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Sample records for oil physical properties

  1. Use of ultrasound to monitor physical properties of soybean oil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baêsso, R. M.; Oliveira, P. A.; Morais, G. C.; Alvarenga, A. V.; Costa-Félix, R. P. B.

    2016-07-01

    The study of the monitoring physical properties of soybean oil was performed. The pulse-echo method allowed measuring the density and viscosity of the oil in real time and accurately. The physical property values were related to the acoustic time of flight ratio, dimensionless parameter that can be obtained from any reference. In our case, we used the time of flight at 20°C as reference and a fixed distance between the transducer and the reflector. Ultrasonic monitoring technique employed here has shown promising in the analysis of edible oils.

  2. Physical and chemical properties of industrial mineral oils affecting lubrication

    SciTech Connect

    Godfrey, D.; Herguth, W.R.

    1996-02-01

    The lubricating properties of mineral oils, and contaminants which affect those properties, are discussed. A contaminant is any material not in the original fresh oil, whether it is generated within the system or ingested. 5 refs.

  3. Physical properties of soils contaminated by oil lakes, Kuwait

    SciTech Connect

    Mohammad, A.S.; Wahba, S.A.; Al-Khatieb, S.O.

    1996-08-01

    In preparation for a marine assault by the coalition forces, the Iraqi Army heavily mined Kuwait`s coastal zone and the oil fields. Over a million mines were placed on the Kuwait soil. Burning of 732 oil wells in the State of Kuwait due to the Iraqi invasion caused damages which had direct and indirect effect on environment. A total of 20-22 million barrels of spilled crude oil were collected in natural desert depressions and drainage network which formed more than 300 oil lakes. The total area covered with oil reached 49 km{sup 2}. More than 375 trenches revealed the existence of hard, massive caliche (CaCO{sub 3}) subsoil which prevent leached oil from reaching deeper horizons, and limited the maximum depth of penetration to 1.75 m. Total volume of soil contaminated reached 22,652,500 m{sup 3} is still causing environmental problems and needs an urgent cleaning and rehabilitation. Kuwait Oil Company has recovered approximately 21 million barrels from the oil lakes since the liberation of Kuwait. In our examined representative soil profiles the oil penetration was not deeper than 45 cm. Infiltration rate, soil permeability, grain size distribution, aggregates formation and water holding capacity were assessed. 15 refs., 5 figs., 5 tabs.

  4. Physical and antimicrobial properties of thyme oil emulsions stabilized by ovalbumin and gum arabic.

    PubMed

    Niu, Fuge; Pan, Weichun; Su, Yujie; Yang, Yanjun

    2016-12-01

    Natural biopolymer stabilized oil-in-water emulsions were formulated using ovalbumin (OVA), gum arabic (GA) solutions and their complexes. The influence of interfacial structure of emulsion (OVA-GA bilayer and OVA/GA complexes emulsions) on the physical properties and antimicrobial activity of thyme oil (TO) emulsion against Escherichia coli (E. coli) was evaluated. The results revealed that the two types of emulsions with different oil phase compositions remained stable during a long storage period. The oil phase composition had an appreciable influence on the mean particle diameter and retention of the TO emulsions. The stable emulsion showed a higher minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC), and the TO emulsions showed an improved long-term antimicrobial activity compared to the pure thyme oil, especially complexes emulsion at pH 4.0. These results provided useful information for developing protection and delivery systems for essential oil using biopolymer. PMID:27374517

  5. Role of olive oil phenolics in physical properties and stability of mayonnaise-like emulsions.

    PubMed

    Giacintucci, Veronica; Di Mattia, Carla; Sacchetti, Giampiero; Neri, Lilia; Pittia, Paola

    2016-12-15

    The effect of olive oil phenolic content and pattern on the physical properties and stability of olive oil mayonnaise-like emulsions has been investigated. Mayonnaises were formulated with either naturally phenolic-rich extra virgin olive oils or purified olive oil artificially enriched with a phenolic-rich olive extract and pure oleuropein. Mayonnaises were characterized by droplet size distribution, microstructure, textural properties and flow behaviour. The addition of phenolic extracts significantly affected the dispersion degree of the corresponding mayonnaise-like emulsions, their microstructure and physical stability especially in the systems prepared with purified olive oil treated with pure oleuropein and the highest olive phenolic extract concentration. The viscosity and back-extrusion analyses evidenced that the systems characterized by a relatively high content of phenolics, either natural or by addition, presented lower yield stress and viscosity indices and were easier to deform and to break. This study confirms the main role of olive phenolic compounds, and in particular that of oleuropein, in the dispersion state, and physical properties of emulsions with main effects on their quality and stability.

  6. Monitoring of the Physical and Chemical Properties of a Gasoline Engine Oil during Its Usage

    PubMed Central

    Rahimi, Behnam; Semnani, Abolfazl; Nezamzadeh-Ejhieh, Alireza; Shakoori Langeroodi, Hamid; Hakim Davood, Massoud

    2012-01-01

    Physicochemical properties of a mineral-based gasoline engine oil have been monitored at 0, 500, 1000, 2000, 3500, 6000, 8500, and 11500 kilometer of operation. Tracing has been performed by inductively coupled plasma and some other techniques. At each series of measurements, the concentrations of twenty four elements as well as physical properties such as: viscosity at 40 and 100°C; viscosity index; flash point; pour point; specific gravity; color; total acid and base numbers; water content have been determined. The results are indicative of the decreasing trend in concentration of additive elements and increasing in concentration for wear elements. Different trends have been observed for various physical properties. The possible reasons for variations in physical and chemical properties have been discussed. PMID:22567569

  7. Monitoring of the Physical and Chemical Properties of a Gasoline Engine Oil during Its Usage.

    PubMed

    Rahimi, Behnam; Semnani, Abolfazl; Nezamzadeh-Ejhieh, Alireza; Shakoori Langeroodi, Hamid; Hakim Davood, Massoud

    2012-01-01

    Physicochemical properties of a mineral-based gasoline engine oil have been monitored at 0, 500, 1000, 2000, 3500, 6000, 8500, and 11500 kilometer of operation. Tracing has been performed by inductively coupled plasma and some other techniques. At each series of measurements, the concentrations of twenty four elements as well as physical properties such as: viscosity at 40 and 100°C; viscosity index; flash point; pour point; specific gravity; color; total acid and base numbers; water content have been determined. The results are indicative of the decreasing trend in concentration of additive elements and increasing in concentration for wear elements. Different trends have been observed for various physical properties. The possible reasons for variations in physical and chemical properties have been discussed.

  8. Physical and Chemical Properties of Bio-Oils From Microwave Pyrolysis of Corn Stover

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Fei; Deng, Shaobo; Chen, Paul; Liu, Yuhuan; Wan, Yiqin; Olson, Andrew; Kittelson, David; Ruan, Roger

    This study was aimed to understand the physical and chemical properties of pyrolytic bio-oils produced from microwave pyrolysis of corn stover regarding their potential use as gas turbine and home heating fuels. The ash content, solids content, pH, heating value, minerals, elemental ratio, moisture content, and viscosity of the bio-oils were determined. The water content was approx 15.2 wt%, solids content 0.22 wt%, alkali metal content 12 parts per million, dynamic viscosity 185 mPa·s at 40°C, and gross high heating value 17.5 MJ/kg for a typical bio-oil produced. Our aging tests showed that the viscosity and water content increased and phase separation occurred during the storage at different temperatures. Adding methanol and/or ethanol to the bio-oils reduced the viscosity and slowed down the increase in viscosity and water content during the storage. Blending of methanol or ethanol with the bio-oils may be a simple and cost-effective approach to making the pyrolytic bio-oils into a stable gas turbine or home heating fuels.

  9. Estimation of Physical Property Changes by Oil Saturation in Carbonates and Sandstone Using Computational Rock Physics Methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, M.; Keehm, Y.

    2010-12-01

    Carbonate Reservoirs are drawing a great attention as global energy demands and consumption increase rapidly, since more than 60% of oil and 40% of gas of world reserves are in carbonate rocks. However, most of them are hard to develop mainly due to their complexity and heterogeneity, especially at the pore scale. In this study, we perform computational rock physics modeling (numerical simulations on pore microstructures of carbonate rocks) and compare the results with those from sandstone. The brief procedure of the method is (1) to obtain high-resolution pore microstructure with a spatial resolution of 1-2 micron by X-ray microtomography technique, (2) to perform two-phase lattice-Boltzmann (LB) flow simulation to obtain various oil and water saturations, then (3) to calculate physical properties, such as P-wave velocity and electrical conductivity through pore-scale property simulation techniques. For the carbonate rock, we identified much more isolated pores than sandstone by investigating pore microstructures. Thus permeability and electrical conductivity were much smaller than those of sandstone. The electrical conductivity versus oil saturation curve of the carbonate rock showed sharper decrease at low oil saturation, but similar slope at higher oil saturation. We think that higher complexity of pore connectivity is responsible for this effect. The P-wave velocity of the carbonate rock was much higher than sandstone and the it did not show any significant changes during the change of oil saturation. Therefore, we think that fluid discrimination by seismic data with P-wave velocity alone would pose a greate challenge in most carbonate reservoirs. In addition, the S-wave velocity seems not to be sensitive either, which suggest that the AVO-type analysis would also be difficult, though requires more researches. On the other hand, our computational rock physics approach can be useful in preliminary analysis of carbonate reservoirs since it can determine the

  10. Influence of physical and chemical methods of enhanced oil recovery in formation microflora and properties of crude oil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shcherbakova, A. G.; Altunina, L. K.; Svarovskaya, L. I.; Ovsyannikova, V. S.; Filatov, D. A.; Chuikina, D. I.

    2015-10-01

    The results of the analyzes of crude oil and produced water from wells in the areas of pilot testing of new flow deflection and oil-displacing Compounds developed in the Institute of Petroleum Chemistry SB RAS. It was found that changes in the properties and Compound of the oil and water mainly occur in the redistribution of filtration flows and integration in the development of the previously unwashed areas, as well as in washing off the residual heavy oil from the reservoir rock, and in some wells - due to formation biocenosis, contributing to desorption of oil from the rock.

  11. Physical Properties of Oils Extracted from Some Nigerian Non-Conventional Oilseeds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oyekunle, J. A. O.; Omode, A. A.; Akinnifesi, J. O.

    Oils extracted from Cucumeropsis edulis, Hevea brasiliensis (Para rubber), Hura crepitans (Sound box tree), Jatropha curcas (Physic nut), Khaya ivorensis (Lagos Mahogany) and Citrus sinensis (sweet orange) were assessed for such characteristic physical properties as colour, flavour (odour and taste), specific gravity, viscosity, dielectric constant, surface tension and refractive index. Specific gravity measurement varied between 0.9004-0.9113 at 80°C and 0.9125-0.9207 at 30°C. Viscosity measurement, in centipoises, ranged between 7.35-9.41 at 80°C and 38.44-60.34 at 30°C. Dielectric constant values varied between 1.63-3.88 within the temperature range of 26-80°C. Surface tension values at 28.5°C were between 0.03492-0.03616 m-1 and refractive index values at 28°C lied between 1.46469 and 1.47072. The findings revealed the usefulness of the oils in electric voltage transformers and for impregnation in paper capacitor.

  12. Physical properties and antimicrobial efficacy of thyme oil nanoemulsions: influence of ripening inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Chang, Yuhua; McLandsborough, Lynne; McClements, David Julian

    2012-12-01

    Thyme oil-in-water nanoemulsions (pH 3.5) were prepared as potential antimicrobial delivery systems. The nanoemulsions were highly unstable to droplet growth and phase separation, which was attributed to Ostwald ripening due to the relatively high water solubility of thyme oil. Ostwald ripening could be inhibited by mixing thyme oil with a water-insoluble ripening inhibitor (≥60 wt % corn oil or ≥50 wt % MCT in the lipid phase) before homogenization, yielding nanoemulsions with good physical stability. Physically stable thyme oil nanoemulsions were examined for their antimicrobial activities against an acid-resistant spoilage yeast, Zygosaccharomyces bailii (ZB). Oil phase composition (ripening inhibitor type and concentration) had an appreciable influence on the antimicrobial activity of the thyme oil nanoemulsions. In general, increasing the ripening inhibitor levels in the lipid phase reduced the antimicrobial efficacy of nanoemulsions. For example, for nanoemulsions containing 60 wt % corn oil in the lipid phase, the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of thyme oil to inhibit ZB growth was 375 μg/mL, while for nanoemulsions containing 90 wt % corn oil in the lipid phase, even 6000 μg/mL thyme oil could not inhibit ZB growth. This effect is also dependent on ripening inhibitor types: at the same concentration in the lipid phase, MCT decreased the antimicrobial efficacy of thyme oil more than corn oil. For instance, when the level of ripening inhibitor in the lipid phase was 70 wt %, the MICs of thyme oil for nanoemulsions containing corn oil and MCT were 750 and 3000 μg/mL, respectively. The results of this study have important implications for the design and utilization of nanoemulsions as antimicrobial delivery systems in the food and other industries.

  13. Physical properties and antimicrobial efficacy of thyme oil nanoemulsions: influence of ripening inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Chang, Yuhua; McLandsborough, Lynne; McClements, David Julian

    2012-12-01

    Thyme oil-in-water nanoemulsions (pH 3.5) were prepared as potential antimicrobial delivery systems. The nanoemulsions were highly unstable to droplet growth and phase separation, which was attributed to Ostwald ripening due to the relatively high water solubility of thyme oil. Ostwald ripening could be inhibited by mixing thyme oil with a water-insoluble ripening inhibitor (≥60 wt % corn oil or ≥50 wt % MCT in the lipid phase) before homogenization, yielding nanoemulsions with good physical stability. Physically stable thyme oil nanoemulsions were examined for their antimicrobial activities against an acid-resistant spoilage yeast, Zygosaccharomyces bailii (ZB). Oil phase composition (ripening inhibitor type and concentration) had an appreciable influence on the antimicrobial activity of the thyme oil nanoemulsions. In general, increasing the ripening inhibitor levels in the lipid phase reduced the antimicrobial efficacy of nanoemulsions. For example, for nanoemulsions containing 60 wt % corn oil in the lipid phase, the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of thyme oil to inhibit ZB growth was 375 μg/mL, while for nanoemulsions containing 90 wt % corn oil in the lipid phase, even 6000 μg/mL thyme oil could not inhibit ZB growth. This effect is also dependent on ripening inhibitor types: at the same concentration in the lipid phase, MCT decreased the antimicrobial efficacy of thyme oil more than corn oil. For instance, when the level of ripening inhibitor in the lipid phase was 70 wt %, the MICs of thyme oil for nanoemulsions containing corn oil and MCT were 750 and 3000 μg/mL, respectively. The results of this study have important implications for the design and utilization of nanoemulsions as antimicrobial delivery systems in the food and other industries. PMID:23140446

  14. Effects of Allspice, Cinnamon, and Clove Bud Essential Oils in Edible Apple Films on Physical Properties and Antimicrobial Activities

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The results of the present study show that allspice, cinnamon and clove bud essential oils can be used to prepare apple-based antimicrobial edible films with good physical properties for food applications by both direct contact and indirectly by vapors emanating from the films. Application of the a...

  15. Physical properties and oxidation rates of unrefined menhaden oil (Brevoortia patronus).

    PubMed

    Yin, Huaixia; Sathivel, Subramaniam

    2010-04-01

    Unrefined menhaden oil was evaluated for thermal and rheological properties and its temperature-dependent viscosity and lipid oxidation rate were determined. Peroxide value, free fatty acids, density, specific gravity, water activity, moisture content, and enthalpy of the unrefined menhaden oil were 5.70 meq/kg, 3.80%, 0.93 g/mL, 0.93%, 0.52%, 0.15%, and 20.2 kJ/kg, respectively. The melting point range of unrefined menhaden oil was found to be -69.5 to 27.21 degrees C. The menhaden oil exhibited non-Newtonian fluid behavior at lower temperatures (5 to 25 degrees C), while it behaved like a Newtonian fluid at 30 degrees C. The oil apparent viscosity at 5 degrees C (0.22 Pa.s) was significantly higher (P < 0.05) than that at 30 degrees C (0.033 Pa.s). The average magnitude of activation energy for viscosity of the unrefined menhaden oil was 50.37 kJ/mol. The predicted apparent viscosity agreed (R(2)= 0.9837) satisfactorily with the experimental apparent viscosity. The minimal lipid oxidation rate of the oil was found at 25 and 35 degrees C for 6 h, higher lipid oxidation rates were observed when the oil was heated for 6 h at 45 to 85 degrees C. The rate of lipid oxidation for unrefined menhaden oil was temperature dependent (R(2)= 0.9425). This study showed that the magnitude of the apparent viscosity and oxidation rate of the unrefined menhaden oil was greatly influenced by temperature. PMID:20492290

  16. Preparation of soybean oil-based greases: effect of composition and structure on physical properties.

    PubMed

    Adhvaryu, Atanu; Erhan, Sevim Z; Perez, Joseph M

    2004-10-20

    Vegetable oils have significant potential as a base fluid and a substitute for mineral oil in grease formulation. Preparation of soybean oil-based lithium greases using a variety of fatty acids in the soap structure is discussed in this paper. Soy greases with lithium-fatty acid soap having C12-C18 chain lengths and different metal to fatty acid ratios were synthesized. Grease hardness was determined using a standard test method, and their oxidative stabilities were measured using pressurized differential scanning calorimetry. Results indicate that lithium soap composition, fatty acid types, and base oil content significantly affect grease hardness and oxidative stability. Lithium soaps prepared with short-chain fatty acids resulted in softer grease. Oxidative stability and other performance properties will deteriorate if oil is released from the grease matrix due to overloading of soap with base oil. Performance characteristics are largely dependent on the hardness and oxidative stability of grease used as industrial and automotive lubricant. Therefore, this paper discusses the preparation methods, optimization of soap components, and antioxidant additive for making soy-based grease.

  17. Preparation of soybean oil-based greases: effect of composition and structure on physical properties.

    PubMed

    Adhvaryu, Atanu; Erhan, Sevim Z; Perez, Joseph M

    2004-10-20

    Vegetable oils have significant potential as a base fluid and a substitute for mineral oil in grease formulation. Preparation of soybean oil-based lithium greases using a variety of fatty acids in the soap structure is discussed in this paper. Soy greases with lithium-fatty acid soap having C12-C18 chain lengths and different metal to fatty acid ratios were synthesized. Grease hardness was determined using a standard test method, and their oxidative stabilities were measured using pressurized differential scanning calorimetry. Results indicate that lithium soap composition, fatty acid types, and base oil content significantly affect grease hardness and oxidative stability. Lithium soaps prepared with short-chain fatty acids resulted in softer grease. Oxidative stability and other performance properties will deteriorate if oil is released from the grease matrix due to overloading of soap with base oil. Performance characteristics are largely dependent on the hardness and oxidative stability of grease used as industrial and automotive lubricant. Therefore, this paper discusses the preparation methods, optimization of soap components, and antioxidant additive for making soy-based grease. PMID:15479006

  18. Effects of allspice, cinnamon, and clove bud essential oils in edible apple films on physical properties and antimicrobial activities.

    PubMed

    Du, W-X; Olsen, C W; Avena-Bustillos, R J; McHugh, T H; Levin, C E; Friedman, Mendel

    2009-09-01

    Essential oils (EOs) derived from plants are rich sources of volatile terpenoids and phenolic compounds. Such compounds have the potential to inactivate pathogenic bacteria on contact and in the vapor phase. Edible films made from fruits or vegetables containing EOs can be used commercially to protect food against contamination by pathogenic bacteria. EOs from cinnamon, allspice, and clove bud plants are compatible with the sensory characteristics of apple-based edible films. These films could extend product shelf life and reduce risk of pathogen growth on food surfaces. This study evaluated physical properties (water vapor permeability, color, tensile properties) and antimicrobial activities against Escherichia coli O157:H7, Salmonella enterica, and Listeria monocytogenes of allspice, cinnamon, and clove bud oils in apple puree film-forming solutions formulated into edible films at 0.5% to 3% (w/w) concentrations. Antimicrobial activities were determined by 2 independent methods: overlay of the film on top of the bacteria and vapor phase diffusion of the antimicrobial from the film to the bacteria. The antimicrobial activities against the 3 pathogens were in the following order: cinnamon oil > clove bud oil > allspice oil. The antimicrobial films were more effective against L. monocytogenes than against the S. enterica. The oils reduced the viscosity of the apple solutions and increased elongation and darkened the colors of the films. They did not affect water vapor permeability. The results show that apple-based films with allspice, cinnamon, or clove bud oils were active against 3 foodborne pathogens by both direct contact with the bacteria and indirectly by vapors emanating from the films.

  19. Physical and nutritional properties of baby food containing added red salmon oil (Oncorhynchus nerka) and microencapsulated red salmon oil

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Unpurified red salmon oil (UPSO) was purified (PSO) using chitosan. Both unpurified and purified oils were evaluated for peroxide value (PV), free fatty acids (FFA), fatty acid methyl esters (FAME), moisture, and color. An emulsion system containing PSO (EPSO) was prepared: system was analyzed for c...

  20. Membrane physical properties do not explain increased cyclic AMP production in hepatocytes from rats fed menhaden oil.

    PubMed

    Bizeau, M E; Hazel, J R

    2000-06-01

    To study the effect of altering plasma membrane fatty acid composition on the glucagon signal transduction pathway, cAMP accumulation was measured in hepatocytes from rats fed diets containing either menhaden oil (MO) or coconut oil (CO). Hepatocytes from MO-fed animals produced significantly more cAMP in response to glucagon and forskolin compared to CO-fed animals. Glucagon receptor number and affinity were similar in MO- and CO-fed rats. Liver plasma membranes from MO-fed animals were enriched in long-chain n-3 fatty acids and contained significantly lower amounts of saturated C10-C16 and 18:1n-9 than CO-fed animals. Membrane physical properties were examined using both Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and the fluorescent probe 1,6-diphenyl-1,3,5-hexatriene (DPH). FTIR analysis revealed that below 34 degrees C, CO membranes were more ordered than MO membranes. However, as assay temperature approached 37 degrees C, MO and CO membranes became similarly ordered. DPH polarization values indicated no differences in membrane order at 37 degrees C, whereas membrane order was decreased in CO-fed animals at 25 degrees C. These data indicate the importance of assay temperature in assessing the influence of membrane physical properties on the activity of signal transduction pathways. Whereas increased signal transduction activity has been correlated to reduced membrane order in MO-fed animals, these data indicate that at physiological temperatures membrane order did not vary between groups. Enhanced cAMP accumulation in response to forskolin indicates that adenylate cyclase activity or content may be elevated in MO- vs. CO-fed rats. Enhanced adenylate cyclase activity may result, in part, from changes in specific fatty acids in hepatocyte plasma membranes without demonstrable changes in membrane physical properties.

  1. Physical Properties, Volatiles Compositions and Sensory Descriptions of the Aromatized Hazelnut Oil-Wax Organogels.

    PubMed

    Yılmaz, Emin; Öğütcü, Mustafa; Yüceer, Yonca Karagül

    2015-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the physicochemical, thermal and sensorial features of vitamin enriched and aromatized hazelnut oil-beeswax and sunflower wax organogels. Another objective was to monitor the influence of storage on textural and oxidative stability and volatile composition of the organogels. The results show that organogels with beeswax had lower levels of solid fat content, melting point and firmness than sunflower wax counterparts. The microphotographs revealed that beeswax organogels had spherical crystals while sunflower wax organogels continued need-like crystals, but both organogels continued crystallized β' polymorph. All organogels maintained their oxidative stability during storage. Quantitative descriptive analysis results were consistent with these findings that the organogel structure and properties were similar to breakfast margarine. The main volatile components of the organogels with added strawberry aroma were ethyl acetate, ethyl butanoate, ethyl-2-methyl butanoate, D-limonene, ethyl caproate; banana-aroma were isoamyl acetate, isoamyl valerianate, ethyl acetate; and butter-aroma were 2,3-butanedione, 3-hydroxy-2-butanone. These volatile components were not only detected in the fresh samples but also at the end of the storage period. Sensory definition terms were matched with the sensory descriptors of the detected volatiles. In conclusion, the new organogels were shown to be suitable for food product applications. PMID:26259923

  2. Physical Properties, Volatiles Compositions and Sensory Descriptions of the Aromatized Hazelnut Oil-Wax Organogels.

    PubMed

    Yılmaz, Emin; Öğütcü, Mustafa; Yüceer, Yonca Karagül

    2015-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the physicochemical, thermal and sensorial features of vitamin enriched and aromatized hazelnut oil-beeswax and sunflower wax organogels. Another objective was to monitor the influence of storage on textural and oxidative stability and volatile composition of the organogels. The results show that organogels with beeswax had lower levels of solid fat content, melting point and firmness than sunflower wax counterparts. The microphotographs revealed that beeswax organogels had spherical crystals while sunflower wax organogels continued need-like crystals, but both organogels continued crystallized β' polymorph. All organogels maintained their oxidative stability during storage. Quantitative descriptive analysis results were consistent with these findings that the organogel structure and properties were similar to breakfast margarine. The main volatile components of the organogels with added strawberry aroma were ethyl acetate, ethyl butanoate, ethyl-2-methyl butanoate, D-limonene, ethyl caproate; banana-aroma were isoamyl acetate, isoamyl valerianate, ethyl acetate; and butter-aroma were 2,3-butanedione, 3-hydroxy-2-butanone. These volatile components were not only detected in the fresh samples but also at the end of the storage period. Sensory definition terms were matched with the sensory descriptors of the detected volatiles. In conclusion, the new organogels were shown to be suitable for food product applications.

  3. Physical Properties of Microencapsulated ¿-3 Salmon oil with Egg White Powder

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Microencapsulated salmon oil with egg white powders are a good source of high quality protein and amino acids including leucine and omega-3 fatty acids, which may be beneficial for athletes. The study demonstrated that egg white powders containing omega-3 salmon oil can be effectively produced by sp...

  4. Evaluation of core data, physical properties, and oil yield USBM/AEC Colorado Core Hole no. 3 (Bronco BR-1)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ege, John R.; Carroll, R.D.; Way, R.J.; Magner, J.E.

    1969-01-01

    USBM/AEC Colorado Core Hole No. 3 (Bronco BR-1) is located in the SW1/4SW1/4SW1/4 sec. 14, T. 1 N., R. 98 W., Rio Blanco County, Colorado. The collar is at a ground elevation of 6,356 feet. The hole was core drilled between depths of 964 and 3,325 feet with a total depth of 3,797 feet. The hole was drilled to investigate geologic, geophysical and hydrological conditions at a possible in situ oil-shale retorting experiment site. The drill hole passed through 1,157 feet of alluvium and the Evacuation Creek Member of the Green River Formation, 1,603 feet of the Parachute Creek Member and penetrated into the Garden Gulch Member of the Green River Formation. In-bole density log/oil yield ratio interpretation indicates that two oil-shale zones exist which yield more than 20 gallons of shale oil per ton of rock; an upper zone lying between 1,271 and 1,750 feet in depth and a lower zone lying between 1,900 and 2,964 feet. Halite (sodium chloride salt) is found between 2,140 and 2,185 feet and nahcolite (sodium bicarbonate salt) between 2,195 and 2,700 feet. Nahcolite was present at one time above 2,195 feet but has been subsequently dissolved out by ground water. The core can be divided into six structural units based upon degree of fracturing. A highly fractured interval is found between 1,646 and 1,899 feet, which coincides with the dissolution or leached nahcolite zone. Physical property tests made on core samples between 1,356 and 3,253 feet give average values of 11,988 psi for uniaxial compressive strength, 1.38 X 10[superscript]6[superscript] psi for static Young's modulus and 11,809 fps for compressional velocity.

  5. Physical and antimicrobial properties of anise oil loaded nanoemulsions on the survival of foodborne pathogens.

    PubMed

    Topuz, Osman Kadir; Özvural, Emin Burçin; Zhao, Qin; Huang, Qingrong; Chikindas, Michael; Gölükçü, Muharrem

    2016-07-15

    The purpose of this research was to investigate antimicrobial effects of nano emulsions of anise oil (AO) on the survival of common food borne pathogens, Listeria monocytogenes and Escherichia coli O157:H7. Series of emulsions containing different level of anise oil as potential antimicrobial delivery systems were prepared. Antimicrobial activities of bulk anise oil and its emulsions (coarse and nano) was tested by the minimum inhibitory concentration and time kill assay. Our results showed that bulk anise oil reduced the population of E. coli O157:H7 and L. monocytogenes by 1.48 and 0.47 log cfu/ml respectively after 6 h of contact time. However, under the same condition anise oil nanoemulsion (AO75) reduced E. coli O157:H7 and L. monocytogenes count by 2.51 and 1.64 log cfu/ml, respectively. Physicochemical and microbial analyses indicated that both nano and coarse emulsions of anise oil showed better and long-term physicochemical stability and antimicrobial activity compared to bulk anise oil. PMID:26948596

  6. The effects of intermolecular interactions on the physical properties of organogels in edible oils.

    PubMed

    Lupi, Francesca R; Greco, Valeria; Baldino, Noemi; de Cindio, Bruno; Fischer, Peter; Gabriele, Domenico

    2016-12-01

    The microstructure of organogels based on monoglycerides of fatty acids (MAGs) and policosanol and on different edible oils was investigated by using different techniques (calorimetry, nuclear magnetic resonance, infrared spectroscopy, rheology, polarized light microscopy) towards a better understanding and control of the oil gelation phenomena. Dynamic moduli were related via a fractal model to microstructural information such as solid content and fractal dimension. Infrared spectroscopy evidenced that network structure in MAGs gel is mainly due to hydrogen bonding, whereas in policosanol system is mainly given by van der Waals interactions. Because of the different relative contribution of molecular interactions, the investigated organogelators exhibit a distinguished macroscopic behavior. MAGs are sensitive to the utilized oil and structuration occurs quickly, even though at a temperature lower than policosanol. Policosanol organogels exhibit a behavior independent of the used oil and a slower gelation rate, as a result of the weaker van der Waals interactions. Nevertheless, at lower concentration a stronger final gel is obtained, probably due to of the large number of interactions arising among the long alkyl chains of the fatty alcohols. Obtained results evidenced that policosanol is very effective in gelation of different oils and seems promising for potential commercial uses.

  7. The effects of intermolecular interactions on the physical properties of organogels in edible oils.

    PubMed

    Lupi, Francesca R; Greco, Valeria; Baldino, Noemi; de Cindio, Bruno; Fischer, Peter; Gabriele, Domenico

    2016-12-01

    The microstructure of organogels based on monoglycerides of fatty acids (MAGs) and policosanol and on different edible oils was investigated by using different techniques (calorimetry, nuclear magnetic resonance, infrared spectroscopy, rheology, polarized light microscopy) towards a better understanding and control of the oil gelation phenomena. Dynamic moduli were related via a fractal model to microstructural information such as solid content and fractal dimension. Infrared spectroscopy evidenced that network structure in MAGs gel is mainly due to hydrogen bonding, whereas in policosanol system is mainly given by van der Waals interactions. Because of the different relative contribution of molecular interactions, the investigated organogelators exhibit a distinguished macroscopic behavior. MAGs are sensitive to the utilized oil and structuration occurs quickly, even though at a temperature lower than policosanol. Policosanol organogels exhibit a behavior independent of the used oil and a slower gelation rate, as a result of the weaker van der Waals interactions. Nevertheless, at lower concentration a stronger final gel is obtained, probably due to of the large number of interactions arising among the long alkyl chains of the fatty alcohols. Obtained results evidenced that policosanol is very effective in gelation of different oils and seems promising for potential commercial uses. PMID:27552424

  8. Effect of magnesium salt concentration in water-in-oil emulsions on the physical properties and microstructure of tofu.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Qiaomei; Wu, Feifei; Saito, Masayoshi; Tatsumi, Eizo; Yin, Lijun

    2016-06-15

    The aim of this research was to prepare water-in-oil (W/O) emulsions encapsulating different concentrations of magnesium chloride (MgCl2) and to investigate the effect of W/O emulsions on the physical properties and microstructure of tofu. The results showed that the stability of W/O emulsions improved as the concentrations of polyglycerol polyricinoleate (PGPR) and MgCl2 increased. Dynamic viscoelastic measurements indicated that gelation time decreased with increasing MgCl2 concentration in W/O emulsions, suggesting a more rapid reaction between magnesium ions and protein molecules. As the concentration of MgCl2 in W/O emulsions increased, the yield and water content of tofu decreased, while the protein and crude fat contents and hardness values increased. At a concentration of 2.0M MgCl2 in W/O emulsion, the WHC and microstructure of the tofu samples were optimal. The variations in the physical properties of tofu were attributed to the concentration of magnesium ions and the coagulation rate.

  9. Physical Properties and Stabilization of Microcapsules Containing Thyme Oil by Complex Coacervation.

    PubMed

    Shen, Lili; Chen, Jiaping; Bai, Youju; Ma, Zhican; Huang, Jing; Feng, Wu

    2016-09-01

    The aim of this study was to produce and characterize microcapsules of thyme oil and finally appraise the extent of stability improvement. The optimum process conditions obtained from orthogonal tests were as follows: ratio of core material to wall 0.5, temperature 40 °C, pH value 3.0 and time 20 min, where the practical encapsulation efficiency was 85.17±1.35%. The microcapsules belong to the nanometric range as the average particle diameter was 531.17±77.12 nm. The results from structural analysis indicated that no significant chemical bond occurred during the encapsulation process and the microcapsules remained stable when the encapsulation was conducted at a temperature below 53.1 °C. Especially, the retention rate of thyme oil in microcapsules remained 39.21% at 4 °C, 36.99% at 25 °C and 33.80% at 40 °C after 30 d of storage. Moreover, protection from light exposure presented a positive impact on the storage stability of thyme oil microcapsules.

  10. Physical Properties and Stabilization of Microcapsules Containing Thyme Oil by Complex Coacervation.

    PubMed

    Shen, Lili; Chen, Jiaping; Bai, Youju; Ma, Zhican; Huang, Jing; Feng, Wu

    2016-09-01

    The aim of this study was to produce and characterize microcapsules of thyme oil and finally appraise the extent of stability improvement. The optimum process conditions obtained from orthogonal tests were as follows: ratio of core material to wall 0.5, temperature 40 °C, pH value 3.0 and time 20 min, where the practical encapsulation efficiency was 85.17±1.35%. The microcapsules belong to the nanometric range as the average particle diameter was 531.17±77.12 nm. The results from structural analysis indicated that no significant chemical bond occurred during the encapsulation process and the microcapsules remained stable when the encapsulation was conducted at a temperature below 53.1 °C. Especially, the retention rate of thyme oil in microcapsules remained 39.21% at 4 °C, 36.99% at 25 °C and 33.80% at 40 °C after 30 d of storage. Moreover, protection from light exposure presented a positive impact on the storage stability of thyme oil microcapsules. PMID:27472246

  11. Effects of vegetable oil residue after soil extraction on physical-chemical properties of sandy soil and plant growth.

    PubMed

    Gong, Zongqiang; Li, Peijun; Wilke, B M; Alef, Kassem

    2008-01-01

    Vegetable oil has the ability to extract polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) from contaminated sandy soil for a remediation purpose, with some of the oil remaining in the soil. Although most of the PAHs were removed, the risk of residue oil in the soil was not known. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of the vegetable oil residue on higher plant growth and sandy soil properties after soil extraction for a better understanding of the soil remediation. Addition of sunflower oil and column experiment were performed on a PAH contaminated soil and/or a control soil, respectively. Soils were incubated for 90 d, and soil pH was measured during the soil incubation. Higher plant growth bioassays with Avena sativa L. (oat) and Brassica rapa L. (turnip) were performed after the incubation, and then soil organic carbon contents were measured. The results show that both the nutrient amendment and the sunflower oil degradation resulted in the decrease of soil pH. When these two process worked together, their effects were counteracted due to the consumption of the nutrients and oil removal, resulting in different pH profiles. Growth of A. sativa was adversely affected by the sunflower oil, and the nutrient amendments stimulated the A. sativa growth significantly. B. rapa was more sensitive to the sunflower oil than A. sativa. Only 1% sunflower oil addition plus nutrient amendment stimulated B. rapa growth. All the other treatments on B. rapa inhibited its growth significantly. The degradation of the sunflower oil in the soils was proved by the soil organic carbon content.

  12. Effects of vegetable oil residue after soil extraction on physical-chemical properties of sandy soil and plant growth.

    PubMed

    Gong, Zongqiang; Li, Peijun; Wilke, B M; Alef, Kassem

    2008-01-01

    Vegetable oil has the ability to extract polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) from contaminated sandy soil for a remediation purpose, with some of the oil remaining in the soil. Although most of the PAHs were removed, the risk of residue oil in the soil was not known. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of the vegetable oil residue on higher plant growth and sandy soil properties after soil extraction for a better understanding of the soil remediation. Addition of sunflower oil and column experiment were performed on a PAH contaminated soil and/or a control soil, respectively. Soils were incubated for 90 d, and soil pH was measured during the soil incubation. Higher plant growth bioassays with Avena sativa L. (oat) and Brassica rapa L. (turnip) were performed after the incubation, and then soil organic carbon contents were measured. The results show that both the nutrient amendment and the sunflower oil degradation resulted in the decrease of soil pH. When these two process worked together, their effects were counteracted due to the consumption of the nutrients and oil removal, resulting in different pH profiles. Growth of A. sativa was adversely affected by the sunflower oil, and the nutrient amendments stimulated the A. sativa growth significantly. B. rapa was more sensitive to the sunflower oil than A. sativa. Only 1% sunflower oil addition plus nutrient amendment stimulated B. rapa growth. All the other treatments on B. rapa inhibited its growth significantly. The degradation of the sunflower oil in the soils was proved by the soil organic carbon content. PMID:19209632

  13. Prediction of physical-chemical properties of crude oils by 1H NMR analysis of neat samples and chemometrics.

    PubMed

    Masili, Alice; Puligheddu, Sonia; Sassu, Lorenzo; Scano, Paola; Lai, Adolfo

    2012-11-01

    In this work, we report the feasibility study to predict the properties of neat crude oil samples from 300-MHz NMR spectral data and partial least squares (PLS) regression models. The study was carried out on 64 crude oil samples obtained from 28 different extraction fields and aims at developing a rapid and reliable method for characterizing the crude oil in a fast and cost-effective way. The main properties generally employed for evaluating crudes' quality and behavior during refining were measured and used for calibration and testing of the PLS models. Among these, the UOP characterization factor K (K(UOP)) used to classify crude oils in terms of composition, density (D), total acidity number (TAN), sulfur content (S), and true boiling point (TBP) distillation yields were investigated. Test set validation with an independent set of data was used to evaluate model performance on the basis of standard error of prediction (SEP) statistics. Model performances are particularly good for K(UOP) factor, TAN, and TPB distillation yields, whose standard error of calibration and SEP values match the analytical method precision, while the results obtained for D and S are less accurate but still useful for predictions. Furthermore, a strategy that reduces spectral data preprocessing and sample preparation procedures has been adopted. The models developed with such an ample crude oil set demonstrate that this methodology can be applied with success to modern refining process requirements.

  14. Influence of Commercial Saturated Monoglyceride, Mono-/Diglycerides Mixtures, Vegetable Oil, Stirring Speed, and Temperature on the Physical Properties of Organogels

    PubMed Central

    Rocha-Amador, Omar Gerardo; Huang, Qingrong; Rocha-Guzman, Nuria Elizabeth; Moreno-Jimenez, Martha Rocio; Gonzalez-Laredo, Ruben F.

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the influence of gelator, vegetable oil, stirring speed, and temperature on the physical properties of obtained organogels. They were prepared under varying independent conditions and applying a fractional experimental design. From there a rheological characterization was developed. The physical characterization also included polarized light microscopy and calorimetric analysis. Once these data were obtained, X-Ray diffraction was applied to selected samples and a microstructure lattice was confirmed. Commonly, the only conditions that affect crystallization have been analyzed (temperature, solvent, gelator, and cooling rate). We found that stirring speed is the most important parameter in the organogel preparation. PMID:26904637

  15. Fuel properties of cottonseed oil

    SciTech Connect

    Karaosmanoglu, F.; Tueter, M.; Goellue, E.; Yanmaz, S.; Altintig, E.

    1999-11-01

    The use of vegetable oils as fuel alternatives has an exceptional importance in the field of research. In this study, evaluation possibilities of cottonseed oil have been investigated as an alternative candidate for diesel fuel and fuel oil. The fuel property tests were performed according to standard analysis methods for oil and fuel. An overall evaluation of the results indicates that cottonseed oil can be proposed as a possible green substitute for fuel.

  16. Experimental investigation of the physical properties of medium and heavy oils, their vaporization and use in explosion engines. Part I

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Heinlein, Fritz

    1926-01-01

    While little has been accomplished in obtaining an abundant supply of light oils from coal and heavy oils, progress has been made on engine design to make use of the heavier oils. Progress has been made in two different directions which are outlined in this paper: the group of engines with medium and high-pressure carburetion in the cylinder; and the group of engines with low-pressure carburetion of the heavy oils before reaching the cylinder.

  17. Effect of carbonization temperature on the physical and electrochemical properties of supercapacitor electrode from fibers of oil palm empty fruit bunches

    SciTech Connect

    Ishak, M. M.; Deraman, M. Talib, I. A.; Basri, N. H.; Omar, R.; Nor, N. S. M.; Dolah, B. N. M.; Awitdrus,; Farma, R.; Taer, E.

    2015-04-16

    Self-adhesive carbon grains (SACG) was prepared from fibers of oil palm empty fruit bunches. The SACG green monoliths were carbonized in N{sub 2} environment at 400, 500, 600 and 700°C to produce carbon monoliths labeled as CM1, CM2, CM3 and CM4 respectively. The CMs were activated in CO{sub 2} surrounding at 800°C for 1 hour to produce activated carbon monolith electrodes (ACM1, ACM2, ACM3 and ACM4). The physical properties of the CMs and ACMs were investigated using X-ray diffraction, field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM) and N{sub 2} adsorption-desorption isotherm techniques. ACMs were used as electrode to fabricate symmetry supercapacitor cells and the cells’ performances were investigated using electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS), cyclic voltammetry (CV) and galvanostatic charge-discharge (GCD) standard techniques. In this paper we report the physical and electrochemical properties of the ACM electrodes by analyzing the influence of the carbonization temperature on these properties.

  18. Effect of carbonization temperature on the physical and electrochemical properties of supercapacitor electrode from fibers of oil palm empty fruit bunches

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ishak, M. M.; Deraman, M.; Talib, I. A.; Basri, N. H.; Awitdrus, Farma, R.; Taer, E.; Omar, R.; Nor, N. S. M.; Dolah, B. N. M.

    2015-04-01

    Self-adhesive carbon grains (SACG) was prepared from fibers of oil palm empty fruit bunches. The SACG green monoliths were carbonized in N2 environment at 400, 500, 600 and 700°C to produce carbon monoliths labeled as CM1, CM2, CM3 and CM4 respectively. The CMs were activated in CO2 surrounding at 800°C for 1 hour to produce activated carbon monolith electrodes (ACM1, ACM2, ACM3 and ACM4). The physical properties of the CMs and ACMs were investigated using X-ray diffraction, field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM) and N2 adsorption-desorption isotherm techniques. ACMs were used as electrode to fabricate symmetry supercapacitor cells and the cells' performances were investigated using electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS), cyclic voltammetry (CV) and galvanostatic charge-discharge (GCD) standard techniques. In this paper we report the physical and electrochemical properties of the ACM electrodes by analyzing the influence of the carbonization temperature on these properties.

  19. Physical Properties of Polymers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mark, James; Ngai, Kia; Graessley, William; Mandelkern, Leo; Samulski, Edward; Koenig, Jack; Wignall, George

    2004-04-01

    This thoroughly revised and updated third edition is written by seven well-known authorities in the polymer science community. Each author contributes a chapter which reflects his own interests and expertise in the physical states and associated properties of polymers. Second Edition published by the American Chemical Society Hb (1993): 0-841-22505-2

  20. [Antioxidant properties of essential oils].

    PubMed

    Misharina, T A; Terenina, M B; Krikunova, N I

    2009-01-01

    By the method of capillary gas-liquid chromatography we studied antioxidant properties and stability during the storage of hexane solutions of 14 individual essential oils from black and white pepper (Piper nigrum L.), cardamom (Elettaria cardamomum L.), nutmeg (Myristica fragrans Houtt.), mace (Myristica fragrans Houtt), juniperberry (Juniperus communis L.), seed of fennel (Foeniculum vulgare Mill., var. dulce Thelling), caraway (Carvum carvi L.), dry leaves of cinnamon (Cinnamomum zeylanicum Bl.), marjoram (Origanum majorana L.), laurel (Laurus nobilis L.), ginger (Zingiber officinale L.), garlic (Allium sativum L.), and clove bud (Caryophyllus aromaticus L.). We assessed the antioxidant properties by the oxidation of aliphatic aldehyde (trans-2-hexenal) into the according carbon acid. We established that essential oils of garlic, clove bud, ginger and leaves of cinnamon have the maximal efficiency of inhibition of hexenal oxidation (80-93%), while black pepper oil has the minimal (49%). Antioxidant properties of essential oils with a high content of substituted phenols depended poorly on its concentration in model systems. We studied the changes in essential oils content during the storage of its hexane solutions for 40 days in the light and out of the light and compared it with the stability of essential oils stored for a year out of the light. PMID:20067158

  1. [Antioxidant properties of essential oils].

    PubMed

    Misharina, T A; Terenina, M B; Krikunova, N I

    2009-01-01

    By the method of capillary gas-liquid chromatography we studied antioxidant properties and stability during the storage of hexane solutions of 14 individual essential oils from black and white pepper (Piper nigrum L.), cardamom (Elettaria cardamomum L.), nutmeg (Myristica fragrans Houtt.), mace (Myristica fragrans Houtt), juniperberry (Juniperus communis L.), seed of fennel (Foeniculum vulgare Mill., var. dulce Thelling), caraway (Carvum carvi L.), dry leaves of cinnamon (Cinnamomum zeylanicum Bl.), marjoram (Origanum majorana L.), laurel (Laurus nobilis L.), ginger (Zingiber officinale L.), garlic (Allium sativum L.), and clove bud (Caryophyllus aromaticus L.). We assessed the antioxidant properties by the oxidation of aliphatic aldehyde (trans-2-hexenal) into the according carbon acid. We established that essential oils of garlic, clove bud, ginger and leaves of cinnamon have the maximal efficiency of inhibition of hexenal oxidation (80-93%), while black pepper oil has the minimal (49%). Antioxidant properties of essential oils with a high content of substituted phenols depended poorly on its concentration in model systems. We studied the changes in essential oils content during the storage of its hexane solutions for 40 days in the light and out of the light and compared it with the stability of essential oils stored for a year out of the light.

  2. Physical and antibacterial properties of Açaí edible films formulated with thyme essential oil and apple skin polyphenols

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Açaí edible films incorporated with apple skin polyphenols (ASP), thyme essential oil (TEO) or their mixture were developed as antimicrobial active packaging for food preservation. Antimicrobial activity of açaí edible films against Listeria monocytogenes was evaluated. The effects of both antimicro...

  3. Experimental investigation of the physical properties of medium and heavy oils, their vaporization and use in explosion engines. Part IV

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Heinlein, Fritz

    1926-01-01

    This report presents a theoretical treatment of the vaporization process of medium and heavy oils. The results of this investigation, which were mostly obtained from the lighter components of the heavy fuels, require a 10- or 16-fold vaporization in comparison with gasoline. We must attain a still finer degree of atomization, in order to include the heavier components.

  4. Geology and oil resources of the Coalinga district, California, with a report on the chemical and physical properties of the oils

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Arnold, Ralph; Anderson, Robert; Allen, Irving Cowan

    1910-01-01

    The Coalinga oil district occupies a strip of land about 50 miles in length by 15 miles in width along the northeastern base of the Diablo Range, on the southwest side of the San Joaquin Valley, in western Fresno and Kings counties in central California. The region is accessible by rail from the main lines of both the Southern Pacific and the Atchison, Topeka and Santa Fe railroads by a branch line of the Southern Pacific running westerly from Goshen to Coalinga. The proved productive oil territory is comprised in a band 13 miles long by 3 miles wide in the foothills in the northern end of the district, within the Coalinga field proper, together with a narrow strip along the district's southwestern boundary in the Kreyenhagen field.

  5. Physical and antimicrobial properties of cinnamon bark oil co-nanoemulsified by lauric arginate and Tween 80.

    PubMed

    Hilbig, Jonas; Ma, Qiumin; Davidson, P Michael; Weiss, Jochen; Zhong, Qixin

    2016-09-16

    Lauric arginate (LAE) is a water-soluble cationic surfactant which has antimicrobial activity against a broad spectrum of foodborne pathogens. Some spice essential oils are effective lipophilic antimicrobials. Combining both antimicrobials may reduce their usage levels and possible negative sensory impacts when applied in complex food matrices. The objective of this study was to combine a nonionic surfactant (Tween 80) with LAE to form stable nanoemulsions with cinnamon bark essential oil (CBO) and to characterize the antimicrobial activity of these nanoemulsions. CBO was homogenized at 1% w/w in the aqueous phase with 3% w/w Tween 80 and 0.05-0.375% w/w LAE, followed by heating at 90°C for 30min to obtain final emulsions. With 0.125% and higher LAE, transparent emulsions with ~100nm in hydrodynamic diameter were observed to be stable during 30-day storage at 21°C. Antimicrobial activities of the nanoemulsion prepared with Tween 80 and 0.375% w/w LAE were studied. The respective minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) of the nanoemulsion in tryptic soy broth (TSB) were 12, 7, and 8ppm LAE for Salmonella enteritidis, Escherichia coli O157:H7, and Listeria monocytogenes, while those of free LAE were 11, 6, and 6ppm, respectively. MICs of CBO were 400ppm for the tested bacteria and Tween 80 at 6% w/w did not show inhibitory effect. Growth kinetics of the bacteria in TSB treated with the nanoemulsion or individual components at concentrations corresponding to the MICs of free LAE showed that binding among the LAE and Tween 80 and CBO components resulted in the antibacterial activity of nanoemulsion being lower than same concentrations of free LAE and CBO. Conversely, little difference was observed for the individual antimicrobials and the nanoemulsion in 2% reduced fat milk, and 750ppm LAE and 2000ppm CBO were observed to be the dominant antimicrobial against Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria, respectively. The growth of L. monocytogenes in 2% reduced fat

  6. Physical and antimicrobial properties of cinnamon bark oil co-nanoemulsified by lauric arginate and Tween 80.

    PubMed

    Hilbig, Jonas; Ma, Qiumin; Davidson, P Michael; Weiss, Jochen; Zhong, Qixin

    2016-09-16

    Lauric arginate (LAE) is a water-soluble cationic surfactant which has antimicrobial activity against a broad spectrum of foodborne pathogens. Some spice essential oils are effective lipophilic antimicrobials. Combining both antimicrobials may reduce their usage levels and possible negative sensory impacts when applied in complex food matrices. The objective of this study was to combine a nonionic surfactant (Tween 80) with LAE to form stable nanoemulsions with cinnamon bark essential oil (CBO) and to characterize the antimicrobial activity of these nanoemulsions. CBO was homogenized at 1% w/w in the aqueous phase with 3% w/w Tween 80 and 0.05-0.375% w/w LAE, followed by heating at 90°C for 30min to obtain final emulsions. With 0.125% and higher LAE, transparent emulsions with ~100nm in hydrodynamic diameter were observed to be stable during 30-day storage at 21°C. Antimicrobial activities of the nanoemulsion prepared with Tween 80 and 0.375% w/w LAE were studied. The respective minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) of the nanoemulsion in tryptic soy broth (TSB) were 12, 7, and 8ppm LAE for Salmonella enteritidis, Escherichia coli O157:H7, and Listeria monocytogenes, while those of free LAE were 11, 6, and 6ppm, respectively. MICs of CBO were 400ppm for the tested bacteria and Tween 80 at 6% w/w did not show inhibitory effect. Growth kinetics of the bacteria in TSB treated with the nanoemulsion or individual components at concentrations corresponding to the MICs of free LAE showed that binding among the LAE and Tween 80 and CBO components resulted in the antibacterial activity of nanoemulsion being lower than same concentrations of free LAE and CBO. Conversely, little difference was observed for the individual antimicrobials and the nanoemulsion in 2% reduced fat milk, and 750ppm LAE and 2000ppm CBO were observed to be the dominant antimicrobial against Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria, respectively. The growth of L. monocytogenes in 2% reduced fat

  7. Physical characterization of wax/oil crystalline networks.

    PubMed

    Martini, Silvana; Tan, Chin Yiap; Jana, Sarbojeet

    2015-05-01

    The objective of this research was to evaluate the physical properties of different types of wax/oil systems. Olive (OO), corn (CO), soybean (SBO), sunflower (SFO), safflower (SAFO), and canola (CAO) oils were mixed with sunflower oil wax (SFOW), paraffin wax (PW), and beeswax (BW) at different concentrations (1% to 10%). Results from this study show that the physical properties of wax/oil systems is affected not only by the concentration and type of wax used, but also by the type of oil used. In general, wax/oil systems formulated with SFOW generated crystalline networks with high enthalpies (1 to 22 J/g) and high G' values (2 to 6 × 10(6) Pa) compared with the values obtained for BW and PW. SFOW crystalline networks were characterized by needle-like crystals independently of the wax concentrations and type of oil used. BW crystalline networks, however, were characterized by different crystal morphologies (needle-like or spherulites) depending on the wax concentration and type of oil used. PW samples were characterized by a crystalline network formed by needle- and platelet-like crystals. Enthalpy values of BW and PW samples were similar (0.3 to 20 J/g), but BW samples resulted in significantly higher (P < 0.05) G' values in the 5% and 10% samples with values of 3.9 × 10(6) and 6.1 × 10(5) Pa for 10% BW and PW, respectively.

  8. Physical characterization of wax/oil crystalline networks.

    PubMed

    Martini, Silvana; Tan, Chin Yiap; Jana, Sarbojeet

    2015-05-01

    The objective of this research was to evaluate the physical properties of different types of wax/oil systems. Olive (OO), corn (CO), soybean (SBO), sunflower (SFO), safflower (SAFO), and canola (CAO) oils were mixed with sunflower oil wax (SFOW), paraffin wax (PW), and beeswax (BW) at different concentrations (1% to 10%). Results from this study show that the physical properties of wax/oil systems is affected not only by the concentration and type of wax used, but also by the type of oil used. In general, wax/oil systems formulated with SFOW generated crystalline networks with high enthalpies (1 to 22 J/g) and high G' values (2 to 6 × 10(6) Pa) compared with the values obtained for BW and PW. SFOW crystalline networks were characterized by needle-like crystals independently of the wax concentrations and type of oil used. BW crystalline networks, however, were characterized by different crystal morphologies (needle-like or spherulites) depending on the wax concentration and type of oil used. PW samples were characterized by a crystalline network formed by needle- and platelet-like crystals. Enthalpy values of BW and PW samples were similar (0.3 to 20 J/g), but BW samples resulted in significantly higher (P < 0.05) G' values in the 5% and 10% samples with values of 3.9 × 10(6) and 6.1 × 10(5) Pa for 10% BW and PW, respectively. PMID:25850679

  9. Physical oceanography of oil spills

    SciTech Connect

    Murray, S.P. )

    1991-03-01

    The introduction of petroleum products and crude oil from ship accidents and damaged platforms into the ocean remains a significant problem. Weather systems of nearly all sizes and time scales may have strong effects on oil slick movement and dispersal. Thunderstorms, local weather systems, mid-latitude high- and low-pressure systems, tropical cyclones, and the trade winds and prevailing westerlies of the planetary wind system are all potentially important agents in the movement and dispersal of oil slicks. Currents driven by these wind systems are influenced by the rotation of the earth, which causes them to veer to the right of the wind in the northern hemisphere. Wind shifts or sudden decreases in wind stress induce circular or inertial oscillations whose period varies with latitude. Near the shore these effects are severely damped by the blocking action of the coast, causing the flow to run more or less parallel to the coastal boundary. All these effects will in turn exert significant control over the movement of entrained oil slicks. In the near-field region of an oil spill tidal currents can also be of considerable importance. Rotary currents, characteristic of open-shelf waters and effective dispersal agents of oil, arise from the influence of the rotation of the earth on the tidal current. Another such interaction between rotation of the earth and the tide produces Kelvin waves, which result in unusually high tidal ranges along the coast to the right of the tidal wave propagation. Both effects have been important in recent oil spills. All these oceanographic processes, reviewed in this talk, have played key roles in major spills over the last 15 years from the Torrey Canyon to the Mega-Borg.

  10. Fuel properties of eleven vegetable oils

    SciTech Connect

    Goering, C.E.; Schwab, A.W.; Daugherty, M.J.; Pryde, E.H.; Keakin, A.J.

    1981-01-01

    Eleven vegetable oils that can be grown as domestic field crops were identified for inclusion in a comparative study. Sample lots of each oil were subjected to ASTM tests appropriate for diesel fuels. The tests identified some problem areas with vegetable oil fuels. The oil samples were also characterized chemically and certain fuel properties were correlated to chemical composition. 10 refs.

  11. Fuel properties of eleven vegetable oils

    SciTech Connect

    Goering, C.E.; Schwab, A.W.; Daugherty, M.J.; Pryde, E.H.; Heakin, A.J.

    1982-01-01

    Eleven vegetable oils that can be grown as domestic field crops were identified for inclusion in a comparative study of chemical and fuel properties. Sample lots of each oil were subjected to ASTM tests appropriate for diesel fuels. The tests identified some problem areas with vegetable oil fuels. The oil samples were also characterized chemically and certain fuel properties were correlated to chemical compositions. (Refs. 11).

  12. Physical characteristics of cinnamon oil microcapsule

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hermanto, R. F.; Khasanah, L. U.; Kawiji; Atmaka, W.; Manuhara, G. J.; Utami, R.

    2016-02-01

    Cinnamon (Cinnamomum burmanii) oil products can be obtained from the bark by steam distillation. Essential oils are susceptible to high temperatures, oxidation, UV light, and humidity. Microencapsulation may change essential oils into powder, protect the sensitive core material and reduce the amount of flavor which lost during storage. In the microencapsulation, one of the important factors is the type of coating agent. The objective of this work was to characterize the cinnamon oil microcapsule. Ratio variations of coating agent maltodextrin and gum arabic were (1:0); (0:1); (1:1); (2:3). Physical characteristics such as water content, solubility, bulk density, surface oil, and microencapsulation efficiency of samples were investigated. Results showed that the ratio variations of the coating agent significantly affected the water content, bulk density, surface oil and microencapsulation efficiency but significantly affected the water solubility. Characteristics of selected microcapsule were 6.13% water content; 96.33% solubility; 0.46 g/cm3 bulk density; 2.68% surface oil; 70.68% microencapsulation efficiency and microstructures were rather good.

  13. Elastohydrodynamic Traction Properties of Seed Oils

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The elastohydrodynamic traction coefficient (tc) properties of nine seed oils of varying chemical structures, PAO and hexadecane, were investigated using a ball-on disk traction apparatus. The seed oils were: castor oil, a triglyceride with hydroxyl functional group; jojoba, a monoglyceride; and s...

  14. Elastohydrodynamic (EHD) traction properties of seed oils

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The elastohydrodynamic traction coefficient (tc) properties of nine seed oils of varying chemical structures, PAO and hexadecane, were investigated using a ball-on disk traction apparatus. The seed oils were: castor oil, a triglyceride with hydroxyl functional group; jojoba, a monoglyceride; and sev...

  15. Rheological properties of heavy oils and heavy oil emulsions

    SciTech Connect

    Khan, M.R.

    1996-06-01

    In this study, the author investigated the effects of a number of process variables such as shear rate, measurement temperature, pressure, the influence of pretreatment, and the role of various amounts of added water on the rheology of the resulting heavy oil or the emulsion. Rheological properties of heavy oils and the corresponding emulsions are important from transportation and processing standpoints.

  16. Cyber Physical Intelligence for Oil Spills (CPI)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lary, D. J.

    2015-12-01

    The National Academy of Sciences estimate 1.7 to 8.8 million tons of oil are released into global waters every year. The effects of these spills include dead wildlife, oil covered marshlands and contaminated water. Deepwater horizon cost approximately $50 billion and severely challenged response capabilities. In such large spills optimizing a coordinated response is a particular challenge. This challenge can be met in a revolutionary new way by using an objectively optimized Cyber Physical Decision Making System (CPS) for rapid response products and a framework for objectively optimized decision-making in an uncertain environment. The CPS utilizes machine learning for the processing of the massive real-time streams of Big Data from comprehensive hyperspectral remote sensing acquired by a team of low-cost robotic aerial vehicles, providing a real-time aerial view and stream of hyperspectral imagery from the near UV to the thermal infrared, and a characterization of oil thickness, oil type and oil weathering. The objective decision making paradigm is modeled on the human brain and provides the optimal course trajectory for response vessels to achieve the most expeditious cleanup of oil spills using the available resources. In addition, oil spill cleanups often involve surface oil burns that can lead to air quality issues. The aerial vehicles comprehensively characterize air quality in real-time, streaming location, temperature, pressure, humidity, the abundance of 6 criterion pollutants (O3, CO, NO, NO2, SO2, and H2S) and the full size distribution of airborne particulates. This CPS can be readily applied to other systems in agriculture, water conversation, monitoring of stream quality, air quality, diagnosing risk of wild fires, etc..

  17. CHARACTERISTICS OF SPILLED OILS, FUELS, AND PETROLEUM PRODUCTS: 1. COMPOSITION AND PROPERTIES OF SELECTED OILS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Multicomponent composition and corresponding physical properties data of crude oils and petroleum products are needed as input to environmental fate simulations. Complete sets of such data, however, are not available in the literature due to the complexity and expense of making t...

  18. Terahertz spectroscopy properties of the selected engine oils

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Shouming; Zhao, Kun; Lu, Tian; Zhao, Songqing; Zhou, Qingli; Shi, Yulei; Zhao, Dongmei; Zhang, Cunlin

    2010-11-01

    Engine oil, most of which is extracted from petroleum, consist of complex mixtures of hydrocarbons of molecular weights in the range of 250-1000. Variable amounts of different additives are put into them to inhibit oxidation, improve the viscosity index, decrease the fluidity point and avoid foaming or settling of solid particles among others. Terahertz (THz) spectroscopy contains rich physical, chemical, and structural information of the materials. Most low-frequency vibrational and rotational spectra of many petrochemicals lie in this frequency range. In recent years, much attention has been paid to the THz spectroscopic studies of petroleum products. In this paper, the optical properties and spectroscopy of selected kinds of engine oil consisting of shell HELIX 10W-40, Mobilube GX 80W-90, GEELY ENGINE OIL SG 10W-30, SMA engine oil SG 5W-30, SMA engine oil SG 10W-30, SMA engine oil SG 75W-90 have been studied by the terahertz time-domain spectroscopy (THz-TDS) in the spectral range of 0.6-2.5 THz. Engine oil with different viscosities in the terahertz spectrum has certain regularity. In the THz-TDS, with the increase of viscosity, time delay is greater and with the increase of viscosity, refractive indexes also grow and their rank is extremely regular. The specific kinds of engine oil can be identified according to their different spectral features in the THz range. The THz-TDS technology has potentially significant impact on the engine oil analysis.

  19. Oil components modulate physical characteristics and function of the natural oil emulsions as drug or gene delivery system.

    PubMed

    Chung, H; Kim, T W; Kwon, M; Kwon, I C; Jeong, S Y

    2001-04-28

    Oil-in-water (o/w) type lipid emulsions were formulated by using 18 different natural oils and egg phosphatidylcholine (egg PC) to investigate how emulsion particle size and stability change with different oils. Cottonseed, linseed and evening primrose oils formed emulsions with very large and unstable particles. Squalene, light mineral oil and jojoba bean oil formed stable emulsions with small particles. The remaining natural oils formed moderately stable emulsions. Emulsions with smaller initial particle size were more stable than those with larger particles. The correlation between emulsion size made with different oils and two physical properties of the oils was also investigated. The o/w interfacial tension and particle size of the emulsion were inversely proportional. The effect of viscosity was less pronounced. To study how the oil component in the emulsion modulates the in vitro release characteristics of lipophilic drugs, three different emulsions loaded with two different drugs were prepared. Squalene, soybean oil and linseed oil emulsions represented the most, medium and the least stable systems, respectively. For the lipophilic drugs, release was the slowest from the most stable squalene emulsion, followed by soybean oil and then by linseed oil emulsions. Cationic emulsions were also prepared with the above three different oils as gene carriers. In vitro transfection activity was the highest for the most stable squalene emulsion followed by soybean oil and then by linseed oil emulsions. Even though the in vitro transfection activity of emulsions were lower than the liposome in the absence of serum, the activity of squalene emulsion, for instance, was ca. 30 times higher than that of liposome in the presence of 80% (v/v) serum. In conclusion, the choice of oil component in o/w emulsion is important in formulating emulsion-based drug or gene delivery systems.

  20. Cesium Eluate Physical Property Determination

    SciTech Connect

    Baich, M.A.

    2001-02-13

    Two bench-scale process simulations of the proposed cesium eluate evaporation process of concentrating eluate produced in the Hanford Site Waste Treatment Plant were conducted. The primary objective of these experiments was to determine the physical properties and the saturation concentration of the eluate evaporator bottoms while producing condensate approximately 0.50 molar HN03.

  1. Physical and mechanical testing of essential oil-embedded cellulose ester films

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Polymer films made from cellulose esters are useful for embedding plant essential oils, either for food packaging or air freshener applications. Studies and testing were done on the physical and mechanical properties of cellulose ester-based films incorporating essential oils (EO) from lemongrass (C...

  2. Combustion Properties of Biomass Flash Pyrolysis Oils: Final Project Report

    SciTech Connect

    C. R. Shaddix; D. R. Hardesty

    1999-04-01

    Thermochemical pyrolysis of solid biomass feedstocks, with subsequent condensation of the pyrolysis vapors, has been investigated in the U.S. and internationally as a means of producing a liquid fuel for power production from biomass. This process produces a fuel with significantly different physical and chemical properties from traditional petroleum-based fuel oils. In addition to storage and handling difficulties with pyrolysis oils, concern exists over the ability to use this fuel effectively in different combustors. The report endeavors to place the results and conclusions from Sandia's research into the context of international efforts to utilize pyrolysis oils. As a special supplement to this report, Dr. Steven Gust, of Finland's Neste Oy, has provided a brief assessment of pyrolysis oil combustion research efforts and commercialization prospects in Europe.

  3. Test tank evaluation of a frequency-scanning, microwave radiometer to estimate oil thickness and physical properties. Final report, September 1994-February 1996

    SciTech Connect

    Murphy, T.J.; McMahon, O.B.; Hover, G.L.

    1996-04-01

    This report describes the testing of a 26-40 GHz (Ka-band) Frequency Scanning Radiometer (FSR) at OHMSETT (the National Oil Spill Response Test Facility) to evaluate the instrument`s ability to detect and measure the thickness of oil films on water. Measurement variables were oil type, oil thickness, and wave conditions. The results indicate that the FSR was able to reliably measure oil thickness under calm conditions and, in some cases, under mild wave conditions. Future hardware development should include (1) a multichannel upgrade to the Ka-band FSR to decrease the data acquisition interval, and (2) the development of a proof-of-concept W-band (75-110 GHz) FSR to measure thinner films. After laboratory testing, these instruments should be evaluated at OHMSETT. Included in the appendices to this report are all of the radiometric brightness temperature (TB) versus measurement frequency plots for the data collected at OHMSETT.

  4. Physical properties of evaporite minerals

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Robertson, Eugene C.

