect water usage, power usage, and air emissions. However, as the assessment indicates, changes would not occur to a major degree affecting the environment and no long-term short-term, cumulative or irreversible impacts have been identified.

  10. Evaluation of Reservoir Wettability and its Effect on Oil Recovery

    SciTech Connect

    Buckley, Jill S.

    2002-01-29

    The objectives of this five-year project were: (1) to achieve improved understanding of the surface and interfacial properties of crude oils and their interactions with mineral surfaces, (2) to apply the results of surface studies to improve predictions of oil production from laboratory measurements, and (3) to use the results of this research to recommend ways to improve oil recovery by waterflooding.

  11. Technological change, depletion and environmental policy in the offshore oil and gas industry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Managi, Shunsuke

    Technological change is central to maintaining standards of living in modern economies with finite resources and increasingly stringent environmental goals. Successful environmental policies can contribute to efficiency by encouraging, rather than inhibiting, technological innovation. However, little research to date has focused on the design and implementation of environmental regulations that encourage technological progress, or in insuring productivity improvements in the face of depletion of natural resources and increasing stringency of environmental regulations. This study models and measures productivity change, with an application to offshore oil and gas production in the Gulf of Mexico using Data Envelopment Analysis. This is an important application because energy resources are central to sustaining our economy. The net effects of technological progress and depletion on productivity of offshore oil and gas production are measured using a unique field-level set of data of production from all wells in the Gulf of Mexico over the time period from 1946--1998. Results are consistent with the hypothesis that technological progress has mitigated depletion effects over the study period, but the pattern differs from the conventional wisdom for nonrenewable resource industries. The Porter Hypothesis was recast, and revised version was tested. The Porter Hypothesis states that well designed environmental regulations can potentially contribute to productive efficiency in the long run by encouraging innovation. The Porter Hypothesis was recast to include market and nonmarket outputs. Our results support the recast version of Porter hypothesis, which examine productivity of joint production of market and environmental outputs. But we find no evidence for the standard formulation of the Porter hypothesis, that increased stringency of environmental regulation lead to increased productivity of market outputs and therefore increased industry profits. The model is used to

  12. Parachute Creek Shale Oil Program. Environmental monitoring plan, Annual report, October 1, 1987-September 30, 1988

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1989-03-31

    The Energy Security Act of 1980 established a program to provide financial assistance to private industry in the construction and operation of commercial-scale synthetic-fuels plants. The Parachute Creek Shale Oil Program is one of four projects awarded financial assistance. The support agreement included development of an Environmental Monitoring Plan incorporating existing compliance monitoring and supplemental monitoring on water, air, solid waste, worker health and safety, and socio-economic impacts during the period 1986-1993. Phase I of the project is to produce 10,000 barrels per day of syncrude from oil shale, using the Unishale 'B' process. The compliance monitoring data and implementation of supplemental sampling for source monitoring and industrial hygiene monitoring are described.

  13. A planned approach to minimizing environmental damage in oil and gas development in rain forests

    SciTech Connect

    Downey, M.W.

    1993-12-31

    Planning for environmental protection is an integral part of any oil and gas development project in a tropical rain forest. One example of such environmental planning is ARCO`s approach to the possible development of a recent discovery in a remote region of Ecuador`s Amazon rain forest. Environmental planning for development began before drilling the discovery well. In fact, ARCO`s environmental procedures were incorporated into every phase of the project, from exploration to the eventual restoration of disturbed areas once production ends. At the onset, it is important to understand the character of the environment to be protected. A workable environmental protection program must be designed to sustain the environmental ecosystem and the human population in it for the life of the project and beyond. Our experience in Ecuador taught us a number of lessons in this regard. For example, we learned that seemingly benign activities can have unexpected side effects in tropical rain forests, and that scientific resources cannot be effectively used without educating everyone who will be involved in the project.

  14. Evaluating western Siberian oil, gas opportunities--deals

    SciTech Connect

    Ostrander-Krug, K. ); Krug, J.A. )

    1993-02-22

    This article deals with various aspects of creation of Russian joint ventures. The main subject areas are (1) the choices for business structure arrangements between a subcontractor (production share) or license, (2) the procedure for licensing, (3) the alternatives for structuring and the registration requirements for creating a business enterprise, and (4) other considerations for negotiating and forming a venture. The preceding four parts of this five-part series dealt with the technical and economic evaluations of oil and gas ventures in western Siberia. This article is based on the laws at the time of writing. The status of Russian laws should always be checked for changes prior to entering into any agreement.

  15. Application of Symbolic Regression to Electrochemical Impedance Spectroscopy Data for Lubricating Oil Health Evaluation

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-09-27

    nitration, soot content, total base number, total acid number, and viscosity . 1. INTRODUCTION An on-line oil condition monitoring device for...Electrochemical Impedance Spectroscopy Data for Lubricating Oil Health Evaluation 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER W56HZV-10-C-0364 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c...tools to evaluation of diesel engine lubricating oil health (based on electrochemical impedance spectroscopy data) is detailed. It is demonstrated that

  16. Evaluation of oil tanker routing per section 4111(b)(7) Oil Pollution Act of 1990. Part 2. Atlantic and Florida Gulf coasts. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    1996-08-01

    The purpose of this study is to evaluate oil tanker routing along the east coast and Florida Gulf Coast. It discusses whether areas of navigable waters and the Exclusive Economic Zone should be restricted to oil tankers.

  17. Evaluation of selected environmental decision support software

    SciTech Connect

    Sullivan, T.M.; Moskowitz, P.D.; Gitten, M.

    1997-06-01

    Decision Support Software (DSS) continues to be developed to support analysis of decisions pertaining to environmental management. Decision support systems are computer-based systems that facilitate the use of data, models, and structured decision processes in decision making. The optimal DSS should attempt to integrate, analyze, and present environmental information to remediation project managers in order to select cost-effective cleanup strategies. The optimal system should have a balance between the sophistication needed to address the wide range of complicated sites and site conditions present at DOE facilities, and ease of use (e.g., the system should not require data that is typically unknown and should have robust error checking of problem definition through input, etc.). In the first phase of this study, an extensive review of the literature, the Internet, and discussions with sponsors and developers of DSS led to identification of approximately fifty software packages that met the preceding definition.

  18. Environmental baseline characterization of the Naval Oil Shale Reserves in Colorado

    SciTech Connect

    Dadiani, J.; Meyer, L.L.

    1983-04-01

    A comprehensive environmental baseline characterization of the Naval Oil Shale Reserves (NOSR) has been conducted since 1978 and is essentially complete, except for some long-term trend measurements that are continuing until September of 1983. The data from this study can be used in a site-specific environmental impact statement for NOSR development. The baseline study includes geology, vegetation, wildlife, aquatic resources, air quality, meteorology, cultural resources (historic, archaeological, fossil, wilderness, recreation, visual) and socioeconomics. Local subcontractors with specific expertise in the oil shale region provided assistance in field studies. Prior to starting the field work, a detailed baseline monitoring plan was prepared and coordinated with several local, state, and federal agencies for review and comment. Most recommendations made by the agencies could be incorporated into the program. There were no environmental characteristics found that would obviously preclude development on the NOSR; however, there were some findings for which mitigating measures may need to be implemented, depending upon the magnitude of development. These areas include big game migration patterns, threatened and endangered species of vegetation and fish, archaeological sites, and maintenance of air quality.

  19. Effect of leachability on environmental risk assessment for naturally occurring radioactive materials in petroleum oil fields.

    PubMed

    Rajaretnam, G; Spitz, H B

    2000-02-01

    Elevated concentrations of naturally occurring radioactive material (NORM), including 238U, 232Th, and their progeny found in underground geologic deposits, are often encountered during crude oil recovery. Radium, the predominant radionuclide brought to the surface with the crude oil and produced water, co-precipitates with barium in the form of complex compounds of sulfates, carbonates, and silicates found in sludge and scale. These NORM deposits are highly stable and very insoluble under ambient conditions at the earth's surface. However, the co-precipitated radium matrix is not thermodynamically stable at reducing conditions which may enable a fraction of the radium to eventually be released to the environment. Although the fate of radium in uranium mill tailings has been studied extensively, the leachability of radium from crude oil NORM deposits exposed to acid-rain and other aging processes is generally unknown. The leachability of radium from NORM contaminated soil collected at a contaminated oil field in eastern Kentucky was determined using extraction fluids having wide range of pH reflecting different extreme environmental conditions. The average 226Ra concentration in the samples of soil subjected to leachability testing was 32.56 Bq g(-1) +/- 0.34 Bq g(-1). The average leaching potential of 226Ra observed in these NORM contaminated soil samples was 1.3% +/- 0.46% and was independent of the extraction fluid. Risk assessment calculations using the family farm scenario show that the annual dose to a person living and working on this NORM contaminated soil is mainly due to external gamma exposure and radon inhalation. However, waterborne pathways make a non-negligible contribution to the dose for the actual resident families living on farmland with the type of residual NORM contamination due to crude oil recovery operations.

  20. 77 FR 57581 - Environmental Documents Prepared for Oil, Gas, and Mineral Operations by the Gulf of Mexico Outer...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-09-18

    ... Bureau of Ocean Energy Management Environmental Documents Prepared for Oil, Gas, and Mineral Operations... (BOEM), Interior. ACTION: Notice of the availability of environmental documents prepared for ocs mineral..., gas, and mineral-related activities that were proposed in the Gulf of Mexico, or more...

  1. 75 FR 67996 - Environmental Documents Prepared for Proposed Oil, Gas, and Mineral Operations by the Gulf of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-04

    ... Enforcement Environmental Documents Prepared for Proposed Oil, Gas, and Mineral Operations by the Gulf of... Enforcement, Interior. ACTION: Notice of the Availability of Environmental Documents Prepared for OCS Mineral... mineral-related activities proposed on the Gulf of Mexico. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT:...

  2. Oil Spills

    MedlinePlus

    Oil spills often happen because of accidents, when people make mistakes or equipment breaks down. Other causes include natural disasters or deliberate acts. Oil spills have major environmental and economic effects. Oil spills ...

  3. A new state evaluation method of oil pump unit based on AHP and FCE

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Yang; Liang, Wei; Qiu, Zeyang; Zhang, Meng; Lu, Wenqing

    2017-05-01

    In order to make an accurate state evaluation of oil pump unit, a comprehensive evaluation index should be established. A multi-parameters state evaluation method of oil pump unit is proposed in this paper. The oil pump unit is analyzed by Failure Mode and Effect Analysis (FMEA), so evaluation index can be obtained based on FMEA conclusions. The weights of different parameters in evaluation index are discussed using Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP) with expert experience. According to the evaluation index and the weight of each parameter, the state evaluation is carried out by Fuzzy Comprehensive Evaluation (FCE) and the state is divided into five levels depending on status value, which is inspired by human body health. In order to verify the effectiveness and feasibility of the proposed method, a state evaluation of oil pump used in a pump station is taken as an example.

  4. Evaluating alternatives for decommissioning California's offshore oil and gas platforms.

    PubMed

    Bernstein, Brock B

    2015-10-01

    This paper introduces a series of 6 additional papers in this issue that describe an in-depth analysis of options for decommissioning oil and gas platforms offshore southern California. Although current leases require lessees in both state and federal waters to completely remove all production facilities and restore the seafloor to its pre-platform condition, other options have emerged since these leases were signed. Laws and regulations in other jurisdictions (particularly in federal waters) have evolved to allow a number of other uses such as aquaculture, alternative energy production, and artificial reefing. In response, the California Natural Resources Agency initiated an effort to investigate the issues associated with these and other decommissioning alternatives. The papers in this series are the result of the second phase in this process, a broad investigation of the engineering, economic, and environmental costs and benefits of the most feasible and likely options. In addition to the project's final report, the authors produced an interactive mathematical decision model, PLATFORM, that enables users to explore the implications of different decommissioning projects and options, as well as the effects of different approaches to valuing the associated costs and benefits. © 2015 SETAC.

  5. Exploring Oil Spills.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Czerniak, Charlene M.; And Others

    1996-01-01

    Presents activities in which elementary and middle school students work together to gain environmental awareness about oil spills. Involves students experiencing a simulated oil spill and attempting to clean it up. Discusses the use of children's literature after the activity in evaluation of the activity. (JRH)

  6. Exploring Oil Spills.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Czerniak, Charlene M.; And Others

    1996-01-01

    Presents activities in which elementary and middle school students work together to gain environmental awareness about oil spills. Involves students experiencing a simulated oil spill and attempting to clean it up. Discusses the use of children's literature after the activity in evaluation of the activity. (JRH)

  7. 45 CFR 641.17 - Initial environmental evaluation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 3 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Initial environmental evaluation. 641.17 Section 641.17 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare (Continued) NATIONAL SCIENCE FOUNDATION ENVIRONMENTAL ASSESSMENT PROCEDURES FOR PROPOSED NATIONAL SCIENCE FOUNDATION ACTIONS IN ANTARCTICA §...

  8. 45 CFR 641.18 - Comprehensive environmental evaluation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 3 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Comprehensive environmental evaluation. 641.18 Section 641.18 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare (Continued) NATIONAL SCIENCE FOUNDATION ENVIRONMENTAL ASSESSMENT PROCEDURES FOR PROPOSED NATIONAL SCIENCE FOUNDATION ACTIONS IN...

  9. 45 CFR 641.17 - Initial environmental evaluation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 3 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Initial environmental evaluation. 641.17 Section 641.17 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare (Continued) NATIONAL SCIENCE FOUNDATION ENVIRONMENTAL ASSESSMENT PROCEDURES FOR PROPOSED NATIONAL SCIENCE FOUNDATION ACTIONS IN ANTARCTICA §...

  10. 45 CFR 641.17 - Initial environmental evaluation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 3 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Initial environmental evaluation. 641.17 Section 641.17 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare (Continued) NATIONAL SCIENCE FOUNDATION ENVIRONMENTAL ASSESSMENT PROCEDURES FOR PROPOSED NATIONAL SCIENCE FOUNDATION ACTIONS IN ANTARCTICA §...

  11. 45 CFR 641.18 - Comprehensive environmental evaluation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 3 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Comprehensive environmental evaluation. 641.18 Section 641.18 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare (Continued) NATIONAL SCIENCE FOUNDATION ENVIRONMENTAL ASSESSMENT PROCEDURES FOR PROPOSED NATIONAL SCIENCE FOUNDATION ACTIONS IN...

  12. Evaluating the Environmental Health Work Force. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Levine Associates, Inc., Rockville, MD.

    This report contains all materials pertinent to an intensive evaluation of the environmental health work force conducted in 1986 and 1987. The materials relate to a workshop that was one of the key tools used in conducting the study to estimate environmental health personnel supply, demand, and need. The report begins with an overview and…

  13. MSFC Skylab thermal and environmental control system mission evaluation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hopson, G. D.; Littles, J. W.; Patterson, W. C.

    1974-01-01

    An evaluation of the performance of the Skylab thermal and environmental control system is presented. Actual performance is compared to design and functional requirements and anomalies and discrepancies and their resolution are discussed. The thermal and environmental control systems performed their intended role. Based on the experience gained in design, development and flight, recommendations are provided which may be beneficial to future system designs.

  14. Evaluating an Environmental Education Symposium for Secondary Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Milson, James L.

    1975-01-01

    Teachers met with specialists in pollution, population growth, and natural resources to assist them in selecting environmental topics appropriate to their discipline. Pretests and posttest evaluation of teachers indicated significant differences in responses to environmental issues and selection of curriculum topics. Also the symposium structure…

  15. 45 CFR 641.18 - Comprehensive environmental evaluation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Comprehensive environmental evaluation. 641.18 Section 641.18 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare (Continued) NATIONAL SCIENCE FOUNDATION ENVIRONMENTAL ASSESSMENT PROCEDURES FOR PROPOSED NATIONAL SCIENCE FOUNDATION ACTIONS IN...

  16. 45 CFR 641.17 - Initial environmental evaluation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Initial environmental evaluation. 641.17 Section 641.17 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare (Continued) NATIONAL SCIENCE FOUNDATION ENVIRONMENTAL ASSESSMENT PROCEDURES FOR PROPOSED NATIONAL SCIENCE FOUNDATION ACTIONS IN ANTARCTICA §...

  17. 45 CFR 641.17 - Initial environmental evaluation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 3 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Initial environmental evaluation. 641.17 Section 641.17 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare (Continued) NATIONAL SCIENCE FOUNDATION ENVIRONMENTAL ASSESSMENT PROCEDURES FOR PROPOSED NATIONAL SCIENCE FOUNDATION ACTIONS IN ANTARCTICA §...

  18. Teaching and Evaluating Critical Thinking in an Environmental Context

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hofreiter, Trina D.; Monroe, Martha C.; Stein, Taylor V.

    2007-01-01

    As environmental education strives to create an informed citizenry capable of addressing complex problems, critical thinking is an integral part of this effort. This research guides environmental educators in defining, teaching, and evaluating critical thinking by summarizing a pilot study with an undergraduate forest issues course designed to…

  19. LOX Gene transcript accumulation in olive (Olea europaea L.) fruits at different stages of maturation: relationship between volatile compounds, environmental factors, and technological treatments for oil extraction.

    PubMed

    Muzzalupo, Innocenzo; Macchione, Barbara; Bucci, Cristina; Stefanizzi, Francesca; Perri, Enzo; Chiappetta, Adriana; Tagarelli, Antonio; Sindona, Giovanni

    2012-01-01

    The quality of olive oil is influenced by genetic and environmental factors and by the maturation state of drupes, but it is equally affected by technological treatments of the process. This work investigates the possible correlation between olive LOX gene transcript accumulation, evaluated in fruits collected at different stages of maturation, and chemical biomarkers of its activity. During olive fruit ripening, the same genotype harvested from two different farms shows a positive linear trend between LOX relative transcript accumulation and the content of volatile compounds present in the olive oil aroma. Interestingly, a negative linear trend was observed between LOX relative transcript accumulation and the content of volatile compounds present in the olive pastes obtained from olive fruits with and without malaxation. The changes in the olive LOX transcript accumulation reveal its environmental regulation and suggest differential physiological functions for the LOXs.

  20. LOX Gene Transcript Accumulation in Olive (Olea europaea L.) Fruits at Different Stages of Maturation: Relationship between Volatile Compounds, Environmental Factors, and Technological Treatments for Oil Extraction

    PubMed Central

    Muzzalupo, Innocenzo; Macchione, Barbara; Bucci, Cristina; Stefanizzi, Francesca; Perri, Enzo; Chiappetta, Adriana; Tagarelli, Antonio; Sindona, Giovanni

    2012-01-01

    The quality of olive oil is influenced by genetic and environmental factors and by the maturation state of drupes, but it is equally affected by technological treatments of the process. This work investigates the possible correlation between olive LOX gene transcript accumulation, evaluated in fruits collected at different stages of maturation, and chemical biomarkers of its activity. During olive fruit ripening, the same genotype harvested from two different farms shows a positive linear trend between LOX relative transcript accumulation and the content of volatile compounds present in the olive oil aroma. Interestingly, a negative linear trend was observed between LOX relative transcript accumulation and the content of volatile compounds present in the olive pastes obtained from olive fruits with and without malaxation. The changes in the olive LOX transcript accumulation reveal its environmental regulation and suggest differential physiological functions for the LOXs. PMID:22645430

  1. Gundrilling Oil Evaluation to Find a Replacement for 50-50

    SciTech Connect

    Karl Arnold

    2008-04-30

    In 2006 the gundrilling oil used at Honeywell FM&T (Federal Manufacturing and Technology) was known as 50-50. This name was selected because the oil is a mixture of two machining oils, Milpro 634 and Pennex N47. Unfortunately, Honeywell FM&T was notified that one component, Pennex N47, would be discontinued by the manufacturer. At this point the Honeywell FM&T team decided to select a single oil to eliminate mixing and procurement of two products. In addition, the team also wanted to select new oil with lower viscosity than the 50-50 mixture. Lower (than 50-50) viscosity oil was recommended by Nagel the manufacturer of the new TBT gundrilling machines. To this end Honeywell FM&T evaluated seven cutting oils in order to select a substitute that would achieve acceptable gundrilling results. This work resulted in the selection of Castrol Ilocut 334 based on cutting performance and human factors. The Castrol oil can easily achieve up to 8 holes per drill at a feed rate 30% greater than that achieved by the 50-50 oil. Once design agency approval is received, this oil will be installed as the drilling oil for all FM&T stems. This oil will also be used for other reservoir machining operations where appropriate.

