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Sample records for oil press cakes

  1. Bioactive properties of faveleira (Cnidoscolus quercifolius) seeds, oil and press cake obtained during oilseed processing

    PubMed Central

    Silva, Denise Maria de Lima e; de Assis, Cristiane Fernandes; Correia, Roberta Targino Pinto; Damasceno, Karla Suzanne Florentino da Silva Chaves

    2017-01-01

    To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report in the literature concerning the bioactive properties of faveleira products. This work focuses on the physicochemical evaluation of faveleira oil, as well as it investigates the bioactive properties of faveleira seeds, faveleira oil and the press cake obtained during the oilseed processing. The seeds were cold pressed and the following tests were performed: physicochemical characteristics (acidity, peroxide values, moisture and volatile matter, density and viscosity) and fatty acid profile of faveleira oil; total phenolic and flavonoid content of faveleira seed and press cake; antibacterial activity of seed, oil and press cake; and antioxidant activity (DPPH radical scavenging activity, reducing power assay, total antioxidant capacity, superoxide radical scavenging assay and oxygen radical absorbance capacity) of seed, oil and press cake. Our work demonstrated that the faveleira seed oil has low acidity (0.78 ± 0.03% oleic acid) and peroxide value (1.13 ± 0.12 mEq/1000g), associated with the relevant concentration of linoleic acid (53.56%). It was observed that important phenolics (398.89 ± 6.34 mg EAG/100 g), especially flavonoids (29.81 ± 0.71 mg RE/g) remain in the press cake, which indicates that the by-product of the faveleira oilseed production constitutes a rich residual source of bioactive compounds. No bacterial growth inhibition was detected, but all samples including faveleira seeds, press cake, oil and its fractions have potent antioxidant activities, mainly the press cake, with oxygen radical absorbance capacity of 28.39 ± 4.36 μM TE/g. Our results also show that faveleira oil has potential to be used as edible oil and the press cake should be used to contain the most antioxidants from seed. PMID:28846740

  2. Development of a hull-less pumpkin (Cucurbita pepo L.) seed oil press-cake spread.

    PubMed

    Radočaj, Olga; Dimić, Etelka; Vujasinović, Vesna

    2012-09-01

    A stable, oil-based spread rich in the omega-3 (ω-3) and omega-6 (ω-6) fatty acids was developed using a hull-less pumpkin seed (Cucurbita pepo L.) oil press-cake, a by-product of the pumpkin oil pressing process, along with cold-pressed hemp oil. Response surface methodology (RSM) was applied to investigate the effects of two factors, as the formulation's compositional variables: a commercial stabilizer (X(1) ) and cold-pressed hemp oil (X(2) ) added to the pumpkin seed oil press-cake in the spread formulations. A central composite, 2-factorial experimental design on 5 levels was used to optimize the spreads where model responses were ω-3 fatty acids content, spreadability (hardness), oil separation, and sensory evaluation. The selected responses were significantly affected by both variables (P < 0.05). The spreads resembled commercial peanut butter, both in appearance, texture and spreadability; were a source of ω-3 fatty acids and with no visual oil separation after 1 mo of storage. An optimum spread was produced using 1.25% (w/w) of stabilizer and 80% of hemp oil (w/w, of the total added oil) which had 0.97 g of ω-3 fatty acids per serving size; penetration depth of 68.4 mm; oil separation of 9.2% after 3 mo of storage; and a sensory score of 17.5. A use of by-products generated from different food processing technologies, where the edible waste is successfully incorporated as a value-added ingredient, has become a very important area of research to support global sustainability efforts. This study contributes to the knowledge of a product design process for oil-based spread development, where oil press-cake, a by-product of the oil pressing process of the naked pumpkin seeds, was used and where results have demonstrated that a new product can be successfully developed and potentially manufactured as a functional food. © 2012 Institute of Food Technologists®

  3. Colorimetric evaluation of phenolic content and GC-MS characterization of phenolic composition of alimentary and cosmetic argan oil and press cake.

    PubMed

    Rojas, Luis B; Quideau, Stéphane; Pardon, Patrick; Charrouf, Zoubida

    2005-11-16

    The global phenolic content of argan oil and press cake samples (alimentary and cosmetic) was evaluated using the Folin-Ciocalteu colorimetric method and the phenolic composition of argan oil (alimentary and cosmetic) and press cake (alimentary) samples were analyzed by GC-MS after extraction with 80:20 (v/v) methanol:water and silylation. Identification of chromatographic peaks was made by mass selective detection. Nineteen simple phenols were detected, 16 in press cake, 6 in the alimentary oil, and 7 in the cosmetic oil, among which 15 compounds [3-hydroxypyridine (3-pyridinol), 6-methyl-3-hydroxypyridine, catechol, resorcinol, 4-hydroxybenzyl alcohol, vanillin, 4-hydroxyphenylacetic acid, vanillyl alcohol, 3,4-dihydroxybenzyl alcohol, 4-hydroxy-3-methoxyphenethyl alcohol, methyl 3,4-dihydroxybenzoate, hydroxytyrosol, protocatechuic acid, epicatechin, and catechin] were identified for the first time in such materials.

  4. Pyrolysis of safflower (Charthamus tinctorius L.) seed press cake in a fixed-bed reactor: part 2. Structural characterization of pyrolysis bio-oils.

    PubMed

    Sensöz, Sevgi; Angin, Dilek

    2008-09-01

    Biomass in the form of agricultural residues is becoming popular among new renewable energy sources, especially given its wide potential and abundant usage. Pyrolysis is the most important process among the thermal conversion processes of biomass. In this study, the various characteristics of bio-oils acquired under different pyrolysis conditions from safflower seed press cake (SPC) were identified. The elemental analyses and calorific values of the bio-oils were determined, and then the chemical compositions of the bio-oils were investigated using chromatographic and spectroscopic techniques such as column chromatography, (1)H NMR, FTIR and GC. The fuel properties of the bio-oil such as kinematic viscosity, flash point, density, water content and ASTM distillation were also determined. Chemical compositions of bio-oils showed that some quantities of hydrocarbons were present, while oxygenated and polar fractions dominated. The bio-oils obtained from safflower seed press cake were presented as an environmentally friendly feedstock candidate for biofuels and chemicals.

  5. Effects of hemp (Cannabis sativa L.) seed oil press-cake and decaffeinated green tea leaves (Camellia sinensis) on functional characteristics of gluten-free crackers.

    PubMed

    Radočaj, Olga; Dimić, Etelka; Tsao, Rong

    2014-03-01

    A mixture, simplex centroid, 2 components experimental design was used to evaluate the addition of hemp seed oil press-cake and decaffeinated green tea leaves, as functional ingredients to assess nutritional characteristics and antioxidant properties of gluten-free crackers. All samples with added hemp flour had much better nutritional qualities than the brown rice flour crackers in terms of higher protein, crude fibers, minerals, and essential fatty acids content. Likewise, all samples with added decaffeinated green tea leaves had much better antioxidant properties than crackers with no added green tea leaves. All crackers with added hemp flour had a significantly increased fiber content (39% to 249%) and decreased carbohydrate content (8.4% to 42.3%), compared to the brown rice flour crackers. All samples had antioxidant properties, even without the addition of green tea leaves. Optimization of the responses was conducted based on the maximized values for protein, fibers, omega-3 fatty acids content, as well as for the antioxidant activity and overall score. The suggested values for the addition of the hemp oil press-cake was 20% (total flour weight) with 4 g of decaffeinated green tea leaves that would provide protein content of 14.1 g/100 g; fibers content of 8.4 g/100 g; omega-3 fatty acids content of 3.2 g/100 g; antioxidant activity measured via 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl value of 30.3 μmol TE/g d.w.; and an overall score of 8.9. This formulation has demonstrated potential application in the baking industry and marketing of these gluten-free crackers as a value-added functional product. Hemp seed oil press-cake as a by-product of cold-pressed oil processing and brown rice flour were used to design a functional gluten-free snack-type product-savory crackers. All crackers were high in minerals, fibers, and omega-3 fatty acids with a desirable omega-6/omega-3 fatty acids ratio. Green tea leaves were added to improve antioxidant activity, which greatly

  6. Lesquerella Press Cake as an Organic Fertilizer for Greenhouse Tomatoes

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Lesquerella press cake is a co-product generated during the processing of the new oilseed crop lesquerella [Lesquerella fendleri (A. Gray) S. Wats.]. As with other new crops, developing commercial uses for the press cake would increase the profitability of growing lesquerella. The press cake conta...

  7. [The use of dried grape press cake in pig fattening].

    PubMed

    Herzig, I; Tomová, M; Holub, A; Pleskac, Z

    1979-12-01

    In dried grape press cake the content of crude nutrients and ash, overall sugar, amino acids, alpha-tocopherol and gross energy was determined. In biological experiments with pigs (total of 109 animals) 10% of mixture A1 or SOL was replaced by the same amount of dried crushed grape press cake, without affecting negatively the weight gains and consumption of mixtures per unit of weight gain. Nutritional effects of grape press cake are a subject of discussion and comprise three factors: higher content of enrgy (fat and sugars) in mixtures containing press cake, anti-oxidation effect of press cake and the effect of tocopherols on the metabolism of basic nutrients.

  8. Removing antinutrients from rapeseed press-cake and their benevolent role in waste cooking oil-derived biodiesel: conjoining the valorization of two disparate industrial wastes.

    PubMed

    Das Purkayastha, Manashi; Das, Subrata; Manhar, Ajay Kumar; Deka, Dhanapati; Mandal, Manabendra; Mahanta, Charu Lata

    2013-11-13

    Valorization of oilseed processing wastes is thwarted due to the presence of several antinutritional factors such as phenolics, tannins, glucosinolates, allyl isothiocyanates, and phytates; moreover, literature reporting on their simultaneous extraction and subsequent practical application is scanty. Different solvent mixtures containing acetone or methanol pure or combined with water or an acid (hydrochloric, acetic, perchloric, trichloroacetic, phosphoric) were tested for their efficiency for extraction of these antinutritive compounds from rapeseed press-cake. Acidified extraction mixtures (nonaqueous) were found to be superior to the nonacidified ones. The characteristic differences in the efficacy of these wide varieties of solvents were studied by principal component analysis, on the basis of which the mixture 0.2% perchloric acid in methanol/acetone (1:1 v/v) was deemed as "the best" for detoxification of rapeseed meal. Despite its high reductive potential, hemolytic activity of the extract from this solvent mixture clearly indicated the toxicity of the above-mentioned compounds on mammalian erythrocytes. Because of the presence of a high amount of antinutritive antioxidants, the study was further extended to examine the influence of this solvent extract on the stability of waste cooking oil-derived biodiesel. Treatment with the extract harbored significant improvement (p < 0.05) in the induction periods and pronounced reduction in microbial load of stored biodiesel investigated herein. Thus, a suitable solvent system was devised for removing the major antinutrients from rapeseed press-cake, and the solvent extract can, thereafter, be used as an effective exogenous antioxidant for biodiesel. In other words, integrated valorization of two different industrial wastes was successfully achieved.

  9. In vitro Fermentation, Digestion Kinetics and Methane Production of Oilseed Press Cakes from Biodiesel Production

    PubMed Central

    Olivares-Palma, S. M.; Meale, S. J.; Pereira, L. G. R.; Machado, F. S.; Carneiro, H.; Lopes, F. C. F.; Maurício, R. M.; Chaves, A. V.

    2013-01-01

    Following the extraction of oil for biodiesel production, oilseed press cakes are high in fat. As the dietary supplementation of fat is currently considered the most promising strategy of consistently depressing methanogenesis, it follows that oilseed press cakes may have a similar potential for CH4 abatement. As such, this study aimed to characterise the nutritive value of several oilseed press cakes, glycerine and soybean meal (SBM) and to examine their effects on in vitro ruminal fermentation, digestion kinetics and CH4 production. Moringa press oil seeds exhibited the greatest in sacco effective degradability (ED) of DM and CP (p<0.05). In vitro gas production (ml/g digested DM) was not affected (p = 0.70) by supplement at 48 h of incubation. In vitro DMD was increased with the supplementation of glycerine and SBM at all levels of inclusion. Moringa oilseed press cakes produced the lowest CH4 (mg/g digested DM) at 6 and 12 h of incubation (p<0.05). The findings suggest that moringa oilseed press cake at 400 g/kg DM has the greatest potential of the oilseed press cakes examined in this study, to reduce CH4 production, without adversely affecting nutrient degradability. PMID:25049890

  10. In vitro Fermentation, Digestion Kinetics and Methane Production of Oilseed Press Cakes from Biodiesel Production.

    PubMed

    Olivares-Palma, S M; Meale, S J; Pereira, L G R; Machado, F S; Carneiro, H; Lopes, F C F; Maurício, R M; Chaves, A V

    2013-08-01

    Following the extraction of oil for biodiesel production, oilseed press cakes are high in fat. As the dietary supplementation of fat is currently considered the most promising strategy of consistently depressing methanogenesis, it follows that oilseed press cakes may have a similar potential for CH4 abatement. As such, this study aimed to characterise the nutritive value of several oilseed press cakes, glycerine and soybean meal (SBM) and to examine their effects on in vitro ruminal fermentation, digestion kinetics and CH4 production. Moringa press oil seeds exhibited the greatest in sacco effective degradability (ED) of DM and CP (p<0.05). In vitro gas production (ml/g digested DM) was not affected (p = 0.70) by supplement at 48 h of incubation. In vitro DMD was increased with the supplementation of glycerine and SBM at all levels of inclusion. Moringa oilseed press cakes produced the lowest CH4 (mg/g digested DM) at 6 and 12 h of incubation (p<0.05). The findings suggest that moringa oilseed press cake at 400 g/kg DM has the greatest potential of the oilseed press cakes examined in this study, to reduce CH4 production, without adversely affecting nutrient degradability.

  11. Effects of oil extraction on functional properties of protein in pennycress (Thlaspi arvense) seed and press cake

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Current interest in pennycress (Thlaspi arvense) comes from its seed oil, which is being evaluated for biodiesel production. The seed also has notable protein content (33% db). The effects of oil processing conditions on functionality of pennycress seed proteins were determined to identify potential...

  12. Biogas production from Jatropha curcas press-cake.

    PubMed

    Staubmann, R; Foidl, G; Foidl, N; Gübitz, G M; Lafferty, R M; Arbizu, V M; Steiner, W

    1997-01-01

    Seeds of the tropical plant Jatropha curcas (purge nut, physic nut) are used for the production of oil. Several methods for oil extraction have been developed. In all processes, about 50% of the weight of the seeds remain as a press cake containing mainly protein and carbohydrates. Investigations have shown that this residue contains toxic compounds and cannot be used as animal feed without further processing. Preliminary experiments have shown that the residue is a good substrate for biogas production. Biogas formation was studied using a semicontinous upflow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB) reactor; a contact-process and an anaerobic filter each reactor having a total volume of 110 L. A maximum production rate of 3.5 m3 m"3 d"1 was obtained in the anaerobic filter with a loading rate of 13 kg COD m~3 d"1. However, the UASB reactor and the contact-process were not suitable for using this substrate. When using an anaerobic filter with Jatropha curcas seed cake as a substrate, 76% of the COD was degraded and 1 kg degraded COD yielded 355 L of biogas containing 70% methane.

  13. Bilberry and bilberry press cake as sources of dietary fibre

    PubMed Central

    Aura, Anna-Marja; Holopainen-Mantila, Ulla; Sibakov, Juhani; Kössö, Tuija; Mokkila, Mirja; Kaisa, Poutanen

    2015-01-01

    Background Dietary recommendations for Nordic countries urge the use of plant foods as a basis for healthy nutrition. Currently, the level of dietary fibre (DF) intake is not adequate. Berries are an elementary part of the recommended Nordic healthy diet and could be consumed in higher amounts. Materials and methods Finnish bilberries and a bilberry press cake from juice processing were studied for DF content, carbohydrate composition, and non-carbohydrate fibre content, which was analysed as sulphuric acid insoluble and soluble material. The microstructure of all samples was also studied using light microscopy and toluidine blue O, calcofluor, and acid fuchsin staining. Results The total DF contents of fresh and freeze-dried bilberries and the press cake were 3.0, 24.1, and 58.9%, respectively. Most of the DF was insoluble. Only about half of it was carbohydrate, the rest being mostly sulphuric acid–insoluble material, waxy cutin from skins, and resilient seeds. Bilberry seeds represented over half of the press cake fraction, and in addition to skin, they were the major DF sources. Microscopy revealed that skins in the press cake were intact and the surface of the seeds had thick-walled cells. Conclusions Bilberry press cake is thus a good source of insoluble non-carbohydrate DF, and could be used to provide DF-rich foods to contribute to versatile intake of DF. PMID:26652738

  14. Mechanical properties of high density polyethylene--pennycress press cake composites

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Pennycress press cake (PPC) is evaluated as a bio-based fiber reinforcement. PPC is a by-product of crop seed oil extraction. Composites with a high density polyethylene (HDPE) matrix are created by twin screw compounding of 25% by weight of PPC and either 0% or 5% by weight of maleated polyethyle...

  15. Influence of olive oil press cakes on Shiitake culinary-medicinal mushroom, lentinus edodes (Berk.) singer (higher basidiomycetes) fruiting bodies production and effect of their crude polysaccharides on CCRF-CEM cell proliferation.

    PubMed

    Gregori, Andrej; Kretschmer, Nadine; Wagner, Susanne; Boechzelt, Herbert; Klinar, Dusan; Bauer, Rudolf; Pohleven, Franc

    2012-01-01

    Lentinus edodes (Berk.) Singer fruiting bodies were cultivated on substrates composed of beech sawdust, wheat bran, and calcium sulfate hemihydrate (gypsum), containing different proportions of olive oil press cakes (OOPC). We determined the influence of OOPC on fruiting bodies production and proliferation of CCRF-CEM leukemia cells. A negative influence of OOPC on mycelia growth and maturation was noticed. When growth medium contained 80% OOPC, fruiting bodies ceased forming. To investigate the cytotoxicity on CCRF-CEM cells in vitro, cells were treated with crude polysaccharides extracted from L. edodes fruiting bodies. Also in this case a negative correlation between OOPC content and cytotoxicity was found.

  16. Processing conditions affect nutrient digestibility of cold-pressed canola cake for grower pigs.

    PubMed

    Seneviratne, R W; Beltranena, E; Newkirk, R W; Goonewardene, L A; Zijlstra, R T

    2011-08-01

    Cold-pressed canola cake is a coproduct of biodiesel production that contains more residual oil than expeller-pressed and solvent-extracted canola meal. Cold-pressed canola cake might be an attractive feedstuff for swine due to local availability from small plants. However, the nutritional quality and content of anti-nutritional factors of cold-pressed canola cake are poorly defined and vary with processing conditions. This experiment evaluated cold-pressed canola cake processed using 4 different conditions: a nonheated and heated barrel at slow and fast screw speed in a 2 × 2 factorial arrangement. Seven ileally cannulated barrows (26 kg of BW) were fed twice daily at 2.8 × maintenance diets containing either 44% of 1 of the 4 cold-pressed canola cake samples, expeller-pressed canola meal, canola seed, or an N-free diet in a 7 × 7 Latin square. The objectives were to measure the energy and AA digestibility and to calculate standardized ileal digestible (SID) AA and NE content. Each 9-d experimental period consisted of a 5-d diet adaptation, followed by 2-d feces and 2-d ileal digesta collections, and 7 observations per diet were obtained. Cold-pressed canola cake contained 41% CP, 16% ether extract, and 5 µmol of total glucosinolates/g (DM basis). Both apparent ileal digestibility (AID) and total tract energy digestibility of energy in cold-pressed canola cake was 36% greater (P < 0.05) in heated vs. nonheated conditions and 8% greater (P < 0.05) in fast vs. slow screw speed without interaction, indicating that heat enhanced energy digestibility. The AID of energy of cold-pressed canola cake was 13 and 118% greater (P < 0.01) than expeller-pressed canola meal and canola seed, respectively. Heat and speed interacted (P < 0.05) for SID of AA of test ingredients, but effects were not consistent among AA. The DE and calculated NE content of cold-pressed canola cake was 0.73 and 0.52 Mcal/kg greater (P=0.001; DM basis), respectively, than expeller-pressed canola

  17. Extraction of proteins from pennycress seeds and press cake

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    In order to more fully utilize pennycress, a potentially viable bio-diesel source, the proteinaceous components were extracted from pennycress seed and press cake. The amino acid composition of the proteins present in pennycress was typical for proteins derived from plants, with glycine, glutamic ac...

  18. Extraction, composition and functional properties of pennycress (Thlaspi arvense L.) press cake protein

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    This study compared two methods for extracting the protein in pennycress (Thlaspi arvense L.) press cake and determined the composition and functional properties of the protein products. Proteins in pennycress press cake were extracted by using the conventional alkali solubilization-acid precipitati...

  19. The potential of replacing soyabean oil cake with macadamia oil cake in broiler diets.

    PubMed

    Acheampong-Boateng, Owoahene; Bakare, Archibold G; Mbatha, Khanyisile R

    2016-08-01

    A study was conducted to evaluate the potential of macadamia oil cake (MOC) as a replacement of soyabean oil cake (SOC) in Ross broiler diets. The 600 1-day-old male broiler chicks were randomly blocked into 30 equal-weight groups of 20 chicks. For each growth phase, basal and summit diets were blended in various proportions (100 % SOC and 0 % MOC, 75 % SOC and 25 % MOC, 50 % SOC and 50 % MOC, 25 % SOC and 75 % MOC, and 0 % SOC and 100 % MOC) to form five treatments. The diet with 100 % MOC had the least feed intake, final body weight and weight gain compared to other diets (P < 0.05). The increased abdominal fat of broilers fed more than 50 % levels of MOC could be due to high levels of lipids in MOC compared to soyabean oil cake. The feed conversion ratio did not differ significantly for most of the treatments (P > 0.05). It was concluded that the threshold of 25 % MOC can replace soybean oil cake meal in the diets of broiler provided that this alternative feed ingredient is readily available at an affordable cost.

  20. Composition and fatty acid profile of milk from cows supplemented with pressed oilseed cake.

    PubMed

    Oliveira, Ronaldo Lopes; Neto, Severino Gonzaga; de Lima, Francisco Helton Sa; de Medeiros, Ariosvaldo Nunes; Bezerra, Leilson Rocha; Pereira, Elzania Sales; Bagaldo, Adriana Regina; de Pellegrini, Caius Barcellos; Correia, Braulio Rocha

    2016-10-01

    This study compared the productive and nutritional parameters of milk from crossbred lactating cows managed on Panicum maximum Jacq. cv. Tanzania and with a diet supplemented with different pressed oilseed cakes. The supplements used were as follows: peanut cake, sunflower cake and palm kernel cake for replacement of soybean meal. Sixteen cows with an average weight of 544 ± 57 kg and producing 8 ± 1.4 L of milk per day were used in this study. The animals were randomly assigned to the treatments according to a Latin square design repeated over time, with four treatments, 16 animals and four experimental periods. Supplementation of the diet with peanut cake, sunflower cake and palm kernel cake compared with soybean meal in the diet of cows did not affect the average daily production or composition of the milk. The palm kernel cake promoted an increase in lauric fatty acids (C12:0 ) and palmitoleic acids (C16:1 ) (5.02 and 1.65%, respectively) compared with peanut cake and sunflower cake (4.13 and 4.01%, respectively). The levels of oleic fatty acids (C18:1 ) were higher for the sunflower cake and palm kernel cake supplements (26.01 and 25.01%, respectively) compared with peanut cake (23.11%). The replacement of soybean meal with sunflower cake and palm kernel cake improved the nutritional quality of the milk, with lower concentrations of saturated fatty acids and higher concentrations of unsaturated fatty acids, without compromising the production or nutritional composition of the milk. © 2015 Japanese Society of Animal Science.

  1. Microwave assisted thermal treatment of defective coffee beans press cake for the production of adsorbents.

    PubMed

    Franca, Adriana S; Oliveira, Leandro S; Nunes, Anne A; Alves, Cibele C O

    2010-02-01

    Defective coffee press cake, a residue from coffee oil biodiesel production, was evaluated as an adsorbent for removal of basic dyes (methylene blue--MB) from aqueous solutions. The adsorbent was prepared by microwave treatment, providing a significant reduction in processing time coupled to an increase in adsorption capacity in comparison to conventional carbonization in a muffle furnace. Batch adsorption tests were performed at 25 degrees C and the effects of particle size, contact time, adsorbent dosage and initial solution pH were investigated. Adsorption kinetics was better described by a second-order model. The experimental adsorption equilibrium data were fitted to Langmuir, Freundlich and Tempkin adsorption models, with Langmuir providing the best fit. The results presented in this study show that microwave activation presents great potential as an alternative method in the production of adsorbents.

  2. Partitioning and inhibition of lipid oxidation in mechanically separated turkey by components of cranberry press cake.

    PubMed

    Raghavan, Sivakumar; Richards, Mark P

    2006-08-23

    Extracts from cranberry press cakes were prepared either using ethanol or an ethyl acetate-acetone mixture. The press cake extracts were compared with extracts from cranberry juice powder (CJP), prepared using chloroform:methanol (1:1), for their ability to inhibit lipid oxidation in mechanically separated turkey (MST). Because of the susceptibility of muscle membrane lipids to oxidation, the ability of quercetin in the extracts to partition between the aqueous and the membrane phases was studied. Membrane suspensions were prepared from MST. Partitioning of quercetin was quantified using high-performance liquid chromatography. Oxidation was studied by measuring thiobarbituric acid reactive substances and lipid peroxides. The effectiveness of the extracts to inhibit lipid oxidation was CJP extract > ethyl acetate extract of press cake > or = ethanol extract of press cake. The amount of quercetin in the extracts and the amount of quercetin that partitioned into the membranes followed the same order. However, the total phenolic content of the extracts did not follow the same order as that of inhibitory power. The phenolic content of the extracts decreased, ethyl acetate extract > ethanol extract of press cake > or = chloroform extract of CJP. Irrespective of the extraction method, around 78% quercetin from the extracts partitioned into the membranes. It could be concluded that increasing the amount of quercetin in the press cake extracts increases the ability of the extracts to inhibit lipid oxidation in MST. Hence, a proper choice of solvents and extraction method, which would increase the amount of quercetin in the press cake extracts, might increase the antioxidant potential of the extracts and hence their economic value.

  3. LDPE/PHB blends filled with castor oil cake

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burlein, Gustavo A.; Rocha, Marisa C. G.

    2015-05-01

    The response surface methodology (RSM) is a collection of mathematical techniques useful for developing, improving and optimizing process. In this study, RSM technique was applied to evaluate the effect of the components proportion on the mechanical properties of low density polyethylene (LDPE)/ poly (3-hydroxy-butyrate) (PHB) blends filled with castor oil cake (CC). The blends were prepared by melt mixing in a twin screw extruder. Low density polyethylene, poly (3-hydroxy-butyrate) and castor oil pressed cake were represented by the input variables designated as LDPE, PHB and CC, respectively. As it was desirable to consider the largest LDPE content in the ternary system, the components of the mixture were subjected to the following constraints: 0.7 ≤ LDPE ≤ 1.0, 0≤ PHB≤0.3 e 0 ≤ CC ≤0.3. The mechanical properties of the different mixtures were determined by conventional ASTM tests and were evaluated through analysis of variance performed by the Minitab software. Some polynomial equations were tested in order to describe the mechanical behavior of the samples. The quadratic model in pseudo components was selected for describing the tensile behavior because it was the most efficient from a statistical point of view (p-value ≤ 0.05; coefficient of determination (r2) close to 1 and variation inflation factor (VIF) values < 5). The results showed that the LDPE Young's modulus increases but the other tensile properties and impact resistance deteriorate with the addition of PHB or CC. The tensile strength values of binary mixtures of LDPE lie in the range from 8.9 to 10 MPa. As some commercial grades of LDPE have mechanical strength in this range, it may be inferred that the addition of a certain amount of PHB or CC to LDPE may be considered as a possibility for obtaining LDPE based materials with increased susceptibility to biodegradation. The cubic model in pseudo components was selected for describe the flexural strength of the samples because it was

  4. Dried flour-oil composites for lipid delivery in low-fat cake mix

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Excess steam jet-cooked wheat flour and canola oil composites containing 30 to 55% oil were drum dried. The composites were used to replace the flour and oil in the low-fat cake mix formulations. The cake batter specific gravity and viscosity were measured. The cakes were analyzed for crumb grain...

  5. Effect of flour-oil composite as powdered fat source in low-fat cake mixes

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Excess steam jet-cooked composites containing wheat flour and 30 to 55% canola oil were drum dried and used to replace the oil and part of the flour in low-fat cake mix formulations. Specific gravity and viscosity of cake batters were measured. The cakes were analyzed for crumb grain, color, textu...

  6. Anaerobic digestion of Jatropha curcas L. press cake and effects of an iron-additive.

    PubMed

    Schmidt, Thomas

    2011-11-01

    Oil production from Jatropha curcas L. seeds generates large amounts of Jatropha press cake (JPC) which can be utilized as a substrate for biogas production. The objective of this work was to investigate anaerobic mono-digestion of JPC and the effects of an iron additive (IA) on gas quality and process stability during the increase of the organic loading rate (OLR). With the increase of the OLR from 1.3 to 3.2 g(VS) L(-1) day(-1), the biogas yield in the reference reactor (RR) without IA decreased from 512 to 194 L(N) kg(VS) (-1) and the CH₄ concentration decreased from 69.3 to 44.4%. In the iron additive reactor (IAR), the biogas yield decreased from 530 to 462 L(N) kg(VS) (-1) and the CH₄ concentration decreased from 69.4 to 61.1%. The H₂S concentration in the biogas was reduced by addition of the IA to values below 258 ppm in the IAR while H₂S concentration in the RR increased and exceeded the detection limit of 5000 ppm. The acid capacity (AC) in the RR increased to more than 20 g L(-1), indicating an accumulation of organic acids caused by process instability. AC values in the IAR remained stable at values below 5 g L(-1). The results demonstrate that JPC can be used as sole substrate for anaerobic digestion up to an OLR of 2.4 g(VS) l(-1) day(-1). The addition of IA has effectively decreased the H(2)S content in the biogas and has improved the stability of the anaerobic process and the biogas quality.

  7. Anthocyanins, antioxidative, and antimicrobial properties of American cranberry (Vaccinium macrocarpon Ait.) and their press cakes.

    PubMed

    Viskelis, P; Rubinskiene, M; Jasutiene, I; Sarkinas, A; Daubaras, R; Cesoniene, L

    2009-03-01

    Amounts of total phenolics, anthocyanins, and ascorbic acid in 4 American cranberry varieties harvested at 4 stages of maturity were measured. The larger amount of phenolic compounds was found in berries of "Black Veil" cultivar (504 mg/100 g) at II stage of maturity. Significantly larger amounts of anthocyanins were determined in the overripe berries of the cultivars "Ben Lear" and "Black Veil." The amount of ascorbic acid in berries increased during ripening from I to III stage, and slightly decreased in the overripe berries. The biggest quantities of ascorbic acid were found in the ripe berries of "Ben Lear" cultivar (15.8 mg/100 g). The distribution of anthocyanins pigments was determined by HPLC-UV/MS in mature berries. The composition of individual anthocyanins in berries was quite similar in all the studied cranberry cultivars. While skins of cranberries are rich in anthocyanins and other phenolic compounds, the extracts of the by-products of cranberries juice-berry cakes, were analyzed and obtained results were compared with the properties of extracts made from whole berries. The anthocyanins and total phenolics content, radical scavenging activity, antimicrobial activity of the whole berries, and their press cakes extracts were measured. All investigated extracts from berries and their press cakes showed good radical scavenging activity and revealed antimicrobial properties. It was found that Bacillus cereus (ATCC 10876) and Micrococcus luteus (ATCC 9341) were the most sensitive among 10 tested Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacteria.

  8. Bio-electricity Generation using Jatropha Oil Seed Cake.

    PubMed

    Raheman, Hifjur; Padhee, Debasish

    2016-01-01

    The review of patents reveals that Handling of Jatropha seed cake after extraction of oil is essential as it contains toxic materials which create environmental pollution. The goal of this work is complete utilisation of Jatropha seeds. For this purpose, Jatropha oil was used for producing biodiesel and the byproduct Jatropha seed cake was gasified to obtain producer gas. Both biodiesel and producer gas were used to generate electricity. To achieve this, a system comprising gasifier, briquetting machine, diesel engine and generator was developed. Biodiesel was produced successfully using the method patented for biodiesel production and briquettes of Jatropha seed cake were made using a vertical extruding machine. Producer gas was obtained by gasifying these briquettes in a downdraft gasifier. A diesel engine was then run in dual fuel mode with biodiesel and producer gas instead of only diesel. Electricity was generated by coupling it to a generator. The cost of producing kilowatthour of electricity with biodiesel and diesel in dual fuel mode with producer gas was found to be 0.84 $ and 0.75 $, respectively as compared to 0.69 $ and 0.5 $ for the same fuels in single fuel mode resulting in up to 48 % saving of pilot fuel. Compared to singlefuel mode, there was 25-32 % reduction in system and brake thermal efficiency along with significantly lower NOx, higher CO and CO2 emissions when the bio-electricity generating system was operated in dual fuel mode. Overall, the developed system could produce electricity successfully by completely uti- lising Jatropha seeds without leaving any seed cake to cause environmental pollution.

  9. Phytochemical Composition, Antioxidant Activity, and the Effect of the Aqueous Extract of Coffee (Coffea arabica L.) Bean Residual Press Cake on the Skin Wound Healing

    PubMed Central

    Voytena, Ana Paula Lorenzen; Fanan, Simone; Pitz, Heloísa; Coelho, Daniela Sousa; Horstmann, Ana Luiza; Pereira, Aline; Uarrota, Virgílio Gavicho; Hillmann, Maria Clara; Varela, Lucas Andre Calbusch; Ribeiro-do-Valle, Rosa Maria; Maraschin, Marcelo

    2016-01-01

    The world coffee consumption has been growing for its appreciated taste and its beneficial effects on health. The residual biomass of coffee, originated in the food industry after oil extraction from coffee beans, called coffee beans residual press cake, has attracted interest as a source of compounds with antioxidant activity. This study investigated the chemical composition of aqueous extracts of coffee beans residual press cake (AE), their antioxidant activity, and the effect of topical application on the skin wound healing, in animal model, of hydrogels containing the AE, chlorogenic acid (CGA), allantoin (positive control), and carbopol (negative control). The treatments' performance was compared by measuring the reduction of the wound area, with superior result (p < 0.05) for the green coffee AE (78.20%) with respect to roasted coffee AE (53.71%), allantoin (70.83%), and carbopol (23.56%). CGA hydrogels reduced significantly the wound area size on the inflammatory phase, which may be associated with the well known antioxidant and anti-inflammatory actions of that compound. The topic use of the coffee AE studied improved the skin wound healing and points to an interesting biotechnological application of the coffee bean residual press cake. PMID:27965732

  10. Phytochemical Composition, Antioxidant Activity, and the Effect of the Aqueous Extract of Coffee (Coffea arabica L.) Bean Residual Press Cake on the Skin Wound Healing.

    PubMed

    Affonso, Regina Celis Lopes; Voytena, Ana Paula Lorenzen; Fanan, Simone; Pitz, Heloísa; Coelho, Daniela Sousa; Horstmann, Ana Luiza; Pereira, Aline; Uarrota, Virgílio Gavicho; Hillmann, Maria Clara; Varela, Lucas Andre Calbusch; Ribeiro-do-Valle, Rosa Maria; Maraschin, Marcelo

    2016-01-01

    The world coffee consumption has been growing for its appreciated taste and its beneficial effects on health. The residual biomass of coffee, originated in the food industry after oil extraction from coffee beans, called coffee beans residual press cake, has attracted interest as a source of compounds with antioxidant activity. This study investigated the chemical composition of aqueous extracts of coffee beans residual press cake (AE), their antioxidant activity, and the effect of topical application on the skin wound healing, in animal model, of hydrogels containing the AE, chlorogenic acid (CGA), allantoin (positive control), and carbopol (negative control). The treatments' performance was compared by measuring the reduction of the wound area, with superior result (p < 0.05) for the green coffee AE (78.20%) with respect to roasted coffee AE (53.71%), allantoin (70.83%), and carbopol (23.56%). CGA hydrogels reduced significantly the wound area size on the inflammatory phase, which may be associated with the well known antioxidant and anti-inflammatory actions of that compound. The topic use of the coffee AE studied improved the skin wound healing and points to an interesting biotechnological application of the coffee bean residual press cake.

  11. Experimental assessment of toxic phytochemicals in Jatropha curcas: oil, cake, bio-diesel and glycerol.

    PubMed

    Pradhan, Subhalaxmi; Naik, S N; Khan, M Ashhar I; Sahoo, P K

    2012-02-01

    Jatropha curcas seed is a rich source of oil; however, it can not be utilised for nutritional purposes due to presence of toxic and anti-nutritive compounds. The main objective of the present study was to quantify the toxic phytochemicals present in Indian J. curcas (oil, cake, bio-diesel and glycerol). The amount of phorbol esters is greater in solvent extracted oil (2.8 g kg⁻¹) than in expeller oil (2.1 g kg⁻¹). Liquid chromatography-mass spectroscopy analysis of the purified compound from an active extract of oil confirmed the presence of phorbol esters. Similarly, the phorbol esters content is greater in solvent extracted cake (1.1 g kg⁻¹) than in cake after being expelled (0.8 g kg⁻¹). The phytate and trypsin inhibitory activity of the cake was found to be 98 g kg⁻¹ and 8347 TIU g⁻¹ of cake, respectively. Identification of curcin was achieved by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and the concentration of curcin was 0.95 g L⁻¹ of crude concentrate obtained from cake. Higher amounts of phorbol esters are present in oil than cake but bio-diesel and glycerol are free of phorbol esters. The other anti-nutritional components such as trypsin inhibitors, phytates and curcin are present in cake, so the cake should be detoxified before being used for animal feed. Copyright © 2011 Society of Chemical Industry.

  12. Nutritive value of extruded or multi-enzyme supplemented cold-pressed soybean cake for pigs.

    PubMed

    Woyengo, T A; Patterson, R; Levesque, C L

    2016-12-01

    The objectives were to determine the standardized ileal digestibility (SID) of AA and NE value of cold-pressed soybean cake (CP-SBC), and the effect of extrusion or adding multi-enzyme to CP-SBC diet for growing pigs. Eight ileal-cannulated pigs (initial BW = 79.7 ± 3.97 kg) were fed 4 diets in a replicated 4 × 4 Latin square design to give 8 replicates per diet. Diets included a cornstarch-based diet with CP-SBC, extruded CP-SBC, and SBC plus multi-enzyme (1,200 U of xylanase, 150 U of glucanase, 500 U of cellulase, 60 U of mannanase, 700 U of invertase, 5,000 U of protease, and 12,000 U of amylase/kilogram of diet; Superzyme-CS, 0.5 g/kg); and a N-free diet. The CP-SBC was the sole source of protein in the CP-SBC-containing diets. The ratio of cornstarch to sugar and soybean oil in CP-SBC-containing diets was identical to the N-free diet to allow calculation of energy digestibility of CP-SBC by the difference method. The evaluated CP-SBC had been produced by heating the soybean seed at 105°C for 60 min followed by pressing of the heated soybean seeds at less than 42°C (barrel temperature). On a DM basis, CP-SBC and extruded CP-SBC contained 47.8 and 47.1% CP, 15.6 and 10.5% ADF, 7.23 and 8.85% ether extract, 3.11 and 3.08% Lys, and 2.25 and 3.70 trypsin inhibitor units per mg, respectively. Extrusion increased ( < 0.001) the SID of AA for the CP-SBC by an average of 12%. Also, extrusion increased ( < 0.001) the NE value of the CP-SBC from 2,743 to 2,853 kcal/kg of DM. Supplementation of CP-SBC diet with the multi-enzyme increased ( < 0.05) the SID of Arg and Pro, and tended to increase ( < 0.1) the SID of Ile and Tyr. However, the multi-enzyme supplementation did not affect the NE value of CP-SBC. In conclusion, the CP-SBC evaluated in the present study could be an alternative source of AA and energy in swine diets, and its nutritive value can be increased by extrusion following cold-pressing. The multi-enzyme used in this study improved the digestibility of

  13. Pyrolysis of safflower (Charthamus tinctorius L.) seed press cake: part 1. The effects of pyrolysis parameters on the product yields.

    PubMed

    Sensöz, Sevgi; Angin, Dilek

    2008-09-01

    Safflower (Charthamus tinctorius L.) seed press cake was pyrolysed in a fixed-bed reactor. The effects of pyrolysis temperature, heating rate and sweep gas flow rates on the yields of the products were investigated. Pyrolysis runs were performed using pyrolysis temperatures between 400 and 600 degrees C with heating rates of 10, 30 and 50 degrees C min(-1). The obtained bio-char, gas and bio-oil yields ranged between 25 and 34 wt%, 19 and 25 wt%, and 28 and 36 wt%, respectively, at different pyrolysis conditions. The highest liquid yield was obtained at 500 degrees C pyrolysis temperature with a heating rate of 50 degrees C min(-1) under the sweep gas of N(2) with a flow rate of 100 cm(3)min(-1). Employing the higher heating rate of 50 degrees C min(-1) results in maximum bio-oil yield, probably due to the decrease in mass transfer limitations. According to the results obtained under the conditions of this study, the effects of pyrolysis temperature and sweep gas flow rate are more significant than the effect of heating rate on the yields.

  14. Chia (Salvia hispanica L) gel can be used as egg or oil replacer in cake formulations.

    PubMed

    Borneo, Rafael; Aguirre, Alicia; León, Alberto E

    2010-06-01

    This study determined the overall acceptability, sensory characteristics, functional properties, and nutrient content of cakes made using chia (Salvia hispanica L) gel as a replacement for oil or eggs. Chia gel was used to replace 25%, 50%, and 75% of oil or eggs in a control cake formulation. Seventy-five untrained panelists participated in rating cakes on a seven-point hedonic scale. Analysis of variance conducted on the sensory characteristics and overall acceptability indicated a statistically significant effect when replacing oil or eggs for color, taste, texture, and overall acceptability (P<0.05). Post hoc analysis (using Fisher's least significant difference method) indicated that the 25% chia gel cakes were not significantly different from the control for color, taste, texture, and overall acceptability. The 50% oil substituted (with chia gel) cake, compared to control, had 36 fewer kilocalories and 4 g less fat per 100-g portion. Cake weight was not affected by chia gel in the formulation, although cake volume was lower as the percentage of substitution increased. Symmetry was generally not affected. This study demonstrates that chia gel can replace as much as 25% of oil or eggs in cakes while yielding a more nutritious product with acceptable sensory characteristics. 2010 American Dietetic Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Biosurfactant production by Corynebacterium kutscheri from waste motor lubricant oil and peanut oil cake.

    PubMed

    Thavasi, R; Jayalakshmi, S; Balasubramanian, T; Banat, Ibrahim M

    2007-12-01

    Production and characterization of biosurfactant from renewable sources. Biosurfactant production was carried out in 3-l fermentor using waste motor lubricant oil and peanut oil cake. Maximum biomass (9.8 mg ml(-l)) and biosurfactant production (6.4 mg ml(-l)) occurred with peanut oil cake at 120 and 132 h, respectively. Chemical characterization of the biosurfactant revealed that it is a glycolipopeptide with chemical composition of carbohydrate (40%), lipid (27%) and protein (29%). The biosurfactant is able to emulsify waste motor lubricant oil, crude oil, peanut oil, kerosene, diesel, xylene, naphthalene and anthracene; the emulsification activity was comparatively higher than the activity found with Triton X-100. This study indicates the possibility of biosurfactant production using renewable, relatively inexpensive and easily available resources like waste motor lubricant oil and peanut oil cake. Emulsification activity found with the biosurfactant against different hydrocarbons showed the possibility of the application of biosurfactants against diverse hydrocarbon pollution. The data obtained from the study could be useful for large-scale biosurfactant production using economically cheaper substrates. Information obtained in emulsification activity and laboratory-scale experiment on bioremediation inferred that bioremediation of hydrocarbon-polluted sites may be treated with biosurfactants or the bacteria that produces it.

  16. Sampling and analysis plan for ORNL filter press cake waste from the Liquid and Gaseous Waste Operations Department

    SciTech Connect

    Bartling, M.H.; Bayne, C.K.; Cunningham, G.R.

    1994-09-01

    This document defines the sampling and analytical procedures needed for the initial characterization of the filter press cake waste from the Process Waste Treatment Plant (PWTP) at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). It is anticipated that revisions to this document will occur as operating experience and sample results suggest appropriate changes be made. Application of this document will be controlled through the ORNL Waste Management and Remedial Action Division. The sampling strategy is designed to ensure that the samples collected present an accurate representation of the waste process stream. Using process knowledge and preliminary radiological activity screens, the filter press cake waste is known to contain radionuclides. Chemical characterization under the premise of this sampling and analysis plan will provide information regarding possible treatments and ultimately, disposal of filter press cake waste at an offsite location. The sampling strategy and analyses requested are based on the K-25 waste acceptance criteria and the Nevada Test Site Defense Waste Acceptance Criteria, Certification, and Transfer Requirements [2, NVO-325, Rev. 1]. The sampling strategy will demonstrate that for the filter press cake waste there is (1) an absence of RCRA and PCBs wastes, (2) an absence of transuranic (TRU) wastes, and (3) a quantifiable amount of radionuclide activity.

