Science.gov

Sample records for oil nanocapsules frozen

  1. All natural cellulose acetate-Lemongrass essential oil antimicrobial nanocapsules.

    PubMed

    Liakos, Ioannis L; D'autilia, Francesca; Garzoni, Alice; Bonferoni, Cristina; Scarpellini, Alice; Brunetti, Virgilio; Carzino, Riccardo; Bianchini, Paolo; Pompa, Pier Paolo; Athanassiou, Athanassia

    2016-08-30

    Nanocapsules and nanoparticles play an essential role in the delivery of pharmaceutical agents in modern era, since they can be delivered in specific tissues and cells. Natural polymers, such as cellulose acetate, are becoming very important due to their availability, biocompatibility, absence of toxicity and biodegradability. In parallel, essential oils are having continuous growth in biomedical applications due to the inherent active compounds that they contain. A characteristic example is lemongrass oil that has exceptional antimicrobial properties. In this work, nanocapsules of cellulose acetate with lemongrass oil were developed with the solvent/anti-solvent method with resulting diameter tailored between 95 and 185nm. Various physico-chemical and surface analysis techniques were employed to investigate the formation of the nanocapsules. These all-natural nanocapsules found to well bioadhere to mucous membranes and to have very good antimicrobial properties at little concentrations against Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus. PMID:26827919

  2. All natural cellulose acetate-Lemongrass essential oil antimicrobial nanocapsules.

    PubMed

    Liakos, Ioannis L; D'autilia, Francesca; Garzoni, Alice; Bonferoni, Cristina; Scarpellini, Alice; Brunetti, Virgilio; Carzino, Riccardo; Bianchini, Paolo; Pompa, Pier Paolo; Athanassiou, Athanassia

    2016-08-30

    Nanocapsules and nanoparticles play an essential role in the delivery of pharmaceutical agents in modern era, since they can be delivered in specific tissues and cells. Natural polymers, such as cellulose acetate, are becoming very important due to their availability, biocompatibility, absence of toxicity and biodegradability. In parallel, essential oils are having continuous growth in biomedical applications due to the inherent active compounds that they contain. A characteristic example is lemongrass oil that has exceptional antimicrobial properties. In this work, nanocapsules of cellulose acetate with lemongrass oil were developed with the solvent/anti-solvent method with resulting diameter tailored between 95 and 185nm. Various physico-chemical and surface analysis techniques were employed to investigate the formation of the nanocapsules. These all-natural nanocapsules found to well bioadhere to mucous membranes and to have very good antimicrobial properties at little concentrations against Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus.

  3. Polylactic Acid-Lemongrass Essential Oil Nanocapsules with Antimicrobial Properties.

    PubMed

    Liakos, Ioannis L; Grumezescu, Alexandru Mihai; Holban, Alina Maria; Florin, Iordache; D'Autilia, Francesca; Carzino, Riccardo; Bianchini, Paolo; Athanassiou, Athanassia

    2016-07-07

    Polylactic acid was combined with lemongrass essential oil (EO) to produce functional nanocapsules (NCs). The obtained polylactic acid nanoparticles showed antimicrobial activity both with and without the presence of lemongrass oil; however, the presence of EO improved the activity of the NCs. The presence of lemongrass assisted the formation of well-separated NCs and also provided enhanced antimicrobial properties, since lemongrass is known for its antimicrobial character. Fluorescence microscopy was used to optically observe the nanoparticles and NCs and revealed the attachment of lemongrass oil with the polylactic acid NCs. Dynamic light scattering was used to determine their size. UV absorption was used to determine the exact amount of lemongrass oil found in the polylactic acid-lemongrass oil NCs, which was important for understanding the minimum inhibitory concentration for the antimicrobial experiments. A series of clinically important microbial species were used in the study and the obtained NCs proved to have very good antimicrobial properties against all tested strains. Such NCs can be used for the design of ecological strategies, based on natural alternatives, which may be efficient against severe infections, including those that involve resistant pathogens and biofilms or those with difficult to reach localization.

  4. Polylactic Acid—Lemongrass Essential Oil Nanocapsules with Antimicrobial Properties

    PubMed Central

    Liakos, Ioannis L.; Grumezescu, Alexandru Mihai; Holban, Alina Maria; Florin, Iordache; D’Autilia, Francesca; Carzino, Riccardo; Bianchini, Paolo; Athanassiou, Athanassia

    2016-01-01

    Polylactic acid was combined with lemongrass essential oil (EO) to produce functional nanocapsules (NCs). The obtained polylactic acid nanoparticles showed antimicrobial activity both with and without the presence of lemongrass oil; however, the presence of EO improved the activity of the NCs. The presence of lemongrass assisted the formation of well-separated NCs and also provided enhanced antimicrobial properties, since lemongrass is known for its antimicrobial character. Fluorescence microscopy was used to optically observe the nanoparticles and NCs and revealed the attachment of lemongrass oil with the polylactic acid NCs. Dynamic light scattering was used to determine their size. UV absorption was used to determine the exact amount of lemongrass oil found in the polylactic acid—lemongrass oil NCs, which was important for understanding the minimum inhibitory concentration for the antimicrobial experiments. A series of clinically important microbial species were used in the study and the obtained NCs proved to have very good antimicrobial properties against all tested strains. Such NCs can be used for the design of ecological strategies, based on natural alternatives, which may be efficient against severe infections, including those that involve resistant pathogens and biofilms or those with difficult to reach localization. PMID:27399724

  5. Polylactic Acid-Lemongrass Essential Oil Nanocapsules with Antimicrobial Properties.

    PubMed

    Liakos, Ioannis L; Grumezescu, Alexandru Mihai; Holban, Alina Maria; Florin, Iordache; D'Autilia, Francesca; Carzino, Riccardo; Bianchini, Paolo; Athanassiou, Athanassia

    2016-01-01

    Polylactic acid was combined with lemongrass essential oil (EO) to produce functional nanocapsules (NCs). The obtained polylactic acid nanoparticles showed antimicrobial activity both with and without the presence of lemongrass oil; however, the presence of EO improved the activity of the NCs. The presence of lemongrass assisted the formation of well-separated NCs and also provided enhanced antimicrobial properties, since lemongrass is known for its antimicrobial character. Fluorescence microscopy was used to optically observe the nanoparticles and NCs and revealed the attachment of lemongrass oil with the polylactic acid NCs. Dynamic light scattering was used to determine their size. UV absorption was used to determine the exact amount of lemongrass oil found in the polylactic acid-lemongrass oil NCs, which was important for understanding the minimum inhibitory concentration for the antimicrobial experiments. A series of clinically important microbial species were used in the study and the obtained NCs proved to have very good antimicrobial properties against all tested strains. Such NCs can be used for the design of ecological strategies, based on natural alternatives, which may be efficient against severe infections, including those that involve resistant pathogens and biofilms or those with difficult to reach localization. PMID:27399724

  6. Vegetable Oil-Loaded Nanocapsules: Innovative Alternative for Incorporating Drugs for Parenteral Administration.

    PubMed

    Venturinil, C G; Bruinsmann, A; Oliveira, C P; Contri, R V; Pohlmann, A R; Guterres, S S

    2016-02-01

    An innovative nanocapsule formulation for parenteral administration using selected vegetable oils (mango, jojoba, pequi, oat, annatto, calendula, and chamomile) was developed that has the potential to encapsulate various drugs. The vegetable oil-loaded nanocapsules were prepared by interfacial deposition and compared with capric/caprylic triglyceride-loaded lipid core nanocapsules. The major objective was to investigate the effect of vegetable oils on particle size distribution and physical stability and to determine the hemolytic potential of the nanocapsules, considering their applicability for intravenous administration. Taking into account the importance of accurately determining particle size for the selected route of administration, different size characterization techniques were employed, such as Laser Diffraction, Dynamic Light Scattering, Multiple Light Scattering, Nanoparticle Tracking Analysis, and Transmission Electronic Microscopy. Laser diffraction studies indicated that the mean particle size of all nanocapsules was below 300 nm. For smaller particles, the laser diffraction and multiple light scattering data were in agreement (D[3,2]-130 nm). Dynamic light scattering and nanoparticle tracking analysis, two powerful techniques that complement each other, exhibited size values between 180 and 259 nm for all nanoparticles. Stability studies demonstrated a tendency of particle creaming for jojoba-nanocapsules and sedimentation for the other nanoparticles; however, no size variation occurred over 30 days. The hemolysis test proved the hemocompatibility of all nanosystems, irrespective of the type of oil. Although all developed nanocapsules presented the potential for parenteral administration, jojoba oil-loaded nanocapsules were selected as the most promising nanoformulation due to their low average size and high particle size homogeneity.

  7. Vegetable Oil-Loaded Nanocapsules: Innovative Alternative for Incorporating Drugs for Parenteral Administration.

    PubMed

    Venturinil, C G; Bruinsmann, A; Oliveira, C P; Contri, R V; Pohlmann, A R; Guterres, S S

    2016-02-01

    An innovative nanocapsule formulation for parenteral administration using selected vegetable oils (mango, jojoba, pequi, oat, annatto, calendula, and chamomile) was developed that has the potential to encapsulate various drugs. The vegetable oil-loaded nanocapsules were prepared by interfacial deposition and compared with capric/caprylic triglyceride-loaded lipid core nanocapsules. The major objective was to investigate the effect of vegetable oils on particle size distribution and physical stability and to determine the hemolytic potential of the nanocapsules, considering their applicability for intravenous administration. Taking into account the importance of accurately determining particle size for the selected route of administration, different size characterization techniques were employed, such as Laser Diffraction, Dynamic Light Scattering, Multiple Light Scattering, Nanoparticle Tracking Analysis, and Transmission Electronic Microscopy. Laser diffraction studies indicated that the mean particle size of all nanocapsules was below 300 nm. For smaller particles, the laser diffraction and multiple light scattering data were in agreement (D[3,2]-130 nm). Dynamic light scattering and nanoparticle tracking analysis, two powerful techniques that complement each other, exhibited size values between 180 and 259 nm for all nanoparticles. Stability studies demonstrated a tendency of particle creaming for jojoba-nanocapsules and sedimentation for the other nanoparticles; however, no size variation occurred over 30 days. The hemolysis test proved the hemocompatibility of all nanosystems, irrespective of the type of oil. Although all developed nanocapsules presented the potential for parenteral administration, jojoba oil-loaded nanocapsules were selected as the most promising nanoformulation due to their low average size and high particle size homogeneity. PMID:27433581

  8. Superparamagnetic-oil-filled nanocapsules of a ternary graft copolymer.

    PubMed

    Miao, Lei; Liu, Feng; Lin, Shudong; Hu, Jiwen; Liu, Guojun; Yang, Yang; Tu, Yuanyuan; Hou, Chengmin; Li, Fei; Hu, Meilong; Luo, Hongsheng

    2014-04-15

    Stearic and oleic acid-coated Fe3O4 nanoparticles were dispersed in decahydronaphthalene (DN). This oil phase was dispersed in water using ternary graft copolymer poly(glycidyl methacrylate)-graft-[polystyrene-ran-(methoxy polyethylene glycol)-ran-poly(2-cinnamoyloxyethyl methacrylate)] or PGMA-g-(PS-r-MPEG-r-PCEMA) to yield capsules. The walls of these capsules were composed of PCEMA chains that were soluble in neither water nor DN, and the DN-soluble PS chains stretched into the droplet phase and the water-soluble MPEG chains extended into the aqueous phase. Structurally stable capsules were prepared by photolyzing the capsules with UV light to cross-link the PCEMA layer. Both the magnetite particles and the magnetite-containing capsules were superparamagnetic. The sizes of the capsules increased as they were loaded with more magnetite nanoparticles, reaching a maximal loading of ~0.5 mg of ligated magnetite nanoparticles per mg of copolymer. But the radii of the capsules were always <100 nm. Thus, a novel nanomaterial--superparamagnetic-oil-filled polymer nanocapsules--was prepared. The more heavily loaded capsules were readily captured by a magnet and could be redispersed via shaking. Although the cross-linked capsules survived this capturing and redispersing treatment many times, the un-cross-linked capsules ruptured after four cycles. These results suggest the potential to tailor-make capsules with tunable wall stability for magnetically controlled release applications. PMID:24684287

  9. Antimicrobial Lemongrass Essential Oil-Copper Ferrite Cellulose Acetate Nanocapsules.

    PubMed

    Liakos, Ioannis L; Abdellatif, Mohamed H; Innocenti, Claudia; Scarpellini, Alice; Carzino, Riccardo; Brunetti, Virgilio; Marras, Sergio; Brescia, Rosaria; Drago, Filippo; Pompa, Pier Paolo

    2016-01-01

    Cellulose acetate (CA) nanoparticles were combined with two antimicrobial agents, namely lemongrass (LG) essential oil and Cu-ferrite nanoparticles. The preparation method of CA nanocapsules (NCs), with the two antimicrobial agents, was based on the nanoprecipitation method using the solvent/anti-solvent technique. Several physical and chemical analyses were performed to characterize the resulting NCs and to study their formation mechanism. The size of the combined antimicrobial NCs was found to be ca. 220 nm. The presence of Cu-ferrites enhanced the attachment of LG essential oil into the CA matrix. The magnetic properties of the combined construct were weak, due to the shielding of Cu-ferrites from the polymeric matrix, making them available for drug delivery applications where spontaneous magnetization effects should be avoided. The antimicrobial properties of the NCs were significantly enhanced with respect to CA/LG only. This work opens novel routes for the development of organic/inorganic nanoparticles with exceptional antimicrobial activities. PMID:27104514

  10. Association of Borage Oil and Betamethasone Dipropionate in Lipid-Core Nanocapsules: Characterization, Photostability and In Vitro Irritation Test.

    PubMed

    Weber, Julia; Funk, Nadine L; Motta, Mariana H; Guedes, Alessandra M; Visintainer, Ana Paula C; Tedesco, Solange B; Da Silva, Cristiane de B

    2016-02-01

    The association of vegetable products to nanostructured systems has attracted the attention of researchers due to several advantages, such as drug photoprotection, as well as the improvement of the pharmacological and therapeutic activities because of synergistic action, which can provide their topical application. In this work, lipid-core nanocapsules containing borage oil as oil core and betamethasone dipropionate were developed, and nanocapsules without the drug were prepared for comparison. The suspensions were characterized in relation to mean particle size, zeta potential, pH, drug content, and encapsulation efficiency. A photodegradation study was carried out and the in vitro release profile as well as the irritation potential of the drug after nanoencapsulation were also evaluated. In addition, the antiproliferative activity of the free borage oil as well as loaded in nanocapsules was studied. Lipid-core nanocapsules showed nanometric mean size (185-210 nm); polydispersity index below 0.10; negative zeta potential and pH slightly acid (6.0-6.2). Moreover, the drug content was close to theoretical concentration (0.50 +/- 0.03 mg/ml of betamethasone), and the encapsulation efficiency was approximately 100%. The study of the antiproliferative activity of borage oil showed ability to reduce cell growth of Allium cepa. The nanoencapsulation of betamethasone dipropionate provided greater protection against UVC light and decreased the irritation potential of the drug. The release profile of betamethasone dipropionate from nanocapsules followed monoexponential model. PMID:27433586

  11. Association of Borage Oil and Betamethasone Dipropionate in Lipid-Core Nanocapsules: Characterization, Photostability and In Vitro Irritation Test.

    PubMed

    Weber, Julia; Funk, Nadine L; Motta, Mariana H; Guedes, Alessandra M; Visintainer, Ana Paula C; Tedesco, Solange B; Da Silva, Cristiane de B

    2016-02-01

    The association of vegetable products to nanostructured systems has attracted the attention of researchers due to several advantages, such as drug photoprotection, as well as the improvement of the pharmacological and therapeutic activities because of synergistic action, which can provide their topical application. In this work, lipid-core nanocapsules containing borage oil as oil core and betamethasone dipropionate were developed, and nanocapsules without the drug were prepared for comparison. The suspensions were characterized in relation to mean particle size, zeta potential, pH, drug content, and encapsulation efficiency. A photodegradation study was carried out and the in vitro release profile as well as the irritation potential of the drug after nanoencapsulation were also evaluated. In addition, the antiproliferative activity of the free borage oil as well as loaded in nanocapsules was studied. Lipid-core nanocapsules showed nanometric mean size (185-210 nm); polydispersity index below 0.10; negative zeta potential and pH slightly acid (6.0-6.2). Moreover, the drug content was close to theoretical concentration (0.50 +/- 0.03 mg/ml of betamethasone), and the encapsulation efficiency was approximately 100%. The study of the antiproliferative activity of borage oil showed ability to reduce cell growth of Allium cepa. The nanoencapsulation of betamethasone dipropionate provided greater protection against UVC light and decreased the irritation potential of the drug. The release profile of betamethasone dipropionate from nanocapsules followed monoexponential model.

  12. Formulation and in vitro evaluation of coconut oil-core cationic nanocapsules intended for vaginal delivery of clotrimazole.

    PubMed

    Santos, Sara S; Lorenzoni, Alessandra; Pegoraro, Natháli S; Denardi, Laura B; Alves, Sydney H; Schaffazick, Scheila R; Cruz, Letícia

    2014-04-01

    The objective of this work was to propose coconut oil-core nanocapsules prepared from Eudragit(®) RS100, a cationic polymer, and to evaluate their potential for vaginal delivery of clotrimazole in candidiasis. Nanocapsule suspensions loaded with clotrimazole at 1.0 and 3.0mg/mL were prepared by interfacial deposition of Eudragit(®) RS100. The physicochemical characterization showed average diameter lower than 200 nm, low polydispersity index, positive zeta potential (+10.94 to +14.57 mV), acid pH values (5.4-5.7) and encapsulation efficiencies close to 100%. After 60 days of storage at room temperature and protected from light, the nanocapsules were reasonably stable. Photodegradation studies showed that nanoencapsulation improved clotrimazole stability against UV radiation. The in vitro drug release at pH 4.5 was characterized by a prolonged release with no burst effect. The nanocapsules were more active than free clotrimazole against Candida albicans and Candida glabrata strains susceptible and resistant to fluconazole. Hence, clotrimazole-loaded coconut oil-core nanocapsules represent promising alternatives to the treatment of vulvovaginal candidiasis.

  13. Formulation and in vitro evaluation of coconut oil-core cationic nanocapsules intended for vaginal delivery of clotrimazole.

    PubMed

    Santos, Sara S; Lorenzoni, Alessandra; Pegoraro, Natháli S; Denardi, Laura B; Alves, Sydney H; Schaffazick, Scheila R; Cruz, Letícia

    2014-04-01

    The objective of this work was to propose coconut oil-core nanocapsules prepared from Eudragit(®) RS100, a cationic polymer, and to evaluate their potential for vaginal delivery of clotrimazole in candidiasis. Nanocapsule suspensions loaded with clotrimazole at 1.0 and 3.0mg/mL were prepared by interfacial deposition of Eudragit(®) RS100. The physicochemical characterization showed average diameter lower than 200 nm, low polydispersity index, positive zeta potential (+10.94 to +14.57 mV), acid pH values (5.4-5.7) and encapsulation efficiencies close to 100%. After 60 days of storage at room temperature and protected from light, the nanocapsules were reasonably stable. Photodegradation studies showed that nanoencapsulation improved clotrimazole stability against UV radiation. The in vitro drug release at pH 4.5 was characterized by a prolonged release with no burst effect. The nanocapsules were more active than free clotrimazole against Candida albicans and Candida glabrata strains susceptible and resistant to fluconazole. Hence, clotrimazole-loaded coconut oil-core nanocapsules represent promising alternatives to the treatment of vulvovaginal candidiasis. PMID:24503350

  14. Hydrogels Containing Nanocapsules and Nanoemulsions of Tea Tree Oil Provide Antiedematogenic Effect and Improved Skin Wound Healing.

    PubMed

    Flores, Fernanda C; De Lima, Julia A; Da Silva, Cássia R; Benvegnú, Dalila; Ferreira, Juliano; Burger, Marilise E; Beck, Ruy C R; Rolim, Clarice M B; Rocha, Maria Isabel U M; Da Veiga, Marcelo L; Da Silva, Cristiane de B

    2015-01-01

    In previous works, we developed nanocapsules and nanoemulsions containing the tea tree oil. The aim of this work was to prepare and characterize hydrogels containing these nanocarriers, and to evaluate their in vivo efficacy in protecting skin damage induced by UVB and cutaneous wound healing. Hydrogels were prepared using Carbopol Ultrez and their physicochemical characteristics were evaluated: macroscopic analysis, pH, spreadability and rheological properties. The in vivo antiedematogenic effect was evaluated by ear thickness measurement after UVB-irradiation. In order to evaluate healing action of hydrogels, we investigated the regression of the cutaneous lesion in rats. Hydrogels showed homogeneous aspect and pH values between 5.6-5.8 and a non-Newtonian behavior. The presence of nanocapsules and nanoemulsions in hydrogels did not change their spreadability profile. The inclusion of tea tree oil in the nanocapsules and nanoemulsions allowed reducing the edema induced by UVB exposure. Hydrogel containing nanocapsules presented a higher reduction of the wound area compared to the hydrogel containing nanoemulsions and hydrogel containing allantoin. This study shows the feasibility of obtained dermatological formulations containing the tea tree oil associated in nanostructured systems. These formulations represent a promising approach to topical treatment of inflammatory disorders and wound healing.

  15. Hydrogels Containing Nanocapsules and Nanoemulsions of Tea Tree Oil Provide Antiedematogenic Effect and Improved Skin Wound Healing.

    PubMed

    Flores, Fernanda C; De Lima, Julia A; Da Silva, Cássia R; Benvegnú, Dalila; Ferreira, Juliano; Burger, Marilise E; Beck, Ruy C R; Rolim, Clarice M B; Rocha, Maria Isabel U M; Da Veiga, Marcelo L; Da Silva, Cristiane de B

    2015-01-01

    In previous works, we developed nanocapsules and nanoemulsions containing the tea tree oil. The aim of this work was to prepare and characterize hydrogels containing these nanocarriers, and to evaluate their in vivo efficacy in protecting skin damage induced by UVB and cutaneous wound healing. Hydrogels were prepared using Carbopol Ultrez and their physicochemical characteristics were evaluated: macroscopic analysis, pH, spreadability and rheological properties. The in vivo antiedematogenic effect was evaluated by ear thickness measurement after UVB-irradiation. In order to evaluate healing action of hydrogels, we investigated the regression of the cutaneous lesion in rats. Hydrogels showed homogeneous aspect and pH values between 5.6-5.8 and a non-Newtonian behavior. The presence of nanocapsules and nanoemulsions in hydrogels did not change their spreadability profile. The inclusion of tea tree oil in the nanocapsules and nanoemulsions allowed reducing the edema induced by UVB exposure. Hydrogel containing nanocapsules presented a higher reduction of the wound area compared to the hydrogel containing nanoemulsions and hydrogel containing allantoin. This study shows the feasibility of obtained dermatological formulations containing the tea tree oil associated in nanostructured systems. These formulations represent a promising approach to topical treatment of inflammatory disorders and wound healing. PMID:26328444

  16. The stability and controlled release of I-ascorbic acid encapsulated in poly (ethyl-2-cyanoacrylate) nanocapsules prepared by interfacial polymerization of water-in-oil microemulsions.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Su-Ning; Chen, Tao; Guo, Yi-Guang; Zhang, Jian; Song, Xiaoqiu; Zhou, Lei

    2015-01-01

    The L-ascorbic acid (AA) was encapsulated into biodegradable and biocompatible poly(ethyl-2-cyanoacrylate) (PECA) nanocapsules by interfacial polymerization of water-in-oil (W/O) microemulsions. The influences of surfactant concentration, pH value of the dispersed aqueous phase, and W/O ratio on nanocapsule size were discussed. The stability and in vitro release of encapsulated AA were also investigated. The results show that nanocapsules could be obtained under the conditions with low pH value, high fraction of aqueous phase, and appropriate surfactant concentration. The encapsulated AA was protected by nanocapsules from oxidation and presented superior storage stability in aqueous medium than pure AA. Releasing AA from the inner core of nanocapsules could be controlled by adjusting the enzyme hydrolysis extent of the PECA wall. PMID:26665980

  17. The stability and controlled release of I-ascorbic acid encapsulated in poly (ethyl-2-cyanoacrylate) nanocapsules prepared by interfacial polymerization of water-in-oil microemulsions.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Su-Ning; Chen, Tao; Guo, Yi-Guang; Zhang, Jian; Song, Xiaoqiu; Zhou, Lei

    2015-01-01

    The L-ascorbic acid (AA) was encapsulated into biodegradable and biocompatible poly(ethyl-2-cyanoacrylate) (PECA) nanocapsules by interfacial polymerization of water-in-oil (W/O) microemulsions. The influences of surfactant concentration, pH value of the dispersed aqueous phase, and W/O ratio on nanocapsule size were discussed. The stability and in vitro release of encapsulated AA were also investigated. The results show that nanocapsules could be obtained under the conditions with low pH value, high fraction of aqueous phase, and appropriate surfactant concentration. The encapsulated AA was protected by nanocapsules from oxidation and presented superior storage stability in aqueous medium than pure AA. Releasing AA from the inner core of nanocapsules could be controlled by adjusting the enzyme hydrolysis extent of the PECA wall.

  18. Polymeric nanocapsules with SEDDS oil-core for the controlled and enhanced oral absorption of cyclosporine.

    PubMed

    Park, Min-Jeong; Balakrishnan, Prabagar; Yang, Su-Geun

    2013-01-30

    Self-microemulsifying drug delivery system (SEDDS) cored-polymeric nanocapsules (NC) were fabricated using emulsion diffusion method for the controlled oral absorption of the poorly water soluble drug, cyclosporine. Poly-dl-lactide (PDLLA) was used as the shell-forming polymer. The NCs in different polymer/oil ratios (from 25/125 to 125/125) were prepared following a solvent-diffusion method. Especially, the SEDDS oil-core compositions, which can form microemulsions on dispersion, were selected based on a pseudo-phase diagram study and further optimized based on the solubility and permeability studies. The prepared NCs were with a mean diameter of 150-220 nm and 9.4-4.5% w/w drug loading. In vivo study in rats showed that the optimized NC(50/125) and NC(100/125) released the drug in controlled way as well as enhanced the bioavailability significantly with AUC(0-24h) values of 14880.3±1470.6 and 12657.8±754.5 ng h/ml, respectively, compared to that of SEDDS-core solution (9878.9±409.6 ng h/ml). Moreover it was observed that the NCs maintained blood concentration of cyclosporine (>500 ng/ml) for 14-20 h but in the case of control formulation it was only 7.33 h. Our results suggest that the prepared NCs could be a potential carrier for the oral controlled release formulation of cyclosporine.

  19. Synergistic interactions between doxycycline and terpenic components of essential oils encapsulated within lipid nanocapsules against gram negative bacteria.

    PubMed

    Valcourt, C; Saulnier, P; Umerska, A; Zanelli, M P; Montagu, A; Rossines, E; Joly-Guillou, M L

    2016-02-10

    The combination of essential oils (EOs) with antibiotics provides a promising strategy towards combating resistant bacteria. We have selected a mixture of 3 major components extracted from EOs: carvacrol (oregano oil), eugenol (clove oil) and cinnamaldehyde (cinnamon oil). These compounds were successfully encapsulated within lipid nanocapsules (LNCs). The EOs-loaded LNCs were characterised by a noticeably high drug loading of 20% and a very small particle diameter of 114nm. The in vitro interactions between EOs-loaded LNCs and doxycycline were examined via checkerboard titration and time-kill assay against 5 Gram-negative strains: Acinetobacter baumannii SAN, A. baumannii RCH, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Escherichia coli and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. No growth inhibition interactions were found between EOs-loaded LNCs and doxycycline (FIC index between 0.7 and 1.30). However, when bactericidal effects were considered, a synergistic interaction was observed (FBC index equal to 0.5) against all tested strains. A synergistic effect was also observed in time-kill assay (a difference of at least 3 log between the combination and the most active agent alone). Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) was used to visualise the changes in the bacterial membrane. The holes in bacterial envelope and leakage of cellular contents were observed in SE micrographs after exposure to the EOs-LNCs and the doxycycline combination. PMID:26631640

  20. Synergistic interactions between doxycycline and terpenic components of essential oils encapsulated within lipid nanocapsules against gram negative bacteria.

    PubMed

    Valcourt, C; Saulnier, P; Umerska, A; Zanelli, M P; Montagu, A; Rossines, E; Joly-Guillou, M L

    2016-02-10

    The combination of essential oils (EOs) with antibiotics provides a promising strategy towards combating resistant bacteria. We have selected a mixture of 3 major components extracted from EOs: carvacrol (oregano oil), eugenol (clove oil) and cinnamaldehyde (cinnamon oil). These compounds were successfully encapsulated within lipid nanocapsules (LNCs). The EOs-loaded LNCs were characterised by a noticeably high drug loading of 20% and a very small particle diameter of 114nm. The in vitro interactions between EOs-loaded LNCs and doxycycline were examined via checkerboard titration and time-kill assay against 5 Gram-negative strains: Acinetobacter baumannii SAN, A. baumannii RCH, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Escherichia coli and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. No growth inhibition interactions were found between EOs-loaded LNCs and doxycycline (FIC index between 0.7 and 1.30). However, when bactericidal effects were considered, a synergistic interaction was observed (FBC index equal to 0.5) against all tested strains. A synergistic effect was also observed in time-kill assay (a difference of at least 3 log between the combination and the most active agent alone). Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) was used to visualise the changes in the bacterial membrane. The holes in bacterial envelope and leakage of cellular contents were observed in SE micrographs after exposure to the EOs-LNCs and the doxycycline combination.

  1. Preparation of liquid-core nanocapsules from poly[(ethylene oxide)-co-glycidol] with multiple hydrophobic linoleates at an oil-water interface and its encapsulation of pyrene.

    PubMed

    Ren, Yong; Wang, Guowei; Huang, Junlian

    2007-06-01

    A convenient approach is provided to prepare liquid-core nanocapsules by cross-linking an amphiphilic copolymer at an oil-water interface. The hydrophilic copolymer poly[(ethylene oxide)-co-glycidol] was prepared by anionic polymerization of ethylene oxide and ethoxyethyl glycidyl ether first, then the hydroxyl groups on the backbone were recovered after hydrolysis and partly modified by hydrophobic conjugated linoleic acid. The copolymer with multiple linoleate pendants was absorbed at an oil-water interface and then cross-linked to form stable nanocapsules. The mean diameter of the nanocapsule was below 350 nm, and the size distribution was relatively narrow (<0.2) at low concentrations of oil in acetone (<10 mg/mL). The particle size could be tuned easily by variation of the emulsification conditions. The nanocapsule was stable in water for at least 5 months, and the shell maintained its integrity after removal of the oily core by solvent. Pyrene was encapsulated in these nanocapsules, and a loading efficiency as high as 94% was measured by UV spectroscopy.

  2. Oxidative stability of red palm oils blended chicken nuggets during frozen storage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kamaruzaman, Nurkhuzaiah; Babji, Abdul Salam

    2014-09-01

    The effects of red palm oils known as Naturally Vitamin Rich Oil (NVRO) on the lipid stability of chicken nuggets were determined. Lipid oxidation was analyzed during frozen storage (-18 °C) for up to 4 months. Thiobarbituric acid (TBA) values and peroxide value (PV) for all samples chicken nuggets increased throughout 3 months of frozen storage and then start to decrease thereafter. Chicken nuggets formulated with NVRO, NVRO-100 and NVRO-50 showed lower TBA values and PV compared to the samples prepared with chicken fat. However, among NVRO, there were not significantly different for most of the months. It was concluded that the utilization of red palm oils in chicken nuggets significantly reduced the oxidation of lipid, which was indicated by the PV throughout 4 months of frozen storage.

  3. Influence of the type of vegetable oil on the drug release profile from lipid-core nanocapsules and in vivo genotoxicity study.

    PubMed

    Rigo, Lucas Almeida; Frescura, Viviane; Fiel, Luana; Coradini, Karine; Ourique, Aline Ferreira; Emanuelli, Tatiana; Quatrin, Andréia; Tedesco, Solange; Silva, Cristiane B da; Guterres, Silvia Staniçuaski; Pohlmann, Adriana Raffin; Beck, Ruy Carlos Ruver

    2014-11-01

    The use of rice bran (RB), soybean (SB) or sunflower seed (SF) oils to prepare lipid-core nanocapsules (LNCs) as controlled drug delivery systems was investigated. LNCs were prepared by interfacial deposition using the preformed polymer method. All formulations showed negative zeta potential and adequate nanotechnological characteristics (particle size 220-230  nm, polydispersity index < 0.20). The environmental safety was evaluated through an in vivo protocol (Allium cepa test) and LNCs containing RB, SB or SF oils did not present genotoxic potential. Clobetasol propionate (CP) was selected as a model drug to evaluate the influence of the type of vegetable oil on the control of the drug release from LNCs. Biphasic drug release profiles were observed for all formulations. After 168  h, the concentration of drug released from the formulation containing SF oil was lower (0.36  mg/mL) than from formulations containing SB (0.40  mg/mL) or RB oil (0.45  mg/mL). Good correlations between the consistency indices for the LNC cores and the burst and sustained drug release rate constants were obtained. Therefore, the type of the vegetal oil was shown as an important factor governing the control of drug release from LNCs.

  4. Development of a frozen yogurt fortified with a nano-emulsion containing purple rice bran oil

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The objectives of this study were to develop and evaluate a frozen yogurt (FY) fortified with a nano-emulsion containing purple rice bran oil (NPRBO). A nano-emulsion with a droplet size range of 150-300 nm was produced by sonication followed by ultra-shear homogenization. The nano-emulsion was mi...

  5. Oleophobicity of Biomimetic Micropatterned Surface and Its Effect on the Adhesion of Frozen Oil.

    PubMed

    Pan, Zihe; Zhang, Wei; Kowalski, Andrew; Zhao, Boxin

    2015-09-15

    The relationship between the oleophobicity of micropatterned surfaces and the reduction of oil adhesion at low temperatures was explored by using siloxane elastomer surfaces as a model system. Polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) surfaces were fabricated with varying oleophobicity from oleophilic to superoleophobic by combing the blending of trichloro(1H,1H,2H,2H-perfluorooctyl)silane (FDTS) into PDMS with the construction of bioinspired micropillars. The oil contact angles of micropillars were >130°, with the largest contact angle measured to be 146°. The micropillared surface showed remarkable self-cleaning properties; the contact angle hysteresis was <15°. The transparent oil droplets on PDMS surfaces of varied oleophobicity were frozen into a white-colored solid at -25 °C with the aid of a cooling system. Adhesion forces of the frozen oil droplets were obtained from the knock-off tests, showing that the adhesion forces dropped with the increased oleophobicity. The largest adhesion force was observed on the oleophilic flat surface, while the lowest adhesion force was on the highest oleophobic micropillared surface. The relative effectiveness of chemical and physical modifications on adhesion strength reduction was studied in terms of FDTS and micropillars, respectively. The results showed that a reduction of adhesion strength by 4% was reached by blending FDTS into flat PDMS, while a much more pronounced reduction of frozen oil adhesion strength by 60% was achieved by blending FDTS into PDMS micropillars; these results suggested a possible synergic effect of the FDTS chemistry and micropillar on the reduction of adhesion strength of frozen oil droplets. PMID:26300446

  6. Oleophobicity of Biomimetic Micropatterned Surface and Its Effect on the Adhesion of Frozen Oil.

    PubMed

    Pan, Zihe; Zhang, Wei; Kowalski, Andrew; Zhao, Boxin

    2015-09-15

    The relationship between the oleophobicity of micropatterned surfaces and the reduction of oil adhesion at low temperatures was explored by using siloxane elastomer surfaces as a model system. Polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) surfaces were fabricated with varying oleophobicity from oleophilic to superoleophobic by combing the blending of trichloro(1H,1H,2H,2H-perfluorooctyl)silane (FDTS) into PDMS with the construction of bioinspired micropillars. The oil contact angles of micropillars were >130°, with the largest contact angle measured to be 146°. The micropillared surface showed remarkable self-cleaning properties; the contact angle hysteresis was <15°. The transparent oil droplets on PDMS surfaces of varied oleophobicity were frozen into a white-colored solid at -25 °C with the aid of a cooling system. Adhesion forces of the frozen oil droplets were obtained from the knock-off tests, showing that the adhesion forces dropped with the increased oleophobicity. The largest adhesion force was observed on the oleophilic flat surface, while the lowest adhesion force was on the highest oleophobic micropillared surface. The relative effectiveness of chemical and physical modifications on adhesion strength reduction was studied in terms of FDTS and micropillars, respectively. The results showed that a reduction of adhesion strength by 4% was reached by blending FDTS into flat PDMS, while a much more pronounced reduction of frozen oil adhesion strength by 60% was achieved by blending FDTS into PDMS micropillars; these results suggested a possible synergic effect of the FDTS chemistry and micropillar on the reduction of adhesion strength of frozen oil droplets.

  7. Mechanism of nanocapsules of Matricaria recutita L. extract formation by the emulsion-diffusion process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Esmaeili, Akbar; Saremnia, Betsabe; Koohian, Ata; Rezazadeh, Shamsali

    2011-10-01

    Nanocapsules coated by medicinal plants have many applications in drug manufacturing. Medicinal plants can be loaded on nanocapsules with polyesteric triblock copolymer poly ethylene glycol-poly butylene adipate-poly ethylene glycol (PEG-PBA-PEG) as shell and olive oil can be introduced as a core of nanocapsules by a method known as polymer deposition solvent evaporation method. In this research, first, certain amount of polymer, Matricaria recutita extract and olive oil were mixed with acetone and then, water was added to the solution using magnetic stirrer. After which the acetone was removed by vacuuming and finally nanocapsules were found by freezing-drier. The study showed the size of nanocapsules depends on variety of factors such as the ratio of polymer to oil and concentration of polymers and plant extract. The nanocapsules were identified by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and zeta potential sizer (ZPS), Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR).

  8. Olive Oil Based Emulsions in Frozen Puff Pastry Production

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gabriele, D.; Migliori, M.; Lupi, F. R.; de Cindio, B.

    2008-07-01

    Puff pastry is an interesting food product having different industrial applications. It is obtained by laminating layers of dough and fats, mainly shortenings or margarine, having specific properties which provides required spreading characteristic and able to retain moisture into dough. To obtain these characteristics, pastry shortenings are usually saturated fats, however the current trend in food industry is mainly oriented towards unsatured fats such as olive oil, which are thought to be safer for human health. In the present work, a new product, based on olive oil, was studied as shortening replacer in puff pastry production. To ensure the desired consistency, for the rheological matching between fat and dough, a water-in-oil emulsion was produced based on olive oil, emulsifier and a hydrophilic thickener agent able to increase material structure. Obtained materials were characterized by rheological dynamic tests in linear viscoelastic conditions, aiming to setup process and material consistency, and rheological data were analyzed by using the weak gel model. Results obtained for tested emulsions were compared to theological properties of a commercial margarine, adopted as reference value for texture and stability. Obtained emulsions are characterized by interesting rheological properties strongly dependent on emulsifier characteristics and water phase composition. However a change in process temperature during fat extrusion and dough lamination seems to be necessary to match properly typical dough rheological properties.

  9. Function of ram spermatozoa frozen in diluents supplemented with casein and vegetable oils.

    PubMed

    Del Valle, I; Souter, A; Maxwell, W M C; Muiño-Blanco, T; Cebrián-Pérez, J A

    2013-05-01

    The aim of this study was to assess biologically safer components as alternatives to egg yolk for the frozen storage of ram semen using casein, coconut or palm oil in either Salamon's diluent (S) or a swim-up medium (SU). Ejaculates were frozen as pellets and sperm motility (subjectively) and acrosome integrity (FITC-PNA/PI) by flow cytometry were assessed at 0, 3 and 6h after thawing and incubation at 37°C. Three experiments were done: different concentrations of palm oil (5%, 10% and 20%); casein added as emulsifier and protective agent; and differences between egg yolk, coconut and palm oil in S and SU. 20% of oil added to SU accounted for a lesser percentage (P<0.05) of motile cells compared to rest while no differences were found between different oil levels on viable cells. When casein was added to diluents containing 5% of palm oil, no differences were found between palm or casein (P>0.05). No differences were found when S and SU were compared neither as groups nor between S alone and containing coconut or palm oil; however, SU alone yielded less motility than SU 5% coconut. However, in both groups, S and SU, egg yolk accounted for the greatest values in both bases. These results indicate that none of biologically safer media components (casein, palm or coconut oil) used in this study maintained the function of ram spermatozoa after freeze-thawing better than S-containing egg yolk. The application of vegetable oils as substitutes for egg yolk in diluents for the cryopreservation of ram spermatozoa requires further research. PMID:23561943

  10. Effect of the treatment with Achyrocline satureioides (free and nanocapsules essential oil) and diminazene aceturate on hematological and biochemical parameters in rats infected by Trypanosoma evansi.

    PubMed

    Do Carmo, Guilherme M; Baldissera, Matheus D; Vaucher, Rodrigo A; Rech, Virginia Cielo; Oliveira, Camila B; Sagrillo, Michele Rorato; Boligon, Aline A; Athayde, Margareth L; Alves, Marta P; França, Raqueli T; Lopes, Sonia T A; Schwertz, Claiton I; Mendes, Ricardo E; Monteiro, Silvia G; Da Silva, Aleksandro S

    2015-02-01

    This study aimed to verify the effect of the treatment with A. satureioides essential oil (free and nanoencapsulated forms) and diminazene aceturate on hematological and biochemical variables in rats infected by Trypanosoma evansi. The 56 rats were divided into seven groups with eight rats each. Groups A, C and D were composed by uninfected animals, and groups B, E, F and G were formed by infected rats with T. evansi. Rats from groups A and B were used as negative and positive control, respectively. Rats from the groups C and E were treated with A. satureioides essential oil, and groups D and F were treated with A. satureioides nanoencapsulated essential oil. Groups C, D, E and F received one dose of oil (1.5 mL kg(-1)) during five consecutive days orally. Group G was treated with diminazene aceturate (D.A.) in therapeutic dose (3.5 mg kg(-1)) in an only dose. The blood samples were collected on day 5 PI for analyses of hematological (erythrocytes and leukocytes count, hemoglobin concentration, hematocrit, mean corpuscular and mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration) and biochemical (glucose, triglycerides, cholesterol, alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), albumin, urea and creatinine) variables. A. satureioides administered was able to maintain low parasitemia, mainly the nanoencapsulated form, on 5 days post infection. On the infected animals with T. evansi treated with A. satureioides essential oil (free and nanocapsules) the number of total leucocytes, lymphocytes and monocytes present was similar to uninfected rats, and different from infected and not-treated animals (leukocytosis). Treatment with A. satureioides in free form elevated levels of ALT and AST, demonstrating liver damage; however, treatment with nanoencapsulated form did not cause elevation of these enzymes. Finally, treatments inhibited the increase in creatinine levels caused by infection for T. evansi. In summary, the nanoencapsulated

  11. Eco-friendly aqueous core surface-modified nanocapsules.

    PubMed

    Carbone, C; Musumeci, T; Lauro, M R; Puglisi, G

    2015-01-01

    In this work, positively charged nanocapsules have been developed for potential ocular delivery exploiting the deposition of PLA onto the droplet surface of a W/O nanoemulsion prepared by the reversed procedure of the PIT method. PLA in combination with different amounts of various oils and surfactants have been studied in order to select the best formulation for polymeric nanocapsule preparation. The traditional visual observation together with the Turbiscan(®) technology were exploited in order to identify the best combination of polymer/oil for nanocapsule preparation. Two different primary surfactants (Span(®) 60 and Span(®) 80) have been tested to select their influence on the field of existence of the nanoemulsion by the construction of the pseudoternary phase diagrams. Cationic hybrid NC have been prepared by the addition of a coating layer of DDAB. The physico-chemical and morphological properties of all the prepared nanocapsules have been evaluated and compared by PCS, DSC and AFM. Therefore, positively charged nanocapsules can be easily prepared by a simple eco-friendly technique that exploits biocompatible materials avoiding a large input of mechanical energy as a potential ocular delivery systems for hydrophilic compounds or gene materials. PMID:25497291

  12. Preparation of polyamide nanocapsules of Aloe vera L. delivery with in vivo studies.

    PubMed

    Esmaeili, Akbar; Ebrahimzadeh, Maryam

    2015-04-01

    Aloe vera is the oldest medicinal plant ever known and the most applied medicinal plant worldwide. The purpose of this study was to prepare polyamide nanocapsules containing A. vera L. by an emulsion diffusion technique with in vivo studies. Diethyletriamine (DETA) was used as the encapsulating polymer with acetone ethyl acetate and dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) as the organic solvents and Tween and gelatin in water as the stabilizers. Sebacoyl chloride (SC) monomer, A. vera L. extract, and olive oil were mixed with the acetone and then water containing DETA monomer was added to the solution using a magnetic stirrer. Finally, the acetone was removed under vacuum, and nanocapsules were obtained using a freeze drier. This study showed that the size of the nanocapsule depends on a variety of factors such as the ratio of polymer to oil, the concentration of polymers, and the plant extract. The first sample is without surfactant and the size of nanocapsules in the sample is 115 nm. By adding surfactant, nanocapsules size was reduced to 96 nm. Nanocapsules containing A. vera were administered to rats and the effects were compared with a normal control group. The results showed that in the A. vera group, the effect is higher. The nanocapsules were identified by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), zeta potential sizer (ZPS), and Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR).

  13. Interfacial engineering for silica nanocapsules.

    PubMed

    Wibowo, David; Hui, Yue; Middelberg, Anton P J; Zhao, Chun-Xia

    2016-10-01

    Silica nanocapsules have attracted significant interest due to their core-shell hierarchical structure. The core domain allows the encapsulation of various functional components such as drugs, fluorescent and magnetic nanoparticles for applications in drug delivery, imaging and sensing, and the silica shell with its unique properties including biocompatibility, chemical and physical stability, and surface-chemistry tailorability provides a protection layer for the encapsulated cargo. Therefore, significant effort has been directed to synthesize silica nanocapsules with engineered properties, including size, composition and surface functionality, for various applications. This review provides a comprehensive overview of emerging methods for the manufacture of silica nanocapsules, with a special emphasis on different interfacial engineering strategies. The review starts with an introduction of various manufacturing approaches of silica nanocapsules highlighting surface engineering of the core template nanomaterials (solid nanoparticles, liquid droplets, and gas bubbles) using chemicals or biomolecules which are able to direct nucleation and growth of silica at the boundary of two-phase interfaces (solid-liquid, liquid-liquid, and gas-liquid). Next, surface functionalization of silica nanocapsules is presented. Furthermore, strategies and challenges of encapsulating active molecules (pre-loading and post-loading approaches) in these capsular systems are critically discussed. Finally, applications of silica nanocapsules in controlled release, imaging, and theranostics are reviewed. PMID:27522646

  14. Labeling the oily core of nanocapsules and lipid-core nanocapsules with a triglyceride conjugated to a fluorescent dye as a strategy to particle tracking in biological studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fiel, Luana Almeida; Contri, Renata Vidor; Bica, Juliane Freitas; Figueiró, Fabrício; Battastini, Ana Maria Oliveira; Guterres, Sílvia Stanisçuaski; Pohlmann, Adriana Raffin

    2014-05-01

    The synthesis of novel fluorescent materials represents a very important step to obtain labeled nanoformulations in order to evaluate their biological behavior. The strategy of conjugating a fluorescent dye with triacylglycerol allows that either particles differing regarding supramolecular structure, i.e., nanoemulsions, nanocapsules, lipid-core nanocapsules, or surface charge, i.e., cationic nanocapsules and anionic nanocapsules, can be tracked using the same labeled material. In this way, a rhodamine B-conjugated triglyceride was obtained to prepare fluorescent polymeric nanocapsules. Different formulations were obtained, nanocapsules (NC) or lipid-core nanocapsules (LNC), using the labeled oil and Eudragit RS100, Eudragit S100, or poly(caprolactone) (PCL), respectively. The rhodamine B was coupled with the ricinolein by activating the carboxylic function using a carbodiimide derivative. Thin layer chromatography, proton nuclear magnetic resonance (1H-NMR), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), UV-vis, and fluorescence spectroscopy were used to identify the new product. Fluorescent nanocapsule aqueous suspensions were prepared by the solvent displacement method. Their pH values were 4.6 (NC-RS100), 3.5 (NC-S100), and 5.0 (LNC-PCL). The volume-weighted mean diameter ( D 4.3) and polydispersity values were 150 nm and 1.05 (NC-RS100), 350 nm and 2.28 (NC-S100), and 270 nm and 1.67 (LNC-PCL). The mean diameters determined by photon correlation spectroscopy (PCS) ( z-average) were around 200 nm. The zeta potential values were +5.85 mV (NC-RS100), -21.12 mV (NC-S100), and -19.25 mV (LNC-PCL). The wavelengths of maximum fluorescence emission were 567 nm (NC-RS100 and LNC-PCL) and 574 nm (NC-S100). Fluorescence microscopy was used to evaluate the cell uptake (human macrophage cell line) of the fluorescent nanocapsules in order to show the applicability of the approach. When the cells were treated with the fluorescent nanocapsules, red emission was detected

  15. Labeling the oily core of nanocapsules and lipid-core nanocapsules with a triglyceride conjugated to a fluorescent dye as a strategy to particle tracking in biological studies

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    The synthesis of novel fluorescent materials represents a very important step to obtain labeled nanoformulations in order to evaluate their biological behavior. The strategy of conjugating a fluorescent dye with triacylglycerol allows that either particles differing regarding supramolecular structure, i.e., nanoemulsions, nanocapsules, lipid-core nanocapsules, or surface charge, i.e., cationic nanocapsules and anionic nanocapsules, can be tracked using the same labeled material. In this way, a rhodamine B-conjugated triglyceride was obtained to prepare fluorescent polymeric nanocapsules. Different formulations were obtained, nanocapsules (NC) or lipid-core nanocapsules (LNC), using the labeled oil and Eudragit RS100, Eudragit S100, or poly(caprolactone) (PCL), respectively. The rhodamine B was coupled with the ricinolein by activating the carboxylic function using a carbodiimide derivative. Thin layer chromatography, proton nuclear magnetic resonance (1H-NMR), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), UV-vis, and fluorescence spectroscopy were used to identify the new product. Fluorescent nanocapsule aqueous suspensions were prepared by the solvent displacement method. Their pH values were 4.6 (NC-RS100), 3.5 (NC-S100), and 5.0 (LNC-PCL). The volume-weighted mean diameter (D4.3) and polydispersity values were 150 nm and 1.05 (NC-RS100), 350 nm and 2.28 (NC-S100), and 270 nm and 1.67 (LNC-PCL). The mean diameters determined by photon correlation spectroscopy (PCS) (z-average) were around 200 nm. The zeta potential values were +5.85 mV (NC-RS100), -21.12 mV (NC-S100), and -19.25 mV (LNC-PCL). The wavelengths of maximum fluorescence emission were 567 nm (NC-RS100 and LNC-PCL) and 574 nm (NC-S100). Fluorescence microscopy was used to evaluate the cell uptake (human macrophage cell line) of the fluorescent nanocapsules in order to show the applicability of the approach. When the cells were treated with the fluorescent nanocapsules, red emission was

  16. Labeling the oily core of nanocapsules and lipid-core nanocapsules with a triglyceride conjugated to a fluorescent dye as a strategy to particle tracking in biological studies.

    PubMed

    Fiel, Luana Almeida; Contri, Renata Vidor; Bica, Juliane Freitas; Figueiró, Fabrício; Battastini, Ana Maria Oliveira; Guterres, Sílvia Stanisçuaski; Pohlmann, Adriana Raffin

    2014-01-01

    The synthesis of novel fluorescent materials represents a very important step to obtain labeled nanoformulations in order to evaluate their biological behavior. The strategy of conjugating a fluorescent dye with triacylglycerol allows that either particles differing regarding supramolecular structure, i.e., nanoemulsions, nanocapsules, lipid-core nanocapsules, or surface charge, i.e., cationic nanocapsules and anionic nanocapsules, can be tracked using the same labeled material. In this way, a rhodamine B-conjugated triglyceride was obtained to prepare fluorescent polymeric nanocapsules. Different formulations were obtained, nanocapsules (NC) or lipid-core nanocapsules (LNC), using the labeled oil and Eudragit RS100, Eudragit S100, or poly(caprolactone) (PCL), respectively. The rhodamine B was coupled with the ricinolein by activating the carboxylic function using a carbodiimide derivative. Thin layer chromatography, proton nuclear magnetic resonance ((1)H-NMR), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), UV-vis, and fluorescence spectroscopy were used to identify the new product. Fluorescent nanocapsule aqueous suspensions were prepared by the solvent displacement method. Their pH values were 4.6 (NC-RS100), 3.5 (NC-S100), and 5.0 (LNC-PCL). The volume-weighted mean diameter (D 4.3) and polydispersity values were 150 nm and 1.05 (NC-RS100), 350 nm and 2.28 (NC-S100), and 270 nm and 1.67 (LNC-PCL). The mean diameters determined by photon correlation spectroscopy (PCS) (z-average) were around 200 nm. The zeta potential values were +5.85 mV (NC-RS100), -21.12 mV (NC-S100), and -19.25 mV (LNC-PCL). The wavelengths of maximum fluorescence emission were 567 nm (NC-RS100 and LNC-PCL) and 574 nm (NC-S100). Fluorescence microscopy was used to evaluate the cell uptake (human macrophage cell line) of the fluorescent nanocapsules in order to show the applicability of the approach. When the cells were treated with the fluorescent nanocapsules, red emission was

  17. Nanoparticles: A very versatile nanocapsule

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuykendall, Darrell W.; Zimmerman, Steven C.

    2007-04-01

    Numerous copies of a pumpkin-shaped molecule can be linked together to form a nanocapsule shell that can trap compounds inside. The outer surface of this capsule can be decorated with other species by plugging them into the cavities of the hollowed-out pumpkins.

  18. Emulsion-templated silica nanocapsules formed using bio-inspired silicification.

    PubMed

    Wibowo, David; Zhao, Chun-Xia; Middelberg, Anton P J

    2014-10-01

    A novel, bio-inspired templating platform technology is reported for the synthesis of biocompatible oil-core silica-shell nanocapsules with tunable shell thickness by utilizing a designed bifunctional peptide. Furthermore, facile encapsulation of an active molecule and its sustained release are demonstrated.

  19. Biodegradable double nanocapsule as a novel multifunctional carrier for drug delivery and cell imaging.

    PubMed

    Qian, Kun; Wu, Jing; Zhang, Enqi; Zhang, Yingge; Fu, Ailing

    2015-01-01

    Highly-efficient delivery of macromolecules into cells for both imaging and therapy (theranostics) remains a challenge for the design of a delivery system. Here, we suggested a novel hybrid protein-lipid polymer nanocapsule as an effective and nontoxic drug delivery and imaging carrier. The biodegradable nanocapsules showed the typical double emulsion features, including fluorescently labeled bovine serum albumin shell, oil phase containing poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) and linoleic acid, and inner aqueous phase. The nanocapsules were spherical in shape, with an average size of about 180 nm. Proteins packed into the inner aqueous phase of the nanocapsules could be delivered into cells with high efficiency, and the fluorescence of the fluorescently labeled bovine serum albumin could be used for tracing the protein migration and cellular location. Further studies suggested that the co-delivery of transcription factor p53 and lipophilic drug paclitaxel with the nanocapsules acted synergistically to induce Hela cell apoptosis, and the fluorescence of apoptotic cells was clearly observed under a fluorescence microscope. Such multifunctional delivery system would have great potential applications in drug delivery and theranostic fields.

  20. Fabrication of polymeric nanocapsules from curcumin-loaded nanoemulsion templates by self-assembly.

    PubMed

    Abbas, Shabbar; Karangwa, Eric; Bashari, Mohanad; Hayat, Khizar; Hong, Xiao; Sharif, Hafiz Rizwan; Zhang, Xiaoming

    2015-03-01

    In this study, biodegradable polymeric nanocapsules were prepared by sequential deposition of food-grade polyelectrolytes through the self-assembling process onto the oil (medium chain triglycerides) droplets enriched with curcumin (lipophilic bioactive compound). Optimum conditions were used to prepare ultrasound-assisted nanoemulsions stabilized by octenyl-succinic-anhydride (OSA)-modified starch. Negatively charged droplets (-39.4 ± 1.84 mV) of these nanoemulsions, having a diameter of 142.7 ± 0.85 nm were used as templates for the fabrication of nanocapsules. Concentrations of layer-forming cationic (chitosan) and anionic (carboxymethylcellulose) biopolymers were optimized based on the mean droplet/particle diameter (MDD/MPD), polydispersity index (PDI) and net charge on the droplets/capsules. Prepared core-shell structures or nanocapsules, having MPD of 159.85 ± 0.92 nm, were characterized by laser diffraction (DLS), ζ-potential (ZP), atomic force microscopy (AFM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM). Furthermore, physical stability of curcumin-loaded nanocapsules in suspension was determined and compared at different storage temperatures. This study may provide information regarding the formation of ultrasound-assisted polymeric nanocapsules from the nanoemulsion templates which could be helpful in the development of delivery systems for lipophilic food bioactives. PMID:25453208

  1. Frozen Frozen CO2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    2 October 2005 This Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) image shows a view of frozen carbon dioxide in the south polar residual cap of Mars. Much of the south polar residual cap exhibits terrain that resembles stacks of sliced Swiss cheese, but this portion of the cap lacks the typical, circular depressions that characterize much of the region. Carbon dioxide on Mars freezes at a temperature of around 148 Kelvins, which is -125oC or about -193oF.

    Location near: 87.2oS, 28.4oW Image width: width: 3 km (1.9 mi) Illumination from: upper left Season: Southern Spring

  2. Producing Light Oil from a Frozen Reservoir: Reservoir and Fluid Characterization of Umiat Field, National Petroleum Reserve, Alaska

    SciTech Connect

    Hanks, Catherine

    2012-12-31

    Umiat oil field is a light oil in a shallow, frozen reservoir in the Brooks Range foothills of northern Alaska with estimated oil-in-place of over 1 billion barrels. Umiat field was discovered in the 1940’s but was never considered viable because it is shallow, in the permafrost, and far from any transportation infrastructure. The advent of modern drilling and production techniques has made Umiat and similar fields in northern Alaska attractive exploration and production targets. Since 2008 UAF has been working with Renaissance Alaska Inc. and, more recently, Linc Energy, to develop a more robust reservoir model that can be combined with rock and fluid property data to simulate potential production techniques. This work will be used to by Linc Energy as they prepare to drill up to 5 horizontal wells during the 2012-2013 drilling season. This new work identified three potential reservoir horizons within the Cretaceous Nanushuk Formation: the Upper and Lower Grandstand sands, and the overlying Ninuluk sand, with the Lower Grandstand considered the primary target. Seals are provided by thick interlayered shales. Reserve estimates for the Lower Grandstand alone range from 739 million barrels to 2437 million barrels, with an average of 1527 million bbls. Reservoir simulations predict that cold gas injection from a wagon-wheel pattern of multilateral injectors and producers located on 5 drill sites on the crest of the structure will yield 12-15% recovery, with actual recovery depending upon the injection pressure used, the actual Kv/Kh encountered, and other geologic factors. Key to understanding the flow behavior of the Umiat reservoir is determining the permeability structure of the sands. Sandstones of the Cretaceous Nanushuk Formation consist of mixed shoreface and deltaic sandstones and mudstones. A core-based study of the sedimentary facies of these sands combined with outcrop observations identified six distinct facies associations with distinctive permeability

  3. Development, characterization, and photocytotoxicity assessment on human melanoma of chloroaluminum phthalocyanine nanocapsules.

    PubMed

    Siqueira-Moura, Marigilson P; Primo, Fernando L; Espreafico, Enilza M; Tedesco, Antonio C

    2013-04-01

    In this work we have developed nanocapsules containing chloroaluminum phthalocyanine (ClAlPc) and assessed their phototoxic action on WM1552C, WM278, and WM1617 human melanoma cell lines. The ClAlPc-loaded nanocapsules were prepared by the nanoprecipitation method and optimized by means of a 2(3) full factorial design. The ClAlPc nanocapsules were characterized by particle size and distribution, zeta potential, morphology, encapsulation efficiency, singlet oxygen production, stability, and phototoxic action on melanoma cells. Both the development and optimization studies revealed that stable colloidal formulations could be obtained by using 1.75% (w/v) soybean lecithin, 1.25% (w/v) Poloxamer 188, 2.5% (v/v) soybean oil, and 0.75% (w/v) poly(D,L-lactide-co-glycolide). The nanocapsules had a mean diameter of 230 nm, homogeneous size distribution (polydispersity index<0.3), and negative zeta potential (about -30 mV). Their morphology was spherical, with evident polymer membrane coating droplet. The encapsulation efficiency was 70%, as expected for hydrophobic drugs, and the nanoencapsulated ClAlPc was able to produce high singlet oxygen quantum yield. ClAlPc nanocapsules exhibited good physical stability over a 12-month period. WM1552C primary melanoma cells were more sensitive (p<0.05) to the phototoxic effect elicited by ClAlPc nanocapsules (0.3 μg ml(-1)) under light irradiation at 20 mJ cm(-2). On the other hand, the cell survival percentage for all the melanoma cell lines treated with the highest light dose (150 mJ cm(-2)) was lower than 10%. In summary, ClAlPc nanoencapsulation could enable application of this hydrophobic photosensitizer in the treatment of malignant melanoma with the use of both low sensitizer drug concentration and light dose. PMID:23827632

  4. Zonation and assessment of frozen-ground conditions along the China-Russia Crude Oil Pipeline route from Mo’he to Daqing, Northeastern China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jin, H.; Hao, J.; Chang, X.

    2009-12-01

    The proposed China-Russia Crude Oil Pipeline (CRCOP), 813 mm in diameter, is designed to transport 603,000 barrels of Siberian crude oil per day using conventional burial across 1,030 km of frozen-ground. About 500 boreholes, with depths of 5 to 20 m, were drilled and cored for analyses, and the frozen-ground conditions were evaluated. After detailed surveys and analyses of the permafrost conditions along the pipeline route, a conventional burial construction mode at a nominal depth of 1.5 m was adopted. This paper discusses the principles and criteria for the zonation and assessment of the frozen-ground environments and conditions of engineering geology for the design, construction, operation of the pipeline system based on an extensive and in-depth summary and analysis of the survey and exploration data. Full consideration of the characteristics of pipelining crude oil at ambient temperatures in the permafrost regions and the interactive processes between the pipeline and foundation soils were taken into account. Two zones of frozen-ground environment and conditions of engineering geology, i. e. seasonally-frozen-ground and permafrost, were defined on the basis of the regional distribution and differentiations in frozen-ground environments and conditions. Then, four subzones of the permafrost zone were classified according to the areal extent, taking into consideration the temperatures and thicknesses of permafrost, as well as changes in vegetation coverage. In the four subzones, 151 sections of engineering geology were categorized according to the ice/moisture contents of the permafrost, as well as the classes of frost-heaving and thaw-settlement potentials. These 151 sections are comprehensively summarized into four types for engineering construction and operation: good, fair, poor, and very poor, for overall conditions of engineering geology. The zonation, assessment principles and criteria have been applied in the design of the pipeline. They have also been

  5. Balancing the effect of corona on therapeutic efficacy and macrophage uptake of lipid nanocapsules.

    PubMed

    Sánchez-Moreno, P; Buzón, P; Boulaiz, H; Peula-García, J M; Ortega-Vinuesa, J L; Luque, I; Salvati, A; Marchal, J A

    2015-08-01

    Several studies have shown the potential of biocompatible lipid nanocapsules as hydrophobic drug delivery systems. Understanding the factors that determine the interactions of these oil-in-water nanoemulsions with cells is a necessary step to guide the design of the most effective formulations. The aim of this study was to probe the ability of two surfactants with a markedly different nature, a non-ionic poloxamer, and a charged phospholipid, to prepare formulations with shells of different composition and different surface properties. Thus we determined their effects on the interaction with biological environments. In particular, we investigated how the shell formulation affected the adsorption of biomolecules from the surrounding biological fluids on the nanocapsule surface (corona formation). A complete physicochemical characterization including an isothermal titration calorimetry (ITC) study revealed that the use of poloxamer led to nanocapsules with a marked reduction in the number of protein-binding sites. Surface hydrophilicity and changes in corona formation strongly correlated to changes in uptake by cancer cells and by macrophages. Our results indicate that the nature and concentration of surfactants in the nanocapsules can be easily manipulated to effectively modulate their surface architecture with the aim of controlling the environmental interactions, thus optimizing functionality for in vivo applications. In particular, addition of surfactants that reduce protein binding can modulate nanoparticle clearance by the immune system, but also screens the desired interactions with cells, leading to lower uptake, thus lower therapeutic efficacy. The two effects need to be balanced in order to obtain successful formulations.

  6. Effects of external phase on D-cycloserine loaded W/O nanocapsules prepared by the interfacial polymerization method.

    PubMed

    Musumeci, Teresa; Ventura, Cinzia A; Carbone, Claudia; Pignatello, Rosario; Puglisi, Giovanni

    2011-07-01

    Water in oil (W/O) polybutylcyanoacrylate nanocapsules containing D-cycloserine (D-CS) for intranasal delivery were prepared by the interfacial polymerization method. Different oils, as external phase, for the preparation of the initial W/O miniemulsions were used and their effect on mean size and other physico-chemical properties were evaluated by photon correlation spectroscopy (PCS) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) analysis. Two probes at different hydrophilicity were used to verify the internal aqueous nature of the core. Both miniemulsions and nanocapsules mean size and polydispersity index were influenced by the used external phase. Different entrapment efficiency were obtained for D-cycloserine-loaded nanocapsules correlated to the used oil [ranging from 39 to 51% encapsulation efficiency (E.E.)]. In vitro drug release showed an initial burst effect (ranging from 20 to 40%) followed by a slow release of D-CS for all preparations. This study demonstrated that many relevant physico-chemical and technological properties of polybutylcyanoacrylate nanocapsules prepared by interfacial polymerization of miniemulsions are significantly influenced by the external oil phase used.

  7. BLOOD TRIGGERED RAPID RELEASE POROUS NANOCAPSULES

    PubMed Central

    Gustafson, Tiffany P.; Dergunov, Sergey A.; Akers, Walter J.; Cao, Qian; Magalotti, Selena; Achilefu, Samuel; Pinkhassik, Eugene; Berezin, Mikhail Y.

    2013-01-01

    Rapid-release drug delivery systems present a new paradigm in emergency care treatments. Such systems combine a long shelf life with the ability to provide a significant dose of the drug to the bloodstream in the shortest period of time. Until now, development of delivery formulations has concentrated on slow release systems to ensure a steady concentration of the drug. To address the need for quick release system, we created hollow polyacrylate nanocapsules with nanometer-thin porous walls. Burst release occurs upon interaction with blood components that leads to escape of the cargo. The likely mechanism of release involves a conformational change of the polymer shell caused by binding albumin. To demonstrate this concept, a near-infrared fluorescent dye indocyanine green (ICG) was incorporated inside the nanocapsules. ICG-loaded nanocapsules demonstrated remarkable shelf life in aqueous buffers with no release of ICG for twelve months. Rapid release of the dye was demonstrated first in vitro using albumin solution and serum. SEM and light scattering analysis demonstrated the retention of the nanocapsule architecture after the release of the dye upon contact with albumin. In vivo studies using fluorescence lifetime imaging confirmed quick discharge of ICG from the nanocapsules following intravenous injection. PMID:23606942

  8. Nanocapsule for Safe and Effective Methane Storage

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    A nanocapsule for safe and effective methane storage is investigated by the method of molecular dynamics. The mass content of methane in the nanocapsule reaches the value of 14.5 mass%. The nanocapsule consists of two parts: a locking chamber and a storage area. The locking chamber is the nanotube (10.10), open at one end, with a K@C601+endohedral complex inside it. The storage area is a nanotube (20.20). The locking chamber and the storage area are joined with each other and form T-junction. The locking chamber is opened at the methane filling and the discharge stages, and it is closed at the storage stage. Thanks to the locking chamber, methane molecules are stored in the nanocapsules under normal external conditions. Opening and closing of the locking chamber are carried out by the K@C601+endohedral complex displacement, which is done by the electric field action. The specific structure of the nanocapsule allows two aims to be reached: a high methane mass content and significant level of safety. PMID:20628460

  9. Improved Anti-Tumoral Therapeutic Efficacy of 4-Hydroxynonenal Incorporated in Novel Lipid Nanocapsules in 2D and 3D Models.

