Science.gov

Sample records for oil export potentials

  1. Colombian export oil pipeline

    SciTech Connect

    Duncan, K. ); Enright, B. )

    1989-06-01

    The authors discuss how bringing crude oil to market often requires extraordinary determination and effort to overcome the obstacles of terrain and time. They describe a pipeline project on a 53-week suicide schedule to get oil across the Colombian Andes. After confronting setbacks, they completed a job that included 304 miles of pipeline, 497 miles of telecommunications and a major offshore terminal in only 47 weeks.

  2. The south's timer export potential

    Treesearch

    James E. Granskog

    1986-01-01

    Exports of southern wood products have bccil dcclirling since 1980, following a dramatic rise during the 1970s. The value of these exports rose from near the $50 million level in the early 1970s to almost $500 million in 1980, but has dropped by more than a third since then. Now, however, changing monetary conditions appear to be turning the trend upward again....

  3. War curbs oil exports by Iran and Iraq

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-09-29

    A discussion of the effects of the war between Iran and Iraq on oil exports from the area covers damage (extent unknown) to the Abadan, Iran, and Basra, Iraq, oil refineries, to the Iraqi petrochemical complex under construction at Basra, to oil export terminals at Kharg Island and Mina-al-Bakr, and to other oil facilities; war-caused reductions in oil production, refining, shipping, and export, estimated at 2.05-3.35 million bbl/day; the possible effects of the war on OPEC's decisions concerning oil production and pricing; the significance of the Strait of Hormuz for the export of oil by several countries in addition to the belligerents; the U.S. and non-Communist oil stocks which might enable the world to avoid an oil shortage if the war is ended in the near future; and the long-term effects of the war on Iran's and Iraq's oil industries.

  4. Implications of lifting the ban on the export of Alaskan crude oil

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-03-26

    Present legislation effectively bans the export of crude oil produced in the United States. The ban has been in effect for years and is particularly stringent with respect to crude oil produced in Alaska, particularly on the North Slope. The Alaska crude export ban is specifically provided for in the Trans-Alaska Pipeline Authorization Act of 1973 and in other legislation. It was imposed for two reasons. The first was to reduce US dependence on imported crude oil. The Arab oil embargo had been imposed shortly before the Act was passed and a greater measure of energy independence was considered imperative at that time. The second reason was to assure that funds expended in building an Alaskan pipeline would benefit domestic users rather than simply employed to facilitate shipments to other countries. The main objective of this report is to estimate the potential impacts on crude oil prices that would result from lifting the export ban Alaskan crude oil. The report focuses on the Japanese market and the US West Coast market. Japan is the principal potential export market for Alaskan crude oil. Exports to that market would also affect the price of Alaskan crude oil as well as crude oil and product prices on the West Coast and the volume of petroleum imported in that area. 3 figs., 8 tabs.

  5. Oil prices, fiscal policy, and economic growth in oil-exporting countries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    El-Anshasy, Amany A.

    This dissertation argues that in oil-exporting countries fiscal policy could play an important role in transmitting the oil shocks to the economy and that the indirect effects of the changes in oil prices via the fiscal channel could be quite significant. The study comprises three distinct, yet related, essays. In the first essay, I try to study the fiscal policy response to the changes in oil prices and to their growing volatility. In a dynamic general equilibrium framework, a fiscal policy reaction function is derived and is empirically tested for a panel of 15 oil-exporters covering the period 1970--2000. After the link between oil price shocks and fiscal policy is established, the second essay tries to investigate the impact of the highly volatile oil prices on economic growth for the same sample, controlling for the fiscal channel. In both essays the study employs recent dynamic panel-data estimation techniques: System GMM. This approach has the potential advantages of minimizing the bias resulting from estimating dynamic panel models, exploiting the time series properties of the data, controlling for the unobserved country-specific effects, and correcting for any simultaneity bias. In the third essay, I focus on the case of Venezuela for the period 1950--2001. The recent developments in the cointegrating vector autoregression, CVAR technique is applied to provide a suitable framework for analyzing the short-run dynamics and the long-run relationships among oil prices, government revenues, government consumption, investment, and output.

  6. Exporting Alaskan North Slope crude oil: Benefits and costs

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-06-01

    The Department of Energy study examines the effects of lifting the current prohibitions against the export of Alaskan North Slope (ANS) crude. The study concludes that permitting exports would benefit the US economy. First, lifting the ban would expand the markets in which ANS oil can be sold, thereby increasing its value. ANS oil producers, the States of California and Alaska, and some of their local governments all would benefit from increased revenues. Permitting exports also would generate new economic activity and employment in California and Alaska. The study concludes that these economic benefits would be achieved without increasing gasoline prices (either in California or in the nation as a whole). Lifting the export ban could have important implications for US maritime interests. The Merchant Marine Act of 1970 (known as the Jones Act) requires all inter-coastal shipments to be carried on vessels that are US-owned, US-crewed, and US-built. By limiting the shipment of ANS crude to US ports only, the export ban creates jobs for the seafarers and the builders of Jones Act vessels. Because the Jones Act does not apply to exports, however, lifting the ban without also changing US maritime law would jeopardize the jobs associated with the current fleet of Jones Act tankers. Therefore the report analyzes selected economic impacts of several maritime policy alternatives, including: Maintaining current law, which allows foreign tankers to carry oil where export is allowed; requiring exports of ANS crude to be carried on Jones Act vessels; and requiring exports of ANS crude to be carried on vessels that are US-owned and US-crewed, but not necessarily US-built. Under each of these options, lifting the export ban would generate economic benefits.

  7. 15 CFR Supplement No. 3 to Part 754 - Statutory Provisions Dealing With Exports of Crude Oil

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... Exports of Crude Oil No. Supplement No. 3 to Part 754 Commerce and Foreign Trade Regulations Relating to... Provisions Dealing With Exports of Crude Oil Public Law 104-58 SEC. 201. EXPORTS OF ALASKAN NORTH SLOPE OIL... crude oil transported by pipeline over rights-of-way granted pursuant to this section, except such...

  8. 15 CFR Supplement No. 3 to Part 754 - Statutory Provisions Dealing With Exports of Crude Oil

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... Exports of Crude Oil No. Supplement No. 3 to Part 754 Commerce and Foreign Trade Regulations Relating to... Provisions Dealing With Exports of Crude Oil Public Law 104-58 SEC. 201. EXPORTS OF ALASKAN NORTH SLOPE OIL... crude oil transported by pipeline over rights-of-way granted pursuant to this section, except such...

  9. 15 CFR Supplement No. 3 to Part 754 - Statutory Provisions Dealing With Exports of Crude Oil

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... Exports of Crude Oil No. Supplement No. 3 to Part 754 Commerce and Foreign Trade Regulations Relating to... Provisions Dealing With Exports of Crude Oil Public Law 104-58 SEC. 201. EXPORTS OF ALASKAN NORTH SLOPE OIL... crude oil transported by pipeline over rights-of-way granted pursuant to this section, except such...

  10. 15 CFR Supplement No. 3 to Part 754 - Statutory Provisions Dealing With Exports of Crude Oil

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... Exports of Crude Oil No. Supplement No. 3 to Part 754 Commerce and Foreign Trade Regulations Relating to... Provisions Dealing With Exports of Crude Oil Public Law 104-58 SEC. 201. EXPORTS OF ALASKAN NORTH SLOPE OIL... crude oil transported by pipeline over rights-of-way granted pursuant to this section, except such...

  11. 15 CFR Supplement No. 3 to Part 754 - Statutory Provisions Dealing With Exports of Crude Oil

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... Exports of Crude Oil No. Supplement No. 3 to Part 754 Commerce and Foreign Trade Regulations Relating to... Provisions Dealing With Exports of Crude Oil Public Law 104-58 SEC. 201. EXPORTS OF ALASKAN NORTH SLOPE OIL... crude oil transported by pipeline over rights-of-way granted pursuant to this section, except such...

  12. Do Oil Exports Fuel Defense Spending?

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-02-01

    defense spending , and there were years when defense expenditures actually increased. Additionally, in countries that did... spending , especially defense expenditures , but such is not always the case. One can study the impact of oil revenues on defense spending by using a...oil revenue levels and levels of military expenditures , however, appear weak, meaning that attempts to limit defense spending by tinkering with

  13. Oil exports, structural change, and economic development in Iran

    SciTech Connect

    Emami-Khoi, A.

    1981-01-01

    Within the broad Chenery-Kuznets framework, using structural change as a major indicator of economic development, this study investigates the direction and magnitude and broad features of structural change in Iran, and the role of oil production and exports in that change. Although the study covers a larger horizon, the analysis is focused on the period 1955 through 1977. A similar but less-detailed investigation is conducted for Algeria, Indonesia, and Venezuela also, and a cross-country, comparative perspective is generated. The study shows that, in general, the structural changes in Iran have either been weak (for example, in production and employment), or they are contrary to what the model would predict (for instance in trade). The pattern of structural change observed in Iran, therefore, does not indicate any significant economic development even though per capita income increased five-fold over the period 1955 through 1977. In short, oil does not appear to have been an engine of economic development in Iran. The situation appears broadly similar for the other three countries. Based on these findings, the study offers some suggestions concerning the future economic strategies that should enhance very considerably the contribution that oil industry can make toward Iran's economic development, and should thus accelerate the pace of economic development. These suggestions may be useful to other oil-exporting countries as well.

  14. Eastern United States Hardwood Sawtimber Resources and Export Potential

    Treesearch

    Philip A. Araman

    1987-01-01

    To look at the export potential of the Eastern hardwood sawtimber resources, including the Southern and Northern regions, hardwood resource data were compiled from USDA Forest Service state resorce evaluation reports on a set of select export species. The species are the select oaks, yellow birch, hard maple, black walnut, black cherry, and the ashes. These species...

  15. Vitamin A--fortified vegetable oil exported from Malaysia and Indonesia can significantly contribute to vitamin A intake worldwide.

    PubMed

    Laillou, Arnaud; Panagides, Dora; Garrett, Greg S; Moench-Pfanner, Regina

    2013-06-01

    Vitamin A deficiency is a public health problem worldwide, affecting approximately 190 million preschool-aged children and 19.1 million pregnant women. Fortification of vegetable oils with vitamin A is an effective, low-cost technology to improve vitamin A intake. To examine the potential contribution of fortification of vegetable oils with vitamin A in Indonesia and Malaysia to increasing vitamin A consumption in these two countries and in countries to which oil is exported. Detailed interviews were administered and a desk review was conducted. We also estimated potential vitamin A intakes from fortified vegetable oil. Malaysia and Indonesia are two of the largest producers and exporters of vegetable oil. Fortification of vegetable oil in both countries has the potential to be used as a tool for control of vitamin A deficiency. Both countries have the capacity to export fortified vegetable oil. Vegetable oil fortified at a level of 45 IU/g could provide 18.8% of the Estimated Average Requirement (EAR) for an Ethiopian woman, 30.9% and 46.9% of the EAR for a Bangladeshi child and woman, respectively, and 17.5% of the EAR for a Cambodian woman. Although concerns about obesity are valid, fortification of existing vegetable oil supplies does not promote overconsumption of oil but rather promotes consumption of vegetable oil of higher nutrient quality. Fortifying vegetable oil on a large scale in Malaysia and Indonesia can reach millions of people globally, including children less than 5 years old. The levels of fortification used are far from reaching the Tolerable Upper Intake Level (UL). Vegetable oil fortification has the potential to become a global public health intervention strategy.

  16. Effects of Removing Restrictions on U.S. Crude Oil Exports

    EIA Publications

    2015-01-01

    This report examines the implications of removing current restrictions on U.S. crude oil exports for the price of domestic and global marker crude oil streams, gasoline prices, domestic crude oil production, domestic refining activity, and trade in crude oil and petroleum products.

  17. Oil-exporting status, quality of life, and fertility: a cross national study.

    PubMed

    Hunter, S R; Stokes, C S; Warland, R H

    1982-01-01

    It has been suggested that unless the rapid increase in income in the oil-exporting countries is accompanied by more equitable distribution of modern goods and services, the impact on health, literacy, and fertility is likely to be negligible. This study represents an initial attempt to examine the possible effects of the oil-exporting status of nations on their income, quality of life, and fertility. Data from 150 countries were used, and the Physical Quality of Life Index (PQLI) was utilized instead of traditional measures of development. Some findings are: 1) the variable showing the strongest direct relationship to fertility was physical quality of life (p=-.756) which is consistent with the distributional hypothesis; 2) per capita gross national product (GNP) and oil-exporting status showed weaker paths to fertility and their signs were in opposite directions; 3) per capita GNP showed a moderate negative relationship to fertility (p=-.171) while oil-exporting status had a positive path of about the same size (p= .155), thus per capita income and oil-exporting status had only about 1/5 the net relationship to fertility as did physical quality of life; 4) the indirect relationship of income as channeled through PQLI was over twice as large as the measured direct relationship, so that the importance of per capita GNP for lower fertility is primarily through its influence on the physical quality of life within a nation; 5) oil-exporting status was associated with lower physical quality of life and the latter was strongly related to higher fertility; and 6) in the long run, the relationship between oil-exporting status and quality of life should be positive. If separate analyses are conducted, the division should be made along an oil-exporter/non-exporter dichotomy, rather than a more developed/less developed country categorization. It is concluded that nations with relatively high life expectancies high levels of literacy, and low levels of infant mortality

  18. 9 CFR 322.5 - Uninspected tallow, stearin, oleo oil, etc., not to be exported unless certified as prescribed.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Uninspected tallow, stearin, oleo oil, etc., not to be exported unless certified as prescribed. 322.5 Section 322.5 Animals and Animal... Uninspected tallow, stearin, oleo oil, etc., not to be exported unless certified as prescribed. No...

  19. Assessing drivers of export orientation in the subsea oil and gas industry.

    PubMed

    Aarstad, Jarle; Pettersen, Inger Beate; Jakobsen, Stig-Erik

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this short study was to identify the drivers of export orientation of firms in the subsea oil and gas industry in Western Norway. As the oil fields in the North Sea are approaching a stage of maturity, gaining knowledge of these drivers is crucial. An online survey was conducted of firms operating in the subsea oil and gas industry in the region. Consistent with previous research, the data reveal that product innovation and a majority share of international ownership increase firms' export rates. The use of instrumental variables indicates that both product innovation and international ownership are causes of subsea petroleum exports. The study moreover finds that subcontractors have a lower rate of direct exports than system providers, but international ownership in particular boosts subcontractors' export rates, probably by decreasing their market dependency on regional system providers. A clear recommendation for managers and stakeholders is that they should encourage foreign investments throughout the value chain. The results of such a strategy appear to be especially positive for subcontractors.

  20. Potential impact of easing the log export restriction on the Tongass National Forest.

    Treesearch

    David R. Darr

    1978-01-01

    The potential of higher revenues in the log export market is constrained by possible reductions in prices associated with expanded supplies in the Japanese log market. Expanded log exports from the Tongass National Forest might force adjustments by existing cantmills, even under a partial easing of the export restriction.

  1. Higher Education and Development in Arab Oil Exporters: The UAE [United Arab Emirates] in Comparative Perspective.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vandewalle, Diederik

    As exporters of oil in the Middle East and throughout the world, the United Arab Emirates (UAE) must address the following challenges in the area of development and economic growth: (1) an increasingly integrated world economy in which technology and knowledge will be paramount; (2) the need to diversify its economy from a natural resource-based…

  2. Press freedom, oil exports, and risk for natural disasters: a challenge for climato-economic theory?

    PubMed

    Arantes, Joana; Grace, Randolph C; Kemp, Simon

    2013-10-01

    Does the interaction between climactic demands, monetary resources, and freedom suggest a more general relationship between the environmental challenges that human societies face and their resources to meet those challenges? Using data on press freedom (Van de Vliert 2011a), we found no evidence of a similar interaction with natural resources (as measured by oil exports) or risk for natural disasters.

  3. Adducin family proteins possess different nuclear export potentials.

    PubMed

    Liu, Chia-Mei; Hsu, Wen-Hsin; Lin, Wan-Yi; Chen, Hong-Chen

    2017-05-10

    The adducin (ADD) family proteins, namely ADD1, ADD2, and ADD3, are actin-binding proteins that play important roles in the stabilization of membrane cytoskeleton and cell-cell junctions. All the ADD proteins contain a highly conserved bipartite nuclear localization signal (NLS) at the carboxyl termini, but only ADD1 can localize to the nucleus. The reason for this discrepancy is not clear. To avoid the potential effect of cell-cell junctions on the distribution of ADD proteins, HA epitope-tagged ADD proteins and mutants were transiently expressed in NIH3T3 fibroblasts and their distribution in the cytoplasm and nucleus was examined by immunofluorescence staining. Several nuclear proteins were identified to interact with ADD1 by mass spectrometry, which were further verified by co-immunoprecipitation. In this study, we found that ADD1 was detectable both in the cytoplasm and nucleus, whereas ADD2 and ADD3 were detected only in the cytoplasm. However, ADD2 and ADD3 were partially (~40%) sequestered in the nucleus by leptomycin B, a CRM1/exportin1 inhibitor. Upon the removal of leptomycin B, ADD2 and ADD3 re-distributed to the cytoplasm. These results indicate that ADD2 and ADD3 possess functional NLS and are quickly transported to the cytoplasm upon entering the nucleus. Indeed, we found that ADD2 and ADD3 possess much higher potential to counteract the activity of the NLS derived from Simian virus 40 large T-antigen than ADD1. All the ADD proteins appear to contain multiple nuclear export signals mainly in their head and neck domains. However, except for the leucine-rich motif ((377)FEALMRMLDWLGYRT(391)) in the neck domain of ADD1, no other classic nuclear export signal was identified in the ADD proteins. In addition, the nuclear retention of ADD1 facilitates its interaction with RNA polymerase II and zinc-finger protein 331. Our results suggest that ADD2 and ADD3 possess functional NLS and shuttle between the cytoplasm and nucleus. The discrepancy in the

  4. Oil-field equipment in Romania. Export trade information

    SciTech Connect

    Tinis, R.

    1991-09-01

    The Industry Sector Analyses (I.S.A.) for oil field equipment contains statistical and narrative information on projected market demand, end-users, receptivity of Romanian consumers to U.S. products, the competitive situation - Romanian production, total import market, U.S. market position, foreign competition, and competitive factors, and market access - Romanian tariffs, non-tariff barriers, standards, taxes and distribution channels. The I.S.A. provides the United States industry with meaningful information regarding the Romanian market for oil field equipment.

  5. Butinge oil terminal project: Design/feasability study final report. Export trade information

    SciTech Connect

    1996-06-01

    This study, conducted by Fluor Daniel, was funded by the U.S. Trade and Development Agency on behalf of the Ministry of Energy of Lithuania. The purpose of the report is to access the feasibility of expanding the Butinge Oil Terminal so that it may provide export capabilities for Russian Crude, import capabilities for Arab Light and Medium Crudes, and export capabilities for refined products from the Mazeikai Refinery in Lithuania. It is divided into the following sections: (1) Introduction; (2) Project Description; (3) Scope of Facilities; (4) Scope of Services; (5) Conceptual Cost Estimate; (6) Study and Review Applicable Tax and Legal Issues; (7) Identify Commercial Funding Requirements; (8) Identify Export Credit Agency and/or Multilateral Agency Requirements for Project Funding; (9) Identify Equity Funding Requirements; (10) Develop Base and Alternative Case Economic Proforma Analysis; (11) Identify the Requirements of Feedstock/Offtake Entities; (12) Economic Evaluation Pipeline; (13) Document Consolidation; (14) Appendices.

  6. Phytoplankton biomass, production and potential export in the North Water

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klein, Bert; LeBlanc, Bernard; Mei, Zhi-Ping; Beret, Rachel; Michaud, Josée; Mundy, C.-J.; von Quillfeldt, Cecilie H.; Garneau, Marie-Ève; Roy, Suzanne; Gratton, Yves; Cochran, J. Kirk; Bélanger, Simon; Larouche, Pierre; Pakulski, J. Dean; Rivkin, Richard B.; Legendre, Louis

    The seasonal patterns of phytoplankton biomass and production were determined in the North Water, located between Greenland and Ellesmere Island (Canadian Arctic), in August 1997, April-July 1998, and August-September 1999. The patterns differed among the four defined regions of this large polynya, i.e. North (>77.5°N), East (>75°W), West (<75°W), and South (<76°N). Phytoplankton biomass and production were low during April throughout the North Water. Biomass first increased in the East during April. From there, the biomass spread north- and westwards during May-June, when the bloom culminated (chlorophyll a concentrations up to 19.8 mg m -3). The large-sized (>5 μm) fraction dominated the biomass and production during the bloom. During July, August, and September, biomass and production decreased over the whole region, with the highest biomass, dominated by large cells, occurring in the North. The annual particulate and dissolved phytoplankton production were the highest ever reported for the high Arctic, reaching maximum values of 254 and 123 g C m -2 yr -1, respectively, in the East. Rates in the North and West were considerably lower than in the East (ca. two- and three-fold, respectively). The f-ratios (i.e. ratio of new to total production), derived from the size structure of phytoplankton, were high north of 76°N (0.4-0.7). Regionally, this indicated a high potential export of particulate organic carbon ( EPOC) from the phytoplankton community to other trophic compartments and/or downwards in the East (155 g C m -2 yr -1), with lower values in the North and West (i.e. 77 and 42 g C m -2 yr -1, respectively). The seasonal and spatial patterns of EPOC were consistent with independent estimates of potential carbon export. Phytoplankton biomass and production were generally dominated by the large size fraction, whereas EPOC seemed to be dominated by the large size fraction early in the season and by the small size fraction (<5 μm) from June until the end

  7. Implications of lifting the ban on the export of Alaskan crude oil: Price and trade impacts

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-06-26

    This study addresses the issue of the ban on exports of Alaskan crude oil. At present almost all crude oil production from Alaska must be sold in the United States, i.e., it may not be exported. This study examines the impact, mainly on the West Coast, of eliminating this export restraint. The study concentrates on two time periods. These are 1988, the most recent year for which complete data are available, and 1995, a year in which Alaskan production is projected to be substantially less than at present. This is the Energy Information Administration's (EIA's) second report on this subject. The first was released earlier in 1990. They differ principally in the years for which results are presented and in the models used to generate quantitative results. The first report was limited to 1988. The quantitative results for that year were based on use of a single region model and therefore did not take into account petroleum interactions among all areas of the world. Because of this limitation, quantitative results were limited to Alaskan crude oil prices. All other price and trade flow results were qualitative. In contrast, the present report covers both 1988 and 1995. The quantitative results are generated with use of a more comprehensive model, one which does take into account petroleum interactions among all areas of the world. The model-generated results cover both crude and product prices as well as petroleum trade flows. The quantitative results in the present report therefore supersede those in the first, although both sets are generally consistent.

  8. Quantitative risk assessment & leak detection criteria for a subsea oil export pipeline

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Fang-Yuan; Bai, Yong; Badaruddin, Mohd Fauzi; Tuty, Suhartodjo

    2009-06-01

    A quantitative risk assessment (QRA) based on leak detection criteria (LDC) for the design of a proposed subsea oil export pipeline is presented in this paper. The objective of this QRA/LDC study was to determine if current leak detection methodologies were sufficient, based on QRA results, while excluding the use of statistical leak detection; if not, an appropriate LDC for the leak detection system would need to be established. The famous UK PARLOC database was used for the calculation of pipeline failure rates, and the software POSVCM from MMS was used for oil spill simulations. QRA results revealed that the installation of a statistically based leak detection system (LDS) can significantly reduce time to leak detection, thereby mitigating the consequences of leakage. A sound LDC has been defined based on QRA study results and comments from various LDS vendors to assist the emergency response team (ERT) to quickly identify and locate leakage and employ the most effective measures to contain damage.

  9. Health Care Expenditure and GDP in Oil Exporting Countries: Evidence from OPEC Data, 1995-2012

    PubMed Central

    Fazaeli, Ali Akbar; Ghaderi, Hossein; Salehi, Masoud; Fazaeli, Ali Reza

    2016-01-01

    Background: There is a large body of literature examining income in relation to health expenditures. The share of expenditures in health sector from GDP in developed countries is often larger than in non-developed countries, suggesting that as the level of economic growth increases, health spending increase, too. Objectives: This paper estimates long-run relationships between health expenditures and GDP based on panel data of a sample of 12 countries of the Organization of the Petroleum Exporting Countries (OPEC), using data for the period 1995-2012. Patients & Methods: We use panel data unit root tests, cointegration analysis and ECM model to find long-run and short-run relation. This study examines whether health is a luxury or a necessity for OPEC countries within a unit root and cointegration framework. Results: Panel data analysis indicates that health expenditures and GDP are co-integrated and have Engle and Granger causality. In addition, in oil countries that have oil export income, the share of government expenditures in the health sector is often greater than in private health expenditures similar developed countries. Conclusions: The findings verify that health care is not a luxury good and income has a robust relationship to health expenditures in OPEC countries. PMID:26383195

  10. Health Care Expenditure and GDP in Oil Exporting Countries: Evidence From OPEC Data, 1995-2012.

    PubMed

    Fazaeli, Ali Akbar; Ghaderi, Hossein; Salehi, Masoud; Fazaeli, Ali Reza

    2015-06-11

    There is a large body of literature examining income in relation to health expenditures. The share of expenditures in health sector from GDP in developed countries is often larger than in non-developed countries, suggesting that as the level of economic growth increases, health spending increase, too. This paper estimates long-run relationships between health expenditures and GDP based on panel data of a sample of 12 countries of the Organization of the Petroleum Exporting Countries (OPEC), using data for the period 1995-2012. We use panel data unit root tests, cointegration analysis and ECM model to find long-run and short-run relation. This study examines whether health is a luxury or a necessity for OPEC countries within a unit root and cointegration framework. Panel data analysis indicates that health expenditures and GDP are co-integrated and have Engle and Granger causality. In addition, in oil countries that have oil export income, the share of government expenditures in the health sector is often greater than in private health expenditures similar developed countries. The findings verify that health care is not a luxury good and income has a robust relationship to health expenditures in OPEC countries.

  11. Foreign capital and the impact of exchange rate adjustments in oil-exporting developing countries with an application to Indonesia

    SciTech Connect

    Tadjuddin, A.

    1989-01-01

    The efficacy of exchange rate adjustments as an instrument of economic policy in developing countries has long been the subject of considerable controversy. Theoretical treatments of currency devaluation generally conclude that it improves the trade balance and stimulates economic activity. However, this traditional view has been challenged in recent years on the grounds that trade flows, including factor imports, are relatively insensitive to price and exchange rate changes, especially in developing countries. This study analyzes the effects of exchange rate changes in oil exporting developing countries which host foreign capital by using a modified model of the Krugman-Taylor (l978) and Barbone-Batiz (1987) types. It is shown that the impact of devaluation on GNP is influenced by (a) the initial state of the current account balance, (b) the elasticity of demand for non-oil exports, (c) the elasticity of demand for final good imports, (d) the foreign ownership effects, and (e) the impact of devaluation on the government revenues. Devaluation can lead to an increase in national output, but only if the elasticity effects in the non-oil export sector and in the final good imports are large enough to dominate the government revenue effect, the foreign-ownership effect in the oil sector and the impact of any initial current account deficit. The model was applied to the economy of Indonesia, an oil exporting developing country. The net effect of devaluation on national output is known to be contradictory following devaluation, thus supporting the structuralist view that devaluation has negative real effects in this country, at least in the short run. It was also found that the estimated price elasticities of non-oil imports and exports are low in the short-run. Devaluation would lead to improvement in the non-oil trade account in the long run after devaluation.

  12. Mercury export from the Yukon River Basin and potential response to a changing climate

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Schuster, Paul F.; Striegl, Robert G.; Aiken, George R.; Krabbenhoft, David P.; DeWild, John F.; Butler, Kenna D.; Kamark, Ben; Dornblaser, Mark

    2011-01-01

    We measured mercury (Hg) concentrations and calculated export and yield from the Yukon River Basin (YRB) to quantify Hg flux from a large, permafrost-dominated, high-latitude watershed. Exports of Hg averaged 4400 kg Hg yr-1. The average annual yield for the YRB during the study period was 5.17 μg m-2 yr-1, which is 3–32 times more than Hg yields reported for 8 other major northern hemisphere river basins. The vast majority (90%) of Hg export is associated with particulates. Half of the annual export of Hg occurred during the spring with about 80% of 34 samples exceeding the U.S. EPA Hg standard for adverse chronic effects to biota. Dissolved and particulate organic carbon exports explained 81% and 50%, respectively, of the variance in Hg exports, and both were significantly (p < 0.001) correlated with water discharge. Recent measurements indicate that permafrost contains a substantial reservoir of Hg. Consequently, climate warming will likely accelerate the mobilization of Hg from thawing permafrost increasing the export of organic carbon associated Hg and thus potentially exacerbating the production of bioavailable methylmercury from permafrost-dominated northern river basins.

  13. Mercury export from the Yukon River Basin and potential response to a changing climate

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Schuster, P.F.; Striegl, R.G.; Aiken, G.R.; Krabbenhoft, D.P.; DeWild, J.F.; Butler, K.; Kamark, B.; Dornblaser, M.

    2011-01-01

    We measured mercury (Hg) concentrations and calculated export and yield from the Yukon River Basin (YRB) to quantify Hg flux from a large, permafrost-dominated, high-latitude watershed. Exports of Hg averaged 4400 kg Hg yr-1. The average annual yield for the YRB during the study period was 5.17 ??g m-2 yr-1, which is 3-32 times more than Hg yields reported for 8 other major northern hemisphere river basins. The vast majority (90%) of Hg export is associated with particulates. Half of the annual export of Hg occurred during the spring with about 80% of 34 samples exceeding the U.S. EPA Hg standard for adverse chronic effects to biota. Dissolved and particulate organic carbon exports explained 81% and 50%, respectively, of the variance in Hg exports, and both were significantly (p < 0.001) correlated with water discharge. Recent measurements indicate that permafrost contains a substantial reservoir of Hg. Consequently, climate warming will likely accelerate the mobilization of Hg from thawing permafrost increasing the export of organic carbon associated Hg and thus potentially exacerbating the production of bioavailable methylmercury from permafrost-dominated northern river basins. ?? This article not subject to U.S. Copyright. Published 2011 by the American Chemical Society.

  14. Antarctic ice shelf potentially stabilized by export of meltwater in surface river.

    PubMed

    Bell, Robin E; Chu, Winnie; Kingslake, Jonathan; Das, Indrani; Tedesco, Marco; Tinto, Kirsty J; Zappa, Christopher J; Frezzotti, Massimo; Boghosian, Alexandra; Lee, Won Sang

    2017-04-19

    Meltwater stored in ponds and crevasses can weaken and fracture ice shelves, triggering their rapid disintegration. This ice-shelf collapse results in an increased flux of ice from adjacent glaciers and ice streams, thereby raising sea level globally. However, surface rivers forming on ice shelves could potentially export stored meltwater and prevent its destructive effects. Here we present evidence for persistent active drainage networks-interconnected streams, ponds and rivers-on the Nansen Ice Shelf in Antarctica that export a large fraction of the ice shelf's meltwater into the ocean. We find that active drainage has exported water off the ice surface through waterfalls and dolines for more than a century. The surface river terminates in a 130-metre-wide waterfall that can export the entire annual surface melt over the course of seven days. During warmer melt seasons, these drainage networks adapt to changing environmental conditions by remaining active for longer and exporting more water. Similar networks are present on the ice shelf in front of Petermann Glacier, Greenland, but other systems, such as on the Larsen C and Amery Ice Shelves, retain surface water at present. The underlying reasons for export versus retention remain unclear. Nonetheless our results suggest that, in a future warming climate, surface rivers could export melt off the large ice shelves surrounding Antarctica-contrary to present Antarctic ice-sheet models, which assume that meltwater is stored on the ice surface where it triggers ice-shelf disintegration.

  15. Antarctic ice shelf potentially stabilized by export of meltwater in surface river

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bell, Robin E.; Chu, Winnie; Kingslake, Jonathan; Das, Indrani; Tedesco, Marco; Tinto, Kirsty J.; Zappa, Christopher J.; Frezzotti, Massimo; Boghosian, Alexandra; Lee, Won Sang

    2017-04-01

    Meltwater stored in ponds and crevasses can weaken and fracture ice shelves, triggering their rapid disintegration. This ice-shelf collapse results in an increased flux of ice from adjacent glaciers and ice streams, thereby raising sea level globally. However, surface rivers forming on ice shelves could potentially export stored meltwater and prevent its destructive effects. Here we present evidence for persistent active drainage networks—interconnected streams, ponds and rivers—on the Nansen Ice Shelf in Antarctica that export a large fraction of the ice shelf’s meltwater into the ocean. We find that active drainage has exported water off the ice surface through waterfalls and dolines for more than a century. The surface river terminates in a 130-metre-wide waterfall that can export the entire annual surface melt over the course of seven days. During warmer melt seasons, these drainage networks adapt to changing environmental conditions by remaining active for longer and exporting more water. Similar networks are present on the ice shelf in front of Petermann Glacier, Greenland, but other systems, such as on the Larsen C and Amery Ice Shelves, retain surface water at present. The underlying reasons for export versus retention remain unclear. Nonetheless our results suggest that, in a future warming climate, surface rivers could export melt off the large ice shelves surrounding Antarctica—contrary to present Antarctic ice-sheet models, which assume that meltwater is stored on the ice surface where it triggers ice-shelf disintegration.

  16. Antarctic Ice Shelf Potentially Stabilized by Export of Meltwater in Surface River

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bell, Robin E.; Chu, Winnie; Kingslake, Jonathan; Das, Indrani; Tedesco, Marco; Tinto, Kirsty J.; Zappa, Christopher J.; Frezzotti, Massimo; Boghosian, Alexandra; Lee, Won Sang

    2017-01-01

    Meltwater stored in ponds and crevasses can weaken and fracture ice shelves, triggering their rapid disintegration. This ice-shelf collapse results in an increased flux of ice from adjacent glaciers and ice streams, thereby raising sea level globally. However, surface rivers forming on ice shelves could potentially export stored meltwater and prevent its destructive effects. Here we present evidence for persistent active drainage networks-interconnected streams, ponds and rivers-on the Nansen Ice Shelf in Antarctica that export a large fraction of the ice shelf's meltwater into the ocean. We find that active drainage has exported water off the ice surface through waterfalls and dolines for more than a century. The surface river terminates in a 130-metre-wide waterfall that can export the entire annual surface melt over the course of seven days. During warmer melt seasons, these drainage networks adapt to changing environmental conditions by remaining active for longer and exporting more water. Similar networks are present on the ice shelf in front of Petermann Glacier, Greenland, but other systems, such as on the Larsen C and Amery Ice Shelves, retain surface water at present. The underlying reasons for export versus retention remain unclear. Nonetheless our results suggest that, in a future warming climate, surface rivers could export melt off the large ice shelves surrounding Antarctica-contrary to present Antarctic ice-sheet models, which assume that meltwater is stored on the ice surface where it triggers ice-shelf disintegration.

  17. Mercury export from the Yukon River Basin and potential response to a changing climate.

    PubMed

    Schuster, Paul F; Striegl, Robert G; Aiken, George R; Krabbenhoft, David P; Dewild, John F; Butler, Kenna; Kamark, Ben; Dornblaser, Mark

    2011-11-01

    We measured mercury (Hg) concentrations and calculated export and yield from the Yukon River Basin (YRB) to quantify Hg flux from a large, permafrost-dominated, high-latitude watershed. Exports of Hg averaged 4400 kg Hg yr(-1). The average annual yield for the YRB during the study period was 5.17 μg m(-2) yr(-1), which is 3-32 times more than Hg yields reported for 8 other major northern hemisphere river basins. The vast majority (90%) of Hg export is associated with particulates. Half of the annual export of Hg occurred during the spring with about 80% of 34 samples exceeding the U.S. EPA Hg standard for adverse chronic effects to biota. Dissolved and particulate organic carbon exports explained 81% and 50%, respectively, of the variance in Hg exports, and both were significantly (p < 0.001) correlated with water discharge. Recent measurements indicate that permafrost contains a substantial reservoir of Hg. Consequently, climate warming will likely accelerate the mobilization of Hg from thawing permafrost increasing the export of organic carbon associated Hg and thus potentially exacerbating the production of bioavailable methylmercury from permafrost-dominated northern river basins.

  18. Feasibility study of enhanced oil recovery in six oil fields of Colombia. Export trade information (Final)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1986-09-01

    The study was prepared for the Empresa Colombiana de Petroleos by Scientific Software-Intercomp, Inc. The primary objectives of the study were to determine which of the reservoirs in the principal fields were amenable to enhanced oil recovery (EOR) processes, to evaluate which process was the most effective from both a technical and economic point of view, and to propose the steps required to further investigate the recommended EOR methods at the laboratory and field (pilot) level. The Final Report (Volume 1) is divided into the following sections (along with summary, conclusions, recommendations, tables and figures): (1) Data Gathering and Review; (2) Enhanced Oil Recovery Reservoir Screening; (3) Laboratory and Field Coordination; (4) Rescreening of Selected Reservoirs; and (5) Enhanced Oil Recovery Pilots.

  19. Econometric study of an oil-exporting country: the case of Iran

    SciTech Connect

    Heiat, A.

    1987-01-01

    The main objective of this study is to contribute toward an analytical and empirical work on the oil-based developing economy of Iran. It focuses on the aggregate behavior of the Iranian economy through a simple linear econometric model. After a survey of the literature on the theoretical framework of macroeconomic models for the developing countries in general, and for the oil-exporting developing countries in particular, a linear econometric model for the Iranian economy if formulated and its logical and economic aspects are explained. The proposed model consists of basic consumption, production, foreign trade, and employment relationship. Results obtained from the estimation of the consumption functions seem to indicate that the aggregate Iranian consumption behavior can be best explained by Fiedman's Permanent Income Hypothesis. In general, the results of this study demonstrate that the links between different sectors of the Iranian economy are very weak and the import-substitution strategy of the government during the period of study failed to establish a genuine domestic industrial base and to reduce its dependence on foreign resources.

  20. Potential uses for cuphea oil processing byproducts and processed oils

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Cuphea spp. has seeds that contain high levels of medium chain fatty acids and have the potential to be commercially cultivated. In the course of processing and refining Cuphea oil a number of bi-products are generated. Developing commercial uses for these bi-products would improve the economics of...

  1. Therapeutic potential of argan oil: a review.

    PubMed

    Monfalouti, Hanae El; Guillaume, Dom; Denhez, Clément; Charrouf, Zoubida

    2010-12-01

    The therapeutic benefits of argan oil consumption have been claimed by natives of Morocco and explorers for more than eight centuries. However, argan oil has remained unresearched for a long time. Traditionally, argan oil has been well known for its cardioprotective properties and it is also used in the treatment of skin infections. Argan oil is principally composed of mono-unsaturated (up to 80%) and saturated (up to 20%) fatty acids. As minor components, it contains polyphenols, tocopherols, sterols, squalene, and triterpene alcohols. Together with the mono-unsaturated fatty acids, these minor components are likely to be responsible for its beneficial effects. This review aims to present an overview of the known pharmacological properties of argan oil. Antiproliferative, antidiabetic, and cardiovascular-protective effects of argan oil have been particularly actively evaluated over the last 5 years in order to build on phytochemical studies that indicate the presence of large amounts of possibly pharmacologically active compounds. This review shows that a lack of clinical data constitutes a serious weakness in our knowledge about argan oil, therefore it is difficult to correlate the reported pharmacological activities to any potential clinical relevance. © 2010 The Authors. JPP © 2010 Royal Pharmaceutical Society of Great Britain.

  2. Response of Hessian Fly to a Potential New Fumigant for Exported Hay

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Hessian fly, Mayetiola destructor (Say), puparia were reared on wheat seedlings at the USDA, ARS, West Lafayette and shipped to the USDA, ARS in Parlier to develop new quarantine treatments to control the potential pest in hay exported from the western states to Pacific Rim countries. A mixture of 2...

  3. Financial policy in a small open oil-exporting developing country: The case of Oman

    SciTech Connect

    Kalmoor, M.A.

    1988-01-01

    This study investigates the role of financial policy in small open oil-exporting countries, taking Oman as a case study. The study focuses on the interest rate, inflationary financing, and the optimal exchange-rate peg question. Simulation of the macroeconomic model of the Omani economy showed that had the interest rate ceiling policy been removed, the country would have witnessed higher growth rates during the period in which the Eurodollar deposit rates were higher than the ceiling rate on local currency time deposits. The simulation results showed that credit-driven inflationary financing was self-defeating to the extent that the trade balance deteriorated by an amount more-or-less equivalent to the increase in government credit. Finally, an attempt was made to identify the optional exchange-rate peg for the country. The study compared three pegs: the U.S. dollar, the SDR, and an import-weighted basket. It found the SDR to be the most preferable peg. It provided the greatest stability in imported and domestic inflation.

  4. Report list Arizona's oil, gas potential

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rauzi, S.L.

    2001-01-01

    This article is a summary of Arizona geological survey circular 29, which addresses the petroleum geology of Arizona, USA. Eight areas have been identified with fair to excellent oil and gas potential, and some Tertiary basins have evidence of source or reservoir rocks. The following are considered here: production history, lands status and services, regulation and permitting, petroleum geology, hydrocarbon indications, and areas with hydrocarbon potential and their petroleum geology and characteristics. The full report contains detailed figures of each of these basin areas, a descriptive tabulation of seeps and petroliferous rocks and extensive references.

  5. Evaluation of chosen fruit seeds oils as potential biofuel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Agbede, O. O.; Alade, A. O.; Adebayo, G. A.; Salam, K. K.; Bakare, T.

    2012-04-01

    Oils available in mango, tangerine and African star seeds were extracted and characterized to determine their fuel worthiness for biofuel production. Furthermore, the fuel properties of the three oils were within the range observed for some common oil seeds like rapeseed, soybean and sunflower, which are widely sourced for the production of biodiesel on an industrial scale. The low iodine values of the oil extend their applications as non-drying oil for lubrication purposes, however, the fuel properties exhibited by the oils enlist them as potential oil seeds for the production of biofuel and further research on the improvement of their properties will make them suitable biofuel of high economic values.

  6. Big Sugar in southern Africa: rural development and the perverted potential of sugar/ethanol exports.

    PubMed

    Richardson, Ben

    2010-01-01

    This paper asks how investment in large-scale sugar cane production has contributed, and will contribute, to rural development in southern Africa. Taking a case study of the South African company Illovo in Zambia, the argument is made that the potential for greater tax revenue, domestic competition, access to resources and wealth distribution from sugar/ethanol production have all been perverted and with relatively little payoff in wage labour opportunities in return. If the benefits of agro-exports cannot be so easily assumed, then the prospective 'balance sheet' of biofuels needs to be re-examined. In this light, the paper advocates smaller-scale agrarian initiatives.

  7. Potential of vegetable oils for lubricants

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Vegetable oils offer significant advantages in terms of resource renewability, biodegradability, and comparable performance properties to petroleum-based products. The petroleum-based lubricants render unfavorable impact on the environment. With the growing environmental concerns, seed oils are find...

  8. The optimal currency-peg for an oil exporting country: The case of Saudi Arabia

    SciTech Connect

    Almasbahi, M.S.

    1990-01-01

    In a world of generalized floating exchange rates, it is not enough to solve the problem of exchange rate policy by determining whether to peg or float the currency under consideration. It is also necessary to choose to what major currency to peg. The main purpose of this study is to investigate and determine empirically the optimum currency peg for the Saudi riyal. To accomplish this goal, a simple conventional trade model, that includes variables found in many other studies of import and export demand, was used. In addition, an exchange rate term was added as a separate independent variable in the import and export demand equations in order to assess the effect of exchange rate on the trade flows. The criteria for the optimal currency peg in this study were based on two factors. First, the error statistics for projected imports and exports using alternative exchange rate regimes. Second, variances of projected imports, exports and trade balance using alternative exchange rate regimes. The exchange rate has a significant impact on the Saudia Arabian trade flows which implies that changes in the riyals value affect the Saudi trade deficit. Moreover, the exchange rate has a more powerful effect on its aggregate imports than on the world demand for its exports. There is also a strong support for the hypothesis that the exchange rate affects the value of the Saudi bilateral trade with its five major trade partners. On the aggregate level, the SDR peg seems to be the best currency peg for the Saudi riyal since it provides the best prediction errors and the lowest variance for the trade balance. Finally, on the disaggregate level, the US dollar provides the best performance and yields the best results among all the six currency pegs considered in this study.

  9. Potential Development Essential Oil Production of Central Java, Indonesia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alighiri, D.; Eden, W. T.; Supardi, K. I.; Masturi; Purwinarko, A.

    2017-04-01

    Indonesia is the source of raw essential oil in the world. Essential oils are used in various types of industries such as food and beverage, flavour, fragrance, perfumery, pharmaceuticals, and cosmetics. However, the development of Indonesian essential oil industry has not been encouraging for the production of essential oils, further it is unable to meet global demand. Besides that, the quality of volatile oil resulted cannot meet the international market standards. Based on the facts, the potential of Indonesian essential oils needs to be developed to provide added value, through increased production, improved quality and product diversification. One part of Indonesia having abundant of raw essential oil source is Central Java. Central Java has the quite large potential production of essential oils. Some essential oils produced from refining industry owned by the government, private and community sectors include cananga oils (Boyolali district), clove oils (Semarang district), patchouli oils (Brebes district, Pemalang district, and Klaten district). The main problem in the development of plants industries that producing essential oil in Central Java is low crops production, farming properties, quality of essential oils are diverse, providing poor-quality products and volatile oil price fluctuations. Marketing constraints of Central Java essential oils are quite complex supply chain. In general, marketing constraints of essential oils due to three factors, namely the low quality due to type of essential oil business that generally shaped small businesses with different capital and technology, domestic marketing is still a buyer-market (price determined by the buyer) because of weak bargaining position processors businessman, and prices fluctuate (domestic and foreign) due to uncontrolled domestic production and inter-country competition among manufacturers.

  10. Peanut varieties: potential for fuel oil

    SciTech Connect

    Hammons, R.O.

    1981-01-01

    Research is beginning in farm crushing of peanuts into fuel oil, the high-protein residue being used as livestock feed. Thirty peanut genotypes were investigated for oil and protein yields in field trials in Georgia. For 11 varieties in an irrigated test, mean oil contents (dry base) were in the 49.7-52.7% range, and the level of protein was in the 22.60-26.70% range. Wider variations in oil and protein contents were found in 19 other genotypes selected for possible use as an oil crop. Breeding for high oil yield has not been practiced in US peanut breeding programs. Convergent improvement to attain higher levels of oil content, shell-out percentage, and stable yield will require 6-10 generations of crossing, backcrossing, selection, and testing.

  11. High diatom production and export in stratified waters - A potential negative feedback to global warming

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kemp, Alan E. S.; Villareal, Tracy A.

    2013-12-01

    chlorophyll maxima in highly stratified waters dominated by rhizosolenid diatoms but also including H. hauckii. In the Cretaceous when CO2 levels were higher than present, laminated sediments reveal dominant flux also including Hemiaulus and rhizosolenid species. Nitrogen isotope and biomarker studies suggest that, analogous to modern DDA blooms within the subtropical gyres, Hemiaulus blooms in the ancient Mediterranean and within the Cretaceous seas were aided by nitrogen-fixing cyanobacterial symbionts. These lines of evidence suggest that diatom production and associated export of organic carbon, may not decrease, as is widely predicted, but may actually increase with greater ocean stratification, and potentially act as a negative feedback to global warming. However, the key genera involved in such potential feedbacks are underrepresented in both laboratory and field studies and are poorly represented in models. Our findings suggest that a reappraisal is necessary of the way diatoms are represented as plankton functional types (PFTs) in ocean biogeochemical models and that new observing and sampling strategies are also required to study these processes.

  12. Potential of Pacific frontiers of former Soviet oil, gas empire

    SciTech Connect

    Khartukov, E.M. )

    1994-04-25

    The poorly explored and mostly undeveloped hydrocarbon resources of the Russian Far East (RFE) are large enough to support several large scale projects, with an aggregate exportable surplus of as much as 30 billion cu m/year of gas. However, implementation of these new development projects will depend heavily on invited foreign participation. At the same time, the relatively high investment risks and questionable profitability of these megadollar schemes, which require sizable discoveries to pay off, are likely to delay the envisaged projects which will hardly yield by the year 2000 more than 10 bcm of Russian gas for export. The RFE hydrocarbon resource base is made up of fields located mainly on or near Sakhalin Island, including shelf areas of the Sea of Okhotsk, and in central and southwestern Yakutia. The paper describes existing oil and natural gas fields, current development and production, and forecasts future production.

  13. Biodeterioration potentials of fungal isolates from vegetable oils.

    PubMed

    Molokwu, C N; Okpokwasili, G C

    1997-07-01

    The biodeterioration potentials of fungi isolated from vegetable oils were investigated. Growth of pure cultures of some mould species (Aspergillus flavus, Aspergillus niger, Aspergillus sp., Penicillium sp. and Fusarium sp.) and a mixed yeast culture (Saccharomyces sp., Candida sp. and Hansenula sp.) were monitored using six vegetable oils as substrates. Mould growth resulted in an increase in mycelial dry weight (g/100 ml) of the cultures in all the oils. Yeast growth in the oils caused decrease in pH, increase in optical density and increase in total viable count (TVC) in all the oils. Gas chromatographic analysis of the heptane extracts of the oils revealed that inoculated and uninoculated oil samples displayed similar chromatograms. Yeast growth in the oils also resulted in loss of some fatty acid components as well as biosyntheses of new ones.

  14. New crop oils - Properties as potential lubricants

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    New crops oils such as lesquerella, field pennycress, meadowfoam and cuphea were investigated and compared to common commodity vegetable oils for their fatty acid profiles, low temperature and lubricating properties. The fatty acid profile investigation showed that lesquerella is high in hydroxy fat...

  15. Arctic Oil and Natural Gas Potential

    EIA Publications

    2009-01-01

    This paper examines the discovered and undiscovered Arctic oil and natural gas resource base with respect to their location and concentration. The paper also discusses the cost and impediments to developing Arctic oil and natural gas resources, including those issues associated with environmental habitats and political boundaries.

  16. Potential of palm oil utilisation in aquaculture feeds.

    PubMed

    Ng, Wing-Keong

    2002-01-01

    One key ingredient used in the formulation of aquafeed is fish oil, which is produced from small marine pelagic fish and represents a finite fishery resource. At the present time, global fish oil production has reached a plateau and is not expected to increase beyond current levels. Recent estimates suggest that fish oils may be unable to meet demands from the rapidly growing aquaculture industry by as early as 2005. Therefore, there is currently great interest within the aquafeed industry in evaluating alternatives to fish oils. The ever-expanding oil palm cultivation in Malaysia and other tropical countries offers the possibility of an increased and constant availability of palm oil products for aquafeed formulation. Research into the use of palm oil in aquafeed begun around the mid-1990s and this review examines some of the findings from these studies. The use of palm oil in fish diets has generally shown encouraging results. Improved growth, feed efficiency, protein utilisation, reproductive performance and higher concentrations of alpha-tocopherol in fish fillets have been reported. Recent evidence for the ability of palm oil to substitute for fish oil in catfish diets is reviewed. The potential of palm oil use in aquafeed and future experimental directions are suggested. The aquaculture feed industry offers a great avenue to increase and diversify the use of palm oil-based products.

  17. Market potential of solar thermal enhanced oil recovery-a techno-economic model for Issaran oil field in Egypt

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gupta, Sunay; Guédez, Rafael; Laumert, Björn

    2017-06-01

    Solar thermal enhanced oil recovery (S-EOR) is an advanced technique of using concentrated solar power (CSP) technology to generate steam and recover oil from maturing oil reservoirs. The generated steam is injected at high pressure and temperature into the reservoir wells to facilitate oil production. There are three common methods of steam injection in enhanced oil recovery - continuous steam injection, cyclic steam stimulation (CSS) and steam assisted gravity drainage (SAGD). Conventionally, this steam is generated through natural gas (NG) fired boilers with associated greenhouse gas emissions. However, pilot projects in the USA (Coalinga, California) and Oman (Miraah, Amal) demonstrated the use of S-EOR to meet their steam requirements despite the intermittent nature of solar irradiation. Hence, conventional steam based EOR projects under the Sunbelt region can benefit from S-EOR with reduced operational expenditure (OPEX) and increased profitability in the long term, even with the initial investment required for solar equipment. S-EOR can be realized as an opportunity for countries not owning any natural gas resources to make them less energy dependent and less sensible to gas price fluctuations, and for countries owning natural gas resources to reduce their gas consumption and export it for a higher margin. In this study, firstly, the market potential of S-EOR was investigated worldwide by covering some of the major ongoing steam based EOR projects as well as future projects in pipeline. A multi-criteria analysis was performed to compare local conditions and requirements of all the oil fields based on a defined set of parameters. Secondly, a modelling approach for S-EOR was designed to identify cost reduction opportunities and optimum solar integration techniques, and the Issaran oil field in Egypt was selected for a case study to substantiate the approach. This modelling approach can be consulted to develop S-EOR projects for any steam flooding based oil

  18. Cleaning oiled shores: laboratory experiments testing the potential use of vegetable oil biodiesels.

    PubMed

    Pereira, M Glória; Mudge, Stephen M

    2004-01-01

    A series of laboratory experiments were carried out to test the potential of vegetable oil biodiesel for the cleaning of oiled shorelines. In batch experiments, biodiesel was shown to have a considerable capacity to dissolve crude oil, which appears to be dependent on the type of biodiesel used. Pure vegetable oil biodiesels (rapeseed and soybean) were significantly more effective in the cleanup of oiled sands (up to 96%) than recycled waste cooking oil biodiesel (70%). In microcosm and mesocosm experiments, oiled sediments were sprayed with biodiesel and subjected to simulated tides. Microcosm experiments revealed that, of those tested, the highest ratio of biodiesel to crude oil, had the highest effectiveness for cleaning fine sands, with ratios of 2:1 (biodiesel:crude oil) giving the best results. In the mesocosm experiments a ratio 1:1 of soybean biodiesel to crude oil removed 80% of the oil in cobbles and fine sands, 50% in coarse sand and 30% in gravel. Most of the oil was removed with the surface water, with only a small amount being flushed through the sediments. Particle size and pore size were important determinants in the cleanup and mobility of crude oil in the sediments in these static systems. It is expected that the biodiesel effectiveness should improve in the natural environment particularly in exposed beaches with strong wave action. However, more laboratory and field trials are required to confirm the operational use of biodiesel as a shoreline cleaner.

  19. Industry subsector analysis, Colombia: Oil and gas transport. Export trade information

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-09-01

    According to the new development plan that the Columbian government designed for the oil/gas sector, known as the Dynamic Adjustment Plan, investments in oil/gas transportation equipment and facilities will amount to U.S. $1.1 billion during the next 5 years. The sum could significantly increase, providing that expectations created by the recent discoveries of important deposits are confirmed, socio-political disturbances are controlled, the new refinery is constructed as it has been programmed, and additional discoveries are made due to the dynamic exploration and drilling program, which is expected to be carried out during this period. Market research is presented.

  20. Plant oils as feedstock alternatives to petroleum - A short survey of potential oil crop platforms.

    PubMed

    Carlsson, Anders S

    2009-06-01

    Our society is highly depending on petroleum for its activities. About 90% is used as an energy source for transportation and for generation of heat and electricity and the remaining as feedstocks in the chemical industry. However, petroleum is a finite source as well as causing several environmental problems such as rising carbon dioxide levels in the atmosphere. Petroleum therefore needs to be replaced by alternative and sustainable sources. Plant oils and oleochemicals derived from them represent such alternative sources, which can deliver a substantial part of what is needed to replace the petroleum used as feedstocks. Plant derived feedstock oils can be provided by two types of oil qualities, multi-purpose and technical oils. Multi-purpose oils represent oil qualities that contain common fatty acids and that can be used for both food and feedstock applications. Technical oil qualities contain unusual fatty acids with special properties gained from their unique molecular structure and these types of oils should only be used for feedstock applications. As a risk mitigation strategy in the selection of crops, technical oil qualities should therefore preferably be produced by oil crop platforms dedicated for industrial usage. This review presents a short survey of oil crop platforms to be considered for either multi-purpose or technical oils production. Included among the former platforms are some of the major oil crops in cultivation such as oil palm, soybean and rapeseed. Among the later are those that could be developed into dedicated industrial platforms such as crambe, flax, cotton and Brassica carinata. The survey finishes off by highlighting the potential of substantial increase in plant oil production by developing metabolic flux platforms, which are starch crops converted into oil crops.

  1. Oil palm natural diversity and the potential for yield improvement

    PubMed Central

    Barcelos, Edson; Rios, Sara de Almeida; Cunha, Raimundo N. V.; Lopes, Ricardo; Motoike, Sérgio Y.; Babiychuk, Elena; Skirycz, Aleksandra; Kushnir, Sergei

    2015-01-01

    African oil palm has the highest productivity amongst cultivated oleaginous crops. Species can constitute a single crop capable to fulfill the growing global demand for vegetable oils, which is estimated to reach 240 million tons by 2050. Two types of vegetable oil are extracted from the palm fruit on commercial scale. The crude palm oil and kernel palm oil have different fatty acid profiles, which increases versatility of the crop in industrial applications. Plantations of the current varieties have economic life-span around 25–30 years and produce fruits around the year. Thus, predictable annual palm oil supply enables marketing plans and adjustments in line with the economic forecasts. Oil palm cultivation is one of the most profitable land uses in the humid tropics. Oil palm fruits are the richest plant source of pro-vitamin A and vitamin E. Hence, crop both alleviates poverty, and could provide a simple practical solution to eliminate global pro-vitamin A deficiency. Oil palm is a perennial, evergreen tree adapted to cultivation in biodiversity rich equatorial land areas. The growing demand for the palm oil threatens the future of the rain forests and has a large negative impact on biodiversity. Plant science faces three major challenges to make oil palm the key element of building the future sustainable world. The global average yield of 3.5 tons of oil per hectare (t) should be raised to the full yield potential estimated at 11–18t. The tree architecture must be changed to lower labor intensity and improve mechanization of the harvest. Oil composition should be tailored to the evolving needs of the food, oleochemical and fuel industries. The release of the oil palm reference genome sequence in 2013 was the key step toward this goal. The molecular bases of agronomically important traits can be and are beginning to be understood at the single base pair resolution, enabling gene-centered breeding and engineering of this remarkable crop. PMID:25870604

  2. Oil palm natural diversity and the potential for yield improvement.

    PubMed

    Barcelos, Edson; Rios, Sara de Almeida; Cunha, Raimundo N V; Lopes, Ricardo; Motoike, Sérgio Y; Babiychuk, Elena; Skirycz, Aleksandra; Kushnir, Sergei

    2015-01-01

    African oil palm has the highest productivity amongst cultivated oleaginous crops. Species can constitute a single crop capable to fulfill the growing global demand for vegetable oils, which is estimated to reach 240 million tons by 2050. Two types of vegetable oil are extracted from the palm fruit on commercial scale. The crude palm oil and kernel palm oil have different fatty acid profiles, which increases versatility of the crop in industrial applications. Plantations of the current varieties have economic life-span around 25-30 years and produce fruits around the year. Thus, predictable annual palm oil supply enables marketing plans and adjustments in line with the economic forecasts. Oil palm cultivation is one of the most profitable land uses in the humid tropics. Oil palm fruits are the richest plant source of pro-vitamin A and vitamin E. Hence, crop both alleviates poverty, and could provide a simple practical solution to eliminate global pro-vitamin A deficiency. Oil palm is a perennial, evergreen tree adapted to cultivation in biodiversity rich equatorial land areas. The growing demand for the palm oil threatens the future of the rain forests and has a large negative impact on biodiversity. Plant science faces three major challenges to make oil palm the key element of building the future sustainable world. The global average yield of 3.5 tons of oil per hectare (t) should be raised to the full yield potential estimated at 11-18t. The tree architecture must be changed to lower labor intensity and improve mechanization of the harvest. Oil composition should be tailored to the evolving needs of the food, oleochemical and fuel industries. The release of the oil palm reference genome sequence in 2013 was the key step toward this goal. The molecular bases of agronomically important traits can be and are beginning to be understood at the single base pair resolution, enabling gene-centered breeding and engineering of this remarkable crop.

  3. Oil-gas potential of late Precambrian deposits

    SciTech Connect

    Vassoevich, N.B.; Vysotskiy, I.V.; Sokorov, B.A.; Tatarenko, E.I.

    1983-01-01

    The available materials on the distribution of Precambrian nonmetamorphosed sedimentary formations and the naphthide occurrences associated with them show that oil and gas potential of the Late Proterozoic deposits can and should be regarded as an important and potentially profitable matter of great scientific and economic significance. This paper reviews distribution and geochemical properties of the Precambrian rock in Asia, Africa, Australia, Europe and the Americas. The main emphasis is on distribution in the USSR. The practical solution to the problem will expand the potential oil and gas reserves of the sedimentary mantel, both in known oil and gas basins of the USSR, and new basins located in the areas of ancient platforms.

  4. Lubricant base stock potential of chemically modified vegetable oils.

    PubMed

    Erhan, Sevim Z; Sharma, Brajendra K; Liu, Zengshe; Adhvaryu, Atanu

    2008-10-08

    The environment must be protected against pollution caused by lubricants based on petroleum oils. The pollution problem is so severe that approximately 50% of all lubricants sold worldwide end up in the environment via volatility, spills, or total loss applications. This threat to the environment can be avoided by either preventing undesirable losses, reclaiming and recycling mineral oil lubricants, or using environmentally friendly lubricants. Vegetable oils are recognized as rapidly biodegradable and are thus promising candidates as base fluids in environment friendly lubricants. Lubricants based on vegetable oils display excellent tribological properties, high viscosity indices, and flash points. To compete with mineral-oil-based lubricants, some of their inherent disadvantages, such as poor oxidation and low-temperature stability, must be corrected. One way to address these problems is chemical modification of vegetable oils at the sites of unsaturation. After a one-step chemical modification, the chemically modified soybean oil derivatives were studied for thermo-oxidative stability using pressurized differential scanning calorimetry and a thin-film micro-oxidation test, low-temperature fluid properties using pour-point measurements, and friction-wear properties using four-ball and ball-on-disk configurations. The lubricants formulated with chemically modified soybean oil derivatives exhibit superior low-temperature flow properties, improved thermo-oxidative stability, and better friction and wear properties. The chemically modified soybean oil derivatives having diester substitution at the sites of unsaturation have potential in the formulation of industrial lubricants.

  5. Potential of plant oils as inhibitors of Candida albicans growth.

    PubMed

    Devkatte, Anupama N; Zore, Gajanan B; Karuppayil, S Mohan

    2005-06-01

    Minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) and minimum fungicidal concentrations (MFCs) were determined for 38 oils of plant origin against Candida albicans. Four strains including one standard strain were used in this study. The antifungal agents, Fluconazole and Amphotericin B were used as positive controls. The standard strain (ATCC10231) used in this study was found to be highly resistant to Fluconazole: 3000 microg ml(-1) of Fluconazole was required to inhibit the growth of this strain partially, and complete inhibition could not be achieved. Other Candida strains were sensitive to 5 microg ml(-1) of Fluconazole. All the strains used were sensitive to Amphotericin B. Of the 38 oils tested, 23 were found effective and fifteen were ineffective. Based on their MFCs, effective oils were categorized into three categories. Seven oils, which exerted fungicidal effect at less than 0.15% concentration of oils, were grouped into the most effective class. The oils exhibiting MFCs in the range of 0.16-1.5% concentration were considered moderately effective. Nine oils, which required more than 1.5% concentration, were regarded as less effective. The Fluconazole-resistant strain (MTCC 227) was sensitive to at least 23 of the plant oils. Results of this study indicate that oils of plant origin may find use as potential anti-Candida agents.

  6. Estimation of potential impacts and natural resource damages of oil.

    PubMed

    McCay, Deborah French; Rowe, Jill Jennings; Whittier, Nicole; Sankaranarayanan, Sankar; Etkin, Dagmar Schmidt

    2004-02-27

    Methods were developed to estimate the potential impacts and natural resource damages resulting from oil spills using probabilistic modeling techniques. The oil fates model uses wind data, current data, and transport and weathering algorithms to calculate mass balance of fuel components in various environmental compartments (water surface, shoreline, water column, atmosphere, sediments, etc.), oil pathway over time (trajectory), surface distribution, shoreline oiling, and concentrations of the fuel components in water and sediments. Exposure of aquatic habitats and organisms to whole oil and toxic components is estimated in the biological model, followed by estimation of resulting acute mortality and ecological losses. Natural resource damages are based on estimated costs to restore equivalent resources and/or ecological services, using Habitat Equivalency Analysis (HEA) and Resource Equivalency Analysis (REA) methods. Oil spill modeling was performed for two spill sites in central San Francisco Bay, three spill sizes (20th, 50th, and 95th percentile volumes from tankers and larger freight vessels, based on an analysis of likely spill volumes given a spill has occurred) and four oil types (gasoline, diesel, heavy fuel oil, and crude oil). The scenarios were run in stochastic mode to determine the frequency distribution, mean and standard deviation of fates, impacts, and damages. This work is significant as it demonstrates a statistically quantifiable method for estimating potential impacts and financial consequences that may be used in ecological risk assessment and cost-benefit analyses. The statistically-defined spill volumes and consequences provide an objective measure of the magnitude, range and variability of impacts to wildlife, aquatic organisms and shorelines for potential spills of four oil/fuel types, each having distinct environmental fates and effects.

  7. Identification of types of businesses with potential interest in operating and/or exporting ocean thermal energy conversion (OTEC) plants

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1982-09-01

    This study describes the characteristics of three selected Ocean Thermal Energy Conversion (OTEC)-based lines of business, examines other lines of business and identifies those with similar characteristics, and indicates the types of businesses/corporations that could be expected to have potential interest in operating and/or exporting OTEC plants. An OTEC line of business model is developed to assist companies in making an internal corporate assessment as to whether OTEC should be in their business plan.

  8. By-products: oil sorbents as a potential energy source.

    PubMed

    Karakasi, Olga K; Moutsatsou, Angeliki

    2013-04-01

    The present study investigated the utilization of an industrial by-product, lignite fly ash, in oil pollution treatment, with the further potential profit of energy production. The properties of lignite fly ash, such as fine particle size, porosity, hydrophobic character, combined with the properties, such as high porosity and low specific gravity, of an agricultural by-product, namely sawdust, resulted in an effective oil-sorbent material. The materials were mixed either in the dry state or in aqueous solution. The oil sorption behaviour of the fly ash-sawdust mixtures was investigated in both marine and dry environments. Mixtures containing fly ash and 15-25% w/w sawdust performed better than each material alone when added to oil spills in a marine environment, as they formed a cohesive semi-solid phase, adsorbing almost no water, floating on the water surface and allowing total oil removal. For the clean-up of an oil spill 0.5 mm thick with surface area 1000 m(2), 225-255 kg of lignite fly ash can be utilized with the addition of 15-25% w/w sawdust. Fly ash-sawdust mixtures have also proved efficient for oil spill clean-up on land, since their oil sorption capacity in dry conditions was at least 0.6-1.4 g oil g(-1) mixture. The higher calorific value of the resultant oil-fly ash-sawdust mixtures increased up to that of bituminous coal and oil and exceeded that of lignite, thereby encouraging their utilization as alternative fuels especially in the cement industry, suggesting that the remaining ash can contribute in clinker production.

  9. Potential small-scale development of western oil shale

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, V.; Renk, R.; Nordin, J.; Chatwin, T.; Harnsberger, M.; Fahy, L.J.; Cha, C.Y.; Smith, E.; Robertson, R.

    1989-10-01

    Several studies have been undertaken in an effort to determine ways to enhance development of western oil shale under current market conditions for energy resources. This study includes a review of the commercial potential of western oil shale products and byproducts, a review of retorting processes, an economic evaluation of a small-scale commercial operation, and a description of the environmental requirements of such an operation. Shale oil used as a blend in conventional asphalt appears to have the most potential for entering today's market. Based on present prices for conventional petroleum, other products from oil shale do not appear competitive at this time or will require considerable marketing to establish a position in the marketplace. Other uses for oil shale and spent shale, such as for sulfur sorbtion, power generation, cement, aggregate, and soil stabilization, are limited economically by transportation costs. The three-state area area consisting of Colorado, Utah, and Wyoming seems reasonable for the entry of shale oil-blended asphalt into the commercial market. From a review of retorting technologies and the product characteristics from various retorting processes it was determined that the direct heating Paraho and inclined fluidized-bed processes produce a high proportion of heavy material with a high nitrogen content. The two processes are complementary in that they are each best suited to processing different size ranges of materials. An economic evaluation of a 2000-b/d shale oil facility shows that the operation is potentially viable, if the price obtained for the shale oil residue is in the top range of prices projected for this product. Environmental requirements for building and operating an oil shale processing facility are concerned with permitting, control of emissions and discharges, and monitoring. 62 refs., 6 figs., 10 tabs.

  10. Estimating Potential Effects of Hypothetical Oil Spills on Polar Bears

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Amstrup, Steven C.; Durner, G.M.; McDonald, T.L.; Johnson, W.R.

    2006-01-01

    Much is known about the transport and fate of oil spilled into the sea and its toxicity to exposed wildlife. Previously, however, there has been no way to quantify the probability that wildlife dispersed over the seascape would be exposed to spilled oil. Polar bears, the apical predator of the arctic, are widely dispersed near the continental shelves of the Arctic Ocean, an area also undergoing considerable hydrocarbon exploration and development. We used 15,308 satellite locations from 194 radiocollared polar bears to estimate the probability that polar bears could be exposed to hypothetical oil spills. We used a true 2 dimensional Gausian kernel density estimator, to estimate the number of bears likely to occur in each 1.00 km2 cell of a grid superimposed over near shore areas surrounding 2 oil production facilities: the existing Northstar oil production facility, and the proposed offshore site for the Liberty production facility. We estimated the standard errors of bear numbers per cell with bootstrapping. Simulated oil spill footprints for September and October, the times during which we hypothesized effects of an oil-spill would be worst, were estimated using real wind and current data collected between 1980 and 1996. We used ARC/Info software to calculate overlap (numbers of bears oiled) between simulated oil-spill footprints and polar bear grid-cell values. Numbers of bears potentially oiled by a hypothetical 5912 barrel spill (the largest spill thought probable from a pipeline breach) ranged from 0 to 27 polar bears for September open water conditions, and from 0 to 74 polar bears in October mixed ice conditions. Median numbers oiled by the 5912 barrel hypothetical spill from the Liberty simulation in September and October were 1 and 3 bears, equivalent values for the Northstar simulation were 3 and 11 bears. In October, 75% of trajectories from the 5912 barrel simulated spill at Liberty oiled 9 or fewer bears while 75% of the trajectories affected 20 or

  11. Trace element behaviour at cold seeps and the potential export of dissolved iron to the ocean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lemaitre, Nolwenn; Bayon, Germain; Ondréas, Hélène; Caprais, Jean-Claude; Freslon, Nicolas; Bollinger, Claire; Rouget, Marie-Laure; de Prunelé, Alexis; Ruffine, Livio; Olu-Le Roy, Karine; Sarthou, Géraldine

    2014-10-01

    Seawater samples were collected by submersible above methane seeps in the Gulf of Guinea (Regab and Baboon pockmarks) in order to investigate the behaviour of iron (Fe), manganese (Mn) and rare earth elements (REE) during fluid seepage. Our aim was to determine whether cold seeps may represent potential sources of dissolved chemical species to the ocean. Dissolved (<0.45 μm filtered samples) and total dissolvable (unfiltered samples) concentrations were determined over ∼50 m long vertical transects above the seafloor and at various discrete locations within the pockmarks. We show that substantial amounts of Fe and Mn are released into seawater during seepage of methane-rich fluids. Mn is exported almost quantitatively in the dissolved form (more than 90% of total Mn; mean MnDISS∼12±11 nmol/kg). Although a significant fraction of Fe is bound to particulate phases, the dissolved iron pool still accounts on average for approximately 20 percent of total iron flux at vent sites (mean FeDISS∼22±11 nmol/kg). This dissolved Fe fraction also appears to remain stable in the water column. In contrast, there was no evidence for any significant benthic fluxes of pore water REE associated with fluid seepage at the studied sites. Overall, our results point towards distinct trace element behaviour during fluid seepage, with potential implications for the marine geochemical budget. The absence of any dissolved REE enrichments in bottom waters clearly indicates effective removal in sub-surface sediments. Most likely, precipitation of authigenic mineral phases at cold seeps (i.e. carbonates) represents a net sink for these elements. While Mn appears to behave near-conservatively during fluid seepage, the observed relative stability of dissolved Fe in the water column above seepage sites could be explained by complexation with strong organic ligands and/or the presence of Fe-bearing sulfide nanoparticles, as reported previously for submarine hydrothermal systems. Considering

  12. Virgin coconut oil and its potential cardioprotective effects.

    PubMed

    Babu, Abraham Samuel; Veluswamy, Sundar Kumar; Arena, Ross; Guazzi, Marco; Lavie, Carl J

    2014-11-01

    Emphasis on diet to improve the cardiovascular (CV) risk profile has been the focus of many studies. Recently, virgin coconut oil (VCO) has been growing in popularity due to its potential CV benefits. The chemical properties and the manufacturing process of VCO make this oil healthier than its copra-derived counterpart. This review highlights the mechanism through which saturated fatty acids contribute to CV disease (CVD), how oils and fats contribute to the risk of CVD, and the existing views on VCO and how its cardioprotective effects may make this a possible dietary intervention in isolation or in combination with exercise to help reduce the burden of CVDs.