  17. Production of ethanol and feed by high dry matter hydrolysis and fermentation of palm kernel press cake.

    PubMed

    Jørgensen, Henning; Sanadi, Anand R; Felby, Claus; Lange, Niels Erik Krebs; Fischer, Morten; Ernst, Steffen

    2010-05-01

    Palm kernel press cake (PKC) is a residue from palm oil extraction presently only used as a low protein feed supplement. PKC contains 50% fermentable hexose sugars present in the form of glucan and mainly galactomannan. This makes PKC an interesting feedstock for processing into bioethanol or in other biorefinery processes. Using a combination of mannanase, beta-mannosidase, and cellulases, it was possible without any pretreatment to hydrolyze PKC at solid concentrations of 35% dry matter with mannose yields up to 88% of theoretical. Fermentation was tested using Saccharomyces cerevisiae in both a separate hydrolysis and fermentation (SHF) and simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (SSF) setup. The hydrolysates could readily be fermented without addition of nutrients and with average fermentation yields of 0.43 +/- 0.02 g/g based on consumed mannose and glucose. Employing SSF, final ethanol concentrations of 70 g/kg was achieved in 216 h, corresponding to an ethanol yield of 70% of theoretical or 200 g ethanol/kg PKC. Testing various enzyme mixtures revealed that including cellulases in combination with mannanases significantly improved ethanol yields. Processing PKC to ethanol resulted in a solid residue enriched in protein from 17% to 28%, a 70% increase, thereby potentially making a high-protein containing feed supplement.

  18. Permeability of filter cakes of palm oil in relation to mechanical expression

    SciTech Connect

    Kamst, G.F.; Bruinsma, O.S.L.; Graauw, J. de

    1997-03-01

    Permeability and compressibility data are required for an adequate process model for compressible-cake filtration and mechanical expression. Experimental and modeling results of the permeability of palm-oil filter cakes (a highly compressible viscoelastic material) are combined with compressibility data, leading to a model for the expression step. Permeability measurements show that permeability depends strongly on the quantity of fine particles in the cake. Removal of fine particles from the slurry before expression significantly increases the solid-phase content during expression due to higher permeability. Modeling results of the expression step show that for palm-oil filter cakes there is a pressure above which the attainable mass fraction of solids becomes independent of pressure. Decrease in specific cake resistance has two effects: a higher mass fraction of solids at the same pressure and a higher pressure at which the mass fraction of solids is not affected further.

  19. Effects of rapeseed-press cake glucosinolates and iodine on the performance, the thyroid gland and the liver vitamin A status of pigs.

    PubMed

    Schöne, F; Tischendorf, F; Leiterer, M; Hartung, H; Bargholz, J

    2001-01-01

    Rapeseed press cake (per kg DM 181 g EE, 341 g CP and 23.3 mmol glucosinolates) was tested in a long-term experiment with a total of sixty pigs (live weight range 24 to 104 kg). The 3 x 2 factorial design consisted of three rapeseed press cake levels (no rapeseed press cake--control, 75 g or 150 g rapeseed press cake per kg diet) each with two iodine dosages (125 or 250 micrograms supplementary iodine per kg diet). Reduced feed intake and depressed weight gain were found in groups receiving 150 g rapeseed press cake per kg diet, which correspond to 3.2 mmol glucosinolates per kg diet. At an inclusion level of 75 g rapeseed-press cake per kg diet no differences in feed intake and growth intensity were recorded in comparison to the rape feed free control. The rapeseed-press cake diet increased the weight of thyroid gland and liver and decreased the serum thyroxine (T4) concentration. Higher iodine dosage increased the serum T4 concentration of pigs receiving 75 g rapeseed press cake per kg diet (= 1.6 mmol glucosinolates per kg diet) to the level of the control group and retarded the enlargement of the thyroid gland. Intake of rapeseed products lowered the iodine content of the thyroid gland, however, there was no significant difference between groups given 1.6 and 3.2 mmol glucosinolates per kg diet. The vitamin A content of the whole liver and the vitamin A serum concentration were not influenced by the diets tested. However, rapeseed press cake and the glucosinolates, respectively, decreased the vitamin A concentration per gram liver due to the organ enlargement and the resulting dilution effect.

  20. Application of biosurfactant produced from peanut oil cake by Lactobacillus delbrueckii in biodegradation of crude oil.

    PubMed

    Thavasi, Rengathavasi; Jayalakshmi, Singaram; Banat, Ibrahim M

    2011-02-01

    Lactobacillus delbrueckii cultured with peanut oil cake as the carbon source yielded 5.35 mg ml(-1) of biosurfactant production. Five sets of microcosm biodegradation experiments were carried out with crude oil as follows: set 1 - bacterial cells+crude oil, set 2 - bacterial cells+crude oil+fertilizer, set 3 - bacterial cells+crude oil+biosurfactant, set 4 - bacterial cells+crude oil+biosurfactant+fertilizer, set 5 - with no bacterial cells, fertilizer and biosurfactant (control). Maximum degradation of crude oil was observed in set 4 (75%). Interestingly, when biosurfactant and bacterial cells were used (set 3), significant oil biodegradation activity occurred and the difference between this treatment and that in set 4 was 7% higher degradation level in microcosm experiments. It is evident from the results that biosurfactants alone is capable of promoting biodegradation to a large extent without added fertilizers.

  1. Effect of enzyme-aided cell wall disintegration on protein extractability from intact and dehulled rapeseed (Brassica rapa L. and Brassica napus L.) press cakes.

    PubMed

    Rommi, Katariina; Hakala, Terhi K; Holopainen, Ulla; Nordlund, Emilia; Poutanen, Kaisa; Lantto, Raija

    2014-08-13

    Cell-wall- and pectin-degrading enzyme preparations were used to enhance extractability of proteins from rapeseed press cake. Rapeseed press cakes from cold pressing of intact Brassica rapa and partially dehulled Brassica napus seeds, containing 36-40% protein and 35% carbohydrates, were treated with pectinolytic (Pectinex Ultra SP-L), xylanolytic (Depol 740L), and cellulolytic (Celluclast 1.5L) enzyme preparations. Pectinex caused effective disintegration of embryonic cell walls through hydrolysis of pectic polysaccharides and glucans and increased protein extraction by up to 1.7-fold in comparison to treatment without enzyme addition. Accordingly, 56% and 74% of the total protein in the intact and dehulled press cakes was extracted. Light microscopy of the press cakes suggested the presence of pectins colocalized with proteins inside the embryo cells. Hydrolysis of these intracellular pectins and deconstruction of embryonic cell walls during Pectinex treatment were concluded to relate with enhanced protein release.

  2. Enabling safe dry cake disposal of bauxite residue by deliquoring and washing with a membrane filter press.

    PubMed

    Kinnarinen, Teemu; Lubieniecki, Boguslaw; Holliday, Lloyd; Helsto, Jaakko-Juhani; Häkkinen, Antti

    2015-03-01

    Dry cake disposal is the preferred technique for the disposal of bauxite residue, when considering environmental issues together with possible future utilisation of the solids. In order to perform dry cake disposal in an economical way, the deliquoring of the residue must be carried out efficiently, and it is also important to wash the obtained solids well to minimise the amount of soluble soda within the solids. The study presented in this article aims at detecting the most important variables influencing the deliquoring and washing of bauxite residue, performed with a horizontal membrane filter press and by determining the optimal washing conditions. The results obtained from pilot-scale experiments are evaluated by considering the properties of the solids, for instance, the residual alkali and aluminium content, as well as the consumption of wash liquid. Two different cake washing techniques, namely classic washing and channel washing, are also used and their performances compared. The results show that cake washing can be performed successfully in a horizontal membrane filter press, and significant improvements in the recovery of alkali and aluminium can be achieved compared with pressure filtration carried out without washing, or especially compared with the more traditionally used vacuum filtration.

  3. Antioxidative compounds isolated from safflower (Carthamus tinctorius L.) oil cake.

    PubMed

    Zhang, H L; Nagatsu, A; Watanabe, T; Sakakibara, J; Okuyama, H

    1997-12-01

    Seven antioxidative serotonin derivatives were isolated from safflower (Carthamus tinctorius L.) oil cake. Their structures were established as N-[2-(5-hydroxy-1H-indol-3-yl)ethyl]ferulamide (1), N-[2-(5-hydroxy-1H-indol-3-yl)ethyl]-p-coumaramide (2), N,N'-[2,2'-(5,5'-dihydroxy-4,4'-bi-1H-indol-3,3'-yl)diethyl]- di-p-coumaramide (3), N-[2-[3'-[2-(p-coumaramido)ethyl]-5,5'-dihydroxy- 4,4'-bi-1H-indol-3-yl]ethyl]ferulamide (4), and N,N'-[2,2'-(5,5'-dihydroxy-4,4'-bi-1H-indol-3,3'-yl)diethyl]- diferulamide (5), N-[2-[5-(beta-D-glucosyloxy)-1H-indol-3-yl)ethyl]- p-coumaramide (6), and N-[2-[5-(beta-D-glucosyloxy)-1H-indol-3-yl)ethyl]ferulamide (7). Antioxidative activities of the compounds were measured by the ferric thiocyanate method and the alpha,alpha-diphenyl-beta-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) method, and compounds 1-5 were found to have relatively strong antioxidative activity.

  4. Application of Zataria multiflora Boiss. and Cinnamon zeylanicum essential oils as two natural preservatives in cake

    PubMed Central

    Kordsardouei, Habibe; Barzegar, Mohsen; Sahari, Mohamad Ali

    2013-01-01

    Objective: Oxidation of oils has an important effect on nutritional and organoleptic properties of foodstuffs. Nowadays, new tendency has created a necessity to use natural compounds such as essential oils for producing functional foods. In this study, antioxidant, antifungal, and organoleptic properties of Zataria multiflora Boiss. (ZMEO) and Cinnamon zeylanicum essential oils (CZEO) have been checked as two natural preservatives in the cakes. Materials and Methods: The antioxidant activity of essential oils were determined by measuring thiobarbituric, peroxide, and free fatty acid values of prepared cakes during 60 days storage at 25 ˚C. Antifungal properties of essential oils were determined and given as the ratio of colony number in samples containing ZMEO and CZEO to the control. Results: Different concentrations of essential oils prevented oxidation rate and reducd preliminary and secondary oxidation products compared with butylate hydroxyanisole (BHA (100 and 200 ppm)) and control cakes. Moreover, ZMEO and CZEO at three concentrations (500, 1000, and 1500 ppm) reduced the fungal growth more than samples containing BHA (100 and 200 ppm) and the control. Conclusion: Our results showed that optimum concenteration of ZMEO and CZEO for using in the cakes was 500 ppm therefore it can be replaced instead of synthetic preservatives in foodstuffs. PMID:25050280

  5. Application of Zataria multiflora Boiss. and Cinnamon zeylanicum essential oils as two natural preservatives in cake.

    PubMed

    Kordsardouei, Habibe; Barzegar, Mohsen; Sahari, Mohamad Ali

    2013-01-01

    Oxidation of oils has an important effect on nutritional and organoleptic properties of foodstuffs. Nowadays, new tendency has created a necessity to use natural compounds such as essential oils for producing functional foods. In this study, antioxidant, antifungal, and organoleptic properties of Zataria multiflora Boiss. (ZMEO) and Cinnamon zeylanicum essential oils (CZEO) have been checked as two natural preservatives in the cakes. The antioxidant activity of essential oils were determined by measuring thiobarbituric, peroxide, and free fatty acid values of prepared cakes during 60 days storage at 25 ˚C. Antifungal properties of essential oils were determined and given as the ratio of colony number in samples containing ZMEO and CZEO to the control. Different concentrations of essential oils prevented oxidation rate and reducd preliminary and secondary oxidation products compared with butylate hydroxyanisole (BHA (100 and 200 ppm)) and control cakes. Moreover, ZMEO and CZEO at three concentrations (500, 1000, and 1500 ppm) reduced the fungal growth more than samples containing BHA (100 and 200 ppm) and the control. Our results showed that optimum concenteration of ZMEO and CZEO for using in the cakes was 500 ppm therefore it can be replaced instead of synthetic preservatives in foodstuffs.

  6. Solid-phase creep during the expression of palm-oil filter cakes

    SciTech Connect

    Kamst, G.F.; Bruinsma, O.S.L.; Graauw, J. de

    1997-03-01

    For an adequate model of the processes of compressible cake filtration and mechanical expression, permeability and compressibility data are required. Experimental and modeling results of the creep behavior of palm-oil filter cakes at constant and time-dependent pressures are presented. Creep curves of palm-oil cakes at constant pressures cannot be modeled with linear viscoelastic models. Modeling with a modified form of the empirical equation of Nutting gives satisfactory results. This modification does not lead to unrealistic values of the porosity at extreme conditions, contrary to the original form of the equation of Nutting. Creep curves at time-dependent pressures were modeled with two nonlinear viscoelastic models, which describe the time-dependent creep behavior as a function of the pressure history and creep curves at constant pressures. Modeling with the strain-hardening model provides the best porosity predictions.

  7. Lead biotransformation potential of allochthonous Bacillus sp. SKK11 with sesame oil cake in mine soil

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    This study was aimed at assessing the potential of allochthonous Bacillus sp. SKK11 and sesame oil cake extract for transformation of Pb in mine soil. The bacteria were isolated from a brackish environment and identified as Bacillus sp. based on partial 16S rDNA sequences. The isolate SKK11 exhibite...

  8. Processing of maize germ oil cake into edible food grade meal and evaluation of its protein quality.

    PubMed

    Gupta, H O; Eggum, B O

    1998-01-01

    The commercial oil cake produced during expeller pressing of maize germ, was extracted with n-hexane and 80 percent ethanol followed by seiving to remove undesirable materials. In defatted maize germ oil cake (DMGOC): protein, starch, fat, crude fiber (CF) and ash were respectively 24.69, 36.55, 5.68, 7.56 and 3.90 percent and they decrease after processing except ash, which increased slightly. It contains better quality protein having only 3 percent zein and 47 percent albumin. Its amino acids like lysine and tryptophan and biological value (BV) were higher than that of whole maize grain, and was comparable with that of the amino acid requirement of preschool children and casein diets both. Its digestible energy (DE) was lower compared with whole maize grain as well as the casein diets. After processing albumin, globulin and zein decreased whereas glutelin and the residual fraction increased. Not much differences were observed in chemical composition and different amino acids, in vitro protein digestibility (IVPD), true digestibility (TD), BV and DE improved after processing.

  9. Degradation of Jatropha curcas phorbol esters derived from Jatropha oil cake and their tumor-promoting activity.

    PubMed

    Nakao, Motoyuki; Hasegawa, Go; Yasuhara, Tadashi; Ishihara, Yoko

    2015-04-01

    Large amount of oil cake is generated during biodiesel production from Jatropha seeds. Although Jatropha oil cake is rich in plant nutrients, presence of toxic phorbol esters restricts the usage of oil cake as a fertilizer. The objective of this study is to evaluate the components and tumor promoting activity of phorbol esters in Jatropha oil cake-supplemented soil and plants grown in the treated soil. Contents and their biological activity of Jatropha phorbol esters in soil and plants were sequentially analyzed by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and in vitro cell transformation assay, respectively. Disappearance of Jatropha phorbol-ester-specific peaks were followed with HPLC during incubation of Jatropha oil cake with soil for five weeks. Along with the degradation of Jatropha phorbol ester in soil, tumor-promoting activity in the sample was also attenuated and ultimately disappeared. Jatropha phorbol esters and tumor promoting activity were not detected from mustard spinach grown in the Jatropha oil cake-supplemented soil. In addition, the esterase KM109 degrades DHPB (see definition below; Jatropha phorbol ester) and reduced its tumor-promoting activity. From these data, we conclude: (1) components and tumor promoting activity of Jatropha phorbol esters in the oil cake disappeared completely by incubation with soil for five-week, (2) Jatropha phorbol esters did not transfer into plants grown in the Jatropha oil cake-supplemented soil, and (3) DHPB can be degraded by esterase from soil bacterium. These observations are useful for utilization of Jatropha oil cake as a fertilizer.

  10. Quality parameters for cold pressed edible argan oils.

    PubMed

    Matthäus, Bertrand

    2013-01-01

    Argan oil belongs to the high-price vegetable oils on the market. Therefore, consumers have the right to purchase a high-quality product. The quality of edible vegetable oils is defined in food standards in which sensory quality is the most important feature. Additional parameters are defined to assess the identity of oils or to evaluate their oxidative state. The sensory quality of cold pressed argan oil is altered if the production has not been performed with reasonable care regarding raw material and extraction. Only oil from roasted seeds extracted by a screw-press had a sufficient sensory quality over a period of 20 weeks without unacceptable sensory attributes. Under accelerated storage conditions oil from roasted seeds extracted by a screw-press remained below the limits given by the Codex Alimentarius or the German guideline for Edible Fats and Oils for peroxide and totox value. Oil from unroasted seeds or oil from goat-digested roasted seeds and extracted by a screw-press, as well as oil from roasted seeds traditionally extracted, exceeded these limits. Initial oxidative stability of oil from unroasted seeds was significantly lower than that of the other oils. After 35 days under accelerated storage, oil from roasted seeds obtained using a screw-press showed the highest oxidative stability. Moreover, tocopherol and phytosterol compositions are useful features of argan oil.

  11. Quality evaluation of co-composted wheat straw, poultry droppings and oil seed cakes.

    PubMed

    Gaind, Sunita; Nain, Lata; Patel, V B

    2009-06-01

    Poultry droppings, neem cake, castor cake, jatropha cake and grass clippings were used separately as organic nitrogen additives to decrease the high C:N ratio of wheat straw. Composting was carried out aerobically in presence of fungal consortium developed by including Aspergillus awamori, Aspergillus nidulans, Trichoderma viride and Phanerochaete chrysosporium. The degraded product was characterized to assess the technical viability of organic nitrogen supplements as well as fungal consortium in improving the quality of compost and hastening the process of decomposition of high lignocellulolytic waste. Evaluation of maturity showed that mixture of wheat straw, poultry dropping and jatropha cake had the lowest C:N ratio of 10:1, the highest humic acid fraction of 3.15%, the lowest dehydrogenase activity and a germination index exceeding 80% in 60 days of decomposition. Inoculated and grass clipping amended wheat straw-poultry dropping mixture resulted in compost with highest humus content of 11.8% and C:N ratio of 13.5, humic acid fraction of 2.84% and germination index of 59.66%. Fungal consortium was effective in improving the humus content of all the composted mixtures. In some treatments, germination index could not be correlated with C:N ratio. Non edible oil seed cake supplemented substrate mixtures did not respond to fungal inoculation as far as C:N ratio was concerned.

  12. Effect of pyrolysis temperature and heating rate on biochar obtained from pyrolysis of safflower seed press cake.

    PubMed

    Angın, Dilek

    2013-01-01

    Biochar is carbon-rich product generated from biomass through pyrolysis. In this study, the effects of pyrolysis temperature and heating rate on the yield and physicochemical and morphological properties of biochars obtained from safflower seed press cake were investigated. The results showed that the biochar yield and quality depend principally on the applied temperature where pyrolysis at 600 °C leaves a biochar with higher fixed carbon content (80.70%) and percentage carbon (73.75%), and higher heating value (30.27 MJ kg(-1)) in comparison with the original feedstock (SPC) and low volatile matter content (9.80%). The biochars had low surface areas (1.89-4.23 m(2)/g) and contained predominantly aromatic compounds. The biochar could be used for the production of activated carbon, in fuel applications, and water purification processes.

  13. Oil cakes - a by-product of agriculture industry as a fortificant in bakery products.

    PubMed

    Behera, Satyabadi; Indumathi, K; Mahadevamma, S; Sudha, M L

    2013-11-01

    Groundnut cake (GNC) and soybean cake (SBC) by-product of agriculture industry had protein and protein digestibility in the range of 42.7-50.5 and 71.3-76.8%, respectively. Polyphenols present in GNC and SBC were cholorogenic acid, syringic acid and p-coumaric acid. The number of bands separated in soybean meal was greater than the bands observed in GNC flour as seen in SDS-PAGE pattern, respectively. SEM of groundnut flour showed distension of protein bodies due to roasting of the oil cakes. The water absorption of wheat flour GNC blends decreased from 59.2 to 57.3% and increased in wheat flour SBC blends from 59.2 to 68.3% with an increase in oil cake from 0 to 20%. With increase in either GNC or SBC, the biscuits became harder. Addition of glycerol monostearate and sodium stearoyl lactylate in combination with 20% blend of GNC/SBC decreased the breaking strength values and increased the sensory parameters of the biscuits. Nutritionally rich biscuits were thus prepared by incorporating GNC/SBC.

  14. Down-regulation of tyrosinase, TRP-1, TRP-2 and MITF expressions by citrus press-cakes in murine B16 F10 melanoma

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Sang Suk; Kim, Min-Jin; Choi, Young Hun; Kim, Byung Kok; Kim, Kwang Sik; Park, Kyung Jin; Park, Suk Man; Lee, Nam Ho; Hyun, Chang-Gu

    2013-01-01

    Objective To investigate the suitability of citrus-press cakes, by-products of the juice industry as a source for the whitening agents for cosmetic industry. Methods Ethylacetate extracts of citrus-press cakes (CCE) were examined for their anti-melanogenic potentials in terms of the inhibition of melanin production and mechanisim of melanogenesis by using Western Blot analysis with tyrosinese, tyrosinase-related protein-1 (TRP-1), TRP2, and microphthalmia-associated transcription factor (MITF) proteins. To apply the topical agents, citrus-press cakes was investigated the safety in human skin cell line. Finally flavonoid analysis of CCE was also determined by HPLC analysis. Results Results indicated that CCE were shown to down-regulate melanin content in a dose-dependent pattern. The CCE inhibited tyrosinase, TRP-2, and MITF expressions in a dose-dependent manner. To test the applicability of CCE to human skin, we used MTT assay to assess the cytotoxic effects of CCE on human keratinocyte HaCaT cells. The CCE exhibited low cytotoxicity at 50 µg/mL. Characterization of the citrus-press cakes for flavonoid contents using HPLC showed varied quantity of rutin, narirutin, and hesperidin. Conclusions Considering the anti-melanogenic activity and human safety, CCE is considered as a potential anti-melanogenic agent and may be effective for topical application for treating hyperpigmentation disorders. PMID:23905018

  15. Down-regulation of tyrosinase, TRP-1, TRP-2 and MITF expressions by citrus press-cakes in murine B16 F10 melanoma.

    PubMed

    Kim, Sang Suk; Kim, Min-Jin; Choi, Young Hun; Kim, Byung Kok; Kim, Kwang Sik; Park, Kyung Jin; Park, Suk Man; Lee, Nam Ho; Hyun, Chang-Gu

    2013-08-01

    To investigate the suitability of citrus-press cakes, by-products of the juice industry as a source for the whitening agents for cosmetic industry. Ethylacetate extracts of citrus-press cakes (CCE) were examined for their anti-melanogenic potentials in terms of the inhibition of melanin production and mechanisim of melanogenesis by using Western Blot analysis with tyrosinese, tyrosinase-related protein-1 (TRP-1), TRP2, and microphthalmia-associated transcription factor (MITF) proteins. To apply the topical agents, citrus-press cakes was investigated the safety in human skin cell line. Finally flavonoid analysis of CCE was also determined by HPLC analysis. Results indicated that CCE were shown to down-regulate melanin content in a dose-dependent pattern. The CCE inhibited tyrosinase, TRP-2, and MITF expressions in a dose-dependent manner. To test the applicability of CCE to human skin, we used MTT assay to assess the cytotoxic effects of CCE on human keratinocyte HaCaT cells. The CCE exhibited low cytotoxicity at 50 µg/mL. Characterization of the citrus-press cakes for flavonoid contents using HPLC showed varied quantity of rutin, narirutin, and hesperidin. Considering the anti-melanogenic activity and human safety, CCE is considered as a potential anti-melanogenic agent and may be effective for topical application for treating hyperpigmentation disorders.

  16. Effects of Cooking and Screw-Pressing on Functional Properties of Protein in Milkweed (Asclepias spp.) Seed Meals and Press Cakes

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    This study determined the effects of oil processing conditions on functional properties of milkweed seed proteins to evaluate their potential for value-added uses. Flaked milkweed seeds were cooked at 82 degrees C (180 degrees F) for 30, 60 or 90 min in the seed conditioner, and then screw-pressed ...

  17. Meat quality assessment from young goats fed for long periods with castor de-oiled cake.

    PubMed

    Oliveira, C H A; Silva, A M; Silva, L M; van Tilburg, M F; Fernandes, C C L; Moura, A A; Moreno, F B M B; Monteiro-Moreira, A C O; Moreira, R A; Bezerra, F J; Rondina, D

    2015-08-01

    Diet can influence both the qualitative and quantitative traits of ruminant meat. This study evaluated the effects of castor de-oiled cake on the meat of mixed-breed male goat kids. After 165days of diet treatment, no alterations (p>0.05) were observed in the in vivo performance, anatomic components, dissection and proximate composition of the Longissimus dorsi muscle, as well as in the color and pH of the carcasses. However, diet had an effect (p<0.05) on energy metabolites, fatty acid profile, and expression of certain proteins of the Longissimus dorsi muscle. To conclude, this study showed that the establishment of castor de-oiled cake diet for a long period to goats led to alterations in meat quality, without compromising its consumption qualities. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. New natural injection-moldable composite material from sunflower oil cake.

    PubMed

    Rouilly, A; Orliac, O; Silvestre, F; Rigal, L

    2006-03-01

    Through a twin-screw extrusion process the native structure of sunflower oil cake was completely transformed (globular protein denaturation/texturization and husk fiber defibration) into a simpler matrix-fiber structure, as could be seen on SEM micrographs. Further chemical reduction of protein disulfide bridges greatly reduced the melt viscosity of the moistened composite that it could be injection-molded. The molded specimens were tested and their tensile and flexural properties and water absorption calculated. Their water resistance appeared to be particularly high, and could be enhanced further after a thermal treatment (N2, 200 degrees C). The proteic matrix seemed to behave like a natural thermoset resin. Sunflower oil cake could be used without any additives to make biodegradable, water resistant and exceptionally cheap materials.

  19. Xylanase production by Penicillium canescens on soya oil cake in solid-state fermentation.

    PubMed

    Antoine, Assamoi Allah; Jacqueline, Destain; Thonart, Philippe

    2010-01-01

    There is an increasing interest for the organic residues from various sectors of agriculture and industries over the past few decades. Their application in the field of fermentation technology has resulted in the production of bulk chemicals and value-added products such as amino acid, enzymes, mushroom, organic acids, single-cell protein, biologically active secondary metabolites, etc. (Ramachandran et al., Bioresource Technology 98:2000-2009, 2007). In this work, the production of extracellular xylanase by the fungus Penicillium canescens was investigated in solid-state fermentation using five agro-industrial substrates (soya oil cake, soya meal, wheat bran, whole wheat bran, and pulp beet). The best substrate was the soya oil cake. In order to optimize the production, the most effective cultivation conditions were investigated in Erlenmeyer flasks and in plastic bags with 5 and 100 g of soya oil cake, respectively. The initial moisture content, initial pH, and temperature of the culture affected the xylanase synthesis. The optimal fermentation medium was composed by soya oil cake crushed to 5 mm supplemented with 3% and 4% (w/w) of casein peptone and Na(2)HPO(4) x 2H(2)O. After 7 days of incubation at 30 degrees C and under 80% of initial moisture, a xylanase production level of 18,895 +/- 778 U/g (Erlenmeyer flasks) and 9,300 +/- 589 U/g (plastic bags) was reached. The partially purified enzyme recovered by ammonium sulfate fractionation was completely stable at freezing and refrigeration temperatures up to 6 months and reasonably stable at room temperature for more than 3 months.

  20. Production of Cold-Active Bacterial Lipases through Semisolid State Fermentation Using Oil Cakes.

    PubMed

    Joseph, Babu; Upadhyaya, Supriya; Ramteke, Pramod

    2011-01-01

    Production of cold active lipase by semisolid state fermentation involves the use of agroindustrial residues. In the present study, semisolid state fermentation was carried out for the production of cold active lipase using Micrococcus roseus, isolated from soil samples of Gangotri glaciers, Western Himalayas. Among various substrate tested, groundnut oil cake (GOC) favored maximal yield of lipases at 15 ± 1°C within 48 h. Supplementation of glucose 1% (w/v) as additional carbon source and ammonium nitrate 2% (w/v) as additional nitrogen source enhanced production of lipase. Addition of triglycerides 0.5% (v/v) tends to repress the lipase production. Further mixed preparation of groundnut oil cake (GOC) along with mustard oil cake (MOC) in the ratio of 1 : 1, and its optimization resulted in improved production of cold active lipase. The enzyme exhibited maximum activity at 10-15°C and was stable at temperatures lower than 30°C. The lipase exhibited optimum activity at pH 8 and showed more than 60% stability at pH 9. Semisolid state fermentation process by utilizing agroindustrial wastes will direct to large-scale commercialization of lipase catalyzed process in cost-effective systems.

  1. A comparative study on the decomposition of edible and non-edible oil cakes in the Gangetic alluvial soil of West Bengal.

    PubMed

    Mondal, Sudeshna; Das, Ritwika; Das, Amal Chandra

    2014-08-01

    An experiment has been conducted under laboratory conditions to investigate the effect of decomposition of two edible oil cakes, viz. mustard cake (Brassica juncea L) and groundnut cake (Arachis hypogaea L), and two non-edible oil cakes, viz. mahua cake (Madhuca indica Gmel) and neem cake (Azadirachta indica Juss), at the rate of 5.0 t ha(-1) on the changes of microbial growth and activities in relation to transformations and availability of some plant nutrients in the Gangetic alluvial (Typic Haplustept) soil of West Bengal, India. Incorporation of oil cakes, in general, highly induced the proliferation of total bacteria, actinomycetes, and fungi, resulting in greater retention and availability of oxidizable C, N, and P in soil. As compared to untreated control, the highest stimulation of total bacteria and actinomycetes was recorded with mustard cake (111.9 and 84.3 %, respectively) followed by groundnut cake (50.5 and 52.4 %, respectively), while the fungal colonies were highly accentuated due to the incorporation of neem cake (102.8 %) in soil. The retention of oxidizable organic C was highly increased due to decomposition of non-edible oil cakes, more so under mahua cake (14.5 %), whereas edible oil cakes and groundnut cake in particular exerted maximum stimulation (16.7 %) towards the retention of total N in soil. A similar trend was recorded towards the accumulation of available mineral N in soil and this was more pronounced with mustard cake (45.6 %) for exchangeable NH4 (+) and with groundnut cake (63.9 %) for soluble NO3 (-). The highest retention of total P (46.9 %) was manifested by the soil when it was incorporated with neem cake followed by the edible oil cakes; while the available P was highly induced due to the addition of edible oil cakes, the highest being under groundnut cake (23.5 %) followed by mustard cake (19.6 %).

  2. Effect of processing on 14C-chlorfenvinphos residues in maize oil and bioavailability of its cake residues on rats.

    PubMed

    Mahdy, F M; El-Maghraby, S I

    2010-05-01

    Maize seeds obtained from 14C-chlorfenvinphos treated plants contained 0.12% of the applied dose. The insecticide residues in crude oil, methanol and cake amounted to 10%, 6% and 69%, respectively of original residues inside the seeds. The 14C-activity in the crude oil could be a gradually reduced by the refining processes. The alkali treatment and bleaching steps are the most effective steps in these processes. The refined oil contained small amount of the 14C-residues originally present. The major residues in processed oil contain the parent compound, in addition to five metabolites of the insecticide. When rats fed the extracted seeds (cake), the bound residues were found to be considerably bioavailability. After feeding rats for five days with the cake, a substantial amount of 14C-residues was eliminated in the urine (59.5%), while about 20% excreted in the feces. About 15% of the radioactive residues were distributed among various organs.

  3. Composition and functional properties of protein recovered from pennycreess (Thlaspi arvense) press cake

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Pennycress (Thlaspi arvense L.) seed oil is being considered as alternative feedstock for biodiesel production. If the pennycress-based biodiesel venture is successful, then the seed protein (more than 20% content) could become a major co-product of the process. This study compared two methods for e...

  4. Antibacterial effect of citrus press-cakes dried by high speed and far-infrared radiation drying methods

    PubMed Central

    Samarakoon, Kalpa; Senevirathne, Mahinda; Lee, Won-Woo; Kim, Young-Tae; Kim, Jae-Il; Oh, Myung-Cheol

    2012-01-01

    In this study, the antibacterial effect was evaluated to determine the benefits of high speed drying (HSD) and far-infrared radiation drying (FIR) compared to the freeze drying (FD) method. Citrus press-cakes (CPCs) are released as a by-product in the citrus processing industry. Previous studies have shown that the HSD and FIR drying methods are much more economical for drying time and mass drying than those of FD, even though FD is the most qualified drying method. The disk diffusion assay was conducted, and the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC) were determined with methanol extracts of the dried CPCs against 11 fish and five food-related pathogenic bacteria. The disk diffusion results indicated that the CPCs dried by HSD, FIR, and FD prevented growth of all tested bacteria almost identically. The MIC and MBC results showed a range from 0.5-8.0 mg/mL and 1.0-16.0 mg/mL respectively. Scanning electron microscopy indicated that the extracts changed the morphology of the bacteria cell wall, leading to destruction. These results suggest that CPCs dried by HSD and FIR showed strong antibacterial activity against pathogenic bacteria and are more useful drying methods than that of the classic FD method in CPCs utilization. PMID:22808341

  5. Conversion of Extracted Oil Cake Fibers into Bioethanol Including DDGS, Canola, Sunflower, Seasame, Soy, and Peanut for Integrated Biodiesel Processing

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    We have come up with a novel integrated approach where biodiesel processing can be potentially done in-house by producing ethanol from edible oilseeds after hexane extraction to remove residual oil. In addition, we have demonstrated how ethanol could be manufactured from widely available oil cakes ...

  6. Non-isothermal kinetic study of de-oiled seeds cake of African star apple (Chrosophyllum albidum) using thermogravimetry.

    PubMed

    Sokoto, M A; Singh, Rawel; Krishna, Bhavya B; Kumar, Jitendra; Bhaskar, Thallada

    2016-10-01

    Thermal decomposition and kinetics behaviour of the de-oiled seed cake of African star apple (Chrosophyllum albidum) has been investigated using thermogravimetry under the nitrogen atmosphere from ambient temperature to 900 °C. The thermogravimetric data for the cake decomposition at six different heating rates (5, 10, 15, 20, 30 and 40 °C/min) were used to evaluate the kinetic decomposition of the cake using Friedman (FD), Kissinger-Akahira-Sunose (KAS) and Flynn-Wall-Ozawa (FWO) models. Thermal decomposition of the cake showed thermograms indicating dehydration and devolitilization stages (200-400 °C). The maximum temperature for the decomposition of the cake (Tmax) increases from 289.42-335.96 °C with increase in heating rates. The average apparent activation energy (Ea) values of 153.15, 145.14 and 147.15 kJ/mol were calculated using Friedman, Kissinger-Akahira-Sunose, and Flynn-Wall-Ozawa models respectively. The extent of mass conversion (α) shows dependence on apparent activation Ea values which is an evidence of multi-step decomposition kinetic. The thermal profile and kinetic data obtained could be helpful in evaluating the thermal stability of the cake as well as modeling, designing and developing a thermo-chemical system for the conversion of the cake to fuel.

  7. Abu Dhabi presses oil development program

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-06-29

    This paper reports that Abu Dhabi Co. for Onshore Operations (ADCO), the biggest oil producer in the United Arab Emirates, reports 1991 was a successful year despite the Persian Gulf war. Meantime, Abu Dhabi's Zakum, the second largest oil field in the Persian Gulf, boosted production to more than 300,000 b/d, and officials said production will rise further when a platform complex is recommissioned in 1993.

  8. Pyrolysis of groundnut de-oiled cake and characterization of the liquid product.

    PubMed

    Agrawalla, Ankit; Kumar, Sachin; Singh, R K

    2011-11-01

    Renewable biomass is considered as an important energy resource all over the world and for an agriculture based economy like that of India, the future prospects of being able to convert widely available biomass materials into various forms of fuel is most attractive. In this study, pyrolysis of groundnut de-oiled cake was investigated with an aim of studying the physical and chemical characteristics of the bio-fuel produced and to determine its feasibility as a commercial fuel. Thermal pyrolysis of groundnut de-oiled cake was done in a semi-batch reactor at a temperature range of 200-500 °C and at a heating rate of 20 °C/min. The chemical analysis of the bio-fuel showed the presence of functional groups such as alkanes, alkenes, alkynes, aldehydes, ketones, carboxylic acids, esters, amines, nitriles, nitro compounds and aromatics rings. The physical properties of the bio-fuel obtained were close to that of diesel and petrol. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Pyrolysis and combustion of oil palm stone and palm kernel cake in fixed-bed reactors.

    PubMed

    Razuan, R; Chen, Q; Zhang, X; Sharifi, V; Swithenbank, J

    2010-06-01

    The main objective of this research was to investigate the main characteristics of the thermo-chemical conversion of oil palm stone (OPS) and palm kernel cake (PKC). A series of combustion and pyrolysis tests were carried out in two fixed-bed reactors. The effects of heating rate at the temperature of 700 degrees C on the yields and properties of the pyrolysis products were investigated. The results from the combustion experiments showed that the burning rates increased with an increase in the air flow rate. In addition, the FLIC code was used to simulate the combustion of the oil palm stone to investigate the effect of primary air flow on the combustion process. The FLIC modelling results were in good agreement with the experimental data in terms of predicting the temperature profiles along the bed height and the composition of the flue gases.

  10. Utilization of coconut oil cake for the production of lipase using Bacillus coagulans VKL1.

    PubMed

    Gowthami, Palanisamy; Muthukumar, Karuppan; Velan, Manickam

    2015-01-01

    The overproduction of enzymes was performed by manipulating the medium components. In our study, solvent-tolerant thermophilic lipase-producing Bacillus coagulans was isolated from soil samples and a stepwise optimization strategy was employed to increase the lipase production using coconut oil cake basal medium. In the first step, the influence of pH, temperature, carbon source, nitrogen source and inducers on lipase activity was investigated by the One-Factor-At-A-Time (OFAT) method. In the second step, the three significant factors resulted from OFAT were optimized by the statistical approach (CCD).The optimum values of olive oil (0.5%), Tween 80 (0.6%) and FeSO4 (0.05%) was found to be responsible for a 3.2-fold increase in the lipase production identified by Central Composite Design.

  11. Different Oils and Health Benefit Statements Affect Physicochemical Properties, Consumer Liking, Emotion, and Purchase Intent: A Case of Sponge Cake.

    PubMed

    Poonnakasem, Naratip; Pujols, Kairy Dharali; Chaiwanichsiri, Saiwarun; Laohasongkram, Kalaya; Prinyawiwatkul, Witoon

    2016-01-01

    Effects of different oils on physicochemical properties, consumer liking, emotion, and purchase intent of sponge cakes were evaluated. Three healthy oils (extra virgin coconut oil, EVCO; extra virgin olive oil, EVOO; rice bran oil, RBO) compared with butter (the control), were used at 20% (w/w, wheat flour basis) in sponge cake formulations. Five positive (calm, good, happy, pleased, satisfied) and 3 negative (guilty, unsafe, worried) emotion terms, selected from the EsSense Profile(®) with slight modification using an online (N = 234) check-all-that-apply questionnaire, were used for consumer testing. Consumers (N = 148) evaluated acceptability of 9 sensory attributes on a 9-point hedonic scale, 8 emotion responses on a 5-point rating scale, and purchase intent on a binomial scale. Overall liking, emotion, and purchase intent were evaluated before compared with after health benefit statement of oils had been given to consumers. Overall liking and positive emotion (except calm) scores of sponge cake made with EVCO were higher than those made with EVOO and RBO. Specific volume, expansion ratio, and moisture content of control, EVCO, and EVOO were not significantly different, but higher than RBO sponge cake. JAR results showed that sponge cake made with RBO had the least softness that was reflected by the highest hardness (6.61 to 9.69 compared with. 12.76N). Oil (EVCO/EVOO/RBO) health benefit statement provided to consumer significantly increased overall liking, positive emotion, and purchase intent scores while decreased negative emotion scores. Overall liking and pleased emotion were critical attributes influencing purchase intent (odds ratio = 2.06 to 3.75), whereas calm and happy became not critical after health benefit statement had been given. © 2015 Institute of Food Technologists®

  12. Effect of Inoculum Dosage Aspergillus niger and Rhizopus oryzae mixture with Fermentation Time of Oil Seed Cake (Jatropha curcas L) to the content of Protein and Crude Fiber

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kurniati, T.; Nurlaila, L.; Iim

    2017-04-01

    Jatropha curcas L already widely cultivated for its seeds pressed oil used as an alternative fuel. This plant productivity per hectare obtained 2.5-5 tonnes of oil/ha / year and jatropha seed cake from 5.5 to 9.5 tonnes/ha/year, nutrient content of Jatropha curcas seed L potential to be used as feed material, However, the constraints faced was the low crude protein and high crude protein. The purpose of the research was to determine the dosage of inoculum and fermentation time of Jatropha seed cake by a mixture of Aspergillus niger and Rhizopus oryzae on crude protein and crude fibre. The study was conducted by an experimental method using a Completely Randomised Design (CRD) factorial design (3×3). The treatment consisted of a mixture of three dosage levels of Aspergillus niger and Rhizopus oryzae (= 0.2% d1, d2 and d3 = 0.3% = 0.4%) and three levels of fermentation time (w1 = 72 hours, 96 hours and w2 = w3 = 120 hours) each repeated three times. The parameters measured were crude protein and crude fibre. The results showed that dosages of 0.3% (Aspergillus niger Rhizopus oryzae 0.15% and 0.15%) and 72 hours (d2w1) is the dosage and the optimal time to generate the highest crude protein content of 21.11% and crude fibre amounted to 21.36%.

  13. Recovering bioactive compounds from olive oil filter cake by advanced extraction techniques.

    PubMed

    Lozano-Sánchez, Jesús; Castro-Puyana, María; Mendiola, Jose A; Segura-Carretero, Antonio; Cifuentes, Alejandro; Ibáñez, Elena

    2014-09-15

    The potential of by-products generated during extra-virgin olive oil (EVOO) filtration as a natural source of phenolic compounds (with demonstrated bioactivity) has been evaluated using pressurized liquid extraction (PLE) and considering mixtures of two GRAS (generally recognized as safe) solvents (ethanol and water) at temperatures ranging from 40 to 175 °C. The extracts were characterized by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) coupled to diode array detection (DAD) and electrospray time-of-flight mass spectrometry (HPLC-DAD-ESI-TOF/MS) to determine the phenolic-composition of the filter cake. The best isolation procedure to extract the phenolic fraction from the filter cake was accomplished using ethanol and water (50:50, v/v) at 120 °C. The main phenolic compounds identified in the samples were characterized as phenolic alcohols or derivatives (hydroxytyrosol and its oxidation product), secoiridoids (decarboxymethylated and hydroxylated forms of oleuropein and ligstroside aglycones), flavones (luteolin and apigenin) and elenolic acid derivatives. The PLE extraction process can be applied to produce enriched extracts with applications as bioactive food ingredients, as well as nutraceuticals.

  14. Recovering Bioactive Compounds from Olive Oil Filter Cake by Advanced Extraction Techniques

    PubMed Central

    Lozano-Sánchez, Jesús; Castro-Puyana, María; Mendiola, Jose A.; Segura-Carretero, Antonio; Cifuentes, Alejandro; Ibáñez, Elena

    2014-01-01

    The potential of by-products generated during extra-virgin olive oil (EVOO) filtration as a natural source of phenolic compounds (with demonstrated bioactivity) has been evaluated using pressurized liquid extraction (PLE) and considering mixtures of two GRAS (generally recognized as safe) solvents (ethanol and water) at temperatures ranging from 40 to 175 °C. The extracts were characterized by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) coupled to diode array detection (DAD) and electrospray time-of-flight mass spectrometry (HPLC-DAD-ESI-TOF/MS) to determine the phenolic-composition of the filter cake. The best isolation procedure to extract the phenolic fraction from the filter cake was accomplished using ethanol and water (50:50, v/v) at 120 °C. The main phenolic compounds identified in the samples were characterized as phenolic alcohols or derivatives (hydroxytyrosol and its oxidation product), secoiridoids (decarboxymethylated and hydroxylated forms of oleuropein and ligstroside aglycones), flavones (luteolin and apigenin) and elenolic acid derivatives. The PLE extraction process can be applied to produce enriched extracts with applications as bioactive food ingredients, as well as nutraceuticals. PMID:25226536

  15. Nutritive value of cold-pressed camelina cake with or without supplementation of multi-enzyme in broiler chickens.

    PubMed

    Woyengo, T A; Patterson, R; Slominski, B A; Beltranena, E; Zijlstra, R T

    2016-10-01

    The objectives were to determine the standardized ileal digestibility (SID) of amino acids (AA) and AMEn value of cold-pressed camelina cake (CPCC) and the effect of adding multi-enzyme to a corn-CPCC diet for broilers. The 600 male broiler chicks were divided into 40 groups and fed 5 diets in a completely randomized design (8 groups per diet) from d 15 to d 21 of age. A corn basal diet and the basal diet with 30% of it replaced by CPCC were used in a 2 × 2 factorial arrangement with or without multi-enzyme (2,800 U of cellulase, 1,800 U of pectinase, 400 U of mannanase, 50 U of galactanase, 1,000 U of xylanase, 600 U of glucanase, 2,500 U of amylase, and 200 U of protease/kilogram of diet; Superzyme OM, 1 g/kg). The fifth diet was N-free. The corn basal diet was fed to determine nutrient digestibility and retention for CPCC by substitution. The N-free diet was fed to estimate basal endogenous AA losses for determining SID of AA. Diets contained TiO2 as indigestible marker. On a DM basis, CPCC contained 39.8% CP, 38.3% neutral detergent fiber, 12.7% ether extract, 1.89% Lys, 0.70% Met, 1.56% Thr, and 0.45% Trp. The SID of Lys, Met, Thr, and Trp for CPCC were 76.5, 85.5, 72.8, and 84.1%, respectively. The AMEn value for CPCC was 1,671 kcal/kg of DM. Multi-enzyme supplementation increased (P < 0.05) the SID of Met and Thr and the AMEn value of the corn-CPCC-based diet by 1.4, 1.3, and 3.0%, respectively. The multi-enzyme increased (P = 0.026) the AMEn value of CPCC from 1,671 to 1,941 kcal/kg of DM. In conclusion, the CPCC evaluated in the present study can be included in poultry diets as a source of energy and AA. Multi-enzyme supplementation increased the AMEn value of CPCC for broilers.