    PubMed

    Pizzimenti, Stefania; Daga, Martina; Ciamporcero, Eric; Toaldo, Cristina; Pettazzoni, Piergiorgio; Osella-Abate, Simona; Novelli, Mauro; Minelli, Rosalba; Bisazza, Agnese; Gamba, Paola; Testa, Gabriella; Ullio, Chiara; Ferruti, Paolo; Ranucci, Elisabetta; Bernengo, Maria Grazia; Ferretti, Carlo; Dianzani, Chiara; Biasi, Fiorella; Barrera, Giuseppina; Cavalli, Roberta

    2015-12-01

    4-hydroxynonenal (HNE), a lipid peroxidation product, is a promising anti-neoplastic drug due to its remarkable anti-cancer activities. However, this possibility has not been explored, because the delivery of HNE is very challenging as a result of its low solubility and its poor stability. This study intentionally designed a new type of lipid nanocapsules specifically for HNE delivery. They consist of a medium chain triglyceride liquid oil core surrounded by a polymer shell. A β-cyclodextrin-poly(4-acryloylmorpholine) conjugate was selected as the shell component. HNE-loaded nanocapsules were about 350 nm in size with a negative surface charge. They were stable for two years when stored in suspensions at 4 degrees C. In vitro experiments showed that HNE was released from the nanocapsules at a considerable rate. Nanocapsule uptake into cells was evaluated using a fluorescent formulation that revealed rapid internalisation. Cytotoxicity studies demonstrated the safety of the formulation. Enhanced anti-tumoral activity against various cell lines, depending on increased HNE stability, was obtained by using HNE-loaded nanocapsules. In particular, we have demonstrated an increase in anti-proliferative, pro-apoptotic and differentiative activity in several tumour cell lines from different tissues. Moreover, we evaluated the effects of these new nanocapsules on a three-dimensional human reconstructed model of skin melanoma. Interestingly, the encouraging results obtained with topical administration on the epidermal surface could open new perspectives in melanoma treatments. PMID:26510311

  10. Molecular Nanocapsules Based on Amphiphilic Hyperbranched Polyglycerols.

    PubMed

    Sunder; Krämer; Hanselmann; Mülhaupt; Frey

    1999-12-01

    Polar dyes can be solubilized in apolar media-molecular nanocapsules with hydrophilic interiors have been prepared (see schematic representation) using polyglycerols with narrow polydispersity and simple esterification with fatty acids. These unimolecular micelles offer attractive potential for a variety of applications ranging from controlled drug release to the design of microreactors and catalysts.

  11. Sustained release of fipronil insecticide in vitro and in vivo from biocompatible silica nanocapsules.

    PubMed

    Wibowo, David; Zhao, Chun-Xia; Peters, Brenton C; Middelberg, Anton P J

    2014-12-31

    A pesticide delivery system made of biocompatible components and having sustained release properties is highly desirable for agricultural applications. In this study, we report a new biocompatible oil-core silica-shell nanocapsule for sustained release of fipronil insecticide. Silica nanocapsules were prepared by a recently reported emulsion and biomimetic dual-templating approach under benign conditions and without using any toxic chemicals. The loading of fipronil was achieved by direct dissolution in the oil core prior to biomimetic growth of a layer of silica shell surrounding the core, with encapsulation efficiency as high as 73%. Sustained release of fipronil in vitro was tunable through control of the silica-shell thickness (i.e., 8-44 nm). In vivo laboratory tests showed that the insecticidal effect of the fipronil-encapsulated silica nanocapsules against economically important subterranean termites could be controlled by tuning the shell thickness. These studies demonstrated the effectiveness and tunability of an environmentally friendly sustained release system for insecticide, which has great potential for broader agricultural applications with minimal environmental risks. PMID:25479362

  12. How Sorbitan Monostearate Can Increase Drug-Loading Capacity of Lipid-Core Polymeric Nanocapsules.

    PubMed

    Poletto, Fernanda S; De Oliveira, Catiúscia P; Wender, Heberton; Regent, Dorothée; Donida, Bruna; Teixeira, Sérgio R; Guterres, Sílvia S; Rossi-Bergmann, Bartira; Pohlmann, Adriana R

    2015-01-01

    Lipid-core polymeric nanocapsules are innovative devices that present distinguished characteristics due to the presence of sorbitan monostearate into the oily-core. This component acted as low-molecular-mass organic gelator for the oil (medium chain triglycerides). The organogel-structured core influenced the polymeric wall characteristics disfavoring the formation of more stable polymer crystallites. This probably occurred due to interpenetration of these pseudo-phases. Sorbitan monostearate dispersed in the oily-core was also able to interact by non-covalent bonding with the drugs increasing the drug loading capacity more than 40 times compared to conventional nanocapsules. We demonstrated that the drug-models quercetin and quercetin pentaacetate stabilized the organogel network probably due to interactions of the drug molecules with the sorbitan monostearate headgroups by hydrogen bonding. PMID:26328447

  13. Microwave absorption properties of Ni/(C, silicides) nanocapsules

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    The microwave absorption properties of Ni/(C, silicides) nanocapsules prepared by an arc discharge method have been studied. The composition and the microstructure of the Ni/(C, silicides) nanocapsules were determined by means of X-ray diffraction, X-ray photoelectric spectroscopy, and transmission electron microscope observations. Silicides, in the forms of SiOx and SiC, mainly exist in the shells of the nanocapsules and result in a large amount of defects at the ‘core/shell’ interfaces as well as in the shells. The complex permittivity and microwave absorption properties of the Ni/(C, silicides) nanocapsules are improved by the doped silicides. Compared with those of Ni/C nanocapsules, the positions of maximum absorption peaks of the Ni/(C, silicides) nanocapsules exhibit large red shifts. An electric dipole model is proposed to explain this red shift phenomenon. PMID:22548846

  14. Microwave absorption properties of Ni/(C, silicides) nanocapsules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, Jingjing; Wang, Han; Guo, Huaihong; Yang, Teng; Tang, Wen-Shu; Li, Da; Ma, Song; Geng, Dianyu; Liu, Wei; Zhang, Zhidong

    2012-05-01

    The microwave absorption properties of Ni/(C, silicides) nanocapsules prepared by an arc discharge method have been studied. The composition and the microstructure of the Ni/(C, silicides) nanocapsules were determined by means of X-ray diffraction, X-ray photoelectric spectroscopy, and transmission electron microscope observations. Silicides, in the forms of SiOx and SiC, mainly exist in the shells of the nanocapsules and result in a large amount of defects at the `core/shell' interfaces as well as in the shells. The complex permittivity and microwave absorption properties of the Ni/(C, silicides) nanocapsules are improved by the doped silicides. Compared with those of Ni/C nanocapsules, the positions of maximum absorption peaks of the Ni/(C, silicides) nanocapsules exhibit large red shifts. An electric dipole model is proposed to explain this red shift phenomenon.

  15. Microwave absorption properties of Ni/(C, silicides) nanocapsules.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Jingjing; Wang, Han; Guo, Huaihong; Yang, Teng; Tang, Wen-Shu; Li, Da; Ma, Song; Geng, Dianyu; Liu, Wei; Zhang, Zhidong

    2012-05-01

    The microwave absorption properties of Ni/(C, silicides) nanocapsules prepared by an arc discharge method have been studied. The composition and the microstructure of the Ni/(C, silicides) nanocapsules were determined by means of X-ray diffraction, X-ray photoelectric spectroscopy, and transmission electron microscope observations. Silicides, in the forms of SiOx and SiC, mainly exist in the shells of the nanocapsules and result in a large amount of defects at the 'core/shell' interfaces as well as in the shells. The complex permittivity and microwave absorption properties of the Ni/(C, silicides) nanocapsules are improved by the doped silicides. Compared with those of Ni/C nanocapsules, the positions of maximum absorption peaks of the Ni/(C, silicides) nanocapsules exhibit large red shifts. An electric dipole model is proposed to explain this red shift phenomenon.

  16. High-pressure Raman spectroscopy of carbon onions and nanocapsules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, J. J.; Liu, G. H.; Wang, X. M.; Fujita, T.; Xu, B. S.; Chen, M. W.

    2009-08-01

    We report high-pressure Raman spectra of carbon onions and nanocapsules investigated by diamond anvil cell experiments. The pressure coefficient and elastic behavior of carbon onions and nanocapsules are found to be very similar to those of multiwall carbon nanotubes. Additionally, detectable structure changes, particularly the collapse of the concentric graphite structure, cannot been seen at pressures as high as ˜20 GPa, demonstrating that carbon onions and nanocapsules have significant hardness and can sustain very high pressures.

  17. Preparation and characterization of decyl-terminated silicon nanoparticles encapsulated in lipid nanocapsules.

    PubMed

    Pan, Guo-Hui; Barras, Alexandre; Boussekey, Luc; Qu, Xuesong; Addad, Ahmed; Boukherroub, Rabah

    2013-10-15

    In this Article, we report on the encapsulation of decyl-modified silicon nanoparticles (decyl-SiNPs) into ∼80 nm lipid nanocapsules (LNCs). The decyl-SiNPs were produced by thermal hydrosilylation of hydride-terminated SiNPs (H-SiNPs) liberated from porous silicon. Various techniques, including Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), UV-vis absorption, dynamic light scattering (DLS), and photoluminescence (PL), were used to characterize their size, shape, colloidal, and optical properties. The results indicate that these nanocapsules feature controllable size, good dispersity, high loading rate of SiNPs, colloidal stability in various media, and bright PL. The PL of decyl-SiNPs loaded LNCs was stable upon heating to 80 °C, but was sensitive to basic solutions due to proton-gated emission of the SiNPs arranged at the LNCs interface between the oil phase and the hydrophilic polyethylene glycol moieties of the surfactant. These luminescent nanocapsules are therefore promising candidates as cellular probes for fluorescence imaging. In addition, it was found that TEM imaging of small-sized decyl-SiNPs could be greatly improved by preliminary negative staining of TEM grids with phosphotungstic acid.

  18. High dielectric loss in graphite-coated Ti nanocapsules.

    PubMed

    Liu, X G; Geng, D Y; Jiang, J J; Du, J; Yang, F; Xie, Z G; Kang, D J; Zhang, Z D

    2010-04-01

    Graphite-coated Ti nanocapsules, with Ti nanoparticles as core and onion-like graphite layers as shell, have been prepared by a modified arc-discharge method in ethanol atmosphere, and characterized by means of X-ray diffraction, transmission electron microscopy and Raman spectroscopy. The dielectric properties of the graphite-coated Ti nanocapsules have been investigated in the 2-18 GHz range. An equivalent circuit model was used to interpret the non-linear dielectric resonance behavior of the graphite-coated Ti nanocapsules. The high dielectric loss is mainly attributed to conductance loss and dipole-relaxation loss in the graphite-coated Ti nanocapsules. The graphite-coated Ti nanocapsules exhibit promising properties for application as a new type of shield or absorbent of electromagnetic waves. PMID:20355435

  19. Hollow chitosan/alginate nanocapsules for bioactive compound delivery.

    PubMed

    Rivera, Melissa C; Pinheiro, Ana C; Bourbon, Ana I; Cerqueira, Miguel A; Vicente, António A

    2015-08-01

    This work aimed at the development of biodegradable nanocapsules as carriers of two bioactive compounds, 5-aminosalycilic acid and glycomacropeptide. Nanocapsules were produced through layer-by-layer (LbL) deposition of chitosan (CH) and alginate (ALG) layers on polystyrene nanoparticles. The bioactive compounds were incorporated on the third layer of the nanocapsules being its encapsulation efficiency and release behaviour evaluated. The LbL deposition process, stability, morphology and size of the multilayer nanocapsules were monitored by means of zeta potential and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The bioactive compounds release from the CH/ALG nanocapsules was successfully described by a mathematical model (linear superimposition model - LSM), which allowed concluding that bioactive compounds release is due to both Brownian motion and the polymer relaxation of the CH/ALG layers. Final results demonstrated that the synthesized LbL hollow nanocapsules presented spherical morphology and a good capacity to encapsulate different bioactive compounds, being the best results obtained for the system containing 5-aminosalycilic acid (with an encapsulation efficiency of approximately 70%). CH/ALG multilayer nanocapsules could be a promising carrier of bioactive compounds for applications in food and pharmaceutical industries.

  20. Dietary α-linolenic acid from flaxseed oil or eicosapentaenoic and docosahexaenoic acids from fish oil differentially alter fatty acid composition and characteristics of fresh and frozen-thawed bull semen.

    PubMed

    Moallem, Uzi; Neta, Noam; Zeron, Yoel; Zachut, Maya; Roth, Zvi

    2015-04-15

    Incorporation rates of dietary omega-3 (n-3) fatty acids (FAs) from different sources into bull plasma and sperm and the effects on physiological characteristics of fresh and frozen-thawed semen were determined. Fifteen fertile bulls were assigned to three treatment groups and supplemented for 13 weeks with encapsulated fat: (1) SFA-360 g/d per bull saturated FA; (2) FLX-450 g/d per bull providing 84.2 g/d C18:3n-3 (α-linolenic acid) from flaxseed oil; and (3) FO-450 g/d per bull providing 8.7 g/d C20:5n-3 (eicosapentaenoic acid) and 6.5 g/d C22:6n-3 (docosahexaenoic acid, DHA) from fish oil. Blood samples were taken every 2 weeks and semen was collected weekly. With respect to the FA supplements, the proportion of α-linolenic acid in plasma increased in the FLX bulls, whereas that of DHA was increased in the FO bulls, within 2 weeks. However, changes in the sperm FA fraction were first expressed in the sixth week of supplementation: in the FO and FLX bulls the DHA proportion increased (P < 0.001), whereas that of C22:5n-6 FAs (docosapentaenoic acid [DPA] n-6) decreased (P < 0.001). Sperm motility and progressive motility in fresh semen were higher (P < 0.05), and the fading rate tended to be lower in the FLX than in FO bulls (P < 0.06). Furthermore, sperm motility, progressive motility, and velocity in frozen-thawed semen were higher in FLX than in the other groups (P < 0.008). These findings indicate that the proportion of DHA in sperm can be increased at the expense of DPAn-6 by either FO or FLX supplementation, indicating de novo elongation and desaturation of short- into longer-chain n-3 FAs in testes. Furthermore, the moderate exchange of DHA and DPAn-6 in the FLX group's sperm was associated with changes in the characteristics of both fresh and frozen-thawed semen, suggesting the importance of the ratio between these two FAs for sperm structure and function. PMID:25617988

  1. Dietary α-linolenic acid from flaxseed oil or eicosapentaenoic and docosahexaenoic acids from fish oil differentially alter fatty acid composition and characteristics of fresh and frozen-thawed bull semen.

    PubMed

    Moallem, Uzi; Neta, Noam; Zeron, Yoel; Zachut, Maya; Roth, Zvi

    2015-04-15

    Incorporation rates of dietary omega-3 (n-3) fatty acids (FAs) from different sources into bull plasma and sperm and the effects on physiological characteristics of fresh and frozen-thawed semen were determined. Fifteen fertile bulls were assigned to three treatment groups and supplemented for 13 weeks with encapsulated fat: (1) SFA-360 g/d per bull saturated FA; (2) FLX-450 g/d per bull providing 84.2 g/d C18:3n-3 (α-linolenic acid) from flaxseed oil; and (3) FO-450 g/d per bull providing 8.7 g/d C20:5n-3 (eicosapentaenoic acid) and 6.5 g/d C22:6n-3 (docosahexaenoic acid, DHA) from fish oil. Blood samples were taken every 2 weeks and semen was collected weekly. With respect to the FA supplements, the proportion of α-linolenic acid in plasma increased in the FLX bulls, whereas that of DHA was increased in the FO bulls, within 2 weeks. However, changes in the sperm FA fraction were first expressed in the sixth week of supplementation: in the FO and FLX bulls the DHA proportion increased (P < 0.001), whereas that of C22:5n-6 FAs (docosapentaenoic acid [DPA] n-6) decreased (P < 0.001). Sperm motility and progressive motility in fresh semen were higher (P < 0.05), and the fading rate tended to be lower in the FLX than in FO bulls (P < 0.06). Furthermore, sperm motility, progressive motility, and velocity in frozen-thawed semen were higher in FLX than in the other groups (P < 0.008). These findings indicate that the proportion of DHA in sperm can be increased at the expense of DPAn-6 by either FO or FLX supplementation, indicating de novo elongation and desaturation of short- into longer-chain n-3 FAs in testes. Furthermore, the moderate exchange of DHA and DPAn-6 in the FLX group's sperm was associated with changes in the characteristics of both fresh and frozen-thawed semen, suggesting the importance of the ratio between these two FAs for sperm structure and function.

  2. Gold nanoshelled liquid perfluorocarbon nanocapsules for combined dual modal ultrasound/CT imaging and photothermal therapy of cancer.

    PubMed

    Ke, Hengte; Yue, Xiuli; Wang, Jinrui; Xing, Sen; Zhang, Qian; Dai, Zhifei; Tian, Jie; Wang, Shumin; Jin, Yushen

    2014-03-26

    The integration of multimodal contrast-enhanced diagnostic imaging and therapeutic capabilities could utilize imaging guided therapy to plan the treatment strategy based on the diagnostic results and to guide/monitor the therapeutic procedures. Herein, gold nanoshelled perfluorooctylbromide (PFOB) nanocapsules with PEGylation (PGsP NCs) are constructed by oil-in-water emulsion method to form polymeric PFOB nanocapsules, followed by the formation of PEGylated gold nanoshell on the surface. PGsP NCs could not only provide excellent contrast enhancement for dual modal ultrasound and CT imaging in vitro and in vivo, but also serve as efficient photoabsorbers for photothermal ablation of tumors on xenografted nude mouse model. To our best knowledge, this is the first report of gold nanoshell serving as both CT contrast agents and photoabsorbers for photothermal therapy. The novel multifunctional nanomedicine would be of great value to offer more comprehensive diagnostic information to guide more accurate and effective cancer therapy. PMID:24500926

  3. Nanoencapsulation of Rose-Hip Oil Prevents Oil Oxidation and Allows Obtainment of Gel and Film Topical Formulations.

    PubMed

    Contri, Renata V; Kulkamp-Guerreiro, Irene C; da Silva, Sheila Janine; Frank, Luiza A; Pohlmann, Adriana R; Guterres, Silvia S

    2016-08-01

    The rose-hip oil holds skin regenerating properties with applications in the dermatological and cosmetic area. Its nanoencapsulation might favor the oil stability and its incorporation into hydrophilic formulations, besides increasing the contact with the skin and prolonging its effect. The aim of the present investigation was to develop suitable rose-hip-oil-loaded nanocapsules, to verify the nanocapsule effect on the UV-induced oxidation of the oil and to obtain topical formulations by the incorporation of the nanocapsules into chitosan gel and film. The rose-hip oil (500 or 600 μL), polymer (Eudragit RS100®, 100 or 200 mg), and acetone (50 or 100 mL) contents were separately varied aiming to obtain an adequate size distribution. The results led to a combination of the factors acetone and oil. The developed formulation showed average diameter of 158 ± 6 nm with low polydispersity, pH of 5.8 ± 0.9, zeta potential of +9.8 ± 1.5 mV, rose-hip oil content of 54 ± 1 μL/mL and tendency to reversible creaming. No differences were observed in the nanocapsules properties after storage. The nanoencapsulation of rose-hip oil decreased the UVA and UVC oxidation of the oil. The chitosan gel and film containing rose-hip-oil-loaded nanocapsules showed suitable properties for cutaneous use. In conclusion, it was possible to successfully obtain rose-hip-oil-loaded nanocapsules and to confirm the nanocapsules effect in protecting the oil from the UV rays. The chitosan gel and film were considered interesting alternatives for incorporating the nanoencapsulated rose-hip oil, combining the advantages of the nanoparticles to the advantages of chitosan.

  4. Highly fluorescent resorcinarene cavitand nanocapsules with efficient renal clearance.

    PubMed

    Mahadevan, Kalpana; Patthipati, Venkata Suresh; Han, Sangbum; Swanson, R James; Whelan, Eoin C; Osgood, Christopher; Balasubramanian, Ramjee

    2016-08-19

    Nanomaterial based imaging approaches hold substantial promise in addressing current diagnostic and therapeutic challenges. One of the key requirements for the successful clinical translation of nanomaterials is their complete clearance from the body within a reasonable time period preferably via the renal filtration route. This article describes the synthesis of highly fluorescent, water soluble, resorcinarene cavitand nanocapsules and demonstrates their effective renal clearance in mice. The synthesis and functionalization of nanocapsules was accomplished in a one-pot operation via thiol-ene reactions without involving self-assembly, sacrificial templates or emulsions. Water soluble resorcinarene cavitand nanocapsules obtained by this approach were covalently functionalized with Alexa Fluor 750. Highly fluorescent nanocapsules with hydrodynamic diameters of 122 nm and 68 nm and extinction coefficients of 1.3 × 10(9) M(-1) cm(-1) and 1.5 × 10(8) M(-1) cm(-1) respectively were prepared by varying the reaction conditions. The in vivo biodistribution and clearance of these nanocapsules in mice followed by whole-body fluorescence imaging showed that they were both cleared renally within a few hours. Given the inherent encapsulation capabilities of nanocapsules, the renal clearance demonstrated in this work opens up new opportunities for their theranostic applications especially for targeting and treating the urinary tract.

  5. Highly fluorescent resorcinarene cavitand nanocapsules with efficient renal clearance.

    PubMed

    Mahadevan, Kalpana; Patthipati, Venkata Suresh; Han, Sangbum; Swanson, R James; Whelan, Eoin C; Osgood, Christopher; Balasubramanian, Ramjee

    2016-08-19

    Nanomaterial based imaging approaches hold substantial promise in addressing current diagnostic and therapeutic challenges. One of the key requirements for the successful clinical translation of nanomaterials is their complete clearance from the body within a reasonable time period preferably via the renal filtration route. This article describes the synthesis of highly fluorescent, water soluble, resorcinarene cavitand nanocapsules and demonstrates their effective renal clearance in mice. The synthesis and functionalization of nanocapsules was accomplished in a one-pot operation via thiol-ene reactions without involving self-assembly, sacrificial templates or emulsions. Water soluble resorcinarene cavitand nanocapsules obtained by this approach were covalently functionalized with Alexa Fluor 750. Highly fluorescent nanocapsules with hydrodynamic diameters of 122 nm and 68 nm and extinction coefficients of 1.3 × 10(9) M(-1) cm(-1) and 1.5 × 10(8) M(-1) cm(-1) respectively were prepared by varying the reaction conditions. The in vivo biodistribution and clearance of these nanocapsules in mice followed by whole-body fluorescence imaging showed that they were both cleared renally within a few hours. Given the inherent encapsulation capabilities of nanocapsules, the renal clearance demonstrated in this work opens up new opportunities for their theranostic applications especially for targeting and treating the urinary tract. PMID:27378394

  6. Highly fluorescent resorcinarene cavitand nanocapsules with efficient renal clearance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mahadevan, Kalpana; Patthipati, Venkata Suresh; Han, Sangbum; Swanson, R. James; Whelan, Eoin C.; Osgood, Christopher; Balasubramanian, Ramjee

    2016-08-01

    Nanomaterial based imaging approaches hold substantial promise in addressing current diagnostic and therapeutic challenges. One of the key requirements for the successful clinical translation of nanomaterials is their complete clearance from the body within a reasonable time period preferably via the renal filtration route. This article describes the synthesis of highly fluorescent, water soluble, resorcinarene cavitand nanocapsules and demonstrates their effective renal clearance in mice. The synthesis and functionalization of nanocapsules was accomplished in a one-pot operation via thiol-ene reactions without involving self-assembly, sacrificial templates or emulsions. Water soluble resorcinarene cavitand nanocapsules obtained by this approach were covalently functionalized with Alexa Fluor 750. Highly fluorescent nanocapsules with hydrodynamic diameters of 122 nm and 68 nm and extinction coefficients of 1.3 × 109 M‑1 cm‑1 and 1.5 × 108 M‑1 cm‑1 respectively were prepared by varying the reaction conditions. The in vivo biodistribution and clearance of these nanocapsules in mice followed by whole-body fluorescence imaging showed that they were both cleared renally within a few hours. Given the inherent encapsulation capabilities of nanocapsules, the renal clearance demonstrated in this work opens up new opportunities for their theranostic applications especially for targeting and treating the urinary tract.

  7. Highly fluorescent resorcinarene cavitand nanocapsules with efficient renal clearance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mahadevan, Kalpana; Patthipati, Venkata Suresh; Han, Sangbum; Swanson, R. James; Whelan, Eoin C.; Osgood, Christopher; Balasubramanian, Ramjee

    2016-08-01

    Nanomaterial based imaging approaches hold substantial promise in addressing current diagnostic and therapeutic challenges. One of the key requirements for the successful clinical translation of nanomaterials is their complete clearance from the body within a reasonable time period preferably via the renal filtration route. This article describes the synthesis of highly fluorescent, water soluble, resorcinarene cavitand nanocapsules and demonstrates their effective renal clearance in mice. The synthesis and functionalization of nanocapsules was accomplished in a one-pot operation via thiol-ene reactions without involving self-assembly, sacrificial templates or emulsions. Water soluble resorcinarene cavitand nanocapsules obtained by this approach were covalently functionalized with Alexa Fluor 750. Highly fluorescent nanocapsules with hydrodynamic diameters of 122 nm and 68 nm and extinction coefficients of 1.3 × 109 M-1 cm-1 and 1.5 × 108 M-1 cm-1 respectively were prepared by varying the reaction conditions. The in vivo biodistribution and clearance of these nanocapsules in mice followed by whole-body fluorescence imaging showed that they were both cleared renally within a few hours. Given the inherent encapsulation capabilities of nanocapsules, the renal clearance demonstrated in this work opens up new opportunities for their theranostic applications especially for targeting and treating the urinary tract.

  8. An EPR line shape study of anisotropic rotational reorientation and slow tumbling in liquid and frozen jojoba oil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hwang, J. S.; Al-Rashid, W. A.

    Spin probe investigation of jojoba oil was carried out by electron paramagnetic rresonance (EPR) spectroscopy. The spin probe used was 2,2,6,6-tetramethyl-4-piperidone- N-oxide. The EPR line shape studies were carried out in the lower temperature range of 192 to 275 K to test the applicability of the stochastic Liouville theory in the simulation of EPR line shapes where earlier relaxation theories do not apply. In an earlier study, this system was analysed by employing rotational diffusion at the fast-motional region. The results show that PD-Tempone exhibits asymmetric rotational diffusion with N = 3.3 at an axis z'= Y in the plane of the molecule and perpendicular to the NO bond direction. In this investigation we have extended the temperature range to lower temperatures and observed slow tumbling EPR spectra. It is shown that the stochastic Liouville method can be used to simulate all but two of the experimentally observed EPR spectra in the slow-motional region and details of the slow-motional line shape are sensitive to the anisotropy of rotation and showed good agreement for a moderate jump model. From the computer simulation of EPR line shapes it is found that the information obtained on τ R, and N in the motional-narrowing region can be extrapolated into the slow-tumbling region. It is also found that ln (τ R) is linear in 1/ T in the temperature range studied and the resulting activation energy for rotation is 51 kJ/mol. The two EPR spectra at 240 and 231 K were found to exhibit the effects of anisotropic viscosity observed by B IRELL for nitroxides oriented in tubular cavities in inclusion crystals in which the molecule is free to rotate about the long axis but with its rotation hindered about the other two axes because of the cavity geometry. These results proved that the slow-tumbling spectra were very sensitive to the effects of anisotropy in the viscosity.

  9. Nucleic-Acid Delivery Using Lipid Nanocapsules.

    PubMed

    Lagarce, Frederic; Passirani, Catherine

    2016-01-01

    Lipid nanocapsules (LNCs) were designed more than 15 years ago to deliver lipophilic drugs to cells with non toxic excipients by mimicking lipoproteins. During the last 5 years these promising nanocarriers were re-designed to deliver nucleic acids to cancer cells. This short review sums up the features of LNCs and describes how DNAs or RNAs can be associated or encapsulated in these lipid carriers. The results of transfection effects on cells in vitro or in vivo are also presented. These new therapeutic strategies have been mainly proposed for glioma and melanoma treatment because these cancers are characterized by multiple acquired resistances, which can be reversed by DNA transfection or siRNA interference as it is discussed in this paper. In conclusion, LNCs are very good candidates to deliver nucleic acids to cells in the course of anti-cancer therapies. PMID:27033510

  10. Development and Optimization of Polymeric Self-Emulsifying Nanocapsules for Localized Drug Delivery: Design of Experiment Approach

    PubMed Central

    Wadhwa, Jyoti; Asthana, Abhay; Gupta, Sumeet; Shilkari Asthana, Gyati; Singh, Ranjit

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to formulate polymeric self-emulsifying curcumin nanocapsules with high encapsulation efficiency, good emulsification ability, and optimal globule size for localized targeting in the colon. Formulations were prepared using modified quasiemulsion solvent diffusion method. Concentration of formulation variables, namely, X1 (oil), X2 (polymeric emulsifier), and X3 (adsorbent), was optimized by design of experiments using Box-Behnken design, for its impact on mean globule size (Y1) and encapsulation efficiency (Y2) of the formulation. Polymeric nanocapsules with an average diameter of 100–180 nm and an encapsulation efficiency of 64.85 ± 0.12% were obtained. In vitro studies revealed that formulations released the drug after 5 h lag time corresponding to the time to reach the colonic region. Pronounced localized action was inferred from the plasma concentration profile (Cmax 200 ng/mL) that depicts limited systemic absorption. Roentgenography study confirms the localized presence of carrier (0–2 h in upper GIT; 2–4 h in small intestine; and 4–24 h in the lower intestine). Optimized formulation showed significantly higher cytotoxicity (IC50 value 20.32 μM) in HT 29 colonic cancer cell line. The present study demonstrates systematic development of polymeric self-emulsifying nanocapsule formulation of curcumin for localized targeting in colon. PMID:25525620

  11. Preparation and spectral characterization of polymeric nanocapsules containing DR1 organic dye

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sharifimehr, Mohammad Reza; Ghanbari, Khadijeh; Ayoubi, Kazem; Mohajerani, Ezedin

    2015-07-01

    In order to provide necessary degree of freedom for organic dye molecules in optical applications and also for safety improvement, water insoluble Disperse Red 1 (DR1) dye molecules were placed inside the polymeric nanocapsules along with suitable surfactants and using controlled phase-separation method. TEM images were used to investigate the morphology of prepared nanocapsules. Total dye concentration for a solution consist of obtained polymeric nanocapsules was determined using decomposition of nanocapsules and a reference absorption spectrum. Absorption spectrum of a solution containing DR1 and dichloromethane was also compared with prepared nanocapsules at the same dye concentration, thereby a red-shift in absorption spectrum was detected.

  12. Controlling Properties and Cytotoxicity of Chitosan Nanocapsules by Chemical Grafting

    PubMed Central

    De Matteis, Laura; Alleva, Maria; Serrano-Sevilla, Inés; García-Embid, Sonia; Stepien, Grazyna; Moros, María; de la Fuente, Jesús M.

    2016-01-01

    The tunability of the properties of chitosan-based carriers opens new ways for the application of drugs with low water-stability or high adverse effects. In this work, the combination of a nanoemulsion with a chitosan hydrogel coating and the following poly (ethylene glycol) (PEG) grafting is proven to be a promising strategy to obtain a flexible and versatile nanocarrier with an improved stability. Thanks to chitosan amino groups, a new easy and reproducible method to obtain nanocapsule grafting with PEG has been developed in this work, allowing a very good control and tunability of the properties of nanocapsule surface. Two different PEG densities of coverage are studied and the nanocapsule systems obtained are characterized at all steps of the optimization in terms of diameter, Z potential and surface charge (amino group analysis). Results obtained are compatible with a conformation of PEG molecules laying adsorbed on nanoparticle surface after covalent linking through their amino terminal moiety. An improvement in nanocapsule stability in physiological medium is observed with the highest PEG coverage density obtained. Cytotoxicity tests also demonstrate that grafting with PEG is an effective strategy to modulate the cytotoxicity of developed nanocapsules. Such results indicate the suitability of chitosan as protective coating for future studies oriented toward drug delivery. PMID:27706041

  13. Temperature Sensitive Nanocapsule of Complex Structural Form for Methane Storage

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    The processes of methane adsorption, storage and desorption by the nanocapsule are investigated with molecular-dynamic modeling method. The specific nanocapsule shape defines its functioning uniqueness: methane is adsorbed under 40 MPa and at normal temperature with further blocking of methane molecules the K@C601+ endohedral complex in the nanocapsule by external electric field, the storage is performed under normal external conditions, and methane desorption is performed at 350 K. The methane content in the nanocapsule during storage reaches 11.09 mass%. The nanocapsule consists of tree parts: storage chamber, junction and blocking chamber. The storage chamber comprises the nanotube (20,20). The blocking chamber is a short nanotube (20,20) with three holes. The junction consists of the nanotube (10,10) and nanotube (8,8); moreover, the nanotube (8,8) is connected with the storage chamber and nanotube (10,10) with the blocking chamber. The blocking chamber is opened and closed by the transfer of the K@C601+ endohedral complex under electrostatic field action. PMID:20652146

  14. Triggered-release nanocapsules for drug delivery to the lungs.

    PubMed

    Chana, Jasminder; Forbes, Ben; Jones, Stuart A

    2015-01-01

    This study demonstrated the feasibility of trigger-responsive inhaled delivery of medicines using soft solid shelled nanocapsules. The delivery system was a 50nm sized lipid rich capsule carrier that distended rapidly when mixed with an exogenous non-ionic surfactant trigger, Pluronic® L62D. Capsule distension was accompanied by solid shell permeabilisation which resulted in payload release from the carrier; 63.9±16.3% within 1h. In electrolyte rich aqueous fluids Pluronic® L62D was loosely aggregated, which we suggest to be the cause of its potency in lipid nanocapsule permeabilisation compared to other structurally similar molecules. The specificity of the interaction between L62D and the nanocapsule resulted in carrier payload delivery into human epithelial cells without any adverse effects on metabolic activity or barrier function. This effective, biocompatible, trigger-responsive delivery system provides a versatile platform technology for inhaled medicines.

  15. Sonochemically born proteinaceous micro- and nanocapsules.

    PubMed

    Vassileva, Elena D; Koseva, Neli S

    2010-01-01

    The use of proteins as a substrate in the fabrication of micro- and nanoparticulate systems has attracted the interest of scientists, manufactures, and consumers. Albumin-derived particles were commercialized as contrast agents or anticancer therapeutics. Food proteins are widely used in formulated dietary products. The potential benefits of proteinaceous micro- and nanoparticles in a wide range of biomedical applications are indisputable. Protein-based particles are highly biocompatible and biodegradable structures that can impart bioadhesive properties or mediate particle uptake by specific interactions with the target cells. Currently, protein microparticles are engineered as vehicles for covalent attachment and/or encapsulation of bioactive compounds, contrast agents for magnetic resonance imaging, thermometric and oximetric imaging, sonography and optical coherence tomography, etc. Ultrasound irradiation is a versatile technique which is widely used in many and different fields as biology, biochemistry, dentistry, geography, geology, medicine, etc. It is generally recognized as an environmental friendly, cost-effective method which is easy to be scaled up. Currently, it is mainly applied for homogenization, drilling, cleaning, etc. in industry, as well for noninvasive scanning of the human body, treatment of muscle strains, dissolution of blood clots, and cancer therapy. Proteinaceous micro- and nanocapsules could be easily produced in a one-step process by applying ultrasound to an aqueous protein solution. The origin of this process is in the chemical changes, for example, sulfhydryl groups oxidation, that takes place as a result of acoustically generated cavitation. Partial denaturation of the protein most probably occurs which makes the hydrophobic interactions dominant and also responsible for the formation of stable capsules. This chapter aims to present the current state-of-the-art in the field of sonochemically produced protein micro- and nanocapsules

  16. Nanocapsules: The Weapons for Novel Drug Delivery Systems

    PubMed Central

    Kothamasu, Pavankumar; Kanumur, Hemanth; Ravur, Niranjan; Maddu, Chiranjeevi; Parasuramrajam, Radhika; Thangavel, Sivakumar

    2012-01-01

    Introduction Nanocapsules, existing in miniscule size, range from 10 nm to 1000 nm. They consist of a liquid/solid core in which the drug is placed into a cavity, which is surrounded by a distinctive polymer membrane made up of natural or synthetic polymers. They have attracted great interest, because of the protective coating, which are usually pyrophoric and easily oxidized and delay the release of active ingredients. Methods Various technical approaches are utilized for obtaining the nanocapsules; however, the methods of interfacial polymerization for monomer and the nano-deposition for preformed polymer are chiefly preferred. Most important characteristics in their preparation is particle size and size distribution which can be evaluated by using various techniques like X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, high-resolu¬tion transmission electron microscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, superconducting quantum interference device, multi angle laser light scattering and other spectroscopic techniques. Results Nanocapsules possessing extremely high reproducibility have a broad range of life science applications. They may be applied in agrochemicals, genetic engineering, cosmetics, cleansing products, wastewater treatments, adhesive component applications, strategic delivery of the drug in tumors, nanocapsule bandages to fight infec¬tion, in radiotherapy and as liposomal nanocapsules in food science and agriculture. In addition, they can act as self-healing materials. Conclusion The enhanced delivery of bio¬active molecules through the targeted delivery by means of a nanocapsule opens numerous challenges and opportunities for the research and future development of novel improved therapies. PMID:23678444

  17. Production of a transparent lavender flavour nanocapsule aqueous solution and pyrolysis characteristics of flavour nanocapsule.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Guangyong; Xiao, Zuobing; Zhou, Rujun; Feng, Nienie

    2015-07-01

    Flavour plays an important role and has been widely used in many products. Usually, the components of flavour are volatile and the sensory perception can be changed as a result of volatilization, heating, oxidation and chemical interactions. Encapsulation can prevent the loss of volatile aromatic ingredients, provide protection and enhance the stability of the core materials. This work concentrated on production of a transparent lavender flavour nanocapsule aqueous solution. The results showed that a transparent lavender flavour microcapsule aqueous solution can be produced using hydroxypropyl-β-cyclodextrin (HP-β-CD) as wall material. The combination and interaction of flavour and wall materials were investigated by pyrolysis. Pyrolysis characteristics and kinetic parameters of the flavour nanocapsule were determined. During thermal degradation of blank HP-β-CD and flavour-HP-β-CD inclusion complex, three main stages can be distinguished. Due to the vaporization of lavender flavour encapsulated in HP-β-CD, the thermogravimetric (TG) curve of blank HP-β-CD shows a leveling-off from room temperature to 269 °C, while the TG curve of flavour-HP-β-CD inclusion complex is downward sloping in this temperature range. The kinetic parameters are helpful in understanding the mechanism of molecular recognition between hosts and guests. PMID:26139932

  18. Graphene oxide nanocapsules within silanized hydrogels suitable for electrochemical pseudocapacitors.

    PubMed

    Kataky, R; Hadden, J H L; Coleman, K S; Ntola, C N M; Chowdhury, M; Duckworth, A R; Dobson, B P; Campos, R; Pyner, S; Shenton, F

    2015-06-28

    Soft biocompatible gels comprised of rolled up graphene oxide nanocapsules within the pores of silanized hydrogels may be used as electrochemical pseudocapacitors with physiological glucose or KOH as a reducing agent, affording a material suitable for devices requiring pulses with characteristic time less than a second. PMID:25977943

  19. A Nanocapsule-Based Approach Toward Physical Thermolatent Catalysis.

    PubMed

    Bijlard, Ann-Christin; Hansen, Anne; Lieberwirth, Ingo; Landfester, Katharina; Taden, Andreas

    2016-08-01

    Performance under pressure is utilized as a key concept for colloidal control of reaction kinetics. Barrier nanocapsules containing a catalyst and a low-boiling-point release agent enable a highly desired, adjustable, and distinct non-Arrhenius behavior for thermoset curing. PMID:27168524

  20. Intracellular Trafficking Network of Protein Nanocapsules: Endocytosis, Exocytosis and Autophagy

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Jinxie; Zhang, Xudong; Liu, Gan; Chang, Danfeng; Liang, Xin; Zhu, Xianbing; Tao, Wei; Mei, Lin

    2016-01-01

    The inner membrane vesicle system is a complex transport system that includes endocytosis, exocytosis and autophagy. However, the details of the intracellular trafficking pathway of nanoparticles in cells have been poorly investigated. Here, we investigate in detail the intracellular trafficking pathway of protein nanocapsules using more than 30 Rab proteins as markers of multiple trafficking vesicles in endocytosis, exocytosis and autophagy. We observed that FITC-labeled protein nanoparticles were internalized by the cells mainly through Arf6-dependent endocytosis and Rab34-mediated micropinocytosis. In addition to this classic pathway: early endosome (EEs)/late endosome (LEs) to lysosome, we identified two novel transport pathways: micropinocytosis (Rab34 positive)-LEs (Rab7 positive)-lysosome pathway and EEs-liposome (Rab18 positive)-lysosome pathway. Moreover, the cells use slow endocytosis recycling pathway (Rab11 and Rab35 positive vesicles) and GLUT4 exocytosis vesicles (Rab8 and Rab10 positive) transport the protein nanocapsules out of the cells. In addition, protein nanoparticles are observed in autophagosomes, which receive protein nanocapsules through multiple endocytosis vesicles. Using autophagy inhibitor to block these transport pathways could prevent the degradation of nanoparticles through lysosomes. Using Rab proteins as vesicle markers to investigation the detail intracellular trafficking of the protein nanocapsules, will provide new targets to interfere the cellular behaver of the nanoparticles, and improve the therapeutic effect of nanomedicine.

  1. Intracellular Trafficking Network of Protein Nanocapsules: Endocytosis, Exocytosis and Autophagy

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Jinxie; Zhang, Xudong; Liu, Gan; Chang, Danfeng; Liang, Xin; Zhu, Xianbing; Tao, Wei; Mei, Lin

    2016-01-01

    The inner membrane vesicle system is a complex transport system that includes endocytosis, exocytosis and autophagy. However, the details of the intracellular trafficking pathway of nanoparticles in cells have been poorly investigated. Here, we investigate in detail the intracellular trafficking pathway of protein nanocapsules using more than 30 Rab proteins as markers of multiple trafficking vesicles in endocytosis, exocytosis and autophagy. We observed that FITC-labeled protein nanoparticles were internalized by the cells mainly through Arf6-dependent endocytosis and Rab34-mediated micropinocytosis. In addition to this classic pathway: early endosome (EEs)/late endosome (LEs) to lysosome, we identified two novel transport pathways: micropinocytosis (Rab34 positive)-LEs (Rab7 positive)-lysosome pathway and EEs-liposome (Rab18 positive)-lysosome pathway. Moreover, the cells use slow endocytosis recycling pathway (Rab11 and Rab35 positive vesicles) and GLUT4 exocytosis vesicles (Rab8 and Rab10 positive) transport the protein nanocapsules out of the cells. In addition, protein nanoparticles are observed in autophagosomes, which receive protein nanocapsules through multiple endocytosis vesicles. Using autophagy inhibitor to block these transport pathways could prevent the degradation of nanoparticles through lysosomes. Using Rab proteins as vesicle markers to investigation the detail intracellular trafficking of the protein nanocapsules, will provide new targets to interfere the cellular behaver of the nanoparticles, and improve the therapeutic effect of nanomedicine. PMID:27698943

  2. Upconversion luminescence tracking of gene delivery via multifunctional nanocapsules.

    PubMed

    Bai, Xilin; Xu, Suying; Liu, Jiali; Wang, Leyu

    2016-04-01

    The real-time fluorescence tracking of gene delivery is very important as it helps to figure out how a vector enters a cell and also to follow its fate within the cell interior. Lanthanide-doped upconversion nanoparticles (UCNPs) have shown great potential in biomedical applications in virtue of their unique optical and biological properties. Herein, we report a simple and versatile strategy to fabricate a multifunctional nanocapsule for effective gene delivery and real-time luminescence tracking. The hydrophobic UCNPs were modified by positively charged amphiphilic polymer together with polyethylene glycol-poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PEG-PLGA) polymer, affording biocompatible nanocapsules with high gene loading capacity and good stability. Red UC luminescence of UCNPs are able to track the delivery of nanocapsules in cells without background fluorescence interference, in the meantime, the green fluorescence of green fluorescence protein (GFP) expressed by the pDNA could subtly monitor the gene transfection efficacy. The results demonstrated that our nanocapsule has ideal biocompatibility, satisfactory gene loading capacity and great bioimaging ability, which is promising for imaging guided cell therapy and gene engineering. PMID:26838389

  3. Tragacanth gum as a natural polymeric wall for producing antimicrobial nanocapsules loaded with plant extract.

    PubMed

    Ghayempour, Soraya; Montazer, Majid; Mahmoudi Rad, Mahnaz

    2015-11-01

    Tragacanth gum as a biocompatible and biodegradable polymer with good properties including emulsifying, viscosity and cross-linking ability can be used as the wall material in encapsulation of different compounds, specifically plant extracts. In this paper, for the first time, Tragacanth gum was used to produce nanocapsules containing plant extract through microemulsion method. The effect of different parameters on the average size of prepared nanocapsules in presence of aluminum and calcium chloride through ultrasonic and magnetic stirrer was investigated. The high efficient nanocapsules were prepared with spherical shape and smooth surface. The average size of nanocapsules prepared through ultrasonic using aluminum chloride (22nm) was smaller than other products. The structure of prepared nanocapsules was studied by FT-IR spectroscopy. Antimicrobial activity of different nanocapsules against Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus and Candida albicans was investigated by shake flask method during their release showed 100% microbial reduction after 12h stirring.

  4. Encapsulation of curcumin in polyelectrolyte nanocapsules and their neuroprotective activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Szczepanowicz, Krzysztof; Jantas, Danuta; Piotrowski, Marek; Staroń, Jakub; Leśkiewicz, Monika; Regulska, Magdalena; Lasoń, Władysław; Warszyński, Piotr

    2016-09-01

    Poor water solubility and low bioavailability of lipophilic drugs can be potentially improved with the use of delivery systems. In this study, encapsulation of nanoemulsion droplets was utilized to prepare curcumin nanocarriers. Nanosize droplets containing the drug were encapsulated in polyelectrolyte shells formed by the layer-by-layer (LbL) adsorption of biocompatible polyelectrolytes: poly-L-lysine (PLL) and poly-L-glutamic acid (PGA). The size of synthesized nanocapsules was around 100 nm. Their biocompatibility and neuroprotective effects were evaluated on the SH-SY5Y human neuroblastoma cell line using cell viability/toxicity assays (MTT reduction, LDH release). Statistically significant toxic effect was clearly observed for PLL coated nanocapsules (reduction in cell viability about 20%–60%), while nanocapsules with PLL/PGA coating did not evoke any detrimental effects on SH-SY5Y cells. Curcumin encapsulated in PLL/PGA showed similar neuroprotective activity against hydrogen peroxide (H2O2)-induced cell damage, as did 5 μM curcumin pre-dissolved in DMSO (about 16% of protection). Determination of concentration of curcumin in cell lysate confirmed that curcumin in nanocapsules has cell protective effect in lower concentrations (at least 20 times) than when given alone. Intracellular mechanisms of encapsulated curcumin-mediated protection engaged the prevention of the H2O2-induced decrease in mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP) but did not attenuate Reactive Oxygen Species (ROS) formation. The obtained results indicate the utility of PLL/PGA shell nanocapsules as a promising, alternative way of curcumin delivery for neuroprotective purposes with improved efficiency and reduced toxicity.

  5. Encapsulation of curcumin in polyelectrolyte nanocapsules and their neuroprotective activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Szczepanowicz, Krzysztof; Jantas, Danuta; Piotrowski, Marek; Staroń, Jakub; Leśkiewicz, Monika; Regulska, Magdalena; Lasoń, Władysław; Warszyński, Piotr

    2016-09-01

    Poor water solubility and low bioavailability of lipophilic drugs can be potentially improved with the use of delivery systems. In this study, encapsulation of nanoemulsion droplets was utilized to prepare curcumin nanocarriers. Nanosize droplets containing the drug were encapsulated in polyelectrolyte shells formed by the layer-by-layer (LbL) adsorption of biocompatible polyelectrolytes: poly-L-lysine (PLL) and poly-L-glutamic acid (PGA). The size of synthesized nanocapsules was around 100 nm. Their biocompatibility and neuroprotective effects were evaluated on the SH-SY5Y human neuroblastoma cell line using cell viability/toxicity assays (MTT reduction, LDH release). Statistically significant toxic effect was clearly observed for PLL coated nanocapsules (reduction in cell viability about 20%-60%), while nanocapsules with PLL/PGA coating did not evoke any detrimental effects on SH-SY5Y cells. Curcumin encapsulated in PLL/PGA showed similar neuroprotective activity against hydrogen peroxide (H2O2)-induced cell damage, as did 5 μM curcumin pre-dissolved in DMSO (about 16% of protection). Determination of concentration of curcumin in cell lysate confirmed that curcumin in nanocapsules has cell protective effect in lower concentrations (at least 20 times) than when given alone. Intracellular mechanisms of encapsulated curcumin-mediated protection engaged the prevention of the H2O2-induced decrease in mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP) but did not attenuate Reactive Oxygen Species (ROS) formation. The obtained results indicate the utility of PLL/PGA shell nanocapsules as a promising, alternative way of curcumin delivery for neuroprotective purposes with improved efficiency and reduced toxicity.

  6. Frozen shoulder - aftercare

    MedlinePlus

    ... syndrome - aftercare; Pericapsulitis - aftercare; Stiff shoulder - aftercare; Shoulder pain - frozen shoulder ... Call your doctor if: The pain in your shoulder is getting worse You re-injure your arm or shoulder Your frozen shoulder is making you feel sad or depressed

  7. Chlorhexidine Nanocapsule Drug Delivery Approach to the Resin-Dentin Interface.

    PubMed

    Priyadarshini, B M; Selvan, S T; Lu, T B; Xie, H; Neo, J; Fawzy, A S

    2016-08-01

    In this study, we are introducing a new drug-delivery approach to demineralized dentin substrates through microsized dentinal tubules in the form of drug-loaded nanocapsules. Chlorhexidine (CHX) is widely used in adhesive dentistry due to its nonspecific matrix metalloproteinase inhibitory effect and antibacterial activities. Poly(ε-caprolactone) nanocapsules (nano-PCL) loaded with CHX were fabricated by interfacial polymer deposition at PCL/CHX ratios of 125:10, 125:25, and 125:50. Unloaded nanocapsules (blank) were fabricated as control. The fabricated nanocapsules were characterized in vitro in terms of particle size, surface charges, particle recovery, encapsulation efficiency, and drug loading. Nanocapsule morphology, drug inclusion, structural properties, and crystallinity were investigated by scanning and transmission electron microscopes (SEM/TEM), energy-dispersive x-ray analysis, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, and x-ray diffraction. Initial screening of the antibacterial activities and the cytotoxicity of the nanocapsules were also conducted. Nanocapsules, as carried on ethanol/water solution, were delivered to demineralized dentin specimens connected to an ex vivo model setup simulating the pulpal pressure to study their infiltration, penetration depth, and retention inside the dentinal tubules by SEM/TEM. Nanocapsules were Ag labeled and delivered to demineralized dentin, followed by the application of a 2-step etch-and-rinse dentin adhesive. CHX-release profiles were characterized in vitro and ex vivo up to 25 d. Spherical nanocapsules were fabricated with a CHX core coated with a thin PCL shell. The blank nanocapsules exhibited the largest z-average diameter with negatively charged ζ-potential. With CHX incorporation, the nanocapsule size was decreased with a positive shift in ζ-potential. Nano-PCL/CHX at 125:50 showed the highest drug loading, antibacterial effect, and CHX release both in vitro and ex vivo. SEM and TEM revealed the deep

  8. Passively Targeted Curcumin-Loaded PEGylated PLGA Nanocapsules for Colon Cancer Therapy In Vivo.

    PubMed

    Klippstein, Rebecca; Wang, Julie Tzu-Wen; El-Gogary, Riham I; Bai, Jie; Mustafa, Falisa; Rubio, Noelia; Bansal, Sukhvinder; Al-Jamal, Wafa T; Al-Jamal, Khuloud T

    2015-09-01

    Clinical applications of curcumin for the treatment of cancer and other chronic diseases have been mainly hindered by its short biological half-life and poor water solubility. Nanotechnology-based drug delivery systems have the potential to enhance the efficacy of poorly soluble drugs for systemic delivery. This study proposes the use of poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA)-based polymeric oil-cored nanocapsules (NCs) for curcumin loading and delivery to colon cancer in mice after systemic injection. Formulations of different oil compositions are prepared and characterized for their curcumin loading, physico-chemical properties, and shelf-life stability. The results indicate that castor oil-cored PLGA-based NC achieves high drug loading efficiency (≈18% w(drug)/w(polymer)%) compared to previously reported NCs. Curcumin-loaded NCs internalize more efficiently in CT26 cells than the free drug, and exert therapeutic activity in vitro, leading to apoptosis and blocking the cell cycle. In addition, the formulated NC exhibits an extended blood circulation profile compared to the non-PEGylated NC, and accumulates in the subcutaneous CT26-tumors in mice, after systemic administration. The results are confirmed by optical and single photon emission computed tomography/computed tomography (SPECT/CT) imaging. In vivo growth delay studies are performed, and significantly smaller tumor volumes are achieved compared to empty NC injected animals. This study shows the great potential of the formulated NC for treating colon cancer. PMID:26140363

  9. Optimization and preparation of nanocapsules for food applications using two methodologies.

    PubMed

    Esmaeili, Akbar; Gholami, Masoomeh

    2015-07-15

    This study investigated preparation of nanocapsules (NCs) containing food-grade ingredients using two experimental designs: a one-factor-at-a-time method (OFATM) and an optimization method (OM). Response surface methodology (RSM) was used to optimize the process. The variables explored were concentration and type of polymer wall, using polycaprolactone (PCL) and polyethylene glycol-polybutylene adipate-polyethylene glycol (PEG-PBA-PEG) (1.0-4.0 mg) polyester triblock copolymer; food oil, using olive and avocado oil (0.5-2.0 mg); solvent, using acetone and ethyl acetate (6-12 ml); and surfactant concentration, using Tween 80 and Tween 60 (1-5 mg). The optimum conditions to obtain NCs were found to be 2.0 mg of PCL and 1.65 mg of PEG-PBA-PEG, olive oil (0.5 and 0.88 mg), acetone (6 and 10.25 ml), and Tween 60 (3.0 and 4.25 mg), with 90.9 and 71.9 nm for OFATM and OM, respectively. This research was conducted to investigate the use of NCs in the manufacture of fruits. PMID:25722135

  10. Passively Targeted Curcumin-Loaded PEGylated PLGA Nanocapsules for Colon Cancer Therapy In Vivo

    PubMed Central

    Klippstein, Rebecca; Wang, Julie Tzu-Wen; El-Gogary, Riham I; Bai, Jie; Mustafa, Falisa; Rubio, Noelia; Bansal, Sukhvinder; Al-Jamal, Wafa T; Al-Jamal, Khuloud T

    2015-01-01

    Clinical applications of curcumin for the treatment of cancer and other chronic diseases have been mainly hindered by its short biological half-life and poor water solubility. Nanotechnology-based drug delivery systems have the potential to enhance the efficacy of poorly soluble drugs for systemic delivery. This study proposes the use of poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA)-based polymeric oil-cored nanocapsules (NCs) for curcumin loading and delivery to colon cancer in mice after systemic injection. Formulations of different oil compositions are prepared and characterized for their curcumin loading, physico-chemical properties, and shelf-life stability. The results indicate that castor oil-cored PLGA-based NC achieves high drug loading efficiency (≈18% w(drug)/w(polymer)%) compared to previously reported NCs. Curcumin-loaded NCs internalize more efficiently in CT26 cells than the free drug, and exert therapeutic activity in vitro, leading to apoptosis and blocking the cell cycle. In addition, the formulated NC exhibits an extended blood circulation profile compared to the non-PEGylated NC, and accumulates in the subcutaneous CT26-tumors in mice, after systemic administration. The results are confirmed by optical and single photon emission computed tomography/computed tomography (SPECT/CT) imaging. In vivo growth delay studies are performed, and significantly smaller tumor volumes are achieved compared to empty NC injected animals. This study shows the great potential of the formulated NC for treating colon cancer. PMID:26140363

  11. Reversible PH Lability of Cross-Linked Vault Nanocapsules

    SciTech Connect

    Yu, M.; Ng, B.C.; Rome, L.H.; Tolbert, S.H.; Monbouquette, H.G.

    2009-05-28

    Vaults are ubiquitous, self-assembled protein nanocapsules with dimension in the sub-100 nm range that are conserved across diverse phyla from worms to humans. Their normal presence in humans at a copy number of over 10 000/cell makes them attractive as potential drug delivery vehicles. Toward this goal, bifunctional amine-reactive reagents are shown to be useful for the reversible cross-linking of recombinant vaults such that they may be closed and opened in a controllable manner.

  12. Layer-by-layer engineered nanocapsules of curcumin with improved cell activity.

    PubMed

    Kittitheeranun, Paveenuch; Sajomsang, Warayuth; Phanpee, Sarunya; Treetong, Alongkot; Wutikhun, Tuksadon; Suktham, Kunat; Puttipipatkhachorn, Satit; Ruktanonchai, Uracha Rungsardthong

    2015-08-15

    Nanocarriers based on electrostatic Layer-by-layer (LbL) assembly of CaCO3 nanoparticles (CaCO3 NPs) was investigated. These inorganic nanoparticles was used as templates to construct nanocapsules made from films based on two oppositely charged polyelectrolytes, poly(diallyldimethylammonium chloride), and poly (sodium 4-styrene-sulfonate sodium salt), followed by core dissolution. The naked CaCO3 NPs, CaCO3 NPs coated with the polyelectrolytes and hollow nanocapsules were found with hexagonal shape with average sizes of 350-400 nm. A reversal of the surface charge between positive to negative zeta potential values was found, confirming the adsorption of polyelectrolytes. The loading efficiency and release of curcumin were controlled by the hydrophobic interactions between the drug and the polyelectrolyte matrix of the hollow nanocapsules. The quantity of curcumin released from hollow nanocapsules was found to increase under acidic environments, which is a desirable for anti-cancer drug delivery. The hollow nanocapsules were found to localize in the cytoplasm and nucleus compartment of Hela cancer cells after 24 h of incubation. Hollow nanocapsules were non-toxic to human fibroblast cells. Furthermore, curcumin loaded hollow nanocapsules exhibited higher in vitro cell inhibition against Hela cells than that of free curcumin, suggesting that polyelectrolyte based-hollow nanocapsules can be utilized as new carriers for drug delivery. PMID:26143232

  13. Evaluation of photodynamic activity, photostability and in vitro drug release of zinc phthalocyanine-loaded nanocapsules.

    PubMed

    de Souza, Thiane Deprá; Ziembowicz, Francieli Isa; Müller, Debora Friedrich; Lauermann, Sâmera Cristina; Kloster, Carmen Luisa; Santos, Roberto Christ Vianna; Lopes, Leonardo Quintana Soares; Ourique, Aline Ferreira; Machado, Giovanna; Villetti, Marcos Antonio

    2016-02-15

    Nanocapsule formulations containing zinc phthalocyanine (ZnPc) were investigated as drug delivery systems for use in photodynamic therapy (PDT). ZnPc loaded chitosan, PCL, and PCL coated with chitosan nanocapsules were prepared and characterized by means of their physicochemical properties, photodynamic activity, photostability and drug release profile. All formulations presented nanometric hydrodynamic radius, around 100 nm, low polydispersity index (0.08-0.24), slightly negative zeta potential for PCL nanoparticles and positive zeta potential for suspension containing chitosan. Encapsulation efficiencies were higher than 99%. The capacity of ZnPc loaded nanocapsules to produce cytotoxic singlet oxygen ((1)O2) by irradiation with red laser was monitored using 1.3-diphenylisobenzofuran as a probe. The singlet oxygen quantum yields (ΦΔ) for ZnPc loaded chitosan nanocapsules were high and similar to that of the standard (ZnPc in DMSO), displaying excellent ability to generate (1)O2. The photosensitizer loaded nanocapsules are photostable in the timescale usually utilized in PDT and only a small photobleaching event was observed when a light dose of 610J/cm(2) was applied. The in vitro drug release studies of ZnPc from all nanocapsules demonstrated a sustained release profile controlled by diffusion, without burst effect. The nature of the polymer and the core type of the nanocapsules regulated ZnPc release. Thus, the nanocapsules developed in this work are a promising strategy to be employed in PDT.

  14. Preparation and characterization of degradable nanocapsules that release pesticides over an extended period of time

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Pesticide efficacy is limited by evaporation and precipitation. These processes can result in the need for costly pesticide re-application. By using a nanocapsule to contain the pesticide, these two problems can be greatly reduced. Produced nanocapsules adsorb on the surface of the plant and are not...

  15. Polyaminoacid nanocapsules for drug delivery to the lymphatic system: Effect of the particle size.

    PubMed

    Abellan-Pose, Raquel; Teijeiro-Valiño, Carmen; Santander-Ortega, Manuel J; Borrajo, Erea; Vidal, Anxo; Garcia-Fuentes, Marcos; Csaba, Noémi; Alonso, María José

    2016-07-25

    Previous work by our group showed the possibility to reduce the toxicity of docetaxel upon its encapsulation in polyaminoacid nanocapsules with a size of 200nm. The objective of this study was to elucidate whether a reduction in the nanocapsules size might facilitate their access to the lymphatic system. To do so, we analyzed the effect of several formulation parameters on the characteristics of polyglutamic acid, PEGylated polyglutamic acid and polyasparagine nanocapsules. From these experiments, we could identify the best conditions to produce nanocapsules with a small size (close to 100nm) and adequate capacity to encapsulate and sustain the release of the antitumor drug docetaxel. Moreover, the results of the stability study made evident the critical role of the polyaminoacid shell on the colloidal stability of the nanocapsules in biologically relevant media. Finally, we studied the influence of the particle size (100nm vs. 200nm) on the biodistribution of PGA-PEG nanocapsules following subcutaneous injection. The results showed that the 100 nm-size nanocapsules accumulate faster in the lymph nodes, than those with a size of 200nm. In summary, these data suggest the potential of 100nm-size polyaminoacid nanocapsules as lymphatic drug delivery carriers. PMID:27210735

  16. Evaluation of photodynamic activity, photostability and in vitro drug release of zinc phthalocyanine-loaded nanocapsules.

    PubMed

    de Souza, Thiane Deprá; Ziembowicz, Francieli Isa; Müller, Debora Friedrich; Lauermann, Sâmera Cristina; Kloster, Carmen Luisa; Santos, Roberto Christ Vianna; Lopes, Leonardo Quintana Soares; Ourique, Aline Ferreira; Machado, Giovanna; Villetti, Marcos Antonio

    2016-02-15

    Nanocapsule formulations containing zinc phthalocyanine (ZnPc) were investigated as drug delivery systems for use in photodynamic therapy (PDT). ZnPc loaded chitosan, PCL, and PCL coated with chitosan nanocapsules were prepared and characterized by means of their physicochemical properties, photodynamic activity, photostability and drug release profile. All formulations presented nanometric hydrodynamic radius, around 100 nm, low polydispersity index (0.08-0.24), slightly negative zeta potential for PCL nanoparticles and positive zeta potential for suspension containing chitosan. Encapsulation efficiencies were higher than 99%. The capacity of ZnPc loaded nanocapsules to produce cytotoxic singlet oxygen ((1)O2) by irradiation with red laser was monitored using 1.3-diphenylisobenzofuran as a probe. The singlet oxygen quantum yields (ΦΔ) for ZnPc loaded chitosan nanocapsules were high and similar to that of the standard (ZnPc in DMSO), displaying excellent ability to generate (1)O2. The photosensitizer loaded nanocapsules are photostable in the timescale usually utilized in PDT and only a small photobleaching event was observed when a light dose of 610J/cm(2) was applied. The in vitro drug release studies of ZnPc from all nanocapsules demonstrated a sustained release profile controlled by diffusion, without burst effect. The nature of the polymer and the core type of the nanocapsules regulated ZnPc release. Thus, the nanocapsules developed in this work are a promising strategy to be employed in PDT. PMID:26678154

  17. Towards copper-free nanocapsules obtained by orthogonal interfacial "click" polymerization in miniemulsion.

    PubMed

    Siebert, Joerg Max; Baier, Grit; Musyanovych, Anna; Landfester, Katharina

    2012-06-01

    A facile method to produce nanocapsules by copper-free interfacial "click"-polymerization as orthogonal reaction for the encapsulation of functional molecules is successfully performed using stable miniemulsion droplets. Difunctional azides and alkynes have been used for polymerization around the miniemulsion droplets, leading to the formation of nanocapsules. The results were compared with copper-catalyzed systems.

  18. Biocompatible lutein-polymer-lipid nanocapsules: Acute and subacute toxicity and bioavailability in mice.

    PubMed

    Ranganathan, Arunkumar; Hindupur, Ravi; Vallikannan, Baskaran

    2016-12-01

    Lutein-poly-(lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA)-phospholipid (PL) nanocapsules were prepared (henceforth referred as lutein nanocapsules) and studied for acute, subacute oral toxicity and bioavailability of lutein in mice. Prior to examining the safety of lutein nanocapsules, particle size, zeta potential, surface morphology and interaction between lutein, PLGA and PL were studied. In acute study, mice were gavaged with a single dose of lutein nanocapsules at 0.1, 1, 10 and 100mg/kg body weight (BW) and examined for 2weeks, while in subacute study, daily mice were gavaged with a dose of 1 and 10mg/kg BW for 4weeks. Results revealed that mean size and zeta value of lutein nanocapsules were 140nm and -44mV, respectively. Acute and subacute toxicity studies did not show any mortality or treatment related adverse effect in clinical observations, ophthalmic examinations, body and organ weights. No toxicity related findings were observed in hematology, histopathology and other blood and tissue clinical chemistry parameters. In subacute study, no observed adverse effect level (NOAEL) of lutein nanocapsules was found to be at a dose of 10mg/kg BW. Feeding lutein nanocapsules resulted in a significant (p<0.01) increase in lutein level in plasma and tissue compared to the control group. Lutein nanocapsules did not cause toxicity in mice. However, human trials are warranted. PMID:27612832

  19. Developments in the use of nanocapsules in oncology

    PubMed Central

    Yurgel, V.; Collares, T.; Seixas, F.

    2013-01-01

    The application of nanotechnology to medicine can provide important benefits, especially in oncology, a fact that has resulted in the emergence of a new field called Nanooncology. Nanoparticles can be engineered to incorporate a wide variety of chemotherapeutic or diagnostic agents. A nanocapsule is a vesicular system that exhibits a typical core-shell structure in which active molecules are confined to a reservoir or within a cavity that is surrounded by a polymer membrane or coating. Delivery systems based on nanocapsules are usually transported to a targeted tumor site and then release their contents upon change in environmental conditions. An effective delivery of the therapeutic agent to the tumor site and to the infiltrating tumor cells is difficult to achieve in many cancer treatments. Therefore, new devices are being developed to facilitate intratumoral distribution, to protect the active agent from premature degradation and to allow its sustained and controlled release. This review focuses on recent studies on the use of nanocapsules for cancer therapy and diagnosis. PMID:23802234

  20. Nanocapsules of perfluorooctyl bromide for theranostics: from formulation to targeting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Diou, O.; Fattal, E.; Payen, T.; Bridal, S. L.; Valette, J.; Tsapis, N.

    2014-03-01

    The need to detect cancer at its early stages, as well as, to deliver chemotherapy to targeted site motivates many researchers to build theranostic platforms which combine diagnostic and therapy. Among imaging modalities, ultrasonography and Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) are widely available, non invasive and complement each other. Both techniques often require the use of contrast agents. We have developed nanocapsules of perfluorooctyl bromide as dual contrast agent for both imaging modalities. The soft, amorphous polymer shell provides echogenicity, while the high-density perfluorinated liquid core allows detection by 19F MRI. We have used a shell of poly(lactide-co-glycolide) (PLGA) since this polymer is biodegradable, biocompatible and can be loaded with drugs. These capsules were shown to be efficient in vitro as contrast agents for both 19F MRI and ultrasonography. In addition, for in vivo applications a poly(ethyleneglycol) (PEG) coating promotes stability and prolonged circulation. Being stealth, nanocapsule can accumulate passively into implanted tumors by the EPR effect. We will present nanocapsule formulation and characterization, and will show promising in vivo results obtained for both ultrasonography and 19F MRI.

  1. Nanocapsules for drug delivery through the skin barrier by tissue-tolerable plasma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lademann, J.; Patzelt, A.; Richter, H.; Lademann, O.; Baier, G.; Breucker, L.; Landfester, K.

    2013-08-01

    For many years, several attempts have been made to enhance skin penetration by chemical, physical or mechanical manipulation to reduce the barrier function of the skin. The present study demonstrates the possibility of penetration enhancement for 400 nm sized nanocapsules loaded with a model drug consisting of a fluorescent dye by the application of tissue-tolerable plasma (TTP). Therefore, the stability of the nanocapsules and their penetration through the skin barrier prior to and in combination with TTP application was evaluated. The results revealed that the penetration of the nanocapsules could be effectively enhanced when applied in combination with TTP, hence delivering the model drug unaffected by plasma into deeper skin layers. The stability testing showed no significant structural changes of the nanocapsules after contact with TTP. Thus, the present study introduces a new strategy for the penetration enhancement of substances by the combined utilization of nanocapsules and TTP.