  13. Microbial processes in the Athabasca Oil Sands and their potential applications in microbial enhanced oil recovery.

    PubMed

    Harner, N K; Richardson, T L; Thompson, K A; Best, R J; Best, A S; Trevors, J T

    2011-11-01

    The Athabasca Oil Sands are located within the Western Canadian Sedimentary Basin, which covers over 140,200 km(2) of land in Alberta, Canada. The oil sands provide a unique environment for bacteria as a result of the stressors of low water availability and high hydrocarbon concentrations. Understanding the mechanisms bacteria use to tolerate these stresses may aid in our understanding of how hydrocarbon degradation has occurred over geological time, and how these processes and related tolerance mechanisms may be used in biotechnology applications such as microbial enhanced oil recovery (MEOR). The majority of research has focused on microbiology processes in oil reservoirs and oilfields; as such there is a paucity of information specific to oil sands. By studying microbial processes in oil sands there is the potential to use microbes in MEOR applications. This article reviews the microbiology of the Athabasca Oil Sands and the mechanisms bacteria use to tolerate low water and high hydrocarbon availability in oil reservoirs and oilfields, and potential applications in MEOR.

  14. Influence of hydro-climatic conditions, soil type, and application matrix on potential vadose zone export of PPCPs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gall, H. E.; Rao, P.; O'Connor, G.

    2013-12-01

    The land-application of biosolids and animal manure to agricultural fields has the potential to negatively impact the quality of nearby surface and subsurface water due to the presence of emerging contaminants in these residuals. We investigated the extent to which the vadose zone acts as a hydrologic and biogeochemical filter of two emerging contaminants, Triclosan (TCS) and estrone (E1) using a coupled source zone and vadose zone modeling approach. Monte Carlo simulations were run for a year following residual applications to explore the following research questions: (1) how does the application matrix (e.g., de-watered solids, liquid lagoon effluent, etc.) affect PPCP mass fluxes?; (2) how do hydro-climatic conditions and soil type affect PPCP mass fluxes?; (3) what role does the presence of macropore pathways play in PPCP export from the vadose zone; and (4) does the long-term, repeated application of residuals affect the ability of the vadose zone to act as an effective biogeochemical filter? The simulations were conducted for a sub-tropical climate with sand (e.g., Florida) and a humid climate with a silty clay loam (e.g., Midwestern United States). Simulation results suggest that the potential mobility of emerging contaminants increases linearly with increasing fraction applied to the mobile phase of the source zone (i.e., higher PPCP mass fraction in the dissolved phase during application). Following a single application, the total amount of PPCP mass exported from the source zone over the course of a year can be as high as 70% in a sub-tropical climate with sand soil. However, these types of soils do not have macropore flow pathways and the annual PPCP mass exported from the vadose zone is less than 1% of the mass applied. The higher organic carbon content in a silty clay loam reduces the amount of PPCP mass released from the source zone to less than 5% of the mass applied. In the presence of macropore pathways, the silty clay loam's vadose zone acts as a

  15. Streaming Potential In Rocks Saturated With Water And Oil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tarvin, J. A.; Caston, A.

    2011-12-01

    Fluids flowing through porous media generate electrical currents. These currents cause electric potentials, called "streaming potentials." Streaming potential amplitude depends on the applied pressure gradient, on rock and fluid properties, and on the interaction between rock and fluid. Streaming potential has been measured for rocks saturated with water (1) and with water-gas mixtures. (2) Few measurements (3) have been reported for rocks saturated with water-oil mixtures. We measured streaming potential for sandstone and limestone saturated with a mixture of brine and laboratory oil. Cylindrical samples were initially saturated with brine and submerged in oil. Saturation was changed by pumping oil from one end of a sample to the other and then through the sample in the opposite direction. Saturation was estimated from sample resistivity. The final saturation of each sample was determined by heating the sample in a closed container and measuring the pressure. Measurements were made by modulating the pressure difference (of oil) between the ends of a sample at multiple frequencies below 20 Hz. The observed streaming potential is a weak function of the saturation. Since sample conductivity decreases with increasing oil saturation, the electro-kinetic coupling coefficient (Pride's L (4)) decreases with increasing oil saturation. (1) David B. Pengra and Po-zen Wong, Colloids and Surfaces, vol., p. 159 283-292 (1999). (2) Eve S. Sprunt, Tony B. Mercer, and Nizar F. Djabbarah, Geophysics, vol. 59, p. 707-711 (1994). (3) Vinogradov, J., Jackson, M.D., Geophysical Res. L., Vol. 38, Article L01301 (2011). (4) Steve Pride, Phys. Rev. B, vol. 50, pp. 15678-15696 (1994).

  16. The Oil-Water Interface: Mapping the Solvation Potential

    SciTech Connect

    Bell, Richard C.; Wu, Kai; Iedema, Martin J.; Schenter, Gregory K.; Cowin, James P.

    2009-01-06

    Ions moving across the oil water interface are strongly impacted by the continuous changes in solvation. The solvation potential for Cs+ is directly measured as they approach the oil-water interface (“oil” = 3-methylpentane), from 0.4 to 4 nm away. The oil-water interfaces are created at 40K using molecular beam epitaxy and a softlanding ion beam, with pre-placed ions. The solvation potential slope was determined at each distance by balancing it against an increasing electrostatic potential made by increasing the number of imbedded ions at that distance, and monitoring the resulting ion motion. The potential approaches the Born model for greater than z>0.4nm, and shows the predicted reduction of the polarizability at z<0.4nm.

  17. Libya, Algeria and Egypt: crude oil potential from known deposits

    SciTech Connect

    Dietzman, W.D.; Rafidi, N.R.; Ross, T.A.

    1982-04-01

    An analysis is presented of the discovered crude oil resources, reserves, and estimated annual production from known fields of the Republics of Libya, Algeria, and Egypt. Proved reserves are defined as the remaining producible oil as of a specified date under operating practice in effect at that time and include estimated recoverable oil in undrilled portions of a given structure or structures. Also included in the proved reserve category are the estimated indicated additional volumes of recoverable oil from the entire oil reservoir where fluid injection programs have been started in a portion, or portions, of the reservoir. The indicated additional reserves (probable reserves) reported herein are the volumes of crude oil that might be obtained with the installation of secondary recovery or pressure maintenance operations in reservoirs where none have been previously installed. The sum of cumulative production, proved reserves, and probable reserves is defined as the ultimate oil recovery from known deposits; and resources are defined as the original oil in place (OOIP). An assessment was made of the availability of crude oil under three assumed sustained production rates for each country; an assessment was also made of each country's capability of sustaining production at, or near, the 1980 rates assuming different limiting reserve to production ratios. Also included is an estimate of the potential maximum producing capability from known deposits that might be obtained from known accumulations under certain assumptions, using a simple time series approach. The theoretical maximum oil production capability from known fields at any time is the maximum deliverability rate assuming there are no equipment, investment, market, or political constraints.

  18. Heterotrophic Potentials and Hydrocarbon Biodegradation Potentials of Sediment Microorganisms Within the Athabasca Oil Sands Deposit

    PubMed Central

    Wyndham, R. C.; Costerton, J. W.

    1981-01-01

    Techniques for the enumeration and the determination of the potential activity of disturbed sediment mixed populations at control sites and sites within the Athabasca oil sands formation were applied to August and December samples. These techniques included the determination of general heterotrophic potential for the assimilation and respiration of glutamate, which indicated no oil sand-related changes in the sediments but which indicated a significant seasonal change. Enumeration by epifluorescence direct counts, oil sand hydrocarbon plate counts, and most-probable-number determinations of [14C]hexadecane and [14C]-naphthalene degraders indicated that only the plate count was sensitive to increased numbers of oil sand-related hydrocarbon-oxidizing microorganisms within the oil sands deposit. Unlike the most probable number determinations of [14C]hexadecane and [14C]naphthalene degraders, however, the biodegradation potential results of these substrates indicated a significant increase in activity at oil sands sites. These biodegradation potentials also showed a marked seasonal fluctuation. Although the biodegradation potentials and the endogenous hydrocarbon plate counts indicated an oil sand-adapted mixed sediment population, the results of these techniques did not correlate well with the concentrations of bituminous hydrocarbons in the sediments. The results suggest that a general capability for hydrocarbon oxidation exists in the Athabasca River system and that this capability is enhanced within the natural bounds of the Athabasca oil sands. Images PMID:16345737

  19. Analysis of Palm Oil Production, Export, and Government Consumption to Gross Domestic Product of Five Districts in West Kalimantan by Panel Regression

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sulistianingsih, E.; Kiftiah, M.; Rosadi, D.; Wahyuni, H.

    2017-04-01

    Gross Domestic Product (GDP) is an indicator of economic growth in a region. GDP is a panel data, which consists of cross-section and time series data. Meanwhile, panel regression is a tool which can be utilised to analyse panel data. There are three models in panel regression, namely Common Effect Model (CEM), Fixed Effect Model (FEM) and Random Effect Model (REM). The models will be chosen based on results of Chow Test, Hausman Test and Lagrange Multiplier Test. This research analyses palm oil about production, export, and government consumption to five district GDP are in West Kalimantan, namely Sanggau, Sintang, Sambas, Ketapang and Bengkayang by panel regression. Based on the results of analyses, it concluded that REM, which adjusted-determination-coefficient is 0,823, is the best model in this case. Also, according to the result, only Export and Government Consumption that influence GDP of the districts.

  20. Is Fish Oil a Potential Treatment for Diabetic Peripheral Neuropathy?

    PubMed

    Yorek, Mark Anthony

    2017-05-22

    Peripheral neuropathy affects about 50% of the diabetic population. The manifestations range from pain, numbness, paresthesia and ulceration in the extremities and it is the major cause of non-traumatic amputations. Currently there is no effective treatment for peripheral neuropathy. With the prevalence of obesity and type 2 diabetes and associated complications reaching epidemic levels there is a critical need for finding a treatment to preserve nerve function. This article will review the potential for fish oil as a treatment for diabetic peripheral neuropathy. A through search of the PubMed database was performed and relevant articles on the topic were included in this review. Many studies support a role for fish oil in cardiovascular health. However, less information is available regarding the effect of fish oil on diabetes complications including neuropathy. Pre-clinical studies from my laboratory using diabetic rodent models have demonstrated that fish oil can slow progression and reverse diabetic neuropathy as determined by examining multiple endpoints. Mechanistically fish oil has been shown to have anti-inflammatory properties. Lowering the omega-6/omega-3 fatty acid ratio has been shown to be anti-thrombotic. Moreover, metabolites of eicosapentaenoic and docosahexaenoic acids, the main polyunsaturated fatty acids found in fish oil, commonly referred to as resolvins and neuroprotectin have been shown to be neuroprotective and can stimulate neuron outgrowth in vitro. Additional studies are required but existing data suggests that dietary enrichment with omega-3 fatty acids contained in fish oil may be beneficial treatment for diabetic neuropathy. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.org.

  1. Antioxidant Potential and Oil Composition of Callistemon viminalis Leaves

    PubMed Central

    Zubair, Muhammad; Hassan, Sadia; Rizwan, Komal; Rasool, Nasir; Riaz, Muhammad; Zia-Ul-Haq, M.; De Feo, Vincenzo

    2013-01-01

    The present study was designed to investigate the antioxidant potential and oil composition of Callistemon viminalis leaves. GC-MS analysis of the n-hexane extract revealed the presence of 40 compounds. Leaves contained appreciable levels of total phenolic contents (0.27–0.85 GAE mg/g) and total flavonoid contents (2.25–7.96 CE mg/g). DPPH radical scavenging IC50 and % inhibition of linoleic acid peroxidation were found to be in the ranges of 28.4–56.2 μg/ml and 40.1–70.2%, respectively. The haemolytic effect of the plant leaves was found in the range of 1.79–4.95%. The antioxidant activity of extracts was also studied using sunflower oil as an oxidative substrate and found that it stabilized the oil. The correlation between the results of different antioxidant assays and oxidation parameters of oil indicated that leaves' methanolic extract, exhibiting higher TPC and TFC and scavenging power, was also more potent for enhancing the oxidative stability of sunflower oil. PMID:23818824

  2. The Potential of Microalgae Lipids for Edible Oil Production.

    PubMed

    Huang, Yanfei; Zhang, Dongmei; Xue, Shengzhang; Wang, Meng; Cong, Wei

    2016-10-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the potential of oil-rich green algae, Chlorella vulgaris, Scenedesmus obliquus, and Nannochloropsis oceanica, to produce edible oil with respect to lipid and residue properties. The results showed that C. vulgaris and N. oceanica had similarly much higher lipid recovery (about 50 %) in hexane extraction than that of S. obliquus (about 25 %), and C. vulgaris had the highest content of neutral lipids among the three algae. The fatty acid compositions of neutral lipids from C. vulgaris and S. obliquus were mainly C16 and C18, resembling that of vegetable oils. ARA and EPA were the specific valuable fatty acids in lipids of N. oceanica, but the content of which was lower in neutral lipids. Phytol was identified as the major unsaponifiable component in lipids of the three algae. Combined with the evaluation of the ratios in SFA/MUFA/PUFA, (n-6):(n-3) and content of free fatty acids, lipids obtained from C. vulgaris displayed the great potential for edible oil production. Lipids of N. oceanica showed the highest antioxidant activity, and its residue contained the largest amounts of protein as well as the amino acid compositions were greatly beneficial to the health of human beings.

  3. Microplastics and potentially toxic elements in coastal sediments of Iran's main oil terminal (Khark Island).

    PubMed

    Akhbarizadeh, Razegheh; Moore, Farid; Keshavarzi, Behnam; Moeinpour, Alireza

    2017-01-01

    Marine pollutants are becoming a growing concern due to their ecological consequences. This study investigates the potential risk posed by microplastics and toxic elements in coastal sediments of Khark Island, the main oil export hub of Iran. Principal component biplots exhibited a significant positive correlation between microplastic quantities (ranging in shape and color) and concentration of heavy metals with industrial activity. Source identification of the heavy metals indicated both natural and anthropogenic origin. Quality and risk assessment of the sediments revealed low to moderate pollution of Zn, Mo, Pb, Cu, Cd and As in some stations. Results of metal fractionation in sediments demonstrated that Cd, Mn, Zn, As and Pb are capable of posing a serious ecological risk due to potential bioavailability. Microplastics, mostly fragments and fibers, were detected in all sediment samples (ranging from 59 to 217 items/200 g dry sediment). A relatively good significant linear relationship exists between microplastic quantities and potentially toxic element/polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon concentrations in coastal sediments. The results of this study confirmed the key role of microplastics as a "potential contaminant vector" for other types of pollutants.

  4. The Potential Impact on Farmer Health of Enhanced Export Horticultural Trade between the U.K. and Uganda

    PubMed Central

    Cross, Paul; Edwards, Rhiannon T.; Nyeko, Philip; Edwards-Jones, Gareth

    2009-01-01

    The export of vegetables from African countries to European markets presents consumers with an ethical dilemma: should they support local, but relatively well-off farmers, or poorer farmers from distant countries? This paper considers the issue of farm worker health in the U.K. and Uganda, and considers the dilemma facing U.K. consumers if Uganda achieves their aim of exporting more vegetables to the U.K. Self-reported health scores of 1,200 farm workers in the U.K. and Uganda were measured with the internationally recognised SF-36 questionnaire and compared to an international population norm. The age-corrected health status of U.K. farm workers was significantly lower than the population norm, whereas Ugandans scored significantly higher (indicating good health) for physical health and lower for mental health. If Ugandan produce enters U.K. markets, then consumers may wish to consider both the potential benefits that enhanced trade could offer Ugandan farmers compared with its impacts on U.K. workers. PMID:19543406

  5. Accumulation of ammonia and other potentially noxious gases on live export shipments from Australia to the Middle East.

    PubMed

    Pines, M K; Phillips, C J C

    2011-10-01

    Noxious gases on ships are irritant pollutants that have potential impacts on the comfort and health of both livestock and humans. Identification of environmental influences on the pollutants will assist live exporters to control them. Ammonia, hydrogen sulphide and carbon dioxide, as well as wet and dry bulb temperature, dew point, air speed and depth of faeces that the sheep stood in, were measured on two ship voyages in which sheep were transported from Australia to the Middle East. Daily measurements were made at 20 measurement locations over 12 days. At four sites, the mean ammonia concentration for the voyage was above the recommended maximum limit for the live export industry (25 ppm). The mean ammonia concentrations at the remaining 16 sites were below 18 ppm and considered safe. High ammonia concentrations were localised and occurred particularly on closed decks, as well as at the front of the vessel and near the engine block on open decks. Ammonia concentration on the open decks was correlated with cumulative wind during the voyage, air speed, dew point, wet bulb temperature and faecal pad depth, and on the closed decks with dew point, and wet and dry bulb temperature. Hydrogen sulphide (<1.8 ppm) and carbon dioxide (<1900 ppm) concentrations were low and did not pose a risk to animal or human welfare or health. The results suggest that high ammonia concentrations occur in those parts of the ship where there is insufficient ventilation and/or high temperatures and humidity.

  6. Methanogenic potential of tailings samples from oil sands extraction plants.

    PubMed

    Fedorak, Phillip M; Coy, Debora L; Salloum, Myrna J; Dudas, Marvin J

    2002-01-01

    Approximately 20% of Canada's oil supply now comes from the extraction of bitumen from the oil sands deposits in northeastern Alberta. The oil sands are strip-mined, and the bitumen is typically separated from sand and clays by an alkaline hot water extraction process. The rapidly expanding oil sands industry has millions of cubic metres of tailings for disposal and large areas of land to reclaim. There are estimates that the consolidation of the mature fine tails (MFT) in the settling ponds will take about 150 years. Some of the settling ponds are now evolving microbially produced methane, a greenhouse gas. To hasten consolidation, gypsum (CaSO4 x 2H2O) is added to MFT, yielding materials called consolidated or composite tailings (CT). Sulfate from the gypsum has the potential to stimulate sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB) to out-compete methanogens, thereby stopping methanogenesis. This investigation examined three MFT and four CT samples from three oil sands extractions companies. Each was found to contain methanogens and SRB. Serum bottle microcosm studies showed sulfate in the CT samples stopped methane production. However, if the microcosms were amended with readily utilizable electron donors, the sulfate was consumed, and when it reached approximately 20 mg/L, methane production began. Some unamended microcosms were incubated for 372 days, with no methane production detected. This work showed that each MFT and CT sample has the potential to become methanogenic, but in the absence of exogenous electron donors, the added sulfate can inhibit methanogenesis for a long time.

  7. Potential application of recycled rubber in oil pollution control.

    PubMed

    Aisien, F A; Hymore, F K; Ebewele, R O

    2003-06-01

    The abundance and indiscriminate disposal of scrap tyres in urban areas in Nigeria create serious health and environmental problems. The potential of using rubber recycled from scrap tyres as an absorbent in crude oil clean up was investigated. Rubber particles of mesh sizes within the range of 0.15 to 2.36 mm were used to absorb crude oil at different temperatures (5 to 40 degrees C). The rapid increase in oil absorption within the first 20 min was followed by a much slower rate, with the equilibrium absorption being attained after 30 min. The equilibrium absorption increased with decreasing particle size and decreasing temperature of absorption. At 30 degrees C, the oil absorption for the 0.15 mm rubber particles was more than twice that of the 2.36 mm particle size. When regenerated recycled rubber was used, the equilibrium absorption decreased by about 15-40%. The extent of reduction was higher for the larger particles and at lower temperature of absorption.

  8. The potential of replacing soyabean oil cake with macadamia oil cake in broiler diets.

    PubMed

    Acheampong-Boateng, Owoahene; Bakare, Archibold G; Mbatha, Khanyisile R

    2016-08-01

    A study was conducted to evaluate the potential of macadamia oil cake (MOC) as a replacement of soyabean oil cake (SOC) in Ross broiler diets. The 600 1-day-old male broiler chicks were randomly blocked into 30 equal-weight groups of 20 chicks. For each growth phase, basal and summit diets were blended in various proportions (100 % SOC and 0 % MOC, 75 % SOC and 25 % MOC, 50 % SOC and 50 % MOC, 25 % SOC and 75 % MOC, and 0 % SOC and 100 % MOC) to form five treatments. The diet with 100 % MOC had the least feed intake, final body weight and weight gain compared to other diets (P < 0.05). The increased abdominal fat of broilers fed more than 50 % levels of MOC could be due to high levels of lipids in MOC compared to soyabean oil cake. The feed conversion ratio did not differ significantly for most of the treatments (P > 0.05). It was concluded that the threshold of 25 % MOC can replace soybean oil cake meal in the diets of broiler provided that this alternative feed ingredient is readily available at an affordable cost.

  9. Organic carbon input from atmospheric deposition: a potential driver of nitrogen export from barren alpine ecosystems (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mladenov, N.; Williams, M. W.; Schmidt, S. K.

    2010-12-01

    There is urgency to improve our understanding of how biogeochemical cycling and surface water quality in high-elevation catchments will respond to a combination of changes in climate, atmospheric deposition of pollutants, and potential increases in dust deposition. Previous work has shown that atmospheric wet and dry deposition is an important source of dissolved organic matter for alpine lakes, with important consequences for aquatic ecosystem functioning. Here we investigate new linkages between atmospheric deposition of organic matter and terrestrial biogeochemical processes, namely nitrification. Our goal is to better understand the substantial increase in mean annual nitrogen (N) export that has been observed in Rocky Mountain and other alpine watersheds, while N deposition rates have remained constant. The combination of increasing temperatures and dust emissions, melting glaciers, and surprisingly high amounts of microbial activity in recently deglaciated soils, suggest that carbon (C) cycling in these barren alpine catchments may have an important and, thus far, unexplored role in nitrification and N export. Our results show that the quantity of atmospheric organic carbon inputs approaches that of biological C fixation in magnitude. We hypothesize that heterotrophic processing of atmospheric and autotrophic C inputs and the resulting increased availability of amine compounds may enhance nitrification and intensify N export from alpine catchments. Results from optical spectroscopy further demonstrate that water soluble organic carbon from atmospheric deposition has low aromaticity, is high in amino acid-like moieties (Figure 1), and may represent a labile carbon source for terrestrial and aquatic alpine microorganisms. Fig 1. TOP: Fluorescence excitation emission matrix (EEM) of a representative wet deposition sample (collected 24-30 June, 2009 at Niwot Ridge, Colorado). FI = fluorescence index; SUVA = specific UV absorbance (L mg-1 m-1); AA = amino acid

  10. Potential for reducing air pollution from oil refineries.

    PubMed

    Karbassi, A R; Abbasspour, M; Sekhavatjou, M S; Ziviyar, F; Saeedi, M

    2008-10-01

    Islamic Republic of Iran has to invest 95 billion US$ for her new oil refineries to the year 2045. At present, the emission factors for CO(2), NO( x ) and SO(2) are 3.5, 4.2 and 119 times higher than British refineries, respectively. In order to have a sustainable development in Iranian oil refineries, the government has to set emission factors of European Community as her goal. At present CO(2) per Gross Domestic Production (GDP) in the country is about 2.7 kg CO(2) as 1995's USD value that should be reduced to 1.25 kg CO(2)/GDP in the year 2015. Total capital investment for such reduction is estimated at 346 million USD which is equal to 23 USD/ton of CO(2). It is evident that mitigation of funds set by Clean Development Mechanism (3 to 7 USD/tons of CO(2)) is well below the actual capital investment needs. Present survey shows that energy efficiency promotion potential in all nine Iranian oil refineries is about 165,677 MWh/year through utilization of more efficient pumps and compressors. Better management of boilers in all nine refineries will lead to a saving of 273 million m(3) of natural gas per year.

  11. Costa Rican data synthesis indicates oil, gas potential

    SciTech Connect

    Barrientos, J.; Bottazzi, G.; Fernandez, A.; Barboza, G.

    1997-05-12

    The hydrocarbon exploration data base in Costa Rica, gathered through various recent periods, indicates promising hydrocarbon potential in the country. During 1980--94, Recope SA, the state petroleum company, performed a series of studies to evaluate the petroleum potential in the whole Costa Rican territory. As a first step, the information compiled during previous studies was re-evaluated, and later new information was collected with the aid of foreign governments and cooperating institutions. A new exploratory era began with the Costa Rican Congress` approval in 1994 of the Hydrocarbon Law, which allows private companies to participate in hydrocarbon exploration and exploitation. This article brings together some highlights about Costa Rica oil potential and gives basic information on future hydrocarbon exploration and development under the regulation of the new Hydrocarbon Law.

  12. Potential for oil mining at Elk Basin oil field, Wyoming-Montana

    SciTech Connect

    Ayler, M.F.; Brechtel, C.

    1987-08-01

    By using the teachings of two US Patents, 4,458,945 and 4,595,239, it is possible to place mine workings below the Frontier sands of the Elk basin field, drill upward safely into the reservoir, and produce by gravity added to any present drive system. The patents describe equipment and a way of drilling upward with all cuttings and fluids flowing into a closed pipeline system for surface discharge. A final casing can be cemented into place and the well completed, again with all production into a closed pipeline. This system would permit field pressure control and maintenance with gravity drainage. Wells could be placed on one-acre spacing or less, thus producing much of the oil normally lost between surface wells. An analysis will be presented of probable mining costs for development of the Elk basin oil field on one-acre spacing. Petroleum engineers will then be able to estimate for themselves which method has the most profit potential and maximum recovery - the present systems or oil recovery by mining.

  13. Analysis of potential used oil recovery from individuals. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Gottlieb, M.

    1981-07-01

    To assist the Department of Energy in its investigation of methods for recycling used motor oil, Market Facts conducted a telephone survey of individuals who change their own motor oil. The study examined the amount of oil used, oil change practices, oil disposal methods, and perceptions and attitudes toward used motor oil disposal and oil recycling. The results of this survey are presented in this report. The findings of this study confirm the generally held view that about half the vehicle households in the United States now do their own oil changes and additions. These do-it-yourselfers (DIY) households account for almost two-thirds of the motor oil consumed by all US households and produce about one-third of one billion gallons of used motor oil annually. At least half of this used motor oil, more than 170 million gallons, is returned to the environment in a form that pollutes the ground and endangers the water supply. Measures such as requiring information about proper disposal and the need for recycling used oil to be printed on motor oil containers have been taken in many states. The need for reminder advertising and reinforcement education and information and practical measures to ease the burden of compliance is suggested. These results suggest that careful consideration be given to the logistics of these measures. The most appealing of the measures would appear to be making a special container available to DIY oil changers. Employing civic groups as collection agents would also seem to be attractive.

  14. Incorporated fish oil fatty acids prevent action potential shortening induced by circulating fish oil fatty acids.

    PubMed

    Den Ruijter, Hester M; Verkerk, Arie O; Coronel, Ruben

    2010-01-01

    Increased consumption of fatty fish, rich in omega-3-polyunsaturated fatty acids (ω3-PUFAs) reduces the severity and number of arrhythmias. Long-term ω3-PUFA-intake modulates the activity of several cardiac ion channels leading to cardiac action potential shortening. Circulating ω3-PUFAs in the bloodstream and incorporated ω3-PUFAs in the cardiac membrane have a different mechanism to shorten the action potential. It is, however, unknown whether circulating ω3-PUFAs in the bloodstream enhance or diminish the effects of incorporated ω3-PUFAs. In the present study, we address this issue. Rabbits were fed a diet rich in fish oil (ω3) or sunflower oil (ω9, as control) for 3 weeks. Ventricular myocytes were isolated by enzymatic dissociation and action potentials were measured using the perforated patch-clamp technique in the absence and presence of acutely administered ω3-PUFAs. Plasma of ω3 fed rabbits contained more free eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and isolated myocytes of ω3 fed rabbits contained higher amounts of both EPA and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) in their sarcolemma compared to control. In the absence of acutely administered fatty acids, ω3 myocytes had a shorter action potential with a more negative plateau than ω9 myocytes. In the ω9 myocytes, but not in the ω3 myocytes, acute administration of a mixture of EPA + DHA shortened the action potential significantly. From these data we conclude that incorporated ω3-PUFAs into the sarcolemma and acutely administered ω3 fatty acids do not have a cumulative effect on action potential duration and morphology. As a consequence, patients with a high cardiac ω3-PUFA status will probably not benefit from short term ω3 supplementation as an antiarrhythmic therapy.

  15. Incorporated Fish Oil Fatty Acids Prevent Action Potential Shortening Induced by Circulating Fish Oil Fatty Acids

    PubMed Central

    Ruijter, Hester M. Den; Verkerk, Arie O.; Coronel, Ruben

    2010-01-01

    Increased consumption of fatty fish, rich in omega-3-polyunsaturated fatty acids (ω3-PUFAs) reduces the severity and number of arrhythmias. Long-term ω3-PUFA-intake modulates the activity of several cardiac ion channels leading to cardiac action potential shortening. Circulating ω3-PUFAs in the bloodstream and incorporated ω3-PUFAs in the cardiac membrane have a different mechanism to shorten the action potential. It is, however, unknown whether circulating ω3-PUFAs in the bloodstream enhance or diminish the effects of incorporated ω3-PUFAs. In the present study, we address this issue. Rabbits were fed a diet rich in fish oil (ω3) or sunflower oil (ω9, as control) for 3 weeks. Ventricular myocytes were isolated by enzymatic dissociation and action potentials were measured using the perforated patch-clamp technique in the absence and presence of acutely administered ω3-PUFAs. Plasma of ω3 fed rabbits contained more free eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and isolated myocytes of ω3 fed rabbits contained higher amounts of both EPA and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) in their sarcolemma compared to control. In the absence of acutely administered fatty acids, ω3 myocytes had a shorter action potential with a more negative plateau than ω9 myocytes. In the ω9 myocytes, but not in the ω3 myocytes, acute administration of a mixture of EPA + DHA shortened the action potential significantly. From these data we conclude that incorporated ω3-PUFAs into the sarcolemma and acutely administered ω3 fatty acids do not have a cumulative effect on action potential duration and morphology. As a consequence, patients with a high cardiac ω3-PUFA status will probably not benefit from short term ω3 supplementation as an antiarrhythmic therapy. PMID:21423389

  16. Potential CO2 Sequestration in Oil Field Reservoirs: Baseline Mineralogy and Natural Diagenesis, Kern County, California

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Horton, R. A.; Kaess, A. B.; Nguyen, D. T.; Caffee, S. E.; Olabise, O. E.

    2015-12-01

    Depleted oil fields have been suggested as potential sites for sequestration of CO2 generated from the burning of hydrocarbons. However, to be effective for removing CO2 from the atmosphere, the injected CO2 must remain within the reservoir. The role of atmospheric CO2 in rock weathering is well known and a growing body of experimental work indicates that under reservoir conditions supercritical CO2 also reacts with sedimentary rocks. In order to predict the behavior of injected CO2 in a given reservoir, detailed knowledge of the mineralogy is required. In addition, post-injection monitoring may include analyzing core samples to examine interactions between reservoir rocks and the CO2. Thus, documentation of the natural diagenetic processes within the reservoir is necessary so that changes caused by reactions with CO2 can be recognized. Kern County, California has been a major petroleum producing area for over a century and has three oil fields that have been identified as potential sites for CO2 sequestration. Two of these, Rio Bravo-Greeley and McKittrick, have no previously published mineralogic studies. Samples from these (and nearby Wasco) oil fields were studied using transmitted-light petrography and scanning electron microscopy. At Rio Bravo-Greeley-Wasco, Kreyenhagen (Eocene) and Vedder (Oligocene) sandstones are mainly arkosic arenites with only small amounts of volcanic rock fragments. Detrital feldspars exhibit wide compositional ranges (up to Or75Ab25 & Ab50An50). Diagenesis has greatly altered the rocks. There are significant amounts of relatively pure authigenic K-feldspar and albite. Small amounts of authigenic quartz, calcite, dolomite, ankerite, kaolinite, illite/smectite, chlorite, zeolite, and pyrite are present. Plagioclase has been preferentially dissolved, with andesine more susceptible than oligoclase. Al3+ has been exported from the sandstones. At McKittrick, Temblor sandstones (Oligocene-Miocene) contain up to 33% volcanic rock fragments

  17. 7 CFR 1493.80 - Evidence of export.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... programs: Export Enhancement Program, Dairy Export Incentive Program, Sunflowerseed Oil Assistance Program, or Cottonseed Oil Assistance Program. (10) The exporter's statement, “All § 1493.90 Certifications... undermining of an essential regulatory purpose of the program; (3) Obstruction of the fair administration of...

  18. 7 CFR 1493.80 - Evidence of export.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... programs: Export Enhancement Program, Dairy Export Incentive Program, Sunflowerseed Oil Assistance Program, or Cottonseed Oil Assistance Program. (10) The exporter's statement, “All § 1493.90 Certifications... undermining of an essential regulatory purpose of the program; (3) Obstruction of the fair administration of...

  19. 19 CFR Appendix to Part 146 - Guidelines for Determining Producibility and Relative Values for Oil Refinery Zones

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...,000 pounds privileged foreign (PF) class II crude oil. 50,000 pounds PF class III crude oil. 50,000 pounds domestic status class III crude oil. Day 10 Removal from the refinery subzone for exportation of... aviation gasoline to the privileged foreign status crude oil. Under the tables for potential production...

  20. 19 CFR Appendix to Part 146 - Guidelines for Determining Producibility and Relative Values for Oil Refinery Zones

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...,000 pounds privileged foreign (PF) class II crude oil. 50,000 pounds PF class III crude oil. 50,000 pounds domestic status class III crude oil. Day 10 Removal from the refinery subzone for exportation of... aviation gasoline to the privileged foreign status crude oil. Under the tables for potential production...

  1. Quantitative evaluation of oil-leg potential in gas reservoirs

    SciTech Connect

    Lisk, M.; Krieger, F.W.; Eadington, P.J. ); O'Brien, G.W. )

    1996-01-01

    Oil bearing fluid inclusions in sandstone represent hidden oil shows. The frequency of quartz grains containing these inclusions (GOI number) reflects maximum palaeo-oil saturation irrespective of the present fluid phase. In this way fluid inclusion data can be used to both identify palaeo-oil columns and to map original oil water contacts (OWC) in wells where oil has been displaced by later gas charge. Studies conducted on gas fields from the North West Shelf of Australia have shown that substantial oil columns were once present. Moreover, detailed GOI mapping has been used to define the location of the original OWC in these reservoirs allowing the height of the palaeo-column to be determined and an estimate to be made of original oil in place (OOIP). At Oliver-1 in the Timor Sea the reservoir is presently filled to spill with a 164m gas, and 14.5m oil, column. GOI mapping has, however, delineated a 96m thick palaeo-oil column within the gas leg. This is almost seven times thicker than the present oil leg which suggests that perhaps 170-190 million barrels of oil were displaced from this structure. In the Pepper gas field in the Carnarvon Basin GOI mapping has demonstrated the presence of a gross palaeo-oil column between 15 and 30 m thick, suggesting that between about 50 and 70 million barrels of oil has been displaced. This is more oil than that reservoired in any of the surrounding oil discoveries, which emphasizes the importance, from an exploration standpoint, of defining these remigration pathways.

  2. Quantitative evaluation of oil-leg potential in gas reservoirs

    SciTech Connect

    Lisk, M.; Krieger, F.W.; Eadington, P.J.; O`Brien, G.W.

    1996-12-31

    Oil bearing fluid inclusions in sandstone represent hidden oil shows. The frequency of quartz grains containing these inclusions (GOI number) reflects maximum palaeo-oil saturation irrespective of the present fluid phase. In this way fluid inclusion data can be used to both identify palaeo-oil columns and to map original oil water contacts (OWC) in wells where oil has been displaced by later gas charge. Studies conducted on gas fields from the North West Shelf of Australia have shown that substantial oil columns were once present. Moreover, detailed GOI mapping has been used to define the location of the original OWC in these reservoirs allowing the height of the palaeo-column to be determined and an estimate to be made of original oil in place (OOIP). At Oliver-1 in the Timor Sea the reservoir is presently filled to spill with a 164m gas, and 14.5m oil, column. GOI mapping has, however, delineated a 96m thick palaeo-oil column within the gas leg. This is almost seven times thicker than the present oil leg which suggests that perhaps 170-190 million barrels of oil were displaced from this structure. In the Pepper gas field in the Carnarvon Basin GOI mapping has demonstrated the presence of a gross palaeo-oil column between 15 and 30 m thick, suggesting that between about 50 and 70 million barrels of oil has been displaced. This is more oil than that reservoired in any of the surrounding oil discoveries, which emphasizes the importance, from an exploration standpoint, of defining these remigration pathways.

  3. Underwater robotic work systems for Russian arctic offshore oil/gas industry: Final report. Export trade information

    SciTech Connect

    1997-12-15

    The study was performed in association with Rosshelf, a shelf developing company located in Moscow. This volume involves developing an underwater robotic work system for oil exploration in Russia`s Arctic waters, Sea of Okhotsk and the Caspian Sea. The contents include: (1) Executive Summary; (2) Study Background; (3) Study Outline and Results; (4) Conclusions; (5) Separately Published Elements; (6) List of Subcontractors.

  4. Occurrence, production, and export of lipophilic compounds by hydrocarbonoclastic marine bacteria and their potential use to produce bulk chemicals from hydrocarbons.

    PubMed

    Manilla-Pérez, Efraín; Lange, Alvin Brian; Hetzler, Stephan; Steinbüchel, Alexander

    2010-05-01

    Petroleum (or crude oil) is a complex mixture of hydrocarbons. Annually, millions of tons of crude petroleum oil enter the marine environment from either natural or anthropogenic sources. Hydrocarbon-degrading bacteria (HDB) are able to assimilate and metabolize hydrocarbons present in petroleum. Crude oil pollution constitutes a temporary condition of carbon excess coupled to a limited availability of nitrogen that prompts marine oil-degrading bacteria to accumulate storage compounds. Storage lipid compounds such as polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHAs), triacylglycerols (TAGs), or wax esters (WEs) constitute the main accumulated lipophilic substances by bacteria under such unbalanced growth conditions. The importance of these compounds as end-products or precursors to produce interesting biotechnologically relevant chemicals has already been recognized. In this review, we analyze the occurrence and accumulation of lipid storage in marine hydrocarbonoclastic bacteria. We further discuss briefly the production and export of lipophilic compounds by bacteria belonging to the Alcanivorax genus, which became a model strain of an unusual group of obligate hydrocarbonoclastic bacteria (OHCB) and discuss the possibility to produce neutral lipids using A. borkumensis SK2.

  5. Mining machinery/equipment/parts/services. Oil and gas field equipment/machinery/parts/supplies (Colombia). Oil and gas drilling equipment, October 1991. Export trade information

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-10-01

    During 1990, Colombian oil production reached approximately 439,000 barrels of crude oil per day, an all time high. An annual average of 68 exploratory wells and 181 development wells were drilled during the 1985-1990 period. These factors indicate that total imports of equipment, materials, and supplies for the drilling subsector should increase an annual average of 7 percent during the next three years. In dollar terms this means that the market for this type of equipment would be about U.S. $120 million dollars per year after 1992.

  6. Potential evaluation of CO2 storage and enhanced oil recovery of tight oil reservoir in the Ordos Basin, China.

    PubMed

    Tian, Xiaofeng; Cheng, Linsong; Cao, Renyi; Zhang, Miaoyi; Guo, Qiang; Wang, Yimin; Zhang, Jian; Cui, Yu

    2015-07-01

    Carbon -di-oxide (CO2) is regarded as the most important greenhouse gas to accelerate climate change and ocean acidification. The Chinese government is seeking methods to reduce anthropogenic CO2 gas emission. CO2 capture and geological storage is one of the main methods. In addition, injecting CO2 is also an effective method to replenish formation energy in developing tight oil reservoirs. However, exiting methods to estimate CO2 storage capacity are all based on the material balance theory. This was absolutely correct for normal reservoirs. However, as natural fractures widely exist in tight oil reservoirs and majority of them are vertical ones, tight oil reservoirs are not close. Therefore, material balance theory is not adaptive. In the present study, a new method to calculate CO2 storage capacity is presented. The CO2 effective storage capacity, in this new method, consisted of free CO2, CO2 dissolved in oil and CO2 dissolved in water. Case studies of tight oil reservoir from Ordos Basin was conducted and it was found that due to far lower viscosity of CO2 and larger solubility in oil, CO2 could flow in tight oil reservoirs more easily. As a result, injecting CO2 in tight oil reservoirs could obviously enhance sweep efficiency by 24.5% and oil recovery efficiency by 7.5%. CO2 effective storage capacity of Chang 7 tight oil reservoir in Longdong area was 1.88 x 10(7) t. The Chang 7 tight oil reservoir in Ordos Basin was estimated to be 6.38 x 10(11) t. As tight oil reservoirs were widely distributed in Songliao Basin, Sichuan Basin and so on, geological storage capacity of CO2 in China is potential.

  7. Naphthenic acids in coastal sediments after the Hebei Spirit oil spill: a potential indicator for oil contamination.

    PubMed

    Wan, Yi; Wang, Beili; Khim, Jong Seong; Hong, Seongjin; Shim, Won Joon; Hu, Jianying

    2014-04-01

    Naphthenic acids (NAs) as toxic components in most petroleum sources are suspected to be one of the major pollutants in the aquatic environment following oil spills, and the polarity and persistence of NAs make it a potential indicator for oil contamination. However, the contamination and potential effects of pollutants in oil spill affected areas remain unknown. To investigate NAs in oil spill affected areas, a sensitive method was first established for analysis of NAs, together with oxy-NAs in sediment samples by UPLC-QTOF-MS. Then the method was applied to determine the NA mixtures in crude oil, weathered oil, and sediments from the spilled sites after the Hebei Spirit oil spill, Taean, South Korea (Dec. 2007). Concentrations of NAs, O3-NAs, and O4-NAs were found to be 7.8-130, 3.6-44, and 0.8-20 mg kg(-1) dw in sediments from the Taean area, respectively, which were much greater than those measured in the reference sites of Manlipo and Anmyundo beaches. Concentrations of NAs were 50-100 times greater than those (0.077-2.5 mg kg(-1) dw) of PAHs in the same sediment samples, thus the ecological risk of NAs in oil spill affected areas deserves more attention. The sedimentary profiles of oil-derived NAs and background NAs centered around compounds with 21-35 and 12-21 carbons, respectively, indicating that the crude-derived NA mixtures originating from the 2007 oil spill were persistent. Acyclic NAsn=5-20 were easily degraded compared to cyclic NAsn=21-41 during the oil weathering processes, and the ratio of oxy-NAsn=21-41 relative to NAsn=21-41 could be a novel index to estimate the degree of oil weathering in sediments. Altogether, the persistent oil-derived NAsn=21-41 could be used as a potential indicator for oil-specific contamination, as such compounds would not be much affected by the properties of coastal sediments possibly due to the high sorption of the negatively charged compounds (NAs) in sediment.

  8. Chemical dispersant potentiates crude oil impacts on growth, reproduction, and gene expression in Caenorhabditis elegans.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yanqiong; Chen, Dongliang; Ennis, Adrien C; Polli, Joseph R; Xiao, Peng; Zhang, Baohong; Stellwag, Edmund J; Overton, Anthony; Pan, Xiaoping

    2013-02-01

    The economic, environmental, and human health impacts of the deepwater horizon (DWH) oil spill have been of significant concern in the general public and among scientists. This study employs parallel experiments to test the effects of crude oil from the DWH oil well, chemical dispersant Corexit 9500A, and dispersant-oil mixture on growth and reproduction in the model organism Caenorhabditis elegans. Both the crude oil and the dispersant significantly inhibited the reproduction of C. elegans. Dose-dependent inhibitions of hatched larvae production were observed in worms exposed to both crude oil and dispersant. Importantly, the chemical dispersant Corexit 9500A potentiated crude oil effects; dispersant-oil mixture induced more significant effects than oil or dispersant-alone exposures. While oil-alone exposure and dispersant-alone exposure have none to moderate inhibitory effects on hatched larvae production, respectively, the mixture of dispersant and oil induced much more significant inhibition of offspring production. The production of hatched larvae was almost completely inhibited by several high concentrations of the dispersant-oil mixture. This suggests a sensitive bioassay for future investigation of oil/dispersant impacts on organisms. We also investigated the effects of crude oil/dispersant exposure at the molecular level by measuring the expressions of 31 functional genes. Results showed that the dispersant and the dispersant-oil mixture induced aberrant expressions of 12 protein-coding genes (cat-4, trxr-2, sdhb-1, lev-8, lin-39, unc-115, prdx-3, sod-1, acr-16, ric-3, unc-68, and acr-8). These 12 genes are associated with a variety of biological processes, including egg-laying, oxidative stress, muscle contraction, and neurological functions. In summary, the toxicity potentiating effect of chemical dispersant must be taken into consideration in future crude oil cleanup applications.

  9. Money windfalls and oil-exporting developing countries: a comparative study of Algeria, Ecuador, trinidad and Tobago, and Indonesia

    SciTech Connect

    Avin, R.M.

    1986-01-01

    This thesis analyzes how the oil windfalls of the 1970s have affected the growth path and the sectoral composition of output and trade of the oil rich developing countries. The policy makers of the four subject countries have adopted different development strategies so that their economies can achieve sustained increases in per capita income and a higher level of economic development after the resource is depleted. The analysis is concerned with the consequences of these policies. The neoclassical models used in the literature to analyze the effects of a resource boom predict the following consequences among others: (1) increase in the prices of nontraded goods, which include construction and services; (2) appreciation of the real exchange rate, which is defined as the ratio of the price of nontraded goods to the price of traded goods, and (3) fall in the output and employment of the traditional traded goods sector, not including the resource or booming sector. The consequences are known as the Dutch Disease in reference to a decline in Dutch manufacturing in the 1960s brought about by natural gas discoveries. To test the hypotheses of the trade and development models, national accounts data are used in order to measure the changes in the composition of production and trade in the 1970s and early 1980s.

  10. Simulation of interactions between migrating whales and potential oil spills.

    PubMed

    Jayko, K; Reed, M; Bowles, A

    1990-01-01

    A numerical model system was developed to quantify the probability of endangered bowhead and gray whales encountering spilled oil in Alaskan waters. Migration and diving-surfacing models for bowhead and gray whales, and an oil spill trajectory model comprise the system. The migration models were developed from conceptual considerations, then calibrated with and tested against observations. The distribution of whales is represented in space and time by discrete points, each of which may represent one or more whales. The movement of a whale point is governed by a random walk algorithm which stochastically follows a migratory pathway. Stochastic diving-surfacing models are used to stimulate surfacing behavior sequences for each species. The oil spill model accounts for oil transport and spreading in open water and in the presence of sea ice. Historical wind records and ice cover data sets provide the environmental conditions to generate stochastic oil spill scenarios. The oil spill, whale migration and diving-surfacing models are linked to provide quantitative estimates of whale-oil interactions. The model system was applied to the Alaskan Beaufort Sea to investigate the probability that bowhead whales would encounter oil spilled in this region.

  11. Commercial Essential Oils as Potential Antimicrobials to Treat Skin Diseases

    PubMed Central

    Orchard, Ané

    2017-01-01

    Essential oils are one of the most notorious natural products used for medical purposes. Combined with their popular use in dermatology, their availability, and the development of antimicrobial resistance, commercial essential oils are often an option for therapy. At least 90 essential oils can be identified as being recommended for dermatological use, with at least 1500 combinations. This review explores the fundamental knowledge available on the antimicrobial properties against pathogens responsible for dermatological infections and compares the scientific evidence to what is recommended for use in common layman's literature. Also included is a review of combinations with other essential oils and antimicrobials. The minimum inhibitory concentration dilution method is the preferred means of determining antimicrobial activity. While dermatological skin pathogens such as Staphylococcus aureus have been well studied, other pathogens such as Streptococcus pyogenes, Propionibacterium acnes, Haemophilus influenzae, and Brevibacterium species have been sorely neglected. Combination studies incorporating oil blends, as well as interactions with conventional antimicrobials, have shown that mostly synergy is reported. Very few viral studies of relevance to the skin have been made. Encouragement is made for further research into essential oil combinations with other essential oils, antimicrobials, and carrier oils. PMID:28546822

  12. Assessing the antibiotic potential of essential oils against Haemophilus ducreyi.

    PubMed

    Lindeman, Zachary; Waggoner, Molly; Batdorff, Audra; Humphreys, Tricia L

    2014-05-27

    Haemophilus ducreyi is the bacterium responsible for the genital ulcer disease chancroid, a cofactor for the transmission of HIV, and it is resistant to many antibiotics. With the goal of exploring possible alternative treatments, we tested essential oils (EOs) for their efficacy as antimicrobial agents against H. ducreyi. We determine the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of Cinnamomum verum (cinnamon), Eugenia caryophyllus (clove) and Thymus satureioides (thyme) oil against 9 strains of H. ducreyi using the agar dilution method. We also determined the minimum lethal concentration for each oil by subculturing from the MIC plates onto fresh agar without essential oil. For both tests, we used a 2-way ANOVA to evaluate whether antibiotic-resistant strains had a different sensitivity to the oils relative to non-resistant strains. All 3 oils demonstrated excellent activity against H. ducreyi, with MICs of 0.05 to 0.52 mg/mL and MLCs of 0.1-0.5 mg/mL. Antibiotic-resistant strains of H. ducreyi were equally susceptible to these 3 essential oils relative to non-resistant strains (p=0.409). E. caryophyllus, C. verum and T. satureioides oils are promising alternatives to antibiotic treatment for chancroid.

  13. Assessing the antibiotic potential of essential oils against Haemophilus ducreyi

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Haemophilus ducreyi is the bacterium responsible for the genital ulcer disease chancroid, a cofactor for the transmission of HIV, and it is resistant to many antibiotics. With the goal of exploring possible alternative treatments, we tested essential oils (EOs) for their efficacy as antimicrobial agents against H. ducreyi. Methods We determine the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of Cinnamomum verum (cinnamon), Eugenia caryophyllus (clove) and Thymus satureioides (thyme) oil against 9 strains of H. ducreyi using the agar dilution method. We also determined the minimum lethal concentration for each oil by subculturing from the MIC plates onto fresh agar without essential oil. For both tests, we used a 2-way ANOVA to evaluate whether antibiotic-resistant strains had a different sensitivity to the oils relative to non-resistant strains. Results All 3 oils demonstrated excellent activity against H. ducreyi, with MICs of 0.05 to 0.52 mg/mL and MLCs of 0.1-0.5 mg/mL. Antibiotic-resistant strains of H. ducreyi were equally susceptible to these 3 essential oils relative to non-resistant strains (p = 0.409). Conclusion E. caryophyllus, C. verum and T. satureioides oils are promising alternatives to antibiotic treatment for chancroid. PMID:24885682

  14. Therapeutic Potential of Tea Tree Oil for Scabies

    PubMed Central

    Thomas, Jackson; Carson, Christine F.; Peterson, Greg M.; Walton, Shelley F.; Hammer, Kate A.; Naunton, Mark; Davey, Rachel C.; Spelman, Tim; Dettwiller, Pascale; Kyle, Greg; Cooper, Gabrielle M.; Baby, Kavya E.

    2016-01-01

    Globally, scabies affects more than 130 million people at any time. In the developed world, outbreaks in health institutions and vulnerable communities result in a significant economic burden. A review of the literature demonstrates the emergence of resistance toward classical scabicidal treatments and the lack of effectiveness of currently available scabicides in reducing the inflammatory skin reactions and pyodermal progression that occurs in predisposed patient cohorts. Tea tree oil (TTO) has demonstrated promising acaricidal effects against scabies mites in vitro and has also been successfully used as an adjuvant topical medication for the treatment of crusted scabies, including cases that did not respond to standard treatments. Emerging acaricide resistance threatens the future usefulness of currently used gold standard treatments (oral ivermectin and topical permethrin) for scabies. The imminent development of new chemical entities is doubtful. The cumulative acaricidal, antibacterial, antipruritic, anti-inflammatory, and wound healing effects of TTO may have the potential to successfully reduce the burden of scabies infection and the associated bacterial complications. This review summarizes current knowledge on the use of TTO for the treatment of scabies. On the strength of existing data for TTO, larger scale, randomized controlled clinical trials are warranted. PMID:26787146

  15. Therapeutic Potential of Tea Tree Oil for Scabies.

    PubMed

    Thomas, Jackson; Carson, Christine F; Peterson, Greg M; Walton, Shelley F; Hammer, Kate A; Naunton, Mark; Davey, Rachel C; Spelman, Tim; Dettwiller, Pascale; Kyle, Greg; Cooper, Gabrielle M; Baby, Kavya E

    2016-02-01

    Globally, scabies affects more than 130 million people at any time. In the developed world, outbreaks in health institutions and vulnerable communities result in a significant economic burden. A review of the literature demonstrates the emergence of resistance toward classical scabicidal treatments and the lack of effectiveness of currently available scabicides in reducing the inflammatory skin reactions and pyodermal progression that occurs in predisposed patient cohorts. Tea tree oil (TTO) has demonstrated promising acaricidal effects against scabies mites in vitro and has also been successfully used as an adjuvant topical medication for the treatment of crusted scabies, including cases that did not respond to standard treatments. Emerging acaricide resistance threatens the future usefulness of currently used gold standard treatments (oral ivermectin and topical permethrin) for scabies. The imminent development of new chemical entities is doubtful. The cumulative acaricidal, antibacterial, antipruritic, anti-inflammatory, and wound healing effects of TTO may have the potential to successfully reduce the burden of scabies infection and the associated bacterial complications. This review summarizes current knowledge on the use of TTO for the treatment of scabies. On the strength of existing data for TTO, larger scale, randomized controlled clinical trials are warranted. © The American Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene.

  16. Potential oil spill risk from shipping and the implications for management in the Caribbean Sea.

    PubMed

    Singh, Asha; Asmath, Hamish; Chee, Candice Leung; Darsan, Junior

    2015-04-15

    The semi enclosed Caribbean Sea is ranked as having one of the most intense maritime traffic in the world. These maritime activities have led to significant oil pollution. Simultaneously, this sea supports many critical habitats functioning as a Large Marine Ecosystem (LME). While the impacts of oil pollution are recognised, a number of management challenges remain. This study applies spatial modelling to identify critical areas potentially at risk from oil spills in the form of a potential oil spill risk (POSR) model. The model indicates that approximately 83% of the sea could be potentially impacted by oil spills due to shipping. The results from this study collectively support a management framework for minimising ship generated oil pollution in the Caribbean Sea. Among the recommended components are a common policy, surveillance and monitoring controls, standards, monitoring programmes, data collection and greater rates of convention ratifications.

  17. Zeta potential in oil-water-carbonate systems and its impact on oil recovery during controlled salinity water-flooding

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jackson, Matthew D.; Al-Mahrouqi, Dawoud; Vinogradov, Jan

    2016-11-01

    Laboratory experiments and field trials have shown that oil recovery from carbonate reservoirs can be increased by modifying the brine composition injected during recovery in a process termed controlled salinity water-flooding (CSW). However, CSW remains poorly understood and there is no method to predict the optimum CSW composition. This work demonstrates for the first time that improved oil recovery (IOR) during CSW is strongly correlated to changes in zeta potential at both the mineral-water and oil-water interfaces. We report experiments in which IOR during CSW occurs only when the change in brine composition induces a repulsive electrostatic force between the oil-brine and mineral-brine interfaces. The polarity of the zeta potential at both interfaces must be determined when designing the optimum CSW composition. A new experimental method is presented that allows this. Results also show for the first time that the zeta potential at the oil-water interface may be positive at conditions relevant to carbonate reservoirs. A key challenge for any model of CSW is to explain why IOR is not always observed. Here we suggest that failures using the conventional (dilution) approach to CSW may have been caused by a positively charged oil-water interface that had not been identified.

  18. Zeta potential in oil-water-carbonate systems and its impact on oil recovery during controlled salinity water-flooding.

    PubMed

    Jackson, Matthew D; Al-Mahrouqi, Dawoud; Vinogradov, Jan

    2016-11-23

    Laboratory experiments and field trials have shown that oil recovery from carbonate reservoirs can be increased by modifying the brine composition injected during recovery in a process termed controlled salinity water-flooding (CSW). However, CSW remains poorly understood and there is no method to predict the optimum CSW composition. This work demonstrates for the first time that improved oil recovery (IOR) during CSW is strongly correlated to changes in zeta potential at both the mineral-water and oil-water interfaces. We report experiments in which IOR during CSW occurs only when the change in brine composition induces a repulsive electrostatic force between the oil-brine and mineral-brine interfaces. The polarity of the zeta potential at both interfaces must be determined when designing the optimum CSW composition. A new experimental method is presented that allows this. Results also show for the first time that the zeta potential at the oil-water interface may be positive at conditions relevant to carbonate reservoirs. A key challenge for any model of CSW is to explain why IOR is not always observed. Here we suggest that failures using the conventional (dilution) approach to CSW may have been caused by a positively charged oil-water interface that had not been identified.

  19. Zeta potential in oil-water-carbonate systems and its impact on oil recovery during controlled salinity water-flooding

    PubMed Central

    Jackson, Matthew D.; Al-Mahrouqi, Dawoud; Vinogradov, Jan

    2016-01-01

    Laboratory experiments and field trials have shown that oil recovery from carbonate reservoirs can be increased by modifying the brine composition injected during recovery in a process termed controlled salinity water-flooding (CSW). However, CSW remains poorly understood and there is no method to predict the optimum CSW composition. This work demonstrates for the first time that improved oil recovery (IOR) during CSW is strongly correlated to changes in zeta potential at both the mineral-water and oil-water interfaces. We report experiments in which IOR during CSW occurs only when the change in brine composition induces a repulsive electrostatic force between the oil-brine and mineral-brine interfaces. The polarity of the zeta potential at both interfaces must be determined when designing the optimum CSW composition. A new experimental method is presented that allows this. Results also show for the first time that the zeta potential at the oil-water interface may be positive at conditions relevant to carbonate reservoirs. A key challenge for any model of CSW is to explain why IOR is not always observed. Here we suggest that failures using the conventional (dilution) approach to CSW may have been caused by a positively charged oil-water interface that had not been identified. PMID:27876833

  20. Crude oil as a microbial seed bank with unexpected functional potentials

    PubMed Central

    Cai, Man; Nie, Yong; Chi, Chang-Qiao; Tang, Yue-Qin; Li, Yan; Wang, Xing-Biao; Liu, Ze-Shen; Yang, Yunfeng; Zhou, Jizhong; Wu, Xiao-Lei

    2015-01-01

    It was widely believed that oil is a harsh habitat for microbes because of its high toxicity and hydrophobicity. However, accumulating evidence has revealed the presence of live microbes in crude oil. Therefore, it’s of value to conduct an in-depth investigation on microbial communities in crude oil. To this end, microorganisms in oil and water phases were collected from four oil-well production mixtures in Qinghai Oilfield, China, and analyzed for their taxonomic and functional compositions via pyrosequencing and GeoChip, respectively. Hierarchical clustering of 16S rRNA gene sequences and functional genes clearly separated crude oil and water phases, suggestive of distinct taxonomic and functional gene compositions between crude oil and water phases. Unexpectedly, Pseudomonas dominated oil phase where diverse functional gene groups were identified, which significantly differed from those in the corresponding water phases. Meanwhile, most functional genes were significantly more abundant in oil phase, which was consistent with their important roles in facilitating survival of their host organisms in crude oil. These findings provide strong evidence that crude oil could be a “seed bank” of functional microorganisms with rich functional potentials. This offers novel insights for industrial applications of microbial-enhanced oil recovery and bioremediation of petroleum-polluted environments. PMID:26525361

  1. Crude oil as a microbial seed bank with unexpected functional potentials.

    PubMed

    Cai, Man; Nie, Yong; Chi, Chang-Qiao; Tang, Yue-Qin; Li, Yan; Wang, Xing-Biao; Liu, Ze-Shen; Yang, Yunfeng; Zhou, Jizhong; Wu, Xiao-Lei

    2015-11-03

    It was widely believed that oil is a harsh habitat for microbes because of its high toxicity and hydrophobicity. However, accumulating evidence has revealed the presence of live microbes in crude oil. Therefore, it's of value to conduct an in-depth investigation on microbial communities in crude oil. To this end, microorganisms in oil and water phases were collected from four oil-well production mixtures in Qinghai Oilfield, China, and analyzed for their taxonomic and functional compositions via pyrosequencing and GeoChip, respectively. Hierarchical clustering of 16S rRNA gene sequences and functional genes clearly separated crude oil and water phases, suggestive of distinct taxonomic and functional gene compositions between crude oil and water phases. Unexpectedly, Pseudomonas dominated oil phase where diverse functional gene groups were identified, which significantly differed from those in the corresponding water phases. Meanwhile, most functional genes were significantly more abundant in oil phase, which was consistent with their important roles in facilitating survival of their host organisms in crude oil. These findings provide strong evidence that crude oil could be a "seed bank" of functional microorganisms with rich functional potentials. This offers novel insights for industrial applications of microbial-enhanced oil recovery and bioremediation of petroleum-polluted environments.

  2. Crude oil as a microbial seed bank with unexpected functional potentials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cai, Man; Nie, Yong; Chi, Chang-Qiao; Tang, Yue-Qin; Li, Yan; Wang, Xing-Biao; Liu, Ze-Shen; Yang, Yunfeng; Zhou, Jizhong; Wu, Xiao-Lei

    2015-11-01

    It was widely believed that oil is a harsh habitat for microbes because of its high toxicity and hydrophobicity. However, accumulating evidence has revealed the presence of live microbes in crude oil. Therefore, it’s of value to conduct an in-depth investigation on microbial communities in crude oil. To this end, microorganisms in oil and water phases were collected from four oil-well production mixtures in Qinghai Oilfield, China, and analyzed for their taxonomic and functional compositions via pyrosequencing and GeoChip, respectively. Hierarchical clustering of 16S rRNA gene sequences and functional genes clearly separated crude oil and water phases, suggestive of distinct taxonomic and functional gene compositions between crude oil and water phases. Unexpectedly, Pseudomonas dominated oil phase where diverse functional gene groups were identified, which significantly differed from those in the corresponding water phases. Meanwhile, most functional genes were significantly more abundant in oil phase, which was consistent with their important roles in facilitating survival of their host organisms in crude oil. These findings provide strong evidence that crude oil could be a “seed bank” of functional microorganisms with rich functional potentials. This offers novel insights for industrial applications of microbial-enhanced oil recovery and bioremediation of petroleum-polluted environments.

  3. Characterising low molecular weight dissolved organic carbon compounds in subglacial systems; implications for subglacial metabolic activity and potential downstream export

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lawson, Emily; Wadham, Jemma; Lis, Grzegorz; Telling, Jon

    2010-05-01

    season). In Leverett subglacial runoff, the carbohydrate signature is dominated by labile metabolic intermediates, namely glucose, fructose and sucrose. Glucose concentrations range from 1-140 µg/L, with export generally highest when discharge is rising. Concentrations of LMWOC compounds in subglacial runoff generally exceed those in basal ice and supraglacial waters by an order of magnitude, indicating that the subglacial environment is an important carbon source and promotes dynamic microbial cycling of OC. This supports the idea that subglacial runoff released at the margins of the Greenland ice sheet is a potential source of bioavailable material for downstream ecosystems. LMWOC compounds in Greenland basal ice and subglacial runoff significantly exceed those at Engabreen. For instance, maximum concentrations of acetate, an important precursor to numerous metabolic pathways (including methanogenesis), reach 160 µg/L in Greenland basal ice, but only 13 µg/L in Engabreen basal ice. This suggests that the age and organic composition of the overridden material strongly influences the OC budget, and thus potential availability to subglacial microbes.

  4. Antimutagenic and antioxidant potentials of Teucrium ramosissimum essential oil.

    PubMed

    Sghaier, Mohamed Ben; Boubaker, Jihed; Neffati, Aicha; Limem, Ilef; Skandrani, Ines; Bhouri, Wissem; Bouhlel, Ines; Kilani, Soumaya; Chekir-Ghedira, Leila; Ghedira, Kamel

    2010-07-01

    The mutagenic and antimutagenic effects of the essential oil extracted from the aerial parts of Teucrium ramosissimum were evaluated by the bacterial reverse mutation assay in Salmonella typhimurium TA98, TA100, and TA1535, with and without exogenous metabolic activation (S9 fraction). The T. ramosissimum essential oil showed no mutagenic effect. In contrast, our results established that it possessed antimutagenic effects against sodium azide (SA), aflatoxin B1 (AFB1), benzo[a]pyrene (B[a]P), and 4-nitro-o-phenylenediamine (NOPD). The antioxidant capacity of the tested essential oil was evaluated using enzymatic, i.e., the xanthine/xanthine oxidase (X/XOD) assay, and nonenzymatic systems, i.e., the nitro-blue tetrazolium (NBT)/riboflavin and the DPPH assays. A moderate free radical-scavenging activity was observed towards DPPH(.) and O2(.-). In contrast, T. ramosissimum essential oil showed no effect for all the tested concentrations in the X/XOD assay.

  5. Petroleum potential of oil basins of Colombia, South America

    SciTech Connect

    Beltran, N.; Leigh, R.A.

    1989-03-01

    Commercial oil production in Colombia dates back to 1918. The country's cumulative production to December 1988 is estimated at 3.0 billion bbl. Even though current oil production averages 400,000 bbl of oil/day, a level of 600,000 bbl of oil/day is expected from 1991 to 2000. Colombia's production comes mainly from the Llanos, Putumayo, Magdalena, and Catatumbo basins, which have an aggregate area of 269,000 km/sup 2/. During the past five years, exploratory drilling in the Llanos and Upper Magdalena basins has contributed to a substantial increase in reserves. Since the 1983 discovery of the giant Cano Limon field by Occidental, the Llanos basin has become the main producing area of the country and the host to the largest remaining reserves. The Magdalena basin leads in cumulative production with 2.0 billion bbl.

  6. Plant Oils as Potential Sources of Vitamin D

    PubMed Central

    Baur, Anja C.; Brandsch, Corinna; König, Bettina; Hirche, Frank; Stangl, Gabriele I.

    2016-01-01

    To combat vitamin D insufficiency in a population, reliable diet sources of vitamin D are required. The recommendations to consume more oily fish and the use of UVB-treated yeast are already applied strategies to address vitamin D insufficiency. This study aimed to elucidate the suitability of plant oils as an alternative vitamin D source. Therefore, plant oils that are commonly used in human nutrition were first analyzed for their content of vitamin D precursors and metabolites. Second, selected oils were exposed to a short-term UVB irradiation to stimulate the synthesis of vitamin D. Finally, to elucidate the efficacy of plant-derived vitamin D to improve the vitamin D status, we fed UVB-exposed wheat germ oil (WGO) for 4 weeks to mice and compared them with mice that received non-exposed or vitamin D3 supplemented WGO. Sterol analysis revealed that the selected plant oils contained high amounts of not only ergosterol but also 7-dehydrocholesterol (7-DHC), with the highest concentrations found in WGO. Exposure to UVB irradiation resulted in a partial conversion of ergosterol and 7-DHC to vitamin D2 and D3 in these oils. Mice fed the UVB-exposed WGO were able to improve their vitamin D status as shown by the rise in the plasma concentration of 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] and the liver content of vitamin D compared with mice fed the non-exposed oil. However, the plasma concentration of 25(OH)D of mice fed the UVB-treated oil did not reach the values observed in the group fed the D3 supplemented oil. It was striking that the intake of the UVB-exposed oil resulted in distinct accumulation of vitamin D2 in the livers of these mice. In conclusion, plant oils, in particular WGO, contain considerable amounts of vitamin D precursors which can be converted to vitamin D via UVB exposure. However, the UVB-exposed WGO was less effective to improve the 25(OH)D plasma concentration than a supplementation with vitamin D3. PMID:27570765

  7. Petroleum potentialities of central Tunisia as deduced from identification and characterization of oil source rocks

    SciTech Connect

    Saidi, M.; Acheche, M.H.; Inoubli, H. ); Belayouni, H. )

    1991-08-01

    Many potential oil source rocks occur within the Tunisian stratigraphic column, including Silurian-Devonian shales, Albian and upper Albian-Vraconian carbonates, Cenomanian-Turonian black shales and lower Eocene carbonates. This focuses on the inventory of potential oil source rocks in central Tunisia ranging from middle Jurassic to Turonian. The emphasis is on determining their genetic potential and whether they could have generated oil and gas. Geochemical data obtained from the analysis of at least 2,147 samples show this region to be of significant interest as a petroleum prospective area. The main source rocks identified are Toarcian shales, upper Albian-Vraconian carbonates and Cenomanian-Turonian black shales. They contain predominantly type 2 organic matter (oil and gas prone) and are at the low maturity limit of the oil window. The occurrence of those source rocks close to numerous potential reservoir facies supports the conclusion that central Tunisia is a very interesting area for petroleum exploration.

  8. Bacterial community diversity in a low-permeability oil reservoir and its potential for enhancing oil recovery.

    PubMed

    Xiao, Meng; Zhang, Zhong-Zhi; Wang, Jing-Xiu; Zhang, Guang-Qing; Luo, Yi-Jing; Song, Zhao-Zheng; Zhang, Ji-Yuan

    2013-11-01

    The diversity of indigenous bacterial community and the functional species in the water samples from three production wells of a low permeability oil reservoir was investigated by high-throughput sequencing technology. The potential of application of indigenous bacteria for enhancing oil recovery was evaluated by examination of the effect of bacterial stimulation on the formation water-oil-rock surface interactions and micromodel test. The results showed that production well 88-122 had the most diverse bacterial community and functional species. The broth of indigenous bacteria stimulated by an organic nutrient activator at aerobic condition changed the wettability of the rock surface from oil-wet to water-wet. Micromodel test results showed that flooding using stimulated indigenous bacteria following water flooding improved oil recovery by 6.9% and 7.7% in fractured and unfractured micromodels, respectively. Therefore, the zone of low permeability reservoir has a great potential for indigenous microbial enhanced oil recovery. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Impact of mire reclamation on export potential and characteristics of dissolved carbons in the Sanjiang Plain, Northeast China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, Y. D.; Song, C. C.; Lu, Y. Z.; Song, Y. Y.; Wan, Z. M.

    2012-05-01

    As an important dissolved organic carbon (DOC) reservoir, the mires in the Sanjiang Plain, Northeast China, have been suffering from large scale of reclamation, and thus elevated loss and degradation since the 1960s. This study compares the export dynamics of the dissolved carbons, as well as the chemical characteristics of DOC, in the natural mire, degraded mire and drainage ditches during the growing seasons from 2008 to 2010 with the aim to clarify the final effects of the longterm reclamation on the export dynamics of the dissolved carbons. Results show that the average concentrations of total dissolved carbon (TC) and DOC are much higher in natural mires than that in degraded mire and drainage ditches. The DOC concentration for natural mires, about 35.53 ± 5.15 mg l-1 on average, is nearly 2.39 times of that in degraded mire (14.84 ± 4.21 mg l-1) and 2.77 times of the average value in ditches (12.84 ± 4.49 mg l-1). Similarly, the hydrophobic fraction and SUVA254 of DOC also represent lower values in the degraded mire and ditches, which suggests that mire reclamation has resulted not only in the reduced DOC concentrations but also in the reduced chemical stability. Whereas the inorganic dissolved carbons (DIC) exhibits obvious increased trends in drainage ditches in comparison to natural mires. Analyses of exitation-emission fluorescence spectra reveal that the reclamation has greatly altered the DOC composition with more biological organic substances exporting from the Sanjiang Plain. The presence of protein- and tryptophan-like substances in the ditches indicates there has been extensive agricultural pollution in the surface waters. Changes in the hydrological regime of the mire landscapes by sustained agriculture activities are deemed the prodominant reason, and the trends in the export dynamics of dissolved carbons will keep on if mire reclamation continues in the future.

  10. Toxic potentiality of bio-oils, from biomass pyrolysis, in cultured cells and Caenorhabditis elegans.

    PubMed

    Chatterjee, Nivedita; Eom, Hyun-Jeong; Jung, Su-Hwa; Kim, Joo-Sik; Choi, Jinhee

    2014-12-01

    Bio-oils, which are multicomponent mixtures, were produced from two different biomass (rice straw (rice oil) and sawdust of oak tree (oak oil)) by using the slow pyrolysis process, and chemical compositional screening with GC-MS detected several hazardous compounds in both bio-oil samples. The two bio-oils vary in their chemical compositional nature and concentrations. To know the actual hazard potentialities of these bio-oils, toxicological assessments were carried out in a comparative approach by using in vitro (Jurkat T and HepG2 cell) as well as in vivo (Caenorhabditis elegans) systems. A dose-dependent increase in cytotoxicity, cell death (apoptosis), and genotoxicity were observed in cultured cell systems. Similarly, the in vivo system, C. elegans also displayed a dose-dependent decrease in survival. It was found that in comparison with rice oil, oak oil displayed higher toxicity to all models systems, and the susceptibility order of the model systems were Jurkat T > HepG2 > C. elegans. Pursuing the study further toward the underlying mechanism by exploiting the C. elegans mutants screening assay, the bio-oils seem to mediate toxicity through oxidative stress and impairment of immunity. Taken together, bio-oils compositions mainly depend on the feedstock used and the pyrolysis conditions which in turn modulate their toxic potentiality.