  16. Development of a novel cup cake with unique properties of essential oil of betel leaf (Piper betle L.) for sustainable entrepreneurship.

    PubMed

    Roy, Arnab; Guha, Proshanta

    2015-08-01

    Betel vine (Piper betle L.) is a root climber with deep green heart shaped leaves. It belongs to the Piperaceae family. There is a huge wastage of the leaves during glut season and it can be reduced by various means including extraction of medicinal essential oil which can be considered as GRAS (generally recognized as safe) materials. Therefore, attempts were made to develop a novel cup cake by incorporating essential oil of betel leaf. The textural properties of the cakes were measured by texture analyzer instrument; whereas the organoleptic properties were adjudged by human preferences using sensory tables containing 9-point hedonic scale. Price estimation was done considering all costs and charges. Finally, all parameters of the developed cake were compared with different cup cakes available in the market for ascertaining consumer acceptability of the newly developed product in terms of quality and market price. Results revealed that the Novel cup cake developed with 0.005 % (v/w) essential oil of betel leaf occupied the 1st place among the four developed novel cup cakes. However, it occupied 4th place among the nine cup cakes in the overall preference list prepared based on the textural and organoleptic qualities, though its market price was calculated to be comparable to all the leading cupcakes available in the market. This indicates that manufacturing of novel cup cake with essential oil of betel leaf would be a profitable and self-sustaining entrepreneurship.

  17. Adsorption of copper from aqueous solution on Brassica cumpestris (mustard oil cake).

    PubMed

    Ajmal, Mohammad; Rao, Rifaqat Ali Khan; Khan, Moonis Ali

    2005-06-30

    The adsorption behavior of various heavy metals on mustard oil cake (MOC) was studied. The maximum adsorption of Cu(II) was observed followed by Zn(II), Cr(VI), Mn(II), Cd(II), Ni(II) and Pb(II). The adsorption of Cu(II) was found to be dependent on initial concentration of solution, pH, adsorbent dose, temperature and contact time. The adsorption followed pseudo-first-order and second-order kinetics but pseudo-second-order kinetic model was better obeyed since experimental data agreed well with theoretical data. Thermodynamic parameters were also evaluated. The adsorption process was found to be endothermic and spontaneous in nature. Attempts were also made to desorb Cu(II) from the adsorbent and regeneration of the spent adsorbent. The breakthrough and exhaustive capacities were found to be 5 and 10 mg g(-1), respectively.

  18. Aflatoxin levels in sunflower seeds and cakes collected from micro- and small-scale sunflower oil processors in Tanzania.

    PubMed

    Mmongoyo, Juma A; Wu, Felicia; Linz, John E; Nair, Muraleedharan G; Mugula, Jovin K; Tempelman, Robert J; Strasburg, Gale M

    2017-01-01

    Aflatoxin, a mycotoxin found commonly in maize and peanuts worldwide, is associated with liver cancer, acute toxicosis, and growth impairment in humans and animals. In Tanzania, sunflower seeds are a source of snacks, cooking oil, and animal feed. These seeds are a potential source of aflatoxin contamination. However, reports on aflatoxin contamination in sunflower seeds and cakes are scarce. The objective of the current study was to determine total aflatoxin concentrations in sunflower seeds and cakes from small-scale oil processors across Tanzania. Samples of sunflower seeds (n = 90) and cakes (n = 92) were collected across two years, and analyzed for total aflatoxin concentrations using a direct competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). For seed samples collected June-August 2014, the highest aflatoxin concentrations were from Dodoma (1.7-280.6 ng/g), Singida (1.4-261.8 ng/g), and Babati-Manyara (1.8-162.0 ng/g). The highest concentrations for cakes were from Mbeya (2.8-97.7 ng/g), Dodoma (1.9-88.2 ng/g), and Singida (2.0-34.3 ng/g). For seed samples collected August-October 2015, the highest concentrations were from Morogoro (2.8-662.7 ng/g), Singida (1.6-217.6 ng/g) and Mbeya (1.4-174.2 ng/g). The highest concentrations for cakes were from Morogoro (2.7-536.0 ng/g), Dodoma (1.4-598.4 ng/g) and Singida (3.2-52.8 ng/g). In summary, humans and animals are potentially at high risk of exposure to aflatoxins through sunflower seeds and cakes from micro-scale millers in Tanzania; and location influences risk.

  19. 40 CFR 180.1291 - Cold pressed neem oil; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 25 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Cold pressed neem oil; exemption from... FOOD Exemptions From Tolerances § 180.1291 Cold pressed neem oil; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance. Residues of the biochemical pesticide cold pressed neem oil are exempt from the requirement of a...

  20. 40 CFR 180.1291 - Cold pressed neem oil; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Cold pressed neem oil; exemption from... FOOD Exemptions From Tolerances § 180.1291 Cold pressed neem oil; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance. Residues of the biochemical pesticide cold pressed neem oil are exempt from the requirement of a...

  1. 40 CFR 180.1291 - Cold pressed neem oil; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 25 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Cold pressed neem oil; exemption from... FOOD Exemptions From Tolerances § 180.1291 Cold pressed neem oil; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance. Residues of the biochemical pesticide cold pressed neem oil are exempt from the requirement of a...

  2. 40 CFR 180.1291 - Cold pressed neem oil; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Cold pressed neem oil; exemption from... FOOD Exemptions From Tolerances § 180.1291 Cold pressed neem oil; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance. Residues of the biochemical pesticide cold pressed neem oil are exempt from the requirement of a...

  3. 40 CFR 180.1291 - Cold pressed neem oil; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Cold pressed neem oil; exemption from... FOOD Exemptions From Tolerances § 180.1291 Cold pressed neem oil; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance. Residues of the biochemical pesticide cold pressed neem oil are exempt from the requirement of...

  4. Extraction and Functional Properties of Proteins from Pre-roasted and Enzyme Treated Poppyseed (Papaver somniferum L.) Press Cakes.

    PubMed

    Yilmaz, Emin; Emir, Dilek Dündar

    2016-01-01

    In this study, proteins of the defatted meals obtained from cold-pressed poppyseed previously treated (pre-roasting and enzyme against control) were extracted and their compositional and functional properties were determined. Saline-alkaline extraction (pH 11-12, and 0.2-0.6 M NaCI) and isoelectric point (pH 4.0-5.5) precipitation technique showed that seed pre-roasting enhances protein yield while enzyme treatment reduces it. There were 7 bands on SDS-PAGE, and enzyme treated samples were weaker than control. While enzyme treatment decreased denaturation temperatures (T(d)), roasting enhanced the enthalpy change (ΔH) values. Pre-treatments caused a decrease in protein least gelling concentration (LGC) values. Water and oil holding capacities (WHC and OHC) were found lower in enzyme treated and higher in preroasted samples. Similar effects were also determined for emulsifying activity (EA) and emulsion stability (ES) values. While foaming capacity (FC) in treated samples decreased, foam stability (FS) increased oppositely. In conclusion, poppyseed meals can be nutritionally good source for diet protein, and a limited pre-roasting can be very beneficial for enhanced protein extraction yield and desirable functional properties.

  5. Feasibility of sunflower oil cake degradation with three different anaerobic consortia.

    PubMed

    Rincón, Bárbara; Portillo, María Del Carmen; González, Juan M; Fernández-Cegrí, Victoria; De La Rubia, María Ángeles; Borja, Rafael

    2011-01-01

    Sunflower oil cake (SuOC) is the solid by-product from the sunflower oil extraction process and an important pollutant waste because of its high organic content. For the anaerobic digestion of SuOC three different industrial reactors were compared as inoculum sources. This was done using a biochemical methane production (BMP) test. Inoculum I was a granular biomass from an industrial reactor treating soft-drink wastewaters. Inoculum II was a flocculent biomass from a full-scale reactor treating biosolids generated in an urban wastewater treatment plant. Inoculum III was a granular biomass from an industrial reactor treating brewery wastes. The highest kinetic constant for methane production was achieved using inoculum II. The inoculum sources were analyzed through PCR amplification of 16S rRNA genes and fingerprinting before (t = 0) and after the BMP test (t = 12 days). No significant differences were found in the bacterial community fingerprints between the beginning and the end of the experiments. The bacterial and archaeal communities of inoculum II were further analyzed. The main bacteria found in this inoculum belong to Alphaproteobacteria and Chloroflexi. Of the Archaea detected, Methanomicrobiales and Methanosarcinales made up practically the whole archaeal community. The results showed the importance of selecting an appropriate inoculum in short term processes due to the fact that the major microbial constituents in the initial consortia remained stable throughout anaerobic digestion.

  6. Low pressure catalytic co-conversion of biogenic waste (rapeseed cake) and vegetable oil.

    PubMed

    Giannakopoulou, Kanellina; Lukas, Michael; Vasiliev, Aleksey; Brunner, Christoph; Schnitzer, Hans

    2010-05-01

    Zeolite catalysts of three types (H-ZSM-5, Fe-ZSM-5 and H-Beta) were tested in the catalytic co-conversion of rapeseed cake and safflower oil into bio-fuel. This low pressure process was carried out at the temperatures of 350 and 400 degrees Celsius. The yields and compositions of the product mixtures depended on the catalyst nature and the process temperatures. The produced organic phases consisted mainly of hydrocarbons, fatty acids and nitriles. This mixture possessed improved characteristics (e.g. heating value, water content, density, viscosity, pH) compared with the bio-oils, making possible its application as a bio-fuel. The most effective catalyst, providing the highest yield of organic liquid phase, was the highly acidic/wide-pore H-Beta zeolite. The products obtained on this catalyst demonstrated the highest degree of deoxygenation and the higher HHV (Higher Heating Value). The aqueous liquid phase contained water-soluble carboxylic acids, phenols and heterocyclic compounds.

  7. Oxidative and Flavor Stability of Tortilla Chips Fried in Expeller Pressed Low Linolenic Acid Soybean Oil

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Continuous pilot plant frying studies were conducted for potato chips using five oils: expeller pressed soybean oil (SBO); low linolenic acid expeller pressed SBO (EPLLSBO); high oleic sunflower oil (HOSUN); corn oil and hydrogenated SBO (HSBO) for 9 h of frying. The chips were aged at 25 deg C. A...

  8. Comparison of the volatile constituents in cold-pressed bergamot oil and a volatile oil isolated by vacuum distillation.

    PubMed

    Belsito, Emilia L; Carbone, Concetta; Di Gioia, Maria L; Leggio, Antonella; Liguori, Angelo; Perri, Francesca; Siciliano, Carlo; Viscomi, Maria C

    2007-09-19

    The vacuum distillation of bergamot peels furnishes a high-quality essential oil that is totally bergapten-free. This oil was compared with that produced by distillation of cold-pressed oils and those commercially available. The oil obtained by vacuum distillation of the bergamot vegetable matrix shows a composition quite similar to that of the cold-pressed oil. It also displays qualitative characteristics that are superior with respect to those normally observed for essential oils isolated by distillation of cold-pressed oils. Oils isolated by the method presented here can constitute ideal candidates in producing foods, for example, Earl Grey tea, and cosmetic preparations.

  9. Mutagenic and carcinogenic effects of waste oil of frying bean cake on Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Schizosaccharomyces pombe.

    PubMed

    Zaied, K A

    1994-09-01

    The present investigation was conducted to study the genotoxic effects of waste oil of frying bean cake (Taamiah oil) using Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Schizosaccharomyces pombe as test organisms. The results showed that the different concentrations of Taamiah oil exert different toxicity on yeast cells. the induced toxicity in both organisms was gradually increased with rising the concentration of Taamiah oil While, the differences between cellular survival and respiratory deficient mutants in treated and untreated samples were significant. Though Taamiah oil induced a concentration-dependent toxicity, it did not exert an induction of recombination. Thus, it seems likely that there was a cytotoxic effect and a weak effect on the induction of cytoplasmic petite mutations in yeast. The results suggest that Taamiah oil does not seem to induce lesions in DNA that are subject to excision repair. However, in Schizosaccharomyces pombe some point mutations seem to be induced in addition to toxicity. The conclusion is straight forward that waste oil of frying bean cake is mutagenic and may be carcinogenic in humans.

  10. Biohydrogen and polyhydroxyalkanoate co-production by Enterobacter aerogenes and Rhodobacter sphaeroides from Calophyllum inophyllum oil cake.

    PubMed

    Arumugam, A; Sandhya, M; Ponnusami, V

    2014-07-01

    The feasibility of coupled biohydrogen and polyhydroxyalkanoate production by Enterobacter aerogenes and Rhodobacter sphaeroides using Calophyllum inophyllum oil cake was studied under dark and photo fermentation conditions. The utilization of a non-edible acidic oil cake (C. inophyllum), and exploitation of a modified minimal salt media led to reduction in the cost of media. Cost of fermentation is reduced by implementation of alternate dark-photo fermentative periods and through the use of a co-culture consisting of a dark fermentative (E. aerogenes) and a photo fermentative (R. sphaeroides) bacterium. The biohydrogen and polyhydroxyalkanoate produced were 7.95 L H2/L media and 10.73 g/L media, respectively, under alternate dark and photo fermentation and were 3.23 L H2/L media and 5.6g/L media, respectively under complete dark fermentation. The characteristics of the oil cake and alternate dark (16 h) and photo (8h) fermentative conditions were found to be supportive in producing high biohydrogen and polyhydroxyalkanoate (PHA) yield.

  11. Pyrolysis of de-oiled seed cake of Jatropha Curcas and catalytic steam reforming of pyrolytic bio-oil to hydrogen.

    PubMed

    Renny, Andrew; Santhosh, Viswanathan; Somkuwar, Nitin; Gokak, D T; Sharma, Pankaj; Bhargava, Sanjay

    2016-11-01

    The aim of this work was to study the pyrolysis of de-oiled seed cake of Jatropha Curcas and catalytic steam reforming of pyrolytic bio-oil to hydrogen. As per literature, presence of heavy nitrogenous and oxygenated compounds leads to catalyst deactivation. Here, an attempt has been made to tune pyrolytic reactions to optimize the N and O content of the pyrolytic bio-oil. Bio-oil conversion and hydrogen yield decreased as reaction progressed, which attributes to temporary loss of catalytic activity by blockage of catalyst pores by carbon deposition. Further, retention of steam reforming activity after repetitive steam activation suggests long-term catalyst usage.

  12. Effects of cold-pressing and seed cooking on functional properties of protein in pennycress (Thlaspi arvense L.) seed and press cakes

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Current interest in pennycress (Thlaspi arvense L.) comes from its seed oil, which is being evaluated for biofuel production. The seed also has notable protein content (27% moisture-free, oil-free basis). The effects of oil processing conditions on functionality of pennycress seed proteins were dete...

  13. Effect of hydrothermal pretreatment of sunflower oil cake on biomethane potential focusing on fibre composition.

    PubMed

    Fernández-Cegrí, Victoria; Angeles De la Rubia, M; Raposo, Francisco; Borja, Rafael

    2012-11-01

    The aim of this study was to elucidate the effect of hydrothermal pretreatment at 25, 100, 150 and 200°C on fibre composition and the biomethane potential of sunflower oil cake (SuOC). An increase in pretreatment temperature from 25 to 200°C caused a decrease in hemicellulose content in the solid pretreated fraction from 13 to 6% while the lignin content increased by 16%. Soluble compounds also increased with temperature. Digestion of solid fractions from pretreatments at 25, 100, 150 and 200°C in batch assays at 35±1°C resulted in methane yields of 114±9, 105±7, 82±7 and 53±8mL CH(4) g(-1)COD(added), respectively. The corresponding methane yields for the liquid fractions were 276±6, 310±4, 220±15 and 247±10mL CH(4) g(-1)COD(added), respectively. Therefore the overall methane yield was highest for SuOC pretreated at 100°C; however, this value was only 6.5% higher than that achieved after pretreatment at 25°C. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Biosorption and desorption of Nickel on oil cake: batch and column studies.

    PubMed

    Khan, Moonis Ali; Ngabura, Mohammad; Choong, Thomas S Y; Masood, Hassan; Chuah, Luqman Abdullah

    2012-01-01

    Biosorption potential of mustard oil cake (MOC) for Ni(II) from aqueous medium was studied. Spectroscopic studies showed possible involvement of acidic (hydroxyl, carbonyl and carboxyl) groups in biosorption. Optimum biosorption was observed at pH 8. Contact time, reaction temperature, biosorbent dose and adsorbate concentration showed significant influence. Linear and non-linear isotherms comparison suggests applicability of Temkin model at 303 and 313 K and Freundlich model at 323K. Kinetics studies revealed applicability of Pseudo-second-order model. The process was endothermic and spontaneous. Freundlich constant (n) and activation energy (Ea) values confirm physical nature of the process. The breakthrough and exhaustive capacities for 5 mg/L initial Ni(II) concentration were 0.25 and 4.5 mg/g, while for 10 mg/L initial Ni(II) concentration were 4.5 and 9.5 mg/g, respectively. Batch desorption studies showed maximum Ni(II) recovery in acidic medium. Regeneration studies by batch and column process confirmed reutilization of biomass without appreciable loss in biosorption.

  15. Growth performance and carcass characteristics of feedlot cattle fed different levels of macadamia oil cake.

    PubMed

    Acheampong-Boateng, O; Mikasi, M S; Benyi, K; Amey, A K A

    2008-04-01

    Eighteen cattle (six Bonsmara males, seven Simmanteler x Beefmaster males and five Simmanteler x Beefmaster females) were assigned to three diets containing 0% (Control), 10% and 20% Macadamia oil cake to evaluate the effects of different levels of Macadamia oilcake (MOC) on feed intake, growth performance and carcass characteristics of feedlot cattle. Differences in average feed intake were not significant (P > 0.05). Average daily gains on the 0% and 20% MOC diets were not significantly different (P < 0.05) but were significantly higher than the average gain on 10% MOC (P < 0.05). The inclusion of 20% MOC increased feed conversion ratio significantly (P < 0.05) compared with the other two treatments. The control group had significantly heavier warm carcasses than the 10% and 20% MOC groups and the 20% MOC group had significantly heavier carcasses than the 10% MOC group. The inclusion of MOC did not significantly affect the dressing percentage and conformation scores of the animals (P > 0.05). There were no condemned livers, suggesting that either there were no toxic factors in the feed or, even if present, were probably inactive in the liver.

  16. Integrated application of some compatible biocontrol agents along with mustard oil seed cake and furadan on Meloidogyne incognita infecting tomato plants.

    PubMed

    Goswami, Bijoy Kumar; Pandey, Rajesh Kumar; Rathour, Kabindra Singh; Bhattacharya, Chaitali; Singh, Lokendra

    2006-11-01

    Experiments were carried out to study the effect of two fungal bioagents along with mustard oil cake and furadan against root knot nematode Meloidogyne incognita infecting tomato under greenhouse condition. Bioagents viz., Paecilomyces lilacinus and Trichoderma viride alone or in combination with mustard cake and furadan promoted plant growth, reduced number of galls/plant, egg masses/root system and eggs/egg mass. The fungal bioagents along with mustard cake and nematicide showed least nematodes reproduction factor as compared to untreated infested soil.

  17. Celebratory Cakes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mahoney, Ellen

    2012-01-01

    Cakes are no longer the simple desserts they once were. The cake has evolved into an elaborate, sculptural form that represents a special occasion. Sculptural cake forms have become expressive designs using three-dimensional shapes, an array of surface textures, and a range of colors. The use of cakes in the artwork of David Gilhooly, Wayne…

  18. Celebratory Cakes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mahoney, Ellen

    2012-01-01

    Cakes are no longer the simple desserts they once were. The cake has evolved into an elaborate, sculptural form that represents a special occasion. Sculptural cake forms have become expressive designs using three-dimensional shapes, an array of surface textures, and a range of colors. The use of cakes in the artwork of David Gilhooly, Wayne…

  19. Esterification of oil adsorbed on palm decanter cake into methyl ester using sulfonated rice husk ash as heterogeneous acid catalyst

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hindryawati, Noor; Erwin, Maniam, Gaanty Pragas

    2017-02-01

    Palm Decanter cake (PDC) which is categorized as the waste from palm oil mill has been found to contain residual crude palm oil. The oil adsorbed on the PDC (PDC-oil) can be extracted and potentially used as feedstock for biodiesel production. Feedstock from waste like PDC-oil is burdened with high free fatty acids (FFAs) which make the feedstock difficult to be converted into biodiesel using basic catalyst. Therefore, in this study, a solid acid, RHA-SO3H catalyst was synthesized by sulfonating rice husk ash (RHA) with concentrated sulfuric acid. The RHA-SO3H prepared was characterized with TGA, FTIR, BET, XRD, FE-SEM, and Hammett indicators (methyl red, bromophenol blue, and crystal violet). PDC was found to have about 11.3 wt. % oil recovered after 1 hour extraction using ultrasound method. The presence of sulfonate group was observed in IR spectrum, and the surface area of RHA-SO3H was reduced to 37 m2.g-1 after impregnation of sulfonate group. The RHA-SO3H catalyst showed that it can work for both esterification of free fatty acid which is present in PDC-oil, and transesterification of triglycerides into methyl ester. The results showed highest methyl ester content of 70.2 wt.% at optimal conditions, which was 6 wt.% catalyst amount, methanol to oil molar ratio of 17:1 for 5 hours at 120 °C.

  20. In vitro and in vivo antibacterial activities of cranberry press cake extracts alone or in combination with β-lactams against Staphylococcus aureus

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Cranberry fruits possess many biological activities partly due to their various phenolic compounds; however the underlying modes of action are poorly understood. We studied the effect of cranberry fruit extracts on the gene expression of Staphylococcus aureus to identify specific cellular processes involved in the antibacterial action. Methods Transcriptional profiles of four S. aureus strains grown in broth supplemented or not with 2 mg/ml of a commercial cranberry preparation (Nutricran®90) were compared using DNA arrays to reveal gene modulations serving as markers for biological activity. Ethanol extracted pressed cakes from fresh fruits also produced various fractions and their effects on marker genes were demonstrated by qPCR. Minimal inhibitory concentrations (MICs) of the most effective cranberry fraction (FC111) were determined against multiple S. aureus strains and drug interactions with β-lactam antibiotics were also evaluated. Incorporation assays with [3H]-radiolabeled precursors were performed to evaluate the effect of FC111 on DNA, RNA, peptidoglycan (PG) and protein biosynthesis. Results Treatment of S. aureus with Nutricran®90 or FC111 revealed a transcriptional signature typical of PG-acting antibiotics (up-regulation of genes vraR/S, murZ, lytM, pbp2, sgtB, fmt). The effect of FC111 on PG was confirmed by the marked inhibition of incorporation of D-[3H]alanine. The combination of β-lactams and FC111 in checkerboard assays revealed a synergistic activity against S. aureus including strain MRSA COL, which showed a 512-fold drop of amoxicillin MIC in the presence of FC111 at MIC/8. Finally, a therapeutic proof of concept was established in a mouse mastitis model of infection. S. aureus-infected mammary glands were treated with amoxicillin, FC111 or a combination of both; only the combination significantly reduced bacterial counts from infected glands (P<0.05) compared to the untreated mice. Conclusions The cranberry fraction FC111

  1. Pressurized pyrolysis of dried distillers grains with solubles and canola seed press cake in a fixed-bed reactor.

    PubMed

    Ateş, Funda; Miskolczi, Norbert; Saricaoğlu, Beyza

    2015-02-01

    Pressurized pyrolysis of biomasses was carried in a fixed bed reactor to obtain gases, bio-oils and chars at elevated temperatures. The products were characterized by GC-MS, FTIR, viscometer, SEM, BET and EDXRFS methods. Experiments were performed at 1, 5 and 10 bar pressure and 400, 500 and 600°C temperatures. The experimental results show that in all the experimental condition the yield of bio-oil from DDGS as higher than that of canola. Yield of non-condensable gases and chars increased, while that of liquid products decreased by pressure. Increasing pressure favoured the formation of low molecular weight gas, such as H2. Maximum surface area of chars was obtained at atmospheric pressure and the surface areas decreased rapidly with increasing pressure. GC/MS results shows that the amount of fatty acids in bio-oils was increased by increasing pressure and bio-oils showed non-Newtonian behavior. Based on EDXRFS results, bio-oils and char contained lots of elements. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Cold-pressed and hot-pressed rapeseed oil: The effects of roasting and seed moisture on the antioxi- dant activity, canolol, and tocopherol level.

    PubMed

    Siger, Aleksander; Józefiak, Marta; Górnaś, Paweł

    2017-01-01

    The paper looks at the levels of canolol, tocopherols and antioxidant activity in cold-pressed and hot-pressed rapeseed oils produced from seeds of various moisture levels (5%, 7.5%, and 10%). The paper also considers the effects of seed roasting on the levels of these compounds. The material used for the tests was rapeseed cv. Adrianna. The quality of the oils obtained is determined using peroxide and acid values. The levels of canolol and tocopherols are analyzed using HPLC. The DPPH radical-scavenging activity method for oil samples and phenolic extract from oils was used. It has been demonstrated that the oils produced from rapeseeds with a 5% moisture content, and   in particular from cold-pressed oils, were characterized by the lowest peroxide values. Cold-pressed oils produced from rapeseeds with a 5% moisture content were characterized by higher levels of tocopherols and plastochromanol-8. In the case of hot-pressed oils, the highest levels of tocopherols were found in oils pro- duced from seeds with a 7.5% moisture content, and the greatest amount of PC-8 (more than 4 mg/100 g) was found in oils produced from seeds with a 10% moisture content. Hot-pressed oils have been shown to have higher levels of these compounds than cold-pressed oils. Both roasting and hot pressing led to an increase in the amount of canolol in the oils investigated. When analysing the antioxidant activity of the oils and phenolic extracts it was shown that phenolic compounds are responsible for approx. 10% of total antioxidant activity. Various levels of biologically active compounds were shown to be present in the rapeseed oil obtained from raw materials of a varying moisture content. The type of pressing process (cold-pressing or hot-pressing) and whether the seeds have undergone roasting has also been shown to affect the resulting oil and the level of native antioxidants it contains.

  3. Fungal production of single cell oil using untreated copra cake and evaluation of its fuel properties for biodiesel.

    PubMed

    Khot, Mahesh; Gupta, Rohini; Barve, Kadambari; Zinjarde, Smita; Govindwar, Sanjay; Kumar, Ameeta Ravi

    2015-04-01

    This study evaluated the microbial conversion of coconut oil waste, a major agro-residue in tropical countries, into single cell oil (SCO) feedstock for biodiesel production. Copra cake was used as a low-cost renewable substrate without any prior chemical or enzymatic pretreatment for submerged growth of an oleaginous tropical mangrove fungus, Aspergillus terreus IBB M1. The SCO extracted from fermented biomass was converted into fatty acid methyl esters (FAMEs) by transesterification and evaluated on the basis of fatty acid profiles and key fuel properties for biodiesel. The fungus produced a biomass (8.2 g/l) yielding 257 mg/g copra cake SCO with ~98% FAMEs. The FAMEs were mainly composed of saturated methyl esters (61.2%) of medium-chain fatty acids (C12-C18) with methyl oleate (C18:1; 16.57%) and methyl linoleate (C18:2; 19.97%) making up the unsaturated content. A higher content of both saturated FAMEs and methyl oleate along with the absence of polyunsaturated FAMEs with ≥4 double bonds is expected to impart good fuel quality. This was evident from the predicted and experimentally determined key fuel properties of FAMEs (density, kinematic viscosity, iodine value, acid number, cetane number), which were in accordance with the international (ASTM D6751, EN 14214) and national (IS 15607) biodiesel standards, suggesting their suitability as a biodiesel fuel. The low cost, renewable nature, and easy availability of copra cake, its conversion into SCO without any thermochemical pretreatment, and pelleted fungal growth facilitating easier downstream processing by simple filtration make this process cost effective and environmentally favorable.

  4. Hydrothermal liquefaction of de-oiled Jatropha curcas cake using Deep Eutectic Solvents (DESs) as catalysts and co-solvents.

    PubMed

    Alhassan, Yahaya; Kumar, Naveen; Bugaje, Idris M

    2016-01-01

    Biomass liquefaction using ionic liquids (ILs) as catalysts has received appreciable attention, in renewable fuels and chemicals production, recently. However, issues associated with the production cost, long reaction time and use of volatile solvents are undeniably challenging. Thus, Deep Eutectic Solvents (DESs) emerged as promising and potential ILs substitutes. The hydrothermal liquefaction of de-oiled Jatropha curcas cake was catalyzed by four synthesized DESs as catalysts and co-solvents for selective extraction. Proximate and ultimate analyses including ash, moisture and carbon contents of bio-crude produced varied slightly. The higher heating values found ranges from 21.15 ± 0.82 MJ/kg to 24.30 ± 0.98 MJ/kg. The bio-crude yields obtained using ChCl-KOH DES was 43.53 wt% and ChCl-p-TsOH DES was 38.31 wt%. Bio-crude yield using ChCl-FeCl3 DES was 30.80 wt%. It is suggested that, the selectivity of bio-crude could be improved, by using DESs as catalyst and co-solvent in HTL of biomass such as de-oiled J. curcas cake. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Magnetic/non-magnetic argan press cake nanocellulose for the selective extraction of sudan dyes in food samples prior to the determination by capillary liquid chromatograpy.

    PubMed

    Benmassaoud, Yassine; Villaseñor, María J; Salghi, Rachid; Jodeh, Shehdeh; Algarra, Manuel; Zougagh, Mohammed; Ríos, Ángel

    2017-05-01

    Two methods for the determination of Sudan dyes (Sudan I, Sudan II, Sudan III and Sudan IV) in food samples, by solid phase extraction - capillary liquid chromatography, are proposed. Both methods use nanocellulose (NC) extracted from bleached argan press cake (APC), as a nano-adsorbent recycled from an agricultural waste material. One of the methods involves the dispersion of NC in food sample extracts, along with the waste and eluents being separated by centrifugation. In the other method, NC was modified by magnetic iron nanoparticles before using it in the extraction of Sudan dyes. The use of a magnetic component in the extraction process allows magnetic separation to replace the centrifugation step in a convenient and economical way. The two proposed methods allows the determination of Sudan dye amounts at the 0.25-2.00µgL(-1) concentration range. The limit of detections, limit of quantifications and standard deviations achieved were lower than 0.1µgL(-1), 0.20µgL(-1) and 3.46% respectively, when using NC as a nano-adsorbent, and lower than 0.07µgL(-1), 0.23µgL(-1) and 2.62%, respectively, with the magnetic nanocellulose (MNC) was used. Both methods were applied to the determination of Sudan dyes in barbeque and ketchup sauce samples, obtaining recoveries between 93.4% and 109.6%.

  6. Preliminary Design on Screw Press Model of Palm Oil Extraction Machine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Firdaus, Muhammad; Salleh, S. M.; Nawi, I.; Ngali, Z.; Siswanto, W. A.; Yusup, E. M.

    2017-01-01

    The concept of the screw press is to compress the fruit bunch between the main screw and travelling cones to extract the palm oil. Visual inspection, model development and simulation of screw press by using Solidworks 2016 and calculation of design properties were performed to support the investigation. The project aims to analyse different design of screw press which improves in reducing maintenance cost and increasing lifespan. The currently existing of screw press can endure between 500 to 900 hours and requires frequent maintenance. Different configurations have been tried in determination of best design properties in screw press. The results specify that screw press with tapered inner shaft has more total lifespan (hours) compared existing screw press. The selection of the screw press with tapered inner shaft can reduce maintenance cost and increase lifespan of the screw press.

  7. Cold pressed versus solvent extracted lemon (Citrus limon L.) seed oils: yield and properties.

    PubMed

    Yilmaz, Emin; Güneşer, Buket Aydeniz

    2017-06-01

    During the processing of lemon fruit, a large quantity of seeds is produced as a by-product. These seeds contain valuable components; therefore, required to be evaluated. This study aimed to compare the cold pressed with hexane-extracted lemon seed oils and determine their physicochemical and thermal properties. Cold pressing yielded significantly lower oil (36.84%) than hexane extraction (71.29%). In addition, the concentrations of free fatty acids, peroxides, and p-anisidine were lower in the cold pressed oil. Cold pressed oil showed higher total phenolics, α-tocopherol and antioxidant capacity. The major fatty acids found in the cold pressed oil were linoleic and palmitic acids, whereas β-sitosterol and campesterol were the dominant sterols. The crystallization and melting temperatures and enthalpies were also elucidated. In conclusion, this study proved that high quality of lemon seed oils can be produced by the cold pressing technique; this oil can be used in industries such as the food, cosmetic or chemical industries.

  8. Assessment of the anaerobic acidogenesis of wet olive cake from a two-phase olive oil mill.

    PubMed

    Rincón, Bárbara; Borja, Rafael

    2012-01-01

    A study of the anaerobic acidogenesis of wet olive cake or olive mill solid waste (OMSW) from the two-phase olive oil mill industry was carried out. Eight different hydraulic retention times (HRTs) ranging from 50.0-10.7 days were studied. An increase of 935.7 % in total volatile fatty acids (VFA) over the initial acidic concentration in the OMSW (1.4 g L(-1) expressed as acetic acid) was achieved. The results showed a maximum total VFA generation rate of 5.05 g COD L(-1)d(-1), this rate being achieved at the same hydraulic retention time as the maximum acetic acid production (8.2 g L(-1)) and as the maximum acidification degree (34.4 %).

  9. Evaluation of the hydrolytic-acidogenic step of a two-stage mesophilic anaerobic digestion process of sunflower oil cake.

    PubMed

    De la Rubia, M A; Raposo, F; Rincón, B; Borja, R

    2009-09-01

    The influence of the hydraulic retention time (HRT) and organic loading rate (OLR) on the performance of the hydrolytic-acidogenic step of a two-stage anaerobic digestion process of sunflower oil cake (SuOC) were assessed. The experiments were performed in laboratory-scale completely stirred tank reactors at mesophilic (35 degrees C) temperature. Six OLR (ranging from 4 to 9 g VS L(-1) d(-1)) for four HRTs (8, 10, 12 and 15 days) were tested to check the effect of each operational variable. Based on the results obtained, it can be concluded that the hydrolysis yields obtained for all HRTs and OLRs assayed were in the range of 20.5-30.1%. In addition, the acidification degree of the substrate was mainly influenced by the OLR but not by the HRTs, the highest value (83.8%) being achieved for an HRT of 10 days and an OLR of 6 g VS L(-1) d(-1).

  10. Evaluation of Castor Oil Cake Starch and Recovered Glycerol and Development of "Green" Composites Based on Those with Plant Fibers.

    PubMed

    Guimarães, José Luis; Trindade Cursino, Ana Cristina; Ketzer Saul, Cyro; Sierrakowski, Maria Rita; Ramos, Luiz Pereira; Satyanarayana, Kestur Gundappa

    2016-01-27

    Continuous efforts are being made in some countries for the recovery of crude glycerin (RG/CG) and castor oil cake (COC), the two byproducts of biodiesel production. These are expected to help, not only in addressing environmental safety, but also in adding value to those byproducts, which otherwise may go to waste. Finding ways to utilize those byproducts underlines the main objective of this study. This paper presents the evaluation of (i) COC, glycerin and banana and sugarcane fibers for moisture content; (ii) COC for structural and thermal properties; and (iii) CG for its chemical characteristics. The possibility of using COC and CG with the selected fibers as reinforcement in the development of bio-composites is attempted through thermo-molding. Results revealed enhanced mechanical properties for these composites. The obtained results are discussed in terms of the observed morphology.

  11. Biobriquetting of rapeseed cake

    SciTech Connect

    Karaosmanoglu, F.

    2000-04-01

    One of the ways of obtaining biofuel is briquetting of biomass sources. In this study, without adding a binder the briquetting possibility of rapeseed cake obtained through cold press and Soxhlet extraction procedures has been investigated. The shatter indices, water resistivities, and calorific values of the biobriquets were established. The biobriquet prepared from the extracted cake tested under a pressure of 150 MPa and with a moisture level of 10.1% was determined as an alternative biofuel and subjected to thermogravimetric analysis in an oxidizing atmosphere of air.

  12. Adding value to the oil cake as a waste from oil processing industry: production of lipase and protease by Candida utilis in solid state fermentation.

    PubMed

    Moftah, Omar Ali Saied; Grbavčić, Sanja; Zuža, Milena; Luković, Nevena; Bezbradica, Dejan; Knežević-Jugović, Zorica

    2012-01-01

    Olive oil cake is a by-product from the olive oil processing industry and can be used for the lipase and protease production by Candida utilis in solid state fermentation. Different carbon and nitrogen sources were evaluated, and the results showed that the supplementation of the substrate with maltose and starch as carbon sources and yeast extract as a nitrogen source significantly increased the lipase production. The best results were obtained with maltose, whereas rather low lipase and protease activities were found with glucose and oleic acid. Response surface methodology and a five-level-three-factor central composite rotatable design were used to evaluate the effects of the initial moisture content, inoculum size and fermentation time on both lipase and protease activity levels. A lipase activity value of ≈25 U g(-1) and a protease activity value of 110 U g(-1) were obtained under the optimized fermentation conditions. An alkaline treatment of the substrate appeared to be efficient, leading to increases of 39% and 133% in the lipase and protease production, respectively. The results showed that the olive cake could be a good source for enzyme production by solid state fermentation.

  13. Growth, testis size, spermatogenesis, semen parameters and seminal plasma and sperm membrane protein profile during the reproductive development of male goats supplemented with de-oiled castor cake.

    PubMed

    Oliveira, C H A; Silva, A M; Silva, L M; van Tilburg, M F; Fernandes, C C L; Velho, A L M C; Moura, A A; Moreno, F B M B; Monteiro-Moreira, A C O; Moreira, R A; Lima, I M T; Rondina, D

    2015-06-01

    The present study was conducted to evaluate the effect of de-oiled castor cake on reproductive traits of crossbreed goats. Fourteen males were grouped into two lots (n = 7/group), as described: group without de-oiled castor cake (WCC) and group fed with de-oiled castor cake (CC). Goats received two diets containing a mixture of Bermudagrass hay and concentrates with the same energy (73% total digestive nutrients) and protein content (15% crude protein) during 150 days, corresponding to ages from 40 (puberty) to 60 weeks. Blood plasma concentrations of urea, albumin, lactate dehydrogenase, creatinine, alanine aminotransferase and testosterone were determined. We also evaluated scrotal circumference, sperm parameters, quantitative aspects of spermatogenesis and daily sperm production (DSP), as well as the proteome of seminal plasma and sperm membrane. Seminal fluid and sperm proteins were analyzed by 2D SDS-PAGE and mass spectrometry. After 150 days of castor cake feeding, animals had no changes in the biochemical composition of blood plasma, suggesting the absence of intoxication by ingestion of ricin. There were no alterations in dry mater intake, weight gain, testis size, peripheral concentrations of testosterone, sperm concentration, motility and morphology. Sertoli and germ cell populations in the testis and DSP were not affected either. However, there were significant variations in the expression of five seminal plasma proteins and four sperm membrane proteins. In conclusion, the replacement of soybean meal by castor cake (with ricin concentrations of 50mg/kg) did not interfere with the growth and core reproductive development of male goats. However, the diet with ricin altered the expression of certain seminal plasma and sperm membrane proteins, which play roles in sperm function and fertilization. Lower expression of these proteins may impair the ricin-fed animals to perform as high-fertility sires.

  14. Characterization and Comparison of Fast Pyrolysis Bio-oils from Pinewood, Rapeseed Cake, and Wheat Straw Using 13C NMR and Comprehensive GC × GC

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Fast pyrolysis bio-oils are feasible energy carriers and a potential source of chemicals. Detailed characterization of bio-oils is essential to further develop its potential use. In this study, quantitative 13C nuclear magnetic resonance (13C NMR) combined with comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography (GC × GC) was used to characterize fast pyrolysis bio-oils originated from pinewood, wheat straw, and rapeseed cake. The combination of both techniques provided new information on the chemical composition of bio-oils for further upgrading. 13C NMR analysis indicated that pinewood-based bio-oil contained mostly methoxy/hydroxyl (≈30%) and carbohydrate (≈27%) carbons; wheat straw bio-oil showed to have high amount of alkyl (≈35%) and aromatic (≈30%) carbons, while rapeseed cake-based bio-oil had great portions of alkyl carbons (≈82%). More than 200 compounds were identified and quantified using GC × GC coupled to a flame ionization detector (FID) and a time of flight mass spectrometer (TOF-MS). Nonaromatics were the most abundant and comprised about 50% of the total mass of compounds identified and quantified via GC × GC. In addition, this analytical approach allowed the quantification of high value-added phenolic compounds, as well as of low molecular weight carboxylic acids and aldehydes, which exacerbate the unstable and corrosive character of the bio-oil. PMID:27668136

  15. Characterization and Comparison of Fast Pyrolysis Bio-oils from Pinewood, Rapeseed Cake, and Wheat Straw Using (13)C NMR and Comprehensive GC × GC.

    PubMed

    Negahdar, Leila; Gonzalez-Quiroga, Arturo; Otyuskaya, Daria; Toraman, Hilal E; Liu, Li; Jastrzebski, Johann T B H; Van Geem, Kevin M; Marin, Guy B; Thybaut, Joris W; Weckhuysen, Bert M

    2016-09-06

    Fast pyrolysis bio-oils are feasible energy carriers and a potential source of chemicals. Detailed characterization of bio-oils is essential to further develop its potential use. In this study, quantitative (13)C nuclear magnetic resonance ((13)C NMR) combined with comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography (GC × GC) was used to characterize fast pyrolysis bio-oils originated from pinewood, wheat straw, and rapeseed cake. The combination of both techniques provided new information on the chemical composition of bio-oils for further upgrading. (13)C NMR analysis indicated that pinewood-based bio-oil contained mostly methoxy/hydroxyl (≈30%) and carbohydrate (≈27%) carbons; wheat straw bio-oil showed to have high amount of alkyl (≈35%) and aromatic (≈30%) carbons, while rapeseed cake-based bio-oil had great portions of alkyl carbons (≈82%). More than 200 compounds were identified and quantified using GC × GC coupled to a flame ionization detector (FID) and a time of flight mass spectrometer (TOF-MS). Nonaromatics were the most abundant and comprised about 50% of the total mass of compounds identified and quantified via GC × GC. In addition, this analytical approach allowed the quantification of high value-added phenolic compounds, as well as of low molecular weight carboxylic acids and aldehydes, which exacerbate the unstable and corrosive character of the bio-oil.

  16. Primary human monocyte differentiation regulated by Nigella sativa pressed oil.

    PubMed

    Mat, Mahaya C; Mohamed, Azman S; Hamid, Shahrul S

    2011-11-21

    Oxidized low density lipoprotein plays an important role in development of foam cells in atherosclerosis. The study was focused on regulation of primary human monocyte growth and CD11b expression in presence of Nigella sativa oil. Primary human monocytes were isolated from whole blood and grown at 37°C and 5% CO₂ saturation for five days prior to treatment with Nigella sativa oil. The cells were plated and washed before treatment with ox-LDL (10 μg/ml) as positive control and combined treatment of ox-LDL (10 μg/ml) and (140 ng/ml) Nigella sativa oil. The growth progression was monitored every 24 hours for 3 days. Macrophages showed reduced growth in comparison to monocytes 24 hours after treatment with Nigella sativa oil. The mean cell diameter was significantly different between untreated and treated condition in monocytes and macrophages (p < 0.001). Similarly, intracellular lipid accumulation was hindered in combined treatment with Nigella sativa oil. This was further supported by cell surface expression analysis, where CD11b was markedly reduced in cells treated with combination oxLDL and Nigella sativa oil compared to oxLDL alone. More cells differentiated into macrophage-like cells when monocytes were supplemented with oxidized LDL alone. The finding provides preliminary evidence on regulation of cell growth and differentiation in monocyte and monocyte-derived macrophages by Nigella sativa oil. Further investigations need to be conducted to explain its mechanism in human monocyte.