    1962-01-01

    The data in the following tables were abstracted from measurements of physical properties of evaporite minerals or of equivalent synthetic compounds. The compounds considered are the halide and sulfate salts which supposedly precipitated from evaporating ocean water and which form very extensive and thick "rock salt" beds. These beds are composed almost entirely of NaCl. In places where the beds are deeply buried and where fractures occur in the overlying rocks, the salt is plastically extruded upward as in a pipe to form the "salt domes". Most of the tables are for NaCl, both the natural (halite) and the synthetic salt, polycrystalline and single crystals. These measurements have been collected for use 1) in studies on storage of radioactive wastes in salt domes or beds, 2) in calculations concerned with nuclear tests in salt domes and beds, and 3) in studies of phenomena in salt of geologic interest. Rather than an exhaustive compilation of physical property measurements, there tables represent a summary of data from accessible sources. As limitations of time have presented making a more systematic and comprehensive selection, the data given may seem arbitrarily chosen. Some of the data listed are old, and newer, more accurate data are undoubtedly available. Halite (an synthetic NaCl) has been very thoroughly studied because of its relatively simple and highly symmetrical crystal structure, its easy availability naturally or synthetically, both in single crystals and polycrystalline, its useful and scientifically interesting properties, and its role as a compound of almost purely ionic bonding. The measurements of NaCl in the tables, however, represent only a small part of the total number of observations; discrimination was necessary to keep the size of the tabulations manageable. The physical properties of the evaporite minerals other than halite and sylvite have received only desultory attention of experiementalists, and appear in only a few tables. The

  5. Interrelationship between viscosity and electrical properties for edible oils.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Dilip; Singh, Amarjit; Tarsikka, Paramjit Singh

    2013-06-01

    Electrical properties of edible oil depend upon its total polar component, temperature and the frequency of the applied voltage. Dielectric constant, dielectric loss tangent and electrical conductivity were measured for cottonseed (Gossypium sp.), ground nut (Apios americana), mustard (Brasicca compestriss) and sun flower (Helianthus annuus) oils in the temperature range of 20 to 100°C so as to assess the potential of their applicability for assessing the quality of oils. Viscosity of the oils is an other important physical property associated with their processing and quality control. Viscosity of these oils was experimentally measured. The correlation of viscosity with dielectric loss tangent and viscosity with electrical conductivity were tested. The best correlating relations along with correlation constants, valid for the temperature range of 20-100°C are presented. The regression equation developed relating viscosity with loss tangent and electrical conductivity had high correlation coefficient (R(2) > 0.96) for all the four oils within temperature range of 20-100°C.

  6. Regenerator matrix physical property data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fucinari, C. A.

    1980-01-01

    Among several cellular ceramic structures manufactured by various suppliers for regenerator application in a gas turbine engine, three have the best potential for achieving durability and performance objectives for use in gas turbines, Stirling engines, and waste heat recovery systems: (1) an aluminum-silicate sinusoidal flow passage made from a corrugated wate paper process; (2) an extruded isosceles triangle flow passage; and (3) a second generation matrix incorporating a square flow passage formed by an embossing process. Key physical and thermal property data for these configurations presented include: heat transfer and pressure drop characteristics, compressive strength, tensile strength and elasticity, thermal expansion characteristics, chanical attack, and thermal stability.

  7. Rheological properties of peanut oil-diesel fuel blends

    SciTech Connect

    Goodrum, J.W.; Law, S.E.

    1982-07-01

    Basic physical properties of peanut oil-diesel fuel blends were experimentally determined to help establish suitability for use in compression-ignition engines. For volumetric proportions of peanut oil ranging in 20 percent increments from 0 percent to 100 percent, the continuously varying properties at 21/sup 0/C were found to range as follows: heating value - 45.8 to 40.3 MJ/kg; specific gravity - 0.848 to 0.915; surface tension - 28.3 to 35.6 mN/m; and kinematic viscosity - 3.8 to 7.0 cSt. Dynamic viscosity measured as a function of shear rate over a 0/sup 0/C to 80/sup 0/C temperature range indicated nonNewtonian flow properties at shear rates less than 3/s.

  8. Physical Properties of Bright Comets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pittichová, J.; Meech, K. J.

    2002-09-01

    We will show preliminary results from a program of long-term observation of the dust coma activity of bright comets. One and half years of observation of 32 selected comets in B, V, R, I filters are used for the study of the physical properties and the dust activity of their comae at a range of heliocentric distances from 0.99 to 8.61 AU. This enables us to compare the activity of different cometary nuclei at similar solar radiation conditions. As shown in the Table, the selected comets belong to different cometary populations from the point of view of their active age (near parabolic orbits versus short-period orbits, outbursts of brightness, disruption of nuclei) and orbital parameters (the eccentricity from 0.04 to 1.01 AU, the perihelion distance from 0.34 to 8.24 AU). The knowledge of physical properties of cometary nuclei and coma are very important to our understanding of the environment in the outer solar system during the era of formation. The comet dataset of 1128 images will enable us to study thermal evolution of the small dust particles, their dynamical parameters and size distribution as a function of time and grain size at different heliocentric distances. Our future goal is to model the near-nucleus particle region using a Finston-Probstein dust model. Since our observations are still in progress at this time we will present only preliminary results of brightness and color changes for several selected bright comets.

  9. Seismic monitoring of heavy oil reservoirs: Rock physics and finite element modelling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Theune, Ulrich

    In the past decades, remote monitoring of subsurface processes has attracted increasing attention in geophysics. With repeated geophysical surveys one attempts to detect changes in the physical properties in the underground without directly accessing the earth. This technique has been proven to be very valuable for monitoring enhanced oil recovery programs. This thesis presents an modelling approach for the feasibility analysis for monitoring of a thermal enhanced oil recovery technique applied to heavy oil reservoirs in the Western Canadian Sedimentary Basin. In order to produce heavy oil from shallow reservoirs thermal oil recovery techniques such as the Steam Assisted Gravity Drainage (SAGD) are often employed. As these techniques are expensive and technically challenging, early detection of operational problems is without doubt of great value. However, the feasibility of geophysical monitoring depends on many factors such as the changes in the rock physical properties of the target reservoir. In order to access the feasibility of seismic monitoring for heavy oil reservoirs, a fluid-substitutional rock physical study has been carried out to simulate the steam injection. The second modelling approach is based on a modified finite element algorithm to simulate the propagation of elastic waves in the earth, which has been developed independently in the framework of this thesis. The work summarized in this thesis shows a possibility to access the feasibility of seismic monitoring for heavy oil reservoirs through an extensive rock-physical study. Seismic monitoring is a useful tool in reservoir management decision process. However, the work reported here suggests that seismic monitoring of SAGD processes in the heavy oil reservoirs of the Western Canadian Sedimentary Basin is only feasible in shallow, unconsolidated deposits. For deeper, but otherwise geological similar reservoirs, the SAGD does not create a sufficient change in the rock physical properties to be

  10. [PHYSICAL PROPERTIES OF PLASTER BANDAGES].

    PubMed

    Antabak, Anko; Barisić, Branimir; Andabak, Matej; Bradić, Lucija; Brajcinović, Melita; Haramina, Tatjana; Haluzan, Damir; Fuchs, Nino; Durkovir, Selena; Curković, Selena; Luetić, Tomislav; Sisko, Jerko; Prlić, Ivica

    2015-01-01

    The physical properties of plaster bandages are a very important factor in achieving the basic functions of immobilization (maintaining bone fragments in the best possible position), which directly affects the speed and quality of fracture healing. This paper compares the differences between the physical properties of plaster bandages (mass, specific weight, drying rate, elasticity and strength) and records the differences in plaster modeling of fast bonding 10 cm wide plaster bandages, from three different manufacturers: Safix plus (Hartmann, Germany), Cellona (Lohman Rauscher, Austria) and Gipsan (Ivo Lola Ribar ltd., Croatia). Plaster tiles from ten layers of plaster, dimension 10 x 10 cm were made. The total number of tiles from each manufacturer was 48. The water temperature of 22 °C was used for the first 24 tiles and 34 'C was used for the remainder. The average specific weight of the original packaging was: Cellona (0.52 g/cm3), Gipsan (0.50 g/cm3), Safix plus (0.38 g/cm3). Three days after plaster tile modeling an average specific weight of the tiles was: Gipsan (1.15 g/cm3), Safix plus (1.00 g/cm3), Cellona (1.10 g/cm3). The average humidity of 50% for Safix plus and Cellona plaster tiles was recorded 18 hours after modeling, while for the Gipsan plaster tiles, this humidity value was seen after 48 hours. On the third day after plaster modeling the average humidity of the plaster tiles was 30% for Gipsan, 24% for Safix and 16% for Cellona. Cellona plaster tiles made with 34 °C water achieved the highest elasticity (11.75±3.18 MPa), and Gipsan plaster tiles made with 22 °C had the lowest (7.21±0.9 MPa). Cellona plaster tiles made with 34 °C water showed maximum material strength (4390±838 MPa), and Gipsan plaster tiles made with 22 °C water showed the lowest material strength (771±367 MPa). The rigidity and strength of Cellona and Gipsan plaster are higher in tiles made in warmer water, and for Safix plus are higher in tiles made in cooler water

  11. Physical Properties of Fractured Porous Media

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mohammed, T. E.; Schmitt, D. R.

    2015-12-01

    The effect of fractures on the physical properties of porous media is of considerable interest to oil and gas exploration as well as enhanced geothermal systems and carbon capture and storage. This work represents an attempt to study the effect fractures have on multiple physical properties of rocks. An experimental technique to make simultaneous electric and ultrasonic measurements on cylindrical core plugs is developed. Aluminum end caps are mounted with ultrasonic transducers to transmit pules along the axis of the cylinder while non-polarizing electrodes are mounted on the sides of the core to make complex conductivity measurements perpendicular to the cylinder axis. Electrical measurements are made by applying a sinusoidal voltage across the measurement circuit that consist of a resister and the sample in series. The magnitude and phase of the signal across the sample is recorded relative to the input signal across a range of frequencies. Synthetic rock analogs are constructed using sintered glass beads with fractures imbedded in them. The fracture location, size and orientation are controlled and each fractured specimen has an unfractured counterpart. Porosity, Permeability, electrical conductivity and ultrasonic velocity measurements are conducted on each sample with the complex electrical conductivities recorded at frequencies from 10hz to 1 Mhz. These measurements allow us to examine the changes induced by these mesoscale fractures on the embedding porous medium. Of particular interest is the effect of fracture orientation on electrical conductivity of the rock. Seismic anisotropy caused by fractures is a well understood phenomenon with many rock physics models dedicated to its understanding. The effect of fractures on electrical conductivity is less well understood with electrical anisotropy scarcely investigated in the literature. None the less, using electrical conductivity to characterize fractures can add an extra constraint to characterization based

  12. Safety and Tolerability of Essential Oil from Cinnamomum zeylanicum Blume Leaves with Action on Oral Candidosis and Its Effect on the Physical Properties of the Acrylic Resin.

    PubMed

    Oliveira, Julyana de Araújo; da Silva, Ingrid Carla Guedes; Trindade, Leonardo Antunes; Lima, Edeltrudes Oliveira; Carlo, Hugo Lemes; Cavalcanti, Alessandro Leite; de Castro, Ricardo Dias

    2014-01-01

    The anti-Candida activity of essential oil from Cinnamomum zeylanicum Blume, as well as its effect on the roughness and hardness of the acrylic resin used in dental prostheses, was assessed. The safety and tolerability of the test product were assessed through a phase I clinical trial involving users of removable dentures. Minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and minimum fungicidal concentrations (MFC) were determined against twelve Candida strains. Acrylic resin specimens were exposed to artificial saliva (GI), C. zeylanicum (GII), and nystatin (GIII) for 15 days. Data were submitted to ANOVA and Tukey posttest (α = 5%). For the phase I clinical trial, 15 healthy patients used solution of C. zeylanicum at MIC (15 days, 3 times a day) and were submitted to clinical and mycological examinations. C. zeylanicum showed anti-Candida activity, with MIC = 625.0 µg/mL being equivalent to MFC. Nystatin caused greater increase in roughness and decreased the hardness of the material (P < 0.0001), with no significant differences between GI and GII. As regards the clinical trial, no adverse clinical signs were observed after intervention. The substance tested had a satisfactory level of safety and tolerability, supporting new advances involving the clinical use of essential oil from C. zeylanicum.

  13. Effect of trans, trans CLA egg enrichment from CLA-rich soy oil on yolk fatty acid composition, viscosity and physical properties.

    PubMed

    Shinn, Sara E; Gilley, Alex D; Proctor, Andrew; Anthony, Nicolas B

    2015-03-11

    CLA egg accumulation studies using cis, trans (c,t) isomers have been effective, but they reported adverse egg quality. trans, trans (t,t) CLA isomers have shown superior nutritional effects in rodent studies, but reports of t,t CLA-rich yolks are limited. The objectives were to determine the effect of t,t CLA-rich soy oil in feed on egg yolk viscosity, and yolk quality during refrigerated storage. Yolk fatty acids, viscosity, weight, index, moisture, pH, and vitelline membrane strength (VMS) were determined at 0, 20, and 30 storage days. CLA had minimal effect on fatty acid profiles, relative to c,t reports. CLA-rich yolk viscosity was greater than controls, and CLA yolks maintained higher viscosities during storage. Yolk weight and index were not affected by t,t CLA-rich soy oil. Yolks with the greatest CLA concentrations had the greatest VMS after 20 days of storage, and yolks containing lower CLA levels maintained greater VMS throughout 30 days of storage, relative to controls.

  14. Safety and Tolerability of Essential Oil from Cinnamomum zeylanicum Blume Leaves with Action on Oral Candidosis and Its Effect on the Physical Properties of the Acrylic Resin

    PubMed Central

    Oliveira, Julyana de Araújo; da Silva, Ingrid Carla Guedes; Trindade, Leonardo Antunes; Lima, Edeltrudes Oliveira; Carlo, Hugo Lemes; Cavalcanti, Alessandro Leite; de Castro, Ricardo Dias

    2014-01-01

    The anti-Candida activity of essential oil from Cinnamomum zeylanicum Blume, as well as its effect on the roughness and hardness of the acrylic resin used in dental prostheses, was assessed. The safety and tolerability of the test product were assessed through a phase I clinical trial involving users of removable dentures. Minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and minimum fungicidal concentrations (MFC) were determined against twelve Candida strains. Acrylic resin specimens were exposed to artificial saliva (GI), C. zeylanicum (GII), and nystatin (GIII) for 15 days. Data were submitted to ANOVA and Tukey posttest (α = 5%). For the phase I clinical trial, 15 healthy patients used solution of C. zeylanicum at MIC (15 days, 3 times a day) and were submitted to clinical and mycological examinations. C. zeylanicum showed anti-Candida activity, with MIC = 625.0 µg/mL being equivalent to MFC. Nystatin caused greater increase in roughness and decreased the hardness of the material (P < 0.0001), with no significant differences between GI and GII. As regards the clinical trial, no adverse clinical signs were observed after intervention. The substance tested had a satisfactory level of safety and tolerability, supporting new advances involving the clinical use of essential oil from C. zeylanicum. PMID:25574178

  15. Physical properties and mantle dynamics

    SciTech Connect

    Shankland, T.J.; Johnson, P.A.; McCall, K.R.

    1997-11-01

    This is the final report of a three-year, Laboratory Directed Research and Development (LDRD) project at the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). Because planetary interiors are remote, laboratory methods and associated theory are an essential step for interpreting geophysical measurements in terms of quantities that are needed for understanding Earth--temperature, composition, stress state, history, and hazards. One objective is the study of minerals and rocks as materials using experimental methods; another is to develop new methods, as in high pressure research, codes for computation in rock/soil physics, or nuclear-based analysis. Accomplishments include developing a single-crystal x-ray diffraction apparatus with application to materials at extremely high pressure and temperature; P-V-T equations of state and seismic velocity measurements for understanding the composition of Earth`s outer 1,000 km; creating computational tools to explain complex stress-strain histories of rocks; and measuring tungsten/thorium ratios W/Th that agree with the hypothesis that Earth accreted heterogeneously. Work performed in this project applies to geosciences, geothermal energy, mineral and rock properties, seismic detection, and isotope dating.

  16. Physics Applied to Oil and Gas Exploration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schwartz, Larry

    2002-03-01

    Problems involving transport in porous media are of interest throughout the fields of petroleum exploration and environmental monitoring and remediation. The systems being studied can vary in size from centimeter scale rock or soil samples to kilometer scale reservoirs and aquifers. Clearly, the smaller the sample the more easily can the medium's structure and composition be characterized, and the better defined are the associated experimental and theoretical modeling problems. The study of transport in such geological systems is then similar to corresponding problems in the study of other heterogeneous systems such as polymer gels, catalytic beds and cementitious materials. The defining characteristic of porous media is that they are comprised of two percolating interconnected channels, the solid and pore networks. Transport processes of interest in such systems typically involve the flow of electrical current, viscous fluids or fine grained particles. A closely related phenomena, nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR), is controlled by diffusion in the pore network. Also of interest is the highly non-linear character of the stress-strain response of granular porous media. We will review the development of two and three dimensional model porous media, and will outline the calculation of their physical properties. We will also discuss the direct measurement of the pore structure by synchrotron X-ray microtomography.

  17. Data on the physical characterization of oil in water emulsions.

    PubMed

    Zalazar, Aldana L; Gliemmo, María F; Campos, Carmen A

    2016-12-01

    This article contains experimental data and images for the physical characterization of oil in water emulsions. Mentioned data are related to the research article "Effect of stabilizers, oil level and structure on the growth of Zygosaccharomyces bailii and on physical stability of model systems simulating acid sauces" (A.L. Zalazar, M.F. Gliemmo, C.A. Campos, 2016) [1]. Physical characterization of emulsions was performed through the evaluation of Span and Specific Surface Area (SSA) determined by light scattering using a Mastersizer. Furthermore, microscopy images were recorded by confocal scanning laser microscopy (CSLM). The latter are presented to collaborate in the analysis of emulsion microstructure.

  18. Data on the physical characterization of oil in water emulsions.

    PubMed

    Zalazar, Aldana L; Gliemmo, María F; Campos, Carmen A

    2016-12-01

    This article contains experimental data and images for the physical characterization of oil in water emulsions. Mentioned data are related to the research article "Effect of stabilizers, oil level and structure on the growth of Zygosaccharomyces bailii and on physical stability of model systems simulating acid sauces" (A.L. Zalazar, M.F. Gliemmo, C.A. Campos, 2016) [1]. Physical characterization of emulsions was performed through the evaluation of Span and Specific Surface Area (SSA) determined by light scattering using a Mastersizer. Furthermore, microscopy images were recorded by confocal scanning laser microscopy (CSLM). The latter are presented to collaborate in the analysis of emulsion microstructure. PMID:27631021

  19. Physical properties of a high molecular weight hydroxyl-terminated polydimethylsiloxane modified castor oil based polyurethane/epoxy interpenetrating polymer network composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Shoubing; Wang, Qihua; Wang, Tingmei

    2011-06-01

    A series of polyurethane (PU)/epoxy resin (EP) graft interpenetrating polymer network (IPN) composites modified by a high molecular weight hydroxyl-terminated polydimethylsiloxane (HTPDMS) were prepared. The effects of HTPDMS content on the phase structure, damping properties and the glass transition temperature ( Tg) of the HTPDMS-modified PU/EP IPN composites were studied by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and dynamic mechanical analysis (DMA). Thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) showed that the thermal decomposition temperature of the composites increased with the increase of HTPDMS content. The tensile strength and impact strength of the IPN composites were also significantly improved, especially when the HTPDMS content was 10%. The modified IPN composites were expected to be used as structural damping materials in the future.

  20. Physical and sensory characterizations of oral coatings of oil/water emulsions.

    PubMed

    Camacho, S; van Riel, V; de Graaf, C; van de Velde, F; Stieger, M

    2014-06-25

    The physical and sensory properties of oil coatings on the tongue formed by five oil/water emulsions varying in oil content were investigated. A total of 20 subjects processed orally each emulsion for 30 s in triplicate. In vivo fluorescence measurements at the front and back of the anterior tongue were made to quantify the oil fraction deposited at different time points. Calibration lines relating fluorescence intensity to oil fraction were determined using pig tongues at 37.5 °C to mimic oral conditions. The oil fraction on the tongue increased linearly with an increasing oil content of the emulsions. The oil fraction deposited at the back of the anterior tongue was 1.5-2.0× larger than at the front. The intensity of sensory attributes describing after-feel perception was related to the oil fraction by Weber-Fechner's law. This study uses in vivo fluorescence to study food behavior in the mouth and unravel new insights in after-feel perception of emulsions.

  1. Elastohydrodynamic properties of biobased heat-bodied oils

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Heat-bodied oils were prepared by thermal treatment of soybean oil under inert atmosphere. Different viscosity grades of heat-bodied oils synthesized by varying the reaction time were investigated for various properties including viscosity, viscosity index, elastohydrodynamic film thickness, and pre...

  2. Biobased oil structure on amphiphilic and tribological properties

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Biobased oils are those derived from farm-based renewable raw materials. Most are vegetable oils (such as soybean, canola, corn, etc.) or chemical modifications of vegetable oils. They have a number of interesting structural features that impact their amphiphilic and lubrication properties. The basi...

  3. Physical Properties of Supraglacial Debris on Mars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baker, D. M. H.; Carter, L. M.

    2016-09-01

    The thickness and physical properties of surface debris preserving glacial ice in the mid-latitudes of Mars is assessed using crater morphology and radar sounding data. We suggest that this debris layer is much thicker than has been hypothesized.

  4. Physical properties of cumin and caraway seeds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zare, D.; Bakhshipour, A.; Chen, G.

    2013-12-01

    Physical properties of cumin and caraway seeds were measured and compared at constant moisture content of 7.5% w.b. The average thousand mass of grain, mean length, mean width, mean thickness, equivalent diameter, geometric mean diameter, surface area, volume, sphericity, aspect ratio, true density, bulk density and porosity were measured for cumin and caraway. There are significant differences (p<0.01) in most physical properties of cumin and caraway, except porosity and sphericity

  5. Flow-specific physical properties of coconut flours

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manikantan, Musuvadi R.; Kingsly Ambrose, Rose P.; Alavi, Sajid

    2015-10-01

    Coconut milk residue and virgin coconut oil cake are important co-products of virgin coconut oil that are used in the animal feed industry. Flour from these products has a number of potential human health benefits and can be used in different food formulations. The objective of this study was to find out the flow-specific physical properties of coconut flours at three moisture levels. Coconut milk residue flour with 4.53 to 8.18% moisture content (w.b.) had bulk density and tapped density of 317.37 to 312.65 and 371.44 to 377.23 kg m-3, respectively; the corresponding values for virgin coconut oil cake flour with 3.85 to 7.98% moisture content (wet basis) were 611.22 to 608.68 and 663.55 to 672.93 kg m-3, respectively. The compressibility index and Hausner ratio increased with moisture. The angle of repose increased with moisture and ranged from 34.12 to 36.20 and 21.07 to 23.82° for coconut milk residue flour and virgin coconut oil cake flour, respectively. The coefficient of static and rolling friction increased with moisture for all test surfaces, with the plywood offering more resistance to flow than other test surfaces. The results of this study will be helpful in designing handling, flow, and processing systems for coconut milk residue and virgin coconut oil cake flours.

  6. The trinucleons: Physical observables and model properties

    SciTech Connect

    Gibson, B.F.

    1992-01-01

    Our progress in understanding the properties of {sup 3}H and {sup 3}He in terms of a nonrelativistic Hamiltonian picture employing realistic nuclear forces is reviewed. Trinucleon model properties are summarized for a number of contemporary force models, and predictions for physical observables are presented. Disagreement between theoretical model results and experimental results are highlighted.

  7. The trinucleons: Physical observables and model properties

    SciTech Connect

    Gibson, B.F.

    1992-05-01

    Our progress in understanding the properties of {sup 3}H and {sup 3}He in terms of a nonrelativistic Hamiltonian picture employing realistic nuclear forces is reviewed. Trinucleon model properties are summarized for a number of contemporary force models, and predictions for physical observables are presented. Disagreement between theoretical model results and experimental results are highlighted.

  8. [Physical and chemical properties of vanadium and its compounds].

    PubMed

    Tudares, C

    1998-04-01

    Vanadium is present in the earth crust mainly in the heavy oils, carbons and bituminous materials, where is associated with the heavy fractions. Many live beings have vanadium in their tissues. Their industrial applications are fundamentally based in the physical and chemical properties. From the environmental point of view the vanadium emissions to the atmosphere are produced in areas around siderurgical industries, oil refineries and cities that use fossil fuels for heating. The pollution process in these areas is associated partially with the presence of vanadium compounds, as is the case in the eastern coast of the lake of Maracaibo, Venezuela. Some clinical-epidemiological researches report a high incidence of congenital malformations at the Central Nervous System level, and this has been associated with the intense oil activities of the region. The high incidence of the Central Nervous System congenital malformations could be associated with the vanadium compounds present in the eastern coast of the lake of Maracaibo; here is the interest in the physical and chemical properties knowledge of vanadium and their compounds.

  9. Structure and physical properties of silkworm cocoons

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Fujia; Porter, David; Vollrath, Fritz

    2012-01-01

    Silkworm cocoons have evolved a wide range of different structures and combinations of physical and chemical properties in order to cope with different threats and environmental conditions. We present our observations and measurements on 25 diverse types of cocoons in a first attempt to correlate physical properties with the structure and morphology of the cocoons. These two architectural parameters appear to be far more important than the material properties of the silk fibres themselves. We consider tensile and compressive mechanical properties and gas permeation of the cocoon walls, and in each case identify mechanisms or models that relate these properties to cocoon structure, usually based upon non-woven fibre composites. These properties are of relevance also for synthetic non-woven composite materials and our studies will help formulate bio-inspired design principles for new materials. PMID:22552916

  10. Physical Properties of Centaur Objects

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cruikshank, Dale P.; DeVincenzi, Donald L. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    Centaurs are objects in unstable orbits that cross the orbits of the giant planets. They are presumed to be recent additions to the planetary zone of the Solar System, having been dynamically perturbed from the Kulper Disk by the gravitational action of Neptune. Telescopic observations of Centaurs are important because they give us a view of the composition (and in some cases cometary activity) of large bodies that are normally to far from the Sun to be studied in detail. This paper reports on physical observations, primarily through spectroscopy, of the compositions of a small number of Centaurs that have been studied to date. In particular, the composition of 5145 Pholus is reviewed, following the published work of Crulkshank et al., in which compositional models that fit the spectrum well included H2O ice, the organic solid Titan tholin, a light hydrocarbon ice (e.g., CH3OH), the silicate mineral olivine, and amorphous carbon. The Centaur 1997 CU(26) shows evidence for H2O ice, but nothing else is yet identified.

  11. Physical and biological studies of coal and oil fly ash.

    PubMed Central

    Fisher, G L; McNeill, K L; Prentice, B A; McFarland, A R

    1983-01-01

    Studies were performed to compare the physical and chemical characteristics and the in vitro macrophage cytotoxicity of oil and coal fly ash. Sampling methodology was developed to collect size-fractionated particulate matter from the smokestack of either a coal-fired or an oil-fired power plant. Morphological studies demonstrated particle heterogeneity, although most coal fly ash particles appeared to be spherical. Oil fly ash contained two major morphologies; nonopaque amorphous particles and opaque amorphous particles. Elemental analysis indicates that the coal ash is predominantly composed of aluminosilicate particles, while the oil ash is predominantly inorganic sulfates and carbonaceous particles. In vitro macrophage assays demonstrate that the finest coal fly ash particles are the most cytotoxic; the cytotoxicity is significantly less than that of alpha-quartz, the positive control particle. In contrast, the oil fly ash particles are more cytotoxic than quartz. The cytotoxicity of oil fly ash is due to soluble components, possibly vanadium salts. Images FIGURE 2. A FIGURE 2. B FIGURE 2. C FIGURE 2. D PMID:6641653

  12. Physical properties of hydrate-bearing sediments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Waite, W. F.; Santamarina, J. C.; Cortes, D. D.; Dugan, B.; Espinoza, D. N.; Germaine, J.; Jang, J.; Jung, J. W.; Kneafsey, T. J.; Shin, H.; Soga, K.; Winters, W. J.; Yun, T.-S.

    2009-12-01

    Methane gas hydrates, crystalline inclusion compounds formed from methane and water, are found in marine continental margin and permafrost sediments worldwide. This article reviews the current understanding of phenomena involved in gas hydrate formation and the physical properties of hydrate-bearing sediments. Formation phenomena include pore-scale habit, solubility, spatial variability, and host sediment aggregate properties. Physical properties include thermal properties, permeability, electrical conductivity and permittivity, small-strain elastic P and S wave velocities, shear strength, and volume changes resulting from hydrate dissociation. The magnitudes and interdependencies of these properties are critically important for predicting and quantifying macroscale responses of hydrate-bearing sediments to changes in mechanical, thermal, or chemical boundary conditions. These predictions are vital for mitigating borehole, local, and regional slope stability hazards; optimizing recovery techniques for extracting methane from hydrate-bearing sediments or sequestering carbon dioxide in gas hydrate; and evaluating the role of gas hydrate in the global carbon cycle.

  13. [Antiradical properties of oregano, thyme, and savory essential oils].

    PubMed

    Alinkina, E S; Misharina, T A; Fatkullina, L D

    2013-01-01

    In model reactions with the stable free 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl radical, the antiradical properties of essential oils of thyme (Thymus vulgare), oregano (Origanum vulgare), and savory (Satureja hortensis) that are similar in the qualitative composition, but differ in the quantitative content of the main components, were studied and compared with the properties of synthetic antioxidant ionol. The reaction rates of components of essential oils with the radical were almost identical for all essential oils and were twice the reaction rate of ionol. The antiradical efficiency values were close to each other for all essential oils and by an order of magnitude smaller than for ionol. PMID:23662455

  14. Physical Properties of Gas Hydrates: A Review

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Gabitto, Jorge F.; Tsouris, Costas

    2010-01-01

    Memore » thane gas hydrates in sediments have been studied by several investigators as a possible future energy resource. Recent hydrate reserves have been estimated at approximately 10 16   m 3 of methane gas worldwide at standard temperature and pressure conditions. In situ dissociation of natural gas hydrate is necessary in order to commercially exploit the resource from the natural-gas-hydrate-bearing sediment. The presence of gas hydrates in sediments dramatically alters some of the normal physical properties of the sediment. These changes can be detected by field measurements and by down-hole logs. An understanding of the physical properties of hydrate-bearing sediments is necessary for interpretation of geophysical data collected in field settings, borehole, and slope stability analyses; reservoir simulation; and production models. This work reviews information available in literature related to the physical properties of sediments containing gas hydrates. A brief review of the physical properties of bulk gas hydrates is included. Detection methods, morphology, and relevant physical properties of gas-hydrate-bearing sediments are also discussed.« less

  15. Physical Properties of Gas Hydrates: A Review

    SciTech Connect

    Gabitto, Jorge; Tsouris, Costas

    2010-01-01

    Methane gas hydrates in sediments have been studied by several investigators as a possible future energy resource. Recent hydrate reserves have been estimated at approximately 1016?m3 of methane gas worldwide at standard temperature and pressure conditions. In situ dissociation of natural gas hydrate is necessary in order to commercially exploit the resource from the natural-gas-hydrate-bearing sediment. The presence of gas hydrates in sediments dramatically alters some of the normal physical properties of the sediment. These changes can be detected by field measurements and by down-hole logs. An understanding of the physical properties of hydrate-bearing sediments is necessary for interpretation of geophysical data collected in field settings, borehole, and slope stability analyses; reservoir simulation; and production models. This work reviews information available in literature related to the physical properties of sediments containing gas hydrates. A brief review of the physical properties of bulk gas hydrates is included. Detection methods, morphology, and relevant physical properties of gas-hydrate-bearing sediments are also discussed.

  16. Surface structure and properties of plant seed oil bodies.

    PubMed

    Tzen, J T; Huang, A H

    1992-04-01

    Storage triacylglycerols (TAG) in plant seeds are present in small discrete intracellular organelles called oil bodies. An oil body has a matrix of TAG, which is surrounded by phospholipids (PL) and alkaline proteins, termed oleosins. Oil bodies isolated from mature maize (Zea mays) embryos maintained their discreteness, but coalesced after treatment with trypsin but not with phospholipase A2 or C. Phospholipase A2 or C exerted its activity on oil bodies only after the exposed portion of oleosins had been removed by trypsin. Attempts were made to reconstitute oil bodies from their constituents. TAG, either extracted from oil bodies or of a 1:2 molar mixture of triolein and trilinolein, in a dilute buffer were sonicated to produce droplets of sizes similar to those of oil bodies; these droplets were unstable and coalesced rapidly. Addition of oil body PL or dioleoyl phosphatidylcholine, with or without charged stearylamine/stearic acid, or oleosins, to the medium before sonication provided limited stabilization effects to the TAG droplets. High stability was achieved only when the TAG were sonicated with both oil body PL (or dioleoyl phosphatidylcholine) and oleosins of proportions similar to or higher than those in the native oil bodies. These stabilized droplets were similar to the isolated oil bodies in chemical properties, and can be considered as reconstituted oil bodies. Reconstituted oil bodies were also produced from TAG of a 1:2 molar mixture of triolein and trilinolein, dioleoyl phosphatidylcholine, and oleosins from rice (Oryza sativa), wheat (Triticum aestivum), rapeseed (Brassica napus), soybean (Glycine max), or jojoba (Simmondsia chinensis). It is concluded that both oleosins and PL are required to stabilize the oil bodies and that oleosins prevent oil bodies from coalescing by providing steric hindrance. A structural model of an oil body is presented. The current findings on seed oil bodies could be extended to the intracellular storage lipid

  17. Dynamic molecular crystals with switchable physical properties.

    PubMed

    Sato, Osamu

    2016-06-21

    The development of molecular materials whose physical properties can be controlled by external stimuli - such as light, electric field, temperature, and pressure - has recently attracted much attention owing to their potential applications in molecular devices. There are a number of ways to alter the physical properties of crystalline materials. These include the modulation of the spin and redox states of the crystal's components, or the incorporation within the crystalline lattice of tunable molecules that exhibit stimuli-induced changes in their molecular structure. A switching behaviour can also be induced by changing the molecular orientation of the crystal's components, even in cases where the overall molecular structure is not affected. Controlling intermolecular interactions within a molecular material is also an effective tool to modulate its physical properties. This Review discusses recent advances in the development of such stimuli-responsive, switchable crystalline compounds - referred to here as dynamic molecular crystals - and suggests how different approaches can serve to prepare functional materials. PMID:27325090

  18. Aerosol physical properties from satellite horizon inversion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gray, C. R.; Malchow, H. L.; Merritt, D. C.; Var, R. E.; Whitney, C. K.

    1973-01-01

    The feasibility is investigated of determining the physical properties of aerosols globally in the altitude region of 10 to 100 km from a satellite horizon scanning experiment. The investigation utilizes a horizon inversion technique previously developed and extended. Aerosol physical properties such as number density, size distribution, and the real and imaginary components of the index of refraction are demonstrated to be invertible in the aerosol size ranges (0.01-0.1 microns), (0.1-1.0 microns), (1.0-10 microns). Extensions of previously developed radiative transfer models and recursive inversion algorithms are displayed.

  19. Geotechnical properties of oil-contaminated Kuwaiti sand

    SciTech Connect

    Al-Sanad, H.A.; Eid, W.K.; Ismael, N.F.

    1995-05-01

    Large quantities of oil-contaminated sands resulted from exploded oil wells, burning oil fires, the destruction of oil storage tanks, and the formation of oil lakes in Kuwait at the end of the Gulf War. An extensive laboratory testing program was carried out to determine the geotechnical characteristics of this material. Testing included basic properties, compaction and permeability tests, and triaxial and consolidation tests on clean and contaminated sand at the same relative density. Contaminated specimens were prepared by mixing the sand with oil in the amount of 6% by weight or less to match field conditions. The influence of the type of oil, and relative density was also investigated by direct shear tests. The results indicated a small reduction in strength and permeability and an increase in compressibility due to contamination. The preferred method of disposal of this material is to use it as a stabilizing material for other projects such as road construction.

  20. Physical properties of cytoplasmic intermediate filaments.

    PubMed

    Block, Johanna; Schroeder, Viktor; Pawelzyk, Paul; Willenbacher, Norbert; Köster, Sarah

    2015-11-01

    Intermediate filaments (IFs) constitute a sophisticated filament system in the cytoplasm of eukaryotes. They form bundles and networks with adapted viscoelastic properties and are strongly interconnected with the other filament types, microfilaments and microtubules. IFs are cell type specific and apart from biochemical functions, they act as mechanical entities to provide stability and resilience to cells and tissues. We review the physical properties of these abundant structural proteins including both in vitro studies and cell experiments. IFs are hierarchical structures and their physical properties seem to a large part be encoded in the very specific architecture of the biopolymers. Thus, we begin our review by presenting the assembly mechanism, followed by the mechanical properties of individual filaments, network and structure formation due to electrostatic interactions, and eventually the mechanics of in vitro and cellular networks. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Mechanobiology.

  1. Physical properties of emulsion-based hydroxypropyl methylcellulose films: effect of their microstructure.

    PubMed

    Zúñiga, R N; Skurtys, O; Osorio, F; Aguilera, J M; Pedreschi, F

    2012-10-01

    The initial characteristics of emulsions and the rearrangement of the oil droplets in the film matrix during film drying, which defines its microstructure, has an important role in the physical properties of the emulsion-based films. The objective of this work was to study the effect of the microstructure (two droplet size distributions) and stability (with or without surfactant) of HPMC oil-in-water emulsions over physical properties of HPMC emulsion-based edible films. HPMC was used to prepare sunflower oil-in-water emulsions containing 0.3 or 1.0% (w/w) of oil with or without SDS, as surfactant, using an ultrasonic homogenizer. Microstructure, rheological properties and stability of emulsions (creaming) were measured. In addition, microstructure, coalescence of oil droplets, surface free energy, optical and mechanical properties and water vapor transfer of HPMC films were evaluated. Image analysis did not show differences among droplet size distributions of emulsions prepared at different oil contents; however, by using SDS the droplet size distributions were shifted to lower values. Volume mean diameters were 3.79 and 3.77 μm for emulsions containing 0.3 and 1.0% without surfactant, respectively, and 2.72 and 2.71 μm for emulsions with SDS. Emulsions formulated with 1.0% of oil presented higher stability, with almost no change during 5 and 3 days of storage, for emulsions with and without SDS, respectively. Internal and surface microstructure of emulsion-based films was influenced by the degree of coalescence and creaming of the oil droplets. No effect of microstructure over the surface free energy of films was found. The incorporation of oil impaired the optical properties of films due to light scattering of light. Addition of oil and SDS decreased the stress at break of the emulsion-based films. The replace of HPMC by oil and SDS produce a lower "amount" of network structure in the films, leading to a weakening of their structure. The oil content and SDS

  2. Physical Properties of Cometary Nucleus Candidates

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jewitt, David; Hillman, John (Technical Monitor)

    2003-01-01

    In this proposal we aim to study the physical properties of the Centaurs and the dead comets, these being the precursors to, and the remnants from, the active cometary nuclei. The nuclei themselves are very difficult to study, because of the contaminating effects of near-nucleus coma. Systematic investigation of the nuclei both before they enter the zone of strong sublimation and after they have depleted their near-surface volatiles should neatly bracket the properties of these objects, revealing evolutionary effects.

  3. Surface reflection properties of oil paints under various conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tominaga, Shoji; Nishi, Shogo

    2008-01-01

    This paper describes a method for measurement and analysis of surface reflection properties of oil paints under a variety of conditions. First, the radiance factor of a painting surface is measured at different incidence and viewing angles by using a gonio-spectro photometer. The samples are made from different oil paint materials on supporting boards with different paint thicknesses. Next, typical reflection models are examined for describing 3D reflection of the oil painting surfaces. The models are fitted to the observed radiance factors from the oil paint samples. The Cook- Torrance model describes well the reflection properties. The model parameters are estimated from the least-squared fitting to the genio-photometric measurements. Third, the reflection properties are analyzed on the basis of several material conditions such as pigment, supporting material, oil quantity, paint thickness, and support color.

  4. Microstructures, percolation thresholds, and rock physical properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guéguen, Y.; Chelidze, T.; Le Ravalec, M.

    1997-09-01

    The physical properties (transport properties and mechanical properties) of porous/cracked rocks are mainly functions of their microstructure. In this connection the problem of critical (threshold) porosity for transport, elasticity and mechanical strength is especially important. Two dominant mathematical formalisms — effective medium theory (EMT) and percolation theory — pretend to give answers to this problem. Some of the EMT models do not predict any threshold (differential effective medium). Other EMT models (self-consistent models) do predict thresholds, but it is shown that these thresholds are fictitious and result from an extension of a theory beyond its limit of validity. The failure of EMT methods at high pores/crack concentrations is the result of clustering effects. The appropriate formalism to correctly describe the phenomenon of clustering of pores and cracks and the behaviour of a system close to its critical porosity is percolation theory. Percolation thresholds can be predicted in that case from classical site or bond percolation on regular or random lattices. The threshold values depend on the density and average size of pores/cracks so that porosity is not sufficient in general to characterize the threshold for a specific physical property. The general term 'critical porosity' should thus be used with caution and it is preferable to specify which property is concerned and what kind of microstructure is present. This term can be more safely used for a population of rocks which have an identical average shape of pores/cracks and for a given physical property.

  5. Ship diesel emission aerosols: A comprehensive study on the chemical composition, the physical properties and the molecular biological and toxicological effects on human lung cells of aerosols from a ship diesel engine operated with heavy or light diesel fuel oil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zimmermann, R.; Buters, J.; Öder, S.; Dietmar, G.; Kanashova, T.; Paur, H.; Dilger, M.; Mülhopt, S.; Harndorf, H.; Stengel, B.; Rabe, R.; Hirvonen, M.; Jokiniemi, J.; Hiller, K.; Sapcariu, S.; Berube, K.; Sippula, O.; Streibel, T.; Karg, E.; Schnelle-Kreis, J.; Lintelmann, J.; Sklorz, M.; Arteaga Salas, M.; Orasche, J.; Müller, L.; Reda, A.; Passig, J.; Radischat, C.; Gröger, T.; Weiss, C.

    2013-12-01

    The Virtual Helmholtz Institute-HICE (www.hice-vi.eu) addresses chemical & physical properties, transformation processes and health effects of anthropogenic combustion emissions. This is performed by thorough comprehensive chemical and physical characterization of combustion aerosols (including application of advantageous on-line methods) and studying of biological effects on human lung cell-cultures. A new ALI air-liquid-interface (ALI) exposition system and a mobile S2-biological laboratory were developed for the HICE-measurements. Human alveolar basal epithelial cells (A549 etc.) are ALI-exposed to fresh, diluted (1:40-1:100) combustion aerosols and subsequently were toxicologically and molecular-biologically characterized (e.g. proteomics). By using stable isotope labeling technologies (13C-Glucose/metabolomics; 2H-Lysine/SILAC-proteomics), high sensitivity and accuracy for detection of molecular-biological effects is achievable even at sub-toxic effect dose levels. Aerosols from wood combustion and ship diesel engine (heavy/light fuel oil) have been investigated. The effect of wood combustion and ship diesel PM e.g. on the protein expression of ALI-exposed A549 cells was compared. Filtered aerosol is used as gas-reference for the isotope labeling based method (SILAC). Therefore the effects of wood combustion- and shipping diesel-PM can be directly compared. Ship diesel aerosol causes a broader distribution in the observed fold changes (log2), i.e. more proteins are significantly up-/down-regulated in case of shipping diesel PM-exposure. This corresponds to a stronger biological reaction if compared to wood combustion-PM exposure. The chemical analysis results on wood combustion- and ship diesel-PM depict more polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH)/oxidized-PAH but less of some transition metals (V, Fe) in the wood combustion case. Interestingly, alkylated PAH are considerably more abundant in shipping PM, suggesting that PAH/Oxy-PAH may be less relevant for

  6. Waste Feed Evaporation Physical Properties Modeling

    SciTech Connect

    Daniel, W.E.

    2003-08-25

    This document describes the waste feed evaporator modeling work done in the Waste Feed Evaporation and Physical Properties Modeling test specification and in support of the Hanford River Protection Project (RPP) Waste Treatment Plant (WTP) project. A private database (ZEOLITE) was developed and used in this work in order to include the behavior of aluminosilicates such a NAS-gel in the OLI/ESP simulations, in addition to the development of the mathematical models. Mathematical models were developed that describe certain physical properties in the Hanford RPP-WTP waste feed evaporator process (FEP). In particular, models were developed for the feed stream to the first ultra-filtration step characterizing its heat capacity, thermal conductivity, and viscosity, as well as the density of the evaporator contents. The scope of the task was expanded to include the volume reduction factor across the waste feed evaporator (total evaporator feed volume/evaporator bottoms volume). All the physical properties were modeled as functions of the waste feed composition, temperature, and the high level waste recycle volumetric flow rate relative to that of the waste feed. The goal for the mathematical models was to predict the physical property to predicted simulation value. The simulation model approximating the FEP process used to develop the correlations was relatively complex, and not possible to duplicate within the scope of the bench scale evaporation experiments. Therefore, simulants were made of 13 design points (a subset of the points used in the model fits) using the compositions of the ultra-filtration feed streams as predicted by the simulation model. The chemistry and physical properties of the supernate (the modeled stream) as predicted by the simulation were compared with the analytical results of experimental simulant work as a method of validating the simulation software.

  7. Physical and mechanical properties of hemp seed

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taheri-Garavand, A.; Nassiri, A.; Gharibzahedi, S.

    2012-04-01

    The current study was conducted to investigate the effect of moisture content on the post-harvest physical and mechanical properties of hemp seed in the range of 5.39 to 27.12% d.b. Results showed that the effect of moisture content on the most physical properties of the grain was significant (P<0.05). The results of mechanical tests demonstrated that the effect of loading rate on the mechanical properties of hemp seed was not significant. However, the moisture content effect on rupture force and energy was significant (P<0.01). The lowest value of rupture force was obtained at the highest loading rate (3mm min-1)and in the moisture content of 27.12% d.b. Moreover, the interaction effects of loading rate and moisture content on the rupture force and energy of hemp seed were significant (P<0.05).

  8. Biosynthesis and therapeutic properties of Lavandula essential oil constituents.

    PubMed

    Woronuk, Grant; Demissie, Zerihun; Rheault, Mark; Mahmoud, Soheil

    2011-01-01

    Lavenders and their essential oils have been used in alternative medicine for several centuries. The volatile compounds that comprise lavender essential oils, including linalool and linalyl acetate, have demonstrative therapeutic properties, and the relative abundance of these metabolites is greatly influenced by the genetics and environment of the developing plants. With the rapid progress of molecular biology and the genomic sciences, our understanding of essential oil biosynthesis has greatly improved over the past few decades. At the same time, there is a recent surge of interest in the use of natural remedies, including lavender essential oils, in alternative medicine and aromatherapy. This article provides a review of recent developments related to the biosynthesis and medicinal properties of lavender essential oils.

  9. Physical Properties of Hanford Transuranic Waste

    SciTech Connect

    Berg, John C.

    2010-03-25

    The research described herein was undertaken to provide needed physical property descriptions of the Hanford transuranic tank sludges under conditions that might exist during retrieval, treatment, packaging and transportation for disposal. The work addressed the development of a fundamental understanding of the types of systems represented by these sludge suspensions through correlation of the macroscopic rheological properties with particle interactions occurring at the colloidal scale in the various liquid media. The results of the work have advanced existing understanding of the sedimentation and aggregation properties of complex colloidal suspensions. Bench scale models were investigated with respect to their structural, colloidal and rheological properties that should be useful for the development and optimization of techniques to process the wastes at various DOE sites.

  10. How oil properties and layer thickness determine the entrainment of spilled surface oil.

    PubMed

    Zeinstra-Helfrich, Marieke; Koops, Wierd; Murk, Albertinka J

    2016-09-15

    Viscosity plays an important role in dispersion of spilled surface oil, so does adding chemical dispersants. For seven different oil grades, entrainment rate and initial droplet size distribution were investigated using a plunging jet apparatus with coupled camera equipment and subsequent image analysis. We found that amount of oil entrained is proportional to layer thickness and largely independent of oil properties: A dispersant dose of 1:200 did not result in a significantly different entrainment rate compared to no dispersants. Oil viscosity had a minor to no influence on entrainment rate, until a certain threshold above which entrainment was impeded. The mean droplet size scales with the modified Weber number as described by Johansen. The obtained results can help improve dispersion algorithms in oil spill fate and transport models, to aid making an informed decision about application of dispersants.

  11. How oil properties and layer thickness determine the entrainment of spilled surface oil.

    PubMed

    Zeinstra-Helfrich, Marieke; Koops, Wierd; Murk, Albertinka J

    2016-09-15

    Viscosity plays an important role in dispersion of spilled surface oil, so does adding chemical dispersants. For seven different oil grades, entrainment rate and initial droplet size distribution were investigated using a plunging jet apparatus with coupled camera equipment and subsequent image analysis. We found that amount of oil entrained is proportional to layer thickness and largely independent of oil properties: A dispersant dose of 1:200 did not result in a significantly different entrainment rate compared to no dispersants. Oil viscosity had a minor to no influence on entrainment rate, until a certain threshold above which entrainment was impeded. The mean droplet size scales with the modified Weber number as described by Johansen. The obtained results can help improve dispersion algorithms in oil spill fate and transport models, to aid making an informed decision about application of dispersants. PMID:27345705

  12. Physical properties of the planet Mercury

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clark, Pamela E.

    1988-01-01

    The global physical properties of Mercury are summarized with attention given to its figure and orbital parameters. The combination of properties suggests that Mercury has an extensive iron-rich core, possibly with a still-functioning dynamo, which is 42 percent of the interior by volume. Mercury's three major axes are comparable in size, indicating that the planet is a triaxial ellipsoid rather than an oblate spheroid. In terms of the domination of its surface by an intermediate plains terrane, it is more Venus- or Mars-like; however, due to the presence of a large metallic magnetic core, its interior may be more earth-like.

  13. F-Canyon Sludge Physical Properties

    SciTech Connect

    Poirier, M. R.; Hansen, P. R.; Fink, S. D.

    2005-08-22

    The Site Deactivation and Decommissioning (SDD) Organization is evaluating options to disposition the 800 underground tanks (including removal of the sludge heels from these tanks). To support this effort, D&D requested assistance from Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) personnel to determine the pertinent physical properties to effectively mobilize the sludge from these tanks (Tanks 804, 808, and 809). SDD provided SRNL with samples of the sludge from Tanks 804, 808, and 809. The authors measured the following physical properties for each tank: particle settling rate, shear strength (i.e., settled solids yield stress), slurry rheology (i.e., yield stress and consistency), total solids concentration in the sludge, soluble solids concentration of the sludge, sludge density, and particle size distribution.

  14. Physical properties of Dowell Chemical Seal Ring

    SciTech Connect

    Benny, H.L.

    1985-07-01

    This document outlines the tests, procedures, and results of an evaluation program for Dowell's Chemical Seal Ring.'' The testing reported here deals with the physical properties of density, compression, tensile strength, elongation, and a push-out/bond strength test. Dowell's Chemical Seal Ring'' is proposed as a gasket-like seal between grout layers in the annulus around the Exploratory Shaft steel liner. 4 refs., 1 fig., 4 tabs.

  15. Chemical and Physical Properties of Tantalum Powder

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Purushotham, Y.; Balaji, T.; Kumar, Arbind; Govindaiah, R.; Sharma, M. K.; Sethi, V. C.; Prakash, T. L.

    The present work is intended to produce capacitor grade Tantalum powder by sodium reduction of potassium tantalum fluoride prepared from an indigenous ore source. The powder has been characterized for its chemical and physical properties, and compared with the commercially available powders. It is found that indigenous powder has higher impurity levels which could, however, be reduced to acceptance limits. The average particle size is within the prescribed limits.

  16. Chirality: a relational geometric-physical property.

    PubMed

    Gerlach, Hans

    2013-11-01

    The definition of the term chirality by Lord Kelvin in 1893 and 1904 is analyzed by taking crystallography at that time into account. This shows clearly that chirality is a relational geometric-physical property, i.e., two relations between isometric objects are possible: homochiral or heterochiral. In scientific articles the relational term chirality is often mistaken for the two valued measure for the individual (absolute) sense of chirality, an arbitrary attributive term.

  17. Physical and biological properties of Bazna waters

    PubMed Central

    TRÂMBIŢAŞ, DAN

    2013-01-01

    The healing properties of Bazna waters and their therapeutic indications have been well known since the 18th century. The objective of the present study was to characterize these waters from physical and biological points of view, and to further analyze the nitrogen compounds, especially NH4+. The following physical parameters of the water were analyzed: density (g/cm3), electric resistivity (Ω·m), electric conductivity (cm−1o−1), salinity, The pH analysis of the biological component was performed on samples from 4 basins. Nitrogen compounds were dosed in the form of ammonium ion (NH4+). The physical and chemical proprieties are similar across the basins. Flora and fauna biological components were identified. Ammonium ions were identified in large quantities, but this did not lead to hygienicaly unclean waters. PMID:26527972

  18. Compositional properties characterizing commonly transported oils and controlling their fate in the marine environment.

    PubMed

    Radović, Jagoš R; Domínguez, Carmen; Laffont, Karine; Díez, Sergi; Readman, James W; Albaigés, Joan; Bayona, Josep M

    2012-12-01

    Oil spills relating to shipping incidents remain of substantial concern with respect to marine pollution. Whilst most frequently a reactive approach is adopted in post-incident monitoring (for the specific product involved), this paper reports important physical and compositional characteristics of commonly transported oils and oil products to afford pro-active assessments. These properties include specific gravity, viscosity, elemental composition and, of particular relevance, the relative class compositions between aliphatics, aromatics, resins and asphaltenes. The latter were determined experimentally using thin layer chromatography with flame ionization detection. Diagnostic ratios of specific compounds are reported, statistically analysed, and their significance in identification of different oil types and the weathering processes is discussed. The influence of the properties on fates under different environmental conditions (selected to represent contrasting European regional seas) are examined using the NOAA Automated Data Inquiry for Oil Spills (ADIOS2) model. Relative contributions of the different environmental conditions and properties to the fate of the oil at sea are discussed.

  19. Oil Droplet Size Distribution and Optical Properties During Wave Tank Simulated Oil Spills

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Conmy, R. N.; Venosa, A.; Courtenay, S.; King, T.; Robinson, B.; Ryan, S.

    2013-12-01

    Fate and transport of spilled petroleum oils in aquatic environments is highly dependent upon oil droplet behavior which is a function of chemical composition, dispersibility (natural and chemically-enhanced) and droplet size distribution (DSD) of the oil. DSD is influenced by mixing energy, temperature, salinity, pressure, presence of dissolved and particulate materials, flow rate of release, and application of dispersants. To better understand DSD and droplet behavior under varying physical conditions, flask-scale experiments are often insufficient. Rather, wave tank simulations allow for scaling to field conditions. Presented here are experiment results from the Bedford Institute of Oceanography wave tank facility, where chemically-dispersed (Corexit 9500; DOR = 1:20) Louisiana Sweet crude, IFO-120 and ANS crude oil were exposed to mixing energies to achieve dispersant effectiveness observed in the field. Oil plumes were simulated, both surface and subsea releases with varying water temperature and flow rate. Fluorometers (Chelsea Technologies Group AQUATracka, Turner Designs Cyclops, WET Labs Inc ECO) and particle size analyzers (Sequoia LISST) were used to track the dispersed plumes in the tank and characterize oil droplets. Sensors were validated with known oil volumes (down to 300 ppb) and measured Total Petroleum Hydrocarbons (TPH) and Benzene-Toluene-Ethylbenzene-Xylene (BTEX) values. This work has large implications for tracking surface and deep sea oil plumes with fluorescence and particle size analyzers, improved weathering and biodegradation estimates, and understanding the fate and transport of spill oil.

  20. Physical and functional properties of arrowroot starch extrudates.

    PubMed

    Jyothi, A N; Sheriff, J T; Sajeev, M S

    2009-03-01

    Arrowroot starch, a commercially underexploited tuber starch but having potential digestive and medicinal properties, has been subjected to extrusion cooking using a single screw food extruder. Different levels of feed moisture (12%, 14%, and 16%) and extrusion temperatures (140, 150, 160, 170, 180, and 190 degrees C) were used for extrusion. The physical properties--bulk density, true density, porosity, and expansion ratio; functional properties such as water absorption index, water solubility index, oil absorption index, pasting, rheological, and textural properties; and in vitro enzyme digestibility of the extrudates were determined. The expansion ratio of the extrudates ranged from 3.22 to 6.09. The water absorption index (6.52 to 8.85 g gel/g dry sample), water solubility index (15.92% to 41.31%), and oil absorption index (0.50 to 1.70 g/g) were higher for the extrudates in comparison to native starch (1.81 g gel/g dry sample, 1.16% and 0.60 g/g, respectively). The rheological properties, storage modulus, and loss modulus of the gelatinized powdered extrudates were significantly lower (P < 0.05) and these behaved like solutions rather than a paste or a gel. Hardness and toughness were more for the samples extruded at higher feed moisture and lower extrusion temperature, whereas snap force and energy were higher at lower feed moisture and temperature. There was a significant decrease in the percentage digestibility of arrowroot starch (30.07% after 30 min of incubation with the enzyme) after extrusion (25.27% to 30.56%). Extrusion cooking of arrowroot starch resulted in products with very good expansion, color, and lower digestibility, which can be exploited for its potential use as a snack food. PMID:19323747

  1. Physical and functional properties of arrowroot starch extrudates.

    PubMed

    Jyothi, A N; Sheriff, J T; Sajeev, M S

    2009-03-01

    Arrowroot starch, a commercially underexploited tuber starch but having potential digestive and medicinal properties, has been subjected to extrusion cooking using a single screw food extruder. Different levels of feed moisture (12%, 14%, and 16%) and extrusion temperatures (140, 150, 160, 170, 180, and 190 degrees C) were used for extrusion. The physical properties--bulk density, true density, porosity, and expansion ratio; functional properties such as water absorption index, water solubility index, oil absorption index, pasting, rheological, and textural properties; and in vitro enzyme digestibility of the extrudates were determined. The expansion ratio of the extrudates ranged from 3.22 to 6.09. The water absorption index (6.52 to 8.85 g gel/g dry sample), water solubility index (15.92% to 41.31%), and oil absorption index (0.50 to 1.70 g/g) were higher for the extrudates in comparison to native starch (1.81 g gel/g dry sample, 1.16% and 0.60 g/g, respectively). The rheological properties, storage modulus, and loss modulus of the gelatinized powdered extrudates were significantly lower (P < 0.05) and these behaved like solutions rather than a paste or a gel. Hardness and toughness were more for the samples extruded at higher feed moisture and lower extrusion temperature, whereas snap force and energy were higher at lower feed moisture and temperature. There was a significant decrease in the percentage digestibility of arrowroot starch (30.07% after 30 min of incubation with the enzyme) after extrusion (25.27% to 30.56%). Extrusion cooking of arrowroot starch resulted in products with very good expansion, color, and lower digestibility, which can be exploited for its potential use as a snack food.

  2. The Physics of Heavy Oils: Implications for Recovery and Geophysical Monitoring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schmitt, Douglas

    2007-03-01

    Our capacity to find and produce conventional light petroleum oils are unable to keep pace with the growth in the growing global demand for energy. With the breakpoint between petroleum production and consumption imminent, a good deal of recent efforts have focused on developing the `heavy' hydrocarbon reserves. Such resources include the extensive heavy oil deposits of Venezuela, the bitumen resources of Canada, and even the solid kerogens (oil shale) of the United States. Capital investments, in particular, have been large in Canada's oil sands due in part to the extensive nature of the resource and already in excess of 30% of Canada's production comes from heavier hydrocarbon deposits. The larger input costs associated with such projects, however, requires that the production be monitored more fully; and this necessitates that both the oils and the porous media which hold them be understood. Geophysical `time-lapse' monitoring seeks to better constrain the areal distribution and movements of fluids in the subsurface by examining the changes in a geophysical response such as seismic reflectivity, micro-gravity variations, or electrical conductivity that arise during production. For example, a changed geophysical seismic character directly depends on relies on variations in the longitudinal and transverse wave speeds and attenuation and mass densities of the materials in the earth. These are controlled by a number of extrinsic conditions such as temperature, fluid pressure, confining stress, and fluid phase and saturation state. Understanding the geophysical signature over a given reservoir requires that the behavior of the porous rock physical properties be well understood and a variety of measurements are being made in laboratories. In current practice, the interpretation of the geophysical field responses is assisted by combined modeling of fluid flow and seismic wave fields. The least understood link in this process, however, is the lack of knowledge on rock

  3. The Obtaining of Oil from an Oil Reservoir.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dawe, R. A.

    1979-01-01

    Discusses the mechanics of how an actual oil reservoir works and provides some technical background in physics. An experiment which simulates an oil reservoir and demonstrates quantitatively all the basic concepts of oil reservoir rock properties is also presented. (HM)

  4. Effect of Shear Rate and Temperature on Rheological Properties of Vegetable Based Oil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nik, W. B. Wan; Giap, S. G. Eng; Senin, H. B.; Bulat, K. H. Ku

    2007-05-01

    Petroleum oil has been the raw material for over 90% of hydraulic fluid. Limitations of this base material in the aspect of non-renewable, not environmental friendly and its sustainability in the future have prompted a search for more stable and environmentally friendly alternatives. This article presents rheological aspects of hydraulic fluid derived from bio-based material when used as hydraulic fluid. Palm oil with F10 additive is found to be most shearstable. Various empirical models such as modified Power Law, Herschel-Bulkley and Arrhenius-type-relationship are used to evaluate the rheological data. The influence of shear rate and temperature on the variation of viscosity is clearly observed but temperature has more significant influence. Interpretations of rheological models indicate that crop oils belong to pseudo-plastic category. The effect of oil degradation in the aspect of physical property on viscosity is also evaluated.

  5. Mechanical properties of photo-polymerized sustainable epoxy materials from vegetable oils

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ryu, Chang; Ravalli, Matthew; Yang, Zheqin; Crivello, James

    2014-03-01

    Our research program aimed at advancing our ability to tailor the photocationic polymerization and physical properties of sustainable epoxy materials derived from crosslinked epoxidized vegetable oils using onium salt photoinitiators. Specifically, we developed solventless, photopolymerizable epoxy monomer and oligomer systems derived from sustainable biorenewable sources as alternatives to existing highly polluting and energy-intensive thermal curing of epoxy resin chemistry. Two sustainable epoxy network polymer systems will be presented to investigate how the network formation can be controlled. The first system is a series of epoxidized vegetable oils that offer various degrees of crosslinking densities, and the second system represents the blends of epoxidized vegetable oils with epoxidized terpenes to tailor their photocuring and mechanical properties for the potential usage in ``green'' coating, adhesive, 3D printing, and composite applications. NSF DMR POLYMERS 1308617.

  6. Chemical interesterification of blends of palm stearin, coconut oil, and canola oil: physicochemical properties.

    PubMed

    Soares, Fabiana Andreia Schäfer De Martini; da Silva, Roberta Claro; Hazzan, Márcia; Capacla, Isabele Renata; Viccola, Elise Raduan; Maruyama, Jessica Mayumi; Gioielli, Luiz Antonio

    2012-02-15

    trans-Free interesterified fat was produced for possible usage as a margarine. Palm stearin, coconut oil, and canola oil were used as substrates for chemical interesterification. The main aim of the present study was to evaluate the physicochemical properties of blends of palm stearin, coconut oil, and canola oil submitted to chemical interesterification using sodium methoxide as the catalyst. The original and interesterified blends were examined for fatty acid composition, softening and melting points, solid fat content, and consistency. Chemical interesterification reduced softening and melting points, consistency, and solid fat content. The interesterified fats showed desirable physicochemical properties for possible use as a margarine. Therefore, our result suggested that the interesterified fat without trans-fatty acids could be used as an alternative to partially hydrogenated fat.

  7. Chemical interesterification of blends of palm stearin, coconut oil, and canola oil: physicochemical properties.

    PubMed

    Soares, Fabiana Andreia Schäfer De Martini; da Silva, Roberta Claro; Hazzan, Márcia; Capacla, Isabele Renata; Viccola, Elise Raduan; Maruyama, Jessica Mayumi; Gioielli, Luiz Antonio

    2012-02-15

    trans-Free interesterified fat was produced for possible usage as a margarine. Palm stearin, coconut oil, and canola oil were used as substrates for chemical interesterification. The main aim of the present study was to evaluate the physicochemical properties of blends of palm stearin, coconut oil, and canola oil submitted to chemical interesterification using sodium methoxide as the catalyst. The original and interesterified blends were examined for fatty acid composition, softening and melting points, solid fat content, and consistency. Chemical interesterification reduced softening and melting points, consistency, and solid fat content. The interesterified fats showed desirable physicochemical properties for possible use as a margarine. Therefore, our result suggested that the interesterified fat without trans-fatty acids could be used as an alternative to partially hydrogenated fat. PMID:22229347

  8. Physical properties of the Uranian satellites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brown, Robert H.; Johnson, Torrence V.; Synnott, Stephen; Anderson, John D.; Jacobson, Robert A.; Dermott, Stanley F.; Thomas, Peter C.

    1991-01-01

    Data regarding the Uranian satellites' radii, masses, mean density, and, consequently, their internal structures obtained from the Voyager encounter are analyzed. Topics covered are the sizes, shapes, topography, masses, densities, and models of the internal structures of the five major satellites. The sizes and shapes of the 10 small satellites discovered by Voyager 2 are discussed. The physical properties of the large satellites of Uranus are compared to those other satellites in the outer solar system, particularly those of Jupiter and Saturn, and the implications that these comparisons have for understanding the origin and evolution of the satellites of Uranus are discussed.

  9. F antigen. II. Chemical and physical properties.

    PubMed

    Utzinger, R

    1975-01-01

    Physical and chemical properties of the liver-specific F antigen suggested a model for the labile quarternary structure of the protein. The native molecule showed a size slightly larger than 60,000 dalton (d), which was reduced to about 40,000 d under acidic conditions. Breaking of hydrogen bonds by chaotropic treatment resulted in the release of components of 30,000, 7,000 and 2,000 d. The smallest component was split to fragments of about 1,000 d by the reducing action of sulfhydryl compounds.

  10. Physical Properties of Synthetic Resin Materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fishbein, Meyer

    1939-01-01

    A study was made to determine the physical properties of synthetic resins having paper, canvas, and linen reinforcements, and of laminated wood impregnated with a resin varnish. The results show that commercial resins have moduli of elasticity that are too low for structural considerations. Nevertheless, there do exist plastics that have favorable mechanical properties and, with further development, it should be possible to produce resin products that compare favorably with the light-metal alloys. The results obtained from tests on Compound 1840, resin-impregnated wood, show that this material can stand on its own merit by virtue of a compressive strength four times that of the natural wood. This increase in compressive strength was accomplished with an increase of density to a value slightly below three times the normal value and corrected one of the most serious defects of the natural product.

  11. Synthesis and characterization of vegetable oil derived esters: evaluation for their diesel additive properties.

    PubMed

    Dmytryshyn, S L; Dalai, A K; Chaudhari, S T; Mishra, H K; Reaney, M J

    2004-03-01

    Trans-esterification of four vegetable oils; canola oil, greenseed canola oil from heat-damaged seeds, processed waste fryer grease and unprocessed waste fryer grease, was carried out using methanol, and KOH as catalyst. The methyl esters of the corresponding oils were separated from the crude glycerol, purified, and characterized by various methods to evaluate their densities, viscosities, iodine values, acid numbers, cloud points, pour points and gross heat of combustion, fatty acid and lipid compositions, lubricity properties, and thermal properties. The fatty acid composition suggests that 80-85% of the ester was from unsaturated acids. Substantial decrease in density and viscosity of the methyl esters compared to their corresponding oils suggested that the oils were in their mono or di glyceride form. The lubricity of the methyl esters, when blended at 1 vol% treat rate with ISOPAR M reference fuel, showed that the canola methyl ester enhanced the fuel's lubricity number. From the analyses performed, it was determined that the ester with the most potential for being an additive or a substitute for diesel fuel is the canola methyl ester, whose physical and chemical characteristics are similar to diesel fuel.