  2. Chemical composition, aroma evaluation, and inhibitory activity towards acetylcholinesterase of essential oils from Gynura bicolor DC.

    PubMed

    Miyazawa, Mitsuo; Nakahashi, Hiroshi; Usami, Atsushi; Matsuda, Naoki

    2016-04-01

    The compositions of the essential oils obtained from leaves and stems of Gynura bicolor DC. were analyzed by GC-MS. One hundred eight components of these oils were identified. (E)-β-caryophyllene (31.42 %), α-pinene (17.11 %), and bicyclogermacrene (8.09 %) were found to be the main components of the leaf oil, while α-pinene (61.42 %), β-pinene (14.39 %), and myrcene (5.10 %) were the major constituents of the stem oil. We found 73 previously unidentified components in these oils from G. bicolor. The oils were also subjected to odor evaluation. Eleven and 12 aroma-active compounds were detected in the leaf and stem oils, respectively. The abilities of these oils to inhibit acetylcholinesterase (AChE) activity were determined. The sesquiterpenoids in the oils were found to inhibit AChE activity more strongly than the monoterpenoids in the oils did. It was suggested that the three main components in each essential oil act synergistically against AChE activity. These results show that the essential oils obtained from G. bicolor are a good dietary source of AChE activity inhibition.

  3. Petroleum mineral oil refining and evaluation of cancer hazard.

    PubMed

    Mackerer, Carl R; Griffis, Larry C; Grabowski Jr, John S; Reitman, Fred A

    2003-11-01

    Petroleum base oils (petroleum mineral oils) are manufactured from crude oils by vacuum distillation to produce several distillates and a residual oil that are then further refined. Aromatics including alkylated polycyclic aromatic compounds (PAC) are undesirable constituents of base oils because they are deleterious to product performance and are potentially carcinogenic. In modern base oil refining, aromatics are reduced by solvent extraction, catalytic hydrotreating, or hydrocracking. Chronic exposure to poorly refined base oils has the potential to cause skin cancer. A chronic mouse dermal bioassay has been the standard test for estimating carcinogenic potential of mineral oils. The level of alkylated 3-7-ring PAC in raw streams from the vacuum tower must be greatly reduced to render the base oil noncarcinogenic. The processes that can reduce PAC levels are known, but the operating conditions for the processing units (e.g., temperature, pressure, catalyst type, residence time in the unit, unit engineering design, etc.) needed to achieve adequate PAC reduction are refinery specific. Chronic dermal bioassays provide information about whether conditions applied can make a noncarcinogenic oil, but cannot be used to monitor current production for quality control or for conducting research or developing new processes since this test takes at least 78 weeks to conduct. Three short-term, non-animal assays all involving extraction of oil with dimethylsulfoxide (DMSO) have been validated for predicting potential carcinogenic activity of petroleum base oils: a modified Ames assay of a DMSO extract, a gravimetric assay (IP 346) for wt. percent of oil extracted into DMSO, and a GC-FID assay measuring 3-7-ring PAC content in a DMSO extract of oil, expressed as percent of the oil. Extraction with DMSO concentrates PAC in a manner that mimics the extraction method used in the solvent refining of noncarcinogenic oils. The three assays are described, data demonstrating the

  4. Evaluating lubricating capacity of vegetal oils using Abbott-Firestone curve

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Georgescu, C.; Cristea, G. C.; Dima, C.; Deleanu, L.

    2017-02-01

    The paper presents the change of functional parameters defined on the Abbott-Firestone curve in order to evaluate the surface quality of the balls from the four ball tester, after tests done with several vegetable oils. The tests were done using two grades of rapeseed oil (degummed and refined) and two grades of soybean oil (coarse and degummed) and a common transmission oil (T90). Test parameters were 200 N and 0.576 m/s (1500 rpm) for 60 minutes. For the refined rapeseed oil, the changes in shape of the Abbott-Firestone curves are more dramatic, these being characterized by high values of Spk (the average value for the wear scars on the three balls), thus being 40% of the sum Svk + Sk + Spk, percentage also obtained for the soybean oil, but the value Spk being lower. For the degummed soybean oil, the profile height of the wear scars are taller than those obtained after testing the coarse soybean oil, meaning that the degumming process has a negative influence on the worn surface quality and the lubricating capacity of this oil. Comparing the surface quality of the wear scars on fixed tested balls is a reliable method to point out the lubricant properties of the vegetable oils, especially if they are compared to a “classical” lubricant as a non-additivated transmission mineral oil T90. The best surface after testing was obtained for the soybean oil, followed by T90 oil and the degummed grades of the soybean oil and rapeseed oil (these three giving very close values for the functional parameters), but the refined rapeseed oil generated the poorest quality of the wear scars on the balls, under the same testing conditions.

  5. GENERAL ENVIRONMENTAL CORPORATION; CURE ELECTROCOAGULATION TECHNOLOGY: INNOVATIVE TECHNOLOGY EVALUATION REPORT

    EPA Science Inventory

    The CURE electrocoagulation technology was demonstrated under the Superfund Innovative Technology Evaluation (SITE) program at the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Rocky Flats Environmental Technology Site (RFETS), where water from the solar evaporation ponds (SEPs) was contaminat...

  6. Building environmental educators' evaluation capacity through distance education.

    PubMed

    Fleming, M Lynette; Easton, Janice

    2010-05-01

    Evaluation capacity building (ECB) is seldom mentioned in the environmental education (EE) literature, but as demonstrated by the lack and poor quality of EE evaluations, is much needed. This article focuses on an online course, Applied Environmental Education Program Evaluation (AEEPE), which provides nonformal educators with an understanding of how evaluation can be used to improve their EE programs. The authors provide descriptions of key aspects and strategies for addressing challenges they face in teaching AEEPE, such as: reducing attrition, developing and maintaining a social learning environment online, and improving students' understanding of attribution and logic models. While the course equips environmental educators with the skills necessary to design and implement basic evaluations, there is less certainty that the course contributes to generating demand for evaluation within organizations and the profession. Therefore the authors call on national organizations and associations for help with increasing the demand for ECB in the EE community.

  7. Oil Bypass Filter Technology Evaluation Tenth Quarterly Report January–March 2005

    SciTech Connect

    Larry Ziker; James Francfort

    2005-06-01

    This Oil Bypass Filter Technology Evaluation quarterly report (January– March 2005) details the ongoing fleet evaluation of oil bypass filter technologies being conducted by the Idaho National Laboratory (INL) for the U.S. Department of Energy’s FreedomCAR & Vehicle Technologies Program. Eleven INL fourcycle diesel-engine buses and six INL Chevrolet Tahoes with gasoline engines are equipped with oil bypass filter systems. Eight of the buses and the six Tahoes are equipped with oil bypass filters from the puraDYN Corporation; the remaining three buses are equipped with oil bypass filters from Refined Global Solutions. Both the puraDYN and Refined Global Solutions bypass filters have a heating chamber to remove liquid contaminates from the oil. During the January to March 2005 reporting quarter, the eleven diesel engine buses traveled 97,943 miles. As of March 31, 2005, the buses had accumulated 744,059 total test miles. During this quarter, four regularly scheduled 12,000-mile bus servicings were performed. The full-flow and bypass oil filters were changed and oil analysis samples were taken for the four buses. Bus 73446 had its oil changed due to a low total base number value. Bus 73450 had a major engine failure at the beginning of the quarter when one of its pushrods and valves were damaged. Buses 73432 and 73433 were removed from the bypass filter evaluation project and placed into the INL Diesel Engine Idling Wear-Rate Evaluation Test. While a total of nine oil changes on the INL buses occurred during the past 29 months, 53 oil changes have been avoided by using the oil bypass filters. The 53 avoided oil changes equates to 1,855 quarts (464 gallons) of new oil not consumed and 1,855 quarts of waste oil not generated. Therefore, over 85% of the oil normally required for oil-changes was not used, and, consequently, the evaluation achieved a greater than 85% reduction in the amount of waste oil normally generated by the buses. The six Tahoe test vehicles

  8. Economic evaluation on CO₂-EOR of onshore oil fields in China

    SciTech Connect

    Wei, Ning; Li, Xiaochun; Dahowski, Robert T.; Davidson, Casie L.; Liu, Shengnan; Zha, Yongjin

    2015-06-01

    Carbon dioxide enhanced oil recovery (CO₂-EOR) and sequestration in depleted oil reservoirs is a plausible option for utilizing anthropogenic CO₂ to increase oil production while storing CO₂ underground. Evaluation of the storage resources and cost of potential CO₂-EOR projects is an essential step before the commencement of large-scale deployment of such activities. In this paper, a hybrid techno-economic evaluation method, including a performance model and cost model for onshore CO₂-EOR projects, has been developed based on previous studies. Total 296 onshore oil fields, accounting for about 70% of total mature onshore oil fields in China, were evaluated by the techno-economic method. The key findings of this study are summarized as follows: (1) deterministic analysis shows there are approximately 1.1 billion tons (7.7 billion barrels) of incremental crude oil and 2.2 billion tons CO₂ storage resource for onshore CO₂-EOR at net positive revenue within the Chinese oil fields reviewed under the given operating strategy and economic assumptions. (2) Sensitivity study highlights that the cumulative oil production and cumulative CO₂ storage resource are very sensitive to crude oil price, CO₂ cost, project lifetime, discount rate and tax policy. High oil price, short project lifetime, low discount rate, low CO₂ cost, and low tax policy can greatly increase the net income of the oil enterprise, incremental oil recovery and CO₂ storage resource. (3) From this techno-economic evaluation, the major barriers to large-scale deployment of CO₂-EOR include complex geological conditions, low API of crude oil, high tax policy, and lack of incentives for the CO₂-EOR project.

  9. Economic evaluation on CO₂-EOR of onshore oil fields in China

    DOE PAGES

    Wei, Ning; Li, Xiaochun; Dahowski, Robert T.; ...

    2015-06-01

    Carbon dioxide enhanced oil recovery (CO₂-EOR) and sequestration in depleted oil reservoirs is a plausible option for utilizing anthropogenic CO₂ to increase oil production while storing CO₂ underground. Evaluation of the storage resources and cost of potential CO₂-EOR projects is an essential step before the commencement of large-scale deployment of such activities. In this paper, a hybrid techno-economic evaluation method, including a performance model and cost model for onshore CO₂-EOR projects, has been developed based on previous studies. Total 296 onshore oil fields, accounting for about 70% of total mature onshore oil fields in China, were evaluated by the techno-economicmore » method. The key findings of this study are summarized as follows: (1) deterministic analysis shows there are approximately 1.1 billion tons (7.7 billion barrels) of incremental crude oil and 2.2 billion tons CO₂ storage resource for onshore CO₂-EOR at net positive revenue within the Chinese oil fields reviewed under the given operating strategy and economic assumptions. (2) Sensitivity study highlights that the cumulative oil production and cumulative CO₂ storage resource are very sensitive to crude oil price, CO₂ cost, project lifetime, discount rate and tax policy. High oil price, short project lifetime, low discount rate, low CO₂ cost, and low tax policy can greatly increase the net income of the oil enterprise, incremental oil recovery and CO₂ storage resource. (3) From this techno-economic evaluation, the major barriers to large-scale deployment of CO₂-EOR include complex geological conditions, low API of crude oil, high tax policy, and lack of incentives for the CO₂-EOR project.« less

  10. Evaluation of using cyclocranes to support drilling & production of oil & gas in wetland areas. Sixth quarterly technical progress report, incorporating milestone schedule/status, October 1993--December 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Eggington, W.J.

    1994-04-01

    This report is a progress report on a planned program falling under wetlands area research related to drilling, production, and transportation of oil and gas resources. Specifically the planned program addresses an evaluation of using cyclocraft to transport drill rigs, mud, pipes and other materials and equipment in a cost effective and environmentally safe manner to support oil and gas drilling and production operations in wetland areas. During this period, task 5, subscale tests, and task 7, environmental impacts, were completed. Work was continued on task 10, technology transfer, and the preparation of the final report as part of task 11.

  11. Evaluation of Reservoir Wettability and its Effect on Oil Recovery

    SciTech Connect

    Buckley, Jill S.

    1999-07-01

    The objective of this five-year project are: (1) to achieve improved understanding of the surface and interfacial properties of crude oils and their interactions with mineral surfaces, (2) to apply the results of surface studies to improve predictions of oil production from laboratory measurements, and (3) to use the results of this research to recommend ways to improve oil recovery by waterflooding. During the second year of this project we have tested the generality of the proposed mechanisms by which crude oil components can alter wetting. Using these mechanisms, we have begun a program of characterizing crude oils with respect to their wettability altering potential. Wettability assessment has been improved by replacing glass with mica as a standard surface material and crude oils have been used to alter wetting in simple square glass capillary tubes in which the subsequent imbibition of water can be followed visually.

  12. Environmental effect on essential oil composition of Aloysia citriodora from Corrientes (Argentina).

    PubMed

    Ricciardi, Gabriela; Torres, Ana Maria; Bubenik, Ana Laura; Ricciardi, Armando; Lorenzo, Daniel; Dellacassa, Eduardo

    2011-11-01

    Lemon verbena (Aloysia citriodora Palau) is indigenous to South America and was introduced into Europe. It is cultivated mainly due to the lemon-like aroma emitted from its leaves, which are utilized for the preparation of herbal tea reputed to have antispasmodic, antipyretic, sedative and digestive properties. In this work we introduce the enantiomeric distribution of sabinene and limonene by bidimensional gas chromatography (chiral GC-GC) as a genuine quantitative parameter in order to improve the knowledge so far available on A. citriodora oil. Multivariate analysis afforded information on the similarities and differences of wild and cultivated A. citriodora populations during different seasons in the same environmental conditions. The results indicated that it was possible to discard the environmental and seasonal effect on the chemical composition of A. citriodora for wild and cultivated materials belonging to the same genetic origin.

  13. Evaluation of Catmint Oil and Hydrogenated Catmint Oil as Repellents for the Flour Beetles, Tribolium castaneum and Tribolium confusum

    PubMed Central

    Arthur, Frank H.; Fontenot, Emily A.; Campbell, James F.

    2011-01-01

    Catmint oil and hydrogenated catmint oil were evaluated as repellents for adult Tribolium casteneum (Herbst) (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae), the red flour beetle, and T. confusum (DuVal), the confused flour beetle, using both a traditional method of visual assessment of distribution and a video recording method to determine movement patterns of individual insects. Visual assessments of distribution using groups of adults showed that the hydrogenated catmint oil was more effective than the pure catmint oil, but there was no significant difference between species. However, when repellency was measured using single insects and the visual recording system, both oils were significantly more repellent to T. castaneum than T. confusum at the concentrations evaluated in the study. Avoidance movement and change in direction when T. castaneum encountered the repellent were observed. Results indicate that repellents may be more accurately assessed using single insects rather than groups of individuals, and simple visual observations of distribution may be less sensitive in measuring repellent efficacy. Procedures for utilizing a video system are described as models for future evaluations of repellents for stored-product beetles. PMID:22235903

  14. Evaluation of catmint oil and hydrogenated catmint oil as repellents for the flour beetles, Tribolium castaneum and Tribolium confusum.

    PubMed

    Arthur, Frank H; Fontenot, Emily A; Campbell, James F

    2011-01-01

    Catmint oil and hydrogenated catmint oil were evaluated as repellents for adult Tribolium casteneum (Herbst) (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae), the red flour beetle, and T. confusum (DuVal), the confused flour beetle, using both a traditional method of visual assessment of distribution and a video recording method to determine movement patterns of individual insects. Visual assessments of distribution using groups of adults showed that the hydrogenated catmint oil was more effective than the pure catmint oil, but there was no significant difference between species. However, when repellency was measured using single insects and the visual recording system, both oils were significantly more repellent to T. castaneum than T. confusum at the concentrations evaluated in the study. Avoidance movement and change in direction when T. castaneum encountered the repellent were observed. Results indicate that repellents may be more accurately assessed using single insects rather than groups of individuals, and simple visual observations of distribution may be less sensitive in measuring repellent efficacy. Procedures for utilizing a video system are described as models for future evaluations of repellents for stored-product beetles.

  15. Essential oil mediated synthesis of silver nanocrystals for environmental, anti-microbial and antioxidant applications.

    PubMed

    Vilas, Vidya; Philip, Daizy; Mathew, Joseph

    2016-04-01

    Our quest for a green, non-toxic and environmentally benign synthetic design for the fabrication of metal nanoparticles has led to the use of essential oil present in plant parts as the bioreductant. In this report, silver particles at nanoscale have been synthesized using essential oil present in the leaves of Coleus aromaticus at physiological pH and at 373 K. UV-vis spectra of the colloid display strong plasmon bands centred around 396-411 nm, characteristic of silver nanoparticles. Comparative studies of the FTIR spectra of essential oil and silver nanoparticles reveal the involvement of terpenes and their phenolic derivatives in reduction and subsequent stabilization. TEM micrographs and XRD pattern show the formation of 26 and 28 nm sized face centred cubic structured crystalline nanospheroids with intermittent formation of nanorods. The phytosynthesized silver nanoparticles are found to be effective in degrading hazardous organic pollutants including methyl orange, methylene blue, eosin yellowish and para nitro phenol within a span of a few minutes. Dose dependant antibacterial activity of the biogenic nanosilver against pathogenic Gramme-negative Escherichia coli (ATCC 25922) and Gramme-positive Staphylococcus aureus (ATCC 25923) has been portrayed through agar-well dispersion method. The antioxidant activity including antiradical activity and reducing power have been depicted through superoxide radical scavenging activity, hydroxyl radical scavenging activity, hydrogen peroxide scavenging activity, nitric oxide scavenging activity, DPPH assay and reducing power activity involving the reduction of ferric ion.

  16. Environmentally Assisted Cracking of Drill Pipes in Deep Drilling Oil and Natural Gas Wells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ziomek-Moroz, M.

    2012-06-01

    Corrosion fatigue (CF), hydrogen induced cracking (HIC) and sulfide stress cracking (SSC), or environmentally assisted cracking (EAC) have been identified as the most challenging causes of catastrophic brittle fracture of drill pipes during drilling operations of deep oil and natural gas wells. Although corrosion rates can be low and tensile stresses during service can be below the material yield stress, a simultaneous action between the stress and corrosive environment can cause a sudden brittle failure of a drill component. Overall, EAC failure consists of two stages: incubation and propagation. Defects, such as pits, second-phase inclusions, etc., serve as preferential sites for the EAC failure during the incubation stage. Deep oil and gas well environments are rich in chlorides and dissolved hydrogen sulfide, which are extremely detrimental to steels used in drilling operations. This article discusses catastrophic brittle fracture mechanisms due to EAC of drill pipe materials, and the corrosion challenges that need to be overcome for drilling ultra-deep oil and natural gas wells.

  17. TREATMENT OF PLUTONIUM- AND URANIUM-CONTAMINATED OIL FROM ROCKY FLATS ENVIRONMENTAL TECHNOLOGY SITE

    SciTech Connect

    Klasson, KT

    2002-12-05

    A removal method for plutonium and uranium has been tested at the Rocky Flats Environmental Technology Site (RFETS). This alternative treatment technology is applicable to U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) organics (mainly used pump oil) contaminated with actinides. In our studies, greater than 70% removal of the actinides was achieved. The technology is based on contacting the oil with a sorbent powder consisting of a surface modified mesoporous material. The SAMMS (Self-Assembled Monolayers on Mesoporous Support) technology was developed by the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory for removal and stabilization of RCRA (i.e., lead, mercury, cadmium, silver, etc.) and actinides in water and for removal of mercury from organic solvents [1, 2]. The SAMMS material is based on self-assembly of functionalized monolayers on mesoporous oxide surfaces. The unique mesoporous oxide support provides a high surface area, thereby enhancing the metal-loading capacity. The testing described in this report was conducted on a small scale but larger-scale testing of the technology has been performed on mercury-contaminated oil without difficulty [3].

  18. DOE methods for evaluating environmental and waste management samples.

    SciTech Connect

    Goheen, S C; McCulloch, M; Thomas, B L; Riley, R G; Sklarew, D S; Mong, G M; Fadeff, S K

    1994-04-01

    DOE Methods for Evaluating Environmental and Waste Management Samples (DOE Methods) provides applicable methods in use by. the US Department of Energy (DOE) laboratories for sampling and analyzing constituents of waste and environmental samples. The development of DOE Methods is supported by the Laboratory Management Division (LMD) of the DOE. This document contains chapters and methods that are proposed for use in evaluating components of DOE environmental and waste management samples. DOE Methods is a resource intended to support sampling and analytical activities that will aid in defining the type and breadth of contamination and thus determine the extent of environmental restoration or waste management actions needed, as defined by the DOE, the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), or others.