  11. Potential Exploration, Development, and Production of Oil and Gas Resources, Vandenberg Air Force Base, California

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1987-12-01

    OF THE AIR FORCE BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT STRATEGIC AIR COMMAND POTENTIAL EXPLORATION, DEVELOPMENT, AND PRODUCTION OF OIL AND GAS RESOURCES...operations and national defense activities. Because the development of oil and gas on Vandenberg Air Force Base (VAFB) could adversely affect the base’s...Mineral Resource Management Plan (MRMP) for the exploration, development, and production of oil and gas resources on VAFB. The proposed action is to

  12. Fresh and weathered crude oil effects on potential denitrification rates of coastal marsh soil.

    PubMed

    Pietroski, Jason P; White, John R; DeLaune, Ronald D; Wang, Jim J; Dodla, Syam K

    2015-09-01

    On April 20, 2010, the Deepwater Horizon oil platform experienced an explosion which triggered the largest marine oil spill in US history, resulting in the release of ∼795 million L of crude oil into the Gulf of Mexico. Once oil reached the surface, changes in overall chemical composition occurred due to volatilization of the smaller carbon chain compounds as the oil was transported onshore by winds and currents. In this study, the toxic effects of both fresh and weathered crude oil on denitrification rates of coastal marsh soil were determined using soil samples collected from an unimpacted coastal marsh site proximal to areas that were oiled in Barataria Bay, LA. The 1:10 ratio of crude oil:field moist soil fully coated the soil surface mimicking a heavy oiling scenario. Potential denitrification rates at the 1:10 ratio, for weathered crude oil, were 46 ± 18.4% of the control immediately after exposure and 62 ± 8.0% of the control following a two week incubation period, suggesting some adaptation of the denitrifying microbial consortium over time. Denitrification rates of soil exposed to fresh crude oil were 51.5 ± 5.3% of the control after immediate exposure and significantly lower at 10.9 ± 1.1% after a 2 week exposure period. Results suggest that fresh crude oil has the potential to more severely impact the important marsh soil process of denitrification following longer term exposure. Future studies should focus on longer-term denitrification as well as changes in the microbial consortia in response to oil exposure.

  13. Oil industry waste: a potential feedstock for biodiesel production.

    PubMed

    Abbas, Javeria; Hussain, Sabir; Iqbal, Muhammad Javid; Nadeem, Habibullah; Qasim, Muhammad; Hina, Saadia; Hafeez, Farhan

    2016-08-01

    The worldwide rising energy demands and the concerns about the sustainability of fossil fuels have led to the search for some low-cost renewable fuels. In this scenario, the production of biodiesel from various vegetable and animal sources has attracted worldwide attention. The present study was conducted to evaluate the production of biodiesel from the oil industry waste following base-catalysed transesterification. The transesterification reaction gave a yield of 83.7% by 6:1 methanol/oil molar ratio, at 60°C over 80 min of reaction time in the presence of NaOH. The gas chromatographic analysis of the product showed the presence of 16 fatty acid methyl esters with linoleic and oleic acid as principal components representing about 31% and 20.7% of the total methyl esters, respectively. The fourier transform infrared spectroscopy spectrum of oil industry waste and transesterified product further confirmed the formation of methyl esters. Furthermore, the fuel properties of oil industry waste methyl esters, such as kinematic viscosity, cetane number, cloud point, pour point, flash point, acid value, sulphur content, cold filter plugging point, copper strip corrosion, density, oxidative stability, higher heating values, ash content, water content, methanol content and total glycerol content, were determined and discussed in the light of ASTM D6751 and EN 14214 biodiesel standards. Overall, this study presents the production of biodiesel from the oil industry waste as an approach of recycling this waste into value-added products.

  14. Potential effects of oil spills and other chemical pollutants on marine mammals occurring in Alaskan waters

    SciTech Connect

    Hansen, D.J.

    1985-01-01

    The outer continental shelf report describes and assesses the potential effects of oil spills and other contaminants on marine mammals that occur in Alaskan waters, assuming that a spill or contamination occurs. The report focuses primarily on the potential direct and indirect effects of oil spills on marine mammals and addresses both short-term effects that may occur at the time of contact with oil, and long-term effects that may occur long after contact with oil. The report also briefly reviews the literature on the potential effects of other contaminants such as heavy metals and organochlorines (DDT and PCB's) on marine mammals. The assessment concludes that sea otters, polar bears, fur seals, and very young seal pups could suffer serious or lethal effects if contact with oil occurred.

  15. Biodiesel from Citrus reticulata (Mandarin orange) seed oil, a potential non-food feedstock

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Oil extracted from Citrus reticulata (Mandarin orange) seeds was investigated as a potential feedstock for the production of biodiesel. The biodiesel fuel was prepared by sodium methoxide-catalyzed transesterification of the oil with methanol. Fuel properties that were determined include cetane numb...

  16. Assessment of potential oil and gas resources in source rocks of the Alaska North Slope, 2012

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Houseknecht, David W.; Rouse, William A.; Garrity, Christopher P.; Whidden, Katherine J.; Dumoulin, Julie A.; Schenk, Christopher J.; Charpentier, Ronald R.; Cook, Troy A.; Gaswirth, Stephanie B.; Kirschbaum, Mark A.; Pollastro, Richard M.

    2012-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey estimated potential, technically recoverable oil and gas resources for source rocks of the Alaska North Slope. Estimates (95-percent to 5-percent probability) range from zero to 2 billion barrels of oil and from zero to nearly 80 trillion cubic feet of gas.

  17. Nutrigenomics of essential oils and their potential domestic use for improving health.

    PubMed

    Cayuela Sánchez, José Antonio; Elamrani, Abdelaziz

    2014-11-01

    The use of essential oils as industrial food additives is notorious, like their medicinal properties. However, their use in household food spicing is for now limited. In this work, we have made a review to reveal the nutrigenomic actions exerted by their bioactive components, to promote awareness of their modulating gene expression ability and the potential that this implies. Also considered is how essential oils can be used as flavoring and seasoning after cooking and before consumption, such as diet components which can improve human health. Genetic mechanisms involved in the medicinal properties of essential oils for food use are identified from literature. These genetic mechanisms reveal nutrigenomic actions. Reviews on the medicinal properties of essential oils have been particularly considered. A wide diversity of nutrigenomic effects from essential oils useful potentially for food spicing is reviewed. General ideas are discussed about essential oils and their properties, such as anti-inflammatory, analgesic, immunomodulatory, anticancer, hepatoprotective, hypolipidemic, anti-diabetic, antioxidant, bone-reparation, anti-depressant and mitigatory for Alzheimer's disease. The essential oils for food use are potentially promoting health agents, and, therefore, worth using as flavoring and condiments. Becoming aware of the modulating gene expression actions from essential oils is important for understanding their potential for use in household dishes as spices to improve health.

  18. Oil and gas potential of the Triassic in west Siberia

    SciTech Connect

    Bochkarev, V.S.; Kulakhmetov, N.KH.; Nesterov, I.I. )

    1993-09-01

    Permian-Triassic rocks are widely spread within the West Siberian basin, and they include volcanics, volcanoclastics, and clastics. Their thickness varies from tens of meters of 3000 m. Recently, three commercial oil pools have been discovered in Triassic effusive-sedimentary rocks. These discoveries, together with other geological and geochemical data, identify the Triassic complex as a major play. Oil-bearing intervals have been found in three different types of sequences; a fourth also may be prospective. The first type is represented by lacustrine-terrigenous sediments, which comprise oil-saturated sandstones interbedded with basalts (the Turin series). Oil influxes were obtained in the Yakhlinskaya and Triyurtin-skaya structures in the Shaim region. The second type is distinguished from the first by the presence of coal-bearing intervals in the upper part. Oil was produced in the Yerofeyev area of the Chelyabinsk garben. The third type differs from the other two by the presence of potassic rhyolites and dacites. Their age is not precisely dated, and supposedly they are of Permian age. The largest oil influxes have been obtained from fractured and eroded rocks of this type in the Rogozhnikovskaya and other places in the Krasnoleninsk region. Rhyodacites often underlie Turin basalts, but locally they occur in the upper part of the series. Triassic and Permian-Trissic rocks of the three types are overlain by Jurassic and Cretaceous rocks with a large break. The fourth type of section is completely terrigenous (Tampei series). It is developed in the northern part of west Siberia. Here Triassic sediments are overlain by the Jurassic complex without a break. According to well-log data, productive horizons occur at Urengoy and Beregovaya (in the Urengoy region).

  19. Antibacterial potential assessment of jasmine essential oil against e. Coli.

    PubMed

    Rath, C C; Devi, S; Dash, S K; Mishra, R K

    2008-01-01

    The antibacterial activity of Jasmine (Jasminum sambac L.) flower hydro steam distilled essential oil, synthetic blends and six major individual components was assessed against Escherichia coli (MTCC-443) strain. The activity was bactericidal. Minimum inhibitory concentration was determined by tube dilution technique, and the Minimum inhibitory concentration ranged between 1.9-31.25 mul/ml. Phenolcoefficient of the oil, synthetic blends and components varied between 0.6-1.7. The activity of the chemicals was possibly due to the inhibition of cell membrane synthesis.

  20. Antibacterial Potential Assessment of Jasmine Essential Oil Against E. Coli

    PubMed Central

    Rath, C. C.; Devi, S.; Dash, S. K.; Mishra, R. K.

    2008-01-01

    The antibacterial activity of Jasmine (Jasminum sambac L.) flower hydro steam distilled essential oil, synthetic blends and six major individual components was assessed against Escherichia coli (MTCC-443) strain. The activity was bactericidal. Minimum inhibitory concentration was determined by tube dilution technique, and the Minimum inhibitory concentration ranged between 1.9-31.25 μl/ml. Phenolcoefficient of the oil, synthetic blends and components varied between 0.6-1.7. The activity of the chemicals was possibly due to the inhibition of cell membrane synthesis. PMID:20046722

  1. Edible oils for liver protection: hepatoprotective potentiality of Moringa oleifera seed oil against chemical-induced hepatitis in rats.

    PubMed

    Al-Said, Mansour S; Mothana, Ramzi A; Al-Yahya, Mohammed A; Al-Blowi, Ali S; Al-Sohaibani, Mohammed; Ahmed, Atallah F; Rafatullah, Syed

    2012-07-01

    In the present study, in vitro antioxidant, antioxidative stress and hepatoprotective activity of Moringa oleifera Lam. seed oil (Ben oil; BO) was evaluated against carbon tetrachloride (CCl(4) ) induced lipid peroxidation and hepatic damage in rats. The oil at 0.2 and 0.4 mL/rat was administered orally for 21 consecutive days. The substantially elevated serum enzymatic (GOT, GPT, ALP, GGT) and bilirubin levels were significantly restored towards normalization by the oil. There was a significant elevation in the level of malondialdehyde (MDA), non-protein sulfhydryl (NP-SH), and total protein (TP) contents in the liver tissue. The results obtained indicated that BO possesses potent hepatoprotective action against CCl(4) -induced hepatic damage by lowering liver marker enzymes, MDA concentration, and elevating NP-SH and TP levels in liver tissue. The biochemical observations were supplemented with histopathological examination of rat liver. The results of this study showed that treatment with Ben oil or silymarin (as a reference) appears to enhance the recovery from hepatic damage induced by CCl(4) . The pentobarbital induced narcolepsy prolongation in mice was retarded by the Ben oil. Acute toxicity test in mice showed no morbidity or mortality. In vitro DPPH radical scavenging and β-carotene-linolic acid assay tests of the BO exhibited a moderate antioxidant activity in both tests used. The possible mechanism(s) of the liver protective activity of Ben oil activity may be due to free radical scavenging potential caused by the presence of antioxidant component(s) in the oil. Consequently, BO can be used as a therapeutic regime in treatment of some hepatic disorders. © 2012 Institute of Food Technologists®

  2. Situation report for petroleum exporting countries

    SciTech Connect

    Hermelee, A.; D'Acierno, J.; Beller, M.; Smith, T.A.

    1980-11-01

    This report incorporates the contents of fifteen individual situation reports for major petroleum exporting countries that were prepared from the Office of Energy Emergency Management Information System. The situation reports give a synopsis of political, economic, and petroleum industry data for each oil exporting country and are designed to provide up-to-date information enabling the EEMIS Project Office to react in a timely manner to late-breaking events. The report gives a brief overview of crude oil production for the major oil producing regions of the world and identifies crude flows from the major oil producing to consuming regions - Western Europe, United States, and Japan.

  3. Exploration of nutraceutical potential of herbal oil formulated from parasitic plant.

    PubMed

    Anjum, Fozia; Bukhari, Shazia Anwer; Shahid, Muhammad; Bokhari, Tanveer Hussain; Talpur, Mir Munsif Ali

    2014-01-01

    Cuscuta reflexa (C. reflexa) is a parasitic climber of medicinal importance. The present study was aimed to evaluate the nutraceutical potential of C. reflexa stems collected from different hosts and to evaluate the role of the herbal formulation in dandruff, hair fall control as well as hair growth promoter. Hair formulations of C. reflexa collected from different host plants were prepared in the form of herbal oils (10% w/v). C. reflexa stems were extracted using mustard oil as base oil by using direct boiling technique. Prepared oil was studied as hair tonic. The experimental protocols used were anti-dandruff hair growth activity, as well as hair fall reduction. Herbal hair oils versus mustard oil were evaluated by applying oils on human volunteers with hair fall and dandruff problem whereas promotion of hair growth activity was conducted on rats. The formulated oils were also characterised for proximate analysis, physiochemical composition, as well as antimicrobial activity. The test oils of C. reflexa collected from Azadiracta indica and Zizyphus jujuba were effective in the promotion of hair growth, dandruff control, as well as reduction in hair fall activity. All the formulated oils showed potent antimicrobial activity against all selected strains of bacteria and fungi.

  4. Chemical composition and allelopathic potential of essential oils obtained from Acacia cyanophylla Lindl. Cultivated in Tunisia.

    PubMed

    El Ayeb-Zakhama, Asma; Sakka-Rouis, Lamia; Bergaoui, Afifa; Flamini, Guido; Ben Jannet, Hichem; Harzallah-Skhiri, Fethia

    2015-04-01

    Acacia cyanophylla Lindl. (Fabaceae), synonym Acacia saligna (Labill.) H. L.Wendl., native to West Australia and naturalized in North Africa and South Europe, was introduced in Tunisia for rangeland rehabilitation, particularly in the semiarid zones. In addition, this evergreen tree represents a potential forage resource, particularly during periods of drought. A. cyanophylla is abundant in Tunisia and some other Mediterranean countries. The chemical composition of the essential oils obtained by hydrodistillation from different plant parts, viz., roots, stems, phyllodes, flowers, and pods (fully mature fruits without seeds), was characterized for the first time here. According to GC-FID and GC/MS analyses, the principal compound in the phyllode and flower oils was dodecanoic acid (4), representing 22.8 and 66.5% of the total oil, respectively. Phenylethyl salicylate (8; 34.9%), heptyl valerate (3; 17.3%), and nonadecane (36%) were the main compounds in the root, stem, and pod oils, respectively. The phyllode and flower oils were very similar, containing almost the same compounds. Nevertheless, the phyllode oil differed from the flower oil for its higher contents of hexahydrofarnesyl acetone (6), linalool (1), pentadecanal, α-terpineol, and benzyl benzoate (5) and its lower content of 4. Principal component and hierarchical cluster analyses separated the five essential oils into four groups, each characterized by its main constituents. Furthermore, the allelopathic activity of each oil was evaluated using lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.) as a plant model. The phyllode, flower, and pod oils exhibited a strong allelopathic activity against lettuce.

  5. Chemical composition, antimicrobial and antioxidant potential of the essential oil of Guarea kunthiana A. Juss.

    PubMed

    Pandini, J A; Pinto, F G S; Scur, M C; Santana, C B; Costa, W F; Temponi, L G

    2017-07-27

    The essential oils are extracted from plant compounds and can present activities antimicrobial and antioxidant properties. The goals of the present study were: (a) to determine the chemical composition of the essential oil of Guarea kunthiana A. Juss using the method of gas chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry (GC-MS); (b) to evaluate the antimicrobial potential of this oil using the broth microdilution method against different microorganisms: five Gram-negative bacteria, four Gram-positive bacteria and a yeast and (c) to determine the antioxidant activity of the oil using the DPPH (2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl) free radical assay. The GC-MS analyses allowed identifying 13 constituents, representing 96.52% of the essencial oil composition. The main compounds identified were α-zingiberene (34.48%), β-sesquiphellandrene (22.90%), and α-curcumene (16.17%). With respect to the antimicrobial activity, the essential oil was effective against all the microorganisms tested, except for the bacteria E. coli and K. pneumoniae, which were resistant to the action of the oil. From a general point of view, Gram-positive bacteria were more susceptible to the action of the essential oil than Gram-negative bacteria. The essential oil exhibited antioxidant potential.

  6. Evaluation of Chenopodium ambrosioides oil as a potential source of antifungal, antiaflatoxigenic and antioxidant activity.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Rajesh; Mishra, Ajay Kumar; Dubey, N K; Tripathi, Y B

    2007-04-10

    Essential oil extracted from the leaves of Chenopodium ambrosioides Linn. (Chenopodiaceae) was tested against the aflatoxigenic strain of test fungus Aspergillus flavus Link. The oil completely inhibited the mycelial growth at 100 microg/ml. The oil exhibited broad fungitoxic spectrum against Aspergillus niger, Aspergillus fumigatus, Botryodiplodia theobromae, Fusarium oxysporum, Sclerotium rolfsii, Macrophomina phaseolina, Cladosporium cladosporioides, Helminthosporium oryzae and Pythium debaryanum at 100 microg/ml. The oil showed significant efficacy in inhibiting the aflatoxin B1 production by the aflatoxigenic strain of A. flavus. During in vivo investigation it protected stored wheat from different storage fungi for one year. Chenopodium oil also exhibited potent antioxidant activity when tested by ABTS method. All these observations suggest the possible exploitation of the Chenopodium oil as potential botanical fungitoxicant in ecofriendly control of post harvest biodeterioration of food commodities from storage fungi.

  7. Physicochemical properties and potential food applications of Moringa oleifera seed oil blended with other vegetable oils.

    PubMed

    Dollah, Sarafhana; Abdulkarim, Sabo Muhammad; Ahmad, Siti Hajar; Khoramnia, Anahita; Ghazali, Hasanah Mohd

    2014-01-01

    Blends (30:70, 50:50 and 70:30 w/w) of Moringa oleifera seed oil (MoO) with palm olein (PO), palm stearin (PS), palm kernel oil (PKO) and virgin coconut oil (VCO) were prepared. To determine the physicochemical properties of the blends, the iodine value (IV), saponication value (SV), fatty acid (FA) composition, triacylglycerol (TAG) composition, thermal behaviour (DSC) and solid fat content (SFC) tests were analysed. The incorporation of high oleic acid (81.73%) MoO into the blends resulted in the reduction of palmitic acid content of PO and PS from 36.38% to 17.17% and 54.66% to 14.39% and lauric acid content of PKO and VCO from 50.63% to 17.70% and 51.26% to 26.05% respectively while oleic acid and degree of unsaturation were increased in all blends. Changes in the FA composition and TAG profile have significantly affected the thermal behavior and solid fat content of the oil blends. In MoO/PO blends the melting temperature of MoO decreased while, in MoO/PS, MoO/PKO and MoO/VCO blends, it increased indicating produce of zero-trans harder oil blends without use of partial hydrogenation. The spreadability of PS, PKO and VCO in low temperatures was also increased due to incorporation of MoO. The melting point of PS significantly decreased in MoO/PS blends which proved to be suitable for high oleic bakery shortening and confectionary shortening formulation. The finding appears that blending of MoO with other vegetable oils would enable the initial properties of the oils to be modified or altered and provide functional and nutritional attributes for usage in various food applications, increasing the possibilities for the commercial use of these oils.

  8. Olive Oil and its Potential Effects on Alzheimer's Disease

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Antony, Shan; Zhang, G. P.

    Alzheimer's disease is a neuro-degenerative brain disease that is responsible for affecting the lives of hundreds of thousands of people every year. There has been no evidence to suggest a cure for the disease and the only existing treatments have very low rates of success in trial patients. This is largely due to the fact that the brain is one of the most undiscovered parts of the human body. Brain chemistry is highly complex and responds to its environment in random and radical ways. My research includes testing the reactionary outcomes of combining compounds of olive oil with the 20 basic amino acids. Regions around the world with olive oil based diets show a direct correlation to lower rates of Alzheimer's. Testing few compounds of olive oil with chemicals already found in the brain may yield to a better understanding as to why that is. I took the compounds tyrosol, hydroxytyrosol, and oleocanthal, and combined them with the 20 basic amino acids and calculated the total energy of the new molecule. The molecules produced with acceptably low energy values will be the center of further research. These molecules could lead to truly understanding olive oil's effect on the brain, and ultimately, the cure or prevention of Alzheimer's disease.

  9. Evaluation of castor oil samples for potential toxin contamination

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Castor oil and its derivatives are widely used as a chemical feedstock for production of lubricants and greases, and for engineering plastics, plasticizers and surfactants. They also have wide application in consumer goods such as lipstick, deodorants and medicinal products. Due to concerns about th...

  10. Lubricant Basestock Potential of Chemically Modified Vegetable Oils

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The environment must be protected against pollution caused by lubricants based on petroleum oils. The pollution problem is so severe that approximately 50% of all lubricants sold worldwide end up in the environment via volatility, spills, and total loss applications. This threat to the environment...

  11. Protein export through the bacterial flagellar type III export pathway.

    PubMed

    Minamino, Tohru

    2014-08-01

    For construction of the bacterial flagellum, which is responsible for bacterial motility, the flagellar type III export apparatus utilizes both ATP and proton motive force across the cytoplasmic membrane and exports flagellar proteins from the cytoplasm to the distal end of the nascent structure. The export apparatus consists of a membrane-embedded export gate made of FlhA, FlhB, FliO, FliP, FliQ, and FliR and a water-soluble ATPase ring complex consisting of FliH, FliI, and FliJ. FlgN, FliS, and FliT act as substrate-specific chaperones that do not only protect their cognate substrates from degradation and aggregation in the cytoplasm but also efficiently transfer the substrates to the export apparatus. The ATPase ring complex facilitates the initial entry of the substrates into the narrow pore of the export gate. The export gate by itself is a proton-protein antiporter that uses the two components of proton motive force, the electric potential difference and the proton concentration difference, for different steps of the export process. A specific interaction of FlhA with FliJ located in the center of the ATPase ring complex allows the export gate to efficiently use proton motive force to drive protein export. The ATPase ring complex couples ATP binding and hydrolysis to its assembly-disassembly cycle for rapid and efficient protein export cycle. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Protein trafficking and secretion in bacteria. Guest Editors: Anastassios Economou and Ross Dalbey.

  12. Ingestion and potential risks to wildlife from Exxon Valdez oil residues in mussels

    SciTech Connect

    Hartung, R.

    1995-12-31

    Mussels are important bioaccumulators of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), a toxicologically important fraction of crude oils. In some dense mussel beds in Prince William Sound, oil and PAH residues derived from the Exxon Valdez Oil Spill (EVOS) have persisted. The potential risks to wildlife from the consumption of these mussels are related to the degree of contamination of the mussels, the dietary intake of mussels, and the toxicity of the oils. Sea Otters (Enhydra lutris), Harlequin Ducks (Histrionicus histrionicus), and American Black Oystercatchers (Haematopus bachmanil) were identified as species that consumed significant quantities of mussels. The consumption of mussels was estimated from the percentage of mussels in the diet and the caloric requirements of each species. Caloric requirements were taken either from direct observations or calculated from allometric equations adjusted for nonbasal energy expenditures. Daily intakes of oils were estimated from the percentage of PAHs in oils, PAH levels in mussels from contaminated beds, and mussel consumption by these species. The highest estimated daily oil intake occurred in Black Oystercatchers at 22 mg/kg bodyweight, assuming that these birds consumed mussels at the 95th percentile of oil contamination and that 75% of the caloric requirements are obtained from mussels. These levels of estimated oil ingestion are considerably lower than levels which have been found to produce toxicological effects in extended feeding studies in surrogate species.

  13. Fish oil curtails the human action potential dome in a heterogeneous manner: implication for arrhythmogenesis.

    PubMed

    Verkerk, Arie O; den Ruijter, Hester M; de Jonge, Nicolaas; Coronel, Ruben

    2009-02-06

    Omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (omega 3-PUFAs) from fish oil modulate various ion channels, including the L-type calcium current (I(Ca,L)). As a result, fish oil shortens the cardiac action potential and may cause a loss of the dome of the action potential (AP). Under conditions of increased preexisting heterogeneity in repolarization this may aggravate dispersion in action potential duration. We isolated ventricular myocytes of explanted hearts from patients with cardiomyopathy at the time of cardiac transplantation, and characterized spike-and-dome morphology in the presence of acutely administered fish oil. Fish oil omega 3-PUFA eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA), but not the control omega 9-PUFA oleic acid (OA), curtails the AP-dome in a heterogeneous manner and may even result in loss of the AP-dome in some but not all myocytes.

  14. Sophorolipids Production by Candida bombicola ATCC 22214 and its Potential Application in Microbial Enhanced Oil Recovery.

    PubMed

    Elshafie, Abdulkadir E; Joshi, Sanket J; Al-Wahaibi, Yahya M; Al-Bemani, Ali S; Al-Bahry, Saif N; Al-Maqbali, Dua'a; Banat, Ibrahim M

    2015-01-01

    Biosurfactant production using Candida bombicola ATCC 22214, its characterization and potential applications in enhancing oil recovery were studied at laboratory scale. The seed media and the production media were standardized for optimal growth and biosurfactant production. The production media were tested with different carbon sources: glucose (2%w/v) and corn oil (10%v/v) added separately or concurrently. The samples were collected at 24 h interval up to 120 h and checked for growth (OD660), and biosurfactant production [surface tension (ST) and interfacial tension (IFT)]. The medium with both glucose and corn oil gave better biosurfactant production and reduced both ST and IFT to 28.56 + 0.42mN/m and 2.13 + 0.09mN/m, respectively within 72 h. The produced biosurfactant was quite stable at 13-15% salinity, pH range of 2-12, and at temperature up to 100°C. It also produced stable emulsions (%E24) with different hydrocarbons (pentane, hexane, heptane, tridecane, tetradecane, hexadecane, 1-methylnaphthalene, 2,2,4,4,6,8-heptamethylnonane, light and heavy crude oil). The produced biosurfactant was extracted using ethyl acetate and characterized as a mixture of sophorolipids (SPLs). The potential of SPLs in enhancing oil recovery was tested using core-flooding experiments under reservoir conditions, where additional 27.27% of residual oil (Sor) was recovered. This confirmed the potential of SPLs for applications in microbial enhanced oil recovery.

  15. Sophorolipids Production by Candida bombicola ATCC 22214 and its Potential Application in Microbial Enhanced Oil Recovery

    PubMed Central

    Elshafie, Abdulkadir E.; Joshi, Sanket J.; Al-Wahaibi, Yahya M.; Al-Bemani, Ali S.; Al-Bahry, Saif N.; Al-Maqbali, Dua’a; Banat, Ibrahim M.

    2015-01-01

    Biosurfactant production using Candida bombicola ATCC 22214, its characterization and potential applications in enhancing oil recovery were studied at laboratory scale. The seed media and the production media were standardized for optimal growth and biosurfactant production. The production media were tested with different carbon sources: glucose (2%w/v) and corn oil (10%v/v) added separately or concurrently. The samples were collected at 24 h interval up to 120 h and checked for growth (OD660), and biosurfactant production [surface tension (ST) and interfacial tension (IFT)]. The medium with both glucose and corn oil gave better biosurfactant production and reduced both ST and IFT to 28.56 + 0.42mN/m and 2.13 + 0.09mN/m, respectively within 72 h. The produced biosurfactant was quite stable at 13–15% salinity, pH range of 2–12, and at temperature up to 100°C. It also produced stable emulsions (%E24) with different hydrocarbons (pentane, hexane, heptane, tridecane, tetradecane, hexadecane, 1-methylnaphthalene, 2,2,4,4,6,8-heptamethylnonane, light and heavy crude oil). The produced biosurfactant was extracted using ethyl acetate and characterized as a mixture of sophorolipids (SPLs). The potential of SPLs in enhancing oil recovery was tested using core-flooding experiments under reservoir conditions, where additional 27.27% of residual oil (Sor) was recovered. This confirmed the potential of SPLs for applications in microbial enhanced oil recovery. PMID:26635782

  16. Improved Criteria for Increasing CO2 Storage Potential with CO2 Enhanced Oil Recovery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bauman, J.; Pawar, R.

    2013-12-01

    In recent years it has been found that deployment of CO2 capture and storage technology at large scales will be difficult without significant incentives. One of the technologies that has been a focus in recent years is CO2 enhanced oil/gas recovery, where additional hydrocarbon recovery provides an economic incentive for deployment. The way CO2 EOR is currently deployed, maximization of additional oil production does not necessarily lead to maximization of stored CO2, though significant amounts of CO2 are stored regardless of the objective. To determine the potential of large-scale CO2 storage through CO2 EOR, it is necessary to determine the feasibility of deploying this technology over a wide range of oil/gas field characteristics. In addition it is also necessary to accurately estimate the ultimate CO2 storage potential and develop approaches that optimize oil recovery along with long-term CO2 storage. This study uses compositional reservoir simulations to further develop technical screening criteria that not only improve oil recovery, but maximize CO2 storage during enhanced oil recovery operations. Minimum miscibility pressure, maximum oil/ CO2 contact without the need of significant waterflooding, and CO2 breakthrough prevention are a few key parameters specific to the technical aspects of CO2 enhanced oil recovery that maximize CO2 storage. We have developed reduced order models based on simulation results to determine the ultimate oil recovery and CO2 storage potential in these formations. Our goal is to develop and demonstrate a methodology that can be used to determine feasibility and long-term CO2 storage potential of CO2 EOR technology.

  17. Soybean Oil Is More Obesogenic and Diabetogenic than Coconut Oil and Fructose in Mouse: Potential Role for the Liver.

    PubMed

    Deol, Poonamjot; Evans, Jane R; Dhahbi, Joseph; Chellappa, Karthikeyani; Han, Diana S; Spindler, Stephen; Sladek, Frances M

    2015-01-01

    The obesity epidemic in the U.S. has led to extensive research into potential contributing dietary factors, especially fat and fructose. Recently, increased consumption of soybean oil, which is rich in polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs), has been proposed to play a causal role in the epidemic. Here, we designed a series of four isocaloric diets (HFD, SO-HFD, F-HFD, F-SO-HFD) to investigate the effects of saturated versus unsaturated fat, as well as fructose, on obesity and diabetes. C57/BL6 male mice fed a diet moderately high in fat from coconut oil and soybean oil (SO-HFD, 40% kcal total fat) showed statistically significant increases in weight gain, adiposity, diabetes, glucose intolerance and insulin resistance compared to mice on a diet consisting primarily of coconut oil (HFD). They also had fatty livers with hepatocyte ballooning and very large lipid droplets as well as shorter colonic crypt length. While the high fructose diet (F-HFD) did not cause as much obesity or diabetes as SO-HFD, it did cause rectal prolapse and a very fatty liver, but no balloon injury. The coconut oil diet (with or without fructose) increased spleen weight while fructose in the presence of soybean oil increased kidney weight. Metabolomics analysis of the liver showed an increased accumulation of PUFAs and their metabolites as well as γ-tocopherol, but a decrease in cholesterol in SO-HFD. Liver transcriptomics analysis revealed a global dysregulation of cytochrome P450 (Cyp) genes in SO-HFD versus HFD livers, most notably in the Cyp3a and Cyp2c families. Other genes involved in obesity (e.g., Cidec, Cd36), diabetes (Igfbp1), inflammation (Cd63), mitochondrial function (Pdk4) and cancer (H19) were also upregulated by the soybean oil diet. Taken together, our results indicate that in mice a diet high in soybean oil is more detrimental to metabolic health than a diet high in fructose or coconut oil.

  18. Soybean Oil Is More Obesogenic and Diabetogenic than Coconut Oil and Fructose in Mouse: Potential Role for the Liver

    PubMed Central

    Deol, Poonamjot; Evans, Jane R.; Dhahbi, Joseph; Chellappa, Karthikeyani; Han, Diana S.; Spindler, Stephen; Sladek, Frances M.

    2015-01-01

    The obesity epidemic in the U.S. has led to extensive research into potential contributing dietary factors, especially fat and fructose. Recently, increased consumption of soybean oil, which is rich in polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs), has been proposed to play a causal role in the epidemic. Here, we designed a series of four isocaloric diets (HFD, SO-HFD, F-HFD, F-SO-HFD) to investigate the effects of saturated versus unsaturated fat, as well as fructose, on obesity and diabetes. C57/BL6 male mice fed a diet moderately high in fat from coconut oil and soybean oil (SO-HFD, 40% kcal total fat) showed statistically significant increases in weight gain, adiposity, diabetes, glucose intolerance and insulin resistance compared to mice on a diet consisting primarily of coconut oil (HFD). They also had fatty livers with hepatocyte ballooning and very large lipid droplets as well as shorter colonic crypt length. While the high fructose diet (F-HFD) did not cause as much obesity or diabetes as SO-HFD, it did cause rectal prolapse and a very fatty liver, but no balloon injury. The coconut oil diet (with or without fructose) increased spleen weight while fructose in the presence of soybean oil increased kidney weight. Metabolomics analysis of the liver showed an increased accumulation of PUFAs and their metabolites as well as γ-tocopherol, but a decrease in cholesterol in SO-HFD. Liver transcriptomics analysis revealed a global dysregulation of cytochrome P450 (Cyp) genes in SO-HFD versus HFD livers, most notably in the Cyp3a and Cyp2c families. Other genes involved in obesity (e.g., Cidec, Cd36), diabetes (Igfbp1), inflammation (Cd63), mitochondrial function (Pdk4) and cancer (H19) were also upregulated by the soybean oil diet. Taken together, our results indicate that in mice a diet high in soybean oil is more detrimental to metabolic health than a diet high in fructose or coconut oil. PMID:26200659

  19. Oviposition-altering and ovicidal potentials of five essential oils against female adults of the dengue vector, Aedes aegypti L.

    PubMed

    Warikoo, Radhika; Wahab, Naim; Kumar, Sarita

    2011-10-01

    The oviposition deterrence and ovicidal potential of five different essential oils, peppermint oil (Mentha piperita), basil oil (Ocimum basilicum), rosemary oil (Rosemarinus officinalis), citronella oil (Cymbopogon nardus), and celery seed oil (Apium graveolens), were assessed against female adults of the dengue vector, Aedes aegypti L. Multiple concentration tests were carried out where cups containing 1 mL of different concentrations (100%, 10%, 1%, 0.1%) of the oils and 199 mL of water were used for oviposition. The number of eggs laid and the larvae hatched in each cup were scored to evaluate the oviposition deterrent and ovicidal potentials of the oils. Our investigations revealed that the addition of 100% oil (pure oil) caused complete oviposition deterrence except in A. graveolens which resulted in 75% effective repellency. The use of 10% oil resulted in the maximum deterrence of 97.5% as shown by the M. piperita oil while other oils caused 36-97% oviposition deterrence as against the control. The oviposition medium with 1% oil showed decreased deterrent potential with 30-64% effective repellency, the M. piperita oil being exceptional. However, as the concentrations of the oil were reduced further to 0.1%, the least effective oil observed was A. graveolens (25% ER). Also, the M. piperita oil showed much reduced activity (40%) as compared to the control, while the other oils exhibited 51-58% repellency to oviposition. The studies on the ovicidal effects of these oils revealed that the eggs laid in the water with 100% essential oils did not hatch at all, whereas when 10% oils were used, only the R. officinalis oil resulted in 28% egg hatch. At lower concentrations (1%), the oils of M. piperita, O. basilicum, and C. nardus showed complete egg mortality while those of A. graveolens and R. officinalis resulted in 71% and 34% egg hatches, respectively. When used at 0.1%, the O. basilicum oil was found to be the only effective oil with 100% egg mortality, whereas

  20. Phase 2: Seminars to US industry of TDA feasibility study. US export potential for oil and gas suppliers to Russian production associations. Final report. Export trade information

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-09-18

    The study was funded by the U.S. Trade and Development Agency on behalf of the Russian Production Association Varyeganneftegas Joint Stock Company (VNG JSC). It is a report Phase II of the Russian Oilfield Study, and it had two main objectives. The first was to enhance the competitiveness of the U.S. private sector in sales of oilfield equipment and services; the second goal was to assist the World Bank and VNG JSC in efforts to rehabilitate their oilfields by familiarizing VNG representatives with U.S. production and service capabilities in the petroleum sector. The report is divided into the following sections: (1) Background; (2) The Planning Stage; (3) The Implementation Stage; and (4) Conclusions.

  1. Stratigraphy of Citronelle Oil Field, AL: Perspectives from Enhanced Oil Recovery and Potential CO2 Sequestration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hills, D. J.; Pashin, J. C.; Kopaska-Merkel, D. C.; Esposito, R. A.

    2008-12-01

    The Citronelle Dome is a giant salt-cored anticline in the eastern Mississippi Interior Salt Basin of south Alabama. The dome forms an elliptical structural closure containing multiple opportunities for enhanced oil recovery (EOR) and large-capacity saline reservoir CO2 sequestration. The Citronelle Oil Field, which is on the crest of the dome, has produced more than 168 MMbbl of 42° gravity oil from marginal marine sandstone in the Lower Cretaceous Donovan Sand. Recently, EOR field tests have begun in the northeastern part of the oil field. Citronelle Unit B-19-10 #2 well (Alabama State Oil and Gas Board Permit No. 3232) will serve as the CO2 injector for the first field test. CO2 will be injected into the Upper Donovan 14-1 and 16-2 sandstone units. All well logs in the 4-square-mile area surrounding the test site have been digitized and used to construct a network of nineteen stratigraphic cross sections correlating Sands 12 through 20A in the Upper Donovan. Detailed study of Citronelle cores has shown that depositional environments in the Donovan Sand differed significantly from the earlier model that has guided past development of the Citronelle Field. The cross sections demonstrate the extreme facies heterogeneity of the Upper Donovan, and this heterogeneity is well expressed within the five-spot well pattern where the field test will be conducted. Many other features bearing on the performance of the CO2 injection test have been discovered. Of particular interest is the 16-2 sand, which is interpreted as a composite of two tiers of channel fills. Pay strata are typically developed in the lower tier, and this is where CO2 will be injected. The upper tier is highly heterogeneous and is interpreted to contain sandstone fills of variable reservoir quality, as well as mudstone plugs.

  2. Potential of Cinnamon Oil Emulsions as Alternative Washing Solutions of Carrots.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yue; Chen, Huaiqiong; Critzer, Faith; Davidson, P Michael; Zhong, Qixin

    2017-06-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the potential of cinnamon oil emulsions as alternative washing solutions to improve the microbial safety of carrots. Whey protein concentrate (WPC), gum arabic (GA), lecithin, and their combinations were used to prepare cinnamon oil emulsions. The emulsions were characterized for their hydrodynamic diameter (Dh) during 7 days of storage and their antimicrobial activity against cocktails of Salmonella enterica , Escherichia coli O157:H7, and Listeria monocytogenes . The Dh of the emulsion prepared with the GA+WPC blend did not change significantly (195.0 to 184.1 nm), whereas all other emulsions showed varying degrees of increases in Dh. Compared with free cinnamon oil dissolved in 5% ethanol, all emulsions showed similar or lower MICs and MBCs. Emulsions prepared with GA and equal masses of GA and WPC were chosen and diluted to 0.2 and 0.5% cinnamon oil to wash carrots that were surface inoculated with bacterial cocktails because of their lower MICs and MBCs than free oil. Emulsions resulted in significantly higher reductions of pathogens on carrots than free cinnamon oil, 3.0 to 3.7 versus 2.1 to 2.3 log CFU/g at 0.5% cinnamon oil and 2.0 to 3.0 versus 1.0 to 1.7 log CFU/g at 0.2% cinnamon oil. No transfer of bacteria from inoculated carrots to wash solutions and no effects of organic load on log reductions were only observed for wash treatments with 0.5% emulsified cinnamon oil. Thus, the cinnamon oil emulsions are potential alternative postharvest washing solutions for fresh produce production.

  3. Antioxidant potential of evening primrose oil administration in hyperlipemic rabbits.

    PubMed

    De La Cruz, J P; Quintero, L; Galvez, J; Villalobos, M A; Sánchez de la Cuesta, F

    1999-01-01

    The dietary intake of saturated fatty acids affects arteriosclerosis. We studied the effect of supplementation (15% wt/wt) of a hyperlipemic diet (1.33% cholesterol) with evening primrose oil (EPO) (Oenothera biennis) for 6 weeks in four groups of 10 rabbits each. At the end of this period we determined lipid peroxidation, glutathione content, and glutathione peroxidase, reductase and transferase activities in liver, brain, heart, aorta and platelets. The atherogenic diet increased tissue lipid peroxidation and decreased the protective antioxidant effect of glutathione. Dietary supplementation with EPO reduced tissue lipid peroxidation (61% in liver, 57% in brain, 42% in heart, 24% in aorta, 33% in platelets). Total glutathione was increased, especially in the aorta (90%) and platelets (200%); however, in all tissues the percentage of oxidised glutathione decreased. Evening primrose oil reduced glutathione peroxidase activity and increased the activities of glutathione reductase and transferase. We conclude that in rabbits made hyperlipemic with a diet rich in saturated fatty acids, EPO decreased tissue oxidative stress.

  4. Essential oil from Eupatorium buniifolium leaves as potential varroacide.

    PubMed

    Umpiérrez, María Laura; Santos, Estela; Mendoza, Yamandú; Altesor, Paula; Rossini, Carmen

    2013-10-01

    Beekeeping has experienced a great expansion worldwide. Nowadays, several conventional pesticides, some organic acids, and essential oil components are the main means of chemical control used against Varroa destructor, an ectoparasite that may contribute to the colony collapse disorders. Varroa resistance against conventional pesticides has already been reported; therefore it is imperative to look for alternative control agents to be included in integrated pest management programs. A good alternative seems to be the use of plant essential oils (EOs) which, as natural products, are less toxic and leave fewer residues. Within this context, a bioprospecting program of the local flora searching for botanical pesticides to be used as varroacides was launched. A primary screening (driven by laboratory assays testing for anti-Varroa activity, and safety to bees) led us to select the EOs from Eupatorium buniifolium (Asteraceae) for follow up studies. We have chemical characterized EOs from twigs and leaves collected at different times. The three E. buniifolium EOs tested were active against Varroa in laboratory assays; however, there are differences that might be attributable to chemical differences also found. The foliage EO was selected for a preliminary field trial (on an experimental apiary with 40 hives) that demonstrated acaricidal activity when applied to the hives. Although activity was less than that for oxalic acid (the positive control), this EO was less toxic to bees than the control, encouraging further studies.

  5. Economic implications for the potential development of a vegetable oil fuel industry

    SciTech Connect

    Dunn, J.R.; Schneeberger, K.C.

    1982-01-01

    The purposes in this paper were to (1) summarize the domestic and international oilseed situation with emphasis on trends which will affect the long-run supply and demand for oilseeds; (2) describe the existing oilseeds processing sector so as to focus on the existing linkage between food and potential fuel markets for vegetable oils; and (3) present a basic framework for analyzing the supply, demand, and price effects of significant use of vegetable oil as a fuel. The major determinants of demand worldwide for vegetable oils are price, incomes, and population. Government programs of taxes, quotas, or subsidies could affect vegetable oil supply and/or demand. International trade practices could change; altering the flow of oils between markets. The likely impact of a developing vegetable oils fuel market would be to increase vegetable oil prices. The size of the increase will depend on how large the fuel market demand ultimately becomes, and thus on the price of diesel fuel. It will also depend on how well oilseed production can be adapted, technologically, and in acreage, to meet the needs of a large fuels market while maintaining its critical role in the foods sector. There are many uncertainties in assessing the economic picture for vegetable oil use as a diesel fuel substitute. 1 figure, 3 tables. (DP)

  6. Evaluation of three essential oils as potential sources of botanical fungicides.

    PubMed

    Kouassi, K H S; Bajji, M; Zhiri, A; Lepoivre, P; Jijakli, M H

    2010-01-01

    In previous study, thirty essential oils were evaluated in vitro against two citrus pathogens namely Penicillium italicum Wehmer and Penicillium digitatum Sacc. Essential oils of Cinnamomum zeylanicum, Cinnamomum verum and Eugenia caryophyllus were selected because of their high inhibitory activities against both pathogens. The present study was undertaken to evaluate the in vivo activity of these essential oils. Fresh orange fruits were wounded and treated with different concentrations of essential oil (0.5, 1, and 5%) before being infected at the wound site with conidia suspensions of the tested pathogens. When applied at 5%, essential oils tested controlled totally the infections. Among the three essential oils tested, C. zeylanicum seems particularly interesting because of its high protection activity at 1% compare to the others. It reduced the disease incidence from 40 to 70% and the disease severity from 65 to 82%. Moreover no visible damage burn induced on the orange cuticle or skin was observed up to 5% of essential oil. These results strengthen the potential use of essential oils in postharvest disease management of citrus fruit as alternative to chemical fungicides.

  7. Antifungal potential of essential oil and ethanol extracts of Lonicera japonica Thunb. against dermatophytes

    PubMed Central

    Rahman, Atiqur; Al-Reza, Sharif M.; Siddiqui, Shah Alam; Chang, Taehyun; Kang, Sun Chul

    2014-01-01

    The antifungal potential of essential oil and ethanolic leaf extracts of Lonicera japonica Thunb. was evaluated for controlling the growth of dermatophytes. The oil (1,000 ppm) and extracts (1,500 ppm) of L. japonica revealed 55.1–70.3 % and 40.1–65.5 % antidermatophytic effect against Microsporum canis KCTC 6348, 6349, 6591, Trichophyton rubrum KCTC 6345, 6352, 6375, Trichophyton mentagrophytes KCTC 6077 and 6085, respectively, along with their respective minimum inhibitory concentrations ranging from 62.5-500 and 125-1,000 µg/ml. Also, the oil had strong detrimental effect on spore germination of all the tested dermatophytes as well as concentration and time-dependent kinetic inhibition of M. canis KCTC 6348. The results demonstrated that L. japonica oil and extracts could be potential sources of natural fungicides to protect human and animals from fungal infections. PMID:26417269

  8. Potential for sea otter exposure to remnants of buried oil from the Exxon Valdez oil spill.

    PubMed

    Boehm, Paul D; Page, David S; Neff, Jerry M; Johnson, Charles B

    2007-10-01

    A study was conducted in 2005 and 2006 to examine the hypothesis that sea otters (Enhydra lutris) continue to be exposed to residues of subsurface oil (SSO) while foraging on shorelines in the northern Knight Island (NKI) area of Prince William Sound, Alaska more than 17 years after the Exxon Valdez oil spill. Forty-three shoreline segments, whose oiling history has been documented by prior surveys, were surveyed. These included all shoreline segments reported by a 2003 NOAA random site survey to contain SSO residues in NKI. Sites were surveyed for the presence and location of otter foraging pits. Only one of 29 SSO sites surveyed was identified as an otter foraging site. Most buried SSO residues are confined to tide elevations above +0.8 m above mean lower low water (MLLW), above the range of intertidal clam habitat. More than 99% of documented intertidal otter pits at all sites surveyed are in the lower intertidal zone (-0.2 to +0.8 m above MLLW), the zone of highest clam abundance. The spatial separation of the otter pits from the locations of SSO residues, both with regard to tidal elevation and lateral separation on the study sites, coupled with the lack of evidence of intertidal otter foraging at SSO sites indicates a low likelihood of exposure of foraging otters to SSO on the shores of the NKI area.

  9. Novel potential inhibitors for adenylylsulfate reductase to control souring of water in oil industries.

    PubMed

    Dos Santos, Elias Silva; de Souza, Leila Cristiane Virgens; de Assis, Patrícia Nascimento; Almeida, Paulo Fernando; Ramos-de-Souza, Elias

    2014-01-01

    The biogenic production of hydrogen sulfide gas by sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB) causes serious economic problems for natural gas and oil industry. One of the key enzymes important in this biologic process is adenosine phosphosulfate reductase (APSr). Using virtual screening technique we have discovered 15 compounds that are novel potential APSr inhibitors. Three of them have been selected for molecular docking and microbiological studies which have shown good inhibition of SRB in the produced water from the oil industry.

  10. Comparative exoprotein profiling of different Staphylococcus epidermidis strains reveals potential link between nonclassical protein export and virulence.

    PubMed

    Siljamäki, Pia; Varmanen, Pekka; Kankainen, Matti; Sukura, Antti; Savijoki, Kirsi; Nyman, Tuula A

    2014-07-03

    Staphylococcus epidermidis (SE) includes commensal and pathogenic strains capable of infecting humans and animals. This study reports global exoproteome profiling of bovine mastitis strain PM221 and two human strains, commensal-type ATCC12228 and sepsis-associated RP62A. We identified 451, 395, and 518 proteins from culture supernatants of PM221, ATCC12228, and RP62A, respectively. Comparison of the identified exoproteomes revealed several strain-specific differences related to secreted antigens and adhesins, higher virulence capability for RP62A, and similarities between the PM221 and RP62A exoproteomes. The majority of the identified proteins (∼80%) were predicted to be cytoplasmic, including proteins known to be associated in membrane vesicles (MVs) in Staphylococcus aureus and immunogenic/adhesive moonlighting proteins. Enrichment of MV fractions from culture supernatants and analysis of their protein composition indicated that this nonclassical protein secretion pathway was being exploited under the conditions used and that there are strain-specific differences in nonclassical protein export. In addition, several predicted cell-surface proteins were identified in the culture media. In summary, the present study is the first in-depth exoproteome analysis of SE highlighting strain-specific factors able to contribute to virulence and adaptation.

  11. Maltese Mushroom (Cynomorium coccineum L.) as Source of Oil with Potential Anticancer Activity

    PubMed Central

    Rosa, Antonella; Nieddu, Mariella; Piras, Alessandra; Atzeri, Angela; Putzu, Danilo; Rescigno, Antonio

    2015-01-01

    The present study aimed to examine the potential anticancer properties of fixed oil obtained from Maltese mushroom (Cynomorium coccineum L.), an edible, non-photosynthetic plant, used in traditional medicine of Mediterranean countries to treat various ailments and as an emergency food during the famine. We investigated the effect of the oil, obtained from dried stems by supercritical fractioned extraction with CO2, on B16F10 melanoma and colon cancer Caco-2 cell viability and lipid profile. The oil, rich in essential fatty acids (18:3n-3 and 18:2n-6), showed a significant growth inhibitory effect on melanoma and colon cancer cells. The incubation (24 h) with non-toxic oil concentrations (25 and 50 μg/mL) induced in both cancer cell lines a significant accumulation of the fatty acids 18:3n-3 and 18:2n-6 and an increase of the cellular levels of eicosapentaenoic acid (20:5n-3) with anticancer activity. Moreover, the oil exhibited the ability to potentiate the growth inhibitory effect of the antitumor drug 5-fluorouracil in Caco-2 cells and to influence the melanin content in B16F10 cells. The results qualify C. coccineum as a resource of oil, with potential benefits in cancer prevention, for nutraceutical and pharmaceutical applications. PMID:25629557

  12. Maltese mushroom (Cynomorium coccineum L.) as source of oil with potential anticancer activity.

    PubMed

    Rosa, Antonella; Nieddu, Mariella; Piras, Alessandra; Atzeri, Angela; Putzu, Danilo; Rescigno, Antonio

    2015-01-26

    The present study aimed to examine the potential anticancer properties of fixed oil obtained from Maltese mushroom (Cynomorium coccineum L.), an edible, non-photosynthetic plant, used in traditional medicine of Mediterranean countries to treat various ailments and as an emergency food during the famine. We investigated the effect of the oil, obtained from dried stems by supercritical fractioned extraction with CO2, on B16F10 melanoma and colon cancer Caco-2 cell viability and lipid profile. The oil, rich in essential fatty acids (18:3n-3 and 18:2n-6), showed a significant growth inhibitory effect on melanoma and colon cancer cells. The incubation (24 h) with non-toxic oil concentrations (25 and 50 μg/mL) induced in both cancer cell lines a significant accumulation of the fatty acids 18:3n-3 and 18:2n-6 and an increase of the cellular levels of eicosapentaenoic acid (20:5n-3) with anticancer activity. Moreover, the oil exhibited the ability to potentiate the growth inhibitory effect of the antitumor drug 5-fluorouracil in Caco-2 cells and to influence the melanin content in B16F10 cells. The results qualify C. coccineum as a resource of oil, with potential benefits in cancer prevention, for nutraceutical and pharmaceutical applications.

  13. Potential of Ozonated Sesame Oil to Augment Wound Healing in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Pai, S. A.; Gagangras, S. A.; Kulkarni, S. S.; Majumdar, A. S.

    2014-01-01

    The hypothesis that ozonated oil has wound healing property was investigated in an excision wound model using Sprague Dawley rats. The animals were divided into four groups, which were treated with sesame oil (vehicle), framycetin (standard), or two doses of ozonated sesame oil (peroxide values 500 and 700 mEq/1000 g, respectively). The formulations were topically applied on the excision wounds once daily for 11 consecutive days and the animals were euthanized on the 12th day. Wound healing was assessed by measuring the wound contracture, tensile strength, collagen content and superoxide dismutase activity of skin of the excised wound area. On the terminal day, areas of the wounds of the group receiving high dose ozonated oil were significantly smaller than those of the group treated with vehicle. Ozonated oil treated wounds had significantly higher tensile strength, collagen content and superoxide dismutase activity than that of the vehicle treated wounds. Histopathological analysis of skin of the excised wound area treated with ozonated oil revealed better healing activity vis-à-vis vehicle-treated wounds. Thus, it can be concluded that ozonated oil can be of potential therapeutic use for healing wounds. PMID:24799744

  14. Hydrocarbon Potential of the Southern Gulf of Mexico. Evidences from Tectonic Features and Oil Seeps

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Padilla Y Sanch, R.

    2008-05-01

    The Gulf of Mexico has an enormous oil potential, about 104 billion barrels of oil equivalent (BBOE). From these, about 54 BBOE are in Mexican waters. Tectonic features in the sea-floor of the Gulf of Mexico (GOM) are closely related to oil seepage that have been mapped since the early 20 century, and are direct evidences of working petroleum systems, as well as that deep reservoirs are leaking oil to the surface. This could be considered an inconvenience by some, but it is known that the giant field Cantarell was named after a fisherman that reported frequently giant oil seeps offshore northward Ciudad del Carmen. Deep water exploration has become more and more important these days because of the continuously increasing oil prices. The northern half of the Gulf of Mexico today displays an unusual drilling activity, whereas in the southern part drilling activity is too low. In this research work the interest is focused on the satellite detected oil seeps, and ther coincident location with the tectonic structures shown in the new digital tectonic map of mexico.

  15. Eucalyptus essential oil as a natural food preservative: in vivo and in vitro antiyeast potential.

    PubMed

    Tyagi, Amit Kumar; Bukvicki, Danka; Gottardi, Davide; Tabanelli, Giulia; Montanari, Chiara; Malik, Anushree; Guerzoni, Maria Elisabetta

    2014-01-01

    In this study, the application of eucalyptus essential oil/vapour as beverages preservative is reported. The chemical composition of eucalyptus oil was determined by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) and solid phase microextraction GC-MS (SPME/GC-MS) analyses. GC-MS revealed that the major constituents were 1,8-cineole (80.5%), limonene (6.5%), α-pinene (5%), and γ-terpinene (2.9%) while SPME/GC-MS showed a relative reduction of 1,8-cineole (63.9%) and an increase of limonene (13.8%), α-pinene (8.87%), and γ-terpinene (3.98%). Antimicrobial potential of essential oil was initially determined in vitro against 8 different food spoilage yeasts by disc diffusion, disc volatilization, and microdilution method. The activity of eucalyptus vapours was significantly higher than the eucalyptus oil. Minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and minimum fungicidal concentration (MFC) varied from 0.56 to 4.50 mg/mL and from 1.13 to 9 mg/mL, respectively. Subsequently, the combined efficacy of essential oil and thermal treatment were used to evaluate the preservation of a mixed fruit juice in a time-dependent manner. These results suggest eucalyptus oil as a potent inhibitor of food spoilage yeasts not only in vitro but also in a real food system. Currently, this is the first report that uses eucalyptus essential oil for fruit juice preservation against food spoiling yeast.

  16. Rhamnolipids Produced by Indigenous Acinetobacter junii from Petroleum Reservoir and its Potential in Enhanced Oil Recovery.

    PubMed

    Dong, Hao; Xia, Wenjie; Dong, Honghong; She, Yuehui; Zhu, Panfeng; Liang, Kang; Zhang, Zhongzhi; Liang, Chuanfu; Song, Zhaozheng; Sun, Shanshan; Zhang, Guangqing

    2016-01-01

    Biosurfactant producers are crucial for incremental oil production in microbial enhanced oil recovery (MEOR) processes. The isolation of biosurfactant-producing bacteria from oil reservoirs is important because they are considered suitable for the extreme conditions of the reservoir. In this work, a novel biosurfactant-producing strain Acinetobacter junii BD was isolated from a reservoir to reduce surface tension and emulsify crude oil. The biosurfactants produced by the strain were purified and then identified via electrospray ionization-Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry (ESI FT-ICR-MS). The biosurfactants generated by the strain were concluded to be rhamnolipids, the dominant rhamnolipids were C26H48O9, C28H52O9, and C32H58O13. The optimal carbon source and nitrogen source for biomass and biosurfactant production were NaNO3 and soybean oil. The results showed that the content of acid components increased with the progress of crude oil biodegradation. A glass micromodel test demonstrated that the strain significantly increased oil recovery through interfacial tension reduction, wettability alteration and the mobility of microorganisms. In summary, the findings of this study indicate that the newly developed BD strain and its metabolites have great potential in MEOR.

  17. Rhamnolipids Produced by Indigenous Acinetobacter junii from Petroleum Reservoir and its Potential in Enhanced Oil Recovery

    PubMed Central

    Dong, Hao; Xia, Wenjie; Dong, Honghong; She, Yuehui; Zhu, Panfeng; Liang, Kang; Zhang, Zhongzhi; Liang, Chuanfu; Song, Zhaozheng; Sun, Shanshan; Zhang, Guangqing

    2016-01-01

    Biosurfactant producers are crucial for incremental oil production in microbial enhanced oil recovery (MEOR) processes. The isolation of biosurfactant-producing bacteria from oil reservoirs is important because they are considered suitable for the extreme conditions of the reservoir. In this work, a novel biosurfactant-producing strain Acinetobacter junii BD was isolated from a reservoir to reduce surface tension and emulsify crude oil. The biosurfactants produced by the strain were purified and then identified via electrospray ionization-Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry (ESI FT-ICR-MS). The biosurfactants generated by the strain were concluded to be rhamnolipids, the dominant rhamnolipids were C26H48O9, C28H52O9, and C32H58O13. The optimal carbon source and nitrogen source for biomass and biosurfactant production were NaNO3 and soybean oil. The results showed that the content of acid components increased with the progress of crude oil biodegradation. A glass micromodel test demonstrated that the strain significantly increased oil recovery through interfacial tension reduction, wettability alteration and the mobility of microorganisms. In summary, the findings of this study indicate that the newly developed BD strain and its metabolites have great potential in MEOR. PMID:27872613

  18. Argentinian pistachio oil and flour: a potential novel approach of pistachio nut utilization.

    PubMed

    Martínez, Marcela Lilian; Fabani, María Paula; Baroni, María Verónica; Huaman, Rocío Nahime Magrini; Ighani, Marcelo; Maestri, Damián M; Wunderlin, Daniel; Tapia, Alejandro; Feresin, Gabriela Egly

    2016-05-01

    In order to searching a potential novel approach to pistachio utilization, the chemical and nutritional quality of oil and flour from natural, roasted, and salted roasted pistachios from Argentinian cultivars were evaluated. The pistachio oil has high contents of oleic and linoleic acid (53.5 - 55.3, 29 - 31.4 relative abundance, respectively), tocopherols (896 - 916 μg/g oil), carotenoids (48 - 56 μg/g oil) and chlorophylls (41 - 70 μg/g oil), being a good source for commercial edible oil production. The processing conditions did not affect significantly the fatty acid and minor composition of pistachio oil samples. The content of total phenolic (TP) and flavonoids (FL) was not significantly modified by the roasting process, whereas free radical scavenging (DPPH radical) and antioxidant power decreased in a 20% approximately. Furthermore, salted roasted pistachio flour (SRPF) showed a significant decrease in TP and FL content in comparison to others samples. The phenolic profile of pistachio flours evaluated by LC-ESI-QTOF-MS. The major compounds identified were (+)-catechin (38 - 65.6 μg/g PF d.w.), gallic acid (23 - 36 μg/g PF d.w.) and cyanidin-3-O-galactoside (21 - 23 μg/g PF d.w.). The treatments effects on the phenolics constituents of pistachio flour. Roasting caused a significant reduction of some phenolics, gallic acid and (+)- catechin, and increased others, naringenin and luteolin. Salting and roasting of pistachio increased garlic acid and naringenin content.

  19. Evaluation of oil-producing algae as potential biodiesel feedstock.

    PubMed

    Zhou, XuPing; Ge, HongMei; Xia, Ling; Zhang, Delu; Hu, ChunXiang

    2013-04-01

    This study attempted to connect the dots between laboratory research and the outdoors. Chlorella sp. NJ-18 was selected among seven oil-producing algae cultivated in this study because it had the highest lipid productivity. The nitrogen and phosphorus concentrations for cultivating this Chlorella strain were optimized indoors. This strain was incubated outdoors in a 70 L photobioreactor, containing the favorable nitrogen (8.32 mM urea) and phosphorus (0.18 mM monopotassium phosphate) concentrations. Semi-continuous cultivation was performed by harvesting 30 L biomass and replacing it with fresh medium. The maximum biomass and lipid productivity acquired outdoors were 91.84 and 24.05 mg L(-1) d(-1), respectively. Furthermore, biomass productivity could be maintained at a high level throughout the cultivation process when using the semi-continuous mode, whereas it decreased dramatically in batch cultures. More than 95% of the total fatty acids obtained were C16 and C18, which are the main components for biofuel.

  20. Perlite as a potential support for nickel catalyst in the process of sunflower oil hydrogenation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Radonjić, V.; Krstić, J.; Lončarević, D.; Jovanović, D.; Vukelić, N.; Stanković, M.; Nikolova, D.; Gabrovska, M.

    2015-12-01

    Investigation was conducted in order to elucidate the possibility of using perlite as support for preparation of nickel based precursor catalyst, potentially applicable in vegetable oil hydrogenation process. On three differently prepared expanded perlite, nickel catalyst precursors with identical Ni/SiO2 = 1.1 and Ni/Mg = 10/1 ratios were synthesized by precipitation-deposition method. Different techniques, SEM micrography, He-pycnometry, calcimetry, Hg-porosimetry, N2-physisorption, H2-chemisorption and temperature programmed reduction, were used for characterization of obtained samples. Determining the precursor texture, morphology and reducibility shows a successfully deposited nickel phase on perlite support with promising properties for vegetable oil hydrogenation. Chosen precursor was reduced and passivated in paraffin oil and the obtained catalyst showed significant catalytic activity in the test of sunflower oil hydrogenation.

  1. Oil shale potential of the Heath and Tyler formations, Central Montana

    SciTech Connect

    Cox, W.E.; Cole, G.A.

    1981-01-01

    The units in the middle of the Heath formation below the gypsum beds were found to have the highest oil yields. That interval was generally 25 to 50 ft (7.6 to 15.2 m) thick. The upper portion of the Heath formation yielded as much as 9.8 gal/ton in section 9, and 14.9 gal/ton in section 10. The Tyler formation was determined to have very low oil potential, with the maximum yield being 2.2 gal/ton. The instability of some of the Heath slopes could present problems in the mining of oil shale. Specific stratigraphic horizons in which zones of high and low oil and metal contents occur would be extremely difficult to map in areas where the units have been displaced by landslide movement.

  2. Mercury Export from the Yukon River Basin: a unique opportunity to assess global atmospheric sources at large scales and potential future response to climate change

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schuster, P. F.; Streigl, R.; Dornblaser, M.; Aiken, G.; Krabbenhoft, D. P.; Dewild, J.; Butler, K.

    2010-12-01

    Mercury (Hg), a global pollutant, and Hg methylation is impacting aquatic resources and posing a serious potential threat to human health and aquatic biota. The Yukon River Basin (YRB) is the fourth largest drainage basin in North America (about twice the size of California) and the Yukon River has been defined as the largest free flowing river in the world (Nilsson, et al., 2005). The basin’s vast size, relatively pristine condition, naturally high sediment, dissolved and particulate organic carbon (OC) loads, and diverse sub-basin terrain provides a unique hydrologic setting to assess mercury (Hg) export from global atmospheric sources at large scales. Annually, the Yukon River exports about 4400 kg total Hg, 16 kg methylmercury, and 2.3 x109 kg total OC. Hg yields calculated from four other major northern rivers ranged from 5 to 31 percent of yields from the Yukon River. Concentrations of Hg and OC in the Yukon River and its major tributaries were highest during high flow; with total OC exceeding 30 mg/L and total Hg in excess of 40 ng/L (3 times higher than the EPA aquatic life Hg standard for adverse chronic effects to biota). Results from 5 consecutive years of Hg and OC measurements throughout the YRB show that the total OC yields account for 87-92% of the variance of total Hg yields from the YRB suggesting that OC yields can be used as a reliable predictor of Hg yields. As warming trends at high latitudes continue, permafrost is thawing (Jorgenson and others, 2006). Permafrost thaw will likely lead to changes in the ground water flows (Walvoord and Striegl, 2007), and the quantity and quality of OC in the rivers, streams, and lakes (Striegl and others, 2005; 2007). A better understanding of Hg-OC interactions in large-scale northern ecosystems is important given the vast reservoirs of OC that exist in arctic regions. In the northern regions permafrost is a potential terrestrial landscape source of Hg to the fluvial systems. Recent investigations measuring

  3. Oil and gas potential of the west Kamchatka trough

    SciTech Connect

    Savostin, L.; Kusnetsov, N. )

    1993-09-01

    The west Kamchatka trough (WKT) is a region with a two-stage structural pattern (i.e., Cenozoic cover and pre-Cenozoic basement). The composition of hydrocarbons in local accumulations in the trough, and the present-day and paleotemperature distributions suggest that the hydrocarbons have a complex history. The WKT basement complexes, which have been penetrated by wells, are exposed in uplifts in the southern Median-Kamchatka ridge (MKR), where it is possible to study their composition and structure. The nappe structure of the MKR comprises various sedimentary and volcanoclastic complexes, including some highly carbonaceous Mesozoic clastics. Geodynamic analysis of the MKR rocks shows that during the Mesozoic, two separate island-arc terrances evolved in this part of the northwest Pacific, behind which a back-arc basin developed. In the Paleogene, rocks of this basin were overridden by nappes and metamorphosed. New understanding of the structure and evolution of the older complexes suggest that hydrocarbon accumulations may exist in underthrust zones in the WKT basement, which contains both reservoirs and source rocks. Subsequent evolution of the region was accompanied by the formation of zones of anomalously high formation pressure. Hydrocarbons drained upwards along faults and accumulated in structures in the cover, in places reaching the surface. Existing drilling and seismic data do not help with the interpretation of the basement structure because these operations were aimed at discovering local structural traps in the Cenozoic cover. Future oil exploration surveys in the region will require remote sensing methods that have much deeper penetration.

  4. Improvement of bioavailability and anti-inflammatory potential of curcumin in combination with emu oil.

    PubMed

    Jeengar, Manish Kumar; Shrivastava, Shweta; Nair, Kala; Singareddy, Sreenivasa Reddy; Putcha, Uday Kumar; Talluri, M V N Kumar; Naidu, V G M; Sistla, Ramakrishna

    2014-12-01

    The purpose of the present study is to evaluate the effect of emu oil on bioavailability of curcumin when co-administered and to evaluate the property that enhances the anti-inflammatory potential of curcumin. Oral bioavailability of curcumin in combination with emu oil was determined by measuring the plasma concentration of curcumin by HPLC. The anti-inflammatory potential was evaluated in carrageenan-induced paw edema model (acute model) and in Freund's complete adjuvant (FCA)-induced arthritis model (chronic model) in male SD rats. The anti-inflammatory potential of curcumin in combination with emu oil has been significantly increased in both acute and chronic inflammatory models as evident from inhibition of increase in paw volume, arthritic score, and expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines. The increased anti-inflammatory activity in combination therapy is due to enhanced bioavailability (5.2-fold compared to aqueous suspension) of curcumin by emu oil. Finally, it is concluded that the combination of emu oil with curcumin will be a promising approach for the treatment of arthritis.

  5. Development of stable flaxseed oil emulsions as a potential delivery system of ω-3 fatty acids.

    PubMed

    Goyal, Ankit; Sharma, Vivek; Upadhyay, Neelam; Singh, A K; Arora, Sumit; Lal, Darshan; Sabikhi, Latha

    2015-07-01

    The objective of the present study was to develop a stable flaxseed oil emulsion for the delivery of omega-3 (ω-3) fatty acids through food fortification. Oil-in-water emulsions containing 12.5 % flaxseed oil, 10 % lactose and whey protein concentrate (WPC)-80 ranging from 5 to 12.5 % were prepared at 1,500, 3,000 and 4,500 psi homogenization pressure. Flaxseed oil emulsions were studied for its physical stability, oxidative stability (peroxide value), particle size distribution, zeta (ζ)-potential and rheological properties. Emulsions homogenized at 1,500 and 4,500 psi pressure showed oil separation and curdling of WPC, respectively, during preparation or storage. All the combinations of emulsions (homogenized at 3,000 psi) were physically stable for 28 days at 4-7 ºC temperature and did not show separation of phases. Emulsion with 7.5 % WPC showed the narrowest particle size distribution (190 to 615 nm) and maximum zeta (ζ)-potential (-33.5 mV). There was a slight increase in peroxide value (~20.98 %) of all the emulsions (except 5 % WPC emulsion), as compared to that of free flaxseed oil (~44.26 %) after 4 weeks of storage. Emulsions showed flow behavior index (n) in the range of 0.206 to 0.591, indicating higher shear thinning behavior, which is a characteristic of food emulsions. Results indicated that the most stable emulsion of flaxseed oil (12.5 %) can be formulated with 7.5 % WPC-80 and 10 % lactose (filler), homogenized at 3,000 psi pressure. The formulated emulsion can be used as potential omega-3 (ω-3) fatty acids delivery system in developing functional foods such as pastry, ice-creams, curd, milk, yogurt, cakes, etc.

  6. Exploring the potential of Geospatial Technology for oil spill detection in shallow coastal areas in the Arabian Gulf

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Katiyar, S.

    2016-02-01

    Geospatial Technology is helpful in several modes of oil spill control, including large area surveillance, site specific monitoring and tactical assistance in emergencies. Geospatial is able to provide indispensable in sequence to enhance strategic and strategic decision-making, potentially reducing incidence of spills by providing a deterrent factor, decreasing response costs by facilitating rapid oil recovery and ultimately minimizing impact. Remote sensing and GIS provides an effective tool for timely oil pollution response. This research paper includes the spectral signature in the optical and infrared domains of oil slicks observed in shallow coastal waters of the Arabian Gulf were investigated with Microwave data. Images estimates of sea currents from hydrodynamic models supported the multi-sensor oil tracking technique. Satellite images with and without sun glint were studied as the spectral signature of oil slicks in the optical sphere of influence depends upon the viewing geometry and the solar angle in addition to the type of oil and its thickness. Depending on the combination of those factors, oil slicks may exhibit bright contrasts with respect to oil-free waters. The oil slick with bright contrast observed by Microwave data showed lower temperature than oil-free areas. Ocean circulation and wind data were used to track oil slicks and forecast their potential landfall. The synergistic use of satellite observations and hydrodynamic modeling is recommended for establishing an early warning and decision support system for oil pollution response.

  7. Review of the Soviet oil industry in 1985

    SciTech Connect

    Shabad, T.

    1986-01-01

    A sharp decline in Soviet oil production was probably one of the most striking developments in the energy sphere in 1985. The Soviet Union relies on exports of crude oil and refined products for about 60% of its hard-currency revenue from the Western countries, and a decline in oil exports cut sharply into the hard-currency earnings in 1985. The continued decline of the price of oil on the world market also contributed to the fall of Soviet export earning in the West. The problem area in Soviet oil production has now become West Siberia, which over the last 20 years has emerged as the nation's main oil producing region, accounting in 1985 for 62% of national output. To maintain production smaller fields are being put into operation, which, given the climate and terrain of West Siberia, is causing slowdowns. The administrations of the oil fields are also a problem, which is discussed in some detail. Oil production from Kazakhstan and Azerbaijan is also described. Two potential new development areas are also mentioned: Barent Sea coast and East Siberia. The slowdown in the oil industry is also evident in plans for the construction of pipelines and refineries. The 12th five-year plan schedules the construction of 5900 km of crude oil pipelines and 7300 km of product pipelines. It appears that no further refinery capacity is needed for the time being.

  8. Potential of Jatropha curcas as a source of renewable oil and animal feed.

    PubMed

    King, Andrew J; He, Wei; Cuevas, Jesús A; Freudenberger, Mark; Ramiaramanana, Danièle; Graham, Ian A

    2009-01-01

    Jatropha curcas (L.) is a perennial plant of the spurge family (Euphorbiaceae). Recently, it has received much attention as a potential source of vegetable oil as a replacement for petroleum, and, in particular, the production of biodiesel. Despite the interest that is being shown in the large-scale cultivation of J. curcas, genetic resources remain poorly characterized and conserved and there has been very little plant breeding for improved traits. At present, the varieties being used to establish plantations in Africa and Asia are inedible. The meal obtained after the extraction of oil cannot, therefore, be used as a source of animal feed. Naturally existing edible varieties are, however, known to occur in Mexico. The toxic components of J. curcas seeds, the potential for plant breeding to generate improved varieties, and the suitability of J. curcas oil as a feedstock for biodiesel production are discussed.