  2. Nanoemulsion-templated polylelectrolyte multifunctional nanocapsules for DNA entrapment and bioimaging.

    PubMed

    Bazylińska, Urszula; Saczko, Jolanta

    2016-01-01

    The emerging field of bionanotechnology aims at advancing colloidal and biomedical research via introduction of multifunctional nanoparticle-based containers intended for both gene therapy and bioimaging. In the present contribution we entrapped the model genetic material (herring testes DNA) in the newly-designed non-viral vectors, i.e., multifunctional nanocapsules obtained by layer-by-layer (LbL) adsorption of DNA and oppositely charged polysaccharide-based chitosan (CHIT) on the nanoemulsion core, loaded by IR-780 indocyanine (used as the fluorescent marker) and stabilized by gemini-type ammonium salts: N,N,N',N'-tetramethyl-N,N'-di(dodecyl)-ethylenediammonium bromide, d(DDA)PBr and N,N,N',N'-tetramethyl-N,N'-di(dodecyl)-butylenediammonium d(DDA)BBr. Ternary phase diagrams of the surfactant-oil-water systems were determined by titration method. Then, the stability of the nanoemulsions obtained with IR-780 solubilized in the oleic acid (OA) or isopropyl myristate (IPM) phase was evaluated by backscattering (BS) profiles and ζ-potential measurements. In the next step, CHIT and DNA layers were subsequently deposited on the kinetically stable nanoemulsion cores. The IR-780-loaded nanocarriers covered by (DNA/CHIT)4 bilayers shown the high ζ-potential value (about +43mV provided by Doppler electrophoresis), the size <120nm and the spherical shape as analyzed by dynamic light scattering (DLS), atomic force microscopy (AFM) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Finally, the long-lasting nanosystems were subjected to in vitro biological studies on human cancer cell lines - doxorubicin-sensitive breast (MCF-7/WT), epithelial lung adenocarcinoma (A549) and skin melanoma (MEWO). Biological response of the cell culture was expressed as cytotoxic activity evaluated by MTT-based proliferation assay as well as bioimaging of intracellular localization of IR-780 molecules loaded in the multilayer DNA-deposited nanocontainers - provided by confocal laser scanning microscopy

  3. Docetaxel-loaded polyglutamic acid-PEG nanocapsules for the treatment of metastatic cancer.

    PubMed

    Borrajo, Erea; Abellan-Pose, Raquel; Soto, Atenea; Garcia-Fuentes, Marcos; Csaba, Noemi; Alonso, Maria J; Vidal, Anxo

    2016-09-28

    The design of nanomedicines with suitable physicochemical characteristics for the lymphatic targeting of drugs is critical in order to reach the lymph nodes, where metastatic cells often accumulate. Based on the known effect of particle size and surface hydrophilicity on the capacity of nanocarriers to reach the lymph nodes, here we report the formation and characterization of 100nm polyglutamic acid-polyethylene glycol (PGA-PEG) nanocapsules together with the assessment of their potential for the treatment of cancer with lymphatic metastatic spread. To this purpose, we first studied the biodistribution of fluorescently labeled PGA-PEG nanocapsules (100nm), following, either intravenous or subcutaneous administration. The results confirmed the accumulation of nanocapsules in the lymphatic system, especially upon subcutaneous administration. Next, we evaluated the efficacy and toxicity of the docetaxel-loaded nanocapsules in an orthotopic lung cancer model that metastasizes to the lymph nodes. As expected from the rational design, DCX-loaded PGA-PEG nanocapsules exhibited a greatly enhanced antitumoral efficacy and a reduced toxicity when compared with the commercial formulation Taxotere®. Furthermore, the administration of DCX-loaded PGA-PEG nanocapsules resulted in the practical elimination of the metastatic load in the mediastinal lymph nodes, whereas the treatment with the commercial formulation had a minor effect. Overall, these findings underscore the potential of PGA-PEG nanocapsules for the delivery of anticancer drugs to both, the tumor tissue and the metastatic lymph nodes. Therefore, they represent a promising therapy for the treatment of lung metastatic cancer.

  4. Frozen-intensity test research of frozen coal with steel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Xiaopeng; Huang, Cheng; Liu, Weibo

    2002-05-01

    As a sort of multiple component, and dispersed state granule aggregation, frozen coal behaves similar to frozen soil. On the basis of its unique ice-cementation effect and not-frozen water along with dynamical balance state between the frameworks of mineral granule, the mechanical behavior of frozen coal is more complex than usual in compact medium, restrictedly with force amount, process time period and temperature. In all factors which impact on frozen intensity of frozen coal frozen with steel plate, water content is relatively easy to control. From results of this test research, values of frozen intensity is changeable under different water content. Up to the critical water content, the value of frozen intensity increase rapidly till a certain steady value. Under a certain temperature and water content condition, the granule component of frozen coal has somewhat effect on the frozen intensity. Usually, the frozen intensity of large granule coal is greater than the small granule's However, the distributing of coal granule size present a steady probability rule. So the effect from granule size is tiny.

  5. The Frozen Price Game

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alden, Lori

    2003-01-01

    In this article, the author discusses the educational frozen price game she developed to teach the basic economic principle of price allocation. In addition to demonstrating the advantages of price allocation, the game also illustrates such concepts as opportunity costs, cost benefit comparisons, and the trade-off between efficiency and equity.…

  6. Growth-Factor Nanocapsules That Enable Tunable Controlled Release for Bone Regeneration.

    PubMed

    Tian, Haijun; Du, Juanjuan; Wen, Jing; Liu, Yang; Montgomery, Scott R; Scott, Trevor P; Aghdasi, Bayan; Xiong, Chengjie; Suzuki, Akinobu; Hayashi, Tetsuo; Ruangchainikom, Monchai; Phan, Kevin; Weintraub, Gil; Raed, Alobaidaan; Murray, Samuel S; Daubs, Michael D; Yang, Xianjin; Yuan, Xu-Bo; Wang, Jeffrey C; Lu, Yunfeng

    2016-08-23

    Growth factors are of great potential in regenerative medicine. However, their clinical applications are largely limited by the short in vivo half-lives and the narrow therapeutic window. Thus, a robust controlled release system remains an unmet medical need for growth-factor-based therapies. In this research, a nanoscale controlled release system (degradable protein nanocapsule) is established via in situ polymerization on growth factor. The release rate can be finely tuned by engineering the surface polymer composition. Improved therapeutic outcomes can be achieved with growth factor nanocapsules, as illustrated in spinal cord fusion mediated by bone morphogenetic protein-2 nanocapsules. PMID:27227573

  7. Synthesis, Characterization, and Long-Term Stability of Hollow Polymer Nanocapsules with Nanometer-Thin Walls

    PubMed Central

    Dergunov, Sergey A.; Kesterson, Katrina; Li, Wei; Wang, Zhao

    2010-01-01

    Hollow polymer nanocapsules are produced by the polymerization within hydrophobic interior of lipid bilayers that act as temporary self-assembled scaffolds. Pore-forming templates are co-dissolved with monomers in the bilayers to create pores with controlled size and chemical environment. Polymerization was monitored with UV spectroscopy and dynamic light scattering. High resolution magic angle spinning NMR characterization provided detailed structural information about nanocapsules. Spherical shape was confirmed by electron microscopy. Medium-sized molecules can be entrapped within porous nanocapsules. No release of encapsulated molecules was observed within 240 days. PMID:21423872

  8. 21 CFR 160.110 - Frozen eggs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... Frozen eggs. (a) Frozen eggs, frozen whole eggs, frozen mixed eggs is the food prepared by freezing liquid eggs that conform to § 160.115, with such precautions that the finished food is free of...

  9. 21 CFR 160.110 - Frozen eggs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... Frozen eggs. (a) Frozen eggs, frozen whole eggs, frozen mixed eggs is the food prepared by freezing liquid eggs that conform to § 160.115, with such precautions that the finished food is free of...

  10. 21 CFR 160.110 - Frozen eggs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... Frozen eggs. (a) Frozen eggs, frozen whole eggs, frozen mixed eggs is the food prepared by freezing liquid eggs that conform to § 160.115, with such precautions that the finished food is free of...

  11. 21 CFR 160.110 - Frozen eggs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... Frozen eggs. (a) Frozen eggs, frozen whole eggs, frozen mixed eggs is the food prepared by freezing liquid eggs that conform to § 160.115, with such precautions that the finished food is free of...

  12. Foods - fresh vs. frozen or canned

    MedlinePlus

    Frozen foods vs. fresh or canned; Fresh foods vs. frozen or canned; Frozen vegetables versus fresh ... a well-balanced diet. Many people wonder if frozen and canned vegetables are as healthy for you ...

  13. Multilayered silica-biopolymer nanocapsules with a hydrophobic core and a hydrophilic tunable shell thickness

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vecchione, Raffaele; Luciani, Giuseppina; Calcagno, Vincenzo; Jakhmola, Anshuman; Silvestri, Brigida; Guarnieri, Daniela; Belli, Valentina; Costantini, Aniello; Netti, Paolo A.

    2016-04-01

    Stable, biocompatible, multifunctional and multicompartment nanocarriers are much needed in the field of nanomedicine. Here, we report a simple, novel strategy to design an engineered nanocarrier system featuring an oil-core/hybrid polymer/silica-shell. Silica shells with a tunable thickness were grown in situ, directly around a highly mono-disperse and stable oil-in-water emulsion system, stabilized by a double bio-functional polyelectrolyte heparin/chitosan layer. Such silica showed a complete degradation in a physiological medium (SBF) in a time frame of three days. Moreover, the outer silica shell was coated with polyethyleneglycol (PEG) in order to confer antifouling properties to the final nanocapsule. The outer silica layer combined its properties (it is an optimal bio-interface for bio-conjugations and for the embedding of hydrophilic drugs in the porous structure) with the capability to stabilize the oil core for the confinement of high payloads of lipophilic tracers (e.g. CdSe quantum dots, Nile Red) and drugs. In addition, polymer layers - besides conferring stability to the emulsion while building the silica shell - can be independently exploited if suitably functionalized, as demonstrated by conjugating chitosan with fluorescein isothiocyanate. Such numerous features in a single nanocarrier system make it very intriguing as a multifunctional platform for smart diagnosis and therapy.Stable, biocompatible, multifunctional and multicompartment nanocarriers are much needed in the field of nanomedicine. Here, we report a simple, novel strategy to design an engineered nanocarrier system featuring an oil-core/hybrid polymer/silica-shell. Silica shells with a tunable thickness were grown in situ, directly around a highly mono-disperse and stable oil-in-water emulsion system, stabilized by a double bio-functional polyelectrolyte heparin/chitosan layer. Such silica showed a complete degradation in a physiological medium (SBF) in a time frame of three days

  14. Silicone nanocapsules templated inside the membranes of catanionic vesicles.

    PubMed

    Kepczyński, Mariusz; Lewandowska, Joanna; Romek, Marek; Zapotoczny, Szczepan; Ganachaud, François; Nowakowska, Maria

    2007-06-19

    A simple and effective way to synthesize hollow silicone resin particles of controlled diameter is presented. The synthesis utilizes catanionic vesicles as templates for the polycondensation/polymerization processes of 1,3,5,7-tetramethylcyclotetrasiloxane (D4H) within their membranes. Two different surfactant systems were used to form the vesicular templates: mixtures of dodecyltrimethylammonium bromide (DTAB) and sodium dodecylbenzenesulfonate (SDBS) in the cationic (the DTAB/SDBS system) or anionic (the SDBS/DTAB system) rich region of the phase diagram. The templates obtained from these surfactant mixtures form spontaneously unilamellar vesicles in aqueous solution. The vesicular templates swell upon addition of D4H, thus increasing their size. The silicone resin was obtained in acid- or base-catalyzed polycondensation and ring-opening polymerization processes of D4H. In the case of the DTAB/SDBS system the formation of a densely cross-linked silicone material with SiO3/2 units allowed the nanocapsules to retain the vesicular shape after removal of the template, whereas in the SDBS/DTAB system, the polymer produces capsules which are too smooth to support surfactant lysis. The morphology of the silicone nanocapsules was analyzed using transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and, in some cases, atomic force microscopy (AFM). TEM and AFM reveal discrete hollow particles with a small amount of linked or aggregated hollow silica shells.

  15. Preparation and properties of dysprosium nanocapsules coated with boron, carbon, and dysprosium oxide

    SciTech Connect

    Si, P.Z.; Brueck, E.; Zhang, Z.D.; Skorvanek, I.; Kovac, J.; Zhang, M

    2004-06-08

    Boron-coated dysprosium/dysprosium oxide, carbon-coated dysprosium/DyC{sub 2}, and dysprosium oxide-coated dysprosium nanocapsules were prepared using an arc discharge method in diborane, methane, and argon, respectively. The magnetization of these nanocapsules has been measured at temperatures between 4 and 290 K, in applied fields up to 6 T. The transition temperature of nanocrystalline Dy from the helical phase to the ferromagnetic phase is much lower than that of bulk Dy. The linear temperature dependence of the inverse susceptibility of these nanocapsules, being a mixture of superparamagnetic Dy and paramagnetic dysprosium oxide or carbide, can be explained within the molecular field theory with magnetic moments with the total angular momentum J=15/2 and the Lande factor g=4/3. We discuss the relations between the structure and the magnetization of these nanocapsules.

  16. Curation of Frozen Samples

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fletcher, L. A.; Allen, C. C.; Bastien, R.

    2008-01-01

    NASA's Johnson Space Center (JSC) and the Astromaterials Curator are charged by NPD 7100.10D with the curation of all of NASA s extraterrestrial samples, including those from future missions. This responsibility includes the development of new sample handling and preparation techniques; therefore, the Astromaterials Curator must begin developing procedures to preserve, prepare and ship samples at sub-freezing temperatures in order to enable future sample return missions. Such missions might include the return of future frozen samples from permanently-shadowed lunar craters, the nuclei of comets, the surface of Mars, etc. We are demonstrating the ability to curate samples under cold conditions by designing, installing and testing a cold curation glovebox. This glovebox will allow us to store, document, manipulate and subdivide frozen samples while quantifying and minimizing contamination throughout the curation process.

  17. Texture of Frozen Food

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wani, Kohmei

    Quantitative determination of textural quality of frozen food due to freezing and storage conditions is complicated,since the texture is consisted of multi-dimensiona1 factors. The author reviewed the importance of texture in food quality and the factors which is proposed by a priori estimation. New classification of expression words of textural properties by subjective evaluation and an application of four elements mechanical model for analysis of physical characteristics was studied on frozen meat patties. Combination of freezing-thawing condition on the subjective properties and physiochemical characteristics of beef lean meat and hamachi fish (Yellow-tail) meat was studied. Change of the plasticity and the deformability of these samples differed by freezing-thawing rate and cooking procedure. Also optimum freezing-thawing condition was differed from specimens.

  18. Synthesis of pH-responsive chitosan nanocapsules for the controlled delivery of doxorubicin.

    PubMed

    Chen, Chih-Kuang; Wang, Qing; Jones, Charles H; Yu, Yun; Zhang, Hanguang; Law, Wing-Cheung; Lai, Cheng Kee; Zeng, Qinghang; Prasad, Paras N; Pfeifer, Blaine A; Cheng, Chong

    2014-04-15

    Well-defined chitosan nanocapsules (CSNCs) with tunable sizes were synthesized through the interfacial cross-linking of N-maleoyl-functionalized chitosan (MCS) in miniemulsions, and their application in the delivery of doxorubicin (Dox) was investigated. MCS was prepared by the amidation reaction of CS with maleic anhydride in water/DMSO at 65 °C for 20 h. Subsequently, thiol-ene cross-linking was conducted in oil-in-water miniemulsions at room temperature under UV irradiation for 1 h, using MCS as both a surfactant and precursor polymer, 1,4-butanediol bis(3-mercapto-propionate) as a cross-linker, and D-α-tocopheryl poly(ethylene glycol) 1000 succinate as a cosurfactant. With the increase in cosurfactant concentration in the reaction systems, the sizes of the resulting CSNCs decreased steadily. Dox-loaded CSNCs were readily prepared by in situ encapsulation of Dox during miniemulsion cross-linking. With acid-labile β-thiopropionate cross-linkages, the Dox-loaded CSNCs demonstrated a faster release rate under acidic conditions. Relative to free Dox, Dox-loaded CSNCs exhibited enhanced cytotoxicity toward MCF-7 breast cancer cells without any noticeable cytotoxicity from empty CSNCs. The effective delivery of Dox to MCF-7 breast cancer cells via Dox-loaded CSNCs was also observed.

  19. FROZEN HYDROCARBONS IN COMETS

    SciTech Connect

    Simonia, Irakli

    2011-02-15

    Recent investigations of the luminescence of frozen hydrocarbon particles of icy cometary halos have been carried out. The process of luminescence of organic icy particles in a short-wavelength solar radiation field is considered. A comparative analysis of observed and laboratory data leads to 72 luminescent emission lines in the spectrum of the comet 153P/Ikeya-Zhang. The concept of cometary relict matter is presented, and the creation of a database of unidentified cometary emission lines is proposed.

  20. Frozen cultural plasticity.

    PubMed

    Houdek, Petr; Novakova, Julie

    2016-01-01

    We discuss cultural group selection under the view of the frozen plasticity theory and the different explanatory power and predictions of this framework. We present evidence that cultural adaptations and their influence on the degree of cooperation may be more complex than presented by Richerson et al., and conclude with the gene-environment-culture relationship and its impacts on cultural group selection. PMID:27561647

  1. Synthesis of magnetic and upconversion nanocapsules as multifunctional drug delivery system

    SciTech Connect

    Huang, Shanshan; Chen, Yinyin; Liu, Bei; He, Fei; Ma, Ping’an; Deng, Xiaoran; Cheng, Ziyong Lin, Jun

    2015-09-15

    Multifunctional hollow nanocapsules with magnetic and upconversion luminescence properties were synthesized. Hollow Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}@SiO{sub 2} was firstly prepared by using rodlike β-FeOOH as the template followed by silica coating, calcinations and reduction. Then Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}@SiO{sub 2}@α-NaYF{sub 4}:Yb{sup 3+},Er{sup 3+} nanocapsules (FeSiUCNP) were synthesized by the hydrothermal transformation of the Y(Yb{sup 3+}, Er{sup 3+})(OH)CO{sub 3} (YOC) deposited onto the surface of nanocapsules through a urea-assisted homogeneous precipitation method. The hollow nanocapsules with porous structure provide space and entrance for the drug molecules. Due to the outside shell of α-NaYF{sub 4}:Yb{sup 3+}, Er{sup 3+}, the nanomaterial shows upconverting red emission upon 980 nm NIR-light excitation. Moreover, the nanocomposites with hollow magnetite core exhibit a high relaxivity with r{sub 2} value of 183 mM{sup −1} s{sup −1}, which reveal the potential as T{sub 2}-weighted contrast agents for magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). The as-prepared nanocapsules can be performed as anti-cancer drug carriers for investigation of drug loading/release properties, which demonstrated a sustained drug release pattern and a comparable cytotoxicity with free doxorubicin (DOX). The multifunctional nanocapsules incorporated upconverting luminescence, T{sub 2}-weighted MRI imaging and drug targeting delivery modalities have great potential for theranostic applications in cancer treatment. - Graphical abstract: Multifunctional hollow nanocapsules with upconverting luminescence, T{sub 2}-weighted MRI imaging and drug targeting delivery modalities were synthesized for cancer treatment. - Highlights: • Multifunctional porous Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}@SiO{sub 2}@α-NaYF{sub 4}:Yb{sup 3+},Er{sup 3+} nanocapsules were synthesized. • The nanocapsules show upconverting red emission upon 980 nm NIR-light excitation. • The nanocapsules exihibit potential as T{sub 2}-weighted contrast agents

  2. Perfluorodecalin-Filled Poly(n-butyl-cyanoacrylate) Nanocapsules as Potential Artificial Oxygen Carriers: Preclinical Safety and Biocompatibility.

    PubMed

    Laudien, Julia; Groß-Heitfeld, Christoph; Mayer, Christian; de Groot, Herbert; Kirsch, Michael; Ferenz, Katja B

    2015-08-01

    With regard to the development of artificial blood substitutes, perfluorodecalin-filled poly(n-butyl-cyanoacrylate) nanocapsules are already discussed for the use as artificial oxygen carriers. The aim of the present study was to thoroughly investigate the preclinical safety and biocompatibility of the perfluorodecalin-filled poly(n-butyl-cyanoacrylate) nanocapsules prepared by interfacial polymerization. Nanocapsules were assessed for physical and microbial stability. Subsequent to intravenous infusion to anesthetized rats, effects on systemic parameters, microcirculation, circulatory in vivo half-life, acid base/metabolic status, organ damage and biodistribution were evaluated using inter alia 19F-NMR spectroscopy and in vivo microscopy. Perfluorodecalin-filled poly(n-butyl-cyanoacrylate) nanocapsules displayed physical and microbial stability over a period of 4 weeks and the circulatory in vivo half-life was t1/2 = 30 min. In general, all animals tolerated intravenous infusion of the prepared nanocapsules, even though several side-effects occurred. As a consequence of nanocapsule infusion, a transient decrease in mean arterial blood pressure, impairment of hepatic microcirculation, organ/tissue damage of liver, spleen and small intestine, as well as an elevation of plasma enzyme activities such as lactate dehydrogenase, creatine kinase and aspartate aminotransferase could be observed. The assessment of the distribution pattern revealed nanocapsule accumulation in spleen, kidney and small intestine. Perfluorodecalin-filled poly(n-butyl-cyanoacrylate) nanocapsules conformed to basic requirements of drugs under preclinical development but further improvement is needed to establish these nanocapsules as novel artificial oxygen carriers.

  3. A surface modification of clozapine-loaded nanocapsules improves their efficacy: A study of formulation development and biological assessment.

    PubMed

    Vieira, Simone M; Michels, Luana R; Roversi, Katiane; Metz, Vinícia G; Moraes, Barbra K S; Piegas, Eduarda M; Freddo, Rodrigo J; Gundel, André; Costa, Teresa Dalla; Burger, Marilise E; Colomé, Letícia M; Haas, Sandra E

    2016-09-01

    This work aimed to develop nanocapsules (NC) coated with polysorbate 80 (P80), cationic chitosan (CS) or polyethylene glycol (PEG) using clozapine (CZP) as the drug model. The zeta potential, pH and encapsulation efficiency were directly affected by the CS coating. Using the bag dialysis method, the in vitro CZP release from CS-coated nanocapsules was similar to the PEG-coated at pH 7.4. Nanocapsules coated with PEG and CS exhibited an increased action duration compared to the P80-coated nanocapsules in pseudo-psychosis induced by d,l-amphetamine in rats. When comparing both groups, the group administered CS-coated nanocapsules showed better activity than the PEG-coated nanocapsules at 6, 10 and 12h after d,l-amphetamine administration. The pharmacokinetic assessment in rats demonstrated that the observed half-lives were free CZPnanocapsules. Both the P80- and PEG-coated nanocapsules showed a statistically significant increase in their volume of distribution compared to free CZP. On the other hand, the cationic nanocapsules showed a decrease in total clearance. Together, these results indicate that the PEG and CS coatings are a promising delivery system for CZP in the treatment of schizophrenia. PMID:27295491

  4. Serum-stable quantum dot--protein hybrid nanocapsules for optical bio-imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Jeong Yu; Nam, Dong Heon; Oh, Mi Hwa; Kim, Youngsun; Choi, Hyung Seok; Jeon, Duk Young; Beum Park, Chan; Nam, Yoon Sung

    2014-05-01

    We introduce shell cross-linked protein/quantum dot (QD) hybrid nanocapsules as a serum-stable systemic delivery nanocarrier for tumor-targeted in vivo bio-imaging applications. Highly luminescent, heavy-metal-free Cu0.3InS2/ZnS (CIS/ZnS) core-shell QDs are synthesized and mixed with amine-reactive six-armed poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) in dichloromethane. Emulsification in an aqueous solution containing human serum albumin (HSA) results in shell cross-linked nanocapsules incorporating CIS/ZnS QDs, exhibiting high luminescence and excellent dispersion stability in a serum-containing medium. Folic acid is introduced as a tumor-targeting ligand. The feasibility of tumor-targeted in vivo bio-imaging is demonstrated by measuring the fluorescence intensity of several major organs and tumor tissue after an intravenous tail vein injection of the nanocapsules into nude mice. The cytotoxicity of the QD-loaded HSA-PEG nanocapsules is also examined in several types of cells. Our results show that the cellular uptake of the QDs is critical for cytotoxicity. Moreover, a significantly lower level of cell death is observed in the CIS/ZnS QDs compared to nanocapsules loaded with cadmium-based QDs. This study suggests that the systemic tumor targeting of heavy-metal-free QDs using shell cross-linked HSA-PEG hybrid nanocapsules is a promising route for in vivo tumor diagnosis with reduced non-specific toxicity.

  5. Chitosan/fucoidan multilayer nanocapsules as a vehicle for controlled release of bioactive compounds.

    PubMed

    Pinheiro, Ana C; Bourbon, Ana I; Cerqueira, Miguel A; Maricato, Élia; Nunes, Cláudia; Coimbra, Manuel A; Vicente, António A

    2015-01-22

    Hollow multilayer nanocapsules were successfully prepared through layer-by-layer assembly of two bioactive polysaccharides, chitosan and fucoidan. The stepwise adsorption of 10 chitosan/fucoidan layers and the consequent formation of a multilayer film on polystyrene nanoparticles (used as templates) were followed through ζ-potential measurement and the removal of the polystyrene core was confirmed by FTIR analysis. The chitosan/fucoidan nanocapsules morphology and size were evaluated by SEM and TEM, which showed that after the core removal, the nanocapsules maintained their spherical shape and a decrease of size occurred. A cationic bioactive compound, poly-L-lysine (PLL), was chosen to evaluate the loading and release behaviour of the nanocapsules. The chitosan/fucoidan nanocapsules showed a good capacity for the encapsulation and loading of PLL, which shows to be influenced by the initial PLL concentration and the method of encapsulation used. The results of fitting the linear superimposition model to the experimental data of PLL release suggest an anomalous behaviour, with one main polymer relaxation. The PLL release was found to be pH-dependent: at pH 2 relaxation is the governing phenomenon and at pH 7 Fick's diffusion is the main mechanism of PLL release. Chitosan/fucoidan nanocapsules is a promising delivery system for water soluble bioactive compounds, such as PLL, showing a great potential of application in food and pharmaceutical industries. PMID:25439860

  6. Synthesis of magnetic and upconversion nanocapsules as multifunctional drug delivery system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Shanshan; Chen, Yinyin; Liu, Bei; He, Fei; Ma, Ping'an; Deng, Xiaoran; Cheng, Ziyong; Lin, Jun

    2015-09-01

    Multifunctional hollow nanocapsules with magnetic and upconversion luminescence properties were synthesized. Hollow Fe3O4@SiO2 was firstly prepared by using rodlike β-FeOOH as the template followed by silica coating, calcinations and reduction. Then Fe3O4@SiO2@α-NaYF4:Yb3+,Er3+ nanocapsules (FeSiUCNP) were synthesized by the hydrothermal transformation of the Y(Yb3+, Er3+)(OH)CO3 (YOC) deposited onto the surface of nanocapsules through a urea-assisted homogeneous precipitation method. The hollow nanocapsules with porous structure provide space and entrance for the drug molecules. Due to the outside shell of α-NaYF4:Yb3+, Er3+, the nanomaterial shows upconverting red emission upon 980 nm NIR-light excitation. Moreover, the nanocomposites with hollow magnetite core exhibit a high relaxivity with r2 value of 183 mM-1 s-1, which reveal the potential as T2-weighted contrast agents for magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). The as-prepared nanocapsules can be performed as anti-cancer drug carriers for investigation of drug loading/release properties, which demonstrated a sustained drug release pattern and a comparable cytotoxicity with free doxorubicin (DOX). The multifunctional nanocapsules incorporated upconverting luminescence, T2-weighted MRI imaging and drug targeting delivery modalities have great potential for theranostic applications in cancer treatment.

  7. Chitosan/fucoidan multilayer nanocapsules as a vehicle for controlled release of bioactive compounds.

    PubMed

    Pinheiro, Ana C; Bourbon, Ana I; Cerqueira, Miguel A; Maricato, Élia; Nunes, Cláudia; Coimbra, Manuel A; Vicente, António A

    2015-01-22

    Hollow multilayer nanocapsules were successfully prepared through layer-by-layer assembly of two bioactive polysaccharides, chitosan and fucoidan. The stepwise adsorption of 10 chitosan/fucoidan layers and the consequent formation of a multilayer film on polystyrene nanoparticles (used as templates) were followed through ζ-potential measurement and the removal of the polystyrene core was confirmed by FTIR analysis. The chitosan/fucoidan nanocapsules morphology and size were evaluated by SEM and TEM, which showed that after the core removal, the nanocapsules maintained their spherical shape and a decrease of size occurred. A cationic bioactive compound, poly-L-lysine (PLL), was chosen to evaluate the loading and release behaviour of the nanocapsules. The chitosan/fucoidan nanocapsules showed a good capacity for the encapsulation and loading of PLL, which shows to be influenced by the initial PLL concentration and the method of encapsulation used. The results of fitting the linear superimposition model to the experimental data of PLL release suggest an anomalous behaviour, with one main polymer relaxation. The PLL release was found to be pH-dependent: at pH 2 relaxation is the governing phenomenon and at pH 7 Fick's diffusion is the main mechanism of PLL release. Chitosan/fucoidan nanocapsules is a promising delivery system for water soluble bioactive compounds, such as PLL, showing a great potential of application in food and pharmaceutical industries.

  8. De novo synthesis and cellular uptake of organic nanocapsules with tunable surface chemistry.

    PubMed

    Huang, Kun; Jacobs, Amy; Rzayev, Javid

    2011-06-13

    Water-soluble organic nanocapsules were prepared from bottlebrush copolymers with triblock terpolymer side chains composed of a degradable inner block (polylactide), a cross-linkable middle block (poly(4-butenylstyrene)), and a functional outer block (poly(styrene-co-maleic anhydride)). Bottlebrush copolymers are macromolecules with a long linear backbone and shorter polymeric side chains densely grafted onto the backbone. Hollow cylindrical nanoparticles were prepared by peripheral cross-linking of the bottlebrush copolymers and subsequent selective removal of the core. Reactive anhydride groups of the outer functional layer allowed for the preparation of nanocapsules with tunable surface characteristics. Cellular uptake of negatively charged organic nanocapsules showed strong surface chemistry dependence. The presence of hydrophobic groups on the nanocapsule surface was necessary for their nonspecific association with the cell membrane and subsequent internalization by endocytosis. The length of surface grafted oligoethylene glycol chains also had a dramatic influence on the intracellular accumulation of nanocapsules. Macropinocytosis was shown to be the predominant pathway for the cellular uptake of organic nanocapsules.

  9. Synthesis of hollow polyaniline nano-capsules and their supercapacitor application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Wanlu; Gao, Zan; Song, Ningning; Zhang, Yunya; Yang, Yingchao; Wang, Jun

    2014-12-01

    A novel hollow polyaniline (PANI) nano-capsule with holes on the wall has been synthesized via a facile interfacial polymerization (IP) method without using any templates. The intriguing microstructure of such nano-capsule has been investigated by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). A possible growth mechanism of the PANI nano-capsule has also been proposed. To further explore its possible application for supercapacitor, the electrochemical performance of the PANI nano-capsule has been carried out by cyclic voltammetry (CV), galvanostatic discharge/charge and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS). The obtained PANI nano-capsule electrode exhibits a high specific capacitance of 502 F g-1 (at the current density of 5 mA cm-2) and excellent cycling stability, rendering it to be a promising material for supercapacitor applications. Such special hollow PANI nano-capsule with well-defined microstructure holds great promise not only for electrochemical energy storage, but also for sensors, actuators, drug carrier and other applications.

  10. Polymeric Nanoparticles, Nanospheres and Nanocapsules, for Cutaneous Applications

    PubMed Central

    Guterres, Sílvia S.; Alves, Marta P.; Pohlmann, Adriana R.

    2007-01-01

    This review presents an overview about pharmaceutical and cosmetic topical products containing polymeric nanoparticles (nanospheres and nanocapsules), reporting the main preparation and characterization methods and the studies of penetration and transport of substances through the skin. The penetration and transport extent of those systems through the skin depends on the ingredients chemical composition, on the encapsulation mechanism influencing the drug release, on the size of nanoparticles and on the viscosity of the formulations. The polymeric nanoparticles are able to modify the activity of drugs, delay and control the drug release, and increase the drug adhesivity or its time of permanence in the skin. Briefly, the nanoparticles can be useful as reservoirs of lipophilic drugs to deliver them in the stratum corneum becoming an important strategy to control their permeation into the skin. PMID:21901071

  11. Internalization of Ineffective Platinum Complex in Nanocapsules Renders It Cytotoxic.

    PubMed

    Vrana, Oldrich; Novohradsky, Vojtech; Medrikova, Zdenka; Burdikova, Jana; Stuchlikova, Olga; Kasparkova, Jana; Brabec, Viktor

    2016-02-18

    Anticancer therapy by platinum complexes, based on nanocarrier-based delivery, may offer a new approach to improve the efficacy and tolerability of the platinum family of anticancer drugs. The original rules for the design of new anticancer platinum drugs were affected by the fact that, although cisplatin (cis-[PtCl2 (NH3)2) was an anticancer drug, its isomer transplatin was not cytotoxic. For the first time, it is demonstrated that simple encapsulation of an inactive platinum compound in phospholipid bilayers transforms it into an efficient cytotoxic agent. Notably, the encapsulation of transplatin makes it possible to overcome the resistance mechanisms operating in cancer cells treated with cisplatin and prevents inactivation of transplatin in the extracellular environment. It is also shown that transplatin delivered to the cells in nanocapsules, in contrast to free (nonencapsulated) complex, forms cytotoxic cross-links on DNA.

  12. Remotely Triggered Cisplatin Release from Carbon Nanocapsules by Radiofrequency Fields

    PubMed Central

    Raoof, Mustafa; Cisneros, Brandon T.; Guven, Adem; Corr, Stuart J.; Wilson, Lon J.; Curley, Steven A.

    2013-01-01

    The efficacy of nanoparticle-mediated drug delivery is limited by its peri-vascular sequestration, thus necessitating a strategy to trigger drug release from such intra-tumoral nanocarrier-drug depots. In our efforts to explore remotely-activated nanocarriers, we have developed carbon nanocapsules comprised of an ultrashort carbon nanotube shell (US-tubes) loaded with cisplatin (CDDP@US-tubes) and covered with a Pluronic surfactant wrapping to minimize passive release. We demonstrate here that non-invasive radiofrequency (RF) field activation of the CDDP@US-tubes produces heat that causes Pluronic disruption which triggers cisplatin release in an RF-dependent manner. Furthermore, release-dependent cytotoxicity is demonstrated in human hepatocellular carcinoma cell lines. PMID:23228421

  13. Frozen Carbon Dioxide

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    1 August 2005 This Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) image shows a south polar residual cap landscape, formed in frozen carbon dioxide. There is no place on Earth that one can go to visit a landscape covering thousands of square kilometers with frozen carbon dioxide, so mesas, pits, and other landforms of the martian south polar region are as alien as they are beautiful. The scarps of the south polar region are known from thousands of other MGS MOC images to retreat at a rate of about 3 meters (3 yards) per martian year, indiating that slowly, over the course of the MGS mission, the amount of carbon dioxide in the martian atmosphere has probably been increasing.

    Location near: 86.9oS, 25.5oW Image width: width: 3 km (1.9 mi) Illumination from: upper left Season: Southern Spring

  14. Docetaxel-loaded polyglutamic acid-PEG nanocapsules for the treatment of metastatic cancer.

    PubMed

    Borrajo, Erea; Abellan-Pose, Raquel; Soto, Atenea; Garcia-Fuentes, Marcos; Csaba, Noemi; Alonso, Maria J; Vidal, Anxo

    2016-09-28

    The design of nanomedicines with suitable physicochemical characteristics for the lymphatic targeting of drugs is critical in order to reach the lymph nodes, where metastatic cells often accumulate. Based on the known effect of particle size and surface hydrophilicity on the capacity of nanocarriers to reach the lymph nodes, here we report the formation and characterization of 100nm polyglutamic acid-polyethylene glycol (PGA-PEG) nanocapsules together with the assessment of their potential for the treatment of cancer with lymphatic metastatic spread. To this purpose, we first studied the biodistribution of fluorescently labeled PGA-PEG nanocapsules (100nm), following, either intravenous or subcutaneous administration. The results confirmed the accumulation of nanocapsules in the lymphatic system, especially upon subcutaneous administration. Next, we evaluated the efficacy and toxicity of the docetaxel-loaded nanocapsules in an orthotopic lung cancer model that metastasizes to the lymph nodes. As expected from the rational design, DCX-loaded PGA-PEG nanocapsules exhibited a greatly enhanced antitumoral efficacy and a reduced toxicity when compared with the commercial formulation Taxotere®. Furthermore, the administration of DCX-loaded PGA-PEG nanocapsules resulted in the practical elimination of the metastatic load in the mediastinal lymph nodes, whereas the treatment with the commercial formulation had a minor effect. Overall, these findings underscore the potential of PGA-PEG nanocapsules for the delivery of anticancer drugs to both, the tumor tissue and the metastatic lymph nodes. Therefore, they represent a promising therapy for the treatment of lung metastatic cancer. PMID:27476608

  15. 21 CFR 160.110 - Frozen eggs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... Frozen eggs. (a) Frozen eggs, frozen whole eggs, frozen mixed eggs is the food prepared by freezing... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Frozen eggs. 160.110 Section 160.110 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR...

  16. Size and core content optimization of epoxy nanocapsules by response surface methodology for use in self-healing coatings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khoee, Sepideh; Hosein Payandeh, Seyed; Jafarzadeh, Parinaz; Asadi, Hamed

    2016-08-01

    A model is provided to estimate the effect of different factors on the synthesis of nanocapsules containing epoxy resin. Producing nanocapsules with different sizes and core-contents for different applications is made possible by using this model. The three parameters that have the most important effect on the properties of the nanocapsules: the surfactant concentration, agitation rate and sonication time are selected and the response surface methodology is used to determine the effect of these parameters on the nanocapsule size and core content. These parameters are modified to prepare nanoparticles with a high core content (68.7%) and small size (165 nm). The nanocapsules were stable up to 150 °C and these properties have made them applicable for future use in self-healing coatings and composites. The modified epoxy nanocapsules were mixed with amine-filled nanocapsules and were incorporated in an epoxy coating. This coating was scratched and kept in a corrosive environment and even after 30 days it still showed a high corrosion resistance, proving that the nanocapsules were able to successfully heal the scratches in the coating. After 30 days of immersion in 3.5 wt% NaCl environment, the corrosion resistance of the coating with healing particles was 38 times higher than the pure coating.

  17. Development and evaluation of alginate-chitosan nanocapsules for controlled release of acetamiprid.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Sandeep; Chauhan, Neetu; Gopal, Madhuban; Kumar, Rajesh; Dilbaghi, Neeraj

    2015-11-01

    Smart formulations based on nanomaterials have the capability to reduce the consumption of hazardous pesticides and their impact on human health and environment. Nanoformulations of agrochemicals have the potential to improve food productivity without compromising with the ecosystem. In the present work, controlled release nanocapsules containing acetamiprid were prepared by polyelectrolyte complexation of two natural macromolecules, i.e. alginate and chitosan. The size, morphology and chemical interaction studies of the prepared nanocapsules were investigated by Dynamic Light Scattering (DLS), Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM), and Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR). The zetapotential studies revealed stability of the nanocapsules. TEM results show spherical morphology of the nanocapsules. The encapsulation efficiency was found to be 62% as quantified by Ultra High Pressure Liquid Chromatography (UHPLC). Nanocapsules were analysed for controlled release in vitro at three different pH. Maximum release was observed at pH 10 followed by pH 7 and 4, respectively. A non-Fickian release mechanism was found to be followed by the nanoformulation. A controlled release pattern was also found from nanoformulation as compared to commercial formulation in soil. Thus this formulation can reduce the frequency of application of pesticides by controlling the release and will subsequently reduce their side effects. PMID:26321424

  18. Silica nanocapsules of fluorescent conjugated polymers and superparamagnetic nanocrystals for dual-mode cellular imaging.

    PubMed

    Tan, Happy; Wang, Miao; Yang, Chang-Tong; Pant, Shilpa; Bhakoo, Kishore Kumar; Wong, Siew Yee; Chen, Zhi-Kuan; Li, Xu; Wang, John

    2011-06-01

    We describe here a facile and benign synthetic strategy to integrate the fluorescent behavior of conjugated polymers and superparamagnetic properties of iron oxide nanocrystals into silica nanocapsules, forming a new type of bifunctional magnetic fluorescent silica nanocapsule (BMFSN). The resultant BMFSNs are uniform, colloidally stable in aqueous medium, and exhibit the desired dual functionality of fluorescence and superparamagnetism in a single entity. Four conjugated polymers with different emissions were used to demonstrate the versatility of employing this class of fluorescent materials for the preparation of BMFSNs. The applicability of BMFSNs in cellular imaging was studied by incubating them with human liver cancer cells, the result of which demonstrated that the cells could be visualized by dual-mode fluorescence and magnetic resonance imaging. Furthermore, the superparamagnetic behavior of the BMFSNs was exploited for in vitro magnetic-guided delivery of the nanocapsules into the cancer cells, thereby highlighting their potential for targeting biomedical applications.

  19. Evaluation of short cycles of ultrasound application in nanoemulsions to obtain nanocapsules.

    PubMed

    Carneiro, Simone Pinto; Cruz, Ricardo Machado; dos Santos, Orlando David Henrique

    2015-11-01

    Ultrasound is widely used in several chemical reactions and other process, including production of nanocapsules by in situ polymerization. In this work, the main objective was to evaluate the impacts and viability of successive ultrasound application in nanoemulsions to obtain nanocapsules. Initiator potassium persulfate (KPS) concentration, number of ultrasound cycles and reaction time influences on polymerization efficiency and droplet size were evaluated. This work revealed the successful in situ production of nanocapsules using successive shorts cycles of ultrasound. Number of cycles was the only parameter that not exerted significant influence in polymerization yield. Particle size decay was observed in all nanoemulsions after the first ultrasound application, the same was not observed in further cycles. Gravimetric assessment showed remarkable increase of monomer conversion, indicating that once started polymerization continued at least until 28 days after ultrasound application. Concluding, ultrasound short cycles can be used with no harm to formulation, if carefully performed and, furthermore is a potential cost-effective route for polymerization reactions.

  20. Preparation of highly dispersed core/shell-type titania nanocapsules containing a single Ag nanoparticle.

    PubMed

    Sakai, Hideki; Kanda, Takashi; Shibata, Hirobumi; Ohkubo, Takahiro; Abe, Masahiko

    2006-04-19

    Core/shell-type titania nanocapsules containing a single Ag nanoparticle were prepared. Ag nanoparticles were prepared using the reduction of silver nitrate with hydrazine in the presence of cetyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB) as protective agent. The sol-gel reaction of titanium tetraisopropoxide (TTIP) was used to prepare core/shell-type titania nanocapsules with CTAB-coated Ag nanoparticles as the core. TEM observations revealed that the size of the core (Ag particle) and the thickness of the shell (titania) of the core/shell particles obtained are about 10 nm and 5-10 nm, respectively. In addition, the nanocapsules were found to be dispersed in the medium as individual particles without aggregation. Moreover, titania coating caused the surface plasmon absorption of Ag nanoparticles to shift toward the longer wavelength side. PMID:16608315

  1. Multifunctional Nanocapsules for Simultaneous Encapsulation of Hydrophilic and Hydrophobic Compounds and On-Demand Release

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Shang-Hsiu; Chen, San-Yuan; Gao, Xiaohu

    2012-01-01

    Cocktail therapy by delivering multiple drugs to diseased cells can elicit synergistic therapeutic effects and better modulate the complex cell signaling network. Besides selection of drug combinations, a difficulty in delivery is how to encapsulate drugs with various solubility into a common vehicle, particularly when both hydrophobic and hydrophilic compounds are involved. Furthermore, it is highly desirable that the drug release profile can be controlled in an on-demand fashion for balanced therapeutic and side effects. Based on a simple and scalable double-emulsion approach, we report a new class of nanocapsules that can solve these problems simultaneously. Further linking the nanocapsules with peptides targeting cell surface integrins leads to significantly enhanced cell uptake of the nanocapsules. Intracellular drug release triggered by external stimuli has also been achieved without affecting cell viability. Further development of this technology should open exciting opportunities in treating tough diseases such as cancer, cardiovascular diseases, neurological disorders, and infectious diseases. PMID:22339040

  2. Carbon-coated YC 2 nanocapsules synthesized by arc-discharge in methane

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shi, G. M.; Zhang, J. H.; Dong, Y.; Li, D.; Zhang, Z. D.

    2009-07-01

    Carbon-coated YC 2 nanocapsules were prepared by arc-discharging bulk yttrium in methane. The core/shell structure was obtained, where a polyhedral crystalline YC 2 core was coated by defective graphite shell with size of 1-3 nm. The hydrolyzing of the zero-dimensional superconductors YC 2 was controlled by the shell. The magnetic properties of the carbon-coated YC 2 nanocapsules show that the dimensional effect has a very small influence on its superconducting transition temperature. The Raman spectrum of the carbon-coated YC 2 nanocapsules shows that the shell is defective graphite and also suggests that the aberrance structure of the carbon shell is related to the zone-edge vibration of the YC 2 core.

  3. Preparation of chondroitin sulfate nanocapsules for use as carries by the interfacial polymerization method.

    PubMed

    Xi, Juqun; Zhou, Ling; Fei, Yonghe

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, the method of interfacial polymerization in emulsion was employed to fabricate chondroitin sulfate-methacrylate (ChSMA) nanocapsules, in which poor water-soluble drug of indomethacin (IND) could be effectively encapsulated. The morphology and the size distribution of synthesized nanocapsules were characterized by field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM) and dynamic light scattering (DLS) techniques. The quantitative drug loading was investigated. The IND/ChSMA noodle-like self-assemblies were observed with the increase of IND feed concentration, and the interactions between IND and ChSMA were illuminated by FT-IR and XRD measurements. The in vitro drug release of IND-loaded nanocapsules and IND/ChSMA self-assemblies were also carried out in simulated body fluid pH 7.4 at 37°C.

  4. Evaluation of the side effects of poly(epsilon-caprolactone) nanocapsules containing atrazine towards maize plants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oliveira, Halley; Stolf-Moreira, Renata; Martinez, Cláudia; Sousa, Gustavo; Grillo, Renato; de Jesus, Marcelo; Fraceto, Leonardo

    2015-10-01

    Poly(epsilon-caprolactone) (PCL) nanocapsules have been used as a carrier system for the herbicide atrazine, which is commonly applied to maize. We demonstrated previously that these atrazine containing polymeric nanocapsules were ten-fold more effective in the control of mustard plants (a target species), as compared to a commercial atrazine formulation. Since atrazine can have adverse effects on non-target crops, here we analyzed the effect of encapsulated atrazine on growth, physiological and oxidative stress parameters of soil-grown maize plants (Zea mays L.). One day after the post-emergence treatment with PCL nanocapsules containing atrazine (1 mg mL-1), maize plants presented 15 and 21 % decreases in maximum quantum yield of photosystem II and in net CO2 assimilation rate, respectively, as compared to water-sprayed plants. The same treatment led to a 1.8-fold increase in leaf lipid peroxidation in comparison with control plants. However, all of these parameters were unaffected four and eight days after the application of encapsulated atrazine. These results suggested that the negative effects of atrazine were transient, probably due to the ability of maize plants to detoxify the herbicide. When encapsulated atrazine was applied at a ten-fold lower concentration (0.1 mg mL-1), a dosage that is still effective for weed control, no effects were detected even shortly after application. Regardless of the herbicide concentration, neither pre- nor post-emergence treatment with the PCL nanocapsules carrying atrazine resulted in the development of any macroscopic symptoms in maize leaves, and there were no impacts on shoot growth. Additionally, no effects were observed when plants were sprayed with PCL nanocapsules without atrazine. Overall, these results suggested that the use of PCL nanocapsules containing atrazine did not lead to persistent side effects in maize plants, and that the technique could offer a safe tool for weed control without affecting crop growth.

  5. Magnetically Vectored Nanocapsules for Tumor Penetration and Remotely Switchable On-Demand Drug Release

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kong, Seong Deok

    Hollow-sphere nanocapsules containing intentionally trapped magnetic nanoparticles and defined anticancer drugs provide a powerful magnetic vector under moderate gradient magnetic fields, and enable the nanocapsules to penetrate into the midst of tumors and allow a controlled on-off switchable release of the anticancer drug cargo by remotely applied Radio Frequency (RF) magnetic field. This imageable smart drug delivery system is compact because the drug molecules and magnetic nanoparticles can all be self-contained within 80~150 nm capsules. In vitro as well as in vivo results indicate that the nanocapsules are effective in reducing tumor cell growth. In Chapter 1, the concept of Drug Delivery Systems (DDSs) and the impact of nanotechnology on Drug Delivery Systems were introduced. Triggered drug release using magnetothermally-responsive nanomaterials, magnetic nanoparticles for nanomedicine, and ordered mesoporous materials in the context of Drug Delivery System were discussed. In Chapter 2, creation of remotely controllable, On-Off switchable drug release methodology was described. In this thesis work, triggerable nanocapsules which contain magnetic nanoparticles responsive to external radio frequency (RF) magnetic field have been successfully created. This is in contrast to the regular hollow nanospheres for slow passive release of drugs. The new nanocapsule material consists of bio-inert, bio-compatible or bio-degradable material that we can be selected from a variety of materials depending on specific medical applications. In Chapter 3, study and utilization of magnetic vector for guided tumor penetration was discussed. In the presence of a moderate gradient magnetic field, a powerful magnetic vector is created that allows these nanocapsules to cross cell membranes or blood-tissue barriers and penetrate into the midst of tumors, thus overcoming the well-known problem of limited access of anti-cancer drugs to cancer cells in the interior of a tumor tissue. In

  6. Evaluation of the side effects of poly(epsilon-caprolactone) nanocapsules containing atrazine toward maize plants.

    PubMed

    Oliveira, Halley C; Stolf-Moreira, Renata; Martinez, Cláudia B R; Sousa, Gustavo F M; Grillo, Renato; de Jesus, Marcelo B; Fraceto, Leonardo F

    2015-01-01

    Poly(epsilon-caprolactone) (PCL) nanocapsules have been used as a carrier system for the herbicide atrazine, which is commonly applied to maize. We demonstrated previously that these atrazine containing polymeric nanocapsules were 10-fold more effective in the control of mustard plants (a target species), as compared to a commercial atrazine formulation. Since atrazine can have adverse effects on non-target crops, here we analyzed the effect of encapsulated atrazine on growth, physiological and oxidative stress parameters of soil-grown maize plants (Zea mays L.). One day after the post-emergence treatment with PCL nanocapsules containing atrazine (1 mg mL(-1)), maize plants presented 15 and 21% decreases in maximum quantum yield of photosystem II (PSII) and in net CO2 assimilation rate, respectively, as compared to water-sprayed plants. The same treatment led to a 1.8-fold increase in leaf lipid peroxidation in comparison with control plants. However, all of these parameters were unaffected 4 and 8 days after the application of encapsulated atrazine. These results suggested that the negative effects of atrazine were transient, probably due to the ability of maize plants to detoxify the herbicide. When encapsulated atrazine was applied at a 10-fold lower concentration (0.1 mg mL(-1)), a dosage that is still effective for weed control, no effects were detected even shortly after application. Regardless of the herbicide concentration, neither pre- nor post-emergence treatment with the PCL nanocapsules carrying atrazine resulted in the development of any macroscopic symptoms in maize leaves, and there were no impacts on shoot growth. Additionally, no effects were observed when plants were sprayed with PCL nanocapsules without atrazine. Overall, these results suggested that the use of PCL nanocapsules containing atrazine did not lead to persistent side effects in maize plants, and that the technique could offer a safe tool for weed control without affecting crop growth

  7. Evaluation of the side effects of poly(epsilon-caprolactone) nanocapsules containing atrazine toward maize plants

    PubMed Central

    Oliveira, Halley C.; Stolf-Moreira, Renata; Martinez, Cláudia B. R.; Sousa, Gustavo F. M.; Grillo, Renato; de Jesus, Marcelo B.; Fraceto, Leonardo F.

    2015-01-01

    Poly(epsilon-caprolactone) (PCL) nanocapsules have been used as a carrier system for the herbicide atrazine, which is commonly applied to maize. We demonstrated previously that these atrazine containing polymeric nanocapsules were 10-fold more effective in the control of mustard plants (a target species), as compared to a commercial atrazine formulation. Since atrazine can have adverse effects on non-target crops, here we analyzed the effect of encapsulated atrazine on growth, physiological and oxidative stress parameters of soil-grown maize plants (Zea mays L.). One day after the post-emergence treatment with PCL nanocapsules containing atrazine (1 mg mL−1), maize plants presented 15 and 21% decreases in maximum quantum yield of photosystem II (PSII) and in net CO2 assimilation rate, respectively, as compared to water-sprayed plants. The same treatment led to a 1.8-fold increase in leaf lipid peroxidation in comparison with control plants. However, all of these parameters were unaffected 4 and 8 days after the application of encapsulated atrazine. These results suggested that the negative effects of atrazine were transient, probably due to the ability of maize plants to detoxify the herbicide. When encapsulated atrazine was applied at a 10-fold lower concentration (0.1 mg mL−1), a dosage that is still effective for weed control, no effects were detected even shortly after application. Regardless of the herbicide concentration, neither pre- nor post-emergence treatment with the PCL nanocapsules carrying atrazine resulted in the development of any macroscopic symptoms in maize leaves, and there were no impacts on shoot growth. Additionally, no effects were observed when plants were sprayed with PCL nanocapsules without atrazine. Overall, these results suggested that the use of PCL nanocapsules containing atrazine did not lead to persistent side effects in maize plants, and that the technique could offer a safe tool for weed control without affecting crop growth

  8. Frozen beverage machine

    SciTech Connect

    Williams, J.D.

    1988-04-12

    A frozen beverage machine is described, comprising: a. a frame having an exterior, an interior, a front and a back; b. a cylinder, having an interior and an exterior as well as first and second ends and further having an opening in each of the ends, the cylinder being horizontally and fixedly positioned within the interior of the frame with the second end facing the front of the frame; c. a means, sealingly attached to the opening in the second end of the cylinder, for emptying the cylinder; d. a means, positioned within the frame and communicating with the exterior of the cylinder, for removing heat from the cylinder; e. at least one support bracket; f. a shaft, rotatably attached within the opening in the support bracket and rotatably and sealingly attached within the opening in the first end of the cylinder and extending to the interior of the cylinder; g. a motor assembly, operatively connected to a portion of the shaft exterior to the cylinder and suspended from the shaft such that the weight of the motor assembly is supported only by the shaft; h. a contact switch; and i. a resilient means, connected to the frame and the motor assembly, for maintaining the position of the motor assembly relative to the shaft until a desired threshold resistance to rotation of the shaft within the cylinder occur, and then allowing the motor assembly to rotate to a desired position relative to the shaft.

  9. Liposome-like nanocapsules of dual drug-tailed betaine for cancer therapy.

    PubMed

    Fang, Shuo; Niu, Yuge; Zhang, Wei; Zhang, Yemin; Yu, Liangli; Zhang, Yingyi; Li, Xinsong

    2015-09-30

    A novel dual drug-tailed betaine conjugate amphiphile has been firstly synthesized in which the polar headgroup is derived from glycine betaine and the hydrophobic tails are chlorambucil molecules. The newly prepared conjugate undergoes self-assembly to form stable liposome-like nanocapsules as an effective carrier with high drug loading capacity. The nanocapsules showed higher cytotoxic effects to cancer cell lines than those of free chlorambucil in vitro, and inhibited tumor growth effectively in vivo. This strategy that utilizes new dual drug-tailed betaine conjugate amphiphile to construct a self-assembled nanoparticle drug delivery system may have great potential in cancer chemotherapy.

  10. Third order optical nonlinearities characteristics of Disperse Red1 organic dye molecules inside of polymeric nanocapsules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sharifimehr, Mohammad Reza; Ayoubi, Kazem; Mohajerani, Ezeddin

    2015-11-01

    Measuring nonlinear optical response of a specific material in a mixture, not only leads to investigate the behavior of a particular component in various circumstances, but also can be a way to select suitable combination and optimum concentration of additives and therefore obtaining the maximum nonlinear optical signals. In this work, by using dual-arm Z-scan technique, the nonlinear refractive index of Disperse Red1 (DR1) organic dye molecules inside the core of prepared polymeric nanocapsules was measured among various materials which prepared nanocapsules were made of them. Then the measured value was compared with nonlinear refractive index of DR1 solved in dichloromethane.

  11. Effects of Two Types of Melatonin-Loaded Nanocapsules with Distinct Supramolecular Structures: Polymeric (NC) and Lipid-Core Nanocapsules (LNC) on Bovine Embryo Culture Model

    PubMed Central

    Komninou, Eliza Rossi; Remião, Mariana Härter; Lucas, Caroline Gomes; Domingues, William Borges; Basso, Andrea Cristina; Jornada, Denise Soledade; Deschamps, João Carlos; Beck, Ruy Carlos Ruver; Pohlmann, Adriana Raffin; Bordignon, Vilceu; Seixas, Fabiana Kömmling; Campos, Vinicius Farias; Guterres, Silvia Stanisçuaski; Collares, Tiago

    2016-01-01

    Melatonin has been used as a supplement in culture medium to improve the efficiency of in vitro produced mammalian embryos. Through its ability to scavenge toxic oxygen derivatives and regulate cellular mRNA levels for antioxidant enzymes, this molecule has been shown to play a protective role against damage by free radicals, to which in vitro cultured embryos are exposed during early development. In vivo and in vitro studies have been performed showing that the use of nanocapsules as active substances carriers increases stability, bioavailability and biodistribution of drugs, such as melatonin, to the cells and tissues, improving their antioxidant properties. These properties can be modulated through the manipulation of formula composition, especially in relation to the supramolecular structures of the nanocapsule core and the surface area that greatly influences drug release mechanisms in biological environments. This study aimed to evaluate the effects of two types of melatonin-loaded nanocapsules with distinct supramolecular structures, polymeric (NC) and lipid-core (LNC) nanocapsules, on in vitro cultured bovine embryos. Embryonic development, apoptosis, reactive oxygen species (ROS) production, and mRNA levels of genes involved in cell apoptosis, ROS and cell pluripotency were evaluated after supplementation of culture medium with non-encapsulated melatonin (Mel), melatonin-loaded polymeric nanocapsules (Mel-NC) and melatonin-loaded lipid-core nanocapsules (Mel-LNC) at 10−6, 10−9, and 10−12 M drug concentrations. The highest hatching rate was observed in embryos treated with 10−9 M Mel-LNC. When compared to Mel and Mel-NC treatments at the same concentration (10−9 M), Mel-LNC increased embryo cell number, decreased cell apoptosis and ROS levels, down-regulated mRNA levels of BAX, CASP3, and SHC1 genes, and up-regulated mRNA levels of CAT and SOD2 genes. These findings indicate that nanoencapsulation with LNC increases the protective effects of

  12. Effects of Two Types of Melatonin-Loaded Nanocapsules with Distinct Supramolecular Structures: Polymeric (NC) and Lipid-Core Nanocapsules (LNC) on Bovine Embryo Culture Model.

    PubMed

    Komninou, Eliza Rossi; Remião, Mariana Härter; Lucas, Caroline Gomes; Domingues, William Borges; Basso, Andrea Cristina; Jornada, Denise Soledade; Deschamps, João Carlos; Beck, Ruy Carlos Ruver; Pohlmann, Adriana Raffin; Bordignon, Vilceu; Seixas, Fabiana Kömmling; Campos, Vinicius Farias; Guterres, Silvia Stanisçuaski; Collares, Tiago

    2016-01-01

    Melatonin has been used as a supplement in culture medium to improve the efficiency of in vitro produced mammalian embryos. Through its ability to scavenge toxic oxygen derivatives and regulate cellular mRNA levels for antioxidant enzymes, this molecule has been shown to play a protective role against damage by free radicals, to which in vitro cultured embryos are exposed during early development. In vivo and in vitro studies have been performed showing that the use of nanocapsules as active substances carriers increases stability, bioavailability and biodistribution of drugs, such as melatonin, to the cells and tissues, improving their antioxidant properties. These properties can be modulated through the manipulation of formula composition, especially in relation to the supramolecular structures of the nanocapsule core and the surface area that greatly influences drug release mechanisms in biological environments. This study aimed to evaluate the effects of two types of melatonin-loaded nanocapsules with distinct supramolecular structures, polymeric (NC) and lipid-core (LNC) nanocapsules, on in vitro cultured bovine embryos. Embryonic development, apoptosis, reactive oxygen species (ROS) production, and mRNA levels of genes involved in cell apoptosis, ROS and cell pluripotency were evaluated after supplementation of culture medium with non-encapsulated melatonin (Mel), melatonin-loaded polymeric nanocapsules (Mel-NC) and melatonin-loaded lipid-core nanocapsules (Mel-LNC) at 10-6, 10-9, and 10-12 M drug concentrations. The highest hatching rate was observed in embryos treated with 10-9 M Mel-LNC. When compared to Mel and Mel-NC treatments at the same concentration (10-9 M), Mel-LNC increased embryo cell number, decreased cell apoptosis and ROS levels, down-regulated mRNA levels of BAX, CASP3, and SHC1 genes, and up-regulated mRNA levels of CAT and SOD2 genes. These findings indicate that nanoencapsulation with LNC increases the protective effects of melatonin

  13. Core/shell-structured nickel/nitrogen-doped onion-like carbon nanocapsules with improved electromagnetic wave absorption properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Niandu; Liu, Xianguo; Or, Siu Wing

    2016-05-01

    Core/shell-structured nickel/nitrogen-doped onion-like carbon (Ni/(C, N)) nanocapsules are synthesized by a modified arc-discharge method using N2 gas as the source of N atoms. Core/shell-structured Ni/C nanocapsules are also prepared for comparison. The Ni/(C, N) nanocapsules with diameters of 10-80 nm exhibit a clear core/shell structure. The doping of N atoms introduces more lattice defects into the (C, N) shells and creates more disorderly C in the (C, N) shells. This leads to a slight shift in the dielectric resonance peak to the lower frequency side and an increase in the dielectric loss tangent for the Ni/(C, N) nanocapsules in comparison with the Ni/C nanocapsules. The magnetic permeability of both types of nanocapsules remains almost unaltered since the N atoms exist only in the (C, N) shells. The reflection loss (RL) of the Ni/(C, N) nanocapsules not only reaches a high value of -35 dB at 13.6 GHz, but also is generally improved in the low-frequency S and C microwave bands covering 2-8 GHz as a result of the N-doping-induced additional dipolar polarization and dielectric loss from the (C, N) shells.

  14. Hydrogels containing redispersible spray-dried melatonin-loaded nanocapsules: a formulation for transdermal-controlled delivery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoffmeister, Cristiane RD; Durli, Taís L.; Schaffazick, Scheila R.; Raffin, Renata P.; Bender, Eduardo A.; Beck, Ruy CR; Pohlmann, Adriana R.; Guterres, Sílvia S.

    2012-05-01

    The aim of the present study was to develop a transdermal system for controlled delivery of melatonin combining three strategies: nanoencapsulation of melatonin, drying of melatonin-loaded nanocapsules, and incorporation of nanocapsules in a hydrophilic gel. Nanocapsules were prepared by interfacial deposition of the polymer and were spray-dried using water-soluble excipients. In vitro drug release profiles were evaluated by the dialysis bag method, and skin permeation studies were carried out using Franz cells with porcine skin as the membrane. The use of 10% ( w/ v) water-soluble excipients (lactose or maltodextrin) as spray-drying adjuvants furnished redispersible powders (redispersibility index approximately 1.0) suitable for incorporation into hydrogels. All formulations showed a better controlled in vitro release of melatonin compared with the melatonin solution. The best controlled release results were achieved with hydrogels prepared with dried nanocapsules (hydrogels > redispersed dried nanocapsules > nanocapsule suspension > melatonin solution). The skin permeation studies demonstrated a significant modulation of the transdermal melatonin permeation for hydrogels prepared with redispersible nanocapsules. In this way, the additive effect of the different approaches used in this study (nanoencapsulation, spray-drying, and preparation of semisolid dosage forms) allows not only the control of melatonin release, but also transdermal permeation.

  15. Hybrid Collagenase Nanocapsules for Enhanced Nanocarrier Penetration in Tumoral Tissues.

    PubMed

    Villegas, María Rocío; Baeza, Alejandro; Vallet-Regí, María

    2015-11-01

    Poor penetration of drug delivery nanocarriers within dense extracellular matrices constitutes one of the main liabilities of current nanomedicines. The conjugation of proteolytic enzymes on the nanoparticle surface constitutes an attractive alternative. However, the scarce resistance of these enzymes against the action of proteases or other aggressive agents present in the bloodstream strongly limits their application. Herein, a novel nanodevice able to transport proteolytic enzymes coated with an engineered pH-responsive polymeric is presented. This degradable coat protects the housed enzymes against proteolytic attack at the same time that it triggers their release under mild acidic conditions, usually present in many tumoral tissues. These enzyme nanocapsules have been attached on the surface of mesoporous silica nanoparticles, as nanocarrier model, showing a significatively higher penetration of the nanoparticles within 3D collagen matrices which housed human osteosarcoma cells (HOS). This strategy can improve the therapeutic efficacy of the current nanomedicines, allowing a more homogeneous and deeper distribution of the therapeutic nanosystems in cancerous tissues.

  16. Heparin-based nanocapsules as potential drug delivery systems.

    PubMed

    Baier, Grit; Winzen, Svenja; Messerschmidt, Claudia; Frank, Daniela; Fichter, Michael; Gehring, Stephan; Mailänder, Volker; Landfester, Katharina

    2015-06-01

    Herein, the synthesis and characterization of heparin-based nanocapsules (NCs) as potential drug delivery systems is described. For the synthesis of the heparin-based NCs, the versatile method of miniemulsion polymerization at the droplets interface was achieved resulting in narrowly distributed NCs with 180 nm in diameter. Scanning and transmission electron microscopy images showed clearly NC morphology. A highly negative charge density for the heparin-based NCs was determined by measuring the electro-kinetic potential. Measuring the activated clotting time demonstrated the biological intactness of the polymeric shell. The ability of heparin-based NCs to bind to antithrombin (AT III) was investigated using isothermal titration calorimetry and dynamic light scattering experiments. The chemical stability of the NCs was studied in physiological protein-containing solutions and also in medically interesting fluids such as sodium chloride 0.9%, Ringer's solution, and phosphate buffer saline using dynamic light scattering and measuring the fluorescence intensity. The impressive uptake of NCs in different cells was confirmed by fluorescence-activated cell sorting, confocal laser scanning microscopy, and transmission electron microscopy. The low toxicity of all types of NCs was demonstrated.

  17. Core/shell structured hollow mesoporous nanocapsules: a potential platform for simultaneous cell imaging and anticancer drug delivery.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yu; Chen, Hangrong; Zeng, Deping; Tian, Yunbo; Chen, Feng; Feng, Jingwei; Shi, Jianlin

    2010-10-26

    A potential platform for simultaneous anticancer drug delivery and MRI cell imaging has been demonstrated by uniform hollow inorganic core/shell structured multifunctional mesoporous nanocapsules, which are composed of functional inorganic (Fe(3)O(4), Au, etc.) nanocrystals as cores, a thin mesoporous silica shell, and a huge cavity in between. The synthetic strategy for the creation of huge cavities between functional core and mesoporous silica shell is based on a structural difference based selective etching method, by which solid silica middle layer of Fe(2)O(3)@SiO(2)@mSiO(2) (or Au@SiO(2)@mSiO(2)) composite nanostructures was selectively etched away while the mesoporous silica shell could be kept relatively intact. The excellent biocompatibility of obtained multifunctional nanocapsules (Fe(3)O(4)@mSiO(2)) was demonstrated by very low cytotoxicity against various cell lines, low hemolyticity against human blood red cells and no significant coagulation effect against blood plasma. The cancer cell uptake and intracellular location of the nanocapsules were observed by confocal laser scanning microscopy and bio-TEM. Importantly, the prepared multifunctional inorganic mesoporous nanocapsules show both high loading capacity (20%) and efficiency (up to 100%) for doxorubicin simultaneously because of the formation of the cavity, enhanced surface area/pore volume and the electrostatic interaction between DOX molecules and mesoporous silica surface. Besides, the capability of Fe(3)O(4)@mSiO(2) nanocapsules as contrast agents of MRI was demonstrated both in vitro and in vivo, indicating the simultaneous imaging and therapeutic multifunctionalities of the composite nanocapsules. Moreover, the concept of multifunctional inorganic nanocapsules was extended to design and prepare Gd-Si-DTPA grafted Au@mSiO(2) nanocapsules for nanomedical applications, further demonstrating the generality of this strategy for the preparation of various multifunctional mesoporous nanocapsules

  18. Manageable cytotoxicity of nanocapsules immobilizing D-amino acid oxidase via exogenous administration of nontoxic prodrug

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Yang; Zhu, Yingchun; Fu, Jingke

    2014-02-01

    D-Amino acid oxidase (DAO), which could catalyze generation of hydrogen peroxide with strong oxidbility and cytotoxicity, has become of interest as a biocatalyst for therapeutic treatments. Herein we report that amino-functional hollow mesoporous silica with large pore size (10.27 nm) and positively charged surface effectively immobilize DAO with negative charge. The adsorption, activity and stability of DAO are demonstrated to depend mainly on the amino-functionalization of surface. Significant cancer cell killing effect is observed when the cells are treated by the nanocapsules entrapping DAO together with D-alanine, showing distinct dose-dependency on concentration of the nanocapsules entrapping DAO or D-alanine. Nevertheless, the toxicity is completely neutralized by the addition of catalase, and anti-tumor effect is not observed when either the nanocapsules entrapping DAO or D-alanine is applied alone. The results indicate that cytotoxicity of the nanocapsules entrapping DAO could be managed by exogenous administration of nontoxic prodrug to tumor tissue, due to the stereoselectivity of DAO and the scarcity of its substrates in mammalian organisms. Thus, the method might be exploited as a potential treatment for cancer therapy.