  19. Evaluation of Options for Interpreting Environmental ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Report Secondary data from the BioResponse Operational Testing and Evaluation project were used to study six options for interpreting culture-based/microbial count data sets that include left censored data, or measurements that are less than established quantification limits and/or detection limits.

  20. Evaluating Innovation in Environmental Education. OECD Documents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development, Paris (France).

    This book is about an approach to curriculum development and evaluation in which teachers and students worked with parents, local communities, politicians, and a major international organization, to carry out research and bring about improvements. The participants were part of the Environment and Schools Initiative (ENSI), a major international…

  1. An environmentally safe larvicide against Aedes aegypti based on in situ gelling nanostructured surfactant systems containing an essential oil.

    PubMed

    Ferreira, S G; Conceição, V S; Gouveia, N S; Santos, G S; Santos, R L C; Lira, A A M; Cavalcanti, S C H; Sarmento, V H V; Nunes, R S

    2015-10-15

    Liquid crystalline precursors, which are in situ gelling nanostructured surfactant systems, can undergo phase transition in aqueous solution and become more structured aggregates, controlling release of larvicides and acting as biotechnology alternatives for dengue control. Such systems can contain bioactive substances as Citrus sinensis essential oil (CSEO) which exhibits biological activity against Aedes aegypti (Ae. aegypti) larvae. The formulations were composed by fixed concentration of CSEO stabilized by Polyoxypropylene (5) Polyoxyethylene (20) Cetyl Ether (PPG-5 CETETH-20): oleic acid (OA) 2:1, increasing water content. The phase diagram was established and systems structure was evaluated by polarized light microscopy (PLM), small angle X-ray scattering (SAXS) and rheology. Median lethal concentration was determined against Ae. aegypti larvae. The phase diagram exhibited four regions: liquid crystal (LC), emulsion, microemulsion (ME) and phase separation. The PLM and SAXS distinguished microemulsions, lamellar and hexagonal LC structures. Flow and oscillatory tests showed that increasing water content increases elasticity from Newtonian to non-newtonian behavior confirming the in situ gelation behavior. The larvicidal activity of formulations indicates that these nanostructured systems improved the oil solubility in aqueous medium and in addition are potential environmental larvicide against Ae. aegypti larvae. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Improving environmental impact and cost assessment for supplier evaluation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beucker, Severin; Lang, Claus

    2004-02-01

    Improving a company"s environmental and financial performance necessitates the evaluation of environmental impacts deriving from the production and cost effects of corporate actions. These effects have to be made transparent and concrete targets have to be developed. Such an evaluation has to be done on a regular basis but with limited expenses. To achieve this, different instruments of environmental controlling such as LCA and environmental performance indicators have to be combined with methods from cost accounting. Within the research project CARE (Computer Aided Resource Efficiency Accounting for Medium-Sized Enterprises), the method Resource Efficiency Accounting (REA) is used to give the participating companies new insights into hidden costs and environmental effects of their production and products. The method combines process based cost accounting with environmental impact assessment methodology and offers results that can be integrated into a company"s environmental controlling system and business processes like cost accounting, supplier assessment, etc. Much of the data necessary for the combined assessment can be available within a company"s IT system and therefore can be efficiently used for the assessment process. The project CARE puts a strong focus on the use of company data and information systems for the described assessment process and offers a methodological background for the evaluation and the structuring of such data. Besides the general approach of the project CARE the paper will present results from a case study in which the described approach is used for the evaluation of suppliers.

  3. Engineering evaluation of plant oils as diesel fuel. Final report. Vol. I

    SciTech Connect

    Engler, C.R.; Johnson, L.A.; Lepori, W.A.; Yarbrough, C.M.

    1983-09-13

    This project includes evaluations of cottonseed oils and sunflower oil ethyl esters in both direct injection and precombustion chamber design diesel engines. It is one part of a major research program at Texas A and M University to study the technical feasibility of using plant oils or animal fats as alternative diesel fuels. Goals for the overall program are to define physical and chemical characteristics and optimum processing methods required for high quality alternative diesel fuels from plant or animal oils and to investigate effects of engine design on alternative fuel performance. This report describes work done under the current contract which includes evaluations of cottonseed oils and sunflower oil interesterified with ethanol as alternative diesel fuels. 15 figures, 18 tables.

  4. Entrepreneur environment management behavior evaluation method derived from environmental economy.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Lili; Hou, Xilin; Xi, Fengru

    2013-12-01

    Evaluation system can encourage and guide entrepreneurs, and impel them to perform well in environment management. An evaluation method based on advantage structure is established. It is used to analyze entrepreneur environment management behavior in China. Entrepreneur environment management behavior evaluation index system is constructed based on empirical research. Evaluation method of entrepreneurs is put forward, from the point of objective programming-theory to alert entrepreneurs concerned to think much of it, which means to take minimized objective function as comprehensive evaluation result and identify disadvantage structure pattern. Application research shows that overall behavior of Chinese entrepreneurs environmental management are good, specially, environment strategic behavior are best, environmental management behavior are second, cultural behavior ranks last. Application results show the efficiency and feasibility of this method. Copyright © 2013 The Research Centre for Eco-Environmental Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. GIS and visualization: Environmental applications for the oil and gas industry

    SciTech Connect

    Sheppard, S.R.J.; Rubertis, C. de

    1995-04-01

    As practitioners in the imperfect world of environmental and engineering studies, we see the current pace of rapid change in computer applications to our business as an opportunity to improve our more basic skills, rather than necessarily adopting whatever is the latest and greatest. In the oil and gas industry, for example, there have long been centers of computing excellence and sophistication, in areas such as remote sensing, exploration geology and process engineering. However, a wide suite of newly available, simple PC-based tools offer to revolutionize our routine work across the disciplines, and democratize what was hitherto the domain of the advanced computer specialist. Appropriately applied, such systems can vastly improve our efficiency and communications abilities. This paper suggests ways in which basic, low-cost computer tools such as user-friendly GIS and 3-D data visualization, can benefit a wide variety of applications, through examples and case studies drawn primarily from the oil and gas industry. These include: (1) facility siting for E&P operations, (2) emergency response and crisis management, (3) GIS-based data management for refineries, (4) contaminated site remediation and risk assessment. Examples of GIS studies using databases derived from remote sensing and other typical sources, will include links to environmental models and image libraries; 3-D modelling and computer animation techniques will also be illustrated.

  6. Bioprospecting for oil producing microalgal strains: evaluation of oil and biomass production for ten microalgal strains.

    PubMed

    Araujo, Glacio S; Matos, Leonardo J B L; Gonçalves, Luciana R B; Fernandes, Fabiano A N; Farias, Wladimir R L

    2011-04-01

    Microalgae have the ability to grow rapidly, synthesize and accumulate large amounts (approximately 20-50% of dry weight) of lipids. A successful and economically viable algae based oil industry depends on the selection of appropriate algal strains. In this study ten species of microalgae were prospected to determine their suitability for oil production: Chaetoceros gracilis, Chaetoceros mulleri, Chlorella vulgaris, Dunaliella sp., Isochrysis sp., Nannochloropsis oculata, Tetraselmis sp., Tetraselmis chui, Tetraselmis tetrathele and Thalassiosira weissflogii. The study was carried out in 3 L glass flasks subjected to constant aeration and controlled artificial illumination and temperature at two different salinities. After harvesting, the extraction of oil was carried out using the Bligh and Dyer method assisted by ultrasound. Results showed that C. gracilis presented the highest oil content and that C. vulgaris presented the highest oil production. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Effects of oil exposure and dispersant use upon environmental adaptation performance and fitness in the European sea bass, Dicentrarchus labrax.

    PubMed

    Claireaux, Guy; Théron, Michael; Prineau, Michel; Dussauze, Matthieu; Merlin, François-Xavier; Le Floch, Stéphane

    2013-04-15

    The worldwide increasing recourse to chemical dispersants to deal with oil spills in marine coastal ecosystems is a controversial issue. Yet, there exists no adequate methodology that can provide reliable predictions of how oil and dispersant-treated oil can affect relevant organism or population-level performance. The primary objective of the present study was to examine and compare the effects of exposure to untreated oil (weathered Arabian light crude oil), chemically dispersed oil (Finasol, TOTAL-Fluides) or dispersant alone, upon the ability of fish for environmental adaptation. To reach that goal, we implemented high-throughput, non-lethal challenge tests to estimate individual hypoxia and heat tolerance as surrogate measures of their capacity to face natural contingencies. Experimental populations were then transferred into semi-natural tidal ponds and correlates of individuals' fitness (growth and survival) were monitored over a period of 6 months. In accordance with our stated objectives, the contamination conditions tested corresponded to those observed under an oil slick drifting in shallow waters. Our results revealed that the response of control fish to both challenges was variable among individuals and temporally stable (repeatable) over a 2-month period. Exposure to chemical dispersant did not affect the repeatability of fish performance. However, exposure to oil or to a mixture of oil plus dispersant affected the repeatability of individuals' responses to the experimental challenge tests. At population level, no difference between contamination treatments was observed in the distribution of individual responses to the hypoxia and temperature challenge tests. Moreover, no correlation between hypoxia tolerance and heat tolerance was noticed. During the field experiment, hypoxia tolerance and heat tolerance were found to be determinants of survivorship. Moreover, experimental groups exposed to oil or to dispersant-treated oil displayed significantly

  8. Evaluation of the Sarex (trade name) 5-gpm oil-water separator, Type B. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Musa, G.D.

    1986-06-01

    This report covers an investigation conducted to evaluate the operational effectiveness of the Sarex 5 GPM Oil-Water Separator, Type B. The results of this study indicate that the Sarex 5 GPM Oil-Water Separator, Type B, is an effective method for the removal of crude oil from feedwater. The Sarex 5 GPM Oil-Water Separator Type B, could be operated under field conditions. An efficient and effective oil-water separator device is imperative in certain areas of the world where crude-oil contaminated feedwater is found. The presence of crude oil in the feedwater adversely affects the performance of the reverse osmosis water-purification units (ROWPUs) used by the Army and Marines to purify fresh, brackish, and salt water. Both the 600 GPH ROWPU and the 150,000 GPD ROWPU use multi-media and cartridge filters for the removal of suspended solids from the feedwater before they enter the reverse-osmosis membranes. Removal of the crude oil, which affixes to the filters, is accomplished by a laborious cleaning process or by replacement of the filters. Crude oil or a derived soluble oil passing the filters and entering the reverse osmosis elements would result in decreased production rate, degradation of the membrane elements, and decreased quality of product water. Thus, satisfactory operation of the ROWPU in this scenario is dependent upon an efficient and effective oil-water separator device.

  9. Evaluating the hydrophilic-lipophilic nature of asphaltenic oils and naphthenic amphiphiles using microemulsion models.

    PubMed

    Kiran, Sumit K; Acosta, Edgar J; Moran, Kevin

    2009-08-01

    Asphaltenes and naphthenic acid derivatives, which are polar and surface-active species, are known to interfere with the recovery of heavy crude oil by promoting the formation of stable emulsions. In this study, previously established microemulsion phase behavior models were applied to quantify the hydrophilic-lipophilic nature of asphaltenic oils (bitumen, deasphalted bitumen, asphalt, naphthalene) and surface-active species found in heavy oils (naphthenic compounds and asphaltenes). For the test oils, the equivalent alkane carbon number (EACN) was determined by evaluating the "salinity shifts" of microemulsions formulated with a reference surfactant (sodium dihexyl sulfosuccinate--SDHS) and a reference oil (toluene) as a function of test oil volume fraction. Similarly, the characteristic curvature (C(C)) of surface-active species was determined by evaluating the salinity shifts as a function of the molar fraction of the surface-active species in mixture with SDHS. As a part of the oil phase, asphaltenes and asphaltene-like species are highly hydrophilic, which lead to low EACN values despite their large molecular weight. As a surface-active material, asphaltenes are hydrophobic species that lead to the formation of water-in-oil emulsions. Naphthenates, particularly sodium naphthenates, are highly hydrophilic compounds that lead to the formation of oil-in-water emulsions. These hydrophilic-lipophilic characterization parameters, and the methods used to determine them, can be used in the future to understand the phase behavior of complex oil-water systems.

  10. The use of MCNP and gamma spectrometry in supporting the evaluation of NORM in Libyan oil pipeline scale

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Habib, Ahmed S.; Bradley, D. A.; Regan, P. H.; Shutt, A. L.

    2010-07-01

    The accumulation of scales in production pipes is a common problem in the oil industry, reducing fluid flow and also leading to costly remedies and disposal issues. Typical materials found in such scale are sulphates and carbonates of calcium and barium, or iron sulphide. Radium arising from the uranium/thorium present in oil-bearing rock formations may replace the barium or calcium in these salts to form radium salts. This creates what is known as technologically enhanced naturally occurring radioactive material (TENORM or simply NORM). NORM is a serious environmental and health and safety issue arising from commercial oil and gas extraction operations. Whilst a good deal has been published on the characterisation and measurement of radioactive scales from offshore oil production, little information has been published regarding NORM associated with land-based facilities such as that of the Libyan oil industry. The ongoing investigation described in this paper concerns an assessment of NORM from a number of land based Libyan oil fields. A total of 27 pipe scale samples were collected from eight oil fields, from different locations in Libya. The dose rates, measured using a handheld survey meter positioned on sample surfaces, ranged from 0.1-27.3 μSv h -1. In the initial evaluations of the sample activity, use is being made of a portable HPGe based spectrometry system. To comply with the prevailing safety regulations of the University of Surrey, the samples are being counted in their original form, creating a need for correction of non-homogeneous sample geometries. To derive a detection efficiency based on the actual sample geometries, a technique has been developed using a Monte Carlo particle transport code (MCNPX). A preliminary activity determination has been performed using an HPGe portable detector system.

  11. Environmental genotoxicity and cytotoxicity studies in mussels before and after an oil spill at the marine oil terminal in the Baltic Sea.

    PubMed

    Baršienė, Janina; Rybakovas, Aleksandras; Garnaga, Galina; Andreikėnaitė, Laura

    2012-04-01

    Environmental genotoxicity and cytotoxicity effects in the gills of mussels Mytilus edulis, from the Baltic Sea areas close to the Būtingė oil terminal (Lithuania) before and after accidental oil spill in 31 January 2008 were studied. Mussels from the oil spillage zones were collected in 12 days, in 3 and 6 months after the spill to determine the effects of the spill. Mussels sampled in 2006-2007 were used for the assessment of the background levels of genotoxicity and cytotoxicity in the Būtingė oil terminal area. Comparison of the responses in M. edulis before and after the oil spill revealed significant elevation of frequencies of micronuclei (MN), nuclear buds (NB) and fragmented-apoptotic (FA) cells. Environmental genotoxicity and cytotoxicity levels in mussels from the Palanga site before the accident (in June 2007) served as a reference. Six months after the accident, in July 2008, 5.6-fold increase of MN, 2.9-fold elevation of NB, and 8.8-fold elevation of FA cells were observed in mussels from the same site.

  12. Environmental Forensics: Molecular Insight into Oil Spill Weathering Helps Advance High Magnetic Field FT-ICR Mass Spectrometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McKenna, Amy

    2013-03-01

    The depletion of terrestrial global oil reserves has shifted oil exploration into offshore and ultra-deep water (> 5000 ft) oil reserves to meet global energy demands. Deep water reservoirs are currently in production in many parts of the world, including the Gulf of Mexico, but production is complicated by the water depth and thick salt caps that challenge reservoir characterization / production. The explosion aboard the Deepwater Horizon in April 2010 resulted in an estimated total release of ~5 million barrels (BP claims that they collected ~1M barrels, for a net release of 4 M) of light, sweet crude oil into the Gulf of Mexico and shifted attention toward the environmental risks associated with offshore oil production. The growing emphasis on deep water and ultra-deep water oil production poses a significant environmental threat, and increased regulations require that oil companies minimize environmental impact to prevent oil spills, and mitigate environmental damage when spills occur. Every oil spill is unique. The molecular transformations that occur to petroleum after contact with seawater depend on the physical and chemical properties of the spilled oil, environmental conditions, and deposition environment. Molecular-level knowledge of the composition, distribution, and total mass of released hydrocarbons is essential to disentangle photo- and bio-degradation, source identification, and long-term environmental impact of hydrocarbons released into the environment. Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry (FT-ICR MS) is unsurpassed in its ability to characterize complex mixtures at the level of elemental composition assignment. Only FT-ICR mass spectrometry can routinely achieve the required minimum resolving power necessary to elucidate molecular-level characterization of crude oil. Conversely, the spectral complexity of petroleum facilitates identification of systematic errors in the accumulation, transfer, excitation, and detection

  13. Environmental education evaluation: time to reflect, time for change.

    PubMed

    Crohn, Kara; Birnbaum, Matthew

    2010-05-01

    Evaluation in environmental education is fairly nascent despite decades-long attention to its importance. In setting the context for future chapters appearing in this special issue of the Journal of Evaluation and Program Planning, attention is devoted to the political circumstances associated with retrenchment in the public sector and increased involvement of citizens in environmental issues in their regions. It further is nested in the context of potential political reforms in a stable market democracy where education is but one strategy that can be bundled with regulations and taxes/subsidies. Additional attention is directed to explaining many of the key evaluation theories--utilization-focused evaluation, evaluative capacity building, and program-theory driven evaluation. The final section of this chapter situates the subsequent chapters of this volume based on the demographic target (youth or adult) as well as connection to a particular evaluation theory. Copyright 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Impact Assessment and Environmental Evaluation of Various Ammonia Production Processes.

    PubMed

    Bicer, Yusuf; Dincer, Ibrahim; Vezina, Greg; Raso, Frank

    2017-02-14

    In the current study, conventional resources-based ammonia generation routes are comparatively studied through a comprehensive life cycle assessment. The selected ammonia generation options range from mostly used steam methane reforming to partial oxidation of heavy oil. The chosen ammonia synthesis process is the most common commercially available Haber-Bosch process. The essential energy input for the methods are used from various conventional resources such as coal, nuclear, natural gas and heavy oil. Using the life cycle assessment methodology, the environmental impacts of selected methods are identified and quantified from cradle to gate. The life cycle assessment outcomes of the conventional resources based ammonia production routes show that nuclear electrolysis-based ammonia generation method yields the lowest global warming and climate change impacts while the coal-based electrolysis options bring higher environmental problems. The calculated greenhouse gas emission from nuclear-based electrolysis is 0.48 kg CO2 equivalent while it is 13.6 kg CO2 per kg of ammonia for coal-based electrolysis method.

  15. Impact Assessment and Environmental Evaluation of Various Ammonia Production Processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bicer, Yusuf; Dincer, Ibrahim; Vezina, Greg; Raso, Frank

    2017-05-01

    In the current study, conventional resources-based ammonia generation routes are comparatively studied through a comprehensive life cycle assessment. The selected ammonia generation options range from mostly used steam methane reforming to partial oxidation of heavy oil. The chosen ammonia synthesis process is the most common commercially available Haber-Bosch process. The essential energy input for the methods are used from various conventional resources such as coal, nuclear, natural gas and heavy oil. Using the life cycle assessment methodology, the environmental impacts of selected methods are identified and quantified from cradle to gate. The life cycle assessment outcomes of the conventional resources based ammonia production routes show that nuclear electrolysis-based ammonia generation method yields the lowest global warming and climate change impacts while the coal-based electrolysis options bring higher environmental problems. The calculated greenhouse gas emission from nuclear-based electrolysis is 0.48 kg CO2 equivalent while it is 13.6 kg CO2 per kg of ammonia for coal-based electrolysis method.