  9. Potential of Eucalyptus Oil as Repellent against House Rat, Rattus rattus

    PubMed Central

    Thind, Ramandeep Kaur; Mahal, Amrit Kaur

    2014-01-01

    Rodent repellents are chemicals which by taste or odour or possibly by both will prevent animal from feeding or gnawing. Such substances may be used in protecting an area from rodent infestation or in protecting packaged food, packing materials, electric cables, and other important vulnerable materials. Mature and healthy house rat, Rattus rattus of both sexes, was exposed to 5, 10, and 20% eucalyptus oil applied as spray in laboratory pens in bichoice tests. Each concentration was applied through three different modes of application, that is, daily, once, and alternatively in a week. Repellent effect of the oil was assessed based on food consumption from treated and untreated sides for four days. In overall, food consumption was significantly (P < 0.0001) low from treatment side compared to the untreated side indicating significant repellent effect of the oil at all the three concentrations tested. Repellent effect of the oil was, however, not found to differ significantly between the two sexes. Percent repellency in both male and female rats was apparently more with daily application of 5 and 10% eucalyptus oil. Present studies reveal the potential of eucalyptus oil in repelling away R. rattus; however, further studies may be conducted to enhance the persistence of repellent effect for longer period of time. PMID:24523633

  10. Larvicidal potential of essential oils against Musca domestica and Anopheles stephensi.

    PubMed

    Chauhan, Nitin; Malik, Anushree; Sharma, Satyawati; Dhiman, R C

    2016-06-01

    The larvicidal activity of Mentha piperita, Cymbopogan citratus (lemongrass), Eucalyptus globulus and Citrus sinensis (orange) essential oils and their combinations was evaluated against Musca domestica (housefly) and Anopheles stephensi (mosquitoes) through contact toxicity assay. Among all the tested essential oils/combinations, Me. piperita was found to be the most effective larvicidal agent against Mu. domestica and An. stephensi with LC50 values of 0.66 μl/cm(2) and 44.66 ppm, respectively, after 48 h. The results clearly highlighted that the addition of mentha oil to other oils (1:1 ratio) improved their larvicidal activity. The order of effectiveness of essential oils/combinations indicated that the pattern for An. stephensi follows the trend as mentha > mentha + lemongrass > lemongrass > mentha + eucalyptus > eucalyptus > mentha + orange > orange and for Mu. domestica as mentha > mentha + lemongrass > lemongrass > mentha + orange > orange > mentha + eucalyptus > eucalyptus. The images obtained from scanning electron microscopy (SEM) analysis indicated the toxic effect of Me. piperita as the treated larvae were observed to be dehydrated and deformed. This study demonstrates the effectiveness of tested essential oils/combinations against the larval stages of Mu. domestica and An. stephensi and has the potential for development of botanical formulations.

  11. Chapter 9: Oil and gas resource potential north of the Arctic Circle

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gautier, D.L.; Bird, K.J.; Charpentier, R.R.; Grantz, A.; Houseknecht, D.W.; Klett, T.R.; Moore, T.E.; Pitman, J.K.; Schenk, C.J.; Schuenemeyer, J.H.; Sorensen, K.; Tennyson, Marilyn E.; Valin, Z.C.; Wandrey, C.J.

    2011-01-01

    The US Geological Survey recently assessed the potential for undiscovered conventional petroleumin the Arctic. Using a new map compilation of sedimentary elements, the area north of the Arctic Circle was subdivided into 70 assessment units, 48 of which were quantitatively assessed. The Circum-Arctic Resource Appraisal (CARA) was a geologically based, probabilistic study that relied mainly on burial history analysis and analogue modelling to estimate sizes and numbers of undiscovered oil and gas accumulations. The results of the CARA suggest the Arctic is gas-prone with an estimated 770-2990 trillion cubic feet of undiscovered conventional natural gas, most of which is in Russian territory. On an energy-equivalent basis, the quantity of natural gas ismore than three times the quantity of oil and the largest undiscovered gas eld is expected to be about 10 times the size of the largest undiscovered oil eld. In addition to gas, the gas accumulationsmay contain an estimated 39 billion barrels of liquids. The South Kara Sea is themost prospective gas assessment unit, but giant gas elds containingmore than 6 trillion cubic feet of recoverable gas are possible at a 50%chance in 10 assessment units. Sixty per cent of the estimated undiscovered oil resource is in just six assessment units, of which the Alaska Platform, with 31%of the resource, is the most prospective. Overall, the Arctic is estimated to contain between 44 and 157 billion barrels of recoverable oil. Billion barrel oil elds are possible at a 50%chance in seven assessment units.Undiscovered oil resources could be signicant to the Arctic nations, but are probably not sufcient to shift the world oil balance away from the Middle East. ?? 2011 The Geological Society of London.

  12. Lead biotransformation potential of allochthonous Bacillus sp. SKK11 with sesame oil cake in mine soil

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    This study was aimed at assessing the potential of allochthonous Bacillus sp. SKK11 and sesame oil cake extract for transformation of Pb in mine soil. The bacteria were isolated from a brackish environment and identified as Bacillus sp. based on partial 16S rDNA sequences. The isolate SKK11 exhibite...

  13. Assessment of potential shale gas and shale oil resources of the Norte Basin, Uruguay, 2011

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Schenk, Christopher J.; Kirschbaum, Mark A.; Charpentier, Ronald R.; Cook, Troy; Klett, Timothy R.; Gautier, Donald L.; Pollastro, Richard M.; Weaver, Jean N.; Brownfield, Michael

    2011-01-01

    Using a performance-based geological assessment methodology, the U.S. Geological Survey estimated mean volumes of 13.4 trillion cubic feet of potential technically recoverable shale gas and 0.5 billion barrels of technically recoverable shale oil resources in the Norte Basin of Uruguay.

  14. Petroleum scene heating in fledgling crude exporter Papua New Guinea

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-04-18

    Operators, paced by a feisty independent based in Port Moresby, have drilled a string of discoveries near the infrastructure of the Kutubu development project that supports Papua New Guinea crude exports. All signs point to the increasing likelihood of good sized -- maybe world class -- oil discoveries that promise to sustain exploration and development interest beyond 2000. Also in the offing are world class gas strikes that eventually could support a liquefied natural gas export project. And integration is the newest concept in Papua New Guinea petroleum. Efforts are under way to build the country's first refineries. Most operators in Papua New Guinea believe thy have merely scratched the surface of the country's oil and gas potential. Thy agree there still will be frustrations and setbacks -- political as well as technical -- but the prevailing opinion is that these problems are no greater than they are in a number of other countries with similar exploration/development potential. The paper discusses the development of Papua New Guinea's oil and gas industry, and exploratory drilling in areas other than Kutubu.

  15. The potential of indigenous Paenibacillus ehimensis BS1 for recovering heavy crude oil by biotransformation to light fractions.

    PubMed

    Shibulal, Biji; Al-Bahry, Saif N; Al-Wahaibi, Yahya M; Elshafie, Abdulkadir E; Al-Bemani, Ali S; Joshi, Sanket J

    2017-01-01

    Microbial Enhanced Oil Recovery (MEOR) is a potential technology for residual heavy oil recovery. Many heavy oil fields in Oman and elsewhere have difficulty in crude oil recovery because it is expensive due to its high viscosity. Indigenous microbes are capable of improving the fluidity of heavy oil, by changing its high viscosity and producing lighter oil fractions. Many spore-forming bacteria were isolated from soil samples collected from oil fields in Oman. Among the isolates, an autochthonous spore-forming bacterium was found to enhance heavy oil recovery, which was identified by 16S rDNA sequencing as Paenibacillus ehimensis BS1. The isolate showed maximum growth at high heavy oil concentrations within four days of incubation. Biotransformation of heavy crude oil to light aliphatic and aromatic compounds and its potential in EOR was analyzed under aerobic and anaerobic reservoir conditions. The isolates were grown aerobically in Bushnell-Haas medium with 1% (w/v) heavy crude oil. The crude oil analyzed by GC-MS showed a significant biotransformation from the ninth day of incubation under aerobic conditions. The total biotransformation of heavy crude oil was 67.1% with 45.9% in aliphatic and 85.3% in aromatic fractions. Core flooding experiments were carried out by injecting the isolates in brine supplemented with Bushnell-Haas medium into Berea sandstone cores and were incubated for twelve days under oil reservoir conditions (50°C). The extra recovered oil was analyzed by GC-MS. The residual oil recovered from core flood experiments ranged between 10-13% compared to the control experiment. The GC-MS analyses of the extra recovered oil showed 38.99% biotransformation of heavy to light oil. The results also indicated the presence of 22.9% extra aliphatic compounds in the residual crude oil recovered compared to that of a control. The most abundant compound in the extra recovered crude oil was identified as 1-bromoeicosane. The investigations showed the

  16. The potential of indigenous Paenibacillus ehimensis BS1 for recovering heavy crude oil by biotransformation to light fractions

    PubMed Central

    Shibulal, Biji; Al-Bahry, Saif N.; Al-Wahaibi, Yahya M.; Elshafie, Abdulkadir E.; Al-Bemani, Ali S.; Joshi, Sanket J.

    2017-01-01

    Microbial Enhanced Oil Recovery (MEOR) is a potential technology for residual heavy oil recovery. Many heavy oil fields in Oman and elsewhere have difficulty in crude oil recovery because it is expensive due to its high viscosity. Indigenous microbes are capable of improving the fluidity of heavy oil, by changing its high viscosity and producing lighter oil fractions. Many spore-forming bacteria were isolated from soil samples collected from oil fields in Oman. Among the isolates, an autochthonous spore-forming bacterium was found to enhance heavy oil recovery, which was identified by 16S rDNA sequencing as Paenibacillus ehimensis BS1. The isolate showed maximum growth at high heavy oil concentrations within four days of incubation. Biotransformation of heavy crude oil to light aliphatic and aromatic compounds and its potential in EOR was analyzed under aerobic and anaerobic reservoir conditions. The isolates were grown aerobically in Bushnell-Haas medium with 1% (w/v) heavy crude oil. The crude oil analyzed by GC-MS showed a significant biotransformation from the ninth day of incubation under aerobic conditions. The total biotransformation of heavy crude oil was 67.1% with 45.9% in aliphatic and 85.3% in aromatic fractions. Core flooding experiments were carried out by injecting the isolates in brine supplemented with Bushnell-Haas medium into Berea sandstone cores and were incubated for twelve days under oil reservoir conditions (50°C). The extra recovered oil was analyzed by GC-MS. The residual oil recovered from core flood experiments ranged between 10–13% compared to the control experiment. The GC-MS analyses of the extra recovered oil showed 38.99% biotransformation of heavy to light oil. The results also indicated the presence of 22.9% extra aliphatic compounds in the residual crude oil recovered compared to that of a control. The most abundant compound in the extra recovered crude oil was identified as 1-bromoeicosane. The investigations showed the

  17. Hybrid Vehicle Technologies and their potential for reducing oil use

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    German, John

    2006-04-01

    Vehicles with hybrid gasoline-electric powertrains are starting to gain market share. Current hybrid vehicles add an electric motor, battery pack, and power electronics to the conventional powertrain. A variety of engine/motor configurations are possible, each with advantages and disadvantages. In general, efficiency is improved due to engine shut-off at idle, capture of energy during deceleration that is normally lost as heat in the brakes, downsizing of the conventional engine, and, in some cases, propulsion on the electric motor alone. Ongoing increases in hybrid market share are dependent on cost reduction, especially the battery pack, efficiency synergies with other vehicle technologies, use of the high electric power to provide features desired by customers, and future fuel price and availability. Potential barriers include historically low fuel prices, high discounting of the fuel savings by new vehicle purchasers, competing technologies, and tradeoffs with other factors desired by customers, such as performance, utility, safety, and luxury features.

  18. Population, petroleum, and politics: Mexico at the crossroads. Part 2. The potentials and problems of Mexican oil resources.

    PubMed

    Gallagher, C F

    1980-01-01

    The 2 most important factors which will influence Mexico's future economic development are the country's overpopulation problem and the manner in which the country's oil reserves are exploited. This document describes the historical development of Mexico's oil industry and the current struggle of the government to ensure that the oil resources contribute toward the sound economic development of the country. The government expropriated foreign oil companies in 1938 and today most of the oil operations in Mexico are conducted by the state controlled Pemex Company. In recent years extensive oil reserves were discovered in Mexico and the country is now in the position of having large oil reserves at a time when oil prices are increasing. Known crude oil reserves are estimated at 31 billion barrels; however, an unconfirmed report by Pemex in 1980 placed the known reserves at 50 billion barrels. In the past the management of Pemex was corrupt and inefficient and many top positions in the company were filled by retired politicians. The recent appointment of Jose Andres de Oteyza as Chairman of the Board and of Jorge Diaz Serrano as the Director-General should greatly improve Pemex operations. In developing the country's oil industry the government wants 1) to keep production low enough to offset inflation and to preserve the resource but 2) to produce enough oil so that the country has sufficient funds for investment and for operating needed social programs. The government may not be able to keep oil production down to acceptable levels. It may be forced to increase oil exports to compensate for its growing reliance on imported food and other imported products. In recent years Mexico's industrial productivity and its agricultural production declined. The government wants to avoid being placed in the position where it will be forced to trade large quantities of oil for needed food. The current government is promoting investment in agriculture and industrial development in

  19. The Glycemic Potential of White and Red Rice Affected by Oil Type and Time of Addition.

    PubMed

    Kaur, Bhupinder; Ranawana, Viren; Teh, Ai-Ling; Henry, C Jeya K

    2015-10-01

    Limited research exists on how different oil types and time of addition affect starch digestibility of rice. This study aimed to assess the starch digestibility of white and red rice prepared with 2 oil types: vegetable oil (unsaturated fat) and ghee (clarified butter, saturated fat) added at 3 different time points during the cooking process ("before": frying raw rice in oil before boiling, "during": adding oil during boiling, and "after": stir-frying cooked rice in oil). Red rice produced a slower digestion rate than white rice. White rice digestibility was not affected by oil type, but was affected by addition time of oil. Adding oil "after" (stir-frying) to white or red rice resulted in higher slowly digestible starch. Red rice cooked using ghee showed the lowest amount of glucose release during in vitro digestion. The addition of ghee "during" (that is boiling with ghee) or "before" (that is frying rice raw with ghee then boiling) cooking showed potential for attenuating the postprandial glycemic response and increasing resistant starch content. This is the first report to show healthier ways of preparing rice. White rice with oil added "after" (stir-fried) may provide a source of sustained glucose and stabilize blood glucose levels. Boiling red rice with ghee or cooking red rice with ghee pilaf-style may provide beneficial effects on postprandial blood glucose and insulin concentrations, and improve colonic health. The encouraging results of the present study justify extending it to an in vivo investigation to conclusively determine the effect of time of addition of fat when rice is cooked on blood glucose homeostasis. Rice is a predominant source of energy in most of Asia with excessive consumption of rice being implicated in the rise of type 2 diabetes. Stir-frying white rice can be a source of sustained glucose and provide a stabilizing effect on blood glucose levels. Boiling red rice with ghee or cooking red rice with ghee pilaf-style may provide

  20. Petroleum-processing projects in Venezuela: Definitional-Mission report. Export trade information

    SciTech Connect

    Grady, R.B.; Shrivastava, V.K.

    1992-02-01

    The U.S. Trade and Development Program (TDP) contracted a Definitional Mission to evaluate the prospects of TDP funding feasibility studies of three petroleum refining projects for Maraven, an integrated oil subsidiary of Petroleos de Venezuela, S.A. (PDVSA). Maraven has requested TDP support for feasibility studies of the following projects: Zuata (Orinoco Belt) Extra Heavy Crude Upgrading, Boscan Heavy Crude Gasification Complex, and High Quality Lube Oil Base Manufacting Project. The ratio of U.S. export potential to the cost of the feasibility studies is very high (350:1 for the lube project to 1600:1 for the heavy crude projects). Even assuming relatively low probabilities of timely implementation, the projects meet TDP potential export benefit/cost requirements. Therefore, the study recommends that TDP support all three projects at a level of 50 percent of the estimated cost.

  1. Chemical Composition and Allelopathic Potential of Essential Oils from Citharexylum spinosum L. Grown in Tunisia.

    PubMed

    El Ayeb-Zakhama, Asma; Sakka-Rouis, Lamia; Flamini, Guido; Ben Jannet, Hichem; Harzallah-Skhiri, Fethia

    2017-04-01

    Citharexylum spinosum L. (Verbenaceae) also known as Citharexylum quadrangulare Jacq. or Citharexylum fruticosum L. is an exotic tree introduced many years ago in Tunisia, specially used as a street and park ornamental tree. Essential oils (EOs) were obtained by hydrodistillation of the different parts (roots, stems, leaves, flowers and fruits; drupes) collected from trees grown in the area of Monastir (Tunisia). In total, 84 compounds, representing 90.1 - 98.4% of the whole oil composition, were identified by GC-FID and GC/MS analyses. The root EO was distinguished by its high content in monoterpene hydrocarbons (α-phellandrene; 30.8%) whereas that obtained from stems was dominated by sesquiterpene hydrocarbons (cuparene; 16.4%). The leaf oil was rich in an apocarotenoid derivative (hexahydrofarnesylacetone; 26%) and an aliphatic hydrocarbon (nonadecane; 14.5%). Flowers oil was rich in esters (2-phenylethyl benzoate; 33.5%). Finally, drupes oil was rich in oxygenated sesquiterpenes (β-eudesmol; 33.1%). Flowers oil showed a significant phytotoxic effect against lettuce seeds germination, it induces a total inhibition when tested at 1 mg/ml. Root and shoot elongation seemed to be more affected than germination. The inhibition of the shoot length varied from 3.6% to 100% and that of the root from 16.1% to 100%. The highest inhibition of 100% was detected for flower oil tested at 1 mg/ml. Our in vitro studies suggest a possible and new alternative use of C. spinosum EOs in herbicidal formulations, further experiments involving field conditions are necessary to confirm its herbicidal potential. © 2017 Wiley-VHCA AG, Zurich, Switzerland.

  2. Eucalyptus Essential Oil as a Natural Food Preservative: In Vivo and In Vitro Antiyeast Potential

    PubMed Central

    Bukvicki, Danka; Gottardi, Davide; Malik, Anushree; Guerzoni, Maria Elisabetta

    2014-01-01

    In this study, the application of eucalyptus essential oil/vapour as beverages preservative is reported. The chemical composition of eucalyptus oil was determined by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) and solid phase microextraction GC-MS (SPME/GC-MS) analyses. GC-MS revealed that the major constituents were 1,8-cineole (80.5%), limonene (6.5%), α-pinene (5%), and γ-terpinene (2.9%) while SPME/GC-MS showed a relative reduction of 1,8-cineole (63.9%) and an increase of limonene (13.8%), α-pinene (8.87%), and γ-terpinene (3.98%). Antimicrobial potential of essential oil was initially determined in vitro against 8 different food spoilage yeasts by disc diffusion, disc volatilization, and microdilution method. The activity of eucalyptus vapours was significantly higher than the eucalyptus oil. Minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and minimum fungicidal concentration (MFC) varied from 0.56 to 4.50 mg/mL and from 1.13 to 9 mg/mL, respectively. Subsequently, the combined efficacy of essential oil and thermal treatment were used to evaluate the preservation of a mixed fruit juice in a time-dependent manner. These results suggest eucalyptus oil as a potent inhibitor of food spoilage yeasts not only in vitro but also in a real food system. Currently, this is the first report that uses eucalyptus essential oil for fruit juice preservation against food spoiling yeast. PMID:25177704

  3. Halotolerant, biosurfactant-producing Bacillus species potentially useful for enhanced oil recovery

    SciTech Connect

    Jenneman, G.E.; McInerney, M.J.; Knapp, R.M.; Clark, J.B.; Feero, J.M.; Revus, D.E.; Menzie, D.E.

    1983-01-01

    A biosurfactant-producing Bacillus licheniformis was isolated from oil-field injection water with properties potentially useful for in situ enhanced oil recovery. Conventional miscible flooding procedures use expensive synthetic detergents such as petroleum sulfonates that precipitate in high NaCl brines and adsorb to rock surfaces. The Bacillus sp. produced a biosurfactant when grown at 40 C in a sucrose mineral salts medium containing 5% NaCl. The biosurfactant was produced during the log phase of growth in the presence or absence of either crude oil or hexadecane. The surface tension of a 5% NaCl solution decreased from 74.0 mN/m to 27 mN/m when the surfactant was added. Interfacial tension of a 5% NaCl brine/octane mixture was as low as 0.43 mN/m when measured by a spinning drop tensiometer. The surfactant was extracted by acid precipitation at a pH of 2.0. The extracted surfactant exhibited optimal surface tension-lowering ability in 4-5% NaCl solutions between pH's of 6.0 to 10.0. The addition of calcium up to 340 mg/liter and incubation temperatures up to 100 C did not alter appreciably the surfactant activity. Mobilization of crude oil and oil bank formation occurred in a sandpack column after addition of the biosurfactant. 16 references, 1 figure, 2 tables.

  4. Potential application of coal-fuel oil ash for the manufacture of building materials.

    PubMed

    Cioffi, R; Marroccoli, M; Sansone, L; Santoro, L

    2005-09-30

    In this paper coal-fuel oil ash has been characterized in terms of leaching behaviour and reactivity against lime and gypsum in hydratory systems for the manufacture of building materials. Its behaviour was also compared to that of coal ash. Metal release was measured in a dynamic leaching test with duration up to 16 days. The results have shown that coal-fuel oil ash behaves very similarly to coal ash. The reactivity of coal-fuel oil ash against lime and gypsum was measured in mixtures containing only lime and in mixtures containing both lime and gypsum. These systems were hydrated at 25 and 40 degrees C under 100% R.H. The results have shown that the main hydration products are the same as those that are usually formed in similar coal ash-based systems. That is, calcium silicate hydrate in coal-fuel oil ash/lime systems and calcium silicate hydrate plus calcium trisulphoaluminate hydrate in coal-fuel oil ash/lime/gypsum systems. From the quantitative point of view, hydration runs showed that the amounts of both chemically combined water and reacted lime measured in the case under investigation are very similar to those found in similar coal ash-based systems. Finally, the measurement of unconfined compressive strength proved that the systems have potentiality for the manufacture of pre-formed building blocks.

  5. In Vivo Potential Anti-Inflammatory Activity of Melissa officinalis L. Essential Oil.

    PubMed

    Bounihi, Amina; Hajjaj, Ghizlane; Alnamer, Rachad; Cherrah, Yahia; Zellou, Amina

    2013-01-01

    Melissa officinalis L. (Lamiaceae) had been reported in traditional Moroccan medicine to exhibit calming, antispasmodic, and strengthening heart effects. Therefore, this study is aimed at determining the anti-inflammatory activities of M. officinalis L. leaves. The effect of the essential oil of the leaves of this plant was investigated for anti-inflammatory properties by using carrageenan and experimental trauma-induced hind paw edema in rats. The essential oil extracted from leaves by hydrodistillation was characterized by means of gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). M. officinalis contained Nerol (30.44%), Citral (27.03%), Isopulegol (22.02%), Caryophyllene (2.29%), Caryophyllene oxide (1.24%), and Citronella (1.06%). Anti-inflammatory properties of oral administration of essential oil at the doses of 200, 400 mg/kg p.o., respectively, showed significant reduction and inhibition of edema with 61.76% and 70.58%, respectively, (P < 0.001) induced by carrageenan at 6 h when compared with control and standard drug (Indomethacin). On experimental trauma, M. officinalis L. essential oil showed pronounced reduction and inhibition of edema induced by carrageenan at 6 h at 200 and 400 mg/kg with 91.66% and 94.44%, respectively (P < 0.001). We can conclude that the essential oil of M. officinalis L. possesses potential anti-inflammatory activities, supporting the traditional application of this plant in treating various diseases associated with inflammation and pain.

  6. Bioremediation potential of a tropical soil contaminated with a mixture of crude oil and production water.

    PubMed

    Alvarez, Vanessa Marques; Santos, Silvia Cristina Cunha Dos Santos; Casella, Renata da Costa; Vital, Ronalt Leite; Sebastin, Gina Vasquez; Seldin, Lucy

    2008-12-01

    A typical tropical soil from the northeast of Brazil, where an important terrestrial oil field is located, was accidentally contaminated with a mixture of oil and saline production water. To study the bioremediation potential in this area, molecular methods based on PCR-DGGE were used to determine the diversity of the bacterial communities in bulk and in contaminated soils. Bacterial fingerprints revealed that the bacterial communities were affected by the presence of the mixture of oil and production water, and different profiles were observed when the contaminated soils were compared with the control. Halotolerant strains capable of degrading crude oil were also isolated from enrichment cultures obtained from the contaminated soil samples. Twenty-two strains showing these features were characterized genetically by amplified ribosomal DNA restriction analysis (ARDRA) and phenotypically by their colonial morphology and tolerance to high NaCl concentrations. Fifteen ARDRA groups were formed. Selected strains were analyzed by 16S rDNA sequencing, and Actinobacteria was identified as the main group found. Strains were also tested for their growth capability in the presence of different oil derivatives (hexane, dodecane, hexadecane, diesel, gasoline, toluene, naphthalene, o-xylene, and p-xylene) and different degradation profiles were observed. PCR products were obtained from 12 of the 15 ARDRA representatives when they were screened for the presence of the alkane hydroxylase gene (alkB). Members of the genera Rhodococcus and Gordonia were identified as predominant in the soil studied. These genera are usually implicated in oil degradation processes and, as such, the potential for bioremediation in this area can be considered as feasible.

  7. Influence of hydrological regime and land cover on traits and potential export capacity of adult aquatic insects from river channels.

    PubMed

    Greenwood, M J; Booker, D J

    2016-02-01

    Despite many studies highlighting the widespread occurrence and effects of resource movement between ecosystems, comparatively little is known about how anthropogenic alterations to ecosystems affect the strength, direction and importance of such fluxes. Hydrological regime and riparian land use cause well-documented changes in riverine larval invertebrate communities. Using a dataset from 66 sites collected over 20 years, we showed that such effects led to spatial and temporal differences in the density and type of larvae with winged adults within a river reach, altering the size and composition of the source pool from which adult aquatic insects can emerge. Mean annual larval densities varied 33-fold and the temporal range varied more than 20-fold between sites, associated with the hydrological regime and land cover and antecedent high and low flows, respectively. Densities of larvae with winged adults were greater in sites that had more algal coverage, agricultural land use, seasonally predictable flow regimes and faster water velocities. More interestingly, by influencing larval communities, riparian land use and the magnitude and frequency of high and low flows affected the size structure, dispersal ability and longevity of adults available to emerge from river reaches, potentially influencing the spatial extent and type of terrestrial consumers supported by aquatic prey. This suggests that anthropogenic alterations to land use or river flows will have both spatial and temporal effects on the flux and potential availability of adult aquatic insects to terrestrial consumers in many rivers.

  8. Potential of Renewable Energy to Reduce the Dependence of the State of Hawaii on Oil

    SciTech Connect

    Arent, D.; Barnett, J.; Mosey, G.; Wise, A.

    2009-01-01

    Deriving nearly 90% of its primary energy resources from oil, the State of Hawaii is more dependent on oil than any other U.S. state. The price of electricity in Hawaii is also more than twice the U.S. average. The Energy Policy Act of 2005 directed assessment of the economic implications of Hawaii's oil dependence and the feasibility of using renewable energy to help meet the state's electrical generation and transportation fuel use. This paper is based on the assessments and report prepared in response to that directive.Current total installed electrical capacity for the State of Hawaii is 2,414 MWe, 83% of which is fuel-oil generated, but already including about 170 MWe of renewable capacity. The assessments identified about 2,133 MWe (plus another estimated 2,000 MWe of rooftop PV systems) of potential new renewable energy capacity. Most notable, in addition to the rooftop solar potential, is 750 MWe and 140 MWe of geothermal potential on Hawaii and Maui, respectively, 840 MWe of potential wind capacity, primarily on Lanai and Molokai, and one potential 285 MWe capacity specific solar project (PV or solar thermal) identified on Kauai. Important social, political, and electrical-grid infrastructure challenges would need to be overcome to realize this potential. Among multiple crop and acreage scenarios, biofuels assessment found 360,000 acres in Hawaii zoned for agriculture and appropriate for sugarcane, enough to produce 429 million gallons of ethanol-enough to meet about 64% of current 2005 Hawaiian gasoline use. Tropical oil seed crops-potentially grown on the same land-might meet a substantial portion of current diesel use, but there has been little experience growing such crops in Hawaii. The U.S. Department of Energy and the State of Hawaii initiated in January 2008 a program that seeks to reduce Hawaii's oil dependence and provide 70% of the state's primary energy from clean energy sources by 2030. The Hawaii Clean Energy Initiative (HCEI) activities will

  9. Acid mine drainage potential of raw, retorted, and combusted Eastern oil shale: Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Sullivan, P.J.; Yelton, J.L.; Reddy, K.J.

    1987-09-01

    In order to manage the oxidation of pyritic materials effectively, it is necessary to understand the chemistry of both the waste and its disposal environment. The objective of this two-year study was to characterize the acid production of Eastern oil shale waste products as a function of process conditions, waste properties, and disposal practice. Two Eastern oil shales were selected, a high pyrite shale (unweathered 4.6% pyrite) and a low pyrite shale (weathered 1.5% pyrite). Each shale was retorted and combusted to produce waste products representative of potential mining and energy conversion processes. By using the standard EPA leaching tests (TCLP), each waste was characterized by determining (1) mineralogy, (2) trace element residency, and (3) acid-base account. Characterizing the acid producing potential of each waste and potential trace element hazards was completed with laboratory weathering studies. 32 refs., 21 figs., 12 tabs.

  10. Calreticulin Is a Receptor for Nuclear Export

    PubMed Central

    Holaska, James M.; Black, Ben E.; Love, Dona C.; Hanover, John A.; Leszyk, John; Paschal, Bryce M.

    2001-01-01

    In previous work, we used a permeabilized cell assay that reconstitutes nuclear export of protein kinase inhibitor (PKI) to show that cytosol contains an export activity that is distinct from Crm1 (Holaska, J.M., and B.M. Paschal. 1995. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA. 95: 14739–14744). Here, we describe the purification and characterization of the activity as calreticulin (CRT), a protein previously ascribed to functions in the lumen of the ER. We show that cells contain both ER and cytosolic pools of CRT. The mechanism of CRT-dependent export of PKI requires a functional nuclear export signal (NES) in PKI and involves formation of an export complex that contains RanGTP. Previous studies linking CRT to downregulation of steroid hormone receptor function led us to examine its potential role in nuclear export of the glucocorticoid receptor (GR). We found that CRT mediates nuclear export of GR in permeabilized cell, microinjection, and transfection assays. GR export is insensitive to the Crm1 inhibitor leptomycin B in vivo, and it does not rely on a leucine-rich NES. Rather, GR export is facilitated by its DNA-binding domain, which is shown to function as an NES when transplanted to a green fluorescent protein reporter. CRT defines a new export pathway that may regulate the transcriptional activity of steroid hormone receptors. PMID:11149926

  11. Kinetics of lead and copper removal from oil-field brine by potential sorption.

    PubMed

    Nourafkan, E; Asachi, M; Marandi, R

    2014-01-01

    The present study investigates the kinetics of lead and copper removal from oil-field brine by potential sorption. A population balance equation, coupled with a mass balance equation, was used in the estimation of kinetic parameters. Metal removal was performed by potential sorption of lead and copper through CaCO3 precipitates induced by the reaction of Na2CO3 and CaCl2. The oil-field brine was selected from an oil well in Gachsaran, Iran. The crystal size distribution of the solid phase was measured by dynamic laser scattering analyzer, and the liquor phase was analyzed using atomic adsorption. The morphology of calcium carbonate particles was illustrated using scanning electron microscopy and X-ray diffraction. The results showed that the presence of copper and lead decreases the average size distribution of calcium carbonate particles by influencing the kinetic parameters. Lead and copper concentrations were reduced from 2.911 to 0.127 ppm (95.63% removal) and 0.476 to 0.025 ppm (94.74% removal), respectively, in exchange for 12 g CaCO3 consumption per 100 ml oil-field brine.

  12. Bioremediation potential of microorganisms from a sandy beach affected by a major oil spill.

    PubMed

    Reis, Izabela; Almeida, C Marisa R; Magalhães, Catarina M; Cochofel, Jaqueline; Guedes, Paula; Basto, M Clara P; Bordalo, Adriano A; Mucha, Ana P

    2014-03-01

    The aim of this work was to evaluate the bioremediation potential of microorganisms from intertidal sediments of a sandy beach affected by a major oil spill 7 years before and subject to chronic petroleum contamination since then. For that, the response of microorganisms to a new oil contamination was assessed in terms of community structure, abundance, and capacity to degrade hydrocarbons. Experiments were carried out under laboratory-controlled conditions by mixing sediment with crude oil with three different nitrogen supplementations in 50 ml serum bottles under constant shake for 15 days. Autochthonous microorganisms were able to respond to the new oil contamination by increasing their abundance (quantified by DAPI) and changing the community structure (evaluated by DGGE). This response was particularly clear for some specific bacterial groups such as Pseudomonas, Actinomycetales, and Betaproteobacteria. These communities presented an important potential for hydrocarbon degradation (up to 85 % for TPHs and 70 % for total PAHs), being the biodegradation stimulated by addition of an appropriate amount of nitrogen.

  13. Mapping Oil and Gas Development Potential in the US Intermountain West and Estimating Impacts to Species

    PubMed Central

    Copeland, Holly E.; Doherty, Kevin E.; Naugle, David E.; Pocewicz, Amy; Kiesecker, Joseph M.

    2009-01-01

    Background Many studies have quantified the indirect effect of hydrocarbon-based economies on climate change and biodiversity, concluding that a significant proportion of species will be threatened with extinction. However, few studies have measured the direct effect of new energy production infrastructure on species persistence. Methodology/Principal Findings We propose a systematic way to forecast patterns of future energy development and calculate impacts to species using spatially-explicit predictive modeling techniques to estimate oil and gas potential and create development build-out scenarios by seeding the landscape with oil and gas wells based on underlying potential. We illustrate our approach for the greater sage-grouse (Centrocercus urophasianus) in the western US and translate the build-out scenarios into estimated impacts on sage-grouse. We project that future oil and gas development will cause a 7–19 percent decline from 2007 sage-grouse lek population counts and impact 3.7 million ha of sagebrush shrublands and 1.1 million ha of grasslands in the study area. Conclusions/Significance Maps of where oil and gas development is anticipated in the US Intermountain West can be used by decision-makers intent on minimizing impacts to sage-grouse. This analysis also provides a general framework for using predictive models and build-out scenarios to anticipate impacts to species. These predictive models and build-out scenarios allow tradeoffs to be considered between species conservation and energy development prior to implementation. PMID:19826472

  14. Mapping oil and gas development potential in the US Intermountain West and estimating impacts to species.

    PubMed

    Copeland, Holly E; Doherty, Kevin E; Naugle, David E; Pocewicz, Amy; Kiesecker, Joseph M

    2009-10-14

    Many studies have quantified the indirect effect of hydrocarbon-based economies on climate change and biodiversity, concluding that a significant proportion of species will be threatened with extinction. However, few studies have measured the direct effect of new energy production infrastructure on species persistence. We propose a systematic way to forecast patterns of future energy development and calculate impacts to species using spatially-explicit predictive modeling techniques to estimate oil and gas potential and create development build-out scenarios by seeding the landscape with oil and gas wells based on underlying potential. We illustrate our approach for the greater sage-grouse (Centrocercus urophasianus) in the western US and translate the build-out scenarios into estimated impacts on sage-grouse. We project that future oil and gas development will cause a 7-19 percent decline from 2007 sage-grouse lek population counts and impact 3.7 million ha of sagebrush shrublands and 1.1 million ha of grasslands in the study area. Maps of where oil and gas development is anticipated in the US Intermountain West can be used by decision-makers intent on minimizing impacts to sage-grouse. This analysis also provides a general framework for using predictive models and build-out scenarios to anticipate impacts to species. These predictive models and build-out scenarios allow tradeoffs to be considered between species conservation and energy development prior to implementation.

  15. Hydrated calcareous oil-shale ash as potential filter media for phosphorus removal in constructed wetlands.

    PubMed

    Kaasik, Ago; Vohla, Christina; Mõtlep, Riho; Mander, Ulo; Kirsimäe, Kalle

    2008-02-01

    The P-retention in hydrated calcareous ash sediment from oil-shale burning thermal power plants in Estonia was studied. Batch experiments indicate good (up to 65 mg P g(-1)) P-binding capacity of the hydrated oil-shale ash sediment, with a removal effectiveness of 67-85%. The high phosphorus sorption potential of hydrated oil-shale ash is considered to be due to the high content of reactive Ca-minerals, of which ettringite Ca6Al2(SO4)3(OH)12.26H2O and portlandite Ca(OH)2 are the most important. The equilibrium dissolution of ettringite provides free calcium ions that act as stable nuclei for phosphate precipitation. The precipitation mechanism of phosphorus removal in hydrated ash plateau sediment is suggested by Ca-phosphate formation in batch experiments at different P-loadings. Treatment with a P-containing solution causes partial-to-complete dissolution of ettringite and portlandite, and precipitation of Ca-carbonate and Ca-phosphate phases, which was confirmed by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscope (SEM)-EDS studies. Thus, the hydrated oil-shale ash sediment can be considered as a potential filtration material for P removal in constructed wetlands for wastewater treatment.

  16. Biotechnological potential of Bacillus salmalaya 139SI: a novel strain for remediating water polluted with crude oil waste.

    PubMed

    Ismail, Salmah; Dadrasnia, Arezoo

    2015-01-01

    Environmental contamination by petroleum hydrocarbons, mainly crude oil waste from refineries, is becoming prevalent worldwide. This study investigates the bioremediation of water contaminated with crude oil waste. Bacillus salamalaya 139SI, a bacterium isolated from a private farm soil in the Kuala Selangor in Malaysia, was found to be a potential degrader of crude oil waste. When a microbial population of 108 CFU ml-1 was used, the 139SI strain degraded 79% and 88% of the total petroleum hydrocarbons after 42 days of incubation in mineral salt media containing 2% and 1% of crude oil waste, respectively, under optimum conditions. In the uninoculated medium containing 1% crude oil waste, 6% was degraded. Relative to the control, the degradation was significantly greater when a bacteria count of 99 × 108 CFU ml-1 was added to the treatments polluted with 1% oil. Thus, this isolated strain is useful for enhancing the biotreatment of oil in wastewater.

  17. Potential of coriander (Coriandrum sativum) oil as a natural antimicrobial compound in controlling Campylobacter jejuni in raw meat.

    PubMed

    Rattanachaikunsopon, Pongsak; Phumkhachorn, Parichat

    2010-01-01

    Twelve essential oils were tested in vitro for antimicrobial activities against several strains of Campylobacter jejuni, a pathogen causing food-borne diseases worldwide. Using disk diffusion and minimal inhibitory concentration determination assays, we noted that coriander oil exhibited the strongest antimicrobial activity against all tested strains. The oil had a bactericidal effect on the target bacteria. In evaluating the antimicrobial potency of coriander oil against C. jejuni on beef and chicken meat at 4 degrees C and 32 degrees C, it was found that the oil reduced the bacterial cell load in a dose-dependent manner. The type of meat and temperature did not influence the antimicrobial activity of the oil. This study indicates the potential of coriander oil to serve as a natural antimicrobial compound against C. jejuni in food.

  18. Evaluation of metabolic responses of Artemia salina to oil and oil dispersant as a potential indicator of toxicant stress

    SciTech Connect

    Verriopoulos, G.; Moraitou-Apostolopoulou, M.; Xatzispirou, A.

    1986-03-01

    Oil represents an obvious hazard for the coastal environment and studies on its impact on marine organisms are necessary. Solvent based oil dispersants constitute one of the most important means for removing oil from shores. Although recently new dispersants have been developed, which are much less toxic than the first ones, dispersants still remain toxic substances. Since in the case of oil pollution treatment, oils and detergents are acting in combination, a realistic approach of laboratory studies must also include the combined action of these substances on marine organisms. Although acute toxicity studies are very useful for the determination of the range of animal tolerance, other effects causing physiological alterations may be detrimental to a population's survival. This paper concerns research on the effects of an oil, an oil dispersant and of the mixture of oil and dispersant on a physiological process, the respiration of the brine shrimp Artemia salina.

  19. Kazakhstan's potential provides Western opportunities

    SciTech Connect

    Darnell, R. )

    1993-01-01

    While crude oil production continues to drop in the Russian Federation at a rate of 15% to 20% per year, Kazakhstan's output rose from 440,000 bopd in 1991 to 446,000 bopd, as of November 1992. Much of this increase was exported to the Russian Federation to supplement the latter's declining production. while Kazakhstan received needed Russian goods in exchange for this oil, it isn't getting the hard currency that will be required to upgrade its petroleum industry. This is a serious problem for Kazakh officials, since they are counting on revenues from petroleum exports to invigorate their overall plan for economic growth in this newly independent country. In order to convert Kazakhstan's hydrocarbon potential into economic reality, two critical issues must be addressed immediately. First, Kazakhstan must develop a tax and minerals law that gives multinational petroleum companies an incentive to invest in opening a dedicated crude oil export route through Russia, and at least one alternate export route to the Caspian Sea or Persian Gulf. At present, even the most successful petroleum venture inside Kazakhstan would have to weave its way through the Russian bureaucracy to utilize that existing and inadequate export pipeline system. This quandary, of course, has recently become the undoing of several Western petroleum operations that have managed to actually produce exportable oil inside the Russian Federation itself, but they can't get it out. In addition, three other variables should be considered by any party that is evaluating Kazakhstan as a future area (see map for current fields) of interest for petroleum operations. These are political stability, field operating conditions, and the country's natural gas crisis. Each of these factors, though not as critical as the legal regime and export access, can radically affect how an operator might approach negotiating the terms of its particular project.

  20. A sensitive crude oil bioassay indicates that oil spills potentially induce a change of major nitrifying prokaryotes from the archaea to the bacteria.

    PubMed

    Urakawa, Hidetoshi; Garcia, Juan C; Barreto, Patricia D; Molina, Gabriela A; Barreto, Jose C

    2012-05-01

    The sensitivity of nitrifiers to crude oil released by the BP Deepwater Horizon oil spill in Gulf of Mexico was examined using characterized ammonia-oxidizing bacteria and archaea to develop a bioassay and to gain further insight into the ecological response of these two groups of microorganisms to marine oil spills. Inhibition of nitrite production was observed among all the tested ammonia-oxidizing organisms at 100 ppb crude oil. Nitrosopumilus maritimus, a cultured representative of the abundant Marine Group I Archaea, showed 20% inhibition at 1 ppb, a much greater degree of sensitivity to petroleum than the tested ammonia-oxidizing and heterotrophic bacteria. The differing susceptibility may have ecological significance since a shift to bacterial dominance in response to an oil spill could potentially persist and alter trophic interactions influenced by availability of different nitrogen species.

  1. Comparison between Canadian Canola Harvest and Export Surveys.

    PubMed

    Barthet, Véronique J

    2016-07-20

    Parameters, such as oil, protein, glucosinolates, chlorophyll content and fatty acid composition, were determined using reference methods for both harvest survey samples and Canadian Canola exports. Canola harvest survey and export data were assessed to evaluate if canola harvest survey data can be extrapolated to predict the quality of the Canadian canola exports. There were some differences in some measured parameters between harvest and export data, while other parameters showed little difference. Protein content and fatty acid composition showed very similar data for harvest and export averages. Canadian export data showed lower oil content when compared to the oil content of harvest survey was mainly due to a diluting effect of dockage in the export cargoes which remained constant over the years (1.7% to 1.9%). Chlorophyll was the least predictable parameter; dockage quality as well as commingling of the other grades in Canola No. 1 Canada affected the chlorophyll content of the exports. Free fatty acids (FFA) were also different for the export and harvest survey. FFA levels are affected by storage conditions; they increase during the shipping season and, therefore, are difficult to predict from their harvest survey averages.

  2. Potential of castor bean (Ricinus communis L.) for phytoremediation of mine tailings and oil production.

    PubMed

    Ruiz Olivares, Alejandro; Carrillo-González, Rogelio; González-Chávez, Ma del Carmen A; Soto Hernández, Ramón Marcos

    2013-01-15

    Bioenergy production combined with phytoremediation has been suggested to help in solving two critical world problems: the gradual reduction of fossil fuels and soil contamination. The aim of this research was to investigate the potential for the use of Ricinus communis L. (castor oil plant) as an energy crop and plant species to remediate metal-polluted sites. This study was performed in mine tailings containing high concentrations of Cu, Zn, Mn, Pb and Cd. Physico-chemical characterization, total, DTPA-extractable and water-soluble metals in rhizospheric tailings heap samples were carried. Metal concentrations in plant tissues and translocation factors (TFs) were also determined. The Ricinus seed-oil content was high between 41 and 64%, seeds from San Francisco site 6 had the highest oil content, while these from site 7 had the lowest. No trend between oil yield vs seed origin site was observed. Seed-oil content was negatively correlated with root concentration of Cu, Zn, Pb and Cd, but no correlation was observed with the extractable-metals. According to its shoot metal concentrations and TFs, castor bean is not a metal accumulator plant. This primary colonizing plant is well suited to cope with the local toxic conditions and can be useful for the stabilization of these residues, and for then decreasing metal bioavailability, dispersion and human health risks on these barren tailings heaps and in the surrounding area. Our work is the first report regarding combined oil production and a phytostabilization role for Ricinus plants in metal mine tailings and may give a new value to suitable metal-polluted areas.

  3. Cholesterol-lowering potential in human subjects of fat from pigs fed rapeseed oil.

    PubMed

    Sandström, B; Bügel, S; Lauridsen, C; Nielsen, F; Jensen, C; Skibsted, L H

    2000-08-01

    The possibility of achieving blood-lipid-lowering characteristics of pig fat by increasing the content of unsaturated fat in pig feed was evaluated. Three pig feeding regimens were applied: basal feed (no added fat or vitamin E), basal feed + rapeseed oil (60 g/kg feed), and basal feed + rapeseed oil (60 g/kg) + vitamin E (200 mg/kg). Meat and meat products from the three pig groups were incorporated into diets providing 86 g pig fat/10 MJ. The diets were served to twelve healthy human male subjects for 3 weeks each in a randomised crossover design. The diets prepared from pigs fed rapeseed oil had a lower content of saturated fatty acids (approximately 9 v. 11% of energy) and a higher content of polyunsaturated fatty acids (approximately 6 v. 4% of energy) than the diet prepared from pigs fed the basal feed. Diets based on fat from pigs fed the rapeseed oil resulted in significantly lower (approximately 4%, P = 0.019) total serum cholesterol concentration compared with the diet from pigs fed the basal feed. No differences were observed in LDL-, HDL- or VLDL-cholesterol, or in triacylglycerol or VLDL-triacylglycerol concentrations. Addition of vitamin E to the pig feed resulted in only a minor increase in vitamin E content in the human subjects' diet and the vitamin E content was low in all three pig diets. Plasma vitamin E concentration in the human subjects at the end of the period with diets from pigs fed rapeseed oil without vitamin E was significantly lower (P = 0.04) than in the other two diet periods. In conclusion, an increased content of rapeseed oil in pig feed changes the fatty acid composition of the pig fat in a way that has a potential to reduce blood cholesterol concentrations in human subjects. However, intake of pig fat with a higher content of unsaturated fatty acids needs to be matched by a higher dietary intake of vitamin E.

  4. Assessing the bioremediation potential of algal species indigenous to oil sands process-affected waters on mixtures of oil sands acid extractable organics.

    PubMed

    Ruffell, Sarah E; Frank, Richard A; Woodworth, Adam P; Bragg, Leslie M; Bauer, Anthony E; Deeth, Lorna E; Müller, Kirsten M; Farwell, Andrea J; Dixon, D George; Servos, Mark R; McConkey, Brendan J

    2016-11-01

    Surface mining extraction of bitumen from oil sand in Alberta, Canada results in the accumulation of oil sands process-affected water (OSPW). In attempts to maximize water recycling, and because its constituents are recognized as being toxic, OSPW is retained in settling basins. Consequently, research efforts are currently focused on developing remediation strategies capable of detoxifying OSPW to allow for eventual release. One potential bioremediation strategy proposes to utilize phytoplankton native to the Alberta oil sand region to sequester, break down, or modify the complex oil sands acid extractable organic (AEO) mixtures in OSPW. Preliminary attempts to quantify changes in total oil sands AEO concentration in test solutions by ESI-MS following a 14-day algal remediation period revealed the presence of unknown organic acids in control samples, likely released by the phytoplankton strains and often of the same atomic mass range as the oil sands AEO under investigation. To address the presence of these "biogenic" organic acids in test samples, ESI-MS in MRM mode was utilized to identify oil sands AEO "marker ions" that were a) present within the tested oil sands AEO extract and b) unique to the oil sands AEO extract only (e.g. atomic masses different from biogenic organic acids). Using this approach, one of the 21 tested algal strains, Stichococcus sp. 1, proved capable of significantly reducing the AEO marker ion concentration at test concentrations of 10, 30, and 100mgL(-1). This result, along with the accelerated growth rate and recalcitrance of this algal strain with exposure to oil sands AEO, suggests the strong potential for the use of the isolated Stichococcus sp. 1 as a candidate for bioremediation strategies. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Garden cress (Lepidium sativum Linn.) seed oil as a potential feedstock for biodiesel production.

    PubMed

    Nehdi, Imededdine Arbi; Sbihi, Hassen; Tan, Chin Ping; Al-Resayes, Saud Ibrahim

    2012-12-01

    Lepidium sativum L. (garden cress) is a fast growing annual herb, native to Egypt and west Asia but widely cultivated in temperate climates throughout the world. L. sativum seed oil (LSO) extracted from plants grown in Tunisia was analyzed to determine whether it has potential as a raw material for biodiesel production. The oil content of the seeds was 26.77%, mainly composed of polyunsaturated (42.23%) and monounsaturated (39.62%) fatty acids. Methyl esters (LSOMEs) were prepared by base-catalyzed transesterification with a conversion rate of 96.8%. The kinematic viscosity (1.92 mm(2)/s), cetane number (49.23), gross heat value (40.45), and other fuel properties were within the limits for biodiesel specified by the ASTM (American Standard for Testing and Materials). This study showed that LSOMEs have the potential to supplement petroleum-based diesel.

  6. Potential role of olive oil phenolic compounds in the prevention of neurodegenerative diseases.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez-Morató, Jose; Xicota, Laura; Fitó, Montse; Farré, Magí; Dierssen, Mara; de la Torre, Rafael

    2015-03-13

    Adherence to the Mediterranean Diet (MD) has been associated with a reduced incidence of neurodegenerative diseases and better cognitive performance. Virgin olive oil, the main source of lipids in the MD, is rich in minor phenolic components, particularly hydroxytyrosol (HT). HT potent antioxidant and anti-inflammatory actions have attracted researchers' attention and may contribute to neuroprotective effects credited to MD. In this review HT bioavailability and pharmacokinetics are presented prior to discussing health beneficial effects. In vitro and in vivo neuroprotective effects together with its multiple mechanisms of action are reviewed. Other microconstituents of olive oil are also considered due to their potential neuroprotective effects (oleocanthal, triterpenic acids). Finally, we discuss the potential role of HT as a therapeutic tool in the prevention of neurodegenerative diseases.

  7. Oil sands fine tailings - a resource material for potentially marketable products

    SciTech Connect

    Majid, A.; Sparks, B.D.; Coleman, R.D.

    1995-12-31

    Oil sands fine tailings is a complex mixture of components each having specific physical or chemical characteristics. Studies on the fundamental properties of fine tailings have resulted in the development of methods to fractionate the tailings into products with market potential. These include: bitumen, for production of synthetic crude oil or as an ancillary fuel; clean kaolin for fine paper coating; a gelling agent for drilling mud formulation; emulsifying solids, for surfactant replacement; and a mineral fraction, for heavy metal recovery. In this investigation we have attempted to evaluate the economic potential of fine tailings as a resource material by determining the amount and value of these products; the prime objective was to determine the economic feasibility of a tailings treatment scheme.

  8. An Evaluation of Select Test Variables Potentially Affecting Acute Oil Toxicity.

    PubMed

    Echols, Brandi S; Smith, A; Gardinali, P; Rand, G

    2016-02-01

    In the wake of the Deepwater Horizon incident (2010) in the Gulf of Mexico, an abundance of research studies have been performed, but the methodologies used have varied making comparisons and replication difficult. In this study, acute toxicity tests with mysids and inland silversides were performed to examine the effect of different variables on test results. The toxicity test variables evaluated in this study included (1) open versus closed static test chambers, (2) natural versus artificial diluent, (3) aerated versus nonaerated test solution, and (4) low versus medium energy water-accommodated (WAF) mixing energies. The use of tests using natural or artificial diluent showed no difference in either toxicity test or analytical chemistry results. Based on median lethal concentrations (LC50) of WAFs of unweathered oil (MASS), mysid tests performed in closed chambers were approximately 41 % lower than LC50 values from open-chamber studies, possibly a result of the presence of low-molecular weight volatile aromatics (i.e., naphthalenes). This research also showed that using a medium-energy WAF (with a 20–25 % vortex) increases the number of chemical components compared with low-energy WAF, thus affecting the composition of the exposure media and increasing toxicity. The comparison of toxic units as a measure of the potential toxicity of fresh and weathered oils showed that weathered oils (e.g., Juniper, CTC) are less toxic than the unweathered MASS oil. In the event of future oil spills, these variables should be considered to ensure that data regarding the potential toxicity and environmental risk are of good quality and reproducible.

  9. Western Greece unconventional hydrocarbon potential from oil shale and shale gas reservoirs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karakitsios, Vasileios; Agiadi, Konstantina

    2013-04-01

    It is clear that we are gradually running out of new sedimentary basins to explore for conventional oil and gas and that the reserves of conventional oil, which can be produced cheaply, are limited. This is the reason why several major oil companies invest in what are often called unconventional hydrocarbons: mainly oil shales, heavy oil, tar sand and shale gas. In western Greece exist important oil and gas shale reservoirs which must be added to its hydrocarbon potential1,2. Regarding oil shales, Western Greece presents significant underground immature, or close to the early maturation stage, source rocks with black shale composition. These source rock oils may be produced by applying an in-situ conversion process (ICP). A modern technology, yet unproven at a commercial scale, is the thermally conductive in-situ conversion technology, developed by Shell3. Since most of western Greece source rocks are black shales with high organic content, those, which are immature or close to the maturity limit have sufficient thickness and are located below 1500 meters depth, may be converted artificially by in situ pyrolysis. In western Greece, there are several extensive areas with these characteristics, which may be subject of exploitation in the future2. Shale gas reservoirs in Western Greece are quite possibly present in all areas where shales occur below the ground-water level, with significant extent and organic matter content greater than 1%, and during their geological history, were found under conditions corresponding to the gas window (generally at depths over 5,000 to 6,000m). Western Greece contains argillaceous source rocks, found within the gas window, from which shale gas may be produced and consequently these rocks represent exploitable shale gas reservoirs. Considering the inevitable increase in crude oil prices, it is expected that at some point soon Western Greece shales will most probably be targeted. Exploration for conventional petroleum reservoirs

  10. The anticarcinogenic potential of essential oil and aqueous infusion from caper (Capparis spinosa L.).

    PubMed

    Kulisic-Bilusic, Tea; Schmöller, Ingrid; Schnäbele, Kerstin; Siracusa, Laura; Ruberto, Giuseppe

    2012-05-01

    The present study assessed the influence of essential oil and aqueous infusion from wild-grown caper (Capparis spinosa L.) on cell growth, NF-κB activation, apoptosis and cell cycle in the human colon carcinoma cell line, HT-29. Methyl isothiocyanate (92.06%), a degradation product of glucosinolate glucocapparin, was detected as major component of essential oil from caper leaves and flower buds. Aqueous infusion of caper showed an interesting and variegate compositional pattern containing several phenolic compounds, among which a flavonol glycoside, rutin (quercetin 3-O-rutinoside, 50.7%) and 5-caffeoyl-quinic acid (chlorogenic acid, 17.5%) were detected as dominant. Caper essential oil and aqueous infusion showed time- and dose-dependent high inhibitory effect on HT-29 cell proliferation. In addition, they induced the inhibition on nuclear factor κB (NF-κB) activity in a dose-dependent manner, while they did not show any effect on apoptosis in HT-29 cells. Flow cytometric analysis indicated that treatment with caper essential oil and aqueous infusion resulted in G2/M cell cycle arrest in a dose-dependent manner. Presented results suggest that caper contains volatile and non-volatile compounds which potentially can play an important role in colon cancer prevention. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Potential of wheat bran to promote indigenous microbial enhanced oil recovery.

    PubMed

    Zhan, Yali; Wang, Qinghong; Chen, Chunmao; Kim, Jung Bong; Zhang, Hongdan; Yoza, Brandon A; Li, Qing X

    2017-06-01

    Microbial enhanced oil recovery (MEOR) is an emerging oil extraction technology that utilizes microorganisms to facilitate recovery of crude oil in depleted petroleum reservoirs. In the present study, effects of wheat bran utilization were investigated on stimulation of indigenous MEOR. Biostimulation conditions were optimized with the response surface methodology. The co-application of wheat bran with KNO3 and NH4H2PO4 significantly promoted indigenous MEOR (IMEOR) and exhibited sequential aerobic (O-), facultative (An-) and anaerobic (A0-) metabolic stages. The surface tension of fermented broth decreased by approximately 35%, and the crude oil was highly emulsified. Microbial community structure varied largely among and in different IMEOR metabolic stages. Pseudomonas sp., Citrobacter sp., and uncultured Burkholderia sp. dominated the O-, An- and early A0-stages. Bacillus sp., Achromobacter sp., Rhizobiales sp., Alcaligenes sp. and Clostridium sp. dominated the later A0-stage. This study illustrated occurrences of microbial community succession driven by wheat bran stimulation and its industrial potential.

  12. The oil and gas resource potential of the Arctic National Wildlife Refuge 1002 area, Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    ,

    1999-01-01

    In anticipation of the need for scientific support for policy decisions and in light of the decade-old perspective of a previous assessment, the USGS has completed a reassessment of the petroleum potential of the ANWR 1002 area. This was a comprehensive study by a team of USGS scientists in collaboration on technical issues (but not the assessment) with colleagues in other agencies and universities. The study incorporated all available public data and included new field and analytic work as well as the reevaluation of all previous work.Using a methodology similar to that used in previous USGS assessments in the ANWR and the NPRA, this study estimates that the total quantity of technically recoverable oil in the 1002 area is 7.7 BBO (mean value), which is distributed among 10 plays. Using a conservative estimate of 512 million barrels as a minimum commercially developable field size, then about 2.6 BBO of oil distributed in about three fields is expected to be economically recoverable in the undeformed part of the 1002 area. Using a similar estimated minimum field size, which may not be conservative considering the increased distance from infrastructure, the deformed area would be expected to have about 600 MMBO in one field.The amounts of in-place oil estimated for the 1002 area are larger than previous USGS estimates. The increase results in large part from improved resolution of reprocessed seismic data and geologic analogs provided by recent nearby oil discoveries.

  13. Potential of producing high octane additives and hydrogen from biomass-derived oils

    SciTech Connect

    Katikaneni, S.P.R.; Idem, R.O.; Bakhshi, N.N.

    1997-12-31

    In the early approach, the upgrading of biomass-derived oils (BDO) to hydrocarbons was carried out using typical hydrotreating catalysts such as Co-Mo/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}. The major drawback was the high operating cost due to the addition of hydrogen and high pressure requirements of the process. On the other hand, these studies have shown that the use of catalysts such as HZSM-5, HY, silicate, molecular sieves, silica-alumina and mordenite for upgrading such oils does not require hydrogen and can be performed at atmospheric pressure. Also, these studies have shown that the product slate can be dramatically altered by changing the characteristics or functionality of the catalyst. Furthermore, HZSM-5 and silica-alumina were found to be the most effective catalysts for producing aromatic and aliphatic hydrocarbons, respectively. This presentation includes the upgrading of BDO over HZSM-5, silica-alumina and HS-Mix (a physical mixture composed of 20 wt % HZSM-5 and 80 wt% silica-alumina) catalysts. The BDO was produced by rapid thermal processing (RTP) of a commercial oak sawdust. The upgrading of the oil was performed at atmospheric pressure in a fixed bed microreactor. Char, which was one of the products from this upgrading process, was found to be reactive. Steam gasification of this char was carried out at atmospheric pressure. The overall objective was to investigate the potential for the production of hydrogen and high octane additives from a biomass-derived oil.

  14. Endocrine disrupting potential of PAHs and their alkylated analogues associated with oil spills.

    PubMed

    Lee, Sangwoo; Hong, Seongjin; Liu, Xiaoshan; Kim, Cheolmin; Jung, Dawoon; Yim, Un Hyuk; Shim, Won Joon; Khim, Jong Seong; Giesy, John P; Choi, Kyungho

    2017-09-20

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and alkylated PAHs are known to be major toxic contaminants in spills of petroleum hydrocarbons (oil). Spilled oil undergoes weathering and over time, PAHs go through a series of compositional changes. PAHs can disrupt endocrine functions, and the type of functions affected and associated potencies vary with the type and alkylation status of PAH. In this study, the potential of five major PAHs of crude oil, i.e., naphthalene, fluorene, dibenzothiophene, phenanthrene, and chrysene, and their alkylated analogues (n = 25), to disrupt endocrine functions was evaluated by use of MVLN-luc and H295R cell lines. In the MVLN-luc bioassay, seven estrogen receptor (ER) agonists were detected among 30 tested PAHs. The greatest ER-mediated potency was observed for 1-methylchrysene (101.4%), followed by phenanthrene and its alkylated analogues (range of %-E2max from 1.6% to 47.3%). In the H295R bioassay, significantly greater syntheses of steroid hormones were observed for 20 PAHs. For major PAHs and their alkylated analogues, disruption of steroidogenesis appeared to be more significant than ER-mediated effects. The number and locations of alkyl-moieties alone could not explain differences in the types or the potencies of toxicities. This observation shows that disruption of endocrine functions by some constituents of oil spills could be underestimated if only parent compounds are considered in assessments of hazard and risk.

  15. Potential Mississippi oil recovery and economic impact from CO sub 2 miscible flooding

    SciTech Connect

    Moring, J.A.; Rogers, R.E. )

    1991-01-01

    Maturing of Mississippi oil reservoirs has resulted in a steady decline in crude oil production in the state. This paper reports that, to evaluate the potential of enhanced recovery processes, particularly in the use of the state's large CO{sub 2} reserves, for arresting this trend, the subject study was performed. A computer data base of over 1315 Mississippi reservoirs was established. All reservoirs were screened for applicability of the carbon dioxide miscible process. With models developed by the National Petroleum Council and DOE, incremental oil that could be produced from the carbon dioxide miscible process was calculated. Under selected economic conditions, carbon dioxide miscible flooding with utilization of carbon dioxide from the state's Norphlet formation (3-7 tcf reserves of high-purity CO{sub 2}) could produce 120 million barrels of incremental oil in Mississippi. Incremental state revenues as a consequence of this production were calculated to be $45 million of severance taxes, $50 million of corporate income taxes, and $60 million of royalty payments, expressed as present values.

  16. Oil and gas potential of sedimentary basins of the Ural-Mongolian mobile belt

    SciTech Connect

    Dedeyev, V.A.; Aminov, L.Z.

    1993-04-01

    The sedimentary basins of the Ural-Mongolian mobile belt fall into two groups: near-geosynclinal folded and intrageosynclinal folded. In the present structural plan the first group includes two planetary-scale belts of oil and gas accumulation, the Ural and Yenisey. The main regional oil- and gas-bearing complexes of the Ural belt are transgressive middle Devonian-early Frasnian clastic rocks, containing up to 18-20% initial oil and gas reserves in categories A + B + C[sub 1] + C[sub 2]; regressive-transgressive early-middle Visean clastic formations (12-15%); inundational Bashkirian-Visean (22-25%) and Late Carboniferous-Early Permian (21-25%) carbonate rocks. The main regional oil- and gas-bearing complexes of the Yenisey belt are related to mainly clastic transgressive Vendian-early Cambrian rocks (40-50% of initial potential hydrocarbon reserves) and inundational Cambrian evaporite-carbonate formations (up to 25%). All the epi-geosynclinal sedimentary basins belong to the second group; they are mainly heterogenetic and less than 350-370 Ma in age, but there are a few small monogenetic ones up to 40-50 Ma in age.

  17. ABC transporters: bacterial exporters.

    PubMed Central

    Fath, M J; Kolter, R

    1993-01-01

    The ABC transporters (also called traffic ATPases) make up a large superfamily of proteins which share a common function and a common ATP-binding domain. ABC transporters are classified into three major groups: bacterial importers (the periplasmic permeases), eukaryotic transporters, and bacterial exporters. We present a comprehensive review of the bacterial ABC exporter group, which currently includes over 40 systems. The bacterial ABC exporter systems are functionally subdivided on the basis of the type of substrate that each translocates. We describe three main groups: protein exporters, peptide exporters, and systems that transport nonprotein substrates. Prototype exporters from each group are described in detail to illustrate our current understanding of this protein family. The prototype systems include the alpha-hemolysin, colicin V, and capsular polysaccharide exporters from Escherichia coli, the protease exporter from Erwinia chrysanthemi, and the glucan exporters from Agrobacterium tumefaciens and Rhizobium meliloti. Phylogenetic analysis of the ATP-binding domains from 29 bacterial ABC exporters indicates that the bacterial ABC exporters can be divided into two primary branches. One branch contains the transport systems where the ATP-binding domain and the membrane-spanning domain are present on the same polypeptide, and the other branch contains the systems where these domains are found on separate polypeptides. Differences in substrate specificity do not correlate with evolutionary relatedness. A complete survey of the known and putative bacterial ABC exporters is included at the end of the review. PMID:8302219

  18. Oil and gas technology transfer activities and potential in eight major producing states. Volume 1

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-07-01

    In 1990, the Interstate Oil and Gas Compact Commission (the Compact) performed a study that identified the structure and deficiencies of the system by which oil and gas producers receive information about the potential of new technologies and communicate their problems and technology needs back to the research community. The conclusions of that work were that major integrated companies have significantly more and better sources of technology information than independent producers. The majors also have significantly better mechanisms for communicating problems to the research and development (R&D) community. As a consequence, the Compact recommended analyzing potential mechanisms to improve technology transfer channels for independents and to accelerate independents acceptance and use of existing and emerging technologies. Building on this work, the Compact, with a grant from the US Department Energy, has reviewed specific technology transfer organizations in each of eight major oil producing states to identify specific R&D and technology transfer organizations, characterize their existing activities, and identify potential future activities that could be performed to enhance technology transfer to oil and gas producers. The profiles were developed based on information received from organizations,follow-up interviews, site visit and conversations, and participation in their sponsored technology transfer activities. The results of this effort are reported in this volume. In addition, the Compact has also developed a framework for the development of evaluation methodologies to determine the effectiveness of technology transfer programs in performing their intended functions and in achieving desired impacts impacts in the producing community. The results of that work are provided in a separate volume.

  19. Surface potential and permeability of rock cores under asphaltenic oil flow conditions

    SciTech Connect

    Alkafeef, S.F.; Gochin, R.J.; Smith, A.L.

    1995-12-31

    The surface properties, wetting behaviour and permeability of rock samples are central to understanding recovery behaviour in oil reservoirs. This paper will present a method new to petroleum engineering to show how area/length ratios for porous systems can be obtained by combining streaming potential and streaming current measurements on rock cores. This has allows streaming current measurements (independent of surface conductivity errors) to be made on rock samples using hydrocarbon solvents with increasing concentrations of asphaltene. Negative surface potentials for the rock became steadily more positive as asphaltene coated the pore surfaces, with permeability reduction agreeing well with petrographic analysis.

  20. Metal oxide-based nanoparticles: revealing their potential to enhance oil recovery in different wettability systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hendraningrat, Luky; Torsæter, Ole

    2015-02-01

    This paper presents systematic studies of hydrophilic metal oxide nanoparticles (NPs) dispersed in brine intended to reveal their potential to enhance oil recovery (EOR) in various rock wettability systems. The stability in suspension (nanofluid) of the NPs has been identified as a key factor related to their use as an EOR agent. Experimental techniques have been developed for nanofluid stability using three coupled methods: direct visual observation, surface conductivity and particle size measurements. The use of a dispersant has been investigated and has been shown to successfully improve metal oxide nanofluid stability as a function of its concentration. The dispersant alters the nanofluid properties, i.e. surface conductivity, pH and particle size distribution. A two-phase coreflood experiment was conducted by injecting the stable nanofluids as a tertiary process (nano-EOR) through core plugs with various wettabilities ranging from water-wet to oil-wet. The combination of metal oxide nanofluid and dispersant improved the oil recovery to a greater extent than either silica-based nanofluid or dispersant alone in all wettability systems. The contact angle, interfacial tension (IFT) and effluent were also measured. It was observed that metal oxide-based nanofluids altered the quartz plates to become more water-wet, and the results are consistent with those of the coreflood experiment. The particle adsorption during the transport process was identified from effluent analysis. The presence of NPs and dispersant reduced the IFT, but its reduction is sufficient to yield significant additional oil recovery. Hence, wettability alteration plays a dominant role in the oil displacement mechanism using nano-EOR.

  1. In Vivo Potential Anti-Inflammatory Activity of Melissa officinalis L. Essential Oil

    PubMed Central

    Bounihi, Amina; Hajjaj, Ghizlane; Cherrah, Yahia; Zellou, Amina

    2013-01-01

    Melissa officinalis L. (Lamiaceae) had been reported in traditional Moroccan medicine to exhibit calming, antispasmodic, and strengthening heart effects. Therefore, this study is aimed at determining the anti-inflammatory activities of M. officinalis L. leaves. The effect of the essential oil of the leaves of this plant was investigated for anti-inflammatory properties by using carrageenan and experimental trauma-induced hind paw edema in rats. The essential oil extracted from leaves by hydrodistillation was characterized by means of gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). M. officinalis contained Nerol (30.44%), Citral (27.03%), Isopulegol (22.02%), Caryophyllene (2.29%), Caryophyllene oxide (1.24%), and Citronella (1.06%). Anti-inflammatory properties of oral administration of essential oil at the doses of 200, 400 mg/kg p.o., respectively, showed significant reduction and inhibition of edema with 61.76% and 70.58%, respectively, (P < 0.001) induced by carrageenan at 6 h when compared with control and standard drug (Indomethacin). On experimental trauma, M. officinalis L. essential oil showed pronounced reduction and inhibition of edema induced by carrageenan at 6 h at 200 and 400 mg/kg with 91.66% and 94.44%, respectively (P < 0.001). We can conclude that the essential oil of M. officinalis L. possesses potential anti-inflammatory activities, supporting the traditional application of this plant in treating various diseases associated with inflammation and pain. PMID:24381585

  2. Potential oil yield, fatty acid composition, and oxidation stability of the hempseed oil from four Cannabis sativa L. cultivars.

    PubMed

    Da Porto, Carla; Decorti, Deborah; Natolino, Andrea

    2015-03-01

    The cultivation of four industrial hemp cultivars (Felina 32, Chamaeleon, Uso31, and Finola) was investigated for oil production in the north-east of Italy along two years. The oils of all cultivars resulted in rich amount of linoleic acid (ω-6) and α-linolenic acid (ω-3). Felina 32 and Chamaeleon oils exhibited the highest amount of linoleic acid (59%) and α-linolenic acid (18%). Finola and Uso31 oils resulted in the richest of γ-linolenic acid (5-6%). All hempseed oils presented high oxidation stability and an acceptable initial quality. It is suggested that these oils can be used to produce EFA dietary supplements high in ω-6 and ω-3 of vegetal origin.

  3. Inhibitory effects of some plant essential oils against Arcobacter butzleri and potential for rosemary oil as a natural food preservative.

    PubMed

    Irkin, Reyhan; Abay, Secil; Aydin, Fuat

    2011-03-01

    We investigated the inhibitory activity of commercially marketed essential oils of mint, rosemary, orange, sage, cinnamon, bay, clove, and cumin against Arcobacter butzleri and Arcobacter skirrowii and the effects of the essential oil of rosemary against A. butzleri in a cooked minced beef system. Using the disc diffusion method to determine the inhibitory activities of these plant essential oils against strains of Arcobacter, we found that those of rosemary, bay, cinnamon, and clove had strong inhibitory activity against these organisms, whereas the essential oils of cumin, mint, and sage failed to show inhibitory activity against most of the Arcobacter strains tested. The 0.5% (vol/wt) essential oil of rosemary was completely inhibitory against A. butzleri in the cooked minced beef system at 4°C. These essential oils may be further investigated as a natural solution to the food industry by creating an additional barrier (hurdle technology) to inhibit the growth of Arcobacter strains.

  4. Hydrophobization potential of organic compounds deriving from olive oil production waste water

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Egerer, Sina E.; Bandow, Nicole; Marschner, Bernd; Schaumann, Gabriele E.