  12. Physical Properties of the Glycoprotein Mucin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matthews, Garrett; Davis, William; Superfine, Richard; Boucher, Richard

    2003-03-01

    Epithelial cell surfaces are covered by a protective gel known as mucus. The physiological function of this gel depends on its rheological properties, and these properties are largely derived from the secreted glycoprotein mucin. The genetic disease Cystic Fibrosis (CF) is characterized by the adhesion of thick, viscous mucus on these tissues. In the lungs, this results in the interruption of mucus transport thus compromising the first line of defense against pathogens in these tissues. In order to restore the flow of tracheobronchial mucus out of the body, knowledge of the molecular and physical properties of mucin and mucin solutions would be greatly beneficial. The present model for these molecules is that of a long linear strand consisting of highly glycosylated regions linked by cystein-rich globular regions. It is thought that the globular regions may interact either through intermolecular disulfide bonds or through hydrophobic interactions. It has also been speculated that the glycosylated regions may have lectin-like interactions. In the present work, single mucin molecules were imaged at high resolution using atomic force microscopy (AFM). Phase mode imaging was used to map the interactions between functionalized AFM tips and the molecular topography. Additionally, using force-distance curves with the AFM, the adhesion between mucin bound tips and cell surface glycocalyx and glycocalyx-like model surfaces, was measured. And, finally, the viscoelastic properties of mucin solutions were measured using the recently developed technique, single particle tracking microrheology. A model is being developed that will incorporate the properties of mucins beginning at the single molecule and ending with the bulk viscoelastic properties.

  13. HYDRAULIC AND PHYSICAL PROPERTIES OF MCU SALTSTONE

    SciTech Connect

    Dixon, K; Mark Phifer, M

    2008-03-19

    The Saltstone Disposal Facility (SDF), located in the Z-Area of the Savannah River Site (SRS), is used for the disposal of low-level radioactive salt solution. The SDF currently contains two vaults: Vault 1 (6 cells) and Vault 4 (12 cells). Additional disposal cells are currently in the design phase. The individual cells of the saltstone facility are filled with saltstone., Saltstone is produced by mixing the low-level radioactive salt solution, with blast furnace slag, fly ash, and cement or lime to form a dense, micro-porous, monolithic, low-level radioactive waste form. The saltstone is pumped into the disposal cells where it subsequently solidifies. Significant effort has been undertaken to accurately model the movement of water and contaminants through the facility. Key to this effort is an accurate understanding of the hydraulic and physical properties of the solidified saltstone. To date, limited testing has been conducted to characterize the saltstone. The primary focus of this task was to estimate the hydraulic and physical properties of MCU (Modular Caustic Side Solvent Extraction Unit) saltstone relative to two permeating fluids. These fluids included simulated groundwater equilibrated with vault concrete and simulated saltstone pore fluid. Samples of the MCU saltstone were prepared by the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) and allowed to cure for twenty eight days prior to testing. These samples included two three-inch diameter by six inch long mold samples and three one-inch diameter by twelve inch long mold samples.

  14. Some physical properties of naturally irradiated fluorite

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Berman, Robert

    1955-01-01

    Five samples of purple fluorite found in association with radioactive, materials, and a synthetic colorless control sample were studied and compared.  Before and after heating, observations were made on specific gravity, index of refraction, unit-cell size, breadth of X-ray diffraction lines, and fluorescence.  The purple samples became colorless on heating above 175° C.  During the process, observations were made on color, thermoluminescence, and differential thermal analysis curves.  There were strong correlations between the various physical properties, and it was found possible to arrange the samples in order of increasing difference in their physical properties from the control sample. This order apparently represents increasing structural damage by radiation; if so, it correlates with decreasing specific gravity, increasing index of refraction, broadening of X-ray lines, and increasingly strong exothermic reactions on annealing. The differences between the samples in index of refraction and X-ray pattern are largely eliminated on annealing.  Annealing begins at 1750 C; thermoluminescence at lower temperatures is due to electrons escaping from the metastable potential traps, not the destruction of those traps which takes place on annealing.

  15. Physical properties of soils in Rostov agglomeration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gorbov, S. N.; Bezuglova, O. S.; Abrosimov, K. N.; Skvortsova, E. B.; Tagiverdiev, S. S.; Morozov, I. V.

    2016-08-01

    Physical properties of natural and anthropogenically transformed soils of Rostov agglomeration were examined. The data obtained by conventional methods and new approaches to the study of soil physical properties (in particular, tomographic study of soil monoliths) were used for comparing the soils of different functional zones of the urban area. For urban territories in the steppe zone, a comparison of humus-accumulative horizons (A, Asod, Ap, and buried [A] horizons) made it possible to trace tendencies of changes in surface soils under different anthropogenic impacts and in the buried and sealed soils. The microtomographic study demonstrated differences in the bulk density and aggregation of urban soils from different functional zones. The A horizon in the forest-park zone is characterized by good aggregation and high porosity, whereas buried humus-accumulative horizons of anthropogenically transformed soils are characterized by poor aggregation and low porosity. The traditional parameters of soil structure and texture also proved to be informative for the identification of urban pedogenesis.

  16. Volumetric properties of sunflower methyl ester oil at high pressure.

    PubMed

    Aparicio, Cristina; Guignon, Bérengère; Rodríguez-Antón, Luis M; Sanz, Pedro D

    2007-09-01

    Biodiesel is an alternative to diesel oil (DO), because it is a fuel obtained from renewable resources that has lower emissions than DO. Biomass production should promote agricultural activity to obtain fuels for the transport sector. The study of the behavior of biodiesel at varying pressure and temperature is very interesting because diesel engines are mechanical systems that work with fuels submitted to high pressure. The specific volume, isothermal compressibility, and cubic expansion coefficients of refined sunflower methyl ester oil (SMEO) and unrefined sunflower methyl ester oil (URSMEO) were obtained and compared with those of DO from 0.1 to 350 MPa and 288.15 to 328.15 K. This work shows that oil refinement did not significantly modify any of the properties studied of the final biodiesel. Compared with DO, both SMEOs were about 6% denser, whereas isothermal compressibility and cubic expansion coefficients were bigger or smaller for DO depending on pressure and temperature.

  17. Physical and oxidative stability of fish oil-in-water emulsions stabilized with fish protein hydrolysates.

    PubMed

    García-Moreno, Pedro J; Guadix, Antonio; Guadix, Emilia M; Jacobsen, Charlotte

    2016-07-15

    The emulsifying and antioxidant properties of fish protein hydrolysates (FPH) for the physical and oxidative stabilization of 5% (by weight) fish oil-in-water emulsions were investigated. Muscle proteins from sardine (Sardina pilchardus) and small-spotted catshark (Scyliorhinus canicula) were hydrolyzed to degrees of hydrolysis (DH) of 3-4-5-6% with subtilisin. Sardine hydrolysates with low DH, 3% and 4%, presented the most effective peptides to physically stabilize emulsions with smaller droplet size. This implied more protein adsorbed at the interface to act as physical barrier against prooxidants. This fact might also be responsible for the higher oxidative stability of these emulsions, as shown by their lowest peroxide value and concentration of volatiles such as 1-penten-3-one and 1-penten-3-ol. Among the hydrolysates prepared from small-spotted catshark only the hydrolysate with DH 3% yielded a physically stable emulsion with low concentration of unsaturated aldehydes. These results show the potential of FPH as alternative protein emulsifiers for the production of oxidatively stable fish oil-in-water emulsions.

  18. Synthesis and physical properties of new estolide esters

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Vegetable oil-based oils usually fail to meet the rigorous demands of industrial lubricants by not having acceptable low temperature properties, pour point (PP) and/or cloud point (CP). The oleic estolide was esterified with a series of 16 different alcohols that were either branched or straight-cha...

  19. Determining Physical Properties of the Cell Cortex.

    PubMed

    Saha, Arnab; Nishikawa, Masatoshi; Behrndt, Martin; Heisenberg, Carl-Philipp; Jülicher, Frank; Grill, Stephan W

    2016-03-29

    Actin and myosin assemble into a thin layer of a highly dynamic network underneath the membrane of eukaryotic cells. This network generates the forces that drive cell- and tissue-scale morphogenetic processes. The effective material properties of this active network determine large-scale deformations and other morphogenetic events. For example, the characteristic time of stress relaxation (the Maxwell time τM) in the actomyosin sets the timescale of large-scale deformation of the cortex. Similarly, the characteristic length of stress propagation (the hydrodynamic length λ) sets the length scale of slow deformations, and a large hydrodynamic length is a prerequisite for long-ranged cortical flows. Here we introduce a method to determine physical parameters of the actomyosin cortical layer in vivo directly from laser ablation experiments. For this we investigate the cortical response to laser ablation in the one-cell-stage Caenorhabditis elegans embryo and in the gastrulating zebrafish embryo. These responses can be interpreted using a coarse-grained physical description of the cortex in terms of a two-dimensional thin film of an active viscoelastic gel. To determine the Maxwell time τM, the hydrodynamic length λ, the ratio of active stress ζΔμ, and per-area friction γ, we evaluated the response to laser ablation in two different ways: by quantifying flow and density fields as a function of space and time, and by determining the time evolution of the shape of the ablated region. Importantly, both methods provide best-fit physical parameters that are in close agreement with each other and that are similar to previous estimates in the two systems. Our method provides an accurate and robust means for measuring physical parameters of the actomyosin cortical layer. It can be useful for investigations of actomyosin mechanics at the cellular-scale, but also for providing insights into the active mechanics processes that govern tissue-scale morphogenesis. PMID

  20. Self-cementing properties of oil shale solid heat carrier retorting residue.

    PubMed

    Talviste, Peeter; Sedman, Annette; Mõtlep, Riho; Kirsimäe, Kalle

    2013-06-01

    Oil shale-type organic-rich sedimentary rocks can be pyrolysed to produce shale oil. The pyrolysis of oil shale using solid heat carrier (SHC) technology is accompanied by large amount of environmentally hazardous solid residue-black ash-which needs to be properly landfilled. Usage of oil shale is growing worldwide, and the employment of large SHC retorts increases the amount of black ash type of waste, but little is known about its physical and chemical properties. The objectives of this research were to study the composition and self-cementing properties of black ash by simulating different disposal strategies in order to find the most appropriate landfilling method. Three disposal methods were simulated in laboratory experiment: hydraulic disposal with and without grain size separation, and dry dumping of moist residue. Black ash exhibited good self-cementing properties with maximum compressive strength values of >6 MPa after 90 days. About 80% of strength was gained in 30 days. However, the coarse fraction (>125 µm) did not exhibit any cementation, thus the hydraulic disposal with grain size separation should be avoided. The study showed that self-cementing properties of black ash are governed by the hydration of secondary calcium silicates (e.g. belite), calcite and hydrocalumite.

  1. Self-cementing properties of oil shale solid heat carrier retorting residue.

    PubMed

    Talviste, Peeter; Sedman, Annette; Mõtlep, Riho; Kirsimäe, Kalle

    2013-06-01

    Oil shale-type organic-rich sedimentary rocks can be pyrolysed to produce shale oil. The pyrolysis of oil shale using solid heat carrier (SHC) technology is accompanied by large amount of environmentally hazardous solid residue-black ash-which needs to be properly landfilled. Usage of oil shale is growing worldwide, and the employment of large SHC retorts increases the amount of black ash type of waste, but little is known about its physical and chemical properties. The objectives of this research were to study the composition and self-cementing properties of black ash by simulating different disposal strategies in order to find the most appropriate landfilling method. Three disposal methods were simulated in laboratory experiment: hydraulic disposal with and without grain size separation, and dry dumping of moist residue. Black ash exhibited good self-cementing properties with maximum compressive strength values of >6 MPa after 90 days. About 80% of strength was gained in 30 days. However, the coarse fraction (>125 µm) did not exhibit any cementation, thus the hydraulic disposal with grain size separation should be avoided. The study showed that self-cementing properties of black ash are governed by the hydration of secondary calcium silicates (e.g. belite), calcite and hydrocalumite. PMID:23528998

  2. Physical Properties of Thin Film Semiconducting Materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bouras, N.; Djebbouri, M.; Outemzabet, R.; Sali, S.; Zerrouki, H.; Zouaoui, A.; Kesri, N.

    2005-10-01

    The physics and chemistry of semiconducting materials is a continuous question of debate. We can find a large stock of well-known properties but at the same time, many things are not understood. In recent years, porous silicon (PS-Si), diselenide of copper and indium (CuInSe2 or CIS) and metal oxide semiconductors like tin oxide (SnO2) and zinc oxide (ZnO) have been subjected to extensive studies because of the rising interest their potential applications in fields such as electronic components, solar panels, catalysis, gas sensors, in biocompatible materials, in Li-based batteries, in new generation of MOSFETS. Bulk structure and surface and interface properties play important roles in all of these applications. A deeper understanding of these fundamental properties would impact largely on technological application performances. In our laboratory, thin films of undoped and antimony-doped films of tin oxide have been deposited by chemical vapor deposition. Spray pyrolysis was used for ZnO. CIS was prepared by flash evaporation or close-space vapor transport. Some of the deposition parameters have been varied, such as substrate temperature, time of deposition (or anodization), and molar concentration of bath preparation. For some samples, thermal annealing was carried out under oxygen (or air), under nitrogen gas and under vacuum. Deposition and post-deposition parameters are known to strongly influence film structure and electrical resistivity. We investigated the influence of film thickness and thermal annealing on structural optical and electrical properties of the films. Examination of SnO2 by x-ray diffraction showed that the main films are polycrystalline with rutile structure. The x-ray spectra of ZnO indicated a hexagonal wurtzite structure. Characterizations of CIS films with compositional analysis, x-ray diffraction, scanning microscopy, spectrophotometry, and photoluminescence were carried out.

  3. Physicochemical properties and potential food applications of Moringa oleifera seed oil blended with other vegetable oils.

    PubMed

    Dollah, Sarafhana; Abdulkarim, Sabo Muhammad; Ahmad, Siti Hajar; Khoramnia, Anahita; Ghazali, Hasanah Mohd

    2014-01-01

    Blends (30:70, 50:50 and 70:30 w/w) of Moringa oleifera seed oil (MoO) with palm olein (PO), palm stearin (PS), palm kernel oil (PKO) and virgin coconut oil (VCO) were prepared. To determine the physicochemical properties of the blends, the iodine value (IV), saponication value (SV), fatty acid (FA) composition, triacylglycerol (TAG) composition, thermal behaviour (DSC) and solid fat content (SFC) tests were analysed. The incorporation of high oleic acid (81.73%) MoO into the blends resulted in the reduction of palmitic acid content of PO and PS from 36.38% to 17.17% and 54.66% to 14.39% and lauric acid content of PKO and VCO from 50.63% to 17.70% and 51.26% to 26.05% respectively while oleic acid and degree of unsaturation were increased in all blends. Changes in the FA composition and TAG profile have significantly affected the thermal behavior and solid fat content of the oil blends. In MoO/PO blends the melting temperature of MoO decreased while, in MoO/PS, MoO/PKO and MoO/VCO blends, it increased indicating produce of zero-trans harder oil blends without use of partial hydrogenation. The spreadability of PS, PKO and VCO in low temperatures was also increased due to incorporation of MoO. The melting point of PS significantly decreased in MoO/PS blends which proved to be suitable for high oleic bakery shortening and confectionary shortening formulation. The finding appears that blending of MoO with other vegetable oils would enable the initial properties of the oils to be modified or altered and provide functional and nutritional attributes for usage in various food applications, increasing the possibilities for the commercial use of these oils.

  4. Physicochemical properties and potential food applications of Moringa oleifera seed oil blended with other vegetable oils.

    PubMed

    Dollah, Sarafhana; Abdulkarim, Sabo Muhammad; Ahmad, Siti Hajar; Khoramnia, Anahita; Ghazali, Hasanah Mohd

    2014-01-01

    Blends (30:70, 50:50 and 70:30 w/w) of Moringa oleifera seed oil (MoO) with palm olein (PO), palm stearin (PS), palm kernel oil (PKO) and virgin coconut oil (VCO) were prepared. To determine the physicochemical properties of the blends, the iodine value (IV), saponication value (SV), fatty acid (FA) composition, triacylglycerol (TAG) composition, thermal behaviour (DSC) and solid fat content (SFC) tests were analysed. The incorporation of high oleic acid (81.73%) MoO into the blends resulted in the reduction of palmitic acid content of PO and PS from 36.38% to 17.17% and 54.66% to 14.39% and lauric acid content of PKO and VCO from 50.63% to 17.70% and 51.26% to 26.05% respectively while oleic acid and degree of unsaturation were increased in all blends. Changes in the FA composition and TAG profile have significantly affected the thermal behavior and solid fat content of the oil blends. In MoO/PO blends the melting temperature of MoO decreased while, in MoO/PS, MoO/PKO and MoO/VCO blends, it increased indicating produce of zero-trans harder oil blends without use of partial hydrogenation. The spreadability of PS, PKO and VCO in low temperatures was also increased due to incorporation of MoO. The melting point of PS significantly decreased in MoO/PS blends which proved to be suitable for high oleic bakery shortening and confectionary shortening formulation. The finding appears that blending of MoO with other vegetable oils would enable the initial properties of the oils to be modified or altered and provide functional and nutritional attributes for usage in various food applications, increasing the possibilities for the commercial use of these oils. PMID:25007749

  5. Physical Properties of the Uranian Satellites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brown, R. H.

    1984-01-01

    Recent work on the satellites of Uranus revealed many of their basic physical properties. Radiometric measurements showed that the Ariel, Umbriel, Titania and Oberon have diameters which range from 1630 to 1110 km and albedos which range from 0.30 to 0.18. Spectrophotometric observations of Miranda suggest that it may have the highest albedo of the known Uranian satellites and a diameter of about 500 km. Near-infrared measurements show that Ariel, Titania and Oberon have the largest known opposition surges. All five known satellites of Uranus have surfaces which are composed of water ice contaminated with small amounts of dark material. The dark material on the surfaces of Ariel, Umbriel, Titania and Oberon is spectrally bland and has spectral similarities to carbon black, charcoal, carbonaceous chondritic material and other dark, spectrally neutral materials. Recent density determinations suggest that there may be large density differences among Ariel, Umbriel, Titania and Oberon, with density increasing with distance from Uranus.

  6. Physical properties of the Uranian satellites

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, R.H.

    1984-10-01

    Recent work on the satellites of Uranus revealed many of their basic physical properties. Radiometric measurements showed that the Ariel, Umbriel, Titania and Oberon have diameters which range from 1630 to 1110 km and albedos which range from 0.30 to 0.18. Spectrophotometric observations of Miranda suggest that it may have the highest albedo of the known Uranian satellites and a diameter of about 500 km. Near-infrared measurements show that Ariel, Titania and Oberon have the largest known opposition surges. All five known satellites of Uranus have surfaces which are composed of water ice contaminated with small amounts of dark material. The dark material on the surfaces of Ariel, Umbriel, Titania and Oberon is spectrally bland and has spectral similarities to carbon black, charcoal, carbonaceous chondritic material and other dark, spectrally neutral materials. Recent density determinations suggest that there may be large density differences among Ariel, Umbriel, Titania and Oberon, with density increasing with distance from Uranus.

  7. Physical Properties of Hanford Transuranic Waste Sludge

    SciTech Connect

    Poloski, A.; Berg, Dr.

    2003-06-01

    Since the start of this project in March of 2004 two main goals have been achieved. First, the laboratory facilities of the Center for Surfaces, Polymers and Colloids (SPC) at the University of Washington have been updated with the purchase and installation of two state-of-the-art analysis tools. Second, a study of the sedimentation behavior of high density colloidal solids in complex media has been performed. The results of this study were presented at the 78th ACS Colloid and Surface Science Symposium at Yale University in New Haven, CT, and have been submitted for publication to the Journal of Colloid and Interface Science. Both the new equipment and the results of the initial study will help to gain insight into the physical properties of Hanford transuranic waste sludge.

  8. Polylactic Acid-Lemongrass Essential Oil Nanocapsules with Antimicrobial Properties.

    PubMed

    Liakos, Ioannis L; Grumezescu, Alexandru Mihai; Holban, Alina Maria; Florin, Iordache; D'Autilia, Francesca; Carzino, Riccardo; Bianchini, Paolo; Athanassiou, Athanassia

    2016-07-07

    Polylactic acid was combined with lemongrass essential oil (EO) to produce functional nanocapsules (NCs). The obtained polylactic acid nanoparticles showed antimicrobial activity both with and without the presence of lemongrass oil; however, the presence of EO improved the activity of the NCs. The presence of lemongrass assisted the formation of well-separated NCs and also provided enhanced antimicrobial properties, since lemongrass is known for its antimicrobial character. Fluorescence microscopy was used to optically observe the nanoparticles and NCs and revealed the attachment of lemongrass oil with the polylactic acid NCs. Dynamic light scattering was used to determine their size. UV absorption was used to determine the exact amount of lemongrass oil found in the polylactic acid-lemongrass oil NCs, which was important for understanding the minimum inhibitory concentration for the antimicrobial experiments. A series of clinically important microbial species were used in the study and the obtained NCs proved to have very good antimicrobial properties against all tested strains. Such NCs can be used for the design of ecological strategies, based on natural alternatives, which may be efficient against severe infections, including those that involve resistant pathogens and biofilms or those with difficult to reach localization.

  9. Polylactic Acid—Lemongrass Essential Oil Nanocapsules with Antimicrobial Properties

    PubMed Central

    Liakos, Ioannis L.; Grumezescu, Alexandru Mihai; Holban, Alina Maria; Florin, Iordache; D’Autilia, Francesca; Carzino, Riccardo; Bianchini, Paolo; Athanassiou, Athanassia

    2016-01-01

    Polylactic acid was combined with lemongrass essential oil (EO) to produce functional nanocapsules (NCs). The obtained polylactic acid nanoparticles showed antimicrobial activity both with and without the presence of lemongrass oil; however, the presence of EO improved the activity of the NCs. The presence of lemongrass assisted the formation of well-separated NCs and also provided enhanced antimicrobial properties, since lemongrass is known for its antimicrobial character. Fluorescence microscopy was used to optically observe the nanoparticles and NCs and revealed the attachment of lemongrass oil with the polylactic acid NCs. Dynamic light scattering was used to determine their size. UV absorption was used to determine the exact amount of lemongrass oil found in the polylactic acid—lemongrass oil NCs, which was important for understanding the minimum inhibitory concentration for the antimicrobial experiments. A series of clinically important microbial species were used in the study and the obtained NCs proved to have very good antimicrobial properties against all tested strains. Such NCs can be used for the design of ecological strategies, based on natural alternatives, which may be efficient against severe infections, including those that involve resistant pathogens and biofilms or those with difficult to reach localization. PMID:27399724

  10. Multivariate analysis relating oil shale geochemical properties to NMR relaxometry

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Birdwell, Justin E.; Washburn, Kathryn E.

    2015-01-01

    Low-field nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) relaxometry has been used to provide insight into shale composition by separating relaxation responses from the various hydrogen-bearing phases present in shales in a noninvasive way. Previous low-field NMR work using solid-echo methods provided qualitative information on organic constituents associated with raw and pyrolyzed oil shale samples, but uncertainty in the interpretation of longitudinal-transverse (T1–T2) relaxometry correlation results indicated further study was required. Qualitative confirmation of peaks attributed to kerogen in oil shale was achieved by comparing T1–T2 correlation measurements made on oil shale samples to measurements made on kerogen isolated from those shales. Quantitative relationships between T1–T2 correlation data and organic geochemical properties of raw and pyrolyzed oil shales were determined using partial least-squares regression (PLSR). Relaxometry results were also compared to infrared spectra, and the results not only provided further confidence in the organic matter peak interpretations but also confirmed attribution of T1–T2 peaks to clay hydroxyls. In addition, PLSR analysis was applied to correlate relaxometry data to trace element concentrations with good success. The results of this work show that NMR relaxometry measurements using the solid-echo approach produce T1–T2 peak distributions that correlate well with geochemical properties of raw and pyrolyzed oil shales.

  11. Polylactic Acid-Lemongrass Essential Oil Nanocapsules with Antimicrobial Properties.

    PubMed

    Liakos, Ioannis L; Grumezescu, Alexandru Mihai; Holban, Alina Maria; Florin, Iordache; D'Autilia, Francesca; Carzino, Riccardo; Bianchini, Paolo; Athanassiou, Athanassia

    2016-01-01

    Polylactic acid was combined with lemongrass essential oil (EO) to produce functional nanocapsules (NCs). The obtained polylactic acid nanoparticles showed antimicrobial activity both with and without the presence of lemongrass oil; however, the presence of EO improved the activity of the NCs. The presence of lemongrass assisted the formation of well-separated NCs and also provided enhanced antimicrobial properties, since lemongrass is known for its antimicrobial character. Fluorescence microscopy was used to optically observe the nanoparticles and NCs and revealed the attachment of lemongrass oil with the polylactic acid NCs. Dynamic light scattering was used to determine their size. UV absorption was used to determine the exact amount of lemongrass oil found in the polylactic acid-lemongrass oil NCs, which was important for understanding the minimum inhibitory concentration for the antimicrobial experiments. A series of clinically important microbial species were used in the study and the obtained NCs proved to have very good antimicrobial properties against all tested strains. Such NCs can be used for the design of ecological strategies, based on natural alternatives, which may be efficient against severe infections, including those that involve resistant pathogens and biofilms or those with difficult to reach localization. PMID:27399724

  12. Antifungal Properties of Chenopodium ambrosioides Essential Oil Against Candida Species

    PubMed Central

    Chekem, Marie Stéphanie Goka; Lunga, Paul Keilah; Tamokou, Jean De Dieu; Kuiate, Jules Roger; Tane, Pierre; Vilarem, Gerard; Cerny, Muriel

    2010-01-01

    The essential oil of the aerial part (leaves, flowers and stem) of Chenopodium ambrosioides was obtained by hydrodistillation and its chemical composition analyzed by GC and GC/MS, which permitted the identification of 14 components, representing 98.8% of the total oil. Major components were α-terpinene (51.3%), p-cymene (23.4%) and p-mentha-1,8-diène (15.3%). The antifungal properties of this essential oil were investigated in vitro by the well diffusion and broth microdilution methods. The in vitro antifungal activity was concentration dependent and minimum inhibitory concentration values varied from 0.25 to 2 mg/mL. The in vivo antifungal activity was evaluated on an induced vaginal candidiasis rat model. The in vivo activity of the oil on mice vaginal candidiasis was not dose-dependent. Indeed, all the three tested doses; 0.1%, 1% and 10% led to the recovery of mice from the induced infection after 12 days of treatment. The effect of the essential oil on C. albicans ATCC 1663 fatty acid profile was studied. This oil has a relatively important dose-dependent effect on the fatty acids profile. PMID:27713382

  13. Percolation and Physical Properties of Rock Salt

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghanbarzadeh, S.; Hesse, M. A.; Prodanovic, M.

    2015-12-01

    Textural equilibrium controls the distribution of the liquid phase in many naturally occurring porous materials such as partially molten rocks and alloys, salt-brine and ice-water systems. In these materials, pore geometry evolves to minimize the solid-liquid interfacial energy while maintaining a constant dihedral angle, θ, at solid-liquid contact lines. A characteristic of texturally equilibrated porous media, in the absence of deformation, is that the pore network percolates at any porosity for θ<60° while a percolation threshold exists for θ>60°. However, in ductile polycrystalline materials including rock salt, the balance between surface tension and ductile deformation controls the percolation of fluid pockets along grain corners and edges. Here we show sufficiently rapid deformation can overcome this threshold by elongating and connecting isolated pores by examining a large number of accessible salt samples from deep water Gulf of Mexico. We first confirm the percolation threshold in static laboratory experiments on synthetic salt samples with X-ray microtomography. We then provide field evidence on existence of interconnected pore space in rock salt in extremely low porosities, significantly below the static percolation threshold. Scaling arguments suggest that strain rates in salt are sufficient to overcome surface tension and may allow percolation. We also present the first level-set computations of three-dimensional texturally equilibrated melt networks in realistic rock fabrics. The resulting pore space is used to obtain the effective physical properties of rock, effective electrical conductivity and mechanical properties, with a novel numerical model.

  14. Physical and chemical properties of radionuclide therapy.

    PubMed

    Wessels, B W; Meares, C F

    2000-04-01

    As more radionuclide therapies move from laboratory feasibility studies into clinical reality, it becomes increasingly important for the labeling chemistry to produce consistently a stable radiopharmaceutical that remains intact under the challenge of human catabolism. Similarly, once proof of principle is established to bring a radionuclide conjugate into clinical therapy trials, dosimetric estimates should be made to select the appropriate radionuclide properties, which are based on animal-specific or patient-specific pharmacokinetics and match a set of specific clinical endpoints. These properties may include the radionuclide physical half-life, radiolabeled conjugate biological uptake and clearance, product-specific activity, range and type of emissions, and resultant effects on tumor and normal tissue cellular survival. The immunologist and labeling chemist have now produced a variety of strategies that have potential to increase the therapeutic ratio (tumor-to-normal tissue dose ratio). The advent of normal tissue clearing agents, fragmented or chimerized carriers to improve targeting, and the method of bispecific or two-step and three-step targeting agents has increased the need for realistic modeling of the carrier in vivo to guide prospectively the competitive development of these radiopharmaceuticals. In this article, examples have been taken from the literature to elucidate the benchmark of success that careful experimental design has fostered to bring these agents into clinical practice by creative and logical methodologies.

  15. Physical Property Comparison of Ordinary Chondrite Classes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ostrowski, Daniel; Bryson, Kathryn L.

    2016-10-01

    Measurements of the physical properties of meteorites are essential in helping to determine the physical characteristics of the parent asteroids. Studying of physical properties can provide fundamental information to understand meteoroid behavior in the atmosphere and determine methods to deflect potentially hazardous asteroids. Initial focus of our study is on ordinary chondrites, since they are over 70% of the meteorites.To date we have measured the density (bulk and grain), porosity, thermal emissivity, and acoustic velocity of 7 ordinary chondrites (Tamdakht, Chelyabinsk, and multiple Antarctic meteorites). Each meteorite is first scanned using a 3D laser scanner to determine bulk density. For the other tests 1.5cm cubes are studied. Grain density is determined using gas pycnometer using nitrogen gas. Acoustic velocity, longitudinal and shear wave, are measured using an Olympus 45-MG in single element mode. Thermal emissivity is measured from 20°C up to atmospheric entry temperatures, and is based on average measurements over the wavelength range of 8 to 14μm.Tamdakht's bulk density is that of an average H Chondrite (3-4 g/cm3), while it has a low longitudinal velocity of 3540 m/s compared to the normal rage for H chondrites at 3529-6660 m/s. The velocity is consistent across all three axes in the sample. One possibility is an internal fracture, where part of has been seen on the surface of one of the test cubes. Chelyabinsk and the studied Antarctic meteorites have lower bulk and higher grain densities yielding above average porosities. Tamdakht is on the high end of the emissivity range for H chondrites and Chelyabinsk is on the high end for LL chondrites. Emissivity ranges from 0.985-0.995 at 20°C for the ordinary chondrites studied. Heated samples emissivity decreases slightly, 0.045, from initial 20°C measurement. Between 40-200°C, the emissivity stays fairly constant after decrease from room temperature. BTN 00304 has the highest average over the

  16. Evaluation of the toxic properties of naturally weathered Exxon Valdez crude oil to surrogate wildlife species

    SciTech Connect

    Stubblefield, W.A.; Hancock, G.A.; Ford, W.H.; Prince, H.H.; Ringer, R.K.

    1995-12-31

    The toxic properties of naturally weathered Exxon Valdez crude oil (WEVC) to avian and mammalian wildlife species were evaluated using the surrogate species, mallard duck, Anas platyrhynchos, and European ferret, Mustela putorius. This study was conducted to evaluate the potential for toxic (rather than physical) injury to wildlife species that may have been exposed to WEVC, either through external contact or through dietary uptake. Previous studies have assessed the toxicity of unweathered crude oils, including Alaska North Slope Crude, but little information exists regarding the toxicity of a naturally weathered crude oil, typical of that encountered following a spill. A battery of laboratory toxicity tests was conducted, in compliance with standard and published test procedures, to evaluate acute and subchronic toxicity of WEVC. These included tests of food avoidance, reproductive effects, and direct eggshell application toxicity. Naturally weathered EVC, recovered postspill from Prince William Sound, was used as the test material. 36 refs., 7 figs., 4 tabs.

  17. Oil Reservoir Properties Estimation Using Neutal Networks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Toomarian, N. B.; Barhen, J.; Glover, C. W.; Aminzadeh, F.

    1997-01-01

    This paper investigates the applicability as well as the accuracy of artificial neural networks for estimating specific parameters that describe reservoir properties based on seismic data. Our approach relies on JPL's adjoint operators general purpose neural network code to determine the best suited architecture. We believe that results presented in this work demonstrate that artificial neural networks produce surprisingly accurate estimates of the reservoir parameters.

  18. Physical properties of Michigan Antrim Shale

    SciTech Connect

    Hockings, W.A.

    1980-08-01

    The physical properties of approximately 225 core samples and 700 samples of well cuttings from the Antrim Shale formation in the Michigan Basin were measured. The properties included density, porosity, permeability, pore size distribution, specific surface, and thermal expansion. Measurements were made before and after roasting in air and in nitrogen. In general the properties showed little variation with depth or location within the sampling area. The average porosity was about 8 percent of which approximately one-half consisted of closed pores. The porosity increased by about a factor of two after roasting at 500/sup 0/C. The permeability was found to be very low, averaging about 0.008 millidarcies. Permeability was higher in the direction parallel to the bedding planes than in the direction perpendicular to the planes. After roasting at 500/sup 0/C the permeability increased by about a factor of ten. Measurements while heating from 20 to 225/sup 0/C showed only minor variations in permeability with temperature. The specific surface area of the shale is low, averaging about 0.5 square meters per gram. The pore size distribution is bimodal with most of the pore volume in the size ranges of 0.01 to 0.1 and 10 to 100 micrometers. The shale expands about one percent perpendicular to bedding and 0.2 percent parallel to bedding when heated to 500/sup 0/C. The average expansion coefficient is 0.0025 percent per /sup 0/C on heating and 0.0010 on cooling. Peaks in the heating curve occur at about 25/sup 0/C and 450/sup 0/C.

  19. Acoustic Imaging of Snowpack Physical Properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kinar, N. J.; Pomeroy, J. W.

    2011-12-01

    Measurements of snowpack depth, density, structure and temperature have often been conducted by the use of snowpits and invasive measurement devices. Previous research has shown that acoustic waves passing through snow are capable of measuring these properties. An experimental observation device (SAS2, System for the Acoustic Sounding of Snow) was used to autonomously send audible sound waves into the top of the snowpack and to receive and process the waves reflected from the interior and bottom of the snowpack. A loudspeaker and microphone array separated by an offset distance was suspended in the air above the surface of the snowpack. Sound waves produced from a loudspeaker as frequency-swept sequences and maximum length sequences were used as source signals. Up to 24 microphones measured the audible signal from the snowpack. The signal-to-noise ratio was compared between sequences in the presence of environmental noise contributed by wind and reflections from vegetation. Beamforming algorithms were used to reject spurious reflections and to compensate for movement of the sensor assembly during the time of data collection. A custom-designed circuit with digital signal processing hardware implemented an inversion algorithm to relate the reflected sound wave data to snowpack physical properties and to create a two-dimensional image of snowpack stratigraphy. The low power consumption circuit was powered by batteries and through WiFi and Bluetooth interfaces enabled the display of processed data on a mobile device. Acoustic observations were logged to an SD card after each measurement. The SAS2 system was deployed at remote field locations in the Rocky Mountains of Alberta, Canada. Acoustic snow properties data was compared with data collected from gravimetric sampling, thermocouple arrays, radiometers and snowpit observations of density, stratigraphy and crystal structure. Aspects for further research and limitations of the acoustic sensing system are also discussed.

  20. Physico-chemical properties of Tecoma stans Linn. seed oil: a new crop for vegetable oil.

    PubMed

    Sbihi, Hassen Mohamed; Mokbli, Sadok; Nehdi, Imededdine Arbi; Al-Resayes, Saud Ibrahim

    2015-01-01

    Tecoma stans Linn. is known to have various medicinal and therapeutic properties. However, to our knowledge, no information is available regarding their seed oils. In this study, the fatty acid (FA) compositions, physico-chemical properties and antioxidant capacities of T. stans seed oils (TSOs) were investigated. The oil content of the seeds was 15%. The FAs of the TSOs were analysed by GC-MS. α-Linolenic (45.47%), oleic (23.56%), linoleic (11.48%), palmitic (6.09%) and stearic (4.12%) acids were the major detected FAs. γ-Linolenic acid and stearidonic acid, unusually FAs, were also present (1.04% and 6.65%, respectively). The total tocol content in the TSOs was found to be 266.06 mg/100 g. The main component was γ-tocopherol (78.93%). The total phenolic content (168.69 mg GAE/100 g oil) and total flavonoid content (5.54 mg CE/g oil) were also determined in the TSOs.

  1. Thiolated silicone oil: synthesis, gelling and mucoadhesive properties.

    PubMed

    Partenhauser, Alexandra; Laffleur, Flavia; Rohrer, Julia; Bernkop-Schnürch, Andreas

    2015-04-01

    The aim of this study was the development of novel thiolated silicone oils and their evaluation with regard to gelling and mucoadhesive properties. A thiol coupling of 220 ± 14 and 127 ± 33 μmol/g polymer for 3-mercaptopropionic acid (MPA)- and cysteine-coupled silicone oil was determined, respectively. The dynamic viscosity of MPA-silicone raised significantly (p<0.000001) after oxidation with iodine to a maximum of 523-fold within 1h. During tensile studies, MPA-silicone showed both the highest results for total work of adhesion (TWA) and maximum detachment force (MDF) with a 3.8- and 3.4-fold increase, respectively, compared to the control. As far as the residence time on small intestinal mucosa is concerned, both silicone conjugates were detectable in almost the same quantities for up to 8h with 56.9 ± 3.3 and 47.8 ± 8.9% of the initially applied conjugated silicone oil. Thiolated silicone oils can be regarded superior in comparison to commonly used silicone oils due to a prolonged retention time in the small intestine as site of action. Gelling and mucoadhesive features are advantageous for antiflatulent as well as mucoprotective biomaterials. Thus, these novel thiomers seem promising for an upgrade of currently available products for the treatment of dyspepsia, reflux oesophagitis and even inflammatory bowel diseases such as ulcerative colitis or Crohn's disease.

  2. Essential oils: Toxicity and antimicrobial properties. (Latest citations from the Life Sciences Collection database). Published Search

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-06-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning the toxic properties of essential oils, and the use of essential oils in preventing development of microbes. These essential oils are derived from plants and other living organisms. Citations included cover the toxicological testing of essential oils, and the identification and testing of essential oils and their components for their antimicrobial, antifungal, and antibacterial properties. (Contains a minimum of 81 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

  3. Thermogravimetric investigation on the degradation properties and combustion performance of bio-oils.

    PubMed

    Ren, Xueyong; Meng, Jiajia; Moore, Andrew M; Chang, Jianmin; Gou, Jinsheng; Park, Sunkyu

    2014-01-01

    The degradation properties and combustion performance of raw bio-oil, aged bio-oil, and bio-oil from torrefied wood were investigated through thermogravimetric analysis. A three-stage process was observed for the degradation of bio-oils, including devolatilization of the aqueous fraction and light compounds, transition of the heavy faction to solid, and combustion of carbonaceous residues. Pyrolysis kinetics parameters were calculated via the reaction order model and 3D-diffusion model, and combustion indexes were used to qualitatively evaluate the thermal profiles of tested bio-oils for comparison with commercial oils such as fuel oils. It was found that aged bio-oil was more thermally instable and produced more combustion-detrimental carbonaceous solid. Raw bio-oil and bio-oil from torrefied wood had comparable combustion performance to fuel oils. It was considered that bio-oil has a potential to be mixed with or totally replace the fuel oils in boilers.

  4. Physical properties of defined lipopolysaccharide salts.

    PubMed

    Coughlin, R T; Haug, A; McGroarty, E J

    1983-04-12

    The electron spin resonance probes 5-doxylstearate and 4-(dodecyldimethylammonio)-1-oxy-2,2,6,6-tetramethylpiperidine bromide were used to characterize the fluidity of the acyl chain and head-group regions, respectively, of defined salts of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) from Escherichia coli K12. The removal of the weakly bound divalent cations from native LPS by electrodialysis and their replacement by sodium had little effect on the midpoint of the lipid-phase transition or on head-group mobility. In contrast, lipopolysaccharide acyl chain mobility increased following electrodialysis. The replacement of most of the remaining cations with sodium resulted in a further dramatic increase in mobility in both the polar and nonpolar regions of lipopolysaccharide. Head-group mobility of the sodium salt of LPS was shown to be reduced with the addition of divalent cations. Furthermore, evidence is presented which suggests that low magnesium concentrations may induce phase separations in the sodium salt. The magnesium salt of lipopolysaccharide closely resembled the native form in both head-group and acyl chain mobility although the cation charge to phosphorus ratio in the magnesium salt was greater than that detected in the native isolate. Analyses of other lipopolysaccharide salts support our hypothesis that many of the observed differences in the physical and pathological properties of lipopolysaccharide salts may simply be explained by the degree of charge neutralization. PMID:6303400

  5. Physical properties of molten carbonate electrolyte

    SciTech Connect

    Kojima, T.; Yanagida, M.; Tanimoto, K.

    1996-12-31

    Recently many kinds of compositions of molten carbonate electrolyte have been applied to molten carbonate fuel cell in order to avoid the several problems such as corrosion of separator plate and NiO cathode dissolution. Many researchers recognize that the addition of alkaline earth (Ca, Sr, and Ba) carbonate to Li{sub 2}CO{sub 3}-Na{sub 2}CO{sub 3} and Li{sub 2}CO{sub 3}-K{sub 2}CO{sub 3} eutectic electrolytes is effective to avoid these problems. On the other hand, one of the corrosion products, CrO{sub 4}{sup 2-} ion is found to dissolve into electrolyte and accumulated during the long-term MCFC operations. This would affect the performance of MCFC. There, however, are little known data of physical properties of molten carbonate containing alkaline earth carbonates and CrO{sub 4}{sup 2-}. We report the measured and accumulated data for these molten carbonate of electrical conductivity and surface tension to select favorable composition of molten carbonate electrolytes.

  6. Thermal properties measurements in biodiesel oils using photothermal techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Castro, M. P. P.; Andrade, A. A.; Franco, R. W. A.; Miranda, P. C. M. L.; Sthel, M.; Vargas, H.; Constantino, R.; Baesso, M. L.

    2005-08-01

    In this Letter, thermal lens and open cell photoacoustic techniques are used to measure the thermal properties of biodiesel oils. The absolute values of the thermal effusivity, thermal diffusivity, thermal conductivity and the temperature coefficient of the refractive index were determined for samples obtained from soy, castor bean, sunflower and turnip. The results suggest that the employed techniques may be useful as complementary methods for biodiesel certification.

  7. Chemistry and physical properties of estolides

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Estolides are a developing class of natural and synthetic compounds that have been synthesized from hydroxy oils, like castor and lesquerella, or by the condensation of fatty acids across the olefin of a second fatty acid. Castor and lesquerella estolides are derived from either their triglycerides...

  8. Does antioxidant properties of the main component of essential oil reflect its antioxidant properties? The comparison of antioxidant properties of essential oils and their main components.

    PubMed

    Dawidowicz, Andrzej L; Olszowy, Małgorzata

    2014-01-01

    This study discusses the similarities and differences between the antioxidant activities of some essential oils: thyme (Thymus vulgaris), basil (Ocimum basilicum), peppermint (Mentha piperita), clove (Caryophyllus aromaticus), summer savory (Satureja hortensis), sage (Salvia hispanica) and lemon (Citrus limon (L.) Burm.) and of their main components (thymol or estragole or menthol or eugenol or carvacrol or camphor or limonene) estimated by using 2,2'-Diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl, 2,2'-azinobis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) diammonium salt and β-carotene bleaching assays. The obtained data show that the antioxidant properties of essential oil do not always depend on the antioxidant activity of its main component, and that they can be modulated by their other components. The conclusions concerning the interaction of essential oil components depend on the type of method applied for assessing the antioxidant activity. When comparing the antioxidant properties of essential oils and their main components, the concepts of synergism, antagonism and additivity are very relevant. PMID:24849850

  9. Does antioxidant properties of the main component of essential oil reflect its antioxidant properties? The comparison of antioxidant properties of essential oils and their main components.

    PubMed

    Dawidowicz, Andrzej L; Olszowy, Małgorzata

    2014-01-01

    This study discusses the similarities and differences between the antioxidant activities of some essential oils: thyme (Thymus vulgaris), basil (Ocimum basilicum), peppermint (Mentha piperita), clove (Caryophyllus aromaticus), summer savory (Satureja hortensis), sage (Salvia hispanica) and lemon (Citrus limon (L.) Burm.) and of their main components (thymol or estragole or menthol or eugenol or carvacrol or camphor or limonene) estimated by using 2,2'-Diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl, 2,2'-azinobis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) diammonium salt and β-carotene bleaching assays. The obtained data show that the antioxidant properties of essential oil do not always depend on the antioxidant activity of its main component, and that they can be modulated by their other components. The conclusions concerning the interaction of essential oil components depend on the type of method applied for assessing the antioxidant activity. When comparing the antioxidant properties of essential oils and their main components, the concepts of synergism, antagonism and additivity are very relevant.

  10. 26 CFR 1.632-1 - Tax on sale of oil or gas properties.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 7 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 true Tax on sale of oil or gas properties. 1.632-1... TAX (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES (CONTINUED) Sales and Exchanges § 1.632-1 Tax on sale of oil or gas... undeveloped claims, has demonstrated the principal value of oil or gas property, which prior to his...

  11. 40 CFR 716.50 - Reporting physical and chemical properties.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Reporting physical and chemical... chemical properties. Studies of physical and chemical properties must be reported under this subpart if...) Degradation by chemical mechanisms—hydrolytic, reductive, and oxidative. (j) Degradation by...

  12. THE PHYSICAL AND CHEMICAL CHARACTERIZATION OF THE EMISSIONS FROM A RESIDENTIAL OIL BOILER

    EPA Science Inventory

    The toxicity of emissions from the combustion of home heating oil and the use of residential oil boilers (ROB) is an important health concern. Yet scant physical and chemical information about the emissions from this source are available for dispersion, climate, and source-recep...

  13. Introduction to physical properties and elasticity models: Chapter 20

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dvorkin, Jack; Helgerud, Michael B.; Waite, William F.; Kirby, Stephen H.; Nur, Amos

    2003-01-01

    Estimating the in situ methane hydrate volume from seismic surveys requires knowledge of the rock physics relations between wave speeds and elastic moduli in hydrate/sediment mixtures. The elastic moduli of hydrate/sediment mixtures depend on the elastic properties of the individual sedimentary particles and the manner in which they are arranged. In this chapter, we present some rock physics data currently available from literature. The unreferenced values in Table I were not measured directly, but were derived from other values in Tables I and II using standard relationships between elastic properties for homogeneous, isotropic material. These derivations allow us to extend the list of physical property estimates, but at the expense of introducing uncertainties due to combining property values measured under different physical conditions. This is most apparent in the case of structure II (sII) hydrate for which very few physical properties have been measured under identical conditions.

  14. Influence of gamma-irradiation and microwaves on the antioxidant property of some essential oils.

    PubMed

    Farag, R S; el-Khawas, K H

    1998-03-01

    The antioxidant property of anise, caraway, cumin and fennel essential oils extracted from untreated, gamma-irradiated and microwaved fruits against sunflower oil oxidative rancidity was evaluated. The fruits were exposed to gamma-irradiation at 10 KGy and to microwaves at low oven power setting for 1 min. The essential oils were added individually (200 ppm) to sunflower oil and the rate of oil oxidation was followed by determining the peroxide value during storage at room temperature. The irradiated and microwaved essential oils exhibited an antioxidant activity and was superior to that of sunflower oil catalysed by a mixture of BHT + BHA (200 ppm) in most cases. The present data show that gamma-irradiation and microwave treatments did not affect the antioxidant property of the essential oils under study. In addition the essential oils extracted from the gamma-irradiated fruits were more effective as an antioxidant in sunflower oil than those produced from microwaved fruits.

  15. Hypocholesterolemic effect of physically refined rice bran oil: studies of cholesterol metabolism and early atherosclerosis in hypercholesterolemic hamsters.

    PubMed

    Ausman, Lynne M; Rong, Ni; Nicolosi, Robert J

    2005-09-01

    Physically refined rice bran oil containing 2-4% nontriglyceride components as compared to other vegetable oils appears to be associated with lipid lowering and antiinflammatory properties in several rodent, primate and human models. These experiments were designed to investigate possible mechanisms for the hypocholesterolemic effect of the physically refined rice bran oil and to examine its effect on aortic fatty streak formation. In the first experiment, 30 hamsters were fed, for 8 weeks, chow-based diets plus 0.03% added cholesterol and 5% (wt/wt) coconut, canola, or physically refined rice bran oil (COCO, CANOLA or PRBO animal groups, respectively). Both plasma total cholesterol (TC) and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) were significantly reduced in PRBO but not in CANOLA relative to COCO. PRBO also showed a significant 15-17% reduction in cholesterol absorption and significant 30% increase in neutral sterol (NS) excretion with no effect on bile acid (BA) excretion. Both CANOLA and PRBO showed a significant 300-500% increase in intestinal 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl coenzyme A (HMG-CoA) reductase and significant (>25%) decrease in hepatic HMG-CoA reductase activities with respect to COCO. In a second experiment, 36 hamsters were fed chow-based diets with 0.05% added cholesterol, 10% coconut oil and 4% additional COCO, CANOLA or PRBO. Relative to COCO and CANOLA, plasma TC and LDL-C were significantly reduced in PRBO. Early atherosclerosis (fatty streak formation) was significantly reduced (48%) only in PRBO, relative to the other two. These results suggest that the lipid lowering found in PRBO is associated with decreased cholesterol absorption, but not hepatic cholesterol synthesis, and that the decrease in fatty streak formation with this oil may be associated with its nontriglyceride components not present in the other two diets.

  16. Fish oil supplementation and physical exercise program: distinct effects on different memory tasks.

    PubMed

    Rachetti, A L F; Arida, R M; Patti, C L; Zanin, K A; Fernades-Santos, L; Frussa-Filho, R; Gomes da Silva, S; Scorza, F A; Cysneiros, R M

    2013-01-15

    Both fish oil supplementation and physical exercise are able to induce benefits to mental health by providing an improvement in cognitive performance and enhancing neuroplasticity and protection against neurological lesions. The aim of the present study was to investigate the cognitive effects in rats of the: (1) a diary and prolonged fish oil supplementation (85 mg/kg/day) initiated from prenatal period to the midlife (300 day/old); (2) moderate physical exercise in treadmill initiated from adolescent period to midlife and (3) association of fish oil supplementation and moderate physical exercise protocol during the same period. Animals were submitted to the habituation in the open-field, object recognition and to the plus-maze discriminative avoidance tasks. Our results demonstrated that a diary and prolonged fish oil supplementation can facilitate the persistence of the long-term habituation and recognition memories without, however, affecting the discriminative avoidance memory. Conversely, although the program of physical exercise exerted no effects on habituation or objects recognition, it was able to potentiate the persistence of the discriminative avoidance memory. Such promnestic effects (induced by both fish oil supplementation and physical exercise) were not accompanied by alterations in emotionality or locomotor activity. Our findings suggest that fish oil supplementation, initiated from prenatal period to midlife, and physical exercise program applied throughout the life induced distinctly a better cognitive performance.

  17. The composition-explicit distillation curve technique: Relating chemical analysis and physical properties of complex fluids.

    PubMed

    Bruno, Thomas J; Ott, Lisa S; Lovestead, Tara M; Huber, Marcia L

    2010-04-16

    The analysis of complex fluids such as crude oils, fuels, vegetable oils and mixed waste streams poses significant challenges arising primarily from the multiplicity of components, the different properties of the components (polarity, polarizability, etc.) and matrix properties. We have recently introduced an analytical strategy that simplifies many of these analyses, and provides the added potential of linking compositional information with physical property information. This aspect can be used to facilitate equation of state development for the complex fluids. In addition to chemical characterization, the approach provides the ability to calculate thermodynamic properties for such complex heterogeneous streams. The technique is based on the advanced distillation curve (ADC) metrology, which separates a complex fluid by distillation into fractions that are sampled, and for which thermodynamically consistent temperatures are measured at atmospheric pressure. The collected sample fractions can be analyzed by any method that is appropriate. The analytical methods we have applied include gas chromatography (with flame ionization, mass spectrometric and sulfur chemiluminescence detection), thin layer chromatography, FTIR, corrosivity analysis, neutron activation analysis and cold neutron prompt gamma activation analysis. By far, the most widely used analytical technique we have used with the ADC is gas chromatography. This has enabled us to study finished fuels (gasoline, diesel fuels, aviation fuels, rocket propellants), crude oils (including a crude oil made from swine manure) and waste oils streams (used automotive and transformer oils). In this special issue of the Journal of Chromatography, specifically dedicated to extraction technologies, we describe the essential features of the advanced distillation curve metrology as an analytical strategy for complex fluids.

  18. Physical stability of coconut oil lotions formulated using hydrophile-lipophile balance system of various emulsifier pairs.

    PubMed

    Boonme, Prapaporn; Maneenuan, Duangkhae; Channarong, Sunee

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to prepare coconut oil lotions using a hydrophile-lipophile balance system to calculate the proportion of each nonionic surfactant used. The effects of emulsifier pairs in the formulations on physical properties (i.e., appearance, emulsion type, pH, flow type, viscosity) were investigated. The physical stability of the lotions was determined at ambient temperature (approximatley 30 degrees C) after the lotions were kept for 30 as well as 60 days and in accelerated conditions (6 freeze-thaw cycles). It was found that the formulations most tolerant to such harsh conditions were F1 and F2, o/w lotions containing 40% w/w coconut oil, 50% w/w water and 10% w/w of the mixed emulsifier of a low hydrophile-lipophile balance surfactant (sorbitan monostearate) and a high hydrophile-lipophile balance surfactant (either polyoxyethylene [20] sorbitan monooleate or polyethylene [20] sorbitan monolaurate).

  19. Properties of Canadian re-refined base oils

    SciTech Connect

    Strigner, P.L.

    1980-11-01

    The Fuels and Lubricants Laboratory of NRC (Canada) has been examining for over 10 years, as a service, the properties of base stocks made by Canadian re-refiners. Nineteen samples of acid/clay processed base stocks from six Canadian re-refiners were examined. When well re-refined, the base stocks have excellent properties including a good response to anti-oxidants and a high degree of cleanliness. Since traces of additives and/or polar compounds do remain, the quality of the base stocks is judged to be slightly inferior to that of comparable virgin refined base stocks. Some suggested specification limits for various properties and some indication of batch-to-batch consistency were obtained. Any usage of the limits should be done with caution, e.g., sulfur, bearing in mind the rapidly changing crude oil picture and engine and machine technology leading to oil products of differing compositions. Certainly modifications are in order; it may even be desirable to have grades of base stocks.

  20. Synthesis and physical properties of isostearic acids and their esters

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Saturated branched-chain fatty acids (sbc-FAs) are found as minor constituents in several natural fats and oils. Sbc-FAs are of interest since they have lower melting points than their linear counterparts and exhibit good oxidative stability; properties that make them ideally suited in a number of ...

  1. CRC handbook of physical properties of rocks. Volume III

    SciTech Connect

    Carmichael, R.S.

    1984-01-01

    This book presents topics on: Density of rocks and minerals, includes histograms of density ranges; elastic constants of minerals, elastic moduli, thermal properties; inelastic properties, strength and rheology for rocks and minerals, rock mechanics and friction, and stress-strain relations; radioactivity, decay constants and heat production of isotope systems in geology; seismic attenuation, in rocks, minerals, and the earth, with application to oil exploration and terrestrial studies; and index.

  2. Mechanical and physical properties of plasma-sprayed stabilized zirconia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Siemers, P. A.; Mehan, R. L.

    1983-01-01

    Physical and mechanical properties were determined for plasma-sprayed MgO- or Y2O3-stabilized ZrO2 thermal barrier coatings. Properties were determined for the ceramic coating in both the freestanding condition and as-bonded to a metal substrate. The properties of the NiCrAlY bond coating were also investigated.

  3. Mechanical Properties of Oil Palm Empty Fruit Bunch Fiber

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gunawan, Fergyanto E.; Homma, Hiroomi; Brodjonegoro, Satryo S.; Hudin, Afzer Bin Baseri; Zainuddin, Aryanti Binti

    In tropical countries such as Indonesia and Malaysia, the empty fruit bunches are wastes of the oil palm industry. The wastes are abundantly available and has reached a level that severely threats the environment. Therefore, it is a great need to find useful applications of those waste materials; but firstly, the mechanical properties of the EFB fiber should be quantified. In this work, a small tensile test machine is manufactured, and the tensile test is performed on the EFB fibers. The results show that the strength of the EFB fiber is strongly affected by the fiber diameter; however, the fiber strength is relatively low in comparison to other natural fibers.

  4. Biochemical basis of physical properties of respiratory tract secretions.

    PubMed

    Lopez-Vidriero, M T

    1987-01-01

    The physical properties of respiratory tract secretion (RTS) play a prominent rôle in the non-specific defence mechanisms of the lung. Viscosity and elasticity, that is flow and deformation, are only two of the physical properties of RTS. Spinability, pourability, adhesiveness and tackiness are starting to be recognised as physical properties of RTS and its is likely that they may be relevant in the pathogenesis of airways obstruction. RTS is a gel, which consists of a cross-linked polymer network dispersed in a liquid solvent. The polymeric structure of the epithelial glycoprotein can be explained in terms of covalent (disulphide) linkages and/or physical entanglement between glycoproteins subunits. Other constituents of RTS such as proteins, lipids, ions and water can influence the physical properties of RTS. PMID:3322857

  5. Biochemical basis of physical properties of respiratory tract secretions.

    PubMed

    Lopez-Vidriero, M T

    1987-01-01

    The physical properties of respiratory tract secretion (RTS) play a prominent rôle in the non-specific defence mechanisms of the lung. Viscosity and elasticity, that is flow and deformation, are only two of the physical properties of RTS. Spinability, pourability, adhesiveness and tackiness are starting to be recognised as physical properties of RTS and its is likely that they may be relevant in the pathogenesis of airways obstruction. RTS is a gel, which consists of a cross-linked polymer network dispersed in a liquid solvent. The polymeric structure of the epithelial glycoprotein can be explained in terms of covalent (disulphide) linkages and/or physical entanglement between glycoproteins subunits. Other constituents of RTS such as proteins, lipids, ions and water can influence the physical properties of RTS.

  6. Physical and mechanical properties of icebergs

    SciTech Connect

    Gammon, P.H.; Bobby, W.; Gagnon, R.E.; Russell, W.E.

    1983-05-01

    Physical and mechanical characteristics of iceberg ice were studied from samples collected near the shores of eastern Newfoundland. Although the physical characteristics show considerable diversity, iceberg ice has some common features and is generally porous, lacks significant concentrations of dissolved materials, contains internal cracks and has an irregular interlocking grain structure. A review of mechanical testing of ice was carried out and an experimental setup was devised to reduce effects of improper contact between specimen and loading apparatus. Uniaxial compressive strength for iceberg ice was determined and compared with that for lake ice. The strength of iceberg ice was higher than that of lake ice but Young's Modulus for lake ice was higher.

  7. Ingestion and sublethal effects of physically and chemically dispersed crude oil on marine planktonic copepods.

    PubMed

    Almeda, Rodrigo; Baca, Sarah; Hyatt, Cammie; Buskey, Edward J

    2014-08-01

    Planktonic copepods play a key function in marine ecosystems, however, little is known about the effects of dispersants and chemically dispersed crude oil on these important planktonic organisms. We examined the potential for the copepods Acartia tonsa, Temora turbinata and Parvocalanus crassirostris to ingest crude oil droplets and determined the acute toxicity of the dispersant Corexit(®) 9500A, and physically and chemically dispersed crude oil to these copepods. We detected ingestion of crude oil droplets by adults and nauplii of the three copepod species. Exposure to crude oil alone (1 µL L(-1), 48 h) caused a reduction of egg production rates (EPRs) by 26-39 %, fecal pellet production rates (PPRs) by 11-27 %, and egg hatching (EH) by 1-38 % compared to the controls, depending on the species. Dispersant alone (0.05 µL L(-1), 48 h) produced a reduction in EPR, PPR and EH by 20-35, 12-23 and 2-11 %, respectively. Dispersant-treated crude oil was the most toxic treatment, ~1.6 times more toxic than crude oil alone, causing a reduction in EPR, PPR and EH by 45-54, 28-41 and 11-31 %, respectively. Our results indicate that low concentrations of dispersant Corexit 9500A and chemically dispersed crude oil are toxic to marine zooplankton, and that the ingestion of crude oil droplets by copepods may be an important route by which crude oil pollution can enter marine food webs.

  8. Preparation and properties of biodiesel from Cynara cardunculus L. oil

    SciTech Connect

    Encinar, J.M.; Gonzalez, J.F.; Sabio, E.; Ramiro, M.J.

    1999-08-01

    A study was made of the reaction of transesterification of Cynara cardunculus L. oil by means of methanol, using sodium hydroxide, potassium hydroxide, and sodium methoxide as catalysts. The objective of the work was to characterize the methyl esters for use as biodiesels in internal combustion motors. The operation variables used were methanol concentration (5--21 wt %), catalyst concentration (0.1--1 wt %), and temperature (25--60 C). The evolution of the process was followed by gas chromatography, determining the concentration of the methyl esters at different reaction times. The biodiesel was characterized by determining its density, viscosity, high heating value, cetane index, cloud and pour points, Ramsbottom carbon residue, characteristics of distillation, and flash and combustion points according to ISO norms. The biodiesel with the best properties was obtained using 15% methanol, sodium methoxide as catalyst (1%), and 60 C temperature. This biodiesel has very similar properties to those of diesel No. 2.

  9. Functional properties of ultrasonically generated flaxseed oil-dairy emulsions.

    PubMed

    Shanmugam, Akalya; Ashokkumar, Muthupandian

    2014-09-01

    This study reports on the functional properties of 7% flaxseed oil/milk emulsion obtained by sonication (OM) using 20 kHz ultrasound (US) at 176 W for 1-8 min in two different delivery formulae, viz., ready-to-drink (RTD) and lactic acid gel. The RTD emulsions showed no change in viscosity after sonication for up to 8 min followed by storage up to a minimum of 9 days at 4±2 °C. Similarly, the oxidative stability of the RTD emulsion was studied by measuring the conjugated diene hydroperoxides (CD). The CD was unaffected after 8 min of ultrasonic processing. The safety aspect of US processing was evaluated by measuring the formation of CD at different power levels. The functional properties of OM gels were evaluated by small and large scale deformation studies. The sonication process improved the gelation characteristics, viz., decreased gelation time, increased elastic nature, decreased syneresis and increased gel strength. The presence of finer sono-emulsified oil globules, stabilized by partially denatured whey proteins, contributed to the improvements in the gel structure in comparison to sonicated and unsonicated pasteurized homogenized skim milk (PHSM) gels. A sono-emulsification process of 5 min followed by gelation for about 11 min can produce gels of highest textural attibutes.

  10. Functional properties of ultrasonically generated flaxseed oil-dairy emulsions.

    PubMed

    Shanmugam, Akalya; Ashokkumar, Muthupandian

    2014-09-01

    This study reports on the functional properties of 7% flaxseed oil/milk emulsion obtained by sonication (OM) using 20 kHz ultrasound (US) at 176 W for 1-8 min in two different delivery formulae, viz., ready-to-drink (RTD) and lactic acid gel. The RTD emulsions showed no change in viscosity after sonication for up to 8 min followed by storage up to a minimum of 9 days at 4±2 °C. Similarly, the oxidative stability of the RTD emulsion was studied by measuring the conjugated diene hydroperoxides (CD). The CD was unaffected after 8 min of ultrasonic processing. The safety aspect of US processing was evaluated by measuring the formation of CD at different power levels. The functional properties of OM gels were evaluated by small and large scale deformation studies. The sonication process improved the gelation characteristics, viz., decreased gelation time, increased elastic nature, decreased syneresis and increased gel strength. The presence of finer sono-emulsified oil globules, stabilized by partially denatured whey proteins, contributed to the improvements in the gel structure in comparison to sonicated and unsonicated pasteurized homogenized skim milk (PHSM) gels. A sono-emulsification process of 5 min followed by gelation for about 11 min can produce gels of highest textural attibutes. PMID:24713146

  11. Thermophysical properties of conjugated soybean oil/corn stover biocomposites.

    PubMed

    Pfister, Daniel P; Larock, Richard C

    2010-08-01

    Novel "green composites" have been prepared using a conjugated soybean oil-based resin and corn stover as a natural fiber. Corn stover is the residue remaining after grain harvest and it is estimated that approximately 75 million tons are available annually in the United States. The effect of the amount of filler, the length of the fiber, and the amount of the crosslinker on the structure and thermal and mechanical properties of the composites has been determined using Soxhlet extraction analysis, thermogravimetric analysis, dynamic mechanical analysis, and tensile testing. Increasing the amount of corn stover and decreasing the length of the fiber results in significant improvements in the mechanical properties of the composites. The Young's moduli and tensile strengths of the composites prepared range from 291 to 1398 MPa and 2.7 to 7.4 MPa, respectively. Water uptake data indicate that increasing the amount and fiber length of the corn stover results in significant increases in the absorption of water by the composites. The composites, containing 20 to 80 wt.% corn stover and a resin composed of 50 wt.% natural oil, contain 60 to 90 wt.% renewable materials and should find applications in the construction, automotive, and furniture industries. PMID:20227274

  12. Thermophysical properties of conjugated soybean oil/corn stover biocomposites.

    PubMed

    Pfister, Daniel P; Larock, Richard C

    2010-08-01

    Novel "green composites" have been prepared using a conjugated soybean oil-based resin and corn stover as a natural fiber. Corn stover is the residue remaining after grain harvest and it is estimated that approximately 75 million tons are available annually in the United States. The effect of the amount of filler, the length of the fiber, and the amount of the crosslinker on the structure and thermal and mechanical properties of the composites has been determined using Soxhlet extraction analysis, thermogravimetric analysis, dynamic mechanical analysis, and tensile testing. Increasing the amount of corn stover and decreasing the length of the fiber results in significant improvements in the mechanical properties of the composites. The Young's moduli and tensile strengths of the composites prepared range from 291 to 1398 MPa and 2.7 to 7.4 MPa, respectively. Water uptake data indicate that increasing the amount and fiber length of the corn stover results in significant increases in the absorption of water by the composites. The composites, containing 20 to 80 wt.% corn stover and a resin composed of 50 wt.% natural oil, contain 60 to 90 wt.% renewable materials and should find applications in the construction, automotive, and furniture industries.

  13. Prediction of Solvent Physical Properties using the Hierarchical Clustering Method

    EPA Science Inventory

    Recently a QSAR (Quantitative Structure Activity Relationship) method, the hierarchical clustering method, was developed to estimate acute toxicity values for large, diverse datasets. This methodology has now been applied to the estimate solvent physical properties including sur...

  14. Predicting Soil Biological and Physical Properties Using Hydrological Properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Geiger, L.; Hofmockel, K.; Kaleita, A.; Hargreaves, S.

    2012-12-01

    Soil biological and chemical properties vary at different spatial scales, which make predicting processes associated with these properties difficult. However, soil biological and chemical properties are important to fertility and ecosystem functioning. In this study, we used a Self Organizing Map (SOM) to determine whether soil hydrological characteristics can be used to characterize the distribution of a suite of soil biological and chemical properties. From a row crop field in south-central Iowa, we generated 36 sampling locations via a SOM, which were grouped into three categories according to hydrological properties by the SOM. Soil samples were then analyzed for microbial biomass, carbon and nitrogen mineralization potential, and organic and inorganic pools of carbon and nitrogen. We found that sampling locations in category 1 (potholes and toe slopes) had greater microbial biomass, total carbon, total nitrogen, and extractable organic carbon than compared locations in the two well-drained categories. Nitrogen and carbon mineralization and inorganic nitrogen pools did not differ significantly among the categories. These results demonstrate that hydrological characteristics can be used to predict relatively stable biological and chemical soil properties. However, prediction of nitrogen and carbon fluxes remains a challenge.

  15. Film-forming properties of blends of high-oleic sunflower oil with polyalkyl glycol

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The viscosity, density, and elastohydrodynamic film thicknesses of oil-soluble polyalkyl glycols (PAG), high oleic sunflower oil (HOSuO), and their 50/50 (wt.) blends were investigated. The viscosity and density of the blends were found to be predictable from the corresponding neat oil properties us...