  16. Environmental Education Evaluation: Time to Reflect, Time for Change

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crohn, Kara; Birnbaum, Matthew

    2010-01-01

    Evaluation in environmental education is fairly nascent despite decades-long attention to its importance. In setting the context for future chapters appearing in this special issue of the "Journal of Evaluation and Program Planning," attention is devoted to the political circumstances associated with retrenchment in the public sector and increased…

  17. Evaluation of Eucalyptus citriodora essential oil on goat gastrointestinal nematodes.

    PubMed

    Macedo, Iara Tersia Freitas; Bevilaqua, Claudia Maria Leal; de Oliveira, Lorena Mayana Beserra; Camurça-Vasconcelos, Ana Lourdes Fernandes; Vieira, Luiz da Silva; Amóra, Sthenia Dos Santos Albano

    2011-01-01

    Phytotherapy may be an alternative strategy for controlling gastrointestinal parasites. This study evaluated the anthelmintic efficacy of Eucalyptus citriodora essential oil (EcEO). The in vitro effects of EcEO were determined through testing the inhibition of egg hatching and larval development of Haemonchus contortus. EcEO was subjected to acute toxicity testing on mice, orally and intraperitoneally. The in vivo effects of EcEO were determined by the fecal egg count reduction test (FECRT) in goats infected with gastrointestinal nematodes. The results showed that 5.3 mg.mL(-1) EcEO inhibited egg hatching by 98.8% and 10.6 mg.mL(-1) EcEO inhibited H. contortus larval development by 99.71%. The lethal doses for 50% of the mice were 4153 and 622.8 mg.kg(-1), for acute toxicity orally and intraperitoneally. In the FECRT, the efficacy of EcEO and ivermectin was 66.25 and 79.16% respectively, on goat gastrointestinal nematodes eight days after treatment. EcEO showed in vitro and in vivo anthelmintic activity.

  18. Evaluation of environmentally safe cleaning agents for diamond turned optics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Theye, Lonnie A.; Day, Robert D.; Weinrach, Jeffrey; Schubert, Rudolf; Seiffert, Stephen

    Precision machining of metal surfaces using diamond turning has increased greatly in popularity at LANL in recent years. Similar techniques are used extensively to manufacture metal mirrors for use in laser applications. The diamond turned surfaces are easily damaged, making the selection of a cleaning agent very critical. These surfaces have been traditionally cleaned using Trichloroethane (TCA) to remove residual oil remaining from the machining process. The TCA was then removed with an ethanol rinse, leaving a residue free surface. Recently, however, TCA was pronounced environmentally unsafe. Consequently, we are searching for an environmentally safe cleaning agent for these diamond turned metal optics. The concern with using alternative solvents is the potential for residual surface films that produce reflectivity changes related to a combination of wavelength, surface coverage, film thickness and dielectric properties. Therefore, we have initiated a program for testing the effectiveness of a variety of environmentally safe solvents used to clean diamond turned optical surfaces. Our basic test plan consists of comparing a number of environmentally safe solvents against the TCA/ethanol cleaning system. We have identified twelve candidate solvents, but have only been able to perform a partial test on one of them to date. This paper discusses the results obtained to date using this solvent known as P F.

  19. Evaluation of environmentally safe cleaning agents for diamond turned optics

    SciTech Connect

    Theye, L.A.; Day, R.D.; Weinrach, J. ); Schubert, R. ); Seiffert, S. )

    1991-01-01

    Precision machining of metal surfaces using diamond turning has increased greatly in popularity at LANL in recent years. Similar techniques are used extensively to manufacture metal mirrors for use in laser applications. The diamond turned surfaces are easily damaged, making the selection of a cleaning agent very critical. These surfaces have been traditionally cleaned using Trichloroethane (TCA) to remove residual oil remaining from the machining process. The TCA was then removed with an ethanol rinse, leaving a residue free surface. Recently, however, TCA was pronounced environmentally unsafe. Consequently, we are searching for an environmentally safe cleaning agent for these diamond turned metal optics. The concern with using alternative solvents is the potential for residual surface films that produce reflectivity changes related to a combination of wavelength, surface coverage, film thickness and dielectric properties. Therefore, we have initiated a program for testing the effectiveness of a variety of environmentally safe solvents used to clean diamond turned optical surfaces. Our basic test plan consists of comparing a number of environmentally safe solvents against the TCA/ethanol cleaning system. We have identified twelve candidate solvents, but have only been able to perform a partial test on one of them to date. This paper discusses the results obtained to data using this solvent known as P F (1). 3 refs., 13 figs.

  20. The environmental impacts of oil platforms in the Persian (Arabian) Gulf: the conservation paleobiology approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Albano, Paolo G.; Tomašových, Adam; Kaufman, Darrell; Stachowitsch, Michael; Zuschin, Martin

    2016-04-01

    The Persian (Arabian) Gulf is a semi-enclosed basin that currently hosts the highest concentration of infrastructures for oil and gas extraction in the world. Moreover, major oil spills have occurred here due to accidents and conflicts. The disjunction between recent environmental monitoring programmes and industry-scale oil exploration and extraction dating back to the mid-20th century means a lack of data on pre-impact ecosystem conditions. This shortcoming hampers quantifying disturbance and ecosystem shifts and calls for novel approaches to reconstruct baselines. Conservation palaeobiology is such a new research field. It uses the accumulations of hard skeletal parts left by organisms in the sediments after death (e.g., mollusk shells) to gain information on past community states. These so-called "death assemblages" contain skeletons produced over tens to thousands of years and change very slowly in comparison to living assemblages. Accordingly, under anthropogenic pressures, living assemblages change their structure and composition faster than their corresponding death assemblages. This increases the differences between the two beyond those caused by purely natural processes. When coupled with dating of dead shells (using radiocarbon calibrated amino acid racemization), such live-dead comparisons help assess the magnitude and timing of environmental impacts and ecosystem change when baseline data are not available. We applied these approaches to two major oil platforms off the United Arab Emirates coastline. We found a mismatch between living and death assemblages, with death assemblages dominated by a single bivalve species, the semelid Ervilia purpurea. However, the frequency distributions of post-mortem shell ages of this bivalve show that the mismatch can be mainly attributed to natural extreme demographic fluctuations in its population. We conclude that, at the field scale, decadal and century-level changes in the molluscan community composition were weak

  1. Use of Kinematic Viscosity Data for the Evaluation of the Molecular Weight of Petroleum Oils

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maroto, J. A.; Quesada-Perez, M.; Ortiz-Hernandez, A. J.

    2010-01-01

    A new laboratory procedure for the evaluation of the mean molecular weight (mean relative molecular mass) of petroleum oils with high accuracy is described. The density and dynamic viscosity of three commercial petroleum oils are measured at different temperatures. These experimental data are used to calculate the kinematic viscosity as a function…

  2. Evaluation of Indian milkweed (Calotropis gigantea) seed oil as alternative feedstock for biodiesel

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Calotropis gigantea (Indian milkweed) is a common plant in Asia that grows as a weed on open waste ground. Flowering and fruiting take place throughout the year. In this study, Indian milkweed oil was evaluated as a potential feedstock for biodiesel production. The oil was extracted from Indian milk...

  3. Use of Kinematic Viscosity Data for the Evaluation of the Molecular Weight of Petroleum Oils

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maroto, J. A.; Quesada-Perez, M.; Ortiz-Hernandez, A. J.

    2010-01-01

    A new laboratory procedure for the evaluation of the mean molecular weight (mean relative molecular mass) of petroleum oils with high accuracy is described. The density and dynamic viscosity of three commercial petroleum oils are measured at different temperatures. These experimental data are used to calculate the kinematic viscosity as a function…

  4. Environmental Conditions in northern Gulf of Mexico Estuaries: before and after the BP Oil Spill

    EPA Science Inventory

    This presentation provides a summary of ecological condition and sediment chemistry data for northern Gulf of Mexico estuaries that were exposed to oil and oil-related contaminants from the BP Oil Spill.

  5. Environmental Conditions in northern Gulf of Mexico Estuaries: before and after the BP Oil Spill

    EPA Science Inventory

    This presentation provides a summary of ecological condition and sediment chemistry data for northern Gulf of Mexico estuaries that were exposed to oil and oil-related contaminants from the BP Oil Spill.

  6. Process evaluation of a worksite social and physical environmental intervention.

    PubMed

    Coffeng, Jennifer K; Hendriksen, Ingrid J M; van Mechelen, Willem; Boot, Cécile R L

    2013-12-01

    To evaluate the process of implementation of a social and physical environmental intervention and to explore differences regarding this process between both interventions. Context, recruitment, dose delivered, fidelity, reach, dose received, satisfaction, and implementation barriers were investigated. Reach for the social and physical environmental interventions ranged from 45% to 76%. Mean satisfaction for the social environmental intervention was 6.0 and for the physical environmental intervention was 7.0. Generally, the results were higher for team leaders than for employees. Furthermore, the implementation of the physical intervention was better at the departments that additionally received the social intervention. Both interventions were better implemented on the level of the team leader than that of the employees. Furthermore, the combined interventions received higher evaluation scores. To increase satisfaction and participation, attention should be paid to both employees and team leaders during implementation.

  7. Environmental Survey preliminary report, Naval Petroleum and Oil Shale Reserves in Colorado, Utah, and Wyoming, Casper, Wyoming

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1989-02-01

    This report presents the preliminary environmental findings from the first phase of the Environmental Survey of the United States Department of Energy (DOE) Naval Petroleum and Oil Shale Reserves in Colorado, Utah, and Wyoming (NPOSR-CUW) conducted June 6 through 17, 1988. NPOSR consists of the Naval Petroleum Reserve No. 3 (NPR-3) in Wyoming, the Naval Oil Shale Reserves No. 1 and 3 (NOSR-1 and NOSR-3) in Colorado and the Naval Oil Shale Reserve No. 2 (NOSR-2) in Utah. NOSR-2 was not included in the Survey because it had not been actively exploited at the time of the on-site Survey. The Survey is being conducted by an interdisciplinary team of environmental specialists, lead and managed by the Office of Environment, Safety and Health's Office of Environmental Audit. Individual team specialists are outside experts being supplied by a private contractor. The objective of the Survey is to identify environmental problems and areas of environmental risk associated with NPOSR. The Survey covers all environmental media and all areas of environmental regulation. It is being performed in accordance with the DOE Environmental Survey Manual. This phase of the Survey involves the review of existing site environmental data, observations of the operations carried on at NPOSR and interviews with site personnel. The Survey team has developed a Sampling and Analysis Plan to assist in further assessing specific environmental problems identified at NOSR-3 during the on-site Survey. There were no findings associated with either NPR-3 or NOSR-1 that required Survey-related sampling and Analysis. The Sampling and Analysis Plan will be executed by Idaho National Engineering Laboratory. When completed, the results will be incorporated into the Environmental Survey Summary report. The Summary Report will reflect the final determinations of the NPOSR-CUW Survey and the other DOE site-specific Surveys. 110 refs., 38 figs., 24 tabs.

  8. Field trial evaluation of the accumulation of omega-3 long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids in transgenic Camelina sativa: Making fish oil substitutes in plants

    PubMed Central

    Usher, Sarah; Haslam, Richard P.; Ruiz-Lopez, Noemi; Sayanova, Olga; Napier, Johnathan A.

    2015-01-01

    The global consumption of fish oils currently exceeds one million tonnes, with the natural de novo source of these important fatty acids forming the base of marine foodwebs. Here we describe the first field-based evaluation of a terrestrial source of these essential nutrients, synthesised in the seeds of transgenic Camelina sativa plants via the heterologous reconstitution of the omega-3 long chain polyunsaturated fatty acid biosynthetic pathway. Our data demonstrate the robust nature of this novel trait, and the feasibility of making fish oils in genetically modified crops. Moreover, to our knowledge, this is the most complex example of plant genetic engineering to undergo environmental release and field evaluation. PMID:27066395

  9. Development and stability evaluation of olive oil nanoemulsion using sucrose monoester laurate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eid, Ahmad M. M.; Baie, Saringat Haji; Arafat, Osama

    2012-11-01

    Nanoemulsion is a type of emulsion that consists of fine oil-in-water dispersions, with the droplets covering the size range of 20-200 nm. It can be achieved through emulsification process. One of the processes is through low energy emulsification method. Olive oil was chosen in this study due to its efficiency in treating skin problem. Olive oil nanophase gel (NPG) formulations were performed through various ratios of olive oil, sucrose laurate and glycerin. The particle sizes and stability of the prepared olive oil nanophase gel were evaluated and the optimal formulation was then selected for the development of olive oil nanoemulsion. This study proved that the composition of oil and surfactant play an important roles in influencing the nanophase gel droplet size. Nanophase gels containing olive oil in the concentration of 50 and 60 % show good stability at 4 °C and room temperature while it was less stable at 40 °C. Olive oil nanophase gels in the concentration of 50 % and 60 % with sucrose laurate 25 % in each formulation were good candidates to prepare nanoemulsion because they have the suitable droplets size and Polydispersing Index (PDI) when compared to other formulations. A mixture of NPG 50 % and water in the ratio of 40:60 and NPG 60 % and water in the ratio of 33.3:66.7 were used to produce nanoemulsions containing 20 % of oil with negative values of zeta potential (>60) which indicate the good stability of the nanoemulsions.

  10. Spacecraft Redundancy and Environmental Tests: An Historic Evaluation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bollman, V. S.; Blockinger, R. A.

    1982-01-01

    The necessity of providing highly redundant spacecraft in the shuttle era was evaluated. Environmental and acceptance tests were done. Histories of 67 spacecraft over a 12 year period were analyzed. The final result of this study is that LMSC (Lockheed Missiles and Space Co., Inc.) is convinced of the significant value of redundancy in spacecraft and systems environmental testing and such techniques should be carried forward into the shuttle era.

  11. Evaluation of Palm Oil as a Suitable Vegetable Oil for Vitamin A Fortification Programs

    PubMed Central

    Pignitter, Marc; Hernler, Natalie; Zaunschirm, Mathias; Kienesberger, Julia; Somoza, Mark Manuel; Kraemer, Klaus; Somoza, Veronika

    2016-01-01

    Fortification programs are considered to be an effective strategy to mitigate vitamin A deficiency in populations at risk. Fortified vegetable oils rich in polyunsaturated fatty acids were shown to be prone to oxidation, leading to limited vitamin A stability. Thus, it was hypothesized that fortified oils consisting of mainly saturated fatty acids might enhance the stability of vitamin A. Mildly (peroxide value: 1.0 meq O2/kg) and highly (peroxide value: 7.5 meq O2/kg) oxidized palm oil was stored, after fortification with 60 International Units/g retinyl palmitate, in 0.5 L transparent polyethylene terephthalate bottles under cold fluorescent lighting (12 h/day) at 32 °C for 57 days. An increase of the peroxide value by 15 meq O2/kg, which was also reflected by a decrease of α-tocopherol congener by 15%–18%, was determined independent of the initial rancidity. The oxidative deterioration of the highly oxidized palm oil during storage was correlated with a significant 46% decline of the vitamin A content. However, household storage of mildly oxidized palm oil for two months did not induce any losses of vitamin A. Thus, mildly oxidized palm oil may be recommended for vitamin A fortification programs, when other sources of essential fatty acids are available. PMID:27338464

  12. Evaluation of Palm Oil as a Suitable Vegetable Oil for Vitamin A Fortification Programs.

    PubMed

    Pignitter, Marc; Hernler, Natalie; Zaunschirm, Mathias; Kienesberger, Julia; Somoza, Mark Manuel; Kraemer, Klaus; Somoza, Veronika

    2016-06-21

    Fortification programs are considered to be an effective strategy to mitigate vitamin A deficiency in populations at risk. Fortified vegetable oils rich in polyunsaturated fatty acids were shown to be prone to oxidation, leading to limited vitamin A stability. Thus, it was hypothesized that fortified oils consisting of mainly saturated fatty acids might enhance the stability of vitamin A. Mildly (peroxide value: 1.0 meq O₂/kg) and highly (peroxide value: 7.5 meq O₂/kg) oxidized palm oil was stored, after fortification with 60 International Units/g retinyl palmitate, in 0.5 L transparent polyethylene terephthalate bottles under cold fluorescent lighting (12 h/day) at 32 °C for 57 days. An increase of the peroxide value by 15 meq O₂/kg, which was also reflected by a decrease of α-tocopherol congener by 15%-18%, was determined independent of the initial rancidity. The oxidative deterioration of the highly oxidized palm oil during storage was correlated with a significant 46% decline of the vitamin A content. However, household storage of mildly oxidized palm oil for two months did not induce any losses of vitamin A. Thus, mildly oxidized palm oil may be recommended for vitamin A fortification programs, when other sources of essential fatty acids are available.

  13. A novel photometric method for evaluation of the oxidative stability of virgin olive oils.

    PubMed

    Kamvissis, Vassilis N; Barbounis, Emmanouil G; Megoulas, Nikolaos C; Koupparis, Michael A

    2008-01-01

    The Oxitester method, a novel, simple, and fast photometric method for the evaluation of the antioxidant capacity of olive oils, was validated and compared to the official oil stability index (Rancimat) method. The Oxitester method appeared to be a good alternative to the Rancimat method with adequate correlation for a wide range of virgin olive oil samples, including extrissima virgin olive oils (correlation coefficient 0.88), and extra virgin olive oils of increased acidity (free fatty acids >0.45%, correlation coefficient 0.89). Other quality factors (flavor, free fatty acids content, specific absorbance at 270 and 232 nm, peroxide value, and content of oleic, linoleic, and linolenic acids) were also measured and correlated to the antioxidant capacity values of the Oxitester and Rancimat methods. The Oxitester method, in contrast to the Rancimat method, was indicative of the flavor characteristics of the olive oils and the content of linolenic acid.

  14. Quarry blasts assessment and their environmental impacts on the nearby oil pipelines, southeast of Helwan City, Egypt

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mohamed, Adel M. E.; Mohamed, Abuo El-Ela A.

    2013-06-01

    Ground vibrations induced by blasting in the cement quarries are one of the fundamental problems in the quarrying industry and may cause severe damage to the nearby utilities and pipelines. Therefore, a vibration control study plays an important role in the minimization of environmental effects of blasting in quarries. The current paper presents the influence of the quarry blasts at the National Cement Company (NCC) on the two oil pipelines of SUMED Company southeast of Helwan City, by measuring the ground vibrations in terms of Peak Particle Velocity (PPV). The seismic refraction for compressional waves deduced from the shallow seismic survey and the shear wave velocity obtained from the Multi channel Analysis of Surface Waves (MASW) technique are used to evaluate the closest site of the two pipelines to the quarry blasts. The results demonstrate that, the closest site of the two pipelines is of class B, according to the National Earthquake Hazard Reduction Program (NEHRP) classification and the safe distance to avoid any environmental effects is 650 m, following the deduced Peak Particle Velocity (PPV) and scaled distance (SD) relationship (PPV = 700.08 × SD-1.225) in mm/s and the Air over Pressure (air blast) formula (air blast = 170.23 × SD-0.071) in dB. In the light of prediction analysis, the maximum allowable charge weight per delay was found to be 591 kg with damage criterion of 12.5 mm/s at the closest site of the SUMED pipelines.

  15. Applications of remote sensing methods for oil exploration and environmental assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Prelat, A.E.; Diggens, J.N.; Burnett, T.L.

    1996-08-01

    Remote Sensing has become an essential tool in the exploration for natural resources for environmental assessments. In the first phase of an integrated exploration program, remote sensing can assist the geologist in the selection of exploration regions by prioritizing exploration trends and prospects. The information produced by remote sensing techniques in the predrilling phase include: area of the basins, types of lithology, surface structure, hydrocarbon seeps, reconstruction of the geological history, and comparison with known or adjoining petroleum provinces. In this first phase, remote sensing also provides an assessment of the environmental conditions of the ecosystem in the region. A baseline of the physical and biological conditions is documented as a benchmark for future exploration and production activities. A more detailed analysis of the drainage patterns, textural topography, existing infrastructure and potential geological hazards (e.g., landslides, neotectonic features) may also be included here. In the second phase of the appraisal, the remote sensing information is merged with other available data such as geochemical, aeromagnetic, gravity, and seismic surveys. The result of this phase is to create a more accurate assessment of the oil prospects. The final analysis is the integration of the geological work with the established environmental framework for site and operations planning.

  16. Sound Waste Management Plan environmental operations, and used oil management system: Restoration project 97115. Exxon Valdez oil spill restoration project final report: Volumes 1 and 2

    SciTech Connect

    1998-06-01

    This project constitutes Phase 2 of the Sound Waste Management Plan and created waste oil collection and disposal facilities, bilge water collection and disposal facilities, recycling storage, and household hazardous waste collection and storage, and household hazardous waste collection and storage facilities in Prince William Sound. A wide range of waste streams are generated within communities in the Sound including used oil generated from vehicles and vessels, and hazardous wastes generated by households. This project included the design and construction of Environmental Operations Stations buildings in Valdez, Cordova, Whittier, Chenega Bay and Tatitlek to improve the overall management of oily wastes. They will house new equipment to facilitate oily waste collection, treatment and disposal. This project also included completion of used oil management manuals.