  17. Co-pyrolysis of sunflower-oil cake with potassium carbonate and zinc oxide using plasma torch to produce bio-fuels.

    PubMed

    Shie, Je-Lueng; Chang, Chia-Chi; Chang, Ching-Yuan; Tzeng, Chin-Ching; Wu, Chung-Yu; Lin, Kae-Long; Tseng, Jyi-Yeong; Yuan, Min-Hao; Li, Heng-Yi; Kuo, Ching-Hui; Yu, Yuh-Jeng; Chang, Lieh-Chih

    2011-12-01

    This study examined the effects of additives of potassium carbonate (K2CO3) and zinc oxide (ZnO) on the pyrolysis of waste sunflower-oil cake using a 60 kW pilot-scale plasma torch reactor. The major gaseous products were CO and H2. The productions of CO and CH4 increased while that of H2 decreased with the addition of K2CO3. The use of ZnO reduced while enhanced the formation of CO and H2, respectively. In order to match the appeal of resource reutilization, one can use the waste K2CO3 resulted from the sorption of CO2 with KOH in greenhouse gas control and the waste ZnO obtained from the melting process as additives for the co-pyrolysis of sunflower-oil cake, yielding fuels rich in CO and H2, respectively. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Primary human monocyte differentiation regulated by Nigella sativa pressed oil

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Oxidized low density lipoprotein plays an important role in development of foam cells in atherosclerosis. The study was focused on regulation of primary human monocyte growth and CD11b expression in presence of Nigella sativa oil. Methods Primary human monocytes were isolated from whole blood and grown at 37°C and 5% CO2 saturation for five days prior to treatment with Nigella sativa oil. The cells were plated and washed before treatment with ox-LDL (10 μg/ml) as positive control and combined treatment of ox-LDL (10 μg/ml) and (140 ng/ml) Nigella sativa oil. The growth progression was monitored every 24 hours for 3 days. Results Macrophages showed reduced growth in comparison to monocytes 24 hours after treatment with Nigella sativa oil. The mean cell diameter was significantly different between untreated and treated condition in monocytes and macrophages (p < 0.001). Similarly, intracellular lipid accumulation was hindered in combined treatment with Nigella sativa oil. This was further supported by cell surface expression analysis, where CD11b was markedly reduced in cells treated with combination oxLDL and Nigella sativa oil compared to oxLDL alone. More cells differentiated into macrophage-like cells when monocytes were supplemented with oxidized LDL alone. Conclusions The finding provides preliminary evidence on regulation of cell growth and differentiation in monocyte and monocyte-derived macrophages by Nigella sativa oil. Further investigations need to be conducted to explain its mechanism in human monocyte. PMID:22104447

  19. Use of Plackett-Burman design for rapid screening of nitrogen and carbon sources for the production of lipase in solid state fermentation by Yarrowia lipolytica from mustard oil cake (Brassica napus).

    PubMed

    Imandi, Sarat Babu; Karanam, Sita Kumari; Garapati, Hanumantha Rao

    2013-01-01

    Mustard oil cake (Brassica napus), the residue obtained after extraction of mustard oil from mustard oil seeds, was investigated for the production of lipase under solid state fermentation (SSF) using the marine yeast Yarrowia lipolytica NCIM 3589. Process parameters such as incubation time, biomass concentration, initial moisture content, carbon source concentration and nitrogen source concentration of the medium were optimized. Screening of ten nitrogen and five carbon sources has been accomplished with the help of Plackett-Burman design. The highest lipase activity of 57.89 units per gram of dry fermented substrate (U/gds) was observed with the substrate of mustard oil cake in four days of fermentation.

  20. Use of Plackett-Burman design for rapid screening of nitrogen and carbon sources for the production of lipase in solid state fermentation by Yarrowia lipolytica from mustard oil cake (Brassica napus)

    PubMed Central

    Imandi, Sarat Babu; Karanam, Sita Kumari; Garapati, Hanumantha Rao

    2013-01-01

    Mustard oil cake (Brassica napus), the residue obtained after extraction of mustard oil from mustard oil seeds, was investigated for the production of lipase under solid state fermentation (SSF) using the marine yeast Yarrowia lipolytica NCIM 3589. Process parameters such as incubation time, biomass concentration, initial moisture content, carbon source concentration and nitrogen source concentration of the medium were optimized. Screening of ten nitrogen and five carbon sources has been accomplished with the help of Plackett-Burman design. The highest lipase activity of 57.89 units per gram of dry fermented substrate (U/gds) was observed with the substrate of mustard oil cake in four days of fermentation. PMID:24516460

  1. Extraction of oil from Euphorbia Lagascae seeds by screw pressing

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Euphorbia lagascae (Spreng.) is a drought tolerant plant native to Spain. Euphorbia seeds contain 45-50% oil with 60-65% of its fatty acids as vernolic (12S,13R-epoxy-cis-9-octadecenoic) acid. Vernolic acid has wide applications in paints and coatings, plasticizers, adhesives, polymers, and lubrican...

  2. Biosynthesis of bacitracin in solid-state fermentation by Bacillus licheniformis using defatted oil seed cakes as substrate.

    PubMed

    Farzana, Kalsoom; Shah, Syed Nisar Hussain; Butt, Farooq Bashir; Awan, Sattar Bukhsh

    2005-01-01

    Bacitracin is being imported in Pakistan involving substantial amount of foreign exchange for its incorporation in poultry feed. The cheap raw material for its production is readily available and cheap such as soybean meal, sunflower meal, wheat bran etc. Thus development of this technology in our country would result in saving a reasonable amount of foreign exchange by exploiting indigenous resources. The present study is concerned with the biosynthesis of antibiotic bacitracin in solid-state fermentation by Bacillus licheniformis on laboratory scale using defatted oil seed cakes of agricultural by-products as starting material for maximum production of the antibiotic Bacitracin. In solid-state fermentation, wheat bran, soybean meal, sunflower meal, rice hulls and their different combinations were used. The antibiotic activity, 48 hours after inoculation was 4375 i.u / gm when only soybean was used. However, maximum titre 4820 i.u / gm of antibiotic was obtained using wheat bran and soybean meal in ratio of 1:3.

  3. In vitro study on digestion of pumpkin oil cake protein hydrolysate: evaluation of impact on bioactive properties.

    PubMed

    Vaštag, Zužana; Popović, Ljiljana; Popović, Senka; Peričin-Starčević, Ivana; Krimer-Malešević, Vera

    2013-06-01

    In this work, a simulated gastrointestinal digestion of pumpkin oil cake protein hydrolysate prepared by alcalase (AH) was studied to evaluate the impact of the main gastrointestinal proteases on its antiradical and angiotensin I-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitory activity. The in vitro digestion was performed in a model system under optimized reaction conditions, first by pepsin and then with α-chymotrypsin and trypsin, simultaneously. The treatment with the gastrointestinal proteases led to a significant increase of the degree of hydrolysis, up to 55.95 ± 3.1% in the final digest. After the digestion, the 2,2-azinobis3-ethylbenzo-thiazoline-6-sulphonic acid radical cation activity of AH was increased from 7.59 ± 0.1 to 10.25 ± 0.3 mM trolox equivalent antioxidant coefficient/mg (p < 0.05), while the ACE inhibitory activity was not affected, being 74.29 ± 1.25% (IC50 = 0.404 ± 0.014 mg/ml) (p>0.05) in the final digest. These results showed an advantage of AH to increase the antiradical and resist ACE inhibitory activity during digestion by main gastrointestinal proteases, appearing as promising bioactive food ingredient.

  4. Growth performance and nutrient composition of juvenile Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) fed Spirulina flakes, rice bran and mustard oil cake.

    PubMed

    Sultana, N; Noor, P; Abdullah, A T M; Hasan, M R; Ahmed, K M; Naser, M N

    2012-08-01

    Tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) is an important cultured fish that is widely distributed in Bangladesh. This study was conducted to improve the growth performance and nutrient contents of the fish using five different types of feeds. Tilapia fingerlings were fed two types of commercial fish feeds (Feed-1 and Feed-2), Spirulina flakes (Feed-3), Feed-2 mixed with Spirulina flakes (Feed-4) and manually mixed feed made from a mixture of mustard oil cake and rice bran (Feed-5). After 4 weeks of being fed with the diets, growth parameters and meat nutrient composition of the tilapia fingerlings were recorded. Significant growth in length and weight was observed in juvenile tilapia fish fed with commercial Feed-1 only, while growth performance varied significantly among fingerlings fed other types of feeds. Body tissue calcium (92.8 mg/100 g), iron (1.29 mg/100 g) was higher in fishes fed with dry Spirulina flakes (Feed 3), while the highest amount of zinc (2.09 mg/100 g) was recorded in fishes fed Feed-5. Protein (13.32%) content was highest in fish fed Feed-2 mixed with Spirulina flakes (Feed-4). Meat nutritional quality of tilapia can be improved by combining commercial feeds with Spirulina flakes, compared with feeding commercial feeds in isolation.

  5. Digestibility of amino acids in organically cultivated white-flowering faba bean and cake from cold-pressed rapeseed, linseed and hemp seed in growing pigs.

    PubMed

    Presto, Magdalena Høøk; Lyberg, Karin; Lindberg, Jan Erik

    2011-02-01

    The study aimed at determining the ileal apparent (IAD) and standardised ileal (SID) digestibility of crude protein (CP) and amino acids (AA) in organically cultivated white-flowering faba beans (Vicia faba), and cakes from hemp seed (Cannabis sativa), linseed (Linum usitatissimum) and rapeseed (Brassica napus). The experiment was designed as a four period cross-over trial with six castrated male Yorkshire pigs fitted with post valve T-caecum (PVTC) cannulas. The IAD and SID of CP for the feed ingredients ranged from 79.2-85.9% and were affected by dietary treatment, with significantly lower values in rapeseed cake. The IAD and SID of most AA in the feed ingredients were also significantly affected by dietary treatment, but without any consistent trend. However, the overall digestibilities were in general comparable with conventional protein feed ingredients. Thus, these alternative protein feed ingredients have the potential to be used to a greater extent when formulating organic pig diets.

  6. Press freedom, oil exports, and risk for natural disasters: a challenge for climato-economic theory?

    PubMed

    Arantes, Joana; Grace, Randolph C; Kemp, Simon

    2013-10-01

    Does the interaction between climactic demands, monetary resources, and freedom suggest a more general relationship between the environmental challenges that human societies face and their resources to meet those challenges? Using data on press freedom (Van de Vliert 2011a), we found no evidence of a similar interaction with natural resources (as measured by oil exports) or risk for natural disasters.

  7. 147. Detail of oil filter press in Room B1. It ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    147. Detail of oil filter press in Room B-1. It was manufactured by T. Shriver & Company of Harrison, New Jersey, and dates from 1911. Photo by Jet Lowe, HAER, 1989. - Puget Sound Power & Light Company, White River Hydroelectric Project, 600 North River Avenue, Dieringer, Pierce County, WA

  8. Buoyancy of a thin plate pressing a floating oil film on water.

    PubMed

    Ji, Xiang-Ying; Feng, Xi-Qiao

    2013-06-04

    Because of the superhydrophobicity of their legs, water striders and many other aquatic creatures can stand and walk effortlessly on water. Because of pollution, an oil film may exist on water in some practical situations. To date, however, it remains unclear how the presence of an oil film would affect the wetting behavior of an object floating on water. In this work, we investigated, both theoretically and experimentally, the buoyancy of a thin plate pressing the surface of a bilayered liquid system. In particular, the effect of the oil layer on the buoyancy force was examined. The critical depth and the corresponding buoyancy at the penetration of the plate into the liquids were obtained analytically. For a plate vertically pressing the liquid surface, the force-displacement loop during a complete advancing-receding cycle was analyzed. Experiments were also performed to verify the theoretical results.

  9. Plausible exploitation of Jatropha de-oiled seed cake for lipase and phytase production and simultaneous detoxification by Candida parapsilosis isolated from poultry garbage.

    PubMed

    Kannoju, Balakrishna; Ganapathiwar, Swaruparani; Nunavath, Hanumalal; Sunkar, Bindu; Bhukya, Bhima

    2017-02-01

    Jatropha de-oiled seed cake was explored to utilize as a basic nutrient source for Candida parapsilosis, isolated from poultry garbage and selected based on the production of lipase and phytase enzymes under submerged fermentation. At optimized parameters under solid-state fermentation, lipase and phytase activities were recorded as 1056.66±2.92 and 833±2.5U/g of substrate (U/g), respectively. Besides enzyme production, complete elimination of phorbol esters and significant phytate reduction from 6.51±0.01 to 0.43±0.01g/100g of seed cake were noted after 3days incubation. Curcin and trypsin inhibition activity were reduced significantly from 26.33±0.43 to 0.56±0.02mg/100g and 229.33±2.02 to 11.66±0.28U/g, respectively after 5days incubation. Saponins were reduced from 5.56±0.19 to 1.95±0.01g/100g of seed cake after 7days incubation.

  10. Effect of varying levels of formaldehyde treatment of mustard oil cake on rumen fermentation, digestibility in wheat straw based total mixed diets in vitro

    PubMed Central

    Mahima; Kumar, Vinod; Tomar, S. K.; Roy, Debashis; Kumar, Muneendra

    2015-01-01

    Aim: The aim of the current study was to protect the protein in mustard cake by different levels of formaldehyde treatment with a view to optimize the level of formaldehyde. Materials and Methods: Different levels of formaldehyde treatment (0, 1, 1.5 and 2% of crude protein) containing concentrate and roughages diet in 40:60 ratio were tested for their effect on nutrients digestibility, in vitro ammonia release, in vitro gas production and change in protein fractions. Non-significant (p≤0.05) effect on pH, microbial biomass, partitioning factor, total gas production (TGP), TGP per g dry matter and TGP per g digestible dry matter (ml/g) was observed in almost all the treatments. Results: Total volatile fatty acids at 2% formaldehyde treatment level of mustard cake was lower (p<0.05) as compared to other groups, while in vitro dry matter digestibility and in vitro organic matter digestibility were reported to be low in 1% formaldehyde treated group. Conclusion: On a holistic view, it could be considered that formaldehyde treatment at 1.5% level was optimal for protection of mustard oil cake protein. PMID:27047133

  11. Co-liquefaction of sewage sludge and oil-tea-cake in supercritical methanol: yield of bio-oil, immobilization and risk assessment of heavy metals.

    PubMed

    Zhai, Yunbo; Chen, Zhong; Chen, Hongmei; Xu, Bibo; Li, Ping; Qing, Renpeng; Li, Caiting; Zeng, Guangming

    2015-01-01

    In this study, attention was concentrated on the yields of bio-oil and toxicities of heavy metals (HMs) in liquefaction residues (LRs). Liquefaction of sewage sludge (SS) or oil-tea-cake (OTC) or mixtures of SS and OTC were carried out under the condition of supercritical methanol (SCM). Results showed that the addition of OTC extraordinarily increased the yields of oil from 37.9% (SS) to 86.2% (SS + OTC). Furthermore, with the liquefaction of SS and OTC mixture, the bioavailable fraction (F1 + F2) of Cd and Cu (F1 + F2) was decreased from 2.47 to 1.64 mg/kg and from 98.84 to 67.48 mg/kg, respectively. However, the bioavailable fraction of Zn (F1 + F2) increased from 122.03 to 204.69 mg/kg with the liquefaction of SS. The bioavailable fraction (F1 + F2) of Pb in LRs was 0%, which did not express any changes during the liquefaction process. Risk assessments of geo-accumulation index (I(geo)), risk assessment code (RAC) and modified potential ecological risk index (MRI) were applied to evaluate the bioavailabilities, the potential ecological risks and the pollution levels of HMs. The results show that the OTC in SS can decrease the risk of HMs in LRs. Cd attracted many concerns for the highest risk to the environment among all of the HMs. Here, the good results obtained means that SCM liquefaction of mixture of SS and OTC could be a preferable method for SS treatment.

  12. Batch and fixed-bed column studies for biosorption of Zn(II) ions onto pongamia oil cake (Pongamia pinnata) from biodiesel oil extraction.

    PubMed

    Shanmugaprakash, M; Sivakumar, V

    2015-12-01

    The present work, analyzes the potential of defatted pongamia oil cake (DPOC) for the biosorption of Zn(II) ions from aqueous solutions in the both batch and column mode. Batch experiments were conducted to evaluate the optimal pH, effect of adsorbent dosage, initial Zn(II) ions concentration and contact time. The biosorption equilibrium and kinetics data for Zn(II) ions onto the DPOC were studied in detail, using several models, among all it was found to be that, Freundlich and the second-order model explained the equilibrium data well. The calculated thermodynamic parameters had shown that the biosorption of Zn(II) ions was exothermic and spontaneous in nature. Batch desorption studies showed that the maximum Zn(II) recovery occurred, using 0.1 M EDTA. The Bed Depth Service Time (BDST) and the Thomas model was successfully employed to evaluate the model parameters in the column mode. The results indicated that the DPOC can be applied as an effective and eco-friendly biosorbent for the removal of Zn(II) ions in polluted wastewater. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Bioactive lipids, radical scavenging potential, and antimicrobial properties of cold pressed clove (Syzygium aromaticum) oil.

    PubMed

    Assiri, Adel Mohamad Ali; Hassanien, Mohamed F R

    2013-11-01

    Health promoting cold pressed oils may improve human health and prevent certain diseases. It is hard to find any research concerning the composition and functional properties of cold pressed clove (Syzygium aromaticum) oil (CO). Cold pressed CO was evaluated for its lipid classes, fatty acid profiles, and tocol contents. In addition, antiradical and antimicrobial properties of CO were evaluated. The amounts of neutral lipids in CO was the highest (∼94.7% of total lipids), followed by glycolipids and phospholipids. The main fatty acids in CO were linoleic and oleic, which comprise together ∼80% of total fatty acids. Stearic and palmitic acids were the main saturated fatty acids. α- and γ-tocopherols and δ-tocotrienol were the main detected tocols. CO had higher antiradical action against DPPH• and galvinoxyl radicals than virgin olive oil. The results of antimicrobial properties revealed that CO inhibited the growth of all tested microorganisms. CO had a drastic effect on the biosynthesis of proteins and lipids in cells of Bacillus subtilis. In consideration of potential utilization, detailed knowledge on the composition and functional properties of CO is of major importance.

  14. Optimization of Pumpkin Oil Recovery by Using Aqueous Enzymatic Extraction and Comparison of the Quality of the Obtained Oil with the Quality of Cold-Pressed Oil

    PubMed Central

    Roszkowska, Beata; Czaplicki, Sylwester; Tańska, Małgorzata

    2016-01-01

    Summary The study was carried out to optimize pumpkin oil recovery in the process of aqueous extraction preceded by enzymatic maceration of seeds, as well as to compare the quality of the obtained oil to the quality of cold-pressed pumpkin seed oil. Hydrated pulp of hulless pumpkin seeds was macerated using a 2% (by mass) cocktail of commercial pectinolytic, cellulolytic and proteolytic preparations (Rohapect® UF, Rohament® CL and Colorase® 7089). The optimization procedure utilized response surface methodology based on Box- -Behnken plan of experiment. The optimized variables of enzymatic pretreatment were pH, temperature and maceration time. The results showed that the pH value, temperature and maceration time of 4.7, 54 °C and 15.4 h, respectively, were conducive to maximize the oil yield up to 72.64%. Among these variables, the impact of pH was crucial (above 73% of determined variation) for oil recovery results. The oil obtained by aqueous enzymatic extraction was richer in sterols, squalene and tocopherols, and only slightly less abundant in carotenoids than the cold-pressed one. However, it had a lower oxidative stability, with induction period shortened by approx. 30% in relation to the cold-pressed oil. PMID:28115898

  15. Performance and kinetic evaluation of the semi-continuous anaerobic digestion of sunflower oil cake pretreated with ultrasound.

    PubMed

    Fernández-Cegrí, Victoria; Raposo, Francisco; Borja, Rafael

    2013-01-01

    A study of the semi-continuous anaerobic digestion of sunflower oil cake previously sonicated (at a specific energy of 24,000 kJ/kg TS, constant sonication frequency of 20 kHz and ultrasonic power of 120 W) was carried out in laboratory-scale completely stirred tank reactors at mesophilic temperature (35°C). Two anaerobic inocula were used: a mixture of flocculant biomass (I) from a full-scale anaerobic reactor treating waste activated sludge and a granular inoculum (II) from an industrial UASB reactor treating brewery wastewater. Soluble COD (CODs) removal efficiencies ranged between 67.7% and 70.1% and between 61.3% and 67.7% at hydraulic retention times (HRTs) of between 24-10 days for inoculum I and 24-8 days for inoculum II. However, for HRTs lower than 8 days and 6.7 days, equivalent to organic loading rates (OLRs) higher than 2.62 and 3.15 g COD/(L·d), respectively, a sudden decrease in the CODs removal efficiency was observed in both cases. In any case, inoculum II allowed for a more stable and efficient operation for a wider range of both OLRs and HRTs, permitting an appropriate and reliable operation for OLRs as high as 3.15 g COD/(L·d) and HRTs as low as 6.7 days. The methane production rates achieved with inoculum II were always higher than those reached with inoculum I. The overall methane yield obtained with inoculum II was 13% higher than that achieved with inoculum I. In addition, this value was 1.9 times higher than the methane yield obtained with untreated (non-sonicated) SuOC. A second-order kinetic model was found to be adequate to fit the experimental results obtained for the two inocula used. The kinetic constant obtained with inoculum I was 3.5 times higher than that achieved with inoculum II.

  16. Effects of different dietary inclusion levels of macadamia oil cake on growth performance and carcass characteristics in South African mutton merino lambs.

    PubMed

    Acheampong-Boateng, Owoahene; Bakare, Archibold G; Nkosi, Douglas B; Mbatha, Khanyisile R

    2017-04-01

    Growth performance and carcass characteristics of South African mutton merino fed graded levels of macadamia oil cake were assessed. A total of 60 South African mutton merino lambs were used in the experiment (initial live weight 25.0 ± 0.45 kg). Five diets with different inclusion levels of macadamia oil cake (MOC) were formulated: T1 (0% MOC, control), T2 (5% MOC), T3 (10% MOC), T4 (15% MOC) and T5 (20% MOC). Effects of inclusion level of MOC on average daily gain (ADG) and average daily feed intake (ADFI) were not significant (P > 0.05). Effects of inclusion levels of MOC on feed conversion ratio (FCR) of sheep were significant (P < 0.05). Highest proportion (71.2%) of sheep in the study had a carcass fat classification of 2, followed by a proportion of 17.3% sheep with a carcass fat classification of 3 and lastly 11.5% sheep had carcass fat classification of 4. Warm and cold carcass mass, chest circumference, carcass length and dressing percentage were higher in sheep fed on 5% MOC compared to other treatment diets (0, 10, 15 and 20% MOC) (P < 0.05). Fat rib eye had a greater area in sheep fed on 5% MOC (P < 0.05). It was concluded that 5% MOC provided the best results in terms of carcass characteristic measurements in sheep.

  17. Chemical components of cold pressed kernel oils from different Torreya grandis cultivars.

    PubMed

    He, Zhiyong; Zhu, Haidong; Li, Wangling; Zeng, Maomao; Wu, Shengfang; Chen, Shangwei; Qin, Fang; Chen, Jie

    2016-10-15

    The chemical compositions of cold pressed kernel oils of seven Torreya grandis cultivars from China were analyzed in this study. The contents of the chemical components of T. grandis kernels and kernel oils varied to different extents with the cultivar. The T. grandis kernels contained relatively high oil and protein content (45.80-53.16% and 10.34-14.29%, respectively). The kernel oils were rich in unsaturated fatty acids including linoleic (39.39-47.77%), oleic (30.47-37.54%) and eicosatrienoic acid (6.78-8.37%). The kernel oils contained some abundant bioactive substances such as tocopherols (0.64-1.77mg/g) consisting of α-, β-, γ- and δ-isomers; sterols including β-sitosterol (0.90-1.29mg/g), campesterol (0.06-0.32mg/g) and stigmasterol (0.04-0.18mg/g) in addition to polyphenols (9.22-22.16μgGAE/g). The results revealed that the T. grandis kernel oils possessed the potentially important nutrition and health benefits and could be used as oils in the human diet or functional ingredients in the food industry.

  18. The Composition, Antioxidant and Antibacterial Activities of Cold-Pressed and Distilled Essential Oils of Citrus paradisi and Citrus grandis (L.) Osbeck.

    PubMed

    Ou, Ming-Chiu; Liu, Yi-Hsin; Sun, Yung-Wei; Chan, Chin-Feng

    2015-01-01

    The chemical composition and functional activities of cold-pressed and water distilled peel essential oils of Citrus paradisi (C. paradisi) and Citrus grandis (L.) Osbeck (C. grandis) were investigated in present study. Yields of cold-pressed oils were much higher than those of distilled oils. Limonene was the primary ingredient of essential oils of C. paradisi (cold 92.83%; distilled 96.06%) and C. grandis (cold 32.63%; distilled 55.74%). In addition, C. grandis oils obtained were rich in oxygenated or nitrogenated compounds which may be involved in reducing cardiovascular diseases or enhancing sleep effectiveness. The order of free radical scavenging activities of 4 citrus oils was distilled C. paradisi oil > cold-pressed C. paradisi oil > distilled C. grandis oil > cold-pressed C. grandis oil. Cold-pressed C. grandis oil exhibited the lowest activity in all antioxidative assays. The order of antimicrobial activities of 4 citrus oils was distilled C. grandis oil, cold-pressed C. paradisi oil > distilled C. paradisi oil > cold-pressed C. paradisi oil. Surprisingly, distilled C. grandis oil exhibited better antimicrobial activities than distilled C. paradisi oil, especially against Escherichia coli and Salmonella enterica subsp. The results also indicated that the antimicrobial activities of essential oils may not relate to their antioxidative activities.

  19. The Composition, Antioxidant and Antibacterial Activities of Cold-Pressed and Distilled Essential Oils of Citrus paradisi and Citrus grandis (L.) Osbeck

    PubMed Central

    Ou, Ming-Chiu; Liu, Yi-Hsin; Sun, Yung-Wei; Chan, Chin-Feng

    2015-01-01

    The chemical composition and functional activities of cold-pressed and water distilled peel essential oils of Citrus paradisi (C. paradisi) and Citrus grandis (L.) Osbeck (C. grandis) were investigated in present study. Yields of cold-pressed oils were much higher than those of distilled oils. Limonene was the primary ingredient of essential oils of C. paradisi (cold 92.83%; distilled 96.06%) and C. grandis (cold 32.63%; distilled 55.74%). In addition, C. grandis oils obtained were rich in oxygenated or nitrogenated compounds which may be involved in reducing cardiovascular diseases or enhancing sleep effectiveness. The order of free radical scavenging activities of 4 citrus oils was distilled C. paradisi oil > cold-pressed C. paradisi oil > distilled C. grandis oil > cold-pressed C. grandis oil. Cold-pressed C. grandis oil exhibited the lowest activity in all antioxidative assays. The order of antimicrobial activities of 4 citrus oils was distilled C. grandis oil, cold-pressed C. paradisi oil > distilled C. paradisi oil > cold-pressed C. paradisi oil. Surprisingly, distilled C. grandis oil exhibited better antimicrobial activities than distilled C. paradisi oil, especially against Escherichia coli and Salmonella enterica subsp. The results also indicated that the antimicrobial activities of essential oils may not relate to their antioxidative activities. PMID:26681970

  20. Trace Additives to Inhibit the Caking of Purple K for 3-D Firefighting

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2004-09-01

    quantity of sample produced was insufficient to conduct drop tests . A follow-up effort focused on producing salt cakes with six additives. Cakes were made by...prevented due to caking . The most common method to reduce/prevent the caking of Purple K is to blend in trace amounts of silicon-based oils and water

  1. [Discrimination of pressed and extracted camellia oils by Vis/NIR spectra combined with UVE-PLS-LDA].

    PubMed

    Wen, Zhen-cai; Sun, Tong; Geng, Xiang; Liu, Mu-hua

    2013-09-01

    Camellia oil is a special and high quality edible oil in China, and quality of pressed camellia oils is superior to extracted camellia oils. The objective of the present research was to discriminate pressed and extracted camellia oils by visible/near infrared (Vis/NIR) spectroscopy. The transmission spectra of pressed and extracted camellia oil samples were acquired using a QualitySpec spectrometer in the wavelength range of 350-1800 nm. Uninformative variable elimination (UVE) was used to select informative wavelength variables, and eliminate uninformative wavelength variables, then partial least squares combined with linear discriminant analysis (PLS-LDA) was used to develop classification model. At last, the classification model was used to discriminate 26 samples in the prediction set. The results indicate that UVE-PLS-LDA is an efficient discrimination and classification method, pressed and extracted camellia oils can be discriminated well by the classification model developed by UVE-PLS-LDA, the accurate rate is 100% for both samples in the calibration and prediction sets. So, Vis/NIR spectra combined with UVE-PLS-LDA is an effective method for discriminating pressed and extracted camellia oils.

  2. Formation, antioxidant property and oxidative stability of cold pressed rice bran oil emulsion.

    PubMed

    Thanonkaew, Amonrat; Wongyai, Surapote; Decker, Eric A; McClements, David J

    2015-10-01

    Cold pressed rice bran oil (CPRBO) is used in foods, cosmetics, and pharmaceuticals due to its desirable health and functional attributes. The purpose of this work was to study the formation, antioxidant property and oxidative stability of oil-in-water emulsion of CPRBO. The influence of oil (10-40 % CPRBO) and surfactant (1-5 % glyceryl monostearate (GMS)) concentration on the properties of emulsions were studied. The lightness (L*) and yellowness (b*) of CPRBO emulsions decreased as GMS concentration increased, which was attributed to a decrease in droplet size after homogenization. The CPRBO emulsion was stable during storage at room temperature for 30 days. Increasing the oil concentration in the CPRBO emulsions increased their antioxidant activity, which can be attributed to the corresponding increase in phytochemical content. However, GMS concentration had little impact on the antioxidant activity of CPRBO emulsions. The storage of CPRBO emulsion at room temperature showed that lipid oxidation markers gradually increased after 30 days of storage, which was correlated to a decrease in gamma oryzanol content and antioxidant activity. These results have important implications for the utilization of rice bran oil (RBO) as a function ingredient in food, cosmetic, and pharmaceutical products.

  3. Optimized extraction of polyphenolic antioxidant compounds from Brazil nut (Bertholletia excelsa) cake and evaluation of the polyphenol profile by HPLC.

    PubMed

    Gomes, Suellen; Torres, Alexandre G

    2016-06-01

    The solid residue (cake) of pressed Brazil nut oil has high energy value and contains high levels of nutrients and bioactive compounds, such as polyphenols. However, little is known about these components in this by-product. Extraction is the first step in investigating the phenolic compounds in Brazil nut cake because extraction conditions might impact the yields of phenolic compounds and antioxidant capacity. The aim of this study was to select the best phenolic compound extraction conditions for Brazil nut cake by using factorial experimental design and to characterize the phenolic compounds in the extract. The optimal extraction of antioxidant phenolic compounds from Brazil nut cake was achieved under the following conditions: ethanol-water (40:60; v/v); 2.5 min homogenization; and 1 h extraction at 60 °C. The phenolic compound profile of the Brazil nut cake extract using the optimized extraction was determined by high-performance liquid chromatography with photodiode array detection. Six phenolic acids (gallic acid, protocatechuic acid, 2,4-dihydroxybenzoic acid, p-hydroxybenzoic acid, p-coumaric acid and sinapic acid) and one flavonoid ((+)-catechin) were identified, and the contents of the phenolic compounds varied from 70.0 to 421 mg kg(-1) . Knowledge of the potential bioactivity of Brazil nut cake identified in the present study might promote its use in the food industry. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry.

  4. Low-cost and eco-friendly synthesis of silver nanoparticles using coconut (Cocos nucifera) oil cake extract and its antibacterial activity.

    PubMed

    Govarthanan, Muthusamy; Seo, Young-Seok; Lee, Kui-Jae; Jung, Ik-Boo; Ju, Ho-Jong; Kim, Jae Su; Cho, Min; Kamala-Kannan, Seralathan; Oh, Byung-Taek

    2016-12-01

    The present study reports the simple, inexpensive, eco-friendly synthesis of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) using coconut oil cake extract. Scanning electron microscopy-energy dispersive spectroscopy peak at 3 keV confirmed the presence of silver. Transmission electron micrograph showed that nanoparticles are mostly circular with an average size of 10-70 nm. The results of the X-ray powder diffraction analysis (2θ = 46.2, 67.4 and 76.8) indicated the crystal nature of the AgNPs. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy analysis indicates that proteins present in the oilcake extract could be responsible for the reduction of silver ions. The synthesized AgNPs (1-4 mm) reduced the growth rate of multi-antibiotic-resistant bacteria such as Aeromonas sp., Acinetobacter sp. and Citrobacter sp. isolated from livestock wastewater.

  5. Evaluation of Castor Oil Cake Starch and Recovered Glycerol and Development of “Green” Composites Based on Those with Plant Fibers

    PubMed Central

    Guimarães, José Luis; Trindade Cursino, Ana Cristina; Ketzer Saul, Cyro; Sierrakowski, Maria Rita; Ramos, Luiz Pereira; Satyanarayana, Kestur Gundappa

    2016-01-01

    Continuous efforts are being made in some countries for the recovery of crude glycerin (RG/CG) and castor oil cake (COC), the two byproducts of biodiesel production. These are expected to help, not only in addressing environmental safety, but also in adding value to those byproducts, which otherwise may go to waste. Finding ways to utilize those byproducts underlines the main objective of this study. This paper presents the evaluation of (i) COC, glycerin and banana and sugarcane fibers for moisture content; (ii) COC for structural and thermal properties; and (iii) CG for its chemical characteristics. The possibility of using COC and CG with the selected fibers as reinforcement in the development of bio-composites is attempted through thermo-molding. Results revealed enhanced mechanical properties for these composites. The obtained results are discussed in terms of the observed morphology. PMID:28787878

  6. Comparison of oil refining and biodiesel production process between screw press and n-hexane techniques from beauty leaf feedstock

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bhuiya, M. M. K.; Rasul, M. G.; Khan, M. M. K.; Ashwath, N.

    2016-07-01

    The Beauty Leaf Tree (Callophylum inophyllum) is regarded as an alternative source of energy to produce 2nd generation biodiesel due to its potentiality as well as high oil yield content in the seed kernels. The treating process is indispensable during the biodiesel production process because it can augment the yield as well as quality of the product. Oil extracted from both mechanical screw press and solvent extraction using n-hexane was refined. Five replications each of 25 gm of crude oil for screw press and five replications each of 25 gm of crude oil for n-hexane were selected for refining as well as biodiesel conversion processes. The oil refining processes consists of degumming, neutralization as well as dewaxing. The degumming, neutralization and dewaxing processes were performed to remove all the gums (phosphorous-based compounds), free fatty acids, and waxes from the fresh crude oil before the biodiesel conversion process carried out, respectively. The results indicated that up to 73% and 81% of mass conversion efficiency of the refined oil in the screw press and n-hexane refining processes were obtained, respectively. It was also found that up to 88% and 90% of biodiesel were yielded in terms of mass conversion efficiency in the transesterification process for the screw press and n-hexane techniques, respectively. While the entire processes (refining and transesterification) were considered, the conversion of beauty leaf tree (BLT) refined oil into biodiesel was yielded up to 65% and 73% of mass conversion efficiency for the screw press and n-hexane techniques, respectively. Physico-chemical properties of crude and refined oil, and biodiesel were characterized according to the ASTM standards. Overall, BLT has the potential to contribute as an alternative energy source because of high mass conversion efficiency.

  7. Subcritical water liquefaction of oil palm fruit press fiber for the production of bio-oil: effect of catalysts.

    PubMed

    Mazaheri, Hossein; Lee, Keat Teong; Bhatia, Subhash; Mohamed, Abdul Rahman

    2010-01-01

    Decomposition of oil palm fruit press fiber (FPF) to various liquid products in subcritical water was investigated using a high-pressure autoclave reactor with and without the presence of catalyst. When the reaction was carried in the absence of catalyst, the conversion of solid to liquid products increased from 54.9% at 483 K to 75.8% at 603 K. Simultaneously, the liquid yield increased from 28.8% to 39.1%. The liquid products were sub-categorized to bio-oil (benzene soluble, diethylether soluble, acetone soluble) and water soluble. When 10% ZnCl(2) was added, the conversion increased slightly but gaseous products increased significantly. However, when 10% Na(2)CO(3) and 10% NaOH were added independently, the solid conversion increased to almost 90%. In the presence of catalyst, the liquid products were mainly bio-oil compounds. Although solid conversion increased at higher reaction temperature, but the liquid yield did not increase at higher temperature.

  8. Sub/supercritical liquefaction of oil palm fruit press fiber for the production of bio-oil: effect of solvents.

    PubMed

    Mazaheri, Hossein; Lee, Keat Teong; Bhatia, Subhash; Mohamed, Abdul Rahman

    2010-10-01

    Thermal decomposition of oil palm fruit press fiber (FPF) with sub/supercritical methanol, ethanol, acetone, and 1,4-dioxane treatments were investigated using a high-pressure autoclave reactor. When FPF was decomposed with methanol, ethanol, and acetone from 483 to 603 K, the highest degree of conversion obtained were 81.5%, 77.8%, and 67.9% while the highest liquid product yield (LP) obtained were 38.0%, 36.9%, and 38.5%, respectively. For the case of 1,4-dioxane, the conversion of FPF increased from 18.30% to 80.00%, while LP yield increased dramatically from 13.30% to 50.90% (consisting of 42.3% bio-oil compounds) when the reaction temperature was increased from 483 to 563 K. However, the conversion of FPF and LP yield decreased to 69.60% and 24.10%, respectively, when the temperature was further increased to 603 K. Comparison between all the solvents, subcritical 1,4-dioxane treatment was found very effective in the degradation of FPF to produce bio-oil component.

  9. Lifetime of micrometer-sized drops of oil pressed by buoyancy against a planar interface.

    PubMed

    Rojas, Clara; Urbina-Villalba, Germán; García-Sucre, Máximo

    2010-01-01

    Emulsion stability simulations are used to estimate the coalescence time of one drop of hexadecane pressed by buoyancy against a planar water/hexadecane interface. In the present simulations, the homophase is represented by a big drop of oil at least 500 times larger than the approaching drop (1-10 microm). Both deformable and nondeformable drops are considered along with six different diffusion tensors. In each case, van der Waals, electrostatic, steric, and buoyancy forces are taken into account. The coalescence times are estimated as the average of 1000 random walks. It is found that the repulsive potential barrier has a significant influence in the results. The experimental data can only be reproduced assuming negligible repulsive barriers, as well as nondeformable drops that move with a combination of Stokes and Taylor tensors as they approach the interface.

  10. Utilization of palm oil decanter cake as a novel substrate for biosurfactant production from a new and promising strain of Ochrobactrum anthropi 2/3.

    PubMed

    Noparat, Pongsak; Maneerat, Suppasil; Saimmai, Atipan

    2014-03-01

    A biosurfactant-producing bacterium, isolate 2/3, was isolated from mangrove sediment in the south of Thailand. It was evaluated as a potential biosurfactant producer. The highest biosurfactant production (4.52 g/l) was obtained when the cells were grown on a minimal salt medium containing 25 % (v/v) palm oil decanter cake and 1 % (w/v) commercial monosodium glutamate as carbon and nitrogen sources, respectively. After microbial cultivation at 30 °C in an optimized medium for 96 h, the biosurfactant produced was found to reduce the surface tension of pure water to 25.0 mN/m with critical micelle concentrations of 8.0 mg/l. The stability of the biosurfactant at different salinities, pH and temperature and also its emulsifying activity was investigated. It is an effective surfactant at very low concentrations over a wide range of temperatures, pH and salt concentrations. The biosurfactant obtained was confirmed as a glycolipid type biosurfactant by using a biochemical test, fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy, MNR and mass spectrometry. The crude biosurfactant showed a broad spectrum of antimicrobial activity and also had the ability to emulsify oil and enhance polyaromatic hydrocarbons solubility.

  11. Ex-Press Mini-Implant in the Management of Ocular Hypertension Secondary to Silicone Oil Tamponed.

    PubMed

    Cardascia, Nicola; Cantatore, Francesco; Ferreri, Paolo; Sborgia, Luigi; Alessio, Giovanni

    2016-01-01

    This study was designed to compare the success of patients with ocular hypertension, secondary to pars plana vitrectomy and silicone oil tamponade, who received an Ex-PRESS Glaucoma Filtration Device P50 (Alcon Laboratories, Inc. Fort Worth, Texas, USA) to those who had conventional trabeculectomy. The records of 10 eyes of 10 consecutive subjects who had Ex-press implants and 9 eyes of 9 consecutive controls who had trabeculectomy procedures were reviewed. Success was defined as the reduction of intraocular pressure (IOP) in patients who did not require further glaucoma surgery in the eye of note during the entire follow-up. IOP was reduced by 10.3 ± 9.7 mmHg (range -31 to 3) in the Ex-PRESS group and by 13.9 ± 11.4 mmHg (range -35 to -4) in the trabeculectomy group. The difference in the percentage of IOP reduction between the standard trabeculectomy group (42.7%) and the Ex-PRESS group (35.9%) was not statistically significant (P = 0.72). The Ex-PRESS device seems to be at least as effective as the standard trabeculectomy in lowering the IOP of patients with hypertension secondary to pars plana vitrectomy and silicone oil tamponade. Even though the data suggested that the Ex-PRESS device did not result in an overall greater reduction in IOP than trabeculectomy, this does not reach statistical significance.

  12. Ex-Press Mini-Implant in the Management of Ocular Hypertension Secondary to Silicone Oil Tamponed

    PubMed Central

    CARDASCIA, Nicola; CANTATORE, Francesco; FERRERI, Paolo; SBORGIA, Luigi; ALESSIO, Giovanni

    2016-01-01

    This study was designed to compare the success of patients with ocular hypertension, secondary to pars plana vitrectomy and silicone oil tamponade, who received an Ex-PRESS Glaucoma Filtration Device P50 (Alcon Laboratories, Inc. Fort Worth, Texas, USA) to those who had conventional trabeculectomy. The records of 10 eyes of 10 consecutive subjects who had Ex-press implants and 9 eyes of 9 consecutive controls who had trabeculectomy procedures were reviewed. Success was defined as the reduction of intraocular pressure (IOP) in patients who did not require further glaucoma surgery in the eye of note during the entire follow-up. IOP was reduced by 10.3 ± 9.7 mmHg (range -31 to 3) in the Ex-PRESS group and by 13.9 ± 11.4 mmHg (range -35 to -4) in the trabeculectomy group. The difference in the percentage of IOP reduction between the standard trabeculectomy group (42.7%) and the Ex-PRESS group (35.9%) was not statistically significant (P = 0.72). The Ex-PRESS device seems to be at least as effective as the standard trabeculectomy in lowering the IOP of patients with hypertension secondary to pars plana vitrectomy and silicone oil tamponade. Even though the data suggested that the Ex-PRESS device did not result in an overall greater reduction in IOP than trabeculectomy, this does not reach statistical significance. PMID:28289687

  13. Quantitative analysis of γ-oryzanol content in cold pressed rice bran oil by TLC-image analysis method

    PubMed Central

    Sakunpak, Apirak; Suksaeree, Jirapornchai; Monton, Chaowalit; Pathompak, Pathamaporn; Kraisintu, Krisana

    2014-01-01

    Objective To develop and validate an image analysis method for quantitative analysis of γ-oryzanol in cold pressed rice bran oil. Methods TLC-densitometric and TLC-image analysis methods were developed, validated, and used for quantitative analysis of γ-oryzanol in cold pressed rice bran oil. The results obtained by these two different quantification methods were compared by paired t-test. Results Both assays provided good linearity, accuracy, reproducibility and selectivity for determination of γ-oryzanol. Conclusions The TLC-densitometric and TLC-image analysis methods provided a similar reproducibility, accuracy and selectivity for the quantitative determination of γ-oryzanol in cold pressed rice bran oil. A statistical comparison of the quantitative determinations of γ-oryzanol in samples did not show any statistically significant difference between TLC-densitometric and TLC-image analysis methods. As both methods were found to be equal, they therefore can be used for the determination of γ-oryzanol in cold pressed rice bran oil. PMID:25182282

  14. Quantitative analysis of γ-oryzanol content in cold pressed rice bran oil by TLC-image analysis method.

    PubMed

    Sakunpak, Apirak; Suksaeree, Jirapornchai; Monton, Chaowalit; Pathompak, Pathamaporn; Kraisintu, Krisana

    2014-02-01

    To develop and validate an image analysis method for quantitative analysis of γ-oryzanol in cold pressed rice bran oil. TLC-densitometric and TLC-image analysis methods were developed, validated, and used for quantitative analysis of γ-oryzanol in cold pressed rice bran oil. The results obtained by these two different quantification methods were compared by paired t-test. Both assays provided good linearity, accuracy, reproducibility and selectivity for determination of γ-oryzanol. The TLC-densitometric and TLC-image analysis methods provided a similar reproducibility, accuracy and selectivity for the quantitative determination of γ-oryzanol in cold pressed rice bran oil. A statistical comparison of the quantitative determinations of γ-oryzanol in samples did not show any statistically significant difference between TLC-densitometric and TLC-image analysis methods. As both methods were found to be equal, they therefore can be used for the determination of γ-oryzanol in cold pressed rice bran oil.