  16. Microwave techniques for physical property measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barmatz, M.

    1993-01-01

    Industrial processing of metals and ceramics is now being streamlined by the development of theoretical models. High temperature thermophysical properties of these materials are required to successfully apply these theories. Unfortunately, there is insufficient experimental data available for many of these properties, particularly in the molten state. Microwave fields can be used to measure specific heat, thermal diffusivity, thermal conductivity and dielectric constants at high temperatures. We propose to (1) develop a microwave flash method (analogous to the laser flash technique) that can simultaneously measure the thermal diffusivity and specific heat of insulators and semiconductors at high temperatures, (2) an appropriate theory and experimental apparatus to demonstrate the measurement of the specific heat of a metal using a new microwave ac specific heat technique, and (3) experimental methods for noncontact measurement of the real and imaginary dielectric constants.

  17. 4.4 Physical Properties of the Most Important Radionuclides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Noßke, D.; Mattsson, S.; Johansson, L.

    This document is part of Subvolume A 'Fundamentals and Data in Radiobiology, Radiation Biophysics, Dosimetry and Medical Radiological Protection' of Volume 7 'Medical Radiological Physics' of Landolt-Börnstein - Group VIII 'Advanced Materials and Technologies'. It contains the Section '4.4 Physical Properties of the Most Important Radionuclides' of the Chapter '4 Dosimetry in Nuclear Medicine Diagnosis and Therapy'.

  18. Psychometric Properties of the Commitment to Physical Activity Scale

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DeBate, Rita DiGioacchino; Huberty, Jennifer; Pettee, Kelley

    2009-01-01

    Objective: To assess psychometric properties of the Commitment to Physical Activity Scale (CPAS). Methods: Girls in third to fifth grades (n = 932) completed the CPAS before and after a physical activity intervention. Psychometric measures included internal consistency, factor analysis, and concurrent validity. Results: Three CPAS factors emerged:…

  19. Let Students Discover an Important Physical Property of a Slinky

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gash, Philip

    2016-10-01

    This paper describes a simple experiment that lets first-year physics and engineering students discover an important physical property of a Slinky. The restoring force for the fundamental oscillation frequency is provided only by those coils between the support and the Slinky center of mass.

  20. Let Students Discover an Important Physical Property of a Slinky

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gash, Philip

    2016-01-01

    This paper describes a simple experiment that lets first-year physics and engineering students discover an important physical property of a Slinky. The restoring force for the fundamental oscillation frequency is provided only by those coils between the support and the Slinky center of mass.

  1. Synthesis and Physical Properties of Liquid Crystals: An Interdisciplinary Experiment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Van Hecke, Gerald R.; Karukstis, Kerry K.; Hanhan Li; Hendargo, Hansford C.; Cosand, Andrew J.; Fox, Marja M.

    2005-01-01

    A study involves multiple chemistry and physics concepts applied to a state of matter that has biological relevance. An experiment involving the synthesis and physical properties of liquid crystals illustrates the interdisciplinary nature of liquid crystal research and the practical devices derived from such research.

  2. Optimization of Rei-mullite Physical Properties

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tanzilli, R. A.; Musikant, S.; Bolinger, P. N.; Brazel, J. P.

    1973-01-01

    Micromechanical and thermal modeling studies prove that ceramic fiber mullite materials is the only system capable of shuttle thermal protection to 1644 K. Hafnia pigmentated mullite surface coatings meet both orbital and reentry thermal radiative requirements for reuse without refurbishment. Thermal and mechanical models show growths potentials associated with the mullite system for a factor of 2 improvement in mechanical properties, and a factor of 2 to 3 reduction in thermal conductivity.

  3. Symmetry and causality properties of physical fields

    PubMed Central

    Jakobsen, H. P.; Ørsted, B.; Segal, I. E.; Speh, B.; Vergne, M.

    1978-01-01

    Representations of groups of causality-preserving transformations on locally Minkowskian space-times, by actions on classes of wave functions of designated transformation properties, are analyzed, in extension of the conventional theoretical treatment of free relativistic particles. In particular, the constraints of positivity of the energy and finiteness of propagation velocity are developed, and the concept of mass is explored, within the indicated framework. PMID:16592512

  4. Effect of peppermint and citronella essential oils on properties of fish skin gelatin edible films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yanwong, S.; Threepopnatkul, P.

    2015-07-01

    Fish skin gelatin films incorporated with peppermint and citronella essential oils at difference concentrations (10, 20 and 30% w/w) were prepared by solution casting. Addition of peppermint oil contributed to a significant decrease of tensile strength and Young's modulus, while the percent elongation at break showed an obvious increase except at 30% w/w. On the other hand, addition of citronella oils promoted a great increase of tensile strength and young's modulus, but an intense decrease of the percent elongation at break. At the predetermined content, the film incorporated with citronella oils outperformed the one with peppermint oils in term of water vapor transmission and solubility in water. Thermal properties of gelatin films with citronella oils exhibited an enhancement in heat stability, while the one with peppermint oils showed slight decrease in heat stability. The additions with both of essential oils exhibited excellent antibacterial properties against both Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli.

  5. Electrospun PS/PAN fibers with improved mechanical property for removal of oil from water.

    PubMed

    Li, Peng; Qiao, Ying; Zhao, Lili; Yao, Dahu; Sun, Haixiang; Hou, Yingfei; Li, Shuo; Li, Qi

    2015-04-15

    A mechanically robust and high-capacity oil sorbent is prepared by electrospinning a blend of polystyrene (PS) and polyacrylonitrile (PAN). The morphology, oil sorption capacity and mechanical property of the fibers formed in different compositions are investigated in detail. It is shown that the oil sorption capacity is a result of both the chemical composition and the specific surface area which related to diameter size. The addition of PAN as a component in fibrous sorbents can significantly improve the mechanical properties of PS fibers. Moreover, the oil sorption capacity increases with decreasing fiber diameter. The results also show that the maximum sorption capacities of the PS/PAN sorbent for pump oil, peanut oil, diesel, and gasoline were 194.85, 131.70, 66.75, and 43.38 g g(-1), respectively. Additionally, the sorbent exhibits quick oil sorption speed as well as high buoyancy, which make it a promising candidate for use as an oil spill cleanup sorbent.

  6. Oil pollution abatement: onshore, offshore, on the high seas

    SciTech Connect

    Shaheen, E.I.; Al- Rashid, N.

    1984-08-01

    Overview of typical sources of oil pollution is presented in this study. Arabian Gulf oil spills and other major oil spill accidents; persistent oils on seawater, their properties and physical changes; sorbents, dispersion with detergents, treating agents in typical processes, booms, skimming, recovery of oil; and the clean-up of oil contaminated beaches are considered.

  7. Dielectric and Thermal Properties of Transformer Oil Modified by Semiconductive CdS Quantum Dots

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abd-Elhady, Amr M.; Ibrahim, Mohamed E.; Taha, T. A.; Izzularab, Mohamed A.

    2016-07-01

    In this paper, modified transformer oil semiconductor quantum dots (QDs) are presented. Cadmium sulfide (CdS) quantum dots of radius 4.5 nm with a hexagonal crystal structure are added to transformer oil to improve its dielectric and thermal properties. CdS QDs modified oil is prepared considering different filler loading levels. Alternating current breakdown voltages of the transformer oil samples before and after the modification are measured based on American Society for Testing and Materials D1816 standard. The relative permittivity and dissipation factor are measured for all samples. Also, thermal properties of the oil samples are experimentally evaluated according to the temperature change measurement considering heating and cooling processes. The results show significant improvements in dielectric and thermal properties of the modified transformer oil, as well as an increase in the breakdown strength by about 81% in comparison to the base transformer oil.

  8. Dielectric and Thermal Properties of Transformer Oil Modified by Semiconductive CdS Quantum Dots

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abd-Elhady, Amr M.; Ibrahim, Mohamed E.; Taha, T. A.; Izzularab, Mohamed A.

    2016-10-01

    In this paper, modified transformer oil semiconductor quantum dots (QDs) are presented. Cadmium sulfide (CdS) quantum dots of radius 4.5 nm with a hexagonal crystal structure are added to transformer oil to improve its dielectric and thermal properties. CdS QDs modified oil is prepared considering different filler loading levels. Alternating current breakdown voltages of the transformer oil samples before and after the modification are measured based on American Society for Testing and Materials D1816 standard. The relative permittivity and dissipation factor are measured for all samples. Also, thermal properties of the oil samples are experimentally evaluated according to the temperature change measurement considering heating and cooling processes. The results show significant improvements in dielectric and thermal properties of the modified transformer oil, as well as an increase in the breakdown strength by about 81% in comparison to the base transformer oil.

  9. Physics-Driven Innovation In the Oil and Gas Industry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Poitzsch, Martin

    2014-03-01

    In terms of sheer scale and financial investment and geographical footprint, nothing is bigger than the oil and gas industry. This ``mature industry'' employs a bewildering mix of technologies dating from the 19th century to the 21th. Oil well construction represents one of the largest volume markets for steel tubulars, Portland cement, and high-quality sand. On the other hand, advanced 3D seismic data processing, shaped-charge perforating, and nuclear well logging have consistently driven forward the state of the art in their respective areas of applied science, as much or more so than defense or other industries. Moreover, a surprising number of physicists have made their careers in the oil industry. To succeed at introducing new technology requires understanding which problems most need to be solved. The most esoteric technology can take off in this industry if it honestly offers the best solution to a key problem that is costing millions of dollars in risk or inefficiency. When the right breakthrough solution emerges, the resources to implement it can be almost limitless. However, the prevailing culture is conservative and brutally cost-driven: any cheaper or simpler solution that performs as well will prevail, no matter how inelegant!

  10. Effects of vegetable oils on biochemical and biophysical properties of membrane retinal pigment epithelium cells.

    PubMed

    Said, Toihiri; Tremblay-Mercier, Jennifer; Berrougui, Hicham; Rat, Patrice; Khalil, Abdelouahed

    2013-10-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of vegetable oil enrichment of retinal pigment epithelial (RPE) cells on their biochemical and biophysical properties. For this, RPE cells were incubated with 4 different vegetables oils (olive oil, corn oil, argan oil, and camelina oil). The cytotoxicity of these vegetable oils was assessed in vivo on 8-week-old mice and in vitro by using the neutral red and YO-PRO-1 tests. Membrane fluidity was evaluated by fluorescence anisotropy using the fluorescent probe diphenylhexatriene, and membrane fatty acid composition was assessed by gas chromatography. None of the oils tested displayed cytotoxic effects. In vitro, omega-3 rich oils improved membrane fluidity by 47% compared with the control cells. The omega-3 PUFA content within membranes decreased by 38% to 55% when cells were incubated separately with olive oil, corn oil, or argan oil, and increased when cells were incubated with a mixture of those oils, or with camelina oil alone (50% and 103% increase, respectively). Our results show that the fatty acids in vegetable oil incorporate into retinal cells and increase the plasma membrane fluidity.

  11. Evaluation of the blood level duration properties of procaine benzylpenicillin in oil with aluminium monostearate (PAM)*

    PubMed Central

    Bond, Jillian M.; Lightbown, J. W.; Mussett, Marjorie V.; Woodward, Patricia M.

    1965-01-01

    The study of procaine benzylpenicillin in oil with aluminium monostearate (PAM) described in this paper was undertaken to devise laboratory assay methods, based on animal tests, to evaluate those properties of PAM responsible for the persistence of penicillin in the circulation, as a preferable substitute for the existing test in man. Comparative studies of a number of batches of PAM in man proved, with statistical certainty, that the duration of the blood level of penicillin which they produced varied from batch to batch. The chemical and physical properties of the batches gave inadequate characterization and were of no value in assessing material for clinical use. A blood level duration test in rabbits was developed which reflected the blood level duration properties shown in man. The test was incorporated in the Requirements for Procaine Benzylpenicillin in Oil with Aluminium Monostearate that were set up by the WHO Expert Committee on Biological Standardization to ensure the suitability of batches for clinical use. An International Reference Preparation was necessary and was established. Batches of PAM in use in the field by WHO in anti-yaws campaigns were examined by the test described and found to be satisfactory. ImagesFIG. 5 PMID:5295406

  12. Preparation and properties of copper-oil-based nanofluids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Dan; Xie, Wenjie; Fang, Wenjun

    2011-05-01

    In this study, the lipophilic Cu nanoparticles were synthesized by surface modification method to improve their dispersion stability in hydrophobic organic media. The oil-based nanofluids were prepared with the lipophilic Cu nanoparticles. The transport properties, viscosity, and thermal conductivity of the nanofluids have been measured. The viscosities and thermal conductivities of the nanofluids with the surface-modified nanoparticles have higher values than the base fluids do. The composition has more significant effects on the thermal conductivity than on the viscosity. It is valuable to prepare an appropriate oil-based nanofluid for enhancing the heat-transfer capacity of a hydrophobic system. The effects of adding Cu nanoparticles on the thermal oxidation stability of the fluids were investigated by measuring the hydroperoxide concentration in the Cu/kerosene nanofluids. The hydroperoxide concentrations are observed to be clearly lower in the Cu nanofluids than in their base fluids. Appropriate amounts of metal nanoparticles added in a hydrocarbon fuel can enhance the thermal oxidation stability.

  13. Changes of physical properties in multiferroic phase transitions.

    PubMed

    Litvin, Daniel B

    2014-07-01

    The physical property coefficients that arise in a phase transition which are zero in the high-symmetry phase and nonzero in the low-symmetry phase are called spontaneous coefficients. For all 1601 Aizu species of phase transitions, matrices have been constructed which show the nonzero coefficients of a wide variety of magnetic and nonmagnetic physical properties including toroidal property coefficients in the high-symmetry phase and their corresponding spontaneous coefficients in the low-symmetry phase. It is also shown that these spontaneous coefficients provide for the distinction of and switching between nonferroelastic domain pairs. PMID:25970196

  14. Base Oils from Petroleum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prince, R. J.

    The source, composition and suitability of crude oils for base oil production are reviewed. The physical and chemical properties of alkanes, naphthenes and aromatics and their characteristics for lubricant applications are examined. Properties and applications of various base oils are defined and specified. Production of conventional mineral oils is described, including the various processes to remove wax and other deleterious substances, followed by increasingly severe hydrogenation to produce base oils of increased quality and performance. The API categorization of mineral base oils, either direct from the refinery or after hydrotreatment of increasing severity, is described, together with sub-categories.

  15. Physical and chemical stability of gum arabic-stabilized conjugated linoleic acid oil-in-water emulsions.

    PubMed

    Yao, Xiaolin; Xu, Qiong; Tian, Dazhi; Wang, Nana; Fang, Yapeng; Deng, Zhongyang; Phillips, Glyn O; Lu, Jiang

    2013-05-15

    Oil-in-water (O/W) emulsions have been used as a delivery system to protect conjugated linoleic acid (CLA), a polyunsaturated fatty acid, from oxidation. Conventional gum arabic (GA) and two matured gum arabic samples (EM2 and EM10) were used as emulsifiers to prepare CLA-in-water emulsions. The emulsions have optimal physical and chemical stability at gum concentrations of 5% for all three gums. Emulsions with higher gum concentrations are more susceptible to lipid oxidation. This is attributed to reduced physical stability at higher gum concentrations because of the coalescence and depletion-induced flocculation of the emulsion droplets. The prooxidants iron and copper intrinsically contained in the gums could also contribute to this instability. Among the three gums, EM10 provides the most effective protection for CLA both physically and chemically, because of its superior interfacial properties over GA and EM2. PMID:23614832

  16. Physical and chemical stability of gum arabic-stabilized conjugated linoleic acid oil-in-water emulsions.

    PubMed

    Yao, Xiaolin; Xu, Qiong; Tian, Dazhi; Wang, Nana; Fang, Yapeng; Deng, Zhongyang; Phillips, Glyn O; Lu, Jiang

    2013-05-15

    Oil-in-water (O/W) emulsions have been used as a delivery system to protect conjugated linoleic acid (CLA), a polyunsaturated fatty acid, from oxidation. Conventional gum arabic (GA) and two matured gum arabic samples (EM2 and EM10) were used as emulsifiers to prepare CLA-in-water emulsions. The emulsions have optimal physical and chemical stability at gum concentrations of 5% for all three gums. Emulsions with higher gum concentrations are more susceptible to lipid oxidation. This is attributed to reduced physical stability at higher gum concentrations because of the coalescence and depletion-induced flocculation of the emulsion droplets. The prooxidants iron and copper intrinsically contained in the gums could also contribute to this instability. Among the three gums, EM10 provides the most effective protection for CLA both physically and chemically, because of its superior interfacial properties over GA and EM2.

  17. Physical and Chemical Properties of Modified Nanodiamonds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Puzyr, A. P.; Bondar, V. S.; Bukayemsky, A. A.; Selyutin, G. E.; Kargin, V. F.

    A unique technology of nanodiamond surface modification is suggested which allows to separation of commercial nanodiamond powders into two fractions (F1 and F2), each possessing absolutely new properties as compared to the initial powder. Fl and F2 differ in size characteristics. Initial and modified nanodiamonds contain iron impurities and two types of nondiamond carbon. The color of the powders and hydrosols does not correlate with the content of non-diamond carbon. According to the EPR data, modified nanodiamonds possess a high level of diamond matrix shielding, and the extracted fractions differ in width of the basic transition area and in the SHF energy adsorption ratio. Due to this, Fl can be applied as precursors for CVD growth of nanocrystalline diamond and as field electron emission tips.

  18. Rock physics properties of some lunar samples

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Warren, N.; Trice, R.; Anderson, O. L.; Soga, N.

    1973-01-01

    Linear strains and acoustic velocity data for lunar samples under uniaxial and hydrostatic loading are presented. Elastic properties are presented for 60335,20; 15555,68; 15498,23; and 12063,97. Internal friction data are summarized for a number of artificial lunar glasses with compositions similar to lunar rocks 12009, 12012, 14305, 15021, and 15555. Zero porosity model-rock moduli are calculated for a number of lunar model-rocks, with mineralogies similar to Apollo 12, 14, and 16 rocks. Model-rock calculations indicate that rock types in the troctolitic composition range may provide reasonable modeling of the lunar upper mantle. Model calculations involving pore crack effects are compatible with a strong dependence of rock moduli on pore strain, and therefore of rock velocities on nonhydrostatic loading. The high velocity of rocks under uniaxial loading appears to be compatible with, and may aid in, interpretation of near-surface velocity profiles observed in the active seismic experiment.

  19. Physical Properties of Asteroid (1917) Cuyo

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rożek, A.; Lowry, S. C.; Duddy, S. R.; Snodgrass, C.; Weissman, P. R.; Wolters, S. D.; Fitzsimmons, A.; Green, S. F.; Hicks, M. D.; Rozitis, B.

    2013-09-01

    Asteroid (1917) Cuyo is a Near-Earth Asteroid (NEA) from the Amor group. It is orbitting the Sun on a highly elongated orbit with semimajor axis 2.15 AU and eccentricity 0.504. At a low delta-V (8.6 kms-1) it could be a potential target for future spacecraft missions. Radar observations indicated a slight elongation of the object with a "breadth ratio" of the asteroid's mean cross section estimated to be 1.14 [7]. Further studies showed its rotation period to be 2.6905 ± 0.0007h [11], and it was classified as 'Sr' type in the Bus-DeMeo taxonomy [8]. Cuyo was observed as part of our ESO Large Programme. The programme includes ongoing optical photometric monitoring of selected NEAs, thermal-IR observations, and optical-NIR spectroscopy. Among the principal aims of the programme are the physical characterisation of NEAs, shape modelling, and search for YORP-induced changes in rotation periods. Here we present our latest results and analysis from our observational monitoring of (1917) Cuyo. We are conducting a broad study of this asteroid, including optical photometry and spectroscopy, and thermal-IR observations. This work is ongoing and we shall present our latest results at the meeting.

  20. Vegetable oil fuel standards

    SciTech Connect

    Pryde, E.H.

    1982-01-01

    Suggested standards for vegetable oils and ester fuels, as well as ASTM specifications for No. 2 diesel oil are given. The following physical properties were discussed: cetane number, cloud point, distillation temperatures, flash point, pour point, turbidity, viscosity, free fatty acids, iodine value, phosphorus, and wax. It was apparent that vegetable oils and their esters cannot meet ASTM specifications D975 for No. 2 diesel oil for use in the diesel engine. Vegetable oil modification or engine design modification may make it possible eventually for vegetable oils to become suitable alternative fuels. Vegetable oils must be recognized as experimental fuels until modifications have been tested thoroughly and generally accepted. 1 table. (DP)

  1. 17 CFR 229.1208 - (Item 1208) Oil and gas properties, wells, operations, and acreage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...) Productive wells include producing wells and wells mechanically capable of production. (4) Undeveloped... properties, wells, operations, and acreage. 229.1208 Section 229.1208 Commodity and Securities Exchanges... Registrants Engaged in Oil and Gas Producing Activities § 229.1208 (Item 1208) Oil and gas properties,...

  2. 17 CFR 229.1208 - (Item 1208) Oil and gas properties, wells, operations, and acreage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...) Productive wells include producing wells and wells mechanically capable of production. (4) Undeveloped... properties, wells, operations, and acreage. 229.1208 Section 229.1208 Commodity and Securities Exchanges... Registrants Engaged in Oil and Gas Producing Activities § 229.1208 (Item 1208) Oil and gas properties,...

  3. Immunomodulatory and Physical Effects of Oil Composition in Vaccine Adjuvant Emulsions

    PubMed Central

    Fox, Christopher B.; Baldwin, Susan L.; Duthie, Malcolm S.; Reed, Steven G.; Vedvick, Thomas S.

    2011-01-01

    Squalene-based oil-in-water emulsions have been used for years in some seasonal and pandemic influenza vaccines. However, concerns have been expressed regarding squalene source and potential biological activities. Little information is available regarding the immunomodulatory activity of squalene in comparison with other metabolizable oils in the context of oil-in-water emulsions formulated with vaccines. The present work describes the manufacture and physical characterization of emulsions composed of different classes of oils, including squalene, long chain triglycerides, a medium chain triglyceride, and a perfluorocarbon, all emulsified with egg phosphatidylcholine. Some differences were apparent among the non-squalene oils in terms of emulsion stability, including higher size polydispersity in the perfluorocarbon emulsion, more rapid visual instability at 60 °C for the long-chain triglyceride and perfluorocarbon emulsions, and an increased creaming rate in the medium-chain triglyceride emulsion at 60 °C as detected by laser scattering optical profiling. The biological activity of each of these emulsions was compared when formulated with either a recombinant malaria antigen or a split-virus inactivated influenza vaccine. Overall, vaccines containing the squalene emulsion elicited higher antibody titers and more abundant long-lived plasma cells than vaccines containing emulsions based on other oils. Since squalene-based emulsions show higher adjuvant potency compared to the other oils tested, non-squalene oils may be more suitable as carriers of amphiphilic or hydrophobic immunostimulatory molecules (such as TLR agonists) rather than as stand-alone adjuvants. PMID:21906648

  4. Varnish forming properties of sunflower oil and how they relate to its use as fuel in diesel tractors

    SciTech Connect

    Olson, C.

    1982-05-01

    In diesel engines, polymerization of unburned sunflower oil forms a solid insoluble film or varnish on injectors, piston ring grooves and in lubricating oil. The chemical properties of sunflower oil which give rise to this effect are discussed. Partial hydrogenation of sunflower oil would seem to be the best solution for North Dakota sunflower oil at present. (Refs. 9).

  5. SAPHYR: the Swiss Atlas of PHYsical properties of Rocks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wenning, Q. C.; Zappone, A. S.; Kissling, E.

    2015-12-01

    The Swiss Atlas of PHYsical properties of Rocks (SAPHYR) is a multi-year project, aiming to compile a comprehensive data set on physical properties of rocks exposed in Switzerland and surrounding areas. The ultimate goal of SAPHYR is to make these data accessible to an open and wide public, such as industrial, engineering, land and resource planning companies, as well as academic institutions. Since the early sixties worldwide geophysicists, petrologists, and engineers, focused their work on laboratory measurements of rocks physical properties, and their relations with microstructures, mineralogical compositions and other rock parameters, in the effort to constrain the geological interpretation of geophysical surveys. In combination with efforts to investigate deep structure of the continental crust by controlled source seismology, laboratories capable to reproduce pressure and temperature conditions to depth of 50km and more collected measurements of various parameters on a wide variety of rock types. In recent years, the increasing interest on non-traditional energy supply, (deep geothermal energy, shale gas) and CO2 storage renovated the interests in physical characterization of the deep underground. The idea to organize those laboratory data into a geographically referenced database (GIS) is supported by the Swiss Commission for Geophysics. The data refer to density and porosity, seismic, magnetic, thermal properties, permeability and electrical properties. An effort has been placed on collecting samples and measuring the physical properties of lithologies that are poorly documented in literature. The phase of laboratory measurements is still in progress. At present SAPHYR focuses towards developing a 3-D physical properties model of the Swiss subsurface, using the structure of the exposed geology, boreholes data and seismic surveys, combined with lab determined pressure and temperature derivatives. An early version of the final product is presented here.

  6. Physical Properties of Hanford Transuranic Waste Sludge

    SciTech Connect

    Berg, John C.

    2005-06-01

    Equipment that was purchased in the abbreviated year 1 of this project has been used during year 2 to study the fundamental behavior of materials that simulate the behavior of the Hanford transuranic waste sludge. Two significant results have been found, and each has been submitted for publication. Both studies found non-DLVO behavior in simulant systems. These separate but related studies were performed concurrently. It was previously shown in Rassat et al.'s report Physical and Liquid Chemical Simulant Formulations for Transuranic Wastes in Hanford Single-Shell Tanks that colloidal clays behave similarly to transuranic waste sludge (PNNL-14333, National Technical Information Service, U.S. Dept. of Commerce). Rassat et al. also discussed the pH and salt content of actual waste materials. It was shown that these materials exist at high pHs, generally above 10, and at high salt content, approximately 1.5 M from a mixture of different salts. A type of clay commonly studied, due to its uniformity, is a synthetic hectorite, Laponite. Therefore the work performed over the course of the last year was done mainly using suspensions of Laponite at high pH and involving high salt concentrations. One study was titled ''Relating Clay Rheology to Colloidal Parameters''. It has been submitted to the Journal of Colloid and INterface Science and is currently in the review process. The idea was to gain the ability to use measurable quantities to predict the flow behavior of clay systems, which should be similar to transuranic waste sludge. Leong et al. had previously shown that the yield stress of colloidal slurries of titania and alumina could be predicted, given the measurement of the accessible parameter zeta potential (Leong YK et al. J Chem Soc Faraday Trans, 19 (1993) 2473). Colloidal clays have a fundamentally different morphology and surface charge distribution than the spheroidal, uniformly charged colloids previously studied. This study was therefore performed in order to

  7. Effect of fish oil encapsulates incorporation on the physico-chemical and sensory properties of cookies.

    PubMed

    Jeyakumari, A; Janarthanan, G; Chouksey, M K; Venkateshwarlu, G

    2016-01-01

    A great deal of attention has been focused on the various health benefits apparently associated with consumption of fish oil. The incorporation of fish oils in food products is becoming increasingly widespread and a large variety of products is being marketed. However, the use of fish oil as functional nutritional ingredients in foods has been limited by its oxidative susceptibility. In the present study, attempts were made to develop fish oil fortified cookies as healthy snack foods by incorporating fish oil microencapsulate. Microencapsulation of fish oil was done by spray drying. Commercially available milk was used to form micro sized complexes with fish oil. Fish gelatin/maltodextrin were used as a wall material for encapsulation. Fish oil was added in three forms (fish oil as such, fish oil-in-water emulsion and fish oil microencapsulate) for the preparation of cookies. Cookies prepared without incorporating fish oil was served as control. The physical, chemical and sensory attributes of cookies were evaluated. Encapsulation significantly (P < 0.05) decreased lipid oxidation in the cookies. The sensory evaluation of cookies showed significant (P < 0.05) difference in the overall acceptability. Results from this study, demonstrated the possibility of fish oil incorporation into cookies through emulsification and microencapsulation which may increase the intake of omega-3 fatty acids for nutritional benefits. PMID:26788008

  8. Effect of fish oil encapsulates incorporation on the physico-chemical and sensory properties of cookies.

    PubMed

    Jeyakumari, A; Janarthanan, G; Chouksey, M K; Venkateshwarlu, G

    2016-01-01

    A great deal of attention has been focused on the various health benefits apparently associated with consumption of fish oil. The incorporation of fish oils in food products is becoming increasingly widespread and a large variety of products is being marketed. However, the use of fish oil as functional nutritional ingredients in foods has been limited by its oxidative susceptibility. In the present study, attempts were made to develop fish oil fortified cookies as healthy snack foods by incorporating fish oil microencapsulate. Microencapsulation of fish oil was done by spray drying. Commercially available milk was used to form micro sized complexes with fish oil. Fish gelatin/maltodextrin were used as a wall material for encapsulation. Fish oil was added in three forms (fish oil as such, fish oil-in-water emulsion and fish oil microencapsulate) for the preparation of cookies. Cookies prepared without incorporating fish oil was served as control. The physical, chemical and sensory attributes of cookies were evaluated. Encapsulation significantly (P < 0.05) decreased lipid oxidation in the cookies. The sensory evaluation of cookies showed significant (P < 0.05) difference in the overall acceptability. Results from this study, demonstrated the possibility of fish oil incorporation into cookies through emulsification and microencapsulation which may increase the intake of omega-3 fatty acids for nutritional benefits.

  9. On-farm production of soybean oil and its properties as a fuel

    SciTech Connect

    Suh, S.R.

    1983-01-01

    This study presents the design of a system for on-farm production of soybean oil for use as a fuel in compression ignition engines. The soybean oil production system consists of a heat exchanger to heat the beans with the exhaust gas of an engine, a screw press and a system for water degumming and drying the expressed crude oil. Optimum parameters of the oil production system were found. The rheological properties of soybean oil, ester of soybean oil and blends of the above with diesel fuel and diesel fuel additives are given. Data on soybean temperature, outlet gas temperature and thermal efficiency were obtained from a developed mathematical model of the heat exchanger. Chemical analyses show that crude oil from the press is similar to that of commercially degummed oil. The degumming process is not needed for the crude oil to be used as a fuel in compression ignition engines. Rheological properties of the soybean oil and soybean oil diesel fuel mixture show that the fluids have viscosities of time independent characteristics and are Newtonian fluids. Diesel fuel additives having low viscosities can be used to lower the viscosity of soybean oil and blends with diesel fuel but the effect is insignificant.

  10. Physical properties of Southern infrared dark clouds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vasyunina, T.; Linz, H.; Henning, Th.; Stecklum, B.; Klose, S.; Nyman, L.-Å.

    2009-05-01

    Context: What are the mechanisms by which massive stars form? What are the initial conditions for these processes? It is commonly assumed that cold and dense Infrared Dark Clouds (IRDCs) represent the birth-sites of massive stars. Therefore, these clouds have been receiving an increasing amount of attention, and their analysis offers the opportunity to tackle the afore mentioned questions. Aims: To enlarge the sample of well-characterised IRDCs in the southern hemisphere, where ALMA will play a major role in the near future, we have developed a program to study the gas and dust of southern infrared dark clouds. The present paper attempts to characterize the continuum properties of this sample of IRDCs. Methods: We cross-correlated 1.2 mm continuum data from SIMBA bolometer array mounted on SEST telescope with Spitzer/GLIMPSE images to establish the connection between emission sources at millimeter wavelengths and the IRDCs that we observe at 8 μm in absorption against the bright PAH background. Analysing the dust emission and extinction enables us to determine the masses and column densities, which are important quantities in characterizing the initial conditions of massive star formation. We also evaluated the limitations of the emission and extinction methods. Results: The morphology of the 1.2 mm continuum emission is in all cases in close agreement with the mid-infrared extinction. The total masses of the IRDCs were found to range from 150 to 1150 M_⊙ (emission data) and from 300 to 1750 M_⊙ (extinction data). We derived peak column densities of between 0.9 and 4.6 × 1022 cm-2 (emission data) and 2.1 and 5.4 × 1022 cm-2 (extinction data). We demonstrate that the extinction method is unreliable at very high extinction values (and column densities) beyond AV values of roughly 75 mag according to the Weingartner & Draine (2001) extinction relation RV = 5.5 model B (around 200 mag when following the common Mathis (1990, ApJ, 548, 296) extinction calibration

  11. Physical and processing properties of milk, butter, and cheddar cheese from cows fed supplemental fish meal.

    PubMed

    Avramis, C A; Wang, H; McBride, B W; Wright, T C; Hill, A R

    2003-08-01

    Physical, chemical, sensory and processing properties of milk produced by feeding a rumen-undegradable fish meal protein supplement to Holstein cows were investigated. The supplement contained (as fed basis) 25% soft-white wheat, 60% herring meal, and 15% feather meal. The total fat level in the milk decreased to 2.43%. For both pasteurized and ultra-high temperature processed drinking milk, no difference was found between fish meal (FM) milk and control milk in terms of color, flavor and flavor stability; in particular, no oxidized flavor was observed. Cheddar cheese made from FM milk ripened faster after 3 mo of ripening and developed a more desirable texture and stronger Cheddar flavor. The yield efficiencies for FM and control cheese, 94.4 (+/- 2.44 SE) and 96.4 (+/- 2.26 SE), respectively, were not different. Relative to controls, average fat globule size was smaller in FM milk and churning time of FM cream was longer. FM butter had softer texture and better cold spreadability, and butter oils from FM enriched milk had lower dropping points compared to control butter oil (average 32.89 versus 34.06 degrees C). These differences in physical properties of butter fat were greater than expected considering that iodine values were not different. This study demonstrates the feasibility of producing high quality products from milk naturally supplemented with FM, but the results also show that dietary changes affect processing properties.

  12. Effect of composition on physical properties of food powders

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Szulc, Karolina; Lenart, Andrzej

    2016-04-01

    The paper presents an influence of raw material composition and technological process applied on selected physical properties of food powders. Powdered multi-component nutrients were subjected to the process of mixing, agglomeration, coating, and drying. Wetting liquids ie water and a 15% water lactose solution, were used in agglomeration and coating. The analyzed food powders were characterized by differentiated physical properties, including especially: particle size, bulk density, wettability, and dispersibility. The raw material composition of the studied nutrients exerted a statistically significant influence on their physical properties. Agglomeration as well as coating of food powders caused a significant increase in particle size, decreased bulk density, increased apparent density and porosity, and deterioration in flowability in comparison with non-agglomerated nutrients.

  13. Investigating correlation between legal and physical property: possibilities and constraints

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dimopoulou, E.; Kitsakis, D.; Tsiliakou, E.

    2015-06-01

    Contemporary urban environment is characterized by complexity and mixed use of space, in which overlapping land parcels and different RRRs (Rights, Restrictions and Responsibilities) are frequent phenomena. Internationally, real property legislation either focuses on surface property or has introduced individual 3D real property units. The former approach merely accommodates issues related to subdivision, expropriation and transactions on part of the real property above or below surface, while the latter provides for defining and registering 3D real property units. National laws require two-dimensional real property descriptions and only a limited number of jurisdictions provide for threedimensional data presentation and recording. International awareness on 3D Cadastre may be apparent through the proposals for transition of existing cadastral systems to 3D along with legal amendments improving national 3D Cadastre legislation. Concurrently the use of appropriate data sources and the correct depiction of 3D property units' boundaries and spatial relationships need to be addressed. Spatial relations and constraints amongst real world objects could be modeled geometrically and topologically utilizing numerous modeling tools, e.g. CityGML, BIM and further sophisticated 3D software or by adapting international standards, e.g. LADM. A direct correlation between legal and physical property should be based on consistent geometry between physical and legal space, improving the accuracy that legal spaces' volumes or locations are defined. To address these issues, this paper investigates correlation possibilities and constraints between legal and physical space of typical 3D property cases. These cases comprise buildings or their interior spaces with mixed use, as well as complex structures described by explicit facade patterns, generated by procedural or by BIM ready 3D models. The 3D models presented are evaluated, regarding compliancy to physical or legal reality.

  14. Lipid-derived Thermoplastic Poly(ester urethane)s: Effect of Structure on Physical Properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shetranjiwalla, Shegufta

    Thermoplastic poly(ester urethane)s (TPEU)s derived from vegetable oils possess inferior physical properties compared to their entirely petroleum-based counterparts due to the structural limitations and lower reactivity of the precursor lipid-derived monomers. The present work shows that high molecular weight of TPEUs with enhanced performance can be obtained from lipid-derived monomers via (i) the synthesis of polyester diols with controlled molecular weights, (ii) the tuning of the functional group stoichiometry of the polyester diols and the diisocyanate during polymerization, (iii) the degree of polymerization (iv) the control of the hard segment hydrogen bond density and distribution via the use of a chain extender and (v) different polymerization protocols. Solvent-resistant TPEUs with high molecular weight displaying polyethylene-like behavior and controlled polyester and urethane segment phase separation were obtained. Structure-property investigations revealed that the thermal transition temperatures and tensile properties increased and eventually plateaued with increasing molecular weight. Novel segmented TPEUs possessed high phase separation and showed elastomeric properties such as low modulus and high elongation analogous to rubber. The response of the structurally optimized TPEUs to environmental degradation was also established by subjecting the TPEUs to hydrothermal ageing. TPEUs exhibited thermal and mechanical properties that were comparable to commercially available entirely petroleum-based counterparts, and that could be tuned in order to achieve enhanced physical properties and controlled degradability.

  15. Physical properties about metal matrix FGM of molybdenum and copper

    SciTech Connect

    Nakano, Kouichi; Nishida, Shinichi

    1995-11-01

    Metal matrix composites (MMC) have been made trials to produce by a lot of fabrication processes such as the powder metallurgical method, the plasma spraying, the diffusion bonding, the physical vapor deposition method, the hot isostatic pressing (HIP) etc. In the most cases of these processes, dissimilar materials are combined or bonded directly. The various physical properties are discontinuous at the bonded interface of the dissimilar materials. In order to overcome the problem, functionally gradient materials (FGM) have been considered recently, and have attracted the authors. Its compositions are prepared so that physical properties continuously vary across the bond interface of the dissimilar metals. In this study, a FGM is produced by a new process based on HIP. Copper and molybdenum, which are distinct in the thermo-physical property to each other, are the constitutents for the FGM. This composition have been confirmed by absorbed electron and characteristics X-ray images of each mixed layer for FGM to be uniform or continuous. The following items have been investigated and compared with the linear law of mixture rule: Vickers hardness, thermal expansion, and thermal conductivity at a one-dimensional non-steady state. Those physical properties have been identified to depend on the mixing ratios of copper and molybdenum. Pretty good agreements have been obtained between the experimental data and the calculated values according to the linear law of mixture rule.

  16. Beach morphodynamics forcements in oiled shorelines: Coupled physical and chemical processes during and after fuel burial.

    PubMed

    Bernabeu, A M; Nuez de la Fuente, M; Rey, D; Rubio, B; Vilas, F; Medina, R; González, M E

    2006-10-01

    In November 2002, the sinking of the Prestige oil tanker off the Galician coast (N.W. Spain) caused the largest ecological catastrophe in the history of Spain, affecting the coast called the 'Costa da Morte' (Galicia, N.W. Spain). This work is focused on the study of the oil contamination of the intertidal area of two beaches located on this stretch of coast. The study of twenty cores extracted from both beaches has identified fuel embedded in the sedimentary column up to a depth of 2.38 m (this being the maximum depth of extraction). This, along with the presence of oil below the groundwater indicates the existence of a new factor which determines the burial of oil: the morphodynamic behaviour of the beach. Furthermore, this morphodynamic variation conditions the physical appearance of the buried oil. Four different types have been identified: tar-balls (cm), particles (mm), oil coatings on sediment grains and on emulsion, with distribution patterns conditioned by the degree of wave exposure. The analysis of the information obtained have permitted the development of a conceptual model of the burial and oil evolution in the sedimentary column in relation to wave exposure, and thus to the morphodynamic variability of the beach.

  17. Aerosol physical properties in the stratosphere (APPS) radiometer design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gray, C. R.; Woodin, E. A.; Anderson, T. J.; Magee, R. J.; Karthas, G. W.

    1977-01-01

    The measurement concepts and radiometer design developed to obtain earth-limb spectral radiance measurements for the Aerosol Physical Properties in the Stratosphere (APPS) measurement program are presented. The measurements made by a radiometer of this design can be inverted to yield vertical profiles of Rayleigh scatterers, ozone, nitrogen dioxide, aerosol extinction, and aerosol physical properties, including a Junge size-distribution parameter, and a real and imaginary index of refraction. The radiometer design provides the capacity for remote sensing of stratospheric constituents from space on platforms such as the space shuttle and satellites, and therefore provides for global measurements on a daily basis.

  18. Spatial variability of snow physical properties across northwestern Greenland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Courville, Z.; Polashenski, C.; Dibb, J. E.; Domine, F.

    2013-12-01

    In the late spring and early summer of 2013, researchers on the SAGE (Sunlight Absorption on the Greenland ice sheet Experiment) Traverse, embarked on a 4000 km ground traverse across northwestern Greenland in an attempt to quantify spatial variability of snow chemistry, snow physical properties, and snow reflectance. The field team targeted sites first visited by Carl Benson during his series of traverses from 1952 to 1955 as part of his pioneering work to characterize the Greenland Ice Sheet. This route now represents a rapidly changing and variable area of Greenland, as the route passes through several of the ice sheet facies first delimited by Benson. Along the traverse, the SAGE field team made ground-based albedo measurements using a hand-held spectroradiometer and collected snow physical property samples to determine snow specific surface area (SSA) from shallow, 2m pits. In addition, snow density and stratigraphy were measured. Snow layers in the near-surface and at the previous season's melt layer were targeted for sampling. Here we present preliminary snow physical property results from the upper portion of the snow pits and relate these to surface albedo data collected over the route. Further measurements of snow properties in the 2012 melt layer will be analyzed to assess the potential role of snow chemical (see Dibb et al. for a discussion of chemical analysis) and physical property driven albedo feedbacks could have played in contributing to that event. Route of 2013 SAGE Traverse in northwestern Greenland.

  19. Reconciling the Orbital and Physical Properties of the Martian Moons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ronnet, T.; Vernazza, P.; Mousis, O.; Brugger, B.; Beck, P.; Devouard, B.; Witasse, O.; Cipriani, F.

    2016-09-01

    The origin of Phobos and Deimos is still an open question. Currently, none of the three proposed scenarios for their origin (intact capture of two distinct outer solar system small bodies, co-accretion with Mars, and accretion within an impact-generated disk) are able to reconcile their orbital and physical properties. Here we investigate the expected mineralogical composition and size of the grains from which the moons once accreted assuming they formed within an impact-generated accretion disk. A comparison of our results with the present-day spectral properties of the moons allows us to conclude that their building blocks cannot originate from a magma phase, thus preventing their formation in the innermost part of the disk. Instead, gas-to-solid condensation of the building blocks in the outer part of an extended gaseous disk is found as a possible formation mechanism as it does allow reproducing both the spectral and physical properties of the moons. Such a scenario may finally reconcile their orbital and physical properties, alleviating the need to invoke an unlikely capture scenario to explain their physical properties.

  20. Modification of chemical and physical factors in steamflood to increase heavy oil recovery

    SciTech Connect

    Yortsos, Y.C.

    1992-04-01

    This report covers work performed in the area related to the physicochemical factors for the improvement of the oil recovery efficiency in steamfloods. In this context, three general areas are studied: (1) The understanding of vapor-liquid flow in porous media, whether the flow is internal (boiling), external (steam injection) or countercurrent (as in vertical heat pipes). (2) The effect of reservoir heterogeneity, particularly as it regards fractured systems and long and narrow reservoirs (which are typical of oil reservoirs). (3) The flow properties of additives for the improvement of recovery efficiency, in particular the properties of foams.

  1. Rheological properties of crude oils in Yaregskoye and Yaraktinskoye oil fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manzhai, V. N.; Le Grand Monkam Monkam, Clovis; Terre, D. A.

    2016-09-01

    Rotary viscometer tests of crude oil with a high content of resins and asphaltenes (Yaregskoye oil field) and crude oil with high paraffin content (Yaraktinskoye oil field) have been conducted. The typical flow curves for these oil types have been plotted. It has been detected that these oils are non-Newtonian fluids, viscosity of which is dependent on shear rate. Based on Arrhenius-Eyring equation, calculations of viscous flow activation energy and complex structural unit (CSU) sizes have been performed. It has been stated that there is a tenfold reduction in CSU size in asphaltic crude oil with the increase in shear rate in a rotary viscometer, while particle size in paraffinic crude oil does not essentially change under the same hydrodynamic conditions.

  2. The Oil Drop Experiment: An Illustration of Scientific Research Methodology and its Implications for Physics Textbooks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rodriguez, Maria A.; Niaz, Mansoor

    2004-01-01

    The objectives of this study are: (1) evaluation of the methodology used in recent search for particles with fractional electrical charge (quarks) and its implications for understanding the scientific research methodology of Millikan; (2) evaluation of 43 general physics textbooks and 11 laboratory manuals, with respect to the oil drop experiment,…

  3. DEVELOPMENT OF A COMPOSITION DATABASE FOR SELECTED MULTICOMPONENT OILS

    EPA Science Inventory

    During any oil spill incident, the properties of the spilled oil, including its chemical composition, physical properties, and changes due to weathering, are immediately important. U.S. EPA is currently developing new models for application to environmental problems associated...

  4. Experimental investigation of electro-rheological properties of modeled vegetable oils.

    PubMed

    Valantina, S Rubalya; Susan, D; Bavasri, S; Priyadarshini, V; Saraswathi, R Ramya; Suriya, M

    2016-02-01

    Vegetable oil becomes polarized on oxidation and polymerization resulting in the formation of peroxide, triglycerides, etc. The quality and reusable state were investigated for sunflower, sesame, rice bran oil and model oil with the addition of oleic acid (2, 4 and 6 %) and antioxidants (citric and tert-Butyl hydroquinone-TBHQ). Excessive reclaims of cooking oil produce toxic by-products due to chemical breakdown that induce the production of polar compounds in oil. To determine the consumable fitness, variations of dielectric constant are observed at different temperatures (29 to 70 °C) and frequencies (1 to 10(7)Hz) for the cooking oil. Physical parameters, such as viscosity and density associated with the saturated and unsaturated fatty acid, are also measured at different temperatures to determine the quality of oil. Dielectric constant and viscosity are correlated and analyzed using a newly developed equation with high correlation constant (R (2)  = 0.998) for oil added with citric acid. Oil added with 2-4 % of oleic acid is observed to have high determination coefficient (R (2)  > 0.92). A lowest correlation (R (2)  = 0.6-0.7) was observed for the oil added with TBHQ. The present study also states that addition of TBHQ to oil does not impede oxidation reaction. Besides, even the shelf life of the oil could not be enhanced and may produce adverse effects in human health.

  5. Experimental investigation of electro-rheological properties of modeled vegetable oils.

    PubMed

    Valantina, S Rubalya; Susan, D; Bavasri, S; Priyadarshini, V; Saraswathi, R Ramya; Suriya, M

    2016-02-01

    Vegetable oil becomes polarized on oxidation and polymerization resulting in the formation of peroxide, triglycerides, etc. The quality and reusable state were investigated for sunflower, sesame, rice bran oil and model oil with the addition of oleic acid (2, 4 and 6 %) and antioxidants (citric and tert-Butyl hydroquinone-TBHQ). Excessive reclaims of cooking oil produce toxic by-products due to chemical breakdown that induce the production of polar compounds in oil. To determine the consumable fitness, variations of dielectric constant are observed at different temperatures (29 to 70 °C) and frequencies (1 to 10(7)Hz) for the cooking oil. Physical parameters, such as viscosity and density associated with the saturated and unsaturated fatty acid, are also measured at different temperatures to determine the quality of oil. Dielectric constant and viscosity are correlated and analyzed using a newly developed equation with high correlation constant (R (2)  = 0.998) for oil added with citric acid. Oil added with 2-4 % of oleic acid is observed to have high determination coefficient (R (2)  > 0.92). A lowest correlation (R (2)  = 0.6-0.7) was observed for the oil added with TBHQ. The present study also states that addition of TBHQ to oil does not impede oxidation reaction. Besides, even the shelf life of the oil could not be enhanced and may produce adverse effects in human health. PMID:27162414

  6. AN EVALUATION OF PYROLYSIS OIL PROPERTIES AND CHEMISTRY AS RELATED TO PROCESS AND UPGRADE CONDITIONS WITH SPECIAL CONSIDERATION TO PIPELINE SHIPMENT

    SciTech Connect

    Bunting, Bruce G; Boyd, Alison C

    2012-01-01

    One factor limiting the development of commercial biomass pyrolysis is challenges related to the transportation of the produced pyrolysis oil. The oil has different chemical and physical properties than crude oil, including more water and oxygen and has lower H/C ratio, higher specific gravity and density, higher acidity, and lower energy content. These differences could limit its ability to be transported by existing petroleum pipelines. Pyrolysis oil can also be treated, normally by catalytic hydrodeoxygenation, and approaches crude oil and petroleum condensates at higher severity levels. This improvement also results in lower liquid yield and high hydrogen consumption. Biomass resources for pyrolysis are expected to become plentiful and widely distributed in the future, mainly through the use of crop residuals and growing of energy crops such as perennial grasses, annual grasses, and woody crops. Crude oil pipelines are less well distributed and, when evaluated on a county level, could access about 18% of the total biomass supply. States with high potential include Texas, Oklahoma, California, and Louisiana. In this study, published data on pyrolysis oil was compiled into a data set along with bio-source source material, pyrolysis reactor conditions, and upgrading conditions for comparison to typical crude oils. Data of this type is expected to be useful in understanding the properties and chemistry and shipment of pyrolysis oil to refineries, where it can be further processed to fuel or used as a source of process heat.

  7. The influence of surface properties on uptake of oil into complex coacervate microcapsules.

    PubMed

    Rabiskova, M; Song, J; Opawale, F O; Burgess, D J

    1994-08-01

    A range of surfactants with different hydrophile-lipophile balance (HLB) values was selected to investigate the influence of interfacial properties on the uptake of oil droplets into complex coacervate microcapsules. The well characterized gelatin/acacia complex coacervate system was used in this study and the encapsulation of squalane, and oleic acid was investigated. The surfactants investigated were Span 85, Span 80, Span 40, egg yolk lecithin, and Tween 80. Combinations of surfactants were utilized to obtain intermediate HLB values. The percentage oil encapsulated was determined gravimetrically, based on the initial concentration and the amount extracted from the microcapsules. The aqueous interfacial tension values of the oils and oil/surfactant systems were measured using the Wilhelmy plate method. The interfacial properties were correlated to the percentage oil uptake by the coacervate phase. The relative hydrophobicity/lipophilicity of the oil influenced its uptake by complex coacervate droplets. The presence of surfactant affected oil uptake, depending on the HLB value of the surfactant or surfactant mixture. Uptake of squalane by the gelatin/acacia coacervates was found to be optimized by the addition of surfactants with HLB values in the range 2.5-6. The percentage uptake of oil decreased rapidly for systems prepared containing surfactants with HLB values outside this range. No correlation was observed between oil uptake by the coacervate phase and the interfacial tension of the oil and oil/surfactant systems with double-distilled deionized water.

  8. Dissipative particle dynamics simulation on the rheological properties of heavy crude oil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Sibo; Xu, Junbo; Wen, Hao

    2015-11-01

    The rheological properties of heavy crude oil have a significant impact on the production, refining and transportation. In this paper, dissipative particle dynamics (DPD) simulations were performed to study the effects of the addition of light crude oil and emulsification on the rheological properties of heavy crude oil. The simulation results reflected that the addition of light crude oil reduced the viscosity effectively. The shear thinning behaviour of crude oil mixtures were becoming less distinct as the increase of the mass fraction of light crude oil. According to the statistics, the shear had an influence on the aggregation and spatial orientation of asphaltene molecules. In addition, the relationship between the viscosity and the oil mass fraction was investigated in the simulations of emulsion systems. The viscosity increased with the oil mass fraction slowly in oil-in-water emulsions. When the oil mass fraction was higher than 50%, the increase became much faster since systems had been converted into water-in-oil emulsions. The equilibrated morphologies of emulsion systems were shown to illustrate the phase inversion. The surfactant-like feature of asphaltenes was also studied in the simulations.

  9. A study of relations between physicochemical properties of crude oils and microbiological characteristics of reservoir microflora

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yashchenko, I. G.; Polishchuk, Yu. M.; Peremitina, T. O.

    2015-10-01

    The dependence of the population and activity of reservoir microflora upon the chemical composition and viscosity of crude oils has been investigated, since it allows the problem of improvement in the technologies and enhancement of oil recovery as applied to production of difficult types of oils with anomalous properties (viscous, heavy, waxy, high resin) to be solved. The effect of the chemical composition of the oil on the number, distribution, and activity of reservoir microflora has been studied using data on the microbiological properties of reservoir water of 16 different fields in oil and gas basins of Russia, Mongolia, China, and Vietnam. Information on the physicochemical properties of crude oils of these fields has been obtained from the database created at the Institute of Petroleum Chemistry, Siberian Branch on the physicochemical properties of oils throughout the world. It has been found that formation water in viscous oil reservoirs is char acterized by a large population of heterotrophic and sulfate reducing bacteria and the water of oil fields with a high paraffin content, by population of denitrifying bacteria.

  10. Hydrate morphology: Physical properties of sands with patchy hydrate saturation

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dai, S.; Santamarina, J.C.; Waite, William F.; Kneafsey, T.J.

    2012-01-01

    The physical properties of gas hydrate-bearing sediments depend on the volume fraction and spatial distribution of the hydrate phase. The host sediment grain size and the state of effective stress determine the hydrate morphology in sediments; this information can be used to significantly constrain estimates of the physical properties of hydrate-bearing sediments, including the coarse-grained sands subjected to high effective stress that are of interest as potential energy resources. Reported data and physical analyses suggest hydrate-bearing sands contain a heterogeneous, patchy hydrate distribution, whereby zones with 100% pore-space hydrate saturation are embedded in hydrate-free sand. Accounting for patchy rather than homogeneous hydrate distribution yields more tightly constrained estimates of physical properties in hydrate-bearing sands and captures observed physical-property dependencies on hydrate saturation. For example, numerical modeling results of sands with patchy saturation agree with experimental observation, showing a transition in stiffness starting near the series bound at low hydrate saturations but moving toward the parallel bound at high hydrate saturations. The hydrate-patch size itself impacts the physical properties of hydrate-bearing sediments; for example, at constant hydrate saturation, we find that conductivity (electrical, hydraulic and thermal) increases as the number of hydrate-saturated patches increases. This increase reflects the larger number of conductive flow paths that exist in specimens with many small hydrate-saturated patches in comparison to specimens in which a few large hydrate saturated patches can block flow over a significant cross-section of the specimen.

  11. Risk assessment of gas oil and kerosene contamination on some properties of silty clay soil.

    PubMed

    Fallah, M; Shabanpor, M; Zakerinia, M; Ebrahimi, S

    2015-07-01

    Soil and ground water resource pollution by petroleum compounds and chemical solvents has multiple negative environmental impacts. The aim of this research was to investigate the impacts of kerosene and gas oil pollutants on some physical and chemical properties, breakthrough curve (BTC), and water retention curve (SWRC) of silty clay soil during a 3-month period. Therefore, some water-saturated soils were artificially contaminated in the pulse condition inside some glassy cylinders by applying half and one pore volume of these pollutants, and then parametric investigations of the SWRC were performed using RETC software for Van Genukhten and Brooks-Corey equations in the various suctions and the soil properties were determined before and after pollution during 3 months. The results showed that gas oil and kerosene had a slight effect on soil pH and caused the cumulative enhancement in the soil respiration, increase in the bulk density and organic matter, and reduction in the soil porosity and electrical and saturated hydraulic conductivity. Furthermore, gas oil retention was significantly more than kerosene (almost 40%) in the soil. The survey of SWRC indicated that the contaminated soil samples had a little higher amount of moisture retention (just under 15% in most cases) compared to the unpolluted ones during this 3-month period. The parametric analysis of SWRC demonstrated an increase in the saturated water content, Θ s, from nearly 49% in the control sample to just under 53% in the polluted ones. Contaminants not only decreased the residual water content, Θ r, but also reduced the SWRC gradient, n, and amount of α parameter. The evaluation of both equations revealed more accurate prediction of SWRC's parameters by Van Genukhten compared to those of Brooks and Corey. PMID:26085279

  12. A data mining approach to finding relationships between reservoir properties and oil production for CHOPS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cai, Yongxiang; Wang, Xin; Hu, Kezhen; Dong, Mingzhe

    2014-12-01

    Cold heavy oil production with sand (CHOPS) is a primary oil extraction process for heavy crude oil and reservoir properties are key factors that contribute to the effectiveness of CHOPS. However, identification of the key reservoir properties and quantification of the relationships between the reservoir properties and the oil production are still challenging tasks. In this paper, we propose the use of a data mining approach for finding quantitative relationships between various reservoir properties and oil production for CHOPS. The approach includes four steps: firstly, a set of reservoir properties are identified to describe reservoir characteristics through a petrophysical analysis. In addition to common parameters, such as porosity and permeability, two new parameters - a fluid mobility factor and the maximum inscribed rectangular of net pay (MIRNP) - are proposed. Secondly, three new parameters to describe the production performance of wells are proposed: the peak value, effective life cycle and effective yield. Next, the fuzzy ranking method is used to rank the importance of the identified reservoir properties in terms of oil production. Finally, association rule mining is used to obtain quantitative relationships between reservoir property variables and the production performance of wells. The proposed methods have been applied for 118 wells in the Sparky Formation of the Lloydminster heavy oil field in Alberta. The result shows that the production performance of wells in the area could be described and predicted by using the found quantitative relations.

  13. Rice bran and raspberry seed oil-based nanocarriers with self-antioxidative properties as safe photoprotective formulations.

    PubMed

    Niculae, Gabriela; Lacatusu, Ioana; Badea, Nicoleta; Stan, Raluca; Vasile, Bogdan Stefan; Meghea, Aurelia

    2014-04-01

    The aim of this research was to develop advanced lipid nanocarriers based on renewable vegetable resources (rice bran oil and raspberry seed oil) that possess self-antioxidative properties, having advantages in terms of minimal side effects and exhibiting the ability to simultaneously co-encapsulate and co-release two active compounds. The focus has been oriented towards developing safe cosmetic formulations with broad-spectrum photoprotection based on these new lipid nanocarriers that contain large amounts of vegetable oils and low concentrations of synthetic UVA and UVB filters (butyl-methoxydibenzoylmethane - BMDBM and octocrylene - OCT). The lipid nanocarriers have a spherical shape and show good physical stability, with a zeta potential in the range of -25.5 to -32.4 mV. Both vegetable oils play a key role in the preparation of efficient nanocarriers, leading to a less ordered arrangement of the lipid core that offers many spaces for the entrapment of large amounts of BMDBM (79%) and OCT (90%), as wells as improved antioxidant activity and UV absorption properties, particularly for the lipid nanocarriers prepared from rice bran oil. By formulating the lipid nanocarriers into creams containing only 3.5% of the UV filters and 10.5% of the vegetable oils, the resulting sunscreens exhibited improved photoprotection, reflecting up to 91% and 93% of UVA and UVB rays, respectively. A new direction of research achieved by this study is the multiple release strategy of both UV filters from the same lipid nanocarrier. After 24 hours, a slow release of BMDBM (less than 4%) and OCT (17.5%) was obtained through a Fick diffusion process. This study demonstrates a significant advance in the areas of both nanotechnology and cosmetics, developing safer cosmetic formulations that possess broad antioxidant, photoprotective and co-release effectiveness due to the existence of a high content of nanostructured vegetable oils combined with a low amount of synthetic UV filters in the

  14. Rice bran and raspberry seed oil-based nanocarriers with self-antioxidative properties as safe photoprotective formulations.

    PubMed

    Niculae, Gabriela; Lacatusu, Ioana; Badea, Nicoleta; Stan, Raluca; Vasile, Bogdan Stefan; Meghea, Aurelia

    2014-04-01

    The aim of this research was to develop advanced lipid nanocarriers based on renewable vegetable resources (rice bran oil and raspberry seed oil) that possess self-antioxidative properties, having advantages in terms of minimal side effects and exhibiting the ability to simultaneously co-encapsulate and co-release two active compounds. The focus has been oriented towards developing safe cosmetic formulations with broad-spectrum photoprotection based on these new lipid nanocarriers that contain large amounts of vegetable oils and low concentrations of synthetic UVA and UVB filters (butyl-methoxydibenzoylmethane - BMDBM and octocrylene - OCT). The lipid nanocarriers have a spherical shape and show good physical stability, with a zeta potential in the range of -25.5 to -32.4 mV. Both vegetable oils play a key role in the preparation of efficient nanocarriers, leading to a less ordered arrangement of the lipid core that offers many spaces for the entrapment of large amounts of BMDBM (79%) and OCT (90%), as wells as improved antioxidant activity and UV absorption properties, particularly for the lipid nanocarriers prepared from rice bran oil. By formulating the lipid nanocarriers into creams containing only 3.5% of the UV filters and 10.5% of the vegetable oils, the resulting sunscreens exhibited improved photoprotection, reflecting up to 91% and 93% of UVA and UVB rays, respectively. A new direction of research achieved by this study is the multiple release strategy of both UV filters from the same lipid nanocarrier. After 24 hours, a slow release of BMDBM (less than 4%) and OCT (17.5%) was obtained through a Fick diffusion process. This study demonstrates a significant advance in the areas of both nanotechnology and cosmetics, developing safer cosmetic formulations that possess broad antioxidant, photoprotective and co-release effectiveness due to the existence of a high content of nanostructured vegetable oils combined with a low amount of synthetic UV filters in the

  15. [Antiradical properties of essential oils and extracts from clove bud and pimento].

    PubMed

    Misharina, T A; Alinkina, E S; Medvedeva, I B

    2015-01-01

    The antiradical properties of essential oils and extracts from the clove bud (Eugenia caryophyllata Thumb.) and berries of tree (Pimenta dioica (L.) Meriff) were studied and compared with the properties of synthetic antioxidant ionol (2,6-ditret-butyl-4-hydroxytoluene, BHT) in model reactions with the stable free 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical. The essential oils of clove bud and pimento had qualitatively close composition of the main components but differed by their quantitative content. In the studied samples, eugenol was the main compound with high antiradical activity. The reaction rates of essential oils and extracts with the DPPH radical were practically the same for essential oils and twice the reaction rate of BHT. The values of antiradical efficiency (AE) were also close for essential oils and were twice that for extracts and ionol. A synergetic action of components in the essential oil and extract of pimento on antiradical efficiency values was found.

  16. [Antiradical properties of essential oils and extracts from clove bud and pimento].

    PubMed

    Misharina, T A; Alinkina, E S; Medvedeva, I B

    2015-01-01

    The antiradical properties of essential oils and extracts from the clove bud (Eugenia caryophyllata Thumb.) and berries of tree (Pimenta dioica (L.) Meriff) were studied and compared with the properties of synthetic antioxidant ionol (2,6-ditret-butyl-4-hydroxytoluene, BHT) in model reactions with the stable free 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical. The essential oils of clove bud and pimento had qualitatively close composition of the main components but differed by their quantitative content. In the studied samples, eugenol was the main compound with high antiradical activity. The reaction rates of essential oils and extracts with the DPPH radical were practically the same for essential oils and twice the reaction rate of BHT. The values of antiradical efficiency (AE) were also close for essential oils and were twice that for extracts and ionol. A synergetic action of components in the essential oil and extract of pimento on antiradical efficiency values was found. PMID:25842910

  17. [FREQUENTLY USED VEGETABLE OILS IN SOUTH AMERICA: FEATURES AND PROPERTIES].

    PubMed

    Durán Agüero, Samuel; Torres García, Jairo; Sanhueza Catalán, Julio

    2015-07-01

    In recent decades, the consumption of vegetable oils has increased in our society, being an important part of the diet worldwide. South America is a major producer of an important variety of vegetable oils. The composition of vegetable oils is not standard as it varies greatly in the amount of saturated, monounsaturated and polyunsaturated fatty acids, and particularly in the amounts of omega-6 and omega-3, which are associated with the source either plant species, seed, plant or fruit, providing different nutritional benefits. The purpose of this article is to review and update the data and evidence about the consumption of oils produced and commercialized in South America, such as soybean oil, corn, palm, sunflower, canola and olive oils, and also to determine health effects from studies related with the topic.

  18. Synthesis and physical properties of pennycress estolides and esters

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A new series of pennycress (Thlasphi arvense L.) based free-acid estolides was synthesized by an acid-catalyzed condensation reaction, followed by an esterification reaction to produce the 2-ethylhexyl (2-EH) esters of the initial estolides. The physical properties of the estolides are highly affect...

  19. Physical property characterization of 183-H Basin sludge

    SciTech Connect

    Biyani, R.K.; Delegard, C.H.

    1995-09-20

    This document describes the characterization of 183-H Basin sludge physical properties, e.g. bulk density of sludge and absorbent, and determination of free liquids. Calcination of crucible-size samples of sludge was also done and the resulting `loss-on-ignition` was compared to the theoretical weight loss based on sludge analysis obtained from Weston Labs.

  20. Mechanical and physical properties of modern boron fibers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dicarlo, J. A.

    1978-01-01

    The results of accurate measurements of the modern boron fiber's Young's modulus, flexural modulus, shear modulus, and Poisson's ratio are reported. Physical property data concerning fiber density, thermal expansion, and resistance obtained during the course of the mechanical studies are also given.

  1. Physical Properties of Meteorite Falls in Relation to Planetary Defense

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ostrowski, D.; Sears, D. W. G.; Bryson, K.; Agrawal, P.

    2015-07-01

    NASA ARC has set up a new lab to study a suite of physical properties of all types of meteorite falls. This is aide to the Planetary Defense initiative at Ames in determining how to deflect or the impact outcome of potentially hazardous bodies.

  2. Physical and Chemical Properties of Anthropogenic Aerosols: An overview

    EPA Science Inventory

    A wide variety of anthropogenic sources emit fine aerosols to the atmosphere. The physical and chemical properties of these aerosols are of interest due to their influence on climate, human health, and visibility. Aerosol chemical composition is complex. Combustion aerosols can c...

  3. Characterization of physical and aerodynamic properties of walnuts

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The objective of this research was to study the physical and aerodynamic properties of freshly harvested walnuts. Measurements were carried out for three walnut varieties, Tulare, Howard and Chandler cultivated in California, USA. The nuts treated with and without Ethephon were collected from mechan...

  4. Physical Properties of Craters on Asteroid (21) Lutetia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vincent, J.-B.; Marchi, S.; Besse, S.; Böhnhardt, H.; Sierks, H.; A'Hearn, M.; Angrilli, F.; Barbieri, C.; Barucci, A.; Cremonese, G.; da Deppo, V.; Davidsson, B.; Debei, S.; de Cecco, M.; Fornasier, S.; Fulle, M.; Groussin, O.; Gutierrez, P.; Hviid, S. F.; Ip, W.-H.; Keller, H. U.; Kramm, J. R.; Knollenberg, J.; Koschny, D.; Kuehrt, E.; Kueppers, M.; Lamy, P.; Lara, L. M.; Lazzarin, M.; Lopez-Moreno, J. J.; Magrin, S.; Marzari, F.; Massironi, M.; Michalik, H.; Naletto, G.; Rickman, H.; Rodrigo, R.; Sabau, L.; Thomas, N.; Wenzel, K.-P.

    2011-03-01

    This abstract presents the physical properties of craters derived from the measurement of depth/diameter ratios on asteroid (21) Lutetia. We show how the d/D ratio varies in different regions and how it can be used to better understand the processes that affected the surface.

  5. IMPROVED PHYSICAL PROPERTIES OF ZEIN USING GLYOXAL AS A CROSSLINKER

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The effect of crosslinkers glyoxal, methylglyoxal and formaldehyde on physical properties of zein films was studied. Zein was solubilized in 90%(v/v) aqueous ethanol and the pH was adjusted with either hydrochloric acid or sodium hydroxide. Crosslinkers were added to 0.3, 1, 3 and 6%(w/w by zein w...

  6. IMPROVED PHYSICAL PROPERTIES OF ZEIN USING GLYOXAL AS A CROSSLINKER

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The effect of crosslinkers glyoxal, methylglyoxal and formaldehyde on physical properties of zein films was studied. Crosslinker concentrations varied from 0.3 to 6% by zein weight. Films crosslinked with glyoxal and formaldehyde showed a significant increase in tensile strength under certain pH c...