    2010-05-01

    Olive oil production waste water (OPWW) is rich in dissolved organic carbon and nutrients (e.g. potassium). In order to use it as organic fertilizer, small-scale and family run olive oil production farms in Israel and Palestine often discharge it directly onto agricultural land without any previous treatment. One unwanted side effect that can be observed is the development of soil water repellency (SWR) which is probably induced by amphiphilic substances. Previous studies on the composition of OPWW have shown that it contains oil components such as phenols, fats and large-molecular organic compounds (e.g. Gonzalezvila et al., 1995), some of which have been reported to induce water repellency on soil mineral surfaces (e.g. Ma'shum et al., 1988; Leelamanie and Karube, 2007). For prioritization of compounds the individual hydrophobization potential of 16 common OPWW components was systematically evaluated using the sessile drop and the Wilhelmy plate method. Acid-washed sand was taken as model soil mineral material. In a batch experiment OPWW samples from Israel and Palestine were applied to sand and two different soils in order to investigate their hydrophobization potential under different temperature and humidity conditions. To facilitate the identification of the chemicals responsible for inducing SWR, a fractionation procedure was applied to fraction the OPWW samples using solvents of different polarity. The prioritized compounds were analyzed by GC-MS. First results of this identification will be presented as well.

  5. Potential water resource impacts of hydraulic fracturing from unconventional oil production in the Bakken shale.

    PubMed

    Shrestha, Namita; Chilkoor, Govinda; Wilder, Joseph; Gadhamshetty, Venkataramana; Stone, James J

    2017-01-01

    Modern drilling techniques, notably horizontal drilling and hydraulic fracturing, have enabled unconventional oil production (UOP) from the previously inaccessible Bakken Shale Formation located throughout Montana, North Dakota (ND) and the Canadian province of Saskatchewan. The majority of UOP from the Bakken shale occurs in ND, strengthening its oil industry and businesses, job market, and its gross domestic product. However, similar to UOP from other low-permeability shales, UOP from the Bakken shale can result in environmental and human health effects. For example, UOP from the ND Bakken shale generates a voluminous amount of saline wastewater including produced and flowback water that are characterized by unusual levels of total dissolved solids (350 g/L) and elevated levels of toxic and radioactive substances. Currently, 95% of the saline wastewater is piped or trucked onsite prior to disposal into Class II injection wells. Oil and gas wastewater (OGW) spills that occur during transport to injection sites can potentially result in drinking water resource contamination. This study presents a critical review of potential water resource impacts due to deterministic (freshwater withdrawals and produced water management) and probabilistic events (spills due to leaking pipelines and truck accidents) related to UOP from the Bakken shale in ND.

  6. Assessment of the insecticidal potential of Eucalyptus urograndis essential oil against Rhodnius neglectus Lent (Hemiptera: Reduviidae).

    PubMed

    Gomes, S P; Favero, S

    2013-08-01

    The resistance of triatomines to pyrethroids has been reported in several Latin American countries, including Brazil, indicating the need for the development of new approaches for the control of vectors of the Chagas disease. In here, we evaluated the insecticidal potential of the essential oil of Eucalyptus urograndis (Myrtaceae) against unsexed third and fourth instars of Rhodnius neglectus Lent (Hemiptera: Reduviidae) in topical application, fumigation, surface contact, and repellency . The insecticidal activity of the essential oil tested was detected by topical application (LD50 = 0.1731 μL/insect and LD99 = 0.2948 μL/insect for 24 h), fumigation (LC50 = 0.021 mL/mL air and LC99 = 0.1525 mL/mL air for 24 h) and surface contact (LC50 = 0.7073 μL/cm(2) and LC99 = 4.59 μL/cm(2) for 24 h). Mortality observed after 48-72-h exposure was very high and did not allow for any adjustment of the mortality curve. In the repellency assay, an effect was observed on 80% of tested nymphs. However, no repellency was observed after 24 h of exposure. Eucalyptus urograndis essential oil has a high insecticidal and repellent potential for R. neglectus nymphs, whether serving as a molecular model for new substances or as an alternative for the control of these insects.

  7. Export Management Specialist. A Training Program. Instructor's Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oklahoma State Dept. of Vocational and Technical Education, Stillwater. Curriculum and Instructional Materials Center.

    This publication provides instructors with materials for an export management specialist (EMS) training program. The objective of the training program is to assist companies in reaching their export goals by educating current and potential managers about the basics of exporting. It provides a foundation for considering international trade and for…

  8. Export Management Specialist. A Training Program. Instructor's Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oklahoma State Dept. of Vocational and Technical Education, Stillwater. Curriculum and Instructional Materials Center.

    This publication provides instructors with materials for an export management specialist (EMS) training program. The objective of the training program is to assist companies in reaching their export goals by educating current and potential managers about the basics of exporting. It provides a foundation for considering international trade and for…

  9. Evaluation of humic fractions potential to produce bio-oil through catalytic hydroliquefaction.

    PubMed

    Lemée, L; Pinard, L; Beauchet, R; Kpogbemabou, D

    2013-12-01

    Humic substances were extracted from biodegraded lignocellulosic biomass (LCBb) and submitted to catalytic hydroliquefaction. The resulting bio-oils were compared with those of the initial biomass. Compared to fulvic and humic acids, humin presented a high conversion rate (74 wt.%) and the highest amount of liquid fraction (66 wt.%). Moreover it represented 78% of LCBb. Humin produced 43 wt.% of crude oil and 33 wt.% of hexane soluble fraction containing hydrocarbons which is a higher yield than those from other humic substances as well as from the initial biomass. Hydrocarbons were mainly aromatics, but humin produces the highest amount of aliphatics. Considering the quantity, the quality and the molecular composition of the humic fractions, a classification of the potential of the latter to produce fuel using hydroliquefaction process can be assess: Hu>AF>AH. The higher heating value (HHV) and oxygen content of HSF from humin were fully compatible with biofuel characteristics.

  10. Foveal light exposure is increased at the time of removal of silicone oil with the potential for phototoxicity.

    PubMed

    Dogramaci, Mahmut; Williams, Katie; Lee, Ed; Williamson, Tom H

    2013-01-01

    There is sudden and dramatic visual function deterioration in 1-10 % of eyes filled with silicone oil at the time of removal of silicon oil. Transmission of high-energy blue light is increased in eyes filled with silicone oil. We sought to identify if increased foveal light exposure is a potential factor in the pathophysiology of the visual loss at the time of removal of silicone oil. A graphic ray tracing computer program and laboratory models were used to determine the effect of the intraocular silicone oil bubble size on the foveal illuminance at the time of removal of silicone oil under direct microscope light. The graphic ray tracing computer program revealed a range of optical vignetting effects created by different sizes of silicone oil bubble within the vitreous cavity giving rise to an uneven macular illumination. The laboratory model was used to quantify the variation of illuminance at the foveal region with different sizes of silicone oil bubble with in the vitreous cavity at the time of removal of silicon oil under direct microscope light. To substantiate the hypothesis of the light toxicity during removal of silicone oil, The outcome of oil removal procedures performed under direct microscope illumination in compared to those performed under blocked illumination. The computer program showed that the optical vignetting effect at the macula was dependent on the size of the intraocular silicone oil bubble. The laboratory eye model showed that the foveal illuminance followed a bell-shaped curve with 70 % greater illuminance demonstrated at with 50-60 % silicone oil fill. The clinical data identified five eyes with unexplained vision loss out of 114 eyes that had the procedure performed under direct microscope illumination compared to none out of 78 eyes that had the procedure under blocked illumination. Foveal light exposure, and therefore the potential for phototoxicity, is transiently increased at the time of removal of silicone oil. This is due to

  11. Antifungal effect of various essential oils against Candida albicans. Potentiation of antifungal action of amphotericin B by essential oil from Thymus vulgaris.

    PubMed

    Giordani, R; Regli, P; Kaloustian, J; Mikaïl, C; Abou, L; Portugal, H

    2004-12-01

    The antifungal effect of the essential oil from Satureja montana L., Lavandula angustifolia Mill., Lavandula hybrida Reverchon, Syzygium aromaticum (L.) Merril and Perry, Origanum vulgare L., Rosmarinus officinalis L. and six chemotypes of Thymus vulgaris L. on Candida albicans growth were studied. The most efficiency was obtained with the essential oil from Thymus vulgaris thymol chemotype (MIC 80% = 0.016 microL/mL and Kaff = 296 microL/mL). The presence in the culture medium of essential oil from Thymus vulgaris thymol chemotype (0.01, 0.1, 0.2, 0.3 microg/mL) and amphotericin B involved a decrease of the MIC 80% of amphotericin B. In contrast, the combination of amphotericin B and low concentrations (0.00031-0.0025 microg/mL) of essential oil was antagonistic. The strongest decrease (48%) of the MIC 80% was obtained with medium containing 0.2 microL/mL of essential oil. These results signify that the essential oil of Thymus vulgaris thymol chemotype potentiates the antifungal action of amphotericin B suggesting a possible utilization of this essential oil in addition to antifungal drugs for the treatment of mycoses.

  12. Self-potential monitoring of a crude oil-contaminated site (Trecate, Italy).

    PubMed

    Giampaolo, V; Rizzo, E; Titov, K; Konosavsky, P; Laletina, D; Maineult, A; Lapenna, V

    2014-01-01

    We present a multidisciplinary approach for characterization of a crude oil-contaminated site (Trecate, Italy), integrating geophysical data, such as subsoil electrical potential (in millivolts) and electrical resistivity (in ohm meters) distribution, with hydrogeological and bio-chemical data. Self-potential measurements have been evaluated together with active geoelectrical measurements and hydrological information, to provide spatial and temporal information about the self-potential sources and their possible correlations with the contamination state of the subsoil. Three self-potential surveys (March 2010, October 2010, and March 2011) were conducted at the site, both in the contaminated and uncontaminated regions. The obtained self-potential maps show large time-lapse differences in correspondence of the contaminated area, with positive electrical potential values (up to 50 mV) in spring surveys and an electrical potential dipolar distribution in October (2010) survey (amplitude from -15 to 25 mV). To understand the origin of the measured self-potential signals, a model using vertical dipolar electrical sources was built, taking into account the electrical resistivity distribution deduced from electrical resistivity tomography. The self-potential source identification allows the Trecate contamination state to be better delineated. In particular, two self-potential contributions are superimposed: the electrokinetic mechanism is predominant in spring, while the redox mechanism represents the most important contribution in autumn.

  13. Assessment of potential shale-oil and shale-gas resources in Silurian shales of Jordan, 2014

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Schenk, Christopher J.; Pitman, Janet K.; Charpentier, Ronald R.; Klett, Timothy R.; Tennyson, Marilyn E.; Mercier, Tracey J.; Nelson, Philip H.; Brownfield, Michael E.; Pawlewicz, Mark J.; Wandrey, Craig J.

    2014-01-01

    Using a geology-based assessment methodology, the U.S. Geological Survey estimated means of 11 million barrels of potential shale-oil and 320 billion cubic feet of shale-gas resources in Silurian shales of Jordan.

  14. Assessment of potential unconventional lacustrine shale-oil and shale-gas resources, Phitsanulok Basin, Thailand, 2014

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Schenk, Christopher J.; Charpentier, Ronald R.; Klett, Timothy R.; Mercier, Tracey J.; Tennyson, Marilyn E.; Pitman, Janet K.; Brownfield, Michael E.

    2014-01-01

    Using a geology-based assessment methodology, the U.S. Geological Survey assessed potential technically recoverable mean resources of 53 million barrels of shale oil and 320 billion cubic feet of shale gas in the Phitsanulok Basin, onshore Thailand.

  15. Bioactive compounds and nutritional significance of virgin argan oil--an edible oil with potential as a functional food.

    PubMed

    Cabrera-Vique, Carmen; Marfil, Rocío; Giménez, Rafael; Martínez-Augustin, Olga

    2012-05-01

    This review compiles recently published scientific reports on the bioactive compounds present in virgin argan oil along with their possible beneficial effects on human health, which could justify consideration of this oil as a new functional food. Virgin argan oil is characterized by high levels of linoleic and oleic acids, tocopherols (especially γ-tocopherol), and minor compounds such as sterols, carotenoids, and squalene. The total antioxidant capacity of virgin argan oil is higher than that of other vegetable oils. Recent studies suggest that this edible oil, as a functional food, may play a role in disease prevention. For example, some authors have found it to have hypolipidemic, hypocholesterolemic, hypoglycemic, and antihypertensive effects as well as a possible role in cancer prevention. This review demonstrates the need for further studies in order to fully characterize argan oil from bromatological, nutritional, culinary, and technological perspectives. In particular, the scarcity of clinical data hampers relevant conclusions from being drawn regarding the therapeutic effects of virgin argan oil. © 2012 International Life Sciences Institute.

  16. Genotoxic potential and heart rate disorders in the Mediterranean mussel Mytilus galloprovincialis exposed to Superdispersant-25 and dispersed diesel oil.

    PubMed

    Martinović, Rajko; Kolarević, Stoimir; Kračun-Kolarević, Margareta; Kostić, Jovana; Marković, Sandra; Gačić, Zoran; Kljajić, Zoran; Vuković-Gačić, Branka

    2015-07-01

    The effects of ex situ exposure of Mytilus galloprovincialis to Superdispersant-25 (S-25), diesel oil and dispersed diesel oil mixtures were studied by the impact on level of DNA damage in haemocytes (comet assay) and the cardiac activity patterns of mussels. Specimens were exposed for 72 h in a static system to diesel oil (100 μL/L and 1 mL/L), S-25 (5 and 50 μL/L), and dispersed diesel oil mixtures M1 (diesel oil 100 μL/L + S-25 5 μL/L) and M2 (diesel oil 1 mL/L + S-25 50 μL/L). For positive control 40 μM CdCl2 was used. The comet assay results indicated genotoxic potential of S-25 while the effects of diesel oil alone were not observed. The highest response was detected for M1 while the effects of M2 were not detected. The heart rate disorders were recorded for the diesel oil (1 mL/L), S-25 (50 μL/L) and both dispersed diesel oil mixtures.

  17. Effect of essential oils on Aspergillus spore germination, growth and mycotoxin production: a potential source of botanical food preservative

    PubMed Central

    Gemeda, Negero; Woldeamanuel, Yimtubezinash; Asrat, Daniel; Debella, Asfaw

    2014-01-01

    Objective To investigate effect of essential oils on Aspergillus spore germination, growth and mycotoxin production. Method In vitro antifungal and antiaflatoxigenic activity of essential oils was carried out using poisoned food techniques, spore germination assay, agar dilution assay, and aflatoxin arresting assay on toxigenic strains of Aspergillus species. Results Cymbopogon martinii, Foeniculum vulgare and Trachyspermum ammi (T. ammi) essential oils were tested against toxicogenic isolates of Aspergillus species. T. ammi oil showed highest antifungal activity. Absolute mycelial inhibition was recorded at 1 µl/mL by essential oils of T. ammi. The oil also showed, complete inhibition of spore germination at a concentration of 2 µl/mL. In addition, T. ammi oil showed significant antiaflatoxigenic potency by totally inhibiting aflatoxin production from Aspergillus niger and Aspergillus flavus at 0.5 and 0.75 µl/mL, respectively. Cymbopogon martinii, Foeniculum vulgare and T. ammi oils as antifungal were found superior over synthetic preservative. Moreover, a concentration of 5 336.297 µl/kg body weight was recorded for LC50 on mice indicating the low mammalian toxicity and strengthening its traditional reputations. Conclusions In conclusion, the essential oils from T. ammi can be a potential source of safe natural food preservative for food commodities contamination by storage fungi. PMID:25183114

  18. Effect of essential oils on Aspergillus spore germination, growth and mycotoxin production: a potential source of botanical food preservative.

    PubMed

    Gemeda, Negero; Woldeamanuel, Yimtubezinash; Asrat, Daniel; Debella, Asfaw

    2014-05-01

    To investigate effect of essential oils on Aspergillus spore germination, growth and mycotoxin production. In vitro antifungal and antiaflatoxigenic activity of essential oils was carried out using poisoned food techniques, spore germination assay, agar dilution assay, and aflatoxin arresting assay on toxigenic strains of Aspergillus species. Cymbopogon martinii, Foeniculum vulgare and Trachyspermum ammi (T. ammi) essential oils were tested against toxicogenic isolates of Aspergillus species. T. ammi oil showed highest antifungal activity. Absolute mycelial inhibition was recorded at 1 µl/mL by essential oils of T. ammi. The oil also showed, complete inhibition of spore germination at a concentration of 2 µl/mL. In addition, T. ammi oil showed significant antiaflatoxigenic potency by totally inhibiting aflatoxin production from Aspergillus niger and Aspergillus flavus at 0.5 and 0.75 µl/mL, respectively. Cymbopogon martinii, Foeniculum vulgare and T. ammi oils as antifungal were found superior over synthetic preservative. Moreover, a concentration of 5 336.297 µl/kg body weight was recorded for LC50 on mice indicating the low mammalian toxicity and strengthening its traditional reputations. In conclusion, the essential oils from T. ammi can be a potential source of safe natural food preservative for food commodities contamination by storage fungi.

  19. Acaricidal Potentials of the Terpene-rich Essential Oils of Two Iranian Eucalyptus Species against Tetranychus urticae Koch.

    PubMed

    Ebadollahi, Asgar; Sendi, Jalal Jalali; Maroufpoor, Mostafa; Rahimi-Nasrabadi, Mehdi

    2017-03-01

    There is a rapid growth in the screening of plant materials for finding new bio-pesticides. In the present study, the essential oils of E. oleosa and E. torquata leaves were extracted using a Clevenger apparatus and their chemical profiles were investigated by Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry (GC-MS). Among identified compounds, the terpenes had highest amount for both essential oils; 93.59% for E. oleosa and 97.69% for E. torquata. 1,8-Cineole (31.96%), α-pinene (15.25%) and trans-anethole (7.32%) in the essential oil of E. oleosa and 1,8-cineole (28.57%), α-pinene (15.74%) and globulol (13.11%) in the E. torquata essential oil were identified as the main components. The acaricidal activity of the essential oils of E. oleosa and E. torquata were examined using fumigation methods against the adult females of Tetranychus urticae Koch. The essential oils have potential acaricidal effects on T. urticae. The essential oil of E. oleosa with LC50 value of 2.42 µL/L air was stronger than E. torquata. A correlation between log concentration and mite mortality has been observed. Based on the results of present study, it can be stated that the essential oils of E. oleosa and E. torquata have a worthy potential in the management of T. urticae.

  20. Antimicrobial activity of essential oil components against potential food spoilage microorganisms.

    PubMed

    Klein, G; Rüben, C; Upmann, M

    2013-08-01

    The antimicrobial activity of six essential oil components against the potential food spoilage bacteria Aeromonas (A.) hydrophila, Escherichia (E.) coli, Brochothrix (B.) thermosphacta, and Pseudomonas (P.) fragi at single use and in combination with each other was investigated. At single use, the most effective oil components were thymol (bacteriostatic effect starting from 40 ppm, bactericidal effect with 100 ppm) and carvacrol (50 ppm/100 ppm), followed by linalool (180 ppm/720 ppm), α-pinene (400 ppm/no bactericidal effect), 1,8-cineol (1,400 ppm/2,800 ppm), and α-terpineol (600 ppm/no bactericidal effect). Antimicrobial effects occurred only at high, sensorial not acceptable concentrations. The most susceptible bacterium was A. hydrophila, followed by B. thermosphacta and E. coli. Most of the essential oil component combinations tested showed a higher antimicrobial effect than tested at single use. Antagonistic antimicrobial effects were observed particularly against B. thermosphacta, rarely against A. hydrophila. The results show that the concentration of at least one of the components necessary for an antibacterial effect is higher than sensorial acceptable. So the use of herbs with a high content of thymol, carvacrol, linalool, 1,8-cineol, α-pinene or α-terpineol alone or in combination must be weighted against sensorial quality.

  1. Bioactive lipids, radical scavenging potential, and antimicrobial properties of cold pressed clove (Syzygium aromaticum) oil.

    PubMed

    Assiri, Adel Mohamad Ali; Hassanien, Mohamed F R

    2013-11-01

    Health promoting cold pressed oils may improve human health and prevent certain diseases. It is hard to find any research concerning the composition and functional properties of cold pressed clove (Syzygium aromaticum) oil (CO). Cold pressed CO was evaluated for its lipid classes, fatty acid profiles, and tocol contents. In addition, antiradical and antimicrobial properties of CO were evaluated. The amounts of neutral lipids in CO was the highest (∼94.7% of total lipids), followed by glycolipids and phospholipids. The main fatty acids in CO were linoleic and oleic, which comprise together ∼80% of total fatty acids. Stearic and palmitic acids were the main saturated fatty acids. α- and γ-tocopherols and δ-tocotrienol were the main detected tocols. CO had higher antiradical action against DPPH• and galvinoxyl radicals than virgin olive oil. The results of antimicrobial properties revealed that CO inhibited the growth of all tested microorganisms. CO had a drastic effect on the biosynthesis of proteins and lipids in cells of Bacillus subtilis. In consideration of potential utilization, detailed knowledge on the composition and functional properties of CO is of major importance.

  2. A potential tocopherol acetate loaded palm oil esters-in-water nanoemulsions for nanocosmeceuticals

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Cosmeceuticals are cosmetic-pharmaceutical hybrids intended to enhance health and beauty of the skin. Nanocosmeceuticals use nano-sized system for the delivery of active ingredients to the targeted cells for better penetration. In this work, nanoemulsion from palm oil esters was developed as a delivery system to produce nanocosmeceuticals. The stability of the resulting formulation was tested using various methods. In addition, the effect of components i.e. Vitamin E and Pluronic F-68 on the formulation was also studied. Results Both vitamin E and Pluronic F-68 were found to co-emulsify and co-stabilized the formulations. The best formulation was found to be the one having the composition of 10% Palm Oil Esters (POEs), 10% vitamin E, 24% Tween 80, 2.4% Pluronic F-68 and 53.6% deionised water. Those compositions are considered to be the best as a nanocosmeceutical product due to the small particle size (94.21 nm), low occurrence of Ostwald ripening and stable at different storing temperatures (5, 25 and 45°C) for four weeks. Conclusions Palm oil esters-in-water nanoemulsions loaded with vitamin E was successfully formulated and has the potential for the use as nanocosmeceuticals. PMID:20178581

  3. Low anti-ulcerogenic potentials of essential oils and methanolic extract of Croton zambesicus leaves

    PubMed Central

    Akinlolu, Adelaja Abdulazeez; Kamaldeen, Ghazali Olaide; Francis, Deborah; Ameen, Mubarak Oloduowo

    2014-01-01

    Objective: This study evaluated the anti-ulcer properties of Croton zambesicus leaves. Materials and Methods: Group I was control. 40 mg/kg/bodyweight of indomethacin (the ulcerogen) was administered to rats of Groups II-VII. 4 h after administrations of ulcerogen; rats of Groups III-VII were treated daily with oral administrations of 40 mg/kg/bodyweight of omeprazole, 5 and 10 mg/kg/bodyweight of essential oils, 250 and 500 mg/kg bodyweight of methanolic extract of C. zambesicus leaves respectively for 4 days. Rats were euthanized on day 1 (Group II) and day 5 (Groups I and III-VII); thereafter, stomach and liver samples were removed for evaluations of gastric acidity, histopathological and alanine aminotransferase (ALT) status. Results: Analyses of gastric acid assays and histopathological examinations showed dose-dependent statistically significant higher levels (P ≤ 0.05) of gastric acidity and non-restorations of the gastric mucosa layer to pre-ulceration states in rats of Groups IV-VII treated with extract doses when compared to Group III. Statistically non-significant (Group IV) or significant (Groups V-VII) higher ALT levels (P ≤ 0.05) were observed in liver samples of rats treated with doses of essential oils and methanolic extract of C. zambesicus leaves when compared to Group II. Conclusion: Our study observed low anti-ulcerogenic potentials of doses of essential oils and methanolic extracts of C. zambesicus leaves. PMID:26401355

  4. Potential of Essential Oil-Based Pesticides and Detergents for Bed Bug Control.

    PubMed

    Singh, Narinderpal; Wang, Changlu; Cooper, Richard

    2014-12-01

    The bed bug, (Cimex lectularius L.), is a difficult pest to control. Prevalence of insecticide resistance among bed bug populations and concerns over human-insecticide exposure has stimulated the development of alternative bed bug control materials. Many essential oil-based pesticides and detergent insecticides targeting bed bugs have been developed in recent years. We evaluated the efficacy of nine essential oil-based products and two detergents using direct spray and residual contact bioassays in the laboratory. Two conventional insecticides, Temprid SC (imidacloprid and β-cyfluthrin) and Demand CS (λ-cyhalothrin), were used for comparison. Among the 11 nonsynthetic insecticides tested, only EcoRaider (1% geraniol, 1% cedar extract, and 2% sodium lauryl sulfate) and Bed Bug Patrol (0.003% clove oil, 1% peppermint oil, and 1.3% sodium lauryl sulfate) caused >90% mortality of nymphs in direct spray and forced exposure residual assays. However, the efficacy of EcoRaider and Bed Bug Patrol was significantly lower than that of Temprid SC and Demand CS in choice exposure residual bioassay. Direct spray of EcoRaider caused 87% egg mortality, whereas the other nonsynthetic insecticides had little effect on bed bug eggs. EcoRaider and Bed Bug Patrol did not exhibit detectable repellency against bed bugs in the presence of a carbon dioxide source. These findings suggest that EcoRaider and Bed Bug Patrol are potentially useful pesticides for controlling bed bug infestations, but further testing in naturally infested environments is needed. © 2014 Entomological Society of America.

  5. Nanostructured systems containing babassu (Orbignya speciosa) oil as a potential alternative therapy for benign prostatic hyperplasia

    PubMed Central

    de Sousa, Valeria Pereira; Crean, Joanne; de Almeida Borges, Vinícius Raphael; Rodrigues, Carlos Rangel; Tajber, Lidia; Boylan, Fabio; Cabral, Lucio Mendes

    2013-01-01

    The oil of babassu tree nuts (Orbignya speciosa) is a potential alternative for treatment and prophylaxis of benign prostatic hyperplasia. Improved results can be obtained by drug vectorization to the hyperplastic tissue. The main objective of this work was the preparation and characterization of poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) nanoparticle and clay nanosystems containing babassu oil (BBS). BBS was extracted from the kernels of babassu tree nuts and characterized by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry as well as 1H and 13C nuclear magnetic resonance. BBS-clay nanosystems were obtained by adding polyvinylpyrrolidone, Viscogel B8®, and BBS at a 2:1:1 mass ratio and characterized by X-ray diffraction, thermogravimetric analysis, infrared spectroscopy, and laser diffraction. The PLGA-BBS nanoparticles were prepared by the precipitation-solvent evaporation method. Mean diameter, polydispersity, zeta potential, and scanning electron microscopic images of the nanosystems were analyzed. Thermogravimetric analysis showed successful formation of the nanocomposite. PLGA nanoparticles containing BBS were obtained, with a suitable size that was confirmed by scanning electron microscopy. Both nanostructured systems showed active incorporation yields exceeding 90%. The two systems obtained represent a new and potentially efficient therapy for benign prostatic hyperplasia. PMID:23990721

  6. Geothermal test hints at oil potential in eastern Arizona volcanic field

    SciTech Connect

    Rauzi, S.L. )

    1993-01-03

    A recently drilled geothermal well, funded by the US Department of Energy and the Arizona Department of Commerce, has provided information about the geology of east-central Arizona and west-central New Mexico. Tonto Drilling Services in cooperation with New Mexico State University completed the well, the 1 Alpine-Federal, at a total depth of 4,505 ft. The well is located among volcanic rocks in the Apache-Sitgreaves National Forest about 6 miles north of the town of Alpine and 6.2 miles west of the Arizona-New Mexico line. The well was drilled to determine the hot dry rock geothermal potential of Precambrian rocks. The operator expected to penetrate Precambrian at about 4,200 ft, but the hole was still in Permian rocks at that depth and was in a mafic dike that intruded the Permian rocks at the total depth of 4,505 ft. The hole did show that Cretaceous and Permian strata contain potentially important source rocks for oil and gas that are apparently unaffected by nearby volcanism. These potential oil source rocks are the focus of this article.

  7. Effect of Mentha x piperita essential oil and monoterpenes on cucumber root membrane potential.

    PubMed

    Maffei, M; Camusso, W; Sacco, S

    2001-11-01

    Peppermint (Mentha piperita L.) essential oil and its main components were assessed for their ability to interfere with plant plasma membrane potentials. Tests were conducted on root segments isolated from etiolated seedlings of cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.). Increasing the concentration of peppermint essential oil from 5 to 50 ppm caused a decrease in membrane potential (Vm) hyperpolarization of 10-3 mV, whereas concentrations from 100 up to 900 ppm caused an increasing depolarization of Vm (from 5 to 110 mV). When tested at 300 ppm, (+)-menthyl acetate, (-)-limonene and 1,8-cineole did not exert any significant effect on V(m), whereas (+)-menthofuran (73 mV), (+)-pulegone (85 mV), (+)-neomenthol (96 mV), (-)-menthol (105 mV) and (-)-menthone (111 mV) showed increased ability to depolarize V(m). A plot of log of octanol-water partition coefficient (K(ow)) against their depolarizing effect showed a significant negative correlation, suggesting that among all monoterpenoids increased membrane depolarization depends on lower K(ow). However, among monoterpene ketones, alcohols and furans, increased membrane depolarization is associated with a decline in water solubility. The possible effect of monoterpenoids on membrane ion fluxes is also discussed, since changes in the bioelectric potential of cells imply changes in the flux of ions across the plasma membrane

  8. Potential oil and gas resources of the Arctic National Wildlife Refuge in Alaska: 1002 area

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bird, K.J.

    2000-01-01

    A geologist with extensive experience in the study of northern Alaska's petroleum resources provides an overview of the first comprehensive reassessment of the petroleum potential of section 1002 of the Arctic National Wildlife Refuge since the original study of 1987. The paper surveys the region's geology, and provides a description of the methods employed and assessment results. The current resource is compared with that estimated in the original study, and is considerably larger, given the availability of new geologic and geophysical data, improved seismic processing and interpretation capabilities, and changes in the economics of North Slope oil development.

  9. Assessment of the potential for long-term toxicological effects of the Exxon Valdez oil spill on birds and mammals

    SciTech Connect

    Hartung, R.

    1995-12-31

    This paper assesses the potential for direct long-term toxicological effects of exposures to oils in birds and mammals by tracing exposures and effects form the initial cute phases through the sub-chronic to the eventual long-term exposures. The immediate effects of oil spills are physical, the oil acting on the plumage of birds or the fur of mammals. This causes a loss of entrained air and a concomitant reduction in buoyancy and thermal insulation. Animals that escape the immediate impacts may be isolated from their food supply and often ingest large amounts of oil while attempting to clean themselves. At the comparatively high dose levels involved, these exposures can result in toxicologically significant responses in many organ systems. In the course of an oil pollution incident, the amounts of biologically available oils decrease steadily, and simultaneously the composition of the oils shifts towards those components that have low volatility, and that resist photo- and bio-degradation. As this occurs, the primary pathways of exposure change from direct intakes to indirect routes involving the food supply. Although laboratory studies often report finding some adverse effects, the dose rates employed in many of these studies are extremely high when compared with those that are potentially available to animals in the wild, and very few actually use weathered oils. An assessment of the toxicological literature and of the available empirical data on the Exxon Valdez oil spill leads to the conclusion that long-term sub-lethal toxic effects of crude oils on wildlife in such marine spills appear to be very unlikely. 111 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab.

  10. The polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon degradation potential of Gulf of Mexico native coastal microbial communities after the Deepwater Horizon oil spill

    PubMed Central

    Kappell, Anthony D.; Wei, Yin; Newton, Ryan J.; Van Nostrand, Joy D.; Zhou, Jizhong; McLellan, Sandra L.; Hristova, Krassimira R.

    2014-01-01

    The Deepwater Horizon (DWH) blowout resulted in oil transport, including polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) to the Gulf of Mexico shoreline. The microbial communities of these shorelines are thought to be responsible for the intrinsic degradation of PAHs. To investigate the Gulf Coast beach microbial community response to hydrocarbon exposure, we examined the functional gene diversity, bacterial community composition, and PAH degradation capacity of a heavily oiled and non-oiled beach following the oil exposure. With a non-expression functional gene microarray targeting 539 gene families, we detected 28,748 coding sequences. Of these sequences, 10% were uniquely associated with the severely oil-contaminated beach and 6.0% with the non-oiled beach. There was little variation in the functional genes detected between the two beaches; however the relative abundance of functional genes involved in oil degradation pathways, including polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), were greater in the oiled beach. The microbial PAH degradation potentials of both beaches, were tested in mesocosms. Mesocosms were constructed in glass columns using sands with native microbial communities, circulated with artificial sea water and challenged with a mixture of PAHs. The low-molecular weight PAHs, fluorene and naphthalene, showed rapid depletion in all mesocosms while the high-molecular weight benzo[α]pyrene was not degraded by either microbial community. Both the heavily oiled and the non-impacted coastal communities showed little variation in their biodegradation ability for low molecular weight PAHs. Massively-parallel sequencing of 16S rRNA genes from mesocosm DNA showed that known PAH degraders and genera frequently associated with oil hydrocarbon degradation represented a major portion of the bacterial community. The observed similar response by microbial communities from beaches with a different recent history of oil exposure suggests that Gulf Coast beach communities are

  11. The polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon degradation potential of Gulf of Mexico native coastal microbial communities after the Deepwater Horizon oil spill.

    PubMed

    Kappell, Anthony D; Wei, Yin; Newton, Ryan J; Van Nostrand, Joy D; Zhou, Jizhong; McLellan, Sandra L; Hristova, Krassimira R

    2014-01-01

    The Deepwater Horizon (DWH) blowout resulted in oil transport, including polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) to the Gulf of Mexico shoreline. The microbial communities of these shorelines are thought to be responsible for the intrinsic degradation of PAHs. To investigate the Gulf Coast beach microbial community response to hydrocarbon exposure, we examined the functional gene diversity, bacterial community composition, and PAH degradation capacity of a heavily oiled and non-oiled beach following the oil exposure. With a non-expression functional gene microarray targeting 539 gene families, we detected 28,748 coding sequences. Of these sequences, 10% were uniquely associated with the severely oil-contaminated beach and 6.0% with the non-oiled beach. There was little variation in the functional genes detected between the two beaches; however the relative abundance of functional genes involved in oil degradation pathways, including polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), were greater in the oiled beach. The microbial PAH degradation potentials of both beaches, were tested in mesocosms. Mesocosms were constructed in glass columns using sands with native microbial communities, circulated with artificial sea water and challenged with a mixture of PAHs. The low-molecular weight PAHs, fluorene and naphthalene, showed rapid depletion in all mesocosms while the high-molecular weight benzo[α]pyrene was not degraded by either microbial community. Both the heavily oiled and the non-impacted coastal communities showed little variation in their biodegradation ability for low molecular weight PAHs. Massively-parallel sequencing of 16S rRNA genes from mesocosm DNA showed that known PAH degraders and genera frequently associated with oil hydrocarbon degradation represented a major portion of the bacterial community. The observed similar response by microbial communities from beaches with a different recent history of oil exposure suggests that Gulf Coast beach communities are

  12. Thermal conductivity and electrical properties of hybrid SiO2-graphene naphthenic mineral oil nanofluid as potential transformer oil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qing, Soo Hui; Rashmi, W.; Khalid, M.; Gupta, T. C. S. M.; Nabipoor, M.; Taghi Hajibeigy, Mohammad

    2017-01-01

    Hybrid SiO2-graphene nanoparticles were synthesised by sol gel centrifugation technique under four different pH levels ranging from 9 to 12. Stability, thermal conductivity, viscosity and electrical conductivity of hybrid SiO2-graphene and pure graphene dispersed in naphthenic oil were investigated. Nanofluids were synthesied at three different nanoparticle concentrations (0.01, 0.04 and 0.08 wt%) while the temperature was varied from 20 °C to 100 °C. Field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM), x-ray spectroscopy and Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectrometer show successful coating of SiO2 on graphene surface. The growth units and size distribution of SiO2 nanoparticles increased with pH level. Moreover, the presence of SiO2 improved the dispersion behaviour of the nanofluid as confirmed by visual observation and UV-Vis studies. Zeta potential measurements show the hybrid nanofluids at pH 11 are most stable due to its optimum amount and size of SiO2 coated on graphene surface while at pH 12 shows least stability due to precipitation. The presence of SiO2 on graphene further enhanced the thermal conductivity by 80% at pH 9. Also, the viscosity of hybrid nanofluids was higher than pure graphene based nanofluids due to increase in density and particle size. Moreover, the addition of hybrid SiO2-graphene nanoparticles significantly reduced the electrical conductivity enhancement of base fluid from 557% to 97%.

  13. In vitro decreases of the fibrinolytic potential of cultured human fibrosarcoma cell line, HT1080, by Nigella sativa oil.

    PubMed

    Awad, E M

    2005-01-01

    It is generally accepted that the fibrinolytic potential of tumor cells is related to their malignant phenotype. In the present study, Nigella sativa oil (NSO) was studied to evaluate its effect on the fibrinolytic potential of the fibosarcoma cell line HT1080 to elucidate whether this oil might have an antitumor activity through its modulation of the fibrinolytic potential of such cells. NSO produced a concentration-dependent inhibition of tissue-type plasminogen activator (t-PA), urokinase-type plasminogen activator (u-PA) and plasminogen activator inhibitor type 1 (PAI-1). When subconfluent HT1080 cells were conditioned with oil, a concentration (0.0-200 microg oil/ml)-dependent decrease in t-PA, u-PA and PAI-1 antigen was observed. There was also a concentration-dependent decrease (from 0.0 to 112.5 microg oil/ml) in the confluent cultures. The results showed that blackseed oil decreases the fibrinolytic potential of the human fibrosarcoma cell line (HT1080) in vitro, implying that inhibition of local tumor invasion and metastasis may be one such mechanism.

  14. Potential of biologically active plant oils to control mosquito larvae (Culex pipiens, Diptera: Culicidae) from an Egyptian locality.

    PubMed

    Khater, Hanem Fathy; Shalaby, Afaf Abdel-Salam

    2008-01-01

    The insecticidal effect of six commercially available plant oils was tested against 4th larval instars of Culex pipiens. Larvae were originally collected from Meit El-Attar, Qalyubia Governorate, Egypt, and then reared in the laboratory until F1 generation. The LC50 values were 32.42, 47.17, 71.37, 83.36, 86.06, and 152.94 ppm for fenugreek (Trigonella foenum-grecum), earth almond (Cyperus esculentus), mustard (Brassica compestris), olibanum (Boswellia serrata), rocket (Eruca sativa), and parsley (Carum ptroselinum), respectively. The tested oils altered some biological aspects of C. pipiens, for instance, developmental periods, pupation rates, and adult emergences. The lowest concentrations of olibanum and fenugreek oils caused remarkable prolongation of larval and pupal durations. Data also showed that the increase of concentrations was directly proportional to reduction in pupation rates and adult emergences. Remarkable decrease in pupation rate was achieved by mustard oil at 1000 ppm. Adult emergence was suppressed by earth almond and fenugreek oils at 25 ppm. In addition, the tested plant oils exhibited various morphological abnormalities on larvae, pupae, and adult stages. Consequently, fenugreek was the most potent oil and the major cause of malformation of both larval and pupal stages. Potency of the applied plant oils provided an excellent potential for controlling C. pipiens.

  15. Exploring the antioxidant potential of lignin isolated from black liquor of oil palm waste.

    PubMed

    Bhat, Rajeev; Khalil, H P S A; Karim, A A

    2009-09-01

    This study was conducted to evaluate the potential antioxidant activity of lignin obtained from black liquor, a hazardous waste product generated during the extraction of palm oil. Antioxidant potential of the extracted lignin was evaluated by dissolving the extracted samples in 2 different solvent systems, namely, 2-methoxy ethanol and DMSO. Results revealed high percent inhibition of the 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical in the lignin sample dissolved in 2-methoxy ethanol over DMSO (concentration range of 1-100 microg/ml). Lignin extracted in 2-methoxy ethanol exhibited higher inhibition percentage (at 50 microg/ml, 84.2%), whereas a concentration of 100 microg/ml was found to be effective in the case of the DMSO solvent (69.8%). Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectrometry revealed that the functional groups from the extracted lignin and commercial lignin were highly similar, indicating the purity of the lignin extracted from black liquor. These results provide a strong basis for further applications of lignin in the food industry and also illustrate an eco-friendly approach to utilize oil palm black liquor.

  16. Estimation of Potential Availability of Essential Oil in Some Brands of Herbal Teas and Herbal Dietary Supplements

    PubMed Central

    Kowalski, Radosław; Baj, Tomasz; Kowalska, Grażyna; Pankiewicz, Urszula

    2015-01-01

    Introduction The aim of the study was to estimate potential availability of essential oil in some brands of herbal products. Methods A comparison was performed on the basis of the essential oil yield in the unprocessed raw materials such as leaves of peppermint and lemon balm and inflorescence of chamomile as well as herbal tea bags and in dietary supplements. The yield of essential oil was determined by distillation. Essential oil was analyzed by GC-FID and GC-MS. Results It was found that the average potential availability of essential oils in the products such as dietary supplements for the doses recommended by the producers is lower than in the corresponding tea infusions: for peppermint formulations approximately 6-fold lower, for the formulations with lemon balm about 4-fold lower, and for the chamomile preparations about 3-fold lower. It was found that essential oils extracted from herbal teas have a similar chemical profile with characteristic deviations in the amount of individual components, which arise from the origin of the raw material. Discussion In contrast to homogenous pharmaceutical herbal mixtures consistent with, the Pharmacopoeia requirements, herbal teas (available in grocery stores) and dietary supplements are often out of control in terms of the yield and composition of the essential oil, which is primarily responsible for the health benefits and aromatic qualities of these products. Analysis of the composition of the dietary supplements showed that they contain on average significantly lower amounts of plant material compared to the herbal teas. PMID:26110869

  17. Physical, antibacterial and antioxidant properties of chitosan films incorporated with thyme oil for potential wound healing applications.

    PubMed

    Altiok, Duygu; Altiok, Evren; Tihminlioglu, Funda

    2010-07-01

    Chitosan films incorporated with thyme oil for potential applications of wound dressing were successfully prepared by solvent casting method. The water vapor permeability, oxygen transmission rate, and mechanical properties of the films were determined. Surface and cross-section morphologies and the film thicknesses were determined by Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM). Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy was conducted to determine functional group interactions between the chitosan and thyme oil. Thermal behaviors of the films were analyzed by Thermal Gravimetry (TGA) and Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC). In addition, the antimicrobial and the antioxidant activities of the films were investigated. The antimicrobial test was carried by agar diffusion method and the growth inhibition effects of the films including different amount of thyme oil were tested on the gram negative microorganisms of Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and a gram positive microorganism of Staphylococcus aureus. The minimum thyme oil concentration in chitosan films showing the antimicrobial activity on all microorganisms used in the study was found as 1.2 % (v/v). In addition, this concentration showed the highest antioxidant activity due to mainly the carvacrol in thyme oil. Water vapor permeability and oxygen transmission rate of the films slightly increased, however, mechanical properties decreased with thyme oil incorporation. The results revealed that the thyme oil has a good potential to be incorporated into chitosan to make antibacterial and permeable films for wound healing applications.

  18. Estimation of Potential Availability of Essential Oil in Some Brands of Herbal Teas and Herbal Dietary Supplements.

    PubMed

    Kowalski, Radosław; Baj, Tomasz; Kowalska, Grażyna; Pankiewicz, Urszula

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the study was to estimate potential availability of essential oil in some brands of herbal products. A comparison was performed on the basis of the essential oil yield in the unprocessed raw materials such as leaves of peppermint and lemon balm and inflorescence of chamomile as well as herbal tea bags and in dietary supplements. The yield of essential oil was determined by distillation. Essential oil was analyzed by GC-FID and GC-MS. It was found that the average potential availability of essential oils in the products such as dietary supplements for the doses recommended by the producers is lower than in the corresponding tea infusions: for peppermint formulations approximately 6-fold lower, for the formulations with lemon balm about 4-fold lower, and for the chamomile preparations about 3-fold lower. It was found that essential oils extracted from herbal teas have a similar chemical profile with characteristic deviations in the amount of individual components, which arise from the origin of the raw material. In contrast to homogenous pharmaceutical herbal mixtures consistent with, the Pharmacopoeia requirements, herbal teas (available in grocery stores) and dietary supplements are often out of control in terms of the yield and composition of the essential oil, which is primarily responsible for the health benefits and aromatic qualities of these products. Analysis of the composition of the dietary supplements showed that they contain on average significantly lower amounts of plant material compared to the herbal teas.

  19. Potential of Ocimum basilicum L. and Salvia officinalis L. essential oils against biofilms of P. aeruginosa clinical isolates.

    PubMed

    Stojanović-Radić, Z; Pejcić, M; Stojanović, N; Sharifi-Rad, J; Stanković, N

    2016-08-29

    Biofilms are complex communities of microorganisms, responsible for more than 60% of the chronic human infections and they represent one of the leading concerns in medicine. Pseudomonas aeruginosa is human pathogenic bacteria which causes numerous diseases and is known for its ability to produce biofilm. Ocimum basilicum L. (basil) and Salvia officinalis L. (sage) are widely used plants in traditional medicine for the treatment of different conditions. Therefore, the aim of this study was to investigate the potential of basil and sage essential oils against P. aeruginosa biofilm producing strains. The efficacy of two essential oils on P. aeruginosa biofilm forming ability was determined using crystal violet method. Out of 15 strains isolated from different clinical biological samples, two were strong, 11 moderate and one weak biofilm producer. Good efficacy of sage essential oil towards strong and weak biofilm producers, but not of basil essential oil, was observed. In the case of moderate biofilm producers, 81.8% showed lower biofilm production after incubation with the sage oil, while 63.6% showed the reduction of biofilm production after basil essential oil treatment. The obtained results showed high potential of both oils for the treatment of persistent infections caused by Pseudomonas aeruginosa biofilms.

  20. Phenolic Extracts from Wild Olive Leaves and Their Potential as Edible Oils Antioxidants

    PubMed Central

    Lafka, Theodora-Ioanna; Lazou, Andriana E.; Sinanoglou, Vassilia J.; Lazos, Evangelos S.

    2013-01-01

    The kinetics solid-liquid extraction of phenolics from wild olive leaves was elaborated using different mathematical models (Peleg, second order, Elovich, and power law model). As solvents, methanol, ethanol, ethanol:water 1:1, n-propanol, isopropanol and ethyl acetate were used. The second order model best described the solvent extraction process, followed by the Elovich model. The most effective solvent was ethanol with optimum phenol extraction conditions 180 min, solvent to sample ratio 5:1 v/w and pH 2. Ethanol extract exhibited the highest antiradical activity among solvent and supercritical fluid extraction (SFE) extracts, which in addition showed the highest antioxidant capacity compared to synthetic and natural food antioxidants such as BHT, ascorbyl palmitate and vitamin E. Antioxidant potential of SFE extract was quite high, although its phenolic potential was not. Leaf extracts were proven to be good protectors for olive and sunflower oils at levels of 150 ppm. PMID:28239093

  1. Photovoltaic systems for export application. Informal report

    SciTech Connect

    Duffy, J.; Campbell, H.; Sajo, A.; Sanz, E.

    1988-01-31

    One approach to improving the competitiveness of photovoltaic systems is the development of designs specifically for export applications. In other words, where is it appropriate in a system design to incorporate components manufactured and/or assembled in the receiving country in order to improve the photovoltaic exports from the US? What appears to be needed is a systematic method of evaluating the potential for export from the US of PV systems for various application in different countries. Development of such a method was the goal of this project.

  2. Exporting licensing regulations affecting US geothermal firms

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1988-08-01

    This document presents a brief introduction and overview of the Department of Commerce's Export Administration Regulations which might affect potential US geothermal goods exporters. It is intended to make US geothermal firms officials aware of the existence of such regulations and to provide them with references, contacts and phone numbers where they can obtain specific and detailed information and assistance. It must be stressed however, that the ultimate responsibility for complying with the above mentioned regulations lies with the exporter who must consult the complete version of the regulations.

  3. Anaerobic thermophilic bacteria isolated from a Venezuelan oil field and its potential use in microbial improved oil recovery

    SciTech Connect

    Trebbau, G.; Fernandez, B.; Marin, A.

    1995-12-31

    The objective of this work is to determine the ability of indigenous bacteria from a Venezuelan oil field to grow under reservoir conditions inside a porous media, and to produce metabolites capable of recovering residual crude oil. For this purpose, samples of formation waters from a central-eastern Venezuelan oil reservoir were enriched with different carbon sources and a mineral basal media. Formation water was used as a source of trace metals. The enrichments obtained were incubated at reservoir temperature (71{degrees}C), reservoir pressure (1,200 psi), and under anaerobic conditions for both outside and inside porous media (Berea core). Growth and metabolic activity was followed outside porous media by measuring absorbance at 660 nm, increases in pressure, and decreases in pH. Inside porous media bacterial activity was determined by visual examination of the produced waters (gas bubbles and bacterial cells). All the carbohydrates tested outside porous media showed good growth at reservoir conditions. The pH was lowered, gases such as CO{sub 2} and CH{sub 4} were identified by GC. Surface tension was lowered in some enrichments by 30% when compared to controls. Growth was decreased inside porous media, but gases were produced and helped displace oil. In addition, 10% residual oil was recovered from the Berea core. Mathematical modeling was applied to the laboratory coreflood experiment to evaluate the reproducibility of the results obtained.

  4. Identifying potential conflict associated with oil and gas exploration in Texas state coastal waters: A multicriteria spatial analysis.

    PubMed

    Brody, Samuel D; Grover, Himanshu; Bernhardt, Sarah; Tang, Zhenghong; Whitaker, Bianca; Spence, Colin

    2006-10-01

    Recent interest in expanding offshore oil production within waters of the United States has been met with opposition by groups concerned with recreational, environmental, and aesthetic values associated with the coastal zone. Although the proposition of new oil platforms off the coast has generated conflict over how coastal resources should be utilized, little research has been conducted on where these user conflicts might be most intense and which sites might be most suitable for locating oil production facilities in light of the multiple, and often times, competing interests. In this article, we develop a multiple-criteria spatial decision support tool that identifies the potential degree of conflict associated with oil and gas production activities for existing lease tracts in the coastal margin of Texas. We use geographic information systems to measure and map a range of potentially competing representative values impacted by establishing energy extraction infrastructure and then spatially identify which leased tracts are the least contentious sites for oil and gas production in Texas state waters. Visual and statistical results indicate that oil and gas lease blocks within the study area vary in their potential to generate conflict among multiple stakeholders.

  5. Identifying Potential Conflict Associated with Oil and Gas Exploration in Texas State Coastal Waters: A Multicriteria Spatial Analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brody, Samuel D.; Grover, Himanshu; Bernhardt, Sarah; Tang, Zhenghong; Whitaker, Bianca; Spence, Colin

    2006-10-01

    Recent interest in expanding offshore oil production within waters of the United States has been met with opposition by groups concerned with recreational, environmental, and aesthetic values associated with the coastal zone. Although the proposition of new oil platforms off the coast has generated conflict over how coastal resources should be utilized, little research has been conducted on where these user conflicts might be most intense and which sites might be most suitable for locating oil production facilities in light of the multiple, and often times, competing interests. In this article, we develop a multiple-criteria spatial decision support tool that identifies the potential degree of conflict associated with oil and gas production activities for existing lease tracts in the coastal margin of Texas. We use geographic information systems to measure and map a range of potentially competing representative values impacted by establishing energy extraction infrastructure and then spatially identify which leased tracts are the least contentious sites for oil and gas production in Texas state waters. Visual and statistical results indicate that oil and gas lease blocks within the study area vary in their potential to generate conflict among multiple stakeholders.

  6. Industrialisation, Exports and Employment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sabolo, Yves

    1980-01-01

    After reviewing trends in industrial production, exports, and employment in the Third World since 1960, the author discusses industrialization strategies based on the local processing of raw materials for export. Such processing has proved to be a major factor in job creation. (Author/SK)

  7. JPL Export Compliance Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Momjian, E.; Lam, C.

    2000-01-01

    The transfer of commodities, software, or technlogies to foreign persons is subject to U.S. export control laws and regulations. These export controls are applicable, regardless of whether the transfer occurs in the U.S. or outside of the U.S.

  8. JPL Export Compliance Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Momjian, E.; Lam, C.

    2000-01-01

    The transfer of commodities, software, or technlogies to foreign persons is subject to U.S. export control laws and regulations. These export controls are applicable, regardless of whether the transfer occurs in the U.S. or outside of the U.S.

  9. Incorporated sarcolemmal fish oil fatty acids shorten pig ventricular action potentials.

    PubMed

    Verkerk, Arie O; van Ginneken, Antoni C G; Berecki, Géza; den Ruijter, Hester M; Schumacher, Cees A; Veldkamp, Marieke W; Baartscheer, Antonius; Casini, Simona; Opthof, Tobias; Hovenier, Robert; Fiolet, Jan W T; Zock, Peter L; Coronel, Ruben

    2006-06-01

    Omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (omega3-PUFAs) from fish oil reduce the risk of sudden death presumably by preventing life-threatening arrhythmias. Acutely administered omega3-PUFAs modulate the activity of several cardiac ion channels, but the chronic effects of a diet enriched with fish oil leading to omega3-PUFA-incorporation into the sarcolemma on membrane currents are unknown. Pigs received a diet either rich in omega3-PUFAs or in omega9-fatty acids for 8 weeks. Ventricular myocytes (VMs) were isolated and used for patch-clamp studies. omega3-VMs contained higher amounts of omega3-PUFAs and had a shorter action potential (AP) with a more negative plateau than control VM. In omega3 VMs, L-type Ca(2+) current (I(Ca,L)) and Na(+)-Ca(2+) exchange current (I(NCX)) were reduced by approximately 20% and 60%, respectively, and inward rectifier K(+) current (I(K1)) and slow delayed rectifier K(+) current (I(Ks)) were increased by approximately 50% and 70%, respectively, compared to control. Densities of rapid delayed rectifier K(+) current, Ca(2+)-activated Cl(-) current, and Na(+) current (I(Na)) were unchanged, although voltage-dependence of I(Na) inactivation was more negative in omega3 VMs. A fish oil diet increases omega3-PUFA content in the ventricular sarcolemma, decreases I(Ca,L) and I(NCX), and increases I(K1) and I(Ks), resulting in AP shortening. Incorporation of omega3-PUFAs in the sarcolemma may have consequences for arrhythmias independent of circulating omega3-PUFAs.

  10. Evaluation of Seawater Intrusion Potential into a Coastal Underground Oil Storage Cavern in Korea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, E.; Lim, J.; Moon, H.; Lee, K.

    2010-12-01

    Underground oil storage caverns have been operated in Korea since 1990s, and the facility at Yeosu, south coast of Korea, is one of the largest underground oil storage facilities in Korea. Hydrologic and water quality monitoring of the facility has been performed to find out whether the facility maintains secure containment condition and long-term stability. Recently, seawater intrusion into the base of the storage cavern was suspected based on the long-term monitoring of water levels and chemical analyses of seepage water pumped out from cavern bottom. The sudden decrease of water pressure during the construction of storage tunnel seems to cause the inland movement of saline water. In this study, numerical analysis was performed to estimate the potential of seawater intrusion into underground oil storage cavern using a three dimensional groundwater simulation model, FEFLOW (Diersch, 2005). The geometry of the cavern and water curtain was represented by using the implemented functions. The groundwater flow field and seawater intrusion in response to construction activity was also estimated. The simulation results were validated by comparing EC and salinity of seepage water monitoring data. Sensitivity analyses on hydraulic conductivity and water pressure from the water curtain or injection well were also conducted. Relatively high groundwater level was observed at this site due to the low hydraulic conductivity of base rock and high altitude of the mountains. Therefore, the amount of intruded seawater does not seem to be significant. However, apparent decrease of water level was observed along the main fracture zone and seawater could be intruded along these paths. Simulation results show that the seawater intrusion to the cavern is mainly controlled by the fracture zone, which would be the main channel of groundwater movement. The injection of fresh water to the injection wells along the coast may retard the intrusion of seawater.

  11. Lipase-catalyzed biodiesel production and quality with Jatropha curcas oil: exploring its potential for Central America.

    PubMed

    Bueso, Francisco; Moreno, Luis; Cedeño, Mathew; Manzanarez, Karla

    2015-01-01

    Extensive native Jatropha curcas L. (Jatropha) crop areas have been planted in Central America marginal lands since 2008 as a non-edible prospective feedstock alternative to high-value, edible palm oil. Jatropha biodiesel is currently exclusively produced in the region at commercial scale utilizing alkaline catalysts. Recently, a free, soluble Thermomyces lanuginosus (TL) 1,3 specific lipase has shown promise as biocatalyst, reportedly yielding up to 96 % ASTM D6751 compliant biodiesel after 24 h transesterification of soybean, canola oils and other feedstocks. Biodiesel conversion rate and quality of enzymatically catalyzed transesterification of Jatropha oil was evaluated. Two lipases: free, soluble TL and immobilized Candida antarctica (CA) catalyzed methanolic transesterification of crude Jatropha and refined palm oil. Jatropha yields were similar to palm biodiesel with NaOH as catalyst. After 24 h transesterification, Jatropha (81 %) and palm oil (86 %) biodiesel yields with TL as catalyst were significantly higher than CA (<70 %) but inferior to NaOH (>90 %). Enzymatic catalysts (TL and CA) produced Jatropha biodiesel with optimum flow properties but did not complied with ASTM D6751 stability parameters (free fatty acid content and oil stability index). Biodiesel production with filtered, degummed, low FFA Jatropha oil using a free liquid lipase (TL) as catalyst showed higher yielding potential than immobilized CA lipase as substitute of RBD palm oil with alkaline catalyst. However, Jatropha enzymatic biodiesel yield and stability were inferior to alkaline catalyzed biodiesel and not in compliance with international quality standards. Lower quality due to incomplete alcoholysis and esterification, potential added costs due to need of more than 24 h to achieve comparable biodiesel yields and extra post-transesterification refining reactions are among the remaining drawbacks for the environmentally friendlier enzymatic catalysis of crude Jatropha oil to

  12. Oxidative stability, phenolic compounds and antioxidant potential of a virgin olive oil enriched with natural bioactive compounds.

    PubMed

    Delgado-Adámez, Jonathan; Baltasar, M Nieves Franco; Yuste, María Concepción Ayuso; Martín-Vertedor, Daniel

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this research was to evaluate strategies for the development of a virgin olive oil (VOO) enriched with aqueous extracts of olive leaf and cake to increase the necessary dose in the diet of phenolic compounds with a natural product, as phenolic compounds are involved on the healthy properties of olive oil. Different extraction procedures were evaluated with the aim of increasing the phenol content and antioxidant potential of extracts of olive leaf and cake. As leaves extract presented a higher total phenolic content, it was characterized in order to determine its phenolic profile, and was employed to enrich VOO. Diverse procedures were used to prepare enriched VOO with the leaves extract, and finally the effects of phenol enrichment were evaluated based on the antioxidant potential and oxidative stability of the prepared phenol-enriched virgin olive oils. These enriched VOOs increased significantly the content in phenolic compounds, antioxidant potential and oxidative stability 40, 4 and 1.5 fold more, respectively, than the Control oil. Furthermore, the addition of lecithin had a positive effect both on the phenolic compounds content, and on the antioxidant potential of the oils. Besides, the use of the olive leaves extract, with and without lecithin respectively, supposes a strategy potential for reducing the harmful effects that inflicts long-term preservation of VOOs and its possible deterioration.

  13. Identification of remaining oil resource potential in the Frio Fluvial/Deltaic Sandstone play, South Texas

    SciTech Connect

    Holtz, M.H.; McRae, L.E.; Tyler, N.

    1994-05-01

    The Frio Fluvial/Deltaic Sandstone (Vicksburg Fault Zone) oil play of South Texas has produced nearly 1 billion stock tank barrels (BSTB) of oil, yet still contains about 1.2 BSTB of unrecovered mobile oil and an even greater amount of residual oil resources (1.5 BSTB). More than half of the reservoirs in this depositionally complex play have been abandoned, and large volumes of oil may remain unproduced. Interwell-scale geological facies models of Frio fluvial/deltaic reservoirs will be combined with engineering assessments and geophysical evaluations in order to characterize Frio fluvial/deltaic reservoir architecture, flow unit boundaries, and the controls that these characteristics exert on the location and volume of unrecovered mobile and residual oil. Reservoir attribute data were statistically analyzed from oil and gas fields throughout the geographic area covered by the Frio Fluvial/Deltaic Sandstone oil play. General reservoir attributes analyzed in detail included porosity, initial water saturation, residual oil saturation, net pay, reservoir area, and fluid characteristics. Statistical analysis of variance demonstrated no difference between oil reservoir attributes and gas reservoir attributes. Probability functions that describe attribute frequency distributions were determined for use in risk adjusting resource calculations. The oil play was found to contain significant volumes of remaining oil. The volumetric probability distribution between 5- and 95-percent probability for original oil in place ranges from 3.8 to 5.6 BSTB, original mobile oil in place ranges from 2.5 to 3.6 BSTB, and residual oil ranges from 1.5 to 2.3 BSTB. The untapped oil resource may be 10 percent of the original oil in place, or 380 million stock tank barrels.

  14. Biomedical properties and potentiality of Lippia microphylla Cham. and its essential oils.

    PubMed

    Simões, Evelyne Rolim Braun; Santos, Evelyne Alves; de Abreu, Maria Carolina; Silva, Jurandy do Nascimento; Nunes, Nárcia Mariana Fonseca; da Costa, Marcília Pinheiro; Pessoa, Otília Deusdênia Loiola; Pessoa, Cláudia; Ferreira, Paulo Michel Pinheiro

    2015-01-01

    Lippia microphylla Cham. (Verbenaceae) is an endemic underexploited Brazilian vegetal. This work reviewed the biological potentialities of Lippia microphylla, emphasizing the properties of essential oils (EOs) and analyzed scientific indicators about genus Lippia and L. microphylla. Databases from 1948 to the present were searched and a software (vantage point 7.1) associated with Derwent Innovation Index was used to identify the indicators of the genus Lippia, and biological activities and compounds in the L. macrophylla species. Ethnopharmacological records report use of L. microphylla leaves to treat gastrointestinal disorders, influenza, bronchitis, cough, nasal congestion, and sinusitis during vaporization, whose aromatic volatile oils are rich in monoterpenes, especially cineole, terpineol, and thymol. Other EOs have larvicidal activity on Aedes aegypti larvae, and antifungal, antibacterial and cytotoxic and antitumor action on human and murine cancer cells. Brazil is the country with more articles about Lippia species, but it deposited only 9 patents since 1993. Most of the publications about L. microphylla are concentrated in food and chemical sciences. This bioprospection helps to choice areas of interest for capital investment and to give support for Brazilian Institutions to establish cooperation and improve technological impact at the point of view of creation and innovation.

  15. Biomedical properties and potentiality of Lippia microphylla Cham. and its essential oils

    PubMed Central

    Simões, Evelyne Rolim Braun; Santos, Evelyne Alves; de Abreu, Maria Carolina; Silva, Jurandy do Nascimento; Nunes, Nárcia Mariana Fonseca; da Costa, Marcília Pinheiro; Pessoa, Otília Deusdênia Loiola; Pessoa, Cláudia; Ferreira, Paulo Michel Pinheiro

    2015-01-01

    Lippia microphylla Cham. (Verbenaceae) is an endemic underexploited Brazilian vegetal. This work reviewed the biological potentialities of Lippia microphylla, emphasizing the properties of essential oils (EOs) and analyzed scientific indicators about genus Lippia and L. microphylla. Databases from 1948 to the present were searched and a software (vantage point 7.1) associated with Derwent Innovation Index was used to identify the indicators of the genus Lippia, and biological activities and compounds in the L. macrophylla species. Ethnopharmacological records report use of L. microphylla leaves to treat gastrointestinal disorders, influenza, bronchitis, cough, nasal congestion, and sinusitis during vaporization, whose aromatic volatile oils are rich in monoterpenes, especially cineole, terpineol, and thymol. Other EOs have larvicidal activity on Aedes aegypti larvae, and antifungal, antibacterial and cytotoxic and antitumor action on human and murine cancer cells. Brazil is the country with more articles about Lippia species, but it deposited only 9 patents since 1993. Most of the publications about L. microphylla are concentrated in food and chemical sciences. This bioprospection helps to choice areas of interest for capital investment and to give support for Brazilian Institutions to establish cooperation and improve technological impact at the point of view of creation and innovation. PMID:26401417

  16. Evaluation of radiation hazard potential of TENORM waste from oil and natural gas production.

    PubMed

    Hilal, M A; Attallah, M F; Mohamed, Gehan Y; Fayez-Hassan, M

    2014-10-01

    In this study, a potential radiation hazard from TENORM sludge wastes generated during exploration and extraction processes of oil and gas was evaluated. The activity concentration of natural radionuclides (238)U, (226)Ra and (232)Th were determined in TENORM sludge waste. It was found that sludge waste from oil and gas industry is one of the major sources of (226)Ra in the environment. Therefore, some preliminary chemical treatment of sludge waste using Triton X-100 was also investigated to reduce the radioactivity content as well as the risk of radiation hazard from TENORM wastes. The activity concentrations of (226)Ra and (228)Ra in petroleum sludge materials before and after chemical treatment were measured using gamma-ray spectrometry. The average values of the activity concentrations of (226)Ra and (228)Ra measured in the original samples were found as 8908 Bq kg(-1) and 933 Bq kg(-1), respectively. After chemical treatment of TENORM samples, the average values of the activity concentrations of (226)Ra and (228)Ra measured in the samples were found as 7835 Bq kg(-1) and 574 Bq kg(-1), respectively. Activity concentration index, internal index, absorbed gamma dose rate and the corresponding effective dose rate were estimated for untreated and treated samples.

  17. Green synthesis of some novel dioxolane compounds from Indonesian essential oils as potential biogreases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wahyuningsih, Tutik Dwi; Kurniawan, Yehezkiel Steven

    2017-03-01

    Greases are mostly prepared from petroleum base stocks that make it toxic to the environment. The demand for green greases has led to in depth research of other renewable resources. Vegetable oils are promising candidates due to their renewability and low toxicity. However, it has poor oxidation stability and high total acid number. One way to solve this problem is chemical modification of its fatty acid structure. We report some novel dioxolane compounds from oleic acid and benzaldehyde derivates from some Indonesian essential oils via several steps, i.e: hydroxylation, esterification and acetalization. The esterification and acetalization reaction was carried out by green procedure using sonochemical method and montmorillonite KSF as a catalyst. Hydroxylation of Oleic acid was performed by KMnO4 to give 9,10-dihydroxyoctadecanoic (DHOA) in 47% yield. The esterification was done using methanol yielded methyl 9,10-dihydroxyoctadecanoate (MDHO) as white powder in 94%. Acetalization of the ester MDO with various benzaldehyde derivatives was carried out to give the dioxolan derivatives in the range of 17 - 60% yield. All of the structure was confirmed by FT-IR and GC-MS, meanwhile their physicochemical properties were determined using ASTM methods. From physicochemical properties, i.e: -TAN, TBN and IV-, it can be concluded that these novel compounds have the potential to be developed into biogrease.

  18. Study on antimicrobial potential of neem oil nanoemulsion against Pseudomonas aeruginosa infection in Labeo rohita.

    PubMed

    Mishra, Prabhakar; R S, Suresh Kumar; Jerobin, Jayakumar; Thomas, John; Mukherjee, Amitava; Chandrasekaran, Natarajan

    2014-01-01

    Presence of several biochemical constituents in neem makes it an efficient antimicrobial agent for pathogenic diseases. The current investigation was aimed to assess the therapeutic potential of neem nanoemulsion as a control measure for Pseudomonas aeruginosa infection in freshwater fish Labeo rohita. The median lethal concentration (LC50) for the neem oil and neem nanoemulsion was 73.9 and 160.3 mg/L, respectively. The biomarker enzymes of treated fish tissues showed a significant difference in the level of glutathione reductase, catalase, and lipid peroxidation in neem oil-treated samples than in neem nanoemulsion-treated samples at P<0.05. The results were corroborative with histopathology and ultrastructural analysis. The bacterial infection of P. aeruginosa treated using neem nanoemulsion was more effective in both in vitro and in vivo methods. Present findings suggest that neem-based nanoemulsion has negligible toxicity to Rohu fishes. This makes neem-based nanoemulsion as an efficient therapeutic agent against P. aeruginosa infection, leading to its possible usage in the aquaculture industry.

  19. Characterization of preservative and pesticide as potential of bio oil compound from pyrolisis of cocoa shell using gas chromatography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mashuni, Jahiding, M.; Kurniasih, I.; Zulkaidah

    2017-03-01

    Cocoa shell is one of the plant waste that has not been widely used. Cocoa shell is potential as a producer of bio oil because it contains lignocellulose. The bio oil of Liquid volatile matter (LVM) is the products of smoke condensation from the pyrolysis reactor. The bio oil of cocoa shell from pyrolysis process can be made as raw materials for the application of pesticide and preservative. The aims of this research were to produce bio oil from cocoa shell by pyrolysis and analyzing the content using Gas Chromatography (GC). Bio oil production was done by pyrolysis with variations of temperature, i.e. 400, 500, 600 and 700 °C. Pyrolysis reaction generates three products: gas, liquid and solid. The yield of bio oil with variations of pyrolisis temperature, i.e. 400, 500, 600 and 700 °C were obtained i.e. 46, 45, 44 and 40% (v/w), respectively. The chromatogram results showed the chemical components of bio oil from the cocoa shell were ammonia, hexane, alcohol, ketone, acid and phenolic compounds which can be used as material of preservative and pesticide.

  20. The Potential of Palm Oil Waste Biomass in Indonesia in 2020 and 2030

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hambali, E.; Rivai, M.

    2017-05-01

    During replanting activity in oil palm plantation, biomass including palm frond and trunk are produced. In palm oil mills, during the conversion process of fresh fruit bunches (FFB) into crude palm oil (CPO), several kinds of waste including empty fruit bunch (EFB), mesocarp fiber (MF), palm kernel shell (PKS), palm kernel meal (PKM), and palm oil mills effluent (POME) are produced. The production of these wastes is abundant as oil palm plantation area, FFB production, and palm oil mills spread all over 22 provinces in Indonesia. These wastes are still economical as they can be utilized as sources of alternative fuel, fertilizer, chemical compounds, and biomaterials. Therefore, breakthrough studies need to be done in order to improve the added value of oil palm, minimize the waste, and make oil palm industry more sustainable.

  1. Preparation and physical characterization of a novel marine oil emulsion as a potential new formulation vehicle for lipid soluble drugs.

    PubMed

    Cui, Guohui; Wang, Lili; Davis, Philip J; Kara, Mohameditaki; Liu, Hu

    2006-11-15

    Emulsions often contain vegetable oils such as soybean oil. In this study, a 10% (w/w) of marine mammal oil emulsion was prepared. The effect of a group of emulsifying agents on the stability of the 10% of seal oil emulsion was examined. The emulsifying agents studied were hydrogenated castor oil coated with various polyoxyethylene derivatives. It was found that 2.5% of HCO-40 resulted in the most stable seal oil emulsion. The size of the emulsified droplets defined by their diameters was found to be around 240-270 nm. The initial zeta-potential and pH value of the emulsion were found to be around -27 mV and 3.5, respectively, which decreased over time, to about -31 mV and 2.4, respectively. This is believed to be a result of the hydrolysis of triacylglycerides into free fatty acids in the emulsion. The effect of various amounts of Crodasinic LS-30, a negatively charged surfactant, and Incroqal Behenyl TMS, a positively charged surfactant, on the emulsion was investigated. It was shown that Crodasinic LS-30 had very little effect on the particle size, zeta-potential and pH, while the effect of Incroquat Benhenyl TMS was found to be dependent upon the concentration of the surfactant used.

  2. Effect of cinnamomum zeylanicum blume essential oil on the growth and morphogenesis of some potentially pathogenic Aspergillus species

    PubMed Central

    Carmo, Egberto Santos; de Oliveira Lima, Edeltrudes; de Souza, Evandro Leite; de Sousa, Frederico Barbosa

    2008-01-01

    Cinnamomum zeylanicum Blume is known for a wide range of medicinal properties. This study aimed to assess the interference of C. zeylanicum essential oil on the growth and morphogenesis of some potentially pathogenic Aspergillus species. The essential oil presented strong antifungal effect causing the growth inhibition of the assayed strains and development of large growth inhibition zones. MIC50 and MIC90 values were 40 and 80 μL/mL, respectively. 80, 40 and 20 μL/mL of the oil strongly inhibited the radial mycelial growth of A. niger, A. flavus and A. fumigatus along 14 days. 80 and 40 μL/mL of the oil caused a 100% inhibition of the fungal spore germination. Main morphological changes observed under light microscopy provided by the essential oil in the fungal strains were decreased conidiation, leakage of cytoplasm, loss of pigmentation and disrupted cell structure indicating fungal wall degeneration. It is concluded that C. zeylanicum essential oil could be known as potential antifungal compound, particularly, to protect against the growth of Aspergillus species. PMID:24031186

  3. Effect of cinnamomum zeylanicum blume essential oil on the growth and morphogenesis of some potentially pathogenic Aspergillus species.