  19. Controlled permeability of phospholipid bilayers and bilayer-templated polymer nanocapsules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Danila, Delia Cezara

    The work presented focuses on the study of the permeability of the phospholipid bilayer membranes of liposomes---a model of biological membranes---by the use of carrier molecules as well as on the study of the permeability of polymer nanocapsules when using liposomes as a template for their synthesis. The results of this work can lead to the development of novel biomedical devices and to the development of novel classes of polymer nanomaterials. A series of carrier molecules, alpha-aminophosphonates, was synthesized in order to transport a polar molecule, an amino acid (alanine), across the lipid bilayer of synthetic liposomal membranes. Aminophosphonates were prepared by the Kabachnik-Fields reaction from a primary amine, a phosphite, and a carbonyl compound. Transport of alanine, a model polar molecule, was studied by liposome efflux experiments coupled with enzymatic assays. All carriers exhibited moderate transport properties, which makes them suitable for construction of controlled released devices. A second project involved the use of liposomes as a template for the synthesis of polymer nanocapsules. Porous polymer nanocapsules were prepared by co-dissolving hydrophobic monomers and porogens in the interior of bilayer membranes followed by polymerization and subsequent removal of lipid scaffold and porogens. Structural characterization was performed by electron microscopy. Permeability of polymer nanocapsules was studied by analyzing the retention of molecules of various sizes in the capsule interior. Selective pores were produced that were capable of differentiating molecules with a relatively small size difference. This work describes a new class of polymer nanomaterials previously unavailable.

  20. PVM/MA-shelled selol nanocapsules promote cell cycle arrest in A549 lung adenocarcinoma cells

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Selol is an oily mixture of selenitetriacylglycerides that was obtained as a semi-synthetic compound containing selenite. Selol is effective against cancerous cells and less toxic to normal cells compared with inorganic forms of selenite. However, Selol’s hydrophobicity hinders its administration in vivo. Therefore, the present study aimed to produce a formulation of Selol nanocapsules (SPN) and to test its effectiveness against pulmonary adenocarcinoma cells (A549). Results Nanocapsules were produced through an interfacial nanoprecipitation method. The polymer shell was composed of poly(methyl vinyl ether-co-maleic anhydride) (PVM/MA) copolymer. The obtained nanocapsules were monodisperse and stable. Both free Selol (S) and SPN reduced the viability of A549 cells, whereas S induced a greater reduction in non-tumor cell viability than SPN. The suppressor effect of SPN was primarily associated to the G2/M arrest of the cell cycle, as was corroborated by the down-regulations of the CCNB1 and CDC25C genes. Apoptosis and necrosis were induced by Selol in a discrete percentage of A549 cells. SPN also increased the production of reactive oxygen species, leading to oxidative cellular damage and to the overexpression of the GPX1, CYP1A1, BAX and BCL2 genes. Conclusions This study presents a stable formulation of PVM/MA-shelled Selol nanocapsules and provides the first demonstration that Selol promotes G2/M arrest in cancerous cells. PMID:25149827

  1. Modulation of Gene Expression by Polymer Nanocapsule Delivery of DNA Cassettes Encoding Small RNAs.

    PubMed

    Yan, Ming; Wen, Jing; Liang, Min; Lu, Yunfeng; Kamata, Masakazu; Chen, Irvin S Y

    2015-01-01

    Small RNAs, including siRNAs, gRNAs and miRNAs, modulate gene expression and serve as potential therapies for human diseases. Delivery to target cells remains the fundamental limitation for use of these RNAs in humans. To address this challenge, we have developed a nanocapsule delivery technology that encapsulates small DNA molecules encoding RNAs into a small (30 nm) polymer nanocapsule. For proof of concept, we transduced DNA expression cassettes for three small RNAs. In one application, the DNA cassette encodes an shRNA transcriptional unit that downregulates CCR5 and protects from HIV-1 infection. The DNA cassette nanocapsules were further engineered for timed release of the DNA cargo for prolonged knockdown of CCR5. Secondly, the nanocapsules provide an efficient means for delivery of gRNAs in the CRISPR/Cas9 system to mutate integrated HIV-1. Finally, delivery of microRNA-125b to mobilized human CD34+ cells enhances survival and expansion of the CD34+ cells in culture. PMID:26035832

  2. Hybrid polymer nanocapsules enhance in vitro delivery of azidothymidine-triphosphate to macrophages.

    PubMed

    Hillaireau, Hervé; Le Doan, Trung; Appel, Martine; Couvreur, Patrick

    2006-12-01

    One of the main limitations in the use of nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NRTIs) such as azidothymidine (AZT) lies in their poor intracellular activation by cellular kinases into their active tri-phosphorylated form. Thus, the direct administration of triphosphate NRTIs like azidothymidine-triphosphate (AZT-TP), has been considered for bypassing this metabolic bottleneck, but these molecules do not diffuse intracellularly, due to their too hydrophilic character. Therefore, poly(iso-butylcyanoacrylate) (PIBCA) aqueous-cored nanocapsules have been tested as carriers to overcome the cellular delivery of AZT-TP. However, encapsulation of AZT-TP remained challenging because this molecule, due to its relatively low molecular weight, rapidly leaked out of the nanocapsules. In this study, we show that association of AZT-TP to a cationic polymer such as poly(ethyleneimine) (PEI) allowed to reach high entrapment efficiency of AZT-TP in PIBCA nanocapsules (up to 90%) as well as gradual in vitro release. The resulting hybrid PIBCA/PEI nanocapsules efficiently delivered AZT-TP in vitro to macrophages: the cellular uptake was increased by 30-fold compared to the free molecule, reaching relevant cellular concentrations for therapeutic purposes.

  3. Glutathione Responsive Hyaluronic Acid Nanocapsules Obtained by Bioorthogonal Interfacial "Click" Reaction.

    PubMed

    Baier, Grit; Fichter, Michael; Kreyes, Andreas; Klein, Katja; Mailänder, Volker; Gehring, Stephan; Landfester, Katharina

    2016-01-11

    Azide-functionalized hyaluronic acid and disulfide dialkyne have been used for "click" reaction polymerization at the miniemulsion droplets interface leading to glutathione responsive nanocapsules (NCs). Inverse miniemulsion polymerization was chosen, due to its excellent performance properties, for example, tuning of size and size distribution, shell thickness/density, and high pay loading efficiency. The obtained size, size distribution, and encapsulation efficiency were checked via fluorescent spectroscopy, and the tripeptide glutathione was used to release an encapsulated fluorescent dye after cleavage of the nanocapsules shell. To show the glutathione-mediated intracellular cleavage of disulfide-containing NC shells, CellTracker was encapsulated into the nanocapsules. The cellular uptake in dendritic cells and the cleavage of the nanocapsules in the cells were studied using confocal laser scanning microscopy. Because of the mild reaction conditions used during the interfacial polymerization and the excellent cleavage properties, we believe that the synthesis of glutathione responsive hyaluronic acid NCs reported herein are of high interest for the encapsulation and release of sensitive compounds at high yields.

  4. Formation of Alumina Nanocapsules by High-Energy-Electron Irradiation of Na-dawsonite Nanorods

    PubMed Central

    Duan, Xiaochuan; Kim, Tongil; Han, Lili; Ma, Jianmin; Du, Xiwen; Zheng, Wenjun

    2013-01-01

    We report the synthesis of unique Al2O3 nanocapsules by high-energy-electron irradiation of Na-dawsonite and a formation mechanism different from thermal decomposition which usually produces NaAlO2. The novel decomposition process may open up a shortcut for fabricating hollow nanostructures. PMID:24225738

  5. Chitosan gel containing polymeric nanocapsules: a new formulation for vaginal drug delivery

    PubMed Central

    Frank, Luiza A; Sandri, Giuseppina; D’Autilia, Francesca; Contri, Renata V; Bonferoni, Maria Cristina; Caramella, Carla; Frank, Alejandro G; Pohlmann, Adriana R; Guterres, Silvia S

    2014-01-01

    The vaginal route of administration is an alternative for several treatments for either local or systemic pharmacological effects. However, the permanence of a drug in this route represents a challenge for formulation development that can be overcome by using nanoencapsulation and chitosan gel. Thus, this work aimed to evaluate the performance of chitosan hydrogels containing cationic and anionic acrylic-based nanocapsules (Eudragit® RS 100 and Eudragit® S 100, respectively) with Nile red as a model of lipophilic substance in the vaginal route of administration, as measured by increases in the residence time and the penetration of these formulations. Several formulations were prepared with increasing chitosan concentrations, and were analyzed in terms of pH and rheological behavior so that the most suitable formulation could be selected. The enhancement of the adhesion (tensile stress test and washability profile) and penetration (confocal laser scanning microscopy and extraction followed by quantification) properties of the formulations, when applied to porcine vaginal mucosa, were evaluated. The nanocapsule suspensions produced presented adequate properties: size of approximately 200 nm (polydispersity index of ≤v0.2); zeta potential around +10 mV for the cationic formulation and -10 mV for the anionic formulation; and pH values of 6.1±0.1 (Eudragit RS 100), 5.3±0.2 (Eudragit S 100), 6.2±0.1 (Nile red loaded Eudragit RS 100), and 5.1±0.1 (Nile red loaded Eudragit S 100). The chitosan formulation presented suitable viscosity for vaginal application and acidic pH (approximately 4.5). The tensile stress test showed that both formulations containing polymeric nanocapsules presented higher mucoadhesion when compared with the formulation without nanocapsules. In the washability experiment, no significant differences were found between formulations. Confocal microscopy and fluorescence quantification after extraction from the mucosa showed higher penetration of

  6. Enhanced cellular uptake and intracellular drug controlled release of VESylated gemcitabine prodrug nanocapsules.

    PubMed

    Fang, Yanfen; Du, Fang; Xu, Yanyun; Meng, Haijing; Huang, Jin; Zhang, Xiongwen; Lu, Wei; Liu, Shiyuan; Yu, Jiahui

    2015-04-01

    Gemcitabine, 2',2'-difluoro-2'-deoxycytidine (dFdC), is the first-line antitumor agent in the treatment of pancreatic tumors. However, it possesses certain drawbacks, such as poor biological half-life resulted from rapid metabolism and the induction of resistance, leading to its restricted therapeutic potential. With the purpose of overcoming the above drawbacks, we developed a novel VESylated gemcitabine (VES-dFdC) prodrug by coupling the N4-amino group of the pyrimidine ring of dFdC to the carboxylic group of vitamin E succinate (VES). The resulting amphiphilic compound could protect the N4-amino group of the pyrimidine ring of dFdC from being degraded by cytidine deaminase. What is more, the prodrug was able to form nanocapsules in aqueous media (similar to the structure of cytomembrane), confirmed by transmission electron microscope (TEM). Their average particle size is about 107 nm with zeta potential of -33.4 mV measured by dynamic light scattering (DLS). VES-dFdC nanocapsules showed accelerated accumulative drug release profile in simulated lysosome environment (sodium acetate buffer pH 5+cathepsin B, an enzyme in lysosome), due to the easily hydrolyzed property of amide bond by cathepsin B, while rather stable in PBS (pH 7.4) or sodium acetate buffer (pH 5.0) without cathepsin B, indicating their enhanced intracellular drug controlled release manner. Besides, VES-dFdC prodrug nanocapsules showed enhanced cellular uptake ability, and the amount of cellular uptake of the nanocapsules by the pancreatic cancer cell line BxPC-3 is seventy times higher than that of native gemcitabine in the first 1.5 h. Compared with free gemcitabine, VES-dFdC nanocapsules showed essentially increased growth inhibition activity against BxPC-3 cells, indicating its great potential as prodrug for pancreatic tumor therapy with improved antitumor activity.

  7. Logical enzyme triggered (LET) layer-by-layer nanocapsules for drug delivery system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kelley, Marie-Michelle

    Breast cancer is the second leading cause of morbidity and mortality among women in the United States. Early detection and treatment methods have resulted in 100% 5-year survival rates for stage 0-I breast cancer. Unfortunately, the 5-year survival rate of metastatic breast cancer (stage IV) is reduced fivefold. The most challenging issues of metastatic breast cancer treatment are the ability to selectively target the adenoma and adenocarcinoma cells both in their location of origin and as they metastasize following initial treatment. Multilayer/Layer-by-Layer (LbL) nanocapsules have garnered vast interest as anticancer drug delivery systems due to their ability to be easily modified, their capacity to encapsulate a wide range of chemicals and proteins, and their improved pharmacokinetics. Multilayer nanocapsule formation requires the layering of opposing charged polyelectrolytic polymers over a removable core nanoparticle. Our goal is to have a programmable nanocapsules degrade only after receiving and validating specific breast cancer biomarkers. The overall objective is to fabricate a novel programmable LbL nanocapsule with a specific logical system that will enhance functions pertinent to drug delivery systems. Our central hypothesis is that LbL technology coupled with extracellular matrix (ECM) protein substrates will result in a logical enzyme triggered LbL nanocapsule drug delivery system. This platform represents a novel approach toward a logically regulated nano-encapsulated cancer therapy that can selectively follow and deliver chemotherapeutics to cancer cells. The rationale for this project is to overcome a crucial limitation of existing drug delivery systems where chemotherapeutic can be erroneously delivered to non-carcinogenic cells.

  8. Preparation of vitamin E loaded nanocapsules by the nanoprecipitation method: from laboratory scale to large scale using a membrane contactor.

    PubMed

    Khayata, N; Abdelwahed, W; Chehna, M F; Charcosset, C; Fessi, H

    2012-02-28

    Vitamin E or α-tocopherol is widely used as a strong antioxidant in many medical and cosmetic applications, but is rapidly degraded, because of its light, heat and oxygen sensitivity. In this study, we applied the nanoprecipitation method to prepare vitamin E-loaded nanocapsules, at laboratory-scale and pilot-scale. We scaled-up the preparation of nanocapsule with the membrane contactor technique. The effect of several formulation variables on the vitamin E-loaded nanocapsules properties (mean diameter, zeta potential, and drug entrapment efficiency) was investigated. The optimized formulation at laboratory-scale and pilot-scale lead to the preparation of vitamin E-loaded nanocapsules with mean diameter of 165 and 172 nm, respectively, and a high encapsulation efficiency (98% and 97%, respectively).

  9. A simple sonochemical method for fabricating poly(methyl methacrylate)/stearic acid phase change energy storage nanocapsules.

    PubMed

    Wang, Guxia; Xu, Weibing; Hou, Qian; Guo, Shengwei

    2015-11-01

    In this study, stearic acid suitable for thermal energy storage applications was nanoencapsulated in a poly(methyl methacrylate) shell. The nanocapsules were prepared using a simple ultrasonically initiated in situ polymerization method. The morphology and particle size of the poly(methyl methacrylate)/stearic acid phase change energy storage nanocapsules (PMS-PCESNs) were analyzed using transmission electron microscopy, scanning electron microscopy, atomic force microscopy and dynamic light scattering. The latent heat storage capacities of stearic acid and the PMS-PCESNs were determined using differential scanning calorimetry. The chemical composition of the nanocapsules was characterized using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. All of the results show that the PMS-PCESNs were synthesized successfully and that the latent heat storage capacity and encapsulation efficiency were 155.6 J/g and 83.0%, respectively, and the diameter of each nanocapsule was 80-90 nm.

  10. Microheterogeneity in Frozen Protein Solutions

    PubMed Central

    Twomey, Alan; Kurata, Kosaku; Nagare, Yutaka; Takamatsu, Hiroshi; Aksan, Alptekin

    2015-01-01

    In frozen and lyophilized systems, the biological to be stabilized (e.g. therapeutic protein, biomarker, drug-delivery vesicle) and the cryo-/lyoprotectant should be co-localized for successful stabilization. During freezing and drying, many factors cause physical separation of the biological from the cryo-/lyoprotectant, called microheterogeneity (MH), which may result in poor stabilization efficiency. We have developed a novel technique that utilized confocal Raman microspectroscopy in combination with counter-gradient freezing to evaluate the effect of a wide range of freezing temperatures (−20 < TF < 0°C) on the MH generated within a frozen formulation in only a few experiments. The freezing experiments conducted with a model system (albumin and trehalose) showed the presence of different degrees of MH in the freeze-concentrated liquid (FCL) in all solutions tested. Mainly, albumin tended to accumulate near the ice interface, where it was physically separated from the cryoprotectant. In frozen 10 wt% trehalose solutions, heterogeneity in FCL was relatively low at any TF. In frozen 20 wt% trehalose solutions, the optimum albumin to trehalose ratio in the FCL can only be ensured if the solution was frozen within a narrow range of temperatures (−16 < TF < −10°C). In the 30 wt% trehalose solutions, freezing within a much more narrow range (−12 < TF < −10°C) was needed to ensure a fairly homogeneous FCL. The method developed here will be helpful for the development of uniformly frozen and stable formulations and freezing protocols for biological as MH is presumed to directly impact stability. PMID:25888798

  11. Sustained ex vivo skin antiseptic activity of chlorhexidine in poly(epsilon-caprolactone) nanocapsule encapsulated form and as a digluconate.

    PubMed

    Lboutounne, Hassan; Chaulet, Jean-François; Ploton, Christine; Falson, Françoise; Pirot, Fabrice

    2002-08-21

    In this work, the sustained bactericidal activity of chlorhexidine base loaded poly(epsilon-caprolactone), PCL, nanocapsules against Staphylococcus epidermidis inoculated onto porcine ear skin was investigated. Drug loaded nanocapsules were prepared by the interfacial polymer deposition following solvent displacement method, then characterized by photon correlation spectroscopy, electrophoretic measurements, transmission and scanning electron microscopy. Antimicrobial activity of these colloidal carriers was evaluated (i) in vitro against eight strains of bacteria, and (ii) ex vivo against Staphylococcus epidermidis inoculated for 12 h onto porcine ear skin surface treated for 3 min either with 0.6% chlorhexidine base loaded or unloaded nanocapsules suspended in hydrogel, or 1% chlorhexidine digluconate aqueous solution. Chlorhexidine absorption into the stratum corneum (SC) was evaluated by the tape-stripping method. The results showed that chlorhexidine nanocapsules in aqueous suspension having a 200-300 nm size and a positive charge exhibited similar minimum inhibitory concentrations against several bacteria with chlorhexidine digluconate aqueous solution. Ex vivo, there was a significant reduction in the number of colony forming units (CFUs) from 3-min treated skin with chlorhexidine nanocapsule suspension (5 to <1 log(10)) compared to chlorhexidine digluconate solution (5 to 2.02 log(10)) after a 8-h artificial contamination. After a 12-h artificial contamination, both formulations failed to achieve a 5 log(10) reduction. Furthermore, from a 3-min treatment with an identical applied dose and a subsequent 12-h artificial contamination, a residual chlorhexidine concentration in the SC was found to be three-fold higher with chlorhexidine nanocapsule suspension than with chlorhexidine digluconate solution. Interestingly, nanocapsules were shown in porcine skin follicles. Consequently, a topical application of chlorhexidine base-loaded positively charged

  12. Hydrogels containing redispersible spray-dried melatonin-loaded nanocapsules: a formulation for transdermal-controlled delivery

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to develop a transdermal system for controlled delivery of melatonin combining three strategies: nanoencapsulation of melatonin, drying of melatonin-loaded nanocapsules, and incorporation of nanocapsules in a hydrophilic gel. Nanocapsules were prepared by interfacial deposition of the polymer and were spray-dried using water-soluble excipients. In vitro drug release profiles were evaluated by the dialysis bag method, and skin permeation studies were carried out using Franz cells with porcine skin as the membrane. The use of 10% (w/v) water-soluble excipients (lactose or maltodextrin) as spray-drying adjuvants furnished redispersible powders (redispersibility index approximately 1.0) suitable for incorporation into hydrogels. All formulations showed a better controlled in vitro release of melatonin compared with the melatonin solution. The best controlled release results were achieved with hydrogels prepared with dried nanocapsules (hydrogels > redispersed dried nanocapsules > nanocapsule suspension > melatonin solution). The skin permeation studies demonstrated a significant modulation of the transdermal melatonin permeation for hydrogels prepared with redispersible nanocapsules. In this way, the additive effect of the different approaches used in this study (nanoencapsulation, spray-drying, and preparation of semisolid dosage forms) allows not only the control of melatonin release, but also transdermal permeation. PMID:22587614

  13. Frozen shoulder: a sympathetic dystrophy?

    PubMed

    Müller, L P; Müller, L A; Happ, J; Kerschbaumer, F

    2000-01-01

    Diagnostic and clinical features of the frozen shoulder syndrome and the Sudeck syndrome are similar in many aspects. Radioisotope bone scan shows an increased uptake in affected areas in both diseases, while native radiographs show a progressive demineralisation. Measurement of bone mineral density (BMD) by quantitative digital radiography objectified these local decalcification processes in an early stage of the frozen shoulder syndrome; 10 of 12 patients with primary frozen shoulder had BMD decreases greater 21% in the humeral head of the affected shoulder compared to the non-affected side. In the immobilised control group with degenerative changes of the rotator cuff, calcifying tendinitis and shoulder instability (n = 12) and in the group of healthy probands (n = 20), the difference between the affected and non-affected side (left and right humerus of the healthy probands) was only more than 21% in one case each. There are several references in the literature that assume frozen shoulder to be an algoneurodystrophic process; our observations support this hypothesis, possibly leading to earlier diagnoses and extended therapeutic management. PMID:10653111

  14. Frozen Scope and Grammatical Optimization

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Freedman, Michael

    2014-01-01

    The literature on quantifier scope has repeatedly observed that some otherwise expected permutations of scope taking elements are unavailable. Various methods have been proffered explaining these facts. This thesis aims to unify three disparate areas where the scope of operators seems to be frozen: the interaction of universal quantifiers with…

  15. 7 CFR 58.327 - Frozen cream.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... Specifications for Dairy Plants Approved for USDA Inspection and Grading Service 1 Quality Specifications for Raw Material § 58.327 Frozen cream. To produce frozen cream eligible for official certification, the quality...

  16. 7 CFR 58.327 - Frozen cream.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Frozen cream. 58.327 Section 58.327 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards... Material § 58.327 Frozen cream. To produce frozen cream eligible for official certification, the quality...

  17. 7 CFR 58.327 - Frozen cream.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Frozen cream. 58.327 Section 58.327 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards... Material § 58.327 Frozen cream. To produce frozen cream eligible for official certification, the quality...

  18. 7 CFR 58.327 - Frozen cream.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Frozen cream. 58.327 Section 58.327 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards... Material § 58.327 Frozen cream. To produce frozen cream eligible for official certification, the quality...

  19. 7 CFR 58.327 - Frozen cream.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Frozen cream. 58.327 Section 58.327 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards... Material § 58.327 Frozen cream. To produce frozen cream eligible for official certification, the quality...

  20. Highly stable, water-dispersible metal-nanoparticle-decorated polymer nanocapsules and their catalytic applications.

    PubMed

    Yun, Gyeongwon; Hassan, Zahid; Lee, Jiyeong; Kim, Jeehong; Lee, Nam-Suk; Kim, Nam Hoon; Baek, Kangkyun; Hwang, Ilha; Park, Chan Gyung; Kim, Kimoon

    2014-06-16

    A facile synthesis of highly stable, water-dispersible metal-nanoparticle-decorated polymer nanocapsules (M@CB-PNs: M=Pd, Au, and Pt) was achieved by a simple two-step process employing a polymer nanocapsule (CB-PN) made of cucurbit[6]uril (CB[6]) and metal salts. The CB-PN serves as a versatile platform where various metal nanoparticles with a controlled size can be introduced on the surface and stabilized to prepare new water-dispersible nanostructures useful for many applications. The Pd nanoparticles on CB-PN exhibit high stability and dispersibility in water as well as excellent catalytic activity and recyclability in carbon-carbon and carbon-nitrogen bond-forming reactions in aqueous medium suggesting potential applications as a green catalyst.

  1. Semi-permeable nanocapsules of konjac glucomannan-chitosan for enzyme immobilization.

    PubMed

    Wang, Rui; Xia, Bing; Li, Bang-Jing; Peng, Shu-Lin; Ding, Li-Sheng; Zhang, Sheng

    2008-11-19

    Carboxymethyl konjac glucomannan-chitosan (CKGM-CS) nanocapsules, spontaneously prepared under very mild conditions by electrostatic complexation, were used for immobilizing L-asparaginase. The matrix has semi-permeability to allow the substrate and product to pass through and to keep L-asparaginase in the matrix to prevent leaking. The cell-like hydrogel matrix was prepared in aqueous system without organic solvents and reagents. The process of the preparation does not denature the enzyme and the activity of the immobilized and native enzyme is very similar. The activity, stability, and characters of the enzyme-loaded nanocapsules were studied. The results indicated the immobilized enzyme has better stability and activity in contrast to the native enzyme. These studies may supply a new material for the immobilization of pH and temperature-sensitive enzyme. PMID:18725277

  2. Hybrid Polyelectrolyte/Fe3O4 Nanocapsules for Hyperthermia Applications.

    PubMed

    Cristofolini, Luigi; Szczepanowicz, Krzysztof; Orsi, Davide; Rimoldi, Tiziano; Albertini, Franca; Warszynski, Piotr

    2016-09-28

    We validated here the applicability to hyperthermia treatment of magnetic nanocapsules prepared by the sequential layer-by-layer adsorption of polyelectrolytes and magnetic, Fe3O4 nanoparticles. For the shell preparation around a nanodroplet liquid core, biocompatible polyelectrolytes were used: poly l-lysine as the polycation and poly glutamic acid as the polyanion. The hyperthermia effect was demonstrated by applying the radio frequency (rf) magnetic field with maximum fields H up to 0.025 T and frequencies up to 430 kHz; we found sizable heating effects, with a heating rate up to 0.46 °C/min. We also found effects of irradiation on capsules' morphology that indicated their disruption, thus suggesting their potential use as nanocarriers of drugs that can be locally released on demand. Therefore, these magnetically responsive nanocapsules could be a promising platform for multifunctional biomedical applications such as the controlled release of pharmaceuticals in combination with hyperthermia treatment. PMID:27588711

  3. Artificial oxygen carriers based on perfluorodecalin-filled poly(n-butyl-cyanoacrylate) nanocapsules.

    PubMed

    Stephan, Claudia; Schlawne, Carolin; Grass, Stefan; Waack, Indra N; Ferenz, Katja B; Bachmann, Michael; Barnert, Sabine; Schubert, Rolf; Bastmeyer, Martin; de Groot, Herbert; Mayer, Christian

    2014-01-01

    Poly(n-butyl-cyanoacrylate)-nanocapsules filled by perfluorodecalin (PFD) are proposed as potential oxygen carriers for blood substitute. The capsule dispersion is prepared via interfacial polymerisation from a PFD emulsion in water which in turn is generated by spontaneous phase separation. The resulting dispersion is capable of carrying approximately 10% of its own volume of gaseous oxygen, which is approximately half of the capacity of human blood. The volumes of the organic solvents and water are varied within a wide range, connected to a change of the capsule radius between 200 and 400 nm. The principal suitability of the capsule dispersion for intravenous application is proven in first physiological experiments. A total amount of 10 ml/kg body weight has been infused into rats, with the dispersion supernatant and a normal saline solution as controls. After the infusion of nanocapsules, the blood pressure as well as the heart rate remains constant on a normal level.

  4. Rattle-type hollow CaWO4:Tb(3+)@SiO2 nanocapsules as carriers for drug delivery.

    PubMed

    Zhai, Xuefeng; Yu, Min; Cheng, Ziyong; Hou, Zhiyao; Ma, Ping'an; Yang, Dongmei; Kang, Xiaojiao; Dai, Yunlu; Wang, Dong; Lin, Jun

    2011-12-28

    Rattle-type hollow nanocapsules are among of the most promising candidates as drug carriers owing to their huge inner space and multifunctional material combination. In this paper, rattle-type hollow CaWO(4):Tb(3+)@SiO(2) nanocapsules with a diameter of 100-110 nm and a wall thickness around 10 nm were fabricated. The hollow silica nanospheres were used as nano-reactors and the luminescent core of CaWO(4):Tb(3+) was post-filled into the nano-reactors by a vacuum nano-casting route combined with a Pechini-type sol-gel method. Subsequently, doxorubicin hydrochloride (DOX), a model of an anti-cancer drug, is loaded into the CaWO(4):Tb(3+)@SiO(2) nanocapsules and their cell cytotoxicity, cancer cell uptake and drug release behavior are investigated in vitro. The prepared multifunctional inorganic nanocapsules show a loading capacity for DOX as high as 124 mg g(-1) and sustained-release properties. The release profile of the drug from DOX-loaded nanocapsules can last over five days. Besides, the blank CaWO(4):Tb(3+)@SiO(2) shows very low cytotoxicity against cancer cell lines (HeLa cell) while the DOX-loaded nanocapsules exhibit relatively high efficiency for killing of HeLa cells. The rapid cancer cell uptake process is observed by confocal laser scanning microscopy. The results indicate that a rattle-type hollow CaWO(4):Tb(3+)@SiO(2) nanocapsule has the potential to be used as drug carrier in therapy. Moreover, it is possible to extend the synthetic strategy in this study to other rattle-type multifunctional composites to meet various demands.

  5. The JLab Frozen Spin Target

    SciTech Connect

    Keith, C. D.

    2009-08-04

    A polarized, frozen spin target has been designed and constructed at Jefferson Lab for use inside the CEBAF Large Acceptance Spectrometer. Protons in TEMPO-doped butanol are polarized via dynamic nuclear polarization (DNP) to approximately 90% using microwaves and an external, 5 T solenoid magnet. The target sample is then cooled to approximately 30 mK while an internal 0.56 T superconducting magnet is used to maintain the polarization. Relaxation times in excess of 3500 hours have been observed.

  6. Biodegradable Poly (Lactic-co-Glycolic Acid)-Polyethylene Glycol Nanocapsules: An Efficient Carrier for Improved Solubility, Bioavailability, and Anticancer Property of Lutein.

    PubMed

    Arunkumar, Ranganathan; Prashanth, Keelara Veerappa Harish; Manabe, Yuki; Hirata, Takashi; Sugawara, Tatsuya; Dharmesh, Shylaja Mallaiah; Baskaran, Vallikannan

    2015-06-01

    Lutein bioavailability is limited because of its poor aqueous solubility. In this study, lutein-poly (lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA)-polyethylene glycol (PEG) nanocapsules were prepared to improve the solubility, bioavailability, and anticancer property of lutein. The scanning electron microscopy and dynamic light scattering examination revealed that the nanocapsules are smooth and spherical with size ranging from 80 to 500 nm (mean = 200 nm). In vitro lutein release profile from nanocapsules showed controlled sustainable release (66%) up to 72 h. Aqueous solubility of lutein nanocapsules was much higher by 735-fold than the lutein. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy analyses showed no chemical interaction among PLGA, PEG, and lutein, indicating possible weak intermolecular forces like hydrogen bonds. X-ray diffraction revealed lutein is distributed in a disordered amorphous state in nanocapsules. Postprandial plasma kinetics (area under the curve) of an oral dose of lutein from nanocapsules was higher by 5.4-fold compared with that of micellar lutein (control). The antiproliferative effect of lutein from nanocapsules (IC50 value, 10.9 μM) was higher (43.6%) than the lutein (IC50 value, 25 μM). Results suggest that PLGA-PEG nanocapsule is an efficient carrier for enhancing hydrophilicity, bioavailability, and anticancer property of lipophilic molecules such as lutein. PMID:25824524

  7. Biodegradable Poly (Lactic-co-Glycolic Acid)-Polyethylene Glycol Nanocapsules: An Efficient Carrier for Improved Solubility, Bioavailability, and Anticancer Property of Lutein.

    PubMed

    Arunkumar, Ranganathan; Prashanth, Keelara Veerappa Harish; Manabe, Yuki; Hirata, Takashi; Sugawara, Tatsuya; Dharmesh, Shylaja Mallaiah; Baskaran, Vallikannan

    2015-06-01

    Lutein bioavailability is limited because of its poor aqueous solubility. In this study, lutein-poly (lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA)-polyethylene glycol (PEG) nanocapsules were prepared to improve the solubility, bioavailability, and anticancer property of lutein. The scanning electron microscopy and dynamic light scattering examination revealed that the nanocapsules are smooth and spherical with size ranging from 80 to 500 nm (mean = 200 nm). In vitro lutein release profile from nanocapsules showed controlled sustainable release (66%) up to 72 h. Aqueous solubility of lutein nanocapsules was much higher by 735-fold than the lutein. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy analyses showed no chemical interaction among PLGA, PEG, and lutein, indicating possible weak intermolecular forces like hydrogen bonds. X-ray diffraction revealed lutein is distributed in a disordered amorphous state in nanocapsules. Postprandial plasma kinetics (area under the curve) of an oral dose of lutein from nanocapsules was higher by 5.4-fold compared with that of micellar lutein (control). The antiproliferative effect of lutein from nanocapsules (IC50 value, 10.9 μM) was higher (43.6%) than the lutein (IC50 value, 25 μM). Results suggest that PLGA-PEG nanocapsule is an efficient carrier for enhancing hydrophilicity, bioavailability, and anticancer property of lipophilic molecules such as lutein.

  8. Activatable thermo-sensitive ICG encapsulated pluronic nanocapsules for temperature sensitive fluorescence tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kwong, Tiffany C.; Nouizi, Farouk; Sampathkumaran, Uma; Zhu, Yue; Alam, Maksudul M.; Gulsen, Gultekin

    2015-03-01

    Fluorescent tomography has been hindered by poor tissue penetration and weak signal which results in poor spatial resolution and quantification accuracy. Recently, it has been reported that activatable temperature responsive fluorescent probes which respond to focused ultrasound heating can improve the resolution and quantification of fluorescent tomography in deep tissue. This has lead to a new imaging modality, "Temperature-modulated fluorescent tomography." This technique relies on activatable thermo-sensitive fluorescent nanocapsules for whose fluorescence quantum efficiency is temperature dependent. Within a 4-5° C temperature range, the fluorescent signal increase more than 10-fold. In this molecular probe, Indocyanine Green (ICG) is encapsulated inside the core of a thermo-reversible pluronic micelle. Here we show the fluorescence response and temperature range of the nanocapsules which have been optimized for a higher temperature range to be used for in vivo animal imaging. We report on the feasibility of these temperature-sensitive reversible nanocapsules for in vivo applications by studying the pharmacokinetics in a subcutaneous mouse tumor model in vivo.

  9. Encapsulation in lipid-core nanocapsules overcomes lung cancer cell resistance to tretinoin.

    PubMed

    Schultze, Eduarda; Ourique, Aline; Yurgel, Virginia Campello; Begnini, Karine Rech; Thurow, Helena; de Leon, Priscila Marques Moura; Campos, Vinicius Farias; Dellagostin, Odir Antônio; Guterres, Silvia R; Pohlmann, Adriana R; Seixas, Fabiana Kömmling; Beck, Ruy Carlos Ruver; Collares, Tiago

    2014-05-01

    Tretinoin is a retinoid derivative that has an antiproliferative effect on several kinds of tumours. Human lung adenocarcinoma epithelial cell lines (A549) exhibit a profound resistance to the effects of tretinoin. Nanocarriers seem to be a good alternative to overcomecellular resistance to drugs. The aim of this study was to test whether tretinoin-loaded lipid-core nanocapsules exert anantitumor effect on A549 cells. A549 cells were incubated with free tretinoin (TTN), blank nanocapsules (LNC) and tretinoin-loaded lipid-core nanocapsules (TTN-LNC). Data from evaluation of DNA content and Annexin V binding assay by flow cytometry showed that TTN-LNC induced apoptosis and cell cycle arrest at the G1-phase while TTN did not. TTN-LNC showed higher cytotoxic effects than TTN on A549 cells evaluated by MTT and LIVE/DEAD cell viability assay. Gene expression profiling identified up-regulated expression of gene p21 by TTN-LNC, supporting the cell cycle arrest effect. These results showed for the first time that TTN-LNC are able to overcome the resistance of adenocarcinoma cell line A549 to treatment with TTN by inducing apoptosis and cell cycle arrest, providing support for their use in applications in lung cancer therapy.

  10. Development of stained polymeric nanocapsules loaded with model drugs: Use of a fluorescent poly(phenyleneethynylene).

    PubMed

    Campos, Estefânia V R; Oliveira, Jhones L; Zavala-Betancourt, Sara A; Ledezma, Antonio S; Arias, Eduardo; Moggio, Ivana; Romero, Jorge; Fraceto, Leonardo F

    2016-11-01

    A phenyleneethynylene polymer (here denoted pPy3E-sqS) was synthesized and characterized by UV-vis spectroscopy, fluorescence spectroscopy, and TEM, and was used for the staining of polymeric nanocapsules. The nanocapsules presented good temporal stability, without changes in shape or fluorescence, and were suitable for use in drug release systems. The mean particle size was around 430nm, the polydispersity index was below 0.2, and the zeta potential was around -13mV. The release kinetics is one of the most important factors to consider in drug delivery systems, and here it was observed that nanocapsules containing the fluorescent polymer still maintained the ability to modulate the release of the fungicides tebuconazole and carbendazim (used as model drugs) after 4days. Preliminary results indicated that staining with the fluorescent pPy3E-sqS polymer could be used as a valuable tool to track the behavior of polymeric systems in the environment. However, further studies will be needed to clarify the environmental behavior and possible toxicity.

  11. Encapsulation of antiviral nucleotide analogues azidothymidine-triphosphate and cidofovir in poly(iso-butylcyanoacrylate) nanocapsules.

    PubMed

    Hillaireau, H; Le Doan, T; Besnard, M; Chacun, H; Janin, J; Couvreur, P

    2006-10-31

    Nucleoside analogues are widely used in the treatment of various viral infections. However, the poor in vivo conversion of the nucleoside analogues like azidothymidine (AZT) into their active triphosphate nucleotide counterpart limits their pharmacological efficacy. This could be overcome by the direct administration of azidothymidine triphosphate (AZT-TP), but it requires an appropriate drug delivery approach. Besides nucleoside analogues, nucleotide analogues like cidofovir (CDV) are also used in the treatment of viral infections. CDV has raised recent interest because of its promising activity against smallpox, but its use is limited by its poor bioavailability and nephrotoxicity. Here again, a proper drug delivery system should address these issues. In this study, we investigated the encapsulation of the nucleotide analogues AZT-TP and CDV into poly(iso-butylcyanoacrylate) aqueous core nanocapsules, known to efficiently entrap oligonucleotides. We show here that the encapsulation of these mono-nucleotides is less efficient than with oligonucleotides and that a rapid release of AZT-TP from the nanocapsules occurred in vitro. This highlights the importance of the molecular weight of the entrapped molecules which, if they are too small, are diffusing through the thin polymer membrane of the nanocapsules. On the other hand, a good protection of the encapsulated AZT-TP was observed.

  12. Heat Diffusion with Frozen Boundary

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Florescu, Laura; Ganguly, Shirshendu; Peres, Yuval; Spencer, Joel

    2015-11-01

    Consider "frozen random walk" on Z: n particles start at the origin. At any discrete time, the leftmost and rightmost lfloor {n/4}rfloor particles are "frozen" and do not move. The rest of the particles in the "bulk" independently jump to the left and right uniformly. The goal of this note is to understand the limit of this process under scaling of mass and time. To this end we study the following deterministic mass splitting process: start with mass 1 at the origin. At each step the extreme quarter mass on each side is "frozen". The remaining "free" mass in the center evolves according to the discrete heat equation. We establish diffusive behavior of this mass evolution and identify the scaling limit under the assumption of its existence. It is natural to expect the limit to be a truncated Gaussian. A naive guess for the truncation point might be the 1 / 4 quantile points on either side of the origin. We show that this is not the case and it is in fact determined by the evolution of the second moment of the mass distribution.

  13. Optimisation of rosemary oil encapsulation in polycaprolactone and scale-up of the process.

    PubMed

    Ephrem, Elissa; Greige-Gerges, Hélène; Fessi, Hatem; Charcosset, Catherine

    2014-01-01

    Rosemary essential oil (REO) has many biological activities, such as antioxidant, anticarcinogenic, cognition-enhancing, analgesic and antimicrobial activities. The aim of this study was to prepare, at laboratory scale and larger scale, nanoencapsulating REO in order to reduce its volatilisation, light sensitivity and to enhance its water solubility. The nanoprecipitation method was applied to prepare polycaprolactone (PCL)-based nanocapsules loaded with REO at laboratory scale and then the optimal formulation obtained was scaled-up (×6) using the membrane contactor technique. The effect of several parameters, such as the evaporation method, the type of emulsifiers and the amount of the formulation products (PCL, REO, emulsifiers, etc.) on the REO-loaded nanocapsules properties (mean size, polydispersity index (PdI), zeta potential and REO loss) was evaluated at laboratory scale in order to obtain the optimal formulation. REO-loaded nanocapsules obtained from nanoprecipitation presented a nanometric mean size (220 ± 10 nm) with a PdI below 0.25, indicating an adequate homogeneity of the system, a negative zeta potential (-19.9 ± 4.6 mV) and a high encapsulation efficiency (∼99% for the major components). In addition, the membrane contactor technique gave similar results using an adequate pressure of the organic phase (0.8-1.2 bar). It is then suggested that the nanoprecipitation method can be suitable for the preparation of essential oil-loaded nanocapsules.

  14. Core/shell quantum dots encapsulated in biocompatible oil-core nanocarriers as two-photon fluorescent markers for bioimaging.

    PubMed

    Bazylińska, Urszula; Drozdek, Sławomir; Nyk, Marcin; Kulbacka, Julita; Samoć, Marek; Wilk, Kazimiera A

    2014-12-16

    Highly fluorescent quantum dots (QDs)-loaded nanocapsules, intended for fluorescent cell imaging, were prepared via an emulsification/solvent-evaporation method. CdSe/ZnS core/shell quantum dots were applied as cargo; Poloxamer 403 as the polymer component; Cremophor EL as the nonionic surfactant; and mineral oil, oleic acid, or silicone oil were applied as the oil phases. Transmission electron microscopy, atomic force microscopy, dynamic light scattering, and zeta potential measurements were used to characterize the novel QDs-labeled nanoparticles by particle size, distribution, and morphology, as well as by ζ-potential and physical stability. The fabricated long-lasting nanocapsules exhibit good luminescence properties upon both one-photon and two-photon excitation. The potential of the encapsulated QDs for fluorescent imaging was evaluated in cytotoxicity studies as well as in imaging of intracellular localization, accumulation, and distribution of QDs delivered to well-characterized human cancer cell lines--doxorubicin-sensitive breast (MCF-7/WT) and alveolar basal epithelial (A549)--as well as on normal human umbilical vein endothelial (HUVEC) cells, as investigated by confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM). The colloidal CdSe/ZnS-loaded nanocapsules are shown to exhibit strong two-photon-induced luminescence upon excitation in the NIR optical transmission window spectral range, making them ideal markers for bioimaging application. The total two-photon cross section of a single nanocapsule was determined to be about 4.1 × 10(6) GM at 800 nm. PMID:25469556

  15. The effect of functionalizing lipid nanocapsules with NFL-TBS.40-63 peptide on their uptake by glioblastoma cells.

    PubMed

    Balzeau, Julien; Pinier, Maud; Berges, Raphael; Saulnier, Patrick; Benoit, Jean-Pierre; Eyer, Joel

    2013-04-01

    We previously described a neurofilament derived cell-penetrating peptide, NFL-TBS.40-63, that specifically enters in glioblastoma cells where it disturbs the microtubule network both in vitro and in vivo. The aim of this study is to test whether this peptide can increase the targeted uptake by glioblastoma cells of lipid nanocapsules filled with Paclitaxel, and thus can increase their anti-proliferation in vitro and in vivo. Here, using the drop tensiometry we show that approximately 60 NFL-TBS.40-63 peptides can bind to one 50 nm lipid nanocapsule. When nanocapsules are filled with a far-red fluorochrome (DiD) and Paclitaxel, the presence of the NFL-TBS.40-63 peptide increases their uptake by glioblastoma cells in culture as evaluated by FACS analysis, and thus reduces their proliferation. Finally, when such nanocapsules were injected in mice bearing a glioma tumour, they are preferentially targeted to the tumour and reduce its progression. These results show that nanocapsules functionalized with the NFL-TBS.40-63 peptide represent a powerful drug-carrier system for glioma targeted treatment.

  16. Beclomethasone Dipropionate-Loaded Polymeric Nanocapsules: Development, In Vitro Cytotoxicity, and In Vivo Evaluation of Acute Lung Injury.

    PubMed

    Chassot, Janaíne Micheli; Ribas, Daniele; Silveira, Elita Ferreira; Grünspan, Lauren Dockhorn; Pires, Camila Cervi; Farago, Paulo Vitor; Braganhol, Elizandra; Tasso, Leandro; Cruz, Letícia

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this work was to develop polymeric nanocapsules intended for the pulmonary delivery of beclomethasone dipropionate using ethyl cellulose or poly(ε-caprolactone). The formulations showed adequate physicochemical characteristics, namely, average diameter lower than 260 nm, low polydispersity index (< 0.2), negative zeta potential, neutral pH values, and encapsulation efficiencies close to 100%. The thermal analysis by DSC suggested that beclomethasone dipropionate encapsulated in the nanocapsules was in an amorphous state. In addition, both ethyl cellulose and poly(ε-caprolactone) nanocapsules were able to delay the drug photodegradation under UVC radiation. The in vitro drug release showed a prolonged release without burst effect using the dialysis bag diffusion technique. Moreover, ethyl cellulose and poly(ε-caprolactone) nanocapsules presented low in vitro cytotoxicity on 3T3 fibroblasts cells. In vivo, the formulations showed no acute pulmonary injury in rats. Therefore, the developed nanocapsules could be considered suitable carriers to be used for beclomethasone dipropionate pulmonary delivery. PMID:26328450

  17. Near-infrared fluorescent nanocapsules with reversible response to thermal/pH modulation for optical imaging.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yongping; Li, Xingde

    2011-12-12

    Polymeric near-infrared (NIR) fluorescent nanocapsules were developed, of which the fluorescence exhibited reversible response to local thermal/pH modulation. Our strategy was to use polymeric micelles made of temperature-sensitive Pluronic F-127 to encapsulate an amphiphilic NIR fluorescent dye-indocyanine green (ICG)-within the core and then cross-link the micelle corona by pH-sensitive poly(ethylenimine) (PEI). The size swelling/shrinking property of the micelles induced by temperature decrease/increase was used as a switch to control the fluorescence yield of the nanocapsules. It was found that the fluorescence yield significantly increased with the increase in temperature. The PEI cross-link made the fluorescence yield also sensitive to local pH change and enhanced intracellular delivery of the nanocapsules as well. Preliminary results suggest the NIR fluorescent probes could be potentially used as a contrast agent sensitive to local environment for translational optical imaging/sensing.

  18. Clozapine-Loaded Polysorbate-Coated Polymeric Nanocapsules: Physico-Chemical Characterization and Toxicity Evaluation in Caenorhabditis elegans Model.

    PubMed

    Moraes, BarbraKatyúscya Sanches; Vieira, Simone Machado; Salgueiro, Willian Goulart; Michels, Luana Roberta; Colomé, Letícia Marques; Avila, Daiana Silva; Haas, Sandra Elisa

    2016-02-01

    The aim of this work was to develop and characterize clozapine loaded polysorbate-coated polymeric nanocapsules and assess their toxicity in Caenorhabditis elegans, an invertebrate animal model. Formulations were prepared by nanoprecipitation method and characterized by particle size, zeta potential, pH, drug loading, entrapment efficiency and in vitro drug release. All nanocapsules prepared presented diameter around 140 nm, pH slightly acid and negative zeta potential. In vitro studies showed biphasic drug release from nanocapsules with decreasing of the release rate on nanoencapsulation. The t(1/2)beta of clozapine was 7.23 +/- 0.73 and 2.23 +/- 0.97 h for nanoencapsulated and free drug, respectively (p < 0.05), in pH 1.2 medium. Similar results were obtained in pH 6.8 buffer. Regarding toxicity evaluation, worms exposed to clozapine-loaded nanocapsules did not show the same mortality rate compared to others formulations, as the survival was significantly higher than the free drug treated-group. In addition, we observed that free clozapine decreased egg laying at the first reproductive day, whereas nanoencapsulated clozapine did not depict significant change of this parameter. Longevity assay showed no significant difference, demonstrating that the toxicological effects of clozapine observed in C. elegans are acute. In addition, we proved that free and nanoencapsulated clozapine were orally uptake by the worms, as determined by fluorescein-labeled nanocapsules. Then, the use of nanocapsules delayed the drug release and minimized the toxic effects of clozapine in worms, which can be used as a new animal model to evaluate the nanotoxicity of drug delivery systems. PMID:27433575

  19. Novel polyelectrolyte multilayer micro- and nanocapsules as magnetic carriers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Voigt, Andreas; Buske, Norbert; Sukhorukov, Gleb B.; Antipov, Alexei A.; Leporatti, Stefano; Lichtenfeld, H.; Bäumler, Hans; Donath, Edwin; Möhwald, Helmuth

    2001-01-01

    Polyelectrolyte multilayer (PEM) capsules are introduced as versatile magnetic carrier systems. Superparamagnetic magnetite is mounted to the multilayer shell itself or is a component of the capsule interior. The PEM is formed at different (decomposable) colloidal templates, e.g. melamine formaldehyde resin, glutaraldehyde fixed red blood cells, emulsion oil droplets. The results are illustrated by transmission electron microscopy and confocal laser scanning microscopy.

  20. 21 CFR 146.121 - Frozen concentrate for artificially sweetened lemonade.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION CANNED FRUIT JUICES Requirements for Specific Standardized Canned Fruit Juices and Beverages § 146.121 Frozen concentrate for artificially sweetened lemonade... suitable dispersing ingredients serving the function of distributing the lemon oil throughout the food....

  1. 21 CFR 146.121 - Frozen concentrate for artificially sweetened lemonade.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION CANNED FRUIT JUICES Requirements for Specific Standardized Canned Fruit Juices and Beverages § 146.121 Frozen concentrate for artificially sweetened lemonade... suitable dispersing ingredients serving the function of distributing the lemon oil throughout the food....

  2. 21 CFR 146.121 - Frozen concentrate for artificially sweetened lemonade.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION CANNED FRUIT JUICES Requirements for Specific Standardized Canned Fruit Juices and Beverages § 146.121 Frozen concentrate for artificially sweetened lemonade... suitable dispersing ingredients serving the function of distributing the lemon oil throughout the food....

  3. A validated HPLC method for the assay of xanthone and 3-methoxyxanthone in PLGA nanocapsules.

    PubMed

    Teixeira, Maribel; Afonso, Carlos M M; Pinto, Madalena M M M; Barbosa, Carlos Maurício

    2003-08-01

    This work relates the development and validation of a simple reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatographic (HPLC) method for the analysis of xanthone (XAN) and 3-methoxyxanthone (3-MeOXAN) in poly(D,L-lactide-co-glycolide) (PLGA) nanocapsule formulations. This method does not require any complex sample extraction procedure. Chromatographic separation is made with a reversed-phase C(18) column, using methanol-water (90:10, v/v) as a mobile phase at a flow rate of 1 mL/min. Identification is made by UV detection at 237 nm. The isocratic system operates at ambient temperature and requires 7 min of chromatographic time. The developed method is statistically validated according to United States Pharmacopoeia 25 and International Conference on Harmonization guidelines for its specificity, linearity, accuracy, and precision. The assay method proposed in this study is specific for XAN and 3-MeOXAN in the presence of nanocapsule excipients. Diode-array analyses confirm the homogeneity of XAN and 3-MeOXAN peaks in stressed conditions. Standard curves are linear (r > 0.999) over the concentration range of 0.4-2.5 and 1.0-5.8 micro g/mL for XAN and 3-MeOXAN, respectively. Recovery from nanocapsules ranges from 99.6% to 102.8% for XAN and 98.8% to 102.4% for 3-MeOXAN. Repeatability (intra-assay precision) is acceptable with relative standard deviation values of 1.2% for XAN and 0.3% for 3-MeOXAN.

  4. Efficacy of Lychnopholide Polymeric Nanocapsules after Oral and Intravenous Administration in Murine Experimental Chagas Disease.

    PubMed

    de Mello, Carlos Geraldo Campos; Branquinho, Renata Tupinambá; Oliveira, Maykon Tavares; Milagre, Matheus Marques; Saúde-Guimarães, Dênia Antunes; Mosqueira, Vanessa Carla Furtado; Lana, Marta de

    2016-09-01

    The etiological treatment of Chagas disease remains neglected. The compounds available show several limitations, mainly during the chronic phase. Lychnopholide encapsulated in polymeric nanocapsules (LYC-NC) was efficacious in mice infected with Trypanosoma cruzi and treated by intravenous administration during the acute phase (AP). As the oral route is preferred for treatment of chronic infections, such as Chagas disease, this study evaluated the use of oral LYC-NC in the AP and also compared it with LYC-NC administered to mice by the oral and intravenous routes during the chronic phase (CP). The therapeutic efficacy was evaluated by fresh blood examination, hemoculture, PCR, and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). The cure rates in the AP and CP were 62.5% and 55.6%, respectively, upon oral administration of LYC-poly(d,l-lactide)-polyethylene glycol nanocapsules (LYC-PLA-PEG-NC) and 57.0% and 30.0%, respectively, with LYC-poly-ε-caprolactone nanocapsules (LYC-PCL-NC). These cure rates were significantly higher than that of free LYC, which did not cure any animals. LYC-NC formulations administered orally during the AP showed cure rates similar to that of benznidazole, but only LYC-NC cured mice in the CP. Similar results were achieved with intravenous treatment during the CP. The higher cure rates obtained with LYC loaded in PLA-PEG-NC may be due to the smaller particle size of these NC and the presence of PEG, which influence tissue diffusion and the controlled release of LYC. Furthermore, PLA-PEG-NC may improve the stability of the drug in the gastrointestinal tract. This work is the first report of cure of experimental Chagas disease via oral administration during the CP. These findings represent a new and important perspective for oral treatment of Chagas disease. PMID:27324760

  5. Shoulder pain in primary care: frozen shoulder.

    PubMed

    Cadogan, Angela; Mohammed, Khalid D

    2016-03-01

    BACKGROUND AND CONTEXT Frozen shoulder is a painful condition that follows a protracted clinical course. We aim to review the management of patients with a diagnosis of frozen shoulder who are referred for specialist orthopaedic evaluation against existing guidelines in primary care. ASSESSMENT OF PROBLEM Referrals and clinical records were reviewed for all patients referred for orthopaedic specialist assessment who received a specialist diagnosis of frozen shoulder. Diagnostic, investigation and management practices from a regional primary health care setting in New Zealand were compared with guideline-recommended management. RESULTS Eighty patients with frozen shoulder were referred for orthopaedic evaluation in the 13 month study period, mostly from general practice. Fifteen patients (19%) were identified as having a frozen shoulder in their medical referral. Most (99%) had received previous imaging. Seven patients (12%) had received guideline recommended treatment. STRATEGIES FOR IMPROVEMENT Education of all clinicians involved in patient management is important to ensure an understanding of the long natural history of frozen shoulder and provide reassurance that outcomes are generally excellent. HealthPathways now include more information regarding diagnosis, imaging and evidence-based management for frozen shoulder. LESSONS Frozen shoulder may be under-diagnosed among patients referred for orthopaedic review. Ultrasound imaging is commonly used and may identify occult and unrelated pathology in this age-group. When managed according to clinical guidelines, patients report significant clinical and functional improvement with most reporting 80% function compared with normal after 1 year. KEYWORDS Adhesive capsulitis; bursitis; injections; practice guideline; primary health care; ultrasound.

  6. 7 CFR 58.349 - Frozen cream.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Frozen cream. 58.349 Section 58.349 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards... Products Bearing Usda Official Identification § 58.349 Frozen cream. The flavor shall be sweet,...

  7. 7 CFR 58.349 - Frozen cream.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Frozen cream. 58.349 Section 58.349 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards... Products Bearing Usda Official Identification § 58.349 Frozen cream. The flavor shall be sweet,...

  8. 7 CFR 58.349 - Frozen cream.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Frozen cream. 58.349 Section 58.349 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards... Products Bearing Usda Official Identification § 58.349 Frozen cream. The flavor shall be sweet,...

  9. 21 CFR 158.170 - Frozen peas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Frozen peas. 158.170 Section 158.170 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN.... (a) Identity—(1) Product definition. Frozen peas is the food in “package” form as that term...

  10. Testing the frozen flow approximation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lucchin, Francesco; Matarrese, Sabino; Melott, Adrian L.; Moscardini, Lauro

    1993-01-01

    We investigate the accuracy of the frozen-flow approximation (FFA), recently proposed by Matarrese, et al. (1992), for following the nonlinear evolution of cosmological density fluctuations under gravitational instability. We compare a number of statistics between results of the FFA and n-body simulations, including those used by Melott, Pellman & Shandarin (1993) to test the Zel'dovich approximation. The FFA performs reasonably well in a statistical sense, e.g. in reproducing the counts-in-cell distribution, at small scales, but it does poorly in the crosscorrelation with n-body which means it is generally not moving mass to the right place, especially in models with high small-scale power.

  11. Does feed composition affect oxidation of rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) during frozen storage?

    PubMed

    Baron, Caroline P; Hyldig, Grethe; Jacobsen, Charlotte

    2009-05-27

    Rainbow trout ( Oncorhynchus mykiss ) were fed a diet containing either fish oil or rapeseed oil and with or without 200 mg/kg carotenoid (either astaxanthin or canthaxanthin). A total of six diets were obtained: (1) fish oil/astaxanthin; (2) vegetable oil/astaxanthin; (3) fish oil/canthaxanthin; (4) vegetable oil/canthaxanthin; (5) fish oil/no pigment; and (6) vegetable oil/no pigment. The fish were slaughtered and stored in polyethylene bags individually as butterfly fillets for up to 22 months at -20 °C. The composition of the fish muscle at slaughter and during frozen storage was evaluated by sampling after 4, 8, 13, 18, and 22 months. The carotenoid content in the muscle was found to be approximately 9-10 mg/kg of fish for both carotenoids. Primary oxidation lipid products (peroxides) as well as secondary oxidation products (volatiles) were measured. In addition, the level of protein carbonyl groups and the content of tocopherols and carotenoids in the muscle were also measured. To estimate the overall changes in sensory properties of the different samples during storage, a trained sensory panel also evaluated the samples. Both the sensory panel and the chemical analysis revealed that in this investigation fish fed fish oil were slightly more oxidized than fish fed vegetable oil. Results showed that canthaxanthin effectively protected both protein and lipid against oxidation during frozen storage. In contrast, astaxanthin did not seem to have a clear and systematic effect. Results indicated that the feed composition influenced the fish muscle composition and subsequently the oxidative stability of the fish during frozen storage. Besides, other constituents in the feed might influence deposition of antioxidants in the tissue and consequently affect the oxidative stability of the muscle.

  12. Triplet-triplet annihilation upconversion based nanocapsules for bioimaging under excitation by red and deep-red light.

    PubMed

    Wohnhaas, Christian; Mailänder, Volker; Dröge, Melanie; Filatov, Mikhail A; Busko, Dmitry; Avlasevich, Yuri; Baluschev, Stanislav; Miteva, Tzenka; Landfester, Katharina; Turshatov, Andrey

    2013-10-01

    Non-toxic and biocompatible triplet-triplet annihilation upconversion based nanocapsules (size less than 225 nm) were successfully fabricated by the combination of miniemulsion and solvent evaporation techniques. A first type of nanocapsules displays an upconversion spectrum characterized by the maximum of emission at λmax = 550 nm under illumination by red light, λexc = 633 nm. The second type of nanocapsules fluoresces at λmax = 555 nm when excited with deep-red light, λexc = 708 nm. Conventional confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM) and flow cytometry were applied to determine uptake and toxicity of the nanocapsules for various (mesenchymal stem and HeLa) cells. Red light (λexc = 633 nm) with extremely low optical power (less than 0.3 μW) or deep-red light (λexc = 708 nm) was used in CLSM experiments to generate green upconversion fluorescence. The cell images obtained with upconversion excitation demonstrate order of magnitude better signal to background ratio than the cell images obtained with direct excitation of the same fluorescence marker.

  13. PEGylated nanocapsules of perfluorooctyl bromide: Mechanism of formation, influence of polymer concentration on morphology and mechanical properties.

    PubMed

    Diou, Odile; Brûlet, Annie; Pehau-Arnaudet, Gérard; Morvan, Estelle; Berti, Romain; Astafyeva, Ksenia; Taulier, Nicolas; Fattal, Elias; Tsapis, Nicolas

    2016-10-01

    PEGylated nanocapsules containing a liquid core of perfluorooctyl bromide (PFOB) were formulated by an emulsion-evaporation process to be further used as ultrasound contrast agents (UCAs). In an attempt to modulate their acoustic response, related to their shell thickness-to-radius ratio, the initial concentration of polymer was varied in the formulation. Indeed, thinner shells may lead to higher echogenicity. PEGylated nanocapsules morphology was studied by electron microscopy, Small Angle Neutron Scattering and (19)F NMR spectroscopy and related to their mechanical properties to allow a better understanding of their mechanism of formation. We show that the variation of polymer concentration in the formulation impacts the formation mechanism of nanocapsules, and consequently their morphology and mechanical properties. Using low concentration of Poly(ethylene glycol)-b-poly(dl-lactide-co-glycolide) (PLGA-b-PEG), it is impossible to reduce the shell thickness of the UCA, most probably due to dewetting of the polymer layer at the PFOB/water interface. This leads to the coexistence of thick shells along with free PFOB droplets. On the other hand, for high polymer concentration, PEGylated nanocapsules with thick shells were produced with high encapsulation efficiency. PMID:27451363

  14. Enhanced in vivo therapeutic efficacy of plitidepsin-loaded nanocapsules decorated with a new poly-aminoacid-PEG derivative.

    PubMed

    Lollo, Giovanna; Hervella, Pablo; Calvo, Pilar; Avilés, Pablo; Guillén, Maria Jose; Garcia-Fuentes, Marcos; Alonso, Maria José; Torres, Dolores

    2015-04-10

    The focus of this study is to disclose a new delivery carrier intended to improve the pharmacokinetic characteristics of the anticancer drug plitidepsin and to favor its accumulation within the tumor. These nanocarriers named as nanocapsules, consist of an oily core surrounded by a highly PEGylated polyglutamic acid (PGA-PEG) shell loaded with plitidepsin. They showed a size of around 190 nm, a zeta potential of -24 mV and were able to encapsulate a high percentage (85%) of plitidepsin. In vivo studies, following intravenous injection in healthy mice, indicated that the encapsulation of the drug within PGA-PEG nanocapsules led to an important increase in its area under the curve (AUC) which is related to the important decrease of the clearance, as compared to the values observed for the drug dissolved in a Cremophor(®) EL solution. This improvement of the pharmacokinetic profile of the encapsulated plitidepsin was accompanied by a high increase (2.5-fold) of the maximum tolerated dose (MTD) in comparison to that of plitidepsin Cremophor(®) EL solution. The efficacy study performed in a xenograft tumor mice model evidenced the capacity of PGA-PEG nanocapsules to significantly reduce tumor growth. These promising results highlight the potential of PGA-PEG nanocapsules as an effective drug delivery system for cancer therapy. PMID:25681727

  15. A chromium nitride/carbon nitride containing graphitic carbon nanocapsule hybrid as a Pt-free electrocatalyst for oxygen reduction.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Lu; Wang, Lei; Yu, Peng; Zhao, Dongdong; Tian, Chungui; Feng, He; Ma, Jing; Fu, Honggang

    2015-08-11

    Chromium nitride nanoparticles supported on graphitic carbon nanocapsules containing carbon nitride (CrN/GC) have been synthesized by a solvothermal-assisted ion-exchange route. As a Pt-free catalyst, the CrN/GC hybrid exhibits superior activity, stability, methanol immunity and a dominant 4-electron pathway towards oxygen reduction reaction.

  16. Lipid-Core Nanocapsules Improved Antiedematogenic Activity of Tacrolimus in Adjuvant-Induced Arthritis Model.

    PubMed

    Friedrich, Rossana B; Coradini, Karine; Fonseca, Francisco N; Guterres, Silvia S; Beck, Ruy C R; Pohlmann, Adriana R

    2016-02-01

    Despite significant technological advances, rheumatoid arthritis remains an incurable disease with great impact on the life quality of patients. We studied the encapsulation of tacrolimus in lipidcore nanocapsules (TAC-LNC) as a strategy to enhance its systemic anti-arthritic properties. TAC-LNC presented unimodal distribution of particles with z-average diameter of 212 +/- 11, drug content close to the theoretical value (0.80 mg mL(-1)), and 99.43% of encapsulation efficiency. An in vitro sustained release was determined for TAC-LNC with anomalous transport mechanism (n = 0.61). In vivo studies using an arthritis model induced by Complete Freund's Adjuvant demonstrated that the animals treated with TAC-LNC presented a significantly greater inhibition of paw oedema after intraperitoneal administration. Furthermore, the encapsulation of TAC in lipid-core nanocapsules was potentially able to prevent hyperglycemia in the animals. In conclusion, TAC-LNC was prepared with 100% yield of nanoscopic particles having satisfactory characteristics for systemic use. This formulation represents a promising strategy to the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis in the near future. PMID:27433576

  17. Polymeric nanocapsules with up-converting nanocrystals cargo make ideal fluorescent bioprobes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bazylińska, U.; Wawrzyńczyk, D.; Kulbacka, J.; Frąckowiak, R.; Cichy, B.; Bednarkiewicz, A.; Samoć, M.; Wilk, K. A.

    2016-07-01

    An innovative approach for up-converting nanoparticles adaptation for bio-related and theranostic applications is presented. We have successfully encapsulated multiple, ~8 nm in size NaYF4 nanoparticles inside the polymeric nanocarriers with average size of ~150 nm. The initial coating of nanoparticles surfaces was preserved due to the hydrophobic environment inside the nanocapsules, and thus no single nanoparticle surface functionalization was necessary. The selection of biodegradable and sugar-based polyelectrolyte shells ensured biocompatibility of the nanostructures, while the choice of Tm3+ and Yb3+ NaYF4 nanoparticles co-doping allowed for near-infrared to near-infrared bioimaging of healthy and cancerous cell lines. The protective role of organic shell resulted in not only preserved high up-converted emission intensity and long luminescence lifetimes, without quenching from water environment, but also ensured low cytotoxicity and high cellular uptake of the engineered nanocapsules. The multifunctionality of the proposed nanocarriers is a consequence of both the organic exterior part that is accessible for conjugation with biologically important molecules, and the hydrophobic interior, which in future application may be used as a container for co-encapsulation of inorganic nanoparticles and anticancer drug cargo.

  18. Lipid nanocapsules as a new delivery system in copepods: Toxicity studies and optical imaging.

    PubMed

    Stancheva, Stefka; Souissi, Anissa; Ibrahim, Ali; Barras, Alexandre; Spriet, Corentin; Souissi, Sami; Boukherroub, Rabah

    2015-11-01

    In this paper, we investigated the potential of lipid nanocapsules (LNCs) as a delivery system of small hydrophobic molecules, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) - pyrene, fluoranthene, phenanthrene, in the copepod Acartia tonsa. The LNCs were produced by a phase inversion process with a nominal size of 50 nm. These nanocapsules were obtained without organic solvent and with pharmaceutically acceptable excipients. The PAHs-LNCs displayed a stable monodisperse size distribution and a good stability in sea water for 7 days. By using fluorescent LNCs, it was possible to evidence LNCs ingestion by the copepods using confocal laser scanning microscopy. While blank LNCs are not toxic to copepods at tested concentrations, PAH-loaded LNCs were found to be very toxic on A. tonsa with a high mortality rate reaching 95% after 72 h exposure to 200 nM pyrene-loaded LNCs. On the other hand, when acetone is used to dissolve an equivalent concentration of PAHs in sea water, the copepod mortality is 10 times lower than using LNCs as nano-delivery system. This confirms the efficiency of using LNCs to deliver molecules directly in the gut or copepod carapace. The small size and non toxicity of these delivery nano-systems make them suitable for drug delivery to copepods.