  15. Influence of Volume Deformation Rate on the Intensity of Oil-Bearing Crop Pressing-out in Relation to Rape Extrudate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Slavnov, E. V.; Petrov, I. A.

    2015-07-01

    The influence of the volume deformation rate on the intensity of piston pressing-out of oil has been investigated. The results of pressing by a piston moving with different speeds are presented. Mathematical simulation is carried out for the stage of pressing-out after the termination of sample loading, when oil release occurs due to the accumulated deformations of the skeleton. It has been assumed that in mechanical pressing there remains the least residual content of oil. A dimensionless complex representing the ratio of the characteristic times of loading to the material response (the process of pressing) has been obtained. The dependence of the rate of oil pressing-out at the stage of pressure relaxation on the dimensionless complex has been determined.

  16. Phytase production by solid-state fermentation of groundnut oil cake by Aspergillus niger: A bioprocess optimization study for animal feedstock applications.

    PubMed

    Buddhiwant, Priyanka; Bhavsar, Kavita; Kumar, V Ravi; Khire, Jayant M

    2016-08-17

    This investigation deals with the use of agro-industrial waste, namely groundnut oil cake (GOC), for phytase production by the fungi Aspergillus niger NCIM 563. Plackett-Burman design (PBD) was used to evaluate the effect of 11 process variables and studies here showed that phytase production was significantly influenced by glucose, dextrin, distilled water, and MgSO4 · 7H2O. The use of response surface methodology (RSM) by Box-Behnken design (BBD) of experiments further enhanced the production by a remarkable 36.67-fold from the original finding of 15 IU/gds (grams of dry substrate) to 550 IU/gds. This is the highest solid-state fermentation (SSF) phytase production reported when compared to other microorganisms and in fact betters the best known by a factor of 2. Experiments carried out using dried fermented koji for phosphorus and mineral release and also thermal stability have shown the phytase to be as efficient as the liquid enzyme extract. Also, the enzyme, while exhibiting optimal activity under acidic conditions, was found to have significant activity in a broad range of pH values (1.5-6.5). The studies suggest the suitability of the koji supplemented with phytase produced in an SSF process by the "generally regarded as safe" (GRAS) microorganism A. niger as a cost-effective value-added livestock feed when compared to that obtained by submerged fermentation (SmF).

  17. Biochar prepared from castor oil cake at different temperatures: A voltammetric study applied for Pb(2+), Cd(2+) and Cu(2+) ions preconcentration.

    PubMed

    Kalinke, Cristiane; Mangrich, Antonio Sálvio; Marcolino-Junior, Luiz H; Bergamini, Márcio F

    2016-11-15

    Biochar is a carbonaceous material similar produced by pyrolysis of biomass under oxygen-limited conditions. Pyrolysis temperature is an important parameter that can alters biochar characteristics (e.g. surface area, pore size distribution and surface functional groups) and affects it efficacy for adsorption of several probes. In this work, biochar samples have been prepared from castor oil cake using different temperatures of pyrolysis (200-600°C). For the first time, a voltammetric procedure based on carbon paste modified electrode (CPME) was used to investigate the effect of temperature of pyrolysis on the adsorptive characteristics of biochar for Pb(II), Cd(II) and Cu(II) ions. Besides the electrochemical techniques, several characterizations have been performed to evaluate the physicochemical properties of biochar in function of the increase of the pyrolysis temperature. Results suggest that biochar pyrolized at 400°C (BC400) showed a better potential for ions adsorption. The CPME modified with BC400 showed better relative current signal with adsorption affinity: Pb(II)>Cd(II)>Cu(II). Kinetic studies revealed that the pseudo-second order model describes more accurately the adsorption process suggesting that the surface reactions control the adsorption rate. Values found for amount adsorbed were 15.94±0.09; 4.29±0.13 and 2.38±0.39μgg(-1) for Pb(II), Cd(II) and Cu(II) ions, respectively.

  18. A Factorial Analysis Study on Enzymatic Hydrolysis of Fiber Pressed Oil Palm Frond for Bioethanol Production

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hashim, F. S.; Yussof, H. W.; Zahari, M. A. K. M.; Illias, R. M.; Rahman, R. A.

    2016-03-01

    Different technologies have been developed to for the conversion of lignocellulosic biomass to suitable fermentation substrates for bioethanol production. The enzymatic conversion of cellulose seems to be the most promising technology as it is highly specific and does not produce substantial amounts of unwanted byproducts. The effects of agitation speed, enzyme loading, temperature, pH and reaction time on the conversion of glucose from fiber pressed oil palm frond (FPOPF) for bioethanol production were screened by statistical analysis using response surface methodology (RSM). A half fraction two-level factorial analysis with five factors was selected for the experimental design to determine the best enzymatic conditions that produce maximum amount of glucose. FPOPF was pre-treated with alkaline prior to enzymatic hydrolysis. The enzymatic hydrolysis was performed using a commercial enzyme Cellic CTec2. From this study, the highest yield of glucose concentration was 9.736 g/L at 72 hours reaction time at 35 °C, pH 5.6, and 1.5% (w/v) of enzyme loading. The model obtained was significant with p-value <0.0001. It is suggested that this model had a maximum point which is likely to be the optimum point and possible for the optimization process.

  19. Method of Determining the Filtration Properties of oil-Bearing Crops in the Process of Their Pressing by the Example of Rape-oil Extrusion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Slavnov, E. V.; Petrov, I. A.

    2014-07-01

    A method of determining the change in the fi ltration properties of oil-bearing crops in the process of their pressing by repeated dynamic loading is proposed. The use of this method is demonstrated by the example of rape-oil extrusion. It was established that the change in the mass concentration of the oil in a rape mix from 0.45 to 0.23 leads to a decrease in the permeability of the mix by 101.5-102 times depending on the pressure applied to it. It is shown that the dependence of the permeability of this mix on the pressure applied to it is nonmonotone in character.

  20. Bioactive Compounds of Cold-pressed Thyme (Thymus vulgaris) Oil with Antioxidant and Antimicrobial Properties.

    PubMed

    Assiri, Adel M A; Elbanna, Khaled; Abulreesh, Hussein H; Ramadan, Mohamed Fawzy

    2016-01-01

    Herbs rich in bioactive phytochemicals were recognized to have biological activities and possess many health-promoting effects. In this work, cold-pressed thyme (Thymus vulgaris L.) oil (TO) was studied for its lipid classes, fatty acid profile, tocols and phenolics contents. Antioxidant activity and radical scavenging potential of TO against free radicals (DPPH(・) and galvinoxyl) was determined. Antimicrobial activity (AA) of TO against food borne bacteria, food spoilage fungi and dermatophyte fungi were also evaluated. Neutral lipids accounted for the main lipid fraction in TO, followed by glycolipids and phospholipids. The major fatty acids in TO were linoleic, oleic, stearic, and palmitic. γ-Tocopherol (60.2% of total tocols) followed by α-tocotrienol (26.9%) and α-tocopherol (9.01% of total tocols) were the main tocols. TO contained high amounts of phenolic compounds (7.3 mg/g as GAE). TO had strong antiradical action wherein 65% of DPPH(・) radicals and 55% of galvinoxyl radical were quenched after 60 min of incubation. Rancimat assay showed that induction time (IT) for TO: sunflower oil blend (1:9, w/w) was 6.5 h, while TO: sunflower oil blend (2:8, w/w) recorded higher IT (9 h). TO inhibited the growth of all tested microorganisms. TO exhibited various degrees of AA against different food borne bacteria, food spoilage fungi and dermatophyte fungi, wherein the highest AA was recorded against dermatophyte fungi and yeasts including T. mentagrophytes (62 mm), T. rubrum (40 mm), and C. albicans (20 mm) followed by food spoilage fungi including A. flavus (32 mm) with minimal lethal concentrations (MLC) ranging between 80 to 320 μg/mL. Furthermore, TO exhibited broad-spectra activity against food borne bacteria including S. aureus (30 mm), E. coli (25 mm) and L. Monocytogenes (20 mm) with MLC ranging between 160 to 320 μg/mL. The results suggest that TO could be used economically as a valuable natural product with novel functional properties in food

  1. Physicochemical and Sensory Properties of Cold Pressed Oils from Florida Hamlin and Valencia Oranges Affected by Huanglongbing.

    PubMed

    Xu, Brittany M; Sims, Charles A; Etxeberria, Edgardo; Schneider, Renée M Goodrich

    2017-09-01

    Cold pressed oils from huanglongbing (HLB) symptomatic (SY) and asymptomatic (AS) Hamlin and Valencia oranges were assessed for 2 y (2014 to 2015 and 2015 to 2016 seasons) with 2 harvest dates for each orange variety per year. Physicochemical properties (optical rotation, aldehyde content, ultraviolet [UV] absorbance, refractive index, and specific gravity) mandated by the United States Pharmacopeia (USP) for orange oil quality were assessed. Hamlin and Valencia oils showed minor differences in physicochemical properties based upon disease stage. However, all Hamlin oils had aldehyde contents below the USP minimum and Valencia oil from late season SY oranges had specific gravities above the USP maximum. Significant differences based on harvest year were seen for aldehyde content, refractive index, optical rotation, and UV absorbance. While none of these changes led to an oil being out of USP specifications, they indicate a need to monitor the quality of oil every year to ensure a consistent product. Flavor taste panels were performed both years by adding 0.035% oil samples to a uniform orange juice base. Aroma panels were done by smelling pure oil. There were no significant differences between SY and AS oils for flavor, although panelist race was a significant factor in several of the panels. There were significant differences between the aroma of SY and AS oils for both 2015 to 2016 Hamlin Early and Valencia Late samples. Overall, these results show HLB can have an effect on the aroma and USP mandated physicochemical properties of Florida orange oils, although flavor may be unaffected by this plant disease. © 2017 Institute of Food Technologists®.

  2. Characterization of the Key Odorants in Commercial Cold-Pressed Oils from Unpeeled and Peeled Rapeseeds by the Sensomics Approach.

    PubMed

    Pollner, Gwendola; Schieberle, Peter

    2016-01-27

    By application of aroma extract dilution analysis (AEDA) on the volatile fraction isolated from commercial cold-pressed rapeseed oil prepared from unpeeled seeds, 35 odor-active constituents in the flavor dilution (FD) factor range of 8-8192 were detected. The identification experiments showed that the earthy, pea-like-smelling 2-isopropyl-3-methoxypyrazine showed the highest FD factor of 8192, followed by 1-octene-3-one (FD 4096) and (E,Z)-2,6-nonadienal with an FD of 2048. After quantitation of the 16 key odorants showing FD factors ≥32 by stable isotope dilution assays and a determination of their odor thresholds in deodorized sunflower oil, odor activity values (OAV; ratio of concentration to odor threshold) could be calculated. The results indicated 2-isopropyl-3-methoxypyrazine, (E,E)-2,4-nonadienal (deep-fried, fatty), and (E,Z)-2,6-nonadienal (cucumber-like) with the highest OAVs. To confirm that the key aroma compounds were correctly identified and quantitated, a recombination experiment was performed by mixing the reference odorants in the same concentrations as they occurred in the rapeseed oil using odorless sunflower oil as the matrix. The recombinate showed a very good agreement with the overall aroma of the oil. In a commercial rapeseed oil prepared from peeled seeds, the same odorants were identified; however, in particular, the FD factor of dimethyl sulfide (DMS) was clearly higher. Quantitation of DMS in 10 commercial rapeseed oils from either peeled and unpeeled seeds revealed significant differences in DMS, but no influence of the peeling process on the amounts of DMS was found. The data can serve as a basis for the quality assessment of cold-pressed rapeseed oil.

  3. Fatty acid composition, oxidative stability, antioxidant and antiproliferative properties of selected cold-pressed grape seed oils and flours.

    PubMed

    Lutterodt, Herman; Slavin, Margaret; Whent, Monica; Turner, Ellen; Yu, Liangli Lucy

    2011-09-15

    Cold-pressed chardonnay, muscadine, ruby red, and concord grape seed oils and their defatted flours were studied for their fatty acid composition, oxidative stability and antioxidant and antiproliferative activities. The phenolic profiles of the seed flours were also measured. The most abundant fatty acid in the oils was linoleic acid, ranging from 66.0g/100g of total fatty acids in ruby red seed oil to 75.3g/100g of total fatty acids in concord seed oil. The oils were also high in oleic acid and low in saturated fat. Ruby red grape seed oil recorded the highest oxidative stability index of 40h under the accelerated conditions. Total phenolic content (TPC) was up to 100 times lower in the oils than in the flours. Lutein, zeaxanthin, cryptoxanthin, β-carotene, and α-tocopherol levels were also measured. DPPH radical-scavenging capacity ranged from 0.07 to 2.22mmol trolox equivalents (TE)/g of oil and 11.8 to 15.0mmol TE/g of flour. Oxidative stability of menhaden fish oil containing extracts of the seed flours was extended by up to 137%. HPLC analysis was conducted to determine the levels of free soluble, soluble conjugated and insoluble bound phenolics in the seed flours. The phenolic compounds analyzed included catechin, epicatechin, epicatechin gallate, quercetin, gallic acid, and procyanidins B1 and B2. Antiproliferative activity was tested against HT-29 colon cancer cells. All of the seed flours and muscadine seed oil registered significant (P<0.05) inhibition of cancer cell growth. The results from this study demonstrate the potential of developing value-added uses for these seed oils and flours as dietary sources of natural antioxidants and antiproliferative agents for optimal health. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Enzymatic Hydrolysis of Pretreated Fibre Pressed Oil Palm Frond by using Sacchariseb C6

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hashim, F. S.; Yussof, H. W.; Zahari, M. A. K. M.; Rahman, R. A.; Illias, R. M.

    2017-06-01

    Enzymatic hydrolysis becomes a prominent technology for conversion of cellulosic biomass to its glucose monomers that requires an action of cellulolytic enzymes in a sequential and synergistic manner. In this study, the effect of agitation speed, glucan loading, enzyme loading, temperature and reaction time on the production of glucose from fibre pressed oil palm frond (FPOPF) during enzymatic hydrolysis was screened by a half factorial design 25-1 using Response Surface Methodology (RSM). The FPOPF sample was first delignified by alkaline pretreatment at 4.42 (w/v) sodium hydroxide for an hour prior to enzymatic hydrolysis using commercial cellulase enzyme, Sacchariseb C6. The effect of enzymatic hydrolysis on the structural of FPOPF has been evaluated by Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) analysis. Characterization of raw FPOPF comprised of 4.5 extractives, 40.7 glucan, 26.1 xylan, 26.2 lignin and 1.8 ash, whereas for pretreated FPOPF gave 0.3 extractives, 61.4 glucan, 20.4 xylan, 13.3 lignin and 1.3 ash. From this study, it was found that the best enzymatic hydrolysis condition yielded 33.01 ± 0.73 g/L of glucose when performed at 200 rpm of agitation speed, 60 FPU/mL of enzyme loading, 4 (w/w) of glucan loading, temperature at 55 □ and 72 hours of reaction time. The model obtained was significant with p-value <0.0001 as verified by the analysis of variance (ANOVA). The coefficient of determination (R2) from ANOVA study was 0.9959. Overall, it can be concluded that addition of Sacchariseb C6 during enzymatic hydrolysis from pretreated FPOPF produce high amount of glucose that enhances it potential for industrial application. This glucose can be further used to produce high-value products.

  5. Lifetime of oil drops pressed by buoyancy against a planar interface: large drops.

    PubMed

    Rojas, Clara; García-Sucre, Máximo; Urbina-Villalba, Germán

    2010-11-01

    In a previous report [C. Rojas, G. Urbina-Villalba, and M. García-Sucre, Phys. Rev. E 81, 016302 (2010)] it was shown that emulsion stability simulations are able to reproduce the lifetime of micrometer-size drops of hexadecane pressed by buoyancy against a planar water-hexadecane interface. It was confirmed that small drops (r(i)< 10 μm) stabilized with β -casein behave as nondeformable particles, moving with a combination of Stokes and Taylor tensors as they approach the interface. Here, a similar methodology is used to parametrize the potential of interaction of drops of soybean oil stabilized with bovine serum albumin. The potential obtained is then employed to study the lifetime of deformable drops in the range 10 ≤ r(i) ≤ 1000 μm . It is established that the average lifetime of these drops can be adequately replicated using the model of truncated spheres. However, the results depend sensibly on the expressions of the initial distance of deformation and the maximum film radius used in the calculations. The set of equations adequate for large drops is not satisfactory for medium-size drops (10 ≤ r(i) ≤ 100 μm) , and vice versa. In the case of large particles, the increase in the interfacial area as a consequence of the deformation of the drops generates a very large repulsive barrier which opposes coalescence. Nevertheless, the buoyancy force prevails. As a consequence, it is the hydrodynamic tensor of the drops which determine the characteristic behavior of the lifetime as a function of the particle size. While the average values of the coalescence time of the drops can be justified by the mechanism of film thinning, the scattering of the experimental data of large drops cannot be rationalized using the methodology previously described. A possible explanation of this phenomenon required elaborate simulations which combine deformable drops, capillary waves, repulsive interaction forces, and a time-dependent surfactant adsorption.

  6. Effect of supplementation of mustard oil cake on intake, digestibility and microbial protein synthesis of cattle in a straw-based diet in Bangladesh.

    PubMed

    Khandaker, Zahirul Haque; Uddin, Mohammad Mohi; Sultana, Nadira; Peters, Kurt J

    2012-04-01

    The objective of this study was to analyse the effects of different levels of rumen-degradable protein (RDP) on intake, digestibility and microbial protein synthesis by supplementing mustard oil cake (MOC) on rice straw-based diet of cattle (Bos indicus) in Bangladesh. A 4 × 4 Latin square design was applied. Four diets having constant energy (7.0 MJ/kg of dry matter (DM)) with varying levels of RDP (M(0) = 4.1 g/MJ (control), M(1) = 6.3 g/MJ, M(2) = 8.3 g/MJ and M(3) = 12.4 g/MJ of metabolizable energy (ME)) were received by each animal for a period of 28 days. A metabolism trial was conducted for 7 days. Results indicate that with increasing levels of RDP, crude protein (CP) and RDP intake increased significantly (P < 0.01). The significant (P < 0.01) increase in digestibility values are obtained for DM, organic matter, CP and digestible organic matter in the rumen. The digestibility of neutral detergent fibre and acid detergent fibre was also increased significantly (P < 0.05). The total nitrogen (N), ammonia-N and total volatile fatty acids increase significantly (P < 0.01) while the rumen pH increased from M(0) to M(2) and decreased thereafter. The efficiency microbial N intake increased significantly (P < 0.01) but showed a curvilinear response with higher RDP level (12.40 g/RDP/MJ ME). This study concludes that supplementation of RDP from MOC enhances the intake, digestibility and microbial protein synthesis which ultimately increases utilization of low-quality feed resources that can be used for developing cost-effective feeding systems on a straw-based diet in tropical regions.

  7. Polyphenolic Compounds and Antioxidant Activity of Cold-Pressed Seed Oil from Finola Cultivar of Cannabis sativa L.

    PubMed

    Smeriglio, Antonella; Galati, Enza M; Monforte, Maria T; Lanuzza, Francesco; D'Angelo, Valeria; Circosta, Clara

    2016-08-01

    The aim of this study was to characterize the polyphenolic compounds and antioxidant activity of cold-pressed seed oil from Finola cultivar of industrial hemp (Cannabis sativa L.). Several methodologies have been employed to evaluate the in vitro antioxidant activity of Finola hempseed oil (FHSO) and both lipophilic (LF) and hydrophilic fractions (HF). The qualitative and quantitative composition of the phenolic fraction of FHSO was performed by HPLC analyses. From the results is evident that FHSO has high antioxidative activity, as measured by DPPH radical (146.76 mmol of TE/100 g oil), inhibited β-carotene bleaching, quenched a chemically generated peroxyl radical in vitro and showed high ferrous ion chelating activity. Reactivity towards 2,2'-azino-bis (3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) radical cation and ferric-reducing antioxidant power values were 695.2 µmol of TE/100g oil and 3690.6 µmol of TE/100 g oil respectively. FHSO contains a significant amount of phenolic compounds of which 2780.4 mg of quercetin equivalent/100 g of total flavonoids. The whole oil showed higher antioxidant activity compared with LF and HF. Our findings indicate that the significant antioxidant properties shown from Finola seed oil might generally depend on the phenolic compounds, especially flavonoids, such as flavanones, flavonols, flavanols and isoflavones. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  8. Briquette comprising caking coal and municipal solid waste

    SciTech Connect

    Schulz, H.W.

    1980-09-30

    Briquettes of specified geometry and composition are produced to serve as feed material or ''burden'' in a moving-burden gasifier for the production of a synthesis or fuel gas from organic solid waste materials and coal, including especially, the so-called ''caking'' coals, as in the process of copending application number 675,918. The briquettes are formed from a well-blended mixture of shredded organic solid wastes, including especially, municipal solid waste (Msw) or biomass, and crushed caking coal, including coal fines. A binder material may or may not be required, depending on the coal/msw ratio and the compaction pressure employed. The briquettes may be extruded, stamped, or pressed, employing compaction pressures in excess of 1000 psi, and preferably in the range of 2000 to 10,000 psi. The briquettes may be circular, polygonal, or irregular in cross-section; they may be solid, or concentrically perforated to form a hollow cylinder or polygon; they may be formed into saddles, pillows or doughnuts. The ratio of caking coal to shredded municipal solid waste is controlled so that each part of the predominantly cellulosic organic solid waste will be blended with 0.5 to 3.0 parts of crushed coal. Suitable binder materials include dewatered sewage slude (Dss), ''black liquor'' rich in lignin derivatives, black strap molasses, waste oil, and starch. The binder concentration is preferably in the range of 2 to 6 percent. If coals high in sulfur content are to be processed, at least a stoichiometric equivalent of dolomite may be included in the briquette formulation to eliminate a major fraction of the sulfur with the slag.

  9. Microbial inhibitory and radical scavenging activities of cold-pressed terpeneless Valencia orange (Citrus sinensis) oil in different dispersing agents.

    PubMed

    Chalova, Vesela I; Crandall, Philip G; Ricke, Steven C

    2010-04-15

    Due to their low solubility in water, oil-based bioactive compounds require dispersion in a surface-active agent or appropriate solvents to ensure maximum contact with microorganisms. These combinations, however, may change their physical and/or chemical characteristics and consequently alter the desired functionality. The objective of this study was to determine the impact of selected dispersing agents, ethanol, dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO), and Tween-80, on cold-pressed terpeneless (CPT) Valencia orange oil to function as a free radical scavenger and an antimicrobial food additive. When dissolved in ethanol or DMSO, the orange oil fraction had similar minimum inhibitory concentrations (MIC) for Listeria monocytogenes ATCC 19 115 (0.3% and 0.25% v/v respectively), which were significantly lower (P oil dispersion systems exhibited an intermediate MIC (0.75% v/v) for Lactobacillus plantarum WCFS1. The orange oil (up to 3%) in an aqueous solution of 0.1% Tween-80 yielded no inhibitory activities against any of the test bacteria. However, the 1% natural orange oil dispersed in Tween-80 exhibited 56.86% 2,2-diphenyl-1-picryl hydrazyl (DPPH) radical inhibition versus 18.37% and 16.60% when the same level of orange oil was dissolved in DMSO or ethanol, respectively. At the same orange oil concentration, the oil/Tween-80 suspension yielded 57.92% neutralization of hydroxyl radicals. This represents 71.37% of the mannitol antioxidant activity, which was used as a positive control. These findings suggest that Tween-80 is an appropriate dispersing agent only if the antioxidant functionality is desired. If both antimicrobial and antioxidant properties are needed, the CPT Valencia orange oil should be dispersed in either DMSO or ethanol. (c) 2010 Society of Chemical Industry.

  10. Basic Cake Decorating Workbook.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bogdany, Mel

    Included in this student workbook for basic cake decorating are the following: (1) Drawings of steps in a basic way to ice a layer cake, how to make a paper cone, various sizes of flower nails, various sizes and types of tin pastry tubes, and special rose tubes; (2) recipes for basic decorating icings (buttercream, rose paste, and royal icing);…

  11. Basic Cake Decorating Workbook.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bogdany, Mel

    Included in this student workbook for basic cake decorating are the following: (1) Drawings of steps in a basic way to ice a layer cake, how to make a paper cone, various sizes of flower nails, various sizes and types of tin pastry tubes, and special rose tubes; (2) recipes for basic decorating icings (buttercream, rose paste, and royal icing);…

  12. Effect of extruded wheat flour as a fat replacer on batter characteristics and cake quality.

    PubMed

    Román, Laura; Santos, Isabel; Martínez, Mario M; Gómez, Manuel

    2015-12-01

    The effects of three levels of fat replacement (1/3, 2/3, and 3/3) by extruded flour paste and the effects of the presence of emulsifier on layer cake batter characteristics and final cake quality were studied. Replacement of oil by extruded flour paste modified the batter density and microscopy, reducing the number of air bubbles and increasing their size, while emulsifier incorporation facilitated air entrapment in batter. Emulsifier addition also increased the elastic and viscous moduli of the batter, while oil reduction resulted in a less structured batter. Emulsifier incorporation leads to good quality cakes, minimizing the negative effect of oil reduction, maintaining the volume and reducing the hardness of cakes. Furthermore, consumer acceptability of the reduced fat cakes was improved by the addition of emulsifier. Thus, the results confirmed the positive effect of partial oil substitution (up to 2/3) by extruded flour paste on the quality of reduced fat cakes when emulsifier was incorporated.

  13. Lifetime of oil drops pressed by buoyancy against a planar interface: Large drops

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rojas, Clara; García-Sucre, Máximo; Urbina-Villalba, Germán

    2010-11-01

    In a previous report [C. Rojas, G. Urbina-Villalba, and M. García-Sucre, Phys. Rev. E 81, 016302 (2010)10.1103/PhysRevE.81.016302] it was shown that emulsion stability simulations are able to reproduce the lifetime of micrometer-size drops of hexadecane pressed by buoyancy against a planar water-hexadecane interface. It was confirmed that small drops (ri<10μm) stabilized with β -casein behave as nondeformable particles, moving with a combination of Stokes and Taylor tensors as they approach the interface. Here, a similar methodology is used to parametrize the potential of interaction of drops of soybean oil stabilized with bovine serum albumin. The potential obtained is then employed to study the lifetime of deformable drops in the range 10≤ri≤1000μm . It is established that the average lifetime of these drops can be adequately replicated using the model of truncated spheres. However, the results depend sensibly on the expressions of the initial distance of deformation and the maximum film radius used in the calculations. The set of equations adequate for large drops is not satisfactory for medium-size drops (10≤ri≤100μm) , and vice versa. In the case of large particles, the increase in the interfacial area as a consequence of the deformation of the drops generates a very large repulsive barrier which opposes coalescence. Nevertheless, the buoyancy force prevails. As a consequence, it is the hydrodynamic tensor of the drops which determine the characteristic behavior of the lifetime as a function of the particle size. While the average values of the coalescence time of the drops can be justified by the mechanism of film thinning, the scattering of the experimental data of large drops cannot be rationalized using the methodology previously described. A possible explanation of this phenomenon required elaborate simulations which combine deformable drops, capillary waves, repulsive interaction forces, and a time-dependent surfactant adsorption.

  14. Recovery potential of cold press byproducts obtained from the edible oil industry: physicochemical, bioactive, and antimicrobial properties.

    PubMed

    Karaman, Safa; Karasu, Salih; Tornuk, Fatih; Toker, Omer Said; Geçgel, Ümit; Sagdic, Osman; Ozcan, Nihat; Gül, Osman

    2015-03-04

    Physicochemical, bioactive, and antimicrobial properties of different cold press edible oil byproducts (almond (AOB), walnut (WOB), pomegranate (POB), and grape (GOB)) were investigated. Oil, protein, and crude fiber content of the byproducts were found between 4.82 and 12.57%, between 9.38 and 49.05%, and between 5.87 and 45.83%, respectively. GOB had very high crude fiber content; therefore, it may have potential for use as a new dietary fiber source in the food industry. As GOB, POB, and WOB oils were rich in polyunsaturated fatty acids, AOB was rich in monounsaturated fatty acids. Oil byproducts were also found to be rich in dietary mineral contents, especially potassium, calcium, phosphorus, and magnesium. WOB had highest total phenolic (802 ppm), flavonoid (216 ppm), and total hydrolyzed tannin (2185 ppm) contents among the other byproducts. Volatile compounds of all the byproducts are mainly composed of terpenes in concentration of approximately 95%. Limonene was the dominant volatile compound in all of the byproducts. Almond and pomegranate byproduct extracts showed antibacterial activity depending on their concentration, whereas those of walnut and grape byproducts showed no antibacterial activity against any pathogenic bacteria tested. According to the results of the present study, walnut, almond, pomegranate, and grape seed oil byproducts possess valuable properties that can be taken into consideration for improvement of nutritional and functional properties of many food products.

  15. Trabeculectomy Versus Ex-Press Glaucoma Filtration Device in Silicomacrophagocytic Open Angle Glaucoma Secondary to Silicone Oil Emulsification

    PubMed Central

    Errico, Donato; Scrimieri, Francesca Luigia; Riccardi, Roberta; Iarossi, Giancarlo

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: To compare the outcomes of Ex-PRESS device implantation versus trabeculectomy in patients with ocular hypertension after pars plana vitrectomy and silicone oil injection (SOI). Materials and Methods: Twenty-six consecutive eyes with ocular hypertension after pars plana vitrectomy and SOI were included in this study and randomized to one of two groups: A group treated with Ex-PRESS (model P50) placed under a scleral flap (Ex-PRESS group), and a group treated with trabeculectomy (trabeculectomy group). Complete success (intraocular pressure [IOP] <21 mmHg without medication) and qualified success rates (IOP <21 mmHg with one or two glaucoma medications) at 2 years postoperatively were analyzed. Between-groups comparison was performed with the Mann-Whitney U-test for continuous variables, and Fischer exact test for categorical data. Success rates between groups were compared using Kaplan-Meier life analysis and the log-rank test. P < 0.05 was considered statistically significant. Results: In the Ex-PRESS group, complete success was achieved in 73% eyes and qualified success in 81.8% of eyes. In the trabeculectomy group, complete success was achieved in 40% and qualified success was achieved in 60% of eyes. The difference in mean IOP between groups was statistically significant from the 3rd postoperative month onward (P = 0.007 at 3 months, P = 0.003 at 6 months, and P = 0.03 at 24 months). Conclusion: Ex-PRESS implantation was more effective than trabeculectomy in controlling IOP in ocular hypertensives after pars plana vitrectomy and SOI, but the surgical technique may require improvement. PMID:27162449

  16. Effects of seed preparation and oil pressing on milkweed (Asclepias spp.) protein functional properties

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The effects of seed cooking and oil processing conditions on functional properties of milkweed seed proteins were determined to identify potential value-added uses for the meal. Milkweed seeds were flaked and then cooked in the seed conditioner at 82°C for 30, 60 or 90 min. Oil was extracted by scre...

  17. Sesamin and sesamolin as unexpected contaminants in various cold-pressed plant oils: NP-HPLC/FLD/DAD and RP-UPLC-ESI/MS(n) study.

    PubMed

    Górnaś, Paweł; Siger, Aleksander; Pugajeva, Iveta; Segliņa, Dalija

    2014-04-01

    Thirteen cold-pressed oils (Japanese quince seed, black caraway, flaxseed, rapeseed, hemp, peanut, sunflower, pumpkin, hazelnut, poppy, walnut, almond and sesame oil) manufactured by the same company over a 2-year period (2011-12) were assessed for lipophilic compounds. The presence of sesamin and sesamolin, two characteristic lignans of sesame oil, were detected in all tested plant oils. Both lignans were identified by NP-HPLC/FLD/DAD and confirmed by a RP-UPLC-ESI/MS(n) method. The lowest amount of sesamin and sesamolin was found for Japanese quince seed oil (0.10 and 0.27 mg/100 g), and the highest, excluding sesame oil, for almond oil (36.21 and 105.42 mg/100 g, respectively). The highly significant correlation between sesamolin and sesamin concentrations was found in all samples tested (r = 0.9999; p < 0.00001). These results indicate contamination of cold-pressed oils from the same source. This investigation highlights the fact that increasing the range of products manufactured by the same company can contribute to a lesser regard for the quality of the final product. Moreover, less attention paid to the quality of final product can be related to the health risks of consumers especially sensitive to allergens. Therefore, proper cleaning of processing equipment is needed to prevent cross-contact of cold-pressed oils.

  18. Utilization of the Fine Particles Obtained from Cold Pressed Vegetable Oils: A Case Study in Organic Rice Bran, Sunflower and Sesame Oils.

    PubMed

    Srikaeo, Khongsak; Poungsampao, Phuttan; Phuong, Nguyen Thi

    2017-01-01

    Fine particles obtained from the physical refining of organic cold pressed vegetable oils which are normally discarded as a process waste can be utilized as cosmetic and food ingredients. This paper demonstrated the use of the fine particles from rice bran (Thai Jasmine and Riceberry varieties), sunflower and sesame oils as the ingredient in body mask and as dietary fiber. It was found that the fine particles from rice brans exhibited better antioxidant properties than those of sunflower and sesame. The mixed fine particles were added to body mask formula. The addition of the fine particles affected the physical properties and stability of the body mask especially viscosity and pH. Total dietary fiber recovered from the fine particles ranged from 17.91-23.83 g/100g dry sample. Dietary fiber from Riceberry exhibited the best antioxidant properties as evidenced by DPPH radical scavenging activity and reducing power.

  19. Effect of Dietary Treatment with Olive Oil By-Product (Olive Cake) on Physicochemical, Sensory and Microbial Characteristics of Beef During Storage.

    PubMed

    Branciari, Raffaella; Ranucci, David; Miraglia, Dino; Urbani, Stefania; Esposto, Sonia; Servili, Maurizio

    2015-11-02

    Several studies have demonstrated that the use of natural preservatives through animal diets could increase the shelf life of meat and meat products since many plant-derived substances show antioxidant and antimicrobial properties. The aim of this work was to study the effect of olive cake dietary supplementation on beef oxidative stability and antimicrobial activity during storage. Beef cattle were randomly divided into three homogeneous groups that were assigned to one of the three diets: a commercial unified based diet administered for 90 days until slaughter (CTR), CTR diet supplemented with 0.5% olive cake administered for 90 days until slaughter (OC1), and CTR diet supplemented with 0.5% olive cake and administered for 60 days followed by the administration of the CTR diet for 30 days until slaughter (OC2). Beefsteaks were overwrapped with oxygen-permeable packaging and analysed at four different storage times (zero, three, six and nine days). At the four sampling times considered from all of the samples, total viable count (TVC), Enterobacteriaceae counts, colour coordinates (CIE L*a*b* colour system), peroxide value (PV), thiobarbituric reactive substances (TBARs) determinations and descriptive sensory analyses were performed. No differences in TVC and Enterobacteriaceae count were detected among the groups over all of the sampling times considered. Differences were recorder among groups for PV, TBARS, colour and sensory analysis. The addition of olive cake in the animal diet had an effect on lipid oxidation reducing the level of PV, TBARS and retarding colour deterioration and the development of off odour in OC meat during storage.

  20. Value-added potential of expeller-pressed canola oil refining: characterization of sinapic acid derivatives and tocopherols from byproducts.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yougui; Thiyam-Hollander, Usha; Barthet, Veronique J; Aachary, Ayyappan A

    2014-10-08

    Valuable phenolic antioxidants are lost during oil refining, but evaluation of their occurrence in refining byproducts is lacking. Rapeseed and canola oil are both rich sources of sinapic acid derivatives and tocopherols. The retention and loss of sinapic acid derivatives and tocopherols in commercially produced expeller-pressed canola oils subjected to various refining steps and the respective byproducts were investigated. Loss of canolol (3) and tocopherols were observed during bleaching (84.9%) and deodorization (37.6%), respectively. Sinapic acid (2) (42.9 μg/g), sinapine (1) (199 μg/g), and canolol (344 μg/g) were found in the refining byproducts, namely, soap stock, spent bleaching clay, and wash water, for the first time. Tocopherols (3.75 mg/g) and other nonidentified phenolic compounds (2.7 mg sinapic acid equivalent/g) were found in deodistillates, a byproduct of deodorization. DPPH radical scavenging confirmed the antioxidant potential of the byproducts. This study confirms the value-added potential of byproducts of refining as sources of endogenous phenolics.

  1. Characterisation of crude palm oil O/W emulsion produced with Tween 80 and potential in residual oil recovery of palm pressed mesocarp fibre

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramly, N. H.; Zakaria, R.; Naim, M. N.

    2016-06-01

    Surfactant-assisted aqueous extraction has been proposed as a “green” alternative to hexane extraction for the recovery of oil from plant matters. An efficient aqueous surfactant extraction system usually use an extended type of ionic surfactant with the ability to produce Winsor type III microemulsion, reducing the interfacial tension (IFT) between plant oil and surfactant solution to an ultralow level (10-3 mN/m). However, the safe used of this surfactant in food processing is uncertain leading to non-food application of the recovered oil. In the present study, the potential of Tween 80, a commercial food-grade non-ionic surfactant, was evaluated in the recovery of residual oil from palm-pressed mesocarp. The emulsion produced between Tween 80 and crude palm oil (CPO) was characterised in terms of IFT, droplet size, viscosity and phase inversion temperature (PIT). The effect of surfactant concentration, electrolyte (NaCl) and temperature were studied to determine whether a Winsor Type III microemulsion can be produced. Results shows that although these parameters were able to reduce the IFT to very low values, Winsor type III microemulsion was not produced with this single surfactant. Emulsion of CPO and Tween 80 solution did not produce a PIT even after heating to 100°C indicating that middle phase emulsion was not able to be formed with increasing temperature. The highest percentage of oil extraction (38.84%) was obtained at the concentration above the critical micelle concentration (CMC) of Tween 80 and CPO, which was at 0.5 wt% Tween 80 with 6% NaCl, and temperature of 60°C. At this concentration, the IFT value is 0.253 mN/m with a droplet size of 4183.8 nm, and a viscosity of 7.38 cp.

  2. Chemical composition and bioactivity of Citrus medica L. cv. Diamante essential oil obtained by hydrodistillation, cold-pressing and supercritical carbon dioxide extraction.

    PubMed

    Menichini, Federica; Tundis, Rosa; Bonesi, Marco; de Cindio, Bruno; Loizzo, Monica R; Conforti, Filomena; Statti, Giancarlo A; Menabeni, Roberta; Bettini, Ruggero; Menichini, Francesco

    2011-04-01

    The chemical composition of the essential oil of Citrus medica L. cv. Diamante peel obtained by hydrodistillation, cold-pressing and supercritical carbon dioxide extraction techniques was determined by GC/MS analysis. Forty-six components were fully characterised. Limonene and γ-terpinene were the major components of the oils obtained by hydrodistillation (HD) and cold-pressing (CP), while citropten was the major constituent in the oil obtained by supercritical carbon dioxide extraction (SFE). Acetylcholinesterase (AChE) and butyrylcholinesterase (BChE) inhibitory activities were evaluated. The essential oil obtained by hydrodistillation exerted the highest inhibitory activity against BChE (IC₅₀ value of 154.6 µg mL⁻¹) and AChE (IC₅₀ value of 171.3 µg mL⁻¹. Interestingly, the oil obtained by cold-pressing exhibited a selective inhibitory activity against AChE. The essential oils have also been evaluated for the inhibition of NO production in LPS induced RAW 264.7 macrophages. The oil obtained by hydrodistillation exerted a significant inhibition of NO production with an IC₅₀ value of 17 µg mL⁻¹ (IC₅₀ of positive control 53 µg mL⁻¹).

  3. Volatile Oxidation Compounds and Stability of Safflower, Sesame and Canola Cold-Pressed Oils as Affected by Thermal and Microwave Treatments.

    PubMed

    Kiralan, Mustafa; Ramadan, Mohamed Fawzy

    2016-01-01

    The goal of this study was to investigate the effect of heating and microwave treatment on the levels of volatile oxidation products and the stability of safflower (Carthamus tinctorius L.), sesame (Sesamum indicum) and canola (Brassica napus L.) cold-pressed oils. Cold-pressed oils were subjected to conventional heating (oven test) using air-forced oven at 60°C and microwave heating for 2 and 4 min. The changes in conjugated diene (CD) and conjugated triene (CT) values were monitored during treatments. As expected, heating generates an increase in CD and CT values. The volatile compounds in treated oils were determined using solid phase micro-extraction-gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (SPME-GC/MS). The obtained GC/MS data were used to characterize volatile compounds of cold-pressed oils during heating and microeave treatments. Under oven conditions, 2-heptenal and 2,4-heptadienal isomers were identified as major components in canola oil, while hexanal and 2-heptenal were found in high levels in safflower and sesame oils. Among volatiles, p-cymene was the dominant compound found in microwave-treated canola oil. In addition, hexanal and 2-hexenal were found at high amounts upon microwave treatment especially after 4 min of application.

  4. Hepatoprotective effect of cold-pressed Syzygium aromaticum oil against carbon tetrachloride (CCl4)-induced hepatotoxicity in rats.

    PubMed

    El-Hadary, Abdalla E; Ramadan Hassanien, Mohamed F

    2016-08-01

    Contexts: Exposure to environmental pollutants such as carbon tetrachloride (CCl4) causes liver injuries. There are claims that extracts from Syzygium aromaticum (Linn.) Merrill & L.M.Perry, (Myrtaceae) protects from such injuries. This study investigates the protective effects of cold-pressed S. aromaticum oil (CO) against CCl4-induced liver toxicity in rats. CO was orally administered to rats in two doses (100 and 200 mg/kg) along with CCl4 (1 mL/kg in olive oil) for 8 weeks. Indices of liver and kidney functions, lipid profile, and peroxidation were evaluated in rats' serum and tissues. Fatty acids and bioactive lipids of CO were analyzed. High levels of monounsaturated fatty acids (39.7%) and polyunsaturated fatty acids (42.1%) were detected in CO. The oil contained high amounts of tocols and phenolics. The LD50 value at 24 h was approximately 5950 mg/kg. Treatment with 200 mg/kg CO resulted in a decrease of creatinine, urea, and uric acid levels to 0.86, 32.6, and 2.99 mg/dL, respectively. Levels of TL, TC, TAG, LDL-C, and VLDL-C were decreased to 167, 195.3, 584.5, 74.6, and 39.0 mg/L, respectively, after 8 weeks of treatment. Hepatic malondialdehyde levels were reduced and glutathione levels were elevated in CO-treated rats. CO reduced the activities of AST, ALT, and ALP as well as kidney function markers, protein, and lipid profiles, respectively. Histopathological examination of liver indicated that CO treatment reduced fatty degenerations, cytoplasmic vacuolization, and necrosis. CO possessed a protective effect against CCl4-induced hepatotoxicity in rats, mediated possibly by the antioxidant properties of the oil.

  5. Layer-Cake Earth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tedford, Rebecca; Warny, Sophie

    2006-01-01

    In this article, the authors offer a safe, fun, effective way to introduce geology concepts to elementary school children of all ages: "coring" layer cakes. This activity introduces the concepts and challenges that geologists face and at the same time strengthens students' inferential, observational, and problem-solving skills. It also addresses…

  6. Compression of Cake

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nason, Sarah; Houghton, Brittany; Renfro, Timothy

    2012-03-01

    The fall university physics class, at McMurry University, created a compression modulus experiment that even high school students could do. The class came up with this idea after a Young's modulus experiment which involved stretching wire. A question was raised of what would happen if we compressed something else? We created our own Young's modulus experiment, but in a more entertaining way. The experiment involves measuring the height of a cake both before and after a weight has been applied to the cake. We worked to derive the compression modulus by applying weight to a cake. In the end, we had our experimental cake and, ate it too! To cite this abstract, use the following reference: http://meetings.aps.org/link/BAPS.2012.TSS.B1.1

  7. Layer-Cake Earth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tedford, Rebecca; Warny, Sophie

    2006-01-01

    In this article, the authors offer a safe, fun, effective way to introduce geology concepts to elementary school children of all ages: "coring" layer cakes. This activity introduces the concepts and challenges that geologists face and at the same time strengthens students' inferential, observational, and problem-solving skills. It also addresses…

  8. Nutritional value of cold-pressed rapeseed oil during long term storage as influenced by the type of packaging material, exposure to light & oxygen and storage temperature.

    PubMed

    Wroniak, Małgorzata; Rękas, Agnieszka

    2016-02-01

    The effect of various conditions (storage temperature, exposure to light, access of oxygen) and different packaging material (amber glass, amber polyethylene terephthalate) on the nutritional value of cold-pressed rapeseed oil during 12 months of storage was investigated. Quantified quality parameters included: acidity, peroxide value, spectrophotometric indices (K 232 , K 268 ), fatty acid composition, tocopherols and sterols. Storage of oil at 4 °C was found to be most appropriate for maintaining the quality of cold-pressed rapeseed oil. Exposure of oil samples stored at room temperature to light in combination with the access of oxygen caused the most pronounced losses in the total tocopherols (ca. 90-91 % of α-T, and ca. 80-81 % of γ-T), total phytosterols (ca. 15-16 %) and substantial deterioration in oil qualitative properties. Although storage at room temperature is common for use in households, storage of at low temperatures (4 °C) significantly increases the possibility of prolonged shelf life of cold-pressed rapeseed oil.