    PubMed

    Carmo, Egberto Santos; de Oliveira Lima, Edeltrudes; de Souza, Evandro Leite; de Sousa, Frederico Barbosa

    2008-01-01

    Cinnamomum zeylanicum Blume is known for a wide range of medicinal properties. This study aimed to assess the interference of C. zeylanicum essential oil on the growth and morphogenesis of some potentially pathogenic Aspergillus species. The essential oil presented strong antifungal effect causing the growth inhibition of the assayed strains and development of large growth inhibition zones. MIC50 and MIC90 values were 40 and 80 μL/mL, respectively. 80, 40 and 20 μL/mL of the oil strongly inhibited the radial mycelial growth of A. niger, A. flavus and A. fumigatus along 14 days. 80 and 40 μL/mL of the oil caused a 100% inhibition of the fungal spore germination. Main morphological changes observed under light microscopy provided by the essential oil in the fungal strains were decreased conidiation, leakage of cytoplasm, loss of pigmentation and disrupted cell structure indicating fungal wall degeneration. It is concluded that C. zeylanicum essential oil could be known as potential antifungal compound, particularly, to protect against the growth of Aspergillus species.

  4. Cuphea oil as a potential source of biodiesel with improved properties

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Biodiesel is usually produced from common vegetable oils such as soybean, rapeseed (canola), and palm as well as other feedstocks such as animal fats and used cooking oils. To enhance feedstock supply, other vegetable oils such as jatropha are of increasing interest. However, most of these feedsto...

  5. Toxicity of Neem's oil, a potential biocide against the invasive mussel Limnoperna fortunei (Dunker 1857).

    PubMed

    Pereyra, Patricio J; Rossini, Gustavo B; Darrigran, Gustavo

    2012-12-01

    The golden mussel Limnoperna fortunei (Dunker 1857) is one of the most distributed Nuisance Invasive Species (NIS) in South America, and a threat of great concern for the industry of the area. In this study, we carried out toxicity tests made with a Neem's oil solution with L. fortunei larvae and benthonic adults (7, 13 and 19 ± 1 mm). Tests with non-target species (Daphnia magna, Lactuca sativa and Cnesterodon decemmculatus) were also made with the aim to evaluate the potential toxicity of the Neem's solution in the environment. The LC(100) of Neem's solution obtained for larvae was 500 µl/L, a value much higher than the one obtained for D. magna and C. decemmaculatus. Thus, we recommend that it should not be used in open waters. However, since the adults were killed in 72 h and the larvae in 24 h, this product can be used in closed systems, in man-made facilities.

  6. Antimetastatic and Anti-Inflammatory Potentials of Essential Oil from Edible Ocimum sanctum Leaves

    PubMed Central

    Thirugnanasampandan, Ramaraj; Jayakumar, Rajarajeswaran; Ramya, Gunasekar; Ramnath, Gogul

    2014-01-01

    Antimetastatic and anti-inflammatory activities of Ocimum sanctum essential oil (OSEO) have been assessed in this study. OSEO at the concentration of 250 μg/mL and above showed a significant (*P < 0.05) decrease in the number of migrated cancer cells. In addition, OSEO at concentration of 250 μg/mL and above suppressed MMP-9 activity in lipopolysaccharide (LPS) induced inflammatory cells. A dose-dependent downregulation of MMP-9 expression was observed with the treatment of OSEO compared to the control. Our findings indicate that OSEO has both antimetastatic and anti-inflammatory potentials, advocating further investigation for clinical applications in the treatment of inflammation associated cancer. PMID:25431779

  7. Bacterial population and biodegradation potential in chronically crude oil-contaminated marine sediments are strongly linked to temperature.

    PubMed

    Bargiela, Rafael; Mapelli, Francesca; Rojo, David; Chouaia, Bessem; Tornés, Jesús; Borin, Sara; Richter, Michael; Del Pozo, Mercedes V; Cappello, Simone; Gertler, Christoph; Genovese, María; Denaro, Renata; Martínez-Martínez, Mónica; Fodelianakis, Stilianos; Amer, Ranya A; Bigazzi, David; Han, Xifang; Chen, Jianwei; Chernikova, Tatyana N; Golyshina, Olga V; Mahjoubi, Mouna; Jaouanil, Atef; Benzha, Fatima; Magagnini, Mirko; Hussein, Emad; Al-Horani, Fuad; Cherif, Ameur; Blaghen, Mohamed; Abdel-Fattah, Yasser R; Kalogerakis, Nicolas; Barbas, Coral; Malkawi, Hanan I; Golyshin, Peter N; Yakimov, Michail M; Daffonchio, Daniele; Ferrer, Manuel

    2015-06-29

    Two of the largest crude oil-polluted areas in the world are the semi-enclosed Mediterranean and Red Seas, but the effect of chronic pollution remains incompletely understood on a large scale. We compared the influence of environmental and geographical constraints and anthropogenic forces (hydrocarbon input) on bacterial communities in eight geographically separated oil-polluted sites along the coastlines of the Mediterranean and Red Seas. The differences in community compositions and their biodegradation potential were primarily associated (P < 0.05) with both temperature and chemical diversity. Furthermore, we observed a link between temperature and chemical and biological diversity that was stronger in chronically polluted sites than in pristine ones where accidental oil spills occurred. We propose that low temperature increases bacterial richness while decreasing catabolic diversity and that chronic pollution promotes catabolic diversification. Our results further suggest that the bacterial populations in chronically polluted sites may respond more promptly in degrading petroleum after accidental oil spills.

  8. Potential Environmental Factors Affecting Oil-Degrading Bacterial Populations in Deep and Surface Waters of the Northern Gulf of Mexico

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Jiqing; Bacosa, Hernando P.; Liu, Zhanfei

    2017-01-01

    Understanding bacterial community dynamics as a result of an oil spill is important for predicting the fate of oil released to the environment and developing bioremediation strategies in the Gulf of Mexico. In this study, we aimed to elucidate the roles of temperature, water chemistry (nutrients), and initial bacterial community in selecting oil degraders through a series of incubation experiments. Surface (2 m) and bottom (1537 m) waters, collected near the Deepwater Horizon site, were amended with 200 ppm light Louisiana sweet crude oil and bacterial inoculums from surface or bottom water, and incubated at 4 or 24°C for 50 days. Bacterial community and residual oil were analyzed by pyrosequencing and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS), respectively. The results showed that temperature played a key role in selecting oil-degrading bacteria. Incubation at 4°C favored the development of Cycloclasticus, Pseudoalteromonas, Sulfitobacter, and Reinekea, while 24°C incubations enhanced Oleibacter, Thalassobius, Phaeobacter, and Roseobacter. Water chemistry and the initial community also had potential roles in the development of hydrocarbon-degrading bacterial communities. Pseudoalteromonas, Oleibacter, and Winogradskyella developed well in the nutrient-enriched bottom water, while Reinekea and Thalassobius were favored by low-nutrient surface water. We revealed that the combination of 4°C, crude oil and bottom inoculum was a key factor for the growth of Cycloclasticus, while the combination of surface inoculum and bottom water chemistry was important for the growth of Pseudoalteromonas. Moreover, regardless of the source of inoculum, bottom water at 24°C was a favorable condition for Oleibacter. Redundancy analysis further showed that temperature and initial community explained 57 and 19% of the variation observed, while oil and water chemistry contributed 14 and 10%, respectively. Overall, this study revealed the relative roles of temperature, water

  9. Potential Environmental Factors Affecting Oil-Degrading Bacterial Populations in Deep and Surface Waters of the Northern Gulf of Mexico.

    PubMed

    Liu, Jiqing; Bacosa, Hernando P; Liu, Zhanfei

    2016-01-01

    Understanding bacterial community dynamics as a result of an oil spill is important for predicting the fate of oil released to the environment and developing bioremediation strategies in the Gulf of Mexico. In this study, we aimed to elucidate the roles of temperature, water chemistry (nutrients), and initial bacterial community in selecting oil degraders through a series of incubation experiments. Surface (2 m) and bottom (1537 m) waters, collected near the Deepwater Horizon site, were amended with 200 ppm light Louisiana sweet crude oil and bacterial inoculums from surface or bottom water, and incubated at 4 or 24°C for 50 days. Bacterial community and residual oil were analyzed by pyrosequencing and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS), respectively. The results showed that temperature played a key role in selecting oil-degrading bacteria. Incubation at 4°C favored the development of Cycloclasticus, Pseudoalteromonas, Sulfitobacter, and Reinekea, while 24°C incubations enhanced Oleibacter, Thalassobius, Phaeobacter, and Roseobacter. Water chemistry and the initial community also had potential roles in the development of hydrocarbon-degrading bacterial communities. Pseudoalteromonas, Oleibacter, and Winogradskyella developed well in the nutrient-enriched bottom water, while Reinekea and Thalassobius were favored by low-nutrient surface water. We revealed that the combination of 4°C, crude oil and bottom inoculum was a key factor for the growth of Cycloclasticus, while the combination of surface inoculum and bottom water chemistry was important for the growth of Pseudoalteromonas. Moreover, regardless of the source of inoculum, bottom water at 24°C was a favorable condition for Oleibacter. Redundancy analysis further showed that temperature and initial community explained 57 and 19% of the variation observed, while oil and water chemistry contributed 14 and 10%, respectively. Overall, this study revealed the relative roles of temperature, water

  10. Characterisation of crude palm oil O/W emulsion produced with Tween 80 and potential in residual oil recovery of palm pressed mesocarp fibre

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramly, N. H.; Zakaria, R.; Naim, M. N.

    2016-06-01

    Surfactant-assisted aqueous extraction has been proposed as a “green” alternative to hexane extraction for the recovery of oil from plant matters. An efficient aqueous surfactant extraction system usually use an extended type of ionic surfactant with the ability to produce Winsor type III microemulsion, reducing the interfacial tension (IFT) between plant oil and surfactant solution to an ultralow level (10-3 mN/m). However, the safe used of this surfactant in food processing is uncertain leading to non-food application of the recovered oil. In the present study, the potential of Tween 80, a commercial food-grade non-ionic surfactant, was evaluated in the recovery of residual oil from palm-pressed mesocarp. The emulsion produced between Tween 80 and crude palm oil (CPO) was characterised in terms of IFT, droplet size, viscosity and phase inversion temperature (PIT). The effect of surfactant concentration, electrolyte (NaCl) and temperature were studied to determine whether a Winsor Type III microemulsion can be produced. Results shows that although these parameters were able to reduce the IFT to very low values, Winsor type III microemulsion was not produced with this single surfactant. Emulsion of CPO and Tween 80 solution did not produce a PIT even after heating to 100°C indicating that middle phase emulsion was not able to be formed with increasing temperature. The highest percentage of oil extraction (38.84%) was obtained at the concentration above the critical micelle concentration (CMC) of Tween 80 and CPO, which was at 0.5 wt% Tween 80 with 6% NaCl, and temperature of 60°C. At this concentration, the IFT value is 0.253 mN/m with a droplet size of 4183.8 nm, and a viscosity of 7.38 cp.

  11. Lipid metabolism and potentials of biofuel and high added-value oil production in red algae.

    PubMed

    Sato, Naoki; Moriyama, Takashi; Mori, Natsumi; Toyoshima, Masakazu

    2017-04-01

    Biomass production is currently explored in microalgae, macroalgae and land plants. Microalgal biofuel development has been performed mostly in green algae. In the Japanese tradition, macrophytic red algae such as Pyropia yezoensis and Gelidium crinale have been utilized as food and industrial materials. Researches on the utilization of unicellular red microalgae such as Cyanidioschyzon merolae and Porphyridium purpureum started only quite recently. Red algae have relatively large plastid genomes harboring more than 200 protein-coding genes that support the biosynthetic capacity of the plastid. Engineering the plastid genome is a unique potential of red microalgae. In addition, large-scale growth facilities of P. purpureum have been developed for industrial production of biofuels. C. merolae has been studied as a model alga for cell and molecular biological analyses with its completely determined genomes and transformation techniques. Its acidic and warm habitat makes it easy to grow this alga axenically in large scales. Its potential as a biofuel producer is recently documented under nitrogen-limited conditions. Metabolic pathways of the accumulation of starch and triacylglycerol and the enzymes involved therein are being elucidated. Engineering these regulatory mechanisms will open a possibility of exploiting the full capability of production of biofuel and high added-value oil. In the present review, we will describe the characteristics and potential of these algae as biotechnological seeds.

  12. Potential of Essential Oils as Penetration Enhancers for Transdermal Administration of Ibuprofen to Treat Dysmenorrhoea.

    PubMed

    Chen, Jun; Jiang, Qiu-Dong; Wu, Ye-Ming; Liu, Pei; Yao, Jun-Hong; Lu, Qing; Zhang, Hui; Duan, Jin-Ao

    2015-10-07

    The present study was conducted to evaluate and compare five essential oils (EOs) as penetration enhancers (PEs) to improve the transdermal drug delivery (TDD) of ibuprofen to treat dysmenorrhoea. The EOs were prepared using the steam distillation method and their chemical compositions were identified by GC-MS. The corresponding cytotoxicities were evaluated in epidermal keartinocyte HaCaT cell lines by an MTT assay. Furthermore, the percutaneous permeation studies were carried out to compare the permeation enhancement effect of EOs. Then the therapeutic efficacy of ibuprofen with EOs was evaluated using dysmenorrheal model mice. The data supports a decreasing trend of skin cell viability in which Clove oil >Angelica oil > Chuanxiong oil > Cyperus oil > Cinnamon oil > Azone. Chuanxiong oil and Angelica oil had been proved to possess a significant permeation enhancement for TDD of ibuprofen. More importantly, the pain inhibitory intensity of ibuprofen hydrogel was demonstrated to be greater with Chuanxiong oil when compared to ibuprofen without EOs (p < 0.05). The contents of calcium ion and nitric oxide (NO) were also significantly changed after the addition of Chuanxiong oil (p < 0.05). In summary, we suggest that Chuanxiong oil should be viewed as the best PE for TDD of ibuprofen to treat dysmenorrhea.

  13. Potential impacts of the Deepwater Horizon oil spill on large pelagic fishes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frias-Torres, Sarrah; Bostater, Charles R., Jr.

    2011-11-01

    Biogeographical analyses provide insights on how the Deepwater Horizon oil spill impacted large pelagic fishes. We georeferenced historical ichthyoplankton surveys and published literature to map the spawning and larval areas of bluefin tuna, swordfish, blue marlin and whale shark sightings in the Gulf of Mexico with daily satellite-derived images detecting surface oil. The oil spill covered critical areas used by large pelagic fishes. Surface oil was detected in 100% of the northernmost whale shark sightings, in 32.8 % of the bluefin tuna spawning area and 38 % of the blue marlin larval area. No surface oil was detected in the swordfish spawning and larval area. Our study likely underestimates the extend of the oil spill due to satellite sensors detecting only the upper euphotic zone and the use of dispersants altering crude oil density, but provides a previously unknown spatio-temporal analysis.

  14. Oil sands thickened froth treatment tailings exhibit acid rock drainage potential during evaporative drying.

    PubMed

    Kuznetsov, Petr; Kuznetsova, Alsu; Foght, Julia M; Siddique, Tariq

    2015-02-01

    Bitumen extraction from oil sands ores after surface mining produces different tailings waste streams: 'froth treatment tailings' are enriched in pyrite relative to other streams. Tailings treatment can include addition of organic polymers to produce thickened tailings (TT). TT may be further de-watered by deposition into geotechnical cells for evaporative drying to increase shear strength prior to reclamation. To examine the acid rock drainage (ARD) potential of TT, we performed predictive analyses and laboratory experiments on material from field trials of two types of thickened froth treatment tailings (TT1 and TT2). Acid-base accounting (ABA) of initial samples showed that both TT1 and TT2 initially had net acid-producing potential, with ABA values of -141 and -230 t CaCO₃ equiv. 1000 t(-1) of TT, respectively. In long-term kinetic experiments, duplicate ~2-kg samples of TT were incubated in shallow trays and intermittently irrigated under air flow for 459 days to simulate evaporative field drying. Leachates collected from both TT samples initially had pH~6.8 that began decreasing after ~50 days (TT2) or ~250 days (TT1), stabilizing at pH~2. Correspondingly, the redox potential of leachates increased from 100-200 mV to 500-580 mV and electrical conductivity increased from 2-5 dS m(-1) to 26 dS m(-1), indicating dissolution of minerals during ARD. The rapid onset and prolonged ARD observed with TT2 is attributed to its greater pyrite (13.4%) and lower carbonate (1.4%) contents versus the slower onset of ARD in TT1 (initially 6.0% pyrite and 2.5% carbonates). 16S rRNA gene pyrosequencing analysis revealed rapid shift in microbial community when conditions became strongly acidic (pH~2) favoring the enrichment of Acidithiobacillus and Sulfobacillus bacteria in TT. This is the first report showing ARD potential of TT and the results have significant implications for effective management of pyrite-enriched oil sands tailings streams/deposits. Copyright © 2014

  15. Oil and gas development in East Siberia

    SciTech Connect

    Sagers, M.J.

    1994-03-01

    The East Siberian region, which comprises nearly 43% of Russia`s territory (including the Sakha (Yakut) republic), has substantial hydrocarbon potential that is impeded by significant logistical problems, the daunting physical environment, and technical challenges posed by the geological complexity of the region. The area`s three major oil and gas provinces are the Lena-Tunguska (with the greatest potential), Lena-Vilyuy, and Yenisey-Anabar. The paper focuses on assessment of reserves, production potential, and history, as well as joint-venture activity involving foreign capital. Foreign investment is targeting gas deposits in the Vilyuy basin and elsewhere in the Sakha republic and small oil deposits serving local markets in the Yakutsk and Noril`sk areas. Forecasts do not envisage substantial production of oil from the region before the year 2010. Future gas production levels are less predictable despite the ambitious plans to export gas from Sakha to South Korea. 14 refs., 1 fig., 1 tab.

  16. Quantitative investigation of free radicals in bio-oil and their potential role in condensed-phase polymerization.

    PubMed

    Kim, Kwang Ho; Bai, Xianglan; Cady, Sarah; Gable, Preston; Brown, Robert C

    2015-03-01

    We report on the quantitative analysis of free radicals in bio-oils produced from pyrolysis of cellulose, organosolv lignin, and corn stover by EPR spectroscopy. Also, we investigated their potential role in condensed-phase polymerization. Bio-oils produced from lignin and cellulose show clear evidence of homolytic cleavage reactions during pyrolysis that produce free radicals. The concentration of free radicals in lignin bio-oil was 7.5×10(20)  spin g(-1), which was 375 and 138 times higher than free-radical concentrations in bio-oil from cellulose and corn stover. Pyrolytic lignin had the highest concentration in free radicals, which could be a combination of carbon-centered (benzyl radicals) and oxygen-centered (phenoxy radicals) organic species because they are delocalized in a π system. Free-radical concentrations did not change during accelerated aging tests despite increases in molecular weight of bio-oils, suggesting that free radicals in condensed bio-oils are stable.

  17. Exploring the potential of optical remote sensing for oil spill detection in shallow coastal waters--a case study in the Arabian Gulf.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Jun; Temimi, Marouane; Ghedira, Hosni; Hu, Chuanmin

    2014-06-02

    Remote sensing provides an effective tool for timely oil pollution response. In this paper, the spectral signature in the optical and infrared domains of oil slicks observed in shallow coastal waters of the Arabian Gulf was investigated with MODIS, MERIS, and Landsat data. Images of the Floating Algae Index (FAI) and estimates of sea currents from hydrodynamic models supported the multi-sensor oil tracking technique. Scenes with and without sunglint were studied as the spectral signature of oil slicks in the optical domain depends upon the viewing geometry and the solar angle in addition to the type of oil and its thickness. Depending on the combination of those factors, oil slicks may exhibit dark or bright contrasts with respect to oil-free waters. Three oil spills events were thoroughly analyzed, namely, those detected on May 26 2000 by Landsat 7 ETM + and MODIS/Terra, on October 21 2007 by MERIS and MODIS, and on August 17 2013 by Landsat 8 and MODIS/Aqua. The oil slick with bright contrast observed by Landsat 7 ETM + on May 26 2000 showed lower temperature than oil-free areas. The spectral Rayleigh-corrected reflectance (R(rc)) signature of oil-covered areas indicated higher variability due to differences in oil fractions while the R(rc) spectra of the oil-free area were persistent. Combined with RGB composites, FAI images showed potentials in differentiating oil slicks from algal blooms. Ocean circulation and wind data were used to track oil slicks and forecast their potential landfall. The developed oil spill maps were in agreement with official records. The synergistic use of satellite observations and hydrodynamic modeling is recommended for establishing an early warning and decision support system for oil pollution response.

  18. Water-related Issues Affecting Conventional Oil and Gas Recovery and Potential Oil-Shale Development in the Uinta Basin, Utah

    SciTech Connect

    Berg, Michael Vanden; Anderson, Paul; Wallace, Janae; Morgan, Craig; Carney, Stephanie

    2012-04-30

    Saline water disposal is one of the most pressing issues with regard to increasing petroleum and natural gas production in the Uinta Basin of northeastern Utah. Conventional oil fields in the basin provide 69 percent of Utah?s total crude oil production and 71 percent of Utah?s total natural gas, the latter of which has increased 208% in the past 10 years. Along with hydrocarbons, wells in the Uinta Basin produce significant quantities of saline water ? nearly 4 million barrels of saline water per month in Uintah County and nearly 2 million barrels per month in Duchesne County. As hydrocarbon production increases, so does saline water production, creating an increased need for economic and environmentally responsible disposal plans. Current water disposal wells are near capacity, and permitting for new wells is being delayed because of a lack of technical data regarding potential disposal aquifers and questions concerning contamination of freshwater sources. Many companies are reluctantly resorting to evaporation ponds as a short-term solution, but these ponds have limited capacity, are prone to leakage, and pose potential risks to birds and other wildlife. Many Uinta Basin operators claim that oil and natural gas production cannot reach its full potential until a suitable, long-term saline water disposal solution is determined. The enclosed project was divided into three parts: 1) re-mapping the base of the moderately saline aquifer in the Uinta Basin, 2) creating a detailed geologic characterization of the Birds Nest aquifer, a potential reservoir for large-scale saline water disposal, and 3) collecting and analyzing water samples from the eastern Uinta Basin to establish baseline water quality. Part 1: Regulators currently stipulate that produced saline water must be disposed of into aquifers that already contain moderately saline water (water that averages at least 10,000 mg/L total dissolved solids). The UGS has re-mapped the moderately saline water boundary

  19. Might eddies dominate carbon export ?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Allen, J.; Rixen, M.; Fielding, S.; Mustard, A.; Brown, L.; Sanders, R.

    2003-04-01

    Yes - from a review of recent data sets we present a scale analysis of the potential for globally integrated carbon export, from the surface ocean, due to the vertical transports of mesoscale eddies. Mesoscale eddies are the oceanic equivalent of atmospheric storms, most are a fundamental result of horizontally unstable density gradients on the surface of a rotating sphere (baroclinic instability) and ~ 90% of the oceans energy exchanges take place at this scale. Recent studies from satellite remote sensing and high resolution models show that mesoscale eddies are a ubiquitous feature of the open ocean in both time and space; they are even present in sub-tropical oligotrophic gyres. Individual atmospheric weather systems generally have little ecological impact on terrestrial or marine biological systems. Grass grows and herbivores munch through many cyclone and anticyclone periods. In the open ocean we have a very different picture. The primary producers and herbivores have shorter time scales; time scales that coincide with those of mesoscale eddies. Plankton can have either good or bad weather lifetimes associated with just a single cyclone or anticyclone period. Furthermore, although the spring bloom may be the single largest source of material for the export of carbon from the upper ocean, it is short lived and may not be dominant everywhere in the annual export budget. The magnitude of vertical motion associated with mesoscale eddies is significant on biological timescales both for phytoplankton growth and the development of zooplankton grazing pressure. Critically this motion does not form a closed vertical circulation; baroclinic instability releases potential energy and thus water masses are exchanged both vertically and horizontally across water mass boundaries. Thus mesoscale eddies have been shown to provide a mechanism for export both in the direct transport of biomass downwards out of the surface mixed layer and the fertilisation of an exhausted

  20. Oils extracted from Eupatorium adenophorum leaves show potential to control Phythium myriotylum in commercially-grown ginger

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Xiaoman; Yan, Dongdong; Ouyang, Canbin; Yang, Dongsheng; Wang, Qiuxia; Li, Yuan; Guo, Meixia; Cao, Aocheng

    2017-01-01

    Oils extracted from the leaves of Eupatorium adenophorum were tested in vitro and in vivo against the soilborne pathogen Pythium myriotylum which causes soft rot, a devastating disease of commercial ginger production in China. Twelve compounds accounting for 99.15% of the total oil composition were identified by GC-MS. The major components were 10Hβ-9-oxo-agerophorone (37.03%), 10Hα-9-oxo-agerophorone (37.73%) and 9-oxo-10, 11-dehydro-agerophorone (23.41%). Antifungal activity was tested by the poisoned food technique against P. myriotylum, indicating minimum inhibitory concentrations of 100μg/ml after 7 days incubation. In addition, the oil extracts greatly inhibited the formation of both wet and dry mycelial biomass. The combination of E. adenophorum oil extracts and synthetic fungicides showed a strong synergistic effect, inhibiting the mycelial growth in in vitro assays. The synergistic effect of oil extracts with fungicides could allow fungicides to be used at reduced rates in the future which has environmental advantages. Oil extracts applied at 160 and 200μg/ml concentrations to ginger rhizomes before inoculation with P. myriotylum significantly reduced the infection rate in ginger. Examination by light and transmission electron microscopy revealed that oil extracts caused swelling of the hyphae, disruption of the cell wall, degradation of the cytoplasmic organelles and shortening of the cytoplasmic inclusion. These results suggested that the plasma membrane and endomembrane systems of P. myriotylum were severely damaged by the oil extracts of E. adenophorum which offer significant potential for use as a fungicide to control P. myriotylum. PMID:28467445

  1. Increased groundwater to stream discharge from permafrost thawing in the Yukon River basin: Potential impacts on lateral export of carbon and nitrogen

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Walvoord, M.A.; Striegl, R.G.

    2007-01-01

    Arctic and subarctic watersheds are undergoing climate warming, permafrost thawing, and thermokarst formation resulting in quantitative shifts in surface water - groundwater interaction at the basin scale. Groundwater currently comprises almost one fourth of Yukon River water discharged to the Bering Sea and contributes 5-10% of the dissolved organic carbon (DOC) and nitrogen (DON) and 35-45% of the dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC) and nitrogen (DIN) loads. Long-term strearnflow records (>30 yrs) of the Yukon River basin indicate a general upward trend in groundwater contribution to streamflow of 0.7-0.9%/yr and no pervasive change in annual flow. We propose that the increases in groundwater contributions were caused predominately by climate warming and permafrost thawing that enhances infiltration and supports deeper flowpaths. The increased groundwater fraction may result in decreased DOC and DON and increased DIC and DIN export when annual flow remains unchanged.

  2. Real-time surrogate analysis for potential oil and gas contamination of drinking water resources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Son, Ji-Hee; Carlson, Kenneth H.

    2015-09-01

    Public concerns related to the fast-growing shale oil and gas industry have increased during recent years. The major concern regarding shale gas production is the potential of fracturing fluids being injected into the well or produced fluids flowing out of the well to contaminate drinking water resources such as surface water and groundwater. Fracturing fluids contain high total dissolved solids (TDS); thus, changes in TDS concentrations in groundwater might indicate influences of fracturing fluids. An increase of methane concentrations in groundwater could also potentially be due to hydraulic fracturing activities. To understand the possible contamination of groundwater by fracturing activities, real-time groundwater monitoring is being implemented in the Denver-Julesburg basin of northeast Colorado. A strategy of monitoring of surrogate parameters was chosen instead of measuring potential contaminants directly, an approach that is not cost effective or operationally practical. Contaminant surrogates of TDS and dissolved methane were proposed in this study, and were tested for correlation and data distribution with laboratory experiments. Correlations between TDS and electrical conductivity (EC), and between methane contamination and oxidation-reduction potential (ORP) were strong at low concentrations of contaminants (1 mg/L TDS and 0.3 mg/L CH4). Dissolved oxygen (DO) was only an effective surrogate at higher methane concentrations (≥2.5 mg/L). The results indicated that EC and ORP are effective surrogates for detecting concentration changes of TDS and methane, respectively, and that a strategy of monitoring for easy to measure parameters can be effective detecting real-time, anomalous behavior relative to a predetermined baseline.

  3. Biochar potential evaluation of palm oil wastes through slow pyrolysis: Thermochemical characterization and pyrolytic kinetic studies.

    PubMed

    Lee, Xin Jiat; Lee, Lai Yee; Gan, Suyin; Thangalazhy-Gopakumar, Suchithra; Ng, Hoon Kiat

    2017-07-01

    This research investigated the potential of palm kernel shell (PKS), empty fruit bunch (EFB) and palm oil sludge (POS), abundantly available agricultural wastes, as feedstock for biochar production by slow pyrolysis (50mLmin(-1) N2 at 500°C). Various characterization tests were performed to establish the thermochemical properties of the feedstocks and obtained biochars. PKS and EFB had higher lignin, volatiles, carbon and HHV, and lower ash than POS. The thermochemical conversion had enhanced the biofuel quality of PKS-char and EFB-char exhibiting increased HHV (26.18-27.50MJkg(-1)) and fixed carbon (53.78-59.92%), and decreased moisture (1.03-2.26%). The kinetics of pyrolysis were evaluated by thermogravimetry at different heating rates (10-40°C). The activation energies determined by Kissinger-Akahira-Sunose and Flynn-Wall-Ozawa models were similar, and comparable with literature data. The findings implied that PKS and EFB are very promising sources for biochars synthesis, and the obtained chars possessed significant biofuel potential. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Biotechnological route for sustainable succinate production utilizing oil palm frond and kenaf as potential carbon sources.

    PubMed

    Luthfi, Abdullah Amru Indera; Manaf, Shareena Fairuz Abdul; Illias, Rosli Md; Harun, Shuhaida; Mohammad, Abdul Wahab; Jahim, Jamaliah Md

    2017-04-01

    Due to the world's dwindling energy supplies, greater thrust has been placed on the utilization of renewable resources for global succinate production. Exploration of such biotechnological route could be seen as an act of counterbalance to the continued fossil fuel dominance. Malaysia being a tropical country stands out among many other nations for its plenty of resources in the form of lignocellulosic biomass. To date, oil palm frond (OPF) contributes to the largest fraction of agricultural residues in Malaysia, while kenaf, a newly introduced fiber crop with relatively high growth rate, holds great potential for developing sustainable succinate production, apart from OPF. Utilization of non-food, inexhaustible, and low-cost derived biomass in the form of OPF and kenaf for bio-based succinate production remains largely untapped. Owing to the richness of carbohydrates in OPF and kenaf, bio-succinate commercialization using these sources appears as an attractive proposition for future sustainable developments. The aim of this paper was to review some research efforts in developing a biorefinery system based on OPF and kenaf as processing inputs. It presents the importance of the current progress in bio-succinate commercialization, in addition to describing the potential use of different succinate production hosts and various pretreatments-saccharifications under development for OPF and kenaf. Evaluations on the feasibility of OPF and kenaf as fermentation substrates are also discussed.

  5. [Experimental study on the potential carcinogenicity of cooking oil fume condensate].

    PubMed

    Zhao, Jinming; Su, Fei; Zhou, Shaoqin

    2002-02-01

    The potential carcinogenicity of cooking oil fume condensate (COFC) to human was studied. Human embryo lung diploid fibroblast cell strain KMB-17 cell was applied to establish a human diploid cell transformation system in vitro. Different concentrations of COFC were added into the media and co-incubated with cells. The malignant degree of transformation was assessed by the biological characteristics of the cells. The concentrations of COFC within the dose range of the experiment could induce the malignant transformation of KMB-17 cell, and with a obvious dose-response relationship (r = 0.9811). Transformed cells have exhibited many characteristics associating with malignant transformation, such as loss of density and contact-dependent inhibition, growth at low serum concentration, agglutination by low concentration of Con A, alteration of karyotype from diploid to aneuploid, and lose of anchorage dependence. It suggested that the malignant transformation of human embryo lung diploid fibroblast cell strain KMB-17 cell could be induced by COFC, which might have potential carcinogenicity to human.

  6. Working potential evaluation in the territory of an oil-and-gas complex development in Siberia.

    PubMed

    Dyakovich, M P; Efimova, N V; Rukavichnikov, V S

    2007-01-01

    Health estimation as the main component of the quality of working potential (WP) of Natives was studied in the territory of an oil-and-gas development complex. Social-medical and epidemiological methods were used on potential adult and teenaged workers in the northern territory of the Irkutsk region. The realization of an adventurous and active strategy of personnel policy is discussed. The adaptation of temporary workers from central regions to unfavorable social, climatic and occupational factors is difficult. It may lead to the appearance of psychosomatic diseases and a decreased capacity for work. The attraction of Natives' WP is connected with the expenses for conversion training and the development of a social infrastructure. The estimation of risks of main pathological syndromes has shown a low share in basically healthy persons among the adults and teenagers (27.5% and 44.4%). In adults, the most frequent risks were of neurological infringements, arterial hypertension and cordial ischemia, in teenagers it was for disorders of the gastro-intestinal systems, boundary mental frustration, and neurological infringements. For development resources of the Irkutsk region, the realization of a program of social and economic development as part of a region's overall development is necessary. It must include the development of the labor market, maintenance of employment of Natives and formation of qualitative WP, and corporate health management.

  7. The potential of oil-utilizing bacterial consortia associated with legume root nodules for cleaning oily soils.

    PubMed

    Dashti, N; Khanafer, M; El-Nemr, I; Sorkhoh, N; Ali, N; Radwan, S

    2009-03-01

    The surfaces of root nodules of Vicia faba and Lupinus albus (legume crops), were colonized with bacterial consortia which utilized oil and fixed nitrogen. Such combined activities apparently make those periphytic consortia efficient contributors to bioremediation of oily nitrogen-poor desert soils. This was confirmed experimentally in this study. Thus, cultivating V. faba, L. albus and, for comparison, Solanum melongena, a nonlegume crop, separately in oily sand samples resulted in more oil attenuation than in an uncultivated sample. This effect was more pronounced with the legume crops than with the nonlegume crop. Furthermore, in flask cultures, V. faba plants with nodulated roots exhibited a higher potential for oil attenuation in the surrounding water than plants with nodule-free roots. Denaturation gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) of polymerase chain reaction amplified 16S rRNA coding genes revealed that periphytic bacteria had DGGE bands not matching those of the oil-utilizing rhizospheric bacteria. Legume nodules also contained endophytic bacteria whose 16S rDNA bands did not match those of Rhizobium nor those of all other individual periphytic and rhizospheric strains. It was concluded that legume crops host on their roots bacterial consortia with a satisfactory potential for oil phytoremediation.

  8. Production of lipopeptide biosurfactants by Bacillus atrophaeus 5-2a and their potential use in microbial enhanced oil recovery.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Junhui; Xue, Quanhong; Gao, Hui; Lai, Hangxian; Wang, Ping

    2016-10-03

    Lipopeptides are known as promising microbial surfactants and have been successfully used in enhancing oil recovery in extreme environmental conditions. A biosurfactant-producing strain, Bacillus atrophaeus 5-2a, was recently isolated from an oil-contaminated soil in the Ansai oilfield, Northwest China. In this study, we evaluated the crude oil removal efficiency of lipopeptide biosurfactants produced by B. atrophaeus 5-2a and their feasibility for use in microbial enhanced oil recovery. The production of biosurfactants by B. atrophaeus 5-2a was tested in culture media containing eight carbon sources and nitrogen sources. The production of a crude biosurfactant was 0.77 g L(-1) and its surface tension was 26.52 ± 0.057 mN m(-1) in a basal medium containing brown sugar (carbon source) and urea (nitrogen source). The biosurfactants produced by the strain 5-2a demonstrated excellent oil spreading activity and created a stable emulsion with paraffin oil. The stability of the biosurfactants was assessed under a wide range of environmental conditions, including temperature (up to 120 °C), pH (2-13), and salinity (0-50 %, w/v). The biosurfactants were found to retain surface-active properties under the extreme conditions. Additionally, the biosurfactants were successful in a test to simulate microbial enhanced oil recovery, removing 90.0 and 93.9 % of crude oil adsorbed on sand and filter paper, respectively. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy showed that the biosurfactants were a mixture of lipopeptides, which are powerful biosurfactants commonly produced by Bacillus species. The study highlights the usefulness of optimization of carbon and nitrogen sources and their effects on the biosurfactants production and further emphasizes on the potential of lipopeptide biosurfactants produced by B. atrophaeus 5-2a for crude oil removal. The favorable properties of the lipopeptide biosurfactants make them good candidates for application in the bioremediation of oil

  9. Chemical Composition and Allelopathic Potential of Essential Oils from Tipuana tipu (Benth.) Kuntze Cultivated in Tunisia.

    PubMed

    El Ayeb-Zakhama, Asma; Sakka-Rouis, Lamia; Bergaoui, Afifa; Flamini, Guido; Jannet, Hichem Ben; Harzallah-Skhiri, Fethia

    2016-03-01

    In Tunisia, Tipuana tipu (Benth.) Kuntze is an exotic tree, which was introduced many years ago and planted as ornamental street, garden, and park tree. The present work reported, for the first time, the chemical composition and evaluates the allelopathic effect of the hydrodistilled essential oils of the different parts of this tree, viz., roots, stems, leaves, flowers, and pods gathered in the area of Sousse, a coastal region, in the East of Tunisia. In total, 86 compounds representing 89.9 - 94.9% of the whole oil composition, were identified in these oils by GC-FID and GC/MS analyses. The root essential oil was clearly distinguished for its high content in sesquiterpene hydrocarbons (β-caryophyllene, 1 (44); 24.1% and germacrene D, 2 (53); 20.0%), while those obtained from pods, leaves, stems, and flowers were dominated by non-terpene hydrocarbons. The most important ones were n-tetradecane (41, 16.3%, pod oil), 1,7-dimethylnaphthalene (43, 15.6%, leaf oil), and n-octadecane (77, 13.1%, stem oil). The leaf oil was rich in the apocarotene (E)-β-ionone (4 (54); 33.8%), and the oil obtained from flowers was characterized by hexahydrofarnesylacetone (5 (81); 19.9%) and methyl hexadecanoate (83, 10.2%). Principal component and hierarchical cluster analyses separated the five essential oils into three groups and two subgroups, each characterized by the major oil constituents. Contact tests showed that the germination of lettuce seeds was totally inhibited by the root essential oil tested at 1 mg/ml. The inhibitory effect on the shoot and root elongation varied from -1.6% to -32.4%, and from -2.5% to -64.4%, respectively. © 2016 Verlag Helvetica Chimica Acta AG, Zürich.

  10. Assessment of the Potential Impacts of Hydraulic Fracturing for Oil and Gas on Drinking Water Resources (External Review Draft)

    EPA Science Inventory

    This assessment provides a review and synthesis of available scientific literature and data to assess the potential for hydraulic fracturing for oil and gas to impact the quality or quantity of drinking water resources, and identifies factors affecting the frequency or severity o...

  11. Flavonol content, oil %, and fatty acid composition variability in seeds of Teramnus labialis and T. uncinatus accessions with nutraceutical potential

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Teramnus labialis and T. uncinatus are both underutilized legume species. Teramnus labialis is used as food in India while T. uncinatus has potential use in pasture mixes. Photoperiod-sensitive Teramnus accessions were grown in the greenhouse from 2010 to 2011 and evaluated for flavonol content, oil...

  12. Assessment of the Potential Impacts of Hydraulic Fracturing for Oil and Gas on Drinking Water Resources (External Review Draft)

    EPA Science Inventory

    This assessment provides a review and synthesis of available scientific literature and data to assess the potential for hydraulic fracturing for oil and gas to impact the quality or quantity of drinking water resources, and identifies factors affecting the frequency or severity o...

  13. Potential for technically recoverable unconventional gas and oil resources in the Polish-Ukrainian Foredeep, Poland, 2012

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gautier, Donald L.; Pitman, Janet K.; Charpentier, Ronald R.; Cook, Troy; Klett, Timothy R.; Schenk, Christopher J.

    2012-01-01

    Using a performance-based geological assessment methodology, the U.S. Geological Survey estimated mean volumes of 1,345 billion cubic feet of potentially technically recoverable gas and 168 million barrels of technically recoverable oil and natural gas liquids in Ordovician and Silurian age shales in the Polish- Ukrainian Foredeep basin of Poland.

  14. Modulation of antioxidant potential in liver of mice by kernel oil of cashew nut (Anacardium occidentale) and its lack of tumour promoting ability in DMBA induced skin papillomagenesis.

    PubMed

    Singh, Bimala; Kale, R K; Rao, A R

    2004-04-01

    Cashew nut shell oil has been reported to possess tumour promoting property. Therefore an attempt has been made to study the modulatory effect of cashew nut (Anlacardium occidentale) kernel oil on antioxidant potential in liver of Swiss albino mice and also to see whether it has tumour promoting ability like the shell oil. The animals were treated orally with two doses (50 and 100 microl/animal/day) of kernel oil of cashew nut for 10 days. The kernel oil was found to enhance the specific activities of SOD, catalase, GST, methylglyoxalase I and levels of GSH. These results suggested that cashew nut kernel oil had an ability to increase the antioxidant status of animals. The decreased level of lipid peroxidation supported this possibility. The tumour promoting property of the kernel oil was also examined and found that cashew nut kernel oil did not exhibit any solitary carcinogenic activity.

  15. Preparation and characterization of cotton fabric with potential use in UV resistance and oil reclaim.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Ming; Li, Jian; Zang, Deli; Lu, Yun; Gao, Zhengxin; Shi, Junyou; Wang, Chengyu

    2016-02-10

    Here we report a simple, facile and low-cost approach to the cotton textile with significant properties. After treatment, the cotton textiles exhibit not only an excellent superhydrophobicity with the water contact angle (WCA) of 151.5(o), but also an efficient shielding property against UV with the transmittance under 2.0%. More importantly, this cotton displays an outstanding potency in oil reclaim, which can recycle oil from the waste water with oil stain efficiently. Apparently, our results suggest an innovative material that should find practical and diversified applications, particularly in the field of oil spill cleanup. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  16. Potential of used frying oil in paving material: solution to environmental pollution problem.

    PubMed

    Singh-Ackbarali, Dimple; Maharaj, Rean; Mohamed, Nazim; Ramjattan-Harry, Vitra

    2017-05-01

    The improper disposal of used frying oil (UFO) presents numerous ecological, environmental and municipal problems. Of great concern is the resultant blockage of municipal drainage systems and water treatment facilities, harm to wildlife when they become coated in it and detriment to aquatic life and ecosystems due to the depletion of the oxygen content in water bodies such as rivers and lakes that have become contaminated. Statistics show that in Trinidad and Tobago, in excess of one million liters of used cooking oil is collected annually from various restaurant chains. This paper investigated the potential of using UFO as a performance enhancing additive for road paving applications utilizing Trinidad Lake Asphalt (TLA) and Trinidad Petroleum Bitumen (TPB) as a mitigation strategy for improper UFO disposal. Modified blends containing various additions of UFO (2-10% wt) were prepared for the TLA and TPB asphaltic binders. Results demonstrated in terms of stiffness, increasing the dosage of UFO in TLA and TPB base binders resulted in a gradual decrease in stiffness (G* value decreased). In terms of elasticity, increasing the dosage of the UFO additive in TLA resulted in a general decrease in the elasticity of the blends indicated by an increase in phase angle or phase lag (δ). Increasing dosages of the UFO additive in TPB resulted in a significant decrease in δ where the most elastic blend was at the 6% UFO level. TLA and UFO-TLA modified blends exhibited significantly lower values of δ and higher values of G* confirming the superiority of the TLA material. Incorporation of the UFO in the blends led to a decrease in the rutting resistance and increase in the fatigue cracking resistance (decrease in G*/sinδ and G*sinδ, respectively). This study highlighted the potential for the reuse of UFO as an asphalt modifier capable of producing customized UFO modified asphaltic blends for special applications and confirms its feasibility as an environmentally attractive

  17. Phytochemical characterization, antimicrobial activity and reducing potential of seed oil, latex, machine oil and presscake of Jatropha curcas

    PubMed Central

    Sharma, Amit Kumar; Gangwar, Mayank; Kumar, Dharmendra; Nath, Gopal; Kumar Sinha, Akhoury Sudhir; Tripathi, Yamini Bhushan

    2016-01-01

    Objective: This study aims to evaluate the antimicrobial activity, phytochemical studies and thin layer chromatography analysis of machine oil, hexane extract of seed oil and methanol extract of presscake & latex of Jatropha curcas Linn (family Euphorbiaceae). Materials and Methods: J. curcas extracts were subjected to preliminary qualitative phytochemical screening to detect the major phytochemicals followed by its reducing power and content of phenol and flavonoids in different fractions. Thin layer chromatography was also performed using different solvent systems for the analysis of a number of constituents in the plant extracts. Antimicrobial activity was evaluated by the disc diffusion method, while the minimum inhibitory concentration, minimum bactericidal concentration and minimum fungicidal concentration were calculated by micro dilution method. Results: The methanolic fraction of latex and cake exhibited marked antifungal and antibacterial activities against Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria. Phytochemical analysis revealed the presence of alkaloids, saponins, tannins, terpenoids, steroids, glycosides, phenols and flavonoids. Reducing power showed dose dependent increase in concentration compared to standard Quercetin. Furthermore, this study recommended the isolation and separation of bioactive compounds responsible for the antibacterial activity which would be done by using different chromatographic methods such as high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), GC-MS etc. Conclusion: The results of the above study suggest that all parts of the plants possess potent antibacterial activity. Hence, it is important to isolate the active principles for further testing of antimicrobial and other biological efficacy. PMID:27516977

  18. Potential of essential oils for protection of grains contaminated by aflatoxin produced by Aspergillus flavus.

    PubMed

    Esper, Renata H; Gonçalez, Edlayne; Marques, Marcia O M; Felicio, Roberto C; Felicio, Joana D

    2014-01-01

    Aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) is a highly toxic and carcinogenic metabolite produced by Aspergillus species on food and agricultural commodities. Inhibitory effects of essential oils of Ageratum conyzoides (mentrasto) and Origanum vulgare (oregano) on the mycelial growth and aflatoxin B1 production by Aspergillus flavus have been studied previously in culture medium. The aim of this study was to evaluate aflatoxin B1 production by Aspergillus flavus in real food systems (corn and soybean) treated with Ageratum conyzoides (mentrasto) and Origanum vulgare (oregano) essential oils. Samples with 60 g of the grains were treated with different volumes of essential oils, 200, 100, 50, and 10 μL for oregano and 50, 30, 15, and 10 μL for mentrasto. Fungal growth was evaluated by disk diffusion method. Aflatoxin B1 production was evaluated inoculating suspensions of A. flavus containing 1.3 × 10(5) spores/mL in 60 g of grains (corn and soybeans) after adjusting the water activity at 0.94. Aflatoxin was quantified by photodensitometry. Fungal growth and aflatoxin production were inhibited by essential oils, but the mentrasto oil was more effective in soybeans than that of oregano. On the other hand, in corn samples, the oregano essential oil was more effective than that of mentrasto. Chemical compositions of the essential oils were also investigated. The GC/MS oils analysis showed that the main component of mentrasto essential oil is precocene I and of the main component of oregano essential oil is 4-terpineol. The results indicate that both essential oils can become an alternative for the control of aflatoxins in corn and soybeans.

  19. Potential of essential oils for protection of grains contaminated by aflatoxin produced by Aspergillus flavus

    PubMed Central

    Esper, Renata H.; Gonçalez, Edlayne; Marques, Marcia O. M.; Felicio, Roberto C.; Felicio, Joana D.

    2014-01-01

    Aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) is a highly toxic and carcinogenic metabolite produced by Aspergillus species on food and agricultural commodities. Inhibitory effects of essential oils of Ageratum conyzoides (mentrasto) and Origanum vulgare (oregano) on the mycelial growth and aflatoxin B1 production by Aspergillus flavus have been studied previously in culture medium. The aim of this study was to evaluate aflatoxin B1 production by Aspergillus flavus in real food systems (corn and soybean) treated with Ageratum conyzoides (mentrasto) and Origanum vulgare (oregano) essential oils. Samples with 60 g of the grains were treated with different volumes of essential oils, 200, 100, 50, and 10 μL for oregano and 50, 30, 15, and 10 μL for mentrasto. Fungal growth was evaluated by disk diffusion method. Aflatoxin B1 production was evaluated inoculating suspensions of A. flavus containing 1.3 × 105 spores/mL in 60 g of grains (corn and soybeans) after adjusting the water activity at 0.94. Aflatoxin was quantified by photodensitometry. Fungal growth and aflatoxin production were inhibited by essential oils, but the mentrasto oil was more effective in soybeans than that of oregano. On the other hand, in corn samples, the oregano essential oil was more effective than that of mentrasto. Chemical compositions of the essential oils were also investigated. The GC/MS oils analysis showed that the main component of mentrasto essential oil is precocene I and of the main component of oregano essential oil is 4-terpineol. The results indicate that both essential oils can become an alternative for the control of aflatoxins in corn and soybeans. PMID:24926289

  20. A note on the use of the CEC L-33-A-93 test to predict the potential biodegradation of mineral oil based lubricants in soil.

    PubMed

    Battersby, N S; Morgan, P

    1997-10-01

    The biodegradabilities of five unformulated mineral oils (brightstock, 150 SN base oil, white oil and two gas oils) were determined in the CEC L-33-A-93 test and during 20 weeks incubation in nutrient-supplemented soil microcosms. Biodegradation in both studies was measured as the loss of extractable hydrocarbon ('primary' biodegradation). There was a statistically significant (P < 0.01) rectilinear relationship between the extents of biodegradation in both test systems. The results indicate that the CEC method could be used as a relatively simple, quick and inexpensive test for assessing the potential biodegradation of mineral oil based lubricants in soil.

  1. Characterization of fast-pyrolysis bio-oil distillation residues and their potential applications

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    A typical petroleum refinery makes use of the vacuum gas oil by cracking the large molecular weight compounds into light fuel hydrocarbons. For various types of fast pyrolysis bio-oil, successful analogous methods for processing heavy fractions could expedite integration into a petroleum refinery fo...

  2. STARCH-SOYBEAN OIL BASED ULTRAVIOLET ABSORBING COMPOSITES. PREPARATION, CHEMISTY AND POTENTIAL USES

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Excess steam jet-cooking aqueous slurries of starch and vegetable oils or other hydrophobic materials can produce stable aqueous starch-oil composites from renewable resources. Herein, ferulate-based ultraviolet absorbing lipids were synthesized by the lipase catalyzed transesterification of soybea...

  3. Potential of oil-based formulations of Beauveria bassiana to control Triatoma infestans.

    PubMed

    Luz, C; Batagin, I

    2005-08-01

    The in vitro development of Beauveria bassiana conidia was monitored when immersed in six concentrations of seven non-ionic (MP 6400, MP 600, Renex 60, Renex 95, Span 80, Tween 20 and Tween 80) and three anionic (DOS 75, Hostapaval BVQ 9 and Surfax 220) surfactants and 11 vegetable oils (linseed, soybean, groundnut, rapeseed, thistle, sunflower, olive, sesame, corn, castor, and babassu). The influence of the oils on the settling behavior of Triatoma infestans nymphs and the activity of an oil-water formulation of the fungus against this vector under laboratory and simulated field conditions were also determined. With exception of DOS 75 and Surfax 220 germination of conidia on complete medium was >98% at 24 h after exposure to surfactants up to 10%. Elevated rates of germination (>25%) were observed in 10% corn, thistle and linseed oil 8 days after incubation. Pure oils had a significant repellent effect to T. infestans. Repellency decreased generally at 10% of the oil and some oils showed some attractiveness for nymphs when tested at 1%. Nymphs were highly susceptible to oil-water formulated conidia, even at unfavorable moisture for extra-tegumental development of the fungus on the insect cuticle.

  4. Partition coefficients as a measure of bioconcentration potential of crude oil compounds in fish and shellfish

    SciTech Connect

    Ogata, M.; Fujisawa, K.; Ogino, Y.; Mano, E.

    1984-11-01

    This paper deals with the correlation between the partition coefficient and the concentration factor of alkyl benzenes in crude oil for gold fish and also the correlation between the partition coefficients and concentration factor of alkyl dibenzothiophene for shellfish reared in oil suspension and that caught in the sea.

  5. Microbial populations and hydrocarbon biodegradation potentials in fertilized shoreline sediments affected by the T/V Exxon Valdez oil spill

    SciTech Connect

    Lindstrom, J.E.; Yeager, T.R.; Braddock, J.F.; Brown, E.J. ); Prince, R.C.; Grossman, M.J. ); Clark, J.C. )

    1991-09-01

    The effort to clean up the T/V Exxon Valdez oil spill in Prince William Sound, Alaska, included the use of fertilizers to accelerate natural microbial degradation of stranded oil. A program to monitor various environmental parameter associated with this technique took place during the summer of 1990. Microbiological assays for numbers of heterotrophic and oil-degrading microbes and their hydrocarbon mineralization potentials were performed in support of this program. Fertilizer addition resulted in higher hexadecane and phenanthrene mineralization potentials on treated plots than on untreated reference plots. Microbial numbers in treated and reference surface sediments were not significantly different immediately after the first nutrient application in May 1990. However, subsurface sediments different immediately after the first nutrient application in May 1990. However, subsurface sediments from treated plots had higher numbers of hydrocarbon degraders than did reference sediments shortly after treatment. The second application of fertilizer, later in summer, resulted in surface and subsurface increases in numbers of hydrocarbon degraders with respect to reference sediments at two of three study sites. Elevated mineralization potentials, coupled with increased numbers of hydrocarbon degraders, indicated that natural hydrocarbon biodegradation was enhanced. However, these microbiological measurements alone are not sufficient to determine in situ rates of crude oil biodegradation.

  6. Microbial populations and hydrocarbon biodegradation potentials in fertilized shoreline sediments affected by the T/V Exxon Valdez oil spill.

    PubMed

    Lindstrom, J E; Prince, R C; Clark, J C; Grossman, M J; Yeager, T R; Braddock, J F; Brown, E J

    1991-09-01

    The effort of clean up the T/V Exxon Valdez oil spill in Prince William Sound, Alaska, included the use of fertilizers to accelerate natural microbial degradation of stranded oil. A program to monitor various environmental parameters associated with this technique took place during the summer of 1990. Microbiological assays for numbers of heterotrophic and oil-degrading microbes and their hydrocarbon mineralization potentials were performed in support of this program. Fertilizer addition resulted in higher hexadecane and phenanthrene mineralization potentials on treated plots than on untreated reference plots. Microbial numbers in treated and reference surface sediments were not significantly different immediately after the first nutrient application in May 1990. However, subsurface sediments from treated plots had higher numbers of hydrocarbon degraders than did reference sediments shortly after treatment. The second application of fertilizer, later in summer, resulted in surface and subsurface increases in numbers of hydrocarbon degraders with respect to reference sediments at two of the three study sites. Elevated mineralization potentials, coupled with increased numbers of hydrocarbon degraders, indicated that natural hydrocarbon biodegradation was enhanced. However, these microbiological measurements alone are not sufficient to determine in situ rates of crude oil biodegradation.

  7. Endocrine-disrupting chemicals and oil and natural gas operations: Potential environmental contamination and recommendations to assess complex environmental mixtures

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kassotis, Christopher D.; Tillitt, Donald E.; Lin, Chung-Ho; McElroy, Jane A.; Nagel, Susan C.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Hydraulic fracturing technologies, developed over the last 65 years, have only recently been combined with horizontal drilling to unlock oil and gas reserves previously deemed inaccessible. While these technologies have dramatically increased domestic oil and natural gas production, they have also raised concerns for the potential contamination of local water supplies with the approximately 1,000 chemicals used throughout the process, including many known or suspected endocrine-disrupting chemicals.Objectives: We discuss the need for an endocrine component to health assessments for drilling-dense regions in the context of hormonal and anti-hormonal activities for chemicals used.Methods: We discuss the literature on 1) surface and ground water contamination by oil and gas extraction operations, and 2) potential human exposure, particularly in context of the total hormonal and anti-hormonal activities present in surface and ground water from natural and anthropogenic sources, with initial analytical results and critical knowledge gaps discussed.Discussion: In light of the potential for environmental release of oil and gas chemicals that can disrupt hormone receptor systems, we recommend methods for assessing complex hormonally active environmental mixtures.Conclusions: We describe a need for an endocrine-centric component for overall health assessments and provide supporting information that using this may help explain reported adverse health trends as well as help develop recommendations for environmental impact assessments and monitoring programs.

  8. Endocrine-Disrupting Chemicals and Oil and Natural Gas Operations: Potential Environmental Contamination and Recommendations to Assess Complex Environmental Mixtures.

    PubMed

    Kassotis, Christopher D; Tillitt, Donald E; Lin, Chung-Ho; McElroy, Jane A; Nagel, Susan C

    2016-03-01

    Hydraulic fracturing technologies, developed over the last 65 years, have only recently been combined with horizontal drilling to unlock oil and gas reserves previously deemed inaccessible. Although these technologies have dramatically increased domestic oil and natural gas production, they have also raised concerns for the potential contamination of local water supplies with the approximately 1,000 chemicals that are used throughout the process, including many known or suspected endocrine-disrupting chemicals. We discuss the need for an endocrine component to health assessments for drilling-dense regions in the context of hormonal and antihormonal activities for chemicals used. We discuss the literature on a) surface and groundwater contamination by oil and gas extraction operations, and b) potential human exposure, particularly in the context of the total hormonal and antihormonal activities present in surface and groundwater from natural and anthropogenic sources; we also discuss initial analytical results and critical knowledge gaps. In light of the potential for environmental release of oil and gas chemicals that can disrupt hormone receptor systems, we recommend methods for assessing complex hormonally active environmental mixtures. We describe a need for an endocrine-centric component for overall health assessments and provide information supporting the idea that using such a component will help explain reported adverse health trends as well as help develop recommendations for environmental impact assessments and monitoring programs.

  9. Microbial populations and hydrocarbon biodegradation potentials in fertilized shoreline sediments affected by the T/V Exxon Valdez oil spill.

    PubMed Central

    Lindstrom, J E; Prince, R C; Clark, J C; Grossman, M J; Yeager, T R; Braddock, J F; Brown, E J

    1991-01-01

    The effort of clean up the T/V Exxon Valdez oil spill in Prince William Sound, Alaska, included the use of fertilizers to accelerate natural microbial degradation of stranded oil. A program to monitor various environmental parameters associated with this technique took place during the summer of 1990. Microbiological assays for numbers of heterotrophic and oil-degrading microbes and their hydrocarbon mineralization potentials were performed in support of this program. Fertilizer addition resulted in higher hexadecane and phenanthrene mineralization potentials on treated plots than on untreated reference plots. Microbial numbers in treated and reference surface sediments were not significantly different immediately after the first nutrient application in May 1990. However, subsurface sediments from treated plots had higher numbers of hydrocarbon degraders than did reference sediments shortly after treatment. The second application of fertilizer, later in summer, resulted in surface and subsurface increases in numbers of hydrocarbon degraders with respect to reference sediments at two of the three study sites. Elevated mineralization potentials, coupled with increased numbers of hydrocarbon degraders, indicated that natural hydrocarbon biodegradation was enhanced. However, these microbiological measurements alone are not sufficient to determine in situ rates of crude oil biodegradation. PMID:1662935

  10. Lithogenesis and oil potential of Jurassic terrigenous deposits of the middle-latitude OB river region

    SciTech Connect

    Lukin, A.E.; Garipov, O.M.

    1995-05-01

    The lithologic, mineralogical, and geochemical features of Jurassic terrigenous deposits of the Krasnoleninskii group of oil fields of Western Siberia are characterized. It is shown that the degree of their regional changes corresponds to the protocatagenesis-mesocatagenesis interval PC{sub 2}-MC{sub 1} and only to the start of the main phase of oil generation. At the same time pronounced fluctuations of the paleotemperature indices related to the repeated intrusion of hydrothermal fluids were noted. It was established that the formation of secondary oil reservoirs in Jurassic deposits is a multiphase metasomatic process, including tectono-geodynamic and hydrothermal alteration and oil saturation accompanied by various {open_quotes}near-oil{close_quotes} alterations of the enclosing strata and formation of a system of geophysical and geochemical anomalies.

  11. Toxicity testing of dispersed oil requires adherence to standardized protocols to assess potential real world effects.

    PubMed

    Coelho, Gina; Clark, James; Aurand, Don

    2013-06-01

    Recently, several researchers have attempted to address Deepwater Horizon incident environmental fate and effects issues using laboratory testing and extrapolation procedures that are not fully reliable measures for environmental assessments. The 2013 Rico-Martínez et al. publication utilized laboratory testing approaches that severely limit our ability to reliably extrapolate such results to meaningful real-world assessments. The authors did not adopt key methodological elements of oil and dispersed oil toxicity standards. Further, they drew real-world conclusions from static exposure tests without reporting actual exposure concentrations. Without this information, it is not possible to compare their results to other research or real spill events that measured and reported exposure concentrations. The 1990s' Chemical Response to Oil Spills: Ecological Effects Research Forum program was established to standardize and conduct exposure characterization in oil and dispersed oil aquatic toxicity testing (Aurand and Coelho, 2005). This commentary raises awareness regarding the necessity of standardized test protocols.

  12. Evaluation of the Leishmanicidal and Cytotoxic Potential of Essential Oils Derived From Ten Colombian Plants

    PubMed Central

    Sanchez-Suarez, JF; Riveros, I; Delgado, G

    2013-01-01

    Background The leishmanicidal and cytotoxic activity of ten essential oils obtained from ten plant specimens were evaluated. Methods Essential oils were obtained by the steam distillation of plant leaves without any prior processing. Cytotoxicity was tested on J774 macrophages and leishmanicidal activity was assessed against four species of Leishmania associated with cutaneous leishmaniasis. Results Seven essential oils exhibited activity against Leishmania parasites, five of which were toxic against J774 macrophages. Selectivity indices of >6 and 13 were calculated for the essential oils of Ocimum basilicum and Origanum vulgare, respectively. Conclusion The essential oil of Ocimum basilicum was active against promastigotes of Leishmania and innocuous to J774 macrophages at concentrations up to 1600 µg/mL and should be further investigated for leishmanicidal activity in others in vitro and in vivo experimental models. PMID:23682270

  13. Potential of the green alga Chlorella vulgaris for biodegradation of crude oil hydrocarbons.

    PubMed

    Xaaldi Kalhor, Aadel; Movafeghi, Ali; Mohammadi-Nassab, Adel Dabbagh; Abedi, Ehsan; Bahrami, Ahmad

    2017-08-22

    Oil production and/or transportation can cause severe environmental pollution and disrupt the populations of living organisms. In the present study, biodegradation of petroleum hydrocarbons is investigated using Chlorella vulgaris as a green algal species. The microalga was treated by 10 and 20g/l crude oil/water concentrations at two experimental durations (7 and 14days). Based on the results obtained, C. vulgaris owned not only considerable resistance against the pollutants but also high ability in remediation of crude oil hydrocarbons (~94% of the light and ~88% of heavy compounds in 14days). Intriguingly, dry weight of C. vulgaris increased by the rising crude oil concentration indicating the positive effect of crude oil on the growth of the algal species. This biodegradation process is remarkably a continuous progression over a period of time. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Palm oil industry: A review of the literature on the modelling approaches and potential solution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zabid, M. Faeid M.; Abidin, Norhaslinda Zainal

    2015-12-01

    Palm oil industry plays an important role as a backbone to the economy of a country, especially in many developing countries. Various issues related to the palm oil context have been studied rigorously by previous researchers using appropriate modeling approaches. Thus, the purpose of this paper is to present an overview of existing modeling approaches used by researchers in studying several issues in the palm oil industry. However, there are still limited numbers of researches that focus to determine the impact of strategy policies on palm oil studies. Furthermore, this paper introduces an improved system dynamics and genetic algorithm technique to facilitate the policy design process in palm oil industry. The proposed method is expected to become a framework for structured policy design process to assist the policy maker in evaluating and designing appropriate policies.

  15. Potential of the essential oil from Pimenta pseudocaryophyllus as an antimicrobial agent.

    PubMed

    Suzuki, Érika Yoko; Baptista, Edilene Bolutari; Resende Do Carmo, Antônio Márcio; Miranda Chaves, Maria Das Graças Afonso; Chicourel, Elizabeth Lemos; Barbosa Raposo, Nádia Rezende

    2014-09-01

    This study evaluated the effectiveness of the essential oil of Pimenta pseudocaryophyllus in inhibiting the growth of the main bacteria responsible for bad perspiration odor (Staphylococcus epidermidis, Proteus hauseri, Micrococcus yunnanensis and Corynebacterium xerosis). The chemical profile of the essential oil was evaluated by high-resolution gas chromatography (HR-GC) and four constituents were identified, eugenol being the major component (88.6%). The antimicrobial activity was evaluated by means of the turbidimetric method, using the microdilution assay. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) values of the essential oil ranged from 500 to 1,000 μg mL⁻¹. Scanning electron microscope (SEM) observations confirmed the physical damage and morphological alteration of the test bacteria treated with the essential oil, reference drugs and eugenol. The findings of the study demonstrated that this essential oil can be used in the formulation of personal care products.

  16. Thymbra capitata essential oil as potential therapeutic agent against Gardnerella vaginalis biofilm-related infections.

    PubMed

    Machado, Daniela; Gaspar, Carlos; Palmeira-de-Oliveira, Ana; Cavaleiro, Carlos; Salgueiro, Lígia; Martinez-de-Oliveira, José; Cerca, Nuno

    2017-04-01

    To evaluate the antibacterial activity of Thymbra capitata essential oil and its main compound, carvacrol, against Gardnerella vaginalis grown planktonically and as biofilms, and its effect of vaginal lactobacilli. Minimal inhibitory concentration, minimal lethal concentration determination and flow cytometry analysis were used to assess the antibacterial effect against planktonic cells. Antibiofilm activity was measured through quantification of biomass and visualization of biofilm structure by confocal laser scanning microscopy. T. capitata essential oil and carvacrol exhibited a potent antibacterial activity against G. vaginalis cells. Antibiofilm activity was more evident with the essential oil than carvacrol. Furthermore, vaginal lactobacilli were significantly more tolerant to the essential oil. T. capitata essential oil stands up as a promising therapeutic agent against G. vaginalis biofilm-related infections.

  17. Food preservative potential of essential oils and fractions from Cymbopogon citratus, Ocimum gratissimum and Thymus vulgaris against mycotoxigenic fungi.

    PubMed

    Nguefack, J; Dongmo, J B Lekagne; Dakole, C D; Leth, V; Vismer, H F; Torp, J; Guemdjom, E F N; Mbeffo, M; Tamgue, O; Fotio, D; Zollo, P H Amvam; Nkengfack, A E

    2009-05-31

    The food preservative potential of essential oils from three aromatic plants Cymbopogon citratus, Ocimum gratissimum and Thymus vulgaris and their fractions was investigated against two mycotoxigenic strains each of Aspergillus ochraceus, Penicillium expansum and P. verrucosum. The fungicidal activity was determined and expressed as a Number of Decimal Reduction of the colony forming units per ml (NDR cfu). The influence of pH variation on this activity was studied. The NDR cfu varied with the essential oils and its concentration, the pH of the medium and the strain tested. The essential oils from O. gratissimum exhibited the highest activity against the six fungal strains under the three pH tested. T. vulgaris and C. citratus essential oils were less active against the Penicillium species tested and A. ochraceus, respectively. Potassium sorbate did not present any activity at pH 6 and 9. At pH 3, its NDR cfu was the lowest against the six fungal strains. At the same pH and at 4000 ppm, the three essential oils presented a NRD cfu > or = 6 against strains of A. ochraceus and P. expansum. The same result was obtained with T. vulgaris and C. citratus at 8000 ppm against both strains of P. verrucosum. The highest activity of the three essential oils was recorded at pH 3 against A. ochraceus strains and at pH 9 against both species of Penicillium. From the fractionation, three active fractions were obtained each from C. citratus and O. gratissimum, and two active fractions from T. vulgaris. These active fractions exhibited a NDR cfu, two to seven folds higher than that of the complete essential oils.

  18. Antioxidant potential of dietary chia seed and oil (Salvia hispanica L.) in diet-induced obese rats.

    PubMed

    Marineli, Rafaela da Silva; Lenquiste, Sabrina Alves; Moraes, Érica Aguiar; Maróstica, Mário Roberto

    2015-10-01

    This study aimed to investigate the effects of dietary chia seed and oil on plasma and liver oxidative status in diet-induced obese rats. Thirty-six Wistar rats were divided in six groups (6 animals each): control group was fed the American Institute of Nutrition (AIN)-93M diet; HFF group was fed a high-fat and high-fructose (HFF) diet; chia seed short (6-weeks) and long (12-weeks) treatments received an HFF diet with chia seed; chia oil short (6-weeks) and long (12-weeks) treatments received an HFF diet with chia oil. Plasma and hepatic biomarkers of lipid peroxidation, endogenous enzymatic and non-enzymatic antioxidant systems and antioxidant capacity were determined. HFF diet induced weight gain, oxidative stress and lipid peroxidation in plasma and liver of animals. Compared to HFF group chia seed and chia oil (12 and 6weeks) intake increased plasma reduced thiol (GSH) levels, plasma catalase (CAT) and glutathione peroxidase (GPx) activities. In the liver glutathione reductase (GRd) activity was enhanced, while CAT and GPx activities did not change. There were no differences in plasma and liver superoxide dismutase activity among chia diets and HFF group. Chia (seed and oil) intake did not modify liver lipid peroxidation, but was able to reduce plasma thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) and 8-isoprostane levels increased by HFF group. Plasma and hepatic antioxidant capacity values were increased in chia seed and oil groups about 35% and 47%, respectively, compared to HFF group. Chia groups presented similar antioxidant potential, regardless of treatment time. Dietary chia seed and oil reduced oxidative stress in vivo, since it improved antioxidant status and reduced lipid peroxidation in diet-induced obese rats. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Suitability of online 3D visualization technique in oil palm plantation management

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mat, Ruzinoor Che; Nordin, Norani; Zulkifli, Abdul Nasir; Yusof, Shahrul Azmi Mohd

    2016-08-01

    Oil palm industry has been the backbone for the growth of Malaysia economy. The exports of this commodity increasing almost every year. Therefore, there are many studies focusing on how to help this industry increased its productivity. In order to increase the productivity, the management of oil palm plantation need to be improved and strengthen. One of the solution in helping the oil palm manager is by implementing online 3D visualization technique for oil palm plantation using game engine technology. The potential of this application is that it can helps in fertilizer and irrigation management. For this reason, the aim of this paper is to investigate the issues in managing oil palm plantation from the view of oil palm manager by interview. The results from this interview will helps in identifying the suitable issues could be highlight in implementing online 3D visualization technique for oil palm plantation management.

  20. Potential of agroindustrial waste from olive oil industry for fuel ethanol production.

    PubMed

    Georgieva, Tania I; Ahring, Birgitte K

    2007-12-01

    Olive pulp (OP) is a highly polluting semi-solid residue generated from the two-stage extraction processing of olives and is a major environmental issue in Southern Europe, where 80% of the world olive oil is produced. At present, OP is either discarded to the environment or combusted with low calorific value. In this work, utilization of OP as a potential substrate for production of bioethanol was studied. Enzymatic hydrolysis and subsequent glucose fermentation by baker's yeast were evaluated for OP from 10% to 30% dry matter (i.e., undiluted). Enzymatic hydrolysis resulted in an increase in glucose concentration by 75%, giving final glucose yields near 70%. Fermentation of undiluted OP hydrolysate (OPH) resulted in the maximum ethanol produced (11.2 g/L) with productivity of 2.1 g/L/h. Ethanol yields were similar for all tested OPH concentrations and were in the range of 0.49-0.51 g/g. Results showed that yeast could effectively ferment OPH even without nutrient addition, revealing the tolerance of yeast to OP toxicity. Because of low xylan (12.4%) and glucan (16%) content in OP, this specific type of OP is not a suitable material for producing only ethanol and thus, bioethanol production should be integrated with production of other value-added products.

  1. Antinociceptive and antispasmodic effects of the essential oil of Ocimum micranthum: potential anti-inflammatory properties.