  17. Evaluation of Reservoir Wettability and its Effect on Oil Recovery

    SciTech Connect

    Jill S. Buckley

    1998-04-13

    This project has three main goals. The first is to achieve improved understanding of the surface and interfacial properties of crude oils and their interactions with mineral surfaces. The second goal is to apply the results of surface studies to improved predictions of oil production in laboratory experiments. Finally, we aim to use the results of this research to recommend ways to improve oil recovery by waterflooding. In order to achieve these goals, the mechanisms of wetting alteration must be explained. We propose a methodology for studying those mechanisms on mineral surfaces, then applying the results to prediction and observation of wetting alteration in porous media. Improved understanding of the underlying mechanisms will show when and how wettability in the reservoir can be altered and under what circumstances that alteration would be beneficial in terms of increased production of oil.

  18. Evaluation of Reservoir Wettability and its Effect on Oil Recovery

    SciTech Connect

    Buckley, Jill S.

    1999-11-09

    This project has three main goals. The first is to achieve improved understanding of the surface and interfacial properties of crude oils and their interactions with mineral surfaces. The second goal is to apply the results of surface studies to improved predictions of oil production in laboratory experiments. Finally, we aim to use the results of this research to recommend ways to improve oil recovery by waterflooding. In order to achieve these goals, the mechanisms of wetting alteration must be explained. We propose a methodology for studying those mechanisms on mineral surfaces, then applying the results to prediction and observation of wetting alteration in porous media. Improved understanding of the underlying mechanisms will show when and how wettability in the reservoir can be altered and under what circumstances that alteration would be beneficial in terms of increased production of oil.

  19. An evaluation of tea tree oil as an alternative microbicide.

    PubMed

    Willcox, Mick

    Tea tree oil is a popular ingredient in complementary medicines and beauty products. This literature review reveals some evidence of efficacy as an antiseptic, antibacterial and antifungal in topical application but also highlights dermatitis as a potential side-effect.

  20. Environmental factors influence on chemical polymorphism of the essential oils of Lychnophora ericoides.

    PubMed

    Curado, Marco A; Oliveira, Carolina B A; Jesus, José G; Santos, Suzana C; Seraphin, José C; Ferri, Pedro H

    2006-11-01

    Lychnophora ericoides is a Brazilian medicinal plant used in folk medicine as an anti-inflammatory and analgesic agent. The essential oils from leaves of two populations with and without scent, collected at 2-month intervals during an 1-year period, were analysed by GC-MS. The results were submitted to principal component and cluster analysis which allowed two groups of essential oils to be distinguished with respect to sampling site and scent: cluster I (Vianópolis site, with specimens exhibiting an aromatic scent) containing a high percentage of alpha-bisabolol (44.7-76.4%) and alpha-cadinol (10.9-23.5%), and cluster II (Cristalina site, with specimens without scent) characterised by a high content of (E)-nerolidol (31.3-47.1%) and ar-dihydro-turmerone (4.8-15.4%). The canonical discriminant analysis showed that using the data set of the seven sampling months and (E)-nerolidol and alpha-bisabolol as predictable variables, it was possible to distinguish between the samples harvested according to Cerrado seasons, dry winter (May-September) and humid summer (November-March). In addition, canonical correlation analysis between the soil sampling sites and the populations revealed a significant relationship between oil components and edaphic factors. Oxygenated sesquiterpenes and potential acidity, Al saturation, cationic exchange capacity, silt, and sand load as the first canonical variate were fairly strongly related to samples collected in Vianópolis site. On the other hand, monoterpenes and sesquiterpene hydrocarbons were strongly related to chemical balance in soils (organic matter, P and base saturation), which is related to samples at the Cristalina site. The chemovariation observed appears to be environmentally determined.

  1. ENVIRONMENTAL EVALUATION FOR UTILIZATION OF ASH IN SOIL STABILIZATION

    SciTech Connect

    David J. Hassett; Loreal V. Heebink

    2001-08-01

    The Minnesota Pollution Control Agency (MPCA) approved the use of coal ash in soil stabilization, indicating that environmental data needed to be generated. The overall project goal is to evaluate the potential for release of constituents into the environment from ash used in soil stabilization projects. Supporting objectives are: (1) To ensure sample integrity through implementation of a sample collection, preservation, and storage protocol to avoid analyte concentration or loss. (2) To evaluate the potential of each component (ash, soil, water) of the stabilized soil to contribute to environmental release of analytes of interest. (3) To use laboratory leaching methods to evaluate the potential for release of constituents to the environment. (4) To facilitate collection of and to evaluate samples from a field runoff demonstration effort. The results of this study indicated limited mobility of the coal combustion fly ash constituents in laboratory tests and the field runoff samples. The results presented support previous work showing little to negligible impact on water quality. This and past work indicates that soil stabilization is an environmentally beneficial CCB utilization application as encouraged by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. This project addressed the regulatory-driven environmental aspect of fly ash use for soil stabilization, but the demonstrated engineering performance and economic advantages also indicate that the use of CCBs in soil stabilization can and should become an accepted engineering option.

  2. Review of oil and HNS accidental spills in Europe: identifying major environmental monitoring gaps and drawing priorities.

    PubMed

    Neuparth, T; Moreira, S M; Santos, M M; Reis-Henriques, M A

    2012-06-01

    The European Atlantic area has been the scene of a number of extensive shipping incidents with immediate and potential long-term impacts to marine ecosystems. The occurrence of accidental spills at sea requires an effective response that must include a well executed monitoring programme to assess the environmental contamination and damage of the affected marine habitats. Despite a number of conventions and protocols developed by international and national authorities that focused on the preparedness and response to oil and HNS spills, much remains to be done, particularly in relation to the effectiveness of the environmental monitoring programmes implemented after oil and HNS spills. Hence, the present study reviews the status of the environmental monitoring programmes established following the major spill incidents over the last years in European waters, aiming at identifying the key monitoring gaps and drawing priorities for an effective environmental monitoring of accidental spills.

  3. Cultivation and Characterization of Oil-Degrading Microbes and the Environmental Controls on Hydrocarbon Biodegradation Patterns

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Redmond, M. C.

    2016-02-01

    The Deepwater Horizon oil spill highlighted the ability of microbes to degrade hydrocarbons in both cold, deep water and at the warm sea surface. However, the temperature and differing hydrocarbons in the deep ocean and sea surface led to different microbial communities and biodegradation patterns. In order to develop a better understanding of the factors that control microbial community composition and biodegradation patterns, we conducted laboratory microcosm studies with seawater samples from coastal South Carolina and hydrocarbon seeps in the Gulf of Mexico, incubated with different hydrocarbons, at different temperatures, and in static or shaking incubation conditions. We analyzed microbial community composition after three weeks and used successive transfers on liquid and then solid media to isolate cultures. More rapid growth was observed at 28 degrees than 4 degrees, with hexadecane compared to benzene, cyclohexane, or crude oil, and in shaking incubations compared to static. However, we were able to successfully culture microbes under all conditions. Physiological and genetic characterization of isolated strains is ongoing, and will be combined with assessment of hydrocarbon substrate preferences and kinetics under different environmental conditions.

  4. Tocopherol concentration in almond oil: genetic variation and environmental effects under warm conditions.

    PubMed

    Kodad, Ossama; Estopañán, Gloria; Juan, Teresa; Mamouni, Ali; Socias i Company, Rafel

    2011-06-08

    The concentration of the different tocopherol homologues in almond kernel oil was determined in 17 almond cultivars grown in two different experimental orchards, in Spain and Morocco. The three main homologues showed a large variability, ranging from 210.9 to 553.4 mg/kg of oil for α-tocopherol, from 4.64 to 14.92 mg/kg for γ-tocopherol, and from 0.2 to 1.02 mg/kg for δ-tocopherol. The year effect was significant, independent of the experimental site, for all homologues and total tocopherol, the values of α-tocopherol, γ-tocopherol, and total tocopherol being higher in 2009 than in 2008, whereas the value of δ-tocopherol was higher in 2008. The location effect was also significant, the values of γ- and δ-tocopherol being higher in Spain than in Morocco, whereas for α-tocopherol the location effect was dependent on the genotype. These effects could not be explained by the temperature differences between sites, but probably other undetermined environmental factors might explain the effect of the location, such as rainfall and irrigation supplementation during fruit growing and ripening.

  5. Green biodiesel production from waste cooking oil using an environmentally benign acid catalyst.

    PubMed

    Tran, Thi Tuong Vi; Kaiprommarat, Sunanta; Kongparakul, Suwadee; Reubroycharoen, Prasert; Guan, Guoqing; Nguyen, Manh Huan; Samart, Chanatip

    2016-06-01

    The application of an environmentally benign sulfonated carbon microsphere catalyst for biodiesel production from waste cooking oil was investigated. This catalyst was prepared by the sequential hydrothermal carbonization and sulfonation of xylose. The morphology, surface area, and acid properties were analyzed. The surface area and acidity of the catalyst were 86m(2)/g and 1.38mmol/g, respectively. In addition, the presence of sulfonic acid on the carbon surface was confirmed by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. The catalytic activity was tested for biodiesel production from waste cooking oil via a two-step reaction to overcome reaction equilibrium. The highest biodiesel yield (89.6%) was obtained at a reaction temperature of 110°C, duration time of 4h, and catalyst loading of 10wt% under elevated pressure 2.3bar and 1.4bar for first and second step, respectively. The reusability of the catalyst was investigated and showed that the biodiesel yield decreased by 9% with each cycle; however, this catalyst is still of interest because it is an example of green chemistry, is nontoxic, and makes use of xylose waste. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Environmental assessment of a program to reduce oil and gas consumption by electric utilities

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-03-01

    An environmental assessment is presented of a program aimed at reducing oil and gas consumption in electric utility power plants by the equivalent of approximately 10/sup 6/ barrels per day by 1990. The program would mandate the conversion of 45 power plants (approximately 21 GW) to coal and would provide financial incentives for the accelerated replacement of other existing oil- and gas-fired plants (estimated to be 30 GW) by new coal-fired plants or other acceptable alternatives. The report analyzes the air quality impacts of potential increases in sulfur dioxide, nitrogen oxides, and particulate matter emissions associated with the program. The assessment also considers potential solid waste, coal production and transportation, and public health and welfare impacts. The Coal and Electric Utilities Model (CEUM) of ICF, Incorporated, was used to generate the numerical data on which the assessment is based. Impacts are presented at the national and regional levels, with some discussion of possible local air quality effects of conversion of specific plants.

  7. Environmental and Economic Assessment of Discharges from Gulf of Mexico Region Oil and Gas Operations

    SciTech Connect

    Gettleson, David A

    1999-10-28

    The primary objectives of the project are to increase the base of scientific knowledge concerning (1) the fate and environmental effects of organics, trace metals, and NORM in water, sediment, and biota near several offshore oil and gas facilities; (2) the characteristics of produced water and produced sand discharges as they pertain to organics, trace metals, and NORM variably found in association with the discharges; (3) the recovery of three terminated produced water discharge sites located in wetland and high-energy open bay sites of coastal Louisiana; (4) the economic and energy supply impacts of existing and anticipated federal and state offshore and coastal discharge regulations; and (5) the catch, consumption and human use patterns of seafood species collected from coastal and offshore waters. The products of the effort will be a series of technical reports detailing the study procedures, results, and conclusions which contribute to the transfer of technology to the scientific community, petroleum industry, and state and federal agencies.

  8. Compliance evaluation inspection report: Marathon Oil Company, Garyville, Louisiana. NPDES Permit No. LA0045683. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    1992-10-01

    The report presents the findings of a compliance evaluation inspection of the Marathon Oil Company in Garyville, Louisiana, Conducted on June 24, 1992. It is part of a series of inspections of industrial waste dischargers.

  9. Application of remote sensing data to monitoring of oil pollution as part of the environmental expert system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shagarova, Lyudmila; Muratova, Mira; Abuova, Sholpan

    2016-07-01

    The impact of oil-producing facilities on the environment is caused by toxicity of hydrocarbons and by-products, a variety of chemicals used in industrial processes, as well as specificity of production, treatment, transportation and storage of oil and oil products. To predict the state of the geological environment, scientists carry out investigations, which help to choose the optimal strategy for creation of the expert system taking into account simulations and to provide efficient use of available environmentally relevant information related to the current state of the geological environment. The expert system is a complex of interconnected blocks, one of which is the information on the presence of oil pollution, which can be identified using satellite imagery. The satellite imagery has practical application in monitoring of oil pollution, as it allows specialists to identify oil spills remotely and to determine their characteristics based on the differentiation of the surface reflectance spectra. Snapshots are used to estimate the area of oil-contamination and location of spills. To detect contaminants it is necessary to perform the following steps in processing of the remote sensing data: - Identify and isolate all the dark deformations in the satellite images, as a result of processing of segmentation and threshold processing; - Calculate statistical parameters of dark deformations, i.e., signs similar to areas prone to contamination. These signs are related to the geometry of formation, their physical changes (backscattering value) and the image context; - Classify the selected spectral anomalies as oil pollution and oil sludge. On the basis of classification of satellite imagery, the objects of oil pollution are detected and deciphering signs are analyzed in order to refer classified objects to implicit or explicit contaminations. To detect oil pollution, pixels are classified into categories with learning on the given areas with creation of the

  10. 33 CFR 155.1052 - Response plan development and evaluation criteria for vessels carrying group V petroleum oil as a...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... evaluation criteria for vessels carrying group V petroleum oil as a primary cargo. 155.1052 Section 155.1052....1052 Response plan development and evaluation criteria for vessels carrying group V petroleum oil as a primary cargo. (a) Owners and operators of vessels that carry group V petroleum oil as a primary cargo...

  11. 33 CFR 155.1052 - Response plan development and evaluation criteria for vessels carrying group V petroleum oil as a...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... evaluation criteria for vessels carrying group V petroleum oil as a primary cargo. 155.1052 Section 155.1052....1052 Response plan development and evaluation criteria for vessels carrying group V petroleum oil as a primary cargo. (a) Owners and operators of vessels that carry group V petroleum oil as a primary...

  12. 33 CFR 155.1052 - Response plan development and evaluation criteria for vessels carrying group V petroleum oil as a...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... evaluation criteria for vessels carrying group V petroleum oil as a primary cargo. 155.1052 Section 155.1052....1052 Response plan development and evaluation criteria for vessels carrying group V petroleum oil as a primary cargo. (a) Owners and operators of vessels that carry group V petroleum oil as a primary...

  13. 33 CFR 155.1052 - Response plan development and evaluation criteria for vessels carrying group V petroleum oil as a...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... evaluation criteria for vessels carrying group V petroleum oil as a primary cargo. 155.1052 Section 155.1052....1052 Response plan development and evaluation criteria for vessels carrying group V petroleum oil as a primary cargo. (a) Owners and operators of vessels that carry group V petroleum oil as a primary...

  14. 33 CFR 155.1052 - Response plan development and evaluation criteria for vessels carrying group V petroleum oil as a...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... evaluation criteria for vessels carrying group V petroleum oil as a primary cargo. 155.1052 Section 155.1052....1052 Response plan development and evaluation criteria for vessels carrying group V petroleum oil as a primary cargo. (a) Owners and operators of vessels that carry group V petroleum oil as a primary...

  15. Speciation and environmental risk assessment of heavy metal in bio-oil from liquefaction/pyrolysis of sewage sludge.

    PubMed

    Yuan, Xingzhong; Leng, Lijian; Huang, Huajun; Chen, Xiaohong; Wang, Hou; Xiao, Zhihua; Zhai, Yunbo; Chen, Hongmei; Zeng, Guangming

    2015-02-01

    Liquefaction bio-oil (LBO) produced with ethanol (or acetone) as the solvent and pyrolysis bio-oil (PBO) produced at 550°C (or 850°C) from sewage sludge (SS) were produced, and were characterized and evaluated in terms of their heavy metal (HM) composition. The total concentration, speciation and leaching characteristic of HMs (Cu, Cr, Pb, Zn, Cd, and Ni) in both LBO and PBO were investigated. The total concentration and exchangeable fraction of Zn and Ni in bio-oils were at surprisingly high levels. Quantitative risk assessment of HM in bio-oils was performed by the method of risk assessment code (RAC), potential ecological risk index (PERI) and geo-accumulation index (GAI). Ni in bio-oil produced by pyrolysis at 850°C (PBO850) and Zn in bio-oil by liquefaction at 360°C with ethanol as solvent (LBO-360E) were evaluated to possess very high risk to the environment according to RAC. Additionally, Cd in PBO850 and LBO-360E were evaluated by PERI to have very high risk and high risk, respectively, while Cd in all bio-oils was assessed moderately contaminated according to GAI.

  16. The spatiotemporal characteristics of environmental hazards caused by offshore oil and gas operations in the Gulf of Mexico.

    PubMed

    Meng, Qingmin

    2016-09-15

    Marine ecosystems are home to a host of numerous species ranging from tiny planktonic organisms, fishes, and birds, to large mammals such as the whales, manatees, and seals. However, human activities such as offshore oil and gas operations increasingly threaten marine and coastal ecosystems, for which there has been little exploration into the spatial and temporal risks of offshore oil operations. Using the Gulf of Mexico, one of the world's hottest spots of offshore oil and gas mining, as the study area, we propose a spatiotemporal approach that integrates spatial statistics and geostatistics in a geographic information system environment to provide insight to environmental management and decision making for oil and gas operators, coastal communities, local governments, and the federal government. We use the records from 1995 to 2015 of twelve types of hazards caused by offshore oil and gas operations, and analyze them spatially over a five year period. The spatial clusters of these hazards are analyzed and mapped using Getis-Ord Gi and local Moran's I statistics. We then design a spatial correlation coefficient matrix for multivariate spatial correlation, which is the ratio of the cross variogram of two types of hazards to the product of the variograms of the two hazards, showing a primary understanding of the degrees of spatial correlation among the twelve types hazards. To the best of our knowledge, it is the first application of spatiotemporal analysis methods to environmental hazards caused by offshore oil and gas operations; the proposed methods can be applied to other regions for the management and monitoring of environmental hazards caused by offshore oil operations. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. 75 FR 70021 - Environmental Documents Prepared in Support of Oil and Gas Activities on the Alaska Outer...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-16

    ... Bureau of Ocean Energy Management, Regulation and Enforcement Environmental Documents Prepared in Support of Oil and Gas Activities on the Alaska Outer Continental Shelf AGENCY: Bureau of Ocean Energy... Location Project purpose FONSI Shell Exploration & Production, Beaufort Sea, Alaska...... Conduct Ancillary...

  18. Safe Drinking Water and Satisfaction with Environmental Quality of Life in Some Oil and Gas Industry Impacted Cities of Nigeria

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ejechi, E. O.; Ejechi, B. O.

    2008-01-01

    The availability and safety of drinking water and the environmental quality of life was investigated in five cities located in an oil-producing area of Nigeria using questionnaire-based scales, discussion and laboratory tests. Polythene-packaged sachet water and commercial and non-commercial private boreholes largely met the drinking water…

  19. 78 FR 27422 - Environmental Documents Prepared for Oil, Gas, and Mineral Operations by the Gulf of Mexico Outer...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-10

    ... Bureau of Ocean Energy Management MMAA104000 Environmental Documents Prepared for Oil, Gas, and Mineral... Mineral Proposals by the Gulf of Mexico OCS Region. SUMMARY: BOEM, in accordance with Federal Regulations..., and mineral-related activities that were proposed in the Gulf of Mexico, and are more...

  20. Safe Drinking Water and Satisfaction with Environmental Quality of Life in Some Oil and Gas Industry Impacted Cities of Nigeria

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ejechi, E. O.; Ejechi, B. O.

    2008-01-01

    The availability and safety of drinking water and the environmental quality of life was investigated in five cities located in an oil-producing area of Nigeria using questionnaire-based scales, discussion and laboratory tests. Polythene-packaged sachet water and commercial and non-commercial private boreholes largely met the drinking water…

  1. Ways of solving environmental problems while transferring the boilers for burning water-bitumen mixture instead of fuel oil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kotler, V. R.; Sosin, D. V.