  9. Characteristics of rose hip (Rosa canina L.) cold-pressed oil and its oxidative stability studied by the differential scanning calorimetry method.

    PubMed

    Grajzer, Magdalena; Prescha, Anna; Korzonek, Katarzyna; Wojakowska, Anna; Dziadas, Mariusz; Kulma, Anna; Grajeta, Halina

    2015-12-01

    Two new commercially available high linolenic oils, pressed at low temperature from rose hip seeds, were characterised for their composition, quality and DPPH radical scavenging activity. The oxidative stability of oils was assessed using differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). Phytosterols, tocopherols and carotenoids contents were up to 6485.4; 1124.7; and 107.7 mg/kg, respectively. Phenolic compounds determined for the first time in rose hip oil totalled up to 783.55 μg/kg, with a predominant presence of p-coumaric acid methyl ester. Antiradical activity of the oils reached up to 3.00 mM/kg TEAC. The acid, peroxide and p-anisidine values as well as iron and copper contents indicated good quality of the oils. Relatively high protection against oxidative stress in the oils seemed to be a result of their high antioxidant capacity and the level of unsaturation of fatty acids.

  10. Characterization of Key Odorants Causing a Fusty/Musty Off-Flavor in Native Cold-Pressed Rapeseed Oil by Means of the Sensomics Approach.

    PubMed

    Matheis, Katrin; Granvogl, Michael

    2016-11-02

    The sensomics approach was used to clarify the formation of the fusty/musty off-flavor of native cold-pressed rapeseed oil. A "positive control" (PC) showing the desired sensory attributes and an oil eliciting a fusty/musty off-flavor (OF) were analyzed. Comparative aroma extract dilution analysis (cAEDA), identification experiments, quantitation by stable isotope dilution assays (SIDAs), calculation of odor activity values (OAVs), and aroma recombination resulted in 11 odorants with an OAV ≥ 1 in PC. Main differences between both oils were obtained for compounds caused by microbial influence revealing significantly higher concentrations in OF, e.g., for ethyl 2-methylbutanoate, 2-methoxyphenol, 3-hydroxy-4,5-dimethylfuran-2(5H)-one (sotolon), 2- and 3-methylbutanoic acid, and 4-methylphenol. Comparison of the key odorants in OF with those of the rapeseeds (OFS), from which it was pressed, showed the same 18 compounds proving that the grade of the seeds and their storage conditions are important criteria for the quality of the final oil. Finally, a further 7 native cold-pressed rapeseed oils, eliciting the same sensory defect, were analyzed to confirm aroma-active marker compounds responsible for the fusty/musty off-flavor.

  11. Effect of physical and chemical properties of oil palm empty fruit bunch, decanter cake and sago pith residue on cellulases production by Trichoderma asperellum UPM1 and Aspergillus fumigatus UPM2.

    PubMed

    Zanirun, Zuraidah; Bahrin, Ezyana Kamal; Lai-Yee, Phang; Hassan, Mohd Ali; Abd-Aziz, Suraini

    2014-01-01

    The effect of cultivation condition of two locally isolated ascomycetes strains namely Trichoderma asperellum UPM1 and Aspergillus fumigatus UPM2 were compared in submerged and solid state fermentation. Physical evaluation on water absorption index, solubility index and chemical properties of lignin, hemicellulose and cellulose content as well as the cellulose structure on crystallinity and amorphous region of treated oil palm empty fruit bunch (OPEFB) (resulted in partial removal of lignin), sago pith residues (SPR) and oil palm decanter cake towards cellulases production were determined. Submerged fermentation shows significant cellulases production for both strains in all types of substrates. Crystallinity of cellulose and its chemical composition mainly holocellulose components was found to significantly affect the total cellulase synthesis in submerged fermentation as the higher crystallinity index, and holocellulose composition will increase cellulase production. Treated OPEFB apparently induced the total cellulases from T. asperellum UPM1 and A. fumigatus UPM2 with 0.66 U/mg FPase, 53.79 U/mg CMCase, 0.92 U/mg β-glucosidase and 0.67 U/mg FPase, 47.56 U/mg and 0.14 U/mg β-glucosidase, respectively. Physical properties of water absorption and solubility for OPEFB and SPR also had shown significant correlation on the cellulases production.

  12. Effect-directed analysis of cold-pressed hemp, flax and canola seed oils by planar chromatography linked with (bio)assays and mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Teh, Sue-Siang; Morlock, Gertrud E

    2015-11-15

    Cold-pressed hemp, flax and canola seed oils are healthy oils for human consumption as these are rich in polyunsaturated fatty acids and bioactive phytochemicals. However, bioactive information on the food intake side is mainly focused on target analysis. For more comprehensive information with regard to effects, single bioactive compounds present in the seed oil extracts were detected by effect-directed assays, like bioassays or an enzymatic assay, directly linked with chromatography and further characterized by mass spectrometry. This effect-directed analysis is a streamlined method for the analysis of bioactive compounds in the seed oil extracts. All effective compounds with regard to the five assays or bioassays applied were detected in the samples, meaning also bioactive breakdown products caused during oil processing, residues or contaminants, aside the naturally present bioactive phytochemicals. The investigated cold-pressed oils contained compounds that exert antioxidative, antimicrobial, acetylcholinesterase inhibitory and estrogenic activities. This effect-directed analysis can be recommended for bioactivity profiling of food to obtain profound effect-directed information on the food intake side.

  13. Inhibition of Listeria monocytogenes by exposure to a combination of nisin and cold-pressed terpeneless Valencia oil.

    PubMed

    Shannon, Erin M; Milillo, Sara R; Johnson, Michael G; Ricke, Steven C

    2011-01-01

    Listeria monocytogenes is an important foodborne pathogen and its control in foods is a significant challenge. This study evaluated the effectiveness of nisin and cold-pressed terpeneless Valencia oil (CPTVO) on limiting L. monocytogenes growth. Disk diffusion assays were performed to determine the effects of CPTVO and nisin individually and in combination. Together, these antimicrobials produced a zone of inhibition that was significantly larger (P < 0.05) than zones correlating to CPTVO or nisin individually. Furthermore, L. monocytogenesΔsigB had an increased sensitivity to the combination treatment. Growth experiments performed in brain heart infusion (BHI) broth revealed the effects of nisin and CPTVO, individually and in combination on L. monocytogenes growth rate. When L. monocytogenes was grown in BHI containing 0.025% CPTVO and 26 IU/mL nisin, no growth inhibition was observed relative to the control. However, exposure to CPTVO at 0 h followed by the introduction of nisin at 15 h resulted in a statistically significant (P < 0.05) reduction in growth. This approach to inhibiting L. monocytogenes has potential as an all-natural, generally-recognized-as-safe multiple hurdle intervention that may be applicable for ready-to-eat products in which L. monocytogenes is likely to cause foodborne illness.

  14. Rapid isolation, reliable characterization, and water solubility improvement of polymethoxyflavones from cold-pressed mandarin essential oil.

    PubMed

    Russo, Marina; Rigano, Francesca; Arigò, Adriana; Sciarrone, Danilo; Calabrò, Maria Luisa; Farnetti, Sara; Dugo, Paola; Mondello, Luigi

    2016-06-01

    Polymethoxyflavones possess many biological properties, as lipid-lowering, hypoglycaemic, anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, and anticancer activities, therefore, they may be employed as nutraceuticals or therapeutic agents. The scarcity of pure polymethoxyflavones on the market as well as their low water solubility limited in vivo studies and the use of polymethoxyflavones as food or pharmaceutical supplements. Since mandarin peels are a rich source of polymethoxyflavones, tangeretin, nobiletin, sinensetin, tetra-O-methyl scutellarein, and heptamethoxyflavone were purified from a nonvolatile residue of a cold-pressed mandarin essential oil using a multidimensional preparative liquid chromatographic system coupled with a photodiode array detector and a single quadrupole mass spectrometer. A new prototype, consisting of a nano-liquid chromatography system coupled with an electron ionization mass spectrometer, was used for the characterization of the pure isolated molecules. Finally, due to the collection of highly pure nobiletin and tangeretin, the ability of 2-hydroxypropyl-β-cyclodextrin to enhance the water solubility of both polymethoxyflavones was evaluated by phase solubility studies and Job's plot method.

  15. Comparison of cake compositions, pepsin digestibility and amino acids concentration of proteins isolated from black mustard and yellow mustard cakes.

    PubMed

    Sarker, Ashish Kumar; Saha, Dipti; Begum, Hasina; Zaman, Asaduz; Rahman, Md Mashiar

    2015-01-01

    As a byproduct of oil production, black and yellow mustard cakes protein are considered as potential source of plant protein for feed applications to poultry, fish and swine industries. The protein contents in black and yellow mustard cakes were 38.17% and 28.80% and their pepsin digestibility was 80.33% and 77.43%, respectively. The proteins were extracted at different pH and maximum proteins (89.13% of 38.17% and 87.76% of 28.80% respectively) isolated from black and yellow mustard cakes at pH 12. The purity of isolated proteins of black and yellow mustard cakes was 89.83% and 91.12% respectively and their pepsin digestibility was 89.67% and 90.17% respectively which assigned the absence of antinutritional compounds. It was found that essential amino acids isoleucine, lysine, methionine, threonine and tryptophan and non essential amino acids arginine and tyrosine were present in greater concentration in black mustard cake protein whereas other amino acids were higher in yellow mustard cake protein.

  16. Effect of pretreatment with dehulling and microwaving on the flavor characteristics of cold-pressed rapeseed oil by GC-MS-PCA and electronic nose discrimination.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Qi; Yang, Mei; Huang, Fenghong; Zheng, Chang; Deng, Qianchun

    2013-07-01

    Raw and dehulled rapeseeds were treated with microwave energy (800 W) from 1 to 8 min with 1-min intervals at a frequency of 2450 MHz to investigate the influence of microwaving and dehulling pretreatment on the flavor characteristics of rapeseed oil extracted by pressing. Headspace solid phase microextraction was used to isolate the volatile compounds of rapeseed oil, which were then identified by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry analysis. The results indicated that microwave and dehulling pretreatment of rapeseed can significantly influence the kinds and content of volatile compounds. The key flavor compounds in rapeseed oil were oxidized volatiles, heterocyclic compounds, and degradation products of glucosinolates. A pungent compound, 4-isothiocyanato-1-butene, was reduced by 97% in rapeseed treated for 3 min with microwaves energy when compared to the rapeseed oil without any treatment. The pyrazine compounds in the oil appeared after 6 min of microwave pretreatment and give a pleasant roasting flavor when compared to crude oils. Principal component analysis was able to differentiate between oils obtained using 4 pretreatment processes based on volatile compounds and electronic nose. The results showed that dehulling pretreatment could improve the flavor, yet microwaving had a greater effect on the flavor of rapeseed oils. © 2013 Institute of Food Technologists®

  17. The Icing or the Cake?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Doubet, Kristina J.; Hockett, Jessica A.

    2016-01-01

    In this article, authors Kristina J. Doubet and Jessica A. Hockett argue that student engagement is more than a decorative icing on a cake; it's the cake itself. They cite research that an engaged student is more likely to invest in and understand the content being taught. With this in mind, the authors detail the following four principles that…

  18. The Icing or the Cake?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Doubet, Kristina J.; Hockett, Jessica A.

    2016-01-01

    In this article, authors Kristina J. Doubet and Jessica A. Hockett argue that student engagement is more than a decorative icing on a cake; it's the cake itself. They cite research that an engaged student is more likely to invest in and understand the content being taught. With this in mind, the authors detail the following four principles that…

  19. Edible applications of shellac oleogels: spreads, chocolate paste and cakes.

    PubMed

    Patel, Ashok R; Rajarethinem, Pravin S; Grędowska, Agnieszka; Turhan, Ozge; Lesaffer, Ans; De Vos, Winnok H; Van de Walle, Davy; Dewettinck, Koen

    2014-04-01

    We demonstrate three potential edible applications of shellac oleogels as (i) a continuous oil phase for preparation of emulsifier-free, structured w/o emulsions (spreads), (ii) a replacer for oil-binders in chocolate paste formulations and (iii) a shortening alternative for cake preparation. Water-in-oil emulsions with up to 60 wt% water were prepared without the need for an emulsifier by simply using shellac oleogels as the continuous oil phase. The water droplets in these emulsions (size < 40 μm) were stabilized via interfacial and bulk crystallization of shellac. Chocolate paste prepared by complete replacement of an oil-binder and a partial replacement of palm oil (∼27%) with a shellac oleogel, showed no sign of 'oiling-out' when stored at elevated temperature (30 °C) for several weeks. Further, cakes prepared using oleogel-based w/o emulsions (20 wt% water) as a shortening alternative showed comparable functionalities (texture and sensory attributes) to the standard cake.

  20. Co-composting of oil exhausted olive-cake, poultry manure and industrial residues of agro-food activity for soil amendment.

    PubMed

    Sellami, F; Jarboui, R; Hachicha, S; Medhioub, K; Ammar, E

    2008-03-01

    The co-composting of exhausted olive-cake with poultry manure and sesame shells was investigated. These organic solid wastes were watered by the confectionary wastewater which is characterized by its high content of residual sugars raising its COD. Four aerated windrows were performed to establish the effects of confectionary by-products on the compost process. Different mixtures of the agro-industrial wastes were used. During the composting process, physico-chemical parameters (temperature, moisture, pH, electrical conductivity, total carbon and total nitrogen) were studied. The stability of the biological system was noticed after 70 days. The final products were characterized by their relatively high organic matter content, and low C/N ratio of 14-17. The humidification of the windrows with the wastewater seemed to have accelerated the composting process in comparison to a windrow humidified with water. In addition, the organic matter degradation was enhanced to reach 55-70%. The application of the obtained composts to soil appeared to significantly improve the soil fertility. Indeed, field experiments showed an increase in potato yield; the production was 30.5-37.5 tons ha(-1), compared to 30.5 tons ha(-1) with farm manure.

  1. In-vitro fermentation characteristics and methane reduction potential of mustard cake (Brassica juncea L.)

    PubMed Central

    Durge, S. M.; Tripathi, M. K.; Dutta, N.

    2016-01-01

    Aim: To assess the effect of mustard cake (Brassica juncea L.) levels in concentrate mixtures and in composite feed mixtures (CFMs) on in-vitro fermentation characteristics and methane production. Materials and Methods: Five concentrate mixtures were prepared with containing 30% oil cake, where linseed cake was replaced by mustard cake at the rate of 0%, 7.5%, 15.0%, 22.5%, and 30% in concentrate mixture. Mustard cake contained glucosinolate 72.58 µmol/g oil free dry matter (DM) and contents in diet were 0, 5.4, 10.9, 16.3, and 21.8 µmol/g of concentrate mixture, respectively. Concentrate mixture containing 15.0% mustard cake was found to produced minimum methane which was then used for the preparation of CFM containing 0%, 25%, 50%, and 75% levels with gram straw. Result: Increased levels of mustard cake in concentrate mixtures had a linear decrease (p<0.05) in the total gas production, and the 15% inclusion showed lowest methane concentration (quadratic, p<0.01). The degradability of DM and organic matter (OM) of concentrate mixtures did not change, however, pH and NH3-N concentrations of the fermentation medium showed linear (p<0.05) reductions with increased mustard cake levels. Increased levels of 15% mustard cake containing concentrate mixture in CFMs exhibited a trend (p=0.052) of increased gas production, whereas methane concentration in total gas, methane produced and degradability of DM and OM were also displayed a linear increase (p<0.05). However, the pH, NH3-N, and total volatile fatty acid levels decreased linearly (p<0.05) with increased levels of concentrate in CFMs. Conclusion: Reduction in methane production was evidenced with the inclusion of mustard cake in concentrate mixture at 15% level, and the CFMs with 25% concentrate, which contained 15% mustard cake, exhibited an improved fermentation and reduced methane production. PMID:27847426

  2. Filter cake characterization studies

    SciTech Connect

    Newby, R.A.; Smeltzer, E.E.; Alvin, M.A.; Lippert, T.E.

    1995-11-01

    The Westinghouse Electric Corporation, Science & Technology Center is developing an Integrated Low Emissions Cleanup (ILEC) concept for high-temperature gas cleaning to meet environmental standards, as well as to provide gas turbine protection. The ILEC system is a ceramic barrier hot gas filter (HGF) that removes particulate while simultaneously contributing to the control of sulfur, alkali, and potentially other contaminants in high-temperature, high-pressure fuel gases, or combustion gases. The gas-phase contaminant removal is performed by sorbent particles injected into the HGF. The overall objective of this program is to demonstrate, at a bench scale, the technical feasibility of the ILEC concept for multi-contaminant control, and to provide test data applicable to the design of subsequent field tests. The program has conducted ceramic barrier filter testing under simulated PFBC conditions to resolve issues relating to filter cake permeability, pulse cleaning, and filter cake additive performance. ILEC testing has also been performed to assess the potential for in-filter sulfur and alkali removal.

  3. ;Green; carbon with hierarchical three dimensional porous structure derived from - Pongamia pinnata seed oil extract cake and NiCo2O4-Ni(OH)2/Multiwall carbon nanotubes nanocomposite as electrode materials for high performance asymmetric supercapacitor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chaitra, K.; Narendra, Reddy; Venkatesh, Krishna; Nagaraju, N.; Kathyayini, Nagaraju

    2017-07-01

    Herein, we report for the first time synthesis and electrochemical supercapacitance performance of 3-D hierarchical porous ;Green; carbon derived from Pongamia pinnata seed oil extract cake and its activation using different amounts of KOH. Also, nanocomposites of multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWCNT) with various weight percentages of Ni and Co were prepared by hydrothermal method. Physico-chemical properties of ;Green; carbon and nanocomposites were analyzed by Powder X-ray Diffraction, Brunner Emmett Teller surface area, Scanning Electron Microscopy-Elemental Dispersive Spectrum, Transmission Electron Microscopy and Raman techniques. KOH activated carbon was found associated with combination of micropores & mesopores while the nanocomposite with mixture of spinel NiCo2O4 and Ni(OH)2. Porous carbon activated with 2:1::KOH:C (KC2) and the nanocomposite with 1:1 Ni & Co (NC1) exhibited excellent electrochemical performance in three electrode system. Further, fabricated asymmetric supercapacitor (AS) device Ni-Co-MWCNT (NC1)//KC2 exhibited specific capacitance (Cs) of 177 F/g as determined by cyclic voltammetry at 10 mV/s and retained 90% even at 3000th cycle in life cycle test conducted at high current density of 50 A/g. In order to evaluate its practical performance, the AS device was charged to 1.8 V at 5 A/g and used successfully to power a calculator for more than 1 h.

  4. Effects of dietary cold-pressed turnip rapeseed oil and butter on serum lipids, oxidized LDL and arterial elasticity in men with metabolic syndrome

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Rapeseed oil is the principal dietary source of monounsaturated and n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids in the Northern Europe. However, the effect of rapeseed oil on the markers of subclinical atherosclerosis is not known. The purpose of this study was to compare the effects of dietary intake of cold-pressed turnip rapeseed oil (CPTRO) and butter on serum lipids, oxidized LDL and arterial elasticity in men with metabolic syndrome. Methods Thirty-seven men with metabolic syndrome completed an open and balanced crossover study. Treatment periods lasted for 6 to 8 weeks and they were separated from each other with an eight-week washout period. Subjects maintained their normal dietary habits and physical activity without major variations. The daily fat adjunct consisted either of 37.5 grams of butter or 35 mL of VirginoR CPTRO. Participants were asked to spread butter on bread on the butter period and to drink CPTRO on the oil period. The fat adjunct was used as such without heating or frying. Results Compared to butter, administration of CPTRO was followed by a reduction of total cholesterol by 8% (p < 0.001) and LDL cholesterol by 11% (p < 0.001). The level of oxidized LDL was 16% lower after oil period (p = 0.024). Minimal differences in arterial elasticity were not statistically significant. Conclusion Cold-pressed turnip rapeseed oil had favourable effects on circulating LDL cholesterol and oxidized LDL, which may be important in the management of patients at high cardiovascular risk. Trial registration ClinicalTrial.gov NCT01119690 PMID:21122147

  5. Chromatographic techniques for the determination of alkyl-phenols, tocopherols and other minor polar compounds in raw and roasted cold pressed cashew nut oils.

    PubMed

    Gómez-Caravaca, Ana María; Verardo, Vito; Caboni, Maria Fiorenza

    2010-11-19

    Anacardium occidentale belongs to the family Anacardiaceae and is principally grown in tropical America (Mexico, Peru, Brazil, etc.) and India. Cashew nuts contain low amounts of hydroxy alkyl phenols that come from an oily liquid present in their shell and that is known as cashew-nut shell liquid. This paper reports the alkyl phenols composition of cold pressed raw and roasted cashew nut oil. First of all, cashew nut shell liquid was used for a basic fractionation of the alkyl phenol classes by preparative TLC and definitively identified by GC-MS and GC-FID. Anacardic acids were the major alkylphenols contained in both oils followed by cardol, cardanol and 2-methylcardol compounds, respectively. Raw and roasted oils did not show different compositions except for cardanols. The oil produced from roasted cashew nut reported a higher concentration of cardanols. Furthermore, tocopherols and other minor polar compounds were determined by HPLC-FLD and HPLC-DAD-MS, respectively. Tocopherol content varied in a range of 171.48-29.56mg/100g from raw to roasted cashew nut oil, being β-tocopherol the one which presented a higher decrease (93.68%). Also minor polar compounds in cashew oil decreased after roasting from 346.52 to 262.83mg/kg.

  6. Microwave-assisted extraction of herbacetin diglucoside from flax (Linum usitatissimum L.) seed cakes and its quantification using an RP-HPLC-UV system.

    PubMed

    Fliniaux, Ophélie; Corbin, Cyrielle; Ramsay, Aina; Renouard, Sullivan; Beejmohun, Vickram; Doussot, Joël; Falguières, Annie; Ferroud, Clotilde; Lamblin, Frédéric; Lainé, Eric; Roscher, Albrecht; Grand, Eric; Mesnard, François; Hano, Christophe

    2014-03-10

    Flax (Linum usitatissimum L.) seeds are widely used for oil extraction and the cold-pressed flaxseed (or linseed) cakes obtained during this process constitute a valuable by-product. The flavonol herbacetin diglucoside (HDG) has been previously reported as a constituent of the flaxseed lignan macromolecule linked through ester bonds to the linker molecule hydroxymethylglutaric acid. In this context, the development and validation of a new approach using microwave-assisted extraction (MAE) of HDG from flaxseed cakes followed by quantification with a reverse-phase HPLC system with UV detection was purposed. The experimental parameters affecting the HDG extraction yield, such as microwave power, extraction time and sodium hydroxide concentration, from the lignan macromolecule were optimized. A maximum HDG concentration of 5.76 mg/g DW in flaxseed cakes was measured following an irradiation time of 6 min, for a microwave power of 150 W using a direct extraction in 0.1 M NaOH in 70% (v/v) aqueous methanol. The optimized method was proven to be rapid and reliable in terms of precision, repeatability, stability and accuracy for the extraction of HDG. Comparison with a conventional extraction method demonstrated that MAE is more effective and less time-consuming.

  7. 13C nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopic detection of the adulteration of extra virgin olive oils extracted from different cultivars with cold-pressed hazelnut oil.

    PubMed

    Vlahov, Giovanna

    2009-01-01

    13C NMR spectroscopy was applied to detect the adulteration of olive oils with hazelnut oil. Considering that the linolenate chain and the squalene hydrocarbon were absent in hazelnut oil, unlike olive oil, a 13C NMR spectroscopy method was developed to measure in addition to the triglyceride normal chains (i.e., saturated, oleate, and linoleate chains), the resonances of the linolenate chain and of squalene hydrocarbon. Acyl chain and squalene resonances highly discriminated olive oil samples by cultivars. Nevertheless, the "hazelnut oil percentage factor" prevailed over the "cultivar factor," thus correctly classifying 86% of the authentic and adulterated olive oil samples according to the hazelnut oil percentages. In particular, 85.7, 73.7, and 100.0% of the authentic olive oil samples, and the samples adulterated with 5 and 20% of hazelnut oil, were correctly classified through cross-validation.

  8. Let Them Eat Faux Cake

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peace, Suze

    2012-01-01

    In this article, students create a "faux" cake sculpture. It is a three-dimensional artwork made of paper, colored with markers, and decorated with old marker caps and polystyrene packing peanuts for icing swirls.

  9. Let Them Eat Faux Cake

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peace, Suze

    2012-01-01

    In this article, students create a "faux" cake sculpture. It is a three-dimensional artwork made of paper, colored with markers, and decorated with old marker caps and polystyrene packing peanuts for icing swirls.

  10. Neem cake: chemical composition and larvicidal activity on Asian tiger mosquito.

    PubMed

    Nicoletti, Marcello; Mariani, Susanna; Maccioni, Oliviero; Coccioletti, Tiziana; Murugan, Kardaray

    2012-07-01

    New pesticides based on natural products are urgently needed, in consideration of their environmental care and lower collateral effects. Neem oil, the main product obtained from Azadiractha indica A. Juss, commonly known as neem tree, is mainly used in medical devices, cosmetics and soaps, as well as important insecticide. Manufacturing of neem oil first includes the collection of the neem seeds as raw material used for the extraction. Neem cake is the waste by-product remaining after extraction processes. The quality of the oil, as that of the cake, strictly depends from the quality of seeds as well as from the type of extraction processes used, which strongly influences the chemical composition of the product. Currently, the different types of commercial neem cake on the market are roughly identified as oiled and deoiled cake, but several other differences can be detected. The differences are relevant and must be determined, to obtain the necessary correlation between chemical constitution and larvicidal activities. Six different batches of neem cake, marketed by several Indian and European companies, were analyzed by HPLC and HPTLC, and their fingerprints compared, obtaining information about the different compositions, focusing in particular on nortriterpenes, considered as the main active components of neem oil. Therefore, the chemical composition of each cake was connected with the biological activitiy, i.e., the effects of the extracts of the six neem cakes were tested on eggs and larvae of Aedes albopictus (Stegomyia albopicta) (Diptera: Culicidae), commonly known as Asian tiger mosquito. The results confirmed the previously reported larvicide effects of neem cake that, however, can now be related to the chemical composition, in particular with nortriterpenes, allowing in that way to discriminate between the quality of the various marketed products, as potential domestic insecticides.

  11. Optimization of a sponge cake formulation with inulin as fat replacer: structure, physicochemical, and sensory properties.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez-García, Julia; Puig, Ana; Salvador, Ana; Hernando, Isabel

    2012-02-01

    The effects of several fat replacement levels (0%, 35%, 50%, 70%, and 100%) by inulin in sponge cake microstructure and physicochemical properties were studied. Oil substitution for inulin decreased significantly (P < 0.05) batter viscosity, giving heterogeneous bubbles size distributions as it was observed by light microscopy. Using confocal laser scanning microscopy the fat was observed to be located at the bubbles' interface, enabling an optimum crumb cake structure development during baking. Cryo-SEM micrographs of cake crumbs showed a continuous matrix with embedded starch granules and coated with oil; when fat replacement levels increased, starch granules appeared as detached structures. Cakes with fat replacement up to 70% had a high crumb air cell values; they were softer and rated as acceptable by an untrained sensory panel (n = 51). So, the reformulation of a standard sponge cake recipe to obtain a new product with additional health benefits and accepted by consumers is achieved. Practical Application:  In this study, fat is replaced by inulin in cakes, which is a fiber mainly obtained from chicory roots. Sponge cake formulations with reductions in fat content up to 70% are achieved. These high-quality products can be labeled as "reduced in fat" according to U.S. FDA (2009) and EU regulations (European-Union 2006).

  12. Chemical Characteristics of Cold-Pressed Blackberry, Black Raspberry, and Blueberry Seed Oils and the Role of the Minor Components in Their Oxidative Stability.

    PubMed

    Li, Quanquan; Wang, Jiankang; Shahidi, Fereidoon

    2016-07-06

    The chemical characteristics of cold-pressed blackberry, black raspberry, and blueberry seed oils were evaluated for their fatty acid composition, positional distribution of fatty acids, triacylglycerol (TAG) profile, and minor component profile. The role of minor components, including tocols and pigments, on the oxidative stability was also investigated using high-temperature- and fluorescent-lighting-induced oxidation before and after tested berry seed oils were stripped of their minor components. The results indicated that all tested berry seed oils contained significant levels of palmitic (C16:0), stearic (C18:0), oleic (18:1), linoleic (C18:2ω-6), and α-linolenic (C18:3ω-3) acids, along with a favorable ratio of ω-6/ω-3 fatty acids (1.49-3.86); palmitic, stearic, oleic, and α-linolenic acids were predominantly distributed on the terminal positions. Six TAGs, namely, LnLnLn, LnLLn, LLLn, LLL, OLL, and OLLn, were the major species detected in the tested berry seed oils. Total tocol contents were 286.3-1302.9 mg/kg, which include α-, γ-, and δ-tocopherols as well as δ-tocotrienol. Oxidative stability of the three berry seed oils was compromised after the removal of tocols under high-temperature-induced oxidation, while the loss of pigments (chlorophylls) led to weak oxidative stability when exposed to fluorescent lights.

  13. Processing and use of crop residues including alfalfa press cake.

    PubMed

    Kohler, G O; Walker, H G; Kuzmicky, D D

    1979-04-01

    Better utilization of roughage can improve the production of red meat and dairy products. Feed value of low grade roughages can be greatly increased by chemical and/or physical treatments. Both alkali and ammonia treatments are already being used commercially in Europe, although there is still opportunity for process improvement. In the United States, the low cost of grain and oilseeds makes the economics of processing cellulosic byproducts less desirable, but their eventual use seems inevitable. New processes for forage fractionation are yielding surprising increases in the fiber digestibility of high grade roughages, resulting in substantial increases in the overall feed value obtainable per ton of raw material. The improved economic returns achieved by the new processes will speed adoption of the new technology.

  14. Drill Presses.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Engelbrecht, Nancy; And Others

    These instructional materials provide an orientation to the drill press for use at the postsecondary level. The first of seven sections lists seven types of drill presses. The second section identifies 14 drill press parts. The third section lists 21 rules for safe use of drilling machines. The fourth section identifies the six procedures for…

  15. Marble Cake Perspectives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Langmuir, C. H.

    2007-12-01

    Since the original suggestions by Hanson (Geol. Soc. London, 1977) and Allegre and Turcotte (Nature, 1986), the concept of a "veined" or "marble cake" mantle has gained wide acceptance as a paradigm for mantle composition and components. The "veined mantle" was conceived thinking of the mantle as an ultramafic migmatite with many types of veins, but emphasized metasomatic components contained in hydrous phases as an explanation for alkali basalts. The "marble cake" mantle emphasized recycled oceanic lithosphere. Both types of veins are inevitable consequences of mantle convection. Oceanic lithosphere is recycled and stretched; low melting components of the mantle are inevitably melted in ascending mantle flow, even beneath thick lithsosphere. Both vein types have been widely invoked to explain incompatible element enriched basalts from the mantle. Most recently, disequilibrium melting of veined mantle sources by various mechanisms have become a popular suggestion to explain diverse aspects of mantle geochemistry (e.g. Sobolev et al., Nature, 2005; Phipps Morgan et al., EPSL, 1999). The physical mechanisms that would allow disequilibrium melting of fine scale veins, however, remain to be demonstrated. Average upper mantle composition is residual to continents and requires removal of low F melts to generate the depleted MORB source, and enrichment by low F melts to create the enriched source. Such a process is also necessary in the Sobolev et al model for Hawaii, which generates the equivalent of a low F melt by two stages of larger degree melting. Enriched sources are not restricted to ocean islands, and the name "OIB source" is a misnomer. Enriched basalts occur on normal ridges, in back-arc basins, behind subduction zones, in continental rifts and in isolated volcanic cones. Most of these are not mantle plumes. Enriched components have been ascribed to recycled ocean lithosphere, but recycled ocean crust is depleted, not enriched. Therefore the isotopic signature

  16. Calculation of equivalent friction coefficient for castor seed by single screw press

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, R.; Xiao, Z.; Li, C.; Zhang, L.; Li, P.; Li, H.; Zhang, A.; Tang, S.; Sun, F.

    2017-08-01

    Based on the traction angle and transportation rate equation, castor beans were pressed by application of single screw under different cake diameter and different screw speed. The results showed that the greater the cake diameter and screw rotation speed, the greater the actual transmission rate was. The equivalent friction coefficient was defined and calculated as 0.4136, and the friction coefficients between press material and screw, bar cage were less than the equivalent friction coefficient value.

  17. GT-5 Recovery Slice Cake

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1965-08-29

    S65-51660 (29 Aug. 1965) --- Astronauts Charles Conrad Jr. (left) and L. Gordon Cooper Jr. prepare to slice into the huge cake prepared for them by the cooks onboard the aircraft carrier USS Lake Champlain. They are using ornamental Navy swords for knives.

  18. Subcritical water liquefaction of oil palm fruit press fiber in the presence of sodium hydroxide: an optimisation study using response surface methodology.

    PubMed

    Mazaheri, Hossein; Lee, Keat Teong; Bhatia, Subhash; Mohamed, Abdul Rahman

    2010-12-01

    Thermal decomposition of oil palm fruit press fiber (FPF) into a liquid product (LP) was achieved using subcritical water treatment in the presence of sodium hydroxide in a high pressure batch reactor. This study uses experimental design and process optimisation tools to maximise the LP yield using response surface methodology (RSM) with central composite rotatable design (CCRD). The independent variables were temperature, residence time, particle size, specimen loading, and additive loading. The mathematical model that was developed fit the experimental results well for all of the response variables that were studied. The optimal conditions were found to be a temperature of 551 K, a residence time of 40 min, a particle size of 710-1000 microm, a specimen loading of 5 g, and a additive loading of 9 wt.% to achieve a LP yield of 76.16%.

  19. Predicting the performance of belt filter presses using the Crown Press for laboratory simulation

    SciTech Connect

    Graham, T.M.

    1999-07-26

    Belt filter presses (BFPs) are among the most commonly used devices to dewater wastewater sludge. The concept used by a BFP to achieve dewatered cake solids is relatively simple; however, replicating this performance in the laboratory in order to predict the performance of a BFP with reasonable reliability has proven to be a challenge. The Crown Press is one tool that has been shown to replicate the performance of anaerobically digested sludge on a BFP. This study used the Crown Press to replicate and predict the performance of waste activated sludge (WAS) from the Mauldin Road wastewater treatment plant on BFPs. Several operational variables, including belt speed, belt tension, polymer type, and polymer dose, were changed on the Crown Press to predict how the changes on the BFP would affect performance. Two polymers were chosen to be tested on the BFPs at Mauldin Road based on Crown Press predictions. The first polymer performed the same as the plant`s current polymer in the lab, and the second performed better (achieved higher final cake solids) than the current polymer. These predictions were borne out in the BFP tests, showing that the Crown Press predictions were accurate. The Crown Press predictions were also compared to the predictions made by the capillary suction time (CST) and specific resistance to filtration (SRF) tests. The Crown Press provided more information regarding the affect of polymer type and dose on cake solids than either CST or SRF. The Crown Press was shown to be a viable tool to assess potential changes in BFP performance with WAS when operational variables change.

  20. [Obtaining protein fractions from commercial sesame cakes (Sesamum indicum)].

    PubMed

    Guerra, M J; Jaffe, W G; Sangronis, E

    1984-09-01

    Sesame press cake represents an important potential protein source for human consumption. Some of the limiting factors are its high crude fiber content, oxalic acid content, and its bitter taste. By fractionation of solvent-extracted sesame meal, several preparations were obtained which were analyzed for their nutrient content, protein utilization and digestibility. PER values were low, and supplementation with lysine, skim-milk powder, soymeal or fish meal, improved the PER values considerably. Based on these findings, formulas for use as a protein supplement for children are presented.

  1. ICSU press

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    The International Council of Scientific Unions (ICSU) has established a publishing arm called ICSU Press. The Press is intended to complement the publishing activities of its member scientific unions in several ways: initiate special publications of research findings and new journals of reviews or research; advise, or act as publishers for, members requesting such service; and engage in copublishing ventures with international bodies outside of ICSU whose goals are consistent with ICSU's.Plans for ICSU Press also include preparation of television programs in cooperation with BBC-2 in Britain and PBS and ABC in the United States.

  2. GT-12 - CAKE - RECOVERY CEREMONIES

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1966-11-16

    S66-59989 (16 Nov. 1966) --- Gemini-12 astronaut James A. Lovell Jr. (left), command pilot, and Edwin E. Aldrin Jr. (right), pilot, eat a piece of cake presented the two astronauts by crew members of the prime recovery ship, USS Wasp. Gemini-12 splashed down in the Atlantic Ocean at 2:21 p.m. (EST), Nov. 15, 1966, to conclude a four-day mission in space. Photo credit: NASA

  3. Cold-pressed flaxseed oil reverses age-associated depression in a primary cell-mediated adaptive immune response in the mouse.

    PubMed

    Hillyer, L M; Sandiford, A M; Gray, C E; Woodward, Bill

    2006-02-01

    The objective of this investigation was to determine the influence of flaxseed oil on responses representative of primary humoral and cell-mediated adaptive immune competence in immunosenescent mice. Male and female C57BL/6J mice, 85 weeks old, were randomized between two complete purified diets differing only in oil source (cold-pressed safflower or flaxseed). After 8 weeks, humoral competence was assessed in six mice per group as the serum haemagglutinin titre to sheep red blood cells (SRBC) and cell-mediated competence was assessed, in an additional six mice per group, as the delayed hypersensitivity response to SRBC. A zero-time control group (88 weeks old) and a young adult positive control group (12 weeks old) were each tested similarly (six per immune response), revealing age-related depression in both antibody and cell-mediated competence at 88 weeks of age. After the 8-week experimental period, the antibody response of the two test groups of geriatric mice remained below the young adult level (P=0.04) and the cell-mediated response of the safflower oil group also continued to exhibit age-related depression (20 % of young adult level, P=0.0002). By contrast, the anti-SRBC delayed hypersensitivity response of the flaxseed group no longer differed from the response of the young adults but exceeded that of the safflower and zero-time control senescent groups (P=0.0002). Depression in primary cell-mediated competence, the most outstanding aspect of immunosenescence, can be addressed by means of a dietary source of 18 : 3n-3 without longer-chain PUFA.

  4. CAKING IN STORAGE OF ALKALINE CLEANING COMPOUND,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    The parameter of anhydrous vs hydrated salts was the subject of a prelimi nary study and found not to be a factor in caking . Five granulation ...rier. Only the fines grade granulation mixes caked , in all orders of mixing and with or without transportation. Normal transportation (1,000 miles...does not induce caking by vibratory packing. A granulation grade whose ingredients originally consisted of approximately equal amounts of fines and

  5. Automated small scale oil seed processing plant for production of fuel for diesel engines

    SciTech Connect

    Thompson, J.C.; Peterson, C.L.

    1982-01-01

    University of Idaho seed processing research is centered about a CeCoCo oil expeller. A seed preheater-auger, seed bin, meal auger, and oil pump have been constructed to complete the system, which is automated and instrumented. The press, preheater, cake removal auger, and oil transfer pump are tied into a central panel where energy use is measured and the process controlled. Extracted oil weight, meal weight, process temperature, and input energy are all recorded during operation. The oil is transferred to tanks where it settles for 48 hours or more. It is then pumped through a filtering system and stored ready to be used as an engine fuel. The plant has processed over 11,000 kg of seed with an average extraction efficiency of 78 percent. 5 tables.

  6. Compressible cake filtration: monitoring cake formation and shrinkage using synchrotron X-rays

    SciTech Connect

    Bierck, B.R.; Wells, S.A.; Dick, R.I.

    1988-05-01

    High energy, highly collimated X-rays produced at the Cornell High Energy Synchrotron Sources (CHESS) enabled real-time suspended solids concentration measurements each second with 0.5 mm vertical separation in a kaolin filter cake. Suspended solids concentration profiles reflected expected effects of cumulative fluid drag forces. Shrinkage caused a significant increase in average cake suspended solids concentration after expiration of the slurry, and the saturated cake ultimately formed was virtually homogeneous. Shrinkage is consolidation under compressive forces created when capillary menisci form at air/liquid interfaces, and has a significant effect on cake structure in latter stages of compressible cake filtration.

  7. An observational study of the effect of vibration on the caking of suspensions in oily vehicles.

    PubMed

    Jain, Rohit; Bork, Olaf; Alawi, Fadil; Nanjan, Karthigeyan; Tucker, Ian G

    2016-11-30

    An oily suspension of penethamate (PNT) that was physically stable on storage, caked solidly during road/air transport. This paper reports on the caking behaviour of PNT oily suspension formulations exposed to vibrations in a lab-based test designed to simulate road/air transport. The lab-test was used to study the effects of container type (glass v PET) and formulation (oil, surfactant type and concentration) on the physical stability of suspension under vibration. Redispersibility of the sediment was lower at longer vibrations times and at higher intensity of vibration. Caking on vibration was strongly influenced by the type of container (caking in glass but not in PET) possibly due to tribo-charging of particles. Caking on vibration was dependent on the formulation: type and concentration of surfactant; type of oil. The physical stability of oily suspensions, and the effect of vibration are two areas which have been largely neglected in the pharmaceutical literature. This paper discusses some potential mechanisms for the observations but studies using fully characterised materials are required. Finally we conclude that static testing of physical stability of oily suspensions is not sufficient and that a vibrational stress test is required.

  8. Recycling of aluminum salt cake

    SciTech Connect

    Jody, B.J.; Daniels, E.J.; Bonsignore, P.V.; Karvelas, D.E.

    1991-12-01

    The secondary aluminum industry generates more than 110 {times} 10{sup 3} tons of salt-cake waste every year. This waste stream contains about 3--5% aluminum, 15--30% aluminum oxide, 30--40% sodium chloride, and 20--30% potassium chloride. As much as 50% of the content of this waste is combined salt (sodium and potassium chlorides). Salt-cake waste is currently disposed of in conventional landfills. In addition, over 50 {times} 10{sup 3} tons of black dross that is not economical to reprocess a rotary furnace for aluminum recovery ends up in landfills. The composition of the dross is similar to that of salt cake, except that it contains higher concentrations of aluminum (up to 20%) and correspondingly lower amounts of salts. Because of the high solubility of the salts in water, these residues, when put in landfills, represent a potential source of pollution to surface-water and groundwater supplies. The increasing number of environmental regulations on the generation and disposal of industrial wastes are likely to restrict the disposal of these salt-containing wastes in conventional landfills. Processes exist that employ the dissolution and recovery of the salts from the waste stream. These wet-processing methods are economical only when the aluminum concentration in that waste exceeds about 10%. Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) conducted a study in which existing technologies were reviewed and new concepts that are potentially more cost-effective than existing processes were developed and evaluated. These include freeze crystallization, solvent/antisolvent extraction, common-ion effect, high-pressure/high-temperature process, and capillary-effect systems. This paper presents some of the technical and economic results of the aforementioned ANL study.

  9. Simultaneous allergen inactivation and detoxification of castor bean cake by treatment with calcium compounds

    PubMed Central

    Fernandes, K.V.; Deus-de-Oliveira, N.; Godoy, M.G.; Guimarães, Z.A.S.; Nascimento, V.V.; de Melo, E.J.T.; Freire, D.M.G.; Dansa-Petretski, M.; Machado, O.L.T.