  7. Effect of adjuvant physical properties on spray characteristics

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The effects of adjuvant physical properties on spray characteristics were studied. Dynamic surface tension was measured with a Sensa Dyne surface tensiometer 6000 using the maximum bubble pressure method. Viscosity was measured with a Brookfield synchro-lectric viscometer model LVT using a UL adap...

  8. Geology and physical properties of the Monterey Formation, California

    SciTech Connect

    Isaacs, C.M.

    1984-04-01

    Original sediments of the Monterey Formation have diverse compositions reflecting both paleobasin setting (fine detritus) and oceanographic productivity (silica/carbonate). Varying stages of diagenesis, which includes silica phase transformations and dolomitization, have produced fractured reservoirs characterized by a complex array of rock types with a wide range of physical properties.

  9. Physical Properties of Cell Water in Partially Dried Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    PubMed Central

    Koga, Shozo; Echigo, Akira; Nunomura, Kazuko

    1966-01-01

    The equilibrium vapor pressure, the heat of vaporization, the dielectric increment, and the NMR spectra of partially dried cells were studied in Saccharomyces cerevisiae with water contents varying in the range from 25 to 0.8%. The comparative study of those physical properties suggests that physical states of the microbe can be classified into four regions in accordance with the states of the cell water: the solution region, the gel region, the mobile adsorption region, and the localized water region. Much difference in the physiological properties is found between the cells in the solution region and those in the gel region, whereas the pattern changes in physical properties take place when the cells in the gel region are dried to a further extent into the mobile or the localized region. The various modes in the molecular motion of the cell water reflected in those physical properties of the cell seem to give some insight into the biological functions of the molecule in the native as well as the dried states of the cell. PMID:5970569

  10. Electrical properties of dispersions of graphene in mineral oil

    SciTech Connect

    Monteiro, O. R.

    2014-02-03

    Dispersions of graphene in mineral oil have been prepared and electrical conductivity and permittivity have been measured. The direct current (DC) conductivity of the dispersions depends on the surface characteristics of the graphene platelets and followed a percolation model with a percolation threshold ranging from 0.05 to 0.1 wt. %. The difference in DC conductivities can be attributed to different states of aggregation of the graphene platelets and to the inter-particle electron transfer, which is affected by the surface radicals. The frequency-dependent conductivity (σ(ω)) and permittivity (ε(ω)) were also measured. The conductivity of dispersions with particle contents much greater than the percolation threshold remains constant and equal to the DC conductivity at low frequencies ω with and followed a power-law σ(ω)∝ ω{sup s} dependence at very high frequencies with s≈0.9. For dispersions with graphene concentration near the percolation threshold, a third regime was displayed at intermediate frequencies indicative of interfacial polarization consistent with Maxwell-Wagner effect typically observed in mixtures of two (or more) phases with very distinct electrical and dielectric properties.

  11. Effect of agronomical practices on carpology, fruit and oil composition, and oil sensory properties, in olive (Olea europaea L.).

    PubMed

    Rosati, Adolfo; Cafiero, Caterina; Paoletti, Andrea; Alfei, Barbara; Caporali, Silvia; Casciani, Lorena; Valentini, Massimiliano

    2014-09-15

    We examined whether some agronomical practices (i.e. organic vs. conventional) affect olive fruit and oil composition, and oil sensory properties. Fruit characteristics (i.e. fresh and dry weight of pulp and pit, oil content on a fresh and dry weight basis) did not differ. Oil chemical traits did not differ except for increased content of polyphenols in the organic treatments, and some changes in the acidic composition. Sensory analysis revealed increased bitterness (both cultivars) and pungency (Frantoio) and decreased sweetness (Frantoio) in the organic treatment. Fruit metabolomic analysis with HRMAS-NMR indicated significant changes in some compounds including glycocholate, fatty acids, NADPH, NADP+, some amino acids, thymidine, trigonelline, nicotinic acid, 5,6-dihydrouracil, hesanal, cis-olefin, β-D-glucose, propanal and some unassigned species. The results suggest that agronomical practices may have effects on fruit composition that may be difficult to detect unless a broad-spectrum analysis is used.

  12. Effects of Several Natural Macromolecules on the Stability and Controlled Release Properties of Water-in-Oil-in-Water Emulsions.

    PubMed

    Li, Jinlong; Shi, Yiheng; Zhu, Yunping; Teng, Chao; Li, Xiuting

    2016-05-18

    Water-in-oil-in-water (W/O/W) emulsions are effective vehicles for embedding application of active compounds but limited by their thermodynamic instability and rapid release properties. The present study added bovine serum albumin, whey protein isolate, whey protein hydrolysate, sodium caseinate, carboxymethylcellulose sodium, fish gelatin, apple pectin, gum arabic, ι-carrageenan, and hydroxypropyl chitosan separately to the internal or external aqueous phase to investigate their effects on the physical stabilities and controlled release properties of W/O/W emulsions. The effects of the natural macromolecules in the internal and external aqueous phases were different and depended upon the macromolecule structure and its mass fraction. The addition of the natural macromolecule strengthened the interfaces of emulsions, which improved the physical stability. The natural macromolecules that improved the stability often did not improve controlled release. Therefore, the balance between these properties needs to be considered when adding natural macromolecules to a W/O/W emulsion. PMID:27137850

  13. Effects of Several Natural Macromolecules on the Stability and Controlled Release Properties of Water-in-Oil-in-Water Emulsions.

    PubMed

    Li, Jinlong; Shi, Yiheng; Zhu, Yunping; Teng, Chao; Li, Xiuting

    2016-05-18

    Water-in-oil-in-water (W/O/W) emulsions are effective vehicles for embedding application of active compounds but limited by their thermodynamic instability and rapid release properties. The present study added bovine serum albumin, whey protein isolate, whey protein hydrolysate, sodium caseinate, carboxymethylcellulose sodium, fish gelatin, apple pectin, gum arabic, ι-carrageenan, and hydroxypropyl chitosan separately to the internal or external aqueous phase to investigate their effects on the physical stabilities and controlled release properties of W/O/W emulsions. The effects of the natural macromolecules in the internal and external aqueous phases were different and depended upon the macromolecule structure and its mass fraction. The addition of the natural macromolecule strengthened the interfaces of emulsions, which improved the physical stability. The natural macromolecules that improved the stability often did not improve controlled release. Therefore, the balance between these properties needs to be considered when adding natural macromolecules to a W/O/W emulsion.

  14. Physical properties of biological entities: an introduction to the ontology of physics for biology.

    PubMed

    Cook, Daniel L; Bookstein, Fred L; Gennari, John H

    2011-01-01

    As biomedical investigators strive to integrate data and analyses across spatiotemporal scales and biomedical domains, they have recognized the benefits of formalizing languages and terminologies via computational ontologies. Although ontologies for biological entities-molecules, cells, organs-are well-established, there are no principled ontologies of physical properties-energies, volumes, flow rates-of those entities. In this paper, we introduce the Ontology of Physics for Biology (OPB), a reference ontology of classical physics designed for annotating biophysical content of growing repositories of biomedical datasets and analytical models. The OPB's semantic framework, traceable to James Clerk Maxwell, encompasses modern theories of system dynamics and thermodynamics, and is implemented as a computational ontology that references available upper ontologies. In this paper we focus on the OPB classes that are designed for annotating physical properties encoded in biomedical datasets and computational models, and we discuss how the OPB framework will facilitate biomedical knowledge integration.

  15. Hydrophobic properties of Candida spp. under the influence of selected essential oils.

    PubMed

    Rajkowska, Katarzyna; Kunicka-Styczyńska, Alina; Pęczek, Marlena

    2015-01-01

    Processes of colonization of biotic and abiotic surfaces and biofilm formation depend inter alia on hydrophobic properties of Candida spp. The aim of this research was to determine the effect of tea tree, thyme and clove essential oils on hydrophobic properties of environmental and clinical Candida isolates. The relative cell surface hydrophobicity of strains tested was high, and ranged from 68.7% to 91.2%, with the highest value for a C. rugosa food-borne strain. The effectiveness of essential oils was diversified and depended on the type of essential oil, concentration and yeast strain. Statistically significant decrease of hydrophobicity indexes was observed after application of tea tree oil for C. krusei, clove oil for C. albicans reference strain, and all essential oils tested for C. rugosa. Only in the case of C. famata food-borne strain and C. albicans clinical isolate, solely used essential oils did not affect their hydrophobic properties. To determine the interactions of essential oils, their mixtures (1 MIC:1 MIC, 1 MIC:2 MIC and 2 MIC:1 MIC) were applied. Generally, essential oils used in combinations influenced yeast's hydrophobic properties much more than applied separately. The essential oils' mixtures reduced hydrophobicity of Candida yeasts in the range of 8.2 to 45.1%, depending on combination and strain. The interaction indexes of essential oils used in combinations predominantly indicate their additive effect. The application of tea tree, thyme and clove essential oils, especially in combinations, decreases hydrophobicity of the tested Candida isolates with implications of a probable advantageous limitation of their ability to colonize the food production industry environment.

  16. Hydrophobic properties of Candida spp. under the influence of selected essential oils.

    PubMed

    Rajkowska, Katarzyna; Kunicka-Styczyńska, Alina; Pęczek, Marlena

    2015-01-01

    Processes of colonization of biotic and abiotic surfaces and biofilm formation depend inter alia on hydrophobic properties of Candida spp. The aim of this research was to determine the effect of tea tree, thyme and clove essential oils on hydrophobic properties of environmental and clinical Candida isolates. The relative cell surface hydrophobicity of strains tested was high, and ranged from 68.7% to 91.2%, with the highest value for a C. rugosa food-borne strain. The effectiveness of essential oils was diversified and depended on the type of essential oil, concentration and yeast strain. Statistically significant decrease of hydrophobicity indexes was observed after application of tea tree oil for C. krusei, clove oil for C. albicans reference strain, and all essential oils tested for C. rugosa. Only in the case of C. famata food-borne strain and C. albicans clinical isolate, solely used essential oils did not affect their hydrophobic properties. To determine the interactions of essential oils, their mixtures (1 MIC:1 MIC, 1 MIC:2 MIC and 2 MIC:1 MIC) were applied. Generally, essential oils used in combinations influenced yeast's hydrophobic properties much more than applied separately. The essential oils' mixtures reduced hydrophobicity of Candida yeasts in the range of 8.2 to 45.1%, depending on combination and strain. The interaction indexes of essential oils used in combinations predominantly indicate their additive effect. The application of tea tree, thyme and clove essential oils, especially in combinations, decreases hydrophobicity of the tested Candida isolates with implications of a probable advantageous limitation of their ability to colonize the food production industry environment. PMID:26601324

  17. Physical and related sensory properties of a swallowable bolus.

    PubMed

    Loret, C; Walter, M; Pineau, N; Peyron, M A; Hartmann, C; Martin, N

    2011-10-24

    Rheology and water content properties of cereal boluses collected just before swallowing were investigated. No specific physical markers for swallowing were found between subjects. Each subject had his own mastication strategy leading to food boluses with different rheological and water content properties. However, for most of the subjects, similar physical properties were found for food boluses obtained from consumption of different cereals. Results showed that the food boluses from different cereals exhibited gel-like properties being in a range from 14.1 kPa to 21.2 kPa (G'(1 Hz, 0.4%)), when swallowed. The food boluses had a static yield stress varying from 1.3 kPa to 4.3 kPa. Another interesting finding was that the water content of food boluses might be an important marker for swallowing since it was similar for different cereal food boluses (around 50%). This physical property might drive the fluid sensory perception, which could also be a sensory swallowing threshold. PMID:21620879

  18. Physical and mechanical properties of the lunar soil (a review)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Slyuta, E. N.

    2014-09-01

    We review the data on the physical and mechanical properties of the lunar soil that were acquired in the direct investigations on the lunar surface carried out in the manned and automatic missions and in the laboratory examination of the lunar samples returned to the Earth. In justice to the American manned program Apollo, we show that a large volume of the data on the properties of the lunar soil was also obtained in the Soviet automatic program Lunokhod and with the automatic space stations Luna-16, -20, and -24 that returned the lunar soil samples to the Earth. We consider all of the main physical and mechanical properties of the lunar soil, such as the granulometric composition, density and porosity, cohesion and adhesion, angle of internal friction, shear strength of loose soil, deformation characteristics (the deformation modulus and Poisson ratio), compressibility, and the bearing capacity, and show the change of some properties versus the depth. In most cases, the analytical dependence of the main parameters is presented, which is required in developing reliable engineering models of the lunar soil. The main physical and mechanical properties are listed in the summarizing table, and the currently available models and simulants of the lunar soil are reviewed.

  19. Physical Properties of Five Brands of K-Files

    PubMed Central

    Izadi, Arash; Shahravan, Arash; Shabani Nejad, Hoda

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Endodontic K-files are major tools for cleaning and shaping of the root canal systems. As there are various K-files available in Iranian market, the physical properties of the five available brands were investigated to assist the clinician when selecting suitable endodontic K-files according to the intended application. Materials and Methods: Physical properties (including debris creation, machinery defect and corrosion) of the selected K-files were investigated by a scanning electron microscope (SEM) under ×250 magnification. For evaluating the flutes number, a stereomicroscope was used with ×40 magnification. Results: Maximum and minimum debris and corrosion were observed in the Larmrose and Perfect K-files, respectively. Dentsply showed the least machinery defects. Other brands had intermediary properties. In addition, Larmrose K-files showed the maximum flutes number compared to the other brands. Conclusion: According to the results, none of the K-files had the ideal properties. More studies regarding the physical properties of the K-files and their clinical efficacy are suggested. PMID:27141219

  20. Process depending morphology and resulting physical properties of TPU

    SciTech Connect

    Frick, Achim Spadaro, Marcel

    2015-12-17

    Thermoplastic polyurethane (TPU) is a rubber like material with outstanding properties, e.g. for seal applications. TPU basically provides high strength, low frictional behavior and excellent wear resistance. Though, due to segmented structure of TPU, which is composed of hard segments (HSs) and soft segments (SSs), physical properties depend strongly on the morphological arrangement of the phase separated HSs at a certain ratio of HSs to SSs. It is obvious that the TPU deforms differently depending on its bulk morphology. Basically, the morphology can either consist of HSs segregated into small domains, which are well dispersed in the SS matrix or of few strongly phase separated large size HS domains embedded in the SS matrix. The morphology development is hardly ruled by the melt processing conditions of the TPU. Depending on the morphology, TPU provides quite different physical properties with respect to strength, deformation behavior, thermal stability, creep resistance and tribological performance. The paper deals with the influence of important melt processing parameters, such as temperature, pressure and shear conditions, on the resulting physical properties tested by tensile and relaxation experiments. Furthermore the morphology is studied employing differential scanning calorimeter (DSC), transmission light microscopy (TLM), scanning electron beam microscopy (SEM) and transmission electron beam microscopy (TEM) investigations. Correlations between processing conditions and resulting TPU material properties are elaborated. Flow and shear simulations contribute to the understanding of thermal and flow induced morphology development.

  1. Biomedically relevant chemical and physical properties of coal combustion products.

    PubMed Central

    Fisher, G L

    1983-01-01

    The evaluation of the potential public and occupational health hazards of developing and existing combustion processes requires a detailed understanding of the physical and chemical properties of effluents available for human and environmental exposures. These processes produce complex mixtures of gases and aerosols which may interact synergistically or antagonistically with biological systems. Because of the physicochemical complexity of the effluents, the biomedically relevant properties of these materials must be carefully assessed. Subsequent to release from combustion sources, environmental interactions further complicate assessment of the toxicity of combustion products. This report provides an overview of the biomedically relevant physical and chemical properties of coal fly ash. Coal fly ash is presented as a model complex mixture for health and safety evaluation of combustion processes. PMID:6337824

  2. Gas diffusion and physical property investigations for polar firn

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adolph, A. C.; Albert, M. R.

    2012-12-01

    Improved understanding of physical and gas transport properties of firn and their controls on interstitial gas diffusion would inform ice core interpretation and snow/atmosphere exchange processes. In particular, gas diffusivity is relevant in the important calculation of gas age/ice age differences, but extensive direct measurements of gas diffusivity of firn have not been made. This paper describes an investigation that relates gas diffusivity and permeability based on measurements of the physical properties of firn over a wide range of density. Gas diffusivity and permeability measurements were made on a set of homogeneous samples from varying depths between the surface and pore close-off at Summit, Greenland. Microstructural properties were obtained using Micro-CT measurements. Correlations between our findings and firn densification processes are examined.

  3. Physical and Electronic Properties Changed by Aging Plutonium

    SciTech Connect

    Chung, B W; Tobin, J G; Thompson, S R; Ebbinghaus, B B

    2005-03-22

    Plutonium, because of its radioactive nature, ages from the ''inside out'' by means of self-irradiation damage and thus produces Frankel-type defects and defect clusters. The defects resulting from the residual lattice damage and helium in-growth could result in microstructural, electronic, and physical property changes. This paper presents volume, density, and electronic property change observed from both naturally and accelerated aged plutonium alloys. Accelerated alloys are plutonium alloys with a fraction of Pu-238 to accelerate the aging process by approximately 18 times the rate of unaged weapons-grade plutonium. After thirty-five equivalent years of aging on accelerated alloys, the samples have swelled in volume by approximately 0.1% and now exhibit a near linear volume increase due to helium in-growth. We will correlate the physical property changes to the electronic structure of plutonium observed by the resonant photoelectron spectroscopy (RESPES).

  4. Physical properties of ebony seed (Pithecellobium flexicaule) and functional properties of whole and defatted ebony seed meal.

    PubMed

    Hernández-Santos, Betsabé; Santiago-Adame, Rubén; Navarro-Cortéz, Ricardo O; Gómez-Aldapa, Carlos A; Castro-Rosas, Javier; Martínez-Sánchez, Cecilia E; Vivar-Vera, María A; Herman-Lara, Erasmo; Rodríguez-Miranda, Jesús

    2015-07-01

    A partial characterization was done of ebony (Pithecellobium flexicaule) seed physical properties, and how defatting affected some functional properties of ebony seed meal. Average seed dimensions were 13.02 mm length, 8.78 mm width and 9.65 mm thickness. Geometric diameter was 10.76 mm, volume was 530 mm(3), surface area was 364.33 mm(2), sphericity was 83.26 % and aspect ratio was 68.24 %. Thousand-seed weight was 0.70 Kg, of which 0.42 Kg (60 %) represented the kernel. Defatted ebony seed meal differed from whole meal in all measured parameters, particularly in its protein (44.72 g/100 g) and carbohydrates (44.12 g/100 g) proportions. The defatted meal had higher water absorption capacity (1.28 g/g sample), water solubility capacity (26.06 %), oil absorption capacity (2.04 g/g sample), emulsifying capacity (53.78 %) and gelling capacity (8 % w/v) than the whole meal. Ebony seed physical properties may prove useful in designing post-harvest processing equipment and in quality control. The high protein content of defatted ebony seed meal suggests its use as a natural alternative ingredient in numerous food industry applications.

  5. Influence of physicochemical properties of rice flour on oil uptake of tempura frying batter.

    PubMed

    Nakamura, Sumiko; Ohtsubo, Ken'ichi

    2010-01-01

    The physicochemical properties of rice flour and wheat flour influenced the oil uptake of tempura frying batter. Rice flour was better than wheat flour in the overall quality and crispness of the fried tempura batter. Rice flour resisted oil absorption more than wheat flour, and a higher level of apparent starch amylose and higher consistency/breakdown ratio of the pasting properties led to a lower oil uptake of the batter. Super hard EM10 rice showed the highest apparent amylose content and higher consistency/breakdown ratio than the other flour samples, the batter from EM10 revealing the lowest oil content after frying among all the batters examined. The apparent amylose content, consistency/breakdown ratio and oil absorption index are proposed as useful guides for oil absorption when frying from among the physicochemical properties that influence the oil content of fried batter. Our proposal for the "oil absorption index" could be a simple, although not perfect method for estimating the oil content of batter flour.

  6. PhySIC: a veto supertree method with desirable properties.

    PubMed

    Ranwez, Vincent; Berry, Vincent; Criscuolo, Alexis; Fabre, Pierre-Henri; Guillemot, Sylvain; Scornavacca, Celine; Douzery, Emmanuel J P

    2007-10-01

    This paper focuses on veto supertree methods; i.e., methods that aim at producing a conservative synthesis of the relationships agreed upon by all source trees. We propose desirable properties that a supertree should satisfy in this framework, namely the non-contradiction property (PC) and the induction property (PI). The former requires that the supertree does not contain relationships that contradict one or a combination of the source topologies, whereas the latter requires that all topological information contained in the supertree is present in a source tree or collectively induced by several source trees. We provide simple examples to illustrate their relevance and that allow a comparison with previously advocated properties. We show that these properties can be checked in polynomial time for any given rooted supertree. Moreover, we introduce the PhySIC method (PHYlogenetic Signal with Induction and non-Contradiction). For k input trees spanning a set of n taxa, this method produces a supertree that satisfies the above-mentioned properties in O(kn(3) + n(4)) computing time. The polytomies of the produced supertree are also tagged by labels indicating areas of conflict as well as those with insufficient overlap. As a whole, PhySIC enables the user to quickly summarize consensual information of a set of trees and localize groups of taxa for which the data require consolidation. Lastly, we illustrate the behaviour of PhySIC on primate data sets of various sizes, and propose a supertree covering 95% of all primate extant genera. The PhySIC algorithm is available at http://atgc.lirmm.fr/cgi-bin/PhySIC. PMID:17918032

  7. The Influence of Fuelbed Physical Properties on Biomass Burning Emissions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Urbanski, S. P.; Lincoln, E.; Baker, S. P.; Richardson, M.

    2014-12-01

    Emissions from biomass fires can significantly degrade regional air quality and therefore are of major concern to air regulators and land managers in the U.S. and Canada. Accurately estimating emissions from different fire types in various ecosystems is crucial to predicting and mitigating the impact of fires on air quality. The physical properties of ecosystems' fuelbeds can heavily influence the combustion processes (e.g. flaming or smoldering) and the resultant emissions. However, despite recent progress in characterizing the composition of biomass smoke, significant knowledge gaps remain regarding the linkage between basic fuelbed physical properties and emissions. In laboratory experiments we examined the effects of fuelbed properties on combustion efficiency (CE) and emissions for an important fuel component of temperate and boreal forests - conifer needles. The bulk density (BD), depth (DZ), and moisture content (MC) of Ponderosa Pine needle fuelbeds were manipulated in 75 burns for which gas and particle emissions were measured. We found CE was negatively correlated with BD, DZ and MC and that the emission factors of species associated with smoldering combustion processes (CO, CH4, particles) were positively correlated with these fuelbed properties. The study indicates the physical properties of conifer needle fuelbeds have a significant effect on CE and hence emissions. However, many of the emission models used to predict and manage smoke impacts on air quality assume conifer litter burns by flaming combustion with a high CE and correspondingly low emissions of CO, CH4, particles, and organic compounds. Our results suggest emission models underestimate emissions from fires involving a large component of conifer needles. Additionally, our findings indicate that laboratory studies of emissions should carefully control fuelbed physical properties to avoid confounding effects that may obscure the effects being tested and lead to erroneous interpretations.

  8. Influence of Blending Canola, Palm, Soybean, and Sunflower Oil Methyl Esters on Fuel Properties of Bioiesel

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Single, binary, ternary, and quaternary mixtures of canola (low erucic acid rapeseed), palm, soybean, and sunflower (high oleic acid) oil methyl esters (CME, PME, SME, and SFME, respectively) were prepared and important fuel properties measured, such as oil stability index (OSI), cold filter pluggin...

  9. Rheological properties of a biological thermo-responsive hydrogel produced from soybean oil polymers

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The rheological properties of a newly developed biological thermo-hydrogel made from vegetable oil were investigated. The material named HPSO-HG is a hydrolytic product of polymerized soybean oil (PSO). HPSO-HG is a thermo-responsive gel, and it exhibited viscoelastic behavior above 2% (wt.%) at roo...

  10. Properties of cookies made with natural wax-vegetable oil organogels

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Organogels prepared with a natural wax and a vegetable oil were examined as alternatives to a commercial margarine in cookie. To investigate effects of wax and vegetable oil on properties of cookie dough and cookies, organogels prepared from four different waxes including sunflower wax, rice bran wa...

  11. Effects of seed preparation and oil pressing on milkweed (Asclepias spp.) protein functional properties

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The effects of seed cooking and oil processing conditions on functional properties of milkweed seed proteins were determined to identify potential value-added uses for the meal. Milkweed seeds were flaked and then cooked in the seed conditioner at 82°C for 30, 60 or 90 min. Oil was extracted by scre...

  12. 30 CFR 1210.155 - What reports must I submit for Federal onshore stripper oil properties?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... stripper oil properties? 1210.155 Section 1210.155 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF NATURAL RESOURCES REVENUE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR NATURAL RESOURCES REVENUE FORMS AND REPORTS Special-Purpose Forms and Reports-Oil... Management (BLM) under 43 CFR 3103.4-2 must submit Form ONRR-4377, Stripper Royalty Rate...

  13. Antimicrobial properties of essential oils against Salmonella in organic soil

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Soil is one of the important sources of preharvest contamination of produce with pathogens. Demand for natural pesticides such as essential oils for organic farming practices has increased. Antimicrobial activity of essential oils in vitro has been documented. The antimicrobial activity of essential...

  14. Physicochemical properties of magnetic fluids based on synthetic oils

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Korolev, V. V.; Ramazanova, A. G.; Yashkova, V. I.; Balmasova, O. V.

    2013-04-01

    A technique for synthesizing magnetic fluids based on Alkaren synthetic oil is described. The optimum synthesis conditions for the magnetite are selected, and the magnetic phase-stabilizer quantitative ratio is calculated. A magnetic fluid based on synthetic hydrocarbon oil is synthesized, and its physicochemical characteristics are determined.

  15. Influence of the processed sunflower oil on the cement properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fleysher, A. U.; Tokarchuk, V. V.; Sviderskiy, V. A.

    2015-01-01

    Used oils (vegetable oil, animal oil, engine oil, etc.), which are essentially industrial wastes, have found application as secondary raw materials in some braches of industry. In particular, the only well-known and commonly-used way of utilizing wastes of vegetable oils is to apply them as raw materials in the production of biodiesel. The goal of the present study is to develop a conceptually new way of vegetable oil wastes utilization in the building industry. The test admixture D-148 was obtained from the processing of wastes of sunflower oil and it mainly consists of fatty acid diethanolamide. The test admixture was added to the cement system for the purpose of studying its influence on water demand, flowability, setting times, compressive strength and moisture adsorption. The test admixture D-148 at the optimal content 0. 2 weight % causes 10% decrease in water demand, 1.7 time increase in flowability (namely spread diameter), 23% increase in grade strength and 34% decrease in moisture adsorption. The results of the present investigation make it possible to consider the final product of the waste sunflower oil processing as multifunctional plasticizing-waterproofing admixture.

  16. Correlation of basic oil quality indices and electrical properties of model vegetable oil systems.

    PubMed

    Prevc, Tjaša; Cigić, Blaž; Vidrih, Rajko; Poklar Ulrih, Nataša; Šegatin, Nataša

    2013-11-27

    Model vegetable oil mixtures with significantly different basic oil quality indices (free fatty acid, iodine, and Totox values) were prepared by adding oleic acids, synthetic saturated triglycerides, or oxidized safflower oil ( Carthamus tinctorius ) to the oleic type of sunflower oil. Dielectric constants, dielectric loss factors, quality factors, and electrical conductivities of model lipids were determined at frequencies from 50 Hz to 2 MHz and at temperatures from 293.15 to 323.15 K. The dependence of these dielectric parameters on basic oil quality indices was investigated. Adding oleic acids to sunflower oil resulted in lower dielectric constants and conductivities and higher quality factors. Reduced iodine values resulted in increased dielectric constants and quality factors and decreased conductivities. Higher Totox values resulted in higher dielectric constants and conductivities at high frequencies and lower quality factors. Dielectric constants decreased linearly with temperature, whereas conductivities followed the Arrhenius law.

  17. Rheological Properties of Vegetable Oil-Diesel Fuel Blends

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Franco, Z.; Nguyen, Q. D.

    2008-07-01

    Straight vegetable oils provide cleaner burning and renewable alternatives to diesel fuels, but their inherently high viscosities compared to diesel are undesirable for diesel engines. Lowering the viscosity can be achieved by either increasing the temperature of the oil or by blending it with diesel fuel, or both. In this work the viscosity of diesel fuel and vegetable oil mixtures at differing compositions is measured as a function of temperature to determine a viscosity-temperature-composition relationship for use in design and optimization of heating and fuel injection systems. The oils used are olive, soybean, canola and peanut oils which are commercially available. All samples tested between 20°C and 80°C exhibit time-independent Newtonian behaviour. A modified Arrhenius relationship has been developed to predict the viscosity of the mixtures as functions of temperature and composition.

  18. Biocompatible long-sustained release oil-core polyelectrolyte nanocarriers: From controlling physical state and stability to biological impact.

    PubMed

    Szczepanowicz, Krzysztof; Bazylińska, Urszula; Pietkiewicz, Jadwiga; Szyk-Warszyńska, Lilianna; Wilk, Kazimiera A; Warszyński, Piotr

    2015-08-01

    It has been generally expected that the most applicable drug delivery system (DDS) should be biodegradable, biocompatible and with incidental adverse effects. Among many micellar aggregates and their mediated polymeric systems, polyelectrolyte oil-core nanocarriers have been found to successfully encapsulate hydrophobic drugs in order to target cells and avoid drug degradation and toxicity as well as to improve drug efficacy, its stability, and better intracellular penetration. This paper reviews recent developments in the formation of polyelectrolyte oil-core nanocarriers by subsequent multilayer adsorption at micellar structures, their imaging, physical state and stability, drug encapsulation and applications, in vitro release profiles and in vitro biological evaluation (cellular uptake and internalization, biocompatibility). We summarize the recent results concerning polyelectrolyte/surfactant interactions at interfaces, fundamental to understand the mechanisms of formation of stable polyelectrolyte layered structures on liquid cores. The fabrication of emulsion droplets stabilized by synergetic surfactant/polyelectrolyte complexes, properties, and potential applications of each type of polyelectrolyte oil-core nanocarriers, including stealth nanocapsules with pegylated shell, are discussed and evaluated. PMID:25453660

  19. Effects of physical properties on thermo-fluids cavitating flows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, T. R.; Wang, G. Y.; Huang, B.; Li, D. Q.; Ma, X. J.; Li, X. L.

    2015-12-01

    The aims of this paper are to study the thermo-fluid cavitating flows and to evaluate the effects of physical properties on cavitation behaviours. The Favre-averaged Navier-Stokes equations with the energy equation are applied to numerically investigate the liquid nitrogen cavitating flows around a NASA hydrofoil. Meanwhile, the thermodynamic parameter Σ is used to assess the thermodynamic effects on cavitating flows. The results indicate that the thermodynamic effects on the thermo-fluid cavitating flows significantly affect the cavitation behaviours, including pressure and temperature distribution, the variation of physical properties, and cavity structures. The thermodynamic effects can be evaluated by physical properties under the same free-stream conditions. The global sensitivity analysis of liquid nitrogen suggests that ρv, Cl and L significantly influence temperature drop and cavity structure in the existing numerical framework, while pv plays the dominant role when these properties vary with temperature. The liquid viscosity μl slightly affects the flow structure via changing the Reynolds number Re equivalently, however, it hardly affects the temperature distribution.

  20. Influence of interfacial properties on Ostwald ripening in crosslinked multilayered oil-in-water emulsions.

    PubMed

    Zeeb, Benjamin; Gibis, Monika; Fischer, Lutz; Weiss, Jochen

    2012-12-01

    The influence of interfacial crosslinking, layer thickness and layer density on the kinetics of Ostwald ripening in multilayered emulsions at different temperatures was investigated. Growth rates of droplets were measured by monitoring changes in the droplet size distributions of 0.5% (w/w) n-octane, n-decane, and n-dodecane oil-in-water emulsions using static light scattering. Lifshitz-Slyozov-Wagner theory was used to calculate Ostwald ripening rates. A sequential two step process, based on electrostatic deposition of sugar beet pectin onto fish gelatin or whey protein isolate (WPI) interfacial membranes, was used to manipulate the interfacial properties of the oil droplets. Laccase was added to the fish gelatin-beet pectin emulsions to promote crosslinking of adsorbed pectin molecules via ferulic acid groups, whereas heat was induced to promote crosslinking of WPI and helix coil transitions of fish gelatin. Ripening rates of single-layered, double-layered and crosslinked emulsions increased as the chain length of the n-alkanes decreased. Emulsions containing crosslinked fish gelatin-beet pectin coated droplets had lower droplet growth rates (3.1±0.3×10(-26) m(3)/s) than fish gelatin-stabilized droplets (7.3±0.2×10(-26) m(3)/s), which was attributed to the formation of a protective network. Results suggest that physical or enzymatic biopolymer-crosslinking of interfaces may reduce the molecular transport of alkanes between the droplets in the continuous phase.

  1. Physicochemical Properties of Microencapsulated ω-3 Salmon Oil with Egg White Powder.

    PubMed

    Mis Solval, Kevin; Bankston, J David; Bechtel, Peter J; Sathivel, Subramaniam

    2016-03-01

    The objective of this study was to produce microencapsulated omega(ω)-3 fatty acids (PUFAs) fortified egg white (EW) powders and to characterize their nutritional and physical properties. Stable emulsions (E-SO-EW) containing 3.43 (g/100 g) salmon oil (SO), 56.21 (g/100 g) EW, and 40.36 (g/100 g) water and a control (E-EW) containing EW and water were prepared. E-SO-EW and E-EW were separately spray dried at 130, 140, and 150 °C inlet air temperatures. This resulted in 3 microencapsulated SO fortified EW powders (SO-EW), and 3 dried EW powders (DEW). The powders were analyzed for microencapsulation efficiency (ME), color, fatty acids methyl esters, protein, fat, moisture, ash, amino acids, minerals, microstructure, and particle size. The EPA and DHA content of SO and the ME of the powders were not affected by the inlet air temperature. The crude protein content of SO-EW powders was approximately 24 (g/100 g) lower than dried EW powders. Leucine was the most abundant essential amino acid found in all the powders. Most of the powders' median particle size ranged from 15 to 30 μm. The study demonstrated that microencapsulated ω-3 salmon oil with high quality EW protein can be produced by spray drying. PMID:26868895

  2. Physicochemical characteristics, nutritional properties, and health benefits of argan oil: a review.

    PubMed

    El Abbassi, Abdelilah; Khalid, Nauman; Zbakh, Hanaa; Ahmad, Asif

    2014-01-01

    The argan tree (Argania spinosa L. Skeels), an endemic tree in Morocco, is the most remarkable species in North Africa, due to its botanical and bioecologic interest as well as its social value. Argan oil is traditionally well known for its cardioprotective properties and it is also used in the treatment of skin infections. This paper gives an overview of scientific literature available on nutritional and pharmacologic properties of argan oil. Owing to its unique organoleptic properties associated with its cardioprotective properties, argan oil has found, recently, its place in the highly competitive international edible oil market. This success is a very positive sign for the preservation of the argan tree, the argan forests and, therefore, in general, the biodiversity. PMID:24580537

  3. Physicochemical characteristics, nutritional properties, and health benefits of argan oil: a review.

    PubMed

    El Abbassi, Abdelilah; Khalid, Nauman; Zbakh, Hanaa; Ahmad, Asif

    2014-01-01

    The argan tree (Argania spinosa L. Skeels), an endemic tree in Morocco, is the most remarkable species in North Africa, due to its botanical and bioecologic interest as well as its social value. Argan oil is traditionally well known for its cardioprotective properties and it is also used in the treatment of skin infections. This paper gives an overview of scientific literature available on nutritional and pharmacologic properties of argan oil. Owing to its unique organoleptic properties associated with its cardioprotective properties, argan oil has found, recently, its place in the highly competitive international edible oil market. This success is a very positive sign for the preservation of the argan tree, the argan forests and, therefore, in general, the biodiversity.

  4. Ultrasonic evaluation of the physical and mechanical properties of granites.

    PubMed

    Vasconcelos, G; Lourenço, P B; Alves, C A S; Pamplona, J

    2008-09-01

    Masonry is the oldest building material that survived until today, being used all over the world and being present in the most impressive historical structures as an evidence of spirit of enterprise of ancient cultures. Conservation, rehabilitation and strengthening of the built heritage and protection of human lives are clear demands of modern societies. In this process, the use of nondestructive methods has become much common in the diagnosis of structural integrity of masonry elements. With respect to the evaluation of the stone condition, the ultrasonic pulse velocity is a simple and economical tool. Thus, the central issue of the present paper concerns the evaluation of the suitability of the ultrasonic pulse velocity method for describing the mechanical and physical properties of granites (range size between 0.1-4.0 mm and 0.3-16.5 mm) and for the assessment of its weathering state. The mechanical properties encompass the compressive and tensile strength and modulus of elasticity, and the physical properties include the density and porosity. For this purpose, measurements of the longitudinal ultrasonic pulse velocity with distinct natural frequency of the transducers were carried out on specimens with different size and shape. A discussion of the factors that induce variations on the ultrasonic velocity is also provided. Additionally, statistical correlations between ultrasonic pulse velocity and mechanical and physical properties of granites are presented and discussed. The major output of the work is the confirmation that ultrasonic pulse velocity can be effectively used as a simple and economical nondestructive method for a preliminary prediction of mechanical and physical properties, as well as a tool for the assessment of the weathering changes of granites that occur during the serviceable life. This is of much interest due to the usual difficulties in removing specimens for mechanical characterization. PMID:18471849

  5. Ultrasonic evaluation of the physical and mechanical properties of granites.

    PubMed

    Vasconcelos, G; Lourenço, P B; Alves, C A S; Pamplona, J

    2008-09-01

    Masonry is the oldest building material that survived until today, being used all over the world and being present in the most impressive historical structures as an evidence of spirit of enterprise of ancient cultures. Conservation, rehabilitation and strengthening of the built heritage and protection of human lives are clear demands of modern societies. In this process, the use of nondestructive methods has become much common in the diagnosis of structural integrity of masonry elements. With respect to the evaluation of the stone condition, the ultrasonic pulse velocity is a simple and economical tool. Thus, the central issue of the present paper concerns the evaluation of the suitability of the ultrasonic pulse velocity method for describing the mechanical and physical properties of granites (range size between 0.1-4.0 mm and 0.3-16.5 mm) and for the assessment of its weathering state. The mechanical properties encompass the compressive and tensile strength and modulus of elasticity, and the physical properties include the density and porosity. For this purpose, measurements of the longitudinal ultrasonic pulse velocity with distinct natural frequency of the transducers were carried out on specimens with different size and shape. A discussion of the factors that induce variations on the ultrasonic velocity is also provided. Additionally, statistical correlations between ultrasonic pulse velocity and mechanical and physical properties of granites are presented and discussed. The major output of the work is the confirmation that ultrasonic pulse velocity can be effectively used as a simple and economical nondestructive method for a preliminary prediction of mechanical and physical properties, as well as a tool for the assessment of the weathering changes of granites that occur during the serviceable life. This is of much interest due to the usual difficulties in removing specimens for mechanical characterization.

  6. Effect of homogenization and ultrasonication on the physical properties of insoluble wheat bran fibres

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Ran; Zhang, Min; Adhikari, Benu; Liu, Yaping

    2015-10-01

    Wheat bran is rich in dietary fibre and its annual output is abundant, but underutilized. Insoluble dietary fibre often influences food quality negatively; therefore, how to improve the physical and chemical properties of insoluble dietary fibre of wheat bran for post processing is a challenge. Insoluble dietary fibre was obtained from wheat bran and micronized using high-pressure homogenization, high-intensity sonication, and a combination of these two methods. The high-pressure homogenization and high-pressure homogenization+high-intensity sonication treatments significantly (p<0.05) improved the solubility, swelling, water-holding, oil-holding, and cation exchange capacities. The improvement of the above properties by high-intensity sonication alone was marginal. In most cases, the high-pressure homogenization process was as good as the high-pressure homogenization+high-intensity sonication process in improving the above-mentioned properties; hence, the contribution of high-`intensity sonication in the high-pressure homogenization+high-intensity sonication process was minimal. The best results show that the minimum particle size of wheat bran can reach 9 μm, and the solubility, swelling, water-holding, oil-holding, cation exchange capacities change significantly.

  7. Swiss Atlas of PHYsical properties of Rocks (SAPHYR)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zappone, Alba; Kissling, Eduard

    2015-04-01

    The Swiss Atlas of PHYsical properties of Rocks (SAPHYR), is a multi-year project, funded entirely by Swiss Commission for Geophysics (SGPK), with the aim to compile a comprehensive data set in digital form on physical properties of rocks exposed in Switzerland and surrounding regions. The ultimate goal of SAPHYR is to make these data accessible to an open and wide public including industrial, engineering, land and resource planning companies, as well as academic institutions, or simply people interested in geology. Since the early sixties worldwide many scientists, i.e. geophysicists, petrologists, and engineers, focused their work on laboratory measurements of rocks physical properties, and their relations with microstructures, mineralogical compositions and other rock parameters, in the effort to constrain the geological interpretation of geophysical surveys. Particularly in the years in which seismic reflection and refraction crustal scale projects were investigating the deep structures of the Alps, laboratories capable to reproduce the pressure and temperature ranges of the continental crust were collecting measurements of various rock parameters on a wide variety of lithologies, developing in the meantime more and more sophisticated experimental methodologies. In recent years, the increasing interest of European Countries on non-traditional energy supply, (i.e. Deep Geothermal Energy and shale gas) and CO2 storage renovated the interests in physical characterization of the deep underground. SAPHYR aims to organize all those laboratory data into a geographically referenced database (GIS). The data refer to density, porosity, permeability, and seismic, magnetic, thermal and electric properties. In the past years, effort has been placed on collecting samples and measuring the physical properties of lithologies that were poorly documented in literature. The phase of laboratory measurements is still in progress. Recently, SAPHYR project focused towards developing

  8. In vitro photostability and photosensitizing properties of bergamot oil. Effects of a cinnamate sunscreen.

    PubMed

    Morlière, P; Hüppe, G; Averbeck, D; Young, A R; Santus, R; Dubertret, L

    1990-11-01

    Bergamottin, which accounts for about two-thirds of the absorption of UVA and UVB light by bergamot oil, is shown to be fairly unstable on UV irradiation of solutions of bergamot oil (in ethanol-water, 80:20 (w/w)). Bergamottin photodegradation is partly inhibited by molecular oxygen and also by a cinnamate sunscreen acting as a triplet excited state quencher. On UV irradiation of bergamot oil, type II photodynamic properties, i.e. singlet oxygen production, are observed, which can be mainly attributed to the excitation of bergamottin by light. Therefore bergamottin can be considered as a potential photosensitizer in the photobiological activity of bergamot oil.

  9. A Robust Polyionized Hydrogel with an Unprecedented Underwater Anti-Crude-Oil-Adhesion Property.

    PubMed

    Gao, Shoujian; Sun, Jichao; Liu, Pingping; Zhang, Feng; Zhang, Wenbin; Yuan, Shiling; Li, Jingye; Jin, Jian

    2016-07-01

    A polyionized hydrogel polymer (sodium polyacrylate-grafted poly(vinylidene fluoride) (PAAS-g-PVDF)) is fabricated via an alkaline-induced phase-inversion process. PAAS-g-PVDF coatings exhibit unprecedented anti-adhesion and self-cleaning properties to crude oils under an aqueous environment. A PAAS-g-PVDF-coated copper mesh can effectively separate a crude oil/water mixture with extremely high flux and high oil rejection driven by gravity, and is oil-fouling-free for long-term use. PMID:27159880

  10. Modification of chemical and physical factors in steamflood to increase heavy oil recovery

    SciTech Connect

    Yortsos, Yanis C.

    2000-01-19

    This report covers the work performed in the various physicochemical factors for the improvement of oil recovery efficiency. In this context the following general areas were studied: (1) The understanding of vapor-liquid flows in porous media, including processes in steam injection; (2) The effect of reservoir heterogeneity in a variety of foams, from pore scale to macroscopic scale; (3) The flow properties of additives for improvement of recovery efficiency, particularly foams and other non-Newtonian fluids; and (4) The development of optimization methods to maximize various measures of oil recovery.

  11. Entropy and the Shelf Model: A Quantum Physical Approach to a Physical Property

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jungermann, Arnd H.

    2006-01-01

    In contrast to most other thermodynamic data, entropy values are not given in relation to a certain--more or less arbitrarily defined--zero level. They are listed in standard thermodynamic tables as absolute values of specific substances. Therefore these values describe a physical property of the listed substances. One of the main tasks of…

  12. Mathematical models of interconnections between composition and properties of oils in the Apsheron oil-and gas-bearing region of Azerbaijan

    SciTech Connect

    Buryakovsky, L.A.; Dzhevanshir, R.D. )

    1992-01-01

    This paper reports on the example of oils in the Apsheron oil- and gas-bearing region and Apsheron archipelago located in the western part of the Southern Caspian depression, of which the authors have developed mathematical models of a group hydrocarbon composition; interconnection between oil density and content of asphalt-resin materials, benzine, and ligroin; interconnections between oil density and viscosity and temperature; and interconnections between content of asphalt-resin properties and low-temperature fractions. The models obtained enable us to extrapolate factual data on composition and properties of oils beyond the limits of fixed depths of burial of oil-saturated reservoirs both to a zone of great depths and increased temperatures where hydrocarbons were in a gaseous or oil and gaseous state, and to a zone of near-surface conditions where oils acquire the consistency of asphalts.

  13. Sucrose Production Mediated by Lipid Metabolism Suppresses the Physical Interaction of Peroxisomes and Oil Bodies during Germination of Arabidopsis thaliana.

    PubMed

    Cui, Songkui; Hayashi, Yasuko; Otomo, Masayoshi; Mano, Shoji; Oikawa, Kazusato; Hayashi, Makoto; Nishimura, Mikio

    2016-09-16

    Physical interaction between organelles is a flexible event and essential for cells to adapt rapidly to environmental stimuli. Germinating plants utilize oil bodies and peroxisomes to mobilize storage lipids for the generation of sucrose as the main energy source. Although membrane interaction between oil bodies and peroxisomes has been widely observed, its underlying molecular mechanism is largely unknown. Here we present genetic evidence for control of the physical interaction between oil bodies and peroxisomes. We identified alleles of the sdp1 mutant altered in oil body morphology. This mutant accumulates bigger and more oil body aggregates compared with the wild type and showed defects in lipid mobilization during germination. SUGAR DEPENDENT 1 (SDP1) encodes major triacylglycerol lipase in Arabidopsis Interestingly, sdp1 seedlings show enhanced physical interaction between oil bodies and peroxisomes compared with the wild type, whereas exogenous sucrose supplementation greatly suppresses the interaction. The same phenomenon occurs in the peroxisomal defective 1 (ped1) mutant, defective in lipid mobilization because of impaired peroxisomal β-oxidation, indicating that sucrose production is a key factor for oil body-peroxisomal dissociation. Peroxisomal dissociation and subsequent release from oil bodies is dependent on actin filaments. We also show that a peroxisomal ATP binding cassette transporter, PED3, is the potential anchor protein to the membranes of these organelles. Our results provide novel components linking lipid metabolism and oil body-peroxisome interaction whereby sucrose may act as a negative signal for the interaction of oil bodies and peroxisomes to fine-tune lipolysis.

  14. Sucrose Production Mediated by Lipid Metabolism Suppresses the Physical Interaction of Peroxisomes and Oil Bodies during Germination of Arabidopsis thaliana.

    PubMed

    Cui, Songkui; Hayashi, Yasuko; Otomo, Masayoshi; Mano, Shoji; Oikawa, Kazusato; Hayashi, Makoto; Nishimura, Mikio

    2016-09-16

    Physical interaction between organelles is a flexible event and essential for cells to adapt rapidly to environmental stimuli. Germinating plants utilize oil bodies and peroxisomes to mobilize storage lipids for the generation of sucrose as the main energy source. Although membrane interaction between oil bodies and peroxisomes has been widely observed, its underlying molecular mechanism is largely unknown. Here we present genetic evidence for control of the physical interaction between oil bodies and peroxisomes. We identified alleles of the sdp1 mutant altered in oil body morphology. This mutant accumulates bigger and more oil body aggregates compared with the wild type and showed defects in lipid mobilization during germination. SUGAR DEPENDENT 1 (SDP1) encodes major triacylglycerol lipase in Arabidopsis Interestingly, sdp1 seedlings show enhanced physical interaction between oil bodies and peroxisomes compared with the wild type, whereas exogenous sucrose supplementation greatly suppresses the interaction. The same phenomenon occurs in the peroxisomal defective 1 (ped1) mutant, defective in lipid mobilization because of impaired peroxisomal β-oxidation, indicating that sucrose production is a key factor for oil body-peroxisomal dissociation. Peroxisomal dissociation and subsequent release from oil bodies is dependent on actin filaments. We also show that a peroxisomal ATP binding cassette transporter, PED3, is the potential anchor protein to the membranes of these organelles. Our results provide novel components linking lipid metabolism and oil body-peroxisome interaction whereby sucrose may act as a negative signal for the interaction of oil bodies and peroxisomes to fine-tune lipolysis. PMID:27466365

  15. Oil production by Candida curvata and extraction, composition and properties of the oil

    SciTech Connect

    Hammond, E.G.; Glatz, B.A.; Choi, Y.; Teasdale, M.T.

    1981-01-01

    A strain of the yeast C. curvata was grown in cheese whey permeate under conditions that allowed for oil production. The N-C ratio of the fermentation medium influenced the amount of oil produced. Concentrated permeate could be used as a substrate, but the efficiency of conversion to oil was reduced. The yeast grew well and produced oil in several different types of whey and milk permeates and also in nonsterile systems. The lipid of C. curvata amounted to approximately 50% of its dry weight and could be extracted by sequential treatment with ethanol, hexane, and benzene. The extraction with benzene was necessary for good yields even though nearly all the material extracted with benzene was soluble in hexane. The lipid was 80-90% triglyceride, contained little free fatty acid, and could be degummed by traditional methods. The triglyceride was 30.4% palmitic, 0.84% palmitoleic acid, 11.4% stearic, 51.0% oleic, 6.2% linoleic, and 0.4% linolenic acid. The saturated acyl groups were almost completely on the sn-1 and 3 positions of the glycerol. The oil melting point was -10 to 22 degrees. No tocopherol was detected and the oil oxidized at a rate similar to that for soybean oil at 55 degrees. The oil contained a variety of linear hydrocarbons and 4 sterols. The polar lipids include phosphatidylcholine, phosphatidylethanolamine, phosphatidylinositol, and phosphatidic acid.

  16. Chemical and Physical Properties of Hi-Cal-2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Spakowski, A. E.; Allen, Harrison, Jr.; Caves, Robert M.

    1955-01-01

    As part of the Navy Project Zip to consider various boron-containing materials as possible high-energy fuels, the chemical and physical properties of Hi-Cal-2 prepared by the Callery Chemical Company were evaluated at the NACA Lewis laboratory. Elemental chemical analysis, heat of combustion, vapor pressure and decomposition, freezing point, density, self ignition temperature, flash point, and blow-out velocity were determined for the fuel. Although the precision of measurement of these properties was not equal to that obtained for hydrocarbons, this special release research memorandum was prepared to make the data available as soon as possible.

  17. Properties of cassava starch-based edible coating containing essential oils.

    PubMed

    Oriani, Vivian Boesso; Molina, Gustavo; Chiumarelli, Marcela; Pastore, Gláucia Maria; Hubinger, Miriam Dupas

    2014-02-01

    Edible coatings were produced using cassava starch (2% and 3% w/v) containing cinnamon bark (0.05% to 0.30% v/v) or fennel (0.05% to 0.30% v/v) essential oils. Edible cassava starch coating at 2% and 3% (w/v) containing or not containing 0.30% (v/v) of each essential oils conferred increased in water vapor resistance and decreased in the respiration rates of coated apple slices when compared with uncoated fruit. Cassava starch coatings (2% w/v) added 0.10% or 0.30% (v/v) fennel or cinnamon bark essential oils showed antioxidant capacity, and the addition of 0.30% (v/v) of each essential oil demonstrated antimicrobial properties. The coating containing cinnamon bark essential oil showed a significant antioxidant capacity, comparing to fennel essential oil. Antimicrobial tests showed that the addition of 0.30% (v/v) cinnamon bark essential oil to the edible coating inhibited the growth of Staphylococcus aureus and Salmonella choleraesuis, and 0.30% fennel essential oil inhibited just S. aureus. Treatment with 2% (w/v) of cassava starch containing 0.30% (v/v) of the cinnamon bark essential oil showed barrier properties, an antioxidant capacity and microbial inhibition.

  18. Antioxidant properties of ascorbic acid in bulk oils at different relative humidity.

    PubMed

    Kim, Ji Young; Kim, Mi-Ja; Yi, Bora; Oh, Sumi; Lee, JaeHwan

    2015-06-01

    The effects of relative humidity (RH) on the antioxidant properties of ascorbic acid (10, 20, 42, and 84ppm) were investigated in stripped corn oils stored at 60°C. The degree of oxidation in oils was determined by analysing headspace oxygen content and conjugated dienoic acids. The oxidative stability of bulk oils without addition of ascorbic acid was significantly different depending on the RH. As the concentration of ascorbic acid increased from 10 to 84ppm, oxidative stability increased significantly irrespective of RH (p<0.05). Generally, oils containing ascorbic acid at low RH had higher oxidative stability after storage at 60°C than those at high RH. The antioxidant properties of ascorbic acid were greatly influenced by both the moisture content in the oil and the ascorbic acid concentration.

  19. Unique characterization of lunar samples by physical properties

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Todd, T.; Richter, D. A.; Simmons, G.; Wang, H.

    1973-01-01

    The measurement of compressional velocity, shear velocity, static compressibility, and thermal expansion of (1) a suite of shocked rocks fron the Ries impact in Germany, (2) a suite of samples cracked by thermal cycling to high temperatures, (3) many terrestrial igneous rocks, and (4) lunar basalts, gabbroic anorthosites, and breccias, indicate that shock metamorphism is the primary cause for values of physical properties of lunar rocks being diffferent from their intrinsic values. Large scale thermal metamorphism, thermal cycling between temperatures of lunar day and night, large thermal gradients, or thermal fatigue could possibly cause minor cracking in the top few centimeters of the lunar regolith, but are probably not important mechanism for extensively changing values of physical properties of lunar rocks.-

  20. Physical and chemical properties of pomegranate fruit accessions from Croatia.

    PubMed

    Radunić, Mira; Jukić Špika, Maja; Goreta Ban, Smiljana; Gadže, Jelena; Díaz-Pérez, Juan Carlos; MacLean, Dan

    2015-06-15

    The objective was to evaluate physical and chemical properties of eight pomegranate accessions (seven cultivars and one wild genotype) collected from the Mediterranean region of Croatia. Accessions showed high variability in fruit weight and size, calyx and peel properties, number of arils per fruit, total aril weight, and aril and juice yield. Variables that define sweet taste, such as low total acidity (TA; 0.37-0.59%), high total soluble solids content (TSS; 12.5-15.0%) and their ratio (TSS/TA) were evaluated, and results generally aligned with sweetness classifications of the fruit. Pomegranate fruit had a high variability in total phenolic content (1985.6-2948.7 mg/L). HPLC-MALDI-TOF/MS analysis showed that accessions with dark red arils had the highest total anthocyanin content, with cyanidin 3-glucoside as the most abundant compound. Principal component analysis revealed great differences in fruit physical characteristics and chemical composition among pomegranate accessions.

  1. Physical and chemical properties of pomegranate fruit accessions from Croatia.

    PubMed

    Radunić, Mira; Jukić Špika, Maja; Goreta Ban, Smiljana; Gadže, Jelena; Díaz-Pérez, Juan Carlos; MacLean, Dan

    2015-06-15

    The objective was to evaluate physical and chemical properties of eight pomegranate accessions (seven cultivars and one wild genotype) collected from the Mediterranean region of Croatia. Accessions showed high variability in fruit weight and size, calyx and peel properties, number of arils per fruit, total aril weight, and aril and juice yield. Variables that define sweet taste, such as low total acidity (TA; 0.37-0.59%), high total soluble solids content (TSS; 12.5-15.0%) and their ratio (TSS/TA) were evaluated, and results generally aligned with sweetness classifications of the fruit. Pomegranate fruit had a high variability in total phenolic content (1985.6-2948.7 mg/L). HPLC-MALDI-TOF/MS analysis showed that accessions with dark red arils had the highest total anthocyanin content, with cyanidin 3-glucoside as the most abundant compound. Principal component analysis revealed great differences in fruit physical characteristics and chemical composition among pomegranate accessions. PMID:25660857

  2. [Antioxidant properties of essential oils from lemon, grapefruit, coriander, clove, and their mixtures].

    PubMed

    Misharina, T A; Samusenko, A L

    2008-01-01

    Antioxidant properties of individual essential oils from lemon (Citrus limon L.), pink grapefruit (Citrus paradise L.), coriander (Coriandrum sativum L.), and clove (Caryophyllus aromaticus L.) buds and their mixtures were studied by capillary gas-liquid chromatography. Antioxidant activity was assessed by oxidation of the aliphatic aldehyde hexanal to the carboxylic acid. The lowest and highest antioxidant activities were exhibited by grapefruit and clove bud essential oils, respectively. Mixtures containing clove bud essential oil also strongly inhibited oxidation of hexanal. Changes in the composition of essential oils and their mixtures in the course of long-term storage in the light were studied. The stability of components of lemon and coriander essential oils in mixtures increased compared to individual essential oils.

  3. Structurally imperfect glycine-containing ferroelectrics and their physical properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khasinevich, N. I.; Chesnokov, E. D.; Tarasevich, E. V.; Rodin, S. V.

    The study is concerned with the effect of substitutional and growth defects on the physical properties of diglycine nitrate crystals, which belong to the triglycine sulfate group of ferroelectric crystals. In particular, experimental data are presented on the temperature dependences of the piezoelectric moduli, elastic compliances, electromechanical coupling coefficients, and electrostriction coefficients of pure and alanine-alloyed crystals. The permittivity and the nuclear spin-lattice relaxation time of the crystals are also determined.

  4. Investigation of physical properties of TiO2 nanolayers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Struk, Przemyslaw; Pustelny, Tadeusz

    2015-12-01

    We present applications of titanium dioxide wide bandgap oxide semiconductor and its application in integrated optics devices. The paper is focus on research of physical properties TiO2 such as: spectral transmittance, refractive index, extinction coefficient in the UV-VIS-IR range of light as well as surface topography. In addition we show the numerical calculation and optical characterization of fabricated optical planar waveguide based on TiO2.

  5. Role of physical properties of liquids in cavitation erosion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thiruvengadam, A.

    1974-01-01

    The dependence of erosion rates on the ambient temperature of water is discussed. The assumption that the gas inside the bubble is compressed adiabatically during collapse gives better agreement with experiments than the assumption that the gas is isothermally compressed. Acoustic impedance is an important liquid parameter that governs the erosion intensity in vibratory devices. The investigation reveals that the major physical properties of liquids governing the intensity of erosion include density, sound speed, surface tension, vapor pressure, gas content, and nuclei distribution.

  6. Extra-virgin olive oil diet and mild physical activity prevent cartilage degeneration in an osteoarthritis model: an in vivo and in vitro study on lubricin expression.

    PubMed

    Musumeci, Giuseppe; Trovato, Francesca Maria; Pichler, Karin; Weinberg, Annelie Martina; Loreto, Carla; Castrogiovanni, Paola

    2013-12-01

    Mediterranean diet includes a relatively high fat consumption mostly from monounsaturated fatty acids mainly provided by olive oil, the principal source of culinary and dressing fat. The beneficial effects of olive oil have been widely studied and could be due to its phytochemicals, which have been shown to possess anti-inflammatory properties. Lubricin is a chondroprotective glycoprotein and it serves as a critical boundary lubricant between opposing cartilage surfaces. A joint injury causes an initial flare of cytokines, which decreases lubricin expression and predisposes to cartilage degeneration such as osteoarthritis. The aim of this study was to evaluate the role of extra-virgin olive oil diet and physical activity on inflammation and expression of lubricin in articular cartilage of rats after injury. In this study we used histomorphometric, histological, immunocytochemical, immunohistochemical, western blot and biochemical analysis for lubricin and interleukin-1 evaluations in the cartilage and in the synovial fluid. We report the beneficial effect of physical activity (treadmill training) and extra-virgin olive oil supplementation, on the articular cartilage. The effects of anterior cruciate ligament transection decrease drastically the expression of lubricin and increase the expression of interleukin-1 in rats, while after physical activity and extra-virgin olive oil supplemented diet, the values return to a normal level compared to the control group. With our results we can confirm the importance of the physical activity in conjunction with extra-virgin olive oil diet in medical therapy to prevent osteoarthritis disease in order to preserve the articular cartilage and then the entire joint. PMID:24369033

  7. Extra-virgin olive oil diet and mild physical activity prevent cartilage degeneration in an osteoarthritis model: an in vivo and in vitro study on lubricin expression.

    PubMed

    Musumeci, Giuseppe; Trovato, Francesca Maria; Pichler, Karin; Weinberg, Annelie Martina; Loreto, Carla; Castrogiovanni, Paola

    2013-12-01

    Mediterranean diet includes a relatively high fat consumption mostly from monounsaturated fatty acids mainly provided by olive oil, the principal source of culinary and dressing fat. The beneficial effects of olive oil have been widely studied and could be due to its phytochemicals, which have been shown to possess anti-inflammatory properties. Lubricin is a chondroprotective glycoprotein and it serves as a critical boundary lubricant between opposing cartilage surfaces. A joint injury causes an initial flare of cytokines, which decreases lubricin expression and predisposes to cartilage degeneration such as osteoarthritis. The aim of this study was to evaluate the role of extra-virgin olive oil diet and physical activity on inflammation and expression of lubricin in articular cartilage of rats after injury. In this study we used histomorphometric, histological, immunocytochemical, immunohistochemical, western blot and biochemical analysis for lubricin and interleukin-1 evaluations in the cartilage and in the synovial fluid. We report the beneficial effect of physical activity (treadmill training) and extra-virgin olive oil supplementation, on the articular cartilage. The effects of anterior cruciate ligament transection decrease drastically the expression of lubricin and increase the expression of interleukin-1 in rats, while after physical activity and extra-virgin olive oil supplemented diet, the values return to a normal level compared to the control group. With our results we can confirm the importance of the physical activity in conjunction with extra-virgin olive oil diet in medical therapy to prevent osteoarthritis disease in order to preserve the articular cartilage and then the entire joint.

  8. Synthesis and physical properties of some composite systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pu, Zhengcai

    There are four major parts in this dissertation: (1) investigation of filler-matrix interactions in poly(dimethylsiloxane)/zeolite (PDMS/zeolite) composites, (2) characterization of mechanical and thermal properties of 3-(trimethoxysilyl)propyl methacrylate coated silica (TPM-Si) filled poly(methyl acrylate) (PMA), (3) small angle x-ray scattering studies of chain penetration into cavities of a zeolite in poly(ethyl acrylate)/zeolite (PEA/zeolite) hybrid material, (4) study of hydrolysis kinetics and stability of bis(triethoxysilyl)ethane (BTESE) in water-ethanol solutions by Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy. In the first part of this study, two types of PDMS/zeolite composites with physically or chemically crosslinked networks were prepared through two different approaches: (1) blending hydroxyl-terminated linear PDMS with zeolite and crosslinking PDMS with tetraethylorthosilicate (TEOS); (2) mixing dichlorodimethylsilane with zeolite, and then hydrolyzing and polymerizing the dichlorodimethylsilane with water. The physical properties of the resulting composites, including mechanical properties, swelling properties, and small angle X-ray (SAXS), were measured and compared. It was shown that the PDMS/zeolite composites having PDMS networks differently crosslinked behave differently in many aspects. In the second part of the study, composites of PMA and of TPM-Si with randomly dispersed, regularly dispersed, and aggregated silica were prepared by blending methyl acrylate and TPM-Si, followed by free radical polymerization. Simple tension properties, equibiaxial extension properties, dynamic mechanical properties, and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) properties of the resulting composites were investigated. It was shown that well-defined relationships exist between the physical properties of the composites and the preparation processes. In the third part of this study, small angle X-ray scattering (SAXS) intensities of PEA/zeolite hybrids were

  9. [The effect of physical properties of chitosan on cell activity and on its mechanics property].

    PubMed

    Tian, Shengli; Ye, Zhiyi

    2012-12-01

    Chitosan is a natural biopolymer and is made up of D-glucosamine subunits linked by beta-(1,4) glycosidic bond. In recent years, the application of chitosan has attracted more and more attention because of its good biological function in cell biology. The properties of chitosan-based biomaterial are attributed to the physical properties and chemical composition of chitosan. The author of this paper summarized recent related studies and progresses of the influence of physical properties of chitosan on cell activity and cell mechanics property at home and abroad. The findings show that most studies mainly focused on the influence of chitosan and cell activity, while few were on cell mechanics property. The related studies of the influence of chitosan on cell will contribute to the explanation for the mechanism of the interaction between chitosan and cell, and provide the theoretical support for the further study.

  10. Physical Properties of Biological Entities: An Introduction to the Ontology of Physics for Biology

    PubMed Central

    Cook, Daniel L.; Bookstein, Fred L.; Gennari, John H.

    2011-01-01

    As biomedical investigators strive to integrate data and analyses across spatiotemporal scales and biomedical domains, they have recognized the benefits of formalizing languages and terminologies via computational ontologies. Although ontologies for biological entities—molecules, cells, organs—are well-established, there are no principled ontologies of physical properties—energies, volumes, flow rates—of those entities. In this paper, we introduce the Ontology of Physics for Biology (OPB), a reference ontology of classical physics designed for annotating biophysical content of growing repositories of biomedical datasets and analytical models. The OPB's semantic framework, traceable to James Clerk Maxwell, encompasses modern theories of system dynamics and thermodynamics, and is implemented as a computational ontology that references available upper ontologies. In this paper we focus on the OPB classes that are designed for annotating physical properties encoded in biomedical datasets and computational models, and we discuss how the OPB framework will facilitate biomedical knowledge integration. PMID:22216106

  11. Relationship between physical properties and sensory attributes of carbonated beverages.

    PubMed

    Kappes, S M; Schmidt, S J; Lee, S-Y

    2007-01-01

    Bulk sweeteners provide functional properties in beverages, including sweet taste, bulking, bitter masking, structure, and mouthfeel. Diet beverages come closer to the taste of regular beverages using a blend of high-intensity sweeteners; however, some properties, including bulking, structure, and mouthfeel, remain significantly different. Relating physical properties to sensory characteristics is an important step in understanding why mouthfeel differences are apparent in beverages sweetened with alternative sweeteners compared to bulk sweeteners. The objectives of this research were to (1) measure sweetener profile, Brix, refractive index, viscosity, a(w), carbonation, titratable acidity, and pH of commercial carbonated beverages; and (2) correlate the physical property measurements to descriptive analysis of the beverages. Correlation analysis, partial least squares, canonical correlation analysis, and cluster analysis were used to analyze the data. Brix, viscosity, and sweet taste were highly correlated among one another and were all negatively correlated to a(w). Carbonated and decarbonated pH were highly correlated to each other and were both negatively correlated to mouthcoating. Numbing, burn, bite, and carbonation were highly correlated to total acidity, citric acid, and ascorbic acid and negatively correlated to phosphoric acid. The mouthfeel difference between diet and regular lemon/lime carbonated beverages is small and may be related to overall differences between flavor, acid, and sweetener types and usage levels. This research is significant because it demonstrates the use of both sensory attributes and physical properties to identify types of ingredients and levels that may decrease the mouthfeel perception differences between regular and diet carbonated beverages, which could consequently lead to higher acceptance of diet beverages by the consumers of regular. PMID:17995891

  12. Antimicrobial, Rheological, and Thermal Properties of Plasticized Polylactide Films Incorporated with Essential Oils to Inhibit Staphylococcus aureus and Campylobacter jejuni.