    2009-03-01

    Information concerning a new kind (for Russia) of liquid fuel, i.e., water-bitumen mixture (orimulsion), is presented. The application of the new fuel instead of the fuel oil at a boiler of a power unit of 350-MW capacity makes it possible to decrease sufficiently the expenditures for fuel while keeping the main environmental indices.

  2. Genotypic and environmental effects on cottonseed oil, nitrogen, and gossypol contents in eighteen years Regional High Quality tests

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Determination of environmental influence on seed traits is critical for genetic improvement of seed quality in Upland cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.). The objective of this study was to analyze the relative contribution of environment and genotype (G) for seed oil, nitrogen (N), and gossypol content...

  3. 75 FR 38805 - Central New York Oil and Gas Company, LLC; Notice of Intent To Prepare an Environmental...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-06

    ... New York Oil and Gas Company, LLC (CNYOG) in Bradford County, Pennsylvania and Tioga County, New York... compressor station locations in Bradford County, Pennsylvania and Tioga County, New York. All interested... following locations: FERC Environmental Site Reviews North-South Project Compressor Station...

  4. Environmental impact analysis with the airspace concept evaluation system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Augustine, Stephen; Capozzi, Brian; DiFelici, John; Graham, Michael; Thompson, Terry; Miraflor, Raymond M. C.

    2005-01-01

    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Ames Research Center has developed the Airspace Concept Evaluation System (ACES), which is a fast-time simulation tool for evaluating Air Traffic Management (ATM) systems. This paper describes linking a capability to ACES which can analyze the environmental impact of proposed future ATM systems. This provides the ability to quickly evaluate metrics associated with environmental impacts of aviation for inclusion in multi-dimensional cost-benefit analysis of concepts for evolution of the National Airspace System (NAS) over the next several decades. The methodology used here may be summarized as follows: 1) Standard Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) noise and emissions-inventory models, the Noise Impact Routing System (NIRS) and the Emissions and Dispersion Modeling System (EDMS), respectively, are linked to ACES simulation outputs; 2) appropriate modifications are made to ACES outputs to incorporate all information needed by the environmental models (e.g., specific airframe and engine data); 3) noise and emissions calculations are performed for all traffic and airports in the study area for each of several scenarios, as simulated by ACES; and 4) impacts of future scenarios are compared to the current NAS baseline scenario. This paper also provides the results of initial end-to-end, proof-of-concept runs of the integrated ACES and environmental-modeling capability. These preliminary results demonstrate that if no growth is likely to be impeded by significant environmental impacts that could negatively affect communities throughout the nation.

  5. Economic and environmental evaluations of extractable coal resources conducted by the U. S. Geological Survey

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ellis, M.S.; Rohrbacher, T.J.; Carter, M.D.; Molnia, C.L.; Osmonson, L.M.; Scott, D.C.

    2001-01-01

    The Economic and Environmental Evaluations of Extractable Coal Resources (E4CR) project integrates economic analyses of extractable coal resources with environmental and coal quality considerations in order to better understand the contribution that coal resources can make to help meet the Nation’s future energy needs. The project utilizes coal resource information derived from the recent National Coal Resource Assessment (NCRA), National Oil and Gas Assessment (NOGA), and Coal Availability and Recoverability Studies (CARS) conducted by the U.S. Geological Survey and other State and Federal cooperating agencies. The E4CR evaluations are designed to augment economic models created by the U.S. Geological Survey CARS and NCRA projects and by the Department of Energy/Energy Information Administration (DOE/EIA). E4CR evaluations are conducted on potentially minable coal beds within selected coalfields in the United States. Emphasis is placed on coalfields containing Federally owned coal and within or adjacent to Federal lands, as shown in U.S. Geological Survey Fact Sheets 012-98, 145-99, and 011-00 (U.S. Geological Survey, 1998, 1999, 2000). Other considerations for the selection of study areas include coal quality, potential environmental impact of coal production activities and coal utilization, the potential for coalbed methane development from the coal, and projected potential for future mining. Completion dates for the E4CR studies loosely follow the schedule for analogous NOGA studies to allow for a comparison of different energy resources in similar geographic areas.

  6. Evaluation of performance loss of paraffin oil loaded filtering facepieces.

    PubMed

    Tombolini, Francesca; Listrani, Stefano; Campopiano, Antonella; Plebani, Carmela

    2016-01-01

    Penetration measurements through commercially available filtering facepieces were performed with monodisperse DEHS aerosols ranging from 0.03 μm to 0.40 μm (either singly charged or neutralized), before and after 500 mg of paraffin oil loading. The distinct behavior of Coulomb and polarization capture efficiency is studied: as in the case of non loading also in the case of loading 500 mg of paraffin oil, the electrostatic capture mechanisms are mainly due to the Coulomb contribution up to aerosol particle diameter of about 0.10 μm, just when the polarization contribution becomes substantial. Both Coulomb and polarization capture mechanisms are influenced by the presence of 500 mg of paraffin oil, resulting less effective than the oil unloaded case of about 12% and 11%, respectively. By the occupational hygiene point of view, there is a degradation in the filter performance due to oil loading that the user does not realize because there is no remarkable variation in the breathing resistance.

  7. Evaluation of performance loss of paraffin oil loaded filtering facepieces

    PubMed Central

    TOMBOLINI, Francesca; LISTRANI, Stefano; CAMPOPIANO, Antonella; PLEBANI, Carmela

    2016-01-01

    Penetration measurements through commercially available filtering facepieces were performed with monodisperse DEHS aerosols ranging from 0.03 μm to 0.40 μm (either singly charged or neutralized), before and after 500 mg of paraffin oil loading. The distinct behavior of Coulomb and polarization capture efficiency is studied: as in the case of non loading also in the case of loading 500 mg of paraffin oil, the electrostatic capture mechanisms are mainly due to the Coulomb contribution up to aerosol particle diameter of about 0.10 μm, just when the polarization contribution becomes substantial. Both Coulomb and polarization capture mechanisms are influenced by the presence of 500 mg of paraffin oil, resulting less effective than the oil unloaded case of about 12% and 11%, respectively. By the occupational hygiene point of view, there is a degradation in the filter performance due to oil loading that the user does not realize because there is no remarkable variation in the breathing resistance. PMID:27725599

  8. Evaluating Environmental Knowledge Dimension Convergence to Assess Educational Programme Effectiveness

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liefländer, Anne K.; Bogner, Franz X.; Kibbe, Alexandra; Kaiser, Florian G.

    2015-03-01

    One aim of environmental education is fostering sustainable environmental action. Some environmental behaviour models suggest that this can be accomplished in part by improving people's knowledge. Recent studies have identified a distinct, psychometrically supported environmental knowledge structure consisting of system, action-related and effectiveness knowledge. Besides system knowledge, which is most often the focus of such studies, incorporating the other knowledge dimensions into these dimensions was suggested to enhance effectiveness. Our study is among the first to implement these dimensions together in an educational campaign and to use these dimensions to evaluate the effectiveness of a programme on water issues. We designed a four-day environmental education programme on water issues for students at an educational field centre. We applied a newly developed multiple-choice instrument using a pre-, post-, retention test design. The knowledge scales were calibrated with the Rasch model. In addition to the commonly assessed individual change in knowledge level, we also measured the change in knowledge convergence, the extent to which the knowledge dimensions merge as a person's environmental knowledge increases, as an innovative indicator of educational success. Following programme participation, students significantly improved in terms of amount learned in each knowledge dimension and in terms of integration of the knowledge dimensions. The effectiveness knowledge shows the least gain, persistence and convergence, which we explain by considering the dependence of the knowledge dimensions on each other. Finally, we discuss emerging challenges for educational researchers and practical implications for environmental educators.

  9. Antinociceptive Activity and Toxicity Evaluation of the Fatty Oil from Plukenetia polyadenia Mull. Arg. (Euphorbiaceae).

    PubMed

    Mota, Amanda S; de Lima, Anderson B; Albuquerque, Thayana Lucy F; Silveira, Tiago S; do Nascimento, José Luiz M; da Silva, Joyce Kelly R; Ribeiro, Alcy F; Maia, José Guilherme S; Bastos, Gilmara N T

    2015-04-30

    Seed oil (Pp-oil) of Plukenetia polyadenia is used by native people of the Brazilian Amazon against arthritis and rheumatism, spreading it on the arms and legs to reduce the pain and inflammation. Pp-oil was obtained by pressing dried seeds at room temperature to give a 47.0% yield of oil. It was then subjected to fatty acid composition analysis. The principal fatty acids were linoleic acid (46.5%), α-linolenic acid (34.4%) and oleic acid (13.9%). Then, it was evaluated for its antinociceptive activity in mice, using the acetic acid-induced abdominal writhing, hot plate and formalin test models. Additionally, its toxicity was determined. The Pp-oil proved to have no toxicological effects, showing dose-dependent antinociceptive effect under chemical stimulation. At oral doses of 25-100 mg/kg, Pp-oil significantly reduced the abdominal writhes in the writhing test. A higher oral dose of 200 mg/kg did not induce alterations in the latency time of the hot plate test when compared to the control, suggesting an analgesic activity of peripheral origin. At oral doses of 50 and 100 mg/kg, the Pp-oil significantly reduced the second phase of the algic stimulus in the formalin test. In addition, the antinociception of Pp-oil was reversed by naloxone in the evaluation of its mechanism of action. Therefore, the Pp-oil proved to be safe at very high doses and to show significant analgesic properties. The role of Pp-oil is still being investigated with respect the mechanism of action, but the results suggest that opiod receptors could be involved in the antinociception action observed for the oil of P. polyadenia.

  10. Environmental performance evaluation and strategy management using balanced scorecard.

    PubMed

    Hsu, Yu-Lung; Liu, Chun-Chu

    2010-11-01

    Recently, environmental protection and regulations such as WEEE, ELV, and RoHS are rapidly emerging as an important issue for business to consider. The trend of swinging from end-of-pipe control to product design, green innovation, and even the establishment of image or brand has affected corporations in almost every corner in the world, and enlarged to the all modern global production network. Corporations must take proactive environmental strategies to response the challenges. This study adopts balanced scorecard structure and aim at automobile industries to understand the relationships of internal and external, financial and non-financial, and outcome and driving factors. Further relying on these relationships to draw the "map of environment strategy" to probe and understand the feasibility of environmental performance evaluation and environmental strategy control.

  11. Evaluating community and campus environmental public health programs.

    PubMed

    Pettibone, Kristianna G; Parras, Juan; Croisant, Sharon Petronella; Drew, Christina H

    2014-01-01

    The National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences' (NIEHS) Partnerships for Environmental Public Health (PEPH) program created the Evaluation Metrics Manual as a tool to help grantees understand how to map out their programs using a logic model, and to identify measures for documenting their achievements in environmental public health research. This article provides an overview of the manual, describing how grantees and community partners contributed to the manual, and how the basic components of a logic model can be used to identify metrics. We illustrate how the approach can be implemented, using a real-world case study from the University of Texas Medical Branch, where researchers worked with community partners to develop a network to address environmental justice issues.

  12. Evaluation of antilisterial action of cilantro oil on vacuum packed ham.

    PubMed

    Gill, A O; Delaquis, P; Russo, P; Holley, R A

    2002-02-25

    Cilantro oil is an essential oil preparation extracted from the plant Coriandrum sativium. A series of experiments were conducted to evaluate the ability of cilantro oil to control the growth of Listeria monocytogenes on vacuum-packed ham. The in vitro minimal inhibitory concentration for five strains of L. monocytogenes was found to vary from 0.074% to 0.018% depending on strain. Cilantro oil treatments were then tested on ham disks inoculated with a cocktail of the five L. monocytogenes strains. The treatments studied were 0.1%, 0.5%, and 6% cilantro oil diluted in sterile canola oil or incorporated into a gelatin gel in which lecithin was used to enhance incorporation of the cilantro oil. Gelatin gel treatments were also conducted with 1.4% monolaurin with or without 6% cilantro oil to determine if an interaction between the antimicrobials could increase inhibition of L. monocytogenes. Treated ham was then vacuum-packed and stored at 10 degrees C for up to 4 weeks. The only cilantro oil treatment which inhibited growth of L. monocytogenes on the ham samples was 6% cilantro oil gel. Samples receiving this treatment had populations of L. monocytogenes 1.3 log CFU/ml lower than controls at week 1 of storage, though there was no difference between treatments from week 2 onward. It appears that immobilization of the antimicrobial in a gel enhanced the effect of treatments. Cilantro oil does not appear to be a suitable agent for the control of L. monocytogenes on ham. The possible reasons for reduced effectiveness of cilantro oil against L. monocytogenes on ham are discussed.

  13. Ecotoxicological evaluation of sediments applied to environmental forensic investigation.

    PubMed

    Alves, R H; Rietzler, A C

    2015-11-01

    The present study aimed to evaluate the potential for using toxicity assays with sediment samples for the detection of water pollution caused by the discharge of tannery effluents into water bodies and its application to environmental forensic investigation. The study included ecotoxicological evaluation of sediments, survey of benthic organisms in the field, as well as chromium, cadmium and lead dosage which provided data for a sediment quality triad evaluation. The sediment samples showed acute and chronic toxicity to the bioindicators, low biodiversity of benthic macrofauna and high chromium concentration, reaching up to 4365 mg.Kg-1. A close relationship was observed between the separate results of ecotoxicological sediment evaluation and the sediment quality triad. The sediment ecotoxicological assessment proved to be applicable to tracking sources of contamination related to tanneries and similar activities in environmental forensics.

  14. Ecotoxicological evaluation of sediments applied to environmental forensic investigation.

    PubMed

    Alves, R H; Rietzler, A C

    2015-11-10

    AbstractThe present study aimed to evaluate the potential for using toxicity assays with sediment samples for the detection of water pollution caused by the discharge of tannery effluents into water bodies and its application to environmental forensic investigation. The study included ecotoxicological evaluation of sediments, survey of benthic organisms in the field, as well as chromium, cadmium and lead dosage which provided data for a sediment quality triad evaluation. The sediment samples showed acute and chronic toxicity to the bioindicators, low biodiversity of benthic macrofauna and high chromium concentration, reaching up to 4365 mg.Kg-1. A close relationship was observed between the separate results of ecotoxicological sediment evaluation and the sediment quality triad. The sediment ecotoxicological assessment proved to be applicable to tracking sources of contamination related to tanneries and similar activities in environmental forensics.

  15. Evaluation of three essential oils as potential sources of botanical fungicides.

    PubMed

    Kouassi, K H S; Bajji, M; Zhiri, A; Lepoivre, P; Jijakli, M H

    2010-01-01

    In previous study, thirty essential oils were evaluated in vitro against two citrus pathogens namely Penicillium italicum Wehmer and Penicillium digitatum Sacc. Essential oils of Cinnamomum zeylanicum, Cinnamomum verum and Eugenia caryophyllus were selected because of their high inhibitory activities against both pathogens. The present study was undertaken to evaluate the in vivo activity of these essential oils. Fresh orange fruits were wounded and treated with different concentrations of essential oil (0.5, 1, and 5%) before being infected at the wound site with conidia suspensions of the tested pathogens. When applied at 5%, essential oils tested controlled totally the infections. Among the three essential oils tested, C. zeylanicum seems particularly interesting because of its high protection activity at 1% compare to the others. It reduced the disease incidence from 40 to 70% and the disease severity from 65 to 82%. Moreover no visible damage burn induced on the orange cuticle or skin was observed up to 5% of essential oil. These results strengthen the potential use of essential oils in postharvest disease management of citrus fruit as alternative to chemical fungicides.

  16. Growth, carcass characteristics, and incidence of ascites in broilers exposed to environmental fluctuations and oiled litter.

    PubMed

    McGovern, R H; Feddes, J J; Robinson, F E; Hanson, J A

    2000-03-01

    The effects of diurnal temperature fluctuations and removal of respirable dust, by application of canola oil to straw litter, on growth, carcass traits, and the degree of ascites was evaluated with 1,200 male broilers studied in two replicated 6-wk trials. Each trial used four pens of 150 birds. The temperature treatment consisted of a fluctuation of 3 C in temperature above the required temperature during the day (0600 to 1800 h) and 3 C below the required temperature at night (1800 to 0600 h) for a 6 C change in daily temperature. The control temperature was constant. All pens had the same mean daily temperature. In each trial, one control temperature pen and one fluctuation temperature pen received bi-weekly applications of canola oil to the litter (1.1 L/m2 of oil over 6 wk). At 6 wk of age, 30 birds from each pen were killed for determination of breast muscle, fatpad, and heart weights. All birds were scored for lesions of ascites at time of processing. A score of 0 or 1 represented slight pericardial effusion, slight pulmonary congestion, and edema. A score of 4 represented birds with marked accumulation of ascitic fluid in one or more ceolomic cavities (other than the pericardium) and advanced liver lesions. A cross-sectional image of each 4-mm heart slice (cross-section of the ventricles) was digitally recorded, and with image analysis we determined the right ventricular area (RVA), left ventricular area (LVA), and total heart area (HA). The final BW of the broilers were significantly different, the oiled-litter treatment (2,249 g) had lower weight gain compared with the nonoiled litter treatment (2,293 g). There were no differences in fatpad weight, shank length, lung weight, and percentage breast muscle between the main treatments. The Pectoralis minor and Pectoralis major weight were significantly heavier in the temperature fluctuation treatment than in the control temperature treatment by 3.0 and 12.0 g, respectively. The birds subjected to the control

  17. Modeling the Oil Transition: A Summary of the Proceedings of the DOE/EPA Workshop on the Economic and Environmental Implications of Global Energy Transitions

    SciTech Connect

    Greene, David L

    2007-02-01

    The global energy system faces sweeping changes in the next few decades, with potentially critical implications for the global economy and the global environment. It is important that global institutions have the tools necessary to predict, analyze and plan for such massive change. This report summarizes the proceedings of an international workshop concerning methods of forecasting, analyzing, and planning for global energy transitions and their economic and environmental consequences. A specific case, it focused on the transition from conventional to unconventional oil and other energy sources likely to result from a peak in non-OPEC and/or global production of conventional oil. Leading energy models from around the world in government, academia and the private sector met, reviewed the state-of-the-art of global energy modeling and evaluated its ability to analyze and predict large-scale energy transitions.

  18. Utah Heavy Oil Program

    SciTech Connect

    J. Bauman; S. Burian; M. Deo; E. Eddings; R. Gani; R. Goel; C.K. Huang; M. Hogue; R. Keiter; L. Li; J. Ruple; T. Ring; P. Rose; M. Skliar; P.J. Smith; J.P. Spinti; P. Tiwari; J. Wilkey; K. Uchitel

    2009-10-20

    The Utah Heavy Oil Program (UHOP) was established in June 2006 to provide multidisciplinary research support to federal and state constituents for addressing the wide-ranging issues surrounding the creation of an industry for unconventional oil production in the United States. Additionally, UHOP was to serve as an on-going source of unbiased information to the nation surrounding technical, economic, legal and environmental aspects of developing heavy oil, oil sands, and oil shale resources. UHOP fulGilled its role by completing three tasks. First, in response to the Energy Policy Act of 2005 Section 369(p), UHOP published an update report to the 1987 technical and economic assessment of domestic heavy oil resources that was prepared by the Interstate Oil and Gas Compact Commission. The UHOP report, entitled 'A Technical, Economic, and Legal Assessment of North American Heavy Oil, Oil Sands, and Oil Shale Resources' was published in electronic and hard copy form in October 2007. Second, UHOP developed of a comprehensive, publicly accessible online repository of unconventional oil resources in North America based on the DSpace software platform. An interactive map was also developed as a source of geospatial information and as a means to interact with the repository from a geospatial setting. All documents uploaded to the repository are fully searchable by author, title, and keywords. Third, UHOP sponsored Give research projects related to unconventional fuels development. Two projects looked at issues associated with oil shale production, including oil shale pyrolysis kinetics, resource heterogeneity, and reservoir simulation. One project evaluated in situ production from Utah oil sands. Another project focused on water availability and produced water treatments. The last project considered commercial oil shale leasing from a policy, environmental, and economic perspective.