    2012-01-01

    Ricinus communis L. is of great economic importance due to the oil extracted from its seeds. Castor oil has been used for pharmaceutical and industrial applications, as a lubricant or coating agent, as a component of plastic products, as a fungicide or in the synthesis of biodiesel fuels. After oil extraction, a castor cake with a large amount of protein is obtained. However, this by-product cannot be used as animal feed due to the presence of toxic (ricin) and allergenic (2S albumin) proteins. Here, we propose two processes for detoxification and allergen inactivation of the castor cake. In addition, we establish a biological test to detect ricin and validate these detoxification processes. In this test, Vero cells were treated with ricin, and cell death was assessed by cell counting and measurement of lactate dehydrogenase activity. The limit of detection of the Vero cell assay was 10 ng/mL using a concentration of 1.6 × 105 cells/well. Solid-state fermentation (SSF) and treatment with calcium compounds were used as cake detoxification processes. For SSF, Aspergillus niger was grown using a castor cake as a substrate, and this cake was analyzed after 24, 48, 72, and 96 h of SSF. Ricin was eliminated after 24 h of SSF treatment. The cake was treated with 4 or 8% Ca(OH)2 or CaO, and both the toxicity and the allergenic properties were entirely abolished. A by-product free of toxicity and allergens was obtained. PMID:22911344

  10. Secondary Aluminum Processing Waste: Salt Cake ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Thirty-nine salt cake samples were collected from 10 SAP facilities across the U.S. The facilities were identified by the Aluminum Association to cover a wide range of processes. Results suggest that while the percent metal leached from the salt cake was relatively low, the leachable metal content may still pose a contamination concern and potential human and ecological exposure if uncontrollably released to the environment. As a result, salt cake should always be managed at facilities that utilize synthetic liner systems with leachate collection (the salt content of the leachate will increase the hydraulic conductivity of clay liners within a few years of installation). The mineral phase analysis showed that various species of aluminum are present in the salt cake samples with a large degree of variability. The relative abundance of various aluminum species was evaluated but it is noted that the method used is a semi-quantitative method and as a result there is a limitation for the data use. The analysis only showed a few aluminum species present in salt cake which does not exclude the presence of other crystalline species especially in light of the variability observed in the samples. Results presented in this document are of particular importance when trying to understand concerns associated with the disposal of salt cake in MSW landfills. From the end-of-life management perspective, data presented here suggest that salt cake should not be size reduce

  11. Potential of powdered activated mustard cake for decolorising raw sugar.

    PubMed

    Singh, Kaman; Bharose, Ram; Verma, Sudhir Kumar; Singh, Vimalesh Kumar

    2013-01-15

    Carbon decolorisation has become customary in the food processing industries; however, it is not economical. Extensive research has therefore been directed towards investigating potential substitutes for commercial activated carbons which might have the advantage of offering an effective, lower-cost replacement for existing bone char or coal-based granular activated carbon (GAC). The physical (bulk density and hardness), chemical (pH and mineral content) and adsorption characteristics (iodine test, molasses test and raw sugar decolorisation efficiency) of powdered activated mustard cake (PAMC) made from de-oiled mustard cake were determined and compared to commercial adsorbents. Although the colour removal efficiency of the PAMC is lower than that of commercial materials, it is cost effective and eco-friendly compared to the existing decolorisation/refining processes. To reduce the load on GAC/activated carbon/charcoal, PAMC could be used on an industrial scale. A decolorisation mechanism has been postulated on the basis of oxygen surface functionalities and surface charge of the PAMC and, accordingly, charge transfer interaction seems to be responsible for the decolorisation mechanism. In addition, a complex interplay of electrostatics and dispersive interaction seem to be involved during the decolorisation process. A low-cost agricultural waste product in the form of de-oiled mustard cake was converted to an efficient adsorbent, PAMC, for use in decolorising raw as well as coloured sugar solutions. The physical, chemical, adsorption characteristics and raw sugar decolorisation efficiency of PAMC were determined and compared to those of commercial adsorbents. The colour removal efficiency of the PAMC is lower than that of commercial materials but it is cost effective and eco-friendly as compared to existing decolorisation/refining processes. The availability of the raw material for the production of PAMC further demands its use on an industrial scale. Copyright

  12. Moisture-induced caking of beverage powders.

    PubMed

    Chávez Montes, Edgar; Santamaría, Nadia Ardila; Gumy, Jean-Claude; Marchal, Philippe

    2011-11-01

    Beverage powders can exhibit caking during storage due to high temperature and moisture conditions, leading to consumer dissatisfaction. Caking problems can be aggravated by the presence of sensitive ingredients. The caking behaviour of cocoa beverage powders, with varying amounts of a carbohydrate sensitive ingredient, as affected by climate conditions was studied in this work. Sorption isotherms of beverage powders were determined at water activities (a(w) ) ranging from 0.1 to 0.6 in a moisture sorption analyser by gravimetry and fitted to the Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET) or the Guggenheim-Anderson-de Boer (GAB) equation. Glass transition temperatures (T(g) ) at several a(w) were analysed by differential scanning calorimetry and fitted to the Gordon-Taylor equation. Deduced T(g) = f(a(w) ) functions helped to identify stability or caking zones. Specific experimental methods, based on the analysis of mechanical properties of powder cakes formed under compression, were used to quantify the degree of caking. Pantry tests complemented this study to put in evidence the visual perception of powder caking with increasing a(w) . The glass transition approach was useful to predict the risks of caking but was limited to products where T(g) can be measured. On the other hand, quantification of the caking degree by analysis of mechanical properties allowed estimation of the extent of degradation for each product. This work demonstrated that increasing amounts of a carbohydrate sensitive ingredient in cocoa beverages negatively affected their storage stability. Copyright © 2011 Society of Chemical Industry.

  13. Improvement of efficiency of oil extraction from wild apricot kernels by using enzymes.

    PubMed

    Bisht, Tejpal Singh; Sharma, Satish Kumar; Sati, Ramesh Chandra; Rao, Virendra Kumar; Yadav, Vijay Kumar; Dixit, Anil Kumar; Sharma, Ashok Kumar; Chopra, Chandra Shekhar

    2015-03-01

    An experiment was conducted to evaluate and standardize the protocol for enhancing recovery of oil and quality from cold pressed wild apricot kernels by using various enzymes. Wild apricot kernels were ground into powder in a grinder. Different lots of 3 kg powdered kernel were prepared and treated with different concentrations of enzyme solutions viz. Pectazyme (Pectinase), Mashzyme (Cellulase) and Pectazyme + Mashzyme. Kernel powder mixed with enzyme solutions were kept for 2 h at 50(±2) °C temperature for enzymatic treatment before its use for oil extraction through oil expeller. Results indicate that use of enzymes resulted in enhancement of oil recovery by 9.00-14.22 %. Maximum oil recovery was observed at 0.3-0.4 % enzyme concentration for both the enzymes individually, as well as in combination. All the three enzymatic treatments resulted in increasing oil yield. However, with 0.3 % (Pectazyme + Mashzyme) combination, maximum oil recovery of 47.33 % could be observed against were 33.11 % in control. The oil content left (wasted) in the cake and residue were reduced from 11.67 and 11.60 % to 7.31 and 2.72 % respectively, thus showing a high increase in efficiency of oil recovery from wild apricot kernels. Quality characteristics indicate that the oil quality was not adversely affected by enzymatic treatment. It was concluded treatment of powdered wild apricot kernels with 0.3 % (Pectazyme + Mashzyme) combination was highly effective in increasing oil recovery by 14.22 % without adversely affecting the quality and thus may be commercially used by the industry for reducing wastage of highly precious oil in the cake.

  14. Cake Compressibility Analysis of BPOME from a Hybrid Adsorption-Microfiltration Process.

    PubMed

    Amosa, Mutiu Kolade; Jami, Mohammed Saedi; Alkhatib, Ma'an Fahmi R; Majozi, Thokozani; Abdulkareem, Sulyman Age

    2017-04-01

      This study investigates the utility of a hybrid adsorption-membrane process for cake compressibility evaluation of biotreated palm oil mill effluent (BPOME). A low-cost empty fruit bunch (EFB) based powdered activated carbon (PAC) was employed for the upstream adsorption process with operation conditions of 60 g/L PAC dose, 68 min mixing time, and 200 rpm mixing speed to reduce the feed-water strength and alleviate probable fouling of the membranes. Two polyethersulfone microfiltration (MF) membranes of 0.1 and 0.2 μm pore sizes were investigated under constant transmembrane pressures (TMP) of 40, 80, and 120 kPa. The compressibility factors (z), which was obtained from the slopes of power plots (function of specific cake resistance (α) and pressure gradient) were evaluated. The z values of 0.32 and 0.52, respectively obtained, for the 0.1 and 0.2 μm MF membranes provided compressible and stable z values as observed from their power plots. Besides, these membranes were found suitable for the measurement of z since the results are in consonance with the established principle of cake compressibility. Moreover, the upstream adsorption mitigated the clogging of the membranes which ultimately led to moderate resistances and cake compressibility. These are indications that with the secondary cake filtration, a sustainable flux can be achieved during BPOME filtration. The membranes exhibited close to 100% restoration after cleaning.

  15. Potent Inhibition of Pseudogymnoascus destructans, the Causative Agent of White-Nose Syndrome in Bats, by Cold-Pressed, Terpeneless, Valencia Orange Oil

    PubMed Central

    Boire, Nicholas; Zhang, Sean; Khuvis, Joshua; Lee, Rick; Rivers, Jennifer; Crandall, Philip; Keel, M. Kevin; Parrish, Nicole

    2016-01-01

    The causative agent of White-nose Syndrome (WNS), Pseudogymnoascus destructans, has been shown to be fatal to several species of bats in North America. To date, no compounds or chemical control measures have been developed which eliminates the growth of the fungus in the environment or in affected animals. In the current study, we evaluated the activity of cold-pressed, terpeneless orange oil (CPT) against multiple isolates of P. destructans in vitro. For all assays, a modified Kirby-Bauer disk diffusion assay was used. Standardized spore suspensions were prepared, adjusted to a specific optical density, and used to plate fungal lawns. Plates were incubated at either 15°C or 4°C for up to 6 months and checked at regular intervals for growth. Once controls had grown, zones of inhibition were measured (mm) on test plates and compared to those obtained using current antifungal drugs. All P. destructans isolates were completely inhibited by 100% CPT (10 μL) at 1 month of incubation regardless of temperature (4°C and 15°C). Complete inhibition persisted up to 6 months following a single exposure at this concentration. Of the standard antifungals, only amphotericin B demonstrated any activity, resulting in zone diameters ranging from 58 mm to 74 mm. CPT, at the highest concentration tested (100%), had no significant effect against a variety of other environmental organisms including various filamentous fungi, bacteria and aerobic actinomycetes. Given that CPT is relatively non-toxic, the possibility exists that the all-natural, mixture could be used as an environmental pre-treatment to eradicate P. destructans from bat habitats. Additional studies are needed to assess any undesirable effects of CPT on bat behavior and health and overall impacts on other members of the interconnected ecosystem(s). PMID:26849057

  16. Potent Inhibition of Pseudogymnoascus destructans, the Causative Agent of White-Nose Syndrome in Bats, by Cold-Pressed, Terpeneless, Valencia Orange Oil.

    PubMed

    Boire, Nicholas; Zhang, Sean; Khuvis, Joshua; Lee, Rick; Rivers, Jennifer; Crandall, Philip; Keel, M Kevin; Parrish, Nicole

    2016-01-01

    The causative agent of White-nose Syndrome (WNS), Pseudogymnoascus destructans, has been shown to be fatal to several species of bats in North America. To date, no compounds or chemical control measures have been developed which eliminates the growth of the fungus in the environment or in affected animals. In the current study, we evaluated the activity of cold-pressed, terpeneless orange oil (CPT) against multiple isolates of P. destructans in vitro. For all assays, a modified Kirby-Bauer disk diffusion assay was used. Standardized spore suspensions were prepared, adjusted to a specific optical density, and used to plate fungal lawns. Plates were incubated at either 15°C or 4°C for up to 6 months and checked at regular intervals for growth. Once controls had grown, zones of inhibition were measured (mm) on test plates and compared to those obtained using current antifungal drugs. All P. destructans isolates were completely inhibited by 100% CPT (10 μL) at 1 month of incubation regardless of temperature (4°C and 15°C). Complete inhibition persisted up to 6 months following a single exposure at this concentration. Of the standard antifungals, only amphotericin B demonstrated any activity, resulting in zone diameters ranging from 58 mm to 74 mm. CPT, at the highest concentration tested (100%), had no significant effect against a variety of other environmental organisms including various filamentous fungi, bacteria and aerobic actinomycetes. Given that CPT is relatively non-toxic, the possibility exists that the all-natural, mixture could be used as an environmental pre-treatment to eradicate P. destructans from bat habitats. Additional studies are needed to assess any undesirable effects of CPT on bat behavior and health and overall impacts on other members of the interconnected ecosystem(s).

  17. METHOD FOR RECOVERING URANIUM FROM OILS

    DOEpatents

    Gooch, L.H.

    1959-07-14

    A method is presented for recovering uranium from hydrocarbon oils, wherein the uranium is principally present as UF/sub 4/. According to the invention, substantially complete removal of the uranium from the hydrocarbon oil may be effected by intimately mixing one part of acetone to about 2 to 12 parts of the hydrocarbon oil containing uranium and separating the resulting cake of uranium from the resulting mixture. The uranium in the cake may be readily recovered by burning to the oxide.

  18. Analytical chemistry of aluminum salt cake

    SciTech Connect

    Graczyk, D.G.; Essling, A.M.; Huff, E.A.; Smith, F.P.; Snyder, C.T.

    1997-02-01

    Component phases of Al salt cake or products from processing salt cake, resist dissolution, a key first step in most analysis procedures. In this work (analysis support to a study of conversion of salt cake fines to value-added oxide products), analysis methods were adapted or devised for determining leachable salt, total halides (Cl and F), Al metal, and elemental composition. Leaching of salt cake fines was by ultrasonic agitation with deionized water. The leachate was analyzed for anions by ion chromatography and for cations by ICP-atomic emission spectroscopy. Only chloride could be measured in the anions, and charge balances between cations and chloride were near unity, indicating that all major dissolved species were chloride salts. For total halides, the chloride and fluorides components were first decomposed by KOH fusion, and the dissolved chloride and fluoride were measured by ion chromatography. Al metal in the fines was determined by a hydrogen evolution procedure adapted for submilligram quantities of metallic Al: the Al was reacted with HCl in a closed system containing a measured amount of high-purity He. After reaction, the H/He ratio was measured by mass spectroscopy. Recoveries of Al metal standards (about 30mg) averaged 93%. Comparison of the acid evolution with caustic reaction of the Al metal showed virtually identical results, but reaction was faster in the acid medium. Decomposition of the salt cake with mineral acids left residues that had to be dissolved by fusion with Na carbonate. Better dissolution was obtained by fusing the salt cake with Li tetraborate; the resulting solution could be used for accurate Al assay of salt cake materials by classical 8-hydroxyquinolate gravimetry.

  19. Preparation of food supplements from oilseed cakes.

    PubMed

    Sunil, L; Appaiah, Prakruthi; Prasanth Kumar, P K; Gopala Krishna, A G

    2015-05-01

    Oilseed cakes have been in use for feed preparation. Being rich in proteins, antioxidants, fibers, vitamins and minerals, oilseed cakes have been considered ideal for food supplementation. These oilseed cakes can be processed and made more palatable and edible by suitable treatments and then incorporated as food supplements for human consumption. Rice bran pellets (RBP), stabilized rice bran (SRB), coconut cake (CC) and sesame cake (SC) were taken up for the study. These were mixed with distilled water and cooked in such a way to separate the cooked solid residue and liquid extract followed by freeze drying to get two products from each. The raw, cooked dried residue and extract were analyzed for various parameters such as moisture (0.9-27.4 %), fat (2.1-16.1 %), ash (3.3-9.0 %), minerals (2.6-633.2 mg/100 g), total dietary fiber (23.2-58.2 %), crude fiber (2.7-10.5 %), protein (3.2-34.0 %), and the fat further analyzed for fatty acid composition, oryzanol (138-258 mg/100 g) and lignan (99-113 mg/100 g) contents and also evaluated sensory evaluation. Nutritional composition of products as affected by cooking was studied. The cooked products (residue and extract) showed changes in nutrients content and composition from that of the starting cakes and raw materials, but retained more nutrients in cooked residue than in the extract. The sensory evaluation of cooked residue and extract showed overall higher acceptability by the panelists than the starting cakes and raw materials. On the basis of these findings it can be concluded that these cooked residue and extract products are highly valuable for food supplementation than the raw ones.

  20. Press Start

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harteveld, Casper

    This level sets the stage for the design philosophy called “Triadic Game Design” (TGD). This design philosophy can be summarized with the following sentence: it takes two to tango, but it takes three to design a meaningful game or a game with a purpose. Before the philosophy is further explained, this level will first delve into what is meant by a meaningful game or a game with a purpose. Many terms and definitions have seen the light and in this book I will specifically orient at digital games that aim to have an effect beyond the context of the game itself. Subsequently, a historical overview is given of the usage of games with a serious purpose which starts from the moment we human beings started to walk on our feet till our contemporary society. It turns out that we have been using games for all kinds of non-entertainment purposes for already quite a long time. With this introductory material in the back of our minds, I will explain the concept of TGD by means of a puzzle. After that, the protagonist of this book, the game Levee Patroller, is introduced. Based on the development of this game, the idea of TGD, which stresses to balance three different worlds, the worlds of Reality, Meaning, and Play, came into being. Interested? Then I suggest to quickly “press start!”

  1. Metallurgical coke making with special caking substance (ASP)

    SciTech Connect

    Isamu, M.; Kinji, H.; Nobuyuki, O.; Sadayoshi, K.; Takehico, Y.

    1983-01-01

    Several technologies, including Briquette Blending, the Form Coke Process, a Preheating System and an Improved Coal Method, have been researched and developed as a counter measure in anticipation of a possible future decrease of coke quality due to the shortage of coking coal. Some successful results have already been reported. In the Sumikin Coke Co., the Sumi Coal System, which makes it possible to utilize non-coking coal, has been industrialized. The blending ratio of non-coking coal to a total coal blend is about 20-25%. A new process producing a special caking substance (ASP) from the asphalt of residual oil has been developed and industrialized in cooperation with Eureka Industry Co., Ltd. Many studies on the effectiveness of this ASP as a caking substance to non-coking coal and as a fluidity improving additive have been done. The consumption of ASP for more economical coke making has reached 250,000 tons/year. The mechanism of ASP improving the coking property has been analyzed quantitatively and reported. In this paper, the practical effectiveness of ASP as a binder based on fundamental studies is discussed and the operational results of the Sumikin Coke Company using ASP for the last four years are reported.

  2. Toxic Compound, Anti-Nutritional Factors and Functional Properties of Protein Isolated from Detoxified Jatropha curcas Seed Cake

    PubMed Central

    Saetae, Donlaporn; Suntornsuk, Worapot

    2011-01-01

    Jatropha curcas is a multipurpose tree, which has potential as an alternative source for biodiesel. All of its parts can also be used for human food, animal feed, fertilizer, fuel and traditional medicine. J. curcas seed cake is a low-value by-product obtained from biodiesel production. The seed cake, however, has a high amount of protein, with the presence of a main toxic compound: phorbol esters as well as anti-nutritional factors: trypsin inhibitors, phytic acid, lectin and saponin. The objective of this work was to detoxify J. curcas seed cake and study the toxin, anti-nutritional factors and also functional properties of the protein isolated from the detoxified seed cake. The yield of protein isolate was approximately 70.9%. The protein isolate was obtained without a detectable level of phorbol esters. The solubility of the protein isolate was maximal at pH 12.0 and minimal at pH 4.0. The water and oil binding capacities of the protein isolate were 1.76 g water/g protein and 1.07 mL oil/g protein, respectively. The foam capacity and stability, including emulsion activity and stability of protein isolate, had higher values in a range of basic pHs, while foam and emulsion stabilities decreased with increasing time. The results suggest that the detoxified J. curcas seed cake has potential to be exploited as a novel source of functional protein for food applications. PMID:21339978

  3. Asymptotic analysis of the growth of cake layers in filters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    King, J. R.; Please, C. P.

    1996-08-01

    The problem of fluid flow in a two-dimensional pleated filter is considered. Of particular interest is the change in the flow due to cake build-up on the surface of the filter material. The flow is taken to be Darcy flow in the cake and the filter material, with Stokes' flow outside the cake. The particles in the flow are taken to be transported with the flow and to stick to the cake without slippage or resuspension, and the cake is taken to be incompressible. The flow is considered in various geometries, particularly long thin filters and corners. The main parameter in the problem is the ratio of the filter-material resistance to the cake resistance, and limiting cases are considered. Travelling waves of cake build-up are found for arbitrary time-dependent variations in the inflow conditions. The time taken for the filter to become clogged by the cake is also considered.

  4. Deliquescence-induced caking in binary powder blends.

    PubMed

    Salameh, Adnan K; Taylor, Lynne S

    2006-01-01

    In this study, moisture-induced caking of deliquescent crystalline powder blends was investigated. Physical mixtures of sugars and citric acid anhydrous showed significant cake formation when cycled above and below the mixture critical relative humidity. It was found that combinations of glucose and citric acid underwent efflorescence to form crystalline solid bridges while fructose and citric acid cakes contained amorphous material. In conclusion, the reduced deliquescence point in deliquescent solid mixtures was found to cause caking.

  5. Cake Filtration in Viscoelastic Polymer Solutions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Surý, Alexander; Machač, Ivan

    2009-07-01

    In this contribution, the filtration equations for a cake filtration in viscoelastic fluids are presented. They are based on a capillary hybrid model for the flow of a power law fluid. In order to express the elastic pressure drop excess in the flow of viscoelastic filtrate through the filter cake and filter screen, modified Deborah number correction functions are included into these equations. Their validity was examined experimentally. Filtration experiments with suspensions of hardened polystyrene particles (Krasten) in viscoelastic aqueous solutions of polyacryl amides (0.4% and 0.6%wt. Kerafloc) were carried out at a constant pressure on a cylindrical filtration unit using filter screens of different resistance.

  6. Shedding light on bioactivity of botanical by-products: neem cake compounds deter oviposition of the arbovirus vector Aedes albopictus (Diptera: Culicidae) in the field.

    PubMed

    Benelli, Giovanni; Conti, Barbara; Garreffa, Rita; Nicoletti, Marcello

    2014-03-01

    Industrial plant-borne by-products can be sources of low-cost chemicals, potentially useful to build eco-friendly control strategies against mosquitoes. Neem cake is a cheap by-product of neem oil extraction obtained by pressing the seeds of Azadirachta indica. Neem products are widely used as insecticides since rarely induce resistance because their multiple mode of action against insect pests and low-toxicity rates have been detected against vertebrates. In this research, we used field bioassays to assess the effective oviposition repellence of neem cake fractions of increasing polarity [n-hexane (A), methanol (B), ethyl acetate (C), n-butanol (D), and aqueous (E) fraction] against Aedes albopictus, currently the most invasive mosquito worldwide. These fractions, already characterized for low nortriterpenoids contents by HPLC analyses, were analyzed for their total content by HPTLC, highlighting striking differences in their chemical composition. Field results showed that B, A, and C tested at 100 ppm exerted higher effective repellence over the control (71.33, 88.59, and 73.49% of ER, respectively), while E and D did not significantly deter A. albopictus oviposition (17.06 and 22.72% of ER, respectively). The highest oviposition activity index was achieved by A (-0.82), followed by C (-0.63), and B (-0.62). Lower OAIs were achieved by D (-0.14) and E (-0.09). On the basis of our results, we believe that A, B, and C are very promising as oviposition deterrents against the arbovirus vector A. albopictus since they are proved as rich in active metabolites, cheap, and really effective at low doses.

  7. [Using liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry based metabolomics to discriminate between cold pressed rice bran oils produced from two different cultivars of Oryza sativa L. ssp. indica in Thailand].

    PubMed

    Charoonratana, Tossaton; Songsak, Thanapat; Sakunpak, Apirak; Pathompak, Pathamaporn; Charoenchai, Laksana

    2015-09-01

    A newly developed liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS) method for the analysis of cold pressed rice bran oil (RBO) was established and used to discriminate between RBOs produced from two different cultivars of major Thai fragrant rice species. The cold pressed RBO was prepared using the screw compression method. The LC-MS data were preprocessed with MZmine 2.10 program before evaluating with principal component analysis using SIMCA 13 software. The LC-MS method was able to detect and quantify several kinds of valuable constituents such as fatty acids, vitamin E, and γ-oryzanol. The chromatographic condition was feasible; short time for analysis and simple method were achieved. From score plot and loading plot of principle component analysis (PCA) , two rice cultivar samples were clearly separated, and it was revealed that Khao-Hom-Pathum was more suitable than Khao-Hom-Mali for cold pressed RBO production since it contained high total γ-oryzanol and less saturated free fatty acids. As with the fixed price of all the rice brans, this information can be used in order to, if possible, preserve the price of rice brans from different cultivars.

  8. Separation of aflatoxins from filter cake

    SciTech Connect

    Ogawa, I.; Chriswell, C.D.

    1982-02-01

    Size-exclusion chromatography using silianized porous silica microspheres is used to clean up an environmental sample prior to aflatoxin analysis. B/sub 1/ and B/sub 2/ aflatoxins were found in an anaerobic digestor filter cake sample at concentrations of 1 ppb.

  9. SIDE VIEW OF PREPARATION FOR PULLING CONTINUOUSLYCAST "CAKES" FROM MOLDS ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    SIDE VIEW OF PREPARATION FOR PULLING CONTINUOUSLY-CAST "CAKES" FROM MOLDS AT #03 STATION. WHEN THE CAKES HAVE COOLED SUFFICIENTLY, THE CASTER STATION IS MOVED ASIDE TO EXPOSE THE QUENCH TANK AND MOLDS. EACH CAKE OF THE THREE CAKES WEIGHS UP TO APPROXIMATELY 20,000 LBS THE DIMENSIONS OF BRASS CAKES RANGE UP TO 27 1\\2" WIDE X 6 3\\4" THICK X 25' LONG, CORRESPONDING MAXIMUMS FOR COPPER CAKES ARE 37 1\\2" X 5" X 24'. #01 STATION, DATING FROM THE EARLY 1960'S CASTS ONLY A SINGLE BAR (RATHER THAN THREE SIMULTANEOUSLY), THAT IS APPROXIMATELY HALF THE LENGTH OF CAKES FROM THE OTHER STATIONS (150' V. 300") AND WEIGHS UP TO 12,500 LBS. - American Brass Foundry, 70 Sayre Street, Buffalo, Erie County, NY

  10. SIDE VIEW OF PREPARATION FOR PULLING CONTINUOUSLYCAST "CAKES" FROM MOLDS ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    SIDE VIEW OF PREPARATION FOR PULLING CONTINUOUSLY-CAST "CAKES" FROM MOLDS AT #03 STATION. WHEN THE CAKES HAVE COOLED SUFFICIENTLY, THE CASTER STATION IS MOVED ASIDE TO EXPOSE THE QUENCH TANK AND MOLDS. EACH CAKE OF THE THREE CAKES WEIGHS UP TO APPROXIMATELY 20,000. THE DIMENSIONS OF BRASS CAKES RANGE UP TO 27 1\\2" WIDE X 6 3\\4" THICK X 25' LONG, CORRESPONDING MAXIMUMS FOR COPPER CAKES ARE 37 1\\2" X 5" X 24'. #01 STATION, DATING FROM THE EARLY 1960'S CASTS ONLY A SINGLE BAR (RATHER THAN THREE SIMULTANEOUSLY), THAT IS APPROXIMATELY HALF THE LENGTH OF CAKES FROM THE OTHER STATIONS (150' V. 300") AND WEIGHS UP TO 12,500 LBS. - American Brass Foundry, 70 Sayre Street, Buffalo, Erie County, NY

  11. Reducing the moisture content of clean coals. Volume 3, Belt filter press: Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Shields, G.

    1992-12-01

    Reducing the Moisture Content of Clean Coals, Volume 3: Belt Filter Press contains the results of an EPRI investigation into the performance of an alternative clean coal dewatering device. Investigators at EPRI`s Coal Quality Development Center (CQDC) designed test so that mathematical relationships predicting filter cake moisture and solids capture could be developed. They also compared the economics of installing and operating a belt filter press with a vacuum disc filter, which is its nearest equivalent. For 100M {times} 0 clean coal from the Upper Freeport seam, the belt filter press produced filter cake with an average moisture content of 30 percent. This moisture is 5 to 10 percentage points higher than moistures from a vacuum disc filter. Economic analysis shows that the belt filter press costs an additional $72,000 a year to operate in place of a vacuum disc filter.

  12. Mathematical modeling of basic design criteria for a sunflower oil expeller

    SciTech Connect

    Singh, M.S.

    1984-01-01

    Sunflower oil has great potential as an alternative source of energy for farming operations. No suitable on-farm oil expellers are available to farmers that are specifically designed to express sunflower oil. The purposes of this study were to evaluate the various factors affecting sunflower oil expression and to determine the energy requirements for sunflower oil expression. Seed moisture content was the most significant factor affecting the oil expression process. Maximum oil recovery was obtained at 6% seed moisture content for all types of seed. In general, ground seed gave highest yields. In the case of whole seed, optimal results were obtained when seed was expressed at 6% moisture content, 42 MPa pressure for 4 min of pressing at 20/sup 0/C. However, at moisture levels above 10%, heating the seed to 80/sup 0/C and increasing pressure to 70 MPa resulted in reduced residual oil in the cake. The maximum net energy was obtained in the case of ground seeds. In the case of whole seed maximum net energy was obtained at the lowest moisture level.

  13. Biodiesel and electrical power production through vegetable oil extraction and byproducts gasification: modeling of the system.

    PubMed

    Allesina, Giulio; Pedrazzi, Simone; Tebianian, Sina; Tartarini, Paolo

    2014-10-01

    Aim of this work is to introduce an alternative to the standard biodiesel production chain, presenting an innovative in situ system. It is based on the chemical conversion of vegetable oil from oleaginous crops in synergy with the gasification of the protein cake disposed by the seed press. The syngas from the gasifier is here used to produce electrical power while part of it is converted into methanol. The methanol is finally used to transform the vegetable oil into biodiesel. Through a coupled use of ASPEN PLUS(TM) and MATLAB(TM) codes, a rapeseed, soy and sunflower rotation, with a duration of three year, was simulated considering 15ha of soil. This surface resulted sufficient to feed a 7kWel power plant. Simulation outputs proven the system to be self-sustainable. In addition, economical NPV of the investment is presented. Finally the environmental, economical and social advantages related to this approach are discussed.

  14. Black holes and the chocolate cake concept.

    PubMed

    Allen, A

    1994-10-01

    The force of black holes in the universe is compared with the intense gravitational fields that we must navigate in our personal galaxy. Stressed by the many demands of home, work, and community, we are in danger of slipping into the black holes present in every aspect of our lives. The Chocolate Cake Concept is offered as a means of avoiding the black holes by breaking down barriers that influence our attitudes.

  15. Filter-pressing of alumina dispersions

    SciTech Connect

    Fries, R.; Rand, B.

    1996-06-01

    The filter-pressing characteristics of aqueous alumina dispersions containing either submicron or nano-sized particles have been compared with respect to ionic strength. The highest green densities for both systems were achieved at electrolyte concentrations < 0.01 mol dm{sup -3} where long-range repulsive interparticle forces stabilize the slips. A slight increase in density with ionic strength in this range was attributed to an increase in the ratio of particle radius-to-double layer thickness, Ka. At higher electrolyte concentrations, above the critical coagulation concentration, the green densities dropped to significantly lower values due to the onset of flocculation and the formation of open particle networks characterized by strong attraction which resisted rearrangement into a dense green microstructure. The green densities of the compacts consolidated from the submicron dispersions at ionic strength > 1 mol dm{sup -3} were significantly higher than those prepared close to the critical coagulation concentration although the slips exhibited properties typical for a flocculated structure. The results may indicate the presence of short-range repulsive forces at high salt concentration for the submicron slips not accounted for by the classical DLVO-theory. In order to characterize the early stages of filter-cake consolidation the initial cake permeability was determined from the compaction curves.

  16. The economics of salt cake recycling

    SciTech Connect

    Graziano, D.; Hryn, J.N.; Daniels, E.J.

    1996-03-01

    The Process Evaluation Section at Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) has a major program aimed at developing cost-effective technologies for salt cake recycling. This paper addresses the economic feasibility of technologies for the recovery of aluminum, salt, and residue-oxide fractions from salt cake. Four processes were assessed for salt recovery from salt cake: (1) base case: leaching in water at 25{degree}C, with evaporation to crystallize salts; (2) high-temperature case: leaching in water at 250{degree}C, with flash crystallization to precipitate salts; (3) solventlantisolvent case: leaching in water at 25{degree}C, concentrating by evaporation, and reacting with acetone to precipitate salts; and (4) electrodialysis: leaching in water at 25{degree}C, with concentration and recovery of salts by electrodialysis. All test cases for salt recovery had a negative present value, given current pricing structure and 20% return on investment. Although manufacturing costs (variable plus fixed) could reasonably be recovered in the sales price of the salt product, capital costs cannot. The economics for the recycling processes are improved, however, if the residueoxide can be sold instead of landfilled. For example, the base case process would be profitable at a wet oxide value of $220/metric ton. The economics of alternative scenarios were also considered, including aluminum recovery with landfilling of salts and oxides.

  17. Cake: Enabling High-level SLOs on Shared Storage Systems

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-11-07

    Cake : Enabling High-level SLOs on Shared Storage Systems Andrew Wang Shivaram Venkataraman Sara Alspaugh Randy H. Katz Ion Stoica Electrical...control number. 1. REPORT DATE 07 NOV 2012 2. REPORT TYPE 3. DATES COVERED 00-00-2012 to 00-00-2012 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Cake : Enabling High...SUPPLEMENTARY NOTES 14. ABSTRACT Cake is a coordinated, multi-resource scheduler for shared distributed storage environments with the goal of

  18. [Measurement and levels of aflatoxins in small-scale pressed peanut oil prepared in the Diourbel and Kaolack regions of Senegal].

    PubMed

    Ndiaye, B; Diop, Y M; Diouf, A; Fall, M; Thiaw, C; Thiam, A; Barry, O; Ciss, M; Ba, D

    1999-01-01

    Aflatoxins are mycotoxins produced by some strains of fungus (Aspergillus) which develops in peanuts seeds. Peanuts oil and past are very used up in Senegal, then the aflatoxins poisoning risk are very actual. This study relates to the determination of contamination levels by aflatoxins from peanut oil food prepared by small scale production in areas of Kaolack and Diourbel. High Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC) analysis of the different samples showed that 80% of them were contaminated in the areas of Kaolack and Diourbel. Aflatoxin B1, B2, G1 and G2 has been detected with a profile of contamination almost identical in the both areas. Aflatoxin B1 was prevalent and has been found in over 85% of samples. Mean contents of this mycotoxin (the most dangerous toxin) is about 40 ppb, value widely superior to allowable specifications.

  19. Optimization and validation of a method using UHPLC-fluorescence for the analysis of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in cold-pressed vegetable oils.

    PubMed

    Silva, Simone Alves da; Sampaio, Geni Rodrigues; Torres, Elizabeth Aparecida Ferraz da Silva

    2017-04-15

    Among the different food categories, the oils and fats are important sources of exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), a group of organic chemical contaminants. The use of a validated method is essential to obtain reliable analytical results since the legislation establishes maximum limits in different foods. The objective of this study was to optimize and validate a method for the quantification of four PAHs [benzo(a)anthracene, chrysene, benzo(b)fluoranthene, benzo(a)pyrene] in vegetable oils. The samples were submitted to liquid-liquid extraction, followed by solid-phase extraction, and analyzed by ultra-high performance liquid chromatography. Under the optimized conditions, the validation parameters were evaluated according to the INMETRO Guidelines: linearity (r2 >0.99), selectivity (no matrix interference), limits of detection (0.08-0.30μgkg(-1)) and quantification (0.25-1.00μgkg(-1)), recovery (80.13-100.04%), repeatability and intermediate precision (<10% RSD). The method was found to be adequate for routine analysis of PAHs in the vegetable oils evaluated.

  20. Effect of wheat flour characteristics on sponge cake quality.

    PubMed

    Moiraghi, Malena; de la Hera, Esther; Pérez, Gabriela T; Gómez, Manuel

    2013-02-01

    To select the flour parameters that relate strongly to cake-making performance, in this study the relationship between sponge cake quality, solvent retention capacity (SRC) profile and flour physicochemical characteristics was investigated using 38 soft wheat samples of different origins. Particle size average, protein, damaged starch, water-soluble pentosans, total pentosans, SRC and pasting properties were analysed. Sponge cake volume and crumb texture were measured to evaluate cake quality. Cluster analysis was applied to assess differences in flour quality parameters among wheat lines based on the SRC profile. Cluster 1 showed significantly higher sponge cake volume and crumb softness, finer particle size and lower SRC sucrose, SRC carbonate, SRC water, damaged starch and protein content. Particle size, damaged starch, protein, thickening capacity and SRC parameters correlated negatively with sponge cake volume, while total pentosans and pasting temperature showed the opposite effect. The negative correlations between cake volume and SRC parameters along with the cluster analysis results indicated that flours with smaller particle size, lower absorption capacity and higher pasting temperature had better cake-making performance. Some simple analyses, such as SRC, particle size distribution and pasting properties, may help to choose flours suitable for cake making. Copyright © 2012 Society of Chemical Industry.

  1. Denver Tube Press - high pressure filtration meets coal fines moisture requirements

    SciTech Connect

    Jonaitis, A.J.; Timberlake, M.

    1993-12-31

    The DENVER Tube Press is a simple, high pressure (1500 PSI (100 bar)) filtration unit, developed for processing difficult-to-dewater materials and to produce a handleable filter cake and clear filtrate product. Lab and Pilot testwork conducted in Australia on coal fines (55-70% - 35 micro (400 mesh)) have shown that total moisture contents of less than 20% are consistently achieved in the final cake products from the Tube Press. Currently, these coal super fines are sent to waste due to uneconomical mechanical dewatering methods, which were only able to reduce total moisture levels in excess of 30%. Calculated, throughput rates for the 500 Series Tube Press exceeded 1700 kg/hr (3750 lbs/hr). Feed solids concentration requirements are between 45 and 50% achieve these results.

  2. Serotonin derivative, N-(p-Coumaroyl)serotonin, isolated from safflower (Carthamus tinctorius L.) oil cake augments the proliferation of normal human and mouse fibroblasts in synergy with basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF) or epidermal growth factor (EGF).

    PubMed

    Takii, T; Hayashi, M; Hiroma, H; Chiba, T; Kawashima, S; Zhang, H L; Nagatsu, A; Sakakibara, J; Onozaki, K

    1999-05-01

    N-(p-Coumaroyl)serotonin (CS) with antioxidative activity is present in safflower oil. We have reported that CS inhibits proinflammatory cytokine generation from human monocytes in vitro. As reactive oxygen species (ROS) affect cell proliferation, in this study the effect of CS on the proliferation of various cell types was examined. CS augments the proliferation of normal human and mouse fibroblast cells. The cells continue to proliferate in the presence of CS and form a transformed cell-like focus without transformation. CS, however, does not augment the proliferation of other cell types, either normal or tumor cells. CS augments the proliferation of fibroblasts in synergy with basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF) or epidermal growth factor (EGF), but not with acidic FGF(aFGF) or platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF). This study using synthesized derivatives of CS reveals that the growth-promoting activity is not due to antioxidative activity. These findings indicate that CS is a natural compound with unique growth-promoting activity for fibroblasts.

  3. Application of diethanolamide surfactant derived from palm oil to improve the performance of biopesticide from neem oil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nisya, F. N.; Prijono, D.; Nurkania, A.

    2017-05-01

    The purpose of this research was to improve the performance of organic pesticide derived from neem plant using diethanolamide surfactant (DEA) derived from palm oil in controlling armyworms. The pesticide was made of neem oil. Neem oil is a neem plant product containing several active components, i.e. azadirachtin, salanin, nimbin, and meliantriol which act as a pesticide. DEA surfactant acts as a wetting, dispersing and spreading agent in neem oil pesticide. The neem oil was obtained by pressing neem seeds using a screw press machine and a hydraulic press machine. DEA surfactant was synthesized from methyl esters of palm oil olein. Pesticide formulation was conducted by stirring the ingredients by using a homogenizer at 5,000 rpm for 30 minutes. Surfactant was added to the formulation by up to 5%. Glycerol, as an emulsifier, was added in to pesticide formulations of neem oil. The efficacy of the pesticides in controlling armyworms fed soybean leaves in laboratory was measured at six concentrations, i.e. 10, 13, 16, 19, 22, and 25 ml/L. Results showed that the neem oil used in this study had a density of 0.91 g/cm3, viscosity of 58.94 cPoise, refractive index of 1.4695, surface tension of 40.69 dyne/cm, azadirachtin content of 343.82-1.604 ppm. Meanwhile, the azadirachtin content of neem seed cake was 242.20 ppm. It was also found that palmitic (31.4%) and oleic (22.5%) acids were the main fatty acids contained in neem oil. As the additive material used in neem oil in this study, diethanolamide surfactant had a pH of 10.6, density of 0.9930 g/cm3, viscosity of 708.20 cP, and surface tension of 25.37 dyne/cm. Results of CMC, contact angle, and droplet size analyzes showed that diethanolamide surfactant could be added into insecticide formulation by 5%. Results of LC tests showed that on Spodoptera litura the LC50 and LC95 values were 13 and 22 ml/L, respectively. Neem oil was found to inhibit the development of Spodoptera litura and its larval molting process.

  4. The Global University Press

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dougherty, Peter J.

    2012-01-01

    The modern world's understanding of American university press has long been shaped by university-press books. American university-press books are good international advertisements for the universities whose logos grace their spines. The growth of transnational scholarship and the expansion of digital communications networks are converging in ways…

  5. Reciprocating pellet press

    DOEpatents

    Jones, Charles W.

    1981-04-07

    A machine for pressing loose powder into pellets using a series of reciprocating motions has an interchangeable punch and die as its only accurately machines parts. The machine reciprocates horizontally between powder receiving and pressing positions. It reciprocates vertically to press, strip and release a pellet.

  6. The Global University Press

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dougherty, Peter J.

    2012-01-01

    The modern world's understanding of American university press has long been shaped by university-press books. American university-press books are good international advertisements for the universities whose logos grace their spines. The growth of transnational scholarship and the expansion of digital communications networks are converging in ways…

  7. Saponin inventory from Argania spinosa kernel cakes by liquid chromatography and mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Henry, Max; Kowalczyk, Mariusz; Maldini, Mariateresa; Piacente, Sonia; Stochmal, Anna; Oleszek, Wiesław

    2013-01-01

    Argania spinosa kernel cakes, obtained from argan oil extraction process, are known to contain large amounts of saponins. Only a few have been characterised previously, due to the use of pure ethanol as extracting solvent. The use of aqueous 50% ethanol improved the extraction of more polar saponins. Identification of polar saponins in kernel cakes of Argania spinosa by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry and NMR techniques. Defatted kernel cakes were first extracted with ethanol and then twice with 50% aqueous ethanol. Individual crude extracts were analysed with an ion-trap mass spectrometer in negative mode electrospray MS and MS/MS modes. NMR experiments were run under standard conditions at 300 K on a Bruker DRX-600 spectrometer. The LC-MS base peak chromatogram of saponins from pure ethanol extract was dominated by 11 large and several small peaks but the UV chromatogram showed only two peaks, corresponding to the main neutral saponins found previously in Argania: arganine A and B. In 50% aqueous ethanol extracts, numerous other saponins were detected. Many of them were glucuronide oleanane-type triterpene carboxylic acid 3,28-O-bidesmosides (GOTCAB saponins). The assignments of (1) H- and (13) C-NMR spectra of the four most abundant GOTCAB saponins confirmed the MS results. Four GOTCAB saponins were structurally identified by NMR analysis in the 50% aqueous ethanol extract. Furthermore, LC-MS analyses showed the presence of at least 19 additional polar saponins in these kernel cakes. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  8. Secondary Aluminum Processing Waste: Salt Cake Characterization and Reactivity

    EPA Science Inventory

    Thirty-nine salt cake samples were collected from 10 SAP facilities across the U.S. The facilities were identified by the Aluminum Association to cover a wide range of processes. Results suggest that while the percent metal leached from the salt cake was relatively low, the leac...

  9. Secondary Aluminum Processing Waste: Salt Cake Characterization and Reactivity

    EPA Science Inventory

    Thirty-nine salt cake samples were collected from 10 SAP facilities across the U.S. The facilities were identified by the Aluminum Association to cover a wide range of processes. Results suggest that while the percent metal leached from the salt cake was relatively low, the leac...

  10. 46 CFR 148.310 - Seed cake.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... meal that— (1) Contains a maximum of 4 percent vegetable oil and a maximum of 15 percent vegetable oil... was mechanically expelled; and (2) It contains more than 10 percent vegetable oil or more than 20 percent vegetable oil and moisture combined....

  11. 46 CFR 148.310 - Seed cake.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... meal that— (1) Contains a maximum of 4 percent vegetable oil and a maximum of 15 percent vegetable oil... was mechanically expelled; and (2) It contains more than 10 percent vegetable oil or more than 20 percent vegetable oil and moisture combined....

  12. 46 CFR 148.310 - Seed cake.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... meal that— (1) Contains a maximum of 4 percent vegetable oil and a maximum of 15 percent vegetable oil... was mechanically expelled; and (2) It contains more than 10 percent vegetable oil or more than 20 percent vegetable oil and moisture combined....

  13. 46 CFR 148.310 - Seed cake.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... meal that— (1) Contains a maximum of 4 percent vegetable oil and a maximum of 15 percent vegetable oil... was mechanically expelled; and (2) It contains more than 10 percent vegetable oil or more than 20 percent vegetable oil and moisture combined....

  14. Meta-Envy-Free Cake-Cutting Protocols

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manabe, Yoshifumi; Okamoto, Tatsuaki

    This paper discusses cake-cutting protocols when the cake is a heterogeneous good that is represented by an interval in the real line. We propose a new desirable property, the meta-envy-freeness of cake-cutting, which has not been formally considered before. Though envy-freeness was considered to be one of the most important desirable properties, envy-freeness does not prevent envy about role assignment in the protocols. We define meta-envy-freeness that formalizes this kind of envy. We show that current envy-free cake-cutting protocols do not satisfy meta-envy-freeness. Formerly proposed properties such as strong envy-free, exact, and equitable do not directly consider this type of envy and these properties are very difficult to realize. This paper then shows meta-envy-free cake-cutting protocols for two and three party cases.