    PubMed

    Ahmed, Jasim; Hiremath, Nikhil; Jacob, Harsha

    2016-02-01

    Polylactide (PLA) is the most mature biobased and biodegradable polymer. Due to its inherent brittleness, the polymer cannot be used as a packaging material without plasticizer. An attempt was made to develop antimicrobial plasticized PLA film by incorporating polyethylene glycol (PEG) and 3 essential oils (EO), namely cinnamon, garlic, and clove by solvent casting method. Physical, thermal, and rheological properties of those films were evaluated for practical applications whereas the antimicrobial properties were tested against Staphylococcus aureus and Campylobacter jejuni-pathogens related to poultry industry. Both PEG and EOs led to the formation of flexible PLA/PEG/EO films with significant drop in the glass transition temperature (Tg ), and mechanical property. Time-temperature superposition (TTS) principle was employed to melt rheology of EO-based films at selected temperature, and rheological moduli superimposed well in an extended frequency range. Among EOs, cinnamon and clove oil-based films (PLA/PEG/CIN and PLA/PEG/CLO) exhibited a complete zone of inhibition against C. jejuni at the maximum concentration (1.6 mL per 2 g PLA/PEG blend) whereas the garlic oil-based film (PLA/PEG/GAR) had the lowest activity. PMID:26749466

  13. Antimicrobial, Rheological, and Thermal Properties of Plasticized Polylactide Films Incorporated with Essential Oils to Inhibit Staphylococcus aureus and Campylobacter jejuni.

    PubMed

    Ahmed, Jasim; Hiremath, Nikhil; Jacob, Harsha

    2016-02-01

    Polylactide (PLA) is the most mature biobased and biodegradable polymer. Due to its inherent brittleness, the polymer cannot be used as a packaging material without plasticizer. An attempt was made to develop antimicrobial plasticized PLA film by incorporating polyethylene glycol (PEG) and 3 essential oils (EO), namely cinnamon, garlic, and clove by solvent casting method. Physical, thermal, and rheological properties of those films were evaluated for practical applications whereas the antimicrobial properties were tested against Staphylococcus aureus and Campylobacter jejuni-pathogens related to poultry industry. Both PEG and EOs led to the formation of flexible PLA/PEG/EO films with significant drop in the glass transition temperature (Tg ), and mechanical property. Time-temperature superposition (TTS) principle was employed to melt rheology of EO-based films at selected temperature, and rheological moduli superimposed well in an extended frequency range. Among EOs, cinnamon and clove oil-based films (PLA/PEG/CIN and PLA/PEG/CLO) exhibited a complete zone of inhibition against C. jejuni at the maximum concentration (1.6 mL per 2 g PLA/PEG blend) whereas the garlic oil-based film (PLA/PEG/GAR) had the lowest activity.

  14. Effect of succinylation of oil palm protein concentrates on the functional properties.

    PubMed

    Pacheco de Delahaye, E

    1993-06-01

    Defatted kernel flour of oil palm, grounded to 60 mesh, was taken as raw material to produce protein concentrates (70.8%) protein) which were succinylated at different levels (0.05; 0.2 and 0.6). The extent of acylation was measured as percentage of lysine modification reaching values from 18.4% to 48.6%. Protein concentrate functional properties were determined: Water solubility (pH 2-10); water absorption (320%); oil absorption (2.2 ml oil/g), emulsion activity and emulsion stability (28-46%). The functional properties were enhanced by succinylation if compared with the untreated protein concentrate, however, "in vitro" digestibility was not affected, by succinylation. In summary, the results of this study indicate that acylation using succinyl anhydride can improve the functional properties of oil palm protein concentrate over those without such treatment.

  15. Characterization of the physical properties for solid granular materials

    SciTech Connect

    Tucker, Jonathan R.; Shadle, Lawrence J.; Guenther, Chris; Benyahia, Sofiane; Mei, Joseph S.; Banta, Larry

    2012-01-01

    Accurate prediction of the behavior of a system is strongly governed by the components within that system. For multiphase systems incorporating solid powder-like particles, there are many different physical properties which need to be known to some level of accuracy for proper design, modeling, or data analysis. In the past, the material properties were determined initially as a secondary part of the study or design. In an attempt to provide results with the least level of uncertainty, a procedure was developed and implemented to provide consistent analysis of several different types of materials. The properties that were characterized included particle sizing and size distributions, shape analysis, density (particle, skeletal and bulk), minimum fluidization velocities, void fractions, particle porosity, and assignment within the Geldart Classification. In the methods used for this experiment, a novel form of the Ergun equation was used to determine the bulk void fractions and particle density. Materials of known properties were initially characterized to validate the accuracy and methodology, prior to testing materials of unknown properties. The procedures used yielded valid and accurate results, with a high level of repeatability. A database of these materials has been developed to assist in model validation efforts and future designs. It is also anticipated that further development of these procedures wil be expanded increasing the properties included in the database.

  16. A review of the chemical and physical mechanisms of the storage stability of fast pyrolysis bio-oils

    SciTech Connect

    Diebold, J.P.

    1999-01-27

    Understanding the fundamental chemical and physical aging mechanisms is necessary to learn how to produce a bio-oil that is more stable during shipping and storage. This review provides a basis for this understanding and identifies possible future research paths to produce bio-oils with better storage stability.

  17. Physicochemical properties of peanut oil-based diacylglycerol and their derived oil-in-water emulsions stabilized by sodium caseinate.

    PubMed

    Long, Zhao; Zhao, Mouming; Liu, Ning; Liu, Daolin; Sun-Waterhouse, Dongxiao; Zhao, Qiangzhong

    2015-10-01

    High purity peanut oil-based diacylglycerol (PO-DAG) (94.95 wt%) was prepared via enzymatic glycerolysis from peanut oil (PO). The resulting dominance of DAGs was proven to greatly influence the properties of corresponding fresh or frozen-thawed emulsions. Stable fresh oil-in-water emulsions were produced using either PO-DAG or PO, with stability enhanced by increased concentrations of Na-CN. The lower equilibrium interfacial tension along with greater negative ζ-potential of PO revealed that Na-CN was preferentially adsorbed to the PO interface. Adding 0.05 mol/L NaCl to the PO emulsions minimized depletion flocculation caused by the unadsorbed Na-CN, but further NaCl addition increased oil droplet size and concomitant coalescence. For the PO-DAG emulsions, adding 0.2 mol/L NaCl did not significantly (p>0.05) affect their ζ-potential but adding 0.05 or 0.1 mol/L NaCl lowered ζ-potential, although NaCl at these concentrations increased oil droplet size and coalescence. Freezing-thawing process considerably weakened the stability of PO-DAG emulsions.

  18. Evaluation of nonwoven polypropylene oil sorbents in marine oil-spill recovery.

    PubMed

    Wei, Q F; Mather, R R; Fotheringham, A F; Yang, R D

    2003-06-01

    Mechanical recovery of oil by oil sorbents is one of the most important countermeasures in marine oil-spill response. Polypropylene is the ideal material for marine oil-spill recovery due to its low density, low water uptake and excellent physical and chemical resistance. Different forms of polypropylene nonwoven sorbents were evaluated in this study in terms of initial oil-sorption capacities and oil-retention properties. The investigation revealed that the fibre diameter, sorbent porosity and oil property are the most important factors in the oil-sorption performance of polypropylene nonwoven sorbents.

  19. Literature Survey of Crude Oil Properties Relevant to Handling and Fire Safety in Transport.

    SciTech Connect

    Lord, David; Luketa, Anay; Wocken, Chad; Schlasner, Steve; Aulich, Ted; Allen, Ray; Rudeen, David Keith

    2015-03-01

    Several fiery rail accidents in 2013-2015 in the U.S. and Canada carrying crude oil produced from the Bakken region of North Dakota have raised questions at many levels on the safety of transporting this, and other types of crude oil, by rail. Sandia National Laboratories was commissioned by the U.S. Department of Energy to investigate the material properties of crude oils, and in particular the so-called "tight oils" like Bakken that comprise the majority of crude oil rail shipments in the U.S. at the current time. The current report is a literature survey of public sources of information on crude oil properties that have some bearing on the likelihood or severity of combustion events that may occur around spills associated with rail transport. The report also contains background information including a review of the notional "tight oil" field operating environment, as well a basic description of crude oils and potential combustion events in rail transport. This page intentionally blank

  20. Patterns of changes in oil properties in complex constructions for carbonate reservoirs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morozov, Vladimir P.; Plotnikova, Irina N.; Nosova, Fidania F.; Pronin, Nikita V.; Nosova, Julia G.

    2014-05-01

    The objects of this research are carbonate reservoirs with non-uniform lithology and filtration-volumetric parameters. The oil under study is heavy ( 0.924 g/cm3). Our research methods include the following: studying of filtration-volumetric parameters in rock samples, performing the thermal and geochemical studies of fluids . Thermal and geochemical studies performed on core samples and on fluids extracted from sediments of Bashkirian sub-panel of a 1985 well in Akansky field showed that oil properties (namely its group composition) are not constant and uniform throughout the deposit but depend on the structure of the pore space, on the porosity, and the size of pore channels. In particular, we found out that oil that saturates large pores and cavities contains less oil fractions and more resins and asphaltenes. The fine pores of the rock matrix are saturated with lighter petroleum hydrocarbons, which predominantly have oils while the percentage of asphaltenes decreases. These patterns can be explained by the process of chromatography (separation) of oil during its migration and filtration through some porous environments while filling up the collector and forming deposits. Assuming that petroleum is a colloidal solution where light hydrocarbons serve as solvents, and resin- asphaltene colloidal particles are the dissolved part, the process of filling the pores can be represented as follows. Under the influence of external forces and as a result of spreading in a porous environment, oil, when entering the collector, is subjected chromatography - the lightest and easily movable hydrocarbons (solvents) penetrate into finer pore channels (including the thinnest pores and micro cracks of the rock matrix), while the resinous asphaltene part dissolved in oil remains in the large pores and cavities. Thus, the distribution of oil in carbonate reservoir of Bashkirian sub-panel is as follows: rock matrix and its low porosity layers are filled with lighter oil, while heavier

  1. HYDRAULIC AND PHYSICAL PROPERTIES OF SALTSTONE GROUTS AND VAULT CONCRETES

    SciTech Connect

    Dixon, K; John Harbour, J; Mark Phifer, M

    2008-11-25

    The Saltstone Disposal Facility (SDF), located in the Z-Area of the Savannah River Site (SRS), is used for the disposal of low-level radioactive salt solution. The SDF currently contains two vaults: Vault 1 (6 cells) and Vault 4 (12 cells). Additional disposal cells are currently in the design phase. The individual cells of the saltstone facility are filled with saltstone. Saltstone is produced by mixing the low-level radioactive salt solution, with blast furnace slag, fly ash, and cement (dry premix) to form a dense, micro-porous, monolithic, low-level radioactive waste form. The saltstone is pumped into the disposal cells where it subsequently solidifies. Significant effort has been undertaken to accurately model the movement of water and contaminants through the facility. Key to this effort is an accurate understanding of the hydraulic and physical properties of the solidified saltstone. To date, limited testing has been conducted to characterize the saltstone. The primary focus of this task was to estimate the hydraulic and physical properties of three types of saltstone and two vault concretes. The saltstone formulations included saltstone premix batched with (1) Deliquification, Dissolution, and Adjustment (DDA) salt simulant (w/pm 0.60), (2) Actinide Removal Process (ARP)/Modular Caustic Side Solvent Extraction Unit (MCU) salt simulant (w/pm 0.60), and (3) Salt Waste Processing Facility (SWPF) salt simulant (w/pm 0.60). The vault concrete formulations tested included the Vault 1/4 concrete and two variations of the Vault 2 concrete (Mix 1 and Mix 2). Wet properties measured for the saltstone formulations included yield stress, plastic viscosity, wet unit weight, bleed water volume, gel time, set time, and heat of hydration. Hydraulic and physical properties measured on the cured saltstone and concrete samples included saturated hydraulic conductivity, moisture retention, compressive strength, porosity, particle density, and dry bulk density. These properties

  2. The lipidome, genotoxicity, hematotoxicity and antioxidant properties of andiroba oil from the Brazilian Amazon.

    PubMed

    Milhomem-Paixão, Susana Suely Rodrigues; Fascineli, Maria Luiza; Roll, Mariana Matos; Longo, João Paulo Figueiró; Azevedo, Ricardo Bentes; Pieczarka, Julio Cesar; Salgado, Hugo Leonardo Crisóstomo; Santos, Alberdan Silva; Grisolia, Cesar Koppe

    2016-05-13

    Andirobeira is an Amazonian tree, the seeds of which produce a commercially valuable oil that is used in folk medicine and in the cosmetic industry. Andiroba oil contains components with anti-inflammatory, cicatrizing and insect-repellant actions. However, virtually nothing is known of the safety of this oil for humans. The aim of this work was therefore to investigate the hematotoxicity, genotoxicity and mutagenicity of andiroba oil using the comet and micronucleus assays, and to assess its antioxidant properties and lipidome as a means of addressing safety issues. For the experiments, andiroba oil was administered by gavage for 14 consecutive days in nulliparous female Swiss mice randomly distributed in four groups: negative control and three doses of oil (500, 1000 and 2000 mg/kg/day). These doses were chosen based on recommendations of the OECD guideline no. 474 (1997). GC/MS was used to investigate the free fatty acid, cholesterol and triterpene content of andiroba oil in a lipidomic analysis. No clinical or behavioral alterations were observed throughout the period of treatment, and exposure to andiroba oil at the doses and conditions used here did not result in hematotoxic, genotoxic or mutagenic effects. Tests in vitro showed that oil sample 3 from southwestern of Brazilian Amazon had a high antioxidant capacity that may protect biological systems from oxidative stress, although this activity remains to be demonstrated in vivo. PMID:27192128

  3. The lipidome, genotoxicity, hematotoxicity and antioxidant properties of andiroba oil from the Brazilian Amazon

    PubMed Central

    Milhomem-Paixão, Susana Suely Rodrigues; Fascineli, Maria Luiza; Roll, Mariana Matos; Longo, João Paulo Figueiró; Azevedo, Ricardo Bentes; Pieczarka, Julio Cesar; Salgado, Hugo Leonardo Crisóstomo; Santos, Alberdan Silva; Grisolia, Cesar Koppe

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Andirobeira is an Amazonian tree, the seeds of which produce a commercially valuable oil that is used in folk medicine and in the cosmetic industry. Andiroba oil contains components with anti-inflammatory, cicatrizing and insect-repellant actions. However, virtually nothing is known of the safety of this oil for humans. The aim of this work was therefore to investigate the hematotoxicity, genotoxicity and mutagenicity of andiroba oil using the comet and micronucleus assays, and to assess its antioxidant properties and lipidome as a means of addressing safety issues. For the experiments, andiroba oil was administered by gavage for 14 consecutive days in nulliparous female Swiss mice randomly distributed in four groups: negative control and three doses of oil (500, 1000 and 2000 mg/kg/day). These doses were chosen based on recommendations of the OECD guideline no. 474 (1997). GC/MS was used to investigate the free fatty acid, cholesterol and triterpene content of andiroba oil in a lipidomic analysis. No clinical or behavioral alterations were observed throughout the period of treatment, and exposure to andiroba oil at the doses and conditions used here did not result in hematotoxic, genotoxic or mutagenic effects. Tests in vitro showed that oil sample 3 from southwestern of Brazilian Amazon had a high antioxidant capacity that may protect biological systems from oxidative stress, although this activity remains to be demonstrated in vivo. PMID:27192128

  4. The significance of large variations in oil properties of the Dai Hung field, Vietnam

    SciTech Connect

    Behrenbruch, P.; Du, P.Q.

    1995-10-01

    The Dai Hung Oil field, offshore Vietnam, is comprised of a complex subsurface structure containing stacked reservoir sequences typically found in many other Southeast Asian fields. Combined with areal fault compartmentalization, this situation has led to the observed, large variations in oil properties. Furthermore, the depositional environment in terms of burial history has created a unique overpressure situation which also had an affect, particularly on the crude saturation conditions of individual reservoirs. For commercial and technical reasons, this situation required a detailed analysis, both in terms of variation in crude assay and live oil properties. For whole crude properties: gravity, K factor, wax content and pour point-graphs were drawn up using a large data base of worldwide crudes against which the Dai Hung data could be validated. In case of PVT properties (bubble point and formation volume factor) existing industry correlations were examined. It could be concluded that the sweet, medium gravity and moderately waxy Dai Hung crude has whole crude properties which are comparable to other, similar crudes. The general framework of crude properties established is suitable to type other crudes, even if limited information is available. Of the existing PVT correlations tested, it was found that Standing`s correlation for the oil formation volume factor and the Kartoatmodjo-Schmidt correlation for the bubble point fitted the Dai Hung crude data the best. For the lower shrinkage Dai Hung crudes the Malaysian oil formation volume factor correlation by Omar-Todd gave the best data fit.

  5. The number comb for a soil physical properties dynamic measurement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Olechko, K.; Patiño, P.; Tarquis, A. M.

    2012-04-01

    We propose the prime numbers distribution extracted from the soil digital multiscale images and some physical properties time series as the precise indicator of the spatial and temporal dynamics under soil management changes. With this new indicator the soil dynamics can be studied as a critical phenomenon where each phase transition is estimated and modeled by the graph partitioning induced phase transition. The critical point of prime numbers distribution was correlated with the beginning of Andosols, Vertisols and saline soils physical degradation under the unsustainable soil management in Michoacan, Guanajuato and Veracruz States of Mexico. The data banks corresponding to the long time periods (between 10 and 28 years) were statistically compared by RISK 5.0 software and our own algorithms. Our approach makes us able to distill free-form natural laws of soils physical properties dynamics directly from the experimental data. The Richter (1987) and Schmidt and Lipson (2009) original approaches were very useful to design the algorithms to identify Hamiltonians, Lagrangians and other laws of geometric and momentum conservation especially for erosion case.

  6. Physical Origins of Thermal Properties of Cement Paste

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abdolhosseini Qomi, Mohammad Javad; Ulm, Franz-Josef; Pellenq, Roland J.-M.

    2015-06-01

    Despite the ever-increasing interest in multiscale porous materials, the chemophysical origin of their thermal properties at the nanoscale and its connection to the macroscale properties still remain rather obscure. In this paper, we link the atomic- and macroscopic-level thermal properties by combining tools of statistical physics and mean-field homogenization theory. We begin with analyzing the vibrational density of states of several calcium-silicate materials in the cement paste. Unlike crystalline phases, we indicate that calcium silicate hydrates (CSH) exhibit extra vibrational states at low frequencies (<2 THz ) compared to the vibrational states predicted by the Debye model. This anomaly is commonly referred to as the boson peak in glass physics. In addition, the specific-heat capacity of CSH in both dry and saturated states scales linearly with the calcium-to-silicon ratio. We show that the nanoscale-confining environment of CSH decreases the apparent heat capacity of water by a factor of 4. Furthermore, full thermal conductivity tensors for all phases are calculated via the Green-Kubo formalism. We estimate the mean free path of phonons in calcium silicates to be on the order of interatomic bonds. This satisfies the scale separability condition and justifies the use of mean-field homogenization theories for upscaling purposes. Upscaling schemes yield a good estimate of the macroscopic specific-heat capacity and thermal conductivity of cement paste during the hydration process, independent of fitting parameters.

  7. Physical and oxidation stability of self-emulsifying krill oil-in-water emulsions.

    PubMed

    Wu, Qian; Uluata, Sibel; Cui, Leqi; Wang, Chao; Li, Dongsheng; Mcclements, Julian; Decker, Eric A

    2016-08-10

    Krill oil is a unique source of omega-3 fatty acids since it is a mixture of phospholipids and triacylglycerols. Due to the presence of phospholipids, it can form oil-in-water emulsions without additional food additives. In this work, the physical stability of krill oil-in-water emulsions was determined at various pH values (3-7) and NaCl concentrations (50-1000 mM). The initial particle size ranged from 150 to 165 nm. The emulsions were the most stable at pH ≥ 5.0 and salt concentrations below 100 mM. Lipid oxidation was accelerated by iron and inhibited by Trolox and α-tocopherol. Trolox was a more effective antioxidant than α-tocopherol. α-Tocopherol had a better inhibitory effect when it was added after homogenization than when added to the lipid prior to homogenization. These results indicate that krill oil emulsions could represent a self-emulsifying, oxidatively stable source of omega-3 fatty acids that may be used in functional foods.

  8. Physical and oxidation stability of self-emulsifying krill oil-in-water emulsions.

    PubMed

    Wu, Qian; Uluata, Sibel; Cui, Leqi; Wang, Chao; Li, Dongsheng; Mcclements, Julian; Decker, Eric A

    2016-08-10

    Krill oil is a unique source of omega-3 fatty acids since it is a mixture of phospholipids and triacylglycerols. Due to the presence of phospholipids, it can form oil-in-water emulsions without additional food additives. In this work, the physical stability of krill oil-in-water emulsions was determined at various pH values (3-7) and NaCl concentrations (50-1000 mM). The initial particle size ranged from 150 to 165 nm. The emulsions were the most stable at pH ≥ 5.0 and salt concentrations below 100 mM. Lipid oxidation was accelerated by iron and inhibited by Trolox and α-tocopherol. Trolox was a more effective antioxidant than α-tocopherol. α-Tocopherol had a better inhibitory effect when it was added after homogenization than when added to the lipid prior to homogenization. These results indicate that krill oil emulsions could represent a self-emulsifying, oxidatively stable source of omega-3 fatty acids that may be used in functional foods. PMID:27443794

  9. QA/QC requirements for physical properties sampling and analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Innis, B.E.

    1993-07-21

    This report presents results of an assessment of the available information concerning US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) quality assurance/quality control (QA/QC) requirements and guidance applicable to sampling, handling, and analyzing physical parameter samples at Comprehensive Environmental Restoration, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA) investigation sites. Geotechnical testing laboratories measure the following physical properties of soil and sediment samples collected during CERCLA remedial investigations (RI) at the Hanford Site: moisture content, grain size by sieve, grain size by hydrometer, specific gravity, bulk density/porosity, saturated hydraulic conductivity, moisture retention, unsaturated hydraulic conductivity, and permeability of rocks by flowing air. Geotechnical testing laboratories also measure the following chemical parameters of soil and sediment samples collected during Hanford Site CERCLA RI: calcium carbonate and saturated column leach testing. Physical parameter data are used for (1) characterization of vadose and saturated zone geology and hydrogeology, (2) selection of monitoring well screen sizes, (3) to support modeling and analysis of the vadose and saturated zones, and (4) for engineering design. The objectives of this report are to determine the QA/QC levels accepted in the EPA Region 10 for the sampling, handling, and analysis of soil samples for physical parameters during CERCLA RI.

  10. Physicochemical Properties and Fatty Acid Profiles of Elaeagnus mollis Diels Nut Oils.

    PubMed

    Liang, Shaohua; Yang, Ruinan; Dong, Caiwen; Yang, Qingping

    2015-01-01

    The physicochemical properties, fatty acid profiles, content of tocopherol and sterol of the oils extracted from the nuts of Elaeagnus mollis Diels grown in different regions of China were studied in this work. The results indicated that the Elaeagnus mollis Diels nut oils contained about 0.2% sterols and the tocopherol contents were in the range of 119.6-128.6mg/100g. The nut oils were all rich in unsaturated fatty acids, especially oleic acid and linoleic acid. Furthermore, the main triacylglycerols species of the nut oils were all dilinoleoyl-monoolein (LOL), dioleoyl-monolinoleoyl (OLO) and trilinoleate (LLL). This work might be useful for developing applications for Elaeagnus mollis Diels nut oil. PMID:26632946

  11. Physicochemical Properties and Fatty Acid Profiles of Elaeagnus mollis Diels Nut Oils.

    PubMed

    Liang, Shaohua; Yang, Ruinan; Dong, Caiwen; Yang, Qingping

    2015-01-01

    The physicochemical properties, fatty acid profiles, content of tocopherol and sterol of the oils extracted from the nuts of Elaeagnus mollis Diels grown in different regions of China were studied in this work. The results indicated that the Elaeagnus mollis Diels nut oils contained about 0.2% sterols and the tocopherol contents were in the range of 119.6-128.6mg/100g. The nut oils were all rich in unsaturated fatty acids, especially oleic acid and linoleic acid. Furthermore, the main triacylglycerols species of the nut oils were all dilinoleoyl-monoolein (LOL), dioleoyl-monolinoleoyl (OLO) and trilinoleate (LLL). This work might be useful for developing applications for Elaeagnus mollis Diels nut oil.

  12. Progress in physical properties of Chinese stock markets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liang, Yuan; Yang, Guang; Huang, Ji-Ping

    2013-08-01

    In the past two decades, statistical physics was brought into the field of finance, applying new methods and concepts to financial time series and developing a new interdiscipline "econophysics". In this review, we introduce several commonly used methods for stock time series in econophysics including distribution functions, correlation functions, detrended fluctuation analysis method, detrended moving average method, and multifractal analysis. Then based on these methods, we review some statistical properties of Chinese stock markets including scaling behavior, long-term correlations, cross-correlations, leverage effects, antileverage effects, and multifractality. Last, based on an agent-based model, we develop a new option pricing model — financial market model that shows a good agreement with the prices using real Shanghai Index data. This review is helpful for people to understand and research statistical physics of financial markets.

  13. MEASUREMENTS OF BLACK CARBON PARTICLES CHEMICAL, PHYSICAL, AND OPTICAL PROPERTIES

    SciTech Connect

    Onasch, T.B.; Sedlacek, A.; Cross, E. S.; Davidovits, P.; Worsnop, D. R.; Ahern, A.; Lack, D. A.; Cappa, C. D.; Trimborn, A.; Freedman, A.; Olfert, J. S.; Jayne, J. T.; Massoli, P.; Williams, L. R.; Mazzoleni, C.; Schwarz, J. P.; Thornhill, D. A.; Slowik, J. G.; Kok, G. L.; Brem, B. T.; Subramanian, R.; Spackman, J. R.; Freitag, S.; and Dubey, M. K.

    2009-12-14

    Accurate measurements of the chemical, physical, and optical properties of aerosol particles containing black carbon are necessary to improve current estimates of the radiative forcing in the atmosphere. A collaborative research effort between Aerodyne Research, Inc. and Boston College has focused on conducting field and laboratory experiments on carbonaceous particles and the development and characterization of new particulate instrumentation. This presentation will focus on the chemical, physical, and optical properties of black carbon particles measured in the laboratory in order to understand the effects of atmospheric processing on black carbon particles. Results from a three-week study during July 2008 of mass- and optical-based black carbon measurements will be presented. The project utilized the Boston College laboratory flame apparatus and aerosol conditioning and characterization equipment. A pre-mixed flat flame burner operating at controlled fuel-to-air ratios produced stable and reproducible concentrations of soot particles with known sizes, morphologies, and chemical compositions. In addition, other black carbon particle types, including fullerene soot, glassy carbon spheres, oxidized flame soot, Regal black, and Aquadag, were also atomized, size selected, and sampled. The study covered an experimental matrix that systematically selected particle mobility size (30 to 300 nm) and black carbon particle mass, particle number concentration, particle shape (dynamic shape factor and fractal dimension), and particle chemistry and density (changed via coatings). Particles were coated with a measured thickness (few nm to {approx}150 nm) of sulfuric acid or bis (2-ethylhexyl) sebacate and passed through a thermal denuder to remove the coatings. Highlights of the study to be presented include: (1) Characterization of the chemical and physical properties of various types of black carbon particles, (2) Mass specific absorption measurements as a function of fuel

  14. Monitoring transformer oil insulation using optical absorption properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rose, Benjamin P.

    As the electrical power distribution system ages, new methods of determining the quality of electrical transformer units are needed. Due to the relatively high expense of loss of service and safety hazards, a relatively cheap sensor to track the age of the insulation would aide in the progress of an intelligent power grid. The degradation of solid insulating paper releases some of the age indicating organic compounds into the oil. At present, the only available method to determine the concentration of those compounds is to perform high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) testing in a laboratory. This is an expensive and time consuming activity that also requires transformer to be taken offline. Currently there are no sensors that can directly (on-line) measure the chemical integrity of the material. This research was focused upon one of the well known organic compounds released by paper into the transformer oil - 2-furfuraldehyde (2FAL). Previous methods of 2FAL detection were explored and expounded upon. A device was constructed to utilize light emitting diodes to optically interrogate solid discs made out of chemically active material in multiple tests. A 10 kVA distribution transformer was fitted with a special device allowing a continuous oil circulation and the optical setup. The transformer was tested while being loaded under accelerated ageing conditions. A premature failure of the distribution transformer did not allow any correlation between concentration of 2FAL and the optical signals. Previously sampled oils for a current transformer (CT) were also tested for chemical analysis in the laboratory and optical signals from the newly developed optical device were obtained. A 95% linear correlation was found between the age of the CT oil and the output of the optical device. Although the technique was validated and does seem to have merit, more tests are needed before the optical device can be recommended for use in the field.

  15. Oxidative stability, chemical composition and organoleptic properties of seinat (Cucumis melo var. tibish) seed oil blends with peanut oil from China.

    PubMed

    Siddeeg, Azhari; Xia, Wenshui

    2015-12-01

    Seinat seed oil was blended with peanut oil for the enhancement of stability and chemical characteristics of the blend. The physicochemical properties (relative density, refractive index, free fatty acids, saponification value, iodine value and peroxide value) of seinat seed and peanut oil blends in ratios 95:5, 85:15, 30:70 and 50:50 proportions were evaluated, as well as oxidative stability index, deferential scanning calorimetric (DSC) characteristics and tocopherols content. Results of oil blend showed that there was no negative effect by the addition of seinat seed oil to peanut oil and also had decreased percentages of all saturated fatty acids except stearic acid, conversely, increased the levels of unsaturated fatty acids. As for the sensory evaluation, the panelist results showed that seinat seed oil blends had no significant differences (p < 0.05) in all attributes except the purity. The results indicated that the blending of seinat seed oil with peanut oil had also increased the stability and tocopherols content. As Sudan is the first producer of seinat oil, blending of seinat seed oil with traditional oil like quality, and may decrease the consumption of other expensive edible oils.

  16. Oxidative stability, chemical composition and organoleptic properties of seinat (Cucumis melo var. tibish) seed oil blends with peanut oil from China.

    PubMed

    Siddeeg, Azhari; Xia, Wenshui

    2015-12-01

    Seinat seed oil was blended with peanut oil for the enhancement of stability and chemical characteristics of the blend. The physicochemical properties (relative density, refractive index, free fatty acids, saponification value, iodine value and peroxide value) of seinat seed and peanut oil blends in ratios 95:5, 85:15, 30:70 and 50:50 proportions were evaluated, as well as oxidative stability index, deferential scanning calorimetric (DSC) characteristics and tocopherols content. Results of oil blend showed that there was no negative effect by the addition of seinat seed oil to peanut oil and also had decreased percentages of all saturated fatty acids except stearic acid, conversely, increased the levels of unsaturated fatty acids. As for the sensory evaluation, the panelist results showed that seinat seed oil blends had no significant differences (p < 0.05) in all attributes except the purity. The results indicated that the blending of seinat seed oil with peanut oil had also increased the stability and tocopherols content. As Sudan is the first producer of seinat oil, blending of seinat seed oil with traditional oil like quality, and may decrease the consumption of other expensive edible oils. PMID:26604391

  17. Dynamic Surface Properties of Asphaltenes and Resins at the Oil-Air Interface.

    PubMed

    Bauget, Fabrice; Langevin, Dominique; Lenormand, Roland

    2001-07-15

    Because of the existence of large reserves, the production of heavy oils is presently the object of much interest. Some heavy oil reservoirs show anomalous behavior in primary production, with rates of production better than predicted. In Canada and Venezuela some heavy oils are produced in the form of "bubbly" oil, which is stable for several hours in open vessels. These crude oils are therefore commonly called "foamy oils". Since the presence of bubbles could be responsible for an enhanced rate of production, a better knowledge of the properties of the gas-oil interface is desirable. We have experimentally studied the effect of concentration of asphaltenes and resins on static and dynamic properties of oil-air interfaces and also on bulk viscosity. The experiments include surface tension measurements using the pendant-drop method, surface viscosity by the oscillating-drop method, foamability by continuous gas injection, and film lifetime. All the experiments were performed using resins and asphaltenes in toluene solutions at 20 degrees C. At first asphaltenes enhance foamability and film lifetime. All the experiments performed showed a change in regime for asphaltene concentrations around 10% by weight, possibly due to clustering. At the studied concentrations, the adsorption process at the air-oil interface is not diffusion controlled but rather involves a reorganization of asphaltene molecules in a network structure. The formation of a solid skin is well identified by the increase of the elastic modulus. This elastic modulus is also an important property for foam stability, since a rigid interface limits bubble rupture. The interface rigidity at long times decreases with increases in resin fraction, which could decrease foam stability as well as emulsion stability. Copyright 2001 Academic Press.

  18. The clouds of Venus. [physical and chemical properties

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Young, A. T.

    1975-01-01

    The physical and chemical properties of the clouds of Venus are reviewed, with special emphasis on data that are related to cloud dynamics. None of the currently-popular interpretations of cloud phenomena on Venus is consistent with all the data. Either a considerable fraction of the observational evidence is faulty or has been misinterpreted, or the clouds of Venus are much more complex than the current simplistic models. Several lines of attack are suggested to resolve some of the contradictions. A sound understanding of the clouds appears to be several years in the future.

  19. Physical properties of coriander seeds at different moisture content

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Balasubramanian, S.; Singh, K. K.; Kumar, R.

    2012-10-01

    Physical properties of coriander seeds were determined at moisture content of 3.5-17.7%, d.b. The major axis and 1 000 seeds mass were found to decrease nonlinearly with increase in seed moisture. The medium and minor axes, geometric mean diameter, sphericity, unit volume, surface area and angle of repose increased linearly. Bulk density decreased linearly, however the true density increased non-linearly. The coefficient of static friction increased nonlinearly for different surfaces with increase in moisture level and its maximum was found for plywood surface. The rupture force and energy absorbed decreased linearly with increasing moisture content.

  20. Properties of glass, oil's formation...how to explain it? The secret is to amaze!

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Merlino, Silvia; Evangelista, Rosaria; Bianucci, Marco; Mantovani, Carlo; Gambarelli, Licia

    2013-04-01

    and allows children to follow stages and the secrets of the process: the sugar caramel! The true nature of the material is revealed only at the last: this leads to great fun and enjoyment of student, amazed to be able to enjoy the results of their experiments. Second path: it illustrates the processes involved in the formation of coal deposits and oil fiels. It explains the complex physical and chemical phenomena that led to the formation of fossil fuels from plant or animal remains of the Carboniferous era. The emphasis is reserved to the properties of the rocks in which hydrocarbons are trapped and to the physical processes that induce their migration from the deep layers to the more superficial crust. The students argue stimulated by curious and fun experiments on the concepts of density, temperature and pressure: they build real models of fields, using common materials, such as sponges with different porosity, water, oil, soil, peat and charcoal . During the experimental process the boys arrive at rigorous justification of the phenomena, working with the same attitude of the detectives in the course of an investigation, finding the right way to get the correct scientific explanation.

  1. Effects of Surface Coating on Physical Properties of Silver Nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tariq, M.; Hasnain, S. M.

    2015-08-01

    Polymer-coated nanoparticles improve the stability of materials against aggregation and enhance the physical properties, thus making it possible to use different applications in vast fields of science. In this work, silver nanoparticles were synthesized by a chemical reduction method and were further coated with the polymers polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) and polystyrene (PS). The influence of the polymer coating on the optical and electrical properties of the silver nanoparticles were investigated and compared with that of as-prepared silver nanoparticles. The nature of the prepared silver nanoparticles in the face-centered cubic structure is confirmed by peaks in the x-ray diffraction pattern. The temperature dependence of resistivity of the silver nanoparticles exhibit semiconducting behavior in the temperature range 100-300 K.

  2. Physical properties of alternatives to the fully halogenated chlorofluorocarbons

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mclinden, Mark O.

    1990-01-01

    Presented here are recommended values and correlations of selected physical properties of several alternatives to the fully halogenated chlorocarbons. The quality of the data used in this compilation varies widely, ranging from well-documented, high accuracy measurements from published sources to completely undocumented values listed on anonymous data sheets. That some of the properties for some fluids are available only from the latter type of source is clearly not the desired state of affairs. While some would reject all such data, the compilation given here is presented in the spirit of laying out the present state of knowledge and making available a set of data in a timely manner, even though its quality is sometimes uncertain. The correlations presented here are certain to change quickly as additional information becomes available.

  3. Nanoionic devices: Interface nanoarchitechtonics for physical property tuning and enhancement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsuchiya, Takashi; Terabe, Kazuya; Yang, Rui; Aono, Masakazu

    2016-11-01

    Nanoionic devices have been developed to generate novel functions overcoming limitations of conventional materials synthesis and semiconductor technology. Various physical properties can be tuned and enhanced by local ion transport near the solid/solid interface. Two electronic carrier doping methods can be used to achieve extremely high-density electronic carriers: one is electrostatic carrier doping using an electric double layer (EDL); the other is electrochemical carrier doping using a redox reaction. Atomistic restructuring near the solid/solid interface driven by a DC voltage, namely, interface nanoarchitechtonics, has huge potential. For instance, the use of EDL enables high-density carrier doping in potential superconductors, which can hardly accept chemical doping, in order to achieve room-temperature superconductivity. Optical bandgap and photoluminescence can be controlled for various applications including smart windows and biosensors. In situ tuning of magnetic properties is promising for low-power-consumption spintronics. Synaptic plasticity in the human brain is achieved in neuromorphic devices.

  4. Physical properties of superconducting single crystal iron sulfide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rodriguez, Efrain E.; Borg, Christopher K. H.; Zhou, Xiuquan; Paglione, Johnpierre; University of Maryland Collaboration

    Recently, the simple binary tetragonal iron sulfide, FeS, was found to be a superconductor with a Tc = 5 K. We have prepared single crystals of tetragonal iron sulfide through hydrothermal de-intercalation of KxFe2-yS2. The KxFe2-yS2 single crystal precursors were grown by slow cooling of stoichiometric melts of K, Fe and S. The silver, plate-like FeS single crystals were highly crystalline with a superconducting transition temperature (Tc) of 4 K. The high quality of the FeS crystals revealed highly anisotropic nature of the magnetic and electronic properties intrinsic to FeS. The physical properties and thermal stability of single crystal FeS will be discussed in detail.

  5. Thermo-Physical Properties of Intermediate Temperature Heat Pipe Fluids

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Beach, Duane E. (Technical Monitor); Devarakonda, Angirasa; Anderson, William G.

    2005-01-01

    Heat pipes are among the most promising technologies for space radiator systems. The paper reports further evaluation of potential heat pipe fluids in the intermediate temperature range of 400 to 700 K in continuation of two recent reports. More thermo-physical property data are examined. Organic, inorganic, and elemental substances are considered. The evaluation of surface tension and other fluid properties are examined. Halides are evaluated as potential heat pipe fluids. Reliable data are not available for all fluids and further database development is necessary. Many of the fluids considered are promising candidates as heat pipe fluids. Water is promising as a heat pipe fluid up to 500 to 550 K. Life test data for thermo-chemical compatibility are almost non-existent.

  6. Physical properties and compression loading behaviour of corn seed

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Babić, Lj.; Radojèin, M.; Pavkov, I.; Babić, M.; Turan, J.; Zoranović, M.; Stanišić, S.

    2013-03-01

    The aim of this study was to acquire data on the physical properties and compression loading behaviour of seed of six corn hybrid varieties. The mean values of length, width, thickness, geometric diameter, surface area, porosity, single kernel mass, sphericity, bulk and true density, 1 000 kernelmass and coefficient of friction were studied at single level of corn seed moisture content. The calculated secant modulus of elasticity during compressive loading for dent corn was 0.995 times that of the semi-flint type; there were no significant differences in the value of this mechanical property between semi-flint and dent corn varieties. The linear model showed a decreasing tendency of secant modulus of elasticity for all hybrids as the moisture content of seeds increased.

  7. Thermo-Physical Properties of Intermediate Temperature Heat Pipe Fluids

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Devarakonda, Angirasa; Anderson, William G.

    2004-01-01

    Heat pipes are among the most promising technologies for space radiator systems. The paper reports further evaluation of potential heat pipe fluids in the intermediate temperature range of 400 to 700 K in continuation of two recent reports. More thermo-physical property data are examined. Organic, inorganic and elemental substances are considered. The evaluation of surface tension and other fluid properties are examined. Halides are evaluated as potential heat pipe fluids. Reliable data are not available for all fluids and further database development in necessary. Many of the fluids considered are promising candidates as heat pipe fluids. Water is promising as a heat pipe fluid up to 500-550 K. Life test data for thermo-chemical compatibility are almost non-existent.

  8. Antimicrobial properties of microemulsions formulated with essential oils, soybean oil, and Tween 80.

    PubMed

    Ma, Qiumin; Davidson, P Michael; Zhong, Qixin

    2016-06-01

    It was previously found that blending soybean oil with cinnamon bark oil (CBO), eugenol or thyme oil, Tween 80, and equal masses of water and propylene glycol could be used to prepare microemulsions. In the present study, the objective was to determine the antimicrobial activity of the microemulsions in tryptic soy broth (TSB) and 2% reduced fat milk. In TSB, the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of CBO solubilized in microemulsions was up to 625 ppm against cocktails of Listeria monocytogenes, Salmonella enterica or Escherichia coli O157:H7, which was equal to or higher in concentration than free CBO dissolved in ethanol. However, MICs of eugenol or thyme oil in microemulsions were much higher than that of free antimicrobials. Therefore, microemulsions of CBO were chosen to do further study. Inactivation curves of L. monocytogenes or E. coli O157:H7 in TSB or 2% reduced fat milk were tested and fitted using the Weibull model. In TSB, a gradual decrease in cell viability of L. monocytogenes and E. coli O157:H7 was observed with the microemulsion treatments at 625 ppm CBO, which was in contrast to the more rapid and greater inactivation by free CBO. Gradual inactivation of L. monocytogenes in 2% reduced fat milk was also observed in the treatment with 10,000 ppm free or microemulsified CBO. When fitted using the Weibull model, the predicted time to obtain a 3-log decrease of L. monocytogenes and E. coli O157:H7 in TSB or 2% reduced fat milk increased with an increased amount of soybean oil in microemulsions. Additionally, increasing the amount of Tween 80 in mixtures with different mass ratios of Tween 80 and essential oils significantly decreased the log reductions of L. monocytogenes in TSB. Our study showed that microemulsions can be used to dissolve EOs and control the rate of inactivating bacteria, but the composition of microemulsions is to be carefully chosen to minimize the reduction of antimicrobial activities.

  9. Antimicrobial properties of microemulsions formulated with essential oils, soybean oil, and Tween 80.

    PubMed

    Ma, Qiumin; Davidson, P Michael; Zhong, Qixin

    2016-06-01

    It was previously found that blending soybean oil with cinnamon bark oil (CBO), eugenol or thyme oil, Tween 80, and equal masses of water and propylene glycol could be used to prepare microemulsions. In the present study, the objective was to determine the antimicrobial activity of the microemulsions in tryptic soy broth (TSB) and 2% reduced fat milk. In TSB, the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of CBO solubilized in microemulsions was up to 625 ppm against cocktails of Listeria monocytogenes, Salmonella enterica or Escherichia coli O157:H7, which was equal to or higher in concentration than free CBO dissolved in ethanol. However, MICs of eugenol or thyme oil in microemulsions were much higher than that of free antimicrobials. Therefore, microemulsions of CBO were chosen to do further study. Inactivation curves of L. monocytogenes or E. coli O157:H7 in TSB or 2% reduced fat milk were tested and fitted using the Weibull model. In TSB, a gradual decrease in cell viability of L. monocytogenes and E. coli O157:H7 was observed with the microemulsion treatments at 625 ppm CBO, which was in contrast to the more rapid and greater inactivation by free CBO. Gradual inactivation of L. monocytogenes in 2% reduced fat milk was also observed in the treatment with 10,000 ppm free or microemulsified CBO. When fitted using the Weibull model, the predicted time to obtain a 3-log decrease of L. monocytogenes and E. coli O157:H7 in TSB or 2% reduced fat milk increased with an increased amount of soybean oil in microemulsions. Additionally, increasing the amount of Tween 80 in mixtures with different mass ratios of Tween 80 and essential oils significantly decreased the log reductions of L. monocytogenes in TSB. Our study showed that microemulsions can be used to dissolve EOs and control the rate of inactivating bacteria, but the composition of microemulsions is to be carefully chosen to minimize the reduction of antimicrobial activities. PMID:27016636

  10. Wound-healing properties of the oils of Vitis vinifera and Vaccinium macrocarpon.

    PubMed

    Shivananda Nayak, B; Dan Ramdath, D; Marshall, Julien R; Isitor, Godwin; Xue, Sophia; Shi, John

    2011-08-01

    Vitis vinifera (grape) and Vaccinium macrocarpon (cranberry) are well known medicinal plants; most of the pharmacologically active phytochemicals have been isolated from the skin, fruit juice, fermented extract and alcohol fractions of the plants above. Here, the pharmacological properties of the phytochemical constituents present in oils of cranberry and grape were investigated. The oil of grape and cranberry has been evaluated for their wound healing activity by using an excision wound model in rats. The animals were divided into four groups of six each (n = 6). The experimental group 1 and 2 animals were treated topically with the grape and cranberry oil (100 mg/kg body weight), respectively. The controls were treated with petroleum jelly. The standard group of animals were treated with mupirocin ointment (100 mg/kg body weight). The healing was assessed by the rate of wound contraction and hydroxyproline content. On day 13, animals treated with cranberry oil exhibited a (88.1%) reduction in the wound area compared with grape-oil treated (84.6%), controls (74.1%) and standard group animals (78.4%) (p < 0.001). The hydroxyproline content of the granulation tissue was significantly higher in the animals treated with cranberry and the grape-oil (p < 0.000). Comparative investigation of the curative properties of the oils of V. vinifera and V. macrocarpon revealed a significant result which suggests their wound-healing potential.

  11. Study of the physical properties of crystalline rocks in the southeast Voronezh anteclise

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dmitriyevskiy, V. S.; Afanasyev, N. S.; Frolov, S. M.

    1985-01-01

    The physical properties of rocks, in the crystalline mass of the Voronezh anteclise, were studied. The study of the physical properties of rocks is important for the improvement of geophysical methods for mapping crystalline rocks in the foundation and exploration of different geological objects which are associated with the crystalline foundation, covered by the sedimentary mantle. It is found that: (1) rocks in the crystalline foundation are very different in physical properties; (2) the physical properties are closely related to their substance composition and genesis; (3) petrographic properties give clues of rock afficiation to certain complexes; and (4) physical and magnetic properties should be examined by petrography, chemical and X-ray analysis.

  12. N-Methylmelamines: Synthesis, Characterization, and Physical Properties.

    PubMed

    List, Manuela; Puchinger, Helmut; Gabriel, Herbert; Monkowius, Uwe; Schwarzinger, Clemens

    2016-05-20

    N-Methylmelamines have recently gained importance as valuable compounds for manufacturing modified melamine formaldehyde resins and other polymer building blocks. A great advantage of these polymers is the reduction of the carcinogenic formaldehyde. Selecting the polymerization processes (e.g., substance polymerization, polymerization in solution) and controlling the polymerization reaction and properties of these novel materials requires knowledge of the properties of the individual melamine derivatives used as new building blocks. All possible permutations of N-methylmelamines were prepared, and reaction progress was monitored by GC/MS. 2,4,6-Tris(dimethylamino)-1,3,5-triazine was prepared to complete the series; this is, however, also a possible byproduct in various synthesis routes. The reaction conditions were optimized to obtain high yields of each derivative with the highest possible purity. The substances were characterized by NMR and IR spectroscopy, mass spectrometry, elemental analysis, and single-crystal X-ray diffraction. In addition, physical properties, such as solubility, melting points, and pKb values, were determined. The number of amino-, methylamino-, and dimethylamino groups has a significant effect on these properties. In summary, we found that by increasing the number of amino- and methylamino groups, solubility and pKb increase. With increasing number of amino groups, the compounds tend to form hydrogen bonds, and thus, the melting point shifts to higher temperature ranges where they start to decompose. PMID:27100712

  13. N-Methylmelamines: Synthesis, Characterization, and Physical Properties.

    PubMed

    List, Manuela; Puchinger, Helmut; Gabriel, Herbert; Monkowius, Uwe; Schwarzinger, Clemens

    2016-05-20

    N-Methylmelamines have recently gained importance as valuable compounds for manufacturing modified melamine formaldehyde resins and other polymer building blocks. A great advantage of these polymers is the reduction of the carcinogenic formaldehyde. Selecting the polymerization processes (e.g., substance polymerization, polymerization in solution) and controlling the polymerization reaction and properties of these novel materials requires knowledge of the properties of the individual melamine derivatives used as new building blocks. All possible permutations of N-methylmelamines were prepared, and reaction progress was monitored by GC/MS. 2,4,6-Tris(dimethylamino)-1,3,5-triazine was prepared to complete the series; this is, however, also a possible byproduct in various synthesis routes. The reaction conditions were optimized to obtain high yields of each derivative with the highest possible purity. The substances were characterized by NMR and IR spectroscopy, mass spectrometry, elemental analysis, and single-crystal X-ray diffraction. In addition, physical properties, such as solubility, melting points, and pKb values, were determined. The number of amino-, methylamino-, and dimethylamino groups has a significant effect on these properties. In summary, we found that by increasing the number of amino- and methylamino groups, solubility and pKb increase. With increasing number of amino groups, the compounds tend to form hydrogen bonds, and thus, the melting point shifts to higher temperature ranges where they start to decompose.

  14. Nuclear Envelopes Properties and Physical Interactions with Nucleoplasm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Discher, Dennis; Dahl, Kris; Wilson, Kathy

    2004-03-01

    Given the stresses imposed on a cell and its organelles and the nuclear envelope's important role as a barrier between cytoplasm and nucleoplasm, we sought to measure and model mechanical properties of isolated nuclear envelopes. Xenopus laevis oocyte (XO) nuclei are primarily used since they have been widely studied in many fields as model systems for nuclear structure and function. We manipulate the nuclear envelope by both osmotic swelling and micromanipulation to determine an effective elastic modulus. We show the envelope properties are independent of the effects of the nucleoplasm. Micropipette aspiration of XO nuclei gives an effective elastic modulus of the nuclear envelope of 250 mN/m with similar results obtained from isotropic swelling of XO nuclear envelopes. The results suggest that these nuclear envelopes have relatively homogeneous properties and are highly elastic, sustaining strains of 50-100Square-net simulations and comparisons to polymer network models suggests that XO nuclear envelope physical properties are dominated by the lamin network. If applicable to nuclei in other cells, a "pre-compressed" state envisioned here would allow for significant shear flexibility, especially important for motile cells whose nuclei need to rapidly deform.

  15. Essential oil of the leaves of Ricinus communis L.: In vitro cytotoxicity and antimicrobial properties

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background The aim of the present study was to appraise the antimicrobial activity of Ricinus communis L. essential oil against different pathogenic microorganisms and the cytotoxic activity against HeLa cell lines. Methods The agar disk diffusion method was used to study the antibacterial activity of Ricinus communis L. essential oil against 12 bacterial and 4 fungi strains. The disc diameters of zone of inhibition (DD), the minimum inhibitory concentrations (MIC) and the concentration inhibiting 50% (IC50) were investigated to characterize the antimicrobial activities of this essential oil. The in vitro cytotoxicity of Ricinus communis L. essential oil was examined using a modified MTT assay; the viability and the IC50 were used to evaluate this test. Results The essential oil from the leaves of Ricinus communis L. was analyzed by GC–MS and bioassays were carried out. Five constituents of the oil were identified by GC–MS. The antimicrobial activity of the oil was investigated in order to evaluate its efficacy against twelve bacteria and four fungi species, using disc diffusion and minimum inhibitory concentration methods. The essential oil showed strong antimicrobial activity against all microorganisms tested with higher sensitivity for Bacillus subtilis, Staphylococcus aureus and Enterobacter cloacae. The cytotoxic and apoptotic effects of the essential oil on HeLa cell lines were examined by MTT assay. The cytotoxicity of the oil was quite strong with IC50 values less than 2.63 mg/ml for both cell lines. Conclusion The present study showed the potential antimicrobial and anticarcinogenic properties of the essential oil of Ricinus communis L., indicating the possibilities of its potential use in the formula of natural remedies for the topical treatment of infections. PMID:22888805

  16. Novel polymeric materials from vegetable oils and vinyl monomers: preparation, properties, and applications.

    PubMed

    Lu, Yongshang; Larock, Richard C

    2009-01-01

    Veggie-based products: Vegetable-oil-based polymeric materials, prepared by free radical, cationic, and olefin metathesis polymerizations, range from soft rubbers to ductile or rigid plastics, and to high-performance biocomposites and nanocomposites. They display a wide range of thermophysical and mechanical properties and may find promising applications as alternatives to petroleum-based polymers.Vegetable oils are considered to be among the most promising renewable raw materials for polymers, because of their ready availability, inherent biodegradability, and their many versatile applications. Research on and development of vegetable oil based polymeric materials, including thermosetting resins, biocomposites, and nanocomposites, have attracted increasing attention in recent years. This Minireview focuses on the latest developments in the preparation, properties, and applications of vegetable oil based polymeric materials obtained by free radical, cationic, and olefin metathesis polymerizations. The novel vegetable oil based polymeric materials obtained range from soft rubbery materials to ductile or rigid plastics and to high-performance biocomposites and nanocomposites. These vegetable oil based polymeric materials display a wide range of thermophysical and mechanical properties and should find useful applications as alternatives to their petroleum-based counterparts. PMID:19180601

  17. Chemical composition, antioxidant and antibacterial properties of Bene (Pistacia atlantica subsp. mutica) hull essential oil.

    PubMed

    Rezaie, Mitra; Farhoosh, Reza; Sharif, Ali; Asili, Javad; Iranshahi, Mehrdad

    2015-10-01

    The tree Pistacia atlantica subsp. mutica, namely Bene, is widely distributed in Iranian mountains. Recent studies revealed that the oil of Bene was stable, even more stable than sesame oil, with antioxidant properties. This can give versatile applications for the oil. The volatile composition of this oil has not chemically been investigated so far. In this study, sixty three compounds were identified in the essential oil (EO) of Bene hull. The major components were determined to be α-pinene (20.8 %), camphene (8.4 %), β-myrcene (8.2 %) and limonene (8 %). Antioxidant activities of the essential oil from Bene hull were evaluated by using 2,2'- diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) free radical-scavenging, ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP), β-carotene bleaching test, thiobarbituric acid reactive species (TBARS) and Rancimat assays. The Bene essential oil exhibited significant antioxidant activities in FRAP and TBARS assays as compared with positive controls. In addition, the oil was evaluated for its antimicrobial activity against both Gram positive (Staphylococcus aureus) and Gram negative (Escherichia coli) bacteria. It showed significant antibacterial activities against S. aureus and E. coli with minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) values of 6 and 12.5 μg/mL, respectively. PMID:26396430

  18. Fuel properties and engine performance of biodiesel from waste cooking oil collected in Dhaka city

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Islam, R. B.; Islam, R.; Uddin, M. N.; Ehsan, Md.

    2016-07-01

    Waste cooking oil can be a potential source of biodiesel that has least effect on the edible oil consumption. Increasing number of hotel-restaurants and more active monitoring by health authorities have increased the generation of waste cooking oil significantly in densely populated cities like Dhaka. If not used or disposed properly, waste cooking oil itself may generate lot of environmental issues. In this work, waste cooking oils from different restaurants within Dhaka City were collected and some relevant properties of these waste oils were measured. Based on the samples studied one with the highest potential as biodiesel feed was identified and processed for engine performance. Standard trans-esterification process was used to produce biodiesel from the selected waste cooking oil. Biodiesel blends of B20 and B40 category were made and tested on a single cylinder direct injection diesel engine. Engine performance parameters included - bhp, bsfc and exhaust emission for rated and part load conditions. Results give a quantitative assessment of the potential of using biodiesel from waste cooking oil as fuel for diesel engines in Bangladesh.

  19. Modification of reservoir chemical and physical factors in steamfloods to increase heavy oil recovery

    SciTech Connect

    1996-12-31

    Thermal methods, and particularly steam injection, are currently recognized as the most promising for the efficient recovery of heavy oil. Despite significant progress, however, important technical issues remain open. Specifically, still inadequate is our knowledge of the complex interaction between porous media and the various fluids of thermal recovery (steam, water, heavy oil, gases, and chemicals). While, the interplay of heat transfer and fluid flow with pore- and macro-scale heterogeneity is largely unexplored. The objectives of this contract are to continue previous work and to carry out new fundamental studies in the following areas of interest to thermal recovery: displacement and flow properties of fluids involving phase change (condensation-evaporation) in porous media; flow properties of mobility control fluids (such as foam); and the effect of reservoir heterogeneity on thermal recovery. The specific projects are motivated by and address the need to improve heavy oil recovery from typical reservoirs as well as less conventional fractured reservoirs producing from vertical or horizontal wells. During this quarter work continued on: development of relative permeabilities during steam injection; optimization of recovery processes in heterogeneous reservoirs by using optimal control methods; and behavior of non-Newtonian fluid flow and on foam displacements in porous media.

  20. Modification of reservoir chemical and physical factors in steamfloods to increase heavy oil recovery

    SciTech Connect

    Yortsos, Y.C.

    1996-12-31

    Thermal methods, and particularly steam injection, are currently recognized as the most promising for the efficient recovery of heavy oil. Despite significant progress, however, important technical issues remain open. Specifically, still inadequate is our knowledge of the complex interaction between porous media and the various fluids of thermal recovery (steam, water, heavy oil, gases, and chemicals). While, the interplay of heat transfer and fluid flow with pore- and macro-scale heterogeneity is largely unexplored. The objectives of this contract are to continue previous work and to carry out new fundamental studies in the following areas of interest to thermal recovery: displacement and flow properties of fluids involving phase change (condensation-evaporation) in porous media; flow properties of mobility control fluids (such as foam); and the effect of reservoir heterogeneity on thermal recovery. The specific projects are motivated by and address the need to improve heavy oil recovery from typical reservoirs as well as less conventional fractured reservoirs producing from vertical or horizontal wells. During this past quarter, work continued on: the development of relative permeabilities during steam displacement; the optimization of recovery processes in heterogeneous reservoirs by using optical control methods; and in the area of chemical additives, work continued on the behavior of non-Newtonian fluid flow and on foam displacements in porous media.

  1. Cluster formation in water-in-oil microemulsions at percolation: evaluation of the electrical properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bordi, F.; Cametti, C.; Rouch, J.; Sciortino, F.; Tartaglia, P.

    1996-06-01

    We study water-in-oil microemulsion systems in the droplet phase and in the vicinity of a percolation transition in the non-percolating region. We focus on the electrical conductivity and permittivity, quantities that show large variations when approaching the percolation threshold. The accepted model for the interpretation of the increasing conductivity - very large compared to that of the bathing oil phase - is related to clustering of the microemulsion droplets and migration of charges within the aggregates. Power laws have been used to interpret the behaviour of the static dielectric properties and scaling functions proposed for the frequency-dependent conductivity and permittivity. We review some relevant experiments in this field and the proposed interpretations, and formulate a phenomenological model of conduction. It is based on the physical picture of cluster formation due to attractive interactions among the constituent water droplets, anomalous diffusion in the bulk of fractal aggregates and polydispersity of the clusters. The model gives quantitative expressions for both conductivity and permittivity over the entire frequency range of the percolative relaxation phenomena, including the static behaviour. A closed expression is derived for the scaling function of a scaling variable which involves frequency, the cut-off cluster size and the parameters of the bulk components. The results are also expressed in the time domain in terms of the polarization time correlation function. The latter exhibits a rather interesting behaviour, since it gradually evolves from an exponential decay to a power-law decay and to a stretched exponential as time increases. The time-scales of the different stages are obtained from the typical decay times of the single droplet and the largest cluster. We have analysed many different sets of data obtained for different microemulsion systems as functions of the composition of the dispersed phase, the temperature and the frequency

  2. Physical-chemical property based sequence motifs and methods regarding same

    DOEpatents

    Braun, Werner; Mathura, Venkatarajan S.; Schein, Catherine H.

    2008-09-09

    A data analysis system, program, and/or method, e.g., a data mining/data exploration method, using physical-chemical property motifs. For example, a sequence database may be searched for identifying segments thereof having physical-chemical properties similar to the physical-chemical property motifs.

  3. Physical and mechanical properties of calf lumbosacral trabecular bone.

    PubMed

    Swartz, D E; Wittenberg, R H; Shea, M; White, A A; Hayes, W C

    1991-01-01

    The physical and mechanical properties of calf lumbar and sacral trabecular bone were determined and compared with those of human trabecular bone. The mean tissue density (1.66 +/- 0.12 g cm-3), equivalent mineral density (169 +/- 36 mg cm-3), apparent density (453 +/- 89 mg cm-3), ash density (194 +/- 59 mg cm-3), ash content (0.6 +/- 0.05%), compressive strength (7.1 +/- 3.0 MPa) and compressive modulus (173 +/- 97 MPa) of calf trabecular bone are similar to those of young human. There were moderate, positive linear correlations between apparent density and equivalent mineral density, ash density, and compressive strength; and between compressive strength and equivalent mineral density (R2 ranging from 0.35 to 0.48, p less than 0.001). Apparent density, ash density, and equivalent mineral density did not differ significantly in different regions. In contrast to humans, the compressive strength increased from posterior, near the facet, to the anterior vertebral body. These comparisons of physical and mechanical properties, as well as anatomical comparisons by others, indicate that the calf spine is a good model of the young non-osteoporotic human spine and thus useful for the testing of spinal instrumentation.

  4. Physical properties of ice cream containing milk protein concentrates.

    PubMed

    Alvarez, V B; Wolters, C L; Vodovotz, Y; Ji, T

    2005-03-01

    Two milk protein concentrates (MPC, 56 and 85%) were studied as substitutes for 20 and 50% of the protein content in ice cream mix. The basic mix formula had 12% fat, 11% nonfat milk solids, 15% sweetener, and 0.3% stabilizer/emulsifier blend. Protein levels remained constant, and total solids were compensated for in MPC mixes by the addition of polydextrose. Physical properties investigated included apparent viscosity, fat globule size, melting rate, shape retention, and freezing behavior using differential scanning calorimetry. Milk protein concentrate formulations had higher mix viscosity, larger amount of fat destabilization, narrower ice melting curves, and greater shape retention compared with the control. Milk protein concentrates did not offer significant modifications of ice cream physical properties on a constant protein basis when substituted for up to 50% of the protein supplied by nonfat dry milk. Milk protein concentrates may offer ice cream manufacturers an alternative source of milk solids non-fat, especially in mixes reduced in lactose or fat, where higher milk solids nonfat are needed to compensate other losses of total solids.

  5. Circulating tumor cell enrichment based on physical properties

    PubMed Central

    Harouaka, Ramdane A.; Nisic, Merisa; Zheng, Si-Yang

    2013-01-01

    The metastatic dissemination and spread of malignant circulating tumor cells (CTCs) accounts for over 90% of cancer related deaths. CTCs detach from a primary tumor, travel through the circulatory system, then invade and proliferate in distant organs. The detection of CTCs from blood has been established for prognostic monitoring and is predictive of patient outcome. Analysis of CTCs could enable the means for early detection and screening in cancer, as well as provide diagnostic access to tumor tissues in a minimally invasive way. The fundamental challenge with analyzing CTCs is the fact that they occur at extremely low concentrations in blood, on the order of one out of a billion cells. Various technologies have been proposed to isolate CTCs for enrichment. Here we focus on antigen-independent approaches that are not limited by specific capture antibodies. Intrinsic physical properties of CTCs including cell size, deformability, and electrical properties are reviewed, and technologies developed to exploit them for enrichment from blood are summarized. Physical enrichment technologies are of particular interest as they have the potential to increase yield, and enable the analysis of rare CTC phenotypes that may not be otherwise obtained. PMID:23832928

  6. Hanford Waste Physical and Rheological Properties: Data and Gaps - 12078

    SciTech Connect

    Kurath, D.E.; Wells, B.E.; Huckaby, J.L.; Mahoney, L.A.; Daniel, R.C.; Burns, C.A.; Tingey, J.M.; Cooley, S.K.

    2012-07-01

    The retrieval, transport, treatment and disposal operations associated with Hanford Tank Wastes involve the handling of a wide range of slurries. Knowledge of the physical and rheological properties of the waste is a key component to the success of the design and implementation of the waste processing facilities. Previous efforts to compile and analyze the physical and rheological properties were updated with new results including information on solids composition and density, particle size distributions, slurry rheology, and particle settling behavior. The primary source of additional data is from a recent series of tests sponsored by the Hanford Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP). These tests involved an extensive suite of characterization and bench-scale process testing of 8 waste groups representing approximately 75% of the high-level waste mass expected to be processed through the WTP. Additional information on the morphology of the waste solids was also included. Based on the updated results, a gap analysis to identify gaps in characterization data, analytical methods and data interpretation was completed. (authors)

  7. Hanford Waste Physical and Rheological Properties: Data and Gaps

    SciTech Connect

    Kurath, Dean E.; Wells, Beric E.; Huckaby, James L.; Mahoney, Lenna A.; Daniel, Richard C.; Burns, Carolyn A.; Tingey, Joel M.; Cooley, Scott K.

    2012-03-01

    The retrieval, transport, treatment and disposal operations associated with Hanford Tank Wastes involve the handling of a wide range of slurries. Knowledge of the physical and rheological properties of the waste is a key component to the success of the design and implementation of the waste processing facilities. Previous efforts to compile and analyze the physical and rheological properties were updated with new results including information on solids composition and density, particle size distributions, slurry rheology, and particle settling behavior. The primary source of additional data is from a recent series of tests sponsored by the Hanford Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant. These tests involved an extensive suite of characterization and bench-scale process testing of 8 waste groups representing approximately 75% of the high-level waste mass expected to be processed through the WTP. Additional information on the morphology of the waste solids was also included. Based on the updated results, a gap analysis to identify gaps in characterization data, analytical methods and data interpretation was completed.

  8. Physical properties of polymorphic yeast prion amyloid fibers.

    PubMed

    Castro, Carlos E; Dong, Jijun; Boyce, Mary C; Lindquist, Susan; Lang, Matthew J

    2011-07-20

    Amyloid fibers play important roles in many human diseases and natural biological processes and have immense potential as novel nanomaterials. We explore the physical properties of polymorphic amyloid fibers formed by yeast prion protein Sup35. Amyloid fibers that conferred distinct prion phenotypes ([PSI(+)]), strong (S) versus weak (W) nonsense suppression, displayed different physical properties. Both S[PSI(+)] and W[PSI(+)] fibers contained structural inhomogeneities, specifically local regions of static curvature in S[PSI(+)] fibers and kinks and self-cross-linking in W[PSI(+)] fibers. Force-extension experiments with optical tweezers revealed persistence lengths of 1.5 μm and 3.3 μm and axial stiffness of 5600 pN and 9100 pN for S[PSI(+)] and W[PSI(+)] fibers, respectively. Thermal fluctuation analysis confirmed the twofold difference in persistence length between S[PSI(+)] and W[PSI(+)] fibers and revealed a torsional stiffness of kinks and cross-links of ~100-200 pN·nm/rad. PMID:21767497

  9. Physical properties of extruded products from three Mexican common beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) cultivars.

    PubMed

    Rocha-Guzman, N E; Gallegos-Infante, J A; Gonzalez-Laredo, R F; Bello-Perez, A; Delgado-Licon, E; Ochoa-Martinez, A; Prado-Ortiz, M J

    2008-09-01

    The physical properties of extruded products from three Mexican common bean cultivars were investigated. Common bean cultivars Flor de Mayo, Pinto Villa and Bayo Victoria from the same harvesting season (2006) were used in this work. Beans were milled and the flour was hydrated to 24, 26 and 28 g of water/100 g of dry weight. Two temperatures, 130 degrees C and 165 degrees C at the end of the extruder barrel without die, were experimented. Common bean flour extrudates were evaluated for water absorption index (WAI), water absorption capacity (WAC), oil absorption capacity (OAC), and emulsifying capacity (EC). Flor de Mayo extrudates showed the highest WAC and WAI values. Thus starch from Flor de Mayo beans showed minor restricted water availability. In all cases, the OAC of extruded products was lower than the crude bean flour. The EC for Bayo Victoria flour increased as a consequence of the extrusion process. The EC for Flor de Mayo was higher at lower temperature and lower moisture content than Pinto Villa and Bayo Victoria beans. EC behavior of Pinto Villa was similar to Bayo cultivar. These results indicate that it is possible to produce new extruded products with good physical properties from these common bean cultivars.