    PubMed

    Pinho, João Paulo de; Silva, Andressa Santa; Pinheiro, Bruno Gonçalves; Sombra, Igor; Bayma, Joaquim de Carvalho; Lahlou, Saad; Sousa, Pergentino José da Cunha; Magalhães, Pedro Jorge

    2012-05-01

    The antinociceptive and antispasmodic properties of the essential oil of OCIMUM micranthum (EOOM) were characterized. In mice, EOOM (15-100 mg · kg (-1), p. o.) reduced both the writhing responses induced by acetic acid and the licking-time induced by formalin, being inert on the hot plate test. In rat trachea, EOOM relaxed sustained contractions induced by KCl or carbachol (CCh). Its constituents, ( E)- [( E)-MC] and ( Z)-methyl cinnamate [( Z)-MC], reproduced several effects of EOOM. Inhaled as aerosol, EOOM prevented tracheal hyperresponsiveness to KCl or CCh in ovalbumin-sensitized animals after antigen challenge. Thus, EOOM exerts peripheral analgesia in nociception of inflammatory origin and has antispasmodic actions on rat airways under an inflammatory environment. Its effects are mainly due to ( E)-MC, which makes this substance potentially interesting for studies involving conjunctly smooth muscle cells, nociception, and inflammation. Other EOOM constituents also appear to be involved in its pharmacological actions. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  2. Neuroprotective and Anti-Aging Potentials of Essential Oils from Aromatic and Medicinal Plants

    PubMed Central

    Ayaz, Muhammad; Sadiq, Abdul; Junaid, Muhammad; Ullah, Farhat; Subhan, Fazal; Ahmed, Jawad

    2017-01-01

    The use of essential oils (EOs) and their components is known since long in traditional medicine and aromatherapy for the management of various diseases, and is further increased in the recent times. The neuroprotective and anti-aging potentials of EOs and their possible mechanism of actions were evaluated by numerous researchers around the globe. Several clinically important EOs and their components from Nigella sativa, Acorus gramineus, Lavandula angustifolia, Eucalyptus globulus, Mentha piperita, Rosmarinus officinalis, Jasminum sambac, Piper nigrum and so many other plants are reported for neuroprotective effects. This review article was aimed to summarize the current finding on EOs tested against neurodegenerative disorders like Alzheimer disease (AD) and dementia. The effects of EOs on pathological targets of AD and dementia including amyloid deposition (Aβ), neurofibrillary tangles (NFTs), cholinergic hypofunction, oxidative stress and glutamatergic abnormalities were focused. Furthermore, effects of EOs on other neurological disorders including anxiety, depression, cognitive hypofunction epilepsy and convulsions were also evaluated in detail. In conclusion, EOs were effective on several pathological targets and have improved cognitive performance in animal models and human subjects. Thus, EOs can be developed as multi-potent agents against neurological disorders with better efficacy, safety and cost effectiveness. PMID:28611658

  3. Physicochemical of microcrystalline cellulose from oil palm fronds as potential methylene blue adsorbents.

    PubMed

    Hussin, M Hazwan; Pohan, Nurul Aqilah; Garba, Zaharaddeen N; Kassim, M Jain; Rahim, Afidah Abdul; Brosse, Nicolas; Yemloul, Mehdi; Fazita, M R Nurul; Haafiz, M K Mohamad

    2016-11-01

    The present study sheds light on the physical and chemical characteristics of microcrystalline cellulose (MCC) isolated from oil palm fronds (OPF) pulps. It was found that the OPF MCC was identified as cellulose II polymorph, with higher crystallinity index than OPF α-cellulose (CrIOPFMCC: 71%>CrIOPFα-cellulose: 47%). This indicates that the acid hydrolysis allows the production of cellulose that is highly crystalline. BET surface area of OPF MCC was found to be higher than OPF α-cellulose (SBETOPFMCC: 5.64m(2)g(-1)>SBETOPFα-cellulose:Qa(0) 2.04m(2)g(-1)), which corroborates their potential as an adsorbent. In batch adsorption studies, it was observed that the experimental data fit well with Langmuir adsorption isotherm in comparison to Freundlich isotherm. The monolayer adsorption capacity (Qa(0)) of OPF MCC was found to be around 51.811mgg(-1) and the experimental data fitted well to pseudo-second-order kinetic model.

  4. Effect of hydrothermal pretreatment of sunflower oil cake on biomethane potential focusing on fibre composition.

    PubMed

    Fernández-Cegrí, Victoria; Angeles De la Rubia, M; Raposo, Francisco; Borja, Rafael

    2012-11-01

    The aim of this study was to elucidate the effect of hydrothermal pretreatment at 25, 100, 150 and 200°C on fibre composition and the biomethane potential of sunflower oil cake (SuOC). An increase in pretreatment temperature from 25 to 200°C caused a decrease in hemicellulose content in the solid pretreated fraction from 13 to 6% while the lignin content increased by 16%. Soluble compounds also increased with temperature. Digestion of solid fractions from pretreatments at 25, 100, 150 and 200°C in batch assays at 35±1°C resulted in methane yields of 114±9, 105±7, 82±7 and 53±8mL CH(4) g(-1)COD(added), respectively. The corresponding methane yields for the liquid fractions were 276±6, 310±4, 220±15 and 247±10mL CH(4) g(-1)COD(added), respectively. Therefore the overall methane yield was highest for SuOC pretreated at 100°C; however, this value was only 6.5% higher than that achieved after pretreatment at 25°C. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Assessment of anti-angiogenic and anti-tumoral potentials of Origanum onites L. essential oil.

    PubMed

    Bostancıoğlu, Rakibe Beklem; Kürkçüoğlu, Mine; Başer, Kemal Hüsnü Can; Koparal, Ayşe Tansu

    2012-06-01

    Medicinal plants and culinary herbs with anti-angiogenic and little toxicity properties have gained importance. Non-toxic anti-angiogenic phytochemicals are useful in combating cancer by preventing the formation of new blood vessels to support the tumor growth. We have investigated the essential oil of Origanum onites L. (OOEO), for a possible anti-angiogenic activity. OOEO was analyzed by gas chromatography (GC) and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC/MS). The anti-proliferative activities (by MTT assay, 3-(4,5-dimethyl-2-thiazol)-2,5-diphenyl-2H-tetrazolium bromide), anti-angiogenic activities (by tube formation assay), cell migration inhibiting capability (migration assay) and apoptotic potential (DAPI staining) of OOEO were evaluated on rat adipose tissue endothelial cells (RATECs) and 5RP7 (c-H-ras transformed rat embryonic fibroblasts) cells. Our results revealed that OOEO could markedly inhibit cell viability and induced apoptosis of 5RP7 cells and also could block in vitro tube formation and migration of RATEC. These results imply that OOEO having anti-angiogenic activity might be useful in preventing angiogenesis-related diseases and in combating cancer.

  6. Polylactide/graphene oxide nanosheets/clove essential oil composite films for potential food packaging applications.

    PubMed

    Arfat, Yasir Ali; Ahmed, Jasim; Ejaz, Mohammed; Mullah, Mehrajfatimah

    2017-08-31

    Antimicrobial nanopackaging films were developed by incorporating clove essential oil (CLO) (15-30% w/w) and graphene oxide (GO) nanosheets (1% w/w) into polylactide (PLA), suitable for use as food packaging, via solution casting. Addition of CLO into PLA matrix improved the flexibility of the composite films by lowering tensile stress, complex viscosity (η*), and glass transition temperature (Tg). GO improved the Tg, η* and lowered the oxygen permeability of the plasticized PLA matrix. Optical and anti-UV properties of the film were influenced by both GO and CLO incorporation. FTIR spectra exhibited a change in the molecular organization of the plasticized PLA film after incorporation with CLO. Microstructural studies revealed that the reinforcement of GO prevented porosity of plasticized PLA/CLO film surface. The developed composite film showed excellent antibacterial activity against Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli and therefore, has a potential to be used as active packaging material for food safety and preservation. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Synthesis and evaluation of novel acyl derivatives from jatropha oil as potential lubricant basestocks.

    PubMed

    Sammaiah, Arukali; Padmaja, Korlipara V; Prasad, Rachapudi B N

    2014-05-21

    A novel class of jatropha oil-based acylated derivatives from hydroxy alkyl esters of jatropha fatty acids (C1, C3, C4, and C8) and various anhydrides (C2, C3, C4, and C6) were synthesized and their physicochemical and lubricant properties reported. Jatropha fatty acid alkyl esters were dihydroxylated using the in situ performic acid method and further acylated with different anhydrides to produce acylated derivatives. Acylated derivatives of dihydroxy jatropha fatty acid alkyl esters were charaterized by NMR, FTIR, GC, and GC-MS analysis and were evaluated for their viscosity, viscosity index, pour and flash points, and oxidation stability. Most of the derivatives are either in ISO VG 22 or 32 viscosity grade with good viscosity index. It was observed that increase in acyl chain length and branching in the end-chain ester improved the pour point of the diacyl derivatives. All of the hexanoylated esters exhibited better oxidation stability compared to other acylated products, and their pour points are comparable to those of synthetic esters such as TMP trioleates. In general, isoalcohol esters with longer acyl chains showed promise as potential candidates for hydraulic fluids and metal-working fluids in ISO VG 22 and 32 viscosity range.

  8. Situation report for petroleum-exporting countries: an update

    SciTech Connect

    Hermelee, A.; Beller, M.; D'Acierno, J.; Smith, T.A.

    1981-11-01

    The report gives a synopsis of political, economic, and petroleum industry data for each of 15 oil exporting countries and is designed to provide up-to-date information enabling the EEMIS Project Office to react in a timely manner to late-breaking events. The report gives a brief overview of crude oil production for the major oil producing regions of the world and identifies crude flows from the major oil producing to consuming regions, such as Western Europe, United States, and Japan.

  9. Endocrine-Disrupting Chemicals and Oil and Natural Gas Operations: Potential Environmental Contamination and Recommendations to Assess Complex Environmental Mixtures

    PubMed Central

    Kassotis, Christopher D.; Tillitt, Donald E.; Lin, Chung-Ho; McElroy, Jane A.; Nagel, Susan C.

    2015-01-01

    Background Hydraulic fracturing technologies, developed over the last 65 years, have only recently been combined with horizontal drilling to unlock oil and gas reserves previously deemed inaccessible. Although these technologies have dramatically increased domestic oil and natural gas production, they have also raised concerns for the potential contamination of local water supplies with the approximately 1,000 chemicals that are used throughout the process, including many known or suspected endocrine-disrupting chemicals. Objectives We discuss the need for an endocrine component to health assessments for drilling-dense regions in the context of hormonal and antihormonal activities for chemicals used. Methods We discuss the literature on a) surface and groundwater contamination by oil and gas extraction operations, and b) potential human exposure, particularly in the context of the total hormonal and antihormonal activities present in surface and groundwater from natural and anthropogenic sources; we also discuss initial analytical results and critical knowledge gaps. Discussion In light of the potential for environmental release of oil and gas chemicals that can disrupt hormone receptor systems, we recommend methods for assessing complex hormonally active environmental mixtures. Conclusions We describe a need for an endocrine-centric component for overall health assessments and provide information supporting the idea that using such a component will help explain reported adverse health trends as well as help develop recommendations for environmental impact assessments and monitoring programs. Citation Kassotis CD, Tillitt DE, Lin CH, McElroy JA, Nagel SC. 2016. Endocrine-disrupting chemicals and oil and natural gas operations: potential environmental contamination and recommendations to assess complex environmental mixtures. Environ Health Perspect 124:256–264; http://dx.doi.org/10.1289/ehp.1409535 PMID:26311476

  10. Effect-directed assessment of the bioaccumulation potential and chemical nature of Ah receptor agonists in crude and refined oils.

    PubMed

    Vrabie, Cozmina M; Sinnige, Theo L; Murk, Albertinka J; Jonker, Michiel T O

    2012-02-07

    Recent studies have indicated that in addition to narcosis certain chemicals in crude oils and refined petroleum products may induce specific modes of action, such as aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) agonism. The risks these toxic compounds pose to organisms depend on internal exposure levels, as driven by the chemicals' bioaccumulation potential. Information on this potential however is lacking, as the chemicals' identity mostly is unknown. This study showed that AhR agonists bioaccumulate from oil-spiked sediments into aquatic worms and persist in the worms for at least several weeks. Chemical fractionations of eight pure oils into saturates, aromatics, resins, and asphaltenes (SARA), followed by effect-directed analyses using in vitro reporter gene assays revealed that the agonists predominantly are aromatic and resin-like chemicals. Some of the compounds were easily metabolized in vitro, while others were resistant to biotransformation. HPLC-assisted hydrophobicity profiling subsequently indicated that the AhR-active chemicals had a high to extremely high bioaccumulation potential, considering their estimated logK(ow) values of 4 to >10. Most of the AhR agonism, however, was assigned to compounds with logK(ow) of 5-8. These compounds were present mainly in the mid to high boiling point fractions of the oils (C(14)-C(32) alkane range), which are usually not being considered (the most) toxic in current risk assessment. The fractionations further revealed considerable oil and fraction-dependent antagonism in pure oils and SARA fractions. The results of this study clearly demonstrate that crude oils and refined petroleum products contain numerous compounds that can activate the AhR and which because of their likely persistence and extremely high bioaccumulation potential could be potential PBT (persistent, bioaccumulative and toxic) or vPvB (very persistent and very bioaccumulative) substance candidates. Many chemicals were identified by GC-MS, but the responsible

  11. Iraqi crude exports may rise further

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-12-08

    Iraq will soon start exporting crude oil through a 550 mi, 500,000 bbl/day capacity pipeline from Iraq to Banias, Syria, on the Mediterranean. Iraq has already been transporting a reported 400,000 bbl/day in a 700,000 bbl/day capacity pipeline that goes to Dortyol, Turk., on the Mediterranean. Iraq's theoretical export capacity will soon reach 1.2 million bbl/day (compared with 3.2 million bbl/day before the war), assuming that the facilities are undamaged. Iran has been exporting some crude from its Kharg Island terminal, presumably by Iranian boat to the Lavan Island terminal at the southern end of the gulf, where it would be transported along with crude from offshore fields in the area. The exports apparently had been large enough to keep spot-market prices from rising much above the $40/bbl level, and in Dec. 1980, the spot-market prices eased to just under the $40 mark. Indonesia has raised the premium on its Sumatran light crude by $1/bbl, bringing the total to $35.20. Other producers have not yet raised their prices correspondingly. The agenda of the Dec. 1980 price-fixing meeting in Indonesia (assuming it takes place as planned) is discussed.

  12. Potential and optimization of two-phase anaerobic digestion of oil refinery waste activated sludge and microbial community study

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Qinghong; Liang, Ying; Zhao, Peng; Li, Qing X.; Guo, Shaohui; Chen, Chunmao

    2016-01-01

    Oil refinery waste activated sludge produced from oil wastewater biological treatment is a major industrial sludge. Two-phase anaerobic digestion of oil refinery waste activated sludge was studied for the first time. Thermal pretreatment under 170 °C is effective on sludge solubilization. At the optimum hydrolytic-acidogenic condition which was pH of 6.5, temperature of 55 °C and HRT of 2 days, 2754 mg/L volatile fatty acids (VFAs) were produced and acetic acid and butyric acid were the key components. Comparative studies of single-phase and two-phase anaerobic digestion in terms of organic removal, biogas production and methane concentration were conducted. The cumulative methane production and soluble COD (SCOD) removal efficiency in the two-phase system were 228 mL/g COD added and 77.8%, respectively, which were 1.6 and 2.1 times higher than those in single-phase anaerobic digestion. Such improved performance is attributed to intensification of dominant microbial population in separated reactors. Caloramator, Ureibacillus, Dechloromonas, Petrobacter, and T78 played important roles in hydrolytic-acidification and oil-organics degradation. Syntrophic bacteria in the family Porphyromonadaceae and the genus Anaerobranca provide acetate for methanogen. The results demonstrated the potential and operating condition of two-phase anaerobic digestion in treatment of oil refinery waste activated sludge. PMID:27905538

  13. Assessment of the physicochemical and microbiological status of western Niger Delta soil for crude oil pollution bioremediation potential.

    PubMed

    Ejechi, Bernard O; Ozochi, Chizoba A

    2015-06-01

    The physical, chemical and microbiological characteristics of the soil across the western Niger Delta area of Nigeria were determined to assess its potential for natural remediation of crude oil pollution. The pH (oil-producing area, 6.1 ± 1.1; non-oil producing, 5.9 ± 0.9) and temperature (28-35 °C in both areas) were favourable to natural remediation, while the fluctuating moisture (7.7-45.6 %) and the dominant sandy soil textural classes (70 %) were limitations. The carbon nitrogen phosphorus (CNP) ratio markedly exceeded recommended 100:10:1, while the cation exchange capacity was below acceptable range. Counts of heterotrophic bacteria, fungi and hydrocarbon-utilising and nitrogen-fixing bacteria (mean range log10 3.8 ± 1.5-6.52 ± 0.9 cfu/g) were favourable having markedly exceeded the minimum counts required. Crude oil loss was highest in loam soil, but significantly (P = 0.00) increased in all soil textural classes including sandy soils after amendment with cow dung/poultry dropping and manual aeration in laboratory and 8-month field tests as indicated by two-way ANOVA. Thus, the overall assessment is that while CNP can be viewed as the major limiting factor to natural oil pollution remediation in the western Niger Delta soil, its influence can be minimised by the amendment indicated in the study.

  14. Potential and optimization of two-phase anaerobic digestion of oil refinery waste activated sludge and microbial community study.

    PubMed

    Wang, Qinghong; Liang, Ying; Zhao, Peng; Li, Qing X; Guo, Shaohui; Chen, Chunmao

    2016-12-01

    Oil refinery waste activated sludge produced from oil wastewater biological treatment is a major industrial sludge. Two-phase anaerobic digestion of oil refinery waste activated sludge was studied for the first time. Thermal pretreatment under 170 °C is effective on sludge solubilization. At the optimum hydrolytic-acidogenic condition which was pH of 6.5, temperature of 55 °C and HRT of 2 days, 2754 mg/L volatile fatty acids (VFAs) were produced and acetic acid and butyric acid were the key components. Comparative studies of single-phase and two-phase anaerobic digestion in terms of organic removal, biogas production and methane concentration were conducted. The cumulative methane production and soluble COD (SCOD) removal efficiency in the two-phase system were 228 mL/g COD added and 77.8%, respectively, which were 1.6 and 2.1 times higher than those in single-phase anaerobic digestion. Such improved performance is attributed to intensification of dominant microbial population in separated reactors. Caloramator, Ureibacillus, Dechloromonas, Petrobacter, and T78 played important roles in hydrolytic-acidification and oil-organics degradation. Syntrophic bacteria in the family Porphyromonadaceae and the genus Anaerobranca provide acetate for methanogen. The results demonstrated the potential and operating condition of two-phase anaerobic digestion in treatment of oil refinery waste activated sludge.

  15. Potential and optimization of two-phase anaerobic digestion of oil refinery waste activated sludge and microbial community study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Qinghong; Liang, Ying; Zhao, Peng; Li, Qing X.; Guo, Shaohui; Chen, Chunmao

    2016-12-01

    Oil refinery waste activated sludge produced from oil wastewater biological treatment is a major industrial sludge. Two-phase anaerobic digestion of oil refinery waste activated sludge was studied for the first time. Thermal pretreatment under 170 °C is effective on sludge solubilization. At the optimum hydrolytic-acidogenic condition which was pH of 6.5, temperature of 55 °C and HRT of 2 days, 2754 mg/L volatile fatty acids (VFAs) were produced and acetic acid and butyric acid were the key components. Comparative studies of single-phase and two-phase anaerobic digestion in terms of organic removal, biogas production and methane concentration were conducted. The cumulative methane production and soluble COD (SCOD) removal efficiency in the two-phase system were 228 mL/g COD added and 77.8%, respectively, which were 1.6 and 2.1 times higher than those in single-phase anaerobic digestion. Such improved performance is attributed to intensification of dominant microbial population in separated reactors. Caloramator, Ureibacillus, Dechloromonas, Petrobacter, and T78 played important roles in hydrolytic-acidification and oil-organics degradation. Syntrophic bacteria in the family Porphyromonadaceae and the genus Anaerobranca provide acetate for methanogen. The results demonstrated the potential and operating condition of two-phase anaerobic digestion in treatment of oil refinery waste activated sludge.

  16. Recovery potential of cold press byproducts obtained from the edible oil industry: physicochemical, bioactive, and antimicrobial properties.

    PubMed

    Karaman, Safa; Karasu, Salih; Tornuk, Fatih; Toker, Omer Said; Geçgel, Ümit; Sagdic, Osman; Ozcan, Nihat; Gül, Osman

    2015-03-04

    Physicochemical, bioactive, and antimicrobial properties of different cold press edible oil byproducts (almond (AOB), walnut (WOB), pomegranate (POB), and grape (GOB)) were investigated. Oil, protein, and crude fiber content of the byproducts were found between 4.82 and 12.57%, between 9.38 and 49.05%, and between 5.87 and 45.83%, respectively. GOB had very high crude fiber content; therefore, it may have potential for use as a new dietary fiber source in the food industry. As GOB, POB, and WOB oils were rich in polyunsaturated fatty acids, AOB was rich in monounsaturated fatty acids. Oil byproducts were also found to be rich in dietary mineral contents, especially potassium, calcium, phosphorus, and magnesium. WOB had highest total phenolic (802 ppm), flavonoid (216 ppm), and total hydrolyzed tannin (2185 ppm) contents among the other byproducts. Volatile compounds of all the byproducts are mainly composed of terpenes in concentration of approximately 95%. Limonene was the dominant volatile compound in all of the byproducts. Almond and pomegranate byproduct extracts showed antibacterial activity depending on their concentration, whereas those of walnut and grape byproducts showed no antibacterial activity against any pathogenic bacteria tested. According to the results of the present study, walnut, almond, pomegranate, and grape seed oil byproducts possess valuable properties that can be taken into consideration for improvement of nutritional and functional properties of many food products.

  17. Degradation of heterocyclic aromatic amines in oil under storage and frying conditions and reduction of their mutagenic potential.

    PubMed

    Randel, G; Balzer, M; Grupe, S; Drusch, S; Kaina, B; Platt, K-L; Schwarz, K

    2007-11-01

    Heterocyclic aromatic amines (HAA) were systematically studied concerning their partition behavior in water/oil-systems and their thermostability in different animal derived fats and vegetable oils. Partitioning of IQx-compounds and PhIP in water/oil systems was found to depend on the polarity defined by the molecular structure and on the pH-value of the aqueous phase. In particular, beta-carbolines norharman and harman showed a significant strong lipophilic character at alkaline pH. After heating in frying fats at 130 degrees C, contents of IQx compounds and PhIP were reduced by more than 40% and after heating at 180 degrees C less than 10% of the HAA initial concentration was recovered. By contrast, norharman and harman were much more stable under equivalent conditions. The present study leads for the first time to the conclusion that degradation of HAA in frying fats strongly correlates to the type of frying fat and is promoted by lipid oxidation products. Firstly, addition of hydroperoxides to model oils lead to a decrease of HAA during storage at 40 degrees C. Secondly, stability of HAA correlated with the content of unsaturated fatty acids in the oil, which is indicative for the oxidative stability of the medium. Degradation of HAA by heat treatment was associated with a reduction of their mutagenic potential towards strain TA98 of Salmonella typhimurium.

  18. Antifungal activity of Coriandrum sativum essential oil, its mode of action against Candida species and potential synergism with amphotericin B.

    PubMed

    Silva, Filomena; Ferreira, Susana; Duarte, Andreia; Mendonça, Dina I; Domingues, Fernanda C

    2011-12-15

    The increasing incidence of drug-resistant pathogens and toxicity of existing antifungal compounds has drawn attention towards the antimicrobial activity of natural products. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the antifungal activity of coriander essential oil according to classical bacteriological techniques, as well as with flow cytometry. The effect of the essential oil upon germ tube formation, seen as an important virulence factor, and potential synergism with amphotericin B were also studied. Coriander essential oil has a fungicidal activity against the Candida strains tested with MLC values equal to the MIC value and ranging from 0.05 to 0.4% (v/v). Flow cytometric evaluation of BOX, PI and DRAQ5 staining indicates that the fungicidal effect is a result of cytoplasmic membrane damage and subsequent leakage of intracellular components such as DNA. Also, concentrations bellow the MIC value caused a marked reduction in the percentage of germ tube formation for C. albicans strains. A synergetic effect between coriander oil and amphotericin B was also obtained for C. albicans strains, while for C. tropicalis strain only an additive effect was observed. This study describes the antifungal activity of coriander essential oil on Candida spp., which could be useful in designing new formulations for candidosis treatment.

  19. Enhancement of Anti-Dermatitis Potential of Clobetasol Propionate by DHA [Docosahexaenoic Acid] Rich Algal Oil Nanoemulsion Gel

    PubMed Central

    Sarfaraz Alam, Mohammad; Ali, Mohammad Sajid; Zakir, Foziyah; Alam, Nawazish; Intakhab Alam, Mohammad; Ahmad, Faruque; Siddiqui, Masoom Raza; Ali, Mohammad Daud; Ansari, Mohammad Salahuddin; Ahmad, Sarfaraz; Ali, Maksood

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the potential of nanoemulsion formulation for topical delivery of Clobetasol propionate (CP) using algal oil (containing omega-3 fatty acids) as the oil phase. CP has anti-inflammatory, immunomodulatory and antiproliferative activities. However, its clinical use is restricted to some extent due to its poor permeability across the skin. Algal oil was used as the oil phase and was also exploited for its anti-inflammatory effect along with CP in the treatment of inflammation associated with dermatitis. Nanoemulsion formulations were prepared by aqueous phase titration method, using algal oil, tween 20, PEG 200 and water as the oil phase, surfactant, co-surfactant and aqueous phase respectively. Furthermore, different formulations were subjected to evaluate for ex-vivo permeation and in-vivo anti-inflammatory, irritation and contact dermatitis studies. The optimized nanoemulsion was converted into hydrogel-thickened nanoemulsion system (HTN) using carbopol 971 and had a viscosity of 97.57 ± 0.04 PaS. The optimized formulation had small average diameter (120 nm) with zeta potential of -37.01 mV which indicated good long-term stability. In-vivo anti-inflammatory activity indicated 84.55% and 41.04% inhibition of inflammation for drug loaded and placebo formulations respectively. The assessment of skin permeation was done by DSC and histopathology studies which indicated changes in the structure of epidermal membrane of skin. Contact dermatitis reveals that the higher NTPDase activity in the treatment with the CP-loaded nanoemulsion could be related to the higher anti-inflammatory effect in comparison with placebo nanoemulsion gel. PMID:27610146

  20. Enhancement of Anti-Dermatitis Potential of Clobetasol Propionate by DHA [Docosahexaenoic Acid] Rich Algal Oil Nanoemulsion Gel.

    PubMed

    Sarfaraz Alam, Mohammad; Ali, Mohammad Sajid; Zakir, Foziyah; Alam, Nawazish; Intakhab Alam, Mohammad; Ahmad, Faruque; Siddiqui, Masoom Raza; Ali, Mohammad Daud; Ansari, Mohammad Salahuddin; Ahmad, Sarfaraz; Ali, Maksood

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the potential of nanoemulsion formulation for topical delivery of Clobetasol propionate (CP) using algal oil (containing omega-3 fatty acids) as the oil phase. CP has anti-inflammatory, immunomodulatory and antiproliferative activities. However, its clinical use is restricted to some extent due to its poor permeability across the skin. Algal oil was used as the oil phase and was also exploited for its anti-inflammatory effect along with CP in the treatment of inflammation associated with dermatitis. Nanoemulsion formulations were prepared by aqueous phase titration method, using algal oil, tween 20, PEG 200 and water as the oil phase, surfactant, co-surfactant and aqueous phase respectively. Furthermore, different formulations were subjected to evaluate for ex-vivo permeation and in-vivo anti-inflammatory, irritation and contact dermatitis studies. The optimized nanoemulsion was converted into hydrogel-thickened nanoemulsion system (HTN) using carbopol 971 and had a viscosity of 97.57 ± 0.04 PaS. The optimized formulation had small average diameter (120 nm) with zeta potential of -37.01 mV which indicated good long-term stability. In-vivo anti-inflammatory activity indicated 84.55% and 41.04% inhibition of inflammation for drug loaded and placebo formulations respectively. The assessment of skin permeation was done by DSC and histopathology studies which indicated changes in the structure of epidermal membrane of skin. Contact dermatitis reveals that the higher NTPDase activity in the treatment with the CP-loaded nanoemulsion could be related to the higher anti-inflammatory effect in comparison with placebo nanoemulsion gel.

  1. Identification of CASZ1 nuclear export signal (NES) reveals potential mechanisms for loss of CASZ1 tumor suppressor activity in neuroblastoma

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Zhihui; Lam, Norris; Wang, Evelyn; Virden, Ryan A.; Pawel, Bruce; Attiyeh, Edward F.; Maris, John M.; Thiele, Carol J.

    2016-01-01

    As a transcription factor, localization to the nucleus and the recruitment of co-factors to regulate gene transcription is essential. Nuclear localization and nucleosome remodeling and histone deacetylase (NuRD) complex binding are required for the zinc finger transcription factor CASZ1 to function as neuroblastoma (NB) tumor suppressor. However, the critical amino acids (AAs) that are required for CASZ1 interaction with NuRD complex and the regulation of CASZ1 subcellular localization have not been characterized. Through alanine scanning, immunofluorescence cell staining and co-immunoprecipitation we define a critical region at the CASZ1 N-terminus (AA23-40) that mediates the CASZ1b nuclear localization and NuRD interaction. Furthermore, we identify a nuclear export signal (NES) at the N-terminus (AA176-192) that contributes to CASZ1 nuclear-cytoplasmic shuttling in a chromosomal maintenance 1 (CRM1)-dependent manner. An analysis of CASZ1 protein expression in a primary neuroblastoma tissue microarray shows that high nuclear CASZ1 staining is detected in tumors from NB patients with good prognoses. In contrast, cytoplasmic-restricted CASZ1 staining or low nuclear CASZ1 staining is found in tumors from patients with poor prognoses. These findings provide insight into mechanisms by which CASZ1 regulates transcription, and suggests that regulation of CASZ1 subcellular localization may impact its function in normal development and pathologic conditions such as neuroblastoma tumorigenesis. PMID:27270431

  2. Assessing the potential environmental impact of Athabasca oil sands development in lakes across Northwest Saskatchewan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahad, J. M.; Cumming, B. F.; Das, B.; Sanei, H.

    2011-12-01

    observed in more recent sediments in some lakes suggest a potential input of depleted bioavailable nitrogen, as might be expected from anthropogenic NOx emissions. This study implies that thus far it appears that oil sands industry related emissions have had only a minor environmental impact on lakes in NW Saskatchewan.

  3. The potential of use basil and rosemary essential oils as effective antibacterial agents.

    PubMed

    Sienkiewicz, Monika; Łysakowska, Monika; Pastuszka, Marta; Bienias, Wojciech; Kowalczyk, Edward

    2013-08-05

    The considerable therapeutical problems of persistent infections caused by multidrug-resistant bacterial strains constitute a continuing need to find effective antimicrobial agents. The aim of this study was to demonstrate the activities of basil (Ocimum basilicum L.) and rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis L.) essential oils against multidrug- resistant clinical strains of Escherichia coli. A detailed analysis was performed of the resistance of the drug to the strains and their sensitivity to the tested oils. The antibacterial activity of the oils was tested against standard strain Escherichia coli ATCC 25922 as well as 60 other clinical strains of Escherichia coli. The clinical strains were obtained from patients with infections of the respiratory tract, abdominal cavity, urinary tract, skin and from hospital equipment. The inhibition of microbial growth by both essential oils, presented as MIC values, were determined by agar dilution. Susceptibility testing to antibiotics was carried out using disc diffusion. The results showed that both tested essential oils are active against all of the clinical strains from Escherichia coli including extended-spectrum β-lactamase positive bacteria, but basil oil possesses a higher ability to inhibit growth. These studies may hasten the application of essential oils in the treatment and prevention of emergent resistant strains in nosocomial infections.

  4. A large-cavity zeolite with wide pore windows and potential as an oil refining catalyst.

    PubMed

    Corma, Avelino; Díaz-Cabañas, María J; Martínez-Triguero, Joaquín; Rey, Fernando; Rius, Jordi

    2002-08-01

    Crude oil is an important feedstock for the petrochemical industry and the dominant energy source driving the world economy, but known oil reserves will cover demand for no more than 50 years at the current rate of consumption. This situation calls for more efficient strategies for converting crude oil into fuel and petrochemical products. At present, more than 40% of oil conversion is achieved using catalysts based on faujasite; this zeolite requires extensive post-synthesis treatment to produce an ultrastable form, and has a large cavity accessible through four 0.74-nm-wide windows and thus limits the access of oil molecules to the catalytically active sites. The use of zeolites with better accessibility to their active sites should result in improved catalyst efficiency. To date, two zeolites with effective pore diameters exceeding that of faujasite have been reported, but their one-dimensional pore topology excludes use in oil refining. Similarly, zeolites with large pores and a three-dimensional pore topology have been reported, but in all these materials the pore openings are smaller than in faujasite. Here we report the synthesis of ITQ-21, a zeolite with a three-dimensional pore network containing 1.18-nm-wide cavities, each of which is accessible through six circular and 0.74-nm-wide windows. As expected for a zeolite with this structure, ITQ-21 exhibits high catalytic activity and selectivity for valuable products in preliminary oil refining tests.

  5. Antimelanoma Potential of Eruca sativa Seed Oil and its Bioactive Principles.

    PubMed

    Bansal, Prachi; Medhe, S; Ganesh, N; Srivastava, M M

    2015-01-01

    The present communication reports the comparison of in vivo antioxidant, antimelanoma and antimutagenic activities of Eruca sativa seed oil and its bio principles (allyl isothiocyanate, phenylethyl isothiocyanate and sulphoraphane) against B16F10 melanoma cells induced in C57BL/6 mice model. Among the various treatments considered for the study, isothiocyanates combination (allyl isothiocyanate, phenylethyl isothiocyanate and sulphoraphane; 1:1:1; 10 µM) exhibited optimum antioxidant activity, 51.95±1.14 µM glutathione per mg protein compared to seed oil 25.91±1.26 µM. Lipid peroxidation value was 9.97±1.72 µM malondialdehyde per mg wet weight for isothiocyanates combination against seed oil, 28.45±1.87 µM and rendered significant protection against oxidative stress induced by melanoma in liver tissue. Isothiocyanates combination significantly suppressed various parameters, such as tumor growth, isothiocyanates combination by 36.36% while the seed oil by 15.23%; tumor weight, isothiocyanates combination by 45.9% and seed oil by 19.6%; tumor volume, isothiocyanates combination by 41.7% while the seed oil by 32.3%, measured for antimelanoma activity at a concentration of 10 µM. Isothiocyanates combination has been found to be more cytotoxic bioagent against B16F10 melanoma cells induced in C57BL/6 mice compared to naturally occurring Eruca sativa seed oil.

  6. Antimelanoma Potential of Eruca sativa Seed Oil and its Bioactive Principles

    PubMed Central

    Bansal, Prachi; Medhe, S.; Ganesh, N.; Srivastava, M. M.

    2015-01-01

    The present communication reports the comparison of in vivo antioxidant, antimelanoma and antimutagenic activities of Eruca sativa seed oil and its bio principles (allyl isothiocyanate, phenylethyl isothiocyanate and sulphoraphane) against B16F10 melanoma cells induced in C57BL/6 mice model. Among the various treatments considered for the study, isothiocyanates combination (allyl isothiocyanate, phenylethyl isothiocyanate and sulphoraphane; 1:1:1; 10 µM) exhibited optimum antioxidant activity, 51.95±1.14 µM glutathione per mg protein compared to seed oil 25.91±1.26 µM. Lipid peroxidation value was 9.97±1.72 µM malondialdehyde per mg wet weight for isothiocyanates combination against seed oil, 28.45±1.87 µM and rendered significant protection against oxidative stress induced by melanoma in liver tissue. Isothiocyanates combination significantly suppressed various parameters, such as tumor growth, isothiocyanates combination by 36.36% while the seed oil by 15.23%; tumor weight, isothiocyanates combination by 45.9% and seed oil by 19.6%; tumor volume, isothiocyanates combination by 41.7% while the seed oil by 32.3%, measured for antimelanoma activity at a concentration of 10 µM. Isothiocyanates combination has been found to be more cytotoxic bioagent against B16F10 melanoma cells induced in C57BL/6 mice compared to naturally occurring Eruca sativa seed oil. PMID:26009655

  7. Waste lubricating oil disposal practices in Providence, Rhode Island: potential significance to coastal water quality

    SciTech Connect

    Hoffman, E.J.; Falke, A.M.; Quinn, J.G.

    1980-01-01

    A 1979-80 survey of Providence, R.I., residents indicated that about 35% change their own automotive lubricating oil, disposing of this oil by a variety of methods. The most popular disposal method was putting the oil in garbage cans, followed by backyard dumping, sewer disposal, dumping it on roads, or taking it to the town dump. Road and sewer disposal can account for 44 metric tons of hydrocarbons discharged into the city's combined storm and sanitary sewage treatment system. Residents indicated a high degree of willingness to participate in a state-wide recycling program.

  8. In Vitro Cytotoxic Potential of Essential Oils of Eucalyptus benthamii and Its Related Terpenes on Tumor Cell Lines

    PubMed Central

    Döll-Boscardin, Patrícia Mathias; Sartoratto, Adilson; Sales Maia, Beatriz Helena Lameiro de Noronha; Padilha de Paula, Josiane; Nakashima, Tomoe; Farago, Paulo Vitor; Kanunfre, Carla Cristine

    2012-01-01

    Eucalyptus L. is traditionally used for many medicinal purposes. In particular, some Eucalyptus species have currently shown cytotoxic properties. Local Brazilian communities have used leaves of E. benthamii as a herbal remedy for various diseases, including cancer. Considering the lack of available data for supporting this cytotoxic effect, the goal of this paper was to study the in vitro cytotoxic potential of the essential oils from young and adult leaves of E. benthamii and some related terpenes (α-pinene, terpinen-4-ol, and γ-terpinene) on Jurkat, J774A.1 and HeLa cells lines. Regarding the cytotoxic activity based on MTT assay, the essential oils showed improved results than α-pinene and γ-terpinene, particularly for Jurkat and HeLa cell lines. Terpinen-4-ol revealed a cytotoxic effect against Jurkat cells similar to that observed for volatile oils. The results of LDH activity indicated that cytotoxic activity of samples against Jurkat cells probably involved cell death by apoptosis. The decrease of cell DNA content was demonstrated due to inhibition of Jurkat cells proliferation by samples as a result of cytotoxicity. In general, the essential oils from young and adult leaves of E. benthamii presented cytotoxicity against the investigated tumor cell lines which confirms their antitumor potential. PMID:22645627

  9. Potential production of palm oil-based foaming agent as fire extinguisher of peatlands in Indonesia: Literature review

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Subekti, P.; Hambali, E.; Suryani, A.; Suryadarma, P.

    2017-05-01

    This study aims to analyze the potential aplication of of palm oil-based foaming agent as peat fires fighter in Indonesia. From literature review, it has been known that the foaming agent able to form foam to extinguish fire, wrap and refrigerate the burning peat. It is necessary to develop the production and application of foaming agent in Indonesia because peat fires occur almost every year that caused smoke haze. Potential raw material for the production of environmental friendly foaming agent as foam extinguishing for peat fires in Indonesia aong other is palm oil due to abundant availability, sustainable, and foam product easily degraded in the environment of the burnt areas. Production of foaming agent as fire-fighting in Indonesia is one alternative to reduce the time to control the fire and smog disaster impact. Application of palm oil as a raw material for fire-fighting is contribute to increase the value added and the development of palm oil downstream industry.

  10. Transcriptome Analysis of Yellow Horn (Xanthoceras sorbifolia Bunge): A Potential Oil-Rich Seed Tree for Biodiesel in China

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Yulin; Huang, Zhedong; Ao, Yan; Li, Wei; Zhang, Zhixiang

    2013-01-01

    Background Yellow horn (Xanthoceras sorbifolia Bunge) is an oil-rich seed shrub that grows well in cold, barren environments and has great potential for biodiesel production in China. However, the limited genetic data means that little information about the key genes involved in oil biosynthesis is available, which limits further improvement of this species. In this study, we describe sequencing and de novo transcriptome assembly to produce the first comprehensive and integrated genomic resource for yellow horn and identify the pathways and key genes related to oil accumulation. In addition, potential molecular markers were identified and compiled. Methodology/Principal Findings Total RNA was isolated from 30 plants from two regions, including buds, leaves, flowers and seeds. Equal quantities of RNA from these tissues were pooled to construct a cDNA library for 454 pyrosequencing. A total of 1,147,624 high-quality reads with total and average lengths of 530.6 Mb and 462 bp, respectively, were generated. These reads were assembled into 51,867 unigenes, corresponding to a total of 36.1 Mb with a mean length, N50 and median of 696, 928 and 570 bp, respectively. Of the unigenes, 17,541 (33.82%) were unmatched in any public protein databases. We identified 281 unigenes that may be involved in de novo fatty acid (FA) and triacylglycerol (TAG) biosynthesis and metabolism. Furthermore, 6,707 SSRs, 16,925 SNPs and 6,201 InDels with high-confidence were also identified in this study. Conclusions This transcriptome represents a new functional genomics resource and a foundation for further studies on the metabolic engineering of yellow horn to increase oil content and modify oil composition. The potential molecular markers identified in this study provide a basis for polymorphism analysis of Xanthoceras, and even Sapindaceae; they will also accelerate the process of breeding new varieties with better agronomic characteristics. PMID:24040247

  11. Hydrocarbon mineralization potentials and microbial populations in marine sediments following the Exxon Valdez oil spill. Subtidal study number 1b. Exxon Valdez oil spill state/federal natural resource damage assessment final report

    SciTech Connect

    Braddock, J.F.; Rasley, B.T.; Yeager, T.R.; Lindstrom, J.E.; Brown, E.J.

    1992-06-01

    Following the Exxon Valdez oil spill in 1989, the authors measured numbers of hydrocarbon-degrading microoganisms and hydrocarbon mineralization potentials of microorganisms in oiled and unoiled surface sediments from the shore through 100 m depth offshore. The authors found both temporal and spatial variations in numbers and activity of hydrocarbon-degrading microorganisms with significant higher values at the oiled sites than at reference sites. The microbial data indicate mobilization between 1989 and 1990 of oil from the intertidal to surface sediments at 20, 40 and 100 m depths offshore.

  12. Hydrology and landscape structure control subalpine catchment carbon export

    Treesearch

    Vincent Jerald Pacific

    2009-01-01

    Carbon export from high elevation ecosystems is a critical component of the global carbon cycle. Ecosystems in northern latitudes have become the focus of much research due to their potential as large sinks of carbon in the atmosphere. However, there exists limited understanding of the controls of carbon export from complex mountain catchments due to strong spatial and...

  13. Nanostructured cinnamon oil has the potential to control Rhipicephalus microplus ticks on cattle.

    PubMed

    Dos Santos, Daiane S; Boito, Jhonatan P; Santos, Roberto C V; Quatrin, Priscilla M; Ourique, Aline Ferreira; Dos Reis, João H; Gebert, Roger R; Glombowsky, Patrícia; Klauck, Vanderlei; Boligon, Aline A; Baldissera, Matheus D; Da Silva, Aleksandro S

    2017-08-29

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the capacity of pure and nanostructured cinnamon oil to control the infestation and reproductive efficiency of Rhipicephalus microplus on dairy cows. In vitro (stage I)-engorged female ticks were immersed in concentrations of 1.0, 5.0 and 10% of cinnamon oil on its pure form, and 0.5, 1.0, and 5.0% of the nanostructured form. 10% cinnamon oil (pure form) showed 100% efficacy, whereas concentrations of 1 and 5% were 62 and 97% efficacious, respectively. Nanocapsules and nanoemulsions containing cinnamon oil at 5% showed 95 and 97% efficacy, respectively. In vivo (stage II)-16 naturally tick-infested cows were divided into four groups of four animals each: Group A was composed of dairy cows sprayed with Triton (control); Group B was composed of dairy cows sprayed with cinnamon oil in its pure form (5%), whereas groups C and D were composed of dairy cows sprayed with nanocapsules and nanoemulsions, respectively, containing cinnamon oil at 0.5%. The ticks on each animal were counted on days 0, 1, 4 and 20 after spraying. Animals sprayed with pure and nanoencapsulated cinnamon oil carried significantly fewer ticks on days 1 and 4 post-treatment and were free of ticks on day 20 post-treatment. Ticks collected from these dairy cows (24 h after application) had impaired oviposition and larval inhibition, resulting in 90.5 and 100% efficacy when using pure and nanocapsules, respectively. In conclusion, the pure and nanostructured forms of cinnamon oil interfered with tick reproduction, whereas a significant acaricidal effect was found when applied onto cattle.

  14. Chemotherapeutic potential of the volatile oils from Zanthoxylum rhoifolium Lam leaves.

    PubMed

    da Silva, Saulo L; Figueiredo, Patrícia M S; Yano, Tomomasa

    2007-12-08

    In this work, the anti-tumor properties of the volatile oil from Zanthoxylum rhoifolium Lam leaves and some terpenes (alpha-humulene, beta-caryophyllene, alpha-pinene and beta-pinene) were investigated in vitro and in vivo using the Ehrlich ascites tumor model. Treatment of Ehrlich ascites tumor-bearing mice with 20 mg/kg of the volatile oil and beta-caryophyllene for 4 days has significantly increased survival, whereas administration of alpha-humulene, alpha-pinene and beta-pinene were ineffective in affording protection. Volatile oil and beta-caryophyllene exhibited little direct activity against Ehrlich tumor cells in vitro, while alpha-humulene, alpha-pinene and beta-pinene did not such activity. Investigation of the effects of the volatile oil (and terpenes) treatment on total natural killer cells (NK cell) activity from tumor-bearing mice as a possible mechanism of these compounds in vivo revealed that volatile oil and beta-caryophyllene significantly improved NK cell cytotoxicity against YAC-1, a Moloney virus-induced mouse T-cell lymphoma of A/SN origin and Ehrlich ascites cells. As expected, tumor growth in non-treated mice markedly suppressed NK cell cytolysis while the volatile oil and beta-caryophyllene reversed this effect when mice were treated with 20-mg/kg dosages of these compounds for 4 days. Summing up, volatile oil exhibits anti-tumor efficacy and significative immunomodulatory action in vivo, which may be related to beta-caryophyllene associated to the synergism of other natural compounds presented in volatile oil from Z. rhoifolium Lam leaves.

  15. Antioxidant activity of rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis L.) essential oil and its hepatoprotective potential

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Natural antioxidant products are increasingly being used to treat various pathological liver conditions considering the role of oxidative stress in their pathogenesis. Rosemary essential oil has already being used as a preservative in food industry due to its antioxidant and antimicrobial activities, but it was shown to possess additional health benefits. The aim of our study was to evaluate the protective effect of rosemary essential oil on carbon tetrachloride - induced liver injury in rats and to explore whether its mechanism of action is associated with modulation of hepatic oxidative status. Methods Chemical composition of isolated rosemary essential oil was determined by gas chromatography and mass spectrometry. Antioxidant activity was determined in vitro using DPPH assay. Activities of enzyme markers of hepatocellular damage in serum and antioxidant enzymes in the liver homogenates were measured using the kinetic spectrophotometric methods. Results In this research, we identified 29 chemical compounds of the studied rosemary essential oil, and the main constituents were 1,8-cineole (43.77%), camphor (12.53%), and α-pinene (11.51%). Investigated essential oil was found to exert hepatoprotective effects in the doses of 5 mg/kg and 10 mg/kg by diminishing AST and ALT activities up to 2-fold in serum of rats with carbon tetrachloride - induced acute liver damage. Rosemary essential oil prevented carbon tetrachloride - induced increase of lipid peroxidation in liver homogenates. Furthermore, pre-treatment with studied essential oil during 7 days significantly reversed the activities of antioxidant enzymes catalase, peroxidase, glutathione peroxidase and glutathione reductase in liver homogenates, especially in the dose of 10 mg/kg. Conclusions Our results demonstrate that rosemary essential oil, beside exhibiting free radical scavenging activity determined by DPPH assay, mediates its hepatoprotective effects also through activation of

  16. Antioxidant activity of rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis L.) essential oil and its hepatoprotective potential.

    PubMed

    Rašković, Aleksandar; Milanović, Isidora; Pavlović, Nebojša; Ćebović, Tatjana; Vukmirović, Saša; Mikov, Momir

    2014-07-07

    Natural antioxidant products are increasingly being used to treat various pathological liver conditions considering the role of oxidative stress in their pathogenesis. Rosemary essential oil has already being used as a preservative in food industry due to its antioxidant and antimicrobial activities, but it was shown to possess additional health benefits. The aim of our study was to evaluate the protective effect of rosemary essential oil on carbon tetrachloride - induced liver injury in rats and to explore whether its mechanism of action is associated with modulation of hepatic oxidative status. Chemical composition of isolated rosemary essential oil was determined by gas chromatography and mass spectrometry. Antioxidant activity was determined in vitro using DPPH assay. Activities of enzyme markers of hepatocellular damage in serum and antioxidant enzymes in the liver homogenates were measured using the kinetic spectrophotometric methods. In this research, we identified 29 chemical compounds of the studied rosemary essential oil, and the main constituents were 1,8-cineole (43.77%), camphor (12.53%), and α-pinene (11.51%). Investigated essential oil was found to exert hepatoprotective effects in the doses of 5 mg/kg and 10 mg/kg by diminishing AST and ALT activities up to 2-fold in serum of rats with carbon tetrachloride-induced acute liver damage. Rosemary essential oil prevented carbon tetrachloride-induced increase of lipid peroxidation in liver homogenates. Furthermore, pre-treatment with studied essential oil during 7 days significantly reversed the activities of antioxidant enzymes catalase, peroxidase, glutathione peroxidase and glutathione reductase in liver homogenates, especially in the dose of 10 mg/kg. Our results demonstrate that rosemary essential oil, beside exhibiting free radical scavenging activity determined by DPPH assay, mediates its hepatoprotective effects also through activation of physiological defense mechanisms.

  17. Anti-inflammatory potential of a lipolotion containing coriander oil in the ultraviolet erythema test.

    PubMed

    Reuter, Juliane; Huyke, Constance; Casetti, Federica; Theek, Carmen; Frank, Uwe; Augustin, Matthias; Schempp, Christoph

    2008-10-01

    Coriander oil is used as an antimicrobial agent and as a natural fragrance. The present study investigated the anti-inflammatory potency of coriander oil in the ultraviolet (UV) erythema test in vivo. 40 volunteers were enrolled in this monocentric,randomized,placebo-controlled double-blind study.Test areas on the back were irradiated with the 1.5 fold minimal erythema dose UV-B. Subsequently, the test areas were treated under occlusion for 47 hours with a lipolotion containing 0.5% or 1.0% essential coriander oil. Hydrocortisone (1.0%) and betamethasone valerate (0.1%) in the vehicle served as positive controls.The vehicle was used as place-bo.The effect of the test substances on the UV-induced erythema was measured photometrically after 48 hours.Additionally,the skin tolerance of the test preparations was assessed on non-irradiated skin. Compared to placebo, the lipolotion with 0.5% coriander oil significantly reduced the UV-induced erythema, but it was not as effective as hydrocortisone. The skin tolerance of both coriander oil concentrations was excellent. The lipolotion containing coriander oil displayed a mild antiinflammatory effect in this study. It could be useful in the concomitant treatment of inflammatory skin diseases.

  18. Chemical composition and antioxidant potential of Ruta montana L. essential oil from Algeria.

    PubMed

    Kambouche, N; Merah, B; Bellahouel, S; Bouayed, J; Dicko, A; Derdour, A; Younos, C; Soulimani, R

    2008-09-01

    The essential oil of aerial parts of Ruta montana L. growing in the Oran region in the west of Algeria was obtained by hydrodistillation with a 1.63% yield on a dry weight basis. Gas chromatography (GC) and GC/mass spectrometry (MS) analyses were carried out to identify the chemical composition of R. montana essential oil. Moreover, spectrophotometric analyses were employed to highlight the scavenger capacity of this oil using the 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) test. Twenty compounds were identified by GC and CG/MS analyses, and the bulk of the compounds of the oil were undecan-2-one (32.8%), nonan-2-one (29.5%), nonanol-2-acetate (18.2%), and psoralen (3.5%). The results obtained using the DPPH test show that R. montana essential oil possesses antiradical activity in a concentration-dependent manner. Thus, a linear correlation (correlation coefficient R(2) = 0.971, P < .001) was found between the reduction of DPPH stable free radical and the concentration of R. montana essential oil.

  19. Lack of genotoxic potential of pesticides, spinosad, imidacloprid and neem oil in mice (Mus musculus).

    PubMed

    Saxena, Ankita; Kesari, V P

    2016-03-01

    Pesticides, spinosad, imidacloprid and neem oil are widely used both in residential and agricultural environments because of its broad spectrum insecticidal activity and effectiveness. The present study was undertaken to estimate genotoxicity of formulations of some pesticides in mice. Three pesticides of diverse group studied were spinosad (45% w/v), imidacloprid (17.8%, w/v) and neem oil. Animals were exposed 37, 4.5 and 50 mg kg⁻¹ b.wt. for spinosad, imidacloprid and neem oil, respectively, through oral gavage for 5 consecutive days. A vehicle control group and one positive control (cyclophosphamide; 20 mg kg⁻¹ b. wt.) were also selected. The results showed that cyclophosphamide produced 1.12% micronuclei in mice, as against 0.18 in vehicle control, 0.30 in spinosad, 0.28 in imidacloprid and 0.22% in neem oil, respectively. The gross percentage of chromosomal aberration in mice were 28.5% in cyclophosphamide against 6.5% in vehicle control, 8.0% in spinosad, 9.5% in imidacloprid and 7.0% in neem oil, respectively. The overall findings of the present study revealed that all the three pesticide formulations, imidacloprid, spinosad and neem oil at tested dose did not show any genotoxic effect in mice.

  20. Insecticidal Potential of Clove Essential Oil and Its Constituents on Cacopsylla chinensis (Hemiptera: Psyllidae) in Laboratory and Field.

    PubMed

    Tian, Bao-Liang; Liu, Qi-Zhi; Liu, Zhi-Long; Li, Peng; Wang, Jie-Wen

    2015-06-01

    Cacopsylla chinensis (Yang and Li) (Hemiptera: Psyllidae) is an important pest of pear in China. As an alternative to conventional chemical pesticides, botanicals including essential oils and their constituents could provide an eco-friendly and nonhazardous control method. In this study, the essential oil of clove buds (Syzygium aromaticum) was obtained by hydrodistillation. Five constituents, accounting for 99.89% of the oil, were identified by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry, and the major constituents were eugenol (88.61%) and eugenol acetate (8.89%), followed by β-caryophyllene (1.89%). In a laboratory bioassay, clove essential oil, commercial eugenol (99.00%) and β-caryophyllene (98.00%) exhibited strong contact toxicity against the summerform adults of C. chinensis with LD50 values of 0.730, 0.673, and 0.708 µg/adult, and against the nymphs with LD50 values of 1.795, 1.668, and 1.770 µg/nymph, respectively. In contrast, commercial eugenol acetate (98%) had LD50 values of 9.266 µg/adult and 9.942 µg/nymph. In a field trial, clove essential oil caused significant population reductions of 73.01% (4.80 mg/ml), 66.18% (2.40 mg/ml) and 46.56% (1.20 mg/ml), respectively. Our results demonstrated that clove essential oil and its constituents have potential as a source of natural insecticides. © The Authors 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  1. The potential near-source ozone impacts of upstream oil and gas industry emissions.

    PubMed

    Olaguer, Eduardo P

    2012-08-01

    Increased drilling in urban areas overlying shale formations and its potential impact on human health through decreased air quality make it important to estimate the contribution of oil and gas activities to photochemical smog. Flares and compressor engines used in natural gas operations, for example, are large sources not only of NOx but also offormaldehyde, a hazardous air pollutant and powerful ozone precursor We used a neighborhood scale (200 m horizontal resolution) three-dimensional (3D) air dispersion model with an appropriate chemical mechanism to simulate ozone formation in the vicinity ofa hypothetical natural gas processing facility, based on accepted estimates of both regular and nonroutine emissions. The model predicts that, under average midday conditions in June, regular emissions mostly associated with compressor engines may increase ambient ozone in the Barnett Shale by more than 3 ppb beginning at about 2 km downwind of the facility, assuming there are no other major sources of ozone precursors. Flare volumes of 100,000 cubic meters per hour ofnatural gas over a period of 2 hr can also add over 3 ppb to peak 1-hr ozone somewhatfurther (>8 km) downwind, once dilution overcomes ozone titration and inhibition by large flare emissions of NOx. The additional peak ozone from the hypothetical flare can briefly exceed 10 ppb about 16 km downwind. The enhancements of ambient ozone predicted by the model are significant, given that ozone control strategy widths are of the order of a few parts per billion. Degrading the horizontal resolution of the model to 1 km spuriously enhances the simulated ozone increases by reducing the effectiveness of ozone inhibition and titration due to artificial plume dilution.

  2. Composition and pathogenic potential of a microbial bioremediation product used for crude oil degradation

    PubMed Central

    Tayabali, Azam F.; Coleman, Gordon; Crosthwait, Jennifer; Nguyen, Kathy C.; Zhang, Yan; Shwed, Philip

    2017-01-01

    A microbial bioremediation product (MBP) used for large-scale oil degradation was investigated for microbial constituents and possible pathogenicity. Aerobic growth on various media yielded >108 colonies mL-1. Full-length 16S rDNA sequencing and fatty acid profiling from morphologically distinct colonies revealed ≥13 distinct genera. Full-length 16S rDNA library sequencing, by either Sanger or long-read PacBio technology, suggested that up to 21% of the MBP was composed of Arcobacter. Other high abundance microbial constituents (>6%) included the genera Proteus, Enterococcus, Dysgonomonas and several genera in the order Bacteroidales. The MBP was most susceptible to ciprofloxacin, doxycycline, gentamicin, and meropenam. MBP exposure of human HT29 and A549 cells caused significant cytotoxicity, and bacterial growth and adherence. An acellular MBP filtrate was also cytotoxic to HT29, but not A549. Both MBP and filtrate exposures elevated the neutrophil chemoattractant IL-8. In endotracheal murine exposures, bacterial pulmonary clearance was complete after one-week. Elevation of pro-inflammatory cytokines IL-1β, IL-6, and TNF-α, and chemokines KC and MCP-1 occurred between 2h and 48h post-exposure, followed by restoration to baseline levels at 96h. Cytokine/chemokine signalling was accompanied by elevated blood neutrophils and monocytes at 4h and 48h, respectively. Peripheral acute phase response markers were maximal at 24h. All indicators examined returned to baseline values by 168h. In contrast to HT29, but similar to A549 observations, MBP filtrate did not induce significant murine effects with the indicators examined. The results demonstrated the potentially complex nature of MBPs and transient immunological effects during exposure. Products containing microbes should be scrutinized for pathogenic components and subjected to characterisation and quality validation prior to commercial release. PMID:28178315

  3. Composition and pathogenic potential of a microbial bioremediation product used for crude oil degradation.

    PubMed

    Tayabali, Azam F; Coleman, Gordon; Crosthwait, Jennifer; Nguyen, Kathy C; Zhang, Yan; Shwed, Philip

    2017-01-01

    A microbial bioremediation product (MBP) used for large-scale oil degradation was investigated for microbial constituents and possible pathogenicity. Aerobic growth on various media yielded >108 colonies mL-1. Full-length 16S rDNA sequencing and fatty acid profiling from morphologically distinct colonies revealed ≥13 distinct genera. Full-length 16S rDNA library sequencing, by either Sanger or long-read PacBio technology, suggested that up to 21% of the MBP was composed of Arcobacter. Other high abundance microbial constituents (>6%) included the genera Proteus, Enterococcus, Dysgonomonas and several genera in the order Bacteroidales. The MBP was most susceptible to ciprofloxacin, doxycycline, gentamicin, and meropenam. MBP exposure of human HT29 and A549 cells caused significant cytotoxicity, and bacterial growth and adherence. An acellular MBP filtrate was also cytotoxic to HT29, but not A549. Both MBP and filtrate exposures elevated the neutrophil chemoattractant IL-8. In endotracheal murine exposures, bacterial pulmonary clearance was complete after one-week. Elevation of pro-inflammatory cytokines IL-1β, IL-6, and TNF-α, and chemokines KC and MCP-1 occurred between 2h and 48h post-exposure, followed by restoration to baseline levels at 96h. Cytokine/chemokine signalling was accompanied by elevated blood neutrophils and monocytes at 4h and 48h, respectively. Peripheral acute phase response markers were maximal at 24h. All indicators examined returned to baseline values by 168h. In contrast to HT29, but similar to A549 observations, MBP filtrate did not induce significant murine effects with the indicators examined. The results demonstrated the potentially complex nature of MBPs and transient immunological effects during exposure. Products containing microbes should be scrutinized for pathogenic components and subjected to characterisation and quality validation prior to commercial release.

  4. OPEC needs help from other exporters to balance market

    SciTech Connect

    Vielvoye, R.

    1988-11-14

    For the past 5 years the Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries has been telling oil producers around the world that it can no longer carry the burden of trying to balance supply and demand without outside help. Non-OPEC exporters have, on several occasions, examined the benefits of sharing the burden of production cuts, but rightly have been nervous of close cooperation with an unpredictable and undisciplined competitor. Cooperation will certainly depend on OPEC reaching its own production cutting agreement. That must be done in a way that given non-OPEC countries confidence that any new production and pricing pact will not fall apart during the first half of next year. OPEC exports to the developing world have been trimmed by the advent of new producers. In most of these countries local production only eliminates or reduces imports. Few are in the class of North Yemen where the initial flow could meet local demand and provide a surplus for export.

  5. Hydrological controls on glacially exported microbial assemblages

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dubnick, Ashley; Kazemi, Sina; Sharp, Martin; Wadham, Jemma; Hawkings, Jon; Beaton, Alexander; Lanoil, Brian

    2017-05-01

    The Greenland Ice Sheet (GrIS) exports approximately 400 km3 of freshwater annually to downstream freshwater and marine ecosystems. These meltwaters originate in a wide range of well-defined habitats that can be associated with very different physical environments within the ice sheet, ranging from oxygenated surface environments that are exposed to light and supplied with nutrients from atmospheric/aeolian sources to subglacial environments that are permanently dark, isolated from the atmosphere, and potentially anoxic. Hydrological conditions in the latter likely favor prolonged rock-water contact. The seasonally evolving hydrological system that drains meltwaters from the GrIS connects these distinct microbial habitats and exports the microbes contained within them to downstream ecosystems. The microbial assemblages exported in glacier meltwater may have an impact on downstream ecosystem function and development. We explored how the seasonal development of a glacial drainage system influences the character of microbial assemblages exported from the GrIS by monitoring the seasonal changes in hydrology, water chemistry, and microbial assemblage composition of meltwaters draining from a glacier in southwest Greenland. We found that the microbial assemblages exported in meltwaters varied in response to glacier hydrological flow path characteristics. Whether or not meltwaters passed through the subglacial environment was the first-order control on the composition of the microbial assemblages exported from the glacier, while water source (i.e., supraglacial or extraglacial) and subglacial residence times were second-order controls. Glacier hydrology therefore plays a fundamental role in determining the microbial exports from glaciated watersheds.

  6. Final Environmental Impact Statement for the Mineral Resource Management Plan. Potential Exploration, Development, and Production of Oil and Gas Resources; Vandenberg Air Force Base, California

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1987-12-01

    the best combination of chemical and physical characteristics for producing food, feed, forage, fiber, and oil - seed crops, and is also available or...OF THE AIR FORCE BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT STRATEGIC AIR COMMAND POTENTIAL EXPLORATION, DEVELOPMENT, AND PRODUCTION OF OIL AND GAS RESOURCES...and national defense activities. Because the development of oil and gas on Vandenberg Air Force Base (VAFB) could adversely affect the base’s missions

  7. Discoveries to make North and South Yemen crude exporters

    SciTech Connect

    Vielvoye, R.

    1987-08-24

    This article reports that North and South Yemen, two of the poorest and most remote countries on the Arabian Peninsula, are on course to join the ranks of oil exporters. A major oil field at Alif in North Yemen, currently under development by Yemen Hunt Oil Co., is expected to provide first exports towards year-end. Production from North Yemen could reach 400,000 b/d in the early 1990s. In South Yemen, a Soviet oil company also has found oil. Industry sources think production will be sufficient to allow a modest level of exports. The two discoveries have brought explorationists back to a part of the Arabian Peninsula that for decades remained in the shadow of the prolific producers along the Persian Gulf coast. North Yemen attracted its first oil explorers in 1953. During the next 20 years six different groups took acreage. But activity was restricted to the more accessible coastal areas, and most groups did only preliminary geophysical work.

  8. Designer-Wet Micromodels for Studying Potential Changes in Wettability during Microbial Enhanced Oil Recovery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Armstrong, R. T.; Wildenschild, D.

    2010-12-01

    Microbial Enhanced Oil Recovery (MEOR) is a process where microorganisms are used for tertiary recovery of oil. Some bacteria can facilitate the mobilization of oil through the production of amphiphilic compounds called biosurfactants that reduce the interfacial tension (IFT) between immiscible phases. Additionally, most bacteria have an inclination to colonize surfaces and form biofilm, which can change a reservoir's wetting properties or clog preferential flow paths. Herein, we aim to understand changes in wettability during MEOR under mixed wettability conditions within silicon etched micromodels and to identify the type of oil field (i.e. based on wettability) in which MEOR is likely to be most profitable. To quantify porous media wettability, macro-scale indexes (obtained with techniques such as the Carter or Amott methods) are used regularly. However, these measurements lack the capability for characterization of changes in wettability during MEOR treatment, and only provide macro-scale information. In an effort to understand micro-scale temporal and spatial changes in wettability we measure interfacial curvature from stereo microscope images using level set methods. Curvature, from the perspective of the oil phase, is positive for a concave interface (i.e. water-wet surface) and negative for a convex interface (i.e. oil-wet surface). Thus, shifts in the radius of curvature distribution (i.e. from positive to negative or conversely) are indicative of wettability changes. Both curvature distributions using level-set methods and the Carter method are used to characterize wettability before and after microbial treatment. In preliminary studies aimed at understanding wettability changes due to microbial surface interactions by Bacillus mojavensis JF-2, oil droplets were placed on glass slides suspended in growth media and the resulting contact angle was measured over time. Results showed that a water-wet surface will become more water wet as JF-2 accumulated in

  9. Inhibition of the compound action potentials of frog sciatic nerves by aroma oil compounds having various chemical structures.

    PubMed

    Ohtsubo, Sena; Fujita, Tsugumi; Matsushita, Akitomo; Kumamoto, Eiichi

    2015-03-01

    Plant-derived chemicals including aroma oil compounds have an ability to inhibit nerve conduction and modulate transient receptor potential (TRP) channels. Although applying aroma oils to the skin produces a local anesthetic effect, this has not been yet examined throughly. The aim of the present study was to know how nerve conduction inhibitions by aroma oil compounds are related to their chemical structures and whether these activities are mediated by TRP activation. Compound action potentials (CAPs) were recorded from the frog sciatic nerve by using the air-gap method. Citral (aldehyde), which activates various types of TRP channels, attenuated the peak amplitude of CAP with the half-maximal inhibitory concentration (IC50) value of 0.46 mmol/L. Another aldehyde (citronellal), alcohol (citronellol, geraniol, (±)-linalool, (-)-linalool, (+)-borneol, (-)-borneol, α-terpineol), ester (geranyl acetate, linalyl acetate, bornyl acetate), and oxide (rose oxide) compounds also reduced CAP peak amplitudes (IC50: 0.50, 0.35, 0.53, 1.7, 2.0, 1.5, 2.3, 2.7, 0.51, 0.71, 0.44, and 2.6 mmol/L, respectively). On the other hand, the amplitudes were reduced by a small extent by hydrocarbons (myrcene and p-cymene) and ketone (camphor) at high concentrations (2-5 mmol/L). The activities of citral and other TRP agonists ((+)-borneol and camphor) were resistant to TRP antagonist ruthenium red. An efficacy sequence for the CAP inhibitions was generally aldehydes ≥ esters ≥ alcohols > oxides > hydrocarbons. The CAP inhibition by the aroma oil compound was not related to its octanol-water partition coefficient. It is suggested that aroma oil compounds inhibit nerve conduction in a manner specific to their chemical structures without TRP activation.

  10. Preliminary assessment of the potential impact of fog oil smoke on selected threatened and endangered species. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Getz, L.L.; Reinbold, K.A.; Tazik, D.J.; Hayden, T.J.; Cassels, D.M.

    1996-01-01

    Exposure to smokes and obscurants is perceived to constitute a potential negative impact on individuals or populations of threatened and endangered species present in training areas. This research provides a preliminary assessment of the environmental impacts of fog oil smoke used in training exercises based on available data and information (and assumptions stated in the report), especially as they might affect threatened and endangered species. This research also identifies specific data and information gaps that should be the focus of future research efforts.

  11. 26 CFR 1.993-3 - Definition of export property.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... such property conversion costs (direct labor and factory burden including packaging or assembly) of such person account for 20 percent of more of— (a) The cost of goods sold or inventory amount of such... contains a depletable product is not export property if— (i) It is a primary product from oil, gas, coal...

  12. 77 FR 13077 - Order Temporarily Denying Export Privileges

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-05

    ... (``UAE''), to export U.S.-origin items subject to the Regulations from the United States to Iran, via transshipment through the UAE, without obtaining the required authorization from the U.S. Government. Delfin... engine lubricating oils--from the United States to Iran via the UAE. Baghdasarian is the chief executive...

  13. Assessment of inhibitory potential of essential oils on natural mycoflora and Fusarium mycotoxins production in wheat

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background In the last years essential oils from different plants were used in the prevention of fungi and mycotoxins accumulation in cereals. The most attractive aspect derived from using of essential oils as seed grains protectants is due to their non-toxicity. This study was focused on assessment the inhibitory effect of some essential oils: Melissa officinalis (O1), Salvia officinalis (O2), Coriandrum sativum (O3), Thymus vulgaris (O4) Mentha piperita (O5) and Cinnamomum zeylanicum (O6) against natural mycoflora and Fusarium mycotoxins production correlated with their antioxidants properties. Results All essential oils showed inhibitory effect on fungal contamination of wheat seeds. This ability was dose-dependent. The highest inhibitory effect on Fusarium and Aspergillus fungi was recorded after 5 days of treatment. Fungi such as yeast (Pichia, Saccharomyces and Hyphopichia) were predominantly on seeds mycoflora after 22 days. Each treatment had a selective inhibitory effect on frequency of fungus genera. After 5 days of treatment the most fungicidal effect was recorder for O4, followed by O1. In terms of essential oils effect on mycotoxins development, the best control on fumonisins (FUMO) production was recorded for O6. The antioxidant properties of essential oils decreased in order: O4 > O1 > O6 > O5 > O2 > O3. Also, our data suggested that there is a significant negative correlation between antioxidant properties and seed contamination index (SCI), but there was not recorded a good correlation between antioxidant properties and FUMO content. Conclusions Based on proven antifungal and antimycotoxin effects as well as their antioxidant properties, the essential oils could be recommended as natural preservatives for stored cereals. The highest inhibition of fungal growth was noted after 5 days of treatment and decreased after 22 days. PMID:23409841

  14. Assessment of inhibitory potential of essential oils on natural mycoflora and Fusarium mycotoxins production in wheat.

    PubMed

    Sumalan, Renata-Maria; Alexa, Ersilia; Poiana, Mariana-Atena

    2013-02-14

    In the last years essential oils from different plants were used in the prevention of fungi and mycotoxins accumulation in cereals. The most attractive aspect derived from using of essential oils as seed grains protectants is due to their non-toxicity. This study was focused on assessment the inhibitory effect of some essential oils: Melissa officinalis (O1), Salvia officinalis (O2), Coriandrum sativum (O3), Thymus vulgaris (O4) Mentha piperita (O5) and Cinnamomum zeylanicum (O6) against natural mycoflora and Fusarium mycotoxins production correlated with their antioxidants properties. All essential oils showed inhibitory effect on fungal contamination of wheat seeds. This ability was dose-dependent. The highest inhibitory effect on Fusarium and Aspergillus fungi was recorded after 5 days of treatment. Fungi such as yeast (Pichia, Saccharomyces and Hyphopichia) were predominantly on seeds mycoflora after 22 days. Each treatment had a selective inhibitory effect on frequency of fungus genera. After 5 days of treatment the most fungicidal effect was recorder for O4, followed by O1. In terms of essential oils effect on mycotoxins development, the best control on fumonisins (FUMO) production was recorded for O6. The antioxidant properties of essential oils decreased in order: O4 > O1 > O6 > O5 > O2 > O3. Also, our data suggested that there is a significant negative correlation between antioxidant properties and seed contamination index (SCI), but there was not recorded a good correlation between antioxidant properties and FUMO content. Based on proven antifungal and antimycotoxin effects as well as their antioxidant properties, the essential oils could be recommended as natural preservatives for stored cereals. The highest inhibition of fungal growth was noted after 5 days of treatment and decreased after 22 days.

  15. Estimates of Oil and Gas Potential of Source Rock by 13C Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) Spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Longbottom, T. L.; Hockaday, W. C.; Boling, K. S.; Dworkin, S. I.

    2014-12-01

    Kerogen is defined as the insoluble fraction of organic matter preserved in sediments. Due to its structural complexity, kerogen is poorly understood, yet it holds vast economic importance as petroleum source rock, and represents the largest organic carbon pool on earth. Kerogen originates from a mixture of organic biomolecules and tends to be dominated by the polymeric components of cell walls and cellular membranes, which undergo interactions with sedimentary minerals at elevated temperature and pressure upon burial. Due to the importance of burial diagenesis to petroleum formation, much of our knowledge of chemical properties of kerogens is related to diagenetic and catagenetic effects. The more common geochemical evaluations of the oil and gas potentials of source rock are based upon proximate analyses such as hydrogen and oxygen indices and thermal stability indices, such as those provided by Fisher assay and Rock Eval®. However, proximate analyses provide limited information regarding the chemical structure of kerogens, and therefore provide little insight to the processes of kerogen formation. NMR spectra of kerogen have been previously shown to be useful in estimating oil and gas potential, and the proposed study seeks to refine nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy as a tool in kerogen characterization, specifically for the purpose of oil and gas potential calculations.