  15. Isolation of Salmonella typhimurium from outbreak-associated cake mix.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Guodong; Ma, Li; Patel, Nehal; Swaminathan, Bala; Wedel, Stephanie; Doyle, Michael P

    2007-04-01

    During May and June of 2005, 26 persons in several states were infected by a single strain (isolates indistinguishable by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis) of Salmonella enterica serotype Typhimurium after eating cake batter ice cream. The cake mix used to prepare the cake batter in the ice cream was implicated by epidemiologic investigation as the source of Salmonella contamination. Initial tests did not detect Salmonella in cake mix collected during the outbreak investigation. The objective of this study was to evaluate different procedures to isolate Salmonella from the implicated cake mix, cake, and ice cream. All outbreak-associated food samples (14 samples) were collected during the outbreak investigation by health departments of several of the states involved. Different combinations of Salmonella isolation procedures, including sample size, preenrichment broth, enrichment broth, enrichment temperature, and isolation medium, were used. Salmonella Typhimurium was isolated from two cake mix samples; the food isolates were indistinguishable from the outbreak pattern by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis subtyping. Universal preenrichment broth was substantially better than was lactose broth for preenrichment, and tetrathionate broth was better than was Rappaport-Vassiliadis broth for isolating Salmonella from the two positive cake mix samples. Although more typical Salmonella colonies were observed on plates from enrichment cultures grown at 35 degrees C, more confirmed Salmonella isolates were obtained from plates of enrichment cultures grown at 42 degrees C. Brilliant green agar, xylose lysine tergitol 4 agar, xylose lysine desoxycholate agar, Hektoen enteric agar, and bismuth sulfite agar plates were equally effective in isolating Salmonella from cake mix. The best combination of preenrichment-enrichment conditions for isolating the outbreak strain of Salmonella was preenrichment of cake mix samples in universal preenrichment broth at 35 degrees C for 24 h

  16. Dry pressing technical ceramics

    SciTech Connect

    Lewis, W.A. Jr.

    1996-04-01

    Dry pressing of technical ceramics is a fundamental method of producing high-quality ceramic components. The goals of dry pressing technical ceramics are uniform compact size and green density, consistent part-to-part green density and defect-free compact. Dry pressing is the axial compaction of loosely granulated dry ceramic powders (< 3% free moisture) within a die/punch arrangement. The powder, under pressure, conforms to the specific shape of the punch faces and die. Powder compaction occurs within a rigid-walled die and usually between a top and bottom punch. Press configurations include anvil, rotary, multiple-punch and multiple-action.

  17. University Presses: Problems and Prospects.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meeker, Robert B.

    Historical information on university presses and their problems are considered. University presses in the United States have their roots in 15th century England when the Oxford University Press was established in 1478. The first U.S. press to use the term "university press" was Cornell University; the press operated from 1869 until it…

  18. Canola Cake as a Potential Substrate for Proteolytic Enzymes Production by a Selected Strain of Aspergillus oryzae: Selection of Process Conditions and Product Characterization

    PubMed Central

    Freitas, Adriana C.; Castro, Ruann J. S.; Fontenele, Maria A.; Egito, Antonio S.; Farinas, Cristiane S.; Pinto, Gustavo A. S.

    2013-01-01

    Oil cakes have excellent nutritional value and offer considerable potential for use in biotechnological processes that employ solid-state fermentation (SSF) for the production of high value products. This work evaluates the feasibility of using canola cake as a substrate for protease production by a selected strain of Aspergillus oryzae cultivated under SSF. The influences of the following process parameters were considered: initial substrate moisture content, incubation temperature, inoculum size, and pH of the buffer used for protease extraction and activity analysis. Maximum protease activity was obtained after cultivating Aspergillus oryzae CCBP 001 at 20°C, using an inoculum size of 107 spores/g in canola cake medium moistened with 40 mL of water to 100 g of cake. Cultivation and extraction under selected conditions increased protease activity 5.8-fold, compared to the initial conditions. Zymogram analysis of the enzymatic extract showed that the protease molecular weights varied between 31 and 200 kDa. The concentrated protease extract induced clotting of casein in 5 min. The results demonstrate the potential application of canola cake for protease production under SSF and contribute to the technological advances needed to increase the efficiency of processes designed to add value to agroindustrial wastes. PMID:24455400

  19. High School Press Pressures.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rogers, Luella P.

    History shows that the high school press suffers through cycles that reflect economic factors and cultural climates within communities, states, and the nation. The direction of that cycle in the 1960s and early 1970s was toward more open, free-flowing information by a vigorous student press, but those economic and cultural signs now are pointing…

  20. The Greenwood School Press.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lamb, Jane

    1984-01-01

    A turn-of-the-century printing press motivates elementary students to write. Children write, edit, and print their own stories on the Greenwood School Press. This self-supporting enterprise introduces children to various aspects of writing and producing literature. (DF)

  1. Press Councils in Canada.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reddick, David B.

    Established in the early 1970s to respond to complaints about and from the media, the four press councils in Canada (the Alberta, Ontario, Quebec, and Windsor Press Councils) have been accepted, but not overwhelmingly so by either newspapers or the public. The success and acceptability of the councils seems to be related to the kinds of complaints…

  2. Lyndon Johnson's Press Conferences.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cooper, Stephen

    Because President Lyndon Johnson understood well the publicity value of the American news media, he sought to exploit them. He saw reporters as "torch bearers" for his programs and policies and used the presidential press conference chiefly for promotional purposes. Although he met with reporters often, his press conferences were usually…

  3. High School Press Pressures.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rogers, Luella P.

    History shows that the high school press suffers through cycles that reflect economic factors and cultural climates within communities, states, and the nation. The direction of that cycle in the 1960s and early 1970s was toward more open, free-flowing information by a vigorous student press, but those economic and cultural signs now are pointing…

  4. Constellation Program Press Conference

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2006-06-04

    Dean Acosta, NASA Deputy Assistant Administrator and Press Secretary, moderates a press conference with NASA Administrator Michael Griffin Scott Horowitz, NASA Associate Administrator for Exploration Systems and Jeff Hanley, Constellation Program Manager, outlining specific center responsibilities associated with the Constellation Program for robotic and human Moon and Mars exploration, Monday, June 5, 2006, at NASA Headquarters in Washington. Photo Credit (NASA/Bill Ingalls)

  5. Press Relations: Carter's Example.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kindsvatter, Peter S.

    Although different philosophies may motivate presidential-press relations, causing frequent friction or adversity, there is nevertheless a strong degree of cooperation and collaboration between the press and a president of the United States. This interdependence has been particularly evident in recent administrations, and it progresses…

  6. The Greenwood School Press.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lamb, Jane

    1984-01-01

    A turn-of-the-century printing press motivates elementary students to write. Children write, edit, and print their own stories on the Greenwood School Press. This self-supporting enterprise introduces children to various aspects of writing and producing literature. (DF)

  7. Thermodynamic fundamentals of ferrous cake sulfitization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tyurin, A. G.; Vasekha, M. V.; Biryukov, A. I.

    2016-03-01

    The Pourbaix diagrams of the systems SO 4 2- -SO 3 2- -H2O and iron hydroxide (oxide)-H2O are refined. The E(pH) dependence of the sulfitization of iron(III) hydroxide is refined with allowance for the regions of predominant phase constituents of the systems. The potential E-pH electrochemical equilibrium diagrams of the systems Fe(OH)3-H2SO4-SO 3 2- -H2O, FeOOH-H2SO4-SO 3 2- -H2O, and Fe2O3-H2SO4-SO 3 2- -H2O are plotted. These diagrams can be considered as a thermodynamic basis for the sulfite conversion of the ferrous cake of copper-nickel production.

  8. Electrodialysis technology for salt recovery from aluminum salt cake

    SciTech Connect

    Hryn, J. N.; Krumdick, G.; Graziano, D.; Sreenivasarao, K.

    2000-02-02

    Electrodialysis technology for recovering salt from aluminum salt cake is being developed at Argonne National Laboratory. Salt cake, a slag-like aluminum-industry waste stream, contains aluminum metal, salt (NaCl and KCl), and nonmetallics (primarily aluminum oxide). Salt cake can be recycled by digesting with water and filtering to recover the metal and oxide values. A major obstacle to widespread salt cake recycling is the cost of recovering salt from the process brine. Electrodialysis technology developed at Argonne appears to be a cost-effective approach to handling the salt brines, compared to evaporation or disposal. In Argonne's technology, the salt brine is concentrated until salt crystals are precipitated in the electrodialysis stack; the crystals are recovered downstream. The technology is being evaluated on the pilot scale using Eurodia's EUR 40-76-5 stack.

  9. Lyophilized Drug Product Cake Appearance: What Is Acceptable?

    PubMed

    Patel, Sajal Manubhai; Nail, Steven L; Pikal, Michael J; Geidobler, Raimund; Winter, Gerhard; Hawe, Andrea; Davagnino, Juan; Rambhatla Gupta, Shailaja

    2017-07-01

    Cake appearance is an important attribute of freeze-dried products, which may or may not be critical with respect to product quality (i.e., safety and efficacy). Striving for "uniform and elegant" cake appearance may continue to remain an important goal during the design and development of a lyophilized drug product. However, "sometimes" a non-ideal cake appearance has no impact on product quality and is an inherent characteristic of the product (due to formulation, drug product presentation, and freeze-drying process). This commentary provides a summary of challenges related to visual appearance testing of freeze-dried products, particularly on how to judge the criticality of cake appearance. Furthermore, a harmonized nomenclature and description for variations in cake appearance from the ideal expectation of uniform and elegant is provided, including representative images. Finally, a science and risk-based approach is discussed on establishing acceptance criteria for cake appearance. Copyright © 2017 American Pharmacists Association®. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Moisture sorption, compressibility and caking of lactose polymorphs.

    PubMed

    Listiohadi, Y; Hourigan, J A; Sleigh, R W; Steele, R J

    2008-07-09

    The aim of this study was to conduct storage studies on the moisture sorption and caking properties of lactose powder containing different polymorphs (i.e. alpha-monohydrate, alpha-anhydrous unstable, alpha-anhydrous stable, beta-anhydrous) and spray-dried lactose. The dry sample was compacted using a texture analyzer in paper cylinders and stored at relative humidity (RH) of 33%, 43%, 57% and 75% (25 degrees C, for 3 months). The samples were monitored for weight gain, moisture content, alpha/beta balance and hardness. A simple new method of powder compression for measuring the degree of hardness of caked lactose was developed using a texture analyzer. Clear distinctions were found in the storage behavior of the five different samples. Storage at various RHs caused severe caking to beta-lactose anhydrous and spray-dried lactose. The beta-lactose anhydrous was hygroscopic at 75% RH. The spray-dried lactose, which contained some amorphous lactose, was hygroscopic at all RHs studied. Its moisture sorption behavior differed from that of its major component, alpha-lactose monohydrate, by initially absorbing moisture then desorbing. alpha-Lactose monohydrate was less hygroscopic at 75% RH and it formed friable cakes. The alpha-lactose anhydrous stable was hygroscopic at 75% RH and initially formed hard cakes which became friable during storage. The unstable form of anhydrous alpha-lactose was hygroscopic at all levels of RH studied but did not cake.

  11. Effects of powder from white cabbage outer leaves on sponge cake quality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prokopov, Tsvetko; Goranova, Zhivka; Baeva, Marianna; Slavov, Anton; Galanakis, Charis M.

    2015-10-01

    The main objective of this study was to develop high fibre cakes utilizing and valorising cabbage by-products - cabbage outer leaves. Cabbage outer leaves were dried and milled in order to produce cabbage leaf powder. The cabbage leaf powder was added at 0, 10, 20% into sponge cake. All of the samples were subjected to physicochemical analysis and sensory evaluation. Methods of descriptive sensory analysis were used for a comparative analysis of the sponge cakes with cabbage leaf powder and the cake without cabbage leaf powder. Addition of cabbage leaf powder in sponge cakes significantly affected the cake volume and textural properties. Springiness of cakes with cabbage leaf powder and crumb tenderness were lower, while the structure was stable at high loads, as expressed by lower shrinkage in comparison with the control cake. The nutritional value of the sponge cakes with cabbage leaf powder was lower than the control cake. The cells cakes modified by cabbage leaf powder were smaller and almost equal, uniformly distributed in the crumb, and at the same time had thicker walls. The cakes with addition of cabbage leaf powder showed the springiness and their crumb tenderness were lower, while their structure was stable at high loads. Control cake showed higher water-absorbing capacity compared to the cakes with 10 and 20% cabbage leaf powder.

  12. Expedition 52 Press Conference

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2017-07-10

    Expedition 52 flight engineer Randy Bresnik of NASA answers a reporter's question during a crew press conference at the Gagarin Cosmonaut Training Center (GCTC), Monday, July 10, 2017 in Star City, Russia. Photo Credit: (NASA/Bill Ingalls)

  13. STS-135 Press Conference

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2011-06-30

    JSC2011-E-060448 (30 June 2011) --- NASA astronaut Rex Walheim, STS-135 mission specialist, fields a question from a reporter during a preflight press conference at NASA's Johnson Space Center. Photo credit: NASA

  14. Expedition 52 Press Conference

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2017-07-10

    Expedition 52 flight engineer Sergey Ryazanskiy of Roscosmos answers a reporter's question during a crew press conference at the Gagarin Cosmonaut Training Center (GCTC), Monday, July 10, 2017 in Star City, Russia. Photo Credit: (NASA/Bill Ingalls)

  15. STS-135 Press Briefings

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2011-06-30

    JSC2011-E-060720 (30 June 2011) -- STS-135 lead flight director Kwatsi Alibaruho responds to a question from a reporter during a mission overview press conference at NASA's Johnson Space Center. Photo credit: NASA

  16. STS-135 Press Conference

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2011-06-30

    JSC2011-E-060450 (30 June 2011) --- NASA astronaut Rex Walheim, STS-135 mission specialist, responds to a question from a reporter during a preflight press conference at NASA's Johnson Space Center. Photo credit: NASA

  17. Expedition 32 Press Conference

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2012-07-13

    Quarantined Expedition 32 Canadian backup crewmember Chris Hadfield answers reporters questions from behind glass during a prelaunch press conference held at the Cosmonaut Hotel on Friday, July 13, 2012 in Baikonur, Kazakhstan. Photo Credit (NASA/Carla Cioffi)

  18. STS-134 Press Conference

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2011-03-24

    JSC2011-E-028493 (24 March 2011) --- NASA astronaut Mark Kelly, STS-134 commander, responds to a question from a reporter during a preflight press conference at NASA's Johnson Space Center. Photo credit: NASA or National Aeronautics and Space Administration

  19. STS-135 Press Conference

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2011-06-30

    JSC2011-E-060415 (30 June 2011) --- NASA astronaut Sandy Magnus, STS-135 mission specialist, responds to a question from a reporter during a preflight press conference at NASA's Johnson Space Center. Photo credit: NASA

  20. STS-135 Press Conference

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2011-06-30

    JSC2011-E-060445 (30 June 2011) --- NASA astronaut Sandy Magnus, STS-135 mission specialist, responds to a question from a reporter during a preflight press conference at NASA's Johnson Space Center. Photo credit: NASA

  1. Expedition 52 Press Conference

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2017-07-10

    Expedition 52 flight engineer Paolo Nespoli of ESA answers a reporter's question during a crew press conference at the Gagarin Cosmonaut Training Center (GCTC), Monday, July 10, 2017 in Star City, Russia. Photo Credit: (NASA/Bill Ingalls)

  2. STS-134 Press Conference

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2011-03-24

    JSC2011-E-028492 (24 March 2011) --- NASA astronaut Greg Chamitoff, STS-134 mission specialist, fields a question from a reporter during a preflight press conference at NASA's Johnson Space Center. Photo credit: NASA or National Aeronautics and Space Administration

  3. STS-135 Press Conference

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2011-06-30

    JSC2011-E-060413 (30 June 2011) --- NASA astronaut Chris Ferguson, STS-135 commander, responds to a question from a reporter during a preflight press conference at NASA's Johnson Space Center. Photo credit: NASA

  4. Expedition 6 Press Conference

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2003-05-05

    Expedition 6 Commander Ken Bowersox, left and NASA International Space Station Science Officer Don Pettit speak during a press conference at the Gagarin Cosmonaut Training Center in Star City, Russia, Thursday, May 6, 2003. Photo Credit: (NASA/Bill Ingalls)

  5. Expedition 6 Press Conference

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2003-05-05

    Expedition 6 International Space Station Science Officer Don Pettit speaks during a press conference at the Gagarin Cosmonaut Training Center in Star City, Russia, Thursday, May 6, 2003. Photo Credit: (NASA/Bill Ingalls)

  6. STS-132 press conference

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2010-05-03

    JSC2010-E-063790 (3 May 2010) --- NASA astronaut Garrett Reisman, STS-132 mission specialist, fields a question from a reporter during an STS-132 preflight press conference at NASA's Johnson Space Center.

  7. STS-132 press conference

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2010-05-03

    JSC2010-E-063807 (3 May 2010) --- NASA astronaut Mike Good, STS-132 mission specialist, responds to a question from a reporter during an STS-132 preflight press conference at NASA's Johnson Space Center.

  8. STS-131 press conference

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2010-03-09

    JSC2010-E-038795 (9 March 2010) --- NASA astronaut Stephanie Wilson, STS-131 mission specialist, fields a question from a reporter during an STS-131 preflight press conference at NASA's Johnson Space Center.

  9. STS-132 press conference

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2010-05-03

    JSC2010-E-063799 (3 May 2010) --- NASA astronaut Steve Bowen, STS-132 mission specialist, fields a question from a reporter during an STS-132 preflight press conference at NASA's Johnson Space Center.

  10. STS-132 press conference

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2010-05-03

    JSC2010-E-063808 (3 May 2010) --- NASA astronaut Garrett Reisman, STS-132 mission specialist, responds to a question from a reporter during an STS-132 preflight press conference at NASA's Johnson Space Center.

  11. STS-131 press conference

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2010-03-09

    JSC2010-E-038797 (9 March 2010) --- NASA astronaut Rick Mastracchio, STS-131 mission specialist, responds to a question from a reporter during an STS-131 preflight press conference at NASA's Johnson Space Center.

  12. STS-132 press conference

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2010-05-03

    JSC2010-E-063797 (3 May 2010) --- NASA astronaut Steve Bowen, STS-132 mission specialist, fields a question from a reporter during an STS-132 preflight press conference at NASA's Johnson Space Center.

  13. STS-131 press conference

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2010-03-09

    JSC2010-E-038794 (9 March 2010) --- NASA astronaut Alan Poindexter, STS-131 commander, responds to a question from a reporter during an STS-131 preflight press conference at NASA's Johnson Space Center.

  14. STS-135 Press Conference

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2011-06-30

    JSC2011-E-060439 (30 June 2011) --- NASA astronaut Chris Ferguson, STS-135 commander, responds to a question from a reporter during a preflight press conference at NASA's Johnson Space Center. Photo credit: NASA

  15. STS-125 Press Conference

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2009-04-23

    JSC2009-E-087199 (23 April 2009) --- Astronaut Michael Good, STS-125 mission specialist, responds to a question from a reporter during a STS-125 preflight press briefing at NASA's Johnson Space Center.

  16. STS-131 press conference

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2010-03-09

    JSC2010-E-038799 (9 March 2010) --- NASA astronaut Clayton Anderson, STS-131 mission specialist, responds to a question from a reporter during an STS-131 preflight press conference at NASA's Johnson Space Center.

  17. Expedition 19 Press Conference

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2009-03-24

    Expedition 19 Flight Engineer Michael R. Barratt smiles at his family from a quarantined glass room after a press conference on Wednesday, March 25, 2009 at the Cosmonaut Hotel in Baikonur, Kazakhstan. Photo Credit: (NASA/Bill Ingalls)

  18. EPOXI Mission Press Conference

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2010-11-18

    Michael A'Hearn, EPOXI Principal Investigator, University of Maryland, holds a plastic bottle containing ice to illustrate a point during a press conference, Thursday, Nov. 18, 2010, at NASA Headquarters in Washington. The press conference was held to discuss the Nov. 4 successful flyby of Comet Hartley 2 by NASA's EPOXI Mission Spacecraft. Images from the flyby provided scientists the most extensive observations of a comet in history. Photo Credit: (NASA/Paul E. Alers)

  19. EPOXI Mission Press Conference

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2010-11-18

    Dr. James Green, Director of Planetary Science, NASA Headquarters, at podium, speaks during a press conference, Thursday, Nov. 18, 2010, at NASA Headquarters in Washington. The press conference was held to discuss the Nov. 4 successful flyby of Comet Hartley 2 by NASA's EPOXI Mission Spacecraft. Images from the flyby provided scientists the most extensive observations of a comet in history. Photo Credit: (NASA/Paul E. Alers)

  20. Constellation Program Press Conference

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2006-06-04

    NASA Administrator Michael Griffin, seated left, Scott Horowitz, NASA Associate Administrator for Exploration Systems and Jeff Hanley, Constellation Program Manager, right, are seen during a press conference outlining specific center responsibilities associated with the Constellation Program for robotic and human moon and Mars exploration, Monday, June 5, 2006, at NASA Headquarters in Washington. Dean Acosta, NASA Deputy Assistant Administrator and Press Secretary, far left, moderates the program. Photo Credit (NASA/Bill Ingalls)

  1. MAVEN Press Briefing

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2013-10-28

    Dwayne Brown, NASA Public Affairs Officer, takes a question from a member of the press on theupcoming launch of the Mars Atmosphere and Volatile Evolution (MAVEN) mission, at a press conference at NASA Headquarters in Washington on Monday, Oct. 28th, 2013. MAVEN is the agency's next mission to Mars and the first devoted to understanding the upper atmosphere of the Red Planet. (Photo credit: NASA/Jay Westcott)

  2. Recovering Spirit Sets Sight on Cake

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    These are the first images sent back from the panoramic camera on the Mars Exploration Rover Spirit since the rover experienced communications problems on the 18th sol, or martian day, of its mission. They were acquired at Gusev Crater, Mars, on Sol 26 (Jan. 29, 2004), showing that the camera's health remained excellent during Spirit's recovery. Two of Spirit's potential target rocks, which are near the rock called Adirondack, can be seen on the lower left and right. The rock on the left has been named 'Cake,' and the white rock on the right has been named 'Blanco.'

    In the upper left is a color image of the panoramic camera calibration target, also known as the martian sundial. The color panel of the calibration target looks almost exactly like it did on Earth, indicating that the color shown of Mars, though approximated, is close to true color.

    The monochrome image in the upper right shows the sun, magnified five times. This image was acquired by the panoramic camera as part of a routine sequence of images designed to monitor the dust abundance in the martian atmosphere. The dust abundance appears to be decreasing slowly with time, consistent with the atmosphere continuing to clear after the large dust storm of last December.

  3. Deoiledjatropha seed cake is a useful nutrient for pullulan production.

    PubMed

    Choudhury, Anirban Roy; Sharma, Nishat; Prasad, G S

    2012-03-30

    Ever increasing demand for fossil fuels is a major factor for rapid depletion of these non-renewable energy resources, which has enhanced the interest of finding out alternative sources of energy. In recent years jatropha seed oil has been used extensively for production of bio-diesel and has shown significant potential to replace petroleum fuels at least partially. De-oiled jatropha seed cake (DOJSC) which comprises of approximately 55 to 65% of the biomass is a byproduct of bio-diesel industry. DOJSC contains toxic components like phorbol esters which restricts its utilization as animal feed. Thus along with the enhancement of biodiesel production from jatropha, there is an associated problem of handling this toxic byproduct. Utilization of DOJSC as a feed stock for production of biochemicals may be an attractive solution to the problem.Pullulan is an industrially important polysaccharide with several potential applications in food, pharmaceuticals and cosmetic industries. However, the major bottleneck for commercial utilization of pullulan is its high cost. A cost effective process for pullulan production may be developed using DOJSC as sole nutrient source which will in turn also help in utilization of the byproduct of bio-diesel industry. In the present study, DOJSC has been used as a nutrient for production of pullulan, in place of conventional nutrients like yeast extract and peptone. Process optimization was done in shake flasks, and under optimized conditions (8% DOJSC, 15% dextrose, 28°C temperature, 200 rpm, 5% inoculum, 6.0 pH) 83.98 g/L pullulan was obtained. The process was further validated in a 5 L laboratory scale fermenter. This is the first report of using DOJSC as nutrient for production of an exopolysaccharide. Successful use of DOJSC as nutrient will help in finding significant application of this toxic byproduct of biodiesel industry. This in turn also have a significant impact on cost reduction and may lead to development of a cost

  4. Filtration of coal flotation tailings on large-area filter presses

    SciTech Connect

    Zaslavskii, B.G.; Gaintseva, R.A.; Bruk, O.L.; Komissarenko, N.N.; Safonov, A.S.; Elishevich, A.T.

    1981-01-01

    The environmental conservation problems for coal cleaning plants concern the handling of flotation tailings; they should no longer be discharged into external sludge ponds but rather be converted into a cake suitable for dumping. The most dependable method of conditioning flotation tailings is the dewatering on filter presses; the most popular type, FPAKM-25U, is a vertical filter press of limited throughput capacity. During 1976 to 1979, a filtration section was set up at the Kal'miusskaya Central Washery (P/O Donetskugleobogashchenie) consisting of 4 (subsequently 5) large-area filter presses from Poland (type PF-ROW-1/576, filtration surface area 576 m/sup 2/. The new method of dewatering flotation tailings under pressure in filter presses is less costly than the traditional method of constructing expensive sludge ponds and the necessary pumping facilities and pipework. The saving at the Kal'miusskaya Central Washery is estimated at approx. 250,000 roubles/year.

  5. Anti-inflammatory effects of isoflavone powder produced from soybean cake.

    PubMed

    Kao, T H; Wu, W M; Hung, C F; Wu, W B; Chen, B H

    2007-12-26

    Soybean cake, a byproduct obtained during the processing of soybean oil, has been shown to be a rich source of isoflavones. The objectives of this study were to use soybean cake as raw material for processing into powder and to evaluate the anti-inflammatory activity. Eleven treatments, including powders of malonylglucoside, glucoside, acetylglucoside, aglycone, ISO-1, and ISO-2, as well as genistein standard, gamma-PGA, control, normal, and PDTC, were used for evaluation. A total of 77 mice were each provided daily with tube feeding for 4 weeks at a dose of 0.3 mL of aqueous solution from each treatment, and inflammation was induced with intraperitoneal injection of 1 mg/kg of body weight lipopolysaccharide (LPS). Results showed that all of the isoflavone powders and genistein standard were effective in inhibiting LPS-induced inflammation, lowering leukocyte number in mice blood and reducing production of IL-1beta, IL-6, NO, and PGE2 in both peritoneal exudate cell supernatant and peritoneal exudate fluid. All of the isoflavone treatments failed to retard T cell proliferation; however, both ISO-1 and ISO-2 could inhibit B cell proliferation. The difference in anti-inflammatory activity was minor between any of the isoflavone treatments.

  6. Characterization of filamentous fungi isolated from Moroccan olive and olive cake: toxinogenic potential of Aspergillus strains.

    PubMed

    Roussos, Sevastianos; Zaouia, Nabila; Salih, Ghislane; Tantaoui-Elaraki, Abdelrhafour; Lamrani, Khadija; Cheheb, Mostafa; Hassouni, Hicham; Verhé, Fréderic; Perraud-Gaime, Isabelle; Augur, Christopher; Ismaili-Alaoui, Mustapha

    2006-05-01

    During the 2003 and 2004 olive oil production campaigns in Morocco, 136 samples from spoiled olive and olive cake were analyzed and 285 strains were isolated in pure culture. Strains included 167 mesophilic strains belonging to ten genera: Penicillium, Aspergillus, Geotrichum, Mucor, Rhizopus, Trichoderma, Alternaria, Acremonium, Humicola, Ulocladium as well as 118 thermophilic strains isolated in 2003 and 2004, mainly belonging to six species: Aspergillus fumigatus, Paecilomyces variotii, Mucor pusillus, Thermomyces lanuginosus, Humicola grisea, and Thermoascus aurantiacus. Penicillium and Aspergillus, respectively, 32.3 and 26.9% of total isolates represented the majority of mesophilic fungi isolated. When considering total strains (including thermotolerant strains) Aspergillus were the predominant strains isolated; follow-up studies on mycotoxins therefore focused primarily on aflatoxins (AFs) and ochratoxin A (OTA) from the latter strains. All isolated Aspergillus flavus strains (9) and Aspergillus niger strains (36) were studied in order to evaluate their capacity to produce AFs and OTA, respectively, when grown on starch-based culture media. Seven of the nine tested A. flavus strains isolated from olive and olive cake produced AF B1 at concentrations between 48 and 95 microg/kg of dry rice weight. As for the A. niger strains, 27 of the 36 strains produced OTA.

  7. Enzymatically hydrolysed, acetylated and dually modified corn starch: physico-chemical, rheological and nutritional properties and effects on cake quality.

    PubMed

    Sahnoun, Mouna; Ismail, Nouha; Kammoun, Radhouane

    2016-01-01

    Corn starch was treated by enzymatic hydrolysis with Aspergillus oryzae S2 α-amylase, acetylation with vinyl acetate, and dual modification. The dual modified starch displayed a higher substitution degree than the acetylated starch and lower reducing sugar content than the hydrolysed starch. The results revealed that the cooling viscosity and amylose content of those products decrease (P < 0.05). An increase in moisture, water, and oil absorption capacity was observed for the acetylated starch and, which was less pronounced for the enzymatically hydrolysed starch but more pronounced for the enzymatically hydrolysed acetylated product. The latter product underwent an increase in resistant starch content, which is induced by a rise in hydrolysis time to attain about 67 % after 1 h of reaction. The modified starch samples were added to cake formulations at 5 and 10 % concentrations on a wheat flour basis and compared to native starch. The results revealed that when applied at 5 % concentrations, the modified starches reduced the hardness, cohesion, adhesion and chewiness of baked cakes and enhanced their elasticity, volume, height, crust color, and appearance as compared to native starch. These effects were more pronounced for the cake incorporating the dually modified starch.

  8. Designing a Clean Label Sponge Cake with Reduced Fat Content.

    PubMed

    Eslava-Zomeño, Cristina; Quiles, Amparo; Hernando, Isabel

    2016-10-01

    The fat in a sponge cake formulation was partially replaced (0%, 30%, 50%, and 70%) with OptiSol™5300.This natural functional ingredient derived from flax seeds, rich in fiber and alpha-linoleic acid, provides a natural substitute for guar and xanthan gums, avoiding E-numbers on labels. The structure and some physicochemical properties of the formulations were examined, sensory analysis was conducted and changes in starch digestibility due to adding this ingredient were determined. Increasing quantities of OptiSol™5300 gave harder cakes, with less weight loss during baking, without affecting the final cake height. There were no significant differences (P > 0.05) in texture, flavor and overall acceptance between the control and the 30% substitution cake, nor in the rapidly digestible starch values. Consequently, replacing up to 30% of the fat with OptiSol™5300 gives a new product with health benefits and a clean label that resembles the full-fat sponge cake. © 2016 Institute of Food Technologists®.

  9. Potentials of biodegraded cashew pomace for cake baking.

    PubMed

    Aderiye, B I; Igbedioh, S O; Caurie, S A

    1992-04-01

    The use of biodegraded cashew pomace processed into flour for cake baking was investigated. The physico-chemical changes during the submerged fermentation of the pomace and the organoleptic qualities of the composite cake were also monitored. There was an increase of about 50% in protein content of the pomace after 96 h of fermentation. However, a reduction of about 61% in the total microbial count after 24 h was due to the toxic effect of the organic acids on the microbial cells during fermentation. The cashew flour had high crude fibre (ca. 20-33%) and carbohydrate (ca. 16-47%) values. The composite cake made from a 10:90 combination of 96 h-degraded cashew flour/wheat flour respectively was the most accepted. The cake which had a specific volume of 0.53 ml/g lost 11.1% moisture when 38 g of its batter was exposed to 190 degrees C for 10 minutes. This cake had a calorie value of 293.8/100 g and may be useful in feeding diabetic patients who require low carbohydrate foods.

  10. Characterization of salt cake from secondary aluminum production.

    PubMed

    Huang, Xiao-Lan; Badawy, Amro El; Arambewela, Mahendranath; Ford, Robert; Barlaz, Morton; Tolaymat, Thabet

    2014-05-30

    Salt cake is a major waste component generated from the recycling of secondary aluminum processing (SAP) waste. Worldwide, the aluminum industry produces nearly 5 million tons of waste annually and the end-of-life management of these wastes is becoming a challenge in the U.S. and elsewhere. In this study, the mineral phases, metal content and metal leachability of 39 SAP waste salt cake samples collected from 10 different facilities across the U.S. were determined. The results showed that aluminum (Al), aluminum oxide, aluminum nitride and its oxides, spinel and elpasolite are the dominant aluminum mineral phases in salt cake. The average total Al content was 14% (w/w). The overall percentage of the total leachable Al in salt cake was 0.6% with approximately 80% of the samples leaching at a level less than 1% of the total aluminum content. The extracted trace metal concentrations in deionized water were relatively low (μgL(-1) level). The toxicity characteristic leaching procedure (TCLP) was employed to further evaluate leachability and the results indicated that the leached concentrations of toxic metals from salt cake were much lower than the EPA toxicity limit set by USEPA.

  11. 3. FOURTH FLOOR OF OIL HOUSE (NOTICE CAST IRON SUPPORT ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. FOURTH FLOOR OF OIL HOUSE (NOTICE CAST IRON SUPPORT POSTS AND OIL PRESS IN THE CENTER) - Wilson's Oil House, Lard Refinery, & Edible Fats Factory, Oil House, 2801 Southwest Fifteenth Street, Oklahoma City, Oklahoma County, OK

  12. Permeability of collapsed cakes formed by deposition of fractal aggregates upon membrane filtration.

    PubMed

    Park, Pyung-Kyu; Lee, Chung-Hak; Lee, Sangho

    2006-04-15

    We have investigated, theoretically, the physical properties of cake layers formed from aggregates to obtain a better understanding of membrane systems used in conjunction with coagulation/flocculation pretreatment. We developed a model based on fractal theory and incorporated a cake collapse effect to predict the porosity and permeability of the cake layers. The floc size, fractal dimension, and transmembrane pressure were main parameters that we used in these model calculations. We performed experiments using a batch cell device and a confocal laser-scanning microscope to verify the predicted specific cake resistances and porosities under various conditions. Based on the results of the model, the reduction in inter-aggregate porosity is more important than that in intra-aggregate porosity during the cake collapsing process. The specific cake resistance decreases upon increasing the aggregate size and decreasing the fractal dimensions. The modeled porosities and specific cake resistances of the collapsed cake layer agreed reasonably well with those obtained experimentally.

  13. Comparative study of texture of normal and energy reduced sponge cakes.

    PubMed

    Baeva, M R; Panchev, I N; Terzieva, V V

    2000-08-01

    The complete sucrose elimination and its replacement by microencapsulated aspartame (Nutra Sweet) and bulking agents (sorbitol, wheat starch and wheat germ) on the physical and textural sensory characteristics of two diabetic sponge cakes against a control sponge cake was studied. Mathematical and statistical methods were used and regression models worked out, describing the physical and textural characteristics of the three sponge cakes and their values were optimized. The effect on the porosity, springiness, volume and shrinkage of sponge takes was substantial and depended on the amount of the added ingredients. The diabetic sponge cake containing wheat germ showed the least physical and sensory deviations against the control sponge cake. The energy value of the diabetic sponge cakes against the control one was reduced with 25% for the ordinary sponge cake without sucrose and with 29% for sponge cake without sucrose containing wheat germ.

  14. Removal of chloride from fly ash produced in hazardous waste incineration by leaching and displacement washing in a vertical filter press.

    PubMed

    Kinnarinen, Teemu; Huhtanen, Mikko; Penttilä, Mika; Häkkinen, Antti

    2013-02-01

    Fly ash is generated in large quantities by waste incineration processes. Chloride is commonly present in the fly ash produced by the incineration of hazardous materials, such as polyvinylchloride plastic. Major difficulties related to the disposal and handling of fly ash include the high concentration of easily leachable chlorides, heavy metals and toxic compounds. In order to avoid adverse environmental effects from the disposal of fly ash, the content of soluble chlorides must be reduced. One of the most effective options for chloride removal is leaching and displacement washing in a filter press. The primary aim of this study was to obtain efficient removal of chloride from fly ash by utilizing a leaching and displacement washing process, carried out in a filter press. The secondary objective was to obtain high filtration capacities and low filter cake moisture contents. The slurry was prepared by mixing fly ash with water at an ash:water ratio of 1:2 and filtered to separate the solids from the liquid. After solid-liquid separation, most of the dissolved residual chloride was removed from the filter cake by washing the cake with fresh water in the second stage of separation. It was possible to remove up to 98% of the total chloride and to obtain sufficient filtration capacities. The residual moisture content of the filter cakes varied from 22 to 35 wt%, which meant that the cakes could be disposed of in landfill, or possibly utilized as a construction material.

  15. A Guide to Press Relations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fibre Box Association, Chicago, IL.

    Stressing that a positive press-relations program can be extremely helpful to businesses, this publication offers suggestions for establishing press contacts, preparing press releases, holding press conferences, illustrating a story, preparing materials for use in radio and television broadcasts, and developing policies to be followed in emergency…

  16. Post Launch Press Conference

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2014-12-05

    In the Kennedy Space Center’s Press Site auditorium, agency leaders spoke to members of the news media about the successful Orion Flight Test. From left are: Rachel Kraft, of NASA Public Affairs, Bill Gerstenmaier, NASA associate administrator for Human Exploration and Operations, Mark Geyer, Orion program manager, Mike Hawes, Lockheed Martin Orion Program manager, and NASA astronaut Rex Walheim.

  17. MAVEN Press Briefing

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2013-10-28

    Kelly Fast, MAVEN program scientist, NASA Headquarters, discusses the upcoming launch of the Mars Atmosphere and Volatile Evolution (MAVEN) mission, at a press conference at NASA Headquarters in Washington on Monday, Oct. 28th, 2013. MAVEN is the agency's next mission to Mars and the first devoted to understanding the upper atmosphere of the Red Planet. (Photo credit: NASA/Jay Westcott)

  18. Press Conference - Skylab 3

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1972-08-14

    S72-46699 (19 Jan. 1972) --- Prime crew members of the scheduled second Skylab mission are introduced to the media during a press conference in January 1972 at the Manned Spacecraft Center (MSC). From left to right are astronauts Jack R. Lousma, pilot; Owen K. Garriott, science pilot, and Alan L. Bean, commander. Photo credit: NASA

  19. Defining the University Press

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fletcher, Janet

    1978-01-01

    Reports discussion at the annual meeting of the Association of American University Presses (AAUP) on such topics as overproduction, government support, "on demand" publishing, profitability, library photocopying, and selection in library acquisitions, as they relate to the roles of librarians and publishers. (JPF)

  20. STS-134 Press Conference

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2011-03-24

    JSC2011-E-028491 (24 March 2011) --- European Space Agency astronaut Roberto Vittori, STS-134 mission specialist, fields a question from a reporter during a preflight press conference at NASA's Johnson Space Center. Photo credit: NASA or National Aeronautics and Space Administration

  1. STS-134 Press Conference

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2011-03-24

    JSC2011-E-028498 (24 March 2011) --- European Space Agency astronaut Roberto Vittori, STS-134 mission specialist, responds to a question from a reporter during a preflight press conference at NASA's Johnson Space Center. Photo credit: NASA or National Aeronautics and Space Administration

  2. Expedition 34 Press Conference

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2012-12-18

    Russian backup crew member Fyodor Yurchikin, right, answers a reporter's question at a press conference held at the Cosmonaut Hotel, on Tuesday, Dec. 18, 2012, in Baikonur, Kazakhstan. Seen next to him are NASA backup crew member Karen Nyberg and Expedition 34/35 Canadian Space Agency astronaut Chris Hadfield. Photo Credit: (NASA/Carla Cioffi)

  3. STS-134 Press Conference

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2011-03-24

    JSC2011-E-028488 (24 March 2011) --- NASA astronaut Greg H. Johnson, STS-134 pilot, responds to a question from a reporter during a preflight press conference at NASA's Johnson Space Center. Photo credit: NASA or National Aeronautics and Space Administration

  4. STS-134 Press Conference

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2011-03-24

    JSC2011-E-028490 (24 March 2011) --- NASA astronaut Michael Fincke, STS-134 mission specialist, responds to a question from a reporter during a preflight press conference at NASA's Johnson Space Center. Photo credit: NASA or National Aeronautics and Space Administration

  5. STS-134 Press Conference

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2011-03-24

    JSC2011-E-028496 (24 March 2011) --- NASA astronaut Andrew Feustel, STS-134 mission specialist, responds to a question from a reporter during a preflight press conference at NASA's Johnson Space Center. Photo credit: NASA or National Aeronautics and Space Administration

  6. Expedition 28 Press Conference

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2011-06-06

    Expedition 28 NASA Flight Engineer Mike Fossum, left, and Soyuz Commander Sergei Volkov of Russia share a laugh during a press conference, Monday, June 6, 2011, at the Cosmonaut Hotel in Baikonur, Kazakhstan. The mission is set to launch on Tuesday, June 8, from the Baikonur Cosmodrome. Photo Credit: (NASA/Carla Cioffi)

  7. Expedition 29 Press Conference

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2011-11-12

    Expedition 29 Soyuz Commander Anton Shkaplerov answers a reporter’s question during a press conference held at the Cosmonaut Hotel in Baikonur, Kazakhstan on Saturday, Nov. 12, 2011. The mission is set to launch November 14 from the Baikonur Cosmodrome. Photo Credit: (NASA/Carla Cioffi)

  8. Expedition 28 Press Conference

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2011-06-06

    Expedition 28 NASA Flight Engineer Mike Fossum, speaks during a press conference, Monday, June 6, 2011, at the Cosmonaut Hotel in Baikonur, Kazakhstan. The mission is set to launch on Tuesday, June 8, from the Baikonur Cosmodrome. Photo Credit: (NASA/Carla Cioffi)

  9. Expedition 28 Press Conference

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2011-06-06

    Expedition 28 NASA Flight Engineer Mike Fossum speaks during a press conference, Monday, June 6, 2011, at the Cosmonaut Hotel in Baikonur, Kazakhstan. The mission is set to launch on Tuesday, June 8, from the Baikonur Cosmodrome. Photo Credit: (NASA/Carla Cioffi)

  10. Expedition 28 Press Conference

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2011-06-06

    Expedition 28 NASA Flight Engineer Mike Fossum, left, and Soyuz Commander Sergei Volkov of Russia are seen during a press conference, Monday, June 6, 2011, at the Cosmonaut Hotel in Baikonur, Kazakhstan. The mission is set to launch on Tuesday, June 8, from the Baikonur Cosmodrome. Photo Credit: (NASA/Carla Cioffi)

  11. Expedition 29 Press Conference

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2011-11-12

    Expedition 29 backup crew members NASA Flight Engineer Joseph Acaba, far left, Russian Soyuz Commander Gennady Padalka, center, and Russian Flight Engineer Sergei Revin are seen at a press conference held at the Cosmonaut Hotel in Baikonur, Kazakhstan on Saturday, Nov. 12, 2011. Photo Credit: (NASA/Carla Cioffi)

  12. Expedition 29 Press Conference

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2011-11-12

    Expedition 29 NASA Flight Engineer Dan Burbank answers a reporter’s question during a press conference held at the Cosmonaut Hotel in Baikonur, Kazakhstan on Saturday, Nov. 12, 2011. The launch of the Soyuz spacecraft with Expedition 29 NASA Flight Engineer Dan Burbank, Soyuz Commander Anton Shkaplerov and Flight Engineer Anatoly Ivanishin is scheduled for November 14. Photo Credit: (NASA/Carla Cioffi)

  13. Expedition 28 Press Conference

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2011-06-06

    Expedition 28 NASA backup Flight Engineer Don Pettit looks on during a press conference, Monday, June 6, 2011, at the Cosmonaut Hotel in Baikonur, Kazakhstan. The mission is set to launch on Tuesday, June 8, from the Baikonur Cosmodrome. Photo Credit: (NASA/Carla Cioffi)

  14. Expedition 28 Press Conference

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2011-06-06

    Expedition 28 Soyuz Commander Sergei Volkov of Russia speaks during a press conference, Monday, June 6, 2011, at the Cosmonaut Hotel in Baikonur, Kazakhstan. The mission is set to launch on Tuesday, June 7, from the Baikonur Cosmodrome. Photo Credit: (NASA/Carla Cioffi)

  15. Expedition 29 Press Conference

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2011-11-12

    Expedition 29 NASA backup crew member Joe Acaba is seen at a press conference held at the Cosmonaut Hotel, Saturday, Nov. 12, 2011 at the Cosmonaut Hotel in Baikonur, Kazakhstan. The mission is set to launch November 14 from the Baikonur Cosmodrome. Photo Credit: (NASA/Carla Cioffi)

  16. Expedition 28 Press Conference

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2011-06-06

    NASA backup Flight Engineer Don Pettit speaks during a press conference, Monday, June 6, 2011, at the Cosmonaut Hotel in Baikonur, Kazakhstan. The mission is set to launch on Tuesday, June 8, from the Baikonur Cosmodrome. Photo Credit: (NASA/Carla Cioffi)

  17. Expedition 28 Press Conference

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2011-06-06

    Expedition 28 Soyuz Commander Sergei Volkov speaks during a press conference, Monday, June 6, 2011, at the Cosmonaut Hotel in Baikonur, Kazakhstan. The mission is set to launch on Tuesday, June 8, from the Baikonur Cosmodrome. Photo Credit: (NASA/Carla Cioffi)

  18. Expedition 39 Press Conference

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2014-03-24

    Expedition 39 flight engineer Steve Swanson of NASA is seen in quarantine, behind glass, during the final