  10. PHYSICAL PROPERTY MEASUREMENTS OF LABORATORY PREPARED SALTSTONE GROUT

    SciTech Connect

    Hansen, E.; Cozzi, A.; Edwards, T.

    2014-05-05

    The Saltstone Production Facility (SPF) built two new Saltstone Disposal Units (SDU), SDU 3 and SDU 5, in 2013. The variable frequency drive (VFD) for the grout transfer hose pump tripped due to high current demand by the motor during the initial radioactive saltstone transfer to SDU 5B on 12/5/2013. This was not observed during clean cap processing on July 5, 2013 to SDU 3A, which is a slightly longer distance from the SPF than is SDU 5B. Saltstone Design Authority (SDA) is evaluating the grout pump performance and capabilities to transfer the grout processed in SPF to SDU 3/5. To assist in this evaluation, grout physical properties are required. At this time, there are no rheological data from the actual SPF so the properties of laboratory prepared samples using simulated salt solution or Tank 50 salt solution will be measured. The physical properties of grout prepared in the laboratory with de-ionized water (DI) and salt solutions were obtained at 0.60 and 0.59 water to premix (W/P) ratios, respectively. The yield stress of the DI grout was greater than any salt grout. The plastic viscosity of the DI grout was lower than all of the salt grouts (including salt grout with admixture). When these physical data were used to determine the pressure drop and fluid horsepower for steady state conditions, the salt grouts without admixture addition required a higher pressure drop and higher fluid horsepower to transport. When 0.00076 g Daratard 17/g premix was added, both the pressure drop and fluid horsepower were below that of the DI grout. Higher concentrations of Daratard 17 further reduced the pressure drop and fluid horsepower. The uncertainty in the single point Bingham Plastic parameters is + 4% of the reported values and is the bounding uncertainty. Two different mechanical agitator mixing protocols were followed for the simulant salt grout, one having a total mixing time of three minutes and the other having a time of 10 minutes. The Bingham Plastic parameters

  11. Efficacy and insecticidal properties of some essential oils against Caryedon serratus (Oliver)-a storage pest of groundnut.

    PubMed

    Harish, G; Nataraja, M V; Holajjer, Prasanna; Thirumalaisamy, P P; Jadon, K S; Savaliya, S D; Padavi, R D; Koradia, V G; Gedia, M V

    2014-11-01

    During storage groundnut is attacked by number of stored grain pest and management of these insect pests particularly bruchid beetle, Caryedon serratus (Oliver) is of prime importance as they directly damage the pod and kernels. Hence, some essential oils were tested for their insecticidal and fungicidal properties. Highest total bruchid mortality was recorded with the application of neem oil and pongamia oil at 10% (v/w) concentration and lowest in eucalyptus oil at 5% (v/w). Number of eggs laid was recorded 2.3 in neem oil 10% (v/w) which was lowest and significantly superior over untreated control and was at par with castor oil 10% (v/w) which recorded 2.5 eggs per 100 g of groundnut pods. There was no adult emergence in the groundnut pods treated with castor oil, eucalyptus oil, neem oil and pongamia oil at 10% (v/w) concentration. Groundnut pods treated with castor oil, eucalyptus oil, neem oil and pongamia oil at 10% (v/w) and neem oil at 5% (v/w) concentrations recorded no damage to pods and kernels and also zero per cent weight loss. These oils effectively influenced groundnut bruchid establishment and reduce damage besides reduction in aflatoxin contamination. PMID:26396354

  12. Physical properties of emulsion-based hydroxypropyl methylcellulose/whey protein isolate (HPMC/WPI) edible films.

    PubMed

    Rubilar, Javiera F; Zúñiga, Rommy N; Osorio, Fernando; Pedreschi, Franco

    2015-06-01

    The objective of this research was to study the effect of the film microstructure of oil-in-water emulsions stabilized by hydroxypropyl methyl cellulose/whey protein isolate (HPMC/WPI) with or without sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) over physical properties of HPMC/WPI emulsion-based films. The films were prepared with different HPMC/WPI-oil-SDS combinations (%w/w for 100g of dispersion): HPMC; WPI; HPMC/1WPI-0.5-SDS; HPMC/1WPI-1; HPMC/2WPI-0.5; HPMC/2WPI-1-SDS. Physical properties of films were evaluated. The results showed no statistical differences (p>0.05) between the thicknesses of EFs (0.156 ± 0.004 mm). The effect of oil content and incorporation of SDS showed the inverse trend for WI and ΔE, the increasing order of change, for WI and ΔE, among the formulation evaluated was: HPMC/1WPI-1>HPMC/2WPI-0.5>HPMC/2WPI-1.0-SDS≈HPMC/1WPI-0.5-SDS≈WPI>HPMC for WI and HPMC/1WPI-0.5-SDS>HPMC/2WPI-1.0-SDS>HPMC/2WPI-0.5>HPMC/1WPI-1 for ΔE, respectively. The addition of oil and SDS decreased the TS and EB, because oil addition into EF induces the development of structural discontinuities, producing an EF with less chain mobility, and consequently, with less flexibility and resistance to fracture.

  13. Synthesis and physical properties of new coco-oleic estolide branched esters

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Oils derived from vegetable oils tend to not meet the standards for industrial lubricants because of unacceptable low temperature properties, pour point (PP), and/or cloud point (CP). However, a catalytic amount of perchloric acid with oleic and coconut (coco) fatty acids produced a coco-oleic estol...

  14. Physical Properties of Saturn's Rings from Cassini Radio Occultations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marouf, Essam A.; French, R.; Rappaport, N.; Wong, K.; McGhee, C.; Anabtawi, A.

    2008-09-01

    Twenty-four one-sided Cassini radio occultation observations have been successfully completed. Two types of observations provide information about physical ring properties. The first is differential extinction of three sinusoidal signals simultaneously transmitted through the rings (0.94, 3.6, and 13 cm-wavelength). The observations reveal remarkable variability among the three main rings, A, B, and C, and across local features within each ring. Assuming "classical” ring model and solid water ice composition, comparison of observed differential optical depth with theoretical predictions based on a power-law size distribution constrains the power law index and the minimum radius of abundant particle sizes. In particular, the smallest particle radius in most of Ring C, inner Ring B, and outer ring A appear to be limited to about 4 to 5 mm, and in regions B2 and B4 of Ring B, and in the inner region of Ring A to be greater than few tens of centimeters. The second observation type is the near-forward scattered signal. The measured spectrograms provide characterization of the collective diffraction pattern of the particles and particle clusters. In ring regions where gravitational wakes are likely absent, inversion of the spectral measurement yields the size distribution of particles of radius > about 1 m. The results are consistent with the Voyager results, showing sharp upper size cutoff in the few to several meters radius range. In regions of gravitational wakes, we constrain physical ring properties using comparisons of the observations with predictions of Monte-Carlo simulations of extinction and near-forward diffraction by randomly blocked diffraction screen ring models. The comparisons constrain particle cluster sizes, spatial density, orientation, and ring vertical thickness. The simulations also allow for investigation of physical ring models that account in a self-consistent manner for observed variation of optical depth and forward scattering with ring

  15. Quasar Spectral Energy Distributions As A Function Of Physical Property

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Townsend, Shonda; Ganguly, R.; Stark, M. A.; Derseweh, J. A.; Richmond, J. M.

    2012-05-01

    Galaxy evolution models have shown that quasars are a crucial ingredient in the evolution of massive galaxies. Outflows play a key role in the story of quasars and their host galaxies, by helping regulate the accretion process, the star-formation rate and mass of the host galaxy (i.e., feedback). The prescription for modeling outflows as a contributor to feedback requires knowledge of the outflow velocity, geometry, and column density. In particular, we need to understand how these depend on physical parameters and how much is determined stochastically (and with what distribution). In turn, models of outflows have shown particular sensitivity to the shape of the spectral energy distribution (SED), depending on the UV luminosity to transfer momentum to the gas, the X-ray luminosity to regulate how efficiently that transfer can be, etc. To investigate how SED changes with physical properties, we follow up on Richards et al. (2006), who constructed SEDs with varying luminosity. Here, we construct SEDs as a function of redshift, and physical property (black hole mass, bolometric luminosity, Eddington ratio) for volume limited samples drawn from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey, with photometry supplemented from 2MASS, WISE, GALEX, ROSAT, and Chandra. To estimate black hole masses, we adopt the scaling relations from Greene & Ho (2005) based on the H-alpha emission line FWHM. This requires redshifts less than 0.4. To construct volume-limited subsamples, we begin by adopting g=19.8 as a nominal limiting magnitude over which we are guaranteed to detect z<0.4 quasars. At redshift 0.4, we are complete down to Mg=-21.8, which yields 3300 objects from Data Release 7. At z=0.1, we are complete down to Mg=-18.5. This material is based upon work supported by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration under Grant No. 09-ADP09-0016 issued through the Astrophysics Data Analysis Program.

  16. Aerosols physical properties at Hada Al Sham, western Saudi Arabia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lihavainen, H.; Alghamdi, M. A.; Hyvärinen, A.-P.; Hussein, T.; Aaltonen, V.; Abdelmaksoud, A. S.; Al-Jeelani, H.; Almazroui, M.; Almehmadi, F. M.; Al Zawad, F. M.; Hakala, J.; Khoder, M.; Neitola, K.; Petäjä, T.; Shabbaj, I. I.; Hämeri, K.

    2016-06-01

    This is the first time to clearly derive the comprehensive physical properties of aerosols at a rural background area in Saudi Arabia. Aerosol measurements station was established at a rural background area in the Western Saudi Arabia to study the aerosol properties. This study gives overview of the aerosol physical properties (PM10, PM2.5, black carbon and total number concentration) over the measurement period from November 2012 to February 2015. The average PM10 and PM2.5 concentrations were 95 ± 78 μg m-3 (mean ± STD, at ambient conditions) and 33 ± 68 μg m-3 (at ambient conditions), respectively. As expected PM10 concentration was dominated by coarse mode particles (PM10-PM2.5), most probably desert dust. Especially from February to June the coarse mode concentrations were high because of dust storm season. Aerosol mass concentrations had clear diurnal cycle. Lower values were observed around noon. This behavior is caused by wind direction and speed, during night time very calm easterly winds are dominating whereas during daytime the stronger westerly winds are dominating (sea breeze). During the day time the boundary layer is evolving, causing enhanced mixing and dilution leading to lower concentration. PM10 and PM2.5 concentrations were comparable to values measured at close by city of Jeddah. Black carbon concentration was about 2% and 6% of PM10 and PM2.5 mass, respectively. Total number concentration was dominated by frequent new particle formation and particle growth events. The typical diurnal cycle in particle total number concentration was clearly different from PM10 and PM2.5.

  17. Planetary Defense and the High Temperture Physical Properties of Meteorites.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ostrowski, D. R.; Sears, D. W. G.; Bryson, K.

    2015-12-01

    The Ames Meteorite Characterization Laboratory is examining the physical proprerties of a diverse selection of meteorites. Each meteorite will be processed by the full suite of observations and measurements: petrographic/microscopic studies, density, porosity, albedo, shock effects, thermal conductivity, heat capacity, emissivity, and acoustic velocity. Of these measurments, density and porosity are the most studied to date (Macke, 2010; Britt and Consolmagno, 2003). The thermal properties of meteorites are less well understood. Thermal conductivity, heat capacity, and thermal emissivity are important data for a number of applications but especially to understanding the behavior of a meteor as it passes through the atmosphere. Opeil et al. (2010) have shown that meteorites have a thermal conductivities lower than the pure minerals they are composed of by a factor of 3 to 10, with the values coming to a roughly constant number from 150 to 300 K. Calculated conductivity numbers from Yomogida and Matsui (1983) show the H chondrites have the higest conductivity in the range of 3.8 W/m*K at 200 K and then slowly decreases to 3.2 W/m*K at 400 K. Whereas they show the LL chondrites do not reach 1 W/m*K over the temperature range 100 to 400 K. While there have been several high temperature spectroscopic studies of meteorites, to date all experimental data for the physical properties of meteorites were obtained at temperatures below 400 K, since previous studies were made in attempts to understand the formation and evolution of asteroids. Our laboratory will focus on understanding the thermal properties of materials at temperatures above 300 K and, where possible, up to atmospheric entry temperatures. Work on pure minerals has shown that thermal conductivity decreases as temperatures exceed 300 K but it is unknown whether this holds true for meteorites. We will describe our laboratory and procedures, and present some preliminary data, at the meeting.

  18. Recovering physical property information from subduction plate boundaries using 3D full-waveform seismic inversion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bell, R. E.; Morgan, J. V.; Warner, M.

    2013-12-01

    Our understanding of subduction margin seismogenesis has been revolutionised in the last couple of decades with the discovery that the size of the seismogenic zone may not be controlled simply by temperature and a broad spectrum of seismic behaviour exists from stick-slip to stable sliding. Laboratory and numerical experiments suggest that physical properties, particularly fluid pressure may play an important role in controlling the seismic behaviour of subduction margins. Although drilling can provide information on physical properties along subduction thrust faults at point locations at relatively shallow depths, correlations between physical properties and seismic velocity using rock physics relationships are required to resolve physical properties along the margin and down-dip. Therefore, high resolution seismic velocity models are key to recovering physical property information at subduction plate boundaries away from drill sites. 3D Full waveform inversion (FWI) is a technique pioneered by the oil industry to obtain high-resolution high-fidelity models of physical properties in the sub-surface. 3D FWI involves the inversion of low-frequency (>2 to <7 Hz), early arriving (principally transmitted) seismic data, to recover the macro (intermediate to long-wavelength) velocity structure. Although 2D FWI has been used to improve velocity models of subduction plate boundaries before, 3D FWI has not yet been attempted. 3D inversions have superior convergence and accuracy, as they sample the subsurface with multi-azimuth multiply-crossing wavefields. In this contribution we perform a suite of synthetic tests to investigate if 3D FWI could be used to better resolve physical property information along subduction margin plate boundaries using conventionally collected 3D seismic data. We base our analysis on the Muroto Basin area of the Nankai margin and investigate if the acquisition parameters and geometry of the subduction margin render 3D seismic data collected across

  19. Relationships between physical properties and sequence in silkworm silks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Malay, Ali D.; Sato, Ryota; Yazawa, Kenjiro; Watanabe, Hiroe; Ifuku, Nao; Masunaga, Hiroyasu; Hikima, Takaaki; Guan, Juan; Mandal, Biman B.; Damrongsakkul, Siriporn; Numata, Keiji

    2016-06-01

    Silk has attracted widespread attention due to its superlative material properties and promising applications. However, the determinants behind the variations in material properties among different types of silk are not well understood. We analysed the physical properties of silk samples from a variety of silkmoth cocoons, including domesticated Bombyx mori varieties and several species from Saturniidae. Tensile deformation tests, thermal analyses, and investigations on crystalline structure and orientation of the fibres were performed. The results showed that saturniid silks produce more highly-defined structural transitions compared to B. mori, as seen in the yielding and strain hardening events during tensile deformation and in the changes observed during thermal analyses. These observations were analysed in terms of the constituent fibroin sequences, which in B. mori are predicted to produce heterogeneous structures, whereas the strictly modular repeats of the saturniid sequences are hypothesized to produce structures that respond in a concerted manner. Within saturniid fibroins, thermal stability was found to correlate with the abundance of poly-alanine residues, whereas differences in fibre extensibility can be related to varying ratios of GGX motifs versus bulky hydrophobic residues in the amorphous phase.

  20. Structure and physical properties of Hydrogrossular mineral series

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adhikari, Puja

    The mineral hydrogrossular series (Ca3Al2(SiO 4)3-x(OH)4x; 0 ≤ x ≤ 3) are important water bearing minerals found in the upper and lower part of the Earth's mantle. They are vital to the planet's hydrosphere under different hydrothermal conditions. The composition and structure of this mineral series are important in geoscience and share many commonalities with cement and clay materials. Other than the end members of the series x = 0 (grossular) and x = 3 (katoite) which have a cubic garnet structure, the structure of the series is totally unknown. We used large-scale ab initio modeling to investigate the structures and properties for hydrogrossular series for x = 0, 0.5, 1, 1.5, 2, 2.5, 3. Results indicate that for x > 0 and x < 3, the structures are tetragonal. This shows that there is structural change related to the lowering of overall symmetry associated with the composition of SiO4 tetrahedra and AlO6 octahedra. Total Bond order also explains the reason behind the change in the compressibility of the series. The electronic structure, mechanical and optical properties of the hydrogrossular series are calculated and the results for grossular and katoite are in good agreement with the available experimental data. The x--dependence of these physical properties for the series supports the notion of the aforementioned structural transition from cubic to tetragonal.

  1. Relationships between physical properties and sequence in silkworm silks

    PubMed Central

    Malay, Ali D.; Sato, Ryota; Yazawa, Kenjiro; Watanabe, Hiroe; Ifuku, Nao; Masunaga, Hiroyasu; Hikima, Takaaki; Guan, Juan; Mandal, Biman B.; Damrongsakkul, Siriporn; Numata, Keiji

    2016-01-01

    Silk has attracted widespread attention due to its superlative material properties and promising applications. However, the determinants behind the variations in material properties among different types of silk are not well understood. We analysed the physical properties of silk samples from a variety of silkmoth cocoons, including domesticated Bombyx mori varieties and several species from Saturniidae. Tensile deformation tests, thermal analyses, and investigations on crystalline structure and orientation of the fibres were performed. The results showed that saturniid silks produce more highly-defined structural transitions compared to B. mori, as seen in the yielding and strain hardening events during tensile deformation and in the changes observed during thermal analyses. These observations were analysed in terms of the constituent fibroin sequences, which in B. mori are predicted to produce heterogeneous structures, whereas the strictly modular repeats of the saturniid sequences are hypothesized to produce structures that respond in a concerted manner. Within saturniid fibroins, thermal stability was found to correlate with the abundance of poly-alanine residues, whereas differences in fibre extensibility can be related to varying ratios of GGX motifs versus bulky hydrophobic residues in the amorphous phase. PMID:27279149

  2. Computational Studies of Physical Properties of Boron Carbide

    SciTech Connect

    Lizhi Ouyang

    2011-09-30

    The overall goal is to provide valuable insight in to the mechanisms and processes that could lead to better engineering the widely used boron carbide which could play an important role in current plight towards greener energy. Carbon distribution in boron carbide, which has been difficult to retrieve from experimental methods, is critical to our understanding of its structure-properties relation. For modeling disorders in boron carbide, we implemented a first principles method based on supercell approach within our G(P,T) package. The supercell approach was applied to boron carbide to determine its carbon distribution. Our results reveal that carbon prefers to occupy the end sites of the 3-atom chain in boron carbide and further carbon atoms will distribute mainly on the equatorial sites with a small percentage on the 3-atom chains and the apex sites. Supercell approach was also applied to study mechanical properties of boron carbide under uniaxial load. We found that uniaxial load can lead to amorphization. Other physical properties of boron carbide were calculated using the G(P,T) package.

  3. Some physical properties of tabletted seed of Garcinia kola (HECKEL).

    PubMed

    Onunkwo, G C; Egeonu, H C; Adikwu, M U; Ojile, J E; Olowosulu, A K

    2004-06-01

    The formulation of Garcinia kola seeds into tablet dosage form and evaluation of some physical properties of the tablets are presented. A chemical assay was conducted on the dry, powdered seeds as well as the crude aqueous extract of the seeds. The dry powdered seeds contain 0.003% of flavonoids while the crude extract contained 0.007% of flavonoids based on rutin used as the standard. The powdered material (50 mg) and crude extract (10 mg) were formulated into tablets using the wet granulation method. Named binders were evaluated in these formulations. The various tablet parameters were evaluated, namely: weight variation, thickness and diameter, hardness, friability, disintegration time, dissolution profile and content uniformity. The results indicated that the tablets had good disintegration time, dissolution and hardness/friability profiles. Tablets formulated with starch had the best disintegration properties but were consequently very friable. Tablets formulated from 10 mg of the crude extract needed a larger proportion of diluents, which affected the tablet properties.

  4. Relationships between physical properties and sequence in silkworm silks.

    PubMed

    Malay, Ali D; Sato, Ryota; Yazawa, Kenjiro; Watanabe, Hiroe; Ifuku, Nao; Masunaga, Hiroyasu; Hikima, Takaaki; Guan, Juan; Mandal, Biman B; Damrongsakkul, Siriporn; Numata, Keiji

    2016-01-01

    Silk has attracted widespread attention due to its superlative material properties and promising applications. However, the determinants behind the variations in material properties among different types of silk are not well understood. We analysed the physical properties of silk samples from a variety of silkmoth cocoons, including domesticated Bombyx mori varieties and several species from Saturniidae. Tensile deformation tests, thermal analyses, and investigations on crystalline structure and orientation of the fibres were performed. The results showed that saturniid silks produce more highly-defined structural transitions compared to B. mori, as seen in the yielding and strain hardening events during tensile deformation and in the changes observed during thermal analyses. These observations were analysed in terms of the constituent fibroin sequences, which in B. mori are predicted to produce heterogeneous structures, whereas the strictly modular repeats of the saturniid sequences are hypothesized to produce structures that respond in a concerted manner. Within saturniid fibroins, thermal stability was found to correlate with the abundance of poly-alanine residues, whereas differences in fibre extensibility can be related to varying ratios of GGX motifs versus bulky hydrophobic residues in the amorphous phase. PMID:27279149

  5. Gamma irradiation influence on physical properties of milk proteins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cieśla, K.; Salmieri, S.; Lacroix, M.; Tien, C. Le

    2004-09-01

    Gamma irradiation was found to be an effective method for the improvement of both barrier and mechanical properties of the edible films and coatings based on calcium and sodium caseinates alone or combined with some globular proteins. Our current studies concern gamma irradiation influence on the physical properties of calcium caseinate-whey protein isolate-glycerol (1:1:1) solutions and gels, used for films preparation. Irradiation of solutions was carried out with Co-60 gamma rays applying 0 and 32 kGy dose. The increase in viscosity of solutions was found after irradiation connected to induced crosslinking. Lower viscosity values were detected, however, after heating of the solutions irradiated with a 32 kGy dose than after heating of the non-irradiated ones regarding differences in the structure of gels and resulting in different temperature-viscosity curves that were recorded for the irradiated and the non-irradiated samples during heating and cooling. Creation of less stiff but better ordered gels after irradiation arises probably from reorganisation of aperiodic helical phase and β-sheets, in particular from increase of β-strands, detected by FTIR. Films obtained from these gels are characterised by improved barrier properties and mechanical resistance and are more rigid than those prepared from the non-irradiated gels. The route of gel creation was investigated for the control and the irradiated samples during heating and the subsequent cooling.

  6. Effect of Replacing Pork Fat with Vegetable Oils on Quality Properties of Emulsion-type Pork Sausages.

    PubMed

    Lee, Hyun-Jin; Jung, Eun-Hee; Lee, Sang-Hwa; Kim, Jong-Hee; Lee, Jae-Joon; Choi, Yang-Ii

    2015-01-01

    This study was conducted to evaluate the quality properties of emulsion-type pork sausages when pork fat is replaced with vegetable oil mixtures during processing. Pork sausages were processed under six treatment conditions: T1 (20% pork fat), T2 (10% pork fat + 2% grape seed oil + 4% olive oil + 4% canola oil), T3 (4% grape seed oil + 16% canola oil), T4 (4% grape seed oil + 4% olive oil + 12% canola oil), T5 (4% grape seed oil + 8% olive oil + 8% canola oil), and T6 (4% grape seed oil + 12% olive oil + 4% canola oil). Proximate analysis showed significant (p<0.05) differences in the moisture, protein, and fat content among the emulsion-type pork sausages. Furthermore, replacement with vegetable oil mixtures significantly decreased the ash content (p<0.05), increased water-holding capacity in emulsion-type pork sausages. Also, cholesterol content in T6 was significantly lower than T2 (p<0.05). In the texture profile analysis, hardness and chewiness of emulsion-type pork sausages were significantly (p<0.05) decreased by vegetable oil mixtures replacement. On the contrary, cohesiveness and springiness in the T4 group were similar to those of group T1. The unsaturated fatty acid content in emulsion-type pork sausages was increased by vegetable oil mixtures replacement. Replacement of pork fat with mixed vegetable oils had no negative effects on the quality properties of emulsion-type pork sausages, and due to its reduced saturated fatty acid composition, the product had the quality characteristics of the healthy meat products desired by consumers.

  7. Effect of Replacing Pork Fat with Vegetable Oils on Quality Properties of Emulsion-type Pork Sausages

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Hyun-Jin; Jung, Eun-Hee; Lee, Sang-Hwa; Kim, Jong-Hee; Lee, Jae-Joon; Choi, Yang-II

    2015-01-01

    This study was conducted to evaluate the quality properties of emulsion-type pork sausages when pork fat is replaced with vegetable oil mixtures during processing. Pork sausages were processed under six treatment conditions: T1 (20% pork fat), T2 (10% pork fat + 2% grape seed oil + 4% olive oil + 4% canola oil), T3 (4% grape seed oil + 16% canola oil), T4 (4% grape seed oil + 4% olive oil + 12% canola oil), T5 (4% grape seed oil + 8% olive oil + 8% canola oil), and T6 (4% grape seed oil + 12% olive oil + 4% canola oil). Proximate analysis showed significant (p<0.05) differences in the moisture, protein, and fat content among the emulsion-type pork sausages. Furthermore, replacement with vegetable oil mixtures significantly decreased the ash content (p<0.05), increased water-holding capacity in emulsion-type pork sausages. Also, cholesterol content in T6 was significantly lower than T2 (p<0.05). In the texture profile analysis, hardness and chewiness of emulsion-type pork sausages were significantly (p<0.05) decreased by vegetable oil mixtures replacement. On the contrary, cohesiveness and springiness in the T4 group were similar to those of group T1. The unsaturated fatty acid content in emulsion-type pork sausages was increased by vegetable oil mixtures replacement. Replacement of pork fat with mixed vegetable oils had no negative effects on the quality properties of emulsion-type pork sausages, and due to its reduced saturated fatty acid composition, the product had the quality characteristics of the healthy meat products desired by consumers. PMID:26761810

  8. Effect of Replacing Pork Fat with Vegetable Oils on Quality Properties of Emulsion-type Pork Sausages.

    PubMed

    Lee, Hyun-Jin; Jung, Eun-Hee; Lee, Sang-Hwa; Kim, Jong-Hee; Lee, Jae-Joon; Choi, Yang-Ii

    2015-01-01

    This study was conducted to evaluate the quality properties of emulsion-type pork sausages when pork fat is replaced with vegetable oil mixtures during processing. Pork sausages were processed under six treatment conditions: T1 (20% pork fat), T2 (10% pork fat + 2% grape seed oil + 4% olive oil + 4% canola oil), T3 (4% grape seed oil + 16% canola oil), T4 (4% grape seed oil + 4% olive oil + 12% canola oil), T5 (4% grape seed oil + 8% olive oil + 8% canola oil), and T6 (4% grape seed oil + 12% olive oil + 4% canola oil). Proximate analysis showed significant (p<0.05) differences in the moisture, protein, and fat content among the emulsion-type pork sausages. Furthermore, replacement with vegetable oil mixtures significantly decreased the ash content (p<0.05), increased water-holding capacity in emulsion-type pork sausages. Also, cholesterol content in T6 was significantly lower than T2 (p<0.05). In the texture profile analysis, hardness and chewiness of emulsion-type pork sausages were significantly (p<0.05) decreased by vegetable oil mixtures replacement. On the contrary, cohesiveness and springiness in the T4 group were similar to those of group T1. The unsaturated fatty acid content in emulsion-type pork sausages was increased by vegetable oil mixtures replacement. Replacement of pork fat with mixed vegetable oils had no negative effects on the quality properties of emulsion-type pork sausages, and due to its reduced saturated fatty acid composition, the product had the quality characteristics of the healthy meat products desired by consumers. PMID:26761810

  9. Effects of chemical interesterification on the physicochemical, microstructural and thermal properties of palm stearin, palm kernel oil and soybean oil blends.

    PubMed

    Fauzi, Siti Hazirah Mohamad; Rashid, Norizzah Abd; Omar, Zaliha

    2013-04-15

    Blends of palm stearin (PS), palm kernel oil (PKO) and soybean oil (SBO) at certain proportions were formulated using a mixture design based on simplex-lattice (Design Expert 8.0.4 Stat-Ease Inc., Minneapolis, 2010). All the 10 oil blends were subjected to chemical interesterification (CIE) using sodium methoxide as the catalyst. The solid fat content (SFC), triacylglycerol (TAG) composition, thermal properties (DSC), polymorphism and microstructural properties were studied. Palm-based trans-free table margarine containing ternary mixture of PS/PKO/SBO [49/20/31 (w/w)], was optimally formulated through analysis of multiple isosolid diagrams and was found to have quite similar SMP and SFC profile as compared to the commercial table margarine. This study has shown chemical interesterification are effective in modifying the physicochemical properties of palm stearin, palm kernel oil, soybean oil and their mixtures.

  10. Effect of residual oil saturation on hydrodynamic properties of porous media

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Junjie; Zheng, Xilai; Chen, Lei; Sun, Yunwei

    2014-07-01

    To understand the effect of residual oil on hydraulic properties and solute dispersive behavior of porous media, miscible displacement column experiments were conducted using two petroleum products (diesel and engine oil) and a sandy soil. The effective water permeability, effective water-filled porosity, and dispersivity were investigated in two-fluid systems of water and oil as a function of residual oil saturation (ROS). At the end of each experiment, the distribution of ending ROS along the sand column was determined by the method of petroleum ether extraction-ultraviolet spectrophotometry. Darcy’s Law was used to determine permeability, while breakthrough curves (BTCs) of a tracer, Cl-, were used to calibrate effective porosity and dispersivity. The experimental results indicate that the maximum saturated zone residual saturation of diesel and engine oil in this study are 16.0% and 45.7%, respectively. Cl- is found to have no sorption on the solid matrix. Generated BTCs are sigmoid in shape with no evidence of tailing. The effective porosity of sand is inversely proportional to ROS. For the same level of ROS, the magnitude of reduction in effective porosity by diesel is close to that by engine oil. The relative permeability of sand to water saturation decreases with increasing amount of trapped oil, and the slope of the relative permeability-saturation curve for water is larger at higher water saturations, indicating that oil first occupies larger pores, which have the most contribution to the conductivity of the water. In addition, the reduction rate of relative permeability by diesel is greater than that by engine oil. The dispersivity increases with increasing ROS, suggesting that the blockage of pore spaces by immobile oil globules may enhance local velocity variations and increase the tortuosity of aqueous-phase flow paths.

  11. Isulinotropic properties of Nigella sativa oil in Streptozotocin plus Nicotinamide diabetic hamster.

    PubMed

    Fararh, K M; Atoji, Y; Shimizu, Y; Takewaki, T

    2002-12-01

    The present study was designed to investigate the possible insulinotropic properties of Nigella sativa L. (N. sativa) oil in Streptozotocin plus Nicotinamide-induced diabetes mellitus in hamsters. Nicotinamide was injected intraperitoneally 15min before injection of Streptozotocin intravenously. Oral treatment with N. sativa oil began 4 weeks after induction of diabetes. Serum insulin was measured by enzymeimmunoassay. Islets insulin was stained using anti-insulin monoclonal antibody. Significant decrease in blood glucose level together with significant increase in serum insulin level were observed after treatment with N. sativa oil for 4 weeks. Big areas with positive immuno-reactivity for the presence of insulin were observed in the pancreases from N. sativa oil-treated group compared to non-treated one using immunohistochemical staining. Therefore, our data show that the hypoglycemic effect of N. sativa oil in Streptozotocin plus Nicotinamide diabetic hamsters resulted, at least partly, from a stimulatory effect on beta cell function with consequent increase in serum insulin level. These results indicate that N. sativa oil has insulinotropic properties in type 2-like model. PMID:12443686

  12. Determination of physicochemical properties of diacylglycerol oil at high pressure by means of ultrasonic methods.

    PubMed

    Kiełczyński, Piotr; Szalewski, Marek; Balcerzak, Andrzej; Wieja, Krzysztof; Malanowski, Aleksander; Kościesza, Rafał; Tarakowski, Rafał; Rostocki, Aleksander J; Siegoczyński, Ryszard M

    2014-12-01

    The purpose of the paper is to address, using ultrasonic methods, the impact of temperature and pressure on the physicochemical properties of liquids on the example of diacylglycerol (DAG) oil. The paper presents measurements of sound velocity, density and volume of DAG oil sample in the pressure range from atmospheric pressure up to 0.6GPa and at temperatures ranging from 20 to 50°C. Sound speed measurements were performed in an ultrasonic setup with a DAG oil sample located in the high-pressure chamber. An ultrasonic method that uses cross-correlation method to determine the time-of-flight of the ultrasonic pulses through the liquid was employed to measure the sound velocity in DAG oil. This method is fast and reliable tool for measuring sound velocity. The DAG oil density at high pressure was determined from the monitoring of sample volume change. The adiabatic compressibility and isothermal compressibility have been calculated on the basis of experimental data. Discontinuities in isotherms of the sound speed versus pressure point to the existence of phase transitions in DAG oil. The ultrasonic method presented in this study can be applied to investigate the physicochemical parameters of other liquids not only edible oils. PMID:25017363

  13. Determination of physicochemical properties of diacylglycerol oil at high pressure by means of ultrasonic methods.

    PubMed

    Kiełczyński, Piotr; Szalewski, Marek; Balcerzak, Andrzej; Wieja, Krzysztof; Malanowski, Aleksander; Kościesza, Rafał; Tarakowski, Rafał; Rostocki, Aleksander J; Siegoczyński, Ryszard M

    2014-12-01

    The purpose of the paper is to address, using ultrasonic methods, the impact of temperature and pressure on the physicochemical properties of liquids on the example of diacylglycerol (DAG) oil. The paper presents measurements of sound velocity, density and volume of DAG oil sample in the pressure range from atmospheric pressure up to 0.6GPa and at temperatures ranging from 20 to 50°C. Sound speed measurements were performed in an ultrasonic setup with a DAG oil sample located in the high-pressure chamber. An ultrasonic method that uses cross-correlation method to determine the time-of-flight of the ultrasonic pulses through the liquid was employed to measure the sound velocity in DAG oil. This method is fast and reliable tool for measuring sound velocity. The DAG oil density at high pressure was determined from the monitoring of sample volume change. The adiabatic compressibility and isothermal compressibility have been calculated on the basis of experimental data. Discontinuities in isotherms of the sound speed versus pressure point to the existence of phase transitions in DAG oil. The ultrasonic method presented in this study can be applied to investigate the physicochemical parameters of other liquids not only edible oils.

  14. Physicochemical and sensory properties of yogurt enriched with microencapsulated fish oil.

    PubMed

    Tamjidi, F; Nasirpour, A; Shahedi, M

    2012-08-01

    Encapsulation of marine omega-3 oil by complex coacervation technique has been introduced as most effective approach to delay its oxidation and extend shelf life of ω(3)-enriched food products. Therefore, to produce enriched yogurt, fish oil containing long-chain omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids was microencapsulated in complex coacervates of gelatin/acacia gum. Then, the microcapsules were dried and their surface oil was extracted. Set yogurt was prepared by enriched milk with microcapsules powder. Physicochemical and sensory properties of enriched yogurt were measured during 21 days storage. Acidity, apparent viscosity and water holding capacity of enriched samples were higher and gel strength and amount of whey separation were lower compared to the control. The enriched yogurt samples were more yellowish compared to control. The peroxide value of free and encapsulated fish oil in enriched yogurt samples, after 22 days storage, were increased to 72% and 260%, respectively. Fish oil release of microcapsules was not detected by gas chromatography in extracted oil from enriched yogurt. Sensory results showed that untrained panelists evaluated overall acceptance of enriched yogurt with treated-fish oil microcapsules by lime juice as 'neither liked nor disliked to slightly liked'.

  15. Effect of some essential oils on rheological properties of wheat flour dough.

    PubMed

    Ozcan, Mehmet Musa

    2009-03-01

    The effects of summer savory (Satureja hortensis L.), majorana (Origanum vulgare L.), sage (Salvia triloba L), rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis L.), pickling herb (Echinophora tenuifolia L.) and laurel (Laurus nobilis L.) essential oils on extensograph and farinograph characteristics of wheat flour doughs were determined. Also, some chemical properties (moisture content, ash content, wet gluten content, sedimentation value and falling number) were established. The results show that resistance to extension, maximum resistance, ratio number (minimum) and ratio number (maximum) values were increased by S. hortensis oil addition during the proving time. Extensibility values of S. hortensis, O. vulgare and S. triloba at 90 min of proving time were found lower that than those of other proving times (except S. triloba at 135 min). According to the extensograph results, rosemary, pickling herb and laurel oils allowed higher extensibility and energy, and lower resistance to extension and maximum resistance (Brabender Unit Line). The farinograph water absorption (500 farinograph units) varied from 63.6 to 64.7. The development time of dough with rosemary oil was the same as the control group. Stabilities of dough with savory sater, majorana and sage oil were found lower that those of both control and other oils. As a result, rosemary, pickling herb and laurel oils had an advantage on the extensograph and farinograph characteristics of wheat flour dough. PMID:18608558

  16. Properties of Cookies Made with Natural Wax-Vegetable Oil Organogels.

    PubMed

    Hwang, Hong-Sik; Singh, Mukti; Lee, Suyong

    2016-05-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the feasibility of cookies in which the conventional margarine is replaced with an organogel of vegetable oil (VO) and natural wax. New cookies from VO organogels contain no trans fats and much less saturated fats than cookies made with a conventional margarine. To understand the effects of different kinds of waxes, organogels were prepared from 4 different waxes including sunflower wax (SW), rice bran wax (RBW), beeswax, and candelilla wax and properties of cookie dough and cookie were evaluated. To investigate the effects of different VOs on the properties of cookies, 3 VOs including olive oil, soybean oil and flaxseed oil representing oils rich in oleic acid (18:1), linoleic acid (18:2), and linolenic acid (18:3), respectively, were used. Both the wax and VO significantly affected properties of organogel such as firmness and melting behavior shown in differential scanning calorimetry. The highest firmness of organogel was observed with SW and flaxseed oil. Properties of dough such as hardness and melting behavior were also significantly affected by wax and VO while trends were somewhat different from those for organogels. SW and RBW provided greatest hardnesses to cookie dough. However, hardness, spread factor, and fracturability of cookie containing the wax-VO organogel were not significantly affected by different waxes and VOs. Several cookies made with wax-VO organogels showed similar properties to cookies made with a commercial margarine. Therefore, this study shows the high feasibility of utilization of the organogel technology in real foods such as cookies rich in unsaturated fats.

  17. Properties of Cookies Made with Natural Wax-Vegetable Oil Organogels.

    PubMed

    Hwang, Hong-Sik; Singh, Mukti; Lee, Suyong

    2016-05-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the feasibility of cookies in which the conventional margarine is replaced with an organogel of vegetable oil (VO) and natural wax. New cookies from VO organogels contain no trans fats and much less saturated fats than cookies made with a conventional margarine. To understand the effects of different kinds of waxes, organogels were prepared from 4 different waxes including sunflower wax (SW), rice bran wax (RBW), beeswax, and candelilla wax and properties of cookie dough and cookie were evaluated. To investigate the effects of different VOs on the properties of cookies, 3 VOs including olive oil, soybean oil and flaxseed oil representing oils rich in oleic acid (18:1), linoleic acid (18:2), and linolenic acid (18:3), respectively, were used. Both the wax and VO significantly affected properties of organogel such as firmness and melting behavior shown in differential scanning calorimetry. The highest firmness of organogel was observed with SW and flaxseed oil. Properties of dough such as hardness and melting behavior were also significantly affected by wax and VO while trends were somewhat different from those for organogels. SW and RBW provided greatest hardnesses to cookie dough. However, hardness, spread factor, and fracturability of cookie containing the wax-VO organogel were not significantly affected by different waxes and VOs. Several cookies made with wax-VO organogels showed similar properties to cookies made with a commercial margarine. Therefore, this study shows the high feasibility of utilization of the organogel technology in real foods such as cookies rich in unsaturated fats. PMID:27027545

  18. Performance, carcass traits, muscle fatty acid composition and meat sensory properties of male Mahabadi goat kids fed palm oil, soybean oil or fish oil.

    PubMed

    Najafi, M H; Zeinoaldini, S; Ganjkhanlou, M; Mohammadi, H; Hopkins, D L; Ponnampalam, E N

    2012-12-01

    This study examined the effect of palm, soybean or fish oils on the performance, muscle fatty acid composition and meat quality of goat kids. Twenty-four male Mahabadi kids (BW=19.4±1.2 kg) were divided into three groups according to liveweight and randomly allocated to one of three diets. Animals were fed ad libitum for 84 days. Different dietary fat sources had no effect on performance and/or carcass quality attributes. The soybean oil diet decreased 16:0 and 18:0 concentrations and increased 18:2 and 18:3 and the ratio of PUFA/SFA in the muscle compared with other treatments. Fish oil feeding increased 20:5 n-3 and 22:6 n-3 concentrations and decreased the ratio of n-6/n-3 in the muscle. The results demonstrate that the use of fish oil is a nutritional strategy to improve the health claimable long-chain omega-3 fatty acid content and n-6/n-3 ratio in goat meat without changing the sensory properties or colour of meat.

  19. Investigation of spherical oil agglomeration properties of celestite.

    PubMed

    Cebeci, Yakup; Sönmez, Ibrahim

    2004-05-01

    In this study, concentration of celestite particles was investigated by using oil agglomeration. For this purpose, effects of operating parameters were investigated, and zeta potential measurements and Fourier transform infrared spectrophotometry (FTIR) analyses have also been carried out. In the experiments, effects of operating parameters such as pH, stirring speed, amount of Na oleate as a anionic type collector and kerosene as a bridging liquid, solid ratio, agglomeration time, collector stirring time, conditioning time, and amount of EDTA were investigated to obtain optimum conditions. Zeta potential measurements were carried out for various pH values and amounts of Na oleate. FTIR analyses were investigated to determine the adsorption type of Na oleate on celestite surface. By evaluation of the experimental results, optimum oil agglomeration conditions of celestite were determined as follows: pH 7, stirring speed 1500 rpm, amount of kerosene 100 l/t, amount of Na oleate 10 kg/t, solid ratio 5 wt%, conditioning time 5 min, collector stirring time 1 min, agglomeration time 5 min, and amount of EDTA 1.0 kg/t. In the optimum conditions, celestite was concentrated with recovery of 89.47 wt%.

  20. Properties and performance testing with blends of biomass alcohols, vegetable oils and diesel fuel

    SciTech Connect

    Vinyard, S.; Hawkins, L.; Renoll, E.S.; Bunt, R.C.; Goodling, J.S.

    1982-01-01

    This paper is a presentation of results from three related efforts to determine the technical feasibility of using alcohols and vegetable oils blended with Diesel oil as fuel for unmodified compression ignition engines. Several different vegetable oils were successfully tested in a single cylinder engine. Sunflower oil was blended from 50% to 80% by volume with Diesel fuel and used in a multicylinder engine. Thermophysical property data were gathered on pure and blended fuels and are reported. A spray parameter, epsilon, was found which would predict the necessary change in valve opening pressure to render the atomization of the new fuel similar to that for which the injection system was designed. Engine testing showed that fuel consumption was substantially reduced upon setting the injectors at the new VOP. 2 figures, 1 table.

  1. Modification of Optical Properties of Seawater Exposed to Oil Contaminants Based on Excitation-Emission Spectra

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baszanowska, E.; Otremba, Z.

    2015-10-01

    The optical behaviour of seawater exposed to a residual amount of oil pollution is presented and a comparison of the fluorescence spectra of oil dissolved in both n-hexane and seawater is discussed based on excitation-emission spectra. Crude oil extracted from the southern part of the Baltic Sea was used to characterise petroleum properties after contact with seawater. The wavelength-independent fluorescence maximum for natural seawater and seawater artificially polluted with oil were determined. Moreover, the specific excitation-emission peaks for natural seawater and polluted water were analysed to identify the natural organic matter composition. It was found that fluorescence spectra identification is a promising method to detect even an extremely low concentration of petroleum residues directly in the seawater. In addition, alien substances disturbing the fluorescence signatures of natural organic substances in a marine environment is also discussed.

  2. Improving magnetic properties of MgB2 bulk superconductors by synthetic engine oil treatment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taylan Koparan, E.; Savaskan, B.; Yanmaz, E.

    2016-08-01

    The present study focuses on the effects of standby time of the MgB2 samples immersed in synthetic engine oil on the critical current density (Jc(H)), magnetic field dependence of the pinning force density fp(b) and Tc performances of MgB2 bulk superconductors. Synthetic engine oil was used as a product which is cheap and a rich carbon source. Manufactured MgB2 pellet samples were immersed at different standby time of 30 min, 120 min, 300 min and 1440 min in synthetic engine oil after the first heating process. Finally, MgB2 samples immersed in synthetic engine oil were sintered at 1000 °C and kept for 15 min in Ar atmosphere. The critical current density of all of MgB2 samples immersed at different standby time in engine oil in whole field range was better than that of the pure MgB2 sample because of the number of the pinning centers. The MgB2 sample immersed at 300 min standby time in synthetic engine oil has the best performance compared to other samples. The Jc value for the pure sample is 2.0 × 103 A/cm2, whereas for the MgB2 sample immersed at 300 min standby time in engine oil the Jc is enhanced to 4.8 × 103A/cm2 at 5 K and 3 T. The superconducting transition temperature (Tc) did not change with the increasing standby time of the samples in synthetic engine oil at all. The best diamagnetic property was obtained from the sample which kept in synthetic engine oil for 300 min. Synthetic engine oil treatment results in remarkable improvement of the critical current density and pinning force performances of MgB2 superconductors. It was found that all MgB2 samples have a different pinning property at different measuring temperatures. Using synthetic engine oil as a product which is cheap and a rich carbon source in MgB2 bulk superconductors makes MgB2 samples immersed in synthetic engine oil a good candidate for industrial applications.

  3. Glass transitions and physical aging of cassava starch - corn oil blends.

    PubMed

    Pérez, Adriana; Sandoval, Aleida J; Cova, Aura; Müller, Alejandro J

    2014-05-25

    Glass transition temperatures and physical aging of amorphous cassava starch and their blends with corn oil were assessed by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). Two enthalpic relaxation endotherms, well separated in temperature values, were exhibited by neat amorphous cassava starch with 10.6% moisture content, evidencing two amorphous regions within the starch with different degrees of mobility. The phase segregation of these two amorphous regions was favored by added corn oil at low moisture contents during storage. The presence of amylose-lipid complexes in this matrix, may also affect the molecular dynamics of these two amorphous regions at low moisture contents. Increasing moisture content, leads to a homogeneous amorphous phase, with an aging process characterized by a single enthalpic relaxation peak. In all cases, after deleting the thermal history of the samples only one glass transition temperature was detected (during DSC second heating runs) indicating that a single homogeneous amorphous phase was attained after erasing the effects of physical aging. Trends of the enthalpic relaxation parameters were also different at the two moisture contents considered in this work. PMID:24708977

  4. Glass transitions and physical aging of cassava starch - corn oil blends.

    PubMed

    Pérez, Adriana; Sandoval, Aleida J; Cova, Aura; Müller, Alejandro J

    2014-05-25

    Glass transition temperatures and physical aging of amorphous cassava starch and their blends with corn oil were assessed by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). Two enthalpic relaxation endotherms, well separated in temperature values, were exhibited by neat amorphous cassava starch with 10.6% moisture content, evidencing two amorphous regions within the starch with different degrees of mobility. The phase segregation of these two amorphous regions was favored by added corn oil at low moisture contents during storage. The presence of amylose-lipid complexes in this matrix, may also affect the molecular dynamics of these two amorphous regions at low moisture contents. Increasing moisture content, leads to a homogeneous amorphous phase, with an aging process characterized by a single enthalpic relaxation peak. In all cases, after deleting the thermal history of the samples only one glass transition temperature was detected (during DSC second heating runs) indicating that a single homogeneous amorphous phase was attained after erasing the effects of physical aging. Trends of the enthalpic relaxation parameters were also different at the two moisture contents considered in this work.

  5. Effect of shortening replacement with flaxseed oil on physical, sensory, fatty acid and storage characteristics of cookies.

    PubMed

    Rangrej, V; Shah, V; Patel, J; Ganorkar, P M

    2015-06-01

    Omega-3 fatty acid imparted good evidence of health benefits. Flaxseed oil, being the richest vegetarian source of alpha linolenic acid (omega-3 fatty acid), was incorporated in cookies by replacing shortening at level of 5 %, 10 %, 20 %, 30 %, 40 % and 50 %. Effect of shortening replacement with flaxseed oil on physical, textural and sensory attributes were investigated. Spread ratio and breaking strength of cookies increased as flaxseed oil level increased. Sensory score was not significantly affected up to 30 % shortening replacement with flaxseed oil as compared with the control cookies. Above 30 % flaxseed oil, sensory score was adversely affected. Fatty acid profile confirmed the enhancement of omega-3 fatty acid from 0 (control) to 14.14 % (30 % flaxseed oil cookies). The poly-unsaturated to saturated fatty acid ratio (P/S) increased from 0.088 (control) to 0.57 while ω - 6 to ω -3 fatty acid ratio of flaxseed oil cookies decreased from 4.51 (control) to 0.65 in the optimized cookies. The data on storage characteristics of the control and 30 % flaxseed oil cookies showed that there was significant change in the moisture content, Peroxide value (PV) and overall acceptability (OAA) up to 28 days of storage at 45 °C packed in polyethylene bags. Flaxseed oil cookies were acceptable up to 21 days of storage and afterwards noticeable off flavour was perceived.

  6. Influence of palm oil and glycerol on properties of fish skin gelatin-based films.

    PubMed

    Nilsuwan, Krisana; Benjakul, Soottawat; Prodpran, Thummanoon

    2016-06-01

    Properties of fish skin gelatin film incorporated with palm oil at 50 and 75 % (w/w) as affected by glycerol at 0-30 % (w/w) were investigated. Increases in water vapour permeability and elongation at break along with decrease in tensile strength were noticed when levels of glycerol were increased (p < 0.05). Decrease in L*- and a*-values with coincidental increase in b*- and ΔE*-values were observed in emulsified films when amount of palm oil incorporated increased (p < 0.05). Light transmittance of all films increased as glycerol levels were increased (p < 0.05). FTIR results suggested that the protein-protein interaction in film matrix decreased when palm oil was incorporated. Films added with palm oil had lower glass transition and degradation temperatures than control films. The addition of 75 % palm oil and 10 % glycerol improved water vapour barrier property of fish skin gelatin films without drastic alteration of mechanical properties. PMID:27478227

  7. Influence of palm oil and glycerol on properties of fish skin gelatin-based films.

    PubMed

    Nilsuwan, Krisana; Benjakul, Soottawat; Prodpran, Thummanoon

    2016-06-01

    Properties of fish skin gelatin film incorporated with palm oil at 50 and 75 % (w/w) as affected by glycerol at 0-30 % (w/w) were investigated. Increases in water vapour permeability and elongation at break along with decrease in tensile strength were noticed when levels of glycerol were increased (p < 0.05). Decrease in L*- and a*-values with coincidental increase in b*- and ΔE*-values were observed in emulsified films when amount of palm oil incorporated increased (p < 0.05). Light transmittance of all films increased as glycerol levels were increased (p < 0.05). FTIR results suggested that the protein-protein interaction in film matrix decreased when palm oil was incorporated. Films added with palm oil had lower glass transition and degradation temperatures than control films. The addition of 75 % palm oil and 10 % glycerol improved water vapour barrier property of fish skin gelatin films without drastic alteration of mechanical properties.

  8. Physical properties of the WR stars in Westerlund 1

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rosslowe, C. K.; Crowther, P. A.; Clark, J. S.; Negueruela, I.

    The Westerlund 1 (Wd1) cluster hosts a rich and varied collection of massive stars. Its dynamical youth and the absence of ongoing star formation indicate a coeval population. As such, the simultaneous presence of both late-type supergiants and Wolf-Rayet stars has defied explanation in the context of single-star evolution. Observational evidence points to a high binary fraction, hence this stellar population offers a robust test for stellar models accounting for both single-star and binary evolution. We present an optical to near-IR (VLT & NTT) spectroscopic analysis of 22 WR stars in Wd 1, delivering physical properties for the WR stars. We discuss how these differ from the Galactic field population, and how they may be reconciled with the predictions of single and binary evolutionary models.

  9. Struvite-based fertilizer and its physical and chemical properties.

    PubMed

    Latifian, Maryam; Liu, Jing; Mattiasson, Bo

    2012-12-01

    This study describes a method to formulate struvite fine powder into pellets that are easy to spread on agricultural land. To evaluate the quality of produced pellets, some chemical and physical properties commonly measured for fertilizers were tested. The findings indicated that the salt index and heavy metal content ofstruvite pellets were significantly lower than those of commercial NPK fertilizers. In addition, the percentage of nutrient released from struvite pellets after 105 days was in the range of 9.6-23.2, 8.4-26.7 and 11.3-32.6% for nitrogen, phosphorous and magnesium, respectively, which is considerably lower than that of commercial NPK fertilizer. Among different formulations between struvite crystals and binders, starch and bentonite were the most efficient in agglomerating struvite powder, leading to an increase in the crush strength to over the recommended limit of >2.5 kgf for fertilizer hardness. PMID:23437670

  10. Some physical properties of ginkgo nuts and kernels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ch'ng, P. E.; Abdullah, M. H. R. O.; Mathai, E. J.; Yunus, N. A.

    2013-12-01

    Some data of the physical properties of ginkgo nuts at a moisture content of 45.53% (±2.07) (wet basis) and of their kernels at 60.13% (± 2.00) (wet basis) are presented in this paper. It consists of the estimation of the mean length, width, thickness, the geometric mean diameter, sphericity, aspect ratio, unit mass, surface area, volume, true density, bulk density, and porosity measures. The coefficient of static friction for nuts and kernels was determined by using plywood, glass, rubber, and galvanized steel sheet. The data are essential in the field of food engineering especially dealing with design and development of machines, and equipment for processing and handling agriculture products.

  11. Physical properties of wild mango fruit and nut

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ehiem, J. C.; Simonyan, K. J.

    2012-02-01

    Physical properties of two wild mango varieties were studied at 81.9 and 24.5% moisture (w.b.) for the fruits and nuts, respectively. The shape and size of the fruit are the same while that of nuts differs at P = 0.05. The mass, density and bulk density of the fruits are statistically different at P = 0.05 but the volume is the same. The shape and size, volume and bulk density of the nuts are statistically the same at P = 0.05. The nuts of both varieties are also the same at P = 0.05 in terms of mass and density. The packing factor for both fruits and nut of the two varieties are the same at 0.95. The relevant data obtained for the two varieties would be useful for design and development of machines and equipment for processing and handling operations.

  12. Functional eladic containing triglycerides: Synthesis, physical properties, and solution behavior

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The enthalpy of fusion (Hf) for a number of symmetrical and asymmetrical triacylgylcerides as mixtures in soybean oil (TAGs) were determined by melting point data (MPD), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), and effective carbon numbers (ECN). Pure triacylgylcerides were mixed with soybean oil an...

  13. Aerosol physical properties and their impact on climate change processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Strzalkowska, Agata; Zielinski, Tymon; Petelski, Tomasz; Makuch, Przemyslaw; Pakszys, Paulina; Markuszewski, Piotr; Piskozub, Jacek; Drozdowska, Violetta; Gutowska, Dorota; Rozwadowska, Anna

    2013-04-01

    Characterizing aerosols involves the specification of not only their spatial and temporal distributions but their multi-component composition, particle size distribution and physical properties as well. Due to their light attenuation and scattering properties, aerosols influence radiance measured by satellite for ocean color remote sensing. Studies of marine aerosol production and transport are important for many earth sciences such as cloud physics, atmospheric optics, environmental pollution studies, and interaction between ocean and atmosphere. It was one of the reasons for the growth in the number of research programs dealing with marine aerosols. Sea salt aerosols are among the most abundant components of the atmospheric aerosol, and thus it exerts a strong influence on radiation, cloud formation, meteorology and chemistry of the marine atmosphere. An accurate understanding and description of these mechanisms is crucial to modeling climate and climate change. This work provides information on combined aerosol studies made with lidars and sun photometers onboard the ship and in different coastal areas. We concentrate on aerosol optical thickness and its variations with aerosol advections into the study area. We pay special attention to the problem of proper data collection and analyses techniques. We showed that in order to detect the dynamics of potential aerosol composition changes it is necessary to use data from different stations where measurements are made using the same techniques. The combination of such information with air mass back-trajectories and data collected at stations located on the route of air masses provides comprehensive picture of aerosol variations in the study area both vertically and horizontally. Acknowledgements: The support for this study was provided by the project Satellite Monitoring of the Baltic Sea Environment - SatBałtyk founded by European Union through European Regional Development Fund contract No. POIG 01

  14. Chemical and physical properties of dry flue gas desulfurization products.

    PubMed

    Kost, David A; Bigham, Jerry M; Stehouwer, Richard C; Beeghly, Joel H; Fowler, Randy; Traina, Samuel J; Wolfe, William E; Dick, Warren A

    2005-01-01

    Beneficial and environmentally safe recycling of flue gas desulfurization (FGD) products requires detailed knowledge of their chemical and physical properties. We analyzed 59 dry FGD samples collected from 13 locations representing four major FGD scrubbing technologies. The chemistry of all samples was dominated by Ca, S, Al, Fe, and Si and strong preferential partitioning into the acid insoluble residue (i.e., coal ash residue) was observed for Al, Ba, Be, Cr, Fe, Li, K, Pb, Si, and V. Sulfur, Ca, and Mg occurred primarily in water- or acid-soluble forms associated with the sorbents or scrubber reaction products. Deionized water leachates (American Society for Testing and Materials [ASTM] method) and dilute acetic acid leachates (toxicity characteristic leaching procedure [TCLP] method) had mean pH values of >11.2 and high mean concentrations of S primarily as SO(2-)4 and Ca. Concentrations of Ag, As, Ba, Cd, Cr, Hg, Pb, and Se (except for ASTM Se in two samples) were below drinking water standards in both ASTM and TCLP leachates. Total toxicity equivalents (TEQ) of dioxins, for two FGD products used for mine reclamation, were 0.48 and 0.53 ng kg(-1). This was similar to the background level of the mine spoil (0.57 ng kg(-1)). The FGD materials were mostly uniform in particle size. Specific surface area (m2 g(-1)) was related to particle size and varied from 1.3 for bed ash to 9.5 for spray dryer material. Many of the chemical and physical properties of these FGD samples were associated with the quality of the coal rather than the combustion and SO2 scrubbing processes used.

  15. The physical properties of the interstellar cloud around the heliosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gry, C.

    2015-12-01

    A new interpretation of interstellar absorption lines in the spectra of nearby stars indicates that the medium surrounding the Sun can be regarded as a single, coherent cloud if we relax the assumption that a cloud behaves like a rigid body. This outlook permits us to construct a comprehensive picture of the local interstellar cloud and reveals that it departs from homogeneity in a number of aspects and physical properties: - This local cloud undergoes a deformation related to a compression in the direction of motion and an expansion in perpendicular directions, much like a squashed balloon. - The metal abundances decrease steadily from the rear to the head of the cloud, and this phenomenon does not appear to be related to ionization effects. - The cloud average HI density, estimated toward a number of nearby stars around which an astrophere is detected in Lyman alpha, varies from 0.03 to 0.1 cm-3. The cloud outer boundary inferred from the average density and column densities is very irregular with an average distance to the Sun of 9 +/- 7 pc. - The electron density and the cloud temperature can be derived from the combination of the ionization equilibrium of MgI and the excitation of CII in a restricted number of sightlines where column density is such that MgI and CII* features are strong enough to be detectable without saturating MgII. We present a few additional targets from which we examine the physical conditions inside the cloud.

  16. The additive properties of Oxygen Radical Absorbance Capacity (ORAC) assay: the case of essential oils.

    PubMed

    Bentayeb, Karim; Vera, Paula; Rubio, Carlos; Nerín, Cristina

    2014-04-01

    The ORAC assay is applied to measure the antioxidant capacity of foods or dietary supplements. Sometimes, the manufacturers claim antioxidant capacities that may not correspond to the constituents of the product. These statements are sheltered by the general understanding that antioxidants might exhibit synergistic properties, but this is not necessarily true when dealing with ORAC assay values. This contribution applies the ORAC assay to measure the antioxidant capacity of ten essential oils typically added to foodstuffs: citronella, dill, basil, red thyme, thyme, rosemary, oregano, clove and cinnamon. The major components of these essential oils were twenty-one chemicals in total. After a preliminary discrimination, the antioxidant capacity of eugenol, carvacrol, thymol, α-pinene, limonene and linalool was determined. The results showed that 72-115% of the antioxidant capacity of the essential oils corresponded to the addition of the antioxidant capacity of their constituents. Thus, the ORAC assay showed additive properties.

  17. 75 FR 61624 - Promotion of Development, Reduction of Royalty Rates for Stripper Well and Heavy Oil Properties

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-06

    ... that Federal lessees would have incentives to keep economically marginal oil wells in production. This... 35973 (Aug. 11, 1992); 61 FR 4750 (Feb. 8, 1996)). A stripper well property, within the meaning of... property with an average daily production of less than 15 barrels of oil per well, or less than...

  18. Midinfrared optical properties of petroleum oil aerosols. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Gurton, K.P.; Bruce, C.W.

    1994-08-01

    The mass normalized absorption and extinction coefficients were measured for fog oil aerosol at 3.4 micrometers with a combined photoacoustic and transmissometer system. An extinction spectral profile was determined over a range of infrared (IR) wavelengths from 2.7 to 4.0 micrometers by an IR scanning transmissometer. The extinction spectrum was mass normalized by referencing it to the photoacoustic portion of the experiment. A corresponding Mie calculation was conducted and compared with the above measurements. Agreement is good for the most recent optical coefficients. An extrapolation of this data to other similar petroleum products such as kerosene or diesel fuel that exhibit similar bulk absorption characteristics were briefly examined.

  19. Linking membrane physical properties and low temperature tolerance in arthropods.

    PubMed

    Waagner, Dorthe; Bouvrais, Hélène; Ipsen, John H; Holmstrup, Martin

    2013-12-01

    Maintenance of membrane fluidity is of crucial importance in ectotherms experiencing thermal changes. This maintenance has in ectotherms most often been indicated using indirect measures of biochemical changes of phospholipid membranes, which is then assumed to modulate the physico-chemical properties of the membrane. Here, we measure bending rigidity characterizing the membrane flexibility of re-constituted membrane vesicles to provide a more direct link between membrane physical characteristics and low temperature tolerance. Bending rigidity of lipid bilayers was measured in vitro using Giant Unilamellar Vesicles formed from phospholipid extracts of the springtail, Folsomia candida. The bending rigidity of these membranes decreased when exposed to 0.4 vol% ethanol (0.23 mM/L). Springtails exposed to ethanol for 24h significantly increased their cold shock tolerance. Thus, by chemically inducing decreased membrane rigidity, we have shown a direct link between the physico-chemical properties of the membranes and the capacity to tolerate low temperature in a chill-susceptible arthropod. PMID:24080490

  20. Mineral trioxide aggregate: a review of physical properties.

    PubMed

    Malhotra, Neeraj; Agarwal, Antara; Mala, Kundabala

    2013-02-01

    The purpose of this two-part series is to review the composition, properties, products, and clinical aspects of mineral trioxide aggregate (MTA) materials. Electronic search of scientific papers from January 1991 to May 2010 was accomplished using PubMed and MedLine search engines to include relevant scientific citations from the peer-reviewed journals published in English. MTA is a refined form of the parent compound, Portland cement (PC). It demonstrates a strong biocompatible nature owing to the high pH and its ability to form hydroxyapatite. MTA materials provide a better seal than traditional endodontic materials as observed in dye leakage, fluid filtration, protein leakage, and bacterial penetration leakage studies, and it has been recognized as a bioactive material. Currently a variety of MTA commercial products are available, including Proroot Gray MTA and White MTA both from DENTSPLY Tulsa Dental Specialties (www.DENTSPLY.com), and MTA Angelus (Angelus,www.angelus.ind.br). Although these materials are indicated for various dental uses/applications, long-term in-vivo clinical studies are still needed to claim the same. This first of this series highlights and discusses the composition, physical, and/or chemical properties of MTA. A subsequent article will offer an overview of the material aspect (commercial products) and clinical considerations for MTA materials.

  1. Linking membrane physical properties and low temperature tolerance in arthropods.

    PubMed

    Waagner, Dorthe; Bouvrais, Hélène; Ipsen, John H; Holmstrup, Martin

    2013-12-01

    Maintenance of membrane fluidity is of crucial importance in ectotherms experiencing thermal changes. This maintenance has in ectotherms most often been indicated using indirect measures of biochemical changes of phospholipid membranes, which is then assumed to modulate the physico-chemical properties of the membrane. Here, we measure bending rigidity characterizing the membrane flexibility of re-constituted membrane vesicles to provide a more direct link between membrane physical characteristics and low temperature tolerance. Bending rigidity of lipid bilayers was measured in vitro using Giant Unilamellar Vesicles formed from phospholipid extracts of the springtail, Folsomia candida. The bending rigidity of these membranes decreased when exposed to 0.4 vol% ethanol (0.23 mM/L). Springtails exposed to ethanol for 24h significantly increased their cold shock tolerance. Thus, by chemically inducing decreased membrane rigidity, we have shown a direct link between the physico-chemical properties of the membranes and the capacity to tolerate low temperature in a chill-susceptible arthropod.

  2. Physical Properties of Volcanic Deposits on Venus from Radar Polarimetry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carter, Lynn M.; Campbell, Donald B.; Campbell, Bruce A.

    2005-01-01

    Studies of the morphology and radar properties of volcanic deposits can aid in understanding their differences and formation. On Venus, volcanoes range in size from large highland edifices, such as Theia Mons, to small shields and domes which are often found in groups of tens to hundreds. In plains regions, windstreaks are sometimes found near shield fields, suggesting that there may be fine grained deposits associated with the volcanoes. Previous studies of Bell Regio suggest the presence of fine-grained material in a low dielectric constant triangular shaped region on the flank of Tepev Mons, which may be crater ejecta or a pyroclastic deposit spread westward by wind. The eastern caldera on Tepev Mons shows a steep trend in backscattered power with incidence angle and has high RMS-slopes, implying a finegrained covering such as ash. Radar waves can easily penetrate smooth mantling layers such as ash and aeolian deposits. If a radar system can measure two orthogonal polarizations, it is possible to detect subsurface scattering and infer the presence of surficial deposits. The Magellan spacecraft could only measure one polarization and was therefore not able to fully characterize the polarization state of the radar echoes. We compare Arecibo dual-polarization data for Venus to Magellan images and emissivity data to investigate the physical properties of volcanic deposits.

  3. Physical Properties of Intermetallic FE2VA1

    SciTech Connect

    Ye Feng

    2002-05-30

    Fe{sub 2}VAl has recently been discovered to have a negative temperature coefficient of resistivity, moderately enhanced specific heat coefficient, and a large DOS at the Fermi level by photoemission. This triggered a round of heated research to understand the ground state of this material, both theoretically and experimentally. here they report a comprehensive characterization of Fe{sub 2}VAl. X-ray diffraction exhibited appreciable antisite disorder in all of our samples. FTIR spectroscopy measurements showed that the carrier density and scattering time had little sample-to-sample variation or temperature dependence for near-stoichiometric samples. FTIR and DC resistivity suggest that the transport properties of Fe{sub 2}VAl are influenced by both localized and delocalized carriers, with the former primarily responsible for the negative temperature coefficient of resistivity. Magnetization measurements reveal that near-stoichiometric samples have superparamagnetic clusters with at least two sizes of moments. X-ray photoemission from Fe core level showed localized magnetic moments on site-exchanged Fe. They conclude that in Fe{sub 2}VAl, antisite disorder causes significant modification to the semi-metallic band structure proposed by LDA calculations. With antisite disorder considered, they are now able to explain most of the physical properties of Fe{sub 2}VAl.