  19. Iron-Loaded Magnetic Nanocapsules for pH-Triggered Drug Release and MRI Imaging

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Magnetic nanocapsules were synthesized for controlled drug release, magnetically assisted delivery, and MRI imaging. These magnetic nanocapsules, consisting of a stable iron nanocore and a mesoporous silica shell, were synthesized by controlled encapsulation of ellipsoidal hematite in silica, partial etching of the hematite core in acid, and reduction of the core by hydrogen. The iron core provided a high saturation magnetization and was stable against oxidation for at least 6 months in air and 1 month in aqueous solution. The hollow space between the iron core and mesoporous silica shell was used to load anticancer drug and a T1-weighted MRI contrast agent (Gd-DTPA). These multifunctional monodispersed magnetic “nanoeyes” were coated by multiple polyelectrolyte layers of biocompatible poly-l-lysine and sodium alginate to control the drug release as a function of pH. We studied pH-controlled release, magnetic hysteresis curves, and T1/T2 MRI contrast of the magnetic nanoeyes. They also served as MRI contrast agents with relaxivities of 8.6 mM–1 s–1 (r1) and 285 mM–1 s–1 (r2). PMID:24748722

  20. Polymeric nanocapsules with up-converting nanocrystals cargo make ideal fluorescent bioprobes.

    PubMed

    Bazylińska, U; Wawrzyńczyk, D; Kulbacka, J; Frąckowiak, R; Cichy, B; Bednarkiewicz, A; Samoć, M; Wilk, K A

    2016-01-01

    An innovative approach for up-converting nanoparticles adaptation for bio-related and theranostic applications is presented. We have successfully encapsulated multiple, ~8 nm in size NaYF4 nanoparticles inside the polymeric nanocarriers with average size of ~150 nm. The initial coating of nanoparticles surfaces was preserved due to the hydrophobic environment inside the nanocapsules, and thus no single nanoparticle surface functionalization was necessary. The selection of biodegradable and sugar-based polyelectrolyte shells ensured biocompatibility of the nanostructures, while the choice of Tm(3+) and Yb(3+) NaYF4 nanoparticles co-doping allowed for near-infrared to near-infrared bioimaging of healthy and cancerous cell lines. The protective role of organic shell resulted in not only preserved high up-converted emission intensity and long luminescence lifetimes, without quenching from water environment, but also ensured low cytotoxicity and high cellular uptake of the engineered nanocapsules. The multifunctionality of the proposed nanocarriers is a consequence of both the organic exterior part that is accessible for conjugation with biologically important molecules, and the hydrophobic interior, which in future application may be used as a container for co-encapsulation of inorganic nanoparticles and anticancer drug cargo. PMID:27406954

  1. Architectural layer-by-layer assembly of drug nanocapsules with PEGylated polyelectrolytes.

    PubMed

    Shutava, Tatsiana G; Pattekari, Pravin P; Arapov, Kirill A; Torchilin, Vladimir P; Lvov, Yuri M

    2012-01-01

    150-200 nm diameter capsules containing 60-70 wt % of poorly soluble drugs, paclitaxel and camptothecin, were produced by layer-by-layer (LbL) assembly on drug nanocores in a solution containing uncharged stabilizers. Optimization of capsule shell architecture and thickness allowed for concentrated (3-5 mg/mL) colloids that are stable in isotonic salt buffers. Nanoparticle aggregation during the washless LbL-assembly was prevented by using low molecular weight block-copolymers of poly(amino acids) (poly-L-lysine and poly-L-glutamic acid) with polyethylene glycol (PEG) in combination with heparin and bovine serum albumin at every bilayer building step. Minimal amounts of the polyelectrolytes were used to recharge the surface of nanoparticles in this non-washing LbL process. Such PEGylated shells resulted in drug nanocapsules with high colloidal stability in PBS buffer and increased protein adhesion resistance. The washless LbL polyelectrolyte nanocapsule assembly process, colloidal stability and nanoparticle morphology were monitored by dynamic light scattering and electrophoretic mobility measurements, UV-vis spectroscopy, TEM, SEM and laser confocal microscopy imaging. PMID:23144650

  2. Polymeric nanocapsules with up-converting nanocrystals cargo make ideal fluorescent bioprobes

    PubMed Central

    Bazylińska, U.; Wawrzyńczyk, D.; Kulbacka, J.; Frąckowiak, R.; Cichy, B.; Bednarkiewicz, A.; Samoć, M.; Wilk, K. A.

    2016-01-01

    An innovative approach for up-converting nanoparticles adaptation for bio-related and theranostic applications is presented. We have successfully encapsulated multiple, ~8 nm in size NaYF4 nanoparticles inside the polymeric nanocarriers with average size of ~150 nm. The initial coating of nanoparticles surfaces was preserved due to the hydrophobic environment inside the nanocapsules, and thus no single nanoparticle surface functionalization was necessary. The selection of biodegradable and sugar-based polyelectrolyte shells ensured biocompatibility of the nanostructures, while the choice of Tm3+ and Yb3+ NaYF4 nanoparticles co-doping allowed for near-infrared to near-infrared bioimaging of healthy and cancerous cell lines. The protective role of organic shell resulted in not only preserved high up-converted emission intensity and long luminescence lifetimes, without quenching from water environment, but also ensured low cytotoxicity and high cellular uptake of the engineered nanocapsules. The multifunctionality of the proposed nanocarriers is a consequence of both the organic exterior part that is accessible for conjugation with biologically important molecules, and the hydrophobic interior, which in future application may be used as a container for co-encapsulation of inorganic nanoparticles and anticancer drug cargo. PMID:27406954

  3. Triple-Modal Imaging of Magnetically-Targeted Nanocapsules in Solid Tumours In Vivo

    PubMed Central

    Bai, Jie; Wang, Julie T.-W.; Rubio, Noelia; Protti, Andrea; Heidari, Hamed; Elgogary, Riham; Southern, Paul; Al-Jamal, Wafa' T.; Sosabowski, Jane; Shah, Ajay M.; Bals, Sara; Pankhurst, Quentin A.; Al-Jamal, Khuloud T.

    2016-01-01

    Triple-modal imaging magnetic nanocapsules, encapsulating hydrophobic superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles, are formulated and used to magnetically target solid tumours after intravenous administration in tumour-bearing mice. The engineered magnetic polymeric nanocapsules m-NCs are ~200 nm in size with negative Zeta potential and shown to be spherical in shape. The loading efficiency of superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles in the m-NC was ~100%. Up to ~3- and ~2.2-fold increase in tumour uptake at 1 and 24 h was achieved, when a static magnetic field was applied to the tumour for 1 hour. m-NCs, with multiple imaging probes (e.g. indocyanine green, superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles and indium-111), were capable of triple-modal imaging (fluorescence/magnetic resonance/nuclear imaging) in vivo. Using triple-modal imaging is to overcome the intrinsic limitations of single modality imaging and provides complementary information on the spatial distribution of the nanocarrier within the tumour. The significant findings of this study could open up new research perspectives in using novel magnetically-responsive nanomaterials in magnetic-drug targeting combined with multi-modal imaging. PMID:26909110

  4. Architectural layer-by-layer assembly of drug nanocapsules with PEGylated polyelectrolytes

    PubMed Central

    Shutava, Tatsiana G.; Pattekari, Pravin P.; Arapov, Kirill A.; Torchilin, Vladimir P.; Lvov, Yuri M.

    2012-01-01

    150–200 nm diameter capsules containing 60–70 wt % of poorly soluble drugs, paclitaxel and camptothecin, were produced by layer-by-layer (LbL) assembly on drug nanocores in a solution containing uncharged stabilizers. Optimization of capsule shell architecture and thickness allowed for concentrated (3–5 mg/mL) colloids that are stable in isotonic salt buffers. Nanoparticle aggregation during the washless LbL-assembly was prevented by using low molecular weight block-copolymers of poly(amino acids) (poly-L-lysine and poly-L-glutamic acid) with polyethylene glycol (PEG) in combination with heparin and bovine serum albumin at every bilayer building step. Minimal amounts of the polyelectrolytes were used to recharge the surface of nanoparticles in this non-washing LbL process. Such PEGylated shells resulted in drug nanocapsules with high colloidal stability in PBS buffer and increased protein adhesion resistance. The washless LbL polyelectrolyte nanocapsule assembly process, colloidal stability and nanoparticle morphology were monitored by dynamic light scattering and electrophoretic mobility measurements, UV-vis spectroscopy, TEM, SEM and laser confocal microscopy imaging. PMID:23144650

  5. Oral fondaparinux: use of lipid nanocapsules as nanocarriers and in vivo pharmacokinetic study.

    PubMed

    Ramadan, Alyaa; Lagarce, Frederic; Tessier-Marteau, Anne; Thomas, Olivier; Legras, Pierre; Macchi, Laurent; Saulnier, Patrick; Benoit, Jean Pierre

    2011-01-01

    Oral anticoagulant therapy could be advanced using lipid-based nanoparticulate systems. This study examined lipid nanocapsules for their oral absorption potential as the first step in developing oral fondaparinux (Fp) novel carriers. Using phase inversion method and cationic surfactants such as hexadecyltrimethyl ammonium bromide (CTAB) or stearylamine (SA), cationic lipid nanocapsules (cLNCs), loaded with Fp on their surface, were prepared and characterized (zeta potential, size and Fp association efficiency and content). In vivo studies were conducted after single oral increasing doses of Fp-loaded cLNCs (0.5 to 5 mg/kg of Fp) in rats and the concentration of Fp in the plasma was measured by anti-factor Xa activity assay. The monodisperse, (~50 nm), positively charged Fp-cLNCs with high drug loadings demonstrated linear pharmacokinetic profiles of the drug with an increased oral absolute bioavailability (up to ~21%) compatible with therapeutic anticoagulant effect (>0.2 μg/mL). PMID:22162653

  6. Specific Elimination of Latently HIV-1 Infected Cells Using HIV-1 Protease-Sensitive Toxin Nanocapsules

    PubMed Central

    Wen, Jing; Yan, Ming; Liu, Yang; Li, Jie; Xie, Yiming; Lu, Yunfeng; Kamata, Masakazu; Chen, Irvin S. Y.

    2016-01-01

    Anti-retroviral drugs suppress HIV-1 plasma viremia to undetectable levels; however, latent HIV-1 persists in reservoirs within HIV-1-infected patients. The silent provirus can be activated through the use of drugs, including protein kinase C activators and histone deacetylase inhibitors. This “shock” approach is then followed by “kill” of the producing cells either through direct HIV-1-induced cell death or natural immune mechanisms. However, these mechanisms are relatively slow and effectiveness is unclear. Here, we develop an approach to specifically target and kill cells that are activated early in the process of virus production. We utilize a novel nanocapsule technology whereby the ricin A chain is encapsulated in an inactive form within a polymer shell. Specificity for release of the ricin A toxin is conferred by peptide crosslinkers that are sensitive to cleavage by HIV-1 protease. By using well-established latent infection models, J-Lat and U1 cells, we demonstrate that only within an HIV-1-producing cell expressing functional HIV-1 protease will the nanocapsule release its ricin A cargo, shutting down viral and cellular protein synthesis, and ultimately leading to rapid death of the producer cell. Thus, we provide proof of principle for a novel technology to kill HIV-1-producing cells without effects on non-target cells. PMID:27049645

  7. Specific Elimination of Latently HIV-1 Infected Cells Using HIV-1 Protease-Sensitive Toxin Nanocapsules.

    PubMed

    Wen, Jing; Yan, Ming; Liu, Yang; Li, Jie; Xie, Yiming; Lu, Yunfeng; Kamata, Masakazu; Chen, Irvin S Y

    2016-01-01

    Anti-retroviral drugs suppress HIV-1 plasma viremia to undetectable levels; however, latent HIV-1 persists in reservoirs within HIV-1-infected patients. The silent provirus can be activated through the use of drugs, including protein kinase C activators and histone deacetylase inhibitors. This "shock" approach is then followed by "kill" of the producing cells either through direct HIV-1-induced cell death or natural immune mechanisms. However, these mechanisms are relatively slow and effectiveness is unclear. Here, we develop an approach to specifically target and kill cells that are activated early in the process of virus production. We utilize a novel nanocapsule technology whereby the ricin A chain is encapsulated in an inactive form within a polymer shell. Specificity for release of the ricin A toxin is conferred by peptide crosslinkers that are sensitive to cleavage by HIV-1 protease. By using well-established latent infection models, J-Lat and U1 cells, we demonstrate that only within an HIV-1-producing cell expressing functional HIV-1 protease will the nanocapsule release its ricin A cargo, shutting down viral and cellular protein synthesis, and ultimately leading to rapid death of the producer cell. Thus, we provide proof of principle for a novel technology to kill HIV-1-producing cells without effects on non-target cells.

  8. Triple-Modal Imaging of Magnetically-Targeted Nanocapsules in Solid Tumours In Vivo.

    PubMed

    Bai, Jie; Wang, Julie T-W; Rubio, Noelia; Protti, Andrea; Heidari, Hamed; Elgogary, Riham; Southern, Paul; Al-Jamal, Wafa' T; Sosabowski, Jane; Shah, Ajay M; Bals, Sara; Pankhurst, Quentin A; Al-Jamal, Khuloud T

    2016-01-01

    Triple-modal imaging magnetic nanocapsules, encapsulating hydrophobic superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles, are formulated and used to magnetically target solid tumours after intravenous administration in tumour-bearing mice. The engineered magnetic polymeric nanocapsules m-NCs are ~200 nm in size with negative Zeta potential and shown to be spherical in shape. The loading efficiency of superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles in the m-NC was ~100%. Up to ~3- and ~2.2-fold increase in tumour uptake at 1 and 24 h was achieved, when a static magnetic field was applied to the tumour for 1 hour. m-NCs, with multiple imaging probes (e.g. indocyanine green, superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles and indium-111), were capable of triple-modal imaging (fluorescence/magnetic resonance/nuclear imaging) in vivo. Using triple-modal imaging is to overcome the intrinsic limitations of single modality imaging and provides complementary information on the spatial distribution of the nanocarrier within the tumour. The significant findings of this study could open up new research perspectives in using novel magnetically-responsive nanomaterials in magnetic-drug targeting combined with multi-modal imaging.

  9. Antimicrobial nanocapsules: from new solvent-free process to in vitro efficiency

    PubMed Central

    Steelandt, Julie; Salmon, Damien; Gilbert, Elodie; Almouazen, Eyad; Renaud, François NR; Roussel, Laurène; Haftek, Marek; Pirot, Fabrice

    2014-01-01

    Skin and mucosal infections constitute recurrent pathologies resulting from either inappropriate antiseptic procedures or a lack of efficacy of antimicrobial products. In this field, nanomaterials offer interesting antimicrobial properties (eg, long-lasting activity; intracellular and tissular penetration) as compared to conventional products. The aim of this work was to produce, by a new solvent-free process, a stable and easily freeze-dryable chlorhexidine-loaded polymeric nanocapsule (CHX-NC) suspension, and then to assess the antimicrobial properties of nanomaterials. The relevance of the process and the physicochemical properties of the CHX-NCs were examined by the assessment of encapsulation efficiency, stability of the nanomaterial suspension after 1 month of storage, and by analysis of granulometry and surface electric charge of nanocapsules. In vitro antimicrobial activities of the CHX-NCs and chlorhexidine digluconate solution were compared by measuring the inhibition diameters of two bacterial strains (Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus) and one fungal strain (Candida albicans) cultured onto appropriate media. Based on the findings of this study, we report a new solvent-free process for the production of nanomaterials exhibiting antimicrobial activity, suitable stability, and easily incorporable as a new ingredient in various pharmaceutical products. PMID:25278751

  10. Specific Elimination of Latently HIV-1 Infected Cells Using HIV-1 Protease-Sensitive Toxin Nanocapsules.

    PubMed

    Wen, Jing; Yan, Ming; Liu, Yang; Li, Jie; Xie, Yiming; Lu, Yunfeng; Kamata, Masakazu; Chen, Irvin S Y

    2016-01-01

    Anti-retroviral drugs suppress HIV-1 plasma viremia to undetectable levels; however, latent HIV-1 persists in reservoirs within HIV-1-infected patients. The silent provirus can be activated through the use of drugs, including protein kinase C activators and histone deacetylase inhibitors. This "shock" approach is then followed by "kill" of the producing cells either through direct HIV-1-induced cell death or natural immune mechanisms. However, these mechanisms are relatively slow and effectiveness is unclear. Here, we develop an approach to specifically target and kill cells that are activated early in the process of virus production. We utilize a novel nanocapsule technology whereby the ricin A chain is encapsulated in an inactive form within a polymer shell. Specificity for release of the ricin A toxin is conferred by peptide crosslinkers that are sensitive to cleavage by HIV-1 protease. By using well-established latent infection models, J-Lat and U1 cells, we demonstrate that only within an HIV-1-producing cell expressing functional HIV-1 protease will the nanocapsule release its ricin A cargo, shutting down viral and cellular protein synthesis, and ultimately leading to rapid death of the producer cell. Thus, we provide proof of principle for a novel technology to kill HIV-1-producing cells without effects on non-target cells. PMID:27049645

  11. Facile Directed Assembly of Hollow Polymer Nanocapsules within Spontaneously Formed Catanionic Surfactant Vesicles

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, Mariya D.; Dergunov, Sergey; Richter, Andrew; Durbin, Jeffrey; Shmakov, Sergey; Jia, Ying; Kenbeilova, Saltanat; Orazbekuly, Yerbolat; Kengpeiil, Aigerim; Lindner, Erno; Pingali, Sai Venkatesh; Urban, Volker S; Weigand, Steven; Pinkhassik, Eugene

    2014-01-01

    Surfactant vesicles containing monomers in the interior of the bilayer were used to template hollow polymer nanocapsules. This study investigated the formation of surfactant/monomer assemblies by two loading methods, concurrent loading and diffusion loading. The assembly process and the resulting aggregates were investigated with dynamic light scattering, small angle neutron scattering, and small-angle X-ray scattering. Acrylic monomers formed vesicles with a mixture of cationic and anionic surfactants in a broad range of surfactant ratios. Regions with predominant formation of vesicles were broader for compositions containing acrylic monomers compared with blank surfactants. This observation supports the stabilization of the vesicular structure by acrylic monomers. Diffusion loading produced monomer-loaded vesicles unless vesicles were composed from surfactants at the ratios close to the boundary of a vesicular phase region on a phase diagram. Both concurrent-loaded and diffusion-loaded surfactant/monomer vesicles produced hollow polymer nanocapsules upon the polymerization of monomers in the bilayer followed by removal of surfactant scaffolds.

  12. Ultrastable Liquid-Liquid Interface as Viable Route for Controlled Deposition of Biodegradable Polymer Nanocapsules.

    PubMed

    Vecchione, Raffaele; Iaccarino, Giulia; Bianchini, Paolo; Marotta, Roberto; D'autilia, Francesca; Quagliariello, Vincenzo; Diaspro, Alberto; Netti, Paolo A

    2016-06-01

    Liquid-liquid interfaces are highly dynamic and characterized by an elevated interfacial tension as compared to solid-liquid interfaces. Therefore, they are gaining an increasing interest as viable templates for ordered assembly of molecules and nanoparticles. However, liquid-liquid interfaces are more difficult to handle compared to solid-liquid interfaces; their intrinsic instability may affect the assembly process, especially in the case of multiple deposition. Indeed, some attempts have been made in the deposition of polymer multilayers at liquid-liquid interfaces, but with limited control over size and stability. This study reports on the preparation of an ultrastable liquid-liquid interface based on an O/W secondary miniemulsion and its possible use as a template for the self-assembly of polymeric multilayer nanocapsules. Such polymer nanocapsules are made of entirely biodegradable materials, with highly controlled size-well under 200 nm-and multi-compartment and multifunctional features enriching their field of application in drug delivery, as well as in other bionanotechnology fields.

  13. Aqueous-core PEG-coated PLA nanocapsules for an efficient entrapment of water soluble anticancer drugs and a smart therapeutic response.

    PubMed

    Cosco, Donato; Paolino, Donatella; De Angelis, Francesco; Cilurzo, Felisa; Celia, Christian; Di Marzio, Luisa; Russo, Diego; Tsapis, Nicolas; Fattal, Elias; Fresta, Massimo

    2015-01-01

    Novel PEGylated PLA nanocapsules (PEG-AcPLA nanocapsules), loading high percentage of water soluble drugs have been formulated by using multiple emulsion technique without using conventional stabilizers. In particular, sodium deoxycholate hydrate has been used to obtain nanocapsules having a mean diameter of about 200 nm and a polydispersity index of ∼ 0.1. Gemcitabine hydrochloride (GEM) was used as a model of hydrophilic drug. GEM-loaded PEG-AcPLA nanocapsules demonstrated a high encapsulation efficacy and the drug-release followed a zero-order kinetic. MTT-assay evidenced an increased antitumor effect of GEM-loaded PEG-AcPLA nanocapsules compared to the free drug on different cancer cell lines and confocal laser scanning microscopy showed a significant improvement of cell interaction at 6h of incubation. In vivo anticancer activity of GEM-loaded PEG-AcPLA nanocapsules using two xenograft murine models of human solid tumors further supported the efficacy of this nano-drug, thus providing preliminary results about the potential clinical application of this innovative nanotherapeutic. PMID:25460850

  14. Frozen shoulder--an algoneurodystrophic process?

    PubMed

    Müller, L P; Rittmeister, M; John, J; Happ, J; Kerschbaumer, F

    1998-12-01

    The frozen shoulder syndrome and the Sudeck syndrome are clinically in many aspects similar. Radioisotope bone scan shows an increased uptake in the affected areas in both diseases, while standard radiographs show a progressive demineralization. With measurement of bone-mineral density by quantitative digital radiography these local decalcification processes were diagnosed in an early stage of the frozen shoulder syndrome: of 12 patients with primary frozen shoulder 10 had a bone-mineral density decrease of more than 21% in the humeral head of the affected shoulder compared to the unaffected side. In the control groups (n = 32) the difference between affected and unaffected side (left and right humerus of the healthy probands) was in only one case each above 21%. There are several indications in the literature assuming the frozen shoulder to be an algoneurodystrophic process. Our observation supports this hypothesis, and may possibly lead to earlier diagnosis and improved therapeutic management. PMID:9922549

  15. Group for frozen soil and rock

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    The American Society for Testing and Materials wants participants for D18.19, its new subcommittee on frozen soil and rock. The group will write standards for engineering practices in northern Canada, Alaska, and other areas where soil and rock are commonly in the frozen or recently thawed state. Three standards are currently under development: axial compressive load tests o n piles in frozen soils, laboratory rate of frost-heave tests, and laboratory creep testing of frozen soil.The next D18.19 meeting is June 26 in St. Louis, Mo. Scientists who want to work on the subcommittee should contact Bill Lovell, School of Civil Engineering, Purdue University, West Lafayette, IN 47904, tel. 317-494- 5034; or Wendy Dyer, ASTM, 1916 Race Street, Philadelphia, PA 19103, tel. 215-299-5526.

  16. 7 CFR 58.349 - Frozen cream.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... Specifications for Dairy Plants Approved for USDA Inspection and Grading Service 1 Requirements for Finished Products Bearing Usda Official Identification § 58.349 Frozen cream. The flavor shall be sweet,...

  17. Chemical Effects during Storage of Frozen Foods.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Powrie, W. D.

    1984-01-01

    Discusses (1) characteristics, interrelationships, and distribution of food constituents (including water) in unfrozen food systems; (2) the freezing process; and (3) chemical changes in food during frozen storage. Protein alterations and lipid oxidation are emphasized. (JN)

  18. Artificial insemination of cranes with frozen semen

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gee, G.F.; Sexton, T.J.; Lewis, J.C.

    1979-01-01

    For the first time (1978) artificial insemination (AI) with frozen greater sandhill crane (Grus canadensis tabida) semen resulted in fertile eggs and chicks. During the 2 year (1977-78) study, 6 of 27 eggs produced were fertile. Three chicks hatched. Semen samples used for insemination were frozen and stored in liquid nitrogen for two months or less. Recent improvements in the laboratory indicated that a more effective sample can be prepared and greater fertility rates should be expected.

  19. Frozen singularities in M and F theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tachikawa, Yuji

    2016-06-01

    We revisit the duality between ALE singularities in M-theory and 7-branes on a circle in F-theory. We see that a frozen M-theory singularity maps to a circle compactification involving a rotation of the plane transverse to the 7-brane, showing an interesting correspondence between commuting triples in simply-laced groups and Kodaira's classification of singular elliptic fibrations. Our analysis strongly suggests that the O7+ plane is the only completely frozen F-theory singularity.

  20. 21 CFR 160.190 - Frozen egg yolks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Frozen egg yolks. 160.190 Section 160.190 Food and... CONSUMPTION EGGS AND EGG PRODUCTS Requirements for Specific Standardized Eggs and Egg Products § 160.190 Frozen egg yolks. (a) Frozen egg yolks, frozen yolks is the food prepared by freezing egg yolks...

  1. 21 CFR 160.190 - Frozen egg yolks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Frozen egg yolks. 160.190 Section 160.190 Food and... CONSUMPTION EGGS AND EGG PRODUCTS Requirements for Specific Standardized Eggs and Egg Products § 160.190 Frozen egg yolks. (a) Frozen egg yolks, frozen yolks is the food prepared by freezing egg yolks...

  2. 21 CFR 160.190 - Frozen egg yolks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Frozen egg yolks. 160.190 Section 160.190 Food and... CONSUMPTION EGGS AND EGG PRODUCTS Requirements for Specific Standardized Eggs and Egg Products § 160.190 Frozen egg yolks. (a) Frozen egg yolks, frozen yolks is the food prepared by freezing egg yolks...

  3. 21 CFR 160.150 - Frozen egg whites.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... § 160.150 Frozen egg whites. (a) Frozen egg whites, frozen egg albumen is the food prepared by freezing liquid egg whites that conform to § 160.140, with such precautions that the finished food is free of viable Salmonella microorganisms. (b) When frozen egg whites are prepared from liquid egg...

  4. 21 CFR 160.150 - Frozen egg whites.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... § 160.150 Frozen egg whites. (a) Frozen egg whites, frozen egg albumen is the food prepared by freezing liquid egg whites that conform to § 160.140, with such precautions that the finished food is free of viable Salmonella microorganisms. (b) When frozen egg whites are prepared from liquid egg...

  5. 21 CFR 160.150 - Frozen egg whites.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... § 160.150 Frozen egg whites. (a) Frozen egg whites, frozen egg albumen is the food prepared by freezing liquid egg whites that conform to § 160.140, with such precautions that the finished food is free of viable Salmonella microorganisms. (b) When frozen egg whites are prepared from liquid egg...

  6. 21 CFR 160.150 - Frozen egg whites.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... § 160.150 Frozen egg whites. (a) Frozen egg whites, frozen egg albumen is the food prepared by freezing liquid egg whites that conform to § 160.140, with such precautions that the finished food is free of viable Salmonella microorganisms. (b) When frozen egg whites are prepared from liquid egg...

  7. 21 CFR 160.190 - Frozen egg yolks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Frozen egg yolks. 160.190 Section 160.190 Food and... CONSUMPTION EGGS AND EGG PRODUCTS Requirements for Specific Standardized Eggs and Egg Products § 160.190 Frozen egg yolks. (a) Frozen egg yolks, frozen yolks is the food prepared by freezing egg yolks...

  8. 21 CFR 146.126 - Frozen concentrate for colored lemonade.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Frozen concentrate for colored lemonade. 146.126... Fruit Juices and Beverages § 146.126 Frozen concentrate for colored lemonade. (a) Frozen concentrate for colored lemonade conforms to the definition and standard of identity prescribed for frozen concentrate...

  9. 21 CFR 160.150 - Frozen egg whites.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... § 160.150 Frozen egg whites. (a) Frozen egg whites, frozen egg albumen is the food prepared by freezing... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Frozen egg whites. 160.150 Section 160.150 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD...

  10. 21 CFR 160.190 - Frozen egg yolks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... Frozen egg yolks. (a) Frozen egg yolks, frozen yolks is the food prepared by freezing egg yolks that... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Frozen egg yolks. 160.190 Section 160.190 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR...

  11. 21 CFR 146.137 - Frozen orange juice.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Frozen orange juice. 146.137 Section 146.137 Food... Beverages § 146.137 Frozen orange juice. (a) Frozen orange juice is orange juice as defined in § 146.135, except that it is frozen. (b) The name of the food is “Frozen orange juice”. Such name may be preceded...

  12. 21 CFR 146.137 - Frozen orange juice.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Frozen orange juice. 146.137 Section 146.137 Food... Beverages § 146.137 Frozen orange juice. (a) Frozen orange juice is orange juice as defined in § 146.135, except that it is frozen. (b) The name of the food is “Frozen orange juice”. Such name may be preceded...

  13. 21 CFR 146.137 - Frozen orange juice.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Frozen orange juice. 146.137 Section 146.137 Food... Beverages § 146.137 Frozen orange juice. (a) Frozen orange juice is orange juice as defined in § 146.135, except that it is frozen. (b) The name of the food is “Frozen orange juice”. Such name may be preceded...

  14. 21 CFR 146.137 - Frozen orange juice.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Frozen orange juice. 146.137 Section 146.137 Food... Beverages § 146.137 Frozen orange juice. (a) Frozen orange juice is orange juice as defined in § 146.135, except that it is frozen. (b) The name of the food is “Frozen orange juice”. Such name may be preceded...

  15. 21 CFR 146.137 - Frozen orange juice.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Frozen orange juice. 146.137 Section 146.137 Food... Beverages § 146.137 Frozen orange juice. (a) Frozen orange juice is orange juice as defined in § 146.135, except that it is frozen. (b) The name of the food is “Frozen orange juice”. Such name may be preceded...

  16. Mineralization of cellulose in frozen boreal soils

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oquist, Mats G.; Segura, Javier; Sparrman, Tobias; Nilsson, Mats; Schleucher, Jurgen

    2015-04-01

    Soils of high-latitude ecosystems store a large fraction of the global soil carbon. In boreal forests, the microbial mineralization of soil organic matter (SOM) during winter can affect the ecosystems net carbon balance. Recent research has shown that microorganisms in the organic surface layer of boreal forest soil can mineralize and grow on simple, soluble monomeric substrates under frozen conditions. However, any substantial impacts of microbial activity in frozen soils on long-term soil carbon balances ultimately depends on whether soil microorganisms can utilize and grow the more complex, polymeric constituents of SOM. In order to evaluate the potential for soil microorganisms to metabolize carbon polymers at low temperatures, we incubated boreal forest soil samples amended with [13C]-cellulose and studied the microbial catabolic and anabolic utilization of the substrate under frozen and unfrozen conditions (-4 and +4°C). Freezing of the soil markedly reduced microbial utilization of the cellulose. The [13C]-CO2 production rate in the samples at +4°C were 0.52 mg CO2 SOM -1 day-1 while rates in the frozen samples (-4°C) were 0.01 mg CO2 SOM -1 day-1. However, newly synthetized [13C]-enriched cell membrane lipids, PLFAs, were detected in soil samples incubated both above and below freezing, confirming that cellulose can sustain also anabolic activity of the microbial populations under frozen conditions. The reduced metabolic rates induced by freezing indicate constraints on exoenzymatic activity, as well as substrate diffusion rates that we can attribute to reduced liquid water content of the frozen soil. We conclude that the microbial population in boreal forest soil has the capacity to metabolize, and grow, on polymeric substrates at temperatures below zero, which involves maintaining exoenzymatic activity in frozen soils. This capacity manifests the importance of SOM mineralization during the winter season and its importance for the net carbon balance of

  17. Lipid Nanocapsule-Based Gels for Enhancement of Transdermal Delivery of Ketorolac Tromethamine

    PubMed Central

    Varshosaz, Jaleh; Hajhashemi, Valiollah; Soltanzadeh, Sindokht

    2011-01-01

    Previous reports show ineffective transdermal delivery of ketorolac by nanostructured lipid carriers (NLCs). The aim of the present work was enhancement of transdermal delivery of ketorolac by another colloidal carriers, lipid nanocapsules (LNCs). LNCs were prepared by emulsification with phase transition method and mixed in a Carbomer 934P gel base with oleic acid or propylene glycol as penetration enhancers. Permeation studies were performed by Franz diffusion cell using excised rat abdominal skin. Aerosil-induced rat paw edema model was used to investigate the in vivo performance. LNCs containing polyethylene glycol hydroxyl stearate, lecithin in Labrafac as the oily phase, and dilution of the primary emulsion with 3.5-fold volume of cold water produced the optimized nanoparticles. The 1% Carbomer gel base containing 10% oleic acid loaded with nanoparticles enhanced and prolonged the anti-inflammatory effects of this drug to more than 12 h in Aerosil-induced rat paw edema model. PMID:22175029

  18. Encapsulation of carbides of chromium, molybdenum and tungsten in carbon nanocapsules by arc discharge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saito, Yahachi; Matsumoto, Takehisa; Nishikubo, Keishi

    1997-02-01

    Encapsulation of Cr, Mo and W in multilayered graphitic cages by arc evaporation of metal/carbon composites under different pressures of helium gas (100, 600 and 1500 Torr) has been studied. Electron microscopy and X-ray diffraction of carbonaceous products revealed that encapsulated crystallites were carbides, i.e. Cr 7C 3 and Cr 3C 2 for Cr; Mo 2C, δ-MoC 1- x (NaCl type) and γ'-MoC (AsTi type) for Mo; W 2C and β-WC 1- x (NaCl type) for W. Effect of the pressure of helium gas on the formation of filled nanocapsules was markedly found for tungsten: Encapsulated tungsten carbides were formed at the highest pressure, but not in the lower pressures.

  19. Polymeric hepatitis C virus non-structural protein 5A nanocapsules induce intrahepatic antigen-specific immune responses.

    PubMed

    Fichter, Michael; Piradashvili, Keti; Pietrzak-Nguyen, Anette; Pretsch, Leah; Kuhn, Gabor; Strand, Susanne; Knuf, Markus; Zepp, Fred; Wurm, Frederik R; Mailänder, Volker; Landfester, Katharina; Gehring, Stephan

    2016-11-01

    Targeting antigen combined with adjuvants to hepatic antigen-presenting cells (APCs) is essential for the induction of intrahepatic T cellular immunity controlling and resolving viral infections of the liver. Intravenous injection of antigen-loaded nanoparticles is a promising approach for the delivery of antigens to liver APCs. Accordingly, polymeric nanocapsules (NCs) synthesized exclusively of hepatitis C virus non-structural protein 5A (NS5A) and the adjuvant monophosphoryl lipid A (MPLA) adsorbed to the nanocapsule surface were developed. Aim of the present study was the evaluation of the in vitro and in vivo behavior of MPLA-functionalized NS5A-NCs regarding the interaction with liver dendritic cells (DCs) and the potential to induce intrahepatic immune responses in a mouse model. Maturation of DCs was significantly increased by application of NS5A+MPLA-NCs compared to non-functionalized NS5A-NCs promoting a vigorous expression of CD40, CD80, CD86 and a strong secretion of the Th1-related cytokine IL-12. NS5A-NCs were preferentially deposited in DCs and Kupffer cells residing in the liver after intravenous administration. Immunization with NS5A-NCs induced intrahepatic antigen-specific CD4(+) T cellular immune responses determined by the secretion of IFNγ and IL-2. Furthermore, supplementation with MPLA induced significant levels of NS5A-specific antibodies. The application of polymeric nanocapsules synthesized exclusively out of antigen avoids the risk of unintended side effects caused by additional carrier substances. Functionalization with adjuvants like MPLA and the efficient targeting to liver-resident APCs inherits the potential for application of antigen nanocapsules in further vaccination approaches against pathogens affecting the liver. PMID:27614817

  20. Synthesis of multi-functional nanocapsules via interfacial AGET ATRP in miniemulsion for tumor micro-environment responsive drug delivery.

    PubMed

    Tian, Kun; Zeng, Jin; Zhao, Xubo; Liu, Lei; Jia, Xu; Liu, Peng

    2015-10-01

    Novel multi-functional polymeric hollow nanocapsules (PHN) based on the crosslinked poly(tert-butyl acrylate) (PtBA) shells were synthesized in a miniemulsion interfacial polymerization via activator generated electron transfer atom transfer radical polymerization (AGET ATRP) technique with N,N'-bis(acryloyl) cystamine (BACy) as cross-linking agent, CuBr₂ as catalyst, ascorbic acid (VC) as reducing agent and hexadecane as inert solvent. In the AGET ATRP, a folate-conjugated block copolymer, folate-poly(ethylene glycol)-b-poly(tert-butyl acrylate) (FA-PEG-tBA-Br), was used as macroinitiator/stabilizer, and the specific amphiphilic nature of the copolymer led the extending inward of polymer chains. The DLS analysis directly showed the PHN with an average diameter of 150 nm was obtained. After the PtBA shells were transformed into poly(acrylic acid) (PAA) by hydrolysis, doxorubicin (DOX), as a model drug, was loaded efficiently into the hydrolyzed polymeric hollow nanocapsules (HPHN), then the in vitro release of drug was carried out in phosphate buffer solution (PBS, pH 7.4 or 5.0, with or without DTT or GSH of different concentrations). It showed that the existence of folate group significantly improved pH stimuli-responsive and DOX-loading capacity of the polymeric nanocapsules. An acidic pH (5.0) and presence of GSH would accelerate the DOX release behavior. Thus, these multi-functional polymeric nanocapsules have excellent available properties in the field of targeted and controlled drug delivery for cancer therapy.

  1. Frozen red cells in Rhesus immunization.

    PubMed

    Cook, I A; Robb, A L; Mitchell, R; McLaren, E A; Urbaniak, S; Robertson, A E

    1980-04-01

    The use of frozen washed cells in varying doses in primary Rh immunization is compared to two groups of men with the use of fresh washed cells in a third group. In the first two groups, using frozen cells, doses ranging from 0.5 to 20 ml of whole blood (Group I) are compared with a 200.0 ml dose of red cell concentrate (Group II), while Group III served as a control using a 20 ml dose of fresh washed red cell suspension (9.0 ml concentrated red cell equivalent). The response rate was 93% in Group II compared with only 43% in Group I, suggesting the desirability of using relatively large doses of Rh-positive red cells for primary Rh immunization. The use of frozen washed cells from a special panel for 'booster' injections is also recommended.

  2. Soil organic matter mineralization in frozen soils

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harrysson Drotz, S.; Sparrman, T.; Schleucher, J.; Nilsson, M.; Öquist, M. G.

    2009-12-01

    Boreal forest soils are frozen for a large part of the year and soil organic matter mineralization during this period has been shown to significantly influence the C balance of boreal forest ecosystems. Mineralization proceeds through heterotrophic microbial activity, but the understanding of the environmental controls regulating soil organic matter mineralization under frozen conditions is poor. Through a series of investigations we have addressed this issue in order to elucidate to what extent a range of environmental factors control mineralization processes in frozen soils and also the microbial communities potential to oxidize organic substrates and grow under such conditions. The unfrozen water content in the frozen soils was shown to be an integral control on the temperature response of biogenic CO2 production across the freezing point of bulk soil water. We found that osmotic potential was an important contributor to the total water potential and, hence, the unfrozen water content of frozen soil. From being low and negligible in an unfrozen soil, the osmotic potential was found to contribute up to 70% of the total water potential in frozen soil, greatly influencing the volume of liquid water. The specific factors of how soil organic matter composition affected the unfrozen water content and CO2 production of frozen soil were studied by CP-MAS NMR. We concluded that abundance of aromatics and recalcitrant compounds showed a significant positive correlation with unfrozen water content and these were also the major soil organic fractions that similarly correlated with the microbial CO2 production of the frozen soils. Thus, the hierarchy of environmental factors controlling SOM mineralization changes as soils freeze and environmental controls elucidated from studies of unfrozen systems can not be added on frozen conditions. We have also investigated the potential activity of soil microbial communities under frozen conditions in order to elucidate temperature

  3. Triplet-triplet annihilation upconversion in CdS-decorated SiO2 nanocapsules for sub-bandgap photocatalysis.

    PubMed

    Kwon, Oh Seok; Kim, Jae-Hyuk; Cho, Jin Ku; Kim, Jae-Hong

    2015-01-14

    This study reports the first successful nanoscale encapsulation of triplet-triplet annihilation upconversion (TTA-UC) medium within a rigid silica shell using a self-assembly microemulsion process. These newly synthesized nanocapsules present a few critical advances that could be instrumental for a wide range of aqueous-based photonics applications, including photocatalysis, artificial photosynthesis, and bioimaging. The nanocapsules form a homogeneous suspension that can produce intense, diffuse UC emission in water without deoxygenation, closely resembling conventional TTA-UC processes that have been performed in deoxygenated organic solvents. The silica shell provides sites for further surface modification, which allows, when combined with its nanoscale dimension and structural rigidity, this TTA-UC system to acquire various useful functionalities. A benchmark TTA-UC pair, palladium(II) tetraphenyltetrabenzoporphyrin as a sensitizer and perylene as an acceptor, was used to demonstrate efficient red-to-blue (635 nm, 1.95 eV → 470 nm, 2.6 eV) upconversion in the oxygen-rich aqueous phase. The nanocapsule surface was further functionalized with cadmium sulfide nanoparticles (Eg = 2.4 eV) to demonstrate sub-bandgap sensitization and subsequent aqueous-phase catalytic oxidation.

  4. Pharmacokinetics on a microscale: visualizing Cy5-labeled oligonucleotide release from poly(n-butylcyanoacrylate) nanocapsules in cells

    PubMed Central

    Tomcin, Stephanie; Baier, Grit; Landfester, Katharina; Mailänder, Volker

    2014-01-01

    For successful design of a nanoparticulate drug delivery system, the fate of the carrier and cargo need to be followed. In this work, we fluorescently labeled poly(n-butylcyanoacrylate) (PBCA) nanocapsules as a shell and separately an oligonucleotide (20 mer) as a payload. The nanocapsules were formed by interfacial anionic polymerization on aqueous droplets generated by an inverse miniemulsion process. After uptake, the PBCA capsules were shown to be round-shaped, endosomal structures and the payload was successfully released. Cy5-labeled oligonucleotides accumulated at the mitochondrial membrane due to a combination of the high mitochondrial membrane potential and the specific molecular structure of Cy5. The specificity of this accumulation at the mitochondria was shown as the uncoupler dinitrophenol rapidly diminished the accumulation of the Cy5-labeled oligonucleotide. Importantly, a fluorescence resonance energy transfer investigation showed that the dye-labeled cargo (Cy3/Cy5-labeled oligonucleotides) reached its target site without degradation during escape from an endosomal compartment to the cytoplasm. The time course of accumulation of fluorescent signals at the mitochondria was determined by evaluating the colocalization of Cy5-labeled oligonucleotides and mitochondrial markers for up to 48 hours. As oligonucleotides are an ideal model system for small interfering RNA PBCA nanocapsules demonstrate to be a versatile delivery platform for small interfering RNA to treat a variety of diseases. PMID:25473285

  5. Pharmacokinetics on a microscale: visualizing Cy5-labeled oligonucleotide release from poly(n-butylcyanoacrylate) nanocapsules in cells.

    PubMed

    Tomcin, Stephanie; Baier, Grit; Landfester, Katharina; Mailänder, Volker

    2014-01-01

    For successful design of a nanoparticulate drug delivery system, the fate of the carrier and cargo need to be followed. In this work, we fluorescently labeled poly(n-butylcyanoacrylate) (PBCA) nanocapsules as a shell and separately an oligonucleotide (20 mer) as a payload. The nanocapsules were formed by interfacial anionic polymerization on aqueous droplets generated by an inverse miniemulsion process. After uptake, the PBCA capsules were shown to be round-shaped, endosomal structures and the payload was successfully released. Cy5-labeled oligonucleotides accumulated at the mitochondrial membrane due to a combination of the high mitochondrial membrane potential and the specific molecular structure of Cy5. The specificity of this accumulation at the mitochondria was shown as the uncoupler dinitrophenol rapidly diminished the accumulation of the Cy5-labeled oligonucleotide. Importantly, a fluorescence resonance energy transfer investigation showed that the dye-labeled cargo (Cy3/Cy5-labeled oligonucleotides) reached its target site without degradation during escape from an endosomal compartment to the cytoplasm. The time course of accumulation of fluorescent signals at the mitochondria was determined by evaluating the colocalization of Cy5-labeled oligonucleotides and mitochondrial markers for up to 48 hours. As oligonucleotides are an ideal model system for small interfering RNA PBCA nanocapsules demonstrate to be a versatile delivery platform for small interfering RNA to treat a variety of diseases.

  6. Preference mapping of frozen and fresh raspberries.

    PubMed

    Villamor, R R; Daniels, C H; Moore, P P; Ross, C F

    2013-06-01

    The purpose of the study was to identify key sensory attributes that influence consumer liking for frozen and fresh red raspberries using preference mapping. Sensory profiling of different raspberry cultivars and selections from the Washington State Univ. and Oregon State Univ. breeding programs was carried out using a trained panel (frozen, n = 12 and fresh, n = 10). In addition, a subset of frozen and fresh raspberries of each cultivar was assessed by consumers for sensory acceptability (n = 105 and n = 100, respectively). Based on overall hedonic ratings, cluster analysis identified 3 clusters of frozen raspberry consumers from day 1 (41% "nondistinguishers," 34% "likers," and 25% "nonlikers") and day 2 (41% "group 1 likers," 26% "nonlikers," and 34% and 33% group 2 likers"). For fresh raspberry consumers, 2 clusters were detected from day 1 (54% "likers" and 46% nondistinguishers") and day 2 (54% "group 1 likers" and 46% "group 2 likers"). Preference mapping was applied on the descriptive sensory and acceptability of clustered consumer data. Partial least squares regression results showed that liking of frozen raspberries was driven by high raspberry flavor, firmness, and sweetness. Conversely, disliking of frozen raspberries was related to high sour and aftertaste intensity. In the case of fresh raspberries, high color uniformity, raspberry aroma, raspberry flavor, floral aroma, green flavor, bitter, astringency, and aftertaste increased the acceptability, whereas high color intensity and green aroma were associated with negative drivers of liking. The information obtained in this study can be a useful guide for breeders in the selection of characteristics for growing superior quality raspberries.

  7. Polyethylene glycol conjugated polymeric nanocapsules for targeted delivery of quercetin to folate-expressing cancer cells in vitro and in vivo.

    PubMed

    El-Gogary, Riham I; Rubio, Noelia; Wang, Julie Tzu-Wen; Al-Jamal, Wafa' T; Bourgognon, Maxime; Kafa, Houmam; Naeem, Muniba; Klippstein, Rebecca; Abbate, Vincenzo; Leroux, Frédéric; Bals, Sara; Van Tendeloo, Gustaaf; Kamel, Amany O; Awad, Gehanne A S; Mortada, Nahed D; Al-Jamal, Khuloud T

    2014-02-25

    In this work we describe the formulation and characterization of chemically modified polymeric nanocapsules incorporating the anticancer drug, quercetin, for the passive and active targeting to tumors. Folic acid was conjugated to poly(lactide-co-glycolide) (PLGA) polymer to facilitate active targeting to cancer cells. Two different methods for the conjugation of PLGA to folic acid were employed utilizing polyethylene glycol (PEG) as a spacer. Characterization of the conjugates was performed using FTIR and (1)H NMR studies. The PEG and folic acid content was independent of the conjugation methodology employed. PEGylation has shown to reduce the size of the nanocapsule; moreover, zeta-potential was shown to be polymer-type dependent. Comparative studies on the cytotoxicity and cellular uptake of the different formulations by HeLa cells, in the presence and absence of excess folic acid, were carried out using MTT assay and Confocal Laser Scanning Microscopy, respectively. Both results confirmed the selective uptake and cytotoxicity of the folic acid targeted nanocapsules to the folate enriched cancer cells in a folate-dependent manner. Finally, the passive tumor accumulation and the active targeting of the nanocapsules to folate-expressing cells were confirmed upon intravenous administration in HeLa or IGROV-1 tumor-bearing mice. The developed nanocapsules provide a system for targeted delivery of a range of hydrophobic anticancer drugs in vivo. PMID:24397686

  8. Poly (ε-caprolactone) nanocapsules for oral delivery of raloxifene: process optimization by hybrid design approach, in vitro and in vivo evaluation.

    PubMed

    Aditya, N; Ravi, Punna Rao; Avula, Uday Sai Ranjan; Vats, Rahul

    2014-01-01

    Raloxifene HCl (RLX), a selective oestrogen receptor modulator, has low oral bioavailability (<2%) in humans due to its poor aqueous solubility and extensive first-pass metabolism in gut. In this study, we optimised the method of preparation for poly (ε-caprolactone) (PCL) based nanocapsules of RLX by double emulsion method (w/o/w). A hybrid design approach, Plackett-Burman design followed by rotatable central composite design, was used to arrive at the optimised formulation. The optimised formulation was subjected to in vitro and in vivo evaluation. RLX loaded nanocapsules were spherical in shape with particle size less than 200 nm and high encapsulation efficiency (>80%). RLX-loaded nanocapsules showed 2.1-fold increase in oral bioavailability compared to free RLX. IV pharmacokinetic studies indicated that RLX loaded into nanocapsule had significantly low clearance in comparison with free RLX. Designed nanocapsules showed promise as delivery systems to enhance oral bioavailability and in reducing clearance of raloxifene. PMID:24697167

  9. The new insight into oral drug delivery system based on metal drugs in colon cancer therapy through β-lactoglobulin/oxali-palladium nanocapsules.

    PubMed

    Ghalandari, Behafarid; Divsalar, Adeleh; Saboury, Ali Akbar; Parivar, Kazem

    2014-11-01

    Many efforts have been made to improve the targeting and potential applications of oral drug delivery systems. In this paper, we have demonstrated and investigated how biopolymer nanocapsules can be used as a novel oral drug delivery system for metal-based drug delivery in colon cancer therapy. In this work, β-lactoglobulin nanocapsules containing oxali-palladium were chosen to be synthesized and investigated for the use in colon cancer therapy. These nanocapsules were fabricated in three different pHs (3, 4.5 and 7) and investigated both in the presence and absence of low methoxyl pectin. The results obtained from these experiments indicated that the soluble and stable β-lactoglobulin nanocapsules which contained oxali-palladium had the ability to be formed at a size smaller than 200 nm when in the presence of low methoxyl pectin and at pH 4.5. The in vitro release data indicated that the maximum release occurs at pH 7.0 and 7.5. There lease mechanism demonstrated an anomalous diffusion with a predominant contribution from erosion. Finally, it can be concluded that the β-LG nanocapsules containing oxali-palladium complexed with low methoxyl pectin can be a very promising candidate for the use in oral drug delivery for colon cancer treatment. PMID:25190224

  10. Phase-Shifted PFH@PLGA/Fe3O4 Nanocapsules for MRI/US Imaging and Photothermal Therapy with near-Infrared Irradiation.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Yajing; Song, Weixiang; Wang, Dong; Ran, Haitao; Wang, Ronghui; Yao, Yuanzhi; Wang, Zhigang; Zheng, Yuanyi; Li, Pan

    2015-07-01

    Photothermal therapy (PTT) utilizes photothermal conversion reagents to generate heat energy from absorbed light to effectively treat various malignant diseases. This approach has attracted broad and increasing interest in cancer treatment. Near-infrared (NIR)-induced PTT is particularly attractive because of its minimal absorbance by normal tissue and relatively deep tissue penetration. To improve the efficacy of PTT, we have developed nanocapsules encapsulating superparamagnetic iron oxide (Fe3O4) as synergistic agents for NIR-induced PTT. In this study, phase-shift and NIR photoabsorbing poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) nanocapsules (perfluorohexane (PFH)@PLGA/Fe3O4) were fabricated for MRI/US dual-modal imaging-guided PTT. The multifunctional nanocapsules can be used not only to increase the local tumor temperature by absorbing the NIR energy but also as bimodal contrast agents for both MRI and US imaging. Such nanocapsules can be converted into microbubbles under NIR irradiation, which produces excellent contrast for US imaging and enhanced cancer ablation. We refer to the nanocapsule phase transition process induced by the infrared lamp as NIR radiation droplet vaporization (NIRDV). PMID:26067333

  11. Evaluation of tea tree oil for controlling Rhipicephalus microplus in dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Pazinatto Boito, Jhonatan; Santos, Roberto C; Vaucher, Rodrigo A; Raffin, Renata; Machado, Gustavo; Tonin, Alexandre A; Da Silva, Aleksandro S

    2016-07-30

    Our research aimed to test the effects of Melaleuca alternifolia oil (pure and in nanocapsules) in the control of Rhipicephalus microplus in dairy cattle. For this purpose, the in vivo studies used 15 cows distributed in three different groups with the same number of animals. Five cows remained untreated (Group A), representing the control group; other five cows were sprayed with TTO (at 5%) in its pure form (Group B); and five cows were sprayed with nanocapsules of TTO (at 0.75%) (Group C). On days 1 and 4 post-treatments (PT), all cows had their ticks counted. On day 1 PT, two ticks from each cow were collected to evaluate the effect of the treatment on ticḱs reproduction (in vitro assays). The pure form of TTO caused a significant reduction (P<0.05) in the number of ticks from the Group B compared to the Group A on day 4 PT. However, there was no significant difference in the number of ticks on cows from Groups A and C after treatment (P>0.05). Treatment with TTO in nanocapsules (Group C) interfered with R. microplus reproduction, leading to lower oviposition by female ticks and hatchability (34.5% of efficacy). On the other hand, TTO oil (Group B) did not interfere on ticḱs reproduction, i.e. showed higher hatchability than the control group. Therefore, it is possible to conclude that pure TTO has an acaricidal effect in dairy cows, in addition to an effect on ticḱs reproduction when used its nanocapsulated form.

  12. Evaluation of tea tree oil for controlling Rhipicephalus microplus in dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Pazinatto Boito, Jhonatan; Santos, Roberto C; Vaucher, Rodrigo A; Raffin, Renata; Machado, Gustavo; Tonin, Alexandre A; Da Silva, Aleksandro S

    2016-07-30

    Our research aimed to test the effects of Melaleuca alternifolia oil (pure and in nanocapsules) in the control of Rhipicephalus microplus in dairy cattle. For this purpose, the in vivo studies used 15 cows distributed in three different groups with the same number of animals. Five cows remained untreated (Group A), representing the control group; other five cows were sprayed with TTO (at 5%) in its pure form (Group B); and five cows were sprayed with nanocapsules of TTO (at 0.75%) (Group C). On days 1 and 4 post-treatments (PT), all cows had their ticks counted. On day 1 PT, two ticks from each cow were collected to evaluate the effect of the treatment on ticḱs reproduction (in vitro assays). The pure form of TTO caused a significant reduction (P<0.05) in the number of ticks from the Group B compared to the Group A on day 4 PT. However, there was no significant difference in the number of ticks on cows from Groups A and C after treatment (P>0.05). Treatment with TTO in nanocapsules (Group C) interfered with R. microplus reproduction, leading to lower oviposition by female ticks and hatchability (34.5% of efficacy). On the other hand, TTO oil (Group B) did not interfere on ticḱs reproduction, i.e. showed higher hatchability than the control group. Therefore, it is possible to conclude that pure TTO has an acaricidal effect in dairy cows, in addition to an effect on ticḱs reproduction when used its nanocapsulated form. PMID:27369577

  13. Monitoring pH-Triggered Drug Release from Radioluminescent Nanocapsules with X-Ray Excited Optical Luminescence

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Hongyu; Moore, Thomas; Qi, Bin; Colvin, Daniel C.; Jelen, Erika K.; Hitchcock, Dale A.; He, Jian; Mefford, O. Thompson; Gore, John C.; Alexis, Frank; Anker, Jeffrey N.

    2013-01-01

    One of the greatest challenges in cancer therapy is to develop methods to deliver chemotherapy agents to tumor cells while reducing systemic toxicity to non-cancerous cells. A promising approach to localizing drug release is to employ drug-loaded nanoparticles with coatings that release the drugs only in the presence of specific triggers found in the target cells such as pH, enzymes, or light. However, many parameters affect the nanoparticle distribution and drug release rate and it is difficult to quantify drug release in situ. In this work, we show proof of principle for a “smart” radioluminescent nanocapsule with X-ray excited optical luminescence (XEOL) spectrum that changes during release of the optically absorbing chemotherapy drug, doxorubicin. XEOL provides an almost background-free luminescent signal for measuring drug release from particles irradiated by a narrow X-ray beam. We study in vitro pH triggered release rates of doxorubicin from nanocapsules coated with a pH responsive polyelectrolyte multilayer using HPLC and XEOL spectroscopy. The doxorubicin was loaded to over 5 % by weight, and released from the capsule with a time constant in vitro of ~ 36 days at pH 7.4, and 21.4 hr at pH 5.0, respectively. The Gd2O2S:Eu nanocapsules are also paramagnetic at room temperature with similar magnetic susceptibility and similarly good MRI T2 relaxivities to Gd2O3, but the sulfur increases the radioluminescence intensity and shifts the spectrum. Empty nanocapsules did not affect cell viability up to concentrations of at least 250 μ/ml. These empty nanocapsules accumulated in a mouse liver and spleen following tail vein injection, and could be observed in vivo using XEOL. The particles are synthesized with a versatile template synthesis technique which allows for control of particle size and shape. The XEOL analysis technique opens the door to non-invasive quantification of drug release as a function of nanoparticle size, shape, surface chemistry and tissue

  14. Using frozen sugarcane for alcohol production

    SciTech Connect

    Irvine, J.E.

    1980-01-01

    The three areas that produce sugarcane in the mainland US are subject to crop-damaging freezes. Florida has fewer freezes. Texas and Louisiana are hurt frequently. Hard freezes end processing for sugar production when dextrans form and prevent crystallization. Dextran is formed from sugar by bacteria. Work at the Audubon Sugar Institute, LSU, has shown that crystallization of sucrose can be achieved with juice from frozen sugarcane when enzymes are used to reduce the size of the dextran molecule. Frozen cane may also be processed for alcohol production. How long the cane would be suitable as feedstock was questioned; its use would depend on sugar content. Sugarcane has been tested for post-freeze deterioration at the US Sugarcane Field Laboratory for over 50 years, and the emphasis has been on the response of varieties selected for sugar production in post-freeze deterioration. The data indicated that juice from frozen sugarcane in any of the tests would be adequate for alcohol production; fermentation based on mash with a sugar content of 9 to 11% for rum, and 15% for industrial alcohol. Total fermentable carbohydrates in frozen cane would be even higher since the data did not include invert sugars or starch. 1 table. (DP)

  15. 21 CFR 158.170 - Frozen peas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... thermostatically controlled at 100±2 °C. (v) Procedure—Transfer frozen contents of package to plastic bag; tie bag securely and immerse in water bath with continuous flow at room temperature. Avoid agitation of bag during thawing by using clamps or weights. When sample completely thaws, remove bag, blot off adhering water,...

  16. 21 CFR 158.170 - Frozen peas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... thermostatically controlled at 100±2 °C. (v) Procedure—Transfer frozen contents of package to plastic bag; tie bag securely and immerse in water bath with continuous flow at room temperature. Avoid agitation of bag during thawing by using clamps or weights. When sample completely thaws, remove bag, blot off adhering water,...

  17. 21 CFR 158.170 - Frozen peas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... thermostatically controlled at 100±2 °C. (v) Procedure—Transfer frozen contents of package to plastic bag; tie bag securely and immerse in water bath with continuous flow at room temperature. Avoid agitation of bag during thawing by using clamps or weights. When sample completely thaws, remove bag, blot off adhering water,...

  18. Exclusion of Nitrate from Frozen Aqueous Solutions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marrocco, H. A.; Michelsen, R. R.

    2013-12-01

    Reactions occurring at the surface of ice, sea ice, and snow in Earth's cryosphere have an impact on the composition of the overlying atmosphere. In order to elucidate reaction mechanisms and model their contributions to atmospheric processes, the morphology of frozen aqueous surfaces and amounts of reactants contained therein must be determined. To this end, the exclusion of nitrate ions to the surface of frozen aqueous solutions has been studied by attenuated total reflection infrared spectroscopy (ATR-IR). In this technique the near-surface region of the frozen films are interrogated to a depth of a few hundred nanometers from the film-crystal interface. Aqueous solutions (0.001 to 0.01 M) of sodium nitrate (NaNO3), magnesium nitrate (Mg(NO3)2), and nitric acid (HNO3) were quickly frozen on the germanium ATR crystal and observed at a constant temperature of about -18°C. In addition to ice and the solutes, liquid water in varying amounts was observed in the spectra. The amount of nitrate in the surface liquid is three to four orders of magnitude higher than in the unfrozen solution. While all the nitrate salts exhibit exclusion to the unfrozen surface, the dynamics are different for different counter-ions. Results are compared to freezing point depression data and the predictions of equilibrium thermodynamics.

  19. 7 CFR 58.349 - Frozen cream.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ..., GENERAL SPECIFICATIONS FOR APPROVED PLANTS AND STANDARDS FOR GRADES OF DAIRY PRODUCTS 1 General Specifications for Dairy Plants Approved for USDA Inspection and Grading Service 1 Requirements for Finished Products Bearing Usda Official Identification § 58.349 Frozen cream. The flavor shall be sweet,...

  20. On a Frozen Fellow and Melding Media.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wheeler, David

    1996-01-01

    Describes an art project that constructed a realistic model of a frozen prehistoric cadaver including its clothing and tool kit. Originally conceived as a way to introduce students to art materials, ancient history, and different cultures, the project grew to include a traveling exhibit and instructional puppet shows. (MJP)

  1. Fresh frozen plasma: past, present and future.

    PubMed

    McCarthy, L J

    1989-12-01

    Fresh frozen plasma has been transfused for decades. However, the dramatic increase in its use has caused concern that much of it is transfused without the proper indications. Because of this, the National Institutes of Health held a Consensus Conference to clarify its genuine indications and contraindications.

  2. Frozen yogurt with added inulin and isomalt.

    PubMed

    Isik, U; Boyacioglu, D; Capanoglu, E; Erdil, D Nilufer

    2011-04-01

    The objective of this study was to produce a frozen yogurt containing low fat and no added sugar. Samples containing 5% polydextrose, 0.065% aspartame and acesulfame-K mixture, and different levels of inulin and isomalt (5.0, 6.5, and 8.0%) were produced at pilot scale and analyzed for their physical and chemical properties including proximate composition, viscosity, acidity, overrun, melting rate, heat shock stability, as well as sensory characteristics, and viability of lactic acid bacteria. With the addition of inulin and isomalt, viscosity increased by 19 to 52% compared with that of sample B (reduced-fat control). The average calorie values of samples substituted with sweeteners were about 43% lower than that of original sample. Low-calorie frozen yogurt samples melted about 33 to 48% slower than the reduced-fat control sample at 45 min. Based on quantitative descriptive profile test results, statistically significant differences among products were observed for hardness, iciness, foamy melting, whey separation, and sweetness characteristics. The results of principal component analysis showed that the sensory properties of the sample containing 6.5% inulin and 6.5% isomalt were similar to those of control. Lactic acid bacteria counts of frozen yogurt were found to be between 8.12 and 8.49 log values, 3 mo after the production. The overall results showed that it is possible to produce an attractive frozen yogurt product with the incorporation of inulin and isomalt with no added sugar and reduced fat.

  3. 7 CFR 58.650 - Requirements for frozen custard.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... Products Bearing Usda Official Identification § 58.650 Requirements for frozen custard. The same requirements apply as for ice cream except plain frozen custard shall have a minimum egg yolk solids content...

  4. Inter-nanocarrier and nanocarrier-to-cell transfer assays demonstrate the risk of an immediate unloading of dye from labeled lipid nanocapsules.

    PubMed

    Simonsson, Carl; Bastiat, Guillaume; Pitorre, Marion; Klymchenko, Andrey S; Béjaud, Jérôme; Mély, Yves; Benoit, Jean-Pierre

    2016-01-01

    Release studies constitute a fundamental part of the nanovector characterization. However, it can be difficult to correctly assess the release of lipophilic compounds from lipid nanocarriers using conventional assays. Previously, we proposed a method including an extraction with oil to measure the loading stability of lipophilic dyes in lipid nanocapsules (LNCs). The method indicated a rapid release of Nile Red from LNCs, while the loading of lipophilic carbocyanine dyes remained stable. This method, although interesting for a rapid screening of the fluorescence labeling stability of nanocarriers, is far from what happens in vivo, where lipid acceptor phases are nanostructured. Here, lipophilic dye loading stability has been assessed, by monitoring dye transfer from LNCs toward stable colloidal lipid nanocompartments, i.e. non-loaded LNCs, using new methodology based on size exclusion chromatography (SEC) and Förster Resonance Energy Transfer (FRET). Dye transfer between LNCs and THP-1 cells (as model for circulating cells) has also been studied by FACS. The assays reveal an almost instantaneous transfer of Nile Red between LNCs, from LNCs to THP-1 cells, between THP-1 cells, and a reversal transfer from THP-1 cells to LNCs. On the contrary, there was no detectable transfer of the lipophilic carbocyanine dyes. Dye release was also analyzed using dialyses, which only revealed a very slow release of Nile Red from LNCs, demonstrating the weakness of membrane based assays for investigations of the lipophilic compound loading stability in lipid nanocarriers. These results highlight the importance of using relevant release assays, and the potential risk of an immediate unloading of lipophilic fluorescent dyes from lipid nanocarriers, in the presence of a lipid acceptor nanocompartment. Some misinterpretations of cellular trafficking and in vivo biodistribution of fluorescent nanoparticles should be avoided. PMID:26522878

  5. Accuracy of frozen section diagnosis of parotid lesions.

    PubMed

    Miller, R H; Calcaterra, T C; Paglia, D E

    1979-01-01

    The accuracy of frozen section diagnosis was analyzed in a review of 132 parotid lesions. Of 107 benign lesions, 93% were correctly diagnosed on frozen section analysis, but of 25 malignant lesions, only 9 frozen sections were accurately interpreted. This study points out the difficulty encountered in using the frozen section technique when dealing with malignant parotid lesions and the importance of the surgeon's active participation in the analysis.

  6. Comparison of treatments to inactivate viral hemorrhagic septicemia virus (VHSV-IVb) in frozen baitfish.

    PubMed

    Phelps, Nicholas B D; Goodwin, Andrew E; Marecaux, Emily; Goyal, Sagar M

    2013-02-28

    Current US state and federal fish health regulations target the spread of viral hemorrhagic septicemia virus-IVb (VHSV-IVb) through movement restrictions of live fish; however, they largely ignore the potential for the virus to be spread through commercial distribution and use of frozen baitfish from VHSV-IVb-positive regions. Some state laws do require treatment of frozen baitfish to inactivate VHSV, and additional methods have been proposed, but few scientific studies have examined the efficacy of these treatments. In this study, bluegills Lepomis macrochirus were challenged with VHSV-IVb and frozen to represent standard industry methods, disinfected by various treatments, and tested for infectious VHSV-IVb using virus isolation. The virus was isolated from 70% of fish subjected to 3 freeze/thaw cycles. All other treatment methods were effective in inactivating the virus, including treatment with isopropyl alcohol, mineral oil, salt and borax, and dehydration. Dehydration followed by rehydration is rapid and effective, and therefore, seems to be the best option for inactivating VHSV-IVb present in frozen baitfish while maintaining their usefulness as bait. PMID:23446970

  7. Comparison of treatments to inactivate viral hemorrhagic septicemia virus (VHSV-IVb) in frozen baitfish.

    PubMed

    Phelps, Nicholas B D; Goodwin, Andrew E; Marecaux, Emily; Goyal, Sagar M

    2013-02-28

    Current US state and federal fish health regulations target the spread of viral hemorrhagic septicemia virus-IVb (VHSV-IVb) through movement restrictions of live fish; however, they largely ignore the potential for the virus to be spread through commercial distribution and use of frozen baitfish from VHSV-IVb-positive regions. Some state laws do require treatment of frozen baitfish to inactivate VHSV, and additional methods have been proposed, but few scientific studies have examined the efficacy of these treatments. In this study, bluegills Lepomis macrochirus were challenged with VHSV-IVb and frozen to represent standard industry methods, disinfected by various treatments, and tested for infectious VHSV-IVb using virus isolation. The virus was isolated from 70% of fish subjected to 3 freeze/thaw cycles. All other treatment methods were effective in inactivating the virus, including treatment with isopropyl alcohol, mineral oil, salt and borax, and dehydration. Dehydration followed by rehydration is rapid and effective, and therefore, seems to be the best option for inactivating VHSV-IVb present in frozen baitfish while maintaining their usefulness as bait.

  8. Graphene Oxide and Gadolinium-Chelate Functionalized Poly(lactic acid) Nanocapsules Encapsulating Perfluorooctylbromide for Ultrasound/Magnetic Resonance Bimodal Imaging Guided Photothermal Ablation of Cancer.

    PubMed

    Li, Zhenglin; Ke, Hengte; Wang, Jinrui; Miao, Zhaohua; Yue, Xiuli

    2016-03-01

    This paper successfully fabricated a novel multifunctional theranostic agent (PFOB@PLA/GO/Gd-DTPA NCs) by loading perfluorooctylbromide (PFOB) into poly(lactic acid) (PLA) nanocapsules (NCs) followed by surface functionalization with graphene oxide (GO) and gadolinium-chelate (Gd-DTPA). It was found that the resulting nanoagent could serve as a contrast agent simultaneously to enhance ultrasound (US) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Benefiting from the strong absorption in the near infrared (NIR) region, the nanocapsules could efficiently kill cancer cells under NIR laser irradiation. Thus, such a single theranostic agent with the combination of realtime US imaging and high-resolution MR imaging could achieve great therapeutic effectiveness without systemic damage to the body. In addition, the cytotoxicity assay on HUVEC cells revealed a good biocompatibility of PFOB@PLA/GO/Gd-DTPA NCs, showing that the versatile nanocapsule system may hold great potential as an effective nanoplatform for contrast enhanced imaging guided photothermal therapy.

  9. 21 CFR 161.176 - Frozen raw lightly breaded shrimp.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Frozen raw lightly breaded shrimp. 161.176 Section... Shellfish § 161.176 Frozen raw lightly breaded shrimp. Frozen raw lightly breaded shrimp complies with the provisions of § 161.175, except that it contains not less than 65 percent of shrimp material, as...

  10. 21 CFR 161.176 - Frozen raw lightly breaded shrimp.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Frozen raw lightly breaded shrimp. 161.176 Section... Shellfish § 161.176 Frozen raw lightly breaded shrimp. Frozen raw lightly breaded shrimp complies with the provisions of § 161.175, except that it contains not less than 65 percent of shrimp material, as...