  19. Environmental and economic evaluation of bioenergy in Ontario, Canada.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yimin; Habibi, Shiva; MacLean, Heather L

    2007-08-01

    We examined life cycle environmental and economic implications of two near-term scenarios for converting cellulosic biomass to energy, generating electricity from cofiring biomass in existing coal power plants, and producing ethanol from biomass in stand-alone facilities in Ontario, Canada. The study inventories near-term biomass supply in the province, quantifies environmental metrics associated with the use of agricultural residues for producing electricity and ethanol, determines the incremental costs of switching from fossil fuels to biomass, and compares the cost-effectiveness of greenhouse gas (GHG) and air pollutant emissions abatement achieved through the use of the bioenergy. Implementing a biomass cofiring rate of 10% in existing coal-fired power plants would reduce annual GHG emissions by 2.3 million metric tons (t) of CO2 equivalent (7% of the province's coal power plant emissions). The substitution of gasoline with ethanol/gasoline blends would reduce annual provincial lightduty vehicle fleet emissions between 1.3 and 2.5 million t of CO2 equivalent (3.5-7% of fleet emissions). If biomass sources other than agricultural residues were used, additional emissions reductions could be realized. At current crude oil prices ($70/barrel) and levels of technology development of the bioenergy alternatives, the biomass electricity cofiring scenario analyzed is more cost-effective for mitigating GHG emissions ($22/t of CO2 equivalent for a 10% cofiring rate) than the stand-alone ethanol production scenario ($92/t of CO2 equivalent). The economics of biomass cofiring benefits from existing capital, whereas the cellulosic ethanol scenario does not. Notwithstanding this result, there are several factors that increase the attractiveness of ethanol. These include uncertainty in crude oil prices, potential for marked improvements in cellulosic ethanol technology and economics, the province's commitment to 5% ethanol content in gasoline, the possibility of ethanol

  20. Evaluation of Quantitative Environmental Stress Screening (ESS) Methods. Volume 1

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1991-11-01

    muu4 The objective of this study was to evaluate Environmental Stress Screening (ESS) techniques contained in DOD-HDBK-344,’ by applying the methodology...to several electronic products during actual factor production. Validation of the techniques , the develop- ment of improved, qi•p’lified,_ad...automated procedures and subsequent revisions to the Handbook were the objectives, qf the evaluation. The Rome Laboratory has developed techniques which

  1. Reef Education Evaluation: Environmental Knowledge and Reef Experience

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stepath, Carl M.

    2005-01-01

    Background: The Reef education evaluation: environmental knowledge and reef experience report concerns PhD research about marine education, and the investigation of learning with high school students and the effect of coral reef monitoring marine experiential education interventions. The effectiveness of classroom learning and reef trips were…

  2. 40 CFR 227.4 - Criteria for evaluating environmental impact.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... DUMPING CRITERIA FOR THE EVALUATION OF PERMIT APPLICATIONS FOR OCEAN DUMPING OF MATERIALS Environmental... impact prohibitions, limits, and conditions for the dumping of materials into ocean waters. If the... proposed disposal will not unduly degrade or endanger the marine environment and that the disposal...

  3. Evaluation and Analyses of Cultural Diversity Training with Environmental Educators

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Galvan, Alma R.; LaRocque, Lisa

    2010-01-01

    The Environmental Education and Training Partnership Cultural Diversity Workshops were based on theoretical models and designed to increase individuals' awareness, knowledge, and intentions toward increasing culturally sensitivity. This study reports on the evaluation results from 191 participants. Their responses indicate significant changes in…

  4. Residential Environmental Education Center Program Evaluation: An Ongoing Challenge

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bourke, Nicholas; Buskist, Connie; Herron, Julie

    2014-01-01

    Residential environmental education centers (REECs) have been criticized for their lack of quality program evaluation. However, the last national study done on the practices of REECs was Chenery and Hammerman's (1985) research. This article presents the results of a national survey of directors of REECs (n = 114) that gives insight into the…

  5. Effect of odour on multisensory environmental evaluations of road traffic

    SciTech Connect

    Jiang, Like Masullo, Massimiliano Maffei, Luigi

    2016-09-15

    This study investigated the effect of odour on multisensory environmental evaluations of road traffic. The study aimed to answer: (1) Does odour have any effect on evaluations on noise, landscape and the overall environment? (2) How different are participants' responses to odour stimuli and are these differences influential on the evaluations? Experimental scenarios varied in three Traffic levels, three Tree screening conditions and two Odour presence conditions were designed, and presented to participants in virtual reality. Perceived Loudness, Noise Annoyance, Landscape Quality and Overall Pleasantness of each scenario were evaluated and the results were analysed. It shows that Odour presence did not have significant main effect on any of the evaluations, but has significant interactions with Traffic level on Noise Annoyance and with Tree screening on Landscape Quality, indicating the potential of odour to modulate noise and visual landscape perceptions in specific environmental content. Concerning participants' responses to odour stimuli, large differences were found in this study. However, the differences did not seem to be influential on environmental evaluations in this study. Larger samples of participants may benefit this study for more significant results of odour effect.

  6. Characterization and Evaluation of Re-Refined Engine Lubricating Oil.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-12-01

    LUBRICANT PROPERTIES Virgin Re-refined Test Basestock Basestock Property Method AL-10575 AL-8481 KVis, 40"C, cSt D 445 62.21 56.61 KVis, 100C, cSt D 445...Types, volZ D 1319 Saturates, 42 Olefins 12 Aromatics 46 41 TABLE 24. BASE OIL INSPECTION PROPERTIES Test Oil Test A B D Property Method AL-8481 AL-8181...be established. 446 .46 TABLE 28. ASTM/NBS BASESTOCK CONSISTENCY PARTICIPATION Test Method Viscosity D 445 at 100*C, cSt at 400C, cSt Viscosity Index D

  7. Sea transport of animal and vegetable oils and its environmental consequences.

    PubMed

    Bucas, Gwenaelle; Saliot, Alain

    2002-12-01

    The increasing production-and therefore sea traffic--of vegetable oils has regularly led to spillages during the past 40 years. The accident of Allegra, on October,lst, 1997, in the English Channel gave rise to a spillage of 900 tonnes of palm nut oil. The drift of this solid vegetable oil was followed by aerial observations. Samples of oil were collected in order to analyse its chemical evolution. This study, associated with several bibliographic cases of pollution by non-petroleum oils, shows that drifting oils can mix with floating material to sink or form a crust. They can also be oxidized or disperse and/or be degraded by bacteria. They may also polymerise. The coating properties of vegetable oils act as crude oils to affect sea life, tourism and yachting. As a result, it is necessary to quickly collect the oil after a spillage, using usual equipment (booms and pumps).

  8. Evaluation of the Leishmanicidal and Cytotoxic Potential of Essential Oils Derived From Ten Colombian Plants

    PubMed Central

    Sanchez-Suarez, JF; Riveros, I; Delgado, G

    2013-01-01

    Background The leishmanicidal and cytotoxic activity of ten essential oils obtained from ten plant specimens were evaluated. Methods Essential oils were obtained by the steam distillation of plant leaves without any prior processing. Cytotoxicity was tested on J774 macrophages and leishmanicidal activity was assessed against four species of Leishmania associated with cutaneous leishmaniasis. Results Seven essential oils exhibited activity against Leishmania parasites, five of which were toxic against J774 macrophages. Selectivity indices of >6 and 13 were calculated for the essential oils of Ocimum basilicum and Origanum vulgare, respectively. Conclusion The essential oil of Ocimum basilicum was active against promastigotes of Leishmania and innocuous to J774 macrophages at concentrations up to 1600 µg/mL and should be further investigated for leishmanicidal activity in others in vitro and in vivo experimental models. PMID:23682270

  9. Soil stabilization using oil shale solid wastes: Laboratory evaluation of engineering properties

    SciTech Connect

    Turner, J.P.

    1991-01-01

    Oil shale solid wastes were evaluated for possible use as soil stabilizers. A laboratory study was conducted and consisted of the following tests on compacted samples of soil treated with water and spent oil shale: unconfined compressive strength, moisture-density relationships, wet-dry and freeze-thaw durability, and resilient modulus. Significant increases in strength, durability, and resilient modulus were obtained by treating a silty sand with combusted western oil shale. Moderate increases in strength, durability, and resilient modulus were obtained by treating a highly plastic clay with combusted western oil shale. Solid waste from eastern shale can be used for soil stabilization if limestone is added during combustion. Without limestone, eastern oil shale waste exhibits little or no cementation. The testing methods, results, and recommendations for mix design of spent shale-stabilized pavement subgrades are presented. 11 refs., 3 figs., 10 tabs.

  10. Evaluating efficacy of an environmental policy to prevent biological invasions.

    PubMed

    Bailey, Sarah A; Deneau, Matthew G; Jean, Laurent; Wiley, Chris J; Leung, Brian; MacIsaac, Hugh J

    2011-04-01

    Enactment of any environmental policy should be followed by an evaluation of its efficacy to ensure optimal utilization of limited resources, yet measuring the success of these policies can be a challenging task owing to a dearth of data and confounding factors. We examine the efficacy of ballast water policies enacted to prevent biological invasions in the Laurentian Great Lakes. We utilize four criteria to assess the efficacy of this environmental regulation: (1) Is the prescribed management action demonstrably effective? (2) Is the management action effective under operational conditions? (3) Can compliance be achieved on a broad scale? (4) Are desired changes observed in the environment? The four lines of evidence resulting from this analysis indicate that the Great Lakes ballast water management program provides robust, but not complete, protection against ship-mediated biological invasions. Our analysis also indicates that corresponding inspection and enforcement efforts should be undertaken to ensure that environmental policies translate into increased environmental protection. Similar programs could be implemented immediately around the world to protect the biodiversity of the many freshwater ecosystems which receive ballast water discharges by international vessels. This general framework can be extended to evaluate efficacy of other environmental policies.

  11. Evaluation of kukui oil (Aleurites moluccana) for controlling termites

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The application of many chemical-based pesticides to protect wood has been greatly restricted in the United States and elsewhere. A possible natural product that can be used for wood preservation is the oil from the nut of the kukui plant, Aleurites moluccana (L.) Willd., which has been reported, ba...

  12. Evaluation of castor oil samples for potential toxin contamination

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Castor oil and its derivatives are widely used as a chemical feedstock for production of lubricants and greases, and for engineering plastics, plasticizers and surfactants. They also have wide application in consumer goods such as lipstick, deodorants and medicinal products. Due to concerns about th...

  13. Evaluating Sustainability: Soap versus Biodiesel Production from Plant Oils

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pohl, Nicola L. B.; Streff, Jennifer M.; Brokman, Steve

    2012-01-01

    Herein we describe a series of experiments for the undergraduate organic laboratory curriculum in which various plant oils (soybean, rapeseed, and olive) are subjected to saponification and transesterification reactions to create a set of compounds that can function as soaps or as fuels. The experiments introduce students to and asks them to…

  14. Evaluation of Partially Hydrogenated Methyl Esters of Soybean Oil

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Specifications mandating biodiesel quality, most notably in the EU (EN 14214) and the USA (ASTM D 6751), have emerged that influence feedstock choice in the production of biodiesel fuel. For instance, EN 14214 contains a specification for iodine value (IV, 120) that eliminates soybean oil (SBO) as ...

  15. Evaluating Sustainability: Soap versus Biodiesel Production from Plant Oils

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pohl, Nicola L. B.; Streff, Jennifer M.; Brokman, Steve

    2012-01-01

    Herein we describe a series of experiments for the undergraduate organic laboratory curriculum in which various plant oils (soybean, rapeseed, and olive) are subjected to saponification and transesterification reactions to create a set of compounds that can function as soaps or as fuels. The experiments introduce students to and asks them to…

  16. Evaluation of transboundary environmental issues in Central Europe

    SciTech Connect

    Engi, D.; Kapustka, L.A.; Williams, B.A.; Meganck, R.A.; Garrison, J.G.; Glicken, J.; Hostetler, C.J.; Lawrence, S.

    1997-05-01

    Central Europe has experienced environmental degradation for hundreds of years. The proximity of countries, their shared resources, and transboundary movement of environmental pollution, create the potential for regional environmental strife. The goal of this project was to identify the sources and sinks of environmental pollution in Central Europe and evaluate the possible impact of transboundary movement of pollution on the countries of Central Europe. In meeting the objectives of identifying sources of contaminants, determining transboundary movement of contaminants, and assessing socio-economic implications, large quantities of disparate data were examined. To facilitate use of the data, the authors refined mapping procedures that enable processing information from virtually any map or spreadsheet data that can be geo-referenced. Because the procedure is freed from a priori constraints of scale that confound most Geographical Information Systems, they have the capacity to generate new projections and apply sophisticated statistical analyses to the data. The analysis indicates substantial environmental problems. While transboundary pollution issues may spawn conflict among the Central European countries and their neighbors, it appears that common environmental problems facing the entire region have had the effect of bringing the countries together, even though opportunities for deteriorating relationships may still arise.

  17. Evaluation, or Just Data Collection? An Exploration of the Evaluation Practice of Selected UK Environmental Educators

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    West, Sarah Elizabeth

    2015-01-01

    Little is known about the evaluation practices of environmental educators. Questionnaires and discussion groups with a convenience sample of UK-based practitioners were used to uncover their evaluation methods. Although many report that they are evaluating regularly, this is mainly monitoring numbers of participants or an assessment of enjoyment.…

  18. Evaluation, or Just Data Collection? An Exploration of the Evaluation Practice of Selected UK Environmental Educators

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    West, Sarah Elizabeth

    2015-01-01

    Little is known about the evaluation practices of environmental educators. Questionnaires and discussion groups with a convenience sample of UK-based practitioners were used to uncover their evaluation methods. Although many report that they are evaluating regularly, this is mainly monitoring numbers of participants or an assessment of enjoyment.…

  19. Evaluation of microbial fuel cells for electricity generation from oil-contaminated wastewater.

    PubMed

    Hamamoto, Kazuhiro; Miyahara, Morio; Kouzuma, Atsushi; Matsumoto, Akiteru; Yoda, Minoru; Ishiguro, Takashi; Watanabe, Kazuya

    2016-11-01

    Large quantities of oils and fats are discharged into wastewater from food industries. We evaluated the possibility of using microbial fuel cells (MFCs) for the generation of electricity from food-industry wastewater containing vegetable oils. Single-chamber MFCs were supplied with artificial wastewater containing soybean oil, and oil removal and electric output were examined under several different conditions. We found that MFC performance could be improved by supplementing wastewater with an emulsifier, inoculating MFCs with oil-contaminated soil, and coating the graphite-felt anodes with carbon nanotubes, resulting in a power output of more than 2 W m(-2) (based on the projected area of the anode). Sequencing of polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-amplified 16S rRNA gene fragments detected abundant amount of Burkholderiales bacteria (known to include oil degraders) in the oil-contaminated soil and anode biofilm, whereas those affiliated with the genus Geobacter were only detected in the anode biofilm. These results suggest that MFCs can be used for energy recovery from food industry wastewater containing vegetable oils. Copyright © 2016 The Society for Biotechnology, Japan. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Evaluation of an oil-debris monitoring device for use in helicopter transmissions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lewicki, David G.; Blanchette, Donald M.; Biron, Gilles

    1992-08-01

    Experimental tests were performed on an OH-58A helicopter main-rotor transmission to evaluate an oil-debris monitoring device (ODMD). The tests were performed in the NASA 500-hp Helicopter Transmission Test Stand. Five endurance tests were run as part of a U.S. Navy/NASA/Army advanced lubricants program. The tests were run at 100 percent design speed, 117-percent design torque, and 121 C (250 F) oil inlet temperature. Each test lasted between 29 and 122 hr. The oils that were used conformed to MIL-L-23699 and DOD-L-85734 specifications. One test produced a massive sun-gear fatigue failure; another test produced a small spall on one sun-gear tooth; and a third test produced a catastrophic planet-bearing cage failure. The ODMD results were compared with oil spectroscopy results. The capability of the ODMD to detect transmission component failures was not demonstrated. Two of the five tests produced large amounts of debris. For these two tests, two separate ODMD sensors failed, possibly because of prolonged exposure to relatively high oil temperatures. One test produced a small amount of debris and was not detected by the ODMD or by oil spectroscopy. In general, the ODMD results matched the oil spectroscopy results. The ODMD results were extremely sensitive to oil temperature and flow rate.

  1. Evaluation of Wound Healing Properties of Grape Seed, Sesame, and Fenugreek Oils

    PubMed Central

    Ksouda Moalla, Kamilia; Kammoun, Naziha Grati; Rebai, Tarek; Sahnoun, Zouheir

    2016-01-01

    Background. Medicinal plants have proved at all times to be a powerful remedy for health care. Accordingly, grape seed, sesame, and fenugreek extracted oils with pharmacological properties are investigated as wound treatments. This study assesses the potential of our oils for healing wounds induced on rats. Methods. Phytochemical analyses of oils have involved: quality value, polyphenol, chlorophylls, carotene, and fatty acids. Antibacterial activity was carried out. Antioxidant activity was evaluated: the scavenging effect on DPPH radicals, the reducing power, and β-carotene discoloration. Uniform wound excision was induced on rats dorsum randomly divided into five groups: groups treated with “CICAFLORA®” and tested oils and untreated one. The posthealing biopsies were histologically assessed. Results. Wound biopsies treated with oils showed the best tissue regeneration compared to control groups. Groups treated with our oils and “CICAFLORA” had higher wound contraction percentage. Polyunsaturated fatty acids in oils act as inflammatory mediators increasing neovascularization, extracellular remodeling, migration, and cell differentiation. Wound healing effect was attributed to antibacterial and antioxidant synergy. Conclusion. According to findings, oils showed better activity in wound healing compared to “CICAFLORA” due to a phytoconstituents synergy. However, clinical trials on humans are necessary to confirm efficacy on human pathology. PMID:27990170

  2. Safety evaluation of DHA-rich Algal Oil from Schizochytrium sp.

    PubMed

    Fedorova-Dahms, I; Marone, P A; Bauter, M; Ryan, A S

    2011-12-01

    The safety of DHA-rich Algal Oil from Schizochytrium sp. containing 40-45 wt% DHA and up to 10 wt% EPA was evaluated by testing for gene mutations, clastogenicity and aneugenicity, and in a subchronic 90-day Sprague-Dawley rat dietary study with in utero exposure, followed by a 4-week recovery phase. The results of all genotoxicity tests were negative. In the 90-day study, DHA-rich Algal Oil was administered at dietary levels of 0.5, 1.5, and 5 wt% along with two control diets: a standard low-fat basal diet and a basal diet supplemented with 5 wt% of concentrated Fish Oil. There were no treatment-related effects of DHA-rich Algal Oil on clinical observations, body weight, food consumption, behavior, hematology, clinical chemistry, coagulation, or urinalysis. Increases in absolute and relative weights of the liver, kidney, spleen and adrenals (adrenals and spleen with histological correlates) were observed in both the Fish Oil- and the high-dose of DHA-rich Algal Oil-treated females and were not considered to be adverse. The no observed adverse effect level (NOAEL) for DHA-rich Algal Oil under the conditions of this study was 5 wt% in the diet, equivalent to an overall average DHA-rich Algal Oil intake of 4260 mg/kg bw/day for male and female rats. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Evaluation of an oil-debris monitoring device for use in helicopter transmissions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lewicki, David G.; Blanchette, Donald M.; Biron, Gilles

    1992-01-01

    Experimental tests were performed on an OH-58A helicopter main-rotor transmission to evaluate an oil-debris monitoring device (ODMD). The tests were performed in the NASA 500-hp Helicopter Transmission Test Stand. Five endurance tests were run as part of a U.S. Navy/NASA/Army advanced lubricants program. The tests were run at 100 percent design speed, 117-percent design torque, and 121 C (250 F) oil inlet temperature. Each test lasted between 29 and 122 hr. The oils that were used conformed to MIL-L-23699 and DOD-L-85734 specifications. One test produced a massive sun-gear fatigue failure; another test produced a small spall on one sun-gear tooth; and a third test produced a catastrophic planet-bearing cage failure. The ODMD results were compared with oil spectroscopy results. The capability of the ODMD to detect transmission component failures was not demonstrated. Two of the five tests produced large amounts of debris. For these two tests, two separate ODMD sensors failed, possibly because of prolonged exposure to relatively high oil temperatures. One test produced a small amount of debris and was not detected by the ODMD or by oil spectroscopy. In general, the ODMD results matched the oil spectroscopy results. The ODMD results were extremely sensitive to oil temperature and flow rate.

  4. Procedure for evaluating susceptibility of motor oils to high temperature oxidation

    SciTech Connect

    Kozhekin, A.V.; Bauman, V.N.; Ershova, A.N.