  4. Influence of the Soil Genesis on Physical and Mechanical Properties

    PubMed Central

    Marschalko, Marian; Yilmaz, Işık; Fojtová, Lucie; Kubečka, Karel; Bouchal, Tomáš; Bednárik, Martin

    2013-01-01

    The paper deals with the influence of soil genesis on the physical-mechanical properties. The presented case study was conducted in the region of the Ostrava Basin where there is a varied genetic composition of the Quaternary geological structure on the underlying Neogeneous sediments which are sediments of analogous granulometry but different genesis. In this study, 7827 soil samples of an eolian, fluvial, glacial, and deluvial origin and their laboratory analyses results were used. The study identified different values in certain cases, mostly in coarser-grained foundation soils, such as sandy loam S4 (MS) and clayey sand F4 (CS). The soils of the fluvial origin manifest different values than other genetic types. Next, based on regression analyses, dependence was proved neither on the deposition depth (depth of samples) nor from the point of view of the individual foundation soil classes or the genetic types. The contribution of the paper is to point at the influence of genesis on the foundation soil properties so that engineering geologists and geotechnicians pay more attention to the genesis during engineering-geological and geotechnical investigations. PMID:23844398

  5. Mineral trioxide aggregate: a review of physical properties.

    PubMed

    Malhotra, Neeraj; Agarwal, Antara; Mala, Kundabala

    2013-02-01

    The purpose of this two-part series is to review the composition, properties, products, and clinical aspects of mineral trioxide aggregate (MTA) materials. Electronic search of scientific papers from January 1991 to May 2010 was accomplished using PubMed and MedLine search engines to include relevant scientific citations from the peer-reviewed journals published in English. MTA is a refined form of the parent compound, Portland cement (PC). It demonstrates a strong biocompatible nature owing to the high pH and its ability to form hydroxyapatite. MTA materials provide a better seal than traditional endodontic materials as observed in dye leakage, fluid filtration, protein leakage, and bacterial penetration leakage studies, and it has been recognized as a bioactive material. Currently a variety of MTA commercial products are available, including Proroot Gray MTA and White MTA both from DENTSPLY Tulsa Dental Specialties (www.DENTSPLY.com), and MTA Angelus (Angelus,www.angelus.ind.br). Although these materials are indicated for various dental uses/applications, long-term in-vivo clinical studies are still needed to claim the same. This first of this series highlights and discusses the composition, physical, and/or chemical properties of MTA. A subsequent article will offer an overview of the material aspect (commercial products) and clinical considerations for MTA materials. PMID:23627406

  6. Influence of the soil genesis on physical and mechanical properties.

    PubMed

    Marschalko, Marian; Yilmaz, Işık; Fojtová, Lucie; Kubečka, Karel; Bouchal, Tomáš; Bednárik, Martin

    2013-01-01

    The paper deals with the influence of soil genesis on the physical-mechanical properties. The presented case study was conducted in the region of the Ostrava Basin where there is a varied genetic composition of the Quaternary geological structure on the underlying Neogeneous sediments which are sediments of analogous granulometry but different genesis. In this study, 7827 soil samples of an eolian, fluvial, glacial, and deluvial origin and their laboratory analyses results were used. The study identified different values in certain cases, mostly in coarser-grained foundation soils, such as sandy loam S4 (MS) and clayey sand F4 (CS). The soils of the fluvial origin manifest different values than other genetic types. Next, based on regression analyses, dependence was proved neither on the deposition depth (depth of samples) nor from the point of view of the individual foundation soil classes or the genetic types. The contribution of the paper is to point at the influence of genesis on the foundation soil properties so that engineering geologists and geotechnicians pay more attention to the genesis during engineering-geological and geotechnical investigations.

  7. Physical and mechanical properties of elastomers in orthodontic positioners.

    PubMed

    Warunek, S P; Sorensen, S E; Cunat, J J; Green, L J

    1989-05-01

    Elastomers for conventional Kesling-type tooth positioners are relatively inelastic and are primarily indicated as finishing devices. However, new materials, first described in the Japanese literature, with claims of a greater range of tooth movement warrant a comparison with conventional materials. Physical and mechanical property testing of positioner elastomers has not been reported in the orthodontic literature. This investigation compared properties of a high temperature vulcanizing (HTV) Japanese silicone (Orthocon) to three traditional polyurethane and vinyl-based polymers and five experimental silicone elastomers. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy established the definitive chemical composition of the urethane and vinyl materials obtained from a commercial positioner laboratory. Tear strength, tensile strength, tensile stress at selected elongations, and ultimate elongation of all materials were evaluated at 37 degrees C in an aqueous environment. Hardness and water sorption values also were determined and an in vitro force measurement apparatus was fabricated to determine force levels exerted by positioner materials at low displacements. Orthocon was statistically different (Duncan's multiple range test, p less than 0.05) from the traditional commercial urethane and vinyl materials. Orthocon had lower tear strength than the traditional materials. It also demonstrated lower stress values below 100% elongation. The parameters of tensile stress at 50% elongation and ultimate elongation were statistically identical for Orthocon and one experimental silicone material.

  8. An Investigation into the Physico-chemical Properties of Transformer Oil Blends with Antioxidants extracted from Turmeric Powder

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dukhi, Veresha; Bissessur, Ajay; Ngila, Catherine Jane; Ijumba, Nelson Mutatina

    2013-07-01

    The blending of transformer oil (used mainly as an insulating oil) with appropriate synthetic antioxidants, such as BHT (2,6-di-tert-butyl-4-methylphenol) and DBP (2,6-di-tert-butylphenol) have been previously reported. This article is focused on the use of antioxidant extracts from turmeric (Curcuma longa), a natural source. Turmeric is well known for its antimicrobial, antioxidant and anticarcinogenic properties owing to the active nature of its components. Extracts from powdered turmeric were subsequently blended into naphthenic-based uninhibited virgin transformer oil, hereinafter referred to as extract-oil blends (E-OB). Thin-layer chromatography (TLC) of the oil blends revealed that five components extracted from turmeric powder were successfully blended into the oil. Subsequent gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) analysis confirmed the presence of the compounds: curcumene, sesquiphellandrene, ar-turmerone, turmerone and curlone. Thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) of the extract-oil blends, containing various levels of extracts, revealed an average temperature shift of ˜8.21°C in the initial onset of degradation in comparison to virgin non-blended oil. The 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) assay showed that an increase in the mass aliquot of turmeric extracts in the transformer oil increased the free radical scavenging activity of the oil. Electrical properties of the oil investigated showed that the dissipation factor in the blended oil was found to be lower than that of virgin transformer oil. Evidently, a lower dissipation value renders the oil blend as a superior insulator over normal virgin non-blended oil. This investigation elucidated improved physico-chemical properties of transformer oil blended with turmeric antioxidant extracts.

  9. Pharmaceutical and physical properties of paclitaxel (Taxol) complexes with cyclodextrins.

    PubMed

    Sharma, U S; Balasubramanian, S V; Straubinger, R M

    1995-10-01

    Paclitaxel (as Taxol) is under clinical investigation for treatment of a variety of cancers. Because of its low aqueous solubility, paclitaxel is administered in polyethoxylated castor oil (Cremophor EL) and ethanol, a vehicle associated with severe hypersensitivity reactions. Cyclodextrins (CyDs) are molecular complexing agents that can increase the solubility and stability of some poorly soluble drugs and were investigated here as a means to obviate the requirement for Cremophor. A variety of beta- and gamma-cyclodextrins were tested; (hydroxypropyl)-(HP beta CyD), (hydroxyethyl)-(HE beta CyD), and dimethyl-(DM beta CyD) beta CyD increased paclitaxel solubility 2 x 10(3)-fold or more and did not alter the cytostatic properties of paclitaxel in vitro. The quantity of drug solubilized increased with the CyD concentration, but precipitation upon dilution occurred with some CyDs or stoichiometries. Thermal and spectroscopic (fluorescence, IR, NMR, and circular dichroism) analyses provided evidence of complex formation that was stable in the solid state but weak in solution, suggesting an explanation for the observed precipitation upon dilution. DM beta CyD solutions of < or = 3.7 mol % (mole of drug:mole of CyD) showed no precipitation upon dilution, nor did HP beta CyD solutions of < or = 0.14 mol %. Maximum tolerated dose (MTD) experiments showed uncomplexed DM beta CyD to be toxic in mice at doses of 2 g CyD/kg body weight, the quantity required to administer paclitaxel at 10 mg/kg. HP beta CyD allowed paclitaxel administration at higher doses and had an MTD of 25 mg drug/kg. The CyDs tested are marginal in feasibility for paclitaxel administration, and their use in taxane formulation will require a reduction of the dose-limiting toxicity of the CyD itself.

  10. A study of the effects of enhanced oil recovery agents on the quality of Strategic Petroleum Reserves crude oil. [Physical and chemical interactions of Enhanced Oil Recovery reagents with hydrocarbons present in petroleum

    SciTech Connect

    Kabadi, V.N.

    1992-10-01

    The project was initiated on September 1, 1990. The objective of the project was to carry out a literature search to estimate the types and extents of long time interactions of enhanced oil recovery (EOR) agents, such as surfactants, caustics and polymers, with crude oil. This information is necessary to make recommendations about mixing EOR crude oil with crude oils from primary and secondary recovery processes in the Strategic Petroleum Reserve (SPR). Data were sought on both adverse and beneficial effects of EOR agents that would impact handling, transportation and refining of crude oil. An extensive literature search has been completed, and the following informations has been compiled: (1) a listing of existing EOR test and field projects; (2) a listing of currently used EOR agents; and (3) evidence of short and long term physical and chemical interactions of these EOR-agents with hydrocarbons, and their effects on the quality of crude oil at long times. This information is presented in this report. Finally some conclusions are derived and recommendations are made. Although the conclusions are based mostly on extrapolations because of lack of specific data, it is recommended that the enhancement of the rates of biodegradation of oil catalyzed by the EOR agents needs to be further studied. There is no evidence of substantial long term effects on crude oil because of other interactions. Some recommendations are also made regarding the types of studies that would be necessary to determine the effect of certain EOR agents on the rates of biodegradation of crude oil.

  11. Nutraceutical properties of extra-virgin olive oil: a natural remedy for age-related disease?

    PubMed

    Virruso, Claudia; Accardi, Giulia; Colonna-Romano, Giuseppina; Candore, Giuseppina; Vasto, Sonya; Caruso, Calogero

    2014-04-01

    The health benefits of the Mediterranean diet can be largely ascribed to the nutraceutical properties of extra-virgin olive oil (EVOO). Mono-unsaturated fatty acids and various phenolic compounds, such as oleocanthal, oleuropein, hydroxytyrosol, and tyrosol, are the main nutraceutical substances of EVOO. These substances have been suggested to have the ability to modulate aging-associated processes. In experimental models, it has been shown that EVOO with high concentrations of polyphenols has anti-inflammatory and anti-oxidant properties. Indeed, it was observed that hydroxytyrosol and oleocanthal inhibit the cyclooxygenases (COX-1 and -2) responsible for prostaglandin production; oleuropein is a radical scavenger that blocks the oxidation of low-density lipoproteins. Due to the relevance of olive oil in the economy of Sicily, our group has been funded to assess the nutraceutical properties of different kinds of olive oil. Indeed, the aim of the study is to evaluate effects of EVOOs, with low and high polyphenols content, on immuno-inflammatory and oxidative stress responses in young and old people. A further objective of our group is to evaluate effects of EVOO, with low and high polyphenol content, on the expression of genes encoding proteins that take part in the insulin/insulin-like growth factor-1 signaling pathway involved in longevity. The results of the study will be useful for producing olive oil enriched in nutraceutical properties that may be likely helpful in the prevention of age-related diseases. PMID:24219356

  12. Effect of Hydrothermal Treatment on the Physicochemical, Rheological, and Oil-Resistant Properties of Rice Flour

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Rice flour was thermo-mechanically modified by steam jet-cooking and the physico-chemical and rheological properties of the resulting product were characterized. Then, its performance in frying batters was evaluated as an oil barrier. Compared to native rice flour, the steam jet-cooked rice flour ...

  13. Nutraceutical Properties of Olive Oil Polyphenols. An Itinerary from Cultured Cells through Animal Models to Humans.

    PubMed

    Rigacci, Stefania; Stefani, Massimo

    2016-01-01

    The increasing interest in the Mediterranean diet hinges on its healthy and anti-ageing properties. The composition of fatty acids, vitamins and polyphenols in olive oil, a key component of this diet, is considered a key feature of its healthy properties. Therefore, it is of significance that the Rod of Asclepius lying on a world map surrounded by olive tree branches has been chosen by the World Health Organization as a symbol of both peace and well-being. This review travels through most of the current and past research, recapitulating the biochemical and physiological correlations of the beneficial properties of olive tree (Olea europaea) polyphenols and their derivatives found in olive oil. The factors influencing the content and beneficial properties of olive oil polyphenols will also be taken into account together with their bioavailability. Finally, the data on the clinical and epidemiological relevance of olive oil and its polyphenols for longevity and against age- and lifestyle-associated pathologies such as cancer, cardiovascular, metabolic and neurodegenerative diseases are reviewed. PMID:27258251

  14. Nutraceutical Properties of Olive Oil Polyphenols. An Itinerary from Cultured Cells through Animal Models to Humans.

    PubMed

    Rigacci, Stefania; Stefani, Massimo

    2016-05-31

    The increasing interest in the Mediterranean diet hinges on its healthy and anti-ageing properties. The composition of fatty acids, vitamins and polyphenols in olive oil, a key component of this diet, is considered a key feature of its healthy properties. Therefore, it is of significance that the Rod of Asclepius lying on a world map surrounded by olive tree branches has been chosen by the World Health Organization as a symbol of both peace and well-being. This review travels through most of the current and past research, recapitulating the biochemical and physiological correlations of the beneficial properties of olive tree (Olea europaea) polyphenols and their derivatives found in olive oil. The factors influencing the content and beneficial properties of olive oil polyphenols will also be taken into account together with their bioavailability. Finally, the data on the clinical and epidemiological relevance of olive oil and its polyphenols for longevity and against age- and lifestyle-associated pathologies such as cancer, cardiovascular, metabolic and neurodegenerative diseases are reviewed.

  15. Nutraceutical Properties of Olive Oil Polyphenols. An Itinerary from Cultured Cells through Animal Models to Humans

    PubMed Central

    Rigacci, Stefania; Stefani, Massimo

    2016-01-01

    The increasing interest in the Mediterranean diet hinges on its healthy and anti-ageing properties. The composition of fatty acids, vitamins and polyphenols in olive oil, a key component of this diet, is considered a key feature of its healthy properties. Therefore, it is of significance that the Rod of Asclepius lying on a world map surrounded by olive tree branches has been chosen by the World Health Organization as a symbol of both peace and well-being. This review travels through most of the current and past research, recapitulating the biochemical and physiological correlations of the beneficial properties of olive tree (Olea europaea) polyphenols and their derivatives found in olive oil. The factors influencing the content and beneficial properties of olive oil polyphenols will also be taken into account together with their bioavailability. Finally, the data on the clinical and epidemiological relevance of olive oil and its polyphenols for longevity and against age- and lifestyle-associated pathologies such as cancer, cardiovascular, metabolic and neurodegenerative diseases are reviewed. PMID:27258251

  16. 30 CFR 1210.155 - What reports must I submit for Federal onshore stripper oil properties?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... stripper oil properties? 1210.155 Section 1210.155 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION... rate by the Bureau of Land Management (BLM) under 43 CFR 3103.4-2 must submit Form MMS-4377, Stripper Royalty Rate Reduction Notification, under 43 CFR 3103.4-2(b)(3). (b) Reporting options. You may find...

  17. Transport and Phase Equilibria Properties for Steam Flooding of Heavy Oils

    SciTech Connect

    Gabitto, Jorge; Barrufet, Maria

    2002-11-20

    The objectives of this research included experimental determination and rigorous modeling and computation of phase equilibrium diagrams, volumetric, and transport properties of hydrocarbon/CO2/water mixtures at pressures and temperatures typical of steam injection processes for thermal recovery of heavy oils.

  18. Transport and Phase Equilibria Properties for Steam Flooding of Heavy Oils

    SciTech Connect

    Gabitto, Jorge; Barrufet, Maria

    2001-12-18

    The objectives of this research included experimental determination and rigorous modeling and computation of phase equilibria, volumetric, and transport properties of hydrocarbon/CO2/water mixtures at pressures and temperatures typical of steam injection processes for thermal recovery of heavy oils.

  19. 17 CFR 229.1208 - (Item 1208) Oil and gas properties, wells, operations, and acreage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false (Item 1208) Oil and gas properties, wells, operations, and acreage. 229.1208 Section 229.1208 Commodity and Securities Exchanges SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION STANDARD INSTRUCTIONS FOR FILING FORMS UNDER SECURITIES ACT OF 1933, SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934 AND...

  20. Nanoscale chemical interaction enhances the physical properties of bioglass composites.

    PubMed

    Ravarian, Roya; Zhong, Xia; Barbeck, Mike; Ghanaati, Shahram; Kirkpatrick, Charles James; Murphy, Ciara M; Schindeler, Aaron; Chrzanowski, Wojciech; Dehghani, Fariba

    2013-10-22

    Bioglasses are favorable biomaterials for bone tissue engineering; however, their applications are limited due to their brittleness. In addition, the early failure in the interface is a common problem of composites of bioglass and a polymer with high mechanical strength. This effect is due to the phase separation, nonhomogeneous mixture, nonuniform mechanical strength, and different degradation properties of two compounds. To address these issues, in this study a nanoscale interaction between poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) and bioactive glass was formed via silane coupling agent (3-trimethoxysilyl)propyl methacrylate (MPMA). A monolith was produced at optimum composition from this hybrid by the sol-gel method at 50 °C with a rapid gelation time (<50 min) that possessed superior physicochemical properties compared to pure bioglass and physical mixture. For instance, the Young's modulus of bioglass was decreased 40-fold and the dissolution rate of silica was retarded 1.5-fold by integration of PMMA. Prolonged dissolution of silica fosters bone integration due to the continuous dissolution of bioactive silica. The primary osteoblast cells were well anchored and cell migration was observed on the surface of the hybrid. The in vivo studies in mice demonstrated that the integrity of the hybrids was maintained in subcutaneous implantation. They induced mainly a mononuclear phagocytic tissue reaction with a low level of inflammation, while bioglass provoked a tissue reaction with TRAP-positive multinucleated giant cells. These results demonstrated that the presence of a nanoscale interaction between bioglass and PMMA affects the properties of bioglass and broadens its potential applications for bone replacement.

  1. Hardrock Elastic Physical Properties: Birch's Seismic Parameter Revisited

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, M.; Milkereit, B.

    2014-12-01

    Identifying rock composition and properties is imperative in a variety of fields including geotechnical engineering, mining, and petroleum exploration, in order to accurately make any petrophysical calculations. Density is, in particular, an important parameter that allows us to differentiate between lithologies and estimate or calculate other petrophysical properties. It is well established that compressional and shear wave velocities of common crystalline rocks increase with increasing densities (i.e. the Birch and Nafe-Drake relationships). Conventional empirical relations do not take into account S-wave velocity. Physical properties of Fe-oxides and massive sulfides, however, differ significantly from the empirical velocity-density relationships. Currently, acquiring in-situ density data is challenging and problematic, and therefore, developing an approximation for density based on seismic wave velocity and elastic moduli would be beneficial. With the goal of finding other possible or better relationships between density and the elastic moduli, a database of density, P-wave velocity, S-wave velocity, bulk modulus, shear modulus, Young's modulus, and Poisson's ratio was compiled based on a multitude of lab samples. The database is comprised of isotropic, non-porous metamorphic rock. Multi-parameter cross plots of the various elastic parameters have been analyzed in order to find a suitable parameter combination that reduces high density outliers. As expected, the P-wave velocity to S-wave velocity ratios show no correlation with density. However, Birch's seismic parameter, along with the bulk modulus, shows promise in providing a link between observed compressional and shear wave velocities and rock densities, including massive sulfides and Fe-oxides.

  2. Statistics of physical properties of dark matter clusters

    SciTech Connect

    Shaw, Laurie; Weller, Jochen; Ostriker, Jeremiah P.; Bode, Paul; /Princeton U. Observ.

    2005-09-01

    We have identified over 2000 well resolved cluster halos, and also their associated bound subhalos, from the output of 1024{sup 3} particle cosmological N-body simulation (of box size 320h{sup -1}Mpc and softening length 3.2h{sup -1}kpc). We present an algorithm to identify those halos still in the process of relaxing into dynamical equilibrium, and a detailed analysis of the integral and internal physical properties for all the halos in our sample. The majority are prolate, and tend to rotate around their minor principle axis. We find there to be no correlation between the spin and virial mass of the clusters halos and that the higher mass halos are less dynamically relaxed and have a lower concentration. Additionally, the orbital angular momentum of the substructure is typically well aligned with the rotational angular momentum of the ''host'' halo. There is also evidence of the transfer of angular momentum from subhalos to their host. Overall, we find that measured halo properties are often significantly influenced by the fraction of mass contained within substructure. Dimensionless properties do depend weakly on the ratio of halo mass (M{sub h}) to our characteristic mass scale (M{sub *} = 8 x 10{sup 14}h{sup -1}M{sub {circle_dot}}). This lack of self-similarity is in the expected sense in that, for example, ''old halos'' with M{sub h}/M{sub *} << 1 have less substructure than ''young halos'' with M{sub h}/M{sub *} >> 1.

  3. Physical characterization of functionalized spider silk: electronic and sensing properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Steven, Eden; Park, Jin Gyu; Paravastu, Anant; Branco Lopes, Elsa; Brooks, James S.; Englander, Ongi; Siegrist, Theo; Kaner, Papatya; Alamo, Rufina G.

    2011-10-01

    This work explores functional, fundamental and applied aspects of naturally harvested spider silk fibers. Natural silk is a protein polymer where different amino acids control the physical properties of fibroin bundles, producing, for example, combinations of β-sheet (crystalline) and amorphous (helical) structural regions. This complexity presents opportunities for functional modification to obtain new types of material properties. Electrical conductivity is the starting point of this investigation, where the insulating nature of neat silk under ambient conditions is described first. Modification of the conductivity by humidity, exposure to polar solvents, iodine doping, pyrolization and deposition of a thin metallic film are explored next. The conductivity increases exponentially with relative humidity and/or solvent, whereas only an incremental increase occurs after iodine doping. In contrast, iodine doping, optimal at 70 °C, has a strong effect on the morphology of silk bundles (increasing their size), on the process of pyrolization (suppressing mass loss rates) and on the resulting carbonized fiber structure (that becomes more robust against bending and strain). The effects of iodine doping and other functional parameters (vacuum and thin film coating) motivated an investigation with magic angle spinning nuclear magnetic resonance (MAS-NMR) to monitor doping-induced changes in the amino acid-protein backbone signature. MAS-NMR revealed a moderate effect of iodine on the helical and β-sheet structures, and a lesser effect of gold sputtering. The effects of iodine doping were further probed by Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy, revealing a partial transformation of β-sheet-to-amorphous constituency. A model is proposed, based on the findings from the MAS-NMR and FTIR, which involves iodine-induced changes in the silk fibroin bundle environment that can account for the altered physical properties. Finally, proof-of-concept applications of

  4. Self-assembly and physical properties of atomic aggregates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berber, Savas

    In this Thesis, I present a study of nanoscaled atomic aggregates such as fullerenes, nanotubes, diamondoids, and related materials. Nanotubes and fullerenes, which could be formed of any layered material, show unusual physical properties due to their lower dimensionality and nanometer size. I have investigated the microscopic self-assembly mechanisms and the physical properties of these nanoscale atomic aggregates through computer simulations primarily by using molecular dynamics simulations combined with structure optimization and total energy calculations. First, I determined the stability, optimum geometry and electronic properties of nanometer-sized capped graphitic cones, called "nanohorns". My main result, simulated scanning tunneling microscopy images of the various structures at different bias voltages, indicate a net electron transfer towards the pentagon vertex sites. Next, I investigated the absorption of fullerenes in a nanotube during a hierarchical self-assembly of "nanopeapods". I found the absorption through a defect to be significantly more efficient than the end-on absorption. I also investigated the energetics and detailed fusion mechanism of fullerenes inside a carbon nanotube. I found that fullerenes are pulled in by a "capillary" force, which yields an effective GPa pressure. Fusion of fullerenes continues along the minimum energy path as a sequence of Stone-Wales transformations. I have further investigated the microscopic dislocation mechanism leading to structural transformations in nanostructures. In particular, I studied the relative stability and the conversion mechanism between multi-wall carbon nanotubes and graphitic scrolls. I postulated a zipper-like mechanism, which converts a scroll to the more stable multiwall nanotube. I also found this transformation to proceed very efficiently due to the unusually low associated activation barrier. A further study related to defects in nanoscale systems involves the response of defective

  5. Spreading of oil films on the sea surface: radar/optical observations and physical mechanisms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ermakov, Stanislav; Kapustin, Ivan; Sergievskaya, Irina; da Silva, Jose

    2015-10-01

    Marine slicks are one of the most common features on the sea surface and a significant part of the slicks is a result of accidental or deliberate oil spills. The shape of oil slicks is their important characteristic that can be used to identify the nature of slick signatures in radar or optical images of the sea surface and possibly to describe them quantitatively. Nowadays, however, there is a lack of systematic experiments with slicks, and the very physical mechanisms of slick spreading are still not well understood. This paper presents results of controlled experiments with spills of surfactants, and a possible physical mechanism of slick asymmetry is discussed. Experiments with artificial film slicks were carried out in different environmental conditions: from an Oceanographic Platform on the Black Sea, and from a vessel on the Gorky Water Reservoir. Slick shape and its evolution were studied using photographic methods, and satellite radar imagery. In the satellite experiments surfactants were poured on the surface at certain time intervals before the satellite overpass. It is obtained that film spreading is not axial symmetric, and the spills are stretched along the wind, a long-to-short slick axis ratio weakly depends on spreading time and grows with wind speed. A physical mechanism of slick deformation due to mean surface currents induced by wind waves is proposed. Namely, drift currents induced by oblique propagating surface waves increase in film slicks due to enhanced wave damping and these currents result in reduced spreading rate in the cross wind direction. Theoretical analysis of slick spreading accounting for the effect of surface waves is presented, and theoretical estimates are shown to be consistent with experiment.

  6. Physical properties of organic and biomaterials: Fundamentals and applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Steven, Eden

    Silk materials are natural protein-based materials with an exceptional toughness. In addition to their toughness, silk materials also possess complex physical properties and functions resulting from a particular set of amino-acid arrangement that produces structures with crystalline beta-sheets connected by amorphous chains. Extensive studies have been performed to study their structure-function relationship leading to recent advancements in bio-integrated devices. Applications to fields other than textiles and biomedicine, however, have been scarce. In this dissertation, an investigation of the electronic properties, functionalization, and role of silk materials (spider silk and Bombyx mori cocoon silk) in the field of organic materials research is presented. The investigation is conducted from an experimental physics point of view where correlations with charge transport mechanisms in disordered, semiconducting, and insulating materials are made when appropriate. First, I present the electronic properties of spider silk fibers under ambient, humidified, iodized, polar solvent exposure, and pyrolized conditions. The conductivity is exponentially dependent on relative humidity changes and the solvent polarity. Iodine doping increases the conductivity only slightly but has pronounced effects on the pyrolization process, increasing the yield and flexibility of the pyrolized silk fibers. The iodized samples were further studied using magic angle spinning nuclear magnetic resonance (MAS-NMR) and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) revealing non-homogenous iodine doping and I2 induced hydrogenation that are responsible for the minimal conductivity improvement and the pyrolization effects, respectively. Next, I present the investigation of silk fiber functionalization with gold and its role in electrical measurements. The gold functionalized silk fiber (Au-SS) is metallic down to cryogenic temperatures, has a certain amount of flexibility, and possesses

  7. Influence of frequency, grade, moisture and temperature on Green River oil shale dielectric properties and electromagnetic heating processes

    SciTech Connect

    Hakala, J. Alexandra; Stanchina, William; Soong, Yee; Hedges, Sheila

    2011-01-01

    Development of in situ electromagnetic (EM) retorting technologies and design of specific EM well logging tools requires an understanding of various process parameters (applied frequency, mineral phases present, water content, organic content and temperature) on oil shale dielectric properties. In this literature review on oil shale dielectric properties, we found that at low temperatures (<200° C) and constant oil shale grade, both the relative dielectric constant (ε') and imaginary permittivity (ε'') decrease with increased frequency and remain constant at higher frequencies. At low temperature and constant frequency, ε' decreases or remains constant with oil shale grade, while ε'' increases or shows no trend with oil shale grade. At higher temperatures (>200º C) and constant frequency, epsilon' generally increases with temperature regardless of grade while ε'' fluctuates. At these temperatures, maximum values for both ε' and ε'' differ based upon oil shale grade. Formation fluids, mineral-bound water, and oil shale varve geometry also affect measured dielectric properties. This review presents and synthesizes prior work on the influence of applied frequency, oil shale grade, water, and temperature on the dielectric properties of oil shales that can aid in the future development of frequency- and temperature-specific in situ retorting technologies and oil shale grade assay tools.

  8. Influence of process variables on essential oil microcapsule properties by carbohydrate polymer-protein blends.

    PubMed

    Banerjee, Subham; Chattopadhyay, Pronobesh; Ghosh, Animesh; Goyary, Danswrang; Karmakar, Sanjeev; Veer, Vijay

    2013-04-01

    Carbohydrate polymer-protein blends Zanthoxylum limonella oil (ZLO) loaded microcapsules were prepared by multiple emulsion solvent evaporation technology and the influence of various processing variables on the properties of ZLO loaded microcapsules were examined systematically. It was found that the internal aqueous alginate phase volume, external aqueous gelatin phase volume and concentration of surfactant in external aqueous gelatin phase have a significant influence on microcapsules properties. The essential oil-loaded microcapsules were smooth and spherical in shape as revealed by scanning electron micrograph. Results of Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy indicated stable character and showed the absence of chemical interaction between the microencapsulated oil and carbohydrate polymer-protein blends. Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) study revealed the antioxidant nature of ZLO in the microcapsules. The release rate of ZLO loaded microcapsules was analyzed by UV-vis spectrophotometer. 83.80% of oil encapsulation efficiency was obtained depending upon the processing variables. Thus, proper control of the processing variables involved in this technology could allow effective incorporation of essential oil into the core of the carbohydrate polymer-protein blends matrix.

  9. Effect of Oil Palm Fibres Volume Fraction on Mechanical Properties of Polyester Composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yousif, B. F.

    The effect of two types of oil palm fibres (bunch and fruit) on mechanical properties of polyester composites is examined in the current work considering different volume fractions. Tensile, compression, and flexural properties of the composites were investigated. In addition to that, tensile strengths were calculated theoretically using Hirsch model. Scanning electron microscope (SEM) was used to observe the fracture mechanism of the specimens. Single fibre pull-out tests were performed to determine the interfacial shear strength between polyester resin and both types of oil palm fibres. Results revealed that both types of oil palm fibres enhanced the mechanical performance of polyester composites. At a higher volume fraction (40-50%), tensile strength of the polyester composite was improved, i.e., 2.5 times improvement in the tensile strength value. Experimental tensile strength values of oil palm bunch/polyester composites have a good correlation with the theoretical results, especially at low volume fractions of fibre. Flexural strength of polyester worsened with oil palm fibres at all volume fractions of fibre.

  10. Formation, antioxidant property and oxidative stability of cold pressed rice bran oil emulsion.

    PubMed

    Thanonkaew, Amonrat; Wongyai, Surapote; Decker, Eric A; McClements, David J

    2015-10-01

    Cold pressed rice bran oil (CPRBO) is used in foods, cosmetics, and pharmaceuticals due to its desirable health and functional attributes. The purpose of this work was to study the formation, antioxidant property and oxidative stability of oil-in-water emulsion of CPRBO. The influence of oil (10-40 % CPRBO) and surfactant (1-5 % glyceryl monostearate (GMS)) concentration on the properties of emulsions were studied. The lightness (L*) and yellowness (b*) of CPRBO emulsions decreased as GMS concentration increased, which was attributed to a decrease in droplet size after homogenization. The CPRBO emulsion was stable during storage at room temperature for 30 days. Increasing the oil concentration in the CPRBO emulsions increased their antioxidant activity, which can be attributed to the corresponding increase in phytochemical content. However, GMS concentration had little impact on the antioxidant activity of CPRBO emulsions. The storage of CPRBO emulsion at room temperature showed that lipid oxidation markers gradually increased after 30 days of storage, which was correlated to a decrease in gamma oryzanol content and antioxidant activity. These results have important implications for the utilization of rice bran oil (RBO) as a function ingredient in food, cosmetic, and pharmaceutical products. PMID:26396397

  11. 41 CFR 109-1.5110 - Physical inventories of personal property.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Physical inventories of personal property. 109-1.5110 Section 109-1.5110 Public Contracts and Property Management Federal Property Management Regulations System (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY PROPERTY MANAGEMENT REGULATIONS GENERAL...

  12. 41 CFR 109-1.5110 - Physical inventories of personal property.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Physical inventories of personal property. 109-1.5110 Section 109-1.5110 Public Contracts and Property Management Federal Property Management Regulations System (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY PROPERTY MANAGEMENT REGULATIONS GENERAL...

  13. 41 CFR 109-1.5110 - Physical inventories of personal property.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Physical inventories of personal property. 109-1.5110 Section 109-1.5110 Public Contracts and Property Management Federal Property Management Regulations System (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY PROPERTY MANAGEMENT REGULATIONS GENERAL...

  14. Antimicrobial properties of plant essential oils and essences against five important food-borne pathogens.

    PubMed

    Smith-Palmer, A; Stewart, J; Fyfe, L

    1998-02-01

    The antimicrobial properties of 21 plant essential oils and two essences were investigated against five important food-borne pathogens, Campylobacter jejuni, Salmonella enteritidis, Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus and Listeria monocytogenes. The oils of bay, cinnamon, clove and thyme were the most inhibitory, each having a bacteriostatic concentration of 0.075% or less against all five pathogens. In general, Gram-positive bacteria were more sensitive to inhibition by plant essential oils than the Gram-negative bacteria. Campylobacter jejuni was the most resistant of the bacteria investigated to plant essential oils, with only the oils of bay and thyme having a bacteriocidal concentration of less than 1%. At 35 degrees C, L. monocytogenes was extremely sensitive to the oil of nutmeg. A concentration of less than 0.01% was bacteriostatic and 0.05% was bacteriocidal, but when the temperature was reduced to 4 degrees, the bacteriostatic concentration was increased to 0.5% and the bacteriocidal concentration to greater than 1%. PMID:9569693

  15. [Association between penetration enhancement effect of essential oils and drug properties of traditional Chinese medicines by data mining method].

    PubMed

    Yang, Wen-guo; Chen, Jun; Liu, Pei; Jiang, Qiu-dong; Wang, Yan; Zhou, Cheng; Duan, Jin-ao

    2015-12-01

    To study the association between penetration enhancement effect of essential oils and drug properties of traditional Chinese medicines. Through literature research, 34 kinds of essential oils with the penetration enhancement effect were collected. The methods of frequency analysis and variable crosstab were used for intuitive analysis and association analysis. The association between penetration enhancement effect of essential oils and drug properties (four natures, five flavors, channel tropism) were analyzed by a general linear model. According to the findings, the essential oils with penetration enhancement effect were all sourced from acrid traditional Chinese medicines, because their positive drug nature contributed to the enhancement of the penetration effect of essential oil; five flavors had little effect on penetration enhancement (P = 0.6982), but four natures and channel tropism showed significant effects (P = 0.011, 0.077). In conclusion, there were obvious association and regularity between penetration enhancement effect of essential oils and drug properties of traditional Chinese medicine.

  16. Physical properties of organic and biomaterials: Fundamentals and applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Steven, Eden

    Silk materials are natural protein-based materials with an exceptional toughness. In addition to their toughness, silk materials also possess complex physical properties and functions resulting from a particular set of amino-acid arrangement that produces structures with crystalline beta-sheets connected by amorphous chains. Extensive studies have been performed to study their structure-function relationship leading to recent advancements in bio-integrated devices. Applications to fields other than textiles and biomedicine, however, have been scarce. In this dissertation, an investigation of the electronic properties, functionalization, and role of silk materials (spider silk and Bombyx mori cocoon silk) in the field of organic materials research is presented. The investigation is conducted from an experimental physics point of view where correlations with charge transport mechanisms in disordered, semiconducting, and insulating materials are made when appropriate. First, I present the electronic properties of spider silk fibers under ambient, humidified, iodized, polar solvent exposure, and pyrolized conditions. The conductivity is exponentially dependent on relative humidity changes and the solvent polarity. Iodine doping increases the conductivity only slightly but has pronounced effects on the pyrolization process, increasing the yield and flexibility of the pyrolized silk fibers. The iodized samples were further studied using magic angle spinning nuclear magnetic resonance (MAS-NMR) and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) revealing non-homogenous iodine doping and I2 induced hydrogenation that are responsible for the minimal conductivity improvement and the pyrolization effects, respectively. Next, I present the investigation of silk fiber functionalization with gold and its role in electrical measurements. The gold functionalized silk fiber (Au-SS) is metallic down to cryogenic temperatures, has a certain amount of flexibility, and possesses

  17. Prediction of long and short residue properties of crude oils from their infrared and near-infrared spectra.

    PubMed

    de Peinder, Peter; Petrauskas, Derek D; Singelenberg, Fred; Salvatori, Fabien; Visser, Tom; Soulimani, Fouad; Weckhuysen, Bert M

    2008-04-01

    Research has been carried out to determine the feasibility of chemometric modeling of infrared (IR) and near-infrared (NIR) spectra of crude oils to predict the long residue (LR) and short residue (SR) properties of these samples. A novel method is described to predict short residue properties at different flashing temperatures based on the IR spectrum of a crude oil measured at room temperature. The resulting method is the subject of European patent application number 07251853.3 filed by Shell Internationale Research Maatschappij B.V. The study has been carried out on 47 crude oils and 4 blends, representing a large variety of physical and chemical properties. From this set, 28 representative samples were selected by principle component analysis (PCA) and used for calibration. The remaining 23 samples were used as a test set to validate the obtained partial least squares (PLS) regression models. The results demonstrate that this integrated approach offers a fast and viable alternative for the currently applied elaborate ASTM (American Society for Testing and Materials) and IP (Institute of Petroleum) methods. IR spectra, in particular, were found to be a useful input for the prediction of different LR properties. Root mean square error of prediction values of the same order of magnitude as the reproducibility values of the ASTM methods were obtained for yield long on crude (YLC), density (D(LR)), viscosity (V(LR)), and pour point (PP), while the ability to predict the sulfur contents (S) and the carbon residue (CR) was found to be useful for indicative purposes. The prediction of SR properties is also promising. Modeling of the IR spectra, and to a lesser extent, the NIR spectra as a function of the average flash temperature (AFT) was particularly successful for the prediction of the short residue properties density (D(SR)) and viscosity (V(SR)). Similar results were obtained from the models to predict SR properties as a function of the yield short on crude (YSC

  18. Chemical composition and antigenotoxic properties of Lippia alba essential oils

    PubMed Central

    López, Molkary Andrea; Stashenko, Elena E.; Fuentes, Jorge Luis

    2011-01-01

    The present work evaluated the chemical composition and the DNA protective effect of the essential oils (EOs) from Lippia alba against bleomycin-induced genotoxicity. EO constituents were determined by Gas Chromatography/Mass Spectrometric (GC-MS) analysis. The major compounds encountered being citral (33% geranial and 25% neral), geraniol (7%) and trans-β-caryophyllene (7%) for L. alba specimen COL512077, and carvone (38%), limonene (33%) and bicyclosesquiphellandrene (8%) for the other, COL512078. The genotoxicity and antigenotoxicity of EO and the compounds citral, carvone and limonene, were assayed using the SOS Chromotest in Escherichia coli. The EOs were not genotoxic in the SOS chromotest, but one of the major compound (limonene) showed genotoxicity at doses between 97 and 1549 mM. Both EOs protected bacterial cells against bleomycin-induced genotoxicity. Antigenotoxicity in the two L. alba chemotypes was related to the major compounds, citral and carvone, respectively. The results were discussed in relation to the chemopreventive potential of L. alba EOs and its major compounds. PMID:21931523

  19. Physical and Mechanical Properties of Composites and Light Alloys Reinforced with Detonation Nanodiamonds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sakovich, G. V.; Vorozhtsov, S. A.; Vorozhtsov, A. B.; Potekaev, A. I.; Kulkov, S. N.

    2016-07-01

    The influence of introduction of particles of detonation-synthesized nanodiamonds into composites and aluminum-base light alloys on their physical and mechanical properties is analyzed. The data on microstructure and physical and mechanical properties of composites and cast aluminum alloys reinforced with diamond nanoparticles are presented. The introduction of nanoparticles is shown to result in a significant improvement of the material properties.

  20. 41 CFR 109-1.5110 - Physical inventories of personal property.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...-INTRODUCTION 1.51-Personal Property Management Standards and Practices § 109-1.5110 Physical inventories of... items indicates that this action is necessary for effective property accounting, utilization, or control... property records, and with applicable financial control accounts. (j) The results of physical...

  1. Physicochemical and sensory properties of Galician chorizo sausage preserved by refrigeration, freezing, oil-immersion, or vacuum-packing.

    PubMed

    Fernández-Fernández, E; Romero-Rodríguez, M A; Vázquez-Odériz, M L

    2001-05-01

    Galician chorizo sausage is a traditional cured meat product from northwest Spain. We monitored changes in the physicochemical and sensory properties of Galician chorizo sausage conserved by four different methods, namely refrigeration, freezing, immersion in sunflower oil, and vacuum-packing. Refrigeration was the least effective method tested, with rapid deterioration of sensory properties, and oxidative spoilage evident from week 4 onward. Oil immersion and vacuum-packing gave reasonable conservation of sensory properties (despite some masking of aromas by the oil). Freezing gave acceptable conservation of sensory properties, and by week 6 there was still no evidence of oxidative spoilage.

  2. Effect of Orimulsion{reg_sign} physical properties and chemical composition on its behavior in water

    SciTech Connect

    Ojeda, M. de; Chirinos, M.L.

    1995-12-31

    Orimulsion{reg_sign} is the trade name given to a bitumen in water, 70:30, emulsion stabilized by a nonionic surfactant and used in industrial burners and power plants as a fuel. This paper summarizes the physical properties and chemical composition of Orimulsion{reg_sign} and their effect on the self dispersing properties of the product and its behavior in water. Also, the solubility and evaporation of the light hydrocarbon fraction from the bitumen, and the toxicity and biodegradation of the fuel are discussed. Salinity of the water affects the HLB of the surfactant and the stability of the bitumen droplets making them susceptible to coalesce. BTEX content of the bitumen was determined to be relatively low, an advantage in terms of its contribution to toxicity, when compared to other similar fuels (i.e., Fuel Oil No. 6). Because of the nature of the hydrocarbons components in the bitumen, biodegradation is estimated to be around 10% of the total bitumen fraction of the formulation. Detailed chemical characterization of each one of the constituents of the Orimulsion{reg_sign} formulation will be presented.

  3. GLYCOLIC ACID PHYSICAL PROPERTIES, IMPURITIES, AND RADIATION EFFECTS ASSESSMENT

    SciTech Connect

    Pickenheim, B.; Bibler, N.

    2010-06-08

    The DWPF is pursuing alternative reductants/flowsheets to increase attainment to meet closure commitment dates. In fiscal year 2009, SRNL evaluated several options and recommended the further assessment of the nitric/formic/glycolic acid flowsheet. SRNL is currently performing testing with this flowsheet to support the DWPF down-select of alternate reductants. As part of the evaluation, SRNL was requested to determine the physical properties of formic and glycolic acid blends. Blends of formic acid in glycolic acid were prepared and their physical properties tested. Increasing amounts of glycolic acid led to increases in blend density, viscosity and surface tension as compared to the 90 wt% formic acid that is currently used at DWPF. These increases are small, however, and are not expected to present any difficulties in terms of processing. The effect of sulfur impurities in technical grade glycolic acid was studied for its impact on DWPF glass quality. While the glycolic acid specification allows for more sulfate than the current formic acid specification, the ultimate impact is expected to be on the order of 0.03 wt% sulfur in glass. Note that lower sulfur content glycolic acid could likely be procured at some increased cost if deemed necessary. A paper study on the effects of radiation on glycolic acid was performed. The analysis indicates that substitution of glycolic acid for formic acid would not increase the radiolytic production rate of H{sub 2} and cause an adverse effect in the SRAT or SME process. It has been cited that glycolic acid solutions that are depleted of O{sub 2} when subjected to large radiation doses produced considerable quantities of a non-diffusive polymeric material. Considering a constant air purge is maintained in the SRAT and the solution is continuously mixed, oxygen depletion seems unlikely, however, if this polymer is formed in the SRAT solution, the rheology of the solution may be affected and pumping of the solution may be

  4. GLYCOLIC ACID PHYSICAL PROPERTIES, IMPURITIES, AND RADIATION EFFECTS ASSESSMENT

    SciTech Connect

    Lambert, D.; Pickenheim, B.; Hay, M.

    2011-06-20

    The Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) is pursuing alternative reductants/flowsheets to increase attainment to meet closure commitment dates. In fiscal year 2009, SRNL evaluated several options and recommended the further assessment of the nitric/formic/glycolic acid flowsheet. SRNL is currently performing testing with this flowsheet to support the DWPF down-select of alternate reductants. As part of the evaluation, SRNL was requested to determine the physical properties of formic and glycolic acid blends. Blends of formic acid in glycolic acid were prepared and their physical properties tested. Increasing amounts of glycolic acid led to increases in blend density, viscosity and surface tension as compared to the 90 wt% formic acid that is currently used at DWPF. These increases are small, however, and are not expected to present any difficulties in terms of processing. The effect of sulfur impurities in technical grade glycolic acid was studied for its impact on DWPF glass quality. While the glycolic acid specification allows for more sulfate than the current formic acid specification, the ultimate impact is expected to be on the order of 0.03 wt% sulfur in glass. Note that lower sulfur content glycolic acid could likely be procured at some increased cost if deemed necessary. A paper study on the effects of radiation on glycolic acid was performed. The analysis indicates that substitution of glycolic acid for formic acid would not increase the radiolytic production rate of H{sub 2} and cause an adverse effect in the SRAT or SME process. It has been cited that glycolic acid solutions that are depleted of O{sub 2} when subjected to large radiation doses produced considerable quantities of a non-diffusive polymeric material. Considering a constant air purge is maintained in the SRAT and the solution is continuously mixed, oxygen depletion seems unlikely, however, if this polymer is formed in the SRAT solution, the rheology of the solution may be affected and

  5. Evaluation of Physical Properties of Generic and Branded Travoprost Formulations

    PubMed Central

    Wadhwani, Meenakshi; Mishra, Sanjay K; Velpandian, Thirumurthy; Sihota, Ramanjit; Kotnala, Ankita; Bhartiya, Shibal; Dada, Tanuj

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Purpose: Comparative evaluation of pharmaceutical characteristics of three marketed generic vs branded travoprost formulations. Materials and methods: Three generic travoprost formulations and one branded (Travatan without benzalkonium chloride) formulation (10 vials each), obtained from authorized agents from the respective companies and having the same batch number, were used. These formulations were coded and labels were removed. At a standardized room temperature of 25°C, the drop size, pH, relative viscosity, and total drops per vial were determined for Travatan (Alcon, Fort Worth, TX, USA) and all the generic formulations. Travoprost concentration in all four brands was estimated by using liquid chromatography-coupled tandem mass spectrometry LCMS. Results: Out of the four formulations, two drugs (TP 1 and TP 4) were found to follow the United States Pharmacopoeia (USP) limits for ophthalmic formulation regarding drug concentration, while the remaining two drugs failed due to the limits being either above 110% (TP 2) or below 90% (TP 3). Two of them (TP 1 and TP 2) had osmolality of 313 and 262 mOsm respectively, which did not comply with the osmolality limits within 300 mOsm (+ 10%). The pH of all the formulations ranged between 4.7 and 5.9, and the mean drop size was 30.23 ± 6.03 uL. The total amount of drug volume in the bottles varied from 2.58 ± 0.15 to 3.38 ± 0.06 mL/bottle. Conclusion: There are wide variations in the physical properties of generic formulations available in India. Although some generic drugs are compliant with the pharmacopeia standards, this study underscores the need for a better quality control in the production of generic travoprost formulations. How to cite this article: Wadhwani M, Mishra SK, Angmo D, Velpandian T, Sihota R, Kotnala A, Bhartiya S, Dada T. Evaluation of Physical Properties of Generic and Branded Travoprost Formulations. J Curr Glaucoma Pract. 2016;10(2):49-55. PMID:27536047

  6. Physical, proximate, functional and pasting properties of flour produced from gamma irradiated cowpea (Vigna unguiculata, L. Walp)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Darfour, B.; Wilson, D. D.; Ofosu, D. O.; Ocloo, F. C. K.

    2012-04-01

    Cowpeas are leguminous seeds widely produced and consumed in most developing countries of sub Saharan Africa. The aim of this study was to determine the physical, proximate, functional and pasting properties of flour obtained from gamma irradiated cowpea. Four cowpea cultivars were irradiated with gamma radiation at dose levels of 0.25, 0.5, 0.75, 1.0 and 1.5 kGy with the unirradiated cultivars serving as controls. The samples were hammer milled, sieved and stored at 4 °C for analysis. Physical, proximate, functional, pasting properties were determined using appropriate methods. In general, the irradiation dose applied to cowpea for insect control did not significantly affect the physical and proximate properties of the flour. However, significant increase (p<0.05) was achieved in paste bulk density, water and oil absorption capacities, foam capacities and least gelation concentrations of flour in general, which may be attributed to the irradiation. The radiation reduced the swelling power and water solubility index significantly. The peak temperature, peak viscosity and setback viscosity of the pastes were significantly (p<0.05) reduced while breakdown viscosity was significantly (p<0.05) increased by the radiation. It was established that the doses used on cowpea affected both the functional and pasting properties of the flour.

  7. Effects of lamination and coating with drying oils on tensile and barrier properties of zein films.

    PubMed

    Rakotonirainy, A M; Padua, G W

    2001-06-01

    Zein films plasticized with oleic acid have been considered potentially useful for biodegradable packaging applications. However, moisture was found to affect their tensile and gas barrier properties. We investigated the effects of two converting processes, fusion lamination and coating with drying oils, on tensile properties and gas permeability of zein films. Zein films were laminated to 4-ply sheets in a Carver press and coated with tung oil, linseed oil, or a mixture of tung and soybean oils. Tensile properties and permeability to water vapor, oxygen, and carbon dioxide were measured according to ASTM methods. Laminated films were clearer, tougher, and more flexible, and had a smoother finish than nontreated sheets. Lamination decreased O(2) and CO(2) permeability by filling in voids and pinholes in the film structure. Coating increased tensile strength and elongation and decreased water vapor permeability. Coatings acted as a composite layer preventing crack propagation and increasing film strength. They also formed a highly hydrophobic surface that prevented film wetting.

  8. Fatty acid composition and antioxidant properties of cold-pressed marionberry, boysenberry, red raspberry, and blueberry seed oils.

    PubMed

    Parry, John; Su, Lan; Luther, Marla; Zhou, Kequan; Yurawecz, M Peter; Whittaker, Paul; Yu, Liangli

    2005-02-01

    Cold-pressed marionberry, boysenberry, red raspberry, and blueberry seed oils were evaluated for their fatty acid composition, carotenoid content, tocopherol profile, total phenolic content (TPC), oxidative stability index (OSI), peroxide value, and antioxidant properties. All tested seed oils contained significant levels of alpha-linolenic acid ranging from 19.6 to 32.4 g per 100 g of oil, along with a low ratio of n-6/n-3 fatty acids (1.64-3.99). The total carotenoid content ranged from 12.5 to 30.0 micromoles per kg oil. Zeaxanthin was the major carotenoid compound in all tested berry seed oils, along with beta-carotene, lutein, and cryptoxanthin. Total tocopherol was 260.6-2276.9 mumoles per kg oil, including alpha-, gamma-, and delta-tocopherols. OSI values were 20.07, 20.30, and 44.76 h for the marionberry, red raspberry, and boysenberry seed oils, respectively. The highest TPC of 2.0 mg gallic acid equivalents per gram of oil was observed in the red raspberry seed oil, while the strongest oxygen radical absorbance capacity was in boysenberry seed oil extract (77.9 micromol trolox equivalents per g oil). All tested berry seed oils directly reacted with and quenched DPPH radicals in a dose- and time-dependent manner. These data suggest that the cold-pressed berry seed oils may serve as potential dietary sources of tocopherols, carotenoids, and natural antioxidants.

  9. Synthesis and physical properties of highly sulfonated polyaniline. Technical report

    SciTech Connect

    Wei, X.L.; Bobeczko, C.; Epstein, A.J.

    1996-03-01

    Sulfonated polyaniline (EB-SPAN) is a self-doped conducting polymer. It has a high water solubility and a novel pH-dependent DC conductivity that is of interest for fundamental science and also for applications in such areas as rechargeable battery and pH control technologies. The authors report here the extensive characterization and details of synthesis of a new form of sulfonated polyaniline (LEB-SPAN) which shows novel or significantly improved chemical and physical properties. LEB-SPAN has a much high sulfur to nitrogen ratio (S/N) of N approx. 0.75, 50% larger than that previously reported for EB-SPAN, S/N approx. 0.50. This change in composition leads to significant alteration of the properties including an order of magnitude increase in the room temperature DC conductivity to approx. 1 S./cm, nearly double the solubility in water, and a completely different pH-dependence of the oxidation potential (E1/2). For LEB-SPAN the DC conductivity is unaffected by pH over the range 0 < or = pH < or = 14, strikingly different from the behavior of both parent polyaniline and EB-SPAN which become insulating for pH > or = 3 and pH > or = 7.5; respectively. Temperature-dependent DC conductivity and EPR measurements for LEB-SPAN reveal a lower activation energy for the conductivity and a higher density of states at the Fermi energy as compared with EB-SPAN. The dramatic differences in the pH-dependence of the DC conductivity, cyclic voltammetry (CV), FTIR, and UV-Vis results for LEB-SPAN and EB-SPAN are shown to be a consequence of the much higher S/N ratio in LEB-SPAN.

  10. Evaluation of physical-chemical and biological treatment of shale oil retort water

    SciTech Connect

    Mercer, B.W.; Mason, M.J.; Spencer, R.R.; Wong, A.L.; Wakamiya, W.

    1982-09-01

    Bench scale studies were conducted to evaluate conventional physical-chemical and biological treatment processes for removal of pollutants from retort water produced by in situ shale oil recovery methods. Prior to undertaking these studies, very little information had been reported on treatment of retort water. A treatment process train patterned after that generally used throughout the petroleum refining industry was envisioned for application to retort water. The treatment train would consist of processes for removing suspended matter, ammonia, biodegradable organics, and nonbiodegradable or refractory organics. The treatment processes evaluated include anaerobic digestion and activated sludge for removal of biodegradable organics and other oxidizable substances; activated carbon adsorption for removal of nonbiodegradable organics; steam stripping for ammonia removal; and chemical coagulation, sedimentation and filtration for removal of suspended matter. Preliminary cost estimates are provided.

  11. Understanding the physical and chemical properties of carbon-based granular fuels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marchand, David J.

    Coal and oil have been used as fuel sources for centuries, but the way they have been used has not fundamentally changed: coal is ground into pieces then burned, and oil is distilled into various liquid fractions that are then burned. This dissertation explores newer methods of utilizing those fuel sources. Coal gasification is the process where coal is heated in a low oxygen environment so that the solid carbon is converted into a mixture of gaseous products. But some aspects of gasification, such as the role of catalysts and the structural evolution of coal particles throughout the reaction, remain unclear. These aspects were studied by analyzing, ex situ, the physical and chemical changes of coal feedstock samples extracted from a fluidized bed gasifier at various times throughout gasification. The changes in feed particle composition and size distribution composition showed that the gasification reaction rate was slower than the gas diffusion rates inside the coal particle at a typical catalytic gasification temperature of 800oC. Detailed composition analysis of samples with and without added catalyst showed that the catalyst increased the overall reaction rate by promoting the dissociative oxidation of the coal by gas phase oxidants, which provided more active sites for carbon-carbon bond breakage. The conclusions drawn from studying the feedstock can be combined with the data from in situ analysis of the gasification reactor to provide a fuller picture of the gasification process. Petroleum coke, or petcoke, is a carbonaceous solid produced during oil distillation. Though petcoke could be an important energy source, its use is hindered by practical and environmental concerns. Producing a slurry with petcoke and water has been studied as an alternative method for utilizing petcoke, but the effective use of petcoke slurries requires that they have low viscosity while remaining stable against settling of the particles due to gravity. These rheological properties

  12. Physical properties of orbital debris from spectroscopic observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jorgensen, K.; Africano, J.; Hamada, K.; Stansbery, E.; Sydney, P.; Kervin, P.

    2004-01-01

    Currently, certain physical properties, such as material type and albedo, of orbital debris are assumed when used to determine the size of the objects. A study to ascertain whether or not the assumed values are valid has begun using reflectance spectroscopy as a means of determining the material type of the object. What appears to some as a squiggly line is actually the reflectance of sunlight from the object. By comparing the location, depth, and width of the absorption features on the squiggly lines, the material type of the debris object is identified. Once the material type is known, the albedo of the object can be determined. This paper discusses the results from observations of large rocket bodies and satellites in both lower and geosynchronous Earth orbits (LEO and GEO, respectively) taken at the air force maui optical and supercomputing (AMOS) site located in Maui, Hawaii. Using the 1.6-m telescope and a spectral range of 0.3-0.9 μm, differences between rocket bodies of different types and launch dates, as well as satellites of different types and launch dates are determined. Variations seen in the squiggle lines are due to colors of paint, space weathering, and for the satellites, orientation and size of the solar panels. Future direction of the project will be discussed as well as plans for future observations.

  13. Physical and mechanical properties of modified bacterial cellulose composite films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Indrarti, Lucia; Indriyati, Syampurwadi, Anung; Pujiastuti, Sri

    2016-02-01

    To open wide range application opportunities of Bacterial Cellulose (BC) such as for agricultural purposes and edible film, BC slurries were blended with Glycerol (Gly), Sorbitol (Sor) and Carboxymethyl Cellulose (CMC). The physical and mechanical properties of BC composites were investigated to gain a better understanding of the relationship between BC and the additive types. Addition of glycerol, sorbitol and CMC influenced the water solubility of BC composite films. FTIR analysis showed the characteristic bands of cellulose. Addition of CMC, glycerol, and sorbitol slightly changed the FTIR spectrum of the composites. Tensile test showed that CMC not only acted as cross-linking agent where the tensile strength doubled up to 180 MPa, but also acted as plasticizer with the elongation at break increased more than 100% compared to that of BC film. On the other hand, glycerol and sorbitol acted as plasticizers that decreased the tensile strength and increased the elongation. Addition of CMC can improve film transparency, which is quite important in consumer acceptance of edible films in food industry.

  14. Influence of moisture content on physical properties of minor millets.

    PubMed

    Balasubramanian, S; Viswanathan, R

    2010-06-01

    Physical properties including 1000 kernel weight, bulk density, true density, porosity, angle of repose, coefficient of static friction, coefficient of internal friction and grain hardness were determined for foxtail millet, little millet, kodo millet, common millet, barnyard millet and finger millet in the moisture content range of 11.1 to 25% db. Thousand kernel weight increased from 2.3 to 6.1 g and angle of repose increased from 25.0 to 38.2°. Bulk density decreased from 868.1 to 477.1 kg/m(3) and true density from 1988.7 to 884.4 kg/m(3) for all minor millets when observed in the moisture range of 11.1 to 25%. Porosity decreased from 63.7 to 32.5%. Coefficient of static friction of minor millets against mild steel surface increased from 0.253 to 0.728 and coefficient of internal friction was in the range of 1.217 and 1.964 in the moisture range studied. Grain hardness decreased from 30.7 to 12.4 for all minor millets when moisture content was increased from 11.1 to 25% db. PMID:23572637

  15. Theoretical study of photo-physical properties of indolylmaleimide derivatives.

    PubMed

    Zheng, ZiLong; Zhao, Yi; Nakazono, Manabu; Nanbu, Shinkoh

    2012-03-01

    Photo-physical properties of bromo-indolylmaleimide (IM-Br), indole-succinimide (IS), and their anions were theoretically investigated compared with the previous theoretical result for indolylmaleimide (IM) [Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys., 2010, 12, 9783]. The energies for the electronic excited states as well as the ground states were computed for these molecules using the multi-reference perturbation calculations based on the second order Rayleigh-Schrödinger perturbation theory (CASPT2) at the cc-pVDZ basis set level. The electron-accepting or electron-donating effect caused by bromine-substitution was discussed in the intra-molecular charge transfer (ICT) mechanism. The order of natural orbitals of the bromine-substituted monovalent anion with a deprotonated indole NH group (I((-))M-Br) was found to be rearranged by the effect of electron-donation, which leads to pseudo-crossing of the potential energy cures of the S(1) and S(2) states. The large stokes shift observed for I((-))M-Br was due to pseudo-crossing. Meanwhile, IM and IM-Br show abnormal deprotonation, which is explained by the charge distribution on the indole and maleimide moieties. Finally, the monovalent anions I((-))M-Br and I((-))M by a deprotonation of the indole NH end and the neutral IS were proposed to be the most feasible candidates corresponding to the experimental spectra in solution. PMID:22293896

  16. An assessment of the effects of crude oil pollution on soil properties, germination and growth of maize (Zea mays) using two crude types--Forcados light and Escravos light.

    PubMed

    Ogboghodo, I A; Iruaga, E K; Osemwota, I O; Chokor, J U

    2004-01-01

    The effect of crude oil pollution on soil properties, germination and height of maize (Zea mays) was investigated under natural environment in three separate pot experiments. Two crude oil types--Forcados light and Escravos light were used. In Experiment 1, the effect of crude oil application on germination using high pollution levels of 5, 15, 25 and 40 mL kg(-1) of soil was assessed. In Experiment 2, the effect of crude oil application on maize plant height using the same pollution levels was assessed. The last experiment (Experiment 3) was used to test for the effects of crude oil application on maize plant height using lower levels of pollution (1.0, 1.5, 2.0 and 2.5 mL kg(-1) of soil). Soil samples were collected before, during and after the experiment and analyzed for some physical and chemical properties. Results obtained showed variation in chemical properties of soil. % organic matter increased from 1.34 to 2.62% in polluted soils. Available P decreased from 15.00 ppm in control to between 7.34 and 5.42 in soils polluted with 'high' levels of crude oil. Statistical analysis of height data showed that crude oil inhibited the growth of maize at high pollution levels. High levels of pollution also inhibited germination and for Escravos light there was no germination at 40 mL kg(-1) soil level of crude oil pollution. PMID:15327154

  17. An assessment of the effects of crude oil pollution on soil properties, germination and growth of maize (Zea mays) using two crude types--Forcados light and Escravos light.

    PubMed

    Ogboghodo, I A; Iruaga, E K; Osemwota, I O; Chokor, J U

    2004-01-01

    The effect of crude oil pollution on soil properties, germination and height of maize (Zea mays) was investigated under natural environment in three separate pot experiments. Two crude oil types--Forcados light and Escravos light were used. In Experiment 1, the effect of crude oil application on germination using high pollution levels of 5, 15, 25 and 40 mL kg(-1) of soil was assessed. In Experiment 2, the effect of crude oil application on maize plant height using the same pollution levels was assessed. The last experiment (Experiment 3) was used to test for the effects of crude oil application on maize plant height using lower levels of pollution (1.0, 1.5, 2.0 and 2.5 mL kg(-1) of soil). Soil samples were collected before, during and after the experiment and analyzed for some physical and chemical properties. Results obtained showed variation in chemical properties of soil. % organic matter increased from 1.34 to 2.62% in polluted soils. Available P decreased from 15.00 ppm in control to between 7.34 and 5.42 in soils polluted with 'high' levels of crude oil. Statistical analysis of height data showed that crude oil inhibited the growth of maize at high pollution levels. High levels of pollution also inhibited germination and for Escravos light there was no germination at 40 mL kg(-1) soil level of crude oil pollution.

  18. A model of crude oil production: The roles of physics, exploration, and site development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goldmanis, Maris

    I propose an integrated model of the behavior of a profit-maximizing crude oil producer. I show that the producer's optimization program can be decomposed into an extraction program, which is subject to physical constraints, an investment level program, a development timing program, and an exploration program for new prospects. In the extraction program, I find that it is optimal to extract oil at the maximal feasible rate, unless prices are expected to rise steeply. I also show that such a price process can arise in equilibrium and that prices in such an equilibrium grow at a rate determined by the decrease rate of the maximal feasible extraction rate. In the investment level program, I find that optimal investment is always increasing in the size of the field and, if the current price of oil net of extraction costs is positively related to future net prices, the investment level is also increasing in the net price. In addition, investment increases in the current technology level, unless technological improvements carry very bad news about future prices. Optimal development timing generally has an ambiguous relation to current shock values, and fields are not necessarily developed in a monotonic order by size. However, I establish conditions on the shock process under which development is more likely to occur in higher-price, lower-cost, and higher-technology states and show that the same conditions also ensure that larger fields are developed first. Under the same conditions that ensure monotonic development time dynamics, I show that it is optimal to explore fields in stochastically decreasing order of size and that the total number of prospects explored in a play in a given period responds positively to prices and technology, but is generally declining over the lifetime of the play. The model replicates a number of industry facts. First, crude oil producers respond to price and cost shocks primarily at the extensive margin, by adjusting exploration and

  19. Ultrasonic techniques for measuring physical properties of fluids in harsh environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pantea, Cristian

    Ultrasonic-based measurement techniques, either in the time domain or in the frequency domain, include a wide range of experimental methods for investigating physical properties of materials. This discussion is specifically focused on ultrasonic methods and instrumentation development for the determination of liquid properties at conditions typically found in subsurface environments (in the U.S., more than 80% of total energy needs are provided by subsurface energy sources). Such sensors require materials that can withstand harsh conditions of high pressure, high temperature and corrosiveness. These include the piezoelectric material, electrically conductive adhesives, sensor housings/enclosures, and the signal carrying cables, to name a few. A complete sensor package was developed for operation at high temperatures and pressures characteristic to geothermal/oil-industry reservoirs. This package is designed to provide real-time, simultaneous measurements of multiple physical parameters, such as temperature, pressure, salinity and sound speed. The basic principle for this sensor's operation is an ultrasonic frequency domain technique, combined with transducer resonance tracking. This multipurpose acoustic sensor can be used at depths of several thousand meters, temperatures up to 250 °C, and in a very corrosive environment. In the context of high precision measurement of sound speed, the determination of acoustic nonlinearity of liquids will also be discussed, using two different approaches: (i) the thermodynamic method, in which precise and accurate frequency domain sound speed measurements are performed at high pressure and high temperature, and (ii) a modified finite amplitude method, requiring time domain measurements of the second harmonic at room temperature. Efforts toward the development of an acoustic source of collimated low-frequency (10-150 kHz) beam, with applications in imaging, will also be presented.

  20. Thermal Properties of Biodiesel and Their Corresponding Precursor Vegetable Oils Obtained by Photopyroelectric Methodology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Machado, F. A. L.; Zanelato, E. B.; Guimarães, A. O.; da Silva, E. C.; Mansanares, A. M.

    2012-11-01

    The photopyroelectric technique (PPE) was used for thermal characterization of biodiesel and their corresponding precursor vegetable oils. Different configurations of PPE were applied in these studies. The standard and inverse configurations allowed the determination of the thermal diffusivity ( α) and thermal effusivity ( e), respectively. From these two parameters the thermal conductivity was calculated. Measurements were performed for reference samples (water and ethylene glycol), biodiesel, and some corresponding precursor vegetable oils. The experiments showed good reproducibility, with uncertainties around 1 % to 2 % for all the samples. Lower values for both α and e of the biodiesel when compared to their corresponding precursor vegetable oils were observed, indicating that these thermophysical properties were sensitive to structural changes during the transesterification process.