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Sample records for oil perilla oil

  1. Chemical properties and oxidative stability of perilla oils obtained from roasted perilla seeds as affected by extraction methods.

    PubMed

    Jung, Dong Min; Yoon, Suk Hoo; Jung, Mun Yhung

    2012-12-01

    The chemical properties and oxidative stability of perilla oils obtained from roasted perilla seeds as affected by extraction methods (supercritical carbon dioxide [SC-CO(2)], mechanical press, and solvent extraction) were studied. The SC-CO(2) extraction at 420 bar and 50 °C and hexane extraction showed significantly higher oil yield than mechanical press extraction (P < 0.05). The fatty acid compositions in the oils were virtually identical regardless of the extraction methods. The contents of tocopherol, sterol, policosanol, and phosphorus in the perilla oils greatly varied with the extraction methods. The SC-CO(2) -extracted perilla oils contained significantly higher contents of tocopherols, sterols, and policosanols than the mechanical press-extracted and hexane-extracted oils (P < 0.05). The SC-CO(2) -extracted oil showed the greatly lower oxidative stability than press-extracted and hexane-extracted oils during the storage in the oven under dark at 60 °C. However, the photooxidative stabilities of the oils were not considerably different with extraction methods.

  2. Perilla oil improves blood flow through inhibition of platelet aggregation and thrombus formation

    PubMed Central

    Jang, Ja-Young; Kim, Tae-Su; Cai, Jingmei; Kim, Jihyun; Kim, Youngeun; Shin, Kyungha; Kim, Kwang-Sei; Lee, Sung-Pyo; Kang, Myung-Hwa; Choi, Ehn-Kyoung

    2014-01-01

    The inhibitory effects of perilla oil on the platelet aggregation in vitro and thrombosis in vivo were investigated in comparison with aspirin, a well-known blood flow enhancer. Rabbit platelet-rich plasma was incubated with perilla oil and aggregation inducers collagen or thrombin, and the platelet aggregation rate was analyzed. Perilla oil significantly inhibited both the collagen- and thrombin-induced platelet aggregations, in which the thromboxane B2 formation from collagen-activated platelets were reduced in a concentration-dependent manner. Rats were administered once daily by gavage with perilla oil for 1 week, carotid arterial thrombosis was induced by applying 35% FeCl3-soaked filter paper for 10 min, and the blood flow was monitored with a laser Doppler probe. Perilla oil delayed the FeCl3-induced arterial occlusion in a dose-dependent manner, doubling the occlusion time at 0.5 mL/kg. In addition, a high dose (2 mL/kg) of perilla oil greatly prevented the occlusion, comparable to the effect of aspirin (30 mg/kg). The results indicate that perilla oil inhibit platelet aggregation by blocking thromboxane formation, and thereby delay thrombosis following oxidative arterial wall injury. Therefore, it is proposed that perilla oil could be a good candidate without adverse effects for the improvement of blood flow. PMID:24707301

  3. Subinhibitory Concentrations of Perilla Oil Affect the Expression of Secreted Virulence Factor Genes in Staphylococcus aureus

    PubMed Central

    Luo, Mingjing; Li, Hongen; Dong, Jing; Wang, Jianfeng; Leng, Bingfeng; Wang, Xiaoliang; Feng, Haihua; Ren, Wenzhi; Deng, Xuming

    2011-01-01

    Background The pathogenicity of staphylococcus aureus is dependent largely upon its ability to secrete a number of virulence factors, therefore, anti-virulence strategy to combat S. aureus-mediated infections is now gaining great interest. It is widely recognized that some plant essential oils could affect the production of staphylococcal exotoxins when used at subinhibitory concentrations. Perilla [Perilla frutescens (L.) Britton], a natural medicine found in eastern Asia, is primarily used as both a medicinal and culinary herb. Its essential oil (perilla oil) has been previously demonstrated to be active against S. aureus. However, there are no data on the influence of perilla oil on the production of S. aureus exotoxins. Methodology/Principal Findings A broth microdilution method was used to determine the minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) of perilla oil against S. aureus strains. Hemolysis, tumour necrosis factor (TNF) release, Western blot, and real-time RT-PCR assays were performed to evaluate the effects of subinhibitory concentrations of perilla oil on exotoxins production in S. aureus. The data presented here show that perilla oil dose-dependently decreased the production of α-toxin, enterotoxins A and B (the major staphylococcal enterotoxins), and toxic shock syndrome toxin 1 (TSST-1) in both methicillin-sensitive S. aureus (MSSA) and methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA). Conclusions/Significance The production of α-toxin, SEA, SEB, and TSST-1 in S. aureus was decreased by perilla oil. These data suggest that perilla oil may be useful for the treatment of S. aureus infections when used in combination with β-lactam antibiotics, which can increase exotoxins production by S. aureus at subinhibitory concentrations. Furthermore, perilla oil could be rationally applied in food systems as a novel food preservative both to inhibit the growth of S. aureus and to repress the production of exotoxins, particularly staphylococcal enterotoxins. PMID:21283822

  4. Anti-atherosclerotic effects of perilla oil in rabbits fed a high-cholesterol diet

    PubMed Central

    Cha, Yeseul; Jang, Ja Young; Ban, Young-Hwan; Guo, Haiyu; Shin, Kyungha; Kim, Tae-Su; Lee, Sung-Pyo; Choi, Jieun; An, Eun-Suk; Seo, Da-Woom; Yon, Jung-Min

    2016-01-01

    Anti-atherosclerosis effects of perilla oil were investigated, in comparison with lovastatin, in rabbits fed a high-cholesterol diet (HCD). Hypercholesterolemia was induced in rabbits by feeding the HCD containing 0.5% cholesterol and 1% corn oil, and perilla oil (0.1 or 0.3%) was added to the diet containing 0.5% cholesterol for 10 weeks. HCD greatly increased blood total cholesterol and low-density lipoproteins, and caused thick atheromatous plaques, covering 74% of the aortic wall. Hyper-cholesterolemia also induced lipid accumulation in the liver and kidneys, leading to lipid peroxidation. Perilla oil not only attenuated hypercholesterolemia and atheroma formation, but also reduced fat accumulation and lipid peroxidation in hepatic and renal tissues. The results indicate that perilla oil prevents atherosclerosis and fatty liver by controlling lipid metabolism, and that it could be the first choice oil to improve diet-induced metabolic syndrome. PMID:27729934

  5. Perilla Oil Has Similar Protective Effects of Fish Oil on High-Fat Diet-Induced Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver Disease and Gut Dysbiosis

    PubMed Central

    Tian, Yu; Wang, Hualin; Yuan, Fahu; Li, Na; Huang, Qiang; He, Lei; Wang, Limei

    2016-01-01

    Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is the most prevalent chronic liver disease in developed countries. Recent studies indicated that the modification of gut microbiota plays an important role in the progression from simple steatosis to steatohepatitis. Epidemiological studies have demonstrated consumption of fish oil or perilla oil rich in n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) protects against NAFLD. However, the underlying mechanisms remain unclear. In the present study, we adopted 16s rRNA amplicon sequencing technique to investigate the impacts of fish oil and perilla oil on gut microbiomes modification in rats with high-fat diet- (HFD-) induced NAFLD. Both fish oil and perilla oil ameliorated HFD-induced hepatic steatosis and inflammation. In comparison with the low-fat control diet, HFD feeding significantly reduced the relative abundance of Gram-positive bacteria in the gut, which was slightly reversed by either fish oil or perilla oil. Additionally, fish oil and perilla oil consumption abrogated the elevated abundance of Prevotella and Escherichia in the gut from HFD fed animals. Interestingly, the relative abundance of antiobese Akkermansia was remarkably increased only in animals fed fish oil compared with HFD group. In conclusion, compared with fish oil, perilla oil has similar but slightly weaker potency against HFD-induced NAFLD and gut dysbiosis. PMID:27051672

  6. Perilla Oil Has Similar Protective Effects of Fish Oil on High-Fat Diet-Induced Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver Disease and Gut Dysbiosis.

    PubMed

    Tian, Yu; Wang, Hualin; Yuan, Fahu; Li, Na; Huang, Qiang; He, Lei; Wang, Limei; Liu, Zhiguo

    2016-01-01

    Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is the most prevalent chronic liver disease in developed countries. Recent studies indicated that the modification of gut microbiota plays an important role in the progression from simple steatosis to steatohepatitis. Epidemiological studies have demonstrated consumption of fish oil or perilla oil rich in n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) protects against NAFLD. However, the underlying mechanisms remain unclear. In the present study, we adopted 16s rRNA amplicon sequencing technique to investigate the impacts of fish oil and perilla oil on gut microbiomes modification in rats with high-fat diet- (HFD-) induced NAFLD. Both fish oil and perilla oil ameliorated HFD-induced hepatic steatosis and inflammation. In comparison with the low-fat control diet, HFD feeding significantly reduced the relative abundance of Gram-positive bacteria in the gut, which was slightly reversed by either fish oil or perilla oil. Additionally, fish oil and perilla oil consumption abrogated the elevated abundance of Prevotella and Escherichia in the gut from HFD fed animals. Interestingly, the relative abundance of antiobese Akkermansia was remarkably increased only in animals fed fish oil compared with HFD group. In conclusion, compared with fish oil, perilla oil has similar but slightly weaker potency against HFD-induced NAFLD and gut dysbiosis.

  7. Dietary high-linoleate safflower oil is not hypocholesterolemic in aged mice after a long-term feeding--comparison with lard, perilla oil and fish oil.

    PubMed

    Ishihara, A; Ito, A; Sakai, K; Watanabe, S; Kobayashi, T; Okuyama, H

    1995-04-01

    Aged mice (6 months of age) fed a conventional diet were shifted to diets containing 10% lard, high-linoleate safflower seed oil, high alpha-linolenate perilla seed oil or high-docosahexaenoate fish oil. A significant increase in whole body cholesterol (/g wt) was seen within 30 d after the shift (rapid response), followed by a gradual decrease in 60 to 120 d (slow response); similar changes occurred in all the dietary groups. Shortly after the shift, the serum cholesterol concentrations increased to higher levels in the lard and safflower oil groups than in the other groups, and the levels at 120 d were in the group order of safflower oil > lard > perilla oil > fish oil. Rapid and slow responses to dietary shifts were also seen in hepatic cholesterol levels (/g wt), which were higher in the lard group than in the other groups at 120 d. The arterial cholesterol contents of the fish oil group tended to be less than in the other groups at 120 d. Thus in aged mice after a relatively long-term feeding (> one tenth of the life-span), safflower oil was not hypocholesterolemic as compared with lard and other omega 3-rich oils. Long-term feeding of fish oil maintained serum cholesterol concentrations at lower levels than feeding with safflower oil or lard and without accumulating cholesterol in the aorta, liver or whole body; perilla oil was also hypocholesterolemic but to a lesser degree than fish oil.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  8. Perilla Oil Supplementation Ameliorates High-Fat/High-Cholesterol Diet Induced Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver Disease in Rats via Enhanced Fecal Cholesterol and Bile Acid Excretion

    PubMed Central

    Tian, Yu; He, Lei; Shao, Yang; Li, Na

    2016-01-01

    Recent experimental studies and clinical trials have shown that hepatic cholesterol metabolic disorders are closely related to the development of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). The main goal of this study was to investigate the efficacy of the perilla oil rich in alpha-linolenic acid (ALA) against NASH and gain a deep insight into its potential mechanisms. Rats were fed a high-fat/high-cholesterol diet (HFD) supplement with perilla oil (POH) for 16 weeks. Routine blood biochemical tests and histological staining illustrated that the perilla oil administration improved HFD-induced hyperlipidemia, reduced hepatic steatosis, and inhibited hepatic inflammatory infiltration and fibrosis. Perilla oil also increased fecal bile acid and cholesterol excretion. Hepatic RNA-Seq analysis found that the long time perilla oil supplement notably modified the gene expression involved in cholesterol metabolism. Our results implicate that, after long-term high level dietary cholesterol feeding, rat liver endogenous synthesis of cholesterol and cholesterol-rich low density lipoprotein uptake was significantly inhibited, and perilla oil did not modulate expression of genes responsible for cholesterol synthesis but did increase cholesterol removed from hepatocytes by conversion to bile acids and increased fecal cholesterol excretion. PMID:27642591

  9. Bioavailability of omega-3 essential fatty acids from perilla seed oil.

    PubMed

    Kurowska, E M; Dresser, G K; Deutsch, L; Vachon, D; Khalil, W

    2003-03-01

    Increased dietary intake of fish oil omega-3 fatty acids, eicosapentanoic acid and docosohexanoic acid, and their precursor, alpha-linolenic acid (ALA), is associated with various health benefits. Enteric-coating (Entrox), which improves stability of omega-3 capsules, has been shown to facilitate fish oil absorption after chronic treatment. To assess the effect of Entrox coating on the short-term bioavailability of ALA administered in the form of ALA-rich Perilla seed oil, 12 healthy subjects (6 males and 6 females) received in a random order Entrox-coated and non-coated ALA formulations, each as a single 6g dose separated by a 3-week washout period. Measurements of plasma ALA concentrations from 0 to 24h showed no difference in ALA pharmacokinetics between the two formulations. However, significantly greater increases in plasma ALA levels from baseline to 24h were observed after ingestion of Entrox vs. non-coated product, suggesting a possible benefit of Entrox with long-term treatment.

  10. Comparative effects of short- and long-term feeding of safflower oil and perilla oil on lipid metabolism in rats.

    PubMed

    Ihara, M; Umekawa, H; Takahashi, T; Furuichi, Y

    1998-10-01

    Diets high in linoleic acid (20% safflower oil contained 77.3% linoleic acid, SO-diet) and alpha-linolenic acid (20% perilla oil contained 58.4% alpha-linolenic acid, PO-diet) were fed to rats for 3, 7, 20, and 50 days, and effects of the diets on lipid metabolism were compared. Levels of serum total cholesterol and phospholipids in the rats fed the PO-diet were markedly lower than those fed the SO-diet after the seventh day. In serum and hepatic phosphatidylcholine and phosphatidylethanolamine, the proportion of n-3 fatty acids showed a greater increase in the PO group than in the SO group in the respective feeding-term. At the third and seventh days after the commencement of feeding the experimental diets, expressions of hepatic 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl coenzyme A reductase mRNA were significantly higher in the SO group than those in the PO group, although the difference was not observed in the longer term. There were no significant differences in the LDL receptor mRNA levels between the two groups through the experimental term, except 3-days feeding. These results indicate that alpha-linolenic acid has a more potent serum cholesterol-lowering ability than linoleic acid both in short and long feeding-terms.

  11. Possible mechanisms for the differential effects of high linoleate safflower oil and high alpha-linolenate perilla oil diets on platelet-activating factor production by rat polymorphonuclear leukocytes.

    PubMed

    Oh-hashi, K; Takahashi, T; Watanabe, S; Kobayashi, T; Okuyama, H

    1997-12-01

    As compared with high dietary linoleate safflower oil, high dietary alpha-linolenate perilla oil decreased platelet-activating factor (PAF) production by nearly half in calcium ionophore (CaI)-stimulated rat polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMN). In the CaI-stimulated PMN from the perilla oil group, the accumulated amount of arachidonate (AA) plus eicosapentaenoate (EPA) was 30% less and that of lyso-PAF was 50% less, indicating that the decreased availability of lyso-PAF is a factor contributing to the relatively low PAF production. Consistently, eicosatetraynoic acid (ETYA), a dual inhibitor of cyclooxygenase and lipoxygenase, increased free fatty acids (FFA) and decreased PAF production possibly by decreasing the availability of lyso-PAF. Although, leukotrienes (LTs) have been proposed to stimulate PAF production synergistically, a potent LTB4 receptor antagonist, ONO-4057, decreased the formation of free fatty acids and LTB4, but stimulated PAF production somewhat, indicating that LTB4 may not stimulate PAF production in PMN. Lysophospholipid-induced transacylase (CoA-independent transacylase) activity in PMN homogenates was 25-30% lower in the perilla oil group but no significant differences were observed in the lyso-PAF acetyltransferase and PAF acetylhydrolase activities between the two dietary groups. Thus, decreased transacylase activity is another factor associated with the relatively low PAF production in the perilla oil group.

  12. The vapor activity of oregano, perilla, tea tree, lavender, clove, and geranium oils against a Trichophyton mentagrophytes in a closed box.

    PubMed

    Inouye, Shigeharu; Nishiyama, Yayoi; Uchida, Katsuhisa; Hasumi, Yayoi; Yamaguchi, Hideyo; Abe, Shigeru

    2006-12-01

    The vapor activity of six essential oils against a Trichophyton mentagrophytes was examined using a closed box. The antifungal activity was determined from colony size, which was correlated with the inoculum size. As judged from the minimum inhibitory dose and the minimum fungicidal dose determined after vapor exposure for 24 h, the vapor activity of the six essential oils was ranked in the following order: oregano > clove, perilla > geranium, lavender, tea tree. The vapors of oregano, perilla, tea tree, and lavender oils killed the mycelia by short exposure, for 3 h, but the vapors of clove and geranium oils were only active after overnight exposure. The vapor of oregano and other oils induced lysis of the mycelia. Morphological examination by scanning electron microscope (SEM) revealed that the cell membrane and cell wall were damaged in a dose- and time-dependent manner by the action of oregano vapor, causing rupture and peeling of the cell wall, with small bulges coming from the cell membrane. The vapor activity increased after 24 h, but mycelial accumulation of the active oil constituents was maximized around 15 h, and then decreased in parallel with the decrease of vapor concentration. This suggested that the active constituent accumulated on the fungal cells around 15 h caused irreversible damage, which eventually led to cellular death.

  13. High-fat diet from perilla oil induces insulin resistance despite lower serum lipids and increases hepatic fatty acid oxidation in rats

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The purpose of this study is to investigate the effects of a high-fat diet from perilla oil on serum lipids, hepatic lipid metabolism and insulin sensitivity. Methods Male Sprague–Dawley (SD) rats were fed either a control (CT) diet or a diet high in perilla oil (HP). After 16 weeks of feeding, the serum lipids were measured, and the gene expressions involved in hepatic fatty acid oxidation and synthesis were determined. In addition, hepatic fat deposition was detected, and insulin sensitivity was evaluated by means of euglycemic-hyperinsulinemic clamp. Results Compared with the rats in the CT group, the HP-feeding significantly decreased the levels of triglyceride (TG), total cholesterol (TCH) and HDL-cholesterol (HDL-c). HP-feeding did not change the levels of LDL-cholesterol (LDL-c), free fatty acid (FFA), intrahepatic lipids or body weight. Moreover, the HP-feeding dramatically increased the mRNA expressions of fatty acid oxidation markers (PPAR-alpha, CPT1A) and fatty acid synthesis markers (SREBP-1, FASN and ACC) in the liver. The HP-feeding induced increased protein levels of CPT1A, while reducing the protein levels of FASN and ACC in the liver. However, the glucose infusion rate significantly increased in the HP group compared with the CT group. Conclusions Our data show that, in rats, excessive perilla oil intake may significantly lower serum lipids, strengthen hepatic fatty acid oxidation, and inhibit hepatic fatty acid synthesis, but at the same time may also lead to insulin resistance. PMID:24422660

  14. Beef tallow, but not perilla or corn oil, promotion of rat prostate and intestinal carcinogenesis by 3,2'-dimethyl-4-aminobiphenyl.

    PubMed

    Mori, T; Imaida, K; Tamano, S; Sano, M; Takahashi, S; Asamoto, M; Takeshita, M; Ueda, H; Shirai, T

    2001-10-01

    The modifying effects of three kinds of fat (corn oil, beef tallow or perilla oil, each at 20% in the diet) on F344 rat prostate carcinogenesis induced by 3,2'-dimethyl-4-aminobiphenyl (DMAB) were investigated. Non-invasive carcinomas of the ventral prostate were induced by DMAB alone and invasive carcinomas of the other prostate lobes and seminal vesicles by DMAB and testosterone propionate (TP). Eight groups of F344 rats were initiated with 50 mg / kg body weight of DMAB at 2-week intervals for the first 20 weeks, four also receiving TP, extended until week 60. The animals received basal chow powder diet or one of three high fat diets throughout the experiment (60 weeks). One further group served as a non-carcinogen-treated control maintained on basal chow powder diet. Beef tallow significantly increased the development of ventral prostate carcinomas with DMAB alone (from 15 to 45%, P < 0.05), while perilla oil reduced the incidence of prostatic intraepithelial neoplasia (PIN) in the ventral lobe of rats given DMA + TP (from 70 to 10%, P < 0.01), but not in those given DMAB alone. No other effects of high fats were observed regarding PIN or invasive cancers of the dorsolateral and anterior prostate or seminal vesicles. A satellite experiment demonstrated that all high fat diets for 4 weeks increased the 5-bromo-2-deoxyuridine (BrdU) labeling index of prostate epithelial cells, suggesting that a high fat intake, irrespective of the fatty acid composition, may accelerate cell kinetics in the prostate. Of the three high fat diets, beef tallow was also found to increase intestinal carcinogenesis. Thus, the present data revealed carcinogenesis in the prostate and intestine to be promoted by beef tallow.

  15. Long-term effects of dietary alpha-linolenic acid from perilla oil on serum fatty acids composition and on the risk factors of coronary heart disease in Japanese elderly subjects.

    PubMed

    Ezaki, O; Takahashi, M; Shigematsu, T; Shimamura, K; Kimura, J; Ezaki, H; Gotoh, T

    1999-12-01

    Although important roles of dietary n-3 fatty acids in the prevention of coronary heart disease (CHD) have been suggested, long-term effects of dietary alpha-linolenic acid (ALA, 18:3n-3) have not yet been established under controlled conditions. We tested whether a moderate increase of dietary ALA affects fatty acids composition in serum and the risk factors of CHD. Oxidized LDL (OxLDL) was directly measured by ELISA using antibody specific to OxLDL. By merely replacing soybean cooking oil (SO) with perilla oil (PO) (i.e., increasing 3 g/d of ALA), the n-6/n-3 ratio in the diet was changed from 4:1 to 1:1. Twenty Japanese elderly subjects were initially given a SO diet for at least 6 mo (baseline period), a PO diet for 10 mo (intervention period), and then returned to the previous SO diet (washout period). ALA in the total serum lipid increased from 0.8 to 1.6% after 3 mo on the PO diet, but EPA and DHA increased in a later time, at 10 mo after the PO diet, from 2.5 to 3.6% and 5.3 to 6.4%, respectively (p<0.05), and then returned to baseline in the washout period. In spite of increases of serum n-3 fatty acids, the OxLDL concentration did not change significantly when given the PO diet. Body weight, total serum cholesterol, triacylglycerol, glucose, insulin and HbA1c concentrations, platelet count and aggregation function, prothrombin time, partial thromboplastin time, fibrinogen and PAI-1 concentration, and other routine blood analysis did not change significantly when given the PO diet. These data indicate that, even in elderly subjects, a 3 g/d increase of dietary ALA could increase serum EPA and DHA in 10 mo without any major adverse effects.

  16. Selective Production of 9R-Hydroxy-10E,12Z,15Z-Octadecatrienoic Acid from α-Linolenic Acid in Perilla Seed Oil Hydrolyzate by a Lipoxygenase from Nostoc Sp. SAG 25.82.

    PubMed

    Kim, Kyoung-Rok; An, Jung-Ung; Lee, Seon-Hwa; Oh, Deok-Kun

    2015-01-01

    Hydroxy fatty acids (HFAs) derived from omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids have been known as versatile bioactive molecules. However, its practical production from omega-3 or omega-3 rich oil has not been well established. In the present study, the stereo-selective enzymatic production of 9R-hydroxy-10E,12Z,15Z-octadecatrienoic acid (9R-HOTE) from α-linolenic acid (ALA) in perilla seed oil (PO) hydrolyzate was achieved using purified recombinant 9R-lipoxygenase (9R-LOX) from Nostoc sp. SAG 25.82. The specific activity of the enzyme followed the order linoleic acid (LA) > ALA > γ-linolenic acid (GLA). A total of 75% fatty acids (ALA and LA) were used as a substrate for 9R-LOX from commercial PO by hydrolysis of Candida rugosa lipase. The optimal reaction conditions for the production of 9R-HOTE from ALA using 9R-LOX were pH 8.5, 15°C, 5% (v/v) acetone, 0.2% (w/v) Tween 80, 40 g/L ALA, and 1 g/L enzyme. Under these conditions, 9R-LOX produced 37.6 g/L 9R-HOTE from 40 g/L ALA for 1 h, with a conversion yield of 94% and a productivity of 37.6 g/L/h; and the enzyme produced 34 g/L 9R-HOTE from 40 g/L ALA in PO hydrolyzate for 1 h, with a conversion yields of 85% and a productivity of 34 g/L/h. The enzyme also converted 9R-hydroxy-10E,12Z-octadecadienoic acid (9R-HODE) from 40 g/L LA for 1.0 h, with a conversion yield of 95% and a productivity of 38.4 g/L. This is the highest productivity of HFA from both ALA and ALA-rich vegetable oil using LOX ever reported. Therefore, our result suggests an efficient method for the production of 9R-HFAs from LA and ALA in vegetable oil using recombinant LOX in biotechnology.

  17. Selective Production of 9R-Hydroxy-10E,12Z,15Z-Octadecatrienoic Acid from α-Linolenic Acid in Perilla Seed Oil Hydrolyzate by a Lipoxygenase from Nostoc Sp. SAG 25.82

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Kyoung-Rok; An, Jung-Ung; Lee, Seon-Hwa; Oh, Deok-Kun

    2015-01-01

    Hydroxy fatty acids (HFAs) derived from omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids have been known as versatile bioactive molecules. However, its practical production from omega-3 or omega-3 rich oil has not been well established. In the present study, the stereo-selective enzymatic production of 9R-hydroxy-10E,12Z,15Z-octadecatrienoic acid (9R-HOTE) from α-linolenic acid (ALA) in perilla seed oil (PO) hydrolyzate was achieved using purified recombinant 9R-lipoxygenase (9R-LOX) from Nostoc sp. SAG 25.82. The specific activity of the enzyme followed the order linoleic acid (LA) > ALA > γ-linolenic acid (GLA). A total of 75% fatty acids (ALA and LA) were used as a substrate for 9R-LOX from commercial PO by hydrolysis of Candida rugosa lipase. The optimal reaction conditions for the production of 9R-HOTE from ALA using 9R-LOX were pH 8.5, 15°C, 5% (v/v) acetone, 0.2% (w/v) Tween 80, 40 g/L ALA, and 1 g/L enzyme. Under these conditions, 9R-LOX produced 37.6 g/L 9R-HOTE from 40 g/L ALA for 1 h, with a conversion yield of 94% and a productivity of 37.6 g/L/h; and the enzyme produced 34 g/L 9R-HOTE from 40 g/L ALA in PO hydrolyzate for 1 h, with a conversion yields of 85% and a productivity of 34 g/L/h. The enzyme also converted 9R-hydroxy-10E,12Z-octadecadienoic acid (9R-HODE) from 40 g/L LA for 1.0 h, with a conversion yield of 95% and a productivity of 38.4 g/L. This is the highest productivity of HFA from both ALA and ALA-rich vegetable oil using LOX ever reported. Therefore, our result suggests an efficient method for the production of 9R-HFAs from LA and ALA in vegetable oil using recombinant LOX in biotechnology. PMID:26379279

  18. Real-time near-infrared spectroscopic inspection system for adulterated sesame oil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kang, Sukwon; Lee, Kang-jin; Son, Jaeryong; Kim, Moon S.

    2010-04-01

    Sesame seed oil is popular and expensive in Korea and has been often mixed with other less expensive vegetable oils. The objective of this research is to develop an economical and rapid adulteration determination system for sesame seed oil mixed with other vegetable oils. A recently developed inspection system consists of a light source, a measuring unit, a spectrophotometer, fiber optics, and a data acquisition module. A near-infrared transmittance spectroscopic method was used to develop the prediction model using Partial Least Square (PLS). Sesame seed oil mixed with a range of concentrations of corn, or perilla, or soybean oil was measured in 8 mm diameter glass tubes. For the model development, a correlation coefficient value of 0.98 was observed for corn, perilla, and soybean oil mixtures with standard errors of correlation of 6.32%, 6.16%, and 5.67%, respectively. From the prediction model, the correlation coefficients of corn oil, perilla oil, and soybean oil were 0.98, 0.97 and 0.98, respectively. The Standard Error of Prediction (SEP) for corn oil, perilla oil, and soybean oil were 6.52%, 6.89% and 5.88%, respectively. The results indicated that this system can potentially be used as a rapid non-destructive adulteration analysis tool for sesame seed oil mixed with other vegetable oils.

  19. Oil Spills

    MedlinePlus

    Oil spills often happen because of accidents, when people make mistakes or equipment breaks down. Other causes include natural disasters or deliberate acts. Oil spills have major environmental and economic effects. Oil spills ...

  20. Oil Spills

    MedlinePlus

    ... the Deepwater Horizon/BP oil spill in 2010. (NOAA) Oil Spills During an oil spill in coastal ... Shoreline Assessment Manual , and the FOSC 's Guide to NOAA Scientific Support . Response Tools To better prepare response ...

  1. Oil Spill!

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ansberry, Karen Rohrich; Morgan, Emily

    2005-01-01

    An oil spill occurs somewhere in the world almost every day of the year, and the consequences can be devastating. In this month's column, students explore the effects of oil spills on plants, animals, and the environment and investigate oil spill clean-up methods through a simulated oil spill. The activities described in this article give students…

  2. All About Oils

    MedlinePlus

    ... corn oil, cottonseed oil, olive oil, safflower oil, soybean oil, and sunflower oil. Some oils are used ... such as canola, corn, cottonseed, olive, peanut, safflower, soybean, and sunflower) 1 Tbsp 3 tsp/14 g ...

  3. Coconut Oil

    MedlinePlus

    ... oil comes from the nut (fruit) of the coconut palm. The oil of the nut is used to ... Gras de Noix de Coco, Coconut Fatty Acid, Coconut Palm, Coco Palm, Coconut, Cocos nucifera, Cocotier, Cold Pressed ...

  4. SYNTHETIC OIL,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    The patent concerns a dicarboxylate-base synthetic oil with antiwear and antioxidation additives. The oil is prepared from the esterification of 2- or 3-methylcyclohexanol and 2-ethylhexanol with adipic acid. (Author)

  5. Petroleum Oils

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Different types of crude oil and refined product, of all different chemical compositions, have distinct physical properties. These properties affect the way oil spreads and breaks down, its hazard to marine and human life, and the likelihood of threat.

  6. Mineral oils

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Furby, N. W.

    1973-01-01

    The characteristics of lubricants made from mineral oils are discussed. Types and compositions of base stocks are reviewed and the product demands and compositions of typical products are outlined. Processes for commercial production of mineral oils are examined. Tables of data are included to show examples of product types and requirements. A chemical analysis of three types of mineral oils is reported.

  7. Barley Oil

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Barley (Hordeum vulgare) is an ancient grain that has was domesticated for use as a food. Currently only about 2% is used for food, about two thirds is used for animal feed and one third for malting. Because the oil content of most barley cultivars is low (<2%), obtaining oil from whole barley gra...

  8. OIL BOND®

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Technical product bulletin: this miscellaneous oil spill control agent is a solidifier used in cleanups. It absorbs and solidifies hydrocarbon spills on freshwater and saltwater or land applications. Ring spill with booms or pillows before treatment.

  9. Peanut Oil

    MedlinePlus

    ... are pregnant or breast-feeding. Allergy to peanuts, soybeans, and related plants: Peanut oil can cause serious ... reactions in people who are allergic to peanuts, soybeans, and other members of the Fabaceae plant family.

  10. Palm Oil

    MedlinePlus

    ... treating malaria, high blood pressure, high cholesterol, and cyanide poisoning. Palm oil is used for weight loss ... to decrease symptoms of malaria. High blood pressure. Cyanide poisoning. Weight loss agent. Cancer. Anti-aging. Brain ...

  11. Myristica oil poisoning

    MedlinePlus

    Nutmeg oil; Myristicin ... Myristica oil ( Myristica fragrans ) can be harmful. It comes from the seed of a nutmeg. ... Myristica oil is found in: Aromatherapy products Mace Nutmeg Other products may also contain myristica oil.

  12. Science: Oil Slick.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    VanCleave, Janice

    2000-01-01

    Presents a science experiment about oil spills and oil pollution for 7th- and 8th-grade science students. This variation on a method used by pollution control experts to clean up oil spills shows students how oil is collected after an oil spill, explaining that with this method, much of the damage from an oil spill can be averted. (SM)

  13. Vegetable oils

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Biodiesel is a technically competitive alternative to petroleum-derived diesel fuel. It can be obtained from commodity oils and fats such as soybean, sunflower, canola or tallow. However, the available amounts of these biodiesel feedstocks do not suffice to satisfy the long-term need for biodiesel...

  14. Oil damage

    SciTech Connect

    Helm, R.C.

    1995-03-31

    This book presents the results of a series of studies designed to determine the extent and magnitude of the effects of the Exxon Valdez oil spill on marine mammals, particularly sea otters. A third of the book focuses on studies that quantify population-level impacts, with much of the remainder focusing on behavioral, pathologic, or toxicologic studies designed to understand how petroleum hydrocarbons negatively affect free ranging marine animals.

  15. Turpentine oil poisoning

    MedlinePlus

    Turpentine oil comes from a substance in pine trees. Turpentine oil poisoning occurs when someone swallows turpentine oil or breathes in the fumes. Breathing these fumes on purpose is sometimes called " ...

  16. Exploring Oil Pollution

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rillo, Thomas J.

    1974-01-01

    Discusses damages of oil tanker spillage to the marine organisms and scientists' research in oil pollution removal techniques. Included is a list of learning activities concerning the causes and effects of oil pollution and methods of solving the problem. (CC)

  17. Biochemically enhanced oil recovery and oil treatment

    DOEpatents

    Premuzic, Eugene T.; Lin, Mow

    1994-01-01

    This invention relates to the preparation of new, modified organisms, through challenge growth processes, that are viable in the extreme temperature, pressure and pH conditions and salt concentrations of an oil reservoir and that are suitable for use in microbial enhanced oil recovery. The modified microorganisms of the present invention are used to enhance oil recovery and remove sulfur compounds and metals from the crude oil.

  18. Biochemically enhanced oil recovery and oil treatment

    DOEpatents

    Premuzic, E.T.; Lin, M.

    1994-03-29

    This invention relates to the preparation of new, modified organisms, through challenge growth processes, that are viable in the extreme temperature, pressure and pH conditions and salt concentrations of an oil reservoir and that are suitable for use in microbial enhanced oil recovery. The modified microorganisms of the present invention are used to enhance oil recovery and remove sulfur compounds and metals from the crude oil. 62 figures.

  19. [MICROBIAL DESTRUCTION MINERAL (OIL) MOTOR OIL].

    PubMed

    Homenko, L A; Nogina, T M

    2015-01-01

    In a review information is presented about composition of mineral motor oils and their negative impact on the environment and the ability of microorganisms, in particular actinobacteria, to assimilate hydrocarbon oil components. The role of bacteria is described in the process of cleaning up polluted environments motor oils and the prospect of their use in biotechnology, environmental clean-up of these pollutants.

  20. Non-Petroleum Oils

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    These include synthetics such as silicone fluids and tung oils, wood-derivative oils such as resin/rosin, animal fats/oil, and seed oils. Many have similar physical properties to petroleum-based, such as water insolubility and formation of slicks.

  1. Vegetable oil fuel standards

    SciTech Connect

    Pryde, E.H.

    1982-01-01

    Suggested standards for vegetable oils and ester fuels, as well as ASTM specifications for No. 2 diesel oil are given. The following physical properties were discussed: cetane number, cloud point, distillation temperatures, flash point, pour point, turbidity, viscosity, free fatty acids, iodine value, phosphorus, and wax. It was apparent that vegetable oils and their esters cannot meet ASTM specifications D975 for No. 2 diesel oil for use in the diesel engine. Vegetable oil modification or engine design modification may make it possible eventually for vegetable oils to become suitable alternative fuels. Vegetable oils must be recognized as experimental fuels until modifications have been tested thoroughly and generally accepted. 1 table. (DP)

  2. Direct use of sunflower oil as a heating oil

    SciTech Connect

    Karaosmanoglu, F.; Kurt, G.

    1998-11-01

    Vegetable oils in particular have exceptional importance since they can be used as a fuel oil (heating oil type) alternative. In this research evaluation, the possibilities of sunflower oil as a heating oil candidate have been investigated. The fuel oil property tests of sunflower oil were performed according to standard methods. An overall evaluation of data indicates that sunflower oil can be proposed as a possible substitute for heating oil.

  3. Tea tree oil.

    PubMed

    Hartford, Orville; Zug, Kathryn A

    2005-09-01

    Tea tree oil is a popular ingredient in many over-the-counter healthcare and cosmetic products. With the explosion of the natural and alternative medicine industry, more and more people are using products containing tea tree oil. This article reviews basic information about tea tree oil and contact allergy, including sources of tea tree oil, chemical composition, potential cross reactions, reported cases of allergic contact dermatitis, allergenic compounds in tea tree oil, practical patch testing information, and preventive measures.

  4. Marine oil seeps

    SciTech Connect

    Meyer, R.F. )

    1991-03-01

    Petroleum hydrocarbons of both biogenic and thermogenic origin are common constituents of the marine water column and sediment of the continental shelves. Approximately 0.25 million metric tons of oil per year, constituting about 8% of the oil input into the sea, is derived from natural seeps, the rest being anthropogenic. Seepage has occurred world-wide for millions of years and must have been many times greater in the past, when enormous oil deposits, such as the Orinoco Oil Belt, were first exposed to erosion. Although the amount varies from site to site with time, seepage is pervasive in polar and temperate seas. Marine-seep oil is intensely weathered and thus can be distinguished chemically from recent biogenic or undegraded crude oil. The degraded oil from seeps appears to have little deleterious effect on many marine organisms, which ingest and discharge the oil mostly unmetabolized. Chemical analyses suggest that a very large oil-rich layer in the Sargasso Sea originated from a large and as yet undetected seep. Oil seeps have long been used as guides for oil exploration onshore but have been underutilized for this purpose offshore because of oil-plume drift from the site of the seep and because natural oil slicks may be masked by spilled oil. At least one marine seep, in the Santa Barbara Channel, California, is producing oil and natural gas into two hollow steel pyramids from which the oil is collected by work boats and the natural gas is transported to shore by pipeline. This facility effectively reduces atmospheric pollution, controls marine oil pollution from the largest seep in the area, provides emission credits, and yields a modest economic benefit, but the seep is not known to have been used directly in oil exploration.

  5. Libyan oil industry

    SciTech Connect

    Waddams, F.C.

    1980-01-01

    Three aspects of the growth and progress of Libya's oil industry since the first crude oil discovery in 1961 are: (1) relations between the Libyan government and the concessionary oil companies; (2) the impact of Libyan oil and events in Libya on the petroleum markets of Europe and the world; and (3) the response of the Libyan economy to the development of its oil industry. The historical review begins with Libya's becoming a sovereign nation in 1951 and traces its subsequent development into a position as a leading world oil producer. 54 references, 10 figures, 55 tables.

  6. Butter, margarine, and cooking oils

    MedlinePlus

    ... margarine are not the best choices. Choose liquid vegetable oils or margarines made from these oils when possible. ... over harder stick forms. Choose margarines with liquid vegetable oil, such as olive oil, as the first ingredient. ...

  7. EPA OIL FIELD SOLUTION

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Technical product bulletin: aka HYDRO-CLEAN, GLOBAL ENVIRONMENTAL CLEANER, AWAN PRA, this surface washing agent for oil spill cleanups is sprayed full strength on oiled rocky surfaces at shorelines, mangroves, and seagrasses. Allow at least 30 minute soak.