  11. 21 CFR 161.176 - Frozen raw lightly breaded shrimp.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Frozen raw lightly breaded shrimp. 161.176 Section... Shellfish § 161.176 Frozen raw lightly breaded shrimp. Frozen raw lightly breaded shrimp complies with the provisions of § 161.175, except that it contains not less than 65 percent of shrimp material, as...

  12. 21 CFR 161.176 - Frozen raw lightly breaded shrimp.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Frozen raw lightly breaded shrimp. 161.176 Section... Shellfish § 161.176 Frozen raw lightly breaded shrimp. Frozen raw lightly breaded shrimp complies with the provisions of § 161.175, except that it contains not less than 65 percent of shrimp material, as...

  13. 21 CFR 161.176 - Frozen raw lightly breaded shrimp.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Frozen raw lightly breaded shrimp. 161.176 Section... Shellfish § 161.176 Frozen raw lightly breaded shrimp. Frozen raw lightly breaded shrimp complies with the provisions of § 161.175, except that it contains not less than 65 percent of shrimp material, as...

  14. 48 CFR 846.302-72 - Frozen processed foods.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Frozen processed foods... CONTRACT MANAGEMENT QUALITY ASSURANCE Contract Clauses 846.302-72 Frozen processed foods. The contracting officer shall insert the clause at 852.246-72, Frozen processed foods, in solicitations and contracts...

  15. 48 CFR 846.302-72 - Frozen processed foods.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Frozen processed foods... CONTRACT MANAGEMENT QUALITY ASSURANCE Contract Clauses 846.302-72 Frozen processed foods. The contracting officer shall insert the clause at 852.246-72, Frozen processed foods, in solicitations and contracts...

  16. 48 CFR 870.111-5 - Frozen processed food products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Frozen processed food... DEPARTMENT SUPPLEMENTARY REGULATIONS SPECIAL PROCUREMENT CONTROLS Controls 870.111-5 Frozen processed food products. (a) The following frozen processed food products must have a label complying with the...

  17. 48 CFR 852.246-72 - Frozen processed foods.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Frozen processed foods. 852.246-72 Section 852.246-72 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS... Frozen processed foods. As prescribed in 846.302-72, insert the following clause: Frozen Processed...

  18. 48 CFR 870.111-5 - Frozen processed food products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Frozen processed food... DEPARTMENT SUPPLEMENTARY REGULATIONS SPECIAL PROCUREMENT CONTROLS Controls 870.111-5 Frozen processed food products. (a) The following frozen processed food products must have a label complying with the...

  19. 48 CFR 870.111-5 - Frozen processed food products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Frozen processed food... DEPARTMENT SUPPLEMENTARY REGULATIONS SPECIAL PROCUREMENT CONTROLS Controls 870.111-5 Frozen processed food products. (a) The following frozen processed food products must have a label complying with the...

  20. 48 CFR 852.246-72 - Frozen processed foods.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Frozen processed foods. 852.246-72 Section 852.246-72 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS... Frozen processed foods. As prescribed in 846.302-72, insert the following clause: Frozen Processed...

  1. 48 CFR 846.302-72 - Frozen processed foods.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Frozen processed foods... CONTRACT MANAGEMENT QUALITY ASSURANCE Contract Clauses 846.302-72 Frozen processed foods. The contracting officer shall insert the clause at 852.246-72, Frozen processed foods, in solicitations and contracts...

  2. 48 CFR 852.246-72 - Frozen processed foods.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Frozen processed foods. 852.246-72 Section 852.246-72 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS... Frozen processed foods. As prescribed in 846.302-72, insert the following clause: Frozen Processed...

  3. 21 CFR 864.9145 - Processing system for frozen blood.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Processing system for frozen blood. 864.9145... Blood and Blood Products § 864.9145 Processing system for frozen blood. (a) Identification. A processing system for frozen blood is a device used to glycerolize red blood cells prior to freezing to...

  4. 21 CFR 864.9145 - Processing system for frozen blood.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Processing system for frozen blood. 864.9145... Blood and Blood Products § 864.9145 Processing system for frozen blood. (a) Identification. A processing system for frozen blood is a device used to glycerolize red blood cells prior to freezing to...

  5. 21 CFR 864.9145 - Processing system for frozen blood.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Processing system for frozen blood. 864.9145... Blood and Blood Products § 864.9145 Processing system for frozen blood. (a) Identification. A processing system for frozen blood is a device used to glycerolize red blood cells prior to freezing to...

  6. 21 CFR 864.9145 - Processing system for frozen blood.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Processing system for frozen blood. 864.9145... Blood and Blood Products § 864.9145 Processing system for frozen blood. (a) Identification. A processing system for frozen blood is a device used to glycerolize red blood cells prior to freezing to...

  7. 48 CFR 870.111-5 - Frozen processed food products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Frozen processed food... DEPARTMENT SUPPLEMENTARY REGULATIONS SPECIAL PROCUREMENT CONTROLS Controls 870.111-5 Frozen processed food products. (a) The following frozen processed food products must have a label complying with the...

  8. 48 CFR 852.246-72 - Frozen processed foods.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Frozen processed foods. 852.246-72 Section 852.246-72 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS... Frozen processed foods. As prescribed in 846.302-72, insert the following clause: Frozen Processed...

  9. 48 CFR 846.302-72 - Frozen processed foods.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Frozen processed foods... CONTRACT MANAGEMENT QUALITY ASSURANCE Contract Clauses 846.302-72 Frozen processed foods. The contracting officer shall insert the clause at 852.246-72, Frozen processed foods, in solicitations and contracts...

  10. 48 CFR 870.111-5 - Frozen processed food products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Frozen processed food... DEPARTMENT SUPPLEMENTARY REGULATIONS SPECIAL PROCUREMENT CONTROLS Controls 870.111-5 Frozen processed food products. (a) The following frozen processed food products must have a label complying with the...

  11. 48 CFR 846.302-72 - Frozen processed foods.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Frozen processed foods... CONTRACT MANAGEMENT QUALITY ASSURANCE Contract Clauses 846.302-72 Frozen processed foods. The contracting officer shall insert the clause at 852.246-72, Frozen processed foods, in solicitations and contracts...

  12. 48 CFR 852.246-72 - Frozen processed foods.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Frozen processed foods. 852.246-72 Section 852.246-72 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS... Frozen processed foods. As prescribed in 846.302-72, insert the following clause: Frozen Processed...

  13. 7 CFR 58.650 - Requirements for frozen custard.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Requirements for frozen custard. 58.650 Section 58.650... Products Bearing Usda Official Identification § 58.650 Requirements for frozen custard. The same requirements apply as for ice cream except plain frozen custard shall have a minimum egg yolk solids content...

  14. 7 CFR 58.650 - Requirements for frozen custard.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Requirements for frozen custard. 58.650 Section 58.650... Products Bearing Usda Official Identification § 58.650 Requirements for frozen custard. The same requirements apply as for ice cream except plain frozen custard shall have a minimum egg yolk solids content...

  15. 7 CFR 58.650 - Requirements for frozen custard.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Requirements for frozen custard. 58.650 Section 58.650... Products Bearing Usda Official Identification § 58.650 Requirements for frozen custard. The same requirements apply as for ice cream except plain frozen custard shall have a minimum egg yolk solids content...

  16. Magnetic-graphitic-nanocapsule templated diacetylene assembly and photopolymerization for sensing and multicoded anti-counterfeiting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nie, Xiang-Kun; Xu, Yi-Ting; Song, Zhi-Ling; Ding, Ding; Gao, Feng; Liang, Hao; Chen, Long; Bian, Xia; Chen, Zhuo; Tan, Weihong

    2014-10-01

    Molecular self-assembly, a process to design molecular entities to aggregate into desired structures, represents a promising bottom-up route towards precise construction of functional systems. Here we report a multifunctional, self-assembled system based on magnetic-graphitic-nanocapsule (MGN) templated diacetylene assembly and photopolymerization. The as-prepared assembly system maintains the unique color and fluorescence change properties of the polydiacetylene (PDA) polymers, while also pursues the superior Raman, NIR, magnetic and superconducting properties from the MGN template. Based on both fluorescence and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) T2 relaxivity, the MGN@PDA system could efficiently monitor the pH variations which could be used as a pH sensor. The MGN@PDA system further demonstrates potential as unique ink for anti-counterfeiting applications. Reversible color change, strong and unique Raman scattering and fluorescence emission, sensitive NIR thermal response, and distinctive magnetic properties afford this assembly system with multicoded anti-counterfeiting capabilities.Molecular self-assembly, a process to design molecular entities to aggregate into desired structures, represents a promising bottom-up route towards precise construction of functional systems. Here we report a multifunctional, self-assembled system based on magnetic-graphitic-nanocapsule (MGN) templated diacetylene assembly and photopolymerization. The as-prepared assembly system maintains the unique color and fluorescence change properties of the polydiacetylene (PDA) polymers, while also pursues the superior Raman, NIR, magnetic and superconducting properties from the MGN template. Based on both fluorescence and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) T2 relaxivity, the MGN@PDA system could efficiently monitor the pH variations which could be used as a pH sensor. The MGN@PDA system further demonstrates potential as unique ink for anti-counterfeiting applications. Reversible color change

  17. Novel therapeutic mechanisms determine the effectiveness of lipid-core nanocapsules on melanoma models

    PubMed Central

    Drewes, Carine C; Fiel, Luana A; Bexiga, Celina G; Asbahr, Ana Carolina C; Uchiyama, Mayara K; Cogliati, Bruno; Araki, Koiti; Guterres, Sílvia S; Pohlmann, Adriana R; Farsky, Sandra P

    2016-01-01

    Melanoma is a severe metastatic skin cancer with poor prognosis and no effective treatment. Therefore, novel therapeutic approaches using nanotechnology have been proposed to improve therapeutic effectiveness. Lipid-core nanocapsules (LNCs), prepared with poly(ε-caprolactone), capric/caprylic triglyceride, and sorbitan monostearate and stabilized by polysorbate 80, are efficient as drug delivery systems. Here, we investigated the effects of acetyleugenol-loaded LNC (AcE-LNC) on human SK-Mel-28 melanoma cells and its therapeutic efficacies on melanoma induced by B16F10 in C57B6 mice. LNC and AcE-LNC had z-average diameters and zeta potential close to 210 nm and -10.0 mV, respectively. CytoViva® microscopy images showed that LNC and AcE-LNC penetrated into SK-Mel-28 cells, and remained in the cytoplasm. AcE-LNC in vitro treatment (18–90×109 particles/mL; 1 hour) induced late apoptosis and necrosis; LNC and AcE-LNC (3–18×109 particles/mL; 48 hours) treatments reduced cell proliferation and delayed the cell cycle. Elevated levels of nitric oxide were found in supernatant of LNC and AcE-LNC, which were not dependent on nitric oxide synthase expressions. Daily intraperitoneal or oral treatment (days 3–10 after tumor injection) with LNC or AcE-LNC (1×1012 particles/day), but not with AcE (50 mg/kg/day, same dose as AcE-LNC), reduced the volume of the tumor; nevertheless, intraperitoneal treatment caused toxicity. Oral LNC treatment was more efficient than AcE-LNC treatment. Moreover, oral treatment with nonencapsulated capric/caprylic triglyceride did not inhibit tumor development, implying that nanocapsule supramolecular structure is important to the therapeutic effects. Together, data herein presented highlight the relevance of the supramolecular structure of LNCs to toxicity on SK-Mel-28 cells and to the therapeutic efficacy on melanoma development in mice, conferring novel therapeutic mechanisms to LNC further than a drug delivery system. PMID:27099491

  18. Batch testing for noroviruses in frozen raspberries.

    PubMed

    De Keuckelaere, Ann; Li, Dan; Deliens, Bart; Stals, Ambroos; Uyttendaele, Mieke

    2015-01-01

    Berries, in particular raspberries, have been associated with multiple recalls due to norovirus contamination and were linked to a number of norovirus (NoV) outbreaks. In the present study a total of 130 samples of frozen raspberries were collected from 26 batches in four different raspberry processing companies. In two companies the samples consisted of bulk frozen raspberries serving as raw material for the production of raspberry puree (an intermediate food product in a business to business setting). In two other companies, the samples consisted of bulk individually quick frozen (IQF) raspberries serving as raw material for the production of frozen fruit mixes (as a final food product for consumer). Enumeration of Escherichia coli and coliforms was performed as well as real-time reverse transcription PCR (RT-qPCR) detection of GI and GII NoV (in 2 × 10 g). In addition, in cases where positive NoV GI or GII RT-qPCR signals were obtained, an attempt to sequence the amplicons was undertaken. Six out of 70 samples taken from the 14 batches of frozen raspberries serving raspberry puree production provided a NoV RT-qPCR signal confirmed by sequencing. Four of these six positive samples clustered in one batch whereas the other two positive samples clustered in another batch from the same company. All six positive samples showed NoV RT-qPCR signals above the limit of quantification of the RT-qPCR assay. These two positive batches of frozen raspberries can be classified as being of insufficient sanitary quality. The mean NoV level in 20 g of these raspberry samples was 4.3 log genomic copies NoV GI/20 g. The concern for public health is uncertain as NoV RT-qPCR detection is unable to discriminate between infectious and non-infectious virus particles. For the IQF raspberries, one batch out of 12 tested NoV positive, but only 1 out of the 5 samples analyzed in this batch showed a positive RT-qPCR GI NoV signal confirmed by sequencing. The RT-qPCR signal was below the

  19. 21 CFR 101.95 - “Fresh,” “freshly frozen,” “fresh frozen,” “frozen fresh.”

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... freezing will not preclude use of the term “fresh frozen” to describe the food. “Quickly frozen” means... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false âFresh,â âfreshly frozen,â âfresh frozen,â âfrozen fresh.â 101.95 Section 101.95 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH...

  20. Novel biocompatible nanocapsules for slow release of fragrances on the human skin.

    PubMed

    Hosseinkhani, Baharak; Callewaert, Chris; Vanbeveren, Nelleke; Boon, Nico

    2015-01-25

    There is a growing demand for fragranced products, but due to the poor aqueous solubility and instability of fragrance molecules, their use is limited. Nowadays, fragrance encapsulation in biocompatible nanocontainer material is emerging as a novel strategy to overcome the evaporation of volatile molecules and to prolong the sensory characteristics of fragrance molecules and the longevity of perfumes. The objective of this study was to develop an innovative sustained release system of perfume, by entrapping fragrance molecules in a polymeric nanocarrier; the impact of this strategy on the human axillary microbiome was further assessed. Stabilised poly-l-lactic acid nanocapsules (PLA-NCs) with a diameter of approximately 115 nm were prepared through nanoprecipitation. Size and morphology of the capsules were evaluated using Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM) and Dynamic Light Scattering (DLS). Two model hydrophobic compounds, chlorobenzene and fluorescein, representing two different types of functionalised molecules, were encapsulated in PLA-NCs with an efficiency rate of 50%. Different release behaviours were seen, dependent on hydrophobicity. For hydrophobic compounds, a steady release was observed over 48hours. The polymeric nanocarriers did not impact the human axillary microbiome. Because of the slow and sustained release of fragrances, encapsulation of molecules in biocompatible NCs can represent a revolutionary contribution to the future of toiletries, body deodorant products, and in washing and cleaning sectors. PMID:25224920

  1. NFL-lipid nanocapsules for brain neural stem cell targeting in vitro and in vivo.

    PubMed

    Carradori, Dario; Saulnier, Patrick; Préat, Véronique; des Rieux, Anne; Eyer, Joel

    2016-09-28

    The replacement of injured neurons by the selective stimulation of neural stem cells in situ represents a potential therapeutic strategy for the treatment of neurodegenerative diseases. The peptide NFL-TBS.40-63 showed specific interactions towards neural stem cells of the subventricular zone. The aim of our work was to produce a NFL-based drug delivery system able to target neural stem cells through the selective affinity between the peptide and these cells. NFL-TBS.40-63 (NFL) was adsorbed on lipid nanocapsules (LNC) whom targeting efficiency was evaluated on neural stem cells from the subventricular zone (brain) and from the central canal (spinal cord). NFL-LNC were incubated with primary neural stem cells in vitro or injected in vivo in adult rat brain (right lateral ventricle) or spinal cord (T10). NFL-LNC interactions with neural stem cells were different depending on the origin of the cells. NFL-LNC showed a preferential uptake by neural stem cells from the brain, while they did not interact with neural stem cells from the spinal cord. The results obtained in vivo correlate with the results observed in vitro, demonstrating that NFL-LNC represent a promising therapeutic strategy to selectively deliver bioactive molecules to brain neural stem cells.

  2. Blinking Phase-Change Nanocapsules Enable Background-Free Ultrasound Imaging

    PubMed Central

    Hannah, Alexander S.; Luke, Geoffrey P.; Emelianov, Stanislav Y.

    2016-01-01

    Microbubbles are widely used as contrast agents to improve the diagnostic capability of conventional, highly speckled, low-contrast ultrasound imaging. However, while microbubbles can be used for molecular imaging, these agents are limited to the vascular space due to their large size (> 1 μm). Smaller microbubbles are desired but their ultrasound visualization is limited due to lower echogenicity or higher resonant frequencies. Here we present nanometer scale, phase changing, blinking nanocapsules (BLInCs), which can be repeatedly optically triggered to provide transient contrast and enable background-free ultrasound imaging. In response to irradiation by near-infrared laser pulses, the BLInCs undergo cycles of rapid vaporization followed by recondensation into their native liquid state at body temperature. High frame rate ultrasound imaging measures the dynamic echogenicity changes associated with these controllable, periodic phase transitions. Using a newly developed image processing algorithm, the blinking particles are distinguished from tissue, providing a background-free image of the BLInCs while the underlying B-mode ultrasound image is used as an anatomical reference of the tissue. We demonstrate the function of BLInCs and the associated imaging technique in a tissue-mimicking phantom and in vivo for the identification of the sentinel lymph node. Our studies indicate that BLInCs may become a powerful tool to identify biological targets using a conventional ultrasound imaging system. PMID:27570556

  3. NFL-lipid nanocapsules for brain neural stem cell targeting in vitro and in vivo.

    PubMed

    Carradori, Dario; Saulnier, Patrick; Préat, Véronique; des Rieux, Anne; Eyer, Joel

    2016-09-28

    The replacement of injured neurons by the selective stimulation of neural stem cells in situ represents a potential therapeutic strategy for the treatment of neurodegenerative diseases. The peptide NFL-TBS.40-63 showed specific interactions towards neural stem cells of the subventricular zone. The aim of our work was to produce a NFL-based drug delivery system able to target neural stem cells through the selective affinity between the peptide and these cells. NFL-TBS.40-63 (NFL) was adsorbed on lipid nanocapsules (LNC) whom targeting efficiency was evaluated on neural stem cells from the subventricular zone (brain) and from the central canal (spinal cord). NFL-LNC were incubated with primary neural stem cells in vitro or injected in vivo in adult rat brain (right lateral ventricle) or spinal cord (T10). NFL-LNC interactions with neural stem cells were different depending on the origin of the cells. NFL-LNC showed a preferential uptake by neural stem cells from the brain, while they did not interact with neural stem cells from the spinal cord. The results obtained in vivo correlate with the results observed in vitro, demonstrating that NFL-LNC represent a promising therapeutic strategy to selectively deliver bioactive molecules to brain neural stem cells. PMID:27503706

  4. Lauroyl-gemcitabine-loaded lipid nanocapsule hydrogel for the treatment of glioblastoma.

    PubMed

    Bastiancich, C; Vanvarenberg, K; Ucakar, B; Pitorre, M; Bastiat, G; Lagarce, F; Préat, V; Danhier, F

    2016-03-10

    The local delivery of chemotherapeutic agents is a very promising strategy for the treatment of glioblastoma (GBM). Gemcitabine is a chemotherapeutic agent that has a different mechanism of action compared to alkylating agents and shows excellent radio-sensitizing properties. So, we developed an injectable gel-like nanodelivery system consisting in lipid nanocapsules loaded with anticancer prodrug lauroyl-gemcitabine (GemC12-LNC) in order to obtain a sustained and local delivery of this drug in the brain. In this study, the GemC12-LNC has been formulated and characterized and the viscoelastic properties of the hydrogel were evaluated after extrusion from 30G needles. This system showed a sustained and prolonged in vitro release of the drug over one month. GemC12 and the GemC12-LNC have shown increased in vitro cytotoxic activity on U-87 MG glioma cells compared to the parent hydrophilic drug. The GemC12-LNC hydrogel reduced significantly the size of a subcutaneous human GBM tumor model compared to the drug and short-term tolerability studies showed that this system is suitable for local treatment in the brain. In conclusion, this proof-of-concept study demonstrated the feasibility, safety and efficiency of the injectable GemC12-LNC hydrogel for the local treatment of GBM. PMID:26829100

  5. Immune cell impact of three differently coated lipid nanocapsules: pluronic, chitosan and polyethylene glycol

    PubMed Central

    Farace, Cristiano; Sánchez-Moreno, Paola; Orecchioni, Marco; Manetti, Roberto; Sgarrella, Francesco; Asara, Yolande; Peula-García, José M.; Marchal, Juan A.; Madeddu, Roberto; Delogu, Lucia G.

    2016-01-01

    Lipid nanocapsules (NCs) represent promising tools in clinical practice for diagnosis and therapy applications. However, the NC appropriate functionalization is essential to guarantee high biocompatibility and molecule loading ability. In any medical application, the immune system-impact of differently functionalized NCs still remains to be fully understood. A comprehensive study on the action exerted on human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) and major immune subpopulations by three different NC coatings: pluronic, chitosan and polyethylene glycol-polylactic acid (PEG) is reported. After a deep particle characterization, the uptake was assessed by flow-cytometry and confocal microscopy, focusing then on apoptosis, necrosis and proliferation impact in T cells and monocytes. Cell functionality by cell diameter variations, different activation marker analysis and cytokine assays were performed. We demonstrated that the NCs impact on the immune cell response is strongly correlated to their coating. Pluronic-NCs were able to induce immunomodulation of innate immunity inducing monocyte activations. Immunomodulation was observed in monocytes and T lymphocytes treated with Chitosan-NCs. Conversely, PEG-NCs were completely inert. These findings are of particular value towards a pre-selection of specific NC coatings depending on biomedical purposes for pre-clinical investigations; i.e. the immune-specific action of particular NC coating can be excellent for immunotherapy applications. PMID:26728491

  6. Amphiphilic nanocapsules entangled with organometallic coordination polymers for controlled cargo release.

    PubMed

    Liang, Guodong; Ni, Huan; Bao, Suping; Zhu, Fangming; Gao, Haiyang; Wu, Qing; Tang, Ben Zhong

    2014-06-01

    A class of new amphiphilic nanocapsules entangled with organometallic coordination polymers has been developed for the first time. Poly(2-(N,N-dimethyl amino)ethyl methacrylate)-b-polystyrene capped with β-cyclodextrin (β-CD) (CD-PDMAEMA-b-PS) is first synthesized using sequent RAFT polymerization of styrene and 2-(N,N-dimethyl amino)ethyl methacrylate with xanthate modified β-CD as chain transfer agent. The end group of β-CD is allowed to include 4,4'-bipyridine through host-guest inclusion to yield PDMAEMA-b-PS terminated with an inclusion complex of β-CD and bipyridine (bpy-PDMAEMA-b-PS), which is then used as surfactant to prepare emulsion droplets in toluene/water mixture. Upon addition of Ni(II), bipyridine coordinates with Ni(II) to form coordination polymers in the periphery of emulsion droplets, affording amphiphilic capsules entangled with organometallic coordination polymers, as confirmed by GPC, (1)H NMR, SEM, TEM, DLS, and so on. The organometallic coordination polymer capsules are capable of encapsulating organic cargoes. Interestingly, encapsulated cargoes can be extracted from the capsules without damaging the capsules. Such capsules are potential candidates for encapsulating and controlled release of organic cargoes. PMID:24828951

  7. Development of a virus-mimicking nanocarrier for drug delivery systems: The bio-nanocapsule.

    PubMed

    Somiya, Masaharu; Kuroda, Shun'ichi

    2015-12-01

    As drug delivery systems, nanocarriers should be capable of executing the following functions: evasion of the host immune system, targeting to the diseased site, entering cells, escaping from endosomes, and releasing payloads into the cytoplasm. Since viruses perform some or all of these functions, they are considered naturally occurring nanocarriers. To achieve biomimicry of the hepatitis B virus (HBV), we generated the "bio-nanocapsule" (BNC)-which deploys the human hepatocyte-targeting domain, fusogenic domain, and polymerized-albumin receptor domain of HBV envelope L protein on its surface-by overexpressing the L protein in yeast cells. BNCs are capable of delivering various payloads to the cytoplasm of human hepatic cells specifically in vivo, which is achieved via formation of complexes with various materials (e.g., drugs, nucleic acids, and proteins) by electroporation, fusion with liposomes, or chemical modification. In this review, we describe BNC-related technology, discuss retargeting strategies for BNCs, and outline other virus-inspired nanocarriers.

  8. Demonstration of the interactions between aromatic compound-loaded lipid nanocapsules and Acinetobacter baumannii bacterial membrane.

    PubMed

    Montagu, A; Joly-Guillou, M-L; Guillet, C; Bejaud, J; Rossines, E; Saulnier, P

    2016-06-15

    Acinetobacter baumannii is an important nosocomial pathogen that is resistant to many commonly-used antibiotics. One strategy for treatment is the use of aromatic compounds (carvacrol, cinnamaldehyde) against A. baumannii. The aim of this study was to determine the interactions between bacteria and lipid nanocapsules (LNCs) over time based on the fluorescence of 3,3'-Dioctadecyloxacarbocyanine Perchlorate-LNCs (DiO-LNCs) and the properties of trypan blue to analyse the physicochemical mechanisms occurring at the level of the biological membrane. The results demonstrated the capacity of carvacrol-loaded LNCs to interact with and penetrate the bacterial membrane in comparison with cinnamaldehyde-loaded LNCs and unloaded LNCs. Modifications of carvacrol after substitution of hydroxyl functional groups by fatty acids demonstrated the crucial role of hydroxyl functions in antibacterial activity. Finally, after contact with the efflux pump inhibitor, carbonylcyanide-3-chlorophenyl hydrazine (CCCP), the results indicated the total synergistic antibacterial effect with Car-LNCs, showing that CCCP is associated with the action mechanism of carvacrol, especially at the level of the efflux pump mechanism. PMID:27039148

  9. Novel biocompatible nanocapsules for slow release of fragrances on the human skin.

    PubMed

    Hosseinkhani, Baharak; Callewaert, Chris; Vanbeveren, Nelleke; Boon, Nico

    2015-01-25

    There is a growing demand for fragranced products, but due to the poor aqueous solubility and instability of fragrance molecules, their use is limited. Nowadays, fragrance encapsulation in biocompatible nanocontainer material is emerging as a novel strategy to overcome the evaporation of volatile molecules and to prolong the sensory characteristics of fragrance molecules and the longevity of perfumes. The objective of this study was to develop an innovative sustained release system of perfume, by entrapping fragrance molecules in a polymeric nanocarrier; the impact of this strategy on the human axillary microbiome was further assessed. Stabilised poly-l-lactic acid nanocapsules (PLA-NCs) with a diameter of approximately 115 nm were prepared through nanoprecipitation. Size and morphology of the capsules were evaluated using Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM) and Dynamic Light Scattering (DLS). Two model hydrophobic compounds, chlorobenzene and fluorescein, representing two different types of functionalised molecules, were encapsulated in PLA-NCs with an efficiency rate of 50%. Different release behaviours were seen, dependent on hydrophobicity. For hydrophobic compounds, a steady release was observed over 48hours. The polymeric nanocarriers did not impact the human axillary microbiome. Because of the slow and sustained release of fragrances, encapsulation of molecules in biocompatible NCs can represent a revolutionary contribution to the future of toiletries, body deodorant products, and in washing and cleaning sectors.

  10. Immune cell impact of three differently coated lipid nanocapsules: pluronic, chitosan and polyethylene glycol.

    PubMed

    Farace, Cristiano; Sánchez-Moreno, Paola; Orecchioni, Marco; Manetti, Roberto; Sgarrella, Francesco; Asara, Yolande; Peula-García, José M; Marchal, Juan A; Madeddu, Roberto; Delogu, Lucia G

    2016-01-01

    Lipid nanocapsules (NCs) represent promising tools in clinical practice for diagnosis and therapy applications. However, the NC appropriate functionalization is essential to guarantee high biocompatibility and molecule loading ability. In any medical application, the immune system-impact of differently functionalized NCs still remains to be fully understood. A comprehensive study on the action exerted on human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) and major immune subpopulations by three different NC coatings: pluronic, chitosan and polyethylene glycol-polylactic acid (PEG) is reported. After a deep particle characterization, the uptake was assessed by flow-cytometry and confocal microscopy, focusing then on apoptosis, necrosis and proliferation impact in T cells and monocytes. Cell functionality by cell diameter variations, different activation marker analysis and cytokine assays were performed. We demonstrated that the NCs impact on the immune cell response is strongly correlated to their coating. Pluronic-NCs were able to induce immunomodulation of innate immunity inducing monocyte activations. Immunomodulation was observed in monocytes and T lymphocytes treated with Chitosan-NCs. Conversely, PEG-NCs were completely inert. These findings are of particular value towards a pre-selection of specific NC coatings depending on biomedical purposes for pre-clinical investigations; i.e. the immune-specific action of particular NC coating can be excellent for immunotherapy applications. PMID:26728491

  11. Inhibitory/Suppressive Oligodeoxynucleotide Nanocapsules as Simple Oral Delivery Devices for Preventing Atopic Dermatitis in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Yeqin; Yamamoto, Yoshinari; Shigemori, Suguru; Watanabe, Takafumi; Oshiro, Kazushi; Wang, Xinyu; Wang, Pengfei; Sato, Takashi; Yonekura, Shinichi; Tanaka, Sachi; Kitazawa, Haruki; Shimosato, Takeshi

    2015-01-01

    Here, we report a simple and low-cost oral oligodeoxynucleotide (ODN) delivery system targeted to the gut Peyer's patches (PPs). This system requires only Dulbecco's modified eagle's medium, calcium chloride, ODNs, and basic laboratory equipment. ODN nanocapsules (ODNcaps) were directly delivered to the PPs through oral administration and were taken up by macrophages in the PPs, where they induced an immune response. Long-term continuous oral dosing with inhibitory/suppressive ODNcaps (iODNcaps, “iSG3caps” in this study) was evaluated using an atopic dermatitis mouse model to visually monitor disease course. Administration of iSG3caps improved skin lesions and decreased epidermal thickness. Underlying this effect is the ability of iSG3 to bind to and prevent phosphorylation of signal transducer and activator of transcription 6, thereby blocking the interleukin-4 signaling cascade mediated by binding of allergens to type 2 helper T cells. The results of our iSG3cap oral delivery experiments suggest that iSG3 may be useful for treating allergic diseases. PMID:25502904

  12. Designing a Poly (N-isopropylacrylamide) Nanocapsule for Magnetic Field-assisted Drug Delivery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Denmark, Daniel; Mukherjee, Pritish; Witanachchi, Sarath

    2014-03-01

    The method of synthesis and the characteristics of polymer based nanocapsules as biomedical drug delivery systems are presented. Magnetic iron oxide nanoparticles have been incorporated into these capsules for effective guidance with external magnetic fields to transport therapeutic compounds to various parts of the human body. Once they have reached their destination they can be stimulated to release the drug to the target tissue through externally applied fields. The polymeric material that constitutes the capsules is specifically designed to melt away with the external stimuli to deliver the therapeutic bio agents near the target tissue. In this work we use nebulization to create aqueous poly (N-isopropylacrylamide) nanoparticles that decompose after being heated beyond their transition temperature. Transmission Electron Microscopic imaging (TEM) and dynamic light scattering (DLS) experiments have been conducted to study the decomposition of the capsules under external stimuli. Distribution of the magnetic nanoparticles within the capsules and their role in delivering the bio agents have been investigated by the Magnetic Force Microscopy (MFM).

  13. Enhancing radiotherapy by lipid nanocapsule-mediated delivery of amphiphilic gold nanoparticles to intracellular membranes.

    PubMed

    Yang, Yu-Sang; Carney, Randy P; Stellacci, Francesco; Irvine, Darrell J

    2014-09-23

    Amphiphilic gold nanoparticles (amph-NPs), composed of gold cores surrounded by an amphiphilic mixed organic ligand shell, are capable of embedding within and traversing lipid membranes. Here we describe a strategy using crosslink-stabilized lipid nanocapsules (NCs) as carriers to transport such membrane-penetrating particles into tumor cells and promote their transfer to intracellular membranes for enhanced radiotherapy of cancer. We synthesized and characterized interbilayer-crosslinked multilamellar lipid vesicles (ICMVs) carrying amph-NPs embedded in the capsule walls, forming Au-NCs. Confocal and electron microscopies revealed that the intracellular distribution of amph-NPs within melanoma and breast tumor cells following uptake of free particles vs Au-NCs was quite distinct and that amph-NPs initially delivered into endosomes by Au-NCs transferred over a period of hours to intracellular membranes through tumor cells, with greater intracellular spread in melanoma cells than breast carcinoma cells. Clonogenic assays revealed that Au-NCs enhanced radiotherapeutic killing of melanoma cells. Thus, multilamellar lipid capsules may serve as an effective carrier to deliver amphiphilic gold nanoparticles to tumors, where the membrane-penetrating properties of these materials can significantly enhance the efficacy of frontline radiotherapy treatments.

  14. Blinking Phase-Change Nanocapsules Enable Background-Free Ultrasound Imaging.

    PubMed

    Hannah, Alexander S; Luke, Geoffrey P; Emelianov, Stanislav Y

    2016-01-01

    Microbubbles are widely used as contrast agents to improve the diagnostic capability of conventional, highly speckled, low-contrast ultrasound imaging. However, while microbubbles can be used for molecular imaging, these agents are limited to the vascular space due to their large size (> 1 μm). Smaller microbubbles are desired but their ultrasound visualization is limited due to lower echogenicity or higher resonant frequencies. Here we present nanometer scale, phase changing, blinking nanocapsules (BLInCs), which can be repeatedly optically triggered to provide transient contrast and enable background-free ultrasound imaging. In response to irradiation by near-infrared laser pulses, the BLInCs undergo cycles of rapid vaporization followed by recondensation into their native liquid state at body temperature. High frame rate ultrasound imaging measures the dynamic echogenicity changes associated with these controllable, periodic phase transitions. Using a newly developed image processing algorithm, the blinking particles are distinguished from tissue, providing a background-free image of the BLInCs while the underlying B-mode ultrasound image is used as an anatomical reference of the tissue. We demonstrate the function of BLInCs and the associated imaging technique in a tissue-mimicking phantom and in vivo for the identification of the sentinel lymph node. Our studies indicate that BLInCs may become a powerful tool to identify biological targets using a conventional ultrasound imaging system. PMID:27570556

  15. Percutaneous absorption of benzophenone-3 loaded lipid nanoparticles and polymeric nanocapsules: A comparative study.

    PubMed

    Gilbert, E; Roussel, L; Serre, C; Sandouk, R; Salmon, D; Kirilov, P; Haftek, M; Falson, F; Pirot, F

    2016-05-17

    For the last years, the increase of the number of skin cancer cases led to a growing awareness of the need of skin protection against ultraviolet (UV) radiations. Chemical UV filters are widely used into sunscreen formulations as benzophenone-3 (BP-3), a usually used broad spectrum chemical UV filter that has been shown to exercise undesirable effects after topical application. Innovative sunscreen formulations are thus necessary to provide more safety to users. Lipid carriers seem to be a good alternative to formulate chemical UV filters reducing their skin penetration while maintaining good photo-protective abilities. The aim of this work was to compare percutaneous absorption and cutaneous bioavailability of BP-3 loaded into solid lipid nanoparticles (SLN), nanostructured lipid carriers (NLC), nanostructured polymeric lipid carriers (NPLC) and nanocapsules (NC). Particle size, zeta potential and in vitro sun protection factor (SPF) of nanoparticle suspensions were also investigated. Results showed that polymeric lipid carriers, comprising NPLC and NC, significantly reduced BP-3 skin permeation while exhibiting the highest SPF. This study confirms the interesting potential of NPLC and NC to formulate chemical UV filters. PMID:26976501

  16. A novel intracellular protein delivery platform based on single-protein nanocapsules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yan, Ming; Du, Juanjuan; Gu, Zhen; Liang, Min; Hu, Yufang; Zhang, Wenjun; Priceman, Saul; Wu, Lily; Zhou, Z. Hong; Liu, Zheng; Segura, Tatiana; Tang, Yi; Lu, Yunfeng

    2010-01-01

    An average cell contains thousands of proteins that participate in normal cellular functions, and most diseases are somehow related to the malfunctioning of one or more of these proteins. Protein therapy, which delivers proteins into the cell to replace the dysfunctional protein, is considered the most direct and safe approach for treating disease. However, the effectiveness of this method has been limited by its low delivery efficiency and poor stability against proteases in the cell, which digest the protein. Here, we show a novel delivery platform based on nanocapsules consisting of a protein core and a thin permeable polymeric shell that can be engineered to either degrade or remain stable at different pHs. Non-degradable capsules show long-term stability, whereas the degradable ones break down their shells, enabling the core protein to be active once inside the cells. Multiple proteins can be delivered to cells with high efficiency while maintaining low toxicity, suggesting potential applications in imaging, therapy and cosmetics fields.

  17. Inhibitory/suppressive oligodeoxynucleotide nanocapsules as simple oral delivery devices for preventing atopic dermatitis in mice.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yeqin; Yamamoto, Yoshinari; Shigemori, Suguru; Watanabe, Takafumi; Oshiro, Kazushi; Wang, Xinyu; Wang, Pengfei; Sato, Takashi; Yonekura, Shinichi; Tanaka, Sachi; Kitazawa, Haruki; Shimosato, Takeshi

    2015-02-01

    Here, we report a simple and low-cost oral oligodeoxynucleotide (ODN) delivery system targeted to the gut Peyer's patches (PPs). This system requires only Dulbecco's modified eagle's medium, calcium chloride, ODNs, and basic laboratory equipment. ODN nanocapsules (ODNcaps) were directly delivered to the PPs through oral administration and were taken up by macrophages in the PPs, where they induced an immune response. Long-term continuous oral dosing with inhibitory/suppressive ODNcaps (iODNcaps, "iSG3caps" in this study) was evaluated using an atopic dermatitis mouse model to visually monitor disease course. Administration of iSG3caps improved skin lesions and decreased epidermal thickness. Underlying this effect is the ability of iSG3 to bind to and prevent phosphorylation of signal transducer and activator of transcription 6, thereby blocking the interleukin-4 signaling cascade mediated by binding of allergens to type 2 helper T cells. The results of our iSG3cap oral delivery experiments suggest that iSG3 may be useful for treating allergic diseases. PMID:25502904

  18. Development of a virus-mimicking nanocarrier for drug delivery systems: The bio-nanocapsule.

    PubMed

    Somiya, Masaharu; Kuroda, Shun'ichi

    2015-12-01

    As drug delivery systems, nanocarriers should be capable of executing the following functions: evasion of the host immune system, targeting to the diseased site, entering cells, escaping from endosomes, and releasing payloads into the cytoplasm. Since viruses perform some or all of these functions, they are considered naturally occurring nanocarriers. To achieve biomimicry of the hepatitis B virus (HBV), we generated the "bio-nanocapsule" (BNC)-which deploys the human hepatocyte-targeting domain, fusogenic domain, and polymerized-albumin receptor domain of HBV envelope L protein on its surface-by overexpressing the L protein in yeast cells. BNCs are capable of delivering various payloads to the cytoplasm of human hepatic cells specifically in vivo, which is achieved via formation of complexes with various materials (e.g., drugs, nucleic acids, and proteins) by electroporation, fusion with liposomes, or chemical modification. In this review, we describe BNC-related technology, discuss retargeting strategies for BNCs, and outline other virus-inspired nanocarriers. PMID:26482188

  19. The adaptation of lipid nanocapsule formulations for blood administration in animals.

    PubMed

    Hureaux, J; Lagarce, F; Gagnadoux, F; Clavreul, A; Benoit, J-P; Urban, T

    2009-09-11

    In many cell-culture and animal models, the therapeutic effects of the entrapped drugs in lipid nanocapsules (LNCs) were preserved with low toxicity. These results allow foreseeing further preclinical efficiency and toxicity studies in animals. In this article, preliminary studies were performed to check the genetically modified organism (GMO) status of the LNCs components and to determine the effects of the acidity of the LNCs dispersions in acid-base balance in rats. Then, several freezing protocols to store paclitaxel-loaded LNCs dispersions for a 6-month period were compared. Results indicate that the Lipoïd S75-3 could not be certified GMO-free. The same soya bean lecithin certified to be GMO-free permitted to produce LNCs with expected characteristics. The blood administration of blank LNCs dispersions in rats induced no modifications of blood acidity, but a significant decrease of the base excess was observed. Injections of LNCs dispersions in animals might induce iatrogenic acidosis. We finally demonstrated that the best protocol to store LNCs dispersion for a 6-month period is by freezing in liquid nitrogen. This protocol minimized the characteristics modifications and interrupted the drug-release phenomenon. These original data are expected to prepare of LNCs dispersions well adapted for i.v. administration in animals.

  20. [Intraoperative frozen sections of the thyroid gland].

    PubMed

    Synoracki, S; Ting, S; Siebolts, U; Dralle, H; Koperek, O; Schmid, K W

    2015-07-01

    The goal of evaluation of intraoperative frozen sections of the thyroid gland is to achieve a definitive diagnosis which determines the subsequent surgical management as fast as possible; however, due to the specific methodological situation of thyroid frozen sections evaluation a conclusive diagnosis can be made in only some of the cases. If no conclusive histological diagnosis is possible during the operation, subsequent privileged processing of the specimen allows a final diagnosis at the latest within 48 h in almost all remaining cases. Applying this strategy, both pathologists and surgeons require a high level of communication and knowledge regarding the specific diagnostic and therapeutic peculiarities of thyroid malignancies because different surgical strategies must be employed depending on the histological tumor subtype.

  1. The Jefferson Lab Frozen Spin Target

    SciTech Connect

    Christopher Keith, James Brock, Christopher Carlin, Sara Comer, David Kashy, Josephine McAndrew, David Meekins, Eugene Pasyuk, Joshua Pierce, Mikell Seely

    2012-08-01

    A frozen spin polarized target, constructed at Jefferson Lab for use inside a large acceptance spectrometer, is described. The target has been utilized for photoproduction measurements with polarized tagged photons of both longitudinal and circular polarization. Protons in TEMPO-doped butanol were dynamically polarized to approximately 90% outside the spectrometer at 5 T and 200-300 mK. Photoproduction data were acquired with the target inside the spectrometer at a frozen-spin temperature of approximately 30 mK with the polarization maintained by a thin, superconducting coil installed inside the target cryostat. A 0.56 T solenoid was used for longitudinal target polarization and a 0.50 T dipole for transverse polarization. Spin relaxation times as high as 4000 hours were observed. We also report polarization results for deuterated propanediol doped with the trityl radical OX063.

  2. Electron microscopy of frozen hydrated eukaryotic flagella.

    PubMed

    Murray, J M

    1986-01-01

    Resting and active sea urchin sperm flagella have been examined by low-dose electron microscopy of frozen hydrated specimens. The flagella are unfixed, unstained, completely intact, and able to swim vigorously after going through the entire preparative procedure. The most prominent features of the image arise from the edges of the axonemal doublets and central-pair microtubules seen in projection. By comparison with these longitudinal markings, transverse features are less easy to discern, being camouflaged by superposition. However, Fourier transforms of digitized micrographs reveal a remarkable degree of crystalline order in quiescent flagella. Filtered images derived from these Fourier transforms show clearly features arising from the central-pair complex and radial spokes that were obscured in the original data. Potentially complicating effects of specimen thickness are shown to be quantitatively insignificant in the formation of images of unstained frozen hydrated flagella. Determination of native flagellar structure by 3-D reconstruction from multiple-tilted views appears to be feasible.

  3. Drug response in organoids generated from frozen primary tumor tissues

    PubMed Central

    Walsh, Alex J.; Cook, Rebecca S.; Sanders, Melinda E.; Arteaga, Carlos L.; Skala, Melissa C.

    2016-01-01

    Primary tumor organoids grown in three-dimensional culture provide an excellent platform for studying tumor progression, invasion, and drug response. However, organoid generation protocols require fresh tumor tissue, which limits organoid research and clinical use. This study investigates cellular morphology, viability, and drug response of organoids derived from frozen tissues. The results demonstrate that viable organoids can be grown from flash-frozen and thawed tissue and from bulk tissues slowly frozen in DMSO supplemented media. While the freezing process affects the basal metabolic rate of the cells, the optical metabolic imaging index correlates between organoids derived from fresh and frozen tissue and can be used to detect drug response of organoids grown from frozen tissues. The slow, DMSO frozen tissue yielded organoids with more accurate drug response than the flash frozen tissues, and thus bulk tissue should be preserved for subsequent organoid generation by slow freezing in DMSO supplemented media. PMID:26738962

  4. Frozen soil barriers for hazardous waste confinement

    SciTech Connect

    Dash, J.G.; Leger, R.; Fu, H.Y.

    1997-12-31

    Laboratory and full field measurements have demonstrated the effectiveness of artificial ground freezing for the containment of subsurface hazardous and radioactive wastes. Bench tests and a field demonstration have shown that cryogenic barriers are impenetrable to aqueous and non aqueous liquids. As a result of the successful tests the US Department of Energy has designated frozen ground barriers as one of its top ten remediation technologies.

  5. Phase separation in frozen erythrocyte membrane preparations.

    PubMed

    Finean, J B; Hutchinson, A; Mills, D

    1985-10-01

    The reversible formation of a lipid-like phase in frozen preparations of erythrocyte membranes has been studied by X-ray diffraction and by electron microscopy of freeze-fracture replicas. The observations provide strong evidence for lateral migration or displacement at specific temperatures of intra-membrane particles. This creates large areas of particle-free membranes which fracture preferentially so as to dominate the freeze-fracture image.

  6. The new frozen spin target at MAMI

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thomas, A.; Borisov, N. S.; Arends, H.-J.; Fedorov, A. N.; Gurevich, G. M.; Kondratiev, R. L.; Korolija, M.; Lazarev, A. B.; Martinez, M.; Meyer, W.; Mironov, S. V.; Neganov, A. B.; Pavlov, V. N.; Ortega, H.; Reicherz, G.; Usov, Yu. A.

    2013-11-01

    The new frozen spin polarized target for experiments at the polarized beam of the real photon facility A2 of the MAMI accelerator is described. The A2-collaboration at the Mainz Microtron MAMI is measuring photon absorption cross section using circularly and linearly polarized photons up to the energy of 1.5 GeV. The photons are produced in the' Bremsstrahlungs' process. In the years 2005/2006 the Crystal Ball detector with its unique capability to cope with multi photon final states was set up in Mainz. Since 2010 the experimental apparatus has been completed by a polarized target. The horizontal dilution refrigerator of the Frozen-Spin Target has been constructed and is operated in close cooperation with the Joint Institute for Nuclear Research in Dubna, Russia. The system offers the opportunity to provide longitudinally and transversely polarized protons and deuteron. In this paper the operation experience of this new Frozen-Spin Target and first results from the runs in 2010 and 2011 are presented.

  7. Viscous Energy Dissipation in Frozen Cryogens

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meitner, S. J.; Pfotenhauer, J. M.; Andraschko, M. R.

    2008-03-01

    ITER is an international research and development project with the goal of demonstrating the feasibility of fusion power. The fuel for the ITER plasma is injected in the form of frozen deuterium pellets; the current injector design includes a batch extruder, cooled by liquid helium. A more advanced fuel system will produce deuterium pellets continuously using a twin-screw extruder, cooled by a cryocooler. One of the critical design parameters for the advanced system is the friction associated with the shearing planes of the frozen deuterium in the extruder; the friction determines the required screw torque as well as the cryocooler heat load. An experiment has been designed to measure the energy dissipation associated with shearing frozen deuterium. Deuterium gas is cooled to its freezing point in the gap between a stationary outer canister and a rotating inner cylinder. The dissipation is measured mechanically and through calorimetric means. The experiment has also been used to measure dissipation in other cryogens, such as neon, as a function of rotational velocity and temperature. This paper describes the design and construction of the experiment and presents measurements over a range of cryogens and test conditions.

  8. Rapid detection of irradiated frozen hamburgers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Delincée, Henry

    2002-03-01

    DNA comet assay can be employed as a rapid and inexpensive screening test to check whether frozen ground beef patties (hamburgers) have been irradiated as a means to increase their safety by eliminating pathogenic bacteria, e.g. E. coli O157:H7. Such a detection procedure will provide an additional check on compliance with existing regulations, e.g. enforcement of labelling and rules in international trade. Frozen ready prepared hamburgers from the market place were `electron irradiated' with doses of 0, 1.3, 2.7, 4.5 and 7.2kGy covering the range of potential commercial irradiation. DNA fragmentation in the hamburgers was made visible within a few hours using the comet assay, and non-irradiated hamburgers could be easily discerned from the irradiated ones. Even after 9 months of frozen storage, irradiated hamburgers could be identified. Since DNA fragmentation may also occur with other food processes (e.g. temperature abuse), positive screening tests shall be confirmed using a validated method to specifically prove an irradiation treatment, e.g. EN 1784 or EN 1785.

  9. Self-Enhanced Ultrasensitive Photoelectrochemical Biosensor Based on Nanocapsule Packaging Both Donor-Acceptor-Type Photoactive Material and Its Sensitizer.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Ying-Ning; Liang, Wen-Bin; Xiong, Cheng-Yi; Yuan, Ya-Li; Chai, Ya-Qin; Yuan, Ruo

    2016-09-01

    In this work, a self-enhanced ultrasensitive photoelectrochemical (PEC) biosensor was established based on a functionalized nanocapsule packaging both donor-acceptor-type photoactive material and its sensitizer. The functionalized nanocapsule with self-enhanced PEC responses was achieved first by packaging both the donor-acceptor-type photoactive material (poly{4,8-bis[5-(2-ethylhexyl)thiophen-2-yl]benzo[1,2-b:4,5-b']dithiophene-2,6-diyl-alt-3-fluoro-2-[(2-ethylhexyl)carbonyl]thieno[3,4-b]thiophene-4,6-diyl}, PTB7-Th) and its sensitizer (nano-C60, fullerene) in poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) to form a nanocapsule, which significantly enhanced PEC signal and stability of the PEC biosensor. Moreover, a quadratic enzymes-assisted target recycling amplification strategy was introduced to the system for ultrasensitive determination. Compared with other established PEC biosensors, our proposed self-enhanced approach showed higher effectivity, accuracy, sensitivity, and convenience without any addition of coreactant or sensitizers into the testing electrolyte for photocurrent amplification and performed excellent analytical properties for microRNA estimation down to femtomole level with microRNA-141 as a model. Additionally, the proposed PEC biosensor was employed for estimation of microRNA in different cancer cells and pharmacodynamic evaluation in cancer cells. This self-enhanced PEC strategy has laid the foundation for fabrication of simple, effective, and ultrasensitive PEC diagnostic devices, leading to the possibility for early diagnosis, timely stage estimation, and accurate prognosis judgment of disease. PMID:27513736

  10. Self-Enhanced Ultrasensitive Photoelectrochemical Biosensor Based on Nanocapsule Packaging Both Donor-Acceptor-Type Photoactive Material and Its Sensitizer.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Ying-Ning; Liang, Wen-Bin; Xiong, Cheng-Yi; Yuan, Ya-Li; Chai, Ya-Qin; Yuan, Ruo

    2016-09-01

    In this work, a self-enhanced ultrasensitive photoelectrochemical (PEC) biosensor was established based on a functionalized nanocapsule packaging both donor-acceptor-type photoactive material and its sensitizer. The functionalized nanocapsule with self-enhanced PEC responses was achieved first by packaging both the donor-acceptor-type photoactive material (poly{4,8-bis[5-(2-ethylhexyl)thiophen-2-yl]benzo[1,2-b:4,5-b']dithiophene-2,6-diyl-alt-3-fluoro-2-[(2-ethylhexyl)carbonyl]thieno[3,4-b]thiophene-4,6-diyl}, PTB7-Th) and its sensitizer (nano-C60, fullerene) in poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) to form a nanocapsule, which significantly enhanced PEC signal and stability of the PEC biosensor. Moreover, a quadratic enzymes-assisted target recycling amplification strategy was introduced to the system for ultrasensitive determination. Compared with other established PEC biosensors, our proposed self-enhanced approach showed higher effectivity, accuracy, sensitivity, and convenience without any addition of coreactant or sensitizers into the testing electrolyte for photocurrent amplification and performed excellent analytical properties for microRNA estimation down to femtomole level with microRNA-141 as a model. Additionally, the proposed PEC biosensor was employed for estimation of microRNA in different cancer cells and pharmacodynamic evaluation in cancer cells. This self-enhanced PEC strategy has laid the foundation for fabrication of simple, effective, and ultrasensitive PEC diagnostic devices, leading to the possibility for early diagnosis, timely stage estimation, and accurate prognosis judgment of disease.

  11. A healthy patient with bilateral frozen hips preceding bilateral frozen shoulders: a cautionary tale.

    PubMed

    Miller, Abigail R; Arnot, Dean; Wake, Melissa

    2015-01-01

    Adhesive capsulitis of the shoulder (frozen shoulder) is a common disease characterised by spontaneous onset of pain and restriction of movement, followed by 'thawing', with complete or near-complete resolution. Adhesive capsulitis of the hip has been reported in around a dozen patients. This report describes an otherwise-healthy middle-aged woman with apparent sequential resolving adhesive capsulitis of all four ball-and-socket joints over a 9-year period, initially affecting each hip and then each shoulder sequentially. The likely hip diagnosis became clear only retrospectively with development of the second frozen shoulder, 5 years after the first pain. All joints subsequently resolved within the expected timeframe and the patient remains healthy, other than having mild hypertension. This case illustrates that, when hip precedes shoulder involvement, there is the potential for the frozen hip to receive alternate diagnoses for which invasive open hip surgery could unnecessarily be recommended. PMID:26564111

  12. Methotrexate diethyl ester-loaded lipid-core nanocapsules in aqueous solution increased antineoplastic effects in resistant breast cancer cell line.

    PubMed

    Yurgel, Virginia C; Oliveira, Catiuscia P; Begnini, Karine R; Schultze, Eduarda; Thurow, Helena S; Leon, Priscila M M; Dellagostin, Odir A; Campos, Vinicius F; Beck, Ruy C R; Guterres, Silvia S; Collares, Tiago; Pohlmann, Adriana R; Seixas, Fabiana K

    2014-01-01

    Breast cancer is the most frequent cancer affecting women. Methotrexate (MTX) is an antimetabolic drug that remains important in the treatment of breast cancer. Its efficacy is compromised by resistance in cancer cells that occurs through a variety of mechanisms. This study evaluated apoptotic cell death and cell cycle arrest induced by an MTX derivative (MTX diethyl ester [MTX(OEt)2]) and MTX(OEt)2-loaded lipid-core nanocapsules in two MTX-resistant breast adenocarcinoma cell lines, MCF-7 and MDA-MB-231. The formulations prepared presented adequate granulometric profile. The treatment responses were evaluated through flow cytometry. Relying on the mechanism of resistance, we observed different responses between cell lines. For MCF-7 cells, MTX(OEt)2 solution and MTX(OEt)2-loaded lipid-core nanocapsules presented significantly higher apoptotic rates than untreated cells and cells incubated with unloaded lipid-core nanocapsules. For MDA-MB-231 cells, MTX(OEt)2-loaded lipid-core nanocapsules were significantly more efficient in inducing apoptosis than the solution of the free drug. S-phase cell cycle arrest was induced only by MTX(OEt)2 solution. The drug nanoencapsulation improved apoptosis induction for the cell line that presents MTX resistance by lack of transport receptors.

  13. Methotrexate diethyl ester-loaded lipid-core nanocapsules in aqueous solution increased antineoplastic effects in resistant breast cancer cell line

    PubMed Central

    Yurgel, Virginia C; Oliveira, Catiuscia P; Begnini, Karine R; Schultze, Eduarda; Thurow, Helena S; Leon, Priscila MM; Dellagostin, Odir A; Campos, Vinicius F; Beck, Ruy CR; Guterres, Silvia S; Collares, Tiago; Pohlmann, Adriana R; Seixas, Fabiana K

    2014-01-01

    Breast cancer is the most frequent cancer affecting women. Methotrexate (MTX) is an antimetabolic drug that remains important in the treatment of breast cancer. Its efficacy is compromised by resistance in cancer cells that occurs through a variety of mechanisms. This study evaluated apoptotic cell death and cell cycle arrest induced by an MTX derivative (MTX diethyl ester [MTX(OEt)2]) and MTX(OEt)2-loaded lipid-core nanocapsules in two MTX-resistant breast adenocarcinoma cell lines, MCF-7 and MDA-MB-231. The formulations prepared presented adequate granulometric profile. The treatment responses were evaluated through flow cytometry. Relying on the mechanism of resistance, we observed different responses between cell lines. For MCF-7 cells, MTX(OEt)2 solution and MTX(OEt)2-loaded lipid-core nanocapsules presented significantly higher apoptotic rates than untreated cells and cells incubated with unloaded lipid-core nanocapsules. For MDA-MB-231 cells, MTX(OEt)2-loaded lipid-core nanocapsules were significantly more efficient in inducing apoptosis than the solution of the free drug. S-phase cell cycle arrest was induced only by MTX(OEt)2 solution. The drug nanoencapsulation improved apoptosis induction for the cell line that presents MTX resistance by lack of transport receptors. PMID:24741306

  14. Methotrexate diethyl ester-loaded lipid-core nanocapsules in aqueous solution increased antineoplastic effects in resistant breast cancer cell line.

    PubMed

    Yurgel, Virginia C; Oliveira, Catiuscia P; Begnini, Karine R; Schultze, Eduarda; Thurow, Helena S; Leon, Priscila M M; Dellagostin, Odir A; Campos, Vinicius F; Beck, Ruy C R; Guterres, Silvia S; Collares, Tiago; Pohlmann, Adriana R; Seixas, Fabiana K

    2014-01-01

    Breast cancer is the most frequent cancer affecting women. Methotrexate (MTX) is an antimetabolic drug that remains important in the treatment of breast cancer. Its efficacy is compromised by resistance in cancer cells that occurs through a variety of mechanisms. This study evaluated apoptotic cell death and cell cycle arrest induced by an MTX derivative (MTX diethyl ester [MTX(OEt)2]) and MTX(OEt)2-loaded lipid-core nanocapsules in two MTX-resistant breast adenocarcinoma cell lines, MCF-7 and MDA-MB-231. The formulations prepared presented adequate granulometric profile. The treatment responses were evaluated through flow cytometry. Relying on the mechanism of resistance, we observed different responses between cell lines. For MCF-7 cells, MTX(OEt)2 solution and MTX(OEt)2-loaded lipid-core nanocapsules presented significantly higher apoptotic rates than untreated cells and cells incubated with unloaded lipid-core nanocapsules. For MDA-MB-231 cells, MTX(OEt)2-loaded lipid-core nanocapsules were significantly more efficient in inducing apoptosis than the solution of the free drug. S-phase cell cycle arrest was induced only by MTX(OEt)2 solution. The drug nanoencapsulation improved apoptosis induction for the cell line that presents MTX resistance by lack of transport receptors. PMID:24741306

  15. Hypericin-loaded lipid nanocapsules for photodynamic cancer therapy in vitro

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barras, Alexandre; Boussekey, Luc; Courtade, Emmanuel; Boukherroub, Rabah

    2013-10-01

    Hypericin (Hy), a naturally occurring photosensitizer (PS), is extracted from Hypericum perforatum plants, commonly known as St. John's wort. The discovery of the in vitro and in vivo photodynamic activities of hypericin as a photosensitizer generated great interest, mainly to induce a very potent antitumoral effect. However, this compound belongs to the family of naphthodianthrones which are known to be poorly soluble in physiological solutions and produce non-fluorescent aggregates (A. Wirz et al., Pharmazie, 2002, 57, 543; A. Kubin et al., Pharmazie, 2008, 63, 263). These phenomena can reduce its efficiency as a photosensitizer for the clinical application. In the present contribution, we have prepared, characterized, and studied the photochemical properties of Hy-loaded lipid nanocapsule (LNC) formulations. The amount of singlet oxygen (1O2) generated was measured by the use of p-nitroso-dimethylaniline (RNO) as a selective scavenger under visible light irradiation. Our results showed that Hy-loaded LNCs suppressed aggregation of Hy in aqueous media, increased its apparent solubility, and enhanced the production of singlet oxygen in comparison with free drug. Indeed, encapsulation of Hy in LNCs led to an increase of 1O2 quantum yield to 0.29-0.44, as compared to 0.02 reported for free Hy in water. Additionally, we studied the photodynamic activity of Hy-loaded LNCs on human cervical carcinoma (HeLa) and Human Embryonic Kidney (HEK) cells. The cell viability decreased radically to 10-20% at 1 μM, reflecting Hy-loaded LNC25 phototoxicity.Hypericin (Hy), a naturally occurring photosensitizer (PS), is extracted from Hypericum perforatum plants, commonly known as St. John's wort. The discovery of the in vitro and in vivo photodynamic activities of hypericin as a photosensitizer generated great interest, mainly to induce a very potent antitumoral effect. However, this compound belongs to the family of naphthodianthrones which are known to be poorly soluble in

  16. Elucidation of the early infection machinery of hepatitis B virus by using bio-nanocapsule

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Qiushi; Somiya, Masaharu; Kuroda, Shun’ichi

    2016-01-01

    Currently, hepatitis B virus (HBV), upon attaching to human hepatocytes, is considered to interact first with heparan sulfate proteoglycan (HSPG) via an antigenic loop of HBV envelope S protein. Then, it is promptly transferred to the sodium taurocholate cotransporting polypeptide (NTCP) via the myristoylated N-terminal sequence of pre-S1 region (from Gly-2 to Gly-48, HBV genotype D), and it finally enters the cell by endocytosis. However, it is not clear how HSPG passes HBV to NTCP and how NTCP contributes to the cellular entry of HBV. Owing to the poor availability and the difficulty of manipulations, including fluorophore encapsulation, it has been nearly impossible to perform biochemical and cytochemical analyses using a substantial amount of HBV. A bio-nanocapsule (BNC), which is a hollow nanoparticle consisting of HBV envelope L protein, was efficiently synthesized in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Since BNC could encapsulate payloads (drugs, genes, proteins) and specifically enter human hepatic cells utilizing HBV-derived infection machinery, it could be used as a model of HBV infection to elucidate the early infection machinery. Recently, it was demonstrated that the N-terminal sequence of pre-S1 region (from Asn-9 to Gly-24) possesses low pH-dependent fusogenic activity, which might play a crucial role in the endosomal escape of BNC payloads and in the uncoating process of HBV. In this minireview, we describe a model in which each domain of the HBV L protein contributes to attachment onto human hepatic cells through HSPG, initiation of endocytosis, interaction with NTCP in endosomes, and consequent provocation of membrane fusion followed by endosomal escape. PMID:27784961

  17. Hypericin-loaded lipid nanocapsules for photodynamic cancer therapy in vitro.

    PubMed

    Barras, Alexandre; Boussekey, Luc; Courtade, Emmanuel; Boukherroub, Rabah

    2013-11-01

    Hypericin (Hy), a naturally occurring photosensitizer (PS), is extracted from Hypericum perforatum plants, commonly known as St. John's wort. The discovery of the in vitro and in vivo photodynamic activities of hypericin as a photosensitizer generated great interest, mainly to induce a very potent antitumoral effect. However, this compound belongs to the family of naphthodianthrones which are known to be poorly soluble in physiological solutions and produce non-fluorescent aggregates (A. Wirz et al., Pharmazie, 2002, 57, 543; A. Kubin et al., Pharmazie, 2008, 63, 263). These phenomena can reduce its efficiency as a photosensitizer for the clinical application. In the present contribution, we have prepared, characterized, and studied the photochemical properties of Hy-loaded lipid nanocapsule (LNC) formulations. The amount of singlet oxygen ((1)O2) generated was measured by the use of p-nitroso-dimethylaniline (RNO) as a selective scavenger under visible light irradiation. Our results showed that Hy-loaded LNCs suppressed aggregation of Hy in aqueous media, increased its apparent solubility, and enhanced the production of singlet oxygen in comparison with free drug. Indeed, encapsulation of Hy in LNCs led to an increase of (1)O2 quantum yield to 0.29-0.44, as compared to 0.02 reported for free Hy in water. Additionally, we studied the photodynamic activity of Hy-loaded LNCs on human cervical carcinoma (HeLa) and Human Embryonic Kidney (HEK) cells. The cell viability decreased radically to 10-20% at 1 μM, reflecting Hy-loaded LNC25 phototoxicity.

  18. Characterisation and Skin Distribution of Lecithin-Based Coenzyme Q10-Loaded Lipid Nanocapsules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Huafeng; Yue, Yang; Liu, Guanlan; Li, Yan; Zhang, Jing; Yan, Zemin; Duan, Mingxing

    2010-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the influence of the inner lipid ratio on the physicochemical properties and skin targeting of surfactant-free lecithin-based coenzyme Q10-loaded lipid nanocapsules (CoQ10-LNCs). The smaller particle size of CoQ10-LNCs was achieved by high pressure and a lower ratio of CoQ10/GTCC (Caprylic/capric triglyceride); however, the zeta potential of CoQ10-LNCs was above /- 60 mV/ with no distinct difference among them at different ratios of CoQ10/GTCC. Both the crystallisation point and the index decreased with the decreasing ratio of CoQ10/GTCC and smaller particle size; interestingly, the supercooled state of CoQ10-LNCs was observed at particle size below about 200 nm, as verified by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) in one heating-cooling cycle. The lecithin monolayer sphere structure of CoQ10-LNCs was investigated by cryogenic transmission electron microscopy (Cryo-TEM). The skin penetration results revealed that the distribution of Nile red-loaded CoQ10-LNCs depended on the ratio of inner CoQ10/GTCC; moreover, epidermal targeting and superficial dermal targeting were achieved by the CoQ10-LNCs application. The highest fluorescence response was observed at a ratio of inner CoQ10/GTCC of 1:1. These observations suggest that lecithin-based LNCs could be used as a promising topical delivery vehicle for lipophilic compounds.

  19. Vesicles from pH-regulated reversible gemini amino-acid surfactants as nanocapsules for delivery.

    PubMed

    Lv, Jing; Qiao, Weihong; Li, Zongshi

    2016-10-01

    Reversible transition from micelles to vesicles by regulating pH were realized by gemini amino-acid surfactants N,N'-dialkyl-N,N'-diacetate ethylenediamine. Measurement results of ζ-potential at different pH and DLS at varying solvents revealed that the protonation between H(+) and double NCH2COO(-) groups (generating NH(+)CH2COO(-)), expressed as pKa1 and pKa2, is the key driving force to control the aggregation behaviors of gemini surfactant molecule. Effect of pH on the bilayer structure was studied in detail by using steady-state fluorescence spectroscopy of hydrophobic pyrene and Coumarin 153 (C153) respectively and fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET) from C153 to Rhodamine 6G (R6G). Various pH-regulated and pH-reversible self-assemblies were obtained in one surfactant system. Vitamin D3 was encapsulated in vesicle bilayers to form nano-VD3-capsules as VD3 supplement agent for health care products. By using the electrostatic attraction between Ca(2+) and double -COO(-) groups, nano-VD3-capsules with Ca(2+) coated outermost layers were prepared as a formulation for VD3 and calcium co-supplement agent. DLS and TEM were performed to check stability and morphology of the nano-capsules. It is concluded that the pH-regulated gemini amino-acid surfactants can be used to construct colloidal systems for delivering hydrophobic drugs or nutritions without lipids at human physiological pH level. PMID:27419647

  20. Vesicles from pH-regulated reversible gemini amino-acid surfactants as nanocapsules for delivery.

    PubMed

    Lv, Jing; Qiao, Weihong; Li, Zongshi

    2016-10-01

    Reversible transition from micelles to vesicles by regulating pH were realized by gemini amino-acid surfactants N,N'-dialkyl-N,N'-diacetate ethylenediamine. Measurement results of ζ-potential at different pH and DLS at varying solvents revealed that the protonation between H(+) and double NCH2COO(-) groups (generating NH(+)CH2COO(-)), expressed as pKa1 and pKa2, is the key driving force to control the aggregation behaviors of gemini surfactant molecule. Effect of pH on the bilayer structure was studied in detail by using steady-state fluorescence spectroscopy of hydrophobic pyrene and Coumarin 153 (C153) respectively and fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET) from C153 to Rhodamine 6G (R6G). Various pH-regulated and pH-reversible self-assemblies were obtained in one surfactant system. Vitamin D3 was encapsulated in vesicle bilayers to form nano-VD3-capsules as VD3 supplement agent for health care products. By using the electrostatic attraction between Ca(2+) and double -COO(-) groups, nano-VD3-capsules with Ca(2+) coated outermost layers were prepared as a formulation for VD3 and calcium co-supplement agent. DLS and TEM were performed to check stability and morphology of the nano-capsules. It is concluded that the pH-regulated gemini amino-acid surfactants can be used to construct colloidal systems for delivering hydrophobic drugs or nutritions without lipids at human physiological pH level.

  1. Stability study and lyophilization of vitamin E-loaded nanocapsules prepared by membrane contactor.

    PubMed

    Khayata, N; Abdelwahed, W; Chehna, M F; Charcosset, C; Fessi, H

    2012-12-15

    In this research, we studied the accelerated stability of vitamin E-loaded nanocapsules (NCs) prepared by the nanoprecipitation method. Vitamin E-loaded NCs were optimized firstly at the laboratory scale and then scaled up using the membrane contactor technique. The optimum conditions of the membrane contactor preparation (pilot scale) produced vitamin E-loaded NCs with an average size of 253 nm, polydispersity index 0.19 and a zeta potential -16 mV. The average size, polydispersity index and zeta potential values were 185 nm, 0.12 and -15 mV, respectively for the NCs prepared at laboratory scale. No significant changes were noticed in these values after 3 and 6 months of storage at high temperature (40±2 °C) and relative humidity (75±5%) in spite of vitamin E sensitivity to light, heat and oxygen. The entrapment efficiency of NCs prepared at pilot scale was 97% at the beginning of the stability study, and became (95%, 59%) after 3 and 6 months of storage, respectively. These values at lab-scale were (98%, 96%, and 89%) at time zero and after 3 and 6 months of storage, respectively. This confirms the ability of vitamin E encapsulation to preserve its stability, which is one major goal of our work. Lyophilization of the optimized formula at lab-scale was also performed. Four types of cryoprotectants were tested (poly(vinyl pyrrolidone), sucrose, mannitol, and glucose). Freeze-dried NCs prepared with sucrose were found acceptable. The other lyophilized NCs obtained at different conditions presented large aggregates.

  2. Guests inducing p-sulfonatocalix[4]arenes into nanocapsule and layer structure

    SciTech Connect

    Zheng Guoli; Fan Weiqiang; Song Shuyan; Guo Huadong; Zhang Hongjie

    2010-06-15

    Reaction of sodium p-sulfonatocalix[4]arene and TbCl{sub 3} in the presence of 2,2'-bipyridine-N,N'-dioxide (bpdo) gives the 2:1 supramolecular nanocapsule [[Tb(bpdo){sub 2}.4H{sub 2}O]{sup 3+} intersection {l_brace}p-sulfonatocalix[4]arene{sup 4-{r_brace}}{sub 2}], which further interacts with the [Tb(bpdo){sub 4}]{sup 3+} through charge-assisted {pi}-stacking interactions forming a channel structure 1. In further investigation, we tried to use the terpyridine-1,1',1'-trisoxide (tpto) instead of bpdo. Although we failed to isolate a supramolecular capsules based on the tpto, lanthanide and p-sulfonatocalix[4]arene, a layer structure derived from p-sulfonatocalix[4]arene with an unusual [Cu(tpto){sub 2}]{sup 2+} incorporation into the cavity of the calixarene and an outside [Cu(tpto){sub 2}]{sup 2+} balancing the charge, has been obtained. Fluorescence spectra show clearly that compound 1 possesses the luminescence characteristics of Tb{sup 3+} and the ligand bpdo can sensitize Tb{sup 3+} ion. Gas sorption experiment shows the channel structure 1 has highly selective gas sorption properties for water and methanol. - Graphical abstract: In the presence of different guests, a nanochannel architecture based on the p-sulfonato[4]calixarene capsule and a layered structure based on the p-sulfonato[4]calixarene tecton have been synthesized, and the luminescence properties and guest sorption of porous structure have been investigated.

  3. Encapsulation of docetaxel in oily core polyester nanocapsules intended for breast cancer therapy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Youm, Ibrahima; Yang, Xiao Yan; Murowchick, James B.; Youan, Bi-Botti C.

    2011-12-01

    This study is designed to test the hypothesis that docetaxel [Doc] containing oily core nanocapsules [NCs] could be successfully prepared with a high percentage encapsulation efficiency [EE%] and high drug loading. The oily core NCs were generated according to the emulsion solvent diffusion method using neutral Labrafac CC and poly( d, l-lactide) [PLA] as oily core and shell, respectively. The engineered NCs were characterized for particle mean diameter, zeta potential, EE%, drug release kinetics, morphology, crystallinity, and cytotoxicity on the SUM 225 breast cancer cell line by dynamic light scattering, high performance liquid chromatography, electron microscopies, powder X-ray diffraction, and lactate dehydrogenase bioassay. Typically, the formation of Doc-loaded, oily core, polyester-based NCs was evidenced by spherical nanometric particles (115 to 582 nm) with a low polydispersity index (< 0.05), high EE% (65% to 93%), high drug loading (up to 68.3%), and a smooth surface. Powder X-ray diffraction analysis revealed that Doc was not present in a crystalline state because it was dissolved within the NCs' oily core and the PLA shell. The drug/polymer interaction has been indeed thermodynamically explained using the Flory-Huggins interaction parameters. Doc release kinetic data over 144 h fitted very well with the Higuchi model ( R 2 > 0.93), indicating that drug release occurred mainly by controlled diffusion. At the highest drug concentration (5 μM), the Doc-loaded oily core NCs (as a reservoir nanosystem) enhanced the native drug cytotoxicity. These data suggest that the oily core NCs are promising templates for controlled delivery of poorly water soluble chemotherapeutic agents, such as Doc.

  4. Miltefosine Lipid Nanocapsules for Single Dose Oral Treatment of Schistosomiasis Mansoni: A Preclinical Study

    PubMed Central

    Eissa, Maha M.; El-Moslemany, Riham M.; Ramadan, Alyaa A.; Amer, Eglal I.; El-Azzouni, Mervat Z.; El-Khordagui, Labiba K.

    2015-01-01

    Miltefosine (MFS) is an alkylphosphocholine used for the local treatment of cutaneous metastases of breast cancer and oral therapy of visceral leishmaniasis. Recently, the drug was reported in in vitro and preclinical studies to exert significant activity against different developmental stages of schistosomiasis mansoni, a widespread chronic neglected tropical disease (NTD). This justified MFS repurposing as a potential antischistosomal drug. However, five consecutive daily 20 mg/kg doses were needed for the treatment of schistosomiasis mansoni in mice. The present study aims at enhancing MFS efficacy to allow for a single 20mg/kg oral dose therapy using a nanotechnological approach based on lipid nanocapsules (LNCs) as oral nanovectors. MFS was incorporated in LNCs both as membrane-active structural alkylphospholipid component and active antischistosomal agent. MFS-LNC formulations showed high entrapment efficiency (EE%), good colloidal properties, sustained release pattern and physical stability. Further, LNCs generally decreased MFS-induced erythrocyte hemolytic activity used as surrogate indicator of membrane activity. While MFS-free LNCs exerted no antischistosomal effect, statistically significant enhancement was observed with all MFS-LNC formulations. A maximum effect was achieved with MFS-LNCs incorporating CTAB as positive charge imparting agent or oleic acid as membrane permeabilizer. Reduction of worm load, ameliorated liver pathology and extensive damage of the worm tegument provided evidence for formulation-related efficacy enhancement. Non-compartmental analysis of pharmacokinetic data obtained in rats indicated independence of antischistosomal activity on systemic drug exposure, suggesting possible gut uptake of the stable LNCs and targeting of the fluke tegument which was verified by SEM. The study findings put forward MFS-LNCs as unique oral nanovectors combining the bioactivity of MFS and biopharmaceutical advantages of LNCs, allowing targeting

  5. Oral delivery system prolongs blood circulation of docetaxel nanocapsules via lymphatic absorption.

    PubMed

    Attili-Qadri, Suha; Karra, Nour; Nemirovski, Alina; Schwob, Ouri; Talmon, Yeshayahu; Nassar, Taher; Benita, Simon

    2013-10-22

    An original oral formulation of docetaxel nanocapsules (NCs) embedded in microparticles elicited in rats a higher bioavailability compared with the i.v. administration of the commercial docetaxel solution, Taxotere. In the present study, various animal studies were designed to elucidate the absorption process of docetaxel from such a delivery system. Again, the docetaxel NC formulation elicited a marked enhanced absorption compared with oral Taxotere in minipigs, resulting in relative bioavailability and Cmax values 10- and 8.4-fold higher, respectively, confirming the previous rat study results. It was revealed that orally absorbed NCs altered the elimination and distribution of docetaxel, as shown in the organ biodistribution rat study, due to their reinforced coating, while transiting through the enterocytes by surface adsorption of apoproteins and phospholipids. These findings were demonstrated by the cryogenic-temperature transmission electron microscopy results and confirmed by the use of a chylomicron flow blocker, cycloheximide, that prevented the oral absorption of docetaxel from the NC formulation in an independent pharmacokinetic study. The lipoproteinated NCs reduced the docetaxel release in plasma and its distribution among the organs. The improved anticancer activity compared with i.v. Taxotere, observed in the metastatic lung cancer model in Severe Combined Immune Deficiency-beige (SCID-bg) mice, should be attributed to the extravasation effect, leading to the lipoproteinated NC accumulation in lung tumors, where they exert a significant therapeutic action. To the best of our knowledge, no study has reported that the absorption of NCs was mediated by a lymphatic process and reinforced during their transit.

  6. Accuracy of frozen-section diagnosis in salivary gland neoplasms.

    PubMed

    Rigual, N R; Milley, P; Loré, J M; Kaufman, S

    1986-01-01

    A retrospective review of 100 patients with major or minor salivary gland neoplasms was conducted to ascertain the accuracy and effect on therapy of frozen-section diagnosis. Of these patients, 23% had malignant and 77% benign neoplasms. Twelve patients benefited by further surgery during the initial operation, and no treatment delay occurred as a result of frozen-section diagnosis. There were four incorrect diagnoses of clinical significance, two false positives (benign tumor called malignant on frozen section) and two false negatives (malignant tumor called benign on frozen section). The accuracy of frozen section for specific pathologic diagnosis was 92%. No unnecessary radical surgery was performed. Frozen-section diagnosis of salivary gland neoplasms in our institution was found to be accurate and useful.

  7. Cationic Polymeric Nanocapsules as a Strategy to Target Dexamethasone to Viable Epidermis: Skin Penetration and Permeation Studies.

    PubMed

    Beber, Tiago Costa; de Andrade, Diego Fontana; Chaves, Paula dos Santos; Pohlmann, Adriana Raffin; Guterres, Silvia Stanisquaski; Beck, Ruy Carlos Ruver

    2016-02-01

    The present work aimed to evaluate the behavior of dexamethasone-loaded cationic polymericnanocapsules in hydrogels, regarding their in vitro drug release and skin drug retention and per- meation. Cationic polymeric nanocapsules prepared with Eudragit RS 100 as the polymeric wall had mean particle size of 139 +/- 3.6 nm, positive zeta potential (+11.38 +/- 1.7 mV), and high encapsulation efficiency (81 +/- 2%). After preparation, they were formulated as hydrogels, which showed non-Newtonian, plastic behavior, and acidic pH. Photon correlation spectroscopy analysis of these hydrogels demonstrated the presence of particles with mean particle size close to that of the original colloidal suspensions. The presence of dexamethasone-loaded nanocapsules in hydrogels promoted controlled drug release and an increase in the amount of drug delivered into viable epidermis, the main target tissue to topical glucocorticoid action. Moreover, the formulation did not increase the risk of drug penetration to dermis and permeation to the receptor compartment.

  8. Self-stability of C60 nanocapsules with radio-iodide content and its interaction with calcium atoms.

    PubMed

    Valderrama, Alejandro; Reynoso, Radamés; Gómez, Raúl W; Marquina, Vivianne

    2016-01-01

    This paper inquires the C60 capabilities to contain radio-iodide ((131)I2) molecules. The encapsulation conditions are investigated applying first principles method to simulate with geometric optimizations and molecular dynamics at 310 K and atmospheric pressure. We find that the n(131)I2@C60 system, where n = 1, 2, 3…, is stable if the content does not exceed three molecules of radio-iodide. The application of density functional theory allows us to determine that, the nanocapsules content limit is related with the amount of charge that is transferred from the iodine (131)I2 molecules to the carbon atoms in the fullerene surface. The Mulliken population analysis reveals that the excess of charge increases the repulsive forces between atoms and the bond length average in the C60 structure. The weakened bonds easily break and will critically damage the encapsulation properties. Additionally, we test the interaction nanocapsules with different amounts of radioactive iodine diatomic molecules content with calcium atoms, and find that only the fullerene containing one radioactive iodine diatomic molecule was able to interact with up to nine atoms of calcium without disrupting or cracking. Other fullerenes with two and three radio iodine diatomic molecules cannot resist the interaction with a single calcium atom without cracking or being broken.

  9. Nanocapsule-delivered Sleeping Beauty mediates therapeutic Factor VIII expression in liver sinusoidal endothelial cells of hemophilia A mice

    PubMed Central

    Kren, Betsy T.; Unger, Gretchen M.; Sjeklocha, Lucas; Trossen, Alycia A.; Korman, Vicci; Diethelm-Okita, Brenda M.; Reding, Mark T.; Steer, Clifford J.

    2009-01-01

    Liver sinusoidal endothelial cells are a major endogenous source of Factor VIII (FVIII), lack of which causes the human congenital bleeding disorder hemophilia A. Despite extensive efforts, gene therapy using viral vectors has shown little success in clinical hemophilia trials. Here we achieved cell type–specific gene targeting using hyaluronan- and asialoorosomucoid-coated nanocapsules, generated using dispersion atomization, to direct genes to liver sinusoidal endothelial cells and hepatocytes, respectively. To highlight the therapeutic potential of this approach, we encapsulated Sleeping Beauty transposon expressing the B domain–deleted canine FVIII in cis with Sleeping Beauty transposase in hyaluronan nanocapsules and injected them intravenously into hemophilia A mice. The treated mice exhibited activated partial thromboplastin times that were comparable to those of wild-type mice at 5 and 50 weeks and substantially shorter than those of untreated controls at the same time points. Further, plasma FVIII activity in the treated hemophilia A mice was nearly identical to that in wild-type mice through 50 weeks, while untreated hemophilia A mice exhibited no detectable FVIII activity. Thus, Sleeping Beauty transposon targeted to liver sinusoidal endothelial cells provided long-term expression of FVIII, without apparent antibody formation, and improved the phenotype of hemophilia A mice. PMID:19509468

  10. Imaging radar observations of frozen Arctic lakes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Elachi, C.; Bryan, M. L.; Weeks, W. F.

    1976-01-01

    A synthetic aperture imaging L-band radar flown aboard the NASA CV-990 remotely sensed a number of ice-covered lakes about 48 km northwest of Bethel, Alaska. The image obtained is a high resolution, two-dimensional representation of the surface backscatter cross section, and large differences in backscatter returns are observed: homogeneous low returns, homogeneous high returns and/or low returns near lake borders, and high returns from central areas. It is suggested that a low return indicates that the lake is frozen completely to the bottom, while a high return indicates the presence of fresh water between the ice cover and the lake bed.

  11. Optimal use of fresh frozen plasma.

    PubMed

    DomBourian, Melkon; Holland, Lorne

    2012-01-01

    Fresh frozen plasma contains a number of therapeutically useful substances, most notably coagulation factors. As with any transfusion, there are risks associated with plasma transfusion. Ironically, the risk of viral transmission (human immunodeficiency virus or hepatitis), although widely publicized, is extremely small. On the other hand, less well-known, noninfectious complications are common. Indeed, these noninfectious complications are the most significant cause of morbidity and mortality following transfusion. Although certain patients undeniably benefit from plasma transfusion, the benefit for many patients is less clear. This review will discuss indications for plasma transfusion, the associated risks, and special considerations for plasma administration.

  12. A novel approach to arthritis treatment based on resveratrol and curcumin co-encapsulated in lipid-core nanocapsules: In vivo studies.

    PubMed

    Coradini, Karine; Friedrich, Rossana B; Fonseca, Francisco N; Vencato, Marina S; Andrade, Diego F; Oliveira, Cláudia M; Battistel, Ana Paula; Guterres, Silvia S; da Rocha, Maria Izabel U M; Pohlmann, Adriana R; Beck, Ruy C R

    2015-10-12

    Resveratrol and curcumin are two natural polyphenols extensively used due to their remarkable anti-inflammatory activity. The present work presents an inedited study of the in vivo antioedematogenic activity of these polyphenols co-encapsulated in lipid-core nanocapsules on Complete Freund's adjuvant (CFA)-induced arthritis in rats. Lipid-core nanocapsules were prepared by interfacial deposition of preformed polymer. Animals received a single subplantar injection of CFA in the right paw. Fourteen days after arthritis induction, they were treated with resveratrol, curcumin, or both in solution or loaded in lipid-core nanocapsules (1.75 mg/kg/twice daily, i.p.), for 8 days. At the doses used, the polyphenols in solution were not able to decrease paw oedema. However, nanoencapsulation improved the antioedematogenic activity of polyphenols at the same doses. In addition, the treatment with co-encapsulated polyphenols showed the most pronounced effects, where an inhibition of 37-55% was observed between day 16 and 22 after arthritis induction. This treatment minimized most of the histological changes observed, like fibrosis in synovial tissue, cartilage and bone loss. In addition, unlike conventionally arthritis treatment, resveratrol and curcumin co-encapsulated in lipid-core nanocapsules did not alter important hepatic biochemical markers (ALP, AST, and ALT). In conclusion, the strategy of co-encapsulating resveratrol and curcumin in lipid-core nanocapsules improves their efficacy as oedematogenic agents, with no evidence of hepatotoxic effects. This is a promising strategy for the development of new schemes for treatment of chronic inflammation diseases, like arthritis. PMID:26206297

  13. Post-vaccination frozen shoulder syndrome. Report of 3 cases.

    PubMed

    Degreef, I; Debeer, Ph

    2012-01-01

    The cause of frozen shoulder syndrome is unknown in most cases, although it can be preceded by minor trauma. Here, we report 3 patients with severe frozen shoulder after an intramuscular vaccination in the deltoid muscle. A distention arthrography resulted in good pain relief and improved the mobility. Frozen shoulder syndrome can be a severe manifestation of vaccination-related shoulder dysfunction. Correct intramuscular administration is crucial to prevent post-vaccination frozen shoulder and on the other hand, physicians' awareness is needed to recognize this feature early on.

  14. Survival of salmonella in processed chicken products during frozen storage.

    PubMed

    Dominguez, Silvia A; Schaffner, Donald W

    2009-10-01

    Frozen chicken products have been identified recently as a cause of salmonellosis. At least eight salmonellosis outbreaks from 1998 to 2008 have implicated undercooked frozen chicken nuggets, strips, and entrees as infection vehicles. Thus, the presence of Salmonella in frozen products may pose an infection risk if the product is improperly cooked. The objective of this study was to assess the survivability of Salmonella during frozen storage (-20 degrees ) when inoculated in processed chicken products. Four Salmonella strains originally isolated from poultry were inoculated into frozen chicken nuggets (fully cooked) and frozen chicken strips (containing raw poultry) at initial populations of 10(4) to 10(5) CFU/g. Survival was assessed during storage at -20 degrees for 16 weeks by measuring bacterial growth on minimal, selective, and nonselective agars. Results indicate that cell populations measured in nonselective agars (plate count agar and plate count agar supplemented with tetracycline) and minimal (M9) agar remained relatively constant during the entire -20 degrees storage period studied (16 weeks) for both chicken nuggets and strips. However, cell populations were significantly (P < 0.05) lower when measured in selective agar (XLT4) during the 16 weeks of frozen storage for both chicken nuggets and strips, suggesting that these cells were structurally injured. The data presented in this study indicate that Salmonella can survive frozen storage when inoculated in frozen, processed chicken products and confirm that microbial counts on selective agar are not representative of the total population of samples subject to freezing.

  15. Primary Frozen Shoulder Syndrome: Arthroscopic Capsular Release

    PubMed Central

    Arce, Guillermo

    2015-01-01

    Idiopathic adhesive capsulitis, or primary frozen shoulder syndrome, is a fairly common orthopaedic problem characterized by shoulder pain and loss of motion. In most cases, conservative treatment (6-month physical therapy program and intra-articular steroid injections) improves symptoms and restores shoulder motion. In refractory cases, arthroscopic capsular release is indicated. This surgical procedure carries several advantages over other treatment modalities. First, it provides precise and controlled release of the capsule and ligaments, reducing the risk of traumatic complications observed after forceful shoulder manipulation. Second, release of the capsule and the involved structures with a radiofrequency device delays healing, which prevents adhesion formation. Third, the technique is straightforward, and an oral postoperative steroid program decreases pain and allows for a pleasant early rehabilitation program. Fourth, the procedure is performed with the patient fully awake under an interscalene block, which boosts the patient's confidence and adherence to the physical therapy protocol. In patients with refractory primary frozen shoulder syndrome, arthroscopic capsular release emerges as a suitable option that leads to a faster and long-lasting recovery. PMID:26870652

  16. Frozen Chemistry Effects on Nozzle Performance Simulations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yoder, Dennis A.; Georgiadis, Nicholas J.; O'Gara, Michael R.

    2009-01-01

    Simulations of exhaust nozzle flows are typically conducted assuming the gas is calorically perfect, and typically modeled as air. However the gas inside a real nozzle is generally composed of combustion products whose thermodynamic properties may differ. In this study, the effect of gas model assumption on exhaust nozzle simulations is examined. The three methods considered model the nozzle exhaust gas as calorically perfect air, a calorically perfect exhaust gas mixture, and a frozen exhaust gas mixture. In the latter case the individual non-reacting species are tracked and modeled as a gas which is only thermally perfect. Performance parameters such as mass flow rate, gross thrust, and thrust coefficient are compared as are mean flow and turbulence profiles in the jet plume region. Nozzles which operate at low temperatures or have low subsonic exit Mach numbers experience relatively minor temperature variations inside the nozzle, and may be modeled as a calorically perfect gas. In those which operate at the opposite extreme conditions, variations in the thermodynamic properties can lead to different expansion behavior within the nozzle. Modeling these cases as a perfect exhaust gas flow rather than air captures much of the flow features of the frozen chemistry simulations. Use of the exhaust gas reduces the nozzle mass flow rate, but has little effect on the gross thrust. When reporting nozzle thrust coefficient results, however, it is important to use the appropriate gas model assumptions to compute the ideal exit velocity. Otherwise the values obtained may be an overly optimistic estimate of nozzle performance.

  17. Modelling infiltration processes in frozen soils

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ireson, A. M.; Barbour, L. S.

    2014-12-01

    Understanding the hydrological processes in soils subject to significant freeze-thaw is fraught by "experimental vagaries and theoretical imponderables" (Miller 1980, Applications of soil physics). The infiltration of snowmelt water and the subsequent transmission of unfrozen water during thawing, is governed by hydraulic conductivity values which are changing with both ice and unfrozen water content. Water held within pores is subject to capillary forces, which results in a freezing point depression (i.e. water remains in the liquid state slightly below 0°C). As the temperature drops below zero, water freezes first in the larger pores, and then in progressively smaller pores. Since the larger pores also are the first to empty by drainage, these pores may be air filled during freezing, while smaller water filled pores freeze. This explains why an unsaturated, frozen soil may still have a considerable infiltration capacity. Infiltration into frozen soil is a critical phenomena related to the risk of flooding in the Canadian prairies, controlling the partitioning of snowmelt into either infiltration or runoff. We propose a new model, based on conceptualizing the pore space as a bundle of capillary tubes (with significant differences to the capillary bundle model of Wannatabe and Flury, 2008, WRR, doi:10.1029/2008WR007102) which allows any air-filled macropores to contribute to the potential infiltration capacity of the soil. The patterns of infiltration and water movement during freeze-thaw from the model are compared to field observations from the Canadian prairies and Boreal Plains.

  18. Frozen spin targets in ribosomal structure research.

    PubMed

    Stuhrmann, H B

    1991-01-01

    Polarized neutron scattering strongly depends on nuclear spin polarisation, particularly on proton spin polarisation. A single proton in a deuterated environment then is as efficient as 10 electrons in X-ray anomalous diffraction. Neutron scattering from the nuclear spin label is controlled by the polarisation of neutron spins and nuclear spins. Pure deuteron spin labels and proton spin labels are created by NMR saturation. We report on results obtained from the large subunit of E. coli ribosomes which have been obtained at the research reactor of GKSS using the polarized target facility developed by CERN. The nuclear spins were oriented with respect to an external field by dynamic nuclear polarisation. Proton spin polarisations of more than 80% were obtained in ribosomes at temperatures below 0.5 K. At T = 130 mK the relaxation time of the polarized target is one month (frozen spin target). Polarized small-angle neutron scattering of the in situ structure of rRNA and the total ribosomal protein (TP) has been determined from the frozen spin targets of the large ribosomal subunit, which has been deuterated in the TP and rRNA respectively. The results agree with those from neutron scattering in H2O/D2O mixtures obtained at room temperature. This is a necessary prerequisite for the planned determination of the in situ structure of individual ribosomal proteins and especially of that of ribosome bound mRNA and tRNAs. PMID:1720669

  19. Searching for Frozen Super Earth via Microlensing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Batista, V.; Beaulieu, J. P.; Cassan, A.; Coutures, C.; Donatowicz, J.; Fouqué, P.; Kubas, D.; Marquette, J. B.

    2009-04-01

    Microlensing planet hunt is a unique method to probe efficiently for frozen Super Earth orbiting the most common stars of our galaxy. It is nicely complementing the parameter space probed by very high accuracy radial velocity measurements and future space based detections of low mass transiting planets. In order to maximize the planet catch, the microlensing community is engaged in a total cooperation among the different groups (OGLE, MicroFUN, MOA, PLANET/RoboNET) by making the real time data available, and mutual informing/reporting about modeling efforts. Eight planets have been published so far by combinations of the different groups, 4 Jovian analogues, one Neptune and two Super Earth. Given the microlensing detection efficiency, it suggests that these Neptunes/Super Earths may be quite common. Using networks of dedicated 1-2m class telescopes, the microlensing community has entered a new phase of planet discoveries, and will be able to provide constraints on the abundance of frozen Super-Earths in the near future. Statistics about Mars to Earth mass planets, extending to the habitable zone will be achieved with space based wide field imagers (EUCLID) at the horizon 2017.

  20. Stability of Frozen Orbits Around Europa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cardoso Dos Santos, Josué; Vilhena de Moraes, R.; Carvalho, J. S.

    2013-05-01

    Abstract (2,250 Maximum Characters): A planetary satellite of interest at the present moment for the scientific community is Europa, one of the four largest moons of Jupiter. There are some missions planned to visit Europa in the next years, for example, Jupiter Europa Orbiter (JEO, NASA) and Jupiter IcyMoon Explorer (JUICE, ESA). In this work we are formulating theories and constructing computer programs to be used in the design of aerospace tasks as regards the stability of artificial satellite orbits around planetary satellites. The studies are related to translational motion of orbits around planetary satellites considering polygenic perturbations due to forces, such as the nonspherical shape of the central body and the perturbation of the third body. The equations of motion will be developed in closed form to avoid expansions in eccentricity and inclination. For a description of canonical formalism are used the Delaunay canonical variables. The canonical set of equations, which are nonlinear differential equations, will be used to study the stability of orbits around Europa. We will use a simplified dynamic model, which considers the effects caused by non-uniform distribution of mass of Europa (J2, J3 and C22) and the gravitational attraction of Jupiter. Emphasis will be given to the case of frozen orbits, defined as having almost constant values of eccentricity, inclination, and argument of pericentre. An approach will be used to search for frozen orbits around planetary satellites and study their stability by applying a process of normalization of Hamiltonian. Acknowledges: FAPESP

  1. A deepwater actively frozen seabed (DAFS) drilling/production structure for the Beaufort Sea

    SciTech Connect

    Padron, D.V.; Joneidi, F.; Nixon, J.F.

    1984-05-01

    The development of concepts for drilling and production facilities in the Beaufort Sea in water depths exceeding twenty-five meters poses major engineering problems. A drilling/production structure concept based on the utilization of the sustained low temperatures of the Arctic has been developed. It consists of a pre-assembled, fully equipped steel caisson, towed to the Beaufort Sea and ballasted with seawater to rest on the seabed. The seabed is subsequently frozen, utilizing active thermal piles, to provide the required foundation strength. The Deepwater Actively Frozen Seabed (DAFS) drilling/production structure is suitable for water depths ranging from approximately twenty-five meters to fifty meters or more. Due to the fact that it relies on the frozen seabed soil mass for its stability, it is relatively lightweight and suitable for installation on virtually any seabed soil conditions that may be encountered. Since it does not require ballast other than seawater, it can be completely installed in a matter of weeks and can be relocated if necessary. Storage space for more than 1,000,000 barrels of crude oil is available within the structure.

  2. The effect of irradiation in the quality of the avocado frozen pulp

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Valdivia, Ma. Ángeles; Bustos, Ma. Emilia; Ruiz, Javier; Ruiz, Luisa F.

    2002-03-01

    The quality of frozen avocado pulp irradiated with 60Co gamma rays at doses of: 0.5, 1.0, 1.5, and 2.5 kGy, was studied. These are possible doses for reducing the content of bacteria Listeria monocytogenes by 1-4 log cycles. The study principally consisted of weekly evaluations of damages caused in lipids and chlorophyll pigment over a period of one year. No significant differences were found in either hydrolysis rancidity or in the oxidative rancidity for any of the doses. The concentrations of fatty acids and peroxides were below those established by Codex Alimentarius. This means that the quality of the oil in the frozen avocado pulp remains acceptable. The kinetic model for the oxidative rancidity is of first order and the shelf life of the product is of about 120 weeks. The concentrations of the fatty acids and of malondialdehyde were not high enough to produce off-flavors. It was also determined that the radiation doses did not influence the chemistry of the chlorophyll. The results were confirmed by the panelists, who accepted irradiated frozen pulp at the highest radiation dose.

  3. Frozen soil parameterization in a distributed biosphere hydrological model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, L.; Koike, T.; Yang, K.; Jin, R.; Li, H.

    2010-03-01

    In this study, a frozen soil parameterization has been modified and incorporated into a distributed biosphere hydrological model (WEB-DHM). The WEB-DHM with the frozen scheme was then rigorously evaluated in a small cold area, the Binngou watershed, against the in-situ observations from the WATER (Watershed Allied Telemetry Experimental Research). First, by using the original WEB-DHM without the frozen scheme, the land surface parameters and two van Genuchten parameters were optimized using the observed surface radiation fluxes and the soil moistures at upper layers (5, 10 and 20 cm depths) at the DY station in July. Second, by using the WEB-DHM with the frozen scheme, two frozen soil parameters were calibrated using the observed soil temperature at 5 cm depth at the DY station from 21 November 2007 to 20 April 2008; while the other soil hydraulic parameters were optimized by the calibration of the discharges at the basin outlet in July and August that covers the annual largest flood peak in 2008. With these calibrated parameters, the WEB-DHM with the frozen scheme was then used for a yearlong validation from 21 November 2007 to 20 November 2008. Results showed that the WEB-DHM with the frozen scheme has given much better performance than the WEB-DHM without the frozen scheme, in the simulations of soil moisture profile at the cold regions catchment and the discharges at the basin outlet in the yearlong simulation.

  4. 21 CFR 152.126 - Frozen cherry pie.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION FRUIT PIES Requirements for Specific Standardized Fruit Pies § 152.126 Frozen cherry... of quality for frozen cherry pie is as follows: (i) The fruit content of the pie is such that...

  5. 21 CFR 135.110 - Ice cream and frozen custard.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    .... Except in the case of frozen custard, ice cream contains less than 1.4 percent egg yolk solids by weight... contain 1.4 percent egg yolk solids by weight of the finished food: Provided, however, That when bulky flavors are added the egg yolk solids content of frozen custard may be reduced in proportion to the...

  6. 21 CFR 135.110 - Ice cream and frozen custard.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    .... Except in the case of frozen custard, ice cream contains less than 1.4 percent egg yolk solids by weight... contain 1.4 percent egg yolk solids by weight of the finished food: Provided, however, That when bulky flavors are added the egg yolk solids content of frozen custard may be reduced in proportion to the...

  7. 21 CFR 135.110 - Ice cream and frozen custard.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    .... Except in the case of frozen custard, ice cream contains less than 1.4 percent egg yolk solids by weight... contain 1.4 percent egg yolk solids by weight of the finished food: Provided, however, That when bulky flavors are added the egg yolk solids content of frozen custard may be reduced in proportion to the...

  8. Aspects of three field approximations: Darwin, frozen, EMPULSE

    SciTech Connect

    Boyd, J.K.; Lee, E.P.; Yu, S.S.

    1985-05-25

    The traditional approach used to study high energy beam propagation relies on the frozen field approximation. A minor modification of the frozen field approximation yields the set of equations applied to the analysis of the hose instability. These models are constrasted with the Darwin field approximation. A statement is made of the Darwin model equations relevant to the analysis of the hose instability.

  9. 21 CFR 146.120 - Frozen concentrate for lemonade.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... lemonade is the frozen food prepared from one or both of the lemon juice ingredients specified in paragraph... percent by weight. (b) The lemon juice ingredients referred to in paragraph (a) of this section are: (1) Lemon juice or frozen lemon juice or a mixture of these. (2) Concentrated lemon juice or...

  10. 21 CFR 146.120 - Frozen concentrate for lemonade.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... lemonade is the frozen food prepared from one or both of the lemon juice ingredients specified in paragraph... percent by weight. (b) The lemon juice ingredients referred to in paragraph (a) of this section are: (1) Lemon juice or frozen lemon juice or a mixture of these. (2) Concentrated lemon juice or...

  11. 21 CFR 146.120 - Frozen concentrate for lemonade.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... lemonade is the frozen food prepared from one or both of the lemon juice ingredients specified in paragraph... percent by weight. (b) The lemon juice ingredients referred to in paragraph (a) of this section are: (1) Lemon juice or frozen lemon juice or a mixture of these. (2) Concentrated lemon juice or...

  12. 21 CFR 146.120 - Frozen concentrate for lemonade.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... lemonade is the frozen food prepared from one or both of the lemon juice ingredients specified in paragraph... percent by weight. (b) The lemon juice ingredients referred to in paragraph (a) of this section are: (1) Lemon juice or frozen lemon juice or a mixture of these. (2) Concentrated lemon juice or...

  13. 21 CFR 864.9145 - Processing system for frozen blood.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Processing system for frozen blood. 864.9145 Section 864.9145 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES... system for frozen blood is a device used to glycerolize red blood cells prior to freezing to...

  14. 21 CFR 135.110 - Ice cream and frozen custard.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ....110 Ice cream and frozen custard. (a) Description. (1) Ice cream is a food produced by freezing, while... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Ice cream and frozen custard. 135.110 Section 135.110 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES...

  15. 21 CFR 146.126 - Frozen concentrate for colored lemonade.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION CANNED FRUIT JUICES Requirements for Specific Standardized Canned Fruit Juices and Beverages § 146.126 Frozen concentrate for colored lemonade. (a) Frozen concentrate for... lemonade by § 146.120, except that it is colored with a safe and suitable fruit juice, vegetable juice,...

  16. 21 CFR 146.126 - Frozen concentrate for colored lemonade.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION CANNED FRUIT JUICES Requirements for Specific Standardized Canned Fruit Juices and Beverages § 146.126 Frozen concentrate for colored lemonade. (a) Frozen concentrate for... lemonade by § 146.120, except that it is colored with a safe and suitable fruit juice, vegetable juice,...

  17. Lipid nanocapsules functionalized with polyethyleneimine for plasmid DNA and drug co-delivery and cell imaging.

    PubMed

    Skandrani, Nadia; Barras, Alexandre; Legrand, Dominique; Gharbi, Tijani; Boulahdour, Hatem; Boukherroub, Rabah

    2014-07-01

    The paper reports on the preparation of lipid nanocapsules (LNCs) functionalized with poly(ethyleneimine) (PEI) moieties and their successful use as drug and gene delivery systems. The cationic LNCs were produced by a phase inversion process with a nominal size of 25 nm and subsequently modified with PEI chains using a transacylation reaction. The functionalization process allowed good control over the nanoscale particle size (26.2 ± 3.9 nm) with monodisperse size characteristics (PI < 0.2) and positive surface charge up to +18.7 mV. The PEI-modified LNCs (LNC25-T) displayed good buffering capacity. Moreover, the cationic LNC25-T were able to condense DNA and form complexes via electrostatic interactions in a typical weight ratio-dependent relationship. It was found that the mean diameter of LNC25-T/pDNA complexes increased to ∼40-50 nm with the LNC25-T/pDNA ratio from 1 to 500. Gel electrophoresis and cell viability experiments showed that the LNC25-T/pDNA complexes had high stability with no cytotoxicity due to the anchored PEI polymers on the surface of LNCs. Finally, the transfection efficiency of the LNC25-T/pDNA complexes was studied and evaluated on HEK cell lines in comparison with free PEI/pDNA polyplexes. The combination of cationic LNCs with pDNA exhibited more than a 2.8-fold increase in transfection efficiency compared to the standard free PEI/pDNA polyplexes at the same PEI concentrations. Moreover, we have demonstrated that LNC25-T/pDNA loaded with a hydrophobic drug, paclitaxel, showed high drug efficacy. The high transfection efficiency combined with the potential of simultaneous co-delivery of hydrophobic drugs, relatively small size of LNC25-T/pDNA complexes, and fluorescence imaging can be crucial for gene therapy, as small particle sizes may be more favorable for in vivo studies. PMID:24871584

  18. 21 CFR 101.95 - “Fresh,” “freshly frozen,” “fresh frozen,” “frozen fresh.”

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... freezing will not preclude use of the term “fresh frozen” to describe the food. “Quickly frozen” means frozen by a freezing system such as blast-freezing (sub-zero Fahrenheit temperature with fast moving...

  19. 21 CFR 101.95 - “Fresh,” “freshly frozen,” “fresh frozen,” “frozen fresh.”

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... freezing will not preclude use of the term “fresh frozen” to describe the food. “Quickly frozen” means frozen by a freezing system such as blast-freezing (sub-zero Fahrenheit temperature with fast moving...

  20. 21 CFR 101.95 - “Fresh,” “freshly frozen,” “fresh frozen,” “frozen fresh.”

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... freezing will not preclude use of the term “fresh frozen” to describe the food. “Quickly frozen” means frozen by a freezing system such as blast-freezing (sub-zero Fahrenheit temperature with fast moving...

  1. 21 CFR 101.95 - “Fresh,” “freshly frozen,” “fresh frozen,” “frozen fresh.”

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... freezing will not preclude use of the term “fresh frozen” to describe the food. “Quickly frozen” means frozen by a freezing system such as blast-freezing (sub-zero Fahrenheit temperature with fast moving...

  2. Title: Characterizing a Frozen Extrasolar World

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Skemer, Andrew J.; Morley, Caroline V.; Allers, Katelyn N.; Geballe, Thomas R.; Marley, Mark S.; Fortney, Jonathan J.; Faherty, Jacqueline K.; Bjoraker, Gordon L.

    2016-01-01

    The recently discovered brown dwarf WISE 0855 presents our first opportunity to study an object outside the Solar System that is nearly as cold as our own gas giant planets. However the traditional methodology for characterizing brown dwarfs-near infrared spectroscopy-is not currently feasible as WISE 0855 is too cold and faint. To characterize this frozen extrasolar world we obtained a 4.5-5.2 micrometers spectrum, the same bandpass long used to study Jupiter's deep thermal emission. Our spectrum reveals the presence of atmospheric water vapor and clouds, with an absorption profile that is strikingly similar to Jupiter. The spectrum is high enough quality to allow the investigation of dynamical and chemical processes that have long been studied in Jupiter's atmosphere, but this time on an extrasolar world.

  3. 78 FR 33350 - Certain Frozen Warmwater Shrimp From Thailand: Preliminary Countervailing Duty Determination

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-04

    ... International Trade Administration Certain Frozen Warmwater Shrimp From Thailand: Preliminary Countervailing... countervailable subsidies are being provided to producers and exporters of certain frozen warmwater shrimp (frozen shrimp) from Thailand. The period of investigation is January 1, 2011, through December 31,...

  4. Frozen Ground Controls on Hydrological Processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hinzman, L. D.; Kane, D. L.; Woo, M. K.

    2015-12-01

    Frozen ground establishes a unique discipline of hydrologic science where the hydrologic regime is intimately coupled with the thermal regime to the extent that one may not be completely understood without correct characterization of the other. In permafrost regions, material properties may change drastically on a scale of centimeters to meters, particularly in the vertical dimension due to distinct changes in soil and thermal characteristics. Properties may vary just as dramatically in the horizontal dimension across the boundary of discontinuous permafrost. Although the spatial extent of permafrost changes on relatively slow time scales in response to disturbance or a changing climate, this too introduces an added level of complexity. Permafrost may nearly eliminate the interactions between near-surface and sub-permafrost aquifers, which in essence defines the hydrologic response of every watershed that is directly influenced by permafrost. Even though the principles governing water movement in permafrost areas are the same as those in more temperate regions, interactions of extremes in climate and the land surface characteristics render permafrost hydrology different from the hydrology of temperate latitudes. Ice-rich permafrost prevents deep percolation of rainfall or snowmelt water, often maintaining a moist to saturated active layer above the permafrost table. Most hydrologic activities are confined above-ground or in the thin active layer, which supplies summer moisture for baseflow and/or plant transpiration. Limited storage capacity of the thawed active layer does not support extended baseflow in a stream, though the proportion of baseflow increases as the percentage of permafrost extent decreases. In areas where permafrost is discontinuous or where it has thawed substantially near the surface, local hydrology may display a markedly different character as there are stronger exchanges between the surface water and the ground water system, or water may drain

  5. Frying stability of rapeseed Kizakinonatane (Brassica napus) oil in comparison with canola oil.

    PubMed

    Ma, Jin-Kui; Zhang, Han; Tsuchiya, Tomohiro; Akiyama, Yoshinobu; Chen, Jie-Yu

    2015-04-01

    This study was carried out to investigate the frying performance of Kizakinonatane (Brassica napus) oil during deep-fat frying of frozen French fries with/without replenishment. Commercial regular canola oil was used for comparison. The frying oils were used during intermittent frying of frozen French fries at 180, 200, and 220 ℃ for 7 h daily over four consecutive days. The Kizakinonatane oil exhibited lower levels of total polar compounds, carbonyl value, and viscosity as well as comparable color (optical density) values to that of the canola oil. The monounsaturated fatty acid/polyunsaturated fatty acid ratios were lower than that of canola oil, whereas the polyunsaturated fatty acid/saturated fatty acid ratios are higher than that of canola oil after heating. Results showed that fresh Kizakinonatane oil contains higher levels of acid value, viscosity, optical density values, tocopherols, and total phenolics contents than that of canola oil. Replenishment with fresh oil had significant effects on all chemical and physical parameters, except the acid value of the Kizakinonatane oil during frying processes. Based on the results, the Kizakinonatane oil is inherently suitable for preparing deep-fried foods at high temperatures.

  6. Frying stability of rapeseed Kizakinonatane (Brassica napus) oil in comparison with canola oil.

    PubMed

    Ma, Jin-Kui; Zhang, Han; Tsuchiya, Tomohiro; Akiyama, Yoshinobu; Chen, Jie-Yu

    2015-04-01

    This study was carried out to investigate the frying performance of Kizakinonatane (Brassica napus) oil during deep-fat frying of frozen French fries with/without replenishment. Commercial regular canola oil was used for comparison. The frying oils were used during intermittent frying of frozen French fries at 180, 200, and 220 ℃ for 7 h daily over four consecutive days. The Kizakinonatane oil exhibited lower levels of total polar compounds, carbonyl value, and viscosity as well as comparable color (optical density) values to that of the canola oil. The monounsaturated fatty acid/polyunsaturated fatty acid ratios were lower than that of canola oil, whereas the polyunsaturated fatty acid/saturated fatty acid ratios are higher than that of canola oil after heating. Results showed that fresh Kizakinonatane oil contains higher levels of acid value, viscosity, optical density values, tocopherols, and total phenolics contents than that of canola oil. Replenishment with fresh oil had significant effects on all chemical and physical parameters, except the acid value of the Kizakinonatane oil during frying processes. Based on the results, the Kizakinonatane oil is inherently suitable for preparing deep-fried foods at high temperatures. PMID:24474189

  7. Lipid nanocapsules functionalized with polyethyleneimine for plasmid DNA and drug co-delivery and cell imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Skandrani, Nadia; Barras, Alexandre; Legrand, Dominique; Gharbi, Tijani; Boulahdour, Hatem; Boukherroub, Rabah

    2014-06-01

    The paper reports on the preparation of lipid nanocapsules (LNCs) functionalized with poly(ethyleneimine) (PEI) moieties and their successful use as drug and gene delivery systems. The cationic LNCs were produced by a phase inversion process with a nominal size of 25 nm and subsequently modified with PEI chains using a transacylation reaction. The functionalization process allowed good control over the nanoscale particle size (26.2 +/- 3.9 nm) with monodisperse size characteristics (PI < 0.2) and positive surface charge up to +18.7 mV. The PEI-modified LNCs (LNC25-T) displayed good buffering capacity. Moreover, the cationic LNC25-T were able to condense DNA and form complexes via electrostatic interactions in a typical weight ratio-dependent relationship. It was found that the mean diameter of LNC25-T/pDNA complexes increased to ~40-50 nm with the LNC25-T/pDNA ratio from 1 to 500. Gel electrophoresis and cell viability experiments showed that the LNC25-T/pDNA complexes had high stability with no cytotoxicity due to the anchored PEI polymers on the surface of LNCs. Finally, the transfection efficiency of the LNC25-T/pDNA complexes was studied and evaluated on HEK cell lines in comparison with free PEI/pDNA polyplexes. The combination of cationic LNCs with pDNA exhibited more than a 2.8-fold increase in transfection efficiency compared to the standard free PEI/pDNA polyplexes at the same PEI concentrations. Moreover, we have demonstrated that LNC25-T/pDNA loaded with a hydrophobic drug, paclitaxel, showed high drug efficacy. The high transfection efficiency combined with the potential of simultaneous co-delivery of hydrophobic drugs, relatively small size of LNC25-T/pDNA complexes, and fluorescence imaging can be crucial for gene therapy, as small particle sizes may be more favorable for in vivo studies.The paper reports on the preparation of lipid nanocapsules (LNCs) functionalized with poly(ethyleneimine) (PEI) moieties and their successful use as drug and gene

  8. Effect of particle size on the biodistribution of lipid nanocapsules: comparison between nuclear and fluorescence imaging and counting.

    PubMed

    Hirsjärvi, Samuli; Sancey, Lucie; Dufort, Sandrine; Belloche, Camille; Vanpouille-Box, Claire; Garcion, Emmanuel; Coll, Jean-Luc; Hindré, François; Benoît, Jean-Pierre

    2013-09-10

    In vivo biodistribution of nanoparticles depends on several physicochemical parameters such as size. After intravenous injection of 25, 50 and 100 nm lipid nanocapsules (LNC) in nude mice bearing HEK293(β3) tumour xenografts, biodistribution was evaluated by γ-scintigraphy and by γ-counting. The small LNC 25 nm disappeared faster than the larger LNC 50 and 100 nm from the blood circulation due to faster elimination and wider tissue distribution. At 24h, biodistribution profiles of all these LNC were similar. Low LNC quantities were found in this weak EPR (enhanced permeability and retention) tumour regardless the particle size. Co-injected 50 nm fluorescent DiD-LNC and (99m)Tc-LNC allowed direct comparison of biodistribution as evaluated by the two methods. Optical imaging underestimated LNC quantity especially in dark-colored organs that were observed to capture extensive quantities of the particles by γ-counting (i.e. liver, spleen, and kidney).

  9. Antitumor activity and systemic effects of PVM/MA-shelled selol nanocapsules in lung adenocarcinoma-bearing mice.

    PubMed

    de Souza, Ludmilla Regina; Muehlmann, Luis Alexandre; Matos, Lívia Carneiro; Simón-Vázquez, Rosana; Lacava, Zulmira Guerreiro Marques; De-Paula, Alfredo Maurício Batista; Mosiniewicz-Szablewska, Ewa; Suchocki, Piotr; Morais, Paulo César; González-Fernández, África; Báo, Sônia Nair; Azevedo, Ricardo Bentes

    2015-12-18

    Selol is a semi-synthetic compound containing selenite that is effective against cancerous cells and safer for clinical applications in comparison with other inorganic forms of selenite. Recently, we have developed a formulation of poly(methyl vinyl ether-co-maleic anhydride)-shelled selol nanocapsules (SPN), which reduced the proliferative activity of lung adenocarcinoma cells and presented little deleterious effects on normal cells in in vitro studies. In this study, we report on the antitumor activity and systemic effects induced by this formulation in chemically induced lung adenocarcinoma-bearing mice. The in vivo antitumor activity of the SPN was verified by macroscopic quantification, immunohistochemistry and morphological analyses. Toxicity analyses were performed by evaluations of the kidney, liver, and spleen; analyses of hemogram and plasma levels of alanine aminotransferase, aspartate transaminase, urea, and creatinine; and DNA fragmentation and cell cycle activity of the bone marrow cells. Furthermore, we investigated the potential of the SPN formulation to cause hemolysis, activate the complement system, provoke an inflammatory response and change the conformation of the plasma proteins. Our results showed that the SPN reduced the area of the surface tumor nodules but not the total number of tumor nodules. The biochemical and hematological findings were suggestive of the low systemic toxicity of the SPN formulation. The surface properties of the selol nanocapsules point to characteristics that are consistent with the treatment of the tumors in vivo: low hemolytic activity, weak inflammatory reaction with no activation of the complement system, and mild or absent conformational changes of the plasma proteins. In conclusion, this report suggests that the SPN formulation investigated herein exhibits anti-tumoral effects against lung adenocarcinoma in vivo and is associated with low systemic toxicity and high biocompatibility. PMID:26580675

  10. Antitumor activity and systemic effects of PVM/MA-shelled selol nanocapsules in lung adenocarcinoma-bearing mice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Souza, Ludmilla Regina; Alexandre Muehlmann, Luis; Carneiro Matos, Lívia; Simón-Vázquez, Rosana; Guerreiro Marques Lacava, Zulmira; Maurício Batista De-Paula, Alfredo; Mosiniewicz-Szablewska, Ewa; Suchocki, Piotr; César Morais, Paulo; González-Fernández, África; Nair Báo, Sônia; Bentes Azevedo, Ricardo

    2015-12-01

    Selol is a semi-synthetic compound containing selenite that is effective against cancerous cells and safer for clinical applications in comparison with other inorganic forms of selenite. Recently, we have developed a formulation of poly(methyl vinyl ether-co-maleic anhydride)-shelled selol nanocapsules (SPN), which reduced the proliferative activity of lung adenocarcinoma cells and presented little deleterious effects on normal cells in in vitro studies. In this study, we report on the antitumor activity and systemic effects induced by this formulation in chemically induced lung adenocarcinoma-bearing mice. The in vivo antitumor activity of the SPN was verified by macroscopic quantification, immunohistochemistry and morphological analyses. Toxicity analyses were performed by evaluations of the kidney, liver, and spleen; analyses of hemogram and plasma levels of alanine aminotransferase, aspartate transaminase, urea, and creatinine; and DNA fragmentation and cell cycle activity of the bone marrow cells. Furthermore, we investigated the potential of the SPN formulation to cause hemolysis, activate the complement system, provoke an inflammatory response and change the conformation of the plasma proteins. Our results showed that the SPN reduced the area of the surface tumor nodules but not the total number of tumor nodules. The biochemical and hematological findings were suggestive of the low systemic toxicity of the SPN formulation. The surface properties of the selol nanocapsules point to characteristics that are consistent with the treatment of the tumors in vivo: low hemolytic activity, weak inflammatory reaction with no activation of the complement system, and mild or absent conformational changes of the plasma proteins. In conclusion, this report suggests that the SPN formulation investigated herein exhibits anti-tumoral effects against lung adenocarcinoma in vivo and is associated with low systemic toxicity and high biocompatibility.

  11. Optical property of CR-39 synthesized by doping with methylviologen-encapsulated SiO2 nanocapsules as a solid-state X-ray plate detector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miyoshi, Hirokazu; Kida, Fumio; Yamada, Kenji; Tsuchiya, Koichiro; Hase, Hitoshi

    2016-05-01

    A CR-39 plate synthesized by doping with methylviologen-encapsulated SiO2 nanocapsules was firstly demonstrated as a solid-state X-ray (80 kV) detector for diagnostic examination without etching using an alkali solution. The X-ray-irradiated area was clearly observed as an emission image by exciting with a laser in FLA-9000. The maximum intensity was obtained using a 532 nm laser. The emission intensity at the X-ray-irradiated area increased linearly from 0.5 to 3 Gy with increasing thickness from 1 to 5 mm. In 15-nm-diameter silica nanocapsules and 4-5-mm-thick CR-39, the maximum intensity was observed by X-ray irradiation.

  12. [Ovarian tumours--accuracy of frozen section diagnosis].

    PubMed

    Ivanov, S; Ivanov, S; Khadzhiolov, N

    2005-01-01

    A retrospective study of 450 ovarian biopsy results were examined for the period of 1998 till 2004 to evaluate the accuracy of frozen section diagnosis. In addition to this we performed a review of the literature for all previous studies in this field in order to study the accuracy rates of the different clinics throughout the world. The histhopathological results of the frozen section diagnosis were equal with the diagnosis of the paraffin blocks in 90%. The sensitivity rates for benign, malignant and borderline tumours, were 96%, 84% and 60% respectively. We had 10 patients (2,1%) false-positive results (overdiagnosed) and 26 (5,2%) false-negative results (underdiagnosed) in frozen section examinations. Frozen section examination of mucinous tumours showed hogher underdiagnosis--18%. The review of the literature showed that there is no significant difference in accuracy rates of frozen section diagnosis for benign and malignant ovarian tumours in relation with time. We found low accuracy rates for borderline tumours which was similar with most of the foreign publications. However the accuracy of the frozen section diagnosis is bettering with the time. As a result of this we conclude that the accuracy rates of the frozen section diagnosis for evaluation of the malignant and benign tumours is quite enough for correct diagnosis. Since accuracy rates for borderline ovarian tumours are low we have to take care and attention of improvement in this field.

  13. [Adaptability of sweet corn ears to a frozen process].

    PubMed

    Ramírez Matheus, Alejandra O; Martínez, Norelkys Maribel; de Bertorelli, Ligia O; De Venanzi, Frank

    2004-12-01

    The effects of frozen condition on the quality of three sweet corn ears (2038, 2010, 2004) and the pattern (Bonanza), were evaluated. Biometrics characteristics like ear size, ear diameter, row and kernel deep were measured as well as chemical and physical measurement in fresh and frozen states. The corn ears were frozen at -95 degrees C by 7 minutes. The yield and stability of the frozen ears were evaluated at 45 and 90 days of frozen storage (-18 degrees C). The average commercial yield as frozen corn ear for all the hybrids was 54.2%. The industry has a similar value range of 48% to 54%. The ear size average was 21.57 cm, row number was 15, ear diameter 45.54 mm and the kernel corn deep was 8.57 mm. All these measurements were found not different from commercial values found for the industry. All corn samples evaluated showed good stability despites the frozen processing and storage. Hybrid 2038 ranked higher in quality. PMID:15969270

  14. A novel experiment for measuring infiltration into seasonal frozen soil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Demand, Dominic; Weiler, Markus

    2016-04-01

    Large parts of the northern hemisphere have at least seasonal frozen soils. Depending on the initial soil water content infiltration capacity can be reduced through pore blockage of ice. Many studies dealing with this topic used numerical modelling for estimating the effect of frozen soils on infiltration. Only a few studies investigated the influences of seasonal frozen soils on infiltration and runoff generation in field experiments. Some authors point out that preferential flow can be an important factor under frozen conditions, but only qualitative information are available so far. A missing methodology makes it hard to measure and quantify infiltration into frozen soils, especially the role of preferential flow. Therefore, a novel multi-method approach for measuring the influences of seasonal frozen soil on infiltration is presented. Sprinkling experiments with a rate of 50 mm/h were performed at frozen soil plots under wet and dry initial conditions in a grassland field site in the Black Forest, Germany. Additionally, two different water temperatures were used for the sprinkling experiments (~2°C and ~10°C). Thermal infrared imagery was tested for continuous, in-situ monitoring of the spatiotemporal soil thermal state during infiltration and the possibility to derive information on water flow. A dye tracer (Brilliant Blue FCF) was added to the infiltrating water and analyzed by image analysis for flow patterns and depth distribution. Thermal infrared imagery and dye tracer were used for the first time in field experiments in frozen soils and were tested for their potential to show the effect of preferential flow under frozen conditions. These information were related to observed soil moisture and temperature profiles measured with capacitance probes in five depths. Furthermore timing and amount of surface runoff was examined for all plots. Brilliant Blue flow patterns and surface runoff were compared against unfrozen soils with similar initial conditions

  15. Caenorhabditis elegans as an alternative in vivo model to determine oral uptake, nanotoxicity, and efficacy of melatonin-loaded lipid-core nanocapsules on paraquat damage

    PubMed Central

    Charão, Mariele Feiffer; Souto, Caroline; Brucker, Natália; Barth, Anelise; Jornada, Denise S; Fagundez, Daiandra; Ávila, Daiana Silva; Eifler-Lima, Vera L; Guterres, Silvia S; Pohlmann, Adriana R; Garcia, Solange Cristina

    2015-01-01

    Caenorhabditis elegans is an alternative in vivo model that is being successfully used to assess the pharmacological and toxic effects of drugs. The exponential growth of nanotechnology requires the use of alternative in vivo models to assess the toxic effects of theses nanomaterials. The use of polymeric nanocapsules has shown promising results for drug delivery. Moreover, these formulations have not been used in cases of intoxication, such as in treatment of paraquat (PQ) poisoning. Thus, the use of drugs with properties improved by nanotechnology is a promising approach to overcome the toxic effects of PQ. This research aimed to evaluate the absorption of rhodamine B-labeled melatonin (Mel)-loaded lipid-core nanocapsules (LNC) by C. elegans, the application of this model in nanotoxicology, and the protection of Mel-LNC against PQ damage. The formulations were prepared by self-assembly and characterized by particle sizing, zeta potential, drug content, and encapsulation efficiency. The results demonstrated that the formulations had narrow size distributions. Rhodamine B-labeled Mel-LNC were orally absorbed and distributed in the worms. The toxicity assessment of LNC showed a lethal dose 50% near the highest dose tested, indicating low toxicity of the nanocapsules. Moreover, pretreatment with Mel-LNC significantly increased the survival rate, reduced the reactive oxygen species, and maintained the development in C. elegans exposed to PQ compared to those worms that were either untreated or pretreated with free Mel. These results demonstrated for the first time the uptake and distribution of Mel-LNC by a nematode, and indicate that while LNC is not toxic, Mel-LNC prevents the effects of PQ poisoning. Thus, C. elegans may be an interesting alternative model to test the nanocapsules toxicity and efficacy. PMID:26300641

  16. Generating attenuation-resistant frozen waves in absorbing fluid.

    PubMed

    Dorrah, Ahmed H; Zamboni-Rached, Michel; Mojahedi, Mo

    2016-08-15

    We demonstrate a class of nondiffracting beams, called frozen waves, with a central spot that can be made to maintain a predefined intensity profile while propagating in an absorbing fluid. Frozen waves are composed of Bessel beams with different transverse and longitudinal wavenumbers, and are generated using a programmable spatial light modulator. The attenuation-resistant frozen waves demonstrated here address the problem of propagation losses in absorbing media. This development can be beneficial for many applications in particle micro-manipulation, data communications, remote sensing, and imaging. PMID:27519067

  17. Experiences with frozen blood products in the Netherlands military.

    PubMed

    Lelkens, C C M; Koning, J G; de Kort, B; Floot, I B G; Noorman, F

    2006-06-01

    For peacekeeping and peace enforcing missions abroad the Netherlands Armed Forces decided to use universal donor frozen blood products in addition to liquid products. This article describes our experiences with the frozen blood inventory, with special attention to quality control. It is shown that all thawed (washed) blood products are in compliance with international regulations and guidelines. By means of the -80 degrees C frozen stock of red cells, plasma and platelets readily available after thaw (and wash), we can now safely reduce shipments and abandon the backup 'walking' blood bank, without compromising the availability of blood products in theatre. PMID:16815757

  18. Generating attenuation-resistant frozen waves in absorbing fluid.

    PubMed

    Dorrah, Ahmed H; Zamboni-Rached, Michel; Mojahedi, Mo

    2016-08-15

    We demonstrate a class of nondiffracting beams, called frozen waves, with a central spot that can be made to maintain a predefined intensity profile while propagating in an absorbing fluid. Frozen waves are composed of Bessel beams with different transverse and longitudinal wavenumbers, and are generated using a programmable spatial light modulator. The attenuation-resistant frozen waves demonstrated here address the problem of propagation losses in absorbing media. This development can be beneficial for many applications in particle micro-manipulation, data communications, remote sensing, and imaging.

  19. Morphology-controlled construction of hierarchical hollow hybrid SnO2@TiO2 nanocapsules with outstanding lithium storage

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Linzong; Guo, Hong; Li, Tingting; Chen, Weiwei; Liu, Lixiang; Qiao, Jinli; Zhang, Jiujun

    2015-01-01

    A novel synthesis containing microwave-assisted HCl etching reaction and precipitating reaction is employed to prepare hierarchical hollow SnO2@TiO2 nanocapsules for anode materials of Li-ion batteries. The intrinsic hollow nanostructure can shorten the lengths for both ionic and electronic transport, enlarge the electrode surface areas, and improving accommodation of the anode volume change during Li insertion/extraction cycling. The hybrid multi-elements in this material allow the volume change to take place in a stepwise manner during electrochemical cycling. In particular, the coating of TiO2 onto SnO2 can enhance the electronic conductivity of hollow SnO2 electrode. As a result, the as-prepared SnO2@TiO2 nanocapsule electrode exhibits a stably reversible capacity of 770 mA hg−1 at 1 C, and the capacity retention can keep over 96.1% after 200 cycles even at high current rates. This approach may shed light on a new avenue for the fast synthesis of hierarchical hollow nanocapsule functional materials for energy storage, catalyst and other new applications. PMID:26482415

  20. Therapeutic surfactant-stripped frozen micelles

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Yumiao; Song, Wentao; Geng, Jumin; Chitgupi, Upendra; Unsal, Hande; Federizon, Jasmin; Rzayev, Javid; Sukumaran, Dinesh K.; Alexandridis, Paschalis; Lovell, Jonathan F.

    2016-01-01

    Injectable hydrophobic drugs are typically dissolved in surfactants and non-aqueous solvents which can induce negative side-effects. Alternatives like ‘top-down' fine milling of excipient-free injectable drug suspensions are not yet clinically viable and ‘bottom-up' self-assembled delivery systems usually substitute one solubilizing excipient for another, bringing new issues to consider. Here, we show that Pluronic (Poloxamer) block copolymers are amenable to low-temperature processing to strip away all free and loosely bound surfactant, leaving behind concentrated, kinetically frozen drug micelles containing minimal solubilizing excipient. This approach was validated for phylloquinone, cyclosporine, testosterone undecanoate, cabazitaxel and seven other bioactive molecules, achieving sizes between 45 and 160 nm and drug to solubilizer molar ratios 2–3 orders of magnitude higher than current formulations. Hypertonic saline or co-loaded cargo was found to prevent aggregation in some cases. Use of surfactant-stripped micelles avoided potential risks associated with other injectable formulations. Mechanistic insights are elucidated and therapeutic dose responses are demonstrated. PMID:27193558

  1. Perioperative coagulation management--fresh frozen plasma.

    PubMed

    Kor, Daryl J; Stubbs, James R; Gajic, Ognjen

    2010-03-01

    Clinical studies support the use of perioperative fresh frozen plasma (FFP) in patients who are actively bleeding with multiple coagulation factor deficiencies and for the prevention of dilutional coagulopathy in patients with major trauma and/or massive haemorrhage. In these settings, current FFP dosing recommendations may be inadequate. However, a substantial proportion of FFP is transfused in non-bleeding patients with mild elevations in coagulation screening tests. This practice is not supported by the literature, is unlikely to be of benefit and unnecessarily exposes patients to the risks of FFP. The role of FFP in reversing the effects of warfarin anticoagulation is dependent on the clinical context and availability of alternative agents. Although FFP is commonly transfused in patients with liver disease, this practice needs broad reconsideration. Adverse effects of FFP include febrile and allergic reactions, transfusion-associated circulatory overload and transfusion-related acute lung injury. The latter is the most serious complication, being less common with the preferential use of non-alloimmunised, male-donor predominant plasma. FP24 and thawed plasma are alternatives to FFP with similar indications for administration. Both provide an opportunity for increasing the safe plasma donor pool. Although prothrombin complex concentrates and factor VIIa may be used as alternatives to FFP in a variety of specific clinical contexts, additional study is needed.

  2. Therapeutic surfactant-stripped frozen micelles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Yumiao; Song, Wentao; Geng, Jumin; Chitgupi, Upendra; Unsal, Hande; Federizon, Jasmin; Rzayev, Javid; Sukumaran, Dinesh K.; Alexandridis, Paschalis; Lovell, Jonathan F.

    2016-05-01

    Injectable hydrophobic drugs are typically dissolved in surfactants and non-aqueous solvents which can induce negative side-effects. Alternatives like `top-down' fine milling of excipient-free injectable drug suspensions are not yet clinically viable and `bottom-up' self-assembled delivery systems usually substitute one solubilizing excipient for another, bringing new issues to consider. Here, we show that Pluronic (Poloxamer) block copolymers are amenable to low-temperature processing to strip away all free and loosely bound surfactant, leaving behind concentrated, kinetically frozen drug micelles containing minimal solubilizing excipient. This approach was validated for phylloquinone, cyclosporine, testosterone undecanoate, cabazitaxel and seven other bioactive molecules, achieving sizes between 45 and 160 nm and drug to solubilizer molar ratios 2-3 orders of magnitude higher than current formulations. Hypertonic saline or co-loaded cargo was found to prevent aggregation in some cases. Use of surfactant-stripped micelles avoided potential risks associated with other injectable formulations. Mechanistic insights are elucidated and therapeutic dose responses are demonstrated.

  3. View of the highway, approach to the Frozen Lake switchback ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View of the highway, approach to the Frozen Lake switchback curve, looking east. Proposed realignment will shift the road slightly to the south (right) - Beartooth Highway, Red Lodge, Montana to Cooke City, Montana, Cody, Park County, WY

  4. Cholera associated with imported frozen coconut milk--Maryland, 1991.

    PubMed

    1991-12-13

    During August 1991, three cases of cholera in Maryland were associated with the consumption of frozen coconut milk imported from Asia. Following an investigation, the product was recalled, and no other cases have been reported. PMID:1961175

  5. [Hygienic evaluation of frozen and canned Pacific saury (Cololabis saira)].

    PubMed

    Shul'gin, Iu P

    2004-01-01

    The storage of frozen Pacific saury (Cololabis saira) and the cans prepared from the latter in the refrigerator was examined for its impact on their quality. Changes in the parameters of proteins and lipids were studied in the samples of frozen Pacific saury during storage and of the cans prepared from the fish. The relative food value of the frozen fish was determined by biological tests using the infusoria Tetrachymena pyriformis. It was established that storage of frozen Pacific saury led to flesh protein and lipid degradation whose depth determined the loss of the food value of the fish. The results of biological tests fully correlate with the data of chemical analysis in assessing the quality of raw fish stored in the refrigerator. PMID:15197858

  6. Frozen Embryos May Boost Pregnancy Odds for Some Women

    MedlinePlus

    ... embryos is generally preferred over frozen embryos for in vitro fertilization (IVF). But, some evidence has suggested that using ... Services, or federal policy. More Health News on: Assisted Reproductive Technology Recent Health News Related MedlinePlus Health Topics Assisted ...

  7. View of the highway, from above the switchbacks between Frozen ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View of the highway, from above the switchbacks between Frozen Lake and Bar Drift, looking northeast, showing the retained alignment across the Beartooth Plateau - Beartooth Highway, Red Lodge, Montana to Cooke City, Montana, Cody, Park County, WY

  8. View of the highway, at the Frozen Lake switchback curve, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View of the highway, at the Frozen Lake switchback curve, looking northwest. The proposed realignment would be just to the southeast (right) of the existing alignment - Beartooth Highway, Red Lodge, Montana to Cooke City, Montana, Cody, Park County, WY

  9. View of the highway, from above the switchbacks between Frozen ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View of the highway, from above the switchbacks between Frozen Lake and Bar Drift, looking south, showing the setting and retained alignment - Beartooth Highway, Red Lodge, Montana to Cooke City, Montana, Cody, Park County, WY

  10. View of the highway, lower west summit switchbacks between Frozen ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View of the highway, lower west summit switchbacks between Frozen Lake and Bar Drift, looking northwest, showing retained alignment - Beartooth Highway, Red Lodge, Montana to Cooke City, Montana, Cody, Park County, WY

  11. View of the highway, from the switchbacks above Frozen Lake ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View of the highway, from the switchbacks above Frozen Lake (in midground), looking southwest, showing the general setting and retained switchback alignments - Beartooth Highway, Red Lodge, Montana to Cooke City, Montana, Cody, Park County, WY

  12. View of the highway, from just north of the frozen ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View of the highway, from just north of the frozen Lake switchback, looking northwest, showing the retained alignment - Beartooth Highway, Red Lodge, Montana to Cooke City, Montana, Cody, Park County, WY

  13. Theory of phase-separate multicomponent contaminant transport in frozen soils

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Panday, Sorab; Yavuz Corapcioglu, M.

    1994-08-01

    Groundwater is an essential source of water in Arctic regions due to largely frozen surface water resources. Since the development of Alaskan oil fields and the construction of the trans-Alaska pipeline, there have been a large number of accidental oil spillages in the tundra. The physico-, thermo- and ecosystem of the Arctic has unique features requiring special attention due to low temperatures and the presence of ice. Furthermore, a hot oil spill is subjected to large variations of temperature which creates a dominant impact on flow and phase behavior. Modeling studies of phase-separate contaminants for isothermal conditions neglect these crucial factors. A predictive model is developed herein, to simulate the transport and fate of multicomponent petroleum products in Arctic soils and groundwater. The model is based on identification and quantification of the significant physical, thermal, chemical and biological processes, and construction of mathematical representations of these phenomena to describe the transport and fate of petroleum spills in frozen soils. Since a petroleum product consists of many chemically and biologically reactive components, a general compositional-type model is developed to describe multiphase transport of the petroleum products, or any other multicomponent, phase-separate contaminant under non-isothermal conditions. The model incorporates thermodynamic principles to quantify phase partitioning of contaminant components and phase separation. Aerobic biodegradation of hydrocarbon constituents is incorporated into the formulation through Monod-type kinetics. A limit on biodegradation is imposed when oxygen is depleted from the system beyond which the biodegradation rate depends on the flux rate of oxygen.

  14. A retrospective study of single frozen-thawed blastocyst transfer

    PubMed Central

    Ryu, Eun Kyung; Song, Seung Hyun; Yoon, San Hyun; Lim, Kyung Sil; Lee, Won Don; Lim, Jin Ho

    2016-01-01

    Objective To study the clinical outcomes of single frozen-thawed blastocyst transfer cycles according to the hatching status of frozen-thawed blastocysts. Methods Frozen-thawed blastocysts were divided into three groups according to their hatching status as follows: less-than-expanded blastocyst (≤EdB), hatching blastocyst (HgB), and hatched blastocyst (HdB). The female age and infertility factors of each group were evaluated. The quality of the single frozen-thawed blastocyst was also graded as grade A, tightly packed inner cell mass (ICM) and many cells organized in the trophectoderm epithelium (TE); grade B, several and loose ICM and TE; and grade C, very few ICM and a few cells in the TE. The clinical pregnancy and implantation rate were compared between each group. The data were analyzed by either t-test or chi-square analysis. Results There were no statistically significant differences in average female ages, infertility factors, or the distribution of blastocyst grades A, B, and C in each group. There was no significant difference in the clinical pregnancy and implantation rate of each group according to their blastocyst grade. However, there was a significant difference in the clinical pregnancy and implantation rate between each group. In the HdB group, the clinical pregnancy and implantation rate were similar regardless of the blastocyst quality. Conclusion There was an effect on the clinical outcomes depending on whether the blastocyst hatched during single frozen-thawed blastocyst transfer. When performing single frozen-thawed blastocyst transfer, the hatching status of the frozen-thawed blastocyst may be a more important parameter for clinical outcomes than the quality of the frozen-thawed blastocyst. PMID:27358829

  15. Preparation of slides for microscopy from frozen tissue sections.

    PubMed

    Bachman, Julia

    2013-01-01

    Freezing tissue is a convenient method for long-term storage. In addition, sectioning tissue under frozen conditions or embedded within a frozen matrix allows for stabilization of tissue during the sectioning process. This is advantageous for small and/or delicate tissue (e.g., rodent brains younger than postnatal day 7) and tissue that will be sectioned very thin (usually <150 μm).

  16. Lipid nanocapsules for behavioural testing in aquatic toxicology: Time-response of Eurytemora affinis to environmental concentrations of PAHs and PCB.

    PubMed

    Michalec, François-Gaël; Holzner, Markus; Souissi, Anissa; Stancheva, Stefka; Barras, Alexandre; Boukherroub, Rabah; Souissi, Sami

    2016-01-01

    The increasing interest for behavioural investigations in aquatic toxicology has heightened the need for developing tools that allow realistic exposure conditions and provide robust quantitative data. Calanoid copepods dominate the zooplankton community in marine and brackish environments. These small organisms have emerged as attractive models because of the sensitivity of their behaviour to important environmental parameters and the significance of self-induced motion in their ecology. Estuarine copepods are particularly relevant in this context because of their incessant exposure to high levels of pollution. We used lipid nanocapsules to deliver sub-lethal concentrations of PAHs (pyrene, phenanthrene and fluoranthene) and PCB 153 into the digestive track of males and females Eurytemora affinis. This novel approach enabled us to achieve both contact and trophic exposure without using phytoplankton, and to expose copepods to small hydrophobic molecules without using organic solvent. We reconstructed the motion of many copepods swimming simultaneously by means of three-dimensional particle tracking velocimetry. We quantified the combined effects of contact and trophic toxicity by comparing the kinematic and diffusive properties of their motion immediately and after 3h and 24h of exposure. Despite the lack of toxicity of their excipients, both empty and loaded capsules increased swimming activity and velocity immediately after exposure. Laser microscopy imaging shows adhesion of nanocapsules on the exoskeleton of the animals, suggesting contact toxicity. The behavioural response resembles an escape reaction allowing copepods to escape stressful conditions. The contact toxicity of empty capsules and pollutants appeared to be additive and nanocapsules loaded with PCB caused the greatest effects. We observed a progressive accumulation of capsules in the digestive track of the animals after 3h and 24h of exposure, which suggests an increasing contribution of systemic

  17. Lipid nanocapsules for behavioural testing in aquatic toxicology: Time-response of Eurytemora affinis to environmental concentrations of PAHs and PCB.

    PubMed

    Michalec, François-Gaël; Holzner, Markus; Souissi, Anissa; Stancheva, Stefka; Barras, Alexandre; Boukherroub, Rabah; Souissi, Sami

    2016-01-01

    The increasing interest for behavioural investigations in aquatic toxicology has heightened the need for developing tools that allow realistic exposure conditions and provide robust quantitative data. Calanoid copepods dominate the zooplankton community in marine and brackish environments. These small organisms have emerged as attractive models because of the sensitivity of their behaviour to important environmental parameters and the significance of self-induced motion in their ecology. Estuarine copepods are particularly relevant in this context because of their incessant exposure to high levels of pollution. We used lipid nanocapsules to deliver sub-lethal concentrations of PAHs (pyrene, phenanthrene and fluoranthene) and PCB 153 into the digestive track of males and females Eurytemora affinis. This novel approach enabled us to achieve both contact and trophic exposure without using phytoplankton, and to expose copepods to small hydrophobic molecules without using organic solvent. We reconstructed the motion of many copepods swimming simultaneously by means of three-dimensional particle tracking velocimetry. We quantified the combined effects of contact and trophic toxicity by comparing the kinematic and diffusive properties of their motion immediately and after 3h and 24h of exposure. Despite the lack of toxicity of their excipients, both empty and loaded capsules increased swimming activity and velocity immediately after exposure. Laser microscopy imaging shows adhesion of nanocapsules on the exoskeleton of the animals, suggesting contact toxicity. The behavioural response resembles an escape reaction allowing copepods to escape stressful conditions. The contact toxicity of empty capsules and pollutants appeared to be additive and nanocapsules loaded with PCB caused the greatest effects. We observed a progressive accumulation of capsules in the digestive track of the animals after 3h and 24h of exposure, which suggests an increasing contribution of systemic

  18. 78 FR 33344 - Certain Frozen Warmwater Shrimp From India: Preliminary Countervailing Duty Determination

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-04

    ... International Trade Administration Certain Frozen Warmwater Shrimp From India: Preliminary Countervailing Duty... are being provided to producers and exporters of certain frozen warmwater shrimp (frozen shrimp) from... frozen warmwater shrimp and prawns, whether wild-caught (ocean harvested) or farm-raised (produced...

  19. 9 CFR 327.21 - Inspection procedures for chilled fresh and frozen boneless manufacturing meat.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... fresh and frozen boneless manufacturing meat. 327.21 Section 327.21 Animals and Animal Products FOOD....21 Inspection procedures for chilled fresh and frozen boneless manufacturing meat. (a) Definitions; sampling; standards. (1) Frozen boneless manufacturing meat is meat, frozen in the fresh state from...

  20. 9 CFR 327.21 - Inspection procedures for chilled fresh and frozen boneless manufacturing meat.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... fresh and frozen boneless manufacturing meat. 327.21 Section 327.21 Animals and Animal Products FOOD....21 Inspection procedures for chilled fresh and frozen boneless manufacturing meat. (a) Definitions; sampling; standards. (1) Frozen boneless manufacturing meat is meat, frozen in the fresh state from...

  1. 9 CFR 327.21 - Inspection procedures for chilled fresh and frozen boneless manufacturing meat.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... fresh and frozen boneless manufacturing meat. 327.21 Section 327.21 Animals and Animal Products FOOD....21 Inspection procedures for chilled fresh and frozen boneless manufacturing meat. (a) Definitions; sampling; standards. (1) Frozen boneless manufacturing meat is meat, frozen in the fresh state from...

  2. 7 CFR 52.802 - Grades of frozen red tart pitted cherries.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Grades of frozen red tart pitted cherries. 52.802... of Frozen Red Tart Pitted Cherries Product Description and Grades § 52.802 Grades of frozen red tart pitted cherries. (a) “U.S. Grade A” (or “U.S. Fancy”) is the quality of frozen red tart pitted...

  3. 7 CFR 52.802 - Grades of frozen red tart pitted cherries.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Grades of frozen red tart pitted cherries. 52.802... of Frozen Red Tart Pitted Cherries Product Description and Grades § 52.802 Grades of frozen red tart pitted cherries. (a) “U.S. Grade A” (or “U.S. Fancy”) is the quality of frozen red tart pitted...

  4. Rates of surgery for frozen shoulder: an experience in England

    PubMed Central

    Kwaees, Tariq A.; Charalambous, Charalambos P.

    2015-01-01

    Summary Aim the aim of this study was to identify the incidence of surgical treatment for frozen shoulder in a western population. Methods patients included in this study all resided within a well-defined area in the North West of England, all had surgery for frozen shoulder over a 3-year period and were identified from theatre logbooks of two local hospitals. Cases having surgery for shoulder stiffness other than frozen shoulder were excluded. Local and national population size estimates were based on data obtained from the UK Office for National Statistics. Results 117 patients underwent surgery for frozen shoulder during the period examined; of these 101 had arthroscopic arthrolysis and 16 had manipulation under anaesthesia. The overall incidence of frozen shoulder surgery was calculated at 2.67 procedures per 10,000 general population per year, and at 7.55 for those aged 40–60. Conclusion surgical intervention for frozen shoulder is common, estimated at over 14,180 cases per year in England. Given the variation in costs associated with arthroscopic arthrolysis and manipulation under anaesthesia, comparative studies of the cost effectiveness of the two procedures would be of great value. Level of evidence 2C (outcome research). PMID:26958535

  5. Accuracy of frozen section in the evaluation of salivary tumors.

    PubMed

    Heller, K S; Attie, J N; Dubner, S

    1993-10-01

    The records of 333 patients who underwent surgery were reviewed to document the accuracy of frozen section in the evaluation of salivary gland tumors. Frozen sections were obtained in 310 patients. The final pathologic diagnoses included 210 benign tumors and 45 malignancies. The sensitivity for the detection of malignancy was 69%, and the specificity was 96%. The specific accuracy to correctly identify the type of malignancy present was only 51%. In four patients, a false-positive diagnosis of malignancy was made. Frozen section was much more accurate in the evaluation of benign salivary tumors. Forty-three of 45 Warthin's tumors were correctly identified by frozen section. Two tumors thought to be Warthin's tumors on frozen section proved to be low-grade mucoepidermoid carcinomas. One tumor reported to be a benign mixed tumor was actually a malignant mixed tumor. In this series of patients, frozen section proved to be no more accurate in the evaluation of salivary tumors than what has been reported in the literature for fine-needle aspiration biopsy.

  6. Evidence for indications of fresh frozen plasma.

    PubMed

    Stanworth, S J; Hyde, C J; Murphy, M F

    2007-12-01

    There continues to be a general but unfounded enthusiasm for fresh frozen plasma (FFP) usage across a range of clinical specialties in hospital practice. Clinical use of plasma has grown steadily over the last two decades in many countries. In England and Wales, there has not been a significant reduction in the use of FFP over the last few years, unlike red cells. There is also evidence of variation in usage among countries--use in England and Wales may be proportionately less per patient than current levels of usage in other European countries and the United States. Plasma for transfusion is most often used where there is abnormal coagulation screening tests, either therapeutically in the face of bleeding, or prophylactically in non-bleeding subjects prior to invasive procedures or surgery. Little evidence exists to inform best therapeutic plasma transfusion practice. Most studies have described plasma use in a prophylactic setting, in which laboratory abnormalities of coagulation tests are considered a predictive risk factor for bleeding prior to invasive procedures. The strongest randomised controlled trial (RCT) evidence indicates that prophylactic plasma for transfusion is not effective across a range of different clinical settings and this is supported by data from non-randomised studies in patients with mild to moderate abnormalities in coagulation tests. There are also uncertainties whether plasma consistently improves the laboratory results for patients with mild to moderate abnormalities in coagulation tests. There is a need to undertake new trials evaluating the efficacy and adverse effects of plasma, both in bleeding and non-bleeding patients, to understand whether the "presumed" benefits outweigh the "real risks". In addition, new haemostatic tests should be validated which better define risk of bleeding.

  7. 21 CFR 102.26 - Frozen “heat and serve” dinners.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... Nonstandardized Foods § 102.26 Frozen “heat and serve” dinners. (a) A frozen “heat and serve” dinner: (1) Shall... consists of all of the following: (1) The phrase “frozen ‘heat and serve’ dinner,” except that the name of... precede the word “dinner” (e.g., “frozen chicken dinner” or “frozen heat and serve beef dinner”)....

  8. Biodegradable cationic polymeric nanocapsules for overcoming multidrug resistance and enabling drug-gene co-delivery to cancer cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Chih-Kuang; Law, Wing-Cheung; Aalinkeel, Ravikumar; Yu, Yun; Nair, Bindukumar; Wu, Jincheng; Mahajan, Supriya; Reynolds, Jessica L.; Li, Yukun; Lai, Cheng Kee; Tzanakakis, Emmanuel S.; Schwartz, Stanley A.; Prasad, Paras N.; Cheng, Chong

    2014-01-01

    Having unique architectural features, cationic polymeric nanocapsules (NCs) with well-defined covalently stabilized biodegradable structures were generated as potentially universal and safe therapeutic nanocarriers. These NCs were synthesized from allyl-functionalized cationic polylactide (CPLA) by highly efficient UV-induced thiol-ene interfacial cross-linking in transparent miniemulsions. With tunable nanoscopic sizes, negligible cytotoxicity and remarkable degradability, they are able to encapsulate doxorubicin (Dox) with inner cavities and bind interleukin-8 (IL-8) small interfering RNA (siRNA) with cationic shells. The Dox-encapsulated NCs can effectively bypass the P-glycoprotein (Pgp)-mediated multidrug resistance of MCF7/ADR cancer cells, thereby resulting in increased intracellular drug concentration and reduced cell viability. In vitro studies also showed that the NCs loaded with Dox, IL-8 siRNA and both agents can be readily taken up by PC3 prostate cancer cells, resulting in a significant chemotherapeutic effect and/or IL-8 gene silencing.Having unique architectural features, cationic polymeric nanocapsules (NCs) with well-defined covalently stabilized biodegradable structures were generated as potentially universal and safe therapeutic nanocarriers. These NCs were synthesized from allyl-functionalized cationic polylactide (CPLA) by highly efficient UV-induced thiol-ene interfacial cross-linking in transparent miniemulsions. With tunable nanoscopic sizes, negligible cytotoxicity and remarkable degradability, they are able to encapsulate doxorubicin (Dox) with inner cavities and bind interleukin-8 (IL-8) small interfering RNA (siRNA) with cationic shells. The Dox-encapsulated NCs can effectively bypass the P-glycoprotein (Pgp)-mediated multidrug resistance of MCF7/ADR cancer cells, thereby resulting in increased intracellular drug concentration and reduced cell viability. In vitro studies also showed that the NCs loaded with Dox, IL-8 siRNA and both

  9. Soil Microbial Mineralization of Cellulose in Frozen Soils

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Segura, J.; Haei, M.; Sparrman, T.; Nilsson, M. B.; Schleucher, J.; Oquist, M. G.

    2014-12-01

    Soils of high-latitude ecosystems store a large fraction of the global soil carbon pool. In boreal forests, the mineralization of soil organic matter (SOM) during winter by soil heterotrophic activity can affect the ecosystems net carbon balance. Recent research has shown that microorganisms in the organic surface layer of boreal forest soil can mineralize and grow on simple, monomeric substrates under frozen conditions. However, any substantial impacts of microbial activity in frozen soils on long-term soil carbon balances depend on whether soil microorganisms can utilize the more complex, polymeric substrates in SOM. In order to evaluate the potential for soil microorganisms to metabolize carbon polymers at low temperatures, we incubated boreal forest soil samples amended with [13C]-cellulose and studied the microbial catabolic and anabolic utilization of the substrate under frozen and unfrozen conditions (-4 and +4°C). The [13C]-CO2 production rate in the samples at +4°C were 0.524 mg CO2 SOM -1 day-1 while rates in the frozen samples (-4°C) were 0.008 mg CO2 SOM -1 day-1. Thus, freezing of the soil markedly reduced microbial utilization of the cellulose. However, newly synthetized [13C]-enriched cell membrane lipids, PLFAs, were detected in soil samples incubated both above and below freezing, confirming microbial growth also in the frozen soil matrix. The reduced metabolic rates induced by freezing indicate constraints on exoenzymatic activity, as well as substrate diffusion rates that we can attribute to reduced liquid water content of the frozen soil. We conclude that the microbial population in boreal forest soil has the capacity to metabolize, and grow, on polymeric substrates at temperatures below zero. This also involves maintaining exoenzymatic activity in frozen soils. This capacity manifests the importance of SOM mineralization during the winter season and its importance for the net carbon balance of soils of high-latitude ecosystems.

  10. Ranking Slope Stability in Frozen Terrain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stothoff, S.; Dinwiddie, C. L.; Walter, G. R.; Necsoiu, M.

    2011-12-01

    Motivated by the need to assess the risk of permafrost thaw to infrastructure, such as roads, bridges, and pipelines, a landscape-scale approach was developed to rank the risk of slope failures and thermokarst development in areas of seasonally frozen soils underlain by permafrost. The approach has two parts: (i) identifying locations where permafrost thaw is likely to occur under future climates, and (ii) identifying areas where thaw would have consequences with respect to a disturbance. The developed screening tool uses (i) land classification maps developed from remotely sensed data and (ii) a thermohydrologic hazard risk assessment to identify areas susceptible to slope instability under current and future climate states. The screening tool combines a numerical ground thawing and freezing dynamics model for calculating the thickness of the active layer and depth of permafrost with a simple slope stability model that is based upon the Level I Stability Analysis (LISA) approach of Harrell et al. (1992). Instead of using the numerical models directly within probabilistic sampling, a response function for the factor of safety in slope stability is developed from numerical simulations that systematically vary input parameters across their range of applicability. The response function is used within Monte Carlo sampling for each grid cell in a landscape model, with a probability distribution for each input parameter assigned to each grid cell based on (i) classes defined for each grid cell; (ii) a digital elevation model; (iii) empirical, mathematical, and numerical interpretive models; and (iv) probabilistic descriptions of the parameters in the interpretive models. For example, the root cohesion distribution is defined by vegetation class, with vegetation spread across the landscape using Landsat-derived vegetation classification maps. The probability of slope failure is the fraction of parameter realizations that result in a factor of safety less than 1. Ranking

  11. Frozen soil parameterization in a distributed biosphere hydrological model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, L.; Koike, T.; Yang, K.; Jin, R.; Li, H.

    2009-11-01

    In this study, a frozen soil parameterization has been modified and incorporated into a distributed biosphere hydrological model (WEB-DHM). The WEB-DHM with the frozen scheme was then rigorously evaluated in a small cold area, the Binngou watershed, against the in-situ observations from the WATER (Watershed Allied Telemetry Experimental Research). In the summer 2008, land surface parameters were optimized using the observed surface radiation fluxes and the soil temperature profile at the Dadongshu-Yakou (DY) station in July; and then soil hydraulic parameters were obtained by the calibration of the July soil moisture profile at the DY station and by the calibration of the discharges at the basin outlet in July and August that covers the annual largest flood peak of 2008. The calibrated WEB-DHM with the frozen scheme was then used for a yearlong simulation from 21 November 2007 to 20 November 2008, to check its performance in cold seasons. Results showed that the WEB-DHM with the frozen scheme has given much better performance than the WEB-DHM without the frozen scheme, in the simulations of soil moisture profile at the DY station and the discharges at the basin outlet in the yearlong simulation.

  12. Capillary bundle model of hydraulic conductivity for frozen soil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Watanabe, Kunio; Flury, Markus

    2008-12-01

    We developed a capillary bundle model to describe water flow in frozen soil. We assume that the soil can be represented as a bundle of cylindrical capillaries. We consider that the freezing point in the capillaries is depressed according to the Gibbs-Thomson effect and that when stable ice forms in a capillary, the ice forms in the center of the capillaries, leaving a circular annulus open for liquid water flow. We use the model to demonstrate how the hydraulic conductivity changes as a function of temperature for both saturated and unsaturated soils, using a sand and two silt loam soils as examples. As temperature decreases, more and more ice forms, and the water flux consequently decreases. In frozen soil near 0°C, water predominantly flows through ice-free capillaries, so that the hydraulic conductivity of frozen soil is similar to that of an unfrozen soil with a water content equal to the unfrozen water content of the frozen soil. At low temperatures, however, ice forms in almost all capillaries, and the hydraulic conductivity of frozen soil is greater than that of unfrozen soil with the same water potential.

  13. Thawing Frozen Robust Multi-array Analysis (fRMA)

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background A novel method of microarray preprocessing - Frozen Robust Multi-array Analysis (fRMA) - has recently been developed. This algorithm allows the user to preprocess arrays individually while retaining the advantages of multi-array preprocessing methods. The frozen parameter estimates required by this algorithm are generated using a large database of publicly available arrays. Curation of such a database and creation of the frozen parameter estimates is time-consuming; therefore, fRMA has only been implemented on the most widely used Affymetrix platforms. Results We present an R package, frmaTools, that allows the user to quickly create his or her own frozen parameter vectors. We describe how this package fits into a preprocessing workflow and explore the size of the training dataset needed to generate reliable frozen parameter estimates. This is followed by a discussion of specific situations in which one might wish to create one's own fRMA implementation. For a few specific scenarios, we demonstrate that fRMA performs well even when a large database of arrays in unavailable. Conclusions By allowing the user to easily create his or her own fRMA implementation, the frmaTools package greatly increases the applicability of the fRMA algorithm. The frmaTools package is freely available as part of the Bioconductor project. PMID:21923903

  14. Association between Propionibacterium acnes and frozen shoulder: a pilot study

    PubMed Central

    Bunker, Tim D; Gallacher, Sian; Auckland, Cressida R; Kitson, Jeff; Smith, Chris D

    2014-01-01

    Background Frozen shoulder has not previously been shown to be associated with infection. The present study set out to confirm the null hypothesis that there is no relationship between infection and frozen shoulder using two modern scientific methods, extended culture and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) for bacterial nucleic acids. Methods A prospective cohort of 10 patients undergoing arthroscopic release for stage II idiopathic frozen shoulder had two biopsies of tissue taken from the affected shoulder joint capsule at the time of surgery, along with control biopsies of subdermal fat. The biopsies and controls were examined with extended culture and PCR for microbial nucleic acid. Results Eight of the 10 patients had positive findings on extended culture in their shoulder capsule and, in six of these, Propionibacterium acnes was present. Conclusions The findings mean that we must reject the null hypothesis that there is no relationship between infection and frozen shoulder. More studies are urgently needed to confirm or refute these findings. If they are confirmed, this could potentially lead to new and effective treatments for this common, painful and disabling condition. Could P. acnes be the Helicobacter of frozen shoulder? PMID:27582943

  15. PEGylated Carbon Nanocapsule: A Universal Reactor and Carrier for In Vivo Delivery of Hydrophobic and Hydrophilic Nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Rammohan, Amritha; Mishra, Gargi; Mahaling, Binapani; Tayal, Lokesh; Mukhopadhyay, Ahana; Gambhir, Sanjay; Sharma, Ashutosh; Sivakumar, Sri

    2016-01-13

    We have developed PEGylated mesoporous carbon nanocapsule as a universal nanoreactor and carrier for the delivery of highly crystalline hydrophobic/hydrophilic nanoparticles (NPs) which shows superior biocompatibility, dispersion in body fluids, good biodistribution and NPs independent cellular uptake mechanism. The hydrophobic/hydrophilic NPs without surface modification were synthesized in situ inside the cavities of mesoporous carbon capsules (200-850 nm). Stable and inert nature of carbon capsules in a wide range of reaction conditions like high temperature and harsh solvents, make it suitable for being used as nano/microreactors for the syntheses of a variety of NPs for bioimaging applications, such as NaYF4:Eu(3+)(5%), LaVO4:Eu(3+)(10%), GdVO4:Eu(3+)(10%), Y2O3:Eu(3+)(5%), GdF3:Tb(3+)(10%), Mo, Pt, Pd, Au, and Ag. Multiple types of NPs (Y2O3:Eu(3+)(5%) (hydrophobic) and GdF3:Tb(3+)(10%) (hydrophilic)) were coloaded inside the carbon capsules to create a multimodal agent for magneto-fluorescence imaging. Our in vivo study clearly suggests that carbon capsules have biodistribution in many organs including liver, heart, spleen, lungs, blood pool, and muscles.

  16. Structures and electrical properties of single nanoparticle junctions assembled using LaC2-encapsulating carbon nanocapsules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tezura, Manabu; Kizuka, Tokushi

    2016-07-01

    As the miniaturization of integrated circuits advances, electronics using single molecules and nanosize particles are being studied increasingly. Single nanoparticle junctions (SNPJs) consist of two electrodes sandwiching a single nanoparticle. Nanocarbons with nanospaces in their center, such as fullerenes, carbon nanotubes, and carbon nanocapsules (CNCs), are expected to be elements of advanced SNPJs. In this study, SNPJs were assembled using lanthanum dicarbide (LaC2)-encapsulating CNCs and two gold (Au) electrodes by a nanotip operation inside a high-resolution transmission electron microscope. The atomic configuration and electrical resistance of the SNPJs were investigated in situ. The results implied that the electrical resistance of the SNPJ depended on the interface structures of the contacts between the CNC and Au electrodes, i.e., the contact electrical resistance, and the greatest portion of the current through the SNPJ flowed along the outermost carbon layer of the CNC. Thus, the resistance of the SNPJs using the CNCs was demonstrated and the electrical conduction mechanism of one of the CNC was discussed in this study.

  17. In vitro study of the cytotoxic and genotoxic effects of indomethacin-loaded Eudragit(®) L 100 nanocapsules.

    PubMed

    Froder, J G; Dupeyrón, D; Carvalho, J C T; Maistro, E L

    2016-01-01

    Indomethacin is a non-steroidal anti-inflammatory agent included in one of the most commonly used drug classes worldwide. The use of this drug results in certain side effects, including gastrointestinal complications. Therefore, there exists a need to develop better methods for the delivery of such drugs into the body, such as those employing nanoparticles. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the cytotoxic and genotoxic effects of indomethacin-loaded Eudragit(®) L 100 nanocapsules (NI; based on methacrylic acid and methyl methacrylate) on cells unable (lymphocytes) and able to metabolize drugs (HepG2 cells), using comet and cytokinesis-block micronucleus (CBMN) assays in vitro. Cells were exposed to NI at concentrations of 5, 10, 50, 125, 250, and 500 μg/mL. The comet assay showed that NI induced no significant DNA damage in either cell type at any of the concentrations tested. The CBMN test confirmed these results; however, the highest concentration of 500 μg/mL resulted in a small but statistically significant clastogenic/aneugenic effect in HepG2 cells. These findings should encourage the development of new investigations of this nanomaterial as a delivery vehicle for anti-inflammatory drugs, such as indomethacin. PMID:27525928

  18. Lipid nanocapsules loaded with an organometallic tamoxifen derivative as a novel drug-carrier system for experimental malignant gliomas.

    PubMed

    Allard, Emilie; Passirani, Catherine; Garcion, Emmanuel; Pigeon, Pascal; Vessières, Anne; Jaouen, Gérard; Benoit, Jean-Pierre

    2008-09-10

    Ferrocenyl diphenol tamoxifen derivative (Fc-diOH) is one of the most active molecules of a new class of organometallic drugs, showing in vitro antiproliferative effects on both hormone-dependent and independent breast cancer cells. For the first time, Fc-diOH was tested on a 9L glioma model according to two encapsulation strategies: lipid nanocapsules (LNC) and swollen micelles. LNC showed a higher drug loading capacity because of a larger oily core in their structure and were able to be up taken by glioma cells. The large amount of PEG present at the micellar interface prevented interaction with cytoplasm membrane which led to a low level of micelle cell uptake and no biological activity. On the contrary, Fc-diOH cytostatic activity was conserved after its encapsulation in LNC and was very effective on 9L-glioma cells as the IC(50) was about 0.6 microM. Interestingly, Fc-diOH-loaded LNC showed low toxicity levels when in contact with healthy cells, conferring a functional specificity of this compound on tumour cells. Finally, Fc-diOH LNC treatment was able to lower significantly both tumour mass and volume evolution after 9L-cell implantation into rats which evidenced for the first time the in vivo efficacy of this new kind of organometallic compound. PMID:18582507

  19. The in vivo performance of ferrocenyl tamoxifen lipid nanocapsules in xenografted triple negative breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Lainé, Anne-Laure; Adriaenssens, Eric; Vessières, Anne; Jaouen, Gérard; Corbet, Cyril; Desruelles, Emilie; Pigeon, Pascal; Toillon, Robert-Alain; Passirani, Catherine

    2013-09-01

    Triple-negative breast cancers (TNBC) represent the most aggressive form of breast cancers and their treatment are challenging due to the tumor heterogeneity. The high death rate and the limited systemic treatment options for TNBC necessitate the search for alternative chemotherapeutics. We previously found that FcOHTAM, an organometallic derivative of hydroxytamoxifen, showed in vitro a strong antiproliferative effect on various breast cancer cell lines, including MDA-MB-231 cells, the archetype of TNBC. In this study, we developed stealth FcOHTAM loaded lipid nanocapsules (LNCs) to further evaluate this novel drug on a TNBC xenografted model. Cell cycle analysis of MDA-MB-231 cells confirmed the preservation of the drug activity through LNCs causing a cycle arrest in phase S after 48 h exposure at the IC50 concentration (2 μm). Two intraperitoneal injections of FcOHTAM loaded LNCs (20 mg/kg) administered to luciferase-transfected MDA-MB-231 tumors bearing mice led to a marked delay in tumor growth. As a consequence, a significantly lower tumor volume was obtained at the end of the experiment with a difference of 36% at day 38 compared to the untreated group. These results represent the first evidence of an in vivo effect of FcOHTAM and ferrocenyl derivatives in general on xenografted breast tumors. PMID:23777919

  20. Structures and electrical properties of single nanoparticle junctions assembled using LaC2-encapsulating carbon nanocapsules

    PubMed Central

    Tezura, Manabu; Kizuka, Tokushi

    2016-01-01

    As the miniaturization of integrated circuits advances, electronics using single molecules and nanosize particles are being studied increasingly. Single nanoparticle junctions (SNPJs) consist of two electrodes sandwiching a single nanoparticle. Nanocarbons with nanospaces in their center, such as fullerenes, carbon nanotubes, and carbon nanocapsules (CNCs), are expected to be elements of advanced SNPJs. In this study, SNPJs were assembled using lanthanum dicarbide (LaC2)-encapsulating CNCs and two gold (Au) electrodes by a nanotip operation inside a high-resolution transmission electron microscope. The atomic configuration and electrical resistance of the SNPJs were investigated in situ. The results implied that the electrical resistance of the SNPJ depended on the interface structures of the contacts between the CNC and Au electrodes, i.e., the contact electrical resistance, and the greatest portion of the current through the SNPJ flowed along the outermost carbon layer of the CNC. Thus, the resistance of the SNPJs using the CNCs was demonstrated and the electrical conduction mechanism of one of the CNC was discussed in this study. PMID:27412856

  1. Cystic echinococcosis therapy: Albendazole-loaded lipid nanocapsules enhance the oral bioavailability and efficacy in experimentally infected mice.

    PubMed

    Pensel, Patricia E; Ullio Gamboa, Gabriela; Fabbri, Julia; Ceballos, Laura; Sanchez Bruni, Sergio; Alvarez, Luis I; Allemandi, Daniel; Benoit, Jean Pierre; Palma, Santiago D; Elissondo, María C

    2015-12-01

    Therapeutic failures attributed to medical management of cystic echinococcosis (CE) with albendazole (ABZ) have been primarily linked to the poor drug absorption rate resulting in low drug level in plasma and hydatid cysts. Lipid nanocapsules (LNCs) represent nanocarriers designed to encapsulate lipophilic drugs, such as ABZ. The goals of the current work were: (i) to characterize the plasma and cyst drug exposure after the administration of ABZ as ABZ-LNCs or ABZ suspension (ABZ-SUSP) in mice infected with Echinococcus granulosus, and ii) to compare the clinical efficacies of both ABZ formulations. Enhanced ABZ sulphoxide (ABZ-SO) concentration profiles were obtained in plasma and cysts from ABZ-LNC treated animals. ABZSO exposure (AUC0-LOQ) was significantly higher in plasma and cyst after the ABZ-LNC treatments, both orally and subcutaneously, compared to that observed after oral administration of ABZ-SUSP. Additionally, ABZSO concentrations measured in cysts from ABZ-LNC treated mice were 1.7-fold higher than those detected in plasma. This enhanced drug availability correlated with an increased efficacy against secondary CE in mice observed for the ABZ-LNCs, while ABZ-SUSP did not reach differences with the untreated control group. This new pharmacotechnically-based strategy could be a potential alternative to improve the treatment of human CE. PMID:26409727

  2. Structures and electrical properties of single nanoparticle junctions assembled using LaC2-encapsulating carbon nanocapsules.

    PubMed

    Tezura, Manabu; Kizuka, Tokushi

    2016-01-01

    As the miniaturization of integrated circuits advances, electronics using single molecules and nanosize particles are being studied increasingly. Single nanoparticle junctions (SNPJs) consist of two electrodes sandwiching a single nanoparticle. Nanocarbons with nanospaces in their center, such as fullerenes, carbon nanotubes, and carbon nanocapsules (CNCs), are expected to be elements of advanced SNPJs. In this study, SNPJs were assembled using lanthanum dicarbide (LaC2)-encapsulating CNCs and two gold (Au) electrodes by a nanotip operation inside a high-resolution transmission electron microscope. The atomic configuration and electrical resistance of the SNPJs were investigated in situ. The results implied that the electrical resistance of the SNPJ depended on the interface structures of the contacts between the CNC and Au electrodes, i.e., the contact electrical resistance, and the greatest portion of the current through the SNPJ flowed along the outermost carbon layer of the CNC. Thus, the resistance of the SNPJs using the CNCs was demonstrated and the electrical conduction mechanism of one of the CNC was discussed in this study. PMID:27412856

  3. Facile preparation of titanium dioxide nano-capsule arrays used as photo-anode for dye sensitized solar cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Su, Penglei; Li, Hongyi; Wang, Jinshu; Wu, Junshu; Zhao, Bingxin; Wang, Fei

    2015-08-01

    To improve titanium dioxide (TiO2) nanotube arrays' performance on dye sensitized solar cells (DSSCs), TiO2 nano-capsule arrays (TNCP) have been designed and prepared by planting TiO2 nanoparticles into TiO2 nanotube (TNT) using a facile liquid phase deposition (LPD) route which does not require any special equipment and both improve the specific surface area and surface energy of TNT at low temperature. It has been found that TiO2 nanoparticles are homogeneously distributed along the wall of TNT and their crystal size is calculated to be 5-10 nm. The obtained TNCP's specific surface area and surface energy have been increased from 27.1 (for pure TNT) to 33.4 m2/g and from 67.7 (for pure TNT) to 76.4 mJ/m2, respectively. When used as photo-anodes of DSSCs, TNCP shows higher energy conversion efficiency, which is 1.7 times that of pure TNT. Therefore, the present work provides one effective strategy to better TNT's performance on DSSCs, which can be assembled on metal substrate in large scale.

  4. Low dose gemcitabine-loaded lipid nanocapsules target monocytic myeloid-derived suppressor cells and potentiate cancer immunotherapy.

    PubMed

    Sasso, Maria Stella; Lollo, Giovanna; Pitorre, Marion; Solito, Samantha; Pinton, Laura; Valpione, Sara; Bastiat, Guillaume; Mandruzzato, Susanna; Bronte, Vincenzo; Marigo, Ilaria; Benoit, Jean-Pierre

    2016-07-01

    Tumor-induced expansion of myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSCs) is known to impair the efficacy of cancer immunotherapy. Among pharmacological approaches for MDSC modulation, chemotherapy with selected drugs has a considerable interest due to the possibility of a rapid translation to the clinic. However, such approach is poorly selective and may be associated with dose-dependent toxicities. In the present study, we showed that lipid nanocapsules (LNCs) loaded with a lauroyl-modified form of gemcitabine (GemC12) efficiently target the monocytic (M-) MDSC subset. Subcutaneous administration of GemC12-loaded LNCs reduced the percentage of spleen and tumor-infiltrating M-MDSCs in lymphoma and melanoma-bearing mice, with enhanced efficacy when compared to free gemcitabine. Consistently, fluorochrome-labeled LNCs were preferentially uptaken by monocytic cells rather than by other immune cells, in both tumor-bearing mice and human blood samples from healthy donors and melanoma patients. Very low dose administration of GemC12-loaded LNCs attenuated tumor-associated immunosuppression and increased the efficacy of adoptive T cell therapy. Overall, our results show that GemC12-LNCs have monocyte-targeting properties that can be useful for immunomodulatory purposes, and unveil new possibilities for the exploitation of nanoparticulate drug formulations in cancer immunotherapy.

  5. Ketoprofen-loaded polymeric nanocapsules selectively inhibit cancer cell growth in vitro and in preclinical model of glioblastoma multiforme.

    PubMed

    da Silveira, Elita F; Chassot, Janaine M; Teixeira, Fernanda C; Azambuja, Juliana H; Debom, Gabriela; Beira, Fátima T; Del Pino, Francisco A B; Lourenço, Adriana; Horn, Ana P; Cruz, Letícia; Spanevello, Roselia M; Braganhol, Elizandra

    2013-12-01

    Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) is the worst and most common brain tumor, characterized by high proliferation and invasion rates. Nanoparticles of biodegradable polymers for anticancer drug delivery have attracted interest in recent years since they provide targeted delivery and may overcame the obstacle imposed by blood-brain barrier. Here we investigated the antitumoral effect of ketoprofen-loaded nanocapsules (Keto-NC) treatment on in vitro and in vivo glioma progression. We observed that Keto-NC treatment decreased selectively the cell viability of a panel of glioma cell lines, while did not exhibited toxicity to astrocytes. We further demonstrate that the treatment with sub-therapeutic dose of Keto-NC reduced the in vivo glioma growth as well as reduced the malignity characteristics of implanted tumors. Keto-NC treatment improved the weight, the locomotion/exploration behavior of glioma-bearing rats. Importantly, Keto-NC treatment neither induced mortality or peripheral damage. Finally, Ketoprofen also altered the extracellular nucleotide metabolism of peripheral lymphocytes, suggesting that antiinflammatory effects of ketoprofen could also be associated with the modulation of the adenine nucleotide metabolism in lymphocytes. Data indicate at first time the potential of Keto-NC as a promising therapeutic alterative to GBM treatment.

  6. Boronic acid-modified lipid nanocapsules: a novel platform for the highly efficient inhibition of hepatitis C viral entry.

    PubMed

    Khanal, Manakamana; Barras, Alexandre; Vausselin, Thibaut; Fénéant, Lucie; Boukherroub, Rabah; Siriwardena, Aloysius; Dubuisson, Jean; Szunerits, Sabine

    2015-01-28

    The search for viral entry inhibitors that selectively target viral envelope glycoproteins has attracted increasing interest in recent years. Amongst the handful of molecules reported to show activity as hepatitis C virus (HCV) entry inhibitors are a variety of glycan-binding proteins including the lectins, cyanovirin-N (CV-N) and griffithsin. We recently demonstrated that boronic acid-modified nanoparticles are able to reduce HCV entry through a similar mechanism to that of lectins. A major obstacle to any further development of these nanostructures as viral entry inhibitors is their only moderate maximal inhibition potential. In the present study, we report that lipid nanocapsules (LNCs), surface-functionalized with amphiphilic boronic acid (BA) through their post-insertion into the semi-rigid shell of the LNCs, are indeed far superior as HCV entry inhibitors when compared with previously reported nanostructures. These 2(nd) generation particles (BA-LNCs) are shown to prevent HCV infection in the micromolar range (IC50 = 5.4 μM of BA moieties), whereas the corresponding BA monomers show no significant effects even at the highest analyzed concentration (20 μM). The new BA-LNCs are the most promising boronolectin-based HCV entry inhibitors reported to date and are thus observed to show great promise in the development of a pseudolectin-based therapeutic agent. PMID:25502878

  7. Self-assembly synthesis, tumor cell targeting, and photothermal capabilities of antibody-coated indocyanine green nanocapsules.

    PubMed

    Yu, Jie; Javier, David; Yaseen, Mohammad A; Nitin, Nitin; Richards-Kortum, Rebecca; Anvari, Bahman; Wong, Michael S

    2010-02-17

    New colloidal materials that can generate heat upon irradiation are being explored for photothermal therapy as a minimally invasive approach to cancer treatment. The near-infrared dye indocyanine green (ICG) could serve as a basis for such a material, but its encapsulation and subsequent use are difficult to carry out. We report the three-step room-temperature synthesis of approximately 120-nm capsules loaded with ICG within salt-cross-linked polyallylamine aggregates, and coated with antiepidermal growth factor receptor (anti-EGFR) antibodies for tumor cell targeting capability. We studied the synthesis conditions such as temperature and water dilution to control the capsule size and characterized the size distribution via dynamic light scattering and scanning electron microscopy. We further studied the specificity of tumor cell targeting using three carcinoma cell lines with different levels of EGFR expression and investigated the photothermal effects of ICG containing nanocapsules on EGFR-rich tumor cells. Significant thermal toxicity was observed for encapsulated ICG as compared to free ICG at 808 nm laser irradiation with radiant exposure of 6 W/cm(2). These results illustrate the ability to design a colloidal material with cell targeting and heat generating capabilities using noncovalent chemistry.

  8. World oil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sweeney, J. L.

    1982-06-01

    Results obtained through the application of 10 prominent world oil or world energy models to 12 scenarios are reported. These scenarios were designed to bound the range of likely future world oil market outcomes. Conclusions relate to oil market trends, impacts of policies on oil prices, security of oil supplies, impacts of policies on oil security problems, use of the oil import premium in policymaking, the transition to oil substitutes, and the state of the art of world oil modeling.

  9. Production of viable trout offspring derived from frozen whole fish

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Seungki; Seki, Shinsuke; Katayama, Naoto; Yoshizaki, Goro

    2015-01-01

    Long-term preservation of fish fertility is essential for the conservation of endangered fishes. However, cryopreservation techniques for fish oocytes and embryos have not yet been developed. In the present study, functional eggs and sperm were derived from whole rainbow trout that had been frozen in a freezer and stored without the aid of exogenous cryoprotectants. Type A spermatogonia retrieved from frozen-thawed whole trout remained viable after freezing duration up to 1,113 days. Long-term-frozen trout spermatogonia that were intraperitoneally transplanted into triploid salmon hatchlings migrated toward the recipient gonads, where they were incorporated, and proliferated rapidly. Although all triploid recipients that did not undergo transplantation were functionally sterile, 2 of 12 female recipients and 4 of 13 male recipients reached sexual maturity. Eggs and sperm obtained from the salmon recipients were capable of producing donor-derived trout offspring. This methodology is thus a convenient emergency tool for the preservation of endangered fishes. PMID:26522018

  10. Accuracy of frozen section diagnosis of the salivary gland.

    PubMed

    Gnepp, D R; Rader, W R; Cramer, S F; Cook, L L; Sciubba, J

    1987-04-01

    Three hundred and one salivary gland lesions (162 benign, 72 malignant, and 67 benign non-neoplastic) of 677 cases were evaluated by use of intraoperative frozen sections by 66 pathologists. In seven patients, the diagnosis was deferred for permanent sections. In four cases (1.3%), the diagnosis at permanent section changed from one category of benign tumor to another, and in five cases (1.7%), from one category of malignant tumor to another. In four tumors, a frozen section diagnosis of benign was changed to malignant on permanent sectioning; all four involved acinic cell carcinomas. Only two tumors were incorrectly diagnosed as malignant. We conclude that diagnoses of most salivary gland lesions based on frozen section examination are reliable and accurate. However, the literature does indicate that caution should be exercised when malignant tumors are dealt with.

  11. HPLC-DAD and UV-spectrophotometry for the determination of lychnopholide in nanocapsule dosage form: validation and application to release kinetic study.

    PubMed

    Branquinho, Renata Tupinambá; Mosqueira, Vanessa Carla Furtado; Kano, Eunice Kazue; de Souza, Jacqueline; Dorim, Diego Dias Ramos; Saúde-Guimarães, Dênia Antunes; de Lana, Marta

    2014-01-01

    Simple and sensitive methods using high-performance liquid chromatography-diode array detection (HPLC-DAD) and ultraviolet (UV)-spectrophotometry were developed and compared to quantify lychnopholide (LYC) in poly-ε-caprolactone nanocapsules and to study its release kinetics. Both methods were validated concerning their specificity, linearity, limits of detection and quantification, precision, accuracy and stability. HPLC-DAD analyses were conducted using an RP C18 column, isocratic elution with a methanol-water (60:40 v/v) mobile phase at 0.8 mL/min flow rate and detection at 265 nm. The linear response (r(2) > 0.999) was obtained within a concentration range of 2-25 µg/mL using HPLC-DAD and 5-40 µg/mL using spectrophotometry. Intra-day and inter-day precision were obtained with low relative standard deviation values. The accuracy of the methods was within the range 98-101% for HPLC-DAD and from 96-100% for UV-spectrophotometry. Both methods were suitable to be applied for the determination of drug loading percentage (>96%) and encapsulation efficiency (>90%). Furthermore, the sensitivity of HPLC-DAD method allows studies of LYC release/dissolution in sink conditions. LYC presented 100% dissolution after 24 h, whereas only 60% of LYC was released from the nanocapsule dosage form, with no burst effect. The methods fulfilled all validation parameters evaluated for LYC quantification in the polymeric nanocapsules and have proven to be accurate, selective and sensitive in the previously mentioned applications.

  12. Composition of sulfited potatoes: comparison with fresh and frozen potatoes.

    PubMed

    Chalom, S; Elrezzi, E; Peña, P; Astiarsarán, I; Bello, J

    1995-02-01

    The content in moisture, fat, protein, carbohydrate, fibre and vitamin C was analyzed in three commercial types of potatoes: sulfited (treated with E223), frozen potatoes (pre-fried) and fresh potatoes (not processed). The composition of sulfited potatoes does not usually appear in food composition tables. Our results showed significant differences in the content of carbohydrates and fibre between sulfited and fresh potatoes. The content of vitamin C in sulfited potatoes, which is similar to that of frozen potatoes, was shown to be approximately half of that found in fresh potatoes. PMID:7792261

  13. Frozen flux violation, electron demagnetization and magnetic reconnection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scudder, J. D.; Karimabadi, H.; Daughton, W.; Roytershteyn, V.

    2015-10-01

    We argue that the analogue in collisionless plasma of the collisional diffusion region of magnetic reconnection is properly defined in terms of the demagnetization of the plasma electrons that enable "frozen flux" slippage to occur. This condition differs from the violation of the "frozen-in" condition, which only implies that two fluid effects are involved, rather than the necessary slippage of magnetic flux as viewed in the electron frame. Using 2D Particle In Cell (PIC) simulations, this approach properly finds the saddle point region of the flux function. Our demagnetization conditions are the dimensionless guiding center approximation expansion parameters for electrons which we show are observable and determined locally by the ratio of non-ideal electric to magnetic field strengths. Proxies for frozen flux slippage are developed that (a) are measurable on a single spacecraft, (b) are dimensionless with theoretically justified threshold values of significance, and (c) are shown in 2D simulations to recover distinctions theoretically possible with the (unmeasurable) flux function. A new potentially observable dimensionless frozen flux rate, ΛΦ, differentiates significant from anecdotal frozen flux slippage. A single spacecraft observable, ϒ, is shown with PIC simulations to be essentially proportional to the unobservable local Maxwell frozen flux rate. This relationship theoretically establishes electron demagnetization in 3D as the general cause of frozen flux slippage. In simple 2D cases with an isolated central diffusion region surrounded by separatrices, these diagnostics uniquely identify the traditional diffusion region (without confusing it with the two fluid "ion-diffusion" region) and clarify the role of the separatrices where frozen flux violations do occur but are not substantial. In the more complicated guide and asymmetric 2D cases, substantial flux slippage regions extend out along, but inside of, the preferred separatrices, demonstrating that

  14. Segmental infarction of the testis: can frozen sections avoid orchidectomy?

    PubMed

    Pacella, E; Grillo, F; Lapetina, C; Cabiddu, F; Auriati, L; Tunesi, G; Mastracci, L

    2015-03-01

    Segmental infarction (SI) of the testis is a rare condition that can masquerade as a mass lesion, thus requiring exclusion of tumour. If clinical exams do not exclude a neoplastic lesion with certainty, orchidectomy is usually performed. A case of SI of the testis is presented; the use of frozen section of the enucleated mass demonstrated the ischaemic nature of the lesion, so avoiding orchidectomy. The 8 year follow-up was uneventful. The use of frozen section in SI could permit the selection of cases in which testicular-sparing surgery should be considered.

  15. Frozen flux violation, electron demagnetization and magnetic reconnection

    SciTech Connect

    Scudder, J. D.; Karimabadi, H.; Roytershteyn, V.; Daughton, W.

    2015-10-15

    We argue that the analogue in collisionless plasma of the collisional diffusion region of magnetic reconnection is properly defined in terms of the demagnetization of the plasma electrons that enable “frozen flux” slippage to occur. This condition differs from the violation of the “frozen-in” condition, which only implies that two fluid effects are involved, rather than the necessary slippage of magnetic flux as viewed in the electron frame. Using 2D Particle In Cell (PIC) simulations, this approach properly finds the saddle point region of the flux function. Our demagnetization conditions are the dimensionless guiding center approximation expansion parameters for electrons which we show are observable and determined locally by the ratio of non-ideal electric to magnetic field strengths. Proxies for frozen flux slippage are developed that (a) are measurable on a single spacecraft, (b) are dimensionless with theoretically justified threshold values of significance, and (c) are shown in 2D simulations to recover distinctions theoretically possible with the (unmeasurable) flux function. A new potentially observable dimensionless frozen flux rate, Λ{sub Φ}, differentiates significant from anecdotal frozen flux slippage. A single spacecraft observable, ϒ, is shown with PIC simulations to be essentially proportional to the unobservable local Maxwell frozen flux rate. This relationship theoretically establishes electron demagnetization in 3D as the general cause of frozen flux slippage. In simple 2D cases with an isolated central diffusion region surrounded by separatrices, these diagnostics uniquely identify the traditional diffusion region (without confusing it with the two fluid “ion-diffusion” region) and clarify the role of the separatrices where frozen flux violations do occur but are not substantial. In the more complicated guide and asymmetric 2D cases, substantial flux slippage regions extend out along, but inside of, the preferred separatrices

  16. Simultaneous cytosolic delivery of a chemotherapeutic and siRNA using nanoparticle-stabilized nanocapsules.

    PubMed

    Hardie, Joseph; Jiang, Ying; Tetrault, Emily R; Ghazi, Phaedra C; Tonga, Gulen Yesilbag; Farkas, Michelle E; Rotello, Vincent M

    2016-09-16

    We report on nanoparticle-stabilized capsules (NPSCs) as a platform for the co-delivery of survivin-targeted siRNA and tamoxifen. These capsules feature an inner oil core that provides a carrier for tamoxifen, and is coated on the surface with positively charged nanoparticles self-assembled with siRNA. The multifaceted chemical nature of the NPSC system enables the simultaneous delivery of both payloads directly into the cytosol in vitro. The NPSC co-delivery of tamoxifen and survivin-targeted siRNA into breast cancer cells disables the pathways that inhibit apoptosis, resulting in enhanced breast cell death. PMID:27505356

  17. Simultaneous cytosolic delivery of a chemotherapeutic and siRNA using nanoparticle-stabilized nanocapsules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hardie, Joseph; Jiang, Ying; Tetrault, Emily R.; Ghazi, Phaedra C.; Yesilbag Tonga, Gulen; Farkas, Michelle E.; Rotello, Vincent M.

    2016-09-01

    We report on nanoparticle-stabilized capsules (NPSCs) as a platform for the co-delivery of survivin-targeted siRNA and tamoxifen. These capsules feature an inner oil core that provides a carrier for tamoxifen, and is coated on the surface with positively charged nanoparticles self-assembled with siRNA. The multifaceted chemical nature of the NPSC system enables the simultaneous delivery of both payloads directly into the cytosol in vitro. The NPSC co-delivery of tamoxifen and survivin-targeted siRNA into breast cancer cells disables the pathways that inhibit apoptosis, resulting in enhanced breast cell death.

  18. Analysis of Metmyoglobin Formation Rates in Frozen Tuna Meat during Frozen Storage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Viriyarattanasak, Chotika; Watanabe, Manabu; Suzuki, Toru

    Formation of metmyoglobin (metMb) in frozen tuna meat stored at -90, -60, -40, -30, -20, and -10°C for approximately 6 months was investigated. The reaction rate of metMB formation was estimated from a linear plot of ln ([M∞ . Mt] /[M∞ . Mo]) and storage time (t) for each storage temperature (Ts) (M∞, Mt, and Mo are metMb contents at times t = t∞, t, and 0, respectively). When M∞ was assumed to be 100%, the rate of metMb formation followed the first-order reaction only during the early stage of storage period. MetMb formation, however obeyed the first-order reaction for all test temperatures even during long-term storage when M∞ was assumed to be dependent on storage temperature (M∞(Ts)). A discontinuity was observed in the temperature dependence of M∞(Ts) at storage temperature range between -60 and -40°C, which was attributed to the glass transition of protein system. On the other hand, the temperature dependence of metMb formation did not show a significant change over all storage temperatures.

  19. 77 FR 27435 - Certain Frozen Fish Fillets From the Socialist Republic of Vietnam: Final Results of the New...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-10

    ... International Trade Administration Certain Frozen Fish Fillets From the Socialist Republic of Vietnam: Final Results of the New Shipper Review AGENCY: Import Administration, International Trade Administration... order on certain frozen fish fillets (``frozen fish fillets'') from the Socialist Republic of...

  20. Cryoprotectant redistribution along the frozen straw probed by Raman spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Karpegina, Yu A; Okotrub, K A; Brusentsev, E Yu; Amstislavsky, S Ya; Surovtsev, N V

    2016-04-01

    The distribution of cryoprotectant (10% glycerol) and ice along the frozen plastic straw (the most useful container for freezing mammalian semen, oocytes and embryos) was studied by Raman scattering technique. Raman spectroscopy being a contactless, non-invasive tool was applied for the straws filled with the cryoprotectant solution and frozen by controlled rate programs commonly used for mammalian embryos freezing. Analysis of Raman spectra measured at different points along the straw reveals a non-uniform distribution of the cryoprotectant. The ratio between non-crystalline solution and ice was found to be increased by several times at the bottom side of the solution column frozen by the standard freezing program. The increase of the cryoprotectant fraction occurs in the area where embryos or oocytes are normally placed during their freezing. Possible effects of the cooling rate and the ice nucleation temperature on the cryoprotectant fraction at the bottom side of the solution column were considered. Our findings highlight that the ice fraction around cryopreserved embryos or oocytes can differ significantly from the averaged one in the frozen plastic straws. PMID:26794460

  1. Nitrate Concentration near the Surface of Frozen Aqueous Solutions.

    PubMed

    Marrocco, Harley A; Michelsen, Rebecca R H

    2014-12-26

    Photolysis of nitrate plays an important role in the emission of nitrogen oxides from snow and ice, which affects the composition of the overlying atmosphere. In order to quantify these reactions, it is necessary to know how much nitrate is available for photolysis near the surfaces of snow and ice. The concentration of nitrate excluded from frozen solutions of nitric acid, sodium nitrate, and magnesium nitrate was measured with attenuated total reflection infrared spectroscopy. Liquid water and nitrate were observed at and near the bottom surface of frozen aqueous solutions during annealing from -18 to -2 °C. At -2 °C, the nitrate concentration was determined to be ∼1.0 mol/L for frozen NaNO(3) and Mg(NO(3))(2) solutions and ∼0.8 mol/L for frozen HNO(3) solutions. At lower temperatures, nitrate concentration ranged from 1.6 to 3.7 mol/L. Ideal thermodynamics overestimates nitrate concentration at colder temperatures where the brine is highly concentrated for all solutions. The nitrate concentration at ice surfaces is well described by bulk freezing point depression data close to the melting point of ice and for nitric acid at colder temperatures. Effects of temperature and counterions and implications for modeling snow chemistry are discussed. PMID:25495473

  2. 9 CFR 381.158 - Poultry dinners (frozen) and pies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Poultry dinners (frozen) and pies. 381... AGRICULTURE AGENCY ORGANIZATION AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION REGULATIONS Definitions and Standards of Identity...

  3. 9 CFR 381.158 - Poultry dinners (frozen) and pies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Poultry dinners (frozen) and pies. 381... AGRICULTURE AGENCY ORGANIZATION AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION REGULATIONS Definitions and Standards of Identity...

  4. 9 CFR 381.158 - Poultry dinners (frozen) and pies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Poultry dinners (frozen) and pies. 381... AGRICULTURE AGENCY ORGANIZATION AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION REGULATIONS Definitions and Standards of Identity...

  5. 9 CFR 381.158 - Poultry dinners (frozen) and pies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Poultry dinners (frozen) and pies. 381... AGRICULTURE AGENCY ORGANIZATION AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION REGULATIONS Definitions and Standards of Identity...

  6. 9 CFR 381.158 - Poultry dinners (frozen) and pies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Poultry dinners (frozen) and pies. 381... AGRICULTURE AGENCY ORGANIZATION AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION REGULATIONS Definitions and Standards of Identity...

  7. 7 CFR 58.650 - Requirements for frozen custard.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ..., GENERAL SPECIFICATIONS FOR APPROVED PLANTS AND STANDARDS FOR GRADES OF DAIRY PRODUCTS 1 General Specifications for Dairy Plants Approved for USDA Inspection and Grading Service 1 Requirements for Finished Products Bearing Usda Official Identification § 58.650 Requirements for frozen custard. The...

  8. 21 CFR 146.126 - Frozen concentrate for colored lemonade.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Frozen concentrate for colored lemonade. 146.126 Section 146.126 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION CANNED FRUIT JUICES Requirements for Specific Standardized...

  9. 21 CFR 146.126 - Frozen concentrate for colored lemonade.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Frozen concentrate for colored lemonade. 146.126 Section 146.126 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION CANNED FRUIT JUICES Requirements for Specific Standardized...

  10. Quality indices of Jew's mallow and spinach during frozen storage.

    PubMed

    Labib, A A; Abd el-Latife, S A; Omran, H

    1997-01-01

    In this study, Jew's mallow and spinach were heat treated and kept frozen, at -18 degrees C, for 3 months. Analysis of some chemical components and enzymatic activities as well as a sensory evaluation were undertaken. At the end of the storage period, blanched spinach showed no PPO (polyphenyloxidase) activity at all, but still contained PO (peroxydase) and LO (lipoxygenase) activities. The untreated spinach stored under the same conditions showed high activities of PO, PPO and LO. The heat treated mallow still contained high enzyme activities which decreased slowly during frozen storage. Statistical analysis of the chemical composition and the sensory evaluation results indicated that heat treatments of mallow caused significant differences in total solids, pH, chlorophyll a and total chlorophyll, while frozen storage, of samples of the same treatment for 3 months caused no significant differences in moisture, ash, oxalic acid, pH, chlorophyll a and total chlorophyll. No significant differences could be noticed in the overall acceptability between mallow samples mixed with hot water and those mixed with a hot 0.1% MgCO3 solution. Significant differences were found between the heat treated and the untreated mallow. Changes of the chemical composition and the overall acceptability of blanched spinach during frozen storage showed almost the same trend noticed for the Jew's mallow.

  11. Speakers' Sensitivity to Rules of Frozen Word Order.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pinker, Steven; Birdsong, David

    1979-01-01

    Two studies elicited native speaker and nonnative speaker judgments regarding preferred word order of the idioms known as "freezes." The results support the notion that rules of frozen word order are psychologically real and reflect universal language rules. (Author/AM)

  12. 6. Looking west showing top of dock: steaming frozen ore ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    6. Looking west showing top of dock: steaming frozen ore which had been put in pockets in December 1959, May 6, 1990. Photographer: unknown - Marquette Ore Dock No. 6, Ore Dock, On pilings in Marquette City Lower Harbor, Marquette, Marquette County, MI

  13. 21 CFR 146.120 - Frozen concentrate for lemonade.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Frozen concentrate for lemonade. 146.120 Section 146.120 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION CANNED FRUIT JUICES Requirements for Specific Standardized...

  14. Corn oil

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Corn oil is a popular vegetable oil in the US and in many other countries. Because of its pleasant nutty flavor, its good stability, and its popularity for making margarines, corn oil has long been considered a premium vegetable oil. Among all of the vegetable oils, corn oil ranks tenth in terms of ...

  15. 78 FR 54912 - Frozen Warmwater Shrimp from Indonesia and Thailand; Termination of Investigations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-09-06

    ... connection with the subject investigations concerning Indonesia (78 FR 50379) and Thailand (78 FR 50383... COMMISSION Frozen Warmwater Shrimp from Indonesia and Thailand; Termination of Investigations AGENCY: United...(a)), the countervailing duty investigations concerning frozen warmwater shrimp from Indonesia...

  16. 78 FR 13325 - Certain Frozen Warmwater Shrimp From the People's Republic of China, Ecuador, India, Indonesia...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-27

    ...: Initiation of Countervailing Duty Investigations, 78 FR 5416 (January 25, 2013) (Initiation Notice...-815] Certain Frozen Warmwater Shrimp From the People's Republic of China, Ecuador, India, Indonesia... frozen warmwater shrimp from the People's Republic of China, Ecuador, India, Indonesia,...

  17. 78 FR 59915 - Certain Frozen Fish Fillets From the Socialist Republic of Vietnam: Initiation of Antidumping...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-09-30

    ... International Trade Administration Certain Frozen Fish Fillets From the Socialist Republic of Vietnam... Trade Administration, Department of Commerce. DATES: Effective September 30, 2013. SUMMARY: The...'') of the antidumping duty (``AD'') order on certain frozen fish fillets (``fish fillets'') from...

  18. Boronic acid-modified lipid nanocapsules: a novel platform for the highly efficient inhibition of hepatitis C viral entry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khanal, Manakamana; Barras, Alexandre; Vausselin, Thibaut; Fénéant, Lucie; Boukherroub, Rabah; Siriwardena, Aloysius; Dubuisson, Jean; Szunerits, Sabine

    2015-01-01

    The search for viral entry inhibitors that selectively target viral envelope glycoproteins has attracted increasing interest in recent years. Amongst the handful of molecules reported to show activity as hepatitis C virus (HCV) entry inhibitors are a variety of glycan-binding proteins including the lectins, cyanovirin-N (CV-N) and griffithsin. We recently demonstrated that boronic acid-modified nanoparticles are able to reduce HCV entry through a similar mechanism to that of lectins. A major obstacle to any further development of these nanostructures as viral entry inhibitors is their only moderate maximal inhibition potential. In the present study, we report that lipid nanocapsules (LNCs), surface-functionalized with amphiphilic boronic acid (BA) through their post-insertion into the semi-rigid shell of the LNCs, are indeed far superior as HCV entry inhibitors when compared with previously reported nanostructures. These 2nd generation particles (BA-LNCs) are shown to prevent HCV infection in the micromolar range (IC50 = 5.4 μM of BA moieties), whereas the corresponding BA monomers show no significant effects even at the highest analyzed concentration (20 μM). The new BA-LNCs are the most promising boronolectin-based HCV entry inhibitors reported to date and are thus observed to show great promise in the development of a pseudolectin-based therapeutic agent.The search for viral entry inhibitors that selectively target viral envelope glycoproteins has attracted increasing interest in recent years. Amongst the handful of molecules reported to show activity as hepatitis C virus (HCV) entry inhibitors are a variety of glycan-binding proteins including the lectins, cyanovirin-N (CV-N) and griffithsin. We recently demonstrated that boronic acid-modified nanoparticles are able to reduce HCV entry through a similar mechanism to that of lectins. A major obstacle to any further development of these nanostructures as viral entry inhibitors is their only moderate maximal

  19. Clinical Outcomes after Arthroscopic Release for Recalcitrant Frozen Shoulder

    PubMed Central

    Ebrahimzadeh, Mohammad H; Moradi, Ali; Pour, Mostafa Khalili; Moghadam, Mohammad Hallaj; Kachooei, Amir Reza

    2014-01-01

    Background: To explain the role of arthroscopic release in intractable frozen shoulders. We used different questionnaires and measuring tools to understand whether arthroscopic release is the superior modality to treat patients with intractable frozen shoulders. Methods: Between 2007 and 2013, in a prospective study, we enrolled 80 patients (52 females and 28 males) with recalcitrant frozen shoulder, who underwent arthroscopic release at Ghaem Hospital, a tertiary referral center, in Mashhad, Iran. Before operation, all patients filled out the Disability of Arm, Shoulder and Hand (DASH), Constant, University of California Los Angeles (UCLA), ROWE and Visual Analogue Scale (VAS) for pain questionnaires. We measured the difference in range of motion between both the normal and the frozen shoulders in each patient. Results: The average age of the patients was 50.8±7.1 years. In 49 patients, the right shoulder was affected and in the remaining 31 the left side was affected. Before surgery, the patients were suffering from this disease on average for 11.7±10.3 months. The average time to follow-up was 47.2±6.8 months (14 to 60 months). Diabetes mellitus (38%) and history of shoulder trauma (23%) were the most common comorbidities in our patients. We did not find any significant differences between baseline characteristics of diabetics patients with non-diabetics ones. After surgery, the average time to achieve maximum pain improvement and range of motion were 3.6±2.1 and 3.6±2 months, respectively. The VAS score, constant shoulder score, Rowe score, UCLA shoulder score, and DASH score showed significant improvement in shoulder function after surgery, and shoulder range of motion improved in all directions compared to pre-operation range of motion. Conclusions: According to our results, arthroscopic release of recalcitrant frozen shoulder is a valuable modality in treating this disease. This method could decrease pain and improve both subjective and objective mid

  20. Improved nonclinical pharmacokinetics and biodistribution of a new PPAR pan-agonist and COX inhibitor in nanocapsule formulation.

    PubMed

    Garcia, Giani Martins; Oliveira, Líliam Teixeira; Pitta, Ivan da Rocha; de Lima, Maria do Carmo Alves; Vilela, José Mário Carneiro; Andrade, Margareth Spangler; Abdalla, Dulcinéia Saes Parra; Mosqueira, Vanessa Carla Furtado

    2015-07-10

    We report the in vitro release profile and comparative pharmacokinetics and biodistribution of a new peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ agonist and cyclooxygenase inhibitor (Lyso-7) free or associated to poly(D,L-lactic acid) nanocapsules (NC) after intravenous administration in mice. Lyso-7 pertains to the class of insulin-sensitizing agents that shows potential beneficial effects in diabetes therapy. Monodispersed Lyso-7 NC with a mean diameter of 273 nm with high encapsulation efficiency (83%) were obtained. Lyso-7 dissolution rate was reduced (2.6-fold) upon loading in NC. The pharmacokinetic parameters were determined using a non-compartmental approach. In comparison with Lyso-7 in solution, the plasma-AUC increased 14-fold, the mean residence time 2.6-fold and the mean half-life (t1/2) 1.5-fold for Lyso-7-NC; the Lyso-7 plasma clearance, distribution volume and elimination rate were reduced 13, 10 and 1.4 fold, respectively, which indicates higher retention of encapsulated Lyso-7 in the blood compartment. Upon association with NC, organ exposure to Lyso-7 was higher in the heart (3.6-fold), lung (2.8-fold), spleen (2.3-fold), kidney (2-fold) and liver (1.8-fold) compared to Lyso-7 in solution. The analysis of whole data clearly indicates that body exposure to Lyso-7 was enhanced and the general toxicity reduced upon nanoencapsulation, allowing further evaluation of Lyso-7 in nonclinical and clinical studies. PMID:25931305