    1984-03-01

    This article proposes a laboratory method for the evaluation of the thickening tendencies (viscosity increase) of motor oils. The high viscosity of used oil results from the accumulation of soluble and insoluble products from oil oxidation and fuel combustion. The influence of oxidative processes on viscosity increase is indicated by the sharp increase in the motor oil's content of sludge, various resins, and acidic products, as indicated by the increase in acid number (large amounts of oxidation products can also be detected in the oil by means of infrared spectroscopy). The proposed lab method is convenient in terms of time required, simple in terms of apparatus, and (when compared with methods using oxygen) it is safe. The test apparatus consists of an air blower, a surge tank, and a system of differential manometers. The motor oil test samples were prepared under lab conditions by blending lube stocks from various sources with the appropriate additives. It is determined that for the oils from the West Siberian crudes, the viscosity increase is far less than for the oils from the Volgograd crudes. The lube stocks from Volgograd crudes, which are low-sulfur and naphthene-paraffin based, respond poorly to many additives and are readily oxidized to form carbenes and carboids. Lube stocks from West Siberian crudes show a good response to most additives. Includes a table.

  5. Unocal Parachute Creek Shale Oil Program. Environmental monitoring plan supplemental environmental data report. Volume 1. Trial Trip 1 sampling results. Quarterly report, September 1989-January 1990

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-07-16

    The Energy Security Act of 1980 established a program to provide financial assistance to private industry in the construction and operation of commercial-scale synthetic fuels plants. The Parachute Creek Shale Oil Program is one of four projects awarded financial assistance. The support agreement included development of an Environmental Monitoring Plan, incorporating existing compliance monitoring and supplemental monitoring on water, air, solid waste, worker health and safety, and socioeconomic impacts during the period 1986-1993. Phase I of the project is to produce 10,000 barrels per day of syncrude from oil shale, using the Unishale B process. The report contains results for supplemental monitoring at sixteen sites; five particulates, 15 gas, 1 liquid and three solid samples are included. Concentrations are compared to environmental levels of significance.

  6. Nutritional and environmental studies on an ocean-going oil tanker. 3. Energy balances and physique

    PubMed Central

    Eddy, T. P.; Stock, Anne L.; Wheeler, Erica F.

    1971-01-01

    Eddy, T. P., Stock, Anne L., and Wheeler, Erica F. (1971).Brit. J. industr. Med.,28, 330-341. Nutritional and environmental studies on an ocean-going oil tanker. 3. Energy balances and physique. During the voyage of the oil tanker S.S. Esso Newcastle to the Persian Gulf(July to August, 1967) the average dietary intake of the whole ship's complement was measured on eight days at different periods of the voyage. In addition, the individual intakes of six subjects (three crew and three students) were measured on three occasions over periods of three days. Estimates were also made of the energy expenditures of three members of the crew and body weight and skinfold thickness were measured. Energy expenditure balanced energy intake in two of the crew members investigated. In the third crew subject, expenditure exceeded intake and there was a slight loss of weight. Two out of the three student subjects showed a significant gain in weight by the end of the voyage. The average calorie intake for the ship was 15·07 megajoules (MJ) (3600 kcal) per man per day (of which 13·23 MJ (3160 kcal) were derived from non-alcoholic sources). This is the United Kingdom recommended intake for very active men. Issues on the Esso Newcastle were 18·83 MJ (4500 kcal)/man/day; the difference between provision and consumption was found to be similar to that reported for Scandinavian vessels. Though the crew tended to be heavier than British landsmen, they did not appear to be abnormally fat. Weight was attributable to muscularity. PMID:5124833

  7. Renewable and sustainable bioenergies production from palm oil mill effluent (POME): win-win strategies toward better environmental protection.

    PubMed

    Lam, Man Kee; Lee, Keat Teong

    2011-01-01

    Palm oil industry is one of the leading agricultural industries in Malaysia with average crude palm oil production of more than 13 million tonne per year. However, production of such huge amount of crude palm oil has consequently resulted to even larger amount of palm oil mill effluent (POME). POME is a highly polluting wastewater with high chemical oxygen demand (COD) and biochemical oxygen demand (BOD) in which can caused severe pollution to the environment, typically pollution to water resources. On the other hand, POME was identified as a potential source to generate renewable bioenergies such as biomethane and biohydrogen through anaerobic digestion. In other words, a combination of wastewater treatment and renewable bioenergies production would be an added advantage to the palm oil industry. In line with the world's focus on sustainability concept, such strategy should be implemented immediately to ensure palm oil is produced in an environmental friendly and sustainable manner. This review aims to discuss various technologies to convert POME to biomethane and biohydrogen in a commercial scale. Furthermore, discussion on using POME to culture microalgae for biodiesel and bioethanol production was included in the present paper as a new remedy to utilize POME with a greater beneficial return.

  8. Evaluating bacterial community structures in oil collected from the sea surface and sediment in the northern Gulf of Mexico after the Deepwater Horizon oil spill

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Zhanfei; Liu, Jiqing

    2013-01-01

    Bacterial community structures were evaluated in oil samples using culture-independent pyrosequencing, including oil mousses collected on sea surface and salt marshes during the Deepwater Horizon oil spill, and oil deposited in sediments adjacent to the wellhead 1 year after the spill. Phylogenetic analysis suggested that Erythrobacter, Rhodovulum, Stappia, and Thalassospira of Alphaproteobacteria were the prevailing groups in the oil mousses, which may relate to high temperatures and strong irradiance in surface Gulf waters. In the mousse collected from the leaves of Spartina alterniflora, Vibrio of Gammaproteobacteria represented 57% of the total operational taxonomic units, suggesting that this indigenous genus is particularly responsive to the oil contamination in salt marshes. The bacterial communities in oil-contaminated sediments were highly diversified. The relatively high abundance of the Methylococcus, Methylobacter, Actinobacteria, Firmicutes, and Chlorofexi bacteria resembles those found in certain cold-seep sediments with gas hydrates. Bacterial communities in the overlying water of the oil-contaminated sediment were dominated by Ralstonia of Betaproteobacteria, which can degrade small aromatics, and Saccharophagus degradans of Gammaproteobacteria, a cellulose degrader, suggesting that overlying water was affected by the oil-contaminated sediments, possibly due to the dissolution of small aromatics and biosurfactants produced during biodegradation. Overall, these results provided key information needed to evaluate oil degradation in the region and develop future bioremediation strategies. PMID:23568850

  9. Effects and risk evaluation of oil spillage in the sea areas of Changxing Island.

    PubMed

    Wang, Hanxi; Xu, Jianling; Zhao, Wenkui; Zhang, Jiquan

    2014-08-19

    This paper evaluated the oil spillage risk in the waters near the island of Changxing in Dalian (China) based on the established risk assessment index. Four wind regimes (windless, northerly wind, westerly wind and southerly wind) were selected as weather conditions for the dynamic prediction of oil drift. If an oil spill occurs near the Koumen (a place near the island of Changxing), the forecast and evaluation are conducted based on a three-dimensional mathematical model of oil spillage, and the results obtained show the scope of the affected area when winds from various directions are applied. The oil spillage would, under various conditions, flow into the northern and western sea area of Changxing Island Bay, namely the Dalian harbor seal National Nature Reserve, and create adverse effects on the marine ecological environment. The rationality of combining the established oil spillage risk comprehensive index system with model prediction is further confirmed. Finally, preventive measures and quick fixes are presented in the case of accidental oil spillages. The most effective method to reduce environment risk is to adopt reasonable preventive measures and quick fixes.

  10. Effects and Risk Evaluation of Oil Spillage in the Sea Areas of Changxing Island

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Hanxi; Xu, Jianling; Zhao, Wenkui; Zhang, Jiquan

    2014-01-01

    This paper evaluated the oil spillage risk in the waters near the island of Changxing in Dalian (China) based on the established risk assessment index. Four wind regimes (windless, northerly wind, westerly wind and southerly wind) were selected as weather conditions for the dynamic prediction of oil drift. If an oil spill occurs near the Koumen (a place near the island of Changxing), the forecast and evaluation are conducted based on a three-dimensional mathematical model of oil spillage, and the results obtained show the scope of the affected area when winds from various directions are applied. The oil spillage would, under various conditions, flow into the northern and western sea area of Changxing Island Bay, namely the Dalian harbor seal National Nature Reserve, and create adverse effects on the marine ecological environment. The rationality of combining the established oil spillage risk comprehensive index system with model prediction is further confirmed. Finally, preventive measures and quick fixes are presented in the case of accidental oil spillages. The most effective method to reduce environment risk is to adopt reasonable preventive measures and quick fixes. PMID:25153473

  11. Oil, Water, and Wildlife: The Gulf of Mexico Disaster and Related Environmental Issues

    ScienceCinema

    Bickman, John W. [Purdue University, West Lafayette, Indiana, United States

    2016-07-12

    The BP Macondo oil field spill in the Gulf of Mexico is the largest oil spill in U.S. history and has the potential to impact sea turtle and marine mammal populations, and others. This presentation will review the genotoxic effects of oil exposure in wildlife and discuss the potential for an oil spill to impact wildlife populations. Whereas some aspects of a spill are predictable, each spill is different because oils are highly variable, as are the environments in which they occur. The presentation will discuss what has been learned from previous spills, including the Exxon Valdez and the soviet oil legacy in Azerbaijan, and the potential dangers of offshore oil development in the Arctic. Related Purdue University research efforts in oil-spill related engineering and science also will be highlighted.

  12. Oil, Water, and Wildlife: The Gulf of Mexico Disaster and Related Environmental Issues

    SciTech Connect

    Bickman, John W.

    2010-08-04

    The BP Macondo oil field spill in the Gulf of Mexico is the largest oil spill in U.S. history and has the potential to impact sea turtle and marine mammal populations, and others. This presentation will review the genotoxic effects of oil exposure in wildlife and discuss the potential for an oil spill to impact wildlife populations. Whereas some aspects of a spill are predictable, each spill is different because oils are highly variable, as are the environments in which they occur. The presentation will discuss what has been learned from previous spills, including the Exxon Valdez and the soviet oil legacy in Azerbaijan, and the potential dangers of offshore oil development in the Arctic. Related Purdue University research efforts in oil-spill related engineering and science also will be highlighted.

  13. Oil, Water, and Wildlife: The Gulf of Mexico Disaster and Related Environmental Issues

    SciTech Connect

    Bickman, John W.

    2010-08-04

    The BP Macondo oil field spill in the Gulf of Mexico is the largest oil spill in U.S. history and has the potential to impact sea turtle and marine mammal populations, and others. This presentation will review the genotoxic effects of oil exposure in wildlife and discuss the potential for an oil spill to impact wildlife populations. Whereas some aspects of a spill are predictable, each spill is different because oils are highly variable, as are the environments in which they occur. The presentation will discuss what has been learned from previous spills, including the Exxon Valdez and the soviet oil legacy in Azerbaijan, and the potential dangers of offshore oil development in the Arctic. Related Purdue University research efforts in oil-spill related engineering and science also will be highlighted.

  14. Advances in mass spectrometric characterization of naphthenic acids fraction compounds in oil sands environmental samples and crude oil--A review.

    PubMed

    Headley, John V; Peru, Kerry M; Barrow, Mark P

    2016-01-01

    There has been a recent surge in the development of mass spectrometric methods for detailed characterization of naphthenic acid fraction compounds (all C(c)H(h)N(n)O(o)S(s), species, including heteroatomic and aromatic components in the acid-extractable fraction) in environmental samples. This surge is driven by the increased activity in oil sands environmental monitoring programs in Canada, the exponential increase in research studies on the isolation and toxicity identification of components in oil sands process water (OSPW), and the analytical requirements for development of technologies for treatment of OSPW. There has been additional impetus due to the parallel studies to control corrosion from naphthenic acids during the mining and refining of heavy bitumen and crude oils. As a result, a range of new mass spectrometry tools have been introduced since our last major review of this topic in 2009. Of particular significance are the developments of combined mass spectrometric methods that incorporate technologies such as gas chromatography, liquid chromatography, and ion mobility. There has been additional progress with respect to improved visualization methods for petroleomics and oil sands environmental forensics. For comprehensive coverage and more reliable characterization of samples, an approach based on multiple-methods that employ two or more ionization modes is recommended. On-line or off-line fractionation of isolated extracts, with or without derivatization, might also be used prior to mass spectrometric analyses. Individual ionization methods have their associated strengths and weaknesses, including biases, and thus dependence upon a single ionization method is potentially misleading. There is also a growing trend to not rely solely on low-resolution mass spectrometric methods (<20,000 resolving power at m/z 200) for characterization of complex samples. Future research is anticipated to focus upon (i) structural elucidation of components to determine

  15. Evaluation of toxicity of essential oils palmarosa, citronella, lemongrass and vetiver in human lymphocytes.

    PubMed

    Sinha, Sonali; Jothiramajayam, Manivannan; Ghosh, Manosij; Mukherjee, Anita

    2014-06-01

    The present investigation was undertaken to study the cytotoxic and genotoxic potential of the essential oils (palmarosa, citronella, lemongrass and vetiver) and monoterpenoids (citral and geraniol) in human lymphocytes. Trypan blue dye exclusion and MTT test was used to evaluate cytotoxicity. The genotoxicity studies were carried out by comet and DNA diffusion assays. Apoptosis was confirmed by Annexin/PI double staining. In addition, generation of reactive oxygen species was evaluated by DCFH-DA staining using flow cytometry. The results demonstrated that the four essential oils and citral induced cytotoxicity and genotoxicity at higher concentrations. The essential oils were found to induce oxidative stress evidenced by the generation of reactive oxygen species. With the exception of geraniol, induction of apoptosis was confirmed at higher concentrations of the test substances. Based on the results, the four essential oils are considered safe for human consumption at low concentrations.

  16. Chemical composition and antimicrobial evaluation of the essential oils of Bocageopsis pleiosperma Maas.

    PubMed

    Soares, Elzalina R; da Silva, Felipe M A; de Almeida, Richardson A; de Lima, Bruna R; Koolen, Hector H F; Lourenço, Caroline C; Salvador, Marcos J; Flach, Adriana; da Costa, Luiz Antonio M A; de Souza, Antonia Q L; Pinheiro, Maria L B; de Souza, Afonso D L

    2015-01-01

    Essential oils from the leaves, twigs and barks of Bocageopsis pleiosperma Maas were obtained by using hydrodistillation and analysed by using gas chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry. Several compounds (51) were detected and identified, being β-bisabolene the main component in all aerial parts of the plant, with higher concentration in the leaves (55.77%), followed by barks (38.53%) and twigs (34.37%). In order to increase the biological knowledge about the essential oil of Bocageopsis species, antimicrobial activities were evaluated against the microorganisms Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus epidermidis, Enterobacter aerogenes, Candida tropicalis, Candida dubliniensis, Candida glabrata and Candida albicans. The essential oil obtained from the barks exhibited a moderate effect against S. epidermidis ATCC 1228 (MIC = 250 μg/mL), while the other oils did not exhibit antimicrobial activity. These results represent the first report about the chemical composition of B. pleiosperma and the first antimicrobial evaluation with a Bocageopsis species.

  17. Performance, durability and low temperature evaluation of sunflower oil as a diesel fuel extender

    SciTech Connect

    Baranescu, R.A.; Lusco, J.J.

    1982-01-01

    The paper presents the results of a research project to evaluate performance and durability of direct injection turbocharged diesel engines using sunflower oil and blends thereof. Alcaline refined sunflower oil and three different blends of sunflower oil and diesel fuel were comparatively tested against No. 2 diesel fuel for: physical and chemical characteristics, fuel injection system performance, short term engine performance, propensity to nozzle deposits buildup, limited durability operation and low temperature starting capability. Results are presented for the various phases of the project and correlations between the fuel characteristics and engine accept-ability are discussed. 19 figures, 2 tables.

  18. Potential of used frying oil in paving material: solution to environmental pollution problem.

    PubMed

    Singh-Ackbarali, Dimple; Maharaj, Rean; Mohamed, Nazim; Ramjattan-Harry, Vitra

    2017-05-01

    The improper disposal of used frying oil (UFO) presents numerous ecological, environmental and municipal problems. Of great concern is the resultant blockage of municipal drainage systems and water treatment facilities, harm to wildlife when they become coated in it and detriment to aquatic life and ecosystems due to the depletion of the oxygen content in water bodies such as rivers and lakes that have become contaminated. Statistics show that in Trinidad and Tobago, in excess of one million liters of used cooking oil is collected annually from various restaurant chains. This paper investigated the potential of using UFO as a performance enhancing additive for road paving applications utilizing Trinidad Lake Asphalt (TLA) and Trinidad Petroleum Bitumen (TPB) as a mitigation strategy for improper UFO disposal. Modified blends containing various additions of UFO (2-10% wt) were prepared for the TLA and TPB asphaltic binders. Results demonstrated in terms of stiffness, increasing the dosage of UFO in TLA and TPB base binders resulted in a gradual decrease in stiffness (G* value decreased). In terms of elasticity, increasing the dosage of the UFO additive in TLA resulted in a general decrease in the elasticity of the blends indicated by an increase in phase angle or phase lag (δ). Increasing dosages of the UFO additive in TPB resulted in a significant decrease in δ where the most elastic blend was at the 6% UFO level. TLA and UFO-TLA modified blends exhibited significantly lower values of δ and higher values of G* confirming the superiority of the TLA material. Incorporation of the UFO in the blends led to a decrease in the rutting resistance and increase in the fatigue cracking resistance (decrease in G*/sinδ and G*sinδ, respectively). This study highlighted the potential for the reuse of UFO as an asphalt modifier capable of producing customized UFO modified asphaltic blends for special applications and confirms its feasibility as an environmentally attractive

  19. Assessing the potential environmental impact of Athabasca oil sands development in lakes across Northwest Saskatchewan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahad, J. M.; Cumming, B. F.; Das, B.; Sanei, H.

    2011-12-01

    The continued development of Canada's Athabasca oil sands poses a significant environmental challenge. Low buffered boreal lakes located downwind of the prevailing eastward wind direction may be threatened by acidification and elevated inputs of airborne contaminants such as polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). An accurate assessment of the impact that increased levels of bitumen production may have on lakes in the region requires an understanding of the historic variability within these systems prior to at least the past several decades. Here we report concentrations of PAHs, δ13C and δ15N of organic matter (OM), Rock-Eval pyrolysis analyses, and distributions of n-alkanes in dated sediment cores from ten lakes located across NW Saskatchewan. Concentrations of PAHs were relatively low (< 100 ng/g for Σ 16 EPA Priority PAHs at each lake) and in general showed no substantial increases over the past 30 years. Retene, which is often associated with the combustion of coniferous wood, was generally the most abundant PAH amongst those reported, demonstrating the importance of forest fires as a principal PAH source. Plots of Hydrogen Index (HI) versus Oxygen Index (OI) fell within a relatively narrow range typical for sediments containing a high content of algal-derived OM. Relatively lower C/N ratios and higher abundances of C17 n-alkane in more recent sediments pointed to an increasingly larger component of algal-derived OM. In all ten lakes δ13C showed gradual upcore depletions that fell within the expected range for fossil fuel combustion (i.e., Suess effect), although this alone may not explain the up to ~3% depletion observed in several of the lakes. In conjunction with the other upcore trends these data may suggest a possible increase in primary productivity over the past several decades in many of the lakes studied. δ15N signatures were more variable, showing upcore increases in some lakes and upcore depletions in others. The increasingly lighter values

  20. Evaluation informs coalition programming for environmental tobacco smoke reduction.

    PubMed

    Cramer, Mary E; Mueller, Keith J; Harrop, Dianne

    2003-01-01

    The objective for this formative evaluation was to establish baseline data for informing a community coalition's strategic planning in environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) risk reduction. The coalition had chosen 3 targeted settings for ETS risk reduction: restaurants, childcare facilities, and government buildings. The evaluation methodology involved telephone interviews (restaurants, n = 805; governmental buildings, n = 258) and mailed surveys (childcare facilities, n = 1,142). Data on county residents and businesses were used for comparison purposes and were analyzed from the Nebraska Social Climate Survey (2001; n = 558). Evaluation baseline findings showed that licensed childcare facilities were more ETS knowledgeable, less ETS tolerant, and more smoke-free than restaurants. Residents were more bothered by ETS than what restaurant proprietors perceived. The majority of governmental buildings were not smoke-free. Conclusions were that community health nurse evaluators can provide coalitions with formative evaluative data to inform strategic planning and increase the likelihood of effective program interventions for community impact on ETS.