  16. Evaluation of the Resource Potential of Shale Hydrocarbons on the Territory Tatarstan Republic (Volga-Ural oil and gas province)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muslimov, Renat; Plotnikova, Irina

    2015-04-01

    Volga-Ural provinces of Eastern European platform are referred to industrial developed areas of oil production with the deteriorating structure of residual hydrocarbon reserves, forcing to search for new reserves of raw materials growth, including unconventional sources of hydrocarbons - shale strata. The top priority for the study and evaluation of this territory are complexes of Domanic and Domanician shale deposits (Upper Devonian carbonate-siliceous-clays horizons that contain a significant amount of ТОС). In the present report the prospects of the development of shale oil facilities design methods in Tatarstan are considered. A program for evaluation of oil and gas deposits prospects is worked out. The stages of its realization are described. A preliminary estimate of the cost of the program is made. Research on the evaluation criteria of shale oil and gas is conducted to accurately assess the resource potential of shale oil. Statistic analysis of the geochemical index of hydrocarbon source rocks in some areas of the Tatarstan (such as Melekessky basin, South-Tatar arch, North-Tatar arch and other) based on the characteristic of triple-division between the oil content and TOC of source rock, suggests that shale oil can be categorized into different levels of resource enrichment. The report contains results of analysis of organic matter porosity and permeability distribution in domanik type rocks on the Tatarstan area. First estimation of resource potential of shale hydrocarbons in the territory of the Republic of Tatarstan were carried out. Resource assessment carried out for domanik rocks of the Ust-Cheremshansk deflection in the Melekess depression. Method of evaluation provided an opportunity to evaluate amount of mobile hydrocarbons in dense shale rock. Still the question of the degree of maturity of the organic substance remains open. A detailed analysis of the pyrolysis was performed. The study of lithology and geochemistry allowed to develop shale

  17. Potential use of avocado oil on structured lipids MLM-type production catalysed by commercial immobilised lipases.

    PubMed

    Caballero, Eduardo; Soto, Carmen; Olivares, Araceli; Altamirano, Claudia

    2014-01-01

    Structured Lipids are generally constituents of functional foods. Growing demands for SL are based on a fuller understanding of nutritional requirements, lipid metabolism, and improved methods to produce them. Specifically, this work was aimed to add value to avocado oil by producing dietary triacylglycerols (TAG) containing medium-chain fatty acids (M) at positions sn-1,3 and long-chain fatty acids (L) at position sn-2. These MLM-type structured lipids (SL) were produced by interesterification of caprylic acid (CA) (C8:0) and avocado oil (content of C18:1). The regiospecific sn-1,3 commercial lipases Lipozyme RM IM and TL IM were used as biocatalysts to probe the potential of avocado oil to produce SL. Reactions were performed at 30-50°C for 24 h in solvent-free media with a substrate molar ratio of 1∶2 (TAG:CA) and 4-10% w/w enzyme content. The lowest incorporation of CA (1.1% mol) resulted from Lipozyme RM IM that was incubated at 50°C. The maximum incorporation of CA into sn-1,3 positions of TAG was 29.2% mol. This result was obtained at 30°C with 10% w/w Lipozyme TL IM, which is the highest values obtained in solvent-free medium until now for structured lipids of low-calories. This strategy opens a new market to added value products based on avocado oil.

  18. Exploring the Potential of High Resolution Remote Sensing Data for Mapping Vegetation and the Age Groups of Oil Palm Plantation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kamiran, N.; Sarker, M. L. R.

    2014-02-01

    The land use/land cover transformation in Malaysia is enormous due to palm oil plantation which has provided huge economical benefits but also created a huge concern for carbon emission and biodiversity. Accurate information about oil palm plantation and the age of plantation is important for a sustainable production, estimation of carbon storage capacity, biodiversity and the climate model. However, the problem is that this information cannot be extracted easily due to the spectral signature for forest and age group of palm oil plantations is similar. Therefore, a noble approach "multi-scale and multi-texture algorithms" was used for mapping vegetation and different age groups of palm oil plantation using a high resolution panchromatic image (WorldView-1) considering the fact that pan imagery has a potential for more detailed and accurate mapping with an effective image processing technique. Seven texture algorithms of second-order Grey Level Co-occurrence Matrix (GLCM) with different scales (from 3×3 to 39×39) were used for texture generation. All texture parameters were classified step by step using a robust classifier "Artificial Neural Network (ANN)". Results indicate that single spectral band was unable to provide good result (overall accuracy = 34.92%), while higher overall classification accuracies (73.48%, 84.76% and 93.18%) were obtained when textural information from multi-scale and multi-texture approach were used in the classification algorithm.

  19. Degradation of Bunker C Fuel Oil by White-Rot Fungi in Sawdust Cultures Suggests Potential Applications in Bioremediation.

    PubMed

    Young, Darcy; Rice, James; Martin, Rachael; Lindquist, Erika; Lipzen, Anna; Grigoriev, Igor; Hibbett, David

    2015-01-01

    Fungal lignocellulolytic enzymes are promising agents for oxidizing pollutants. This study investigated degradation of Number 6 "Bunker C" fuel oil compounds by the white-rot fungi Irpex lacteus, Trichaptum biforme, Phlebia radiata, Trametes versicolor, and Pleurotus ostreatus (Basidiomycota, Agaricomycetes). Averaging across all studied species, 98.1%, 48.6%, and 76.4% of the initial Bunker C C10 alkane, C14 alkane, and phenanthrene, respectively were degraded after 180 days of fungal growth on pine media. This study also investigated whether Bunker C oil induces changes in gene expression in the white-rot fungus Punctularia strigosozonata, for which a complete reference genome is available. After 20 days of growth, a monokaryon P. strigosozonata strain degraded 99% of the initial C10 alkane in both pine and aspen media but did not affect the amounts of the C14 alkane or phenanthrene. Differential gene expression analysis identified 119 genes with ≥ log2(2-fold) greater expression in one or more treatment comparisons. Six genes were significantly upregulated in media containing oil; these genes included three enzymes with potential roles in xenobiotic biotransformation. Carbohydrate metabolism genes showing differential expression significantly accumulated transcripts on aspen vs. pine substrates, perhaps reflecting white-rot adaptations to growth on hardwood substrates. The mechanisms by which P. strigosozonata may degrade complex oil compounds remain obscure, but degradation results of the 180-day cultures suggest that diverse white-rot fungi have promise for bioremediation of petroleum fuels.

  20. Influence of cultivar and concentration of selected phenolic constituents on the in vitro chemiopreventive potential of olive oil extracts.

    PubMed

    Fabiani, Roberto; Sepporta, Maria V; Mazza, Teresa; Rosignoli, Patrizia; Fuccelli, Raffaela; De Bartolomeo, Angelo; Crescimanno, Marilena; Taticchi, Agnese; Esposto, Sonia; Servili, Maurizio; Morozzi, Guido

    2011-08-10

    One of the main olive oil phenolic compounds, hydroxytyrosol (3,4-DHPEA), exerts in vitro chemopreventive activities (antiproliferative and pro-apoptotic) on tumor cells through the accumulation of H(2)O(2) in the culture medium. However, the phenol composition of virgin olive oil is complex, and 3,4-DHPEA is present at low concentrations when compared to other secoiridoids. In this study, the in vitro chemopreventive activities of complex virgin olive oil phenolic extracts (VOO-PE, derived from the four Italian cultivars Nocellara del Belice, Coratina, Ogliarola, and Taggiasca) were compared to each other and related to the amount of the single phenolic constituents. A great chemopreventive potential among the different VOO-PE was found following this order: Ogliarola > Coratina > Nocellara > Taggiasca. The antiproliferative and pro-apoptotic activities of VOO-PE were positively correlated to the secoiridoid content and negatively correlated to the concentration of both phenyl alcohols and lignans. All extracts induced H(2)O(2) accumulation in the culture medium, but this phenomenon was not responsible for their pro-apoptotic activity. When tested in a complex mixture, the olive oil phenols exerted a more potent chemopreventive effect compared to the isolated compounds, and this effect could be due either to a synergistic action of components or to any other unidentified extract constituent.

  1. Bacterial population and biodegradation potential in chronically crude oil-contaminated marine sediments are strongly linked to temperature

    PubMed Central

    Bargiela, Rafael; Mapelli, Francesca; Rojo, David; Chouaia, Bessem; Tornés, Jesús; Borin, Sara; Richter, Michael; Del Pozo, Mercedes V.; Cappello, Simone; Gertler, Christoph; Genovese, María; Denaro, Renata; Martínez-Martínez, Mónica; Fodelianakis, Stilianos; Amer, Ranya A.; Bigazzi, David; Han, Xifang; Chen, Jianwei; Chernikova, Tatyana N.; Golyshina, Olga V.; Mahjoubi, Mouna; Jaouanil, Atef; Benzha, Fatima; Magagnini, Mirko; Hussein, Emad; Al-Horani, Fuad; Cherif, Ameur; Blaghen, Mohamed; Abdel-Fattah, Yasser R.; Kalogerakis, Nicolas; Barbas, Coral; Malkawi, Hanan I.; Golyshin, Peter N.; Yakimov, Michail M.; Daffonchio, Daniele; Ferrer, Manuel

    2015-01-01

    Two of the largest crude oil-polluted areas in the world are the semi-enclosed Mediterranean and Red Seas, but the effect of chronic pollution remains incompletely understood on a large scale. We compared the influence of environmental and geographical constraints and anthropogenic forces (hydrocarbon input) on bacterial communities in eight geographically separated oil-polluted sites along the coastlines of the Mediterranean and Red Seas. The differences in community compositions and their biodegradation potential were primarily associated (P < 0.05) with both temperature and chemical diversity. Furthermore, we observed a link between temperature and chemical and biological diversity that was stronger in chronically polluted sites than in pristine ones where accidental oil spills occurred. We propose that low temperature increases bacterial richness while decreasing catabolic diversity and that chronic pollution promotes catabolic diversification. Our results further suggest that the bacterial populations in chronically polluted sites may respond more promptly in degrading petroleum after accidental oil spills. PMID:26119183

  2. Water resources and potential hydrologic effects of oil-shale development in the southeastern Uinta Basin, Utah and Colorado

    SciTech Connect

    Lindskov, K.L.; Kimball, B.A.

    1984-01-01

    Proposed oil-shale mining in northeastern Utah is expected to impact the water resources of a 3000-square-mile area. This report summarizes a comprehensive hydrologic investigation of the area. Hydrologic information obtained during 1974 to 1980 was used to evaluate the availability of water and to evaluate the potential impacts of an oil-shale industry on the water resources. The study area is the southeastern part of the Uinta Basin, Utah and Colorado, where the hydrology is extremely variable. The normal annual precipitation averages 11 inches and varies with altitude. An oil-shale industry in the southeastern Uinta Basin with a peak production of 400,000 barrels of oil per day would require a water suppy of about 70,000 acre-feet per year. Sources of water supply considered for such an industry were: diversion from the natural flow of the White River, a proposed reservoir on the White River, diversion from the White River combined with proposed off-stream storage in Hells Hole Canyon, diversion from the Green River, and conjunctive use of ground and surface water. 55 refs., 20 figs., 3 tabs.

  3. Potential for producing oil and gas from the Woodford Shale (Devonian-Mississippian) in the southern mid-continent, USA

    SciTech Connect

    Comer, J.B. )

    1992-04-01

    The Woodford Shale is a prolific oil source rock throughout the southern mid-continent of the United States. Extrapolation of thickness and organic geochemical data based on the analysis of 614 samples from the region indicate that on the order of 100 {times} 10{sup 9} bbl of oil (300 {times} 10{sup 12} ft{sup 3} of natural gas equivalent) reside in the Woodford in Oklahoma and northwestern Arkansas. The Woodford in west Texas and southeastern New Mexico contains on the order of 80 {times} 10{sup 9} bbl of oil (240 {times} 10{sup 12} ft{sup 3} of natural gas equivalent). Tapping this resource is most feasible in areas where the Woodford subcrop contains competent lithofacies (e.g., chert, sandstone, siltstone, dolostone) and is highly fractured. Horizontal drilling may provide the optimum exploitation technique. Areas with the greatest potential and the most prospective lithologies include (1) the Nemaha uplift (chert, sandstone, dolostone), (2) Marietta-Ardmore basin (chert), (3) southern flank of the Anadarko basin along the Wichita Mountain uplift (chert), (4) frontal zone of the Ouachita tectonic belt in Oklahoma (chert), and (5) the Central Basin platform in west Texas and New Mexico (chert and siltstone). In virtually all of these areas, the Woodford is in the oil or gas window. Thus, fracture porosity would be continuously fed by hydrocarbons generated in the enclosing source rocks. Reservoir systems such as these typically have produced at low to moderate flow rates for many decades.

  4. Degradation of Bunker C Fuel Oil by White-Rot Fungi in Sawdust Cultures Suggests Potential Applications in Bioremediation

    PubMed Central

    Young, Darcy; Rice, James; Martin, Rachael; Lindquist, Erika; Lipzen, Anna; Grigoriev, Igor; Hibbett, David

    2015-01-01

    Fungal lignocellulolytic enzymes are promising agents for oxidizing pollutants. This study investigated degradation of Number 6 “Bunker C” fuel oil compounds by the white-rot fungi Irpex lacteus, Trichaptum biforme, Phlebia radiata, Trametes versicolor, and Pleurotus ostreatus (Basidiomycota, Agaricomycetes). Averaging across all studied species, 98.1%, 48.6%, and 76.4% of the initial Bunker C C10 alkane, C14 alkane, and phenanthrene, respectively were degraded after 180 days of fungal growth on pine media. This study also investigated whether Bunker C oil induces changes in gene expression in the white-rot fungus Punctularia strigosozonata, for which a complete reference genome is available. After 20 days of growth, a monokaryon P. strigosozonata strain degraded 99% of the initial C10 alkane in both pine and aspen media but did not affect the amounts of the C14 alkane or phenanthrene. Differential gene expression analysis identified 119 genes with ≥ log2(2-fold) greater expression in one or more treatment comparisons. Six genes were significantly upregulated in media containing oil; these genes included three enzymes with potential roles in xenobiotic biotransformation. Carbohydrate metabolism genes showing differential expression significantly accumulated transcripts on aspen vs. pine substrates, perhaps reflecting white-rot adaptations to growth on hardwood substrates. The mechanisms by which P. strigosozonata may degrade complex oil compounds remain obscure, but degradation results of the 180-day cultures suggest that diverse white-rot fungi have promise for bioremediation of petroleum fuels. PMID:26111162

  5. Artemisia arborescens L essential oil-loaded solid lipid nanoparticles for potential agricultural application: preparation and characterization.

    PubMed

    Lai, Francesco; Wissing, Sylvia A; Müller, Rainer H; Fadda, Anna M

    2006-01-03

    The aim of this study was to formulate a new delivery system for ecological pesticides by the incorporation of Artemisia arborescens L essential oil into solid lipid nanoparticles (SLN). Two different SLN formulations were prepared following the high-pressure homogenization technique using Compritol 888 ATO as lipid and Poloxamer 188 or Miranol Ultra C32 as surfactants. The SLN formulation particle size was determined using Photon correlation spectroscopy (PCS) and laser diffraction analysis (LD). The change of particle charge was studied by zeta potential (ZP) measurements, while the melting and recrystallization behavior was studied using differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). In vitro release studies of the essential oil were performed at 35 degrees C. Data showed a high physical stability for both formulations at various storage temperatures during 2 months of investigation. In particular, average diameter of Artemisia arborescens L essential oil-loaded SLN did not vary during storage and increased slightly after spraying the SLN dispersions. In vitro release experiments showed that SLN were able to reduce the rapid evaporation of essential oil if compared with the reference emulsions. Therefore, obtained results showed that the studied SLN formulations are suitable carriers in agriculture.

  6. Interest grows in African oil and gas opportunities

    SciTech Connect

    Knott, D.

    1997-05-12

    As African countries continue a slow drift towards democratic government and market economics, the continent is increasingly attractive to international oil and gas companies. Though Africa remains politically diverse, and its volatile politics remains a major barrier to petroleum companies, a number of recent developments reflect its growing significance for the industry. Among recent projects and events reflecting changes in Africa: oil and gas exporter Algeria has invited foreign oil companies to help develop major gas discoveries, with a view to boosting exports to Europe; oil and gas producer Egypt invited foreign companies to explore in the Nile Delta region, and the result appears to be a flowering world scale gas play; west African offshore exploration has entered deep water and new areas, and a number of major projects are expected in years to come; Nigeria`s reputation as a difficult place to operate has been justified by recent political and civil events, but a long-planned liquefied natural gas (LNG) export plant is being built there; South Africa, which has returned to the international scene after years of trade isolation because of apartheid, is emerging as a potential driver for energy industry schemes throughout the continent. Activities are discussed.

  7. Magnitude and oxidation potential of hydrocarbon gases released from the BP oil well blowout

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Joye, Samantha B.; MacDonald, Ian R.; Leifer, Ira; Asper, Vernon

    2011-03-01

    The deep-sea hydrocarbon discharge resulting from the BP oil well blowout in the northern Gulf of Mexico released large quantities of oil and gaseous hydrocarbons such as methane into the deep ocean. So far, estimates of hydrocarbon discharge have focused on the oil released, and have overlooked the quantity, fate and environmental impact of the gas. Gaseous hydrocarbons turn over slowly in the deep ocean, and microbial consumption of these gases could have a long-lasting impact on oceanic oxygen levels. Here, we combine published estimates of the volume of oil released, together with provisional estimates of the oil to gas ratio of the discharged fluid, to determine the volume of gaseous hydrocarbons discharged during the spill. We estimate that the spill injected up to 500,000t of gaseous hydrocarbons into the deep ocean and that these gaseous emissions comprised 40% of the total hydrocarbon discharge. Analysis of water around the wellhead revealed discrete layers of dissolved hydrocarbon gases between 1,000 and 1,300m depth; concentrations exceeded background levels by up to 75,000 times. We suggest that microbial consumption of these gases could lead to the extensive and persistent depletion of oxygen in hydrocarbon-enriched waters.

  8. Chemical Characterization and Trypanocidal, Leishmanicidal and Cytotoxicity Potential of Lantana camara L. (Verbenaceae) Essential Oil.

    PubMed

    Barros, Luiz Marivando; Duarte, Antonia Eliene; Morais-Braga, Maria Flaviana Bezerra; Waczuk, Emily Pansera; Vega, Celeste; Leite, Nadghia Figueiredo; de Menezes, Irwin Rose Alencar; Coutinho, Henrique Douglas Melo; Rocha, João Batista Teixeira; Kamdem, Jean Paul

    2016-02-10

    Drug resistance in the treatment of neglected parasitic diseases, such as leishmaniasis and trypanosomiasis, has led to the search and development of alternative drugs from plant origins. In this context, the essential oil extracted by hydro-distillation from Lantana camara leaves was tested against Leishmania braziliensis and Trypanosoma cruzi. The results demonstrated that L. camara essential oil inhibited T. cruzi and L. braziliensis with IC50 of 201.94 μg/mL and 72.31 μg/mL, respectively. L. camara essential oil was found to be toxic to NCTC929 fibroblasts at 500 μg/mL (IC50 = 301.42 μg/mL). The composition of L. camara essential oil analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC/MS) revealed large amounts of (E)-caryophyllene (23.75%), biciclogermacrene (15.80%), germacrene D (11.73%), terpinolene (6.1%), and sabinene (5.92%), which might be, at least in part, responsible for its activity. Taken together, our results suggest that L. camara essential oil may be an important source of therapeutic agents for the development of alternative drugs against parasitic diseases.

  9. Cod liver oil in sodium nitrite induced hepatic injury: does it have a potential protective effect?

    PubMed

    Sherif, I O; Al-Gayyar, M M

    2015-01-01

    Exposure to sodium nitrites, a food additive, at high levels has been reported to produce reactive nitrogen and oxygen species that cause dysregulation of inflammatory responses and tissue injury. In this work, we examined the impact of dietary cod liver oil on sodium nitrite-induced inflammation in rats. Thirty-two adult male Sprague-Dawely rats were treated with 80 mg/kg sodium nitrite in presence/absence of 5 ml/kg cod liver oil. Liver sections were stained with hematoxylin/eosin. We measured hepatic tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α, interleukin-1 beta (IL)-1β, C-reactive protein (CRP), transforming growth factor (TGF)-β1, and caspase-3. Cod liver oil reduced sodium nitrite-induced hepatocyte damage. In addition, cod liver oil results in reduction of hepatic TNF-α, IL-1β, CRP, TGF-β1, and caspase-3 when compared with the sodium nitrite group. Cod liver oil ameliorates sodium nitrite-induced hepatic injury via multiple mechanisms including blocking sodium nitrite-induced elevation of inflammatory cytokines, fibrosis mediators, and apoptosis markers.

  10. Peak oil and health in low- and middle-income countries: impacts and potential responses.

    PubMed

    Winch, Peter; Stepnitz, Rebecca

    2011-09-01

    Peak oil refers to the predicted peak and subsequent decline in global production of petroleum products over the coming decades. We describe how peak oil will affect health, nutrition, and health systems in low- and middle-income countries along 5 pathways. The negative effects of peak oil on health and nutrition will be felt most acutely in the 58 low-income countries experiencing minimal or negative economic growth because of their patterns of sociopolitical, geographic, and economic vulnerability. The global health community needs to take additional steps to build resilience among the residents of low- and middle-income countries and maintain access to maternal and other health services in the face of predicted changes in availability and price of fossil fuels.

  11. Semisubmersible oil platforms: understudied and potentially major vectors of biofouling-mediated invasions.

    PubMed

    Yeo, Darren C J; Ahyong, Shane T; Lodge, David M; Ng, Peter K L; Naruse, Tohru; Lane, David J W

    2010-01-01

    Biofouling has long been recognised as a major pathway for the introduction of non-indigenous species. This study records the decapods and stomatopod crustaceans fouling a semisubmersible oil platform dry docked for hull cleaning in Jurong Port, Singapore. Of the 25 species of decapods identified, 13 were non-indigenous and represent new records to Singapore waters. Of these, the crabs Glabropilumnus seminudus and Carupa tenuipes are known to be invasive in other parts of the world. The stomatopod, Gonodactylaceus randalli, is the first mantis shrimp recorded in a biofouling community. The richness and diversity of this fouling community, consisting of many vagile species, highlights the difference between platforms and ships. With the expansion of maritime oil and gas exploration, the threat posed by an expanded fleet of semisubmersible oil platforms translocating non-indigenous fouling communities across biogeographical boundaries is very serious. Scientists, policy-makers, and stakeholders should turn their attention to this growing problem.

  12. Peak Oil and Health in Low- and Middle-Income Countries: Impacts and Potential Responses

    PubMed Central

    Stepnitz, Rebecca

    2011-01-01

    Peak oil refers to the predicted peak and subsequent decline in global production of petroleum products over the coming decades. We describe how peak oil will affect health, nutrition, and health systems in low- and middle-income countries along 5 pathways. The negative effects of peak oil on health and nutrition will be felt most acutely in the 58 low-income countries experiencing minimal or negative economic growth because of their patterns of sociopolitical, geographic, and economic vulnerability. The global health community needs to take additional steps to build resilience among the residents of low- and middle-income countries and maintain access to maternal and other health services in the face of predicted changes in availability and price of fossil fuels. PMID:21778508

  13. 78 FR 37787 - Order Denying Export Privileges

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-24

    ... Bureau of Industry and Security Order Denying Export Privileges In the Matter of: Manuel Mario Pavon... Pavon (``Pavon'') was convicted of violating Section 38 of the Arms Export Control Act (22 U.S.C. 2778... exporting and causing to be exported and attempting to export and attempting to cause to be exported from...

  14. Effect of oil overlay on inhibition potential of roscovitine in sheep cumulus-oocyte complexes.

    PubMed

    Crocomo, L F; Marques Filho, W C; Ulian, C M V; Branchini, N S; Silva, D T; Ackermann, C L; Landim-Alvarenga, F C; Bicudo, S D

    2015-06-01

    Inhibitors of cyclin-dependent kinases, as roscovitine, have been used to prevent the spontaneous resumption of meiosis in vitro and to improve the oocyte developmental competence. In this study, the interference of oil overlay on the reversible arrest capacity of roscovitine in sheep oocytes as well as its effects on cumulus expansion was evaluated. For this, cumulus-oocyte complexes (COCs) were cultured for 20 h in TCM 199 with 10% foetal bovine serum (Control) containing 75 μm roscovitine (Rosco). Subsequently, they were in vitro matured (IVM) for further 18 h in inhibitor-free medium with LH and FSH. The culture was performed in Petri dishes under mineral oil (+) or in 96 well plates without oil overlay (-) at 38.5°C and 5% CO2 . At 20 and 38 h, the cumulus expansion and nuclear maturation were evaluated under stereomicroscope and by Hoechst 33342 staining, respectively. No group presented cumulus expansion at 20 h. After additional culture with gonadotrophins, a significant rate of COCs from both Control groups (+/-) exhibited total expansion while in both Rosco groups (+/-) the partial expansion prevailed. Among the oocytes treated with roscovitine, 65.2% were kept at GV in the absence of oil overlay while 40.6% of them reached MII under oil cover (p < 0.05). This meiotic arrest was reversible, and proper meiosis progression also occurred in the Control groups (+/-). So, the culture system without oil overlay improved the meiotic inhibition promoted by roscovitine without affecting the cumulus expansion rate or the subsequent meiosis progression. © 2015 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  15. Composition, diagenetic transformation and alkalinity potential of oil shale ash sediments.

    PubMed

    Mõtlep, Riho; Sild, Terje; Puura, Erik; Kirsimäe, Kalle

    2010-12-15

    Oil shale is a primary fuel in the Estonian energy sector. After combustion 45-48% of the oil shale is left over as ash, producing about 5-7 Mt of ash, which is deposited on ash plateaus annually almost without any reuse. This study focuses on oil shale ash plateau sediment mineralogy, its hydration and diagenetic transformations, a study that has not been addressed. Oil shale ash wastes are considered as the biggest pollution sources in Estonia and thus determining the composition and properties of oil shale ash sediment are important to assess its environmental implications and also its possible reusability. A study of fresh ash and drillcore samples from ash plateau sediment was conducted by X-ray diffractometry and scanning electron microscopy. The oil shale is highly calcareous, and the ash that remains after combustion is derived from the decomposition of carbonate minerals. It is rich in lime and anhydrite that are unstable phases under hydrous conditions. These processes and the diagenetic alteration of other phases determine the composition of the plateau sediment. Dominant phases in the ash are hydration and associated transformation products: calcite, ettringite, portlandite and hydrocalumite. The prevailing mineral phases (portlandite, ettringite) cause highly alkaline leachates, pH 12-13. Neutralization of these leachates under natural conditions, by rainwater leaching/neutralization and slow transformation (e.g. carbonation) of the aforementioned unstable phases into more stable forms, takes, at best, hundreds or even hundreds of thousands of years. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. U.S. Crude Oil Production to 2025: Updated Projection of Crude Types

    EIA Publications

    2015-01-01

    This report updates and extends a May 2014 EIA report, U.S. crude oil production forecast – analysis of crude types. It provides a projection of domestic crude oil production by crude type through 2025, supplementing the overall production projection provided in the AEO2015. Projections of production by crude type matter for several reasons. First, U.S. crude streams vary widely in quality. Second, the economics surrounding various options for the domestic use of additional domestic oil production are directly dependent on crude quality characteristics. Third, actual or potential export values also vary significantly with quality characteristics.

  17. Development of heavy-oil reservoirs

    SciTech Connect

    Briggs, P.J.; Baron, R.P.; Fulleylove, R.J.; Wright, M.S.

    1988-02-01

    Although complex categorizations are in vogue, ''heavy oils'' can be defined simply in terms of their flow properties in the reservoir-e.g., a 100-cp (100-mPa.s) or greater viscosity. Such heavy oils are major world hydrocarbon resource that is exploited where indigenous demand exists. Efficient methods of production require enthalpy input to the reservoir by hot-fluid injection or by creation of heat in the reservoir. Heat losses must be minimized to achieve maximum production efficiency. The widely used cyclic-steam-injection process is examined analytically to indicate which parameters govern successful exploitation. Steamflood and in-situ combustion techniques are discussed with reference to recent developments. Heavy-oil recovery from the more difficult carbonate reservoirs, such as those of the Middle East, is reviewed and potential production mechanism are examined. Production techniques are described together with export handling schemes.

  18. Simple analytical test and a formula to predict the potential for dermal carcinogenicity from petroleum oils

    SciTech Connect

    Haas, J.M.; Dimeler, G.R.; Basil, E.W.; Wilkins, G.W.; Nutter, J.S.

    1987-11-01

    A correlation for predicting dermal carcinogenicity of petroleum oils in laboratory animals has been developed using two simple analytical tests. The tests are the Food and Drug Administration test (FDA) commonly used to measure white oil purity, and a viscosity test. In the correlation, FDA is a measure of aromaticity, and viscosity is used to account for molecular weight. The FDA test alone appears to be comparable to other predictors now in use, but incorporating viscosity significantly increases the accuracy of predicting dermal carcinogenicity. A formula is proposed, using both the FDA test results and viscosity, that predicts the percentage of mice which will develop neoplastic skin tumors.

  19. Africa: Unrest and restrictive terms limit abundant potential. [Oil and gas exploration and development in Africa

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-08-01

    This paper summarizes the drilling and exploration activity of the oil and gas industries of Egypt, Libya, Tunisia, Algeria, Morocco, Nigeria, Cameroon, Gabon, the Congo, Angola, and South Africa. Information is provided on current and predicted trends in well drilling activities (both onshore and offshore), numbers of new wells, footage information, production statistics and what fields accounted for this production, and planned new exploration activities. The paper also describes the current status of government policies and political problems affecting the oil and gas industry.

  20. Oil Crop Potential for Biodiesel Production: Summary of Three Years of Spring Mustard Research -- Methodologies, Results, and Recommendations; 2000-2003

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, J.

    2005-07-01

    This report summarizes a project whose goal was to support R&D to develop an oil-seed crop that has the potential to reduce the feedstock cost of biodiesel to between 7 and 8 cents per pound of oil and expand supplies of biodiesel as demand for biodiesel grows. The key to this goal is that the non-oil fraction of the oil crop (the seed meal) must have a high value outside of the animal feed markets and produce oil that is not suitable for human consumption. To that end, a spring breeding program was developed to increase diversity of glucosinolate and the concentration of glucosinolates in the meal and to optimize the oil composition for biodiesel fuels. This report presents the research on the spring planted hybrids.

  1. Estimating upper bounds for occupancy and number of manatees in areas potentially affected by oil from the Deepwater Horizon oil spill.

    PubMed

    Martin, Julien; Edwards, Holly H; Bled, Florent; Fonnesbeck, Christopher J; Dupuis, Jérôme A; Gardner, Beth; Koslovsky, Stacie M; Aven, Allen M; Ward-Geiger, Leslie I; Carmichael, Ruth H; Fagan, Daniel E; Ross, Monica A; Reinert, Thomas R

    2014-01-01

    The explosion of the Deepwater Horizon drilling platform created the largest marine oil spill in U.S. history. As part of the Natural Resource Damage Assessment process, we applied an innovative modeling approach to obtain upper estimates for occupancy and for number of manatees in areas potentially affected by the oil spill. Our data consisted of aerial survey counts in waters of the Florida Panhandle, Alabama and Mississippi. Our method, which uses a Bayesian approach, allows for the propagation of uncertainty associated with estimates from empirical data and from the published literature. We illustrate that it is possible to derive estimates of occupancy rate and upper estimates of the number of manatees present at the time of sampling, even when no manatees were observed in our sampled plots during surveys. We estimated that fewer than 2.4% of potentially affected manatee habitat in our Florida study area may have been occupied by manatees. The upper estimate for the number of manatees present in potentially impacted areas (within our study area) was estimated with our model to be 74 (95%CI 46 to 107). This upper estimate for the number of manatees was conditioned on the upper 95%CI value of the occupancy rate. In other words, based on our estimates, it is highly probable that there were 107 or fewer manatees in our study area during the time of our surveys. Because our analyses apply to habitats considered likely manatee habitats, our inference is restricted to these sites and to the time frame of our surveys. Given that manatees may be hard to see during aerial surveys, it was important to account for imperfect detection. The approach that we described can be useful for determining the best allocation of resources for monitoring and conservation.

  2. Estimating Upper Bounds for Occupancy and Number of Manatees in Areas Potentially Affected by Oil from the Deepwater Horizon Oil Spill

    PubMed Central

    Martin, Julien; Edwards, Holly H.; Bled, Florent; Fonnesbeck, Christopher J.; Dupuis, Jérôme A.; Gardner, Beth; Koslovsky, Stacie M.; Aven, Allen M.; Ward-Geiger, Leslie I.; Carmichael, Ruth H.; Fagan, Daniel E.; Ross, Monica A.; Reinert, Thomas R.

    2014-01-01

    The explosion of the Deepwater Horizon drilling platform created the largest marine oil spill in U.S. history. As part of the Natural Resource Damage Assessment process, we applied an innovative modeling approach to obtain upper estimates for occupancy and for number of manatees in areas potentially affected by the oil spill. Our data consisted of aerial survey counts in waters of the Florida Panhandle, Alabama and Mississippi. Our method, which uses a Bayesian approach, allows for the propagation of uncertainty associated with estimates from empirical data and from the published literature. We illustrate that it is possible to derive estimates of occupancy rate and upper estimates of the number of manatees present at the time of sampling, even when no manatees were observed in our sampled plots during surveys. We estimated that fewer than 2.4% of potentially affected manatee habitat in our Florida study area may have been occupied by manatees. The upper estimate for the number of manatees present in potentially impacted areas (within our study area) was estimated with our model to be 74 (95%CI 46 to 107). This upper estimate for the number of manatees was conditioned on the upper 95%CI value of the occupancy rate. In other words, based on our estimates, it is highly probable that there were 107 or fewer manatees in our study area during the time of our surveys. Because our analyses apply to habitats considered likely manatee habitats, our inference is restricted to these sites and to the time frame of our surveys. Given that manatees may be hard to see during aerial surveys, it was important to account for imperfect detection. The approach that we described can be useful for determining the best allocation of resources for monitoring and conservation. PMID:24670971

  3. South American oil

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-06-01

    GAO reviewed the petroleum industries of the following eight South American Countries that produce petroleum but are not major exporters: Argentina, Bolivia, Brazil, Chile, Colombia, Ecuador, Peru, and Trinidad and Tobago. This report discusses the amount of crude oil the United States imports from the eight countries, expected crude oil production for these countries through the year 2010, and investment reforms that these countries have recently made in their petroleum industries. In general, although the United States imports some oil from these countries, as a group, the eight countries are currently net oil importers because combined domestic oil consumption exceeds oil production. Furthermore, the net oil imports are expected to continue to increase through the year 2010, making it unlikely that the United States will obtain increased oil shipments from these countries.

  4. Value-added potential of expeller-pressed canola oil refining: characterization of sinapic acid derivatives and tocopherols from byproducts.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yougui; Thiyam-Hollander, Usha; Barthet, Veronique J; Aachary, Ayyappan A

    2014-10-08

    Valuable phenolic antioxidants are lost during oil refining, but evaluation of their occurrence in refining byproducts is lacking. Rapeseed and canola oil are both rich sources of sinapic acid derivatives and tocopherols. The retention and loss of sinapic acid derivatives and tocopherols in commercially produced expeller-pressed canola oils subjected to various refining steps and the respective byproducts were investigated. Loss of canolol (3) and tocopherols were observed during bleaching (84.9%) and deodorization (37.6%), respectively. Sinapic acid (2) (42.9 μg/g), sinapine (1) (199 μg/g), and canolol (344 μg/g) were found in the refining byproducts, namely, soap stock, spent bleaching clay, and wash water, for the first time. Tocopherols (3.75 mg/g) and other nonidentified phenolic compounds (2.7 mg sinapic acid equivalent/g) were found in deodistillates, a byproduct of deodorization. DPPH radical scavenging confirmed the antioxidant potential of the byproducts. This study confirms the value-added potential of byproducts of refining as sources of endogenous phenolics.

  5. Microbial redox processes in deep subsurface environments and the potential application of (per)chlorate in oil reservoirs

    PubMed Central

    Liebensteiner, Martin G.; Tsesmetzis, Nicolas; Stams, Alfons J. M.; Lomans, Bartholomeus P.

    2014-01-01

    The ability of microorganisms to thrive under oxygen-free conditions in subsurface environments relies on the enzymatic reduction of oxidized elements, such as sulfate, ferric iron, or CO2, coupled to the oxidation of inorganic or organic compounds. A broad phylogenetic and functional diversity of microorganisms from subsurface environments has been described using isolation-based and advanced molecular ecological techniques. The physiological groups reviewed here comprise iron-, manganese-, and nitrate-reducing microorganisms. In the context of recent findings also the potential of chlorate and perchlorate [jointly termed (per)chlorate] reduction in oil reservoirs will be discussed. Special attention is given to elevated temperatures that are predominant in the deep subsurface. Microbial reduction of (per)chlorate is a thermodynamically favorable redox process, also at high temperature. However, knowledge about (per)chlorate reduction at elevated temperatures is still scarce and restricted to members of the Firmicutes and the archaeon Archaeoglobus fulgidus. By analyzing the diversity and phylogenetic distribution of functional genes in (meta)genome databases and combining this knowledge with extrapolations to earlier-made physiological observations we speculate on the potential of (per)chlorate reduction in the subsurface and more precisely oil fields. In addition, the application of (per)chlorate for bioremediation, souring control, and microbial enhanced oil recovery are addressed. PMID:25225493

  6. Numerical Simulation of Potential Groundwater Contaminant Pathways from Hydraulically Fractured Oil Shale in the Nevada Basin and Range Province

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rybarski, S.; Pohll, G.; Pohlmann, K.; Plume, R.

    2014-12-01

    In recent years, hydraulic fracturing (fracking) has become an increasingly popular method for extraction of oil and natural gas from tight formations. Concerns have been raised over a number of environmental risks associated with fracking, including contamination of groundwater by fracking fluids, upwelling of deep subsurface brines, and methane migration. Given the potentially long time scale for contaminant transport associated with hydraulic fracturing, numerical modeling remains the best practice for risk assessment. Oil shale in the Humboldt basin of northeastern Nevada has now become a target for hydraulic fracturing operations. Analysis of regional and shallow groundwater flow is used to assess several potential migration pathways specific to the geology and hydrogeology of this basin. The model domain in all simulations is defined by the geologic structure of the basin as determined by deep oil and gas well bores and formation outcrops. Vertical transport of gaseous methane along a density gradient is simulated in TOUGH2, while fluid transport along faults and/or hydraulic fractures and lateral flow through more permeable units adjacent to the targeted shale are modeled in FEFLOW. Sensitivity analysis considers basin, fault, and hydraulic fracturing parameters, and results highlight key processes that control fracking fluid and methane migration and time scales under which it might occur.

  7. Microbial redox processes in deep subsurface environments and the potential application of (per)chlorate in oil reservoirs.

    PubMed

    Liebensteiner, Martin G; Tsesmetzis, Nicolas; Stams, Alfons J M; Lomans, Bartholomeus P

    2014-01-01

    The ability of microorganisms to thrive under oxygen-free conditions in subsurface environments relies on the enzymatic reduction of oxidized elements, such as sulfate, ferric iron, or CO2, coupled to the oxidation of inorganic or organic compounds. A broad phylogenetic and functional diversity of microorganisms from subsurface environments has been described using isolation-based and advanced molecular ecological techniques. The physiological groups reviewed here comprise iron-, manganese-, and nitrate-reducing microorganisms. In the context of recent findings also the potential of chlorate and perchlorate [jointly termed (per)chlorate] reduction in oil reservoirs will be discussed. Special attention is given to elevated temperatures that are predominant in the deep subsurface. Microbial reduction of (per)chlorate is a thermodynamically favorable redox process, also at high temperature. However, knowledge about (per)chlorate reduction at elevated temperatures is still scarce and restricted to members of the Firmicutes and the archaeon Archaeoglobus fulgidus. By analyzing the diversity and phylogenetic distribution of functional genes in (meta)genome databases and combining this knowledge with extrapolations to earlier-made physiological observations we speculate on the potential of (per)chlorate reduction in the subsurface and more precisely oil fields. In addition, the application of (per)chlorate for bioremediation, souring control, and microbial enhanced oil recovery are addressed.

  8. Dextran-functionalized magnetic fluid mediating magnetohyperthermia combined with preventive antioxidant pequi-oil supplementation: potential use against cancer.

    PubMed

    Miranda-Vilela, Ana Luisa; Peixoto, Raphael Cândido Apolinário; Longo, Joāo Paulo Figueiró; Silva e Cintra, Débora de Oliveira; Portilho, Flávia Arruda; Miranda, Kely Lopes Caiado; Sartoratto, Patrícia Pommé Confessori; Báo, Sônia Nair; de Azevedo, Ricardo Bentes; Lacava, Zulmira Guerrero Marques

    2013-07-01

    This work aimed to test a dextran-functionalized magnetic fluid (DexMF) sample in mediating magnetohyperthermia to treat an advanced clinical Ehrlich-solid-tumor, to verify the effects of oral antioxidant administration of pequi-oil on this treatment and to investigate the potential of these treatments for future use as an adjuvant in cancer therapy. Animals received the treatments: (a) filtered water (control); (b) tumor implantation and no treatment (tumor group); (c) tumor implantation followed by intratumoral injection of DexMF and alternating current magnetic field exposure (MHT group) for three consecutive days; (d) oral pequi-oil supplementation followed by tumor implantation and the same treatment as group MHT (PMHT group). Analyses took place 1 and 2 weeks after tumor implantation. Both treatments were effective in increasing the tumor necrosis process and controlling tumor growth, besides keeping lymphocyte-dependent immunity. Although the MHT treatment was more efficient after the first week in reducing DNA damage to blood peripheral leucocytes, PMHT therapy appeared to be more effective with the advance of the carcinogenesis process after the second week. Our findings evidence the potential use of DexMF mediating magnetohyperthermia in cancer treatment and also suggest that the preventive pequi oil administration could increase the efficiency of this process.

  9. The Export Trading Company Act of 1982 and the photovoltaics industry: An assessment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Enfield, S.; Laporta, C.

    1983-01-01

    The potential advantages of recent export promotion legislation for the U.S. photovoltaics industry were assessed. The provisions of the Export Trading Company Act of 1982 were reviewed and the export trade sector was surveyed to determine what impact the Act is haviang on export company activity. The photovoltaics industry was then studied to determine whether the Act offers particular advantages for promoting its product overseas.

  10. Antiatherogenic Potential of Nigella sativa Seeds and Oil in Diet-Induced Hypercholesterolemia in Rabbits.

    PubMed

    Al-Naqeep, Ghanya; Al-Zubairi, Adel S; Ismail, Maznah; Amom, Zulkhairi Hj; Esa, Norhaizan Mohd

    2011-01-01

    Nigella sativa or Black seed (N. sativa L.) is traditionally used for several ailments in many Middle Eastern countries. It is an annual herbaceous plant that belongs to the Ranuculacea family with many beneficial properties as antitumor, antidiabetic, antihypertensive, antioxidative and antibacterial. This work attempted to study the effect of N. sativa seeds powder and oil on atherosclerosis in diet-induced hypercholesterolemic (HC) rabbits in comparison with simvastatin (ST). Twenty-five adult New Zealand male white rabbits, weighing 1.5-2.5 kg, were divided into five groups; normal group (NC, n = 5) and four hypercholesterolemic groups (n = 20): a positive control (PC) and three HC groups force fed diet supplemented with 1000 mg Kg(-1) body weight of N. sativa powder (NSP), 500 mg Kg(-1) body N. sativa oil (NSO) and 10 mg Kg(-1) ST for 8 weeks. Feeding HC rabbits with N. sativa either in powder or oil forms was shown to significantly reduce (P < .05) total cholesterol (TC) and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDLC) levels and enhance high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL) levels after treatment for 2, 4, 6 and 8 weeks compared to the PC group. Plaque formation was significantly inhibited while the intima: media ratio was significantly reduced in the NSP and NSO supplemented groups compared to the PC group. In conclusion, treatment of HC rabbits with N. sativa seeds powder or oil showed hypocholesterolemic and antiatherogenic cardioprotective properties.

  11. Bio-oil from cassava peel: a potential renewable energy source.

    PubMed

    Ki, Ong Lu; Kurniawan, Alfin; Lin, Chun Xiang; Ju, Yi-Hsu; Ismadji, Suryadi

    2013-10-01

    In this work, liquid biofuel (bio-oil) was produced by pyrolizing cassava peel. The experiments were conducted isothermally in a fixed-bed tubular reactor at temperatures ranging from 400 to 600°C with a heating rate of 20°C/min. The chemical compositions of bio-oil were analyzed by a gas chromatography mass spectrometry (GC-MS) technique. For the optimization of liquid product, temperature was plotted to be the most decisive factor. The maximum yield of bio-oil ca. 51.2% was obtained at 525°C and the biofuel has a gross calorific value of 27.43 MJ/kg. The kinetic-based mechanistic model fitted well with experimental yield of pyrolysis products with the mean squared error (MSE) of 13.37 (R(2)=0.96) for solid (char), 16.24 (R(2)=0.95) for liquid (bio-oil), and 0.49 (R(2)=0.99) for gas.

  12. Combustion emissions from refining lower quality oil: what is the global warming potential?

    PubMed

    Karras, Greg

    2010-12-15

    The greenhouse gas emission intensity of refining lower quality petroleum was estimated from fuel combustion for energy used by operating plants to process crude oils of varying quality. Refinery crude feed, processing, yield, and fuel data from four regions accounting for 97% of U.S. refining capacity from 1999 to 2008 were compared among regions and years for effects on processing and energy consumption predicted by the processing characteristics of heavier, higher sulfur oils. Crude feed density and sulfur content could predict 94% of processing intensity, 90% of energy intensity, and 85% of carbon dioxide emission intensity differences among regions and years and drove a 39% increase in emissions across regions and years. Fuel combustion energy for processing increased by approximately 61 MJ/m(3) crude feed for each 1 kg/m(3) sulfur and 44 MJ/m(3) for each 1 kg/m(3) density of crude refined. Differences in products, capacity utilized, and fuels burned were not confounding factors. Fuel combustion increments observed predict that a switch to heavy oil and tar sands could double or triple refinery emissions and add 1.6-3.7 gigatons of carbon dioxide to the atmosphere annually from fuel combustion to process the oil.

  13. Potential Large-Scale Production of Conjugated Soybean Oil Catalyzed by Photolyzed Iodine in Hexanes

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    A laboratory apparatus is described for the production of conjugated soybean oil (SBO) in pound quantities via irradiation with visible-light. Under our reaction conditions, quantitative conversions (determined by NMR spectroscopy) of SBO to conjugated SBO, in hexanes at reflux temperatures, were a...

  14. Antiatherogenic Potential of Nigella sativa Seeds and Oil in Diet-Induced Hypercholesterolemia in Rabbits

    PubMed Central

    Al-Naqeep, Ghanya; Al-Zubairi, Adel S.; Ismail, Maznah; Amom, Zulkhairi Hj; Esa, Norhaizan Mohd

    2011-01-01

    Nigella sativa or Black seed (N. sativa L.) is traditionally used for several ailments in many Middle Eastern countries. It is an annual herbaceous plant that belongs to the Ranuculacea family with many beneficial properties as antitumor, antidiabetic, antihypertensive, antioxidative and antibacterial. This work attempted to study the effect of N. sativa seeds powder and oil on atherosclerosis in diet-induced hypercholesterolemic (HC) rabbits in comparison with simvastatin (ST). Twenty-five adult New Zealand male white rabbits, weighing 1.5–2.5 kg, were divided into five groups; normal group (NC, n = 5) and four hypercholesterolemic groups (n = 20): a positive control (PC) and three HC groups force fed diet supplemented with 1000 mg Kg−1 body weight of N. sativa powder (NSP), 500 mg Kg−1 body N. sativa oil (NSO) and 10 mg Kg−1 ST for 8 weeks. Feeding HC rabbits with N. sativa either in powder or oil forms was shown to significantly reduce (P < .05) total cholesterol (TC) and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDLC) levels and enhance high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL) levels after treatment for 2, 4, 6 and 8 weeks compared to the PC group. Plaque formation was significantly inhibited while the intima: media ratio was significantly reduced in the NSP and NSO supplemented groups compared to the PC group. In conclusion, treatment of HC rabbits with N. sativa seeds powder or oil showed hypocholesterolemic and antiatherogenic cardioprotective properties. PMID:21792359

  15. Bioactivity and chemical characterization of Opuntia macrorhiza Engelm. seed oil: potential food and pharmaceutical applications.

    PubMed

    Chahdoura, Hassiba; Barreira, João C M; Adouni, Khawla; Mhadhebi, Lamia; Calhelha, Ricardo C; Snoussi, Mejdi; Majdoub, Hatem; Flamini, Guido; Ferreira, Isabel C F R; Achour, Lotfi

    2017-08-01

    In the food industry, there is a continuous search for ingredients that might provide advantageous properties to food products, either considering their nutritional value or bioactivity, as well as flavouring and technological aspects. Crude oils are good examples of this type of ingredient, especially if obtained from nonconventional sources. Accordingly, the Opuntia macrorhiza Engelm. seed oil (OMSO) was chemically characterized and evaluated for different in vitro and in vivo bioactivities. OMSO presented physicochemical characteristics appropriate to be considered as an edible oil, namely low acidity value, stability to oxidation (high peroxide value and low K232 and K270 values), and high contents of unsaturated fatty acids (as shown by the iodine value) and saponifiable matter. Furthermore, this natural oil, owing to its rich phytochemical profile, showed relevant antioxidant activity (especially in lipid peroxidation inhibition assays), α-glucosidase inhibitory activity, cytotoxicity against human tumour cell lines, antibacterial (mainly against Gram positive species) and antifungal properties, as well as anti-inflammatory and analgesic activities. Furthermore, OMSO did not show any sign of acute toxicity on animals, highlighting its possible use in different applications, considering that this natural product is not expected to induce the adverse effects typically associated with synthetic bioactive agents (e.g., ampicillin, amphotericin B, or lysine acetylsalicilate).

  16. More than 2500 years of oil exposure shape sediment microbiomes with the potential for syntrophic degradation of hydrocarbons linked to methanogenesis.

    PubMed

    Michas, Antonios; Vestergaard, Gisle; Trautwein, Kathleen; Avramidis, Pavlos; Hatzinikolaou, Dimitris G; Vorgias, Constantinos E; Wilkes, Heinz; Rabus, Ralf; Schloter, Michael; Schöler, Anne

    2017-09-11

    Natural oil seeps offer the opportunity to study the adaptation of ecosystems and the associated microbiota to long-term oil exposure. In the current study, we investigated a land-to-sea transition ecosystem called "Keri Lake" in Zakynthos Island, Greece. This ecosystem is unique due to asphalt oil springs found at several sites, a phenomenon already reported 2500 years ago. Sediment microbiomes at Keri Lake were studied, and their structure and functional potential were compared to other ecosystems with oil exposure histories of various time periods. Replicate sediment cores (up to 3-m depth) were retrieved from one site exposed to oil as well as a non-exposed control site. Samples from three different depths were subjected to chemical analysis and metagenomic shotgun sequencing. At the oil-exposed site, we observed high amounts of asphalt oil compounds and a depletion of sulfate compared to the non-exposed control site. The numbers of reads assigned to genes involved in the anaerobic degradation of hydrocarbons were similar between the two sites. The numbers of denitrifiers and sulfate reducers were clearly lower in the samples from the oil-exposed site, while a higher abundance of methanogens was detected compared to the non-exposed site. Higher abundances of the genes of methanogenesis were also observed in the metagenomes from other ecosystems with a long history of oil exposure, compared to short-term exposed environments. The analysis of Keri Lake metagenomes revealed that microbiomes in the oil-exposed sediment have a higher potential for methanogenesis over denitrification/sulfate reduction, compared to those in the non-exposed site. Comparison with metagenomes from various oil-impacted environments suggests that syntrophic interactions of hydrocarbon degraders with methanogens are favored in the ecosystems with a long-term presence of oil.

  17. Genotoxic potential of organic extracts from particle emissions of diesel and rapeseed oil powered engines.

    PubMed

    Topinka, Jan; Milcova, Alena; Schmuczerova, Jana; Mazac, Martin; Pechout, Martin; Vojtisek-Lom, Michal

    2012-07-07

    The present study was performed to identify possible genotoxicity induced by organic extracts from particulate matter in the exhaust of two typical diesel engines run on diesel fuel and neat heated fuel-grade rapeseed oil: a Cummins ISBe4 engine tested using the World Harmonized Steady State Test Cycle (WHSC) and modified Engine Steady Cycle (ESC) and a Zetor 1505 engine tested using the Non-Road Steady State Cycle (NRSC). In addition, biodiesel B-100 (neat methylester of rapeseed oil) was tested in the Cummins engine run on the modified ESC. Diluted exhaust was sampled with high-volume samplers on Teflon coated filters. Filters were extracted with dichlormethane (DCM) and DNA adduct levels induced by extractable organic matter (EOM) in an acellular assay of calf thymus DNA coupled with (32)P-postlabeling in the presence and absence of rat liver microsomal S9 fraction were employed. Simultaneously, the chemical analysis of 12 priority PAHs in EOM, including 7 carcinogenic PAHs (c-PAHs) was performed. The results suggest that diesel emissions contain substantially more total PAHs than rapeseed oil emissions (for the ESC) or that these concentrations were comparable (for the WHSC and NRSC), while c-PAHs levels were comparable (for the ESC) or significantly higher (for the WHSC and NRSC) for rapeseed oil emissions. DNA adduct levels induced by diesel and rapeseed oil derived EOM were comparable, but consistently slightly higher for diesel than for rapeseed oil. Highly significant correlations were found between 12 priority PAHs concentrations and DNA adduct levels (0.980; p<0.001) and these correlations were even stronger for c-PAHs (0.990; p<0.001). Metabolic activation by the microsomal S9 fraction resulted in several fold higher genotoxicity, suggesting a major contribution of PAHs to genotoxicity. Directly acting compounds, other than c-PAHs, and not requiring S9 to exhibit DNA reactivity were also significant. Generally, DNA adduct levels were more dependent on

  18. Fine study on single sand body and measures for tapping the potential of residual oil during polymer flooding in Pubei reservoir of Daqing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meng, Y. J.

    2016-08-01

    In order to effectively guide the narrow channel sand body oil fields to exploit, according to the sand body distribution characteristics and geological genesis of narrow channel sand body oil fields, the type of single sand body is clarified. By means of identification of logging curves and correlation of well-tie profile, the internal structure of single sand body is recognized. and then the remaining oil genesis, distribution characteristics and the potential areas for polymer flooding are clarified by combining numerical simulation technology and dynamic analysis technology, and the remaining oil potential tapping method is designed by taking into consideration various factors including the characteristics of the remaining oil, reservoir property and product dynamic character. The result shows that the single sand body is divided into five types including multiphase channel superposition, distributary channel, single channel, sheet sand and lenticular sand. Potential remaining oil mainly are distributed in thick oil layers of multiphase channel superposition type and distributary channel type in which channel sands were developed and sedimentary environment are stable inner front facies and lake regressive inner front facies. The remaining oil is developed by optimizing the parameters of polymer flooding and combining many different measures. The study provides technical support for the efficient exploration for polymer flooding.

  19. The potential of Chromolaena odorata (L) to decontaminate used engine oil impacted soil under greenhouse conditions.

    PubMed

    Atagana, Harrison Ifeanyichukwu

    2011-08-01

    This study reports on the use of Chromolaena odorata (L) R.M. King and H. Robinson, an Asteraceae (compositae) and an invasive alien weed in Africa for the remediation of soil contaminated with used engine oil. Used engine oilfrom a motor service garage was used to artificially contaminate soil taken from a garden to give total petroleum hydrocarbon (TPH) of between 1 and 40 g kg(-1). Chromolaena odorata (L), propagated by stem cuttings were transplanted into the contaminated soil and watered just enough to keep the soil at about 70% water holding capacity for 90 day. A set of control experiments containing 40 g kg(-1) used engine oil but without plants was set up. All experiments were set up in triplicates. Although the plants in the experiments containing higher than 30 g kg(-1) used engine oil showed relatively slower growth (fewer branches and leaves, and shorter in height) compared to those containing lower concentrations, the plants in all the experiments continued to grow until the end of the 90 day period. Residual TPH after 90 days showed that between 21 and 100% of oil was lost from the planted soil while only 11.5% was lost in the control, which did not contain plants during the same period. Analysis of plant tissues showed that both shoot and root tissues contained detectable levels of TPH and selected PAHs were also detectable. Biomass accumulation by Chromolaena odorata was affected adversely by concentrations of oil higher than 20 g kg(-1). Results of germination rates and germination energy measurements showed that Chromolaena odorata was able to reduce the toxicity of the contaminated soil after 90 days as compared to soils containing freshly contaminated soiL

  20. Anicteric hepatoxicity: a potential health risk of occupational exposures in Nigerian petroleum oil refining and distribution industry

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Literature abounds linking one’s job to certain unpalatable health outcomes. Since exposures to hazardous conditions in industrial environments often results in sundry health effects among workers, we embarked on this study to investigate the hepatic health effects of occupational activities in the petroleum refining and distribution industry. Method Biochemical markers of liver functions were assayed in plasma, using Reflotron dry chemistry spectrophotometric system. The study was conducted on randomly selected workers of Port Harcourt Refining Company (PHRC) and Pipelines and Petroleum Product Marketing Company (PPMC) both in Alesa-Eleme near Port Harcourt, Nigeria, as well as non-oil work civil servants serving as control subjects. Result and conclusion Results showed that, bilirubin ranged 0.3-1.6 mg/dl with a mean of 0.66±0.20mg/dl among the oil workers as against 0.5-1.00mg/dl with a mean of 0.58±0.13mg/dl in non-oil workers, Alkaline phosphatase ranged 50.00-296.00u/l (mean: 126.21±39.49u/l) in oil workers as against 40.20-111u/l (mean: 66.83±18.54u/l) for non-oil workers, Aspartic transaminases (AST) ranged 5.80-140.20u/l (mean: 21.81±11.49u/l) in oil workers against 18.00-44.00u/l (mean: 26.89±6.99u/l) for non-oil workers, while Alanine transaminases (ALT) ranged 4.90-86.00u/l (mean: 22.14±11.28u/l) in oil workers as against 10.00-86.60u/l (mean: 22.30±10.22u/l) for the non-oil workers. A close study of the results revealed that although the mean values for all the studied parameters were still within the parametric reference ranges, however, relative to the referents, there were significant increases (P<0.05) in plasma bilirubin (though anicteric) and alkaline phosphatase that was not matched with a corresponding increase in the plasma transaminases, suggesting a possibility that toxic anicteric hepatoxicity is part of the potential health effects of sundry exposures in the Nigeria petroleum oil refining and distribution industry

  1. Assessing the hydrocarbon degrading potential of indigenous bacteria isolated from crude oil tank bottom sludge and hydrocarbon-contaminated soil of Azzawiya oil refinery, Libya.

    PubMed

    Mansur, Abdulatif A; Adetutu, Eric M; Kadali, Krishna K; Morrison, Paul D; Nurulita, Yuana; Ball, Andrew S

    2014-09-01

    The disposal of hazardous crude oil tank bottom sludge (COTBS) represents a significant waste management burden for South Mediterranean countries. Currently, the application of biological systems (bioremediation) for the treatment of COTBS is not widely practiced in these countries. Therefore, this study aims to develop the potential for bioremediation in this region through assessment of the abilities of indigenous hydrocarbonoclastic microorganisms from Libyan Hamada COTBS for the biotreatment of Libyan COTBS-contaminated environments. Bacteria were isolated from COTBS, COTBS-contaminated soil, treated COTBS-contaminated soil, and uncontaminated soil using Bushnell Hass medium amended with Hamada crude oil (1 %) as the main carbon source. Overall, 49 bacterial phenotypes were detected, and their individual abilities to degrade Hamada crude and selected COBTS fractions (naphthalene, phenanthrene, eicosane, octadecane and hexane) were evaluated using MT2 Biolog plates. Analyses using average well colour development showed that ~90 % of bacterial isolates were capable of utilizing representative aromatic fractions compared to 51 % utilization of representative aliphatics. Interestingly, more hydrocarbonoclastic isolates were obtained from treated contaminated soils (42.9 %) than from COTBS (26.5 %) or COTBS-contaminated (30.6 %) and control (0 %) soils. Hierarchical cluster analysis (HCA) separated the isolates into two clusters with microorganisms in cluster 2 being 1.7- to 5-fold better at hydrocarbon degradation than those in cluster 1. Cluster 2 isolates belonged to the putative hydrocarbon-degrading genera; Pseudomonas, Bacillus, Arthrobacter and Brevundimonas with 57 % of these isolates being obtained from treated COTBS-contaminated soil. Overall, this study demonstrates that the potential for PAH degradation exists for the bioremediation of Hamada COTBS-contaminated environments in Libya. This represents the first report on the isolation of

  2. Ecuador steps up pace of oil development activity

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-03-23

    This paper reports that oil companies operating in Ecuador plan to quicken the pace of oil development this year. After delays in 1991, companies plan a series of projects to develop reserves discovered the past 3 years estimated at more than 600 million bbl. Oil and Gas Journal estimated Ecuador's proved crude reserves at 1.55 billion bbl as of Jan. 1, 1992. The development push is part of a larger effort needed to ensure Ecuador's status as an oil exporter into the next century. Ecuador is the smallest crude oil producer and exporter in the Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries.

  3. Potential methane production and oxidation in soil reclamation covers of an oil sands mining site in Alberta, Canada

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pum, Lisa; Reichenauer, Thomas; Germida, Jim

    2015-04-01

    Anthropogenic activities create a number of significant greenhouse gases and thus potentially contribute to global warming. Methane production is significant in some agricultural production systems and from wetlands. In soil, methane can be oxidised by methanotrophic bacteria. However, little is known about methane production and oxidation in oil sand reclamation covers. The purpose of this study was to investigate methane production and oxidation potential of tailing sands and six different reclamation layers of oil sands mining sites in Alberta, Canada. Methane production and oxidation potential were investigated in laboratory scale microcosms through continuous headspace analysis using gas chromatography. Samples from a reclamation layer were collected at the Canadian Natural Resources Limited (CNRL) reclamation site at depths of 0-10 cm, 10-20 cm and 20-40 cm in October 2014. In addition, tailing sands provided by Suncor Energy Inc. and soil from a CNRL wetland were studied for methane production. Samples were dried, crushed and sieved to 4 mm, packed into serum bottle microcosms and monitored for eight weeks. Methane production potential was assessed by providing an anoxic environment and by adjusting the samples to a moisture holding capacity of 100 %. Methane oxidation potential was examined by an initial application of 2 vol % methane to the microcosms and by adjusting the samples to a moisture holding capacity of 50 %. Microcosm headspace gas was analysed for methane, carbon dioxide, nitrous oxide and oxygen. All experiments were carried out in triplicates, including controls. SF6 and Helium were used as internal standards to detect potential leaks. Our results show differences for methane production potential between the soil depths, tailing sands and wetlands. Moreover, there were differences in the methane oxidation potential of substrate from the three depths investigated and between the reclamation layers. In conclusion, the present study shows that

  4. Oxygenated monoterpenes-rich volatile oils as potential antifungal agents for dermatophytes.

    PubMed

    Dias, N; Dias, M C; Cavaleiro, C; Sousa, M C; Lima, N; Machado, M

    2017-02-01

    Essential oils (EOs) extracted from Lavandula luisieri and Cymbopogon citratus were tested for their antifungal activity against ten clinical isolates of dermatophytes isolated from cases of tinea pedis. Inhibition of conidial germination and antifungal drug/EO combination assay were tested on two ATCC reference strains of Trichophyton rubrum and Trichophyton mentagrophytes. EOs were characterised by high amount of oxygenated monoterpenes in their composition. Strong antifungal activity was observed for the majority of clinical strains, and fungicidal activity was demonstrated. Positive interaction between L. luisieri EO combined with terbinafine was observed against terbinafine-resistant strain (Tr ATCC MYA-4438). Significative reduction of the germination was observed above 100 μg mL(-1). Both oils were safe to macrophage mammalian cells at tested concentration. This study describes the antifungal activity of L. luisieri and C. citratus EOs against dermatophytes, which could be useful in designing new formulations for topical treatments.

  5. Source Term Modeling for Evaluating the Potential Impacts to Groundwater of Fluids Escaping from a Depleted Oil Reservoir Used for Carbon Sequestration

    SciTech Connect

    Cantrell, Kirk J.; Brown, Christopher F.

    2014-06-13

    In recent years depleted oil reservoirs have received special interest as carbon storage reservoirs because of their potential to offset costs through collaboration with enhanced oil recovery projects. Modeling is currently being conducted to evaluate potential risks to groundwater associated with leakage of fluids from depleted oil reservoirs used for storage of CO2. Modeling results reported here focused on understanding how toxic organic compounds found in oil will distribute between the various phases within a storage reservoir after introduction of CO2, understanding the migration potential of these compounds, and assessing potential groundwater impacts should leakage occur. Two model scenarios were conducted to evaluate how organic components in oil will distribute among the phases of interest (oil, CO2, and brine). The first case consisted of 50 wt.% oil and 50 wt.% water; the second case was 90 wt.% CO2 and 10 wt.% oil. Several key organic compounds were selected for special attention in this study based upon their occurrence in oil at significant concentrations, relative toxicity, or because they can serve as surrogate compounds for other more highly toxic compounds for which required input data are not available. The organic contaminants of interest (COI) selected for this study were benzene, toluene, naphthalene, phenanthrene, and anthracene. Partitioning of organic compounds between crude oil and supercritical CO2 was modeled using the Peng-Robinson equation of state over temperature and pressure conditions that represent the entire subsurface system (from those relevant to deep geologic carbon storage environments to near surface conditions). Results indicate that for a typical set of oil reservoir conditions (75°C, and 21,520 kPa) negligible amounts of the COI dissolve into the aqueous phase. When CO2 is introduced into the reservoir such that the final composition of the reservoir is 90 wt.% CO2 and 10 wt.% oil, a significant fraction of the oil

  6. Photodynamic therapy mediated by acai oil (Euterpe oleracea Martius) in nanoemulsion: A potential treatment for melanoma.

    PubMed

    Monge-Fuentes, Victoria; Muehlmann, Luis Alexandre; Longo, João Paulo Figueiró; Silva, Jaqueline Rodrigues; Fascineli, Maria Luiza; de Souza, Paulo; Faria, Fernando; Degterev, Igor Anatolievich; Rodriguez, Anselmo; Carneiro, Fabiana Pirani; Lucci, Carolina Madeira; Escobar, Patricia; Amorim, Rivadávio Fernandes Batista; Azevedo, Ricardo Bentes

    2017-01-01

    Melanoma is the most aggressive and lethal form of skin cancer, responsible for >80% of deaths. Standard treatments for late-stage melanoma usually present poor results, leading to life-threatening side effects and low overall survival. Thus, it is necessary to rethink treatment strategies and design new tools for the treatment of this disease. On that ground, we hereby report the use of acai oil in nanoemulsion (NanoA) as a novel photosensitizer for photodynamic therapy (PDT) used to treat melanoma in in vitro and in vivo experimental models. NIH/3T3 normal cells and B16F10 melanoma cell lines were treated with PDT and presented 85% cell death for melanoma cells, while maintaining high viability in normal cells. Flow cytometry indicated that cell death occurred by late apoptosis/necrosis. Tumor bearing C57BL/6 mice treated five times with PDT using acai oil in nanoemulsion showed tumor volume reduction of 82% in comparison to control/tumor group. Necrotic tissue per tumor area reached its highest value in PDT-treated mice, supporting PDT efficacy. Overall, acai oil in nanoemulsion was an effective photosensitizer, representing a promising source of new photosensitizing molecules for PDT treatment of melanoma, a tumor with an inherent tendency to be refractory for this type of therapy. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  7. Gladius and its derivatives as potential biosorbents for marine diesel oil.

    PubMed

    Preto, Mayra F; Campana-Filho, Sérgio P; Fiamingo, Anderson; Cosentino, Ivana C; Tessari-Zampieri, Maria C; Abessa, Denis M S; Romero, Ágata F; Bordon, Isabella C

    2017-08-16

    The demand for low cost and effective materials to remove contaminants such as residues of oil spills has encouraged studies on new biosorbents produced from wastes. Considering the overgeneration of fishing residues and the necessity to provide an alternative purpose for such materials, this study aimed to evaluate squid gladius and its derivatives (β-chitin and chitosan) as sorbents to remove marine diesel oil (MDO) from fresh and artificial seawater. It was also executed an attempted to improve their performances through a high-intensity ultrasound treatment (UT-gladius and UT-β-chitin). All sorbents removed MDO at both salinities. Contact surface area, salinity, and water retention seemed to play a key role in the outcomes. UT-β-chitin's performance was significantly superior to β-chitin's and chitosan's in MDO removal at salinity 0, as well as at salinity 30, where gladius and UT-gladius also excelled. Ultrasound treatment improved the oil removal performance of UT-β-chitin by increasing its contact surface area. This is the first report on the efficiency of gladius and UT-β-chitin for such purpose, and brought up huge possibilities and new questions that can lead to the achievement of biosorbents of great efficiency.

  8. Physicochemical characterization of biosurfactant and its potential to remove oil from soil and cotton cloth.

    PubMed

    Jain, Rakeshkumar M; Mody, Kalpana; Mishra, Avinash; Jha, Bhavanath

    2012-08-01

    An alkaliphilic bacterium, Klebsiella sp. strain RJ-03, produced a biosurfactant, which showed low viscosity with pseudoplastic rheological behavior and exhibited emulsification activity with oils and hydrocarbons. The biosurfactant has excellent oil removing efficiency as compared to chemical surfactants. The isolated biosurfactant has compatibility with detergents and enhanced oil removing efficiency from soil and cotton cloths. It comprised of sugar, uronic acid, protein and sulfate. GC-MS analysis confirmed the presence of six monosaccharides (w/w), glucose (6.65%), galactose (23.98%), rhamnose (14.94%), mannose (17.54%), fucose (9.47%) and 6-O-Me-galactose (1.4%). It is a high molecular weight, thermostable biopolymer showing degradation above 300 °C. Positive ion reflector mode of MALDI TOF-TOF MS analysis revealed series of low and mid range mass peaks (m/z) corresponding to mono-, di-, tri- and oligo-saccharides content. The NMR, FT-IR, EDX-SEM, AFM and PSD analysis confirmed the presence of functional groups, bonds, elements and particle size respectively.

  9. Microbial diversity and anaerobic hydrocarbon degradation potential in an oil-contaminated mangrove sediment.

    PubMed

    Andrade, Luiza L; Leite, Deborah C A; Ferreira, Edir M; Ferreira, Lívia Q; Paula, Geraldo R; Maguire, Michael J; Hubert, Casey R J; Peixoto, Raquel S; Domingues, Regina M C P; Rosado, Alexandre S

    2012-08-30

    Mangrove forests are coastal wetlands that provide vital ecosystem services and serve as barriers against natural disasters like tsunamis, hurricanes and tropical storms. Mangroves harbour a large diversity of organisms, including microorganisms with important roles in nutrient cycling and availability. Due to tidal influence, mangroves are sites where crude oil from spills farther away can accumulate. The relationship between mangrove bacterial diversity and oil degradation in mangrove sediments remains poorly understood. Mangrove sediment was sampled from 0-5, 15-20 and 35-40 cm depth intervals from the Suruí River mangrove (Rio de Janeiro, Brazil), which has a history of oil contamination. DGGE fingerprinting for bamA, dsr and 16S rRNA encoding fragment genes, and qPCR analysis using dsr and 16S rRNA gene fragment revealed differences with sediment depth. Analysis of bacterial 16S rRNA gene diversity revealed changes with depth. DGGE for bamA and dsr genes shows that the anaerobic hydrocarbon-degrading community profile also changed between 5 and 15 cm depth, and is similar in the two deeper sediments, indicating that below 15 cm the anaerobic hydrocarbon-degrading community appears to be well established and homogeneous in this mangrove sediment. qPCR analysis revealed differences with sediment depth, with general bacterial abundance in the top layer (0-5 cm) being greater than in both deeper sediment layers (15-20 and 35-40 cm), which were similar to each other.

  10. Potential of olive oil phenols as chemopreventive and therapeutic agents against cancer: a review of in vitro studies.

    PubMed

    Casaburi, Ivan; Puoci, Francesco; Chimento, Adele; Sirianni, Rosa; Ruggiero, Carmen; Avena, Paola; Pezzi, Vincenzo

    2013-01-01

    Olive oil is a common component of Mediterranean dietary habits. Epidemiological studies have shown how the incidence of various diseases, including certain cancers, is relatively low in the Mediterranean basin compared to that of other European or North America countries. Current knowledge indicates that the phenolic fraction of olive oil has antitumor effects. In addition to the ability to be chemopreventive, with its high antioxidant activity, the antitumor effects of olive oil phenols (OO-phenols) has been studied because of their capacity to inhibit proliferation and promote apoptosis in several tumor cell lines, by diverse mechanisms. This review will summarize and discuss the most recent relevant results on the antitumor effect of OO-phenols on leukemia tumor cells, colorectal carcinoma cells, and breast cancer (BC) cells. In particular, very recent data will be reported and discussed showing the molecular signaling pathways activated by OO-phenols in different histopathological BC cell types, suggesting the potential use of OO-phenols as adjuvant treatment against several subsets of BC. Data summarized here represent a good starting point for more extensive studies for better insight into the molecular mechanisms induced by OO-phenols and to increase the availability of chemopreventive or therapeutic drugs to fight cancer.