  8. OIL SOLUTIONS POWDER

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Technical product bulletin: aka OIL SOLUTIONS POWDER, SPILL GREEN LS, this miscellaneous oil spill control agent used in cleanups initially behaves like a synthetic sorbent, then as a solidifier as the molecular microencapsulating process occurs.

  9. Vegetable Oil-Biorefinery.

    PubMed

    Pudel, Frank; Wiesen, Sebastian

    2017-03-07

    Conventional vegetable oil mills are complex plants, processing oil, fruits, or seeds to vegetable fats and oils of high quality and predefined properties. Nearly all by-products are used. However, most of the high valuable plant substances occurring in oil fruits or seeds besides the oil are used only in low price applications (proteins as animal feeding material) or not at all (e.g., phenolics). This chapter describes the state-of-the-art of extraction and use of oilseed/oil fruit proteins and phyto-nutrients in order to move from a conventional vegetable oil processing plant to a proper vegetable oil-biorefinery producing a wide range of different high value bio-based products.

  10. Manitoba oil activity review, 1997

    SciTech Connect

    1998-12-01

    Annual review is presented of Manitoba Crown oil and gas dispositions, mineral owner leasing and revenue, geophysical and drilling activity, areas of activity, oil production and markets, oil prices, value of production, provincial revenue from oil production, surface owners, spills and reclamation, municipal taxes, the Manitoba Drilling Incentive Program, oil reserves, oil industry expenditures, and industry employment. Highlights of the current year are included.

  11. Automotive gear oil lubricant from soybean oil

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The use of lubricants that are based on renewable materials is rapidly increasing. Vegetable oils have good lubricity, wear protection and low volatility which are desired properties for automotive gear lubricant applications. Soybean oil is used widely in the lubricant industry due to its properti...

  12. Vegetable oils for tractors

    SciTech Connect

    Moroney, M.

    1981-11-14

    Preliminary tests by the Agricultural Institute, show that tractors can be run on a 50:50 rape oil-diesel mixture or on pure rape oil. In fact, engine power actually increased slightly with the 50:50 blend but decreased fractionally with pure rape oil. Research at the North Dakota State University on using sunflower oil as an alternative to diesel fuel is also noted.

  13. SRC Residual fuel oils

    DOEpatents

    Tewari, Krishna C.; Foster, Edward P.

    1985-01-01

    Coal solids (SRC) and distillate oils are combined to afford single-phase blends of residual oils which have utility as fuel oils substitutes. The components are combined on the basis of their respective polarities, that is, on the basis of their heteroatom content, to assure complete solubilization of SRC. The resulting composition is a fuel oil blend which retains its stability and homogeneity over the long term.

  14. Crude oil desulfurization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kalvinskas, J. J.; Hsu, G. C.; Ernest, J. B. (Inventor)

    1982-01-01

    High sulfur crude oil is desulfurized by a low temperature (25-80 C.) chlorinolysis at ambient pressure in the absence of organic solvent or diluent but in the presence of water (water/oil=0.3) followed by a water and caustic wash to remove sulfur and chlorine containing reaction products. The process described can be practiced at a well site for the recovery of desulfurized oil used to generate steam for injection into the well for enhanced oil recovery.

  15. Biochemical upgrading of oils

    DOEpatents

    Premuzic, E.T.; Lin, M.S.

    1999-01-12

    A process for biochemical conversion of heavy crude oils is provided. The process includes contacting heavy crude oils with adapted biocatalysts. The resulting upgraded oil shows, a relative increase in saturated hydrocarbons, emulsions and oxygenates and a decrease in compounds containing organic sulfur, organic nitrogen and trace metals. Adapted microorganisms which have been modified under challenged growth processes are also disclosed. 121 figs.

  16. Biochemical upgrading of oils

    DOEpatents

    Premuzic, Eugene T.; Lin, Mow S.

    1999-01-12

    A process for biochemical conversion of heavy crude oils is provided. The process includes contacting heavy crude oils with adapted biocatalysts. The resulting upgraded oil shows, a relative increase in saturated hydrocarbons, emulsions and oxygenates and a decrease in compounds containing in organic sulfur, organic nitrogen and trace metals. Adapted microorganisms which have been modified under challenged growth processes are also disclosed.

  17. Sassafras oil overdose

    MedlinePlus

    Sassafras oil comes from the root bark of the sassafras tree. Sassafras oil overdose occurs when someone swallows more than ... Safrole is the poisonous ingredient in sassafras oil. It is a clear or ... yellow oily liquid. It can be dangerous in large amounts.

  18. Enhanced oil recovery update

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, R.V

    1989-03-01

    Technology continues to grow in the realm of enhanced oil recovery. Since 1950 several processes have proven economic for oil recovery. Others are still in their infancy and must be custom designed for each reservoir. This paper gives a general overview of these processes. The author focuses on the latest technology and the outlook for enhanced oil recovery operations.

  19. On experimental oil spills

    SciTech Connect

    Mackay, D.; Thornton, D. E.; Blackall, P. J.; Sergy, G. S.; Snow, N.; Hume, H.

    1980-09-01

    Experimental oil spills are an essential component of overall oil pollution research efforts. However, such experiments must be carefully designed and coordinated in order to cull the most information possible. Physical, biological, and ecological impacts must be examined simultaneously. Long-term monitoring of the multidisciplinary effects of experimental oil spills is recommended.

  20. Why Big Bad Oil?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Olien, Diana Davids; Olien, Roger M.

    1996-01-01

    Investigates the negative and hostile public opinion towards the oil industry, in general, and Standard Oil, in particular. Discovers that those most responsible for criticizing Standard Oil had an economic interest in doing so. Defends the company's record and refutes its critics' charges. (MJP)

  1. Oil Spill Cleanup

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kauble, Christena Ann

    2011-01-01

    Several classroom activities using a model of a seashore and an oil spill demonstrate the basic properties of oil spills in oceans. Students brainstorm about how to best clean up the mess. They work in teams, and after agreeing on how they will proceed, their method is tested by measuring the amount of oil removed and by rating the cleanliness of…

  2. Cod Liver Oil

    MedlinePlus

    Cod liver oil can be obtained from eating fresh cod liver or by taking supplements. Cod liver oil is used for high cholesterol, high triglycerides, ... ear infections (otitis media). Some people put cod liver oil on their skin to speed wound healing. ...

  3. Natural oils as lubricants

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    There is currently an availability of vegetable oil lubricants, with the exception of engine oils. Vegetable oils are environmentally friendly, renewable, contribute to the reduction of our dependence on imported petroleum, and add value to the farmer. However, there are inherent weaknesses in veg...

  4. Utah Heavy Oil Program

    SciTech Connect

    J. Bauman; S. Burian; M. Deo; E. Eddings; R. Gani; R. Goel; C.K. Huang; M. Hogue; R. Keiter; L. Li; J. Ruple; T. Ring; P. Rose; M. Skliar; P.J. Smith; J.P. Spinti; P. Tiwari; J. Wilkey; K. Uchitel

    2009-10-20

    The Utah Heavy Oil Program (UHOP) was established in June 2006 to provide multidisciplinary research support to federal and state constituents for addressing the wide-ranging issues surrounding the creation of an industry for unconventional oil production in the United States. Additionally, UHOP was to serve as an on-going source of unbiased information to the nation surrounding technical, economic, legal and environmental aspects of developing heavy oil, oil sands, and oil shale resources. UHOP fulGilled its role by completing three tasks. First, in response to the Energy Policy Act of 2005 Section 369(p), UHOP published an update report to the 1987 technical and economic assessment of domestic heavy oil resources that was prepared by the Interstate Oil and Gas Compact Commission. The UHOP report, entitled 'A Technical, Economic, and Legal Assessment of North American Heavy Oil, Oil Sands, and Oil Shale Resources' was published in electronic and hard copy form in October 2007. Second, UHOP developed of a comprehensive, publicly accessible online repository of unconventional oil resources in North America based on the DSpace software platform. An interactive map was also developed as a source of geospatial information and as a means to interact with the repository from a geospatial setting. All documents uploaded to the repository are fully searchable by author, title, and keywords. Third, UHOP sponsored Give research projects related to unconventional fuels development. Two projects looked at issues associated with oil shale production, including oil shale pyrolysis kinetics, resource heterogeneity, and reservoir simulation. One project evaluated in situ production from Utah oil sands. Another project focused on water availability and produced water treatments. The last project considered commercial oil shale leasing from a policy, environmental, and economic perspective.

  5. Oil shale commercialization study

    SciTech Connect

    Warner, M.M.

    1981-09-01

    Ninety four possible oil shale sections in southern Idaho were located and chemically analyzed. Sixty-two of these shales show good promise of possible oil and probable gas potential. Sixty of the potential oil and gas shales represent the Succor Creek Formation of Miocene age in southwestern Idaho. Two of the shales represent Cretaceous formations in eastern Idaho, which should be further investigated to determine their realistic value and areal extent. Samples of the older Mesozonic and paleozoic sections show promise but have not been chemically analyzed and will need greater attention to determine their potential. Geothermal resources are of high potential in Idaho and are important to oil shale prospects. Geothermal conditions raise the geothermal gradient and act as maturing agents to oil shale. They also might be used in the retorting and refining processes. Oil shales at the surface, which appear to have good oil or gas potential should have much higher potential at depth where the geothermal gradient is high. Samples from deep petroleum exploration wells indicate that the succor Creek shales have undergone considerable maturation with depth of burial and should produce gas and possibly oil. Most of Idaho's shales that have been analyzed have a greater potential for gas than for oil but some oil potential is indicated. The Miocene shales of the Succor Creek Formation should be considered as gas and possibly oil source material for the future when technology has been perfectes. 11 refs.

  6. Dietary docosahexaenoic acid ameliorates, but rapeseed oil and safflower oil accelerate renal injury in stroke-prone spontaneously hypertensive rats as compared with soybean oil, which is associated with expression for renal transforming growth factor-beta, fibronectin and renin.

    PubMed

    Miyazaki, M; Takemura, N; Watanabe, S; Hata, N; Misawa, Y; Okuyama, H

    2000-01-03

    We have noted that n-3 fatty acid-rich oils, such as fish oil, perilla oil and flaxseed oil as well as ethyl docosahexaenoate (DHA) prolonged the survival time of stroke-prone spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHRSP) rats by approximately 10% as compared with linoleate (n-6)-rich safflower oil. Rapeseed oil with a relatively low n-6/n-3 ratio unusually shortened the survival time by approximately 40%, suggesting the presence of minor components unfavorable to SHRSP rats. This study examined the effects of dietary oils and DHA on renal injury and gene expression related to renal injury in SHRSP rats. Rats fed rapeseed oil- and safflower oil-supplemented diets developed more severe proteinuria than those fed soybean oil-supplemented diet used as a control, but there were no significant differences in blood pressure. In contrast, the DHA-supplemented diet inhibited the development of proteinuria and suppressed hypertension. The mRNA levels for renal TGF-beta, fibronectin and renin were higher in the rapeseed oil and safflower oil groups after 9 weeks of feeding of the experimental diet than in the soybean oil and DHA groups. The fatty acid composition of kidney phospholipids was markedly affected by these diets. These results indicate that the renal injury observed in the groups fed safflower oil with a high n-6/n-3 ratio and rapeseed oil with presumed minor components is accompanied by increased expression of the TGF-beta, renin and fibronectin genes, and that dietary DHA suppresses renal injury and gene expression as compared with soybean oil.

  7. Oil degradation in soil.

    PubMed

    Raymond, R L; Hudson, J O; Jamison, V W

    1976-04-01

    The environmental effects of adding certain selected petroleum products to field soils at widely separated geographical locations under optimum conditions for biodegradation were studied. The locations selected for study of soil biodegradation of six oils (used crankcase oil from cars, used crankcase oil from trucks, an Arabian Heavy crude oil, a Coastal Mix crude oil, a home heating oil no. 2, and a residual fuel oil no. 6) were Marcus Hook, Pennsylvania, Tulsa, Oklahoma, and Corpus Christi, Texas. The investigative process, covering a period of 1 year at each location, was conducted in 14 fields plots (1.7 by 3.0 m) to which the oils were added in a single application at a rate of 11.9 m3/4 X 10(3) m2. One-half of the plots at each location were fertilized, and the incorporation of the oils and fertilizers was accomplished with rototillers to a depth of 10 to 15 cm. Concentrations of all oils decreased significantly at all locations. The average reduction ranged from 48.5 to 90.0% depending upon the type of oil and location. Rates of degradation did not exceed 2.4 m3/4 X 10(3) m2 per month. Compositional changes in the oil with time were investigated using silica gel fractionation, gas chromatography, and ultraviolet absorbance. With the possible exception of the two fuel oils, the compositional changes were generally in the same direction for all of the oils. The silica gel fractionation and gravimetric data on residual oils show that all classes of compounds were degraded, but the more polar type degrade more slowly. Analysis of runoff water, leachate, and soils indicated that at the concentration applied no oil less was observed from these plots via water movement. No significant movement of lead compounds added to the soils in the used crankcase oils was observed. Significant increases in hydrocarbon-utilizing microorganisms were demonstrated in all treated plots using either the pure hydrocarbon, n-hexadecane, or the applied oils as the growth substrate

  8. 27 CFR 21.98 - Bone oil (Dipple's oil).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Bone oil (Dipple's oil....98 Bone oil (Dipple's oil). (a) Color. The color shall be a deep brown. (b) Distillation range. When... below 90 °C. (c) Pyrrol reaction. Prepare a 1.0 percent solution of bone oil in 95 percent...

  9. 27 CFR 21.98 - Bone oil (Dipple's oil).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Bone oil (Dipple's oil....98 Bone oil (Dipple's oil). (a) Color. The color shall be a deep brown. (b) Distillation range. When... below 90 °C. (c) Pyrrol reaction. Prepare a 1.0 percent solution of bone oil in 95 percent...

  10. 27 CFR 21.98 - Bone oil (Dipple's oil).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Bone oil (Dipple's oil....98 Bone oil (Dipple's oil). (a) Color. The color shall be a deep brown. (b) Distillation range. When... below 90 °C. (c) Pyrrol reaction. Prepare a 1.0 percent solution of bone oil in 95 percent...

  11. 27 CFR 21.98 - Bone oil (Dipple's oil).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Bone oil (Dipple's oil....98 Bone oil (Dipple's oil). (a) Color. The color shall be a deep brown. (b) Distillation range. When... below 90 °C. (c) Pyrrol reaction. Prepare a 1.0 percent solution of bone oil in 95 percent...

  12. Understanding oil spills and oil spill response

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-10-01

    The volume contains individual sections that outline what oil spills are, their potential effects on the environment, how they are cleaned up, and how various agencies prepare for spills before they happen.

  13. Biodegradation of crude oils.

    PubMed

    Bosecker, K; Teschner, M; Wehner, H

    1989-01-01

    Petroleum from well sites in the Gifhorn Trough (Lower Saxony, NW-Germany) and the Maracaibo Basin (Venezuela) contained various types of microorganisms capable of degrading crude oils. Genetically related oils were inoculated with the isolated microorganisms and the degradation of the oils was followed by chromatographic techniques. Parameters important for the reactions (pH, supply of oxygen, nitrogen and phosphorus, reaction medium) were monitored and optimized. The degradation of n-alkanes was followed closely. Microorganisms active in degradation (yeast, bacteria) easily survived a period of inactivity due to missing nutrients and were reactivated within hours to degrade newly added crude oil. Under substrate-limiting conditions selectivity of degradation was found, destroying medium-chain n-alkanes (C20, C21) at a faster rate than long-chain n-alkanes (C30, C31). During degradation the physical parameters of the crude oils (e.g. density, viscosity, average molecular weight) were altered and shifted into the direction of heavy oil. In vitro degraded oil is very similar to oil degraded in nature. Aromatic hydrocarbons and biomarker molecules (steranes and triterpanes) were not degraded under the conditions used. Pyrolysis-GC analysis of asphaltenes revealed no significant changes in the composition of pyrolyzates during biodegradation. There is sufficient evidence that heavy oils - besides some other effects - are generated by the in situ-biodegradation of conventional oils.

  14. Crude Oil Analysis Database

    DOE Data Explorer

    Shay, Johanna Y.

    The composition and physical properties of crude oil vary widely from one reservoir to another within an oil field, as well as from one field or region to another. Although all oils consist of hydrocarbons and their derivatives, the proportions of various types of compounds differ greatly. This makes some oils more suitable than others for specific refining processes and uses. To take advantage of this diversity, one needs access to information in a large database of crude oil analyses. The Crude Oil Analysis Database (COADB) currently satisfies this need by offering 9,056 crude oil analyses. Of these, 8,500 are United States domestic oils. The database contains results of analysis of the general properties and chemical composition, as well as the field, formation, and geographic location of the crude oil sample. [Taken from the Introduction to COAMDATA_DESC.pdf, part of the zipped software and database file at http://www.netl.doe.gov/technologies/oil-gas/Software/database.html] Save the zipped file to your PC. When opened, it will contain PDF documents and a large Excel spreadsheet. It will also contain the database in Microsoft Access 2002.

  15. Spectroscopic study of Mentha oils

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rai, A. K.; Singh, A. K.

    The visible fluorescence and excitation spectra of Mentha oils (Japanese mint oil, peppermint oil and spearmint oil) have been recorded. Different physical constants which are characteristic of the fluorescent molecules have been calculated for all three oils. Results reveal that the same group of organic compounds dominate in the oils of peppermint and spearmint, whereas some different compound is present in Japanese mint oil. It is also found that the fluorescence intensity of these oils is comparable to that of Rhodamine 6G dye in methanol solution. Our studies suggest that Mentha oils may be a useful lasing material in the 450-600 nm wavelength range.

  16. Chemometric techniques in oil classification from oil spill fingerprinting.

    PubMed

    Ismail, Azimah; Toriman, Mohd Ekhwan; Juahir, Hafizan; Kassim, Azlina Md; Zain, Sharifuddin Md; Ahmad, Wan Kamaruzaman Wan; Wong, Kok Fah; Retnam, Ananthy; Zali, Munirah Abdul; Mokhtar, Mazlin; Yusri, Mohd Ayub

    2016-10-15

    Extended use of GC-FID and GC-MS in oil spill fingerprinting and matching is significantly important for oil classification from the oil spill sources collected from various areas of Peninsular Malaysia and Sabah (East Malaysia). Oil spill fingerprinting from GC-FID and GC-MS coupled with chemometric techniques (discriminant analysis and principal component analysis) is used as a diagnostic tool to classify the types of oil polluting the water. Clustering and discrimination of oil spill compounds in the water from the actual site of oil spill events are divided into four groups viz. diesel, Heavy Fuel Oil (HFO), Mixture Oil containing Light Fuel Oil (MOLFO) and Waste Oil (WO) according to the similarity of their intrinsic chemical properties. Principal component analysis (PCA) demonstrates that diesel, HFO, MOLFO and WO are types of oil or oil products from complex oil mixtures with a total variance of 85.34% and are identified with various anthropogenic activities related to either intentional releasing of oil or accidental discharge of oil into the environment. Our results show that the use of chemometric techniques is significant in providing independent validation for classifying the types of spilled oil in the investigation of oil spill pollution in Malaysia. This, in consequence would result in cost and time saving in identification of the oil spill sources.

  17. Tea tree oil.

    PubMed

    Larson, David; Jacob, Sharon E

    2012-01-01

    Tea tree oil is an increasingly popular ingredient in a variety of household and cosmetic products, including shampoos, massage oils, skin and nail creams, and laundry detergents. Known for its potential antiseptic properties, it has been shown to be active against a variety of bacteria, fungi, viruses, and mites. The oil is extracted from the leaves of the tea tree via steam distillation. This essential oil possesses a sharp camphoraceous odor followed by a menthol-like cooling sensation. Most commonly an ingredient in topical products, it is used at a concentration of 5% to 10%. Even at this concentration, it has been reported to induce contact sensitization and allergic contact dermatitis reactions. In 1999, tea tree oil was added to the North American Contact Dermatitis Group screening panel. The latest prevalence rates suggest that 1.4% of patients referred for patch testing had a positive reaction to tea tree oil.

  18. 19. LOWER OIL ROOM DIABLO POWERHOUSE: SHARPLES OIL CENTRIFUGE AND ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    19. LOWER OIL ROOM DIABLO POWERHOUSE: SHARPLES OIL CENTRIFUGE AND OIL TANK, 1989. - Skagit Power Development, Diablo Powerhouse, On Skagit River, 6.1 miles upstream from Newhalem, Newhalem, Whatcom County, WA

  19. The Obtaining of Oil from an Oil Reservoir.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dawe, R. A.

    1979-01-01

    Discusses the mechanics of how an actual oil reservoir works and provides some technical background in physics. An experiment which simulates an oil reservoir and demonstrates quantitatively all the basic concepts of oil reservoir rock properties is also presented. (HM)

  20. Kuwait Oil Fires, Kuwait

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1991-01-01

    Smoke from the burning oil fields to the north of Kuwait City, seen on the south shore of Kuwayt Bay, almost totally obscures the view of the tiny, but oil rich, nation of Kuwait (30.0N, 48.0E). During the brief war between Iraq and the Allied forces, many of the oil wells in Kuwait were destroyed and set afire. For several months, those fires burned out of control, spewing wind borne smoke and ash for hundreds of miles.

  1. Integrated palm oil processing

    SciTech Connect

    Compere, A.L.; Griffith, W.L.; Googin, J.M.

    1983-01-01

    Tree palms are a promising source of fuel extenders and substitutes. They are perennials which bear oil for a period of two to three decades after a roughly four year preliminary growth period. Tree palms are now one of the most efficient energy crops: the best modern varieties can provide up to 6 tonnes per hectare per year of mesocarp and kernal oils. Palms are particularly attractive in areas where more conventional farming would pose a significant threat of laterization of cause major ecological problems. Technology for palm oil production is can range between village level manual operations and highly industrialized mills. Process energy is often supplied by combustion of byproducts. Although palm oil is a good energy crop, its physical and combustion properties preclude most use in conventional diesel engines, although palm oil could be directly blended with residual fuel oils for use in some large engines. At present, two uses for palm oil as a diesel fuel extender or substitute appear attractive: microemulsion blends using palm soapstock and monoesters produced by exchanging small alcohols for the glycerol in triglycerides. The amount of alcohols required for conversion of a substantial fraction of palm oil or palm oil soapstock to fuel extenders or substitutes is proportionately small, and, to a major extent, can be supplied by palm processing waste materials. Fermentation and gasification produced alcohols in the one to four carbon range are suitable for use in formulating palm oil based fuels. On a stoichiometric basis, it appears that the value of the palm oil and alcohols are very close to their value as export items. Use of these palm oil fuels could help to decrease balance of payments problems for developing countries, as well as provide a secure market for agricultural products and improved rural employment.

  2. Vegetable oil fuels

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1982-01-01

    Fifty contributions (presentations) involving more than one hundred people worldwide were given at the International Conference on Plant and Vegetable Oils as Fuels. The proceedings were in Fargo, North Dakota, from August 2-4, 1982. The conference helped to promote renewable fuels, bio-oils, from plant and vegetable oils. Separate abstracts were prepared for 44 items for inclusion in the Energy Data Base.

  3. Waste oil reduction: GKN

    SciTech Connect

    Hunt, G.

    1995-08-01

    This report details the steps required to establish a waste oil management program. Such a program can reduce operational costs, cut wastewater treatment costs and produce a better quality wastewater effluent through such means as: reducing the volume of oils used; segregating oils at the source of generation for recovery and reuse; and reducing the quality of oily wastewater generated. It discusses the metal-working fluid recovery options available for such a program, namely settling, filtration, hydrocyclone, and centrifugation. Included are source lists for vendors of oil skimmer equipment and coolant recovery systems.

  4. Melaleuca oil poisoning.

    PubMed

    Jacobs, M R; Hornfeldt, C S

    1994-01-01

    A 23-month-old boy became confused and was unable to walk thirty minutes after ingesting less than 10 mL of T36-C7, a commercial product containing 100% melaleuca oil. The child was referred to a nearby hospital. His condition improved and he was asymptomatic within 5 hours of ingestion. He was discharged to home the following day. Melaleuca oil, extracted from the Melaleuca alternifolia, contains 50-60% terpenes and related alcohols. Clinical experience with products containing melaleuca oil is limited. This case report suggests that ingestion of a modest amount of a concentrated form of this oil may produce signs of toxicity.

  5. Pepper Oil Surprise

    NASA Video Gallery

    Astronauts Cady Coleman and Paolo Nespoli perform the Pepper Oil Surprise experiment from Potlatch Elementary School in Potlatch, Idaho. This research investigates the interaction of liquid pepper/...

  6. Treatment of vegetable oils

    SciTech Connect

    Bessler, T.R.

    1986-05-13

    A process is described for preparing an injectable vegetable oil selected from the group consisting of soybean oil and sunflower oil and mixtures thereof which comprise: (a) first treating the vegetable oil at a temperature of 80/sup 0/C to about 130/sup 0/C with an acid clay; (b) deodorizing the vegetable oil with steam at a temperature of 220/sup 0/C to about 280/sup 0/C and applying a vacuum to remove volatilized components; (c) treating the deodorized vegetable oil, at a temperature of from about 10/sup 0/C to about 60/sup 0/C, with an acid clay to reduce the content of a member selected from the group consisting of diglycerides, tocopherol components, and trilinolenin and mixtures thereof, wherein the acid clay is added in a weight ratio to the deoderized vegetable oil of from about 1:99 to about 1:1; and (d) thereafter conducting a particulate filtration to remove a substantial portion of the acid clay from the vegetable oil, wherein the filtration is accomplished with filters having a pore size of from about 0.1 to 0.45 microns, thereby obtaining the injectable oil.

  7. Oil in the Arctic

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1975-03-01

    density of North Slope crude oil Is 0.89. After aging two weeks In the Arctic suimer, this density rises to about 0.95 . Hence the oil can be...the Ice. In that case, puddles form at the high points of the ice- water Interface. A third feature is the fact that crude oils are sticky, and...this section Is to develop equations which describe the boiling point distribution of crude oil as it ages on ice or water. We assume, firstly, that

  8. Hot Oil Removes Wax

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Herzstock, James J.

    1991-01-01

    Mineral oil heated to temperature of 250 degrees F (121 degrees C) found effective in removing wax from workpieces after fabrication. Depending upon size and shape of part to be cleaned of wax, part immersed in tank of hot oil, and/or interior of part flushed with hot oil. Pump, fittings, and ancillary tooling built easily for this purpose. After cleaning, innocuous oil residue washed off part by alkaline aqueous degreasing process. Serves as relatively safe alternative to carcinogenic and environmentally hazardous solvent perchloroethylene.

  9. Essential oils from aromatic herbs as antimicrobial agents.

    PubMed

    Solórzano-Santos, Fortino; Miranda-Novales, Maria Guadalupe

    2012-04-01

    Bacterial resistance to multiple antibiotics is a health problem. Essential oils (EOs) possess antibacterial properties and have been screened as potential sources of novel antimicrobial compounds. Terpenes and terpenoids are components derived from EOs. Some of these EOs show inhibitory activity against Staphylococcus aureus. Carvacrol has specific effects on S. aureus and Staphylococcus epidermidis. Perilla oil suppresses expression of α-toxin, Staphylococcus enterotoxin A and B and toxic shock syndrome toxin. Geraniol shows good activity in modulating drug resistance in several gram-negative species. EOs could act as biopreservatives, reducing or eliminating pathogenic bacteria and increasing the overall quality of animal and vegetable food products. Although clinical studies are scarce, the uses of EOs for topical administration and as penetration enhancers for antiseptics are promising. Little information exists for oral administration.

  10. Mineral oil soluble borate compositions

    SciTech Connect

    Dulat, J.

    1981-09-15

    Alkali metal borates are reacted with fatty acids or oils in the presence of a low hlb value surfactant to give a stable mineral oil-soluble product. Mineral oil containing the borate can be used as a cutting fluid.

  11. Exploring Oil Spills.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Czerniak, Charlene M.; And Others

    1996-01-01

    Presents activities in which elementary and middle school students work together to gain environmental awareness about oil spills. Involves students experiencing a simulated oil spill and attempting to clean it up. Discusses the use of children's literature after the activity in evaluation of the activity. (JRH)

  12. Tree nut oils

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The major tree nuts include almonds, Brazil nuts, cashew nuts, hazelnuts, macadamia nuts, pecans, pine nuts, pistachio nuts, and walnuts. Tree nut oils are appreciated in food applications because of their flavors and are generally more expensive than other gourmet oils. Research during the last de...

  13. Kapok oil methyl esters

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The increased need for biodiesel feedstocks has caused various vegetable oils to be examined for this purpose. In the present work, the methyl esters of kapok (Ceiba pentandra) oil were prepared. The essential fuel properties were comprehensively determined and evaluated in comparison to specificati...

  14. Vegetable oil as fuel

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-11-01

    A review is presented of various experiments undertaken over the past few years in the U.S. to test the performance of vegetable oils in diesel engines, mainly with a view to on-farm energy self-sufficiency. The USDA Northern Regional Research Center in Peoria, Illinois, is screening native U.S. plant species as potential fuel oil sources.

  15. Multi Tasking Engine Oils

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-04-21

    Petroleum Institute has standards for engine and gear oils but none for multipurpose lubricants of the type described above. The concept of...Transmission Oils (UTTOs) to satisfy this consumer market. Unfortunately, there are no industry-wide standards for these UTTOs as the American

  16. Fossil Energy: Oil.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eaton, William W.

    Detailed are the highlights of the history and technology of crude oil and its end products. Included also are some of the important programs that American industry and the Federal government are planning and undertaking in order to enhance the benefits of oil and make use of the limited available quantities as wisely as possible, both now and in…

  17. Cooking with Healthier Fats and Oils

    MedlinePlus

    ... use fats and oils, choose those with less saturated fat, trans fat, and cholesterol. Choose Less Often Choose More Often Percent of Saturated Fat Canola Oil Safflower Oil Sesame Oil Sunflower Oil ...

  18. Products from vegetable oils

    SciTech Connect

    Bagby, M.O.

    1995-12-01

    Vegetable oils serve various industrial applications such as plasticizers, emulsifiers, surfactants, plastics and resins. Research and development approaches may take advantage of natural properties of the oils. More often it is advantageous to modify those properties for specific applications. One example is the preparation of ink vehicles using vegetable oils in the absence of petroleum. They are cost competitive with petroleum-based inks with similar quality factors. Vegetable oils have potential as renewable sources of fuels for the diesel engine. However, several characteristics can restrict their use. These include poor cold-engine startup, misfire and for selected fuels, high pour point and cloud point temperatures. Other characteristics include incomplete combustion causing carbon buildup, lube oil dilution and degradation, and elevated NO{sub x} emissions. Precombustion and fuel quality data are presented as a tool for understanding and solving these operational and durability problems.

  19. Intraventricular Silicone Oil

    PubMed Central

    Mathis, Stéphane; Boissonnot, Michèle; Tasu, Jean-Pierre; Simonet, Charles; Ciron, Jonathan; Neau, Jean-Philippe

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Intracranial silicone oil is a rare complication of intraocular endotamponade with silicone oil. We describe a case of intraventricular silicone oil fortuitously observed 38 months after an intraocular tamponade for a complicated retinal detachment in an 82 year-old woman admitted in the Department of Neurology for a stroke. We confirm the migration of silicone oil along the optic nerve. We discuss this rare entity with a review of the few other cases reported in the medical literature. Intraventricular migration of silicone oil after intraocular endotamponade is usually asymptomatic but have to be known of the neurologists and the radiologists because of its differential diagnosis that are intraventricular hemorrhage and tumor. PMID:26735537

  20. Corrosivity Of Pyrolysis Oils

    SciTech Connect

    Keiser, James R; Bestor, Michael A; Lewis Sr, Samuel Arthur; Storey, John Morse

    2011-01-01

    Pyrolysis oils from several sources have been analyzed and used in corrosion studies which have consisted of exposing corrosion coupons and stress corrosion cracking U-bend samples. The chemical analyses have identified the carboxylic acid compounds as well as the other organic components which are primarily aromatic hydrocarbons. The corrosion studies have shown that raw pyrolysis oil is very corrosive to carbon steel and other alloys with relatively low chromium content. Stress corrosion cracking samples of carbon steel and several low alloy steels developed through-wall cracks after a few hundred hours of exposure at 50 C. Thermochemical processing of biomass can produce solid, liquid and/or gaseous products depending on the temperature and exposure time used for processing. The liquid product, known as pyrolysis oil or bio-oil, as produced contains a significant amount of oxygen, primarily as components of water, carboxylic acids, phenols, ketones and aldehydes. As a result of these constituents, these oils are generally quite acidic with a Total Acid Number (TAN) that can be around 100. Because of this acidity, bio-oil is reported to be corrosive to many common structural materials. Despite this corrosive nature, these oils have the potential to replace some imported petroleum. If the more acidic components can be removed from this bio-oil, it is expected that the oil could be blended with crude oil and then processed in existing petroleum refineries. The refinery products could be transported using customary routes - pipelines, barges, tanker trucks and rail cars - without a need for modification of existing hardware or construction of new infrastructure components - a feature not shared by ethanol.

  1. Marine Oil Biodegradation

    SciTech Connect

    Hazen, Terry C.; Prince, Roger; Mahmoudi, Nagissa

    2015-12-23

    Crude oil has been part of the marine environment for millions of years, and microbes that use its rich source of energy and carbon are found in seawater, sediments and shorelines from the tropics to the polar regions. Catastrophic oil spills stimulate these organisms to ‘bloom’ in a reproducible fashion, and although oil does not provide bioavailable nitrogen, phosphorus or iron, there are enough of these nutrients in the sea that when dispersed oil droplets dilute to low concentrations these low levels are adequate for microbial growth. Most of the hydrocarbons in dispersed oil are degraded in aerobic marine waters with a half-life of days to months. In contrast, oil that reaches shorelines is likely to be too concentrated, have lower levels of nutrients, and have a far longer residence time in the environment. Oil that becomes entrained in anaerobic sediments is also likely to have a long residence time, although it too will eventually be biodegraded. Thus, data that encompass everything from the ecosystem to the molecular level are needed for understanding the complicated process of petroleum biodegradation in marine environments.

  2. Marine Oil Biodegradation

    DOE PAGES

    Hazen, Terry C.; Prince, Roger; Mahmoudi, Nagissa

    2015-12-23

    Crude oil has been part of the marine environment for millions of years, and microbes that use its rich source of energy and carbon are found in seawater, sediments and shorelines from the tropics to the polar regions. Catastrophic oil spills stimulate these organisms to ‘bloom’ in a reproducible fashion, and although oil does not provide bioavailable nitrogen, phosphorus or iron, there are enough of these nutrients in the sea that when dispersed oil droplets dilute to low concentrations these low levels are adequate for microbial growth. Most of the hydrocarbons in dispersed oil are degraded in aerobic marine watersmore » with a half-life of days to months. In contrast, oil that reaches shorelines is likely to be too concentrated, have lower levels of nutrients, and have a far longer residence time in the environment. Oil that becomes entrained in anaerobic sediments is also likely to have a long residence time, although it too will eventually be biodegraded. Thus, data that encompass everything from the ecosystem to the molecular level are needed for understanding the complicated process of petroleum biodegradation in marine environments.« less

  3. Marine Oil Biodegradation.

    PubMed

    Hazen, Terry C; Prince, Roger C; Mahmoudi, Nagissa

    2016-03-01

    Crude oil has been part of the marine environment for millions of years, and microbes that use its rich source of energy and carbon are found in seawater, sediments, and shorelines from the tropics to the polar regions. Catastrophic oil spills stimulate these organisms to "bloom" in a reproducible fashion, and although oil does not provide bioavailable nitrogen, phosphorus or iron, there are enough of these nutrients in the sea that when dispersed oil droplets dilute to low concentrations these low levels are adequate for microbial growth. Most of the hydrocarbons in dispersed oil are degraded in aerobic marine waters with a half-life of days to months. In contrast, oil that reaches shorelines is likely to be too concentrated, have lower levels of nutrients, and have a far longer residence time in the environment. Oil that becomes entrained in anaerobic sediments is also likely to have a long residence time, although it too will eventually be biodegraded. Thus, data that encompass everything from the ecosystem to the molecular level are needed for understanding the complicated process of petroleum biodegradation in marine environments.

  4. 21 CFR 172.861 - Cocoa butter substitute from coconut oil, palm kernel oil, or both oils.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Cocoa butter substitute from coconut oil, palm... substitute from coconut oil, palm kernel oil, or both oils. The food additive, cocoa butter substitute from coconut oil, palm kernel oil, or both oils, may be safely used in food in accordance with the...

  5. 21 CFR 172.861 - Cocoa butter substitute from coconut oil, palm kernel oil, or both oils.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Cocoa butter substitute from coconut oil, palm... substitute from coconut oil, palm kernel oil, or both oils. The food additive, cocoa butter substitute from coconut oil, palm kernel oil, or both oils, may be safely used in food in accordance with the...

  6. 21 CFR 172.861 - Cocoa butter substitute from coconut oil, palm kernel oil, or both oils.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Cocoa butter substitute from coconut oil, palm... substitute from coconut oil, palm kernel oil, or both oils. The food additive, cocoa butter substitute from coconut oil, palm kernel oil, or both oils, may be safely used in food in accordance with the...

  7. 21 CFR 172.861 - Cocoa butter substitute from coconut oil, palm kernel oil, or both oils.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Cocoa butter substitute from coconut oil, palm... substitute from coconut oil, palm kernel oil, or both oils. The food additive, cocoa butter substitute from coconut oil, palm kernel oil, or both oils, may be safely used in food in accordance with the...

  8. Kuwait Oil Fires, Kuwait

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1991-01-01

    Smoke from the burning oil fields to the north and south of Kuwait City, seen on the south shore of Kuwayt Bay almost totally obscures the view of the tiny, but oil rich, nation of Kuwait (29.0N, 48.0E). During the brief war between Iraq and the Allied forces, many of the oil wells in Kuwait were destroyed and set afire. For several months, those fires burned out of control, spewing wind borne smoke and ash for hundreds of miles.

  9. Kuwait Oil Fires, Kuwait

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1991-01-01

    The number of oil well fires from the Kuwait Oil Fields (29.5N, 48.0E) set afire by the retreating Iraqi Army during the 1991 Persian Gulf War, has been measurably diminished since the last observation although the smoke plumes were still intact as far south as Qatar. Most of the remaining approximately 300 oil fires are in the two largest fields: Sibirayah, north of Kuwait Bay and the larger Magwas-Burgan-Al Ahmadi field south of Kuwait City.

  10. Processing sunflower oil for fuel

    SciTech Connect

    Backer, L.F.; Jacobsen, L.; Olson, C.

    1982-05-01

    Research on processing of sunflower seed for oil was initiated to evaluate the equipment that might adapt best to on-farm or small factory production facilities. The first devices identified for evaluation were auger press expeller units, primary oil cleaning equipment, and final filters. A series of standard finishing filtration tests were carried out on sunflower oil and sunflower oil - diesel fuel blends using sunflower oil from four different sources.

  11. Fuel properties of cottonseed oil

    SciTech Connect

    Karaosmanoglu, F.; Tueter, M.; Goellue, E.; Yanmaz, S.; Altintig, E.

    1999-11-01

    The use of vegetable oils as fuel alternatives has an exceptional importance in the field of research. In this study, evaluation possibilities of cottonseed oil have been investigated as an alternative candidate for diesel fuel and fuel oil. The fuel property tests were performed according to standard analysis methods for oil and fuel. An overall evaluation of the results indicates that cottonseed oil can be proposed as a possible green substitute for fuel.

  12. Elastohydrodynamic properties of heat-bodied oils

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Heat-bodied oils are biobased oils obtained via thermal treatment of vegetable oils under inert (N2) atmospheric conditions. Most heat-bodied oils are based on soybean oil, but other vegetable oils and blends of vegetable oils can also be utilized to obtain specific properties. Depending on the temp...

  13. Essential Oils, Part VI: Sandalwood Oil, Ylang-Ylang Oil, and Jasmine Absolute.

    PubMed

    de Groot, Anton C; Schmidt, Erich

    In this article, some aspects of sandalwood oil, ylang-ylang oil, and jasmine absolute are discussed including their botanical origin, uses of the plants and the oils and absolute, chemical composition, contact allergy to and allergic contact dermatitis from these essential oils and absolute, and their causative allergenic ingredients.

  14. Eugenol oil overdose

    MedlinePlus

    Below are symptoms of a eugenol oil overdose in different parts of the body. AIRWAYS AND LUNGS Shallow breathing Rapid breathing Coughing up blood BLADDER AND KIDNEYS Blood in the urine No urine output Pain when you urinate EYES, EARS, ...

  15. Peppermint oil overdose

    MedlinePlus

    ... PA: Elsevier Saunders; 2007:chap 101. Murray MT. Mentha piperita (peppermint). In: Pizzorno JE, Murray MT, eds. ... B. Final report on the safety assessment of mentha piperita (peppermint) oil, mentha piperita (peppermint) leaf extract, ...

  16. UAVSAR_Gulf_Oil

    NASA Video Gallery

    NASA's Gulfstream III research aircraft carrying the Jet Propulsion Laboratory’s sophisticated UAVSAR synthetic aperture radar under its belly surveyed the spread of the Gulf of Mexico oil spill du...

  17. Oil Spills Research

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    EPA monitors impacts and mitigates the effects of spilled oil, which threatens public health and safety, contaminates drinking water, causes fire and explosion, diminishes air and water quality, harms ecosystems, and more.

  18. Synthetic Eelgrass Oil Barrier

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Curtis, T. G.

    2013-05-01

    Although surviving in situ micro-organisms eventually consume spilled oil, extensive inundation of shore biota by oil requires cleanup to enable ecological recovery within normal time scales. Although effective in calm seas and quiet waters, oil is advected over and under conventional curtain oil booms by wave actions and currents when seas are running. Most sorbent booms are not reusable, and are usually disposed of in landfills, creating excessive waste. A new concept is proposed for a floating oil barrier, to be positioned off vulnerable coasts, to interdict, contain, and sequester spilled oil, which can then be recovered and the barrier reused. While conventional oil boom designs rely principally on the immiscibility of oil in water and its relative buoyancy, the new concept barrier avoids the pitfalls of the former by taking advantage of the synergistic benefits of numerous fluid and material properties, including: density, buoyancy, elasticity, polarity, and surface area to volume ratio. Modeled after Zostera marina, commonly called eelgrass, the new barrier, referred to as synthetic eelgrass (SE), behaves analogously. Eelgrass has very long narrow, ribbon-like, leaves which support periphyton, a complex matrix of algae and heterotrophic microbes, which position themselves there to extract nutrients from the seawater flowing past them. In an analogous fashion, oil on, or in, seawater, which comes in contact with SE, is adsorbed on the surface and sequestered there. Secured to the bottom, in shoal waters, SE rises to the surface, and, if the tide is low enough, floats on the sea surface down wind, or down current to snare floating oil. The leaves of SE, called filaments, consist of intrinsically buoyant strips of ethylene methyl acrylate, aka EMA. EMA, made of long chain, saturated, hydrocarbon molecules with nearly homogeneous electron charge distributions, is a non-polar material which is oleophilic and hydrophobic. Oil must be in close proximity to the

  19. Fuel oil poisoning

    MedlinePlus

    Substances called hydrocarbons are the harmful ingredients in fuel oil. ... Gummin DD. Hydrocarbons. In: Adams JG, ed. Emergency Medicine . 2nd ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Saunders; 2013:chap 152. Lee DC. Hydrocarbons. ...

  20. World oil shale deposits

    SciTech Connect

    Hook, C.O.; Russell, P.L.

    1982-01-01

    The article estimates resources in-place and their oil equivalent. The major deposits are described in the U.S., Australia, USSR, Peoples Republic of China, Morocco, Israel, Jordan, Syria, Europe and South America. 2 refs.

  1. Oil Discharge Reporting Requirements

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    If a facility or vessel discharges oil to navigable waters or adjoining shorelines, the owner/operator is required to follow certain federal reporting requirements. This fact sheet outlines those reporting requirements.

  2. Oil-shale program

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bader, B. E.

    1981-10-01

    The principal activities of the Sandia National Laboratories in the Department of Energy Oil shale program during the period April 1 to June 30, 1981 are discussed. Currently, Sandia's activities are focused upon: the development and use of analytical and experimental modeling techniques to describe and predict the retort properties and retorting process parameters that are important to the preparation, operation, and stability of in situ retorts, and the development, deployment, and field use of instrumentation, data acquisition, and process monitoring systems to characterize and evaluate in site up shale oil recovery operations. In-house activities and field activities (at the Geokinetics Oil Shale Project and the Occidental Oil Shale Project) are described under the headings: bed preparation, bed characterization, retorting process, and structural stability.

  3. Economic Geology (Oil & Gas)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Geotimes, 1972

    1972-01-01

    Briefly reviews the worldwide developments in petroleum geology in 1971, including exploration, new fields, and oil production. This report is condensed from the October Bulletin of the American Association of Petroleum Geologists. (PR)

  4. Prospecting for oil.

    PubMed

    Shields, David S

    2010-01-01

    From the 1770s to the 1880s agriculturists and cooks sought to develop culinary oils from plants. Thomas Jefferson's attempts to introduce the olive into the agriculture of the United States, as a partial substitute for lard in cookery and as a cheap oleo for the consumption of slaves, met with limited success, even in the southeast, because periodic freezes and high humidity thwarted the development of groves. Southern slaves from West Africa supplied their own oil, derived from benne (Sesamum indicum). Benne oil was merely one feature of an elaborate African-American cuisine employing sesame that included benne soup, benne and greens, benne and hominy, benne candy, and benne wafers. Only the last item has survived as a feature of regional and ethnic cookery. In the first decades of the nineteenth century, planter experimentalists began the commercial scale production of benne oil, establishing it as the primary salad oil and the second favored frying medium in the southern United States. It enjoyed acceptance and moderate commercial success until the refinement of cottonseed oil in the 1870s and 1880s. Cotton seed, a waste product of the south's most vital industry, was turned into a revenue stream as David Wesson and other scientists created a salad oil and frying medium designedly tasteless and odorless, and a cooking fat, hydrogenated cottonseed oil (Cottonlene or Crisco) that could cheaply substitute for lard in baking. With the recent recovery of regional foodways, both the olive and sesame are being revived for use in the neo-southern cookery of the twenty-first century.

  5. Colombian export oil pipeline

    SciTech Connect

    Duncan, K. ); Enright, B. )

    1989-06-01

    The authors discuss how bringing crude oil to market often requires extraordinary determination and effort to overcome the obstacles of terrain and time. They describe a pipeline project on a 53-week suicide schedule to get oil across the Colombian Andes. After confronting setbacks, they completed a job that included 304 miles of pipeline, 497 miles of telecommunications and a major offshore terminal in only 47 weeks.

  6. Shoreline oiling from the Deepwater Horizon oil spill.

    PubMed

    Nixon, Zachary; Zengel, Scott; Baker, Mary; Steinhoff, Marla; Fricano, Gail; Rouhani, Shahrokh; Michel, Jacqueline

    2016-06-15

    We build on previous work to construct a comprehensive database of shoreline oiling exposure from the Deepwater Horizon (DWH) spill by compiling field and remotely-sensed datasets to support oil exposure and injury quantification. We compiled a spatial database of shoreline segments with attributes summarizing habitat, oiling category and timeline. We present new simplified oil exposure classes for both beaches and coastal wetland habitats derived from this database integrating both intensity and persistence of oiling on the shoreline over time. We document oiling along 2113km out of 9545km of surveyed shoreline, an increase of 19% from previously published estimates and representing the largest marine oil spill in history by length of shoreline oiled. These data may be used to generate maps and calculate summary statistics to assist in quantifying and understanding the scope, extent, and spatial distribution of shoreline oil exposure as a result of the DWH incident.

  7. Oil/gas collector/separator for underwater oil leaks

    SciTech Connect

    Henning, C.D.

    1992-12-31

    This invention is comprised of an oil/gas collector/separator for recovery of oil leaking, for example, from an offshore or underwater oil well. The separator is floated over the point of the leak and tethered in place so as to receive oil/gas floating, or forced under pressure, toward the water surface from either a broken or leaking oil well casing, line, or sunken ship. The separator is provided with a downwardly extending skirt to contain the oil/gas which floats or is forced upward into a dome wherein the gas is separated from the oil/water, with the gas being flared (burned) at the top of the dome, and the oil is separated from water and pumped to a point of use. Since the density of oil is less than that of water it can be easily separated from any water entering the dome.

  8. Oil/gas collector/separator for underwater oil leaks

    DOEpatents

    Henning, Carl D.

    1993-01-01

    An oil/gas collector/separator for recovery of oil leaking, for example, from an offshore or underwater oil well. The separator is floated over the point of the leak and tethered in place so as to receive oil/gas floating, or forced under pressure, toward the water surface from either a broken or leaking oil well casing, line, or sunken ship. The separator is provided with a downwardly extending skirt to contain the oil/gas which floats or is forced upward into a dome wherein the gas is separated from the oil/water, with the gas being flared (burned) at the top of the dome, and the oil is separated from water and pumped to a point of use. Since the density of oil is less than that of water it can be easily separated from any water entering the dome.

  9. Process for preparing lubricating oil from used waste lubricating oil

    DOEpatents

    Whisman, Marvin L.; Reynolds, James W.; Goetzinger, John W.; Cotton, Faye O.

    1978-01-01

    A re-refining process is described by which high-quality finished lubricating oils are prepared from used waste lubricating and crankcase oils. The used oils are stripped of water and low-boiling contaminants by vacuum distillation and then dissolved in a solvent of 1-butanol, 2-propanol and methylethyl ketone, which precipitates a sludge containing most of the solid and liquid contaminants, unspent additives, and oxidation products present in the used oil. After separating the purified oil-solvent mixture from the sludge and recovering the solvent for recycling, the purified oil is preferably fractional vacuum-distilled, forming lubricating oil distillate fractions which are then decolorized and deodorized to prepare blending stocks. The blending stocks are blended to obtain a lubricating oil base of appropriate viscosity before being mixed with an appropriate additive package to form the finished lubricating oil product.

  10. Oil Saving Seal

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1978-01-01

    Driven under difficult field conditions, the Army Jeep shown went more than 22,000 miles without an oil change in a test conducted by the U.S. Army Mobility Equipment Research and Development Command. Key to this exceptionally long oil life was a set of piston ring seals made of a new synthetic rubber formula called RC-34; the seal pictured, photographed after its arduous Army trial, shows no signs of deterioration. The seal and the RC-34 material, which may soon be available for use in the family auto, were developed by Ramsey Corporation, St. Louis, Missouri, a division of TRW Automotive Worldwide. The oil in an automobile engine must be I replaced every few thousand miles not because it wears out but because it becomes contaminated. The contamination sources are gasoline and combustion gases which blow by the piston rings to mix with the oil, reducing the oil's ability to lubricate properly. Seeking to prolong oil life by eliminating "blowby," Ramsey Corporation looked for a better way to seal piston rings and used NASA technology as a departure point. The parent company TRW, under contract to NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, had developed seals and bladders from a type of material called elastomers which where designed to withstand the environmental extremes of interplanetary flight. That effort formed a knowledge base for research which culminated in Ramsey's RC-34 elastomer.

  11. Oils and cancer.

    PubMed

    Tolbert, P E

    1997-05-01

    Epidemiologic evidence on the relationship between mineral oil exposure and cancer is reviewed. The review is restricted to occupations involving substantial dermal and inhalational exposure and for which an epidemiologic literature exists: metal machining, print press operating, and cotton and jute spinning. Mineral oils are complex mixtures of aliphatic hydrocarbons, naphthenics, and aromatics, the relative distribution of which depends on the source of the oil and the method of refinement. End-use products contain a variety of additives, and contamination by other agents generally occurs during use. Suspect agents include polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) (particularly benz[a]pyrene), nitrosamines, chlorinated paraffins, long-chain aliphatics, sulfur, N-phenyl-2-naphthylamine, and formaldehyde. The heterogeneity of this exposure makes epidemiologic study difficult and meta-analysis inappropriate. Nonetheless, several associations emerge from the literature with varying degrees of support. There is clear evidence that early formulations of mineral oils used in cotton and jute spinning and in metal machining were carcinogenic to the skin. Associations of mineral oil exposure with laryngeal and rectal cancer have received some support in the literature, particularly with respect to straight oils. Evidence is suggestive that grinding operations (which can entail either mineral oil-based or ethanolamine-based fluids) are associated with excess risk of cancer of the esophagus, stomach, and pancreas. A number of bladder cancer case-control studies have noted an association with work as a machinist. There is limited evidence of an association with cancer of the colon, prostate, and sinonasal region. Several studies of printers have yielded positive findings for lung cancer, whereas studies in metal machinists have been generally negative. The PAH and nitrosamine content of current formulations is lower than in the past and the implications of these changes in

  12. Oil and Gas Supply Modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gass, S. I.

    1982-05-01

    The theoretical and applied state of the art of oil and gas supply models was discussed. The following areas were addressed: the realities of oil and gas supply, prediction of oil and gas production, problems in oil and gas modeling, resource appraisal procedures, forecasting field size and production, investment and production strategies, estimating cost and production schedules for undiscovered fields, production regulations, resource data, sensitivity analysis of forecasts, econometric analysis of resource depletion, oil and gas finding rates, and various models of oil and gas supply.

  13. Process for producing lubricating oils and white oils

    SciTech Connect

    Everett, G.L.; Hu, W.C.

    1982-04-20

    The preparation of high quality, e.g., high viscosity index, base lubricating oils and white oils, particularly food grade white mineral oils, of suitable viscosity in high yield from a mineral oil distillate of suitable lubricating oil viscosity comprises contacting the distillate with hydrogen in four catalytic stages. The first reaction stage employs hydrocracking conditions. Subsequent reaction stages employ hydrogenation conditions. The second reaction stage, preferably employs a sulfur-resistant hydrogenation catalyst and produces a product suitable as a high quality lubricating oil base stock. The third reaction stage preferably employs a sulfur-resistant hydrogenation catalyst to obtain further aromatic saturation. The final stage employs a selective hydrogenation catalyst, optionally activated with a halogen, and produces a product suitable as a white oil, preferably a food grade white oil.

  14. Abandoned Texas oil fields

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-12-01

    Data for Texas abandoned oil fields were primarily derived from two sources: (1) Texas Railroad Commission (TRRC), and (2) Dwight's ENERGYDATA. For purposes of this report, abandoned oil fields are defined as those fields that had no production during 1977. The TRRC OILMASTER computer tapes were used to identify these abandoned oil fields. The tapes also provided data on formation depth, gravity of oil production, location (both district and county), discovery date, and the cumulative production of the field since its discovery. In all, the computer tapes identified 9211 abandoned fields, most of which had less than 250,000 barrel cumulative production. This report focuses on the 676 abandoned onshore Texas oil fields that had cumulative production of over 250,000 barrels. The Dwight's ENERGYDATA computer tapes provided production histories for approximately two-thirds of the larger fields abandoned in 1966 and thereafter. Fields which ceased production prior to 1966 will show no production history nor abandonment date in this report. The Department of Energy hopes the general availability of these data will catalyze the private sector recovery of this unproduced resource.

  15. 21 CFR 172.861 - Cocoa butter substitute from coconut oil, palm kernel oil, or both oils.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Cocoa butter substitute from coconut oil, palm... HUMAN CONSUMPTION Multipurpose Additives § 172.861 Cocoa butter substitute from coconut oil, palm kernel oil, or both oils. The food additive, cocoa butter substitute from coconut oil, palm kernel oil,...

  16. Engine wear and lubricating oil contamination from plant oil fuels

    SciTech Connect

    Darcey, C.L.; LePori, W.A.; Yarbrough, C.M.

    1982-12-01

    Engine disassembly with wear measurements, and lubricating oil analysis were used to determine wear rates on a one cylinder diesel engine. Results are reported from short duration tests on the wear rates of various levels of processed sunflower oil, a 25% blend with diesel fuel, and processed cottonseed oil.

  17. 27. DIABLO POWERHOUSE UPPER OIL ROOM: OBSOLETE WESTINGHOUSE DIELECTRIC OIL ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    27. DIABLO POWERHOUSE UPPER OIL ROOM: OBSOLETE WESTINGHOUSE DIELECTRIC OIL TESTING SET. OIL IS USED AS AN INSULATOR IN TRANSFORMERS AND ITS CONDUCTIVITY USED TO BE TESTED USING EQUIPMENT SUCH AS THIS, 1989. - Skagit Power Development, Diablo Powerhouse, On Skagit River, 6.1 miles upstream from Newhalem, Newhalem, Whatcom County, WA

  18. Seed storage oil mobilization.

    PubMed

    Graham, Ian A

    2008-01-01

    Storage oil mobilization starts with the onset of seed germination. Oil bodies packed with triacylglycerol (TAG) exist in close proximity with glyoxysomes, the single membrane-bound organelles that house most of the biochemical machinery required to convert fatty acids derived from TAG to 4-carbon compounds. The 4-carbon compounds in turn are converted to soluble sugars that are used to fuel seedling growth. Biochemical analysis over the last 50 years has identified the main pathways involved in this process, including beta-oxidation, the glyoxylate cycle, and gluconeogenesis. In the last few years molecular genetic dissection of the overall process in the model oilseed species Arabidopsis has provided new insight into its complexity, particularly with respect to the specific role played by individual enzymatic steps and the subcellular compartmentalization of the glyoxylate cycle. Both abscisic acid (ABA) and sugars inhibit storage oil mobilization and a substantial degree of the control appears to operate at the transcriptional level.

  19. Integrated palm oil processing

    SciTech Connect

    Compere, A.L.; Googin, J.M.; Griffith, W.L.

    1983-12-01

    Tree palms are a promising source of fuel extenders and substitutes. They are perennials which bear oil for a period of two to three decades after a roughly four year preliminary growth period. Because palms are an important crop in many areas of Asia, Africa, and South America, considerable attention has been given to palm genetic improvement, with the result that tree palms are one of the most efficient energy crops, providing much better solar energy capture than, for example, sugar cane and cassava. Tree palms are particularly attractive in areas where more conventional farming would pose a significant threat of laterization or cause major ecological problems. Technology for palm oil production, including harvest, tree management, and oil pressing are generally suited to village or plantation use, and, for the most part, have been directed toward supplying process energy through the combustion of process waste products, such as palm fruit residue and palm bunch fibers.

  20. Improved spatial learning and memory by perilla diet is correlated with immunoreactivities to neurofilament and α-synuclein in hilus of dentate gyrus

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Perilla (Perilla frutescens) oil is very rich in α-linolenic acid, an omega-3 fatty acid. As it is widely reported that omega-3 fatty acid supplementation improves cognitive function in children and adults, feeding rats with perilla diets followed by analysis of proteomic changes in the hippocampus can provide valuable information on the mechanism of learning and memory at the molecular level. To identify proteins playing roles in learning and memory, differentially expressed proteins in the hippocampus of the 5 week old rats fed perilla diets for 3 weeks or 3 months were identified by proteomic analysis and validated by immunological assays. Results The perilla diet groups showed improved spatial learning and memory performances in a T-maze test. They also displayed elevated level of 22:6n-3 fatty acid, an omega-3 fatty acid (p<0.05), in the brain compared to the control diet group. Quantitative proteomic analysis using 2-D gels as well as functional annotation grouping with the differentially expressed proteins in the hippocampus showed that those proteins involved in cytoskeleton and transport were the major differentially expressed proteins in the 3-week group, whereas those involved in energy metabolism, neuron projection and apoptosis in addition to cytoskeleton and transport were the major ones in the 3 month group. Differential protein expression in the hippocampus was validated by Western blotting using four selected proteins, known to be involved in synaptic plasticity; AMPA receptor, neurofilament, α-synuclein, and β-soluble NSF attachment protein. Brain sections from the perilla-diet groups showed enhanced immunoreactivities to α-synuclein and neurofilament. Especially, neurofilament immunoreactive cells manifested longer neurite projections in the hilus of dentate gyrus of the perilla-diet groups. Conclusion Improved cognitive function upon administration of n-3 fatty acid-rich perilla diet is associated with the differential expression

  1. Extracting Oil From Tar Sands

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ford, L. B.; Daly, D.

    1984-01-01

    Recovery of oil from tar sands possible by batch process, using steam produced by solar heater. In extraction process, solar heater provides steam for heating solvent boiler. Boiling solvent removes oil from tar sands in Soxhlet extractor.

  2. Oil-based paint poisoning

    MedlinePlus

    Hydrocarbons are the primary poisonous ingredient in oil paints. Some oil paints have heavy metals such as ... Gummin DD. Hydrocarbons. In: Nelson LS, Lewin NA, Howland MA, Hoffman RS, Goldfrank LR, Flomenbaum NE, eds. Goldfrank's Toxicologic Emergencies . 9th ...

  3. Crude Oil Spills and Health

    MedlinePlus

    ... Safety and Health Administration Best Practices for Migratory Bird Care During Oil Spill Response (PDF, 3.6 ... Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration Best Practices for Migratory Bird Care During Oil Spill Response (PDF, 3.6 ...

  4. Vegetable Oils and Animal Fats

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    non-petroleum oils are also regulated under CFR 112. Like petroleum oils, they can cause devastating physical effects, be toxic, destroy food supplies and habitats, produce rancid odors, foul shorelines and treatment plants, be flammable, and linger.

  5. Crude Oil Characterization Data Program.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    A computer program has been written which allows rapid retrieval and selection of CONUS and OCONUS crude oil characterization data. The computer... crude oil characterization data, including geographic location, production rate, reserves quantity and physical properties.

  6. Oil Spill Cleanup

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    Petroleum Remediation Product (PRP) is a new way of cleaning up oil spills. It consists of thousands of microcapsules, tiny balls of beeswax with hollow centers, containing live microorganisms and nutrients to sustain them. As oil flows through the microcapsule's shell, it is consumed and digested by the microorganisms. Pressure buildup causes the PRP to explode and the enzymes, carbon dioxide and water are released into the BioBoom used in conjunction with PRP, preventing contaminated water from spreading. The system incorporates technology originally developed at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory and Marshall Space Flight Center.

  7. Oil and Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Kipling, M D

    1974-01-01

    A relatively high incidence of cancer of the skin, especially of the scrotum, due to occupational contact with mineral oil has been observed among shale oil workers and cotton mule spinners and, since the Second World War, among machine operators in the Birmingham region. A study has been made of the factors causing this high incidence and evidence is given that the respiratory and digestive tracts as well as the skin may be affected. The preventive measures are described and the suggestion made that they appear at the present time to be effective. PMID:4858528

  8. Oil and cancer.

    PubMed

    Kipling, M D

    1974-08-01

    A relatively high incidence of cancer of the skin, especially of the scrotum, due to occupational contact with mineral oil has been observed among shale oil workers and cotton mule spinners and, since the Second World War, among machine operators in the Birmingham region. A study has been made of the factors causing this high incidence and evidence is given that the respiratory and digestive tracts as well as the skin may be affected. The preventive measures are described and the suggestion made that they appear at the present time to be effective.

  9. 7 CFR 985.4 - Spearmint oil.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Spearmint oil. 985.4 Section 985.4 Agriculture... HANDLING OF SPEARMINT OIL PRODUCED IN THE FAR WEST Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 985.4 Spearmint oil. Spearmint oil, hereinafter referred to as oil, means essential oil extracted by distillation...

  10. 7 CFR 985.4 - Spearmint oil.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Spearmint oil. 985.4 Section 985.4 Agriculture... HANDLING OF SPEARMINT OIL PRODUCED IN THE FAR WEST Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 985.4 Spearmint oil. Spearmint oil, hereinafter referred to as oil, means essential oil extracted by distillation...

  11. 7 CFR 985.4 - Spearmint oil.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Spearmint oil. 985.4 Section 985.4 Agriculture... HANDLING OF SPEARMINT OIL PRODUCED IN THE FAR WEST Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 985.4 Spearmint oil. Spearmint oil, hereinafter referred to as oil, means essential oil extracted by distillation...

  12. 7 CFR 985.4 - Spearmint oil.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Spearmint oil. 985.4 Section 985.4 Agriculture... HANDLING OF SPEARMINT OIL PRODUCED IN THE FAR WEST Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 985.4 Spearmint oil. Spearmint oil, hereinafter referred to as oil, means essential oil extracted by distillation...

  13. 7 CFR 985.4 - Spearmint oil.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Spearmint oil. 985.4 Section 985.4 Agriculture... HANDLING OF SPEARMINT OIL PRODUCED IN THE FAR WEST Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 985.4 Spearmint oil. Spearmint oil, hereinafter referred to as oil, means essential oil extracted by distillation...

  14. Oil recovery from tar sands

    SciTech Connect

    Boesiger, D.D.; Siefkin, J.M.

    1983-01-11

    A process for recovering oil from oil wet and particularly from oil-wet, acidic tar sands is described in which these sands are subjected to vigorous fluidization in the presence of water, air and a surfactant but in the absence of an extraneous hydrocarbon solvent. This step produces a multiphase mixture including an oil containing froth enabling gravity separation, E.G. In hydrocyclone.

  15. [Antioxidant activity of flaxseed oil].

    PubMed

    Prozorovskaia, N N; Rusina, I F; Lupinovich, V L; Beketova, N A; Sorokin, I V; Ipatova, O M; Levachev, M M

    2003-01-01

    Effective concentration of antioxidants and its reactivity toward peroxil radicals (constant k7) have been measured by the chemiluminescence technique for flaxseed oil. Effective concentration of antioxidants is shown to depend on the technology of producing flaxseed oil; period of seed storage before use; and storing duration of flaxseed oil also. Minor component content of flaxseed oil, which may be the members of antioxidant pool, has been quantitatively estimated.

  16. Green bio-oil extraction for oil crops

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zainab, H.; Nurfatirah, N.; Norfaezah, A.; Othman, H.

    2016-06-01

    The move towards a green bio-oil extraction technique is highlighted in this paper. The commonly practised organic solvent oil extraction technique could be replaced with a modified microwave extraction. Jatropha seeds (Jatropha curcas) were used to extract bio-oil. Clean samples were heated in an oven at 110 ° C for 24 hours to remove moisture content and ground to obtain particle size smaller than 500μm. Extraction was carried out at different extraction times 15 min, 30 min, 45 min, 60 min and 120 min to determine oil yield. The biooil yield obtained from microwave assisted extraction system at 90 minutes was 36% while that from soxhlet extraction for 6 hours was 42%. Bio-oil extracted using the microwave assisted extraction (MAE) system could enhance yield of bio-oil compared to soxhlet extraction. The MAE extraction system is rapid using only water as solvent which is a nonhazardous, environment-friendly technique compared to soxhlet extraction (SE) method using hexane as solvent. Thus, this is a green technique of bio-oil extraction using only water as extractant. Bio-oil extraction from the pyrolysis of empty fruit bunch (EFB), a biomass waste from oil palm crop, was enhanced using a biocatalyst derived from seashell waste. Oil yield for non-catalytic extraction was 43.8% while addition of seashell based biocatalyst was 44.6%. Oil yield for non-catalytic extraction was 43.8% while with addition of seashell-based biocatalyst was 44.6%. The pH of bio-oil increased from 3.5 to 4.3. The viscosity of bio-oil obtained by catalytic means increased from 20.5 to 37.8 cP. A rapid and environment friendly extraction technique is preferable to enhance bio-oil yield. The microwave assisted approach is a green, rapid and environmental friendly extraction technique for the production of bio-oil bearing crops.

  17. Oil from algae; salvation from peak oil?

    PubMed

    Rhodes, Christopher J

    2009-01-01

    A review is presented of the use of algae principally to produce biodiesel fuel, as a replacement for conventional fuel derived from petroleum. The imperative for such a strategy is that cheap supplies of crude oil will begin to wane within a decade and land-based crops cannot provide more than a small amount of the fuel the world currently uses, even if food production were allowed to be severely compromised. For comparison, if one tonne of biodiesel might be produced say, from rape-seed per hectare, that same area of land might ideally yield 100 tonnes of biodiesel grown from algae. Placed into perspective, the entire world annual petroleum demand which is now provided for by 31 billion barrels of crude oil might instead be met from algae grown on an area equivalent to 4% of that of the United States. As an additional benefit, in contrast to growing crops it is not necessary to use arable land, since pond-systems might be placed anywhere, even in deserts, and since algae grow well on saline water or wastewaters, no additional burden is imposed on freshwater-a significant advantage, as water shortages threaten. Algae offer the further promise that they might provide future food supplies, beyond what can be offered by land-based agriculture to a rising global population.

  18. How Are Oil Spills Treated?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Whitmore, William

    2005-01-01

    No two oil spills are the same. Logistically, oil spills are a nightmare because they are unanticipated and uncontrolled events. Oil spills present a threat to wildlife and coastal resources, concerning everyone from local residents to state environmental agencies and the federal government. Thousands of people may be involved in a significant…

  19. Vegetable oil fuels: A review

    SciTech Connect

    Karaosmanoglu, F.

    1999-04-01

    Using vegetable oils as fuel alternatives has economic, environmental, and energy benefits for Turkey. The present work provides insight to the status of vegetable oil fuels in Turkey. A brief historical background of the issue, as well as an up to date review of the research carried out on vegetable oil fuels, is given and the future of their production and application is discussed.

  20. Burning crude oil without pollution

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Houseman, J.

    1979-01-01

    Crude oil can be burned at drilling sites by two-stage combustion process without producing pollution. Process allows easier conformance to strict federal or state clean air standards without installation of costly pollution removal equipment. Secondary oil recovery can be accomplished with injection of steam heating by burning oil.

  1. Low viscosity oils. [oxidation resistance

    SciTech Connect

    Harris, S.W.; Schaap, L.A.; Udelhofen, J.H.

    1981-08-04

    An improved low viscosity (I.E.) 5 W to 7 1/2 W engine oil resistant to oxidation and consumption comprising a major portion of a lubricating oil stock, a sulfurized oil, a dispersant, an anti-corrosion agent, an anti-rust agent, a detergent, an antioxidant, and a viscosity index improver.

  2. Oil and fat absorbing polymers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Marsh, H. E., Jr. (Inventor)

    1977-01-01

    A method is described for forming a solid network polymer having a minimal amount of crosslinking for use in absorbing fats and oils. The polymer remains solid at a swelling ratio in oil or fat of at least ten and provides an oil absorption greater than 900 weight percent.

  3. Culture systems: mineral oil overlay.

    PubMed

    Morbeck, Dean E; Leonard, Phoebe H

    2012-01-01

    Mineral oil overlay microdrop is commonly used during in vitro fertilization (IVF) procedures. Though mineral oil appears homogeneous, it is an undefined product that can vary in quality. Here, we describe the history, chemistry, processing, and optimal use of mineral oil for IVF and embryo culture.

  4. Structural Oil Pan With Integrated Oil Filtration And Cooling System

    DOEpatents

    Freese, V, Charles Edwin

    2000-05-09

    An oil pan for an internal combustion engine includes a body defining a reservoir for collecting engine coolant. The reservoir has a bottom and side walls extending upwardly from the bottom to present a flanged lip through which the oil pan may be mounted to the engine. An oil cooler assembly is housed within the body of the oil pan for cooling lubricant received from the engine. The body includes an oil inlet passage formed integrally therewith for receiving lubricant from the engine and delivering lubricant to the oil cooler. In addition, the body also includes an oil pick up passage formed integrally therewith for providing fluid communication between the reservoir and the engine through the flanged lip.

  5. Lubricating oil composition

    SciTech Connect

    Malec, R.E.

    1980-01-29

    The reaction product of (A) high molecular weight hydrocarbon-substituted phenols, (B) aldehydes, (C) ammonia or amines having a reactive hydrogen atom, and (D) alkylene oxides are effective dispersants for lubricating oil and impart detergent properties to liquid hydrocarbon fuels such as gasoline.

  6. Oil Exploration Mapping

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    After concluding an oil exploration agreement with the Republic of Yemen, Chevron International needed detailed geologic and topographic maps of the area. Chevron's remote sensing team used imagery from Landsat and SPOT, combining images into composite views. The project was successfully concluded and resulted in greatly improved base maps and unique topographic maps.

  7. Kicking the oil addiction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vilenchik, Yaakov; Peled, Emanuel; Andelman, David

    2010-01-01

    Few people were left unaffected by the soaring oil prices of summer 2008. Motorists were the hardest hit as the price at the pumps reached an all time high, but nobody could avoid paying more for their food as higher transport costs were passed on from the retailer to the consumer.

  8. African oil plays

    SciTech Connect

    Clifford, A.J. )

    1989-09-01

    The vast continent of Africa hosts over eight sedimentary basins, covering approximately half its total area. Of these basins, only 82% have entered a mature exploration phase, 9% have had little or no exploration at all. Since oil was first discovered in Africa during the mid-1950s, old play concepts continue to bear fruit, for example in Egypt and Nigeria, while new play concepts promise to become more important, such as in Algeria, Angola, Chad, Egypt, Gabon, and Sudan. The most exciting developments of recent years in African oil exploration are: (1) the Gamba/Dentale play, onshore Gabon; (2) the Pinda play, offshore Angola; (3) the Lucula/Toca play, offshore Cabinda; (4) the Metlaoui play, offshore Libya/Tunisia; (5) the mid-Cretaceous sand play, Chad/Sudan; and (6) the TAG-I/F6 play, onshore Algeria. Examples of these plays are illustrated along with some of the more traditional oil plays. Where are the future oil plays likely to develop No doubt, the Saharan basins of Algeria and Libya will feature strongly, also the presalt of Equatorial West Africa, the Central African Rift System and, more speculatively, offshore Ethiopia and Namibia, and onshore Madagascar, Mozambique, and Tanzania.

  9. Oil and Gas.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meyerhoff, Arthur A.

    1983-01-01

    Highlights worldwide oil and gas developments during 1982, focusing on production, drilling, and other activities/projects in specific countries and regional areas. Indicates that the most political actions (other than the U.S. decision not to protest further the Siberian pipeline project) were the continued Afghanistan and Iraq-Iran wars.…

  10. 3-dimensional Oil Drift Simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wettre, C.; Reistad, M.; Hjøllo, B.Å.

    Simulation of oil drift has been an ongoing activity at the Norwegian Meteorological Institute since the 1970's. The Marine Forecasting Centre provides a 24-hour service for the Norwegian Pollution Control Authority and the oil companies operating in the Norwegian sector. The response time is 30 minutes. From 2002 the service is extended to simulation of oil drift from oil spills in deep water, using the DeepBlow model developed by SINTEF Applied Chemistry. The oil drift model can be applied both for instantaneous and continuous releases. The changes in the mass of oil and emulsion as a result of evaporation and emulsion are computed. For oil spill at deep water, hydrate formation and gas dissolution are taken into account. The properties of the oil depend on the oil type, and in the present version 64 different types of oil can be simulated. For accurate oil drift simulations it is important to have the best possible data on the atmospheric and oceanic conditions. The oil drift simulations at the Norwegian Meteorological Institute are always based on the most updated data from numerical models of the atmosphere and the ocean. The drift of the surface oil is computed from the vectorial sum of the surface current from the ocean model and the wave induced Stokes drift computed from wave energy spectra from the wave prediction model. In the new model the current distribution with depth is taken into account when calculating the drift of the dispersed oil droplets. Salinity and temperature profiles from the ocean model are needed in the DeepBlow model. The result of the oil drift simulations can be plotted on sea charts used for navigation, either as trajectory plots or particle plots showing the situation at a given time. The results can also be sent as data files to be included in the user's own GIS system.

  11. Pumpling system for oil production

    SciTech Connect

    Yamato, I.; Yamata, T.

    1984-05-29

    A pumping system for oil production comprises a hydraulic unit set on the ground and adapted to send out a pressure oil, and a pump unit set in an oil well and adapted to draw up crude oil therefrom. The pump unit comprises a pump cylinder, and a plunger reciprocatingly moved in the pump cylinder. The plunger is provided with a clearance formed between the outer circumferential surface of a lower end portion thereof and the inner circumferential surface of the pump cylinder. The pressure oil supplied from the hydraulic unit is ejected from the clearance along the inner surface of the pump cylinder into a cylinder chamber.

  12. Pumping system for oil production

    SciTech Connect

    Yamato, I.; Yamata, T.

    1984-05-29

    A pumping system for oil production comprises a hydraulic unit set on the ground and adapted to send out a pressure oil, and a pump unit set in an oil well and adapted to draw up crude oil therefrom. The pump unit comprises a pump cylinder, and a plunger reciprocatingly moved in the pump cylinder. The plunger is provided with a clearance formed between the outer circumferential surface of a lower end portion thereof and the inner circumferential surface of the pump cylinder. The pressure oil supplied from the hydraulic unit is ejected from the clearance along the inner surface of the pump cylinder into a cylinder chamber.

  13. Molecular cloning and characterization of a Perilla frutescens cytochrome P450 enzyme that catalyzes the later steps of perillaldehyde biosynthesis.

    PubMed

    Fujiwara, Yumi; Ito, Michiho

    2017-02-01

    Perilla produces the cyclohexanoid monoterpene perillaldehyde as a major constituent of an essential oil that is accumulated in its glandular trichomes. Perillaldehyde is a marker compound for quality control of soyo and has biological activities such as antibacterial, sedative, or vasodilatory effects. The predicted perillaldehyde formation involves the cyclization of geranyl diphosphate, hydroxylation, and oxidation, and cytochrome P450 plays a crucial role in perillaldehyde biosynthesis. In this study, a cytochrome P450-type enzyme with perillyl alcohol and perillaldehyde synthase activities was isolated by analyzing an expressed sequence tag library from several oil types of pure lines of perilla. A recombinant protein with a sequence that was highly specific for the type of perillaldehyde was expressed in Saccharomyces cerevisiae and evaluated by an in vitro enzymatic reaction. The recombinant protein catalyzed the hydroxylation and oxidation of limonene to perillyl alcohol and perillaldehyde. Cytochrome P450 limonene-7-hydroxylase cDNA from Perilla frutescens has been previously isolated. The cytochrome P450 isolated in this study shares 37% amino-acid identity with the previously isolated enzyme; however, it may have different characteristics.

  14. Effect of mineral oil, sunflower oil, and coconut oil on prevention of hair damage.

    PubMed

    Rele, Aarti S; Mohile, R B

    2003-01-01

    Previously published results showed that both in vitro and in vivo coconut oil (CNO) treatments prevented combing damage of various hair types. Using the same methodology, an attempt was made to study the properties of mineral oil and sunflower oil on hair. Mineral oil (MO) was selected because it is extensively used in hair oil formulations in India, because it is non-greasy in nature, and because it is cheaper than vegetable oils like coconut and sunflower oils. The study was extended to sunflower oil (SFO) because it is the second most utilized base oil in the hair oil industry on account of its non-freezing property and its odorlessness at ambient temperature. As the aim was to cover different treatments, and the effect of these treatments on various hair types using the above oils, the number of experiments to be conducted was a very high number and a technique termed as the Taguchi Design of Experimentation was used. The findings clearly indicate the strong impact that coconut oil application has to hair as compared to application of both sunflower and mineral oils. Among three oils, coconut oil was the only oil found to reduce the protein loss remarkably for both undamaged and damaged hair when used as a pre-wash and post-wash grooming product. Both sunflower and mineral oils do not help at all in reducing the protein loss from hair. This difference in results could arise from the composition of each of these oils. Coconut oil, being a triglyceride of lauric acid (principal fatty acid), has a high affinity for hair proteins and, because of its low molecular weight and straight linear chain, is able to penetrate inside the hair shaft. Mineral oil, being a hydrocarbon, has no affinity for proteins and therefore is not able to penetrate and yield better results. In the case of sunflower oil, although it is a triglyceride of linoleic acid, because of its bulky structure due to the presence of double bonds, it does not penetrate the fiber, consequently resulting

  15. Aerobic microbial enhanced oil recovery

    SciTech Connect

    Torsvik, T.; Gilje, E.; Sunde, E.

    1995-12-31

    In aerobic MEOR, the ability of oil-degrading bacteria to mobilize oil is used to increase oil recovery. In this process, oxygen and mineral nutrients are injected into the oil reservoir in order to stimulate growth of aerobic oil-degrading bacteria in the reservoir. Experiments carried out in a model sandstone with stock tank oil and bacteria isolated from offshore wells showed that residual oil saturation was lowered from 27% to 3%. The process was time dependent, not pore volume dependent. During MEOR flooding, the relative permeability of water was lowered. Oxygen and active bacteria were needed for the process to take place. Maximum efficiency was reached at low oxygen concentrations, approximately 1 mg O{sub 2}/liter.

  16. Unconventional Oil and Gas Resources

    SciTech Connect

    2006-09-15

    World oil use is projected to grow to 98 million b/d in 2015 and 118 million b/d in 2030. Total world natural gas consumption is projected to rise to 134 Tcf in 2015 and 182 Tcf in 2030. In an era of declining production and increasing demand, economically producing oil and gas from unconventional sources is a key challenge to maintaining global economic growth. Some unconventional hydrocarbon sources are already being developed, including gas shales, tight gas sands, heavy oil, oil sands, and coal bed methane. Roughly 20 years ago, gas production from tight sands, shales, and coals was considered uneconomic. Today, these resources provide 25% of the U.S. gas supply and that number is likely to increase. Venezuela has over 300 billion barrels of unproven extra-heavy oil reserves which would give it the largest reserves of any country in the world. It is currently producing over 550,000 b/d of heavy oil. Unconventional oil is also being produced in Canada from the Athabasca oil sands. 1.6 trillion barrels of oil are locked in the sands of which 175 billion barrels are proven reserves that can be recovered using current technology. Production from 29 companies now operating there exceeds 1 million barrels per day. The report provides an overview of continuous petroleum sources and gives a concise overview of the current status of varying types of unconventional oil and gas resources. Topics covered in the report include: an overview of the history of Oil and Natural Gas; an analysis of the Oil and Natural Gas industries, including current and future production, consumption, and reserves; a detailed description of the different types of unconventional oil and gas resources; an analysis of the key business factors that are driving the increased interest in unconventional resources; an analysis of the barriers that are hindering the development of unconventional resources; profiles of key producing regions; and, profiles of key unconventional oil and gas producers.

  17. Antioxidant protection of edible oils.

    PubMed

    Cheung, Sabrina Ching Man; Szeto, Yim Tong; Benzie, Iris F F

    2007-03-01

    The ability of different cooking oils to withstand oxidation was investigated in relation to their native antioxidant capacity [measured as the Ferric Reducing/Antioxidant Power (FRAP) value]. The antiperoxidation effect of the presence of the Chinese herbs, du-zhong (Cortex Eucommia ulmoides) and ginseng (Panax ginseng C.A. Mayer) in corn oil was also investigated over 26 days' storage at 55 degrees C. Results showed that sesame oil had the highest FRAP value (803 microM), followed by canola oil (400 microM), and sunflower, peanut, corn and olive oils (100-153 microM). Oils with higher intrinsic antioxidant content showed higher resistance to oxidation, although this was not statistically significant. Corn oil to which was added the herbs du-zhong, ginseng or both had increased resistance to oxidation (conjugated diene level and lipid peroxide formation) over 26 days. FRAP values of the oil/herb mixtures decreased during this time, implying utilisation of herbal antioxidants. Results have implications for increasing the shelf-life and usage time of cooking oils by addition of herbs which can increase resistance of the oil to oxidation. Results have implications also for health, as it is possible that ingestion of these herbs could increase resistance of polyunsaturated fatty acids of cell membranes and lipoproteins to oxidation within the body.

  18. Tall oil as additive in gas drive hydrocarbon oil recovery

    SciTech Connect

    Djabbarah, N.F.

    1988-04-12

    A miscible displacement process for recovering oil from a subterranean, oil-containing formation penetrated by at least one injection well and at least one spaced-apart production well and having fluid communication between the injection and the production wells is described comprising: (a) injecting a slug of til oil into the formation through the injection well; (b) injecting a slug of a displacing fluid into the formation through the injection well, the displacing fluid being selected from the group consisting of carbon monoxide, carbon dioxide, methane, nitrogen, air, flue gas, combustion gas and mixtures thereof, the injection of the tall oil lowering the minimum miscibility pressure of the displacing fluid in the formation oil; and (c) recovering the oil through the production well.

  19. Oil shale retort apparatus

    SciTech Connect

    Reeves, Adam A.; Mast, Earl L.; Greaves, Melvin J.

    1990-01-01

    A retorting apparatus including a vertical kiln and a plurality of tubes for delivering rock to the top of the kiln and removal of processed rock from the bottom of the kiln so that the rock descends through the kiln as a moving bed. Distributors are provided for delivering gas to the kiln to effect heating of the rock and to disturb the rock particles during their descent. The distributors are constructed and disposed to deliver gas uniformly to the kiln and to withstand and overcome adverse conditions resulting from heat and from the descending rock. The rock delivery tubes are geometrically sized, spaced and positioned so as to deliver the shale uniformly into the kiln and form symmetrically disposed generally vertical paths, or "rock chimneys", through the descending shale which offer least resistance to upward flow of gas. When retorting oil shale, a delineated collection chamber near the top of the kiln collects gas and entrained oil mist rising through the kiln.

  20. Oil well service rig

    SciTech Connect

    Allen, W.H.

    1981-03-24

    An oil well service rig having three reels, two of the reels actuated by a hydraulic pump through a gear box which provides for selective engagement or disengagement and a two speed gear ratio change for either reel, the hydraulic pump being driven by a gasoline engine. An independent hydraulically operated brake system is utilized on the reels wherein one side of each reel is provided with a greater diameter than the other side, the larger side having a brake caliper pad assembly in engagement therewith. A smaller reel, also controlled by the hydraulic motor, controls the inclination and disposition of a mast having a double sheave assembly at its top receiving cables from each main reel for raising and lowering tools into the oil well shaft.

  1. Shale oil recovery process

    DOEpatents

    Zerga, Daniel P.

    1980-01-01

    A process of producing within a subterranean oil shale deposit a retort chamber containing permeable fragmented material wherein a series of explosive charges are emplaced in the deposit in a particular configuration comprising an initiating round which functions to produce an upward flexure of the overburden and to initiate fragmentation of the oil shale within the area of the retort chamber to be formed, the initiating round being followed in a predetermined time sequence by retreating lines of emplaced charges developing further fragmentation within the retort zone and continued lateral upward flexure of the overburden. The initiating round is characterized by a plurality of 5-spot patterns and the retreating lines of charges are positioned and fired along zigzag lines generally forming retreating rows of W's. Particular time delays in the firing of successive charges are disclosed.

  2. Fish oil: a panacea?

    PubMed

    Bilo, H J; Gans, R O

    1990-01-01

    Since the first report by Bang and Dyerberg regarding the apparent beneficial effects of a fish oil-enriched diet on the incidence of atherosclerotic heart disease in Greenland eskimos, a considerable number of studies have been performed regarding the effects of omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids on the prevention and treatment of a variety of disease states not necessarily related to atherosclerosis. Studies have been performed on healthy volunteers and in patients with hyperlipidaemia, atherosclerotic vascular disease, diabetes, asthma, psoriasis and chronic renal insufficiency, amongst others. Positive effects on platelet activity, lipid profile, blood rheology and blood pressure--all factors which are presumably of importance in the pathogenesis of atherosclerotic disease have been noted in these studies, albeit with a wide range of variability. Some negative effects also appear to exist. However, some general conclusions can be made regarding the effects of a fish oil-enriched diet.

  3. Emulsified industrial oils recycling

    SciTech Connect

    Gabris, T.

    1982-04-01

    The industrial lubricant market has been analyzed with emphasis on current and/or developing recycling and re-refining technologies. This task has been performed for the United States and other industrialized countries, specifically France, West Germany, Italy and Japan. Attention has been focused at emulsion-type fluids regardless of the industrial application involved. It was found that emulsion-type fluids in the United States represent a much higher percentage of the total fluids used than in other industrialized countries. While recycling is an active matter explored by the industry, re-refining is rather a result of other issues than the mere fact that oil can be regenerated from a used industrial emulsion. To extend the longevity of an emulsion is a logical step to keep expenses down by using the emulsion as long as possible. There is, however, another important factor influencing this issue: regulations governing the disposal of such fluids. The ecological question, the respect for nature and the natural balances, is often seen now as everybody's task. Regulations forbid dumping used emulsions in the environment without prior treatment of the water phase and separation of the oil phase. This is a costly procedure, so recycling is attractive since it postpones the problem. It is questionable whether re-refining of these emulsions - as a business - could stand on its own if these emulsions did not have to be taken apart for disposal purposes. Once the emulsion is separated into a water and an oil phase, however, re-refining of the oil does become economical.

  4. Developments in Oil Shale

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-11-17

    retorting Chevron CO Piceance Basin, Rio Blanco In situ/ heated gas injection EGL CO Piceance Basin, Rio Blanco In situ/ steam injection Shell CO Oil...Shale Test Site (1); Piceance Basin, Rio Blanco In situ Conversion Process (ICP) using self-contained heaters. Shell CO Nahcolite Test Site (2...Piceance Basin, Rio Blanco Two-Step ICP using hot water injection Shell CO Advanced Heater Test Site (3); Picenace Basin, Rio Blanco Electric-ICP using

  5. Helicopter Transmission Oil Discolouration

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-02-01

    z Mass to charge ratio NaOH Sodium Hydroxide SEM-EDS Scanning Electron Microscopy - Energy Dispersive Spectroscopy TRGB Tail Rotor Gear Box...515 or H-537 specification. A previous investigation into these field incidents identified one of the oil additives as potentially being the cause of...chelate, thus removing the catalytic potential of the metal ions. One disadvantage of chelating additives is they may accelerate the transfer of

  6. Hot oiling spreadsheet

    SciTech Connect

    Mansure, A.J.

    1996-09-01

    One of the most common oil-field treatments is hot oiling to remove paraffin from wells. Even though the practice is common, the thermal effectiveness of the process is not commonly understood. In order for producers to easily understand the thermodynamics of hot oiling, a simple tool is needed for estimating downhole temperatures. Such a tool has been developed that was distributed as a compiled, public-domain-software spreadsheet. That spreadsheet has evolved into an interactive from on the World Wide Web and has been adapted into a Windows{trademark} program by Petrolite, St. Louis MO. The development of such a tools was facilitated by expressing downhole temperatures in terms of analytic formulas. Considerable algebraic work is required to develop such formulas. Also, the data describing hot oiling is customarily a mixture of practical units that must be converted to a consistent set of units. To facilitate the algebraic manipulations and to assure unit conversions are correct, during development parallel calculations were made using the spreadsheet and a symbolic mathematics program. Derivation of the formulas considered falling film flow in the annulus and started from the transient differential equations so that the effects of the heat capacity of the tubing and casing could be included. While this approach to developing a software product does not have the power and sophistication of a finite element or difference code, it produces a user friendly product that implements the equations solved with a minimum potential for bugs. This allows emphasis in development of the product to be placed on the physics.

  7. Electrobioremediation of oil spills.

    PubMed

    Daghio, Matteo; Aulenta, Federico; Vaiopoulou, Eleni; Franzetti, Andrea; Arends, Jan B A; Sherry, Angela; Suárez-Suárez, Ana; Head, Ian M; Bestetti, Giuseppina; Rabaey, Korneel

    2017-05-01

    Annually, thousands of oil spills occur across the globe. As a result, petroleum substances and petrochemical compounds are widespread contaminants causing concern due to their toxicity and recalcitrance. Many remediation strategies have been developed using both physicochemical and biological approaches. Biological strategies are most benign, aiming to enhance microbial metabolic activities by supplying limiting inorganic nutrients, electron acceptors or donors, thus stimulating oxidation or reduction of contaminants. A key issue is controlling the supply of electron donors/acceptors. Bioelectrochemical systems (BES) have emerged, in which an electrical current serves as either electron donor or acceptor for oil spill bioremediation. BES are highly controllable and can possibly also serve as biosensors for real time monitoring of the degradation process. Despite being promising, multiple aspects need to be considered to make BES suitable for field applications including system design, electrode materials, operational parameters, mode of action and radius of influence. The microbiological processes, involved in bioelectrochemical contaminant degradation, are currently not fully understood, particularly in relation to electron transfer mechanisms. Especially in sulfate rich environments, the sulfur cycle appears pivotal during hydrocarbon oxidation. This review provides a comprehensive analysis of the research on bioelectrochemical remediation of oil spills and of the key parameters involved in the process.

  8. Detection of Chemlali extra-virgin olive oil adulteration mixed with soybean oil, corn oil, and sunflower oil by using GC and HPLC.

    PubMed

    Jabeur, Hazem; Zribi, Akram; Makni, Jamel; Rebai, Ahmed; Abdelhedi, Ridha; Bouaziz, Mohamed

    2014-05-28

    Fatty acid composition as an indicator of purity suggests that linolenic acid content could be used as a parameter for the detection of extra/virgin olive oil fraud with 5% of soybean oil. The adulteration could also be detected by the increase of the trans-fatty acid contents with 3% of soybean oil, 2% of corn oil, and 4% of sunflower oil. The use of the ΔECN42 proved to be effective in Chemlali extra-virgin olive oil adulteration even at low levels: 1% of sunflower oil, 3% of soybean oil, and 3% of corn oil. The sterol profile is almost decisive in clarifying the adulteration of olive oils with other cheaper ones: 1% of sunflower oil could be detected by the increase of Δ7-stigmastenol and 4% of corn oil by the increase of campesterol. Linear discriminant analysis could represent a powerful tool for faster and cheaper evaluation of extra-virgin olive oil adulteration.

  9. 14 CFR 25.1023 - Oil radiators.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Oil radiators. 25.1023 Section 25.1023... STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY AIRPLANES Powerplant Oil System § 25.1023 Oil radiators. (a) Each oil radiator... would be subjected in operation. (b) Each oil radiator air duct must be located so that, in case of...

  10. 14 CFR 25.1023 - Oil radiators.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Oil radiators. 25.1023 Section 25.1023... STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY AIRPLANES Powerplant Oil System § 25.1023 Oil radiators. (a) Each oil radiator... would be subjected in operation. (b) Each oil radiator air duct must be located so that, in case of...

  11. 14 CFR 29.1023 - Oil radiators.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Oil radiators. 29.1023 Section 29.1023... STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Powerplant Oil System § 29.1023 Oil radiators. (a) Each oil radiator must be able to withstand any vibration, inertia, and oil pressure loads to which it would...

  12. 14 CFR 29.1023 - Oil radiators.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Oil radiators. 29.1023 Section 29.1023... STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Powerplant Oil System § 29.1023 Oil radiators. (a) Each oil radiator must be able to withstand any vibration, inertia, and oil pressure loads to which it would...

  13. 14 CFR 25.1023 - Oil radiators.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Oil radiators. 25.1023 Section 25.1023... STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY AIRPLANES Powerplant Oil System § 25.1023 Oil radiators. (a) Each oil radiator... would be subjected in operation. (b) Each oil radiator air duct must be located so that, in case of...

  14. 14 CFR 25.1023 - Oil radiators.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Oil radiators. 25.1023 Section 25.1023... STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY AIRPLANES Powerplant Oil System § 25.1023 Oil radiators. (a) Each oil radiator... would be subjected in operation. (b) Each oil radiator air duct must be located so that, in case of...

  15. 14 CFR 29.1023 - Oil radiators.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Oil radiators. 29.1023 Section 29.1023... STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Powerplant Oil System § 29.1023 Oil radiators. (a) Each oil radiator must be able to withstand any vibration, inertia, and oil pressure loads to which it would...

  16. 14 CFR 29.1023 - Oil radiators.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Oil radiators. 29.1023 Section 29.1023... STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Powerplant Oil System § 29.1023 Oil radiators. (a) Each oil radiator must be able to withstand any vibration, inertia, and oil pressure loads to which it would...

  17. 14 CFR 29.1023 - Oil radiators.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Oil radiators. 29.1023 Section 29.1023... STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Powerplant Oil System § 29.1023 Oil radiators. (a) Each oil radiator must be able to withstand any vibration, inertia, and oil pressure loads to which it would...

  18. 14 CFR 25.1023 - Oil radiators.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Oil radiators. 25.1023 Section 25.1023... STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY AIRPLANES Powerplant Oil System § 25.1023 Oil radiators. (a) Each oil radiator... would be subjected in operation. (b) Each oil radiator air duct must be located so that, in case of...

  19. Method of removing hydroperoxides from lubricating oils

    SciTech Connect

    Shaub, H.; Brownawell, D.W.; DiBenedetto, A.

    1991-03-05

    This patent describes a method of decomposing hydroperoxides present in a lubricating oil. It comprises: contacting the lubricating oil with a heterogenous hydroperoxide decomposer for a period of time sufficient to cause a reduction in the amount of hydroperoxides present in the oil, the hydroperoxide decomposer being immobilized when contacting the oil so as not to pass into the oil.

  20. 14 CFR 29.1025 - Oil valves.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Oil valves. 29.1025 Section 29.1025... STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Powerplant Oil System § 29.1025 Oil valves. (a) Each oil shutoff must meet the requirements of § 29.1189. (b) The closing of oil shutoffs may not prevent...

  1. 14 CFR 25.1013 - Oil tanks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Oil tanks. 25.1013 Section 25.1013... STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY AIRPLANES Powerplant Oil System § 25.1013 Oil tanks. (a) Installation. Each oil tank installation must meet the requirements of § 25.967. (b) Expansion space. Oil tank...

  2. 49 CFR 230.116 - Oil tanks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Oil tanks. 230.116 Section 230.116 Transportation... Locomotive Tanks § 230.116 Oil tanks. The oil tanks on oil burning steam locomotives shall be maintained free from leaks. The oil supply pipe shall be equipped with a safety cut-off device that: (a) Is...

  3. 14 CFR 29.1025 - Oil valves.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Oil valves. 29.1025 Section 29.1025... STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Powerplant Oil System § 29.1025 Oil valves. (a) Each oil shutoff must meet the requirements of § 29.1189. (b) The closing of oil shutoffs may not prevent...

  4. 14 CFR 25.1025 - Oil valves.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Oil valves. 25.1025 Section 25.1025... STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY AIRPLANES Powerplant Oil System § 25.1025 Oil valves. (a) Each oil shutoff must meet the requirements of § 25.1189. (b) The closing of oil shutoff means may not prevent...

  5. 14 CFR 29.1013 - Oil tanks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Oil tanks. 29.1013 Section 29.1013... STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Powerplant Oil System § 29.1013 Oil tanks. (a) Installation. Each oil tank installation must meet the requirements of § 29.967. (b) Expansion space. Oil tank...

  6. 14 CFR 25.1025 - Oil valves.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Oil valves. 25.1025 Section 25.1025... STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY AIRPLANES Powerplant Oil System § 25.1025 Oil valves. (a) Each oil shutoff must meet the requirements of § 25.1189. (b) The closing of oil shutoff means may not prevent...

  7. 14 CFR 29.1025 - Oil valves.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Oil valves. 29.1025 Section 29.1025... STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Powerplant Oil System § 29.1025 Oil valves. (a) Each oil shutoff must meet the requirements of § 29.1189. (b) The closing of oil shutoffs may not prevent...

  8. 49 CFR 230.116 - Oil tanks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Oil tanks. 230.116 Section 230.116 Transportation... Locomotive Tanks § 230.116 Oil tanks. The oil tanks on oil burning steam locomotives shall be maintained free from leaks. The oil supply pipe shall be equipped with a safety cut-off device that: (a) Is...

  9. 14 CFR 25.1025 - Oil valves.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Oil valves. 25.1025 Section 25.1025... STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY AIRPLANES Powerplant Oil System § 25.1025 Oil valves. (a) Each oil shutoff must meet the requirements of § 25.1189. (b) The closing of oil shutoff means may not prevent...

  10. 49 CFR 230.116 - Oil tanks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Oil tanks. 230.116 Section 230.116 Transportation... Locomotive Tanks § 230.116 Oil tanks. The oil tanks on oil burning steam locomotives shall be maintained free from leaks. The oil supply pipe shall be equipped with a safety cut-off device that: (a) Is...

  11. 14 CFR 25.1025 - Oil valves.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Oil valves. 25.1025 Section 25.1025... STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY AIRPLANES Powerplant Oil System § 25.1025 Oil valves. (a) Each oil shutoff must meet the requirements of § 25.1189. (b) The closing of oil shutoff means may not prevent...

  12. 7 CFR 985.11 - Salable oil.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Salable oil. 985.11 Section 985.11 Agriculture... HANDLING OF SPEARMINT OIL PRODUCED IN THE FAR WEST Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 985.11 Salable oil. Salable oil means that oil which is free to be handled....

  13. 14 CFR 29.1013 - Oil tanks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Oil tanks. 29.1013 Section 29.1013... STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Powerplant Oil System § 29.1013 Oil tanks. (a) Installation. Each oil tank installation must meet the requirements of § 29.967. (b) Expansion space. Oil tank...

  14. 14 CFR 25.1013 - Oil tanks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Oil tanks. 25.1013 Section 25.1013... STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY AIRPLANES Powerplant Oil System § 25.1013 Oil tanks. (a) Installation. Each oil tank installation must meet the requirements of § 25.967. (b) Expansion space. Oil tank...

  15. 7 CFR 985.11 - Salable oil.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Salable oil. 985.11 Section 985.11 Agriculture... HANDLING OF SPEARMINT OIL PRODUCED IN THE FAR WEST Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 985.11 Salable oil. Salable oil means that oil which is free to be handled....

  16. 49 CFR 230.116 - Oil tanks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Oil tanks. 230.116 Section 230.116 Transportation... Locomotive Tanks § 230.116 Oil tanks. The oil tanks on oil burning steam locomotives shall be maintained free from leaks. The oil supply pipe shall be equipped with a safety cut-off device that: (a) Is...

  17. 14 CFR 25.1025 - Oil valves.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Oil valves. 25.1025 Section 25.1025... STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY AIRPLANES Powerplant Oil System § 25.1025 Oil valves. (a) Each oil shutoff must meet the requirements of § 25.1189. (b) The closing of oil shutoff means may not prevent...

  18. 14 CFR 29.1025 - Oil valves.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Oil valves. 29.1025 Section 29.1025... STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Powerplant Oil System § 29.1025 Oil valves. (a) Each oil shutoff must meet the requirements of § 29.1189. (b) The closing of oil shutoffs may not prevent...

  19. 7 CFR 985.11 - Salable oil.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Salable oil. 985.11 Section 985.11 Agriculture... HANDLING OF SPEARMINT OIL PRODUCED IN THE FAR WEST Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 985.11 Salable oil. Salable oil means that oil which is free to be handled....

  20. 14 CFR 29.1025 - Oil valves.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Oil valves. 29.1025 Section 29.1025... STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Powerplant Oil System § 29.1025 Oil valves. (a) Each oil shutoff must meet the requirements of § 29.1189. (b) The closing of oil shutoffs may not prevent...

  1. 7 CFR 985.11 - Salable oil.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Salable oil. 985.11 Section 985.11 Agriculture... HANDLING OF SPEARMINT OIL PRODUCED IN THE FAR WEST Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 985.11 Salable oil. Salable oil means that oil which is free to be handled....

  2. 7 CFR 985.11 - Salable oil.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Salable oil. 985.11 Section 985.11 Agriculture... HANDLING OF SPEARMINT OIL PRODUCED IN THE FAR WEST Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 985.11 Salable oil. Salable oil means that oil which is free to be handled....

  3. 14 CFR 25.1013 - Oil tanks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Oil tanks. 25.1013 Section 25.1013... STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY AIRPLANES Powerplant Oil System § 25.1013 Oil tanks. (a) Installation. Each oil tank installation must meet the requirements of § 25.967. (b) Expansion space. Oil tank...

  4. 14 CFR 29.1013 - Oil tanks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Oil tanks. 29.1013 Section 29.1013... STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Powerplant Oil System § 29.1013 Oil tanks. (a) Installation. Each oil tank installation must meet the requirements of § 29.967. (b) Expansion space. Oil tank...

  5. Method of operating an oil shale kiln

    DOEpatents

    Reeves, Adam A.

    1978-05-23

    Continuously determining the bulk density of raw and retorted oil shale, the specific gravity of the raw oil shale and the richness of the raw oil shale provides accurate means to control process variables of the retorting of oil shale, predicting oil production, determining mining strategy, and aids in controlling shale placement in the kiln for the retorting.

  6. Sulfonation of phenols extracted from the pyrolysis oil of oil palm shells for enhanced oil recovery.

    PubMed

    Awang, Mariyamni; Seng, Goh Meng

    2008-01-01

    The cost of chemicals prohibits many technically feasible enhanced oil recovery methods to be applied in oil fields. It is shown that by-products from oil palm processing can be a source of valuable chemicals. Analysis of the pyrolysis oil from oil palm shells, a by-product of the palm oil industry, reveals a complex mixture of mainly phenolic compounds, carboxylic acids, and aldehydes. The phenolic compounds were extracted from the pyrolysis oil by liquid-liquid extraction using alkali and an organic solvent and analyzed, indicating the presence of over 93% phenols and phenolic compounds. Simultaneous sulfonation and alkylation of the pyrolysis oil was carried out to produce surfactants for application in oil fields. The lowest measured surface tension and critical micelle concentration was 30.2 mNm(-1) and 0.22 wt%, respectively. Displacement tests showed that 7-14% of the original oil in place was recovered by using a combination of surfactants and xanthan (polymer) as additives.

  7. International Oil Supplies and Demands

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-09-01

    The eleventh Energy Modeling Forum (EMF) working group met four times over the 1989--90 period to compare alternative perspectives on international oil supplies and demands through 2010 and to discuss how alternative supply and demand trends influence the world's dependence upon Middle Eastern oil. Proprietors of eleven economic models of the world oil market used their respective models to simulate a dozen scenarios using standardized assumptions. From its inception, the study was not designed to focus on the short-run impacts of disruptions on oil markets. Nor did the working group attempt to provide a forecast or just a single view of the likely future path for oil prices. The model results guided the group's thinking about many important longer-run market relationships and helped to identify differences of opinion about future oil supplies, demands, and dependence.

  8. International Oil Supplies and Demands

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-04-01

    The eleventh Energy Modeling Forum (EMF) working group met four times over the 1989--1990 period to compare alternative perspectives on international oil supplies and demands through 2010 and to discuss how alternative supply and demand trends influence the world's dependence upon Middle Eastern oil. Proprietors of eleven economic models of the world oil market used their respective models to simulate a dozen scenarios using standardized assumptions. From its inception, the study was not designed to focus on the short-run impacts of disruptions on oil markets. Nor did the working group attempt to provide a forecast or just a single view of the likely future path for oil prices. The model results guided the group's thinking about many important longer-run market relationships and helped to identify differences of opinion about future oil supplies, demands, and dependence.

  9. Studies on the nutraceuticals composition of wheat derived oils wheat bran oil and wheat germ oil.

    PubMed

    Kumar, G Suresh; Krishna, A G Gopala

    2015-02-01

    Fat-soluble nutraceuticals of cereals are known for number of disease preventive activities. Hence wheat bran oil (WBO) and wheat germ oil (WGO) were extracted from wheat bran and germ which yielded 3.35 % and 7.35 % of oil, containing polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) (64 %, 61.2 %) respectively. Both oils contained tocopherols and carotenoids, which were higher in wheat germ oil (273 mg/100 g, 12.23 mg/100 g) than wheat bran oil (190 mg/100 g, 2.21 mg/100 g). Steryl ferulates were also present in both the oils, but their content was eight-fold higher in WBO than in WGO. Three major steryl ferulates identified by HPLC were campesteryl ferulate and sitostenyl ferulate, campestanyl ferulate and β-sitosteryl ferulate as in γ-oryzanol and another ferulate, viz., sitostanyl ferulate. A strong IC50 value of 7.5 mg/mL and 21.6 mg/mL DPPH free radicals scavenging for wheat germ oil for wheat bran oil was observed. NMR ((13)C and (1)H) profile explored the evidence of distribution of antioxidant molecules in the unsaponifiable matter of wheat derived oil. Since oils rich in PUFA and minor components are required for the normal physiological activities, blending such oils with other edible oils of the diet in wheat growing countries like India may be useful to provide health benefits.

  10. 33 CFR 155.320 - Fuel oil and bulk lubricating oil discharge containment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Fuel oil and bulk lubricating oil... VESSELS Vessel Equipment § 155.320 Fuel oil and bulk lubricating oil discharge containment. (a) A ship of... area under or around each fuel oil or bulk lubricating oil tank vent, overflow, and fill pipe, that:...

  11. 33 CFR 155.320 - Fuel oil and bulk lubricating oil discharge containment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Fuel oil and bulk lubricating oil... VESSELS Vessel Equipment § 155.320 Fuel oil and bulk lubricating oil discharge containment. (a) A ship of... area under or around each fuel oil or bulk lubricating oil tank vent, overflow, and fill pipe, that:...

  12. 33 CFR 155.320 - Fuel oil and bulk lubricating oil discharge containment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Fuel oil and bulk lubricating oil... VESSELS Vessel Equipment § 155.320 Fuel oil and bulk lubricating oil discharge containment. (a) A ship of... area under or around each fuel oil or bulk lubricating oil tank vent, overflow, and fill pipe, that:...

  13. Oil and the British economy

    SciTech Connect

    Atkinson, F.; Hall, S.

    1983-01-01

    Despite the 1976 discovery of North Sea oil, the British economy has floundered in the early 1980s. To uncover the reasons behind this predicament, the authors examine the North Sea oil sector, show the impact of its recent development on the British economy, and analyze the automatic responses of an economy to the development of such a new sector, the ''Kay debate,'' and the experience of six other countries with oil and the manufacturing industry.

  14. Extraction of oil from oil sands using thermoresponsive polymeric surfactants.

    PubMed

    Yang, Bingqing; Duhamel, Jean

    2015-03-18

    Several thermoresponsive block copolymers constituted of a poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) and a poly(2-(2-methoxyethoxy) ethyl methacrylate) (PMEO2MA) block were prepared by atom transfer radical polymerization (ATRP) and their ability to extract oil from oil sands was evaluated. The chemical composition of the PEG113-b-PMEO2MAX block copolymers was determined by (1)H NMR and gel permeation chromatography (GPC) with X-values ranging between 48 and 80. Aqueous solutions of block copolymers showed a cloud point of 34 ± 1 °C as determined by turbidimetry and dynamic light scattering (DLS) measurements. DLS experiments indicated that these polymers formed stable block copolymer micelles due to association of the PMEO2MA blocks at temperatures greater than 45 °C with a unimodal distribution of hydrodynamic diameters. Since characterization of the block copolymer solutions as a function of temperature indicated the formation of hydrophobic domains in water for T > 45 °C, extractions of oil from oil sands with the block copolymers were conducted at T = 45 and 50 °C. At these temperatures, 15 mL of a 1 mg/mL PEG113-b-PMEO2MA77 aqueous solution extracted 100% of the oil trapped in 1 g of oil sand if 60 mg of toluene was added to the mixture. When the extraction was conducted under the same experimental conditions without block copolymer, a poor oil recovery of less than 30% was achieved. Starting with a 1 mg/mL block copolymer concentration, the block copolymer aqueous solution could be recycled up to five successive extractions while maintaining satisfying oil recovery. Each extraction cycle led to a 22% mass loss of block copolymer, certainly due to association with the toluene, oil, and sand particles. Together these experiments demonstrate that thermoresponsive block copolymers can be powerful aids to enhance the oil recovery of oil sands.

  15. Maps of crude oil futures

    SciTech Connect

    Masters, C.D.

    1986-05-01

    The Crude Oil Futures presentation shows their concept of the quantity of oil possibly present (the combination of conventional demonstrated reserves plus undiscovered recoverable resources) within the areas outlined. The Crude Oil Futures is not as an exploration map but as a perspective on the distribution of world oil. The occurrence of oil is, after all, a function of particular geologic factors that are not everywhere present. Furthermore, large amounts of oil can occur only where the several necessary independent variables (geologic factors) combine optimally. In the Western Hemisphere, similar minimal crude oil futures are shown for North America and South America. This similarity is a reflection not of similar geology but rather of the fact that most of the oil has already been produced from North America, whereas South America as a whole (except for Venezuela) possesses a geology less likely to produce oil. In Europe, Africa, and Asia, four regions are dominant: the Middle East, Libya, North Sea, and west Siberia. Paleogeography and source rock distribution were keys to this distribution - the Middle East and Libya reflecting the Tethyan association, and the North Sea and west Siberia benefitting from the Late Jurassic marine transgression into geographic environments where ocean circulation was restricted by tectonic events.

  16. Solar retorting of oil shale

    DOEpatents

    Gregg, David W.

    1983-01-01

    An apparatus and method for retorting oil shale using solar radiation. Oil shale is introduced into a first retorting chamber having a solar focus zone. There the oil shale is exposed to solar radiation and rapidly brought to a predetermined retorting temperature. Once the shale has reached this temperature, it is removed from the solar focus zone and transferred to a second retorting chamber where it is heated. In a second chamber, the oil shale is maintained at the retorting temperature, without direct exposure to solar radiation, until the retorting is complete.

  17. Oil cooled, hermetic refrigerant compressor

    DOEpatents

    English, William A.; Young, Robert R.

    1985-01-01

    A hermetic refrigerant compressor having an electric motor and compressor assembly in a hermetic shell is cooled by oil which is first cooled in an external cooler 18 and is then delivered through the shell to the top of the motor rotor 24 where most of it is flung radially outwardly within the confined space provided by the cap 50 which channels the flow of most of the oil around the top of the stator 26 and then out to a multiplicity of holes 52 to flow down to the sump and provide further cooling of the motor and compressor. Part of the oil descends internally of the motor to the annular chamber 58 to provide oil cooling of the lower part of the motor, with this oil exiting through vent hole 62 also to the sump. Suction gas with entrained oil and liquid refrigerant therein is delivered to an oil separator 68 from which the suction gas passes by a confined path in pipe 66 to the suction plenum 64 and the separated oil drops from the separator to the sump. By providing the oil cooling of the parts, the suction gas is not used for cooling purposes and accordingly increase in superheat is substantially avoided in the passage of the suction gas through the shell to the suction plenum 64.

  18. Oil cooled, hermetic refrigerant compressor

    DOEpatents

    English, W.A.; Young, R.R.

    1985-05-14

    A hermetic refrigerant compressor having an electric motor and compressor assembly in a hermetic shell is cooled by oil which is first cooled in an external cooler and is then delivered through the shell to the top of the motor rotor where most of it is flung radially outwardly within the confined space provided by the cap which channels the flow of most of the oil around the top of the stator and then out to a multiplicity of holes to flow down to the sump and provide further cooling of the motor and compressor. Part of the oil descends internally of the motor to the annular chamber to provide oil cooling of the lower part of the motor, with this oil exiting through vent hole also to the sump. Suction gas with entrained oil and liquid refrigerant therein is delivered to an oil separator from which the suction gas passes by a confined path in pipe to the suction plenum and the separated oil drops from the separator to the sump. By providing the oil cooling of the parts, the suction gas is not used for cooling purposes and accordingly increase in superheat is substantially avoided in the passage of the suction gas through the shell to the suction plenum. 3 figs.

  19. Fuel Oil and Kerosene Sales

    EIA Publications

    2016-01-01

    Provides information, illustrations and state-level statistical data on end-use sales of kerosene; No.1, No. 2, and No. 4 distillate fuel oil; and residual fuel oil. State-level kerosene sales include volumes for residential, commercial, industrial, farm, and all other uses. State-level distillate sales include volumes for residential, commercial, industrial, oil company, railroad, vessel bunkering, military, electric utility, farm, on-highway, off-highway construction, and other uses. State-level residual fuel sales include volumes for commercial, industrial, oil company, vessel bunkering, military, electric utility, and other uses.

  20. Olive oil phenols and neuroprotection.

    PubMed

    Khalatbary, Ali Reza

    2013-11-01

    Olive oil is a rich source of phenolic components which have a wide variety of beneficial health effects in vitro, in vivo, and clinically. The beneficial effects of olive oil phenols attributed to a variety of biological activities including free radical scavenging/antioxidant actions, anti-inflammatory effects, anti-carcinogenic properties, and anti-microbial activities. On the other hand, olive oil phenols have been shown to be some of neuroprotective effects against cerebral ischemia, spinal cord injury, Huntington's disease, Alzheimer's diseases, multiple sclerosis, Parkinson's disease, aging, and peripheral neuropathy. This paper summarizes current knowledge on the mechanisms of neuroprotective effects of olive oil phenols.

  1. Externalities of oil imports revisited

    SciTech Connect

    Lemon, R.

    1980-09-01

    A re-analysis of the externalities associated with oil imports reaffirms the major findings of an earlier study: (1) The current externalities of oil imports are large even after several favorable assumptions are made, including the existence of a large buffer stock and enlightened monetary and fiscal policy. (2) The large externalities of oil imports call for increased domestic supplies, including conservation, if they are cost-effective and based on marginal social costs. (3) A corrective public policy could involve oil-import taxes and the subsidization of new domestic energy sources without large government externalities. 20 references.

  2. Ozonated olive oils and the troubles

    PubMed Central

    Uysal, Bulent

    2014-01-01

    One of the commonly used methods for ozone therapy is ozonated oils. Most prominent type of used oils is extra virgin olive oil. But still, each type of unsaturated oils may be used for ozonation. There are a lot of wrong knowledge on the internet about ozonated oils and its use as well. Just like other ozone therapy studies, also the studies about ozone oils are inadequate to avoid incorrect knowledge. Current data about ozone oil and its benefits are produced by supplier who oversees financial interests and make misinformation. Despite the rapidly increasing ozone oil sales through the internet, its quality and efficacy is still controversial. Dozens of companies and web sites may be easily found to buy ozonated oil. But, very few of these products are reliable, and contain sufficiently ozonated oil. This article aimed to introduce the troubles about ozonated oils and so to inform ozonated oil users. PMID:26401346

  3. Oil spills abatement: factors affecting oil uptake by cellulosic fibers.

    PubMed

    Payne, Katharine C; Jackson, Colby D; Aizpurua, Carlos E; Rojas, Orlando J; Hubbe, Martin A

    2012-07-17

    Wood-derived cellulosic fibers prepared in different ways were successfully employed to absorb simulated crude oil, demonstrating their possible use as absorbents in the case of oil spills. When dry fibers were used, the highest sorption capacity (six parts of oil per unit mass of fiber) was shown by bleached softwood kraft fibers, compared to hardwood bleached kraft and softwood chemithermomechanical pulp(CTMP) fibers. Increased refining of CTMP fibers decreased their oil uptake capacity. When the fibers were soaked in water before exposure to the oil, the ability of the unmodified kraft fibers to sorb oil was markedly reduced, whereas the wet CTMP fibers were generally more effective than the wet kraft fibers. Predeposition of lignin onto the surfaces of the bleached kraft fibers improved their ability to take up oil when wet. Superior ability to sorb oil in the wet state was achieved by pretreating the kraft fibers with a hydrophobic sizing agent, alkenylsuccinic anhydride (ASA). Contact angle tests on a model cellulose surface showed that some of the sorption results onto wetted fibers could be attributed to the more hydrophobic nature of the fibers after treatment with either lignin or ASA.

  4. 18. LOWER OIL ROOM DIABLO POWERHOUSE: GRAVITY OIL PUMPS POWERED ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    18. LOWER OIL ROOM DIABLO POWERHOUSE: GRAVITY OIL PUMPS POWERED BY LINCOLN AC MOTORS ON THE RIGHT AND TURBINE AIR DRY APPARATUS ON THE LEFT, 1989. - Skagit Power Development, Diablo Powerhouse, On Skagit River, 6.1 miles upstream from Newhalem, Newhalem, Whatcom County, WA

  5. Rheological properties of heavy oils and heavy oil emulsions

    SciTech Connect

    Khan, M.R.

    1996-06-01

    In this study, the author investigated the effects of a number of process variables such as shear rate, measurement temperature, pressure, the influence of pretreatment, and the role of various amounts of added water on the rheology of the resulting heavy oil or the emulsion. Rheological properties of heavy oils and the corresponding emulsions are important from transportation and processing standpoints.

  6. Water-in-Oil Microstructures Formed by Marine Oil Dispersants in a Model Crude Oil.

    PubMed

    Riehm, David A; Rokke, David J; McCormick, Alon V

    2016-04-26

    DOSS (dioctyl sodium sulfosuccinate), Tween 80, and Span 80, surfactants commonly used in marine crude oil spill dispersants, have been mixed into a model oil at a total surfactant concentration of 2 wt %, typical for dispersant-treated oil slicks. These surfactant-oil blends also contained 0.5-1.5 wt % synthetic seawater to enable formation of water-in-oil (W/O) microstructures. Trends in dynamic oil-seawater interfacial tension (IFT) as a function of surfactant blend composition are similar to those observed in prior work for crude oil treated with similar blends of these surfactants. In particular, Span 80-rich surfactant blends exhibit much slower initial dynamic IFT decline than DOSS-rich surfactant blends in both model oil and crude oil, and surfactant blends containing 50 wt % Tween 80 and a DOSS:Span 80 ratio near 1:1 produce ultralow IFT in the model oil (<10(-4) mN/m) just as similar surfactant blends do in crude oil. At all DOSS:Span 80 ratios, surfactant blends containing 50 wt % Tween 80 form clear solutions with seawater in the model oil. Cryo-transmission electron microscopy (cryo-TEM) and dynamic light scattering (DLS) show that these solutions contain spherical W/O microstructures, the size and dispersity of which vary with surfactant blend composition and surfactant:seawater molar ratio. Span 80-rich microstructures exhibit high polydispersity index (PDI > 0.2) and large diameters (≥100 nm), whereas DOSS-rich microstructures exhibit smaller diameters (20-40 nm) and low polydispersity index (PDI < 0.1), indicating a narrow microstructure size distribution. The smaller diameters of DOSS-rich microstructures, as well as the fact that DOSS molecules, being oil-soluble, can diffuse to a bulk oil-water interface as monomers much faster than any of these microstructures, may explain why DOSS-rich blends adsorb to the oil-water interface more quickly than Span 80-rich blends, a phenomenon which has been linked in prior work to the higher effectiveness

  7. Oil Recovery System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1983-01-01

    A Downhole Steam Generation System brings oil up from deep reservoirs. The system, developed by Foster-Miller Associates consists of a steam generator, a "packer" that keeps the steam from leaking up the wellbore, and tube string that supplies air, fuel, water and hydraulics to the generator and packer; all are encased in a standard seven-inch well casing. Downhole means that the steam generator is located far down the well casing rather than on the surface. This design is more efficient than surface generated steam. A COSMIC (Computer Software Management and Information Center) program aided in the design.

  8. Oil pollution signatures by remote sensing.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Catoe, C. E.; Mclean, J. T.

    1972-01-01

    Study of the possibility of developing an effective remote sensing system for oil pollution monitoring which would be capable of detecting oil films on water, mapping the areal extent of oil slicks, measuring slick thickness, and identifying the oil types. In the spectral regions considered (ultraviolet, visible, infrared, microwave, and radar), the signatures were sufficiently unique when compared to the background so that it was possible to detect and map oil slicks. Both microwave and radar techniques are capable of operating in adverse weather. Fluorescence techniques show promise in identifying oil types. A multispectral system will be required to detect oil, map its distribution, estimate film thickness, and characterize the oil pollutant.

  9. Oil Pollution Act (OPA) and Federal Facilities

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The Oil Pollution Prevention regulation sets forth requirements for prevention of, preparedness for, and response to oil discharges at specific non-transportation-related facilities, including federal facilities.

  10. Oil spill recovery method and apparatus

    SciTech Connect

    Cain, H.A.; Meneghetti, L.M.

    1980-10-07

    The recovery of oil in an oil spill on water is achieved by a medium which not only absorbs the oil but causes it to become heavy and loose its buoyancy in relation to water so it can be made to sink, together with apparatus for effecting the deposit of the medium upon the oil in an oil spill and for collecting the sinking oil below the surface and before it attaches itself to the bottom surface so it can be removed to a place where the recovered oil may be extracted from the medium which sank the oil.

  11. Thermal modification of vegetable oils

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This article reviews some literature, both old and recent, involving the hypothesis that the Diels-Alder reaction is operative in the thermal polymerization of vegetable oil. Both triacylglycerol oils and methyl esters are used to show that this mechanism is unlikely to be a significant contributor ...

  12. Thermal cracking of retort oil

    SciTech Connect

    Dearth, J.D.; Smith, R.H.

    1980-10-14

    The thermal cracking of retort oil vapors in an elongated reactor is improved by passing the effluent oil vapors and gases from a retort to a thermal cracking unit before the temperature of the retort effluent falls below 680* F. This encourages the more desirable cracking reactions, increases the thermal efficiency of the process, and avoids preheater coking.

  13. Estolides: Bioderived synthetic base oils

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    One novel technology to reach the lubricant market in recent years is the estolide, a class of high-performance, environmentally acceptable lubricant base oils. Estolides have been tested against a set of similar competing base oils from the marketplace, and the results show that they have excellent...

  14. Measuring Dependence on Imported Oil

    EIA Publications

    1995-01-01

    U.S. dependence on imported oil can be measured in at least two ways. The differences hinge largely on whether oil imports are defined as net imports (total imports minus exports) or as total imports. EIA introduces a revised table that expresses dependence on imports in terms of both measures.

  15. Tariffs Formation on oil transportation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Glyzina, T. S.; Kolbysheva, Yu. V.; Grivtsova, I. S.; Dmitrieva, N. V.

    2016-09-01

    Oil transportation via trunk pipelines is an important part of the oil industry's activity. The main instrument of tariff regulation is the method of tariffs formation. Three methods of tariffs formation such as the method of economically justified costs (the Cost plus method), the method of economically justified return on investment capital (the RAB method), and the method of tariffs indexation were considered.

  16. The Thin Oil Film Equation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brown, James L.; Naughton, Jonathan W.

    1999-01-01

    A thin film of oil on a surface responds primarily to the wall shear stress generated on that surface by a three-dimensional flow. The oil film is also subject to wall pressure gradients, surface tension effects and gravity. The partial differential equation governing the oil film flow is shown to be related to Burgers' equation. Analytical and numerical methods for solving the thin oil film equation are presented. A direct numerical solver is developed where the wall shear stress variation on the surface is known and which solves for the oil film thickness spatial and time variation on the surface. An inverse numerical solver is also developed where the oil film thickness spatial variation over the surface at two discrete times is known and which solves for the wall shear stress variation over the test surface. A One-Time-Level inverse solver is also demonstrated. The inverse numerical solver provides a mathematically rigorous basis for an improved form of a wall shear stress instrument suitable for application to complex three-dimensional flows. To demonstrate the complexity of flows for which these oil film methods are now suitable, extensive examination is accomplished for these analytical and numerical methods as applied to a thin oil film in the vicinity of a three-dimensional saddle of separation.

  17. The future of oil supply.

    PubMed

    Miller, Richard G; Sorrell, Steven R

    2014-01-13

    Abundant supplies of oil form the foundation of modern industrial economies, but the capacity to maintain and grow global supply is attracting increasing concern. Some commentators forecast a peak in the near future and a subsequent terminal decline in global oil production, while others highlight the recent growth in 'tight oil' production and the scope for developing unconventional resources. There are disagreements over the size, cost and recoverability of different resources, the technical and economic potential of different technologies, the contribution of different factors to market trends and the economic implications of reduced supply. Few debates are more important, more contentious, more wide-ranging or more confused. This paper summarizes the main concepts, terms, issues and evidence that are necessary to understand the 'peak oil' debate. These include: the origin, nature and classification of oil resources; the trends in oil production and discoveries; the typical production profiles of oil fields, basins and producing regions; the mechanisms underlying those profiles; the extent of depletion of conventional oil; the risk of an approaching peak in global production; and the potential of various mitigation options. The aim is to introduce the subject to non-specialist readers and provide a basis for the subsequent papers in this Theme Issue.

  18. Basil (Ocimum basilicum L.) oils

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Basil (Ocimum basilicum) is one of the most popular and healthy culinary herbs in the world. Essential oil derived from basil (basil oil) through steam distillation has traditionally been used for a wide range of applications such as cooking spices, aromatherapy, perfumery, medicinal treatments, pes...

  19. Classroom in the Oil Fields.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hammond, Jeanne

    1980-01-01

    Describes a petroleum production program created in Bradford, Pennsylvania, by oil company executives and local educators to answer the need of the regional oil industry for trained manpower. Discusses the need for the program, the search for qualified teachers, funding, and how one student feels about the program. (CT)

  20. Detergent Additive for Lubricating Oils,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    The Russian patent pertains to a method of producing additives for lubricating oils . A method is known for producing an antiwear additive for... lubricating oils by processing phenols with phosphorus oxychloride, phosphoric acid esters are obtained. In order to give the additive detergent properties

  1. A biological oil adsorption filter.

    PubMed

    Pasila, Antti

    2004-12-01

    A new oil adsorption method called adsorption filtration (AF) has been developed. It is a technology where by oil residues can be cleaned from water by running it through a simple filter made from freeze treated, dried, milled and then fragmented plant material. By choosing suitable plants and fragmentation sizes it is possible to produce filters, which pass water but adsorb oil. The aim of this study was to investigate the possibilities of manufacturing oil adsorbing filter materials from reed canary grass (Phalaris arundinacea), flax (Linum usitatissimum L.) or hemp fibre (Cannabis sativa L.). The oil (80 ml) was mixed with de-ionised water (200 ml) and this mixture was filtered through 10 or 20 g adsorption filters. Fine spring harvested hemp fibre (diameter less than 1 mm) and reed canary grass fragments adsorb 2-4 g of oil per gram of adsorption material compared to 1-3 g of water. Adsorption filtration is thus a novel way of gathering spilled oil in shallow coastal waters before the oil reaches the shore.

  2. Olive oil and cardiovascular health.

    PubMed

    Covas, María-Isabel; Konstantinidou, Valentini; Fitó, Montserrat

    2009-12-01

    The Mediterranean diet, in which olive oil is the primary source of fat, is associated with a low mortality for cardiovascular disease. Data concerning olive oil consumption and primary end points for cardiovascular disease are scarce. However, a large body of knowledge exists providing evidence of the benefits of olive oil consumption on secondary end points for the disease. Besides the classical benefits on the lipid profile provided by olive oil consumption compared with that of saturated fat, a broad spectrum of benefits on cardiovascular risk factors is now emerging associated with olive oil consumption. We review the state of the art concerning the knowledge of the most important biological and clinical effects related to olive oil and its minor components. The recent advances in human nutrigenomics associated with olive oil consumption will also be assessed. The wide range of benefits associated with olive oil consumption could contribute to explaining the low rate of cardiovascular mortality found in southern European-Mediterranean countries, in comparison with other westernized countries, despite a high prevalence of coronary heart disease risk factors.

  3. Castor oil: Biosynthesis and Uses

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Castor oil is unique among commodity oils in its fatty acid composition, which consists of 90% ricinoleate, (12-hydroxy-octadec-cis 9-enoate). The mid-chain hydroxyl group imparts physical and chemical properties that make it useful in many industrial applications. Among its uses are lithium grease,...

  4. 30 CFR 56.6309 - Fuel oil requirements for ANFO.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... that of No. 2 diesel oil (125 °F) shall not be used to prepare ammonium nitrate-fuel oil, except that.... (b) Waste oil, including crankcase oil, shall not be used to prepare ammonium nitrate-fuel oil....

  5. 30 CFR 56.6309 - Fuel oil requirements for ANFO.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... that of No. 2 diesel oil (125 °F) shall not be used to prepare ammonium nitrate-fuel oil, except that.... (b) Waste oil, including crankcase oil, shall not be used to prepare ammonium nitrate-fuel oil....

  6. 30 CFR 56.6309 - Fuel oil requirements for ANFO.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... that of No. 2 diesel oil (125 °F) shall not be used to prepare ammonium nitrate-fuel oil, except that.... (b) Waste oil, including crankcase oil, shall not be used to prepare ammonium nitrate-fuel oil....

  7. 30 CFR 56.6309 - Fuel oil requirements for ANFO.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... that of No. 2 diesel oil (125 °F) shall not be used to prepare ammonium nitrate-fuel oil, except that.... (b) Waste oil, including crankcase oil, shall not be used to prepare ammonium nitrate-fuel oil....

  8. 30 CFR 56.6309 - Fuel oil requirements for ANFO.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... that of No. 2 diesel oil (125 °F) shall not be used to prepare ammonium nitrate-fuel oil, except that.... (b) Waste oil, including crankcase oil, shall not be used to prepare ammonium nitrate-fuel oil....

  9. Pesticide residues in olive oil.

    PubMed

    Lentza-Rizos, C; Avramides, E J

    1995-01-01

    The attacks of pests and diseases and the presence of weeds make it necessary to apply pesticides to olive trees to ensure crop protection. Residues of these compounds may remain and contaminate the oil produced. For the analysis of pesticide residues in olive oil, the most common methods are multiresidue methods for fatty substrates, based on partitioning between hexane or light petroleum and acetonitrile. Recently, other methods have been applied, such as ready-to-use, disposable minicolumns or direct injection of oil into a capillary gas chromatograph equipped with a precolumn with an oil recovery tank. Although several pesticides are registered in oil-producing countries for use on olive trees, available literature on the level and fate of residues is very limited. However, it is clear that fat-soluble pesticides tend to concentrate in the oil, both after full coverage and bait spraying, and their use close to harvest should therefore be avoided. Because it is sometimes necessary to use such pesticides late in autumn because of their effectiveness in cases of severe attack, residue trials should be carried out to determine the residue concentration in oil and to set a reasonable preharvest safety interval. Data produced by such trials would permit the establishment of MRLs (tolerances) in olive oil to cover cases where the residues, although relatively high, are not of toxicological significance for consumers (risk assessment). Such is the case with corn oil and the fat-soluble insecticide methyl pirimiphos, registered in the U.S. for use on corn. The U.S. EPA tolerance for methyl pirimiphos in corn is 8 mg/kg, whereas it is 11 times higher (88 mg/kg) for corn oil because it is known to concentrate in the oil. Similar provisions for olive oil, based on data from residue trials according to Good Agricultural Practice, the long-term toxicity of each pesticide as expressed by its ADI for man, and olive oil consumption patterns, would facilitate international trade

  10. Oil shale retort apparatus

    SciTech Connect

    Reeves, A.A.; Mast, E.L.; Greaves, M.J.

    1990-08-14

    A retorting apparatus is described including a vertical kiln and a plurality of tubes for delivering rock to the top of the kiln and removal of processed rock from the bottom of the kiln so that the rock descends through the kiln as a moving bed. Distributors are provided for delivering gas to the kiln to effect heating of the rock and to disturb the rock particles during their descent. The distributors are constructed and disposed to deliver gas uniformly to the kiln and to withstand and overcome adverse conditions resulting from heat and from the descending rock. The rock delivery tubes are geometrically sized, spaced and positioned so as to deliver the shale uniformly into the kiln and form symmetrically disposed generally vertical paths, or rock chimneys'', through the descending shale which offer least resistance to upward flow of gas. When retorting oil shale, a delineated collection chamber near the top of the kiln collects gas and entrained oil mist rising through the kiln. 29 figs.

  11. Peak Oil: Diverging Discursive Pipelines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Doctor, Jeff

    Peak oil is the claimed moment in time when global oil production reaches its maximum rate and henceforth forever declines. It is highly controversial as to whether or not peak oil represents cause for serious concern. My thesis explores how this controversy unfolds but brackets the ontological status of the reality indexed by the peakoil concept. I do not choose a side in the debate; I look at the debate itself. I examine the energy outlook documents of ExxonMobil, Shell, BP, Chevron, Total and the International Energy Agency (IEA) as well as academic articles and documentaries. Through an in-depth analysis of peak-oil controversy via tenets of actor-network theory (ANT), I show that what is at stake are competing framings of reality itself, which must be understood when engaging with the contentious idea of peak oil.

  12. Microbial enhanced oil recovery (MEOR).

    PubMed

    Brown, Lewis R

    2010-06-01

    Two-thirds of the oil ever found is still in the ground even after primary and secondary production. Microbial enhanced oil recovery (MEOR) is one of the tertiary methods purported to increase oil recovery. Since 1946 more than 400 patents on MEOR have been issued, but none has gained acceptance by the oil industry. Most of the literature on MEOR is from laboratory experiments or from field trials of insufficient duration or that lack convincing proof of the process. Several authors have made recommendations required to establish MEOR as a viable method to enhance oil recovery, and until these tests are performed, MEOR will remain an unproven concept rather than a highly desirable reality.

  13. Process for oil shale retorting

    DOEpatents

    Jones, John B.; Kunchal, S. Kumar

    1981-10-27

    Particulate oil shale is subjected to a pyrolysis with a hot, non-oxygenous gas in a pyrolysis vessel, with the products of the pyrolysis of the shale contained kerogen being withdrawn as an entrained mist of shale oil droplets in a gas for a separation of the liquid from the gas. Hot retorted shale withdrawn from the pyrolysis vessel is treated in a separate container with an oxygenous gas so as to provide combustion of residual carbon retained on the shale, producing a high temperature gas for the production of some steam and for heating the non-oxygenous gas used in the oil shale retorting process in the first vessel. The net energy recovery includes essentially complete recovery of the organic hydrocarbon material in the oil shale as a liquid shale oil, a high BTU gas, and high temperature steam.

  14. Fuel oil quality task force

    SciTech Connect

    Laisy, J.; Turk, V.

    1997-09-01

    In April, 1996, the R.W. Beckett Corporation became aware of a series of apparently unrelated symptoms that made the leadership of the company concerned that there could be a fuel oil quality problem. A task force of company employees and industry consultants was convened to address the topic of current No. 2 heating oil quality and its effect on burner performance. The task force studied changes in fuel oil specifications and trends in properties that have occurred over the past few years. Experiments were performed at Beckett and Brookhaven National Laboratory to understand the effect of changes in some fuel oil properties. Studies by other groups were reviewed, and field installations were inspected to gain information about the performance of fuel oil that is currently being used in the U.S. and Canada. There was a special concern about the use of red dye in heating oils and the impact of sulfur levels due to the October, 1993 requirement of low sulfur (<0.05%) for on-highway diesel fuel. The results of the task force`s efforts were published in July, 1996. The primary conclusion of the task force was that there is not a crisis or widespread general problem with fuel oil quality. Localized problems that were seen may have been related to refinery practices and/or non-traditional fuel sources. System cleanliness is very important and the cause of many oil burner system problems. Finally, heating oil quality should get ongoing careful attention by Beckett engineering personnel and heating oil industry groups.

  15. Single droplet combustion of sunflower oil

    SciTech Connect

    Araya, K.; Tsunematsu, S.

    1987-01-01

    When sunflower oil (or plant oil, in general) was used as diesel engine fuel, the ignitability at low temperatures was much poorer than for No. 2 diesel oil. In addition, unburned carbon accumulated in the combustion chamber when the engine was idling. The research reported in this paper was conducted to investigate the causes of these problems. A single fuel droplet set at the tip of a combustion thread was inserted into an electric furnace and ignited. The behavior of the combustion was observed and analyzed by a high speed rotary video camera. The fuels studied were sunflower oil, No. 2 diesel oil, sunflower oil methyl ester and fish oil methyl ester. As a result, even if the droplet size of sunflower oil was the same as that of No. 2 diesel oil, its ignition delay was much longer than No. 2 diesel oil. This may be the main cause of poor ignitability of sunflower oil at low temperatures.

  16. Separation of oil-soluble sulfonates from sulfonated oils

    SciTech Connect

    Ul'yanenko, V.I.; Yur'eva, N.P.; Sergeev, V.P.

    1987-01-01

    The authors aimed at developing a method for the complete recovery, from oil solutions, of oil-water-soluble sulfonates meeting the specifications, along with oils at least 99% pure, suitable for further processing. As the starting material the authors used an experimental batch of sulfonated and neutralized distillate lube stocks produced by selective solvent treatment. In determining the optimal extraction parameters, the authors investigated the influence of the solvent to original feed (S:F) weight ratio and the influence of the isopropyl alcohol (IPA) concentration on the composition of the sulfonates and oils recovered at 60/sup 0/C with a settling time of 2 h. The optimal conditions for two-stage extraction were found through a study of the influence of temperature and settling time on the compositions of the sulfonates and oils with S:F = 1.2:1 and with an IPA concentration of 40%. The process technology for two-stage recovery of oils and sulfonates from oil solutions was worked out in a pilot unit.

  17. Fluorescence characteristics of oil during the Deepwater Horizon oil spill

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coble, P. G.; Conmy, R. N.; Wood, M.; Lee, K.; Kepkay, P.; Li, Z.

    2010-12-01

    Emergency responders, agencies and researchers have tracked oil spilled during the Deepwater Horizon event using a number of techniques, including fluorescence, particle size and chemical analyses. Even though current protocols call for the use of in situ fluorometers to detect the presence of oil throughout the water column, these fluorometers have not been designed to yield information on changes in oil optical properties as it weathers and is chemically and/or physically dispersed. Multi-wavelength (Excitation Emission Matrix or multiple fixed wavelength) fluorometers and particle size analyzers are required to accurately monitor these changing properties in situ and in samples containing the oil suspended as droplets in seawater. Findings reported by the Unified Command Joint Analysis Group on fluorescence, particle size (by LISST) and chemical analysis data will be used to delineate changing oil properties and the results obtained from laboratory experiments using suspensions of Deepwater Horizon source oil will be compared to the environmental data (including information collected via ROV at the well head). The Deepwater Horizon spill was unprecedented in terms of magnitude, depth of the spill and subsurface dispersant application. The work presented here will improve current protocols by highlighting the critical fluorescence wavelengths needed to accurately track oil through marine systems.

  18. Oil Stop Valve : Oil Spill Containment Research and Development Project.

    SciTech Connect

    Bourn, Robert D.

    1982-07-01

    This report summarizes the research and development project conducted by the Civil Engineering Section, Division of Substation and Control Engineering, to determine the effectiveness of the oil stop valve for use in the Bonneville Power Administration's Oil Spill Containment and Countermeasure Program. The most attractive alternative to lagoons and separator tanks was found in the oil stop valve manufactured by AFL/Clark Industries of Riviera Beach, Florida. This small, direct-acting and relatively inexpensive valve requires little maintenance and can either be employed independently, using existing drain lines for effluent storage, or in conjunction with oil separator tanks and lagoon systems. The AFL/Clark valve requires no power and has only one moving part, a ballasted float having a specific gravity between that of oil and water. In water, the float rides above the throat of the discharge pipe allowing water to flow out. When oil enters the water the float begins losing its relative bouyancy and sinks until it seats itself over the throat of the outlet, closing the valve. Usually installed in a manhole within a typical storm drainage system, the valve backs spilled oil into drainways and contains it for temporary storage within the switchyard.

  19. RESEARCH OIL RECOVERY MECHANISMS IN HEAVY OIL RESERVOIRS

    SciTech Connect

    Anthony R. Kovscek; William E. Brigham

    1999-06-01

    The United States continues to rely heavily on petroleum fossil fuels as a primary energy source, while domestic reserves dwindle. However, so-called heavy oil (10 to 20{sup o}API) remains an underutilized resource of tremendous potential. Heavy oils are much more viscous than conventional oils. As a result, they are difficult to produce with conventional recovery methods such as pressure depletion and water injection. Thermal recovery is especially important for this class of reservoirs because adding heat, usually via steam injection, generally reduces oil viscosity dramatically. This improves displacement efficiency. The research described here was directed toward improved understanding of thermal and heavy-oil production mechanisms and is categorized into: (1) flow and rock properties; (2) in-situ combustion; (3) additives to improve mobility control; (4) reservoir definition; and (5) support services. The scope of activities extended over a three-year period. Significant work was accomplished in the area of flow properties of steam, water, and oil in consolidated and unconsolidated porous media, transport in fractured porous media, foam generation and flow in homogeneous and heterogeneous porous media, the effects of displacement pattern geometry and mobility ratio on oil recovery, and analytical representation of water influx. Significant results are described.

  20. Water issues associated with heavy oil production.

    SciTech Connect

    Veil, J. A.; Quinn, J. J.; Environmental Science Division

    2008-11-28

    Crude oil occurs in many different forms throughout the world. An important characteristic of crude oil that affects the ease with which it can be produced is its density and viscosity. Lighter crude oil typically can be produced more easily and at lower cost than heavier crude oil. Historically, much of the nation's oil supply came from domestic or international light or medium crude oil sources. California's extensive heavy oil production for more than a century is a notable exception. Oil and gas companies are actively looking toward heavier crude oil sources to help meet demands and to take advantage of large heavy oil reserves located in North and South America. Heavy oil includes very viscous oil resources like those found in some fields in California and Venezuela, oil shale, and tar sands (called oil sands in Canada). These are described in more detail in the next chapter. Water is integrally associated with conventional oil production. Produced water is the largest byproduct associated with oil production. The cost of managing large volumes of produced water is an important component of the overall cost of producing oil. Most mature oil fields rely on injected water to maintain formation pressure during production. The processes involved with heavy oil production often require external water supplies for steam generation, washing, and other steps. While some heavy oil processes generate produced water, others generate different types of industrial wastewater. Management and disposition of the wastewater presents challenges and costs for the operators. This report describes water requirements relating to heavy oil production and potential sources for that water. The report also describes how water is used and the resulting water quality impacts associated with heavy oil production.

  1. Research on oil recovery mechanisms in heavy oil reservoirs

    SciTech Connect

    Kovscek, Anthony R.; Brigham, William E., Castanier, Louis M.

    2000-03-16

    The research described here was directed toward improved understanding of thermal and heavy-oil production mechanisms and is categorized into: (1) flow and rock properties, (2) in-situ combustion, (3) additives to improve mobility control, (4) reservoir definition, and (5) support services. The scope of activities extended over a three-year period. Significant work was accomplished in the area of flow properties of steam, water, and oil in consolidated and unconsolidated porous media, transport in fractured porous media, foam generation and flow in homogeneous and heterogeneous porous media, the effects of displacement pattern geometry and mobility ratio on oil recovery, and analytical representation of water influx.

  2. Rapid analytical method for the determination of aflatoxins in plant-derived dietary supplement and cosmetic oils.

    PubMed

    Mahoney, Noreen; Molyneux, Russell J

    2010-04-14

    Consumption of edible oils derived from conventional crop plants is increasing because they are generally regarded as healthier alternatives to animal-based fats and oils. More recently, there has been increased interest in the use of alternative specialty plant-derived oils, including those from tree nuts (almonds, pistachios, and walnuts) and botanicals (borage, evening primrose, and perilla) both for direct human consumption (e.g., as salad dressings) and for the preparation of cosmetics, soaps, and fragrance oils. This has raised the issue as to whether or not exposure to aflatoxins can result from such oils. Although most crops are subject to analysis and control, it has generally been assumed that plant oils do not retain aflatoxins due to the high polarity and lipophobicity of these compounds. There is virtually no scientific evidence to support this supposition, and available information is conflicting. To improve the safety and consistency of botanicals and dietary supplements, research is needed to establish whether or not oils used directly, or in the formulation of products, contain aflatoxins. A validated analytical method for the analysis of aflatoxins in plant-derived oils is essential to establish the safety of dietary supplements for consumption or cosmetic use that contain such oils. The aim of this research was therefore to develop an HPLC method applicable to a wide variety of oils from different plant sources spiked with aflatoxins, thereby providing a basis for a comprehensive project to establish an intra- and interlaboratory validated analytical method for the analysis of aflatoxins in dietary supplements and cosmetics formulated with plant oils.

  3. A Rapid Analytical Method for Determination of Aflatoxins in Plant-Derived Dietary Supplement and Cosmetic Oils

    PubMed Central

    Mahoney, Noreen; Molyneux, Russell J.

    2010-01-01

    Consumption of edible oils derived from conventional crop plants is increasing because they are generally regarded as more healthy alternatives to animal based fats and oils. More recently there has been increased interest in the use of alternative specialty plant-derived oils, including those from tree nuts (almonds, pistachios and walnuts) and botanicals (borage, evening primrose and perilla) both for direct human consumption (e.g. as salad dressings) but also for preparation of cosmetics, soaps, and fragrance oils. This has raised the issue as to whether or not exposure to aflatoxins can result from such oils. Although most crops are subject to analysis and control, it has generally been assumed that plant oils do not retain aflatoxins due to their high polarity and lipophobicity of these compounds. There is virtually no scientific evidence to support this supposition and available information is conflicting. To improve the safety and consistency of botanicals and dietary supplements, research is needed to establish whether or not oils used directly, or in the formulation of products, contain aflatoxins. A validated analytical method for the analysis of aflatoxins in plant-derived oils is essential, in order to establish the safety of dietary supplements for consumption or cosmetic use that contain such oils. The aim of this research was therefore to develop an HPLC method applicable to a wide variety of oils from different plant sources spiked with aflatoxins, thereby providing a basis for a comprehensive project to establish an intra- and inter-laboratory validated analytical method for analysis of aflatoxins in dietary supplements and cosmetics formulated with plant oils. PMID:20235534

  4. Maglev crude oil pipeline

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Knolle, Ernst G.

    1994-01-01

    This maglev crude oil pipeline consists of two conduits guiding an endless stream of long containers. One conduit carries loaded containers and the other empty returns. The containers are levitated by permanent magnets in repulsion and propelled by stationary linear induction motors. The containers are linked to each other in a manner that allows them, while in continuous motion, to be folded into side by side position at loading and unloading points. This folding causes a speed reduction in proportion to the ratio of container diameter to container length. While in side by side position, containers are opened at their ends to be filled or emptied. Container size and speed are elected to produce a desired carrying capacity.

  5. Kuwait oil spill studied

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bush, Susan

    1992-02-01

    More than a year after the Persian Gulf War, scientists are still trying to assess the environmental impact of the estimated 6-8 million barrels of oil that were dumped into the gulf and to understand the environmental processes that take place in such a disturbance. Many atmospheric studies were done in the months immediately following the war, but oceanographic studies have been slower in getting started.The National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration is currently spearheading a major oceanographic study being undertaken in the Persian Gulf by the research vessel Mt. Mitchell. The ship left its home port of Norfolk, Va., in mid-January and arrived in Muscat, Oman, on February 16 to begin a 100-day oceanographic and environmental survey. The six-leg cruise will feature physical oceanography, near-shore, and marine life studies.

  6. Enhanced oil recovery system

    DOEpatents

    Goldsberry, Fred L.

    1989-01-01

    All energy resources available from a geopressured geothermal reservoir are used for the production of pipeline quality gas using a high pressure separator/heat exchanger and a membrane separator, and recovering waste gas from both the membrane separator and a low pressure separator in tandem with the high pressure separator for use in enhanced oil recovery, or in powering a gas engine and turbine set. Liquid hydrocarbons are skimmed off the top of geothermal brine in the low pressure separator. High pressure brine from the geothermal well is used to drive a turbine/generator set before recovering waste gas in the first separator. Another turbine/generator set is provided in a supercritical binary power plant that uses propane as a working fluid in a closed cycle, and uses exhaust heat from the combustion engine and geothermal energy of the brine in the separator/heat exchanger to heat the propane.

  7. Oil field management system

    DOEpatents

    Fincke, James R.

    2003-09-23

    Oil field management systems and methods for managing operation of one or more wells producing a high void fraction multiphase flow. The system includes a differential pressure flow meter which samples pressure readings at various points of interest throughout the system and uses pressure differentials derived from the pressure readings to determine gas and liquid phase mass flow rates of the high void fraction multiphase flow. One or both of the gas and liquid phase mass flow rates are then compared with predetermined criteria. In the event such mass flow rates satisfy the predetermined criteria, a well control system implements a correlating adjustment action respecting the multiphase flow. In this way, various parameters regarding the high void fraction multiphase flow are used as control inputs to the well control system and thus facilitate management of well operations.

  8. Oil-Free Compressor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fitzjerrell, D. G.; Belver, T. L.; Moore, H. E.

    1986-01-01

    Compressor pistons moved by eccentric shaft need no lubricants. Compressor has shaft, middle section is eccentric in relation to end sections. Driven by brushless dc motor, shaft turns inner races of set of four cam bearings. Outer cam-bearing races in turn actuate four pistons spaced equally apart, around and along shaft. Each outer bearing race held in position by pressure exerted on it by piston. Because no frictional motion between piston and outer bearing race, lubricant between them unnecessary. Cam bearings themselves contain potted internal lubricant. Originally proposed for use in space, new compressor for refrigerators or freezers does not depend on pool of oil for lubricating its pistons. Operated in any orientation.

  9. Oil-free transportation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lovins, Amory B.

    2015-03-01

    Automotive efficiency can be cost-effectively improved ˜2-3× by integrated reductions in mass, drag, and rolling resistance. (Mass is the key because it causes two-thirds of tractive load.) These improvements make affordable a variety of electrified advanced powertrain options that can raise efficiency by a further ˜2×, achieving ˜1-2 L-gasoline-equivalent per 100 km. These innovations are starting to enter the market. They could spread more by competition than by regulation. So will 3× gains in truck and 3-6× gains in airplane efficiency. Such superefficient vehicles can profitably eliminate oil use and decouple mobility from climate change and pollution.

  10. DISPERSANT EFFECTIVENESS ON OIL SPILLS - EMPIRICAL CORRELATIONS

    EPA Science Inventory

    When a dispersant is applied to an oil slick, its effectiveness in dispersing the spilled oil depends on various factors such as oil properties, wave mixing energy, temperature of both oil and water, and salinity of the water. Estuaries represent water with varying salinities. In...

  11. Favorable conditions noted for Australia shale oil

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1986-09-01

    After brief descriptions of the Rundle, Condor, and Stuart/Kerosene Creek oil shale projects in Queensland, the competitive advantages of oil shale development and the state and federal governments' attitudes towards an oil shale industry in Australia are discussed. It is concluded that Australia is the ideal country in which to start an oil shale industry.

  12. Photoenhanced Toxicity of Oil to Larval Fish

    EPA Science Inventory

    Photoenhanced toxicity is the increase in the toxicity of a chemical in the presence of ultraviolet light (UV), compared to toxicity elicited under conditions of minimal UV. Oil products, weathered oils, combusted oil products, and specific polycyclic aromatic compounds in oil ha...

  13. International Oil and Gas Exploration and Development

    EIA Publications

    1993-01-01

    Presents country level data on oil reserves, oil production, active drilling rigs, seismic crews, wells drilled, oil reserve additions, and oil reserve to production ratios (R/P ratios) for about 85 countries, where available, from 1970 through 1991. World and regional summaries are given in both tabular and graphical form.

  14. 21 CFR 573.680 - Mineral oil.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Mineral oil. 573.680 Section 573.680 Food and... Listing § 573.680 Mineral oil. Mineral oil may be safely used in animal feed, subject to the provisions of this section. (a) Mineral oil, for the purpose of this section, is that complying with the...

  15. 21 CFR 573.680 - Mineral oil.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Mineral oil. 573.680 Section 573.680 Food and... Listing § 573.680 Mineral oil. Mineral oil may be safely used in animal feed, subject to the provisions of this section. (a) Mineral oil, for the purpose of this section, is that complying with the...

  16. 21 CFR 573.680 - Mineral oil.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Mineral oil. 573.680 Section 573.680 Food and... Listing § 573.680 Mineral oil. Mineral oil may be safely used in animal feed, subject to the provisions of this section. (a) Mineral oil, for the purpose of this section, is that complying with the...

  17. 21 CFR 573.680 - Mineral oil.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Mineral oil. 573.680 Section 573.680 Food and... Listing § 573.680 Mineral oil. Mineral oil may be safely used in animal feed, subject to the provisions of this section. (a) Mineral oil, for the purpose of this section, is that complying with the...

  18. 21 CFR 573.680 - Mineral oil.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Mineral oil. 573.680 Section 573.680 Food and... Listing § 573.680 Mineral oil. Mineral oil may be safely used in animal feed, subject to the provisions of this section. (a) Mineral oil, for the purpose of this section, is that complying with the...

  19. Energy accounting for eleven vegetable oil fuels

    SciTech Connect

    Goering, C.E.; Daugherty, M.J.

    1982-09-01

    Energy inputs and outputs were comparatively analyzed for 11 vegetable oil fuels. Three-year average prices and production quantities were also compared. All nonirrigated oil crops had favorable energy ratios. Soybean, peanut and sunflower oils were the most promising as domestic fuel sources. Rapeseed oil would also be promising if significant domestic production can be established.

  20. 14 CFR 23.1013 - Oil tanks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ....5 gallon, and each oil tank used with a turbine engine has an expansion space of not less than 10... turbine engine, that can retain any appreciable quantity of oil, must have provisions for fitting a drain... the diameter of the engine oil pump inlet. Each oil tank used with a turbine engine must have means...

  1. Fire and explosion hazards of oil shale

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1989-01-01

    The US Bureau of Mines publication presents the results of investigations into the fire and explosion hazards of oil shale rocks and dust. Three areas have been examined: the explosibility and ignitability of oil shale dust clouds, the fire hazards of oil shale dust layers on hot surfaces, and the ignitability and extinguishment of oil shale rubble piles. 10 refs., 54 figs., 29 tabs.

  2. 7 CFR 985.58 - Exempt oil.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Exempt oil. 985.58 Section 985.58 Agriculture... HANDLING OF SPEARMINT OIL PRODUCED IN THE FAR WEST Order Regulating Handling Volume Limitations § 985.58 Exempt oil. Oil held by a producer or handler on the effective date of this subpart shall not...

  3. 7 CFR 985.58 - Exempt oil.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Exempt oil. 985.58 Section 985.58 Agriculture... HANDLING OF SPEARMINT OIL PRODUCED IN THE FAR WEST Order Regulating Handling Volume Limitations § 985.58 Exempt oil. Oil held by a producer or handler on the effective date of this subpart shall not...

  4. 14 CFR 125.137 - Oil valves.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Oil valves. 125.137 Section 125.137....137 Oil valves. (a) Each oil valve must— (1) Comply with § 125.155; (2) Have positive stops or... the valve. (b) The closing of an oil shutoff means must not prevent feathering the propeller,...

  5. 14 CFR 125.137 - Oil valves.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Oil valves. 125.137 Section 125.137....137 Oil valves. (a) Each oil valve must— (1) Comply with § 125.155; (2) Have positive stops or... the valve. (b) The closing of an oil shutoff means must not prevent feathering the propeller,...

  6. 14 CFR 121.239 - Oil valves.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Oil valves. 121.239 Section 121.239..., FLAG, AND SUPPLEMENTAL OPERATIONS Special Airworthiness Requirements § 121.239 Oil valves. (a) Each oil... oil shutoff means must not prevent feathering the propeller, unless equivalent safety provisions...

  7. 7 CFR 985.56 - Excess oil.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Excess oil. 985.56 Section 985.56 Agriculture... HANDLING OF SPEARMINT OIL PRODUCED IN THE FAR WEST Order Regulating Handling Volume Limitations § 985.56 Excess oil. Oil of any class in excess of a producer's applicable annual allotment shall be identified...

  8. 7 CFR 985.58 - Exempt oil.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Exempt oil. 985.58 Section 985.58 Agriculture... HANDLING OF SPEARMINT OIL PRODUCED IN THE FAR WEST Order Regulating Handling Volume Limitations § 985.58 Exempt oil. Oil held by a producer or handler on the effective date of this subpart shall not...

  9. 7 CFR 985.56 - Excess oil.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Excess oil. 985.56 Section 985.56 Agriculture... HANDLING OF SPEARMINT OIL PRODUCED IN THE FAR WEST Order Regulating Handling Volume Limitations § 985.56 Excess oil. Oil of any class in excess of a producer's applicable annual allotment shall be identified...

  10. 14 CFR 23.1013 - Oil tanks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Oil tanks. 23.1013 Section 23.1013... STANDARDS: NORMAL, UTILITY, ACROBATIC, AND COMMUTER CATEGORY AIRPLANES Powerplant Oil System § 23.1013 Oil tanks. (a) Installation. Each oil tank must be installed to— (1) Meet the requirements of § 23.967...

  11. 14 CFR 125.137 - Oil valves.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Oil valves. 125.137 Section 125.137....137 Oil valves. (a) Each oil valve must— (1) Comply with § 125.155; (2) Have positive stops or... the valve. (b) The closing of an oil shutoff means must not prevent feathering the propeller,...

  12. 43 CFR 9239.5-2 - Oil.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Oil. 9239.5-2 Section 9239.5-2 Public... OF THE INTERIOR TECHNICAL SERVICES (9000) TRESPASS Kinds of Trespass § 9239.5-2 Oil. For oil trespass... follows: (a) Innocent trespass. Value of oil taken, less amount of expense incurred in taking the same....

  13. 14 CFR 121.239 - Oil valves.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Oil valves. 121.239 Section 121.239..., FLAG, AND SUPPLEMENTAL OPERATIONS Special Airworthiness Requirements § 121.239 Oil valves. (a) Each oil... oil shutoff means must not prevent feathering the propeller, unless equivalent safety provisions...

  14. 14 CFR 121.239 - Oil valves.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Oil valves. 121.239 Section 121.239..., FLAG, AND SUPPLEMENTAL OPERATIONS Special Airworthiness Requirements § 121.239 Oil valves. (a) Each oil... oil shutoff means must not prevent feathering the propeller, unless equivalent safety provisions...

  15. 7 CFR 985.56 - Excess oil.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Excess oil. 985.56 Section 985.56 Agriculture... HANDLING OF SPEARMINT OIL PRODUCED IN THE FAR WEST Order Regulating Handling Volume Limitations § 985.56 Excess oil. Oil of any class in excess of a producer's applicable annual allotment shall be identified...

  16. 7 CFR 985.58 - Exempt oil.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Exempt oil. 985.58 Section 985.58 Agriculture... HANDLING OF SPEARMINT OIL PRODUCED IN THE FAR WEST Order Regulating Handling Volume Limitations § 985.58 Exempt oil. Oil held by a producer or handler on the effective date of this subpart shall not...

  17. 14 CFR 23.1013 - Oil tanks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Oil tanks. 23.1013 Section 23.1013... STANDARDS: NORMAL, UTILITY, ACROBATIC, AND COMMUTER CATEGORY AIRPLANES Powerplant Oil System § 23.1013 Oil tanks. (a) Installation. Each oil tank must be installed to— (1) Meet the requirements of § 23.967...

  18. 14 CFR 125.137 - Oil valves.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Oil valves. 125.137 Section 125.137....137 Oil valves. (a) Each oil valve must— (1) Comply with § 125.155; (2) Have positive stops or... the valve. (b) The closing of an oil shutoff means must not prevent feathering the propeller,...

  19. 7 CFR 985.56 - Excess oil.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Excess oil. 985.56 Section 985.56 Agriculture... HANDLING OF SPEARMINT OIL PRODUCED IN THE FAR WEST Order Regulating Handling Volume Limitations § 985.56 Excess oil. Oil of any class in excess of a producer's applicable annual allotment shall be identified...

  20. 43 CFR 9239.5-2 - Oil.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Oil. 9239.5-2 Section 9239.5-2 Public... OF THE INTERIOR TECHNICAL SERVICES (9000) TRESPASS Kinds of Trespass § 9239.5-2 Oil. For oil trespass... follows: (a) Innocent trespass. Value of oil taken, less amount of expense incurred in taking the same....

  1. 43 CFR 9239.5-2 - Oil.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Oil. 9239.5-2 Section 9239.5-2 Public... OF THE INTERIOR TECHNICAL SERVICES (9000) TRESPASS Kinds of Trespass § 9239.5-2 Oil. For oil trespass... follows: (a) Innocent trespass. Value of oil taken, less amount of expense incurred in taking the same....

  2. 14 CFR 121.239 - Oil valves.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Oil valves. 121.239 Section 121.239..., FLAG, AND SUPPLEMENTAL OPERATIONS Special Airworthiness Requirements § 121.239 Oil valves. (a) Each oil... oil shutoff means must not prevent feathering the propeller, unless equivalent safety provisions...

  3. 14 CFR 27.1013 - Oil tanks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Oil tanks. 27.1013 Section 27.1013... STANDARDS: NORMAL CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Powerplant Oil System § 27.1013 Oil tanks. Each oil tank must be... attitude; (e) Adequate venting is provided; and (f) There are means in the filler opening to prevent...

  4. 14 CFR 121.239 - Oil valves.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Oil valves. 121.239 Section 121.239..., FLAG, AND SUPPLEMENTAL OPERATIONS Special Airworthiness Requirements § 121.239 Oil valves. (a) Each oil... oil shutoff means must not prevent feathering the propeller, unless equivalent safety provisions...

  5. 43 CFR 9239.5-2 - Oil.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Oil. 9239.5-2 Section 9239.5-2 Public... OF THE INTERIOR TECHNICAL SERVICES (9000) TRESPASS Kinds of Trespass § 9239.5-2 Oil. For oil trespass... follows: (a) Innocent trespass. Value of oil taken, less amount of expense incurred in taking the same....

  6. 7 CFR 985.56 - Excess oil.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Excess oil. 985.56 Section 985.56 Agriculture... HANDLING OF SPEARMINT OIL PRODUCED IN THE FAR WEST Order Regulating Handling Volume Limitations § 985.56 Excess oil. Oil of any class in excess of a producer's applicable annual allotment shall be identified...

  7. 14 CFR 125.137 - Oil valves.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Oil valves. 125.137 Section 125.137....137 Oil valves. (a) Each oil valve must— (1) Comply with § 125.155; (2) Have positive stops or... the valve. (b) The closing of an oil shutoff means must not prevent feathering the propeller,...

  8. 14 CFR 23.1013 - Oil tanks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Oil tanks. 23.1013 Section 23.1013... STANDARDS: NORMAL, UTILITY, ACROBATIC, AND COMMUTER CATEGORY AIRPLANES Powerplant Oil System § 23.1013 Oil tanks. (a) Installation. Each oil tank must be installed to— (1) Meet the requirements of § 23.967...

  9. 7 CFR 985.58 - Exempt oil.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Exempt oil. 985.58 Section 985.58 Agriculture... HANDLING OF SPEARMINT OIL PRODUCED IN THE FAR WEST Order Regulating Handling Volume Limitations § 985.58 Exempt oil. Oil held by a producer or handler on the effective date of this subpart shall not...

  10. Gourmet and health-promoting specialty oils

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Gourmet vegetable oils are characterized by their aroma and taste, mainly resulting from the fact that they are not refined. The most popular gourmet oil is olive oil with annual international production of about 2.75 million tons. Although the fatty acid composition of vegetable oils is often the...

  11. 14 CFR 23.1013 - Oil tanks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Oil tanks. 23.1013 Section 23.1013... tanks. (a) Installation. Each oil tank must be installed to— (1) Meet the requirements of § 23.967 (a...) Expansion space. Oil tank expansion space must be provided so that— (1) Each oil tank used with...

  12. 49 CFR 230.116 - Oil tanks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Oil tanks. 230.116 Section 230.116 Transportation... Locomotive Tanks § 230.116 Oil tanks. The oil tanks on oil burning steam locomotives shall be maintained free... adjacent to the fuel supply tank or in another safe location; (b) Closes automatically when tripped...

  13. 14 CFR 27.1013 - Oil tanks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Oil tanks. 27.1013 Section 27.1013... STANDARDS: NORMAL CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Powerplant Oil System § 27.1013 Oil tanks. Each oil tank must be... space of not less than the greater of 10 percent of the tank capacity or 0.5 gallon, and where used...

  14. Middle East and North African Oil.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Al-Quazzaz, Ayad

    1981-01-01

    Traces the history of oil and natural gas in the Middle East and relates the importance of the Middle East's current stores of oil to economic development. Information is presented on the relationship of major oil companies and local governments, OPEC, rate of production, and the impact of oil on the societies of the Middle East and North Africa.…

  15. 33 CFR 155.320 - Fuel oil and bulk lubricating oil discharge containment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Fuel oil and bulk lubricating oil... HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) POLLUTION OIL OR HAZARDOUS MATERIAL POLLUTION PREVENTION REGULATIONS FOR VESSELS Vessel Equipment § 155.320 Fuel oil and bulk lubricating oil discharge containment. (a) A ship...

  16. Running Out Of and Into Oil. Analyzing Global Oil Depletion and Transition Through 2050

    SciTech Connect

    Greene, David L.; Hopson, Janet L.; Li, Jia

    2003-10-01

    This report presents a risk analysis of world conventional oil resource production, depletion, expansion, and a possible transition to unconventional oil resources such as oil sands, heavy oil and shale oil over the period 2000 to 2050. Risk analysis uses Monte Carlo simulation methods to produce a probability distribution of outcomes rather than a single value.

  17. 21 CFR 102.37 - Mixtures of edible fat or oil and olive oil.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Mixtures of edible fat or oil and olive oil. 102... for Specific Nonstandardized Foods § 102.37 Mixtures of edible fat or oil and olive oil. The common or... olive oil shall be as follows: (a) A descriptive name for the product meeting the requirements of §...

  18. 21 CFR 102.37 - Mixtures of edible fat or oil and olive oil.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Mixtures of edible fat or oil and olive oil. 102... for Specific Nonstandardized Foods § 102.37 Mixtures of edible fat or oil and olive oil. The common or... olive oil shall be as follows: (a) A descriptive name for the product meeting the requirements of §...

  19. 21 CFR 102.37 - Mixtures of edible fat or oil and olive oil.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Mixtures of edible fat or oil and olive oil. 102... for Specific Nonstandardized Foods § 102.37 Mixtures of edible fat or oil and olive oil. The common or... olive oil shall be as follows: (a) A descriptive name for the product meeting the requirements of §...

  20. 21 CFR 102.37 - Mixtures of edible fat or oil and olive oil.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Mixtures of edible fat or oil and olive oil. 102... for Specific Nonstandardized Foods § 102.37 Mixtures of edible fat or oil and olive oil. The common or... olive oil shall be as follows: (a) A descriptive name for the product meeting the requirements of §...

  1. 21 CFR 102.37 - Mixtures of edible fat or oil and olive oil.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Mixtures of edible fat or oil and olive oil. 102... for Specific Nonstandardized Foods § 102.37 Mixtures of edible fat or oil and olive oil. The common or... olive oil shall be as follows: (a) A descriptive name for the product meeting the requirements of §...

  2. Getty Oil Company Diatomite project

    SciTech Connect

    Zuber, I.L.

    1984-09-01

    The feasibility of using Diatomite as a synthetic fuels feedstock is discussed. The asphaltic outcropping near McKittrick, California are evidence of oil bearing deposits. Two different processes have been taken to the pilot plant stage to evaluate the viability of recovering oil from the Diatomite ore. One approach was the retorting process which was developed by Lurgi. The other process is based on a totally different concept of solvent extracting the oil from the ore. The operation and performance of the pilot plants are described.

  3. Catalytic cracking of heavy oils

    SciTech Connect

    Otterstedt, J.E.; Gevert, B.; Sterte, J. )

    1987-08-01

    Of the many factors which influence product yields in a fluid catalytic cracker, the feed stock quality and the catalyst composition are of particular interest as they can be controlled only to a limited extent by the refiner. In the past decade there has been a trend towards using heavier feedstocks in the FCC-unit, which is expected to continue in the foreseeable future. It is therefore important to study how molecular types, characteristic not only of heavy petroleum oil but also of e.g. coal liquid, shale oil and biomass oil, respond to cracking over catalysts of different compositions.

  4. Combustion heater for oil shale

    DOEpatents

    Mallon, Richard G.; Walton, Otis R.; Lewis, Arthur E.; Braun, Robert L.

    1985-01-01

    A combustion heater for oil shale heats particles of spent oil shale containing unburned char by burning the char. A delayed fall is produced by flowing the shale particles down through a stack of downwardly sloped overlapping baffles alternately extending from opposite sides of a vertical column. The delayed fall and flow reversal occurring in passing from each baffle to the next increase the residence time and increase the contact of the oil shale particles with combustion supporting gas flowed across the column to heat the shale to about 650.degree.-700.degree. C. for use as a process heat source.

  5. Combustion heater for oil shale

    DOEpatents

    Mallon, R.; Walton, O.; Lewis, A.E.; Braun, R.

    1983-09-21

    A combustion heater for oil shale heats particles of spent oil shale containing unburned char by burning the char. A delayed fall is produced by flowing the shale particles down through a stack of downwardly sloped overlapping baffles alternately extending from opposite sides of a vertical column. The delayed fall and flow reversal occurring in passing from each baffle to the next increase the residence time and increase the contact of the oil shale particles with combustion supporting gas flowed across the column to heat the shale to about 650 to 700/sup 0/C for use as a process heat source.

  6. Scroll Compressor Oil Pump Analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Branch, S.

    2015-08-01

    Scroll compressors utilize three journal bearings to absorb gas, friction and inertial loads exerted on the crankshaft. To function properly, these bearings must be lubricated with a certain amount of oil. The focus of this paper will be to discuss how computational fluid dynamics can be used to predict oil flow out of a single-stage oil pump. The effects of speed and lubricant viscosity on pump output will also be presented. The comparisons will look at mass flow rates, differences in pressure, and torque at various speeds and dynamic viscosities. The computational fluid dynamic analysis results will be compared with actual lab testing where a crankshaft bench tester was built.

  7. Methanogenic Oil Degradation in the Dagang Oil Field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiménez, Núria; Cai, Minmin; Straaten, Nontje; Yao, Jun; Richnow, Hans Hermann; Krüger, Martin

    2014-05-01

    Anaerobic biodegradation is one of the main in situ oil transformation processes in subsurface oil reservoirs. Recent studies have provided evidence of biodegradation of residual oil constituents under methanogenic conditions. Methane, like other biogenic gases, may contribute to reduce the viscosity of oil and enhance its flow characteristics (making it more available) but it can also be used as a energy source. So the aim of the present study was to provide reliable information on in situ biotransformation of oil under methanogenic conditions, and to assess the feasibility of implementing a MEOR strategy at this site. For this reason, chemical and isotopic analyses of injection and production fluids of the Dagang oil field (Hebei province, China) were performed. Microbial abundances were assessed by qPCR, and clone libraries were performed to study the diversity. In addition, microcosms with either oil or 13C-labelled hydrocarbons were inoculated with injection or production waters to characterize microbial processes in vitro. Geochemical and isotopic data were consistent with in situ biogenic methane production linked to aliphatic and aromatic hydrocarbon degradation: GC-MS profiles of petroleum samples were nearly devoid of n-alkanes, linear alkylbenzenes, and alkyltoluenes, and light PAH, confirming that Dagang oil is mostly highly weathered. In addition, carbon and hydrogen isotopic signatures of methane (δ13CCH4 and δDCH4, respectively), and the bulk isotopic discrimination (Δδ13C) between methane and CO2 (between 32 and 65 ) were in accordance with previously reported values for methane formation during hydrocarbon degradation. Furthermore, methane-producing Archaea and hydrocarbon-degrading Bacteria were abundant in produced oil-water samples. On the other hand, our laboratory degradation experiments revealed that autochthonous microbiota are capable of significantly degrade oil within several months, with biodegradation patterns resembling those

  8. Oil, oil dispersants and related substances in the marine environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gunkel, W.; Gassmann, G.

    1980-03-01

    Of all substances threatening life in the seas, oil has received by far the most attention from the public, administrators, politicians and scientists. The main reasons for this are: (1) even limited amounts of oil are easily visible; (2) oil can exert obvious negative effects, e. g. extensive damage to birds and other animals, impairment of the recreational value of beaches and marinas, losses in fisheries due to tainting of catches and rejection by the public of seafood from areas known to have been recently polluted. In addition, dramatic tanker accidents are widely publicized. During the last decade tens of thousands of papers have been published about the impact of oil on the marine environment, and we are well informed about most basic facts, such as input and fate of oil, toxicity to adult organisms and recolonization. Due to considerable sophistication of analytical techniques, especially the introduction of glass-capillary gas chromatography, we are well aware that recently formed biogenic hydrocarbons by far extend the input directly due to pollution. Large gaps exist in our knowledge about sedimentation and transport of weathered oil, natural degradation rates, and the flow of hydrocarbons through the food web. Relatively little is known about the influence of oil and dispersants upon complex ecosystems. The often mentioned suspicion of increased cancer probability in humans due to seafood contaminated by hydrocarbons has not been substantiated; in fact, it seems unlikely that such an effect exists. By far the greatest uncertainty about potential oil impact concerns possible negative effects of hydrocarbons on chemical communication mechanisms between organisms. Intensive studies of behaviour scientists working with concentrations far below the toxic level are needed in fisheries biology, zoology and botany. Most cases of oil contamination known thus far have been limited in space and time; the oil has turned out to be degradable by natural processes

  9. Geochemical analysis of potash mine seep oils, collapsed breccia pipe oil shows and selected crude oils, Eddy County, New Mexico

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Palacas, J.G.; Snyder, R.P.; Baysinger, J.P.; Threlkeld, C.N.

    1982-01-01

    Oil shows, in the form of oil stains and bleeding oil, in core samples from two breccia pipes, Hills A and C, Eddy County, New Mexico, and seepage oils in a potash mine near Hill C breccia pipe are geochemically similar. The geochemical similarities strongly suggest that they belong to the same family of oils and were derived from similar sources. The oils are relatively high in sulfur (0.89 to 1.23 percent), rich in hydrocarbons (average 82 percent), relatively high in saturated hydrocarbon/aromatic hydrocarbon ratios (average 2.9), and based on analysis of seep oils alone, have a low API gravity (average 19.4?). The oils are for the most part severely biodegraded as attested by the loss of n-paraffin molecules. Geochemical comparison of seven crude oils collected in the vicinity of the breccia pipes indicates that the Yates oils are the likely source of the above family of oils. Six barrels of crude oil that were dumped into a potash exploration borehole near Hill C breccia pipe, to release stuck casing, are considered an unlikely source of the breccia pipe and mine seep oils. Volumetric and hydrodynamic constraints make it highly improbable that such a small volume of 'dumped' oil could migrate over distances ranging from about 600 feet to 2.5 miles to the sites of the oil shows.

  10. Pollution control instrumentation for oil and effluents

    SciTech Connect

    Parker, H.; Pitt, G.D.

    1986-01-01

    This book provides discusses recent developments in oil pollution control instrumentation. Some of the topics covered are as follows: 1. Technical requirements of the IMCO International Performance and Test Specification A393x concerning oil content meters; and 2. Oil in water detection; and 3. Methods for the disposal of recovered oil and oily sludge; and 4. Oil content monitoring at ballast water treatment facilities and offshore production platforms.

  11. Mexican Oil: Its History, Development and Future

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1990-04-02

    Porfirio Diaz ....... .............. 2 II. THE INITIAL DEVELOPMENT ..... ......... 6 Oil Development During the Porfiriato. 6 Oil Development in...oil and for some time Mexican internal and foreign policy was strengthened by having oil. FROM THE ANCIENT AZTECS UNTIL GENERAL PORFIRIO DIAZ . Before...of Mexican oil. 2 Before the General Porfirio Diaz period some discoveries had been made in the coastal region of the Gulf of Mexico. In 1859 a - 3

  12. 21 CFR 186.1557 - Tall oil.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Tall oil. 186.1557 Section 186.1557 Food and Drugs... Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 186.1557 Tall oil. (a) Tall oil (CAS Reg. No. 8002-26-4) is essentially the sap... consists mainly of tall oil resin acids and tall oil fatty acids. (b) In accordance with § 186.1(b)(1),...

  13. 21 CFR 186.1557 - Tall oil.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Tall oil. 186.1557 Section 186.1557 Food and Drugs... Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 186.1557 Tall oil. (a) Tall oil (CAS Reg. No. 8002-26-4) is essentially the sap... consists mainly of tall oil resin acids and tall oil fatty acids. (b) In accordance with § 186.1(b)(1),...

  14. 21 CFR 186.1557 - Tall oil.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Tall oil. 186.1557 Section 186.1557 Food and Drugs... Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 186.1557 Tall oil. (a) Tall oil (CAS Reg. No. 8002-26-4) is essentially the sap... consists mainly of tall oil resin acids and tall oil fatty acids. (b) In accordance with § 186.1(b)(1),...

  15. 21 CFR 186.1557 - Tall oil.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Tall oil. 186.1557 Section 186.1557 Food and Drugs... Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 186.1557 Tall oil. (a) Tall oil (CAS Reg. No. 8002-26-4) is essentially the sap... consists mainly of tall oil resin acids and tall oil fatty acids. (b) In accordance with § 186.1(b)(1),...

  16. Shear rheological characterization of motor oils

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bair, Scott; Winer, Ward O.

    1988-01-01

    Measurements of high pressure viscosity, traction coefficient, and EHD film thickness were performed on twelve commercial automotive engine oils, a reference oil, two unformulated base oils and two unformated base oil and polymer blends. An effective high shear rate inlet viscosity was calculated from film thickness and pressure viscosity coefficient. The difference between measured and effective viscosity is a function of the polymer type and concentration. Traction measurements did not discriminate mileage formulated oils from those not so designated.

  17. Method for enhanced oil recovery

    DOEpatents

    Comberiati, Joseph R.; Locke, Charles D.; Kamath, Krishna I.

    1980-01-01

    The present invention is directed to an improved method for enhanced recovery of oil from relatively "cold" reservoirs by carbon dioxide flooding. In oil reservoirs at a temperature less than the critical temperature of 87.7.degree. F. and at a pore pressure greater than the saturation pressure of carbon dioxide at the temperature of the reservoir, the carbon dioxide remains in the liquid state which does not satisfactorily mix with the oil. However, applicants have found that carbon dioxide can be vaporized in situ in the reservoir by selectively reducing the pore pressure in the reservoir to a value less than the particular saturated vapor pressure so as to greatly enhance the mixing of the carbon dioxide with the oil.

  18. Method for retorting oil shale

    DOEpatents

    Shang, Jer-Yu; Lui, A.P.

    1985-08-16

    The recovery of oil from oil shale is provided in a fluidized bed by using a fluidizing medium of a binary mixture of carbon dioxide and 5 steam. The mixture with a steam concentration in the range of about 20 to 75 volume percent steam provides an increase in oil yield over that achievable by using a fluidizing gas of carbon dioxide or steam alone when the mixture contains higher steam concentrations. The operating parameters for the fluidized bed retorted are essentially the same as those utilized with other gaseous fluidizing mediums with the significant gain being in the oil yield recovered which is attributable solely to the use of the binary mixture of carbon dioxide and steam. 2 figs.

  19. Geochemistry of Brazilian oil shales

    SciTech Connect

    Neto, C.C.

    1983-02-01

    A general survey of the main brazilian oil shale formations presenting their location, oil reserve, age and stratigraphy introduces this paper. It is followed by a comparative survey of the data on chemical composition (elementary, minerals and organic constituents/biological markers) and of thermal alteration indexes in order to define their maturity. The geochemical phenomena involved with a large diabase intrusion in the Irati formation is particularly stressed. The analytical methods of Solid Phase Extraction and Functional Group Marker developed for the analysis of bitumens and kerogens and the results obtained from the application of these methods to brazilian oil shales are discussed. The paper ends with a brief description of a comprehensive analytical bibliography on brazilian oil shales prepared to serve as a data base for these organites.

  20. Viscoelastic properties of heavy oils

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rojas Luces, Maria Alejandra

    Rheological low frequency measurements were carried out to analyze the viscoelastic properties of four heavy oil samples. At room conditions, the heavy oil samples exhibit non-Newtonian or viscoelastic behavior since they have a viscous component and an elastic component. The latter becomes very important for temperatures below 30°C, and for seismic to ultrasonic frequencies. Above this temperature, the viscous component increases significantly in comparison to the elastic component, and for seismic frequencies heavy oils can be considered as Newtonian fluids. A new viscosity model based on the concept of activation energy was derived to predict viscosity in terms of frequency and temperature for temperatures below 60°C. A new frequency-temperature dispersion model was derived to address the variation of the complex shear modulus (G*) with frequency and temperature for the heavy oil samples. This model fits the data well for seismic and sonic frequencies but it overpredicts G* at ultrasonic frequencies.

  1. Aromatherapy and Essential Oils (PDQ)

    MedlinePlus

    ... has found very few side effects . Lavender and tea tree essential oils have been found to have ... aromatherapy, including those from Roman chamomile , geranium , lavender , tea tree , lemon , cedarwood , and bergamot . Each plant's essential ...

  2. Oil pollution control: A history

    SciTech Connect

    Pritchard, S.Z.

    1987-01-01

    Oil pollution has been a major environmental concern since the 1920s. The search for a solution has ranged from prevention to partial measures coupled with compensation and remedial action. Although recent measures appear to have 'solved' the problem, this book offers a different assessment of the efforts of governments and the oil and maritime industries. It also provides the first comprehensive story of control policies and practices, using primary and secondary sources, thus providing a unique perspective to current approaches. Numerous factors - personalities, state policies, developments in the oil and shipping industries, public agitation, and scientific studies - are identified in a framework useful for analyzing any environmental problem. The book concludes that oil pollution control sets the model for other marine pollution problems, with potentially alarming results.

  3. FLUORINE IN COLORADO OIL SHALE.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dyni, John R.; ,

    1985-01-01

    Oil shale from the lower part of the Eocene Green River Formation in the Piceance Creek Basin, Colorado, averages 0. 13 weight percent fluorine, which is about twice that found in common shales, but is the same as the average amount found in some oil shales from other parts of the world. Some fluorine may reside in fluorapatite; however, limited data suggest that cryolite may be quantitatively more important. To gain a better understanding of the detailed distribution of fluorine in the deeper nahcolite-bearing oil shales, cores were selected for study from two exploratory holes drilled in the northern part of the Piceance Creek Basin where the oil shales reach their maximum thickness and grade.

  4. USGS releases Alaska oil assessment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Showstack, Randy

    With the U.S. Congress gearing up for a House-Senate conference committee battle about whether to open the Alaska National Wildlife Refuge (ANWR) for oil drilling, a new assessment of the amount of oil in the federal portion of the U.S. National Petroleum Reserve in Alaska (NRPA) is influencing the debate.The U.S. Geological Survey has found that the NPRA holds "significantly greater" petroleum resources than had been estimated previously This finding was disclosed in a 16 May report. The assessment estimated that technically recoverable oil on NPRA federal lands are between 5.9 and 13.2 billion barrels of oil; a 1980 assessment estimated between 0.3 and 5.4 billion barrels.

  5. Recycling used automotive oil filters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peaslee, Kent D.

    1994-02-01

    Over 400 million used automotive oil filters are discarded in the United States each year, most of which are disposed of in landfills wasting valuable resources and risking contamination of ground- and surface-water supplies. This article summarizes U.S. bureau of Mines research evaluating scrap prepared from used automotive oil filters. Experimental results show that crushed and drained oil filters have a bulk density that is higher than many typical scrap grades, a chemical analysis low in residual elements (except tin due to use of tin plate in filters), and an overall yield, oil-filter scrap to cast steel, of 76% to 85%, depending on the method used to prepare the scrap.

  6. Oil shales and carbon dioxide.

    PubMed

    Sundquist, E T; Miller, G A

    1980-05-16

    During retorting of oil shales in the western United States, carbonate minerals are calcined, releasing significant amounts of carbon dioxide. Residual organic matter in the shales may also be burned, adding more carbon dioxide to the atmosphere. The amount of carbon dioxide produced depends on the retort process and the grade and mineralogy of the shale. Preliminary calculations suggest that retorting of oil shales from the Green River Formation and burning of the product oil could release one and one-half to five times more carbon dioxide than burning of conventional oil to obtain the same amount of usable energy. The largest carbon dioxide releases are associated with retorting processes that operate at temperatures greater than about 600 degrees C.

  7. Microbial enhancement of oil recovery

    SciTech Connect

    Finnerty, W.R.; Singer, M.E.

    1983-03-01

    The purpose of this article is to present an overview of a supplementary biotechnology that will potentially aid in obtaining greater oil production and processing capabilities. This supplementary technology involves the application of microbiological processes to specific and well-defined problems in enhanced oil recovery (EOR). The discussion outlines scenarios for various microbiological processes that have been identified as promising areas for research and development, many of which are currently being addressed within the petroleum industry and by the Department of Energy. Microorganisms and microbial products can be used to recover oil from reservoirs. To be successful, the complexity of oil and the physical constraints in the reservoir must be taken into account. The three general approaches are: stimulation of the endogenous microbial population; injection of microorganisms with proven ability to perform well in situ; and the use of microbial products, such as xanthan gum, produced by Xanthomonas campestris.

  8. Oil emulsions of fluorosilicone fluids

    SciTech Connect

    Keil, J. W.

    1985-08-27

    Emulsions of fluorosilicone fluids in mineral oil are disclosed. These emulsions are stabilized by a polydimethylsiloxane-polybutadiene copolymer or a polydimethylsiloxane-hydrogenated polybutadiene copplymer. The emulsions are an effective foam suppressant for organic liquids, especially crude petroleum.

  9. Future global crude oil supply

    SciTech Connect

    Ivanhoe, L.F.

    1988-03-01

    Inexpensive crude oil fuels the world's economies and armies. In 1986, for the first time, the global production of crude oil and natural liquids exceeded new reserves added. Proved oil reserves at the end of 1985 stood 707.6 billion bbl (BBO), but declined to 703.1 BBO by the end of 1986. The 1986 reserve decrease, 4.5 BBO, was 20.4% of total global production of 22.0 BBO. This handwriting on the wall is very bad news. The world's recoverable crude oil and natural gas liquids discovered through 1985 totaled 1258 BBO, including cumulative production of 551 BBO and 707 BBO of reserves. At current production rates, half of all discovered oil will have been burned up by 1989. Timing of the end of our oil age can be extrapolated from a modified Hubbert curve, with future production resembling a mirror image of past production. The watershed beginning of the inevitable decline in global crude oil supplies can be expected in the late 1990s, although the date may be over 30 years later in some super-oily Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries (OPEC). Clearly the day of reckoning will be postponed by any new oil discoveries. These will probably be distributed much as are the present global reserves (e.g., 68% OPEC; 11% USSR and China; 21% rest of world). Of this 56% will be in the Persian Gulf area. Giant fields (more than 0.5 BBO reserves) contain 75% of the world's reserves. Discoveries of oil in the globe's 320 known giant fields peaked at 125 BBO during the period 1961-1965, after which giant field discoveries plunged to only 10 BBO during 1981-1985. Henceforth, they should expect to find few giant whales (but many minnows) in the non-OPEC world's fished-out basins. Every new field will help as global crude oil supplies dwindle. Therefore, it is essential that all large prospects outside the Persian Gulf be tested promptly, so the oil-importing nations will known what size of non-OPEC reserves are available.

  10. Exposure Standard for Fog Oil

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1990-11-15

    28 DISTRIBUTION LIST ...................................................... 37 LIST OF TABLES 1. Exposure to oil mist in...Because contract numbers and order dates are not generally included in inventory lists , and the material in war reserves is classified, the quantities of...petroleum Industry indicat 2that while larger producers may use,.ests such as the modif-ed Ames assay or the FDA test for white oil purity,"m any

  11. Micellar slug for oil recovery

    SciTech Connect

    Morita, H.; Kawada, Y.; Yamada, J. I.

    1985-07-30

    A micellar slug for use in the recovery of oil, the slug containing a hydrocarbon, an aqueous medium, a surfactant, and a cosurfactant. The surfactant contains as an essential component an internal olefin sulfonate. This micellar slug has an excellent capability for decreasing an interfacial tension between oil and water and an excellent salinity tolerance and hard-water resistance. Furthermore, the micro-emulsion can be formed from this micellar slug in a wide composition range.

  12. Ghana: World Oil Report 1991

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-08-01

    This paper reports on the exploration by Petro-Canada International Assistance Corp. and Phillips offshore in Tano North and Tano South basins which indicate oil and gas potential. Nigerian National Petroleum Corp. has identified areas where the two West African states can cooperate and is ready to assist in exploration. Ghana National Petroleum Corp. plans a 10-well program in Tano basin. Exploration efforts are concentrated around Accra-Keta basin, saltpond oil fields and Tan basins.

  13. Conversion of heavy petroleum oils

    SciTech Connect

    Farcasiu, M.

    1982-03-02

    Heavy petroleum oils, such as vacuum resids, and heavy fractions of tar sands and shale oil, are partially converted to more volatile hydrocarbons by mixing with light aromatic hydrocarbons and treatment of the mixture with a friedel-crafts catalyst such as aluminum chloride. It is believed that the conversion found is essentially a transalkylation, I.E. The resid undergoes dealkylation with concurrent alkylation of the light aromatic hydrocarbon.

  14. Oil prices and world inflation

    SciTech Connect

    Sheehan, R.G.; Kelly, N.

    1983-06-01

    This paper addresses the nature of the causal relationships between oil prices and US inflation using a procedure developed by Granger to assess causality or, more precisely stated, informativeness. The results confirm that higher oil prices have increased the US wholesale price index (WPI). The results also support OPEC's contention that their price increases have, in part, been a result of worldwide inflation. 9 references, 2 tables.

  15. Sedimentation Of Oil-MIneral Aggregates For Remediation Of Vegetable Oil Spills

    EPA Science Inventory

    A response alternative for floating vegetable oil spills based on sedimentation of negatively buoyant oil-mineral aggregrates followed by anaerobic biodegradation in the sediments is under investigation. Sedimentation of floating canola oil by interaction with montmorillonite wa...

  16. Gold, coal and oil.

    PubMed

    Dani, Sergio U

    2010-03-01

    Jared Diamond has hypothesized that guns, germs and steel account for the fate of human societies. Here I propose an extension of Diamond's hypothesis and put it in other terms and dimensions: gold, coal and oil account not only for the fate of human societies but also for the fate of mankind through the bodily accumulation of anthropogenic arsenic, an invisible weapon of mass extinction and evolutionary change. The background is clear; arsenic species fulfill seven criteria for a weapon of mass extinction and evolutionary change: (i) bioavailability to all living organisms; (ii) imperceptibility; (iii) acute toxicity; (iv) bioaccumulation and chronic toxicity; (v) adverse impact on reproductive fitness and reproductive outcomes and early-age development and growth in a wide range of microbial, plant and animal species including man; (vi) widespread geographical distribution, mobility and ecological persistence on a centennial to millennial basis and (vii) availability in necessary and sufficient amounts to exert evolutionarily meaningful effects. The proof is becoming increasingly feasible as human exploitation of gold, coal and oil deposits cause sustainable rises of arsenic concentrations in the biosphere. Paradoxically, humans are among the least arsenic-resistant organisms because humans are long-lived, encephalized and complex social metazoans. An arsenic accumulation model is presented here to describe how arsenic accumulates in the human body with increasing age and at different provisionally safe exposure levels. Arsenic accumulates in the human body even at daily exposure levels which are within the lowest possible WHO provisional tolerance limits, yielding bodily arsenic concentrations which are above WHO provisional limits. Ongoing consequences of global scale arsenic poisoning of mankind include age-specific rises in morbidity and mortality followed by adaptive changes. The potential rise of successful forms of inborn resistance to arsenic in humans

  17. Radar monitoring of oil pollution

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Guinard, N. W.

    1970-01-01

    Radar is currently used for detecting and monitoring oil slicks on the sea surface. The four-frequency radar system is used to acquire synthetic aperature imagery of the sea surface on which the oil slicks appear as a nonreflecting area on the surface surrounded by the usual sea return. The value of this technique was demonstrated, when the four-frequency radar system was used to image the oil spill of tanker which has wrecked. Imagery was acquired on both linear polarization (horizontal, vertical) for frequencies of 428, 1228, and 8910 megahertz. Vertical returns strongly indicated the presence of oil while horizontal returns failed to detect the slicks. Such a result is characteristic of the return from the sea and cannot presently be interpreted as characteristics of oil spills. Because an airborne imaging radar is capable of providing a wide-swath coverage under almost all weather conditions, it offers promise in the development of a pollution-monitoring system that can provide a coastal watch for oil slicks.

  18. [Antioxidant properties of essential oils].

    PubMed

    Misharina, T A; Terenina, M B; Krikunova, N I

    2009-01-01

    By the method of capillary gas-liquid chromatography we studied antioxidant properties and stability during the storage of hexane solutions of 14 individual essential oils from black and white pepper (Piper nigrum L.), cardamom (Elettaria cardamomum L.), nutmeg (Myristica fragrans Houtt.), mace (Myristica fragrans Houtt), juniperberry (Juniperus communis L.), seed of fennel (Foeniculum vulgare Mill., var. dulce Thelling), caraway (Carvum carvi L.), dry leaves of cinnamon (Cinnamomum zeylanicum Bl.), marjoram (Origanum majorana L.), laurel (Laurus nobilis L.), ginger (Zingiber officinale L.), garlic (Allium sativum L.), and clove bud (Caryophyllus aromaticus L.). We assessed the antioxidant properties by the oxidation of aliphatic aldehyde (trans-2-hexenal) into the according carbon acid. We established that essential oils of garlic, clove bud, ginger and leaves of cinnamon have the maximal efficiency of inhibition of hexenal oxidation (80-93%), while black pepper oil has the minimal (49%). Antioxidant properties of essential oils with a high content of substituted phenols depended poorly on its concentration in model systems. We studied the changes in essential oils content during the storage of its hexane solutions for 40 days in the light and out of the light and compared it with the stability of essential oils stored for a year out of the light.

  19. The future of oil supply

    PubMed Central

    Miller, Richard G.; Sorrell, Steven R.

    2014-01-01

    Abundant supplies of oil form the foundation of modern industrial economies, but the capacity to maintain and grow global supply is attracting increasing concern. Some commentators forecast a peak in the near future and a subsequent terminal decline in global oil production, while others highlight the recent growth in ‘tight oil’ production and the scope for developing unconventional resources. There are disagreements over the size, cost and recoverability of different resources, the technical and economic potential of different technologies, the contribution of different factors to market trends and the economic implications of reduced supply. Few debates are more important, more contentious, more wide-ranging or more confused. This paper summarizes the main concepts, terms, issues and evidence that are necessary to understand the ‘peak oil’ debate. These include: the origin, nature and classification of oil resources; the trends in oil production and discoveries; the typical production profiles of oil fields, basins and producing regions; the mechanisms underlying those profiles; the extent of depletion of conventional oil; the risk of an approaching peak in global production; and the potential of various mitigation options. The aim is to introduce the subject to non-specialist readers and provide a basis for the subsequent papers in this Theme Issue. PMID:24298085

  20. Corona processing of insulating oil

    SciTech Connect

    Rohwein, G.J.

    1996-07-01

    It is well known that sustained corona discharge in insulating oil lowers its dielectric strength and simultaneously reduces its corona resistance. Therefore, for operating stresses in the corona regime, activity typically increases with time and, if allowed to continue, eventually leads to breakdown of the oil and failure of the component or system. It is, therefore, common practice to periodically replace oil in devices such as large power transformers and switch gear before breakdown occurs. Sealed components such as capacitors are typically replaced. Recent experiments have demonstrated that the dielectric properties of corona weakened oil can not only be restored, but actually improved by a simple regeneration process. These experiments were carried out on high voltage pulse transformer windings which were operated at high rep rates until partial discharges formed. Reprocessing the oil after each operating cycle resulted in successively longer operational periods before partial discharges appeared. In a separate experiment, a process was developed to precondition transformer oil to raise its corona inception voltage before using it to insulate a high voltage component, thus giving it a longer initial service life for a given operating stress or permitting higher stress operation for limited operating times.

  1. 33 CFR 158.220 - Ports and terminals loading more than 1,000 metric tons of oil other than crude oil or bunker oil.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... than 1,000 metric tons of oil other than crude oil or bunker oil. 158.220 Section 158.220 Navigation... § 158.220 Ports and terminals loading more than 1,000 metric tons of oil other than crude oil or bunker... than 1,000 metric tons (1,100 short tons) of oil other than crude oil or bunker oil to...

  2. Oil Mist Compliance

    SciTech Connect

    Lazarus, Lloyd

    2009-02-02

    This report summarizes activities at the KCP related to evaluating and modifying machine tools in order to be in compliance with Section 23 of DOE 10 CFR 851, Worker Safety and Health Program. Section 851.23 (a) states that “Contractors must comply with the following safety and health standards that are applicable to the hazards in their covered workplace”, and subsection 9 contains the following applicable standard: “American Congress of Governmental Industrial Hygienists (ACGIH), ‘Threshold Limit Values for Chemical Substances and Physical Agents and Biological Exposure Indices,’ (2005) (incorporated by reference, see §851.27) when the ACGIH Threshold Limit Values are lower (more protective) than permissible exposure limits in 29 CFR 1910.” In the 2005 ACGIH – Threshold Limit Value book a Notice of Change was issued for exposure to mineral oil mist used in metalworking fluids (MWFs). The effects of planning for the new facility and which machine tools would be making the transition to the new facility affected which machine tools were modified.

  3. Oil Industry Aids

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1979-01-01

    The accompanying photos show two types of offshore oil platforms used by Exxon Corporation. In the upper photo is a leg-supported gravity platform; the other structure is a "jackettype" platform, built in sections, towed to sea and assembled on-site. In construction of platforms like these, Exxon Production Research Company, Houston, Texas, conducts extensive structural investigations of decks, supporting members and other platform components, making use of the NASTRAN @ (NASA Structural Analysis) computer program. NASTRAN is a predictive tool which analyzes a computerized design and reports how the structure will react to a great many conditions it will encounter in its operational environment; in this case, NASTRAN studies the effects of waves, winds, ocean storms and other stress-inducing factors. NASTRAN allows Exxon Production Research to perform more complex and more detailed analysis than was possible with previous programs. The same program has also been used by Exxon Research and Engineering Company, Florham Park, New Jersey, in analysis of pressure vessels, turbine components and composite building boards.

  4. Oil Spill Prevention, Control and Countermeasures Plan

    SciTech Connect

    Zoric, J P

    1989-02-01

    Environmental Protection Agency regulations 40 CFR Part 112, Oil Pollution Prevention,'' include requirements for a written Oil Spill Prevention, Control, and Countermeasures (SPCC) Plan. This document provides such an SPCC Plan for facilities at 100-N Area managed by Westinghouse Hanford Co. Should an oil spill occur at 100-N Area, the following actions should be followed: stop the flow of oil, contain the oil spill in order to prevent it from reaching the river, and notify Environmental Protection. Environmental Protection will assess the oil spill and determine if remedial action is necessary. If needed, an oil spill response team will deploy oil spill control and clean-up equipment at the river shoreline to remove any oil that enters the river.

  5. Bio-oil fractionation and condensation

    DOEpatents

    Brown, Robert C; Jones, Samuel T; Pollard, Anthony

    2013-07-02

    A method of fractionating bio-oil vapors which involves providing bio-oil vapors comprising bio-oil constituents is described. The bio-oil vapors are cooled in a first stage which comprises a condenser having passages for the bio-oil separated by a heat conducting wall from passages for a coolant. The coolant in the condenser of the first stage is maintained at a substantially constant temperature, set at a temperature in the range of 75 to 100.degree. C., to condense a first liquid fraction of liquefied bio-oil constituents in the condenser of the first stage. The first liquid fraction of liquified bio-oil constituents from the condenser in the first stage is collected. Also described are steps for subsequently recovering further liquid fractions of liquefied bio-oil constituents. Particular compositions of bio-oil condensation products are also described.

  6. Essential Oils, Part III: Chemical Composition.

    PubMed

    de Groot, Anton C; Schmidt, Erich

    2016-01-01

    Data on the chemistry of essential oils which have caused contact allergy are provided. The largest group of chemicals found in essential oils consists of terpenes. The number of identified components usually ranges from 100 to 250, but in some oils (lavender, geranium, rosemary) 450 to 500 chemicals have been found. Many chemicals are present in a large number of oils, up to 98% for β-caryophyllene and 97% for limonene. Chemicals that are important constituents of >20 oils are limonene, linalool, and α-pinene. In many essential oils, there are 2 to 5 components which together constitute over 50% to 60% of the oil. In some oils, however, there is one dominant ingredient, making up more than 50% of the oil, including (E)-anethole in aniseed and star anise oil, carvone in spearmint oil, 1,8-cineole (eucalyptol) in Eucalyptus globulus oil, and (E)-cinnamaldehyde in cassia oil. The most important chemicals in 93 individual oils are specified.

  7. Research advancements in palm oil nutrition.

    PubMed

    May, Choo Yuen; Nesaretnam, Kalanithi

    2014-10-01

    Palm oil is the major oil produced, with annual world production in excess of 50 million tonnes. About 85% of global palm oil produced is used in food applications. Over the past three decades, research on nutritional benefits of palm oil have demonstrated the nutritional adequacy of palm oil and its products, and have resulted in transitions in the understanding these attributes. Numerous studies have demonstrated that palm oil was similar to unsaturated oils with regards to effects on blood lipids. Palm oil provides a healthy alternative to trans-fatty acid containing hydrogenated fats that have been demonstrated to have serious deleterious effects on health. The similar effects of palm oil on blood lipids, comparable to other vegetable oils could very well be due to the structure of the major triglycerides in palm oil, which has an unsaturated fatty acid in the stereospecific numbers (sn)-2 position of the glycerol backbone. In addition, palm oil is well endowed with a bouquet of phytonutrients beneficial to health, such as tocotrienols, carotenoids, and phytosterols. This review will provide an overview of studies that have established palm oil as a balanced and nutritious oil.

  8. Effects of Microwave Radiation on Oil Recovery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Esmaeili, Abdollah

    2011-12-01

    A variety of oil recovery methods have been developed and applied to mature and depleted reservoirs in order to improve the efficiency. Microwave radiation oil recovery method is a relatively new method and has been of great interest in the recent years. Crude oil is typically co-mingled with suspended solids and water. To increase oil recovery, it is necessary to remove these components. The separation of oil from water and solids using gravitational settling methods is typically incomplete. Oil-in-water and oil-water-solid emulsions can be demulsified and separated into their individual layers by microwave radiation. The data also show that microwave separation is faster than gravity separation and can be faster than conventional heating at many conditions. After separation of emulsion into water and oil layers, water can be discharged and oil is collected. High-frequency microwave recycling process can recover oil and gases from oil shale, residual oil, drill cuttings, tar sands oil, contaminated dredge/sediments, tires and plastics with significantly greater yields and lower costs than are available utilizing existing known technologies. This process is environmentally friendly, fuel-generating recycler to reduce waste, cut emissions, and save energy. This paper presents a critical review of Microwave radiation method for oil recovery.

  9. Research advancements in palm oil nutrition*

    PubMed Central

    May, Choo Yuen; Nesaretnam, Kalanithi

    2014-01-01

    Palm oil is the major oil produced, with annual world production in excess of 50 million tonnes. About 85% of global palm oil produced is used in food applications. Over the past three decades, research on nutritional benefits of palm oil have demonstrated the nutritional adequacy of palm oil and its products, and have resulted in transitions in the understanding these attributes. Numerous studies have demonstrated that palm oil was similar to unsaturated oils with regards to effects on blood lipids. Palm oil provides a healthy alternative to trans-fatty acid containing hydrogenated fats that have been demonstrated to have serious deleterious effects on health. The similar effects of palm oil on blood lipids, comparable to other vegetable oils could very well be due to the structure of the major triglycerides in palm oil, which has an unsaturated fatty acid in the stereospecific numbers (sn)-2 position of the glycerol backbone. In addition, palm oil is well endowed with a bouquet of phytonutrients beneficial to health, such as tocotrienols, carotenoids, and phytosterols. This review will provide an overview of studies that have established palm oil as a balanced and nutritious oil. PMID:25821404

  10. Storage studies on mustard oil blends.

    PubMed

    Chugh, Bhawna; Dhawan, Kamal

    2014-04-01

    Mustard oil blends were investigated for fatty acid composition and oxidative stability during storage for 3 months at room temperature (15 °C to 35 °C). The blends were prepared using raw mustard oil with selected refined vegetable oils namely; palm, safflower, soybean, rice bran, sunflower and sesame oil (raw). The fatty acid compositions of all these blends were studied using GLC. The developed blends were found to obey the ideal fatty acid ratio as laid down by health agencies i.e. 1:2:1:: SFA:MUFA:PUFA. The oxidative stability of blends was studied by measuring peroxide value (PV), Kries and Thiobarbituric acid (TBA) test. Blends MPSu (mustard oil, palm oil and sunflower oil), MPT (mustard oil, palm oil and sesame oil) and MPGr (mustard oil, palm oil and groundnut oil) were more stable than other blends during storage. The presence of mustard oil in all blends might make them a healthier option for many consumers as it is a rich source of ω-3 fatty acids and has anti-carcinogenic properties.

  11. Empirical studies on changes in oil governance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kemal, Mohammad

    Regulation of the oil and gas sector is consequential to the economies of oil-producing countries. In the literature, there are two types of regulation: indirect regulation through taxes and tariffs or direct regulation through the creation of a National Oil Company (NOC). In the 1970s, many oil-producing countries nationalized their oil and gas sectors by creating and giving ownership rights of oil and gas resources to NOCs. In light of the success of Norway in regulating its oil and gas resources, over the past two decades several countries have changed their oil governance by changing the rights given to NOC from ownership right to mere access rights like other oil companies. However, empirical literature on these changes in oil governance is quite thin. Thus, this dissertation will explore three research questions to investigate empirically these changes in oil governance. First, I investigate empirically the impact of the changes in oil governance on aggregate domestic income. By employing a difference-in-difference method, I will show that a country which changed its oil governance increases its GDP per-capita by 10%. However, the impact is different for different types of political institution. Second, by observing the changes in oil governance in Indonesia , I explore the impact of the changes on learning-by-doing and learning spillover effect in offshore exploration drilling. By employing an econometric model which includes interaction terms between various experience variables and changes in an oil governance dummy, I will show that the change in oil governance in Indonesia enhances learning-by-doing by the rigs and learning spillover in a basin. Lastly, the impact of the changes in oil governance on expropriation risk and extraction path will be explored. By employing a difference-in-difference method, this essay will show that the changes in oil governance reduce expropriation and the impact of it is different for different sizes of resource stock.

  12. High efficiency shale oil recovery

    SciTech Connect

    Adams, D.C.

    1993-04-22

    The overall project objective is to demonstrate the high efficiency of the Adams Counter-Current shale oil recovery process. The efficiency will first be demonstrated on a small scale, in the current phase, after which the demonstration will be extended to the operation of a small pilot plant. Thus the immediate project objective is to obtain data on oil shale retorting operations in a small batch rotary kiln that will be representative of operations in the proposed continuous process pilot plant. Although an oil shale batch sample is sealed in the batch kiln from the start until the end of the run, the process conditions for the batch are the same as the conditions that an element of oil shale would encounter in a continuous process kiln. Similar chemical and physical conditions (heating, mixing, pyrolysis, oxidation) exist in both systems.The two most important data objectives in this phase of the project are to demonstrate (1) that the heat recovery projected for this project is reasonable and (2) that an oil shale kiln will run well and not plug up due to sticking and agglomeration. The following was completed this quarter. (1) Twelve pyrolysis runs were made on five different oil shales. All of the runs exhibited a complete absence of any plugging, tendency. Heat transfer for Green River oil shale in the rotary kiln was 84.6 Btu/hr/ft[sup 2]/[degrees]F, and this will provide for ample heat exchange in the Adams kiln. (2) One retorted residue sample was oxidized at 1000[degrees]F. Preliminary indications are that the ash of this run appears to have been completely oxidized. (3) Further minor equipment repairs and improvements were required during the course of the several runs.

  13. Pilot oil atlas for Louisiana

    SciTech Connect

    Bourgoyne, A.T. Jr.; Kimbrell, C.; Gao, Weigang.

    1993-01-01

    An interdisciplinary research team of engineers, geologists, and computer scientists was assembled at LSU to develop unproved methods for prospecting for bypassed oil and to support oil and gas producers in Louisiana. The overall objective of the project was to develop methods for extending the producing life of several types of reservoirs by reducing the amount of oil being bypassed and abandoned. As part of this work, the team collected information available from public sources for several example reservoirs. One task of the project was to develop a format for the compilation of the extensive but cumbersome Louisiana reservoir data so that it could be used by government and industry to evaluate the resource and plan future activities. The existing information system maintained by Louisiana is a Production Audit Reporting System (PARS). It was designed to allow auditing of oil and gas production and severance taxes associated with this production. It was not intended to be used as a database for determining reservoir recovery efficiency or prospecting for oil and gas. Its use for these purposes, however, has been increasing. The database format suggested in this report would allow production information to be easily displayed by reservoir as well as by lease, unit, or well. The data collected as part of the bypassed-oil study was used to illustrate the proposed new format. This pilot database, or atlas, contains information available for 15 reservoirs. It is recommended that LSU continue to compile and publish database information on the potential for bypassed oil in Louisiana's active reservoirs. This technology-transfer activity should focus each year on those active reservoirs involved in hearings of the Louisiana Office of Conservation. It should also focus on reservoirs being screened by LSU for EOR.

  14. [Solidification of volatile oil with graphene oxide].

    PubMed

    Yan, Hong-Mei; Jia, Xiao-Bin; Zhang, Zhen-Hai; Sun, E; Xu, Yi-Hao

    2015-02-01

    To evaluate the properties of solidifying volatile oil with graphene oxide, clove oil and zedoary turmeric oil were solidified by graphene oxide. The amount of graphene oxide was optimized with the eugenol yield and curcumol yield as criteria. Curing powder was characterized by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The effects of graphene oxide on dissolution in vitro and thermal stability of active components were studied. The optimum solidification ratio of graphene oxide to volatile oil was 1:1. Dissolution rate of active components had rare influence while their thermal stability improved after volatile oil was solidified. Solidifying herbal volatile oil with graphene oxide deserves further study.

  15. Preparation of Reference Material 8504, Transformer Oil.

    PubMed

    Poster, Dianne L; Schantz, Michele M; Wise, Stephen A

    2005-01-01

    A new reference material (RM), RM 8504, has been prepared for use as a diluent oil with Aroclors in transformer oil Standard Reference Materials (SRMs) 3075 to 3080 and SRM 3090 when developing and validating methods for the determination of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) as Aroclors in transformer oil or similar matrices. SRMs 3075-3080 and SRM 3090 consist of individual Aroclors in the same transformer oil that was used to prepare RM 8504. A unit of RM 8504 consists of one bottle containing approximately 100 mL of transformer oil. No additional constituents have been added to the oil.

  16. Healthful new oil from macadamia nuts.

    PubMed

    Ako, H; Okuda, D; Gray, D

    1995-01-01

    Fatty acid profiles were obtained for macadamia nut oil and several other cooking oils. Macadamia nut oil contained the highest level (79%) of monounsaturated fatty acids. Macadamia nut oil is low (4%) in the omega-6 fatty acid 18:2n-6 and saturated fatty acids. Fatty acid profiles for popcorn cooked in several oils were obtained for comparison because of public awareness and concern over high levels of saturated fat found in popcorn sold in theaters. The nutritional implications of using macadamia nut oil are discussed.

  17. [Laser induced fluorescence spectrum characteristics of common edible oil and fried cooking oil].

    PubMed

    Mu, Tao-tao; Chen, Si-ying; Zhang, Yin-chao; Chen, He; Guo, Pan; Ge, Xian-ying; Gao, Li-lei

    2013-09-01

    In order to detect the trench oil the authors built a trench oil rapid detection system based on laser induced fluorescence detection technology. This system used 355 nm laser as excitation light source. The authors collected the fluorescence spectrum of a variety of edible oil and fried cooking oil (a kind of trench oil) and then set up a fluorescence spectrum database by taking advantage of the trench oil detection system It was found that the fluorescence characteristics of fried cooking oil and common edible oil were obviously different. Then it could easily realize the oil recognition and trench oil rapid detection by using principal component analysis and BP neural network, and the overall recognition rate could reach as high as 97.5%. Experiments showed that laser induced fluorescence spectrum technology was fast, non-contact, and highly sensitive. Combined with BP neural network, it would become a new technique to detect the trench oil.

  18. Crude oil prices: Are our oil markets too tight?

    SciTech Connect

    Simmons, M.R.

    1997-02-01

    The answer to the question posed in the title is that tightness in the market will surely prevail through 1997. And as discussed herein, with worldwide demand expected to continue to grow, there will be a strong call on extra oil supply. Meeting those demands, however, will not be straightforward--as many observers wrongly believe--considering the industry`s practice of maintaining crude stocks at ``Just in time`` inventory levels. Further, impact will be felt from the growing rig shortage, particularly for deepwater units, and down-stream capacity limits. While these factors indicate 1997 should be another good year for the service industry, it is difficult to get any kind of consensus view from the oil price market. With most observers` information dominated by the rarely optimistic futures price of crude, as reflected by the NYMEX, the important fact is that oil prices have remained stable for three years and increased steadily through 1996.

  19. The Effect of Perilla frutescens Extract on the Oxidative Stability of Model Food Emulsions

    PubMed Central

    Skowyra, Monika; Falguera, Victor; Azman, Nurul A. M.; Segovia, Francisco; Almajano, Maria P.

    2014-01-01

    The polyphenolic profile of leaves and stalks of Perilla frutescens, was assessed as a source of natural antioxidants. The amount of caffeic and rosmarinic acids, determined by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), were 0.51 mg/g dry weight (DW) and 2.29 mg/g DW, respectively. The measurement of scavenging capacity against the 2,2′-azino-bis-3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulphonic acid (ABTS) radical cation, the oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC), and the ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) were 65.03 mg Trolox equivalents (TE)/g DW, 179.60 mg TE/g DW and 44.46 mg TE/g DW, respectively. P. frutescens extracts also showed good antioxidant properties in 10% sunflower oil-in-water emulsions during storage at 32 °C. Perilla extract at 320 ppm was as effective as butylated hydroxyanisole (BHA) at 20 ppm in slowing down the formation of hydroperoxides as measured by peroxide value, thiobarbituric acid reactive substances and hexanal content. The results of this study indicate that extract of P. frutescens may be suitable for use in the food matrix to help achieve potential health benefits. PMID:26784662

  20. Virgin coconut oil improves hepatic lipid metabolism in rats--compared with copra oil, olive oil and sunflower oil.

    PubMed

    Arunima, S; Rajamohan, T

    2012-11-01

    Effect of virgin coconut oil (VCO) on lipid levels and regulation of lipid metabolism compared with copra oil (CO), olive oil (OO), and sunflower oil (SFO) has been reported. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were fed different oils at 8% level for 45 days along with synthetic diet. Results showed that VCO feeding significantly lowered (P < 0.05) levels of total cholesterol, LDL+ VLDL cholesterol, Apo B and triglycerides in serum and tissues compared to rats fed CO, OO and SFO, while HDL-cholesterol and Apo A1 were significantly (P < 0.05) higher in serum of rats fed VCO than other groups. Hepatic lipogenesis was also down regulated in VCO fed rats, which was evident from the decreased activities of enzymes viz., HMG CoA reductase, glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase, isocitrate dehydrogenase and malic enzyme. In addition, VCO significantly (P < 0.05) increased the activities of lipoprotein lipase, lecithin cholesterol acyl transferase and enhanced formation of bile acids. Results demonstrated hypolipidemic effect of VCO by regulating the synthesis and degradation of lipids.

  1. Offshore oil: Correctness of perspective

    SciTech Connect

    Burns, R.F.

    1993-05-01

    Except for the Gulf of Mexico, the offshore oil industry has been virtually banned from the US Exclusive Economic Zone for ten years. The oil potential in Alaska's Arctic National Wildlife Refuge (ANWR) is also off limits. The Gulf of Mexico is the only place with prospects for future success and a number of companies both large and small are determined to move forward. The depressed price of oil does not encourage development but recently gas prices in the US have increased, making offshore gas development more feasible. Perhaps most significant is development and application of new technology and more intense management to make sure it works. The offshore oil companies and support industries have made significant technological advances, expending over and above the dollars paid in taxes, lease fees, and royalties. The ocean industries harbor a great reservoir of high technology knowledge. They have demonstrated the ability to successfully meet a vast array of challenges in exploring for, drilling, and producing oil and gas in extreme conditions. These facts beg the question as to the rational basis of each and every regulation and the ban on drilling.

  2. ENVIRONMENTAL REGULATIONS AND TECHNOLOGY: MANAGING USED MOTOR OIL

    EPA Science Inventory

    This document provides information on managing used oil properly. In each chapter, a different aspect of used oil management is considered. A description of used oil is included, and the document emphasizes the importance of proper used oil management practices.

  3. 3. FOURTH FLOOR OF OIL HOUSE (NOTICE CAST IRON SUPPORT ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. FOURTH FLOOR OF OIL HOUSE (NOTICE CAST IRON SUPPORT POSTS AND OIL PRESS IN THE CENTER) - Wilson's Oil House, Lard Refinery, & Edible Fats Factory, Oil House, 2801 Southwest Fifteenth Street, Oklahoma City, Oklahoma County, OK

  4. Sequential growth of bacteria on crude oil.

    PubMed

    Horowitz, A; Gutnick, D; Rosenberg, E

    1975-07-01

    By modification of the enrichment culture procedure three bacterial strains capable of degrading crude oil in sea water were isolated in pure culture, UP-2, UP-3, and UP-4. Strain UP-2 appears to be highly specialized for growth on crude oil in sea water since it showed strong preference for oil or oil degradation products as substrates for growth, converted 66% of the oil into a form no longer extractable by organic solvents, quantitatively degraded the paraffinic fraction (gas chromatographic analysis), emulsified the oil during exponential growth, and produced 1.6 x 10-8 cells per mg of oil. After exhaustive growth of UP-2 on crude oil the residual oil supported the growth of UP-3 and UP-4, but not a previously isolated oil-degrading bacterium, RAG-1. Strains UP-2, UP-3, and UP-4 grew on RAG-1-degraded oil (specifically depleted of n-alkanes). The growth of UP-3 and UP-4 on UP-2 and RAG-1-degraded oil resulted in the production of new paraffinic compounds as revealed by gas chromatography. When the four strains were grown either together in a mixed culture or sequentially, there was over 75% oil conversion. By plating on selective media, growth of the individual strains was measured kinetically in the reconstituted mixed culture, revealing competition for common growth substances (UP-2 and RAG-1), emhanced die-off (UP-2), and stabilization (UP-4) during the stationary phase.

  5. Oil recovery apparatus and method

    SciTech Connect

    Lowe, J.G.

    1981-05-19

    An oil recovery apparatus and method, particularly for removing oil and grease from the discharge of dishwashing machines or the like, provides a small size assembly employing the same principle as in U.S. Pat. No. 4,051,024. This apparatus and method employs single rotating discs of plastic or plastic coated material and each disk has a pair of scraper blades arranged to scrape opposite sides of the rotating blade. Exterior of the container for the oil recovery apparatus is at least one filter basket adapted to receive the flow into the strainer container of large particles of food and other waste such as cigarette butts and the like. Each filter is disposed for the ready cleaning of accumulated matter from the basket. There is shown plural filters, valve controls, auxiliary heating and disc support means to be more fully described.

  6. SUPRI heavy oil research program

    SciTech Connect

    Aziz, K.; Ramey, H.J. Jr.; Castanier, L.M.

    1991-12-01

    The 14th Annual Report of the SUPRI Heavy Oil Research Program includes discussion of the following topics: (1) A Study of End Effects in Displacement Experiments; (2) Cat Scan Status Report; (3) Modifying In-situ Combustion with Metallic Additives; (4) Kinetics of Combustion; (5) Study of Residual Oil Saturation for Steam Injection and Fuel Concentration for In-Situ Combustion; (6) Analysis of Transient Foam Flow in 1-D Porous Media with Computed Tomography; (7) Steam-Foam Studies in the Presence of Residual Oil; (8) Microvisualization of Foam Flow in a Porous Medium; (9) Three- Dimensional Laboratory Steam Injection Model; (10) Saturation Evaluation Following Water Flooding; (11) Numerical Simulation of Well-to-Well Tracer Flow Test with Nonunity Mobility Ratio.

  7. Malaysia: World Oil Report 1991

    SciTech Connect

    Khin, J.A. )

    1991-08-01

    This paper reports that the Malaysian government announced tax incentives for fiscal year 1991/92 by cutting export duties on crude oil to encourage companies to develop more oil fields. The export duty exemption on cost recovery oil was increased from the current 20% to 50% on April 1, 1991. Nearly 115,200 sq mi of shallow-water acreage off Malaysia has been awarded to PS contractors, leaving only about five blocks remaining. Therefore, Petronas plans to award deeper water blocks (water depths of 655 ft or more) in the second half of this year, once terms are finalized. It is understood that these areas will be offshore of Sarawak and Sabah, covering in excess of 38,000 sq mi. Petronas the that there would be some improvement in the PSC terms for the deep-water areas.

  8. Shale Oil Value Enhancement Research

    SciTech Connect

    James W. Bunger

    2006-11-30

    Raw kerogen oil is rich in heteroatom-containing compounds. Heteroatoms, N, S & O, are undesirable as components of a refinery feedstock, but are the basis for product value in agrochemicals, pharmaceuticals, surfactants, solvents, polymers, and a host of industrial materials. An economically viable, technologically feasible process scheme was developed in this research that promises to enhance the economics of oil shale development, both in the US and elsewhere in the world, in particular Estonia. Products will compete in existing markets for products now manufactured by costly synthesis routes. A premium petroleum refinery feedstock is also produced. The technology is now ready for pilot plant engineering studies and is likely to play an important role in developing a US oil shale industry.

  9. Oil shale technology. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    1995-03-01

    This collaborative project with industrial participants studied oil shale retorting through an integrated program of fundamental research, mathematical model development and operation of a 4-tonne-per-day solid recirculation oil shale test unit. Quarterly, project personnel presented progress and findings to a Project Guidance Committee consisting of company representatives and DOE program management. We successfully operated the test unit, developed the oil shale process (OSP) mathematical model, evaluated technical plans for process scale up and determined economics for a successful small scale commercial deployment, producing premium motor fuel, specility chemicals along with electricity co-production. In budget negotiations, DOE funding for this three year CRADA was terminated, 17 months prematurely, as of October 1993. Funds to restore the project and continue the partnership have not been secured.

  10. Oil Biodegradation and Oil-Degrading Microbial Populations in Marsh Sediments Impacted by Oil from the Deepwater Horizon Well Blowout.

    PubMed

    Atlas, Ronald M; Stoeckel, Donald M; Faith, Seth A; Minard-Smith, Angela; Thorn, Jonathan R; Benotti, Mark J

    2015-07-21

    To study hydrocarbon biodegradation in marsh sediments impacted by Macondo oil from the Deepwater Horizon well blowout, we collected sediment cores 18-36 months after the accident at the marshes in Bay Jimmy (Upper Barataria Bay), Louisiana, United States. The highest concentrations of oil were found in the top 2 cm of sediment nearest the waterline at the shorelines known to have been heavily oiled. Although petroleum hydrocarbons were detectable, Macondo oil could not be identified below 8 cm in 19 of the 20 surveyed sites. At the one site where oil was detected below 8 cm, concentrations were low. Residual Macondo oil was already highly weathered at the start of the study, and the concentrations of individual saturated hydrocarbons and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons continued to decrease over the course of the study due to biodegradation. Desulfococcus oleovorans, Marinobacter hydrocarbonoclasticus, Mycobacterium vanbaalenii, and related mycobacteria were the most abundant oil-degrading microorganisms detected in the top 2 cm at the oiled sites. Relative populations of these taxa declined as oil concentrations declined. The diversity of the microbial community was low at heavily oiled sites compared to that of the unoiled reference sites. As oil concentrations decreased over time, microbial diversity increased and approached the diversity levels of the reference sites. These trends show that the oil continues to be biodegraded, and microbial diversity continues to increase, indicating ongoing overall ecological recovery.

  11. Oil Spills - Multiple Languages: MedlinePlus

    MedlinePlus

    ... Are Here: Home → Multiple Languages → All Health Topics → Oil Spills URL of this page: https://medlineplus.gov/languages/ ... V W XYZ List of All Topics All Oil Spills - Multiple Languages To use the sharing features on ...

  12. Microbial enhanced oil recovery and compositions therefor

    DOEpatents

    Bryant, Rebecca S.

    1990-01-01

    A method is provided for microbial enhanced oil recovery, wherein a combination of microorganisms is empirically formulated based on survivability under reservoir conditions and oil recovery efficiency, such that injection of the microbial combination may be made, in the presence of essentially only nutrient solution, directly into an injection well of an oil bearing reservoir having oil present at waterflood residual oil saturation concentration. The microbial combination is capable of displacing residual oil from reservoir rock, which oil may be recovered by waterflooding without causing plugging of the reservoir rock. Further, the microorganisms are capable of being transported through the pores of the reservoir rock between said injection well and associated production wells, during waterflooding, which results in a larger area of the reservoir being covered by the oil-mobilizing microorganisms.

  13. Modified Cobalt Drills With Oil Passages

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hutchison, E.; Richardson, D.

    1986-01-01

    Oil forced through drill shanks to lubricate cutting edges. Drill bits cooled and lubricated by oil forced through drill shanks and out holes adjacent to bits. This cooling technique increases drillbit life and allows increased drill feed rates.

  14. Finding and Producing Oil and Gas

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Geotimes, 1974

    1974-01-01

    Condenses the current research in exploration for gas and oil as described at a symposium at Case Western Reserve University. Briefly discusses reserves, oil exploration and extraction techniques. (BR)

  15. Low-rank coal oil agglomeration

    DOEpatents

    Knudson, Curtis L.; Timpe, Ronald C.

    1991-01-01

    A low-rank coal oil agglomeration process. High mineral content, a high ash content subbituminous coals are effectively agglomerated with a bridging oil which is partially water soluble and capable of entering the pore structure, and usually coal derived.

  16. Oil and Gas Extraction Sector (NAICS 211)

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Environmental regulatory information for oil and gas extraction sectors, including oil and natural gas drilling. Includes information about NESHAPs for RICE and stationary combustion engines, and effluent guidelines for synthetic-based drilling fluids

  17. Method of removing polychlorinated biphenyl from oil

    DOEpatents

    Cook, Gus T.; Holshouser, Stephen K.; Coleman, Richard M.; Harless, Charles E.; Whinnery, III, Walter N.

    1983-01-01

    Polychlorinated biphenyls are removed from oil by extracting the biphenyls into methanol. The mixture of methanol and extracted biphenyls is distilled to separate methanol therefrom, and the methanol is recycled for further use in extraction of biphenyls from oil.

  18. Process for the preparation of gas oil

    SciTech Connect

    Akbar, M.; Kanbier, D.; Kwant, P.B.; Tjan, P.W.

    1980-04-29

    A process for the preparation of gas oil from residual oils by combination of two stages of thermal cracking, cyclone separation, vacuum distillation, deasphalting, atmospheric distillation, and recycling of certain streams.

  19. Combustion of Coal/Oil/Water Slurries

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kushida, R. O.

    1982-01-01

    Proposed test setup would measure combustion performance of new fuels by rapidly heating a droplet of coal/oil/water mixture and recording resulting explosion. Such mixtures are being considered as petroleum substitutes in oil-fired furnaces.

  20. Satellites View Growing Gulf Oil Spill (Update)

    NASA Video Gallery

    On April 30, 2010, the Deepwater Horizon oil rig exploded in the Gulf of Mexico, triggering the largest oil spill in U.S. history. The MODIS instrument, on board NASA's Terra and Aqua satellites, c...

  1. NASA Satellites View Gulf Oil Spill

    NASA Video Gallery

    Two NASA satellites are capturing images of the oil spill in the Gulf of Mexico, which began April 20, 2010, with the explosion of the Deepwater Horizon oil rig. This series of images shows a space...

  2. Potential of vegetable oils for lubricants

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Vegetable oils offer significant advantages in terms of resource renewability, biodegradability, and comparable performance properties to petroleum-based products. The petroleum-based lubricants render unfavorable impact on the environment. With the growing environmental concerns, seed oils are find...

  3. Method of removing polychlorinated biphenyl from oil

    DOEpatents

    Cook, G.T.; Holshouser, S.K.; Coleman, R.M.; Harless, C.E.; Whinnery, W.N. III

    1982-03-17

    Polychlorinated biphenyls are removed from oil by extracting the biphenyls into methanol. The mixture of methanol and extracted biphenyls is distilled to separate methanol therefrom, and the methanol is recycled for further use in extraction of biphenyls from oil.

  4. Desalination of brackish water from oil wells

    SciTech Connect

    Fenton, D.M.

    1991-12-31

    This patent describes an apparatus for producing non-brackish water from brackish water found in an inactivated oil well. It comprises at least one inactive oil well located on an offshore oil platform, the well having a perforated well casing at a level of a geological formation known to contain flowable brackish water; a desalination plant located on the offshore platform receiving flowable brackish water from the inactive oil well; and means to transport the non-brackish water produced by the desalination plant. This patent also describes a method of using an inactivated oil well. It comprises ceasing oil production in an inactive oil well having a well casing that penetrates a plurality of geological formations; recovering brackish water from the inactive oil well from a geological formation containing flowable brackish water; and desalinating the brackish water producing non-brackish water.

  5. Thermal Properties of oil sand

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    LEE, Y.; Lee, H.; Kwon, Y.; Kim, J.

    2013-12-01

    Thermal recovery methods such as Cyclic Steam Injection or Steam Assisted Gravity Drainage (SAGD) are the effective methods for producing heavy oil or bitumen. In any thermal recovery methods, thermal properties (e.g., thermal conductivity, thermal diffusivity, and volumetric heat capacity) are closely related to the formation and expansion of steam chamber within a reservoir, which is key factors to control efficiency of thermal recovery. However, thermal properties of heavy oil or bitumen have not been well-studied despite their importance in thermal recovery methods. We measured thermal conductivity, thermal diffusivity, and volumetric heat capacity of 43 oil sand samples from Athabasca, Canada, using a transient thermal property measurement instrument. Thermal conductivity of 43 oil sand samples varies from 0.74 W/mK to 1.57 W/mK with the mean thermal conductivity of 1.09 W/mK. The mean thermal diffusivity is 5.7×10-7 m2/s with the minimum value of 4.2×10-7 m2/s and the maximum value of 8.0×10-7 m2/s. Volumetric heat capacity varies from 1.5×106 J/m3K to 2.11×106 J/m3K with the mean volumetric heat capacity of 1.91×106 J/m3K. In addition, physical and chemical properties (e.g., bitumen content, electric resistivity, porosity, gamma ray and so on) of oil sand samples have been measured by geophysical logging and in the laboratory. We are now proceeding to investigate the relationship between thermal properties and physical/chemical properties of oil sand.

  6. Chapter 8: Biomass Pyrolysis Oils

    SciTech Connect

    McCormick, Robert L.; Baldwin, Robert M.; Arbogast, Stephen; Bellman, Don; Paynter, Dave; Wykowski, Jim

    2016-09-06

    Fast pyrolysis is heating on the order of 1000 degrees C/s in the absence of oxygen to 40-600 degrees C, which causes decomposition of the biomass. Liquid product yield from biomass can be as much as 80% of starting dry weight and contains up to 75% of the biomass energy content. Other products are gases, primarily carbon monoxide, carbon dioxide, and methane, as well as solid char and ash. Residence time in the reactor is only 0.5-2 s so that relatively small, low-capital-cost reactors can be used. The low capital cost combined with greenhouse gas emission reductions relative to petroleum fuels of 50-95% makes pyrolysis an attractive process. The pyrolysis liquids have been investigated as a refinery feedstock and as stand-alone fuels. Utilization of raw pyrolysis oil has proven challenging. The organic fraction is highly corrosive because of its high organic acid content. High water content lowers the net heating value and can increase corrosivity. It can be poorly soluble in petroleum or petroleum products and can readily absorb water. Distillation residues can be as high as 50%, viscosity can be high, oils can exhibit poor stability in storage, and they can contain suspended solids. The ignition quality of raw pyrolysis oils is poor, with cetane number estimates ranging from 0 to 35, but more likely to be in the lower end of that range. While the use of raw pyrolysis oils in certain specific applications with specialized combustion equipment may be possible, raw oils must be significantly upgraded for use in on-highway spark-ignition (SI) and compression-ignition (CI) engines. Upgrading approaches most often involve catalytic hydrodeoxygenation, one of a class of reactions known as hydrotreating or hydroprocessing. This chapter discusses the properties of raw and upgraded pyrolysis oils, as well as the potential for integrating biomass pyrolysis with a petroleum refinery to significantly reduce the hydroprocessing cost.

  7. Effect of vegetable oil (Brazil nut oil) and mineral oil (liquid petrolatum) on dental biofilm control.

    PubMed

    Filogônio, Cíntia de Fátima Buldrini; Soares, Rodrigo Villamarim; Horta, Martinho Campolina Rebello; Penido, Cláudia Valéria de Sousa Resende; Cruz, Roberval de Almeida

    2011-01-01

    Dental biofilm control represents a basic procedure to prevent caries and the occurrence of periodontal diseases. Currently, toothbrushes and dentifrices are used almost universally, and the employment of good oral hygiene allows for appropriate biofilm removal by both mechanical and chemical control. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of adding vegetable or mineral oil to a commercially available dentifrice in dental biofilm control. A comparison using the Oral Hygiene Index Simplified (OHI-S) was performed in 30 individuals who were randomly divided into three groups. Group 1 (G1) received a commercially available dentifrice; the composition of this dentifrice was modified by addition of mineral oil (Nujol®) for group 2 (G2) or a vegetable oil (Alpha Care®) for group 3 (G3) at 10% of the total volume, respectively. The two-way repeated-measures analysis of variance (two-way ANOVA) was used to test the effect of group (G1, G2 and G3) or time (baseline, 45 days and 90 days) on the OHI-S index scores. Statistical analysis revealed a significant reduction in the OHI-S at day 90 in G2 (p < 0.05) and G3 (p < 0.0001) in comparison to G1. Therefore, the addition of a vegetable or a mineral oil to a commercially available dentifrice improved dental biofilm control, suggesting that these oils may aid in the prevention and/or control of caries and periodontal disease.

  8. 75 FR 22363 - United States Standards for Grades of Olive Oil and Olive-Pomace Oil

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-28

    ... Agricultural Marketing Service United States Standards for Grades of Olive Oil and Olive-Pomace Oil AGENCY: Agricultural Marketing Service, USDA. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The Agricultural Marketing Service (AMS) of the... marketplace, provide definitions for olive oil and olive-pomace oil, promote truth in labeling, and provide...

  9. Development of karanja oil based offset printing ink in comparison with linseed oil.

    PubMed

    Bhattacharjee, Moumita; Roy, Ananda Sankar; Ghosh, Santinath; Dey, Munmun

    2011-01-01

    The conventional offset lithographic printing ink is mainly based on linseed oil. But in recent years, due to stiff competition from synthetic substitutes mainly from petroleum products, the crop production shrinks down to an unsustainable level, which increases the price of linseed oil. Though soyabean oil has replaced a major portion of linseed oil, it is also necessary to develop alternate cost effective vegetable oils for printing ink industry. The present study aims to evaluate the performance of karanja oil (Pongamia glabra) as an alternative of linseed oil in the formulation of offset printing ink because karanja oil is easily available in rural India. Physical properties of raw karanja oil are measured and compared with that of alkali refined linseed oil. Rosin modified phenolic resin based varnishes were made with linseed oil as well as with karanja oil and their properties are compared. Sheetfed offset inks of process colour yellow and cyan is chosen to evaluate the effect of karanja oil in ink properties. In conclusion, karanja oil can be accepted as an alternate vegetable oil source with its noticeable effect on print and post print properties with slower drying time on paper. However, the colour and odour of the oil will restrict its usage on offset inks.

  10. Low trans spread and shortening oils via hydrogenation of soybean oil

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Soybean oil and cottonseed oil were hydrogenated under selective conditions to yield oils with low iodine values, lowered trans fatty acids and increased stearic acid contents. Oils hydrogenated at 175 deg C, 15 psi hydrogen in the presence of nickel catalyst showed a maximum content of trans fatty...

  11. Discrimination of fish oil and mineral oil slicks on sea water

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mac Dowall, J.

    1969-01-01

    Fish oil and mineral oil slicks on sea water can be discriminated by their different spreading characteristics and by their reflectivities and color variations over a range of wavelengths. Reflectivities of oil and oil films are determined using a duel beam reflectance apparatus.

  12. Method to separate and recover oil and plastic from plastic contaminated with oil

    DOEpatents

    Smith, Henry M.; Bohnert, George W.; Olson, Ronald B.; Hand, Thomas E.

    1998-01-27

    The present invention provides a method to separate and recover oils and recyclable plastic from plastic contaminated with oil. The invention utilizes the different solubility of oil in as liquid or supercritical fluid as compared to a gas to effect separation of the oil from the plastic.

  13. Method to separate and recover oil and plastic from plastic contaminated with oil

    DOEpatents

    Smith, H.M.; Bohnert, G.W.; Olson, R.B.; Hand, T.E.

    1998-01-27

    The present invention provides a method to separate and recover oils and recyclable plastic from plastic contaminated with oil. The invention utilizes the different solubility of oil in a liquid or supercritical fluid as compared to a gas to effect separation of the oil from the plastic. 3 figs.

  14. Microbial screening and analytical methods for the production of polyol oils from soybean oil

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The objective of this study is to develop a new useful method including microbial screening and product identification for a bioprocess to produce polyol oils from soybean oil. Methods for separating of product polyol oils from soybean oil substrate and free fatty acid byproducts using HPLC and TLC...

  15. Cardiovascular effects of edible oils: a comparison between four popular edible oils.

    PubMed

    Bester, D; Esterhuyse, A J; Truter, E J; van Rooyen, J

    2010-12-01

    Edible oils form an essential part of the modern diet. These oils play a role as an energy source, and provide the diet with many beneficial micronutrients. Although a popular conception may be that fat should be avoided, certain edible oils as a dietary supplement may play an important role in the improvement of cardiovascular health. CVD has become one of the leading causes of death worldwide. Dietary supplementation with different oils may have beneficial effects on cardiovascular health. While olive oil and sunflower-seed oil are known to reduce serum cholesterol, fish oil has become well known for reducing potentially fatal cardiac arrhythmias. Recently, red palm oil research has shown beneficial effects on cardiac recovery from ischaemia-reperfusion injury. It is clear that dietary supplementation with edible oils may play a vital role in reducing the mortality rate due to heart disease. The specific benefits and disadvantages of these oils should, however, be explored in greater depth. The present review will attempt to identify the benefits and shortcomings of four popular edible oils, namely olive oil, sunflower-seed oil, fish oil and palm oil. Additionally the present review will aim to reveal potential areas of research which could further enhance our understanding of the effects of edible oils on cardiovascular health.

  16. 33 CFR 157.130 - Crude oil washing with more than one grade of crude oil.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Crude oil washing with more than one grade of crude oil. 157.130 Section 157.130 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD... RELATING TO TANK VESSELS CARRYING OIL IN BULK Crude Oil Washing (COW) System on Tank Vessels...

  17. MEDSLIK oil spill model recent developments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lardner, Robin; Zodiatis, George

    2016-04-01

    MEDSLIK oil spill model recent developments Robin Lardner and George Zodiatis Oceanography Center, University of Cyprus, 1678 Nicosia, Cyprus MEDSLIK is a well established 3D oil spill model that predicts the transport, fate and weathering of oil spills and is used by several response agencies and institutions around the Mediterranean, the Black seas and worldwide. MEDSLIK has been used operationally for real oil spill accidents and for preparedness in contingency planning within the framework of pilot projects with REMPEC-Regional Marine Pollution Emergency Response Centre for the Mediterranean Sea and EMSA-European Maritime Safety Agency. MEDSLIK has been implemented in many EU funded projects regarding oil spill predictions using the operational ocean forecasts, as for example the ECOOP, NEREIDs, RAOP-Med, EMODNET MedSea Check Point. Within the frame of MEDESS4MS project, MEDSLIK is at the heart of the MEDESS4MS multi model oil spill prediction system. The MEDSLIK oil spill model contains among other, the following features: a built-in database with 240 different oil types characteristics, assimilation of oil slick observations from in-situ or aerial, to correct the predictions, virtual deployment of oil booms and/or oil skimmers/dispersants, continuous or instantaneous oil spills from moving or drifting ships whose slicks merge can be modelled together, multiple oil spill predictions from different locations, backward simulations for tracking the source of oil spill pollution, integration with AIS data upon the availability of AIS data, sub-surface oil spills at any given water depth, coupling with SAR satellite data. The MEDSLIK can be used for operational intervention for any user-selected region in the world if the appropriate coastline, bathymetry and meteo-ocean forecast files are provided. MEDSLIK oil spill model has been extensively validated in the Mediterranean Sea, both in real oil spill incidents (i.e. during the Lebanese oil pollution crisis in

  18. Fire resistant oil spill barrier

    SciTech Connect

    Lane, P.

    1986-08-12

    A fire-resistant, portable, barrier for the containment of marine oil spill, is described which consists of: (A) a continuous length of a fire-resistant fabric comprising interwoven yarns of heat-resistant material, coated with a liquid-impermeable film; the fabric being impermeable to a hydrocarbon petroleum oil; (B) buoyant bodies attached to the fabric in a quantity and at positions sufficient to buoy the length of fabric on a body of water; and (C) means for stabilizing the length of fabric when buoyed upon the body of water.

  19. Micellar slug for oil recovery

    SciTech Connect

    Morita, H.; Kawada, Y.; Ukigai, T.; Yamada, J.

    1985-08-27

    A micellar slug for use in the recovery of oil is described, the slug containing a hydrocarbon, an aqueous medium, a surfactant, and a cosurfactant. The surfactant contains as an essential component an alpha-olefin sulfonate having 10 to 26 carbon atoms and containing 0.1% to 15% by weight by weight of a disulfonate. This micellar slug has an excellent salinity tolerance and hard-water resistance. Furthermore, the micellar slugs of the present invention are capable of forming micro-emulsions having a sufficiently low interfacial tension and, therefore, can improve oil recovery efficiency.

  20. Micellar slug for oil recovery

    SciTech Connect

    Morita, H.; Kowada, Y.; Ukigai, T.; Yamada, J.

    1985-04-23

    A micellar slug for use in the recovery of oil is described, the slug containing a hydrocarbon, an aqueous medium, a surfactant, and a cosurfactant. The surfactant contains, as an essential component, a divalent metal salt of an alpha-olefin sulfonic acid. This micellar slug has an excellent salinity tolerance and hard-water resistance. Furthermore, the micro-emulsion formed from the present micellar slug is maintained stable in a subterranean reservoir formed by alkaline earth metal carbonates and, therefore, the oil recovery efficiency can be improved.

  1. Oil base drilling fluid composition

    SciTech Connect

    Patel, A.D.; Salandanan, C.

    1988-04-26

    This patent describes an improved oil-base drilling fluid composition characterized by thixotropic properties resulting in a yield point of from about 10 to about 75 comprising an oil-base continuous phase and a gelling composition. The gelling composition includes a latex material copolymerized with one or more functional monomers selected from the group consisting of: amides, amines, sulfonates, monocarboxylic acids, dicarboxylic acids and combinations thereof and wherein at least one of the one or more functional monomers is an amide selected from the group consisting of: acrylamide, N-methylolacrylamide, N-alkyl-acrylamide, vinylacetamide, vinylpyrrolidone, N-vinyl-N-methylacetamide, vinylformamide and combinations thereof.

  2. Omega 3 oils and pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Gallagher, Shawn

    2004-01-01

    Women can safely commence omega 3 intake in early pregnancy to allow the full benefits to be incorporated into the body. Pregnant women should consider the intake of omega 3 oils and evening primrose oil throughout pregnancy in order possibly to prevent preterm delivery, promote an easier birth, assist the baby's brain and eye health and preprogram the baby's cell membranes for optimum lifelong wellness. Benefits to the mother may include prevention of postnatal depression and the comfort of knowing that she is giving her baby a healthy start in life.

  3. World frontiers beckon oil finders

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-09-01

    This paper discusses the international aspects of the petroleum industry. Most who work in the industry agree that the possibilities for huge are found largely in international regions. Something that is helping fuel that possibility is the way countries are increasingly opening their doors to US oil industry involvement. Listed in this paper is a partial list of the reported projects now underway around the world involving US companies. It is not intended to be comprehensive, but rather an indication of how work continues despite a general lull atmosphere for the oil industry. These include Albania, Bulgaria, Congo, Czechoslovakia, Dominican Republic, Ethiopia, Ireland, Malta, Madagascar, Mongolia, Mozambique, Nigeria, Panama, Paraquay, and Senegal.

  4. Engine oils: Rheology and tribology

    SciTech Connect

    1995-12-31

    This publication focuses on experimental methods, environmental issues, and friction and wear studies. A variety of problems are considered, including valve train friction, bearing lubrication, testing of piston materials, and transfer pump wear. Contents include: Experimental study on viscosity-shear characteristics of lubricating oils; Effects of lubricant composition on fuel efficiency in modern engines; Oxidation and corrosion characteristics of vegetable-base biodegradable hydraulic oils; Analysis of cam/roller follower friction and slippage in valve train systems; Tribological analysis of the transfer pump vane/bore interface using a mixed lubrication model; and more.

  5. KEROGEN OIL VALUE ENHANCEMENT RESEARCH

    SciTech Connect

    James W. Bunger, Ph.D.; Christopher P. Russell, Ph.D.; Donald E. Cogswell, M.S.

    2002-05-22

    Three general categories of products from the Estonia Kukersite kerogen oil were defined: pure compounds, broad range concentrates, and sweet refinery feedstock. Product development and market research center on these three categories. Further attempts were made to identify and test chemical approaches for producing lower alkyl resorcinols (what the market requires) from higher alkyl resorcinols. The approaches and process conditions tested have not yet produced satisfactory results. Progress was made to interest industry in the phenolic products producible. A sample of oil from the Galoter retort was received from Estonia and characterization of this sample was initiated. The sample was batch extracted and results of yields and selectivity are reported.

  6. MICROBIAL POPULATION CHANGES DURING BIOREMEDIATION OF AN EXPERIMENTAL OIL SPILL

    EPA Science Inventory

    Three crude oil bioremediation techniques were applied in a randomized block field experiment simulating a coastal oil-spill. Four treatments (no oil control, oil alone, oil + nutrients, and oil + nutrients + an indigenous inoculum) were applied. In-situ microbial community str...

  7. Oil pollution abatement: onshore, offshore, on the high seas

    SciTech Connect

    Shaheen, E.I.; Al- Rashid, N.

    1984-08-01

    Overview of typical sources of oil pollution is presented in this study. Arabian Gulf oil spills and other major oil spill accidents; persistent oils on seawater, their properties and physical changes; sorbents, dispersion with detergents, treating agents in typical processes, booms, skimming, recovery of oil; and the clean-up of oil contaminated beaches are considered.

  8. 30 CFR 1202.100 - Royalty on oil.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Royalty on oil. 1202.100 Section 1202.100... REVENUE ROYALTIES Federal and Indian Oil § 1202.100 Royalty on oil. (a) Royalties due on oil production... title multiplied by the royalty rate in the lease. (b)(1) All oil (except oil unavoidably lost or...

  9. 40 CFR 279.64 - Used oil storage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 27 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Used oil storage. 279.64 Section 279...) STANDARDS FOR THE MANAGEMENT OF USED OIL Standards for Used Oil Burners Who Burn Off-Specification Used Oil for Energy Recovery § 279.64 Used oil storage. Used oil burners are subject to all applicable...

  10. 40 CFR 279.64 - Used oil storage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 26 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Used oil storage. 279.64 Section 279...) STANDARDS FOR THE MANAGEMENT OF USED OIL Standards for Used Oil Burners Who Burn Off-Specification Used Oil for Energy Recovery § 279.64 Used oil storage. Used oil burners are subject to all applicable...

  11. 30 CFR 1202.100 - Royalty on oil.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Royalty on oil. 1202.100 Section 1202.100... REVENUE ROYALTIES Federal and Indian Oil § 1202.100 Royalty on oil. (a) Royalties due on oil production... title multiplied by the royalty rate in the lease. (b)(1) All oil (except oil unavoidably lost or...

  12. 40 CFR 279.64 - Used oil storage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 28 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Used oil storage. 279.64 Section 279...) STANDARDS FOR THE MANAGEMENT OF USED OIL Standards for Used Oil Burners Who Burn Off-Specification Used Oil for Energy Recovery § 279.64 Used oil storage. Used oil burners are subject to all applicable...

  13. 30 CFR 1202.100 - Royalty on oil.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Royalty on oil. 1202.100 Section 1202.100... Resources Revenue ROYALTIES Federal and Indian Oil § 1202.100 Royalty on oil. (a) Royalties due on oil... of this title multiplied by the royalty rate in the lease. (b)(1) All oil (except oil...

  14. 30 CFR 1202.100 - Royalty on oil.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Royalty on oil. 1202.100 Section 1202.100... REVENUE ROYALTIES Federal and Indian Oil § 1202.100 Royalty on oil. (a) Royalties due on oil production... title multiplied by the royalty rate in the lease. (b)(1) All oil (except oil unavoidably lost or...

  15. 40 CFR 279.64 - Used oil storage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 27 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Used oil storage. 279.64 Section 279...) STANDARDS FOR THE MANAGEMENT OF USED OIL Standards for Used Oil Burners Who Burn Off-Specification Used Oil for Energy Recovery § 279.64 Used oil storage. Used oil burners are subject to all applicable...

  16. Method of recovering oil-based fluid

    SciTech Connect

    Brinkley, H.E.

    1993-07-13

    A method is described of recovering oil-based fluid, said method comprising the steps of: applying an oil-based fluid absorbent cloth of man-made fiber to an oil-based fluid, the cloth having at least a portion thereof that is napped so as to raise ends and loops of the man-made fibers and define voids; and absorbing the oil-based fluid into the napped portion of the cloth.

  17. 21 CFR 186.1557 - Tall oil.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Tall oil. 186.1557 Section 186.1557 Food and Drugs....1557 Tall oil. (a) Tall oil (CAS Reg. No. 8002-26-4) is essentially the sap of the pine tree. It is obtained commercially from the waste liquors of pinewood pulp mills and consists mainly of tall oil...

  18. Carbon sequestration in depleted oil shale deposits

    DOEpatents

    Burnham, Alan K; Carroll, Susan A

    2014-12-02

    A method and apparatus are described for sequestering carbon dioxide underground by mineralizing the carbon dioxide with coinjected fluids and minerals remaining from the extraction shale oil. In one embodiment, the oil shale of an illite-rich oil shale is heated to pyrolyze the shale underground, and carbon dioxide is provided to the remaining depleted oil shale while at an elevated temperature. Conditions are sufficient to mineralize the carbon dioxide.

  19. Support of Oil Lubrication by Bonded Coatings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Holinski, R.

    1984-01-01

    A new generation of lubricating lacquers for treatment of metal surfaces has been developed. These coatings have proved to be oil-compatible and are used in oil-lubricated systems. The oil lubrication is supported thereby through reduction of friction and increase of load-carrying capacity during boundary conditions. For difficult tribological systems, the problem-solving lubricating concept has proved to be the beneficial combination of lubricating oil and bonded coatings. A number of practical applications are presented.

  20. Lubricating oil containing VII pour depressant

    SciTech Connect

    Hart, W.P.; Mays, D.L.

    1986-08-19

    Lubricating oils for internal combustion engines typically contain a multitude of additives which function as detergents, dispersants, viscosity index improvers, pour depressants, etc. in order to improve the properties of the oil. It is found that it is particularly necessary to improve the properties exhibited by lubricating oil compositions at low temperatures. It is an object of this invention to provide a lubricating oil containing an additive which provides improved properties at low temperatures.

  1. Process for tertiary oil recovery using tall oil pitch

    DOEpatents

    Radke, C.J.

    1983-07-25

    A process and compositions for enhancing the recovery of acid crudes are disclosed. The process involves injecting caustic solutions into the reservoir to maintain a pH of 11 to 13. The fluid contains an effective amount of multivalent cation for inhibiting alkaline silica dissolution with the reservoir. A tall oil pitch soap is added as a polymeric mobility control agent. (DMC)

  2. Production of polyol oils from soybean oil through bioprocess

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Soy-polyol oils (oxygenated acylglycerols) are important starting materials for the manufacture of polymers such as polyurethane. Currently, they are produced by a two-step chemical process involving epoxidation and then the subsequent opening of the oxirane ring. The objective of this study is to d...

  3. 27 CFR 21.98 - Bone oil (Dipple's oil).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... below 90 °C. (c) Pyrrol reaction. Prepare a 1.0 percent solution of bone oil in 95 percent alcohol... show a distinct red coloration. (d) Reaction with mercuric chloride. Add 5 ml of the 1.0 percent...

  4. Recycling used palm oil and used engine oil to produce white bio oil, bio petroleum diesel and heavy fuel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Al-abbas, Mustafa Hamid; Ibrahim, Wan Aini Wan; Sanagi, Mohd. Marsin

    2012-09-01

    Recycling waste materials produced in our daily life is considered as an additional resource of a wide range of materials and it conserves the environment. Used engine oil and used cooking oil are two oils disposed off in large quantities as a by-product of our daily life. This study aims at providing white bio oil, bio petroleum diesel and heavy fuel from the disposed oils. Toxic organic materials suspected to be present in the used engine oil were separated using vacuum column chromatography to reduce the time needed for the separation process and to avoid solvent usage. The compounds separated were detected by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) and found to contain toxic aromatic carboxylic acids. Used cooking oils (thermally cracked from usage) were collected and separated by vacuum column chromatography. White bio oil produced was examined by GC-MS. The white bio oil consists of non-toxic hydrocarbons and is found to be a good alternative to white mineral oil which is significantly used in food industry, cosmetics and drugs with the risk of containing polycyclic aromatic compounds which are carcinogenic and toxic. Different portions of the used cooking oil and used engine were mixed to produce several blends for use as heavy oil fuels. White bio oil was used to produce bio petroleum diesel by blending it with petroleum diesel and kerosene. The bio petroleum diesel produced passed the PETRONAS flash point and viscosity specification test. The heat of combustion of the two blends of heavy fuel produced was measured and one of the blends was burned to demonstrate its burning ability. Higher heat of combustion was obtained from the blend containing greater proportion of used engine oil. This study has provided a successful recycled alternative for white bio oil, bio petroleum fuel and diesel which can be an energy source.

  5. 78 FR 63235 - Tank Vessel Oil Transfers

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-10-23

    ... spills in oil transfer operations from or to a tank vessel, and requests public input on measures that...). Background and Purpose Currently, applicable regulations that address reducing the risk of oil spills exist... spills in operations involving the transfer of oil from or to a tank vessel (Pub. L. 111-281, codified...

  6. In-Situ Burning of Spilled Oil.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allen, Alan A.

    1991-01-01

    Reviews in-situ burning with particular emphasis on how it can be applied in water-related oil spill situations. Presents and discusses the use of nomograms and development of techniques cited for safe and effective ignition and controlled burning of spilled oil. Includes representative oil spill scenarios and possible responses. (15 references)…

  7. 78 FR 71633 - Tank Vessel Oil Transfers

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-11-29

    ..., concerning new measures to reduce the risks of oil spills in oil transfer operations from or to a tank vessel... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY Coast Guard Tank Vessel Oil Transfers AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION: Notice; reopening...

  8. Method and apparatus for recovering waste oil

    SciTech Connect

    Kennedy, A.B.

    1982-09-21

    Oil is recovered from a mixture of oil and water by heating the mixture, adding a de-emulsifier, passing the mixture through a first vibrating screen, adding a surface tension reducer, processing through a hydrocyclone, passing through a second vibrating screen, and separating the oil from water by settling.

  9. Mathematical modeling of sunflower oil expression

    SciTech Connect

    Singh, M.S.; Farsaie, A.; Stewart, L.E.

    1983-06-01

    The effects of expression conditions on sunflower oil recovery were studied. Samples of sunflower seed were selected at four levels; whole, dehulled, coarsely ground, and finely ground seed. In general, coarsely ground seed resulted in the highest oil recovery. Maximum oil yield for whole seed was obtained when a sample of seeds was expressed at 6 percent moisture, 42 MPa pressure for four minutes.

  10. Combating oil spill problem using plastic waste

    SciTech Connect

    Saleem, Junaid; Ning, Chao; Barford, John; McKay, Gordon

    2015-10-15

    Highlights: • Up-cycling one type of pollution i.e. plastic waste and successfully using it to combat the other type of pollution i.e. oil spill. • Synthesized oil sorbent that has extremely high oil uptake of 90 g/g after prolonged dripping of 1 h. • Synthesized porous oil sorbent film which not only facilitates in oil sorption but also increases the affinity between sorbent and oil by means of adhesion. - Abstract: Thermoplastic polymers (such as polypropylene, polyethylene, polyethylene terephthalate (PET) and high density polyethylene (HDPE)) constitute 5–15% of municipal solid waste produced across the world. A huge quantity of plastic waste is disposed of each year and is mostly either discarded in landfills or incinerated. On the other hand, the usage of synthetic polymers as oil sorbents, in particular, polyolefins, including polypropylene (PP), and polyethylene (PE) are the most commonly used oil sorbent materials mainly due to their low cost. However, they possess relatively low oil absorption capacities. In this work, we provide an innovative way to produce a value-added product such as oil-sorbent film with high practical oil uptake values in terms of g/g from waste HDPE bottles for rapid oil spill remedy.

  11. Influence of Oil on Refrigerant Evaporator Performance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Jong-Soo; Nagata, Karsuya; Katsuta, Masafumi; Tomosugi, Hiroyuki; Kikuchi, Kouichiro; Horichi, Toshiaki

    In vapor compression refrigeration system using oil-lubricated compressors, some amount of oil is always circulated through the system. Oil circulation can have a significant influence on the evaporator performance of automotive air conditioner which is especially required to cool quickly the car interior after a period standing in the sun. An experimental investigation was carried out an electrically heated horizontal tube to measure local heat transfer coefficients for various flow rates and heat fluxes during forced convection boiling of pure refrigerant R12 and refrigerant-oil mixtures (0-11% oil concentration by weight) and the results were compared with oil free performance. Local heat transfer coefficients increased at the region of low vapor quality by the addition of oil. On the other hand, because the oil-rich liquid film was formed on the heat transfer surface, heat transfer coefficients gradually decreased as the vapor quality became higher. Average heat transfer coefficient reached a maximum at about 4% oil concentration and this trend agreed well with the results of Green and Furse. Previous correlations, using the properties of the refrigerant-oil mixture, could not predict satisfactorily the local heat transfer coefficients data. New correlation modified by oil concentration factor was developed for predicting the corresponding heat transfer coefficient for refrigerant-oil mixture convection boiling. The maximum percent deviation between predicted and measured heat transfer coefficient was within ±30%.

  12. [Functional components in fish and algae oils].

    PubMed

    Conchillo, A; Valencia, I; Puente, A; Ansorena, D; Astiasarán, I

    2006-01-01

    An important area of the development of new functional foods is facussed on finding or applying food components which favour achieving a healthier lipid profile in the organism. The objective of this work was to carry out the characterisation of the lipid fraction of two oils, fish oil and algae oil, to evaluate their potential use as functional ingredients, in relation to the high molecular weight fatty acid content and the presence of sterols and other components of the unsaponificable fraction. Both oils showed a lipid fraction rich in high molecular weight polyunsaturated omega-3 fatty acids, containing a 33.75% in the fish oil and a 43.97% in the algae oil. Eicosapentaenoic acid was the major fatty acid in fish oil, whereas docosahexaenoic was the most abundant fatty acid in algae oil. The omega-6/omega-3 ratio was lower than 0.4 in both oils. In the unsaponificable fraction, algae oil had a Mold lower cholesterol content and a higher proportion of squalene than fish oil. The phytosterol content was significantly higher in the algae oil.

  13. Peanut oil as an emergency diesel fuel

    SciTech Connect

    Goodrum, J.W.

    1983-06-01

    Two elements of an emergency fuel system are discussed. A CeCoCo mechanical oil expeller's efficiency is related to temperature, moisture, and pressure conditions. Durability test on 20:80 and 80:20 peanut oil: diesel blends show injector coking and effects on exhaust temperature, specific fuel, and crankcase oil.

  14. Controversial natural gas and oil issues tackled

    SciTech Connect

    Rodgers, L.M.

    1991-04-15

    This article reports on recent activities regarding controversial natural gas and oil issues including the strategic oil reserve, expanded access to drilling in the outer continental shelf and authorization of oil and gas leasing in the Arctic National Wildlife Refuge, reestablishing regulation of the natural gas industry and budgeting for research and development.

  15. Oxidation of frying oils during intermittent usage.

    PubMed

    Totani, Nagao; Tateishi, Sayuri; Mori, Terutoshi; Hammond, Earl G

    2012-01-01

    We reported previously that in oils used for frying by commercial establishments, a high correlation was observed among their Gardner colors, polar compound contents (PC), carbonyl values (CV) and acid values (AV). However, this was not true for frying oils used in hospitals. In the present study, oils that had been used for deep-frying in hospital kitchens were collected and assayed for PC, CV, AV, and Gardner color value to determine the reason for the differences from oil used in commercial establishments. Hospitals were selected so that variation in the number of inpatients, frying oil fatty acid composition, and frying frequency was obtained. As previously observed, we did not find good correlations between the color of the frying oil and the PC, CV or AV, respectively. The extent of oxidation in batches of oil repeatedly used for deep-frying was in the following order: soybean oil > blended oil > canola oil. After use in deep-frying, where the oxygen content goes effectively to zero, allowing the oil to stand at room temperature resulted in the quick and steady absorption of oxygen until it returned to its initial content. In addition to the effect of thermal treatment of oil, standing time between usages is a significantt cause of oxidation.

  16. 14 CFR 29.1013 - Oil tanks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... oil tank installation must meet the requirements of § 29.967. (b) Expansion space. Oil tank expansion space must be provided so that— (1) Each oil tank used with a reciprocating engine has an expansion... used with a turbine engine has an expansion space of not less than 10 percent of the tank capacity;...

  17. 14 CFR 25.1013 - Oil tanks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... oil tank installation must meet the requirements of § 25.967. (b) Expansion space. Oil tank expansion... expansion space of not less than the greater of 10 percent of the tank capacity or 0.5 gallon, and each oil tank used with a turbine engine must have an expansion space of not less than 10 percent of the...

  18. 14 CFR 29.1013 - Oil tanks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... oil tank installation must meet the requirements of § 29.967. (b) Expansion space. Oil tank expansion space must be provided so that— (1) Each oil tank used with a reciprocating engine has an expansion... used with a turbine engine has an expansion space of not less than 10 percent of the tank capacity;...

  19. 14 CFR 25.1013 - Oil tanks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... oil tank installation must meet the requirements of § 25.967. (b) Expansion space. Oil tank expansion... expansion space of not less than the greater of 10 percent of the tank capacity or 0.5 gallon, and each oil tank used with a turbine engine must have an expansion space of not less than 10 percent of the...

  20. Rice weevil response to basil oil fumigation

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Basil oil, Ocimum basilicum L., is a volatile plant essential oil that is known to have insecticidal activity against stored product pests such as rice weevil, Sitophilus oryzae (L.). Basil oil was diluted in acetone and applied to a sponge held inside a tea strainer for fumigations in containers wi...

  1. 15 CFR 754.2 - Crude oil.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... section; and (vii) Exports of foreign origin crude oil where, based on written documentation satisfactory to BIS, the exporter can demonstrate that the oil is not of U.S. origin and has not been commingled with oil of U.S. origin. See paragraph (h) of this section for the provisions of License Exception...

  2. 15 CFR 754.2 - Crude oil.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... section; and (vii) Exports of foreign origin crude oil where, based on written documentation satisfactory to BIS, the exporter can demonstrate that the oil is not of U.S. origin and has not been commingled with oil of U.S. origin. See paragraph (h) of this section for the provisions of License Exception...

  3. 15 CFR 754.2 - Crude oil.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... section; and (vii) Exports of foreign origin crude oil where, based on written documentation satisfactory to BIS, the exporter can demonstrate that the oil is not of U.S. origin and has not been commingled with oil of U.S. origin. See paragraph (h) of this section for the provisions of License Exception...

  4. 15 CFR 754.2 - Crude oil.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... section; and (vii) Exports of foreign origin crude oil where, based on written documentation satisfactory to BIS, the exporter can demonstrate that the oil is not of U.S. origin and has not been commingled with oil of U.S. origin. See paragraph (h) of this section for the provisions of License Exception...

  5. The oil question: nature and prognosis.

    PubMed

    Rhodes, Christopher J

    2008-01-01

    A review is given of the nature and origins of crude oil (petroleum) along with factors relating to its production and demand for it. The modern globalised world economy and its population has grown on the assumption of limitless supplies of cheap crude oil. Almost all agriculture now is completely dependent on available oil and natural gas to run machinery and to make chemical fertilizers. Our complacent regard for oil is however invalid and a gap between the relentlessly rising demand for oil and its supply is expected to appear at some time in the period 2010-2015. The global peak in oil production "peak oil" predicted by M. King Hubbert in 1956, will exacerbate the situation, and the world must seek to run and organise itself in an imminent reality where supplies of conventional crude oil are both limited and increasingly expensive. Providing the equivalent of 30 billion barrels of oil a year as is currently used across the globe, by unconventional kinds of oil, e.g. from oil shale and tar sands is not realistic. Since most of the oil produced in the world is refined into liquid fuels to run transportation, human survival will depend on devising localised economies and communities that necessarily rely far less on personalised transport (cars).

  6. Mixed film lubrication with biobased oils

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Most tribological processes (e.g. metalworking), occur in the mixed film regime where the boundary and hydrodynamic properties of the oils play critical roles. In the work described here, the boundary and hydrodynamic properties of various biobased oils were evaluated. The oils were then investiga...

  7. 21 CFR 172.876 - Castor oil.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Castor oil. 172.876 Section 172.876 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN... Multipurpose Additives § 172.876 Castor oil. The food additive castor oil may be safely used in accordance...

  8. 21 CFR 172.876 - Castor oil.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Castor oil. 172.876 Section 172.876 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN... Multipurpose Additives § 172.876 Castor oil. The food additive castor oil may be safely used in accordance...

  9. 21 CFR 172.876 - Castor oil.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Castor oil. 172.876 Section 172.876 Food and Drugs... PERMITTED FOR DIRECT ADDITION TO FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION Multipurpose Additives § 172.876 Castor oil. The food additive castor oil may be safely used in accordance with the following conditions: (a)...

  10. Implications of Peak Oil for Industrialized Societies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McPherson, Guy R.; Weltzin, Jake F.

    2008-01-01

    The world passed the halfway point of oil supply in 2005. World demand for oil likely will severely outstrip supply in 2008, leading to increasingly higher oil prices. Consequences are likely to include increasing gasoline prices, rapidly increasing inflation, and subsequently a series of increasingly severe recessions followed by a worldwide…

  11. 21 CFR 172.876 - Castor oil.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Castor oil. 172.876 Section 172.876 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN... Multipurpose Additives § 172.876 Castor oil. The food additive castor oil may be safely used in accordance...

  12. 21 CFR 172.876 - Castor oil.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Castor oil. 172.876 Section 172.876 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN... Multipurpose Additives § 172.876 Castor oil. The food additive castor oil may be safely used in accordance...

  13. Chemical composition of fat and oil products

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Fats and oils are an important dietary component, and contribute to the nutritional and sensory quality of foods. This chapter focuses on the chemical composition of fats and oils, and how these compositions affect the functional properties of fats and oils in foods. The focus will remain on the mos...

  14. Elastohydrodynamic Traction Properties of Seed Oils

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The elastohydrodynamic traction coefficient (tc) properties of nine seed oils of varying chemical structures, PAO and hexadecane, were investigated using a ball-on disk traction apparatus. The seed oils were: castor oil, a triglyceride with hydroxyl functional group; jojoba, a monoglyceride; and s...

  15. Elastohydrodynamic (EHD) traction properties of seed oils

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The elastohydrodynamic traction coefficient (tc) properties of nine seed oils of varying chemical structures, PAO and hexadecane, were investigated using a ball-on disk traction apparatus. The seed oils were: castor oil, a triglyceride with hydroxyl functional group; jojoba, a monoglyceride; and sev...

  16. MODELING DISPERSANT INTERACTIONS WITH OIL SPILLS

    EPA Science Inventory

    EPA is developing a model called the EPA Research Object-Oriented Oil Spill Model (ERO3S) and associated databases to simulate the impacts of dispersants on oil slicks. Because there are features of oil slicks that align naturally with major concepts of object-oriented programmi...

  17. Floating Oil-Spill Containment Device

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, Jack A.

    2012-01-01

    Previous oil containment booms have an open top that allows natural gas to escape, and have significant oil leakage due to wave action. Also, a subsea pyramid oil trap exists, but cannot move relative to moving oil plumes from deepsea oil leaks. The solution is to have large, moveable oil traps. One version floats on the sea surface and has a flexible tarp cover and a lower weighted skirt to completely entrap the floating oil and natural gas. The device must have at least three sides with boats pulling at each apex, and sonar or other system to track the slowly moving oil plume, so that the boats can properly locate the booms. The oil trap device must also have a means for removal of the oil and the natural gas. A second design version has a flexible pyramid cover that is attached by lines to ballast on the ocean floor. This is similar to fixed, metal pyramid oil capture devices in the Santa Barbara Channel off the coast of California. The ballast lines for the improved design, however, would have winches that can move the pyramid to always be located above the oil and gas plume. A third design is a combination of the first two. It uses a submerged pyramid to trap oil, but has no anchor and uses boats to locate the trap. It has ballast weights located along the bottom of the tarp and/or at the corners of the trap. The improved floating oil-spill containment device has a large floating boom and weighted skirt surrounding the oil and gas entrapment area. The device is triangular (or more than three sides) and has a flexible tarp cover with a raised gas vent area. Boats pull on the apex of the triangles to maintain tension and to allow the device to move to optimum locations to trap oil and gas. The gas is retrieved from a higher buoyant part of the tarp, and oil is retrieved from the floating oil layer contained in the device. These devices can be operated in relatively severe weather, since waves will break over the devices without causing oil leaking. Also, natural

  18. Rheological Characterization of Foamy Oils under Pressure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abivin, Patrice; Henaut, Isabelle; Moan, Michel; Argillier, Jean-Francois

    2008-07-01

    Heavy oils are a strategic source of hydrocarbons due to the large amount of reserves located mainly in Venezuela and Canada. They distinguish from conventional oils by their higher density and viscosity. When a reservoir is depleted, the lightest components (methane, ethane, etc.) can exsolve from the crude oil and create a gaseous phase. In conventional oils, bubbles grow and coalesce quickly. On the contrary, in heavy oils, bubbles are small and remain dispersed within the oil for a long time. This "foamy oil" phenomenon changes drastically the flow properties of the crude oil. This article is devoted to the characterization of the heavy oil foamy behavior through a rheological study. Our objectives are to study the kinetics of bubble evolution in heavy oil and to measure their influence on viscosity. A new experimental method was developed, based upon rheological measurements under pressure. Several heavy oils containing dissolved gas have been depleted inside the pressure cells of controlled stress rheometers to create foamy oils. Viscoelastic properties have been continuously measured using both oscillatory and continuous tests from the nucleation up to the total disengagement of bubbles from oil. The occurrence of bubbles was visualized using X-ray scanning experiments. Results demonstrate that foamy oil kinetics is mostly related to the oil viscosity. They also reveal that under low shear rates, the presence of bubbles leads to an increase in heavy oil viscosity, as predicted by the Hard Sphere Model or by Taylor's one. A theoretical model describing the viscosity of foamy oil was then established. It takes into account both first-order kinetics of appearance and release of bubbles in oil and a basic suspension model. Good agreement was obtained between experimental data and model predictions. Finally, several tests reveal the strong influence of the shear rate on the foamy oil behavior and point out the major role of bubble deformation on the viscosity of

  19. Assessment of remaining recoverable oil in selected major oil fields of the San Joaquin Basin, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Tennyson, Marilyn E.; Cook, Troy A.; Charpentier, Ronald R.; Gautier, Donald L.; Klett, Timothy R.; Verma, Mahendra K.; Ryder, Robert T.; Attanasi, E.D.; Freeman, P.A.; Le, Phoung A.

    2012-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) recently completed an estimate of volumes of technically recoverable, conventional oil that could eventually be added to reserves in nine selected major oil fields in the San Joaquin Basin in central California. The mean total volume of potential oil reserves that might be added in the nine fields using improved oil-recovery technologies was estimated to be about 6.5 billion barrels of oil.

  20. Isolation and Identification of a New Phenylpropanoid Derivative from the Fruits of Pimpinella Haussknechtii Rech. f. & Riedl and GC-MS Analysis of the Essential Oil.

    PubMed

    Sajjadi, Seyed Ebrahim; Ghanadian, Mustafa; Ahmadi, Shahla; Shafiyan, Sorour

    2015-01-01

    The chemical composition of the essential oil of fruits of Pimpinella haussknechtii. was studied by GC-MS. After GC-MS analysis, one unknown component (56.7%) was observed, which was not characterized in the GC-MS library. The essential oil of P.haussknechtii was injected to HPLC using YMC-Pak-Sil column (250 × 20 mm) with gradient system of hexane (A), and hexane: ethyl acetate, 9:1 (B) to yield the interested compound as a new phenylpropanoid derivative. Its structure was elucidated as 4-(prop-2-enyl)-phenyl-3'-methylbutanoate based on (13)C- and (1)H-NMR as well as 2D-NMR, IR and different MS spectra. In the essential oil analysis, thirty-six components, comprising 94.9% of the total oil, were identified. 4-(2-propenyl)-phenyl 3'-methylbutyrate (56.7%), bicyclogermacrene (8.9%), germacrene D (7.6%), perilla aldehyde (3.5%) and β-caryophyllene (2.9%) were found to be the major constituents of the oil. The oil of the fruits of P. haussknechtii consisted of eight monoterpene hydrocarbons (1.7%), two oxygenated monoterpenes (3.9%), sixteen sesquiterpene hydrocarbons (26.8%), two oxygenated sesquiterpenes (2.1%) and five phenylpropanoids (58.7%). Three other nonterpenic compounds also comprised 1.7% of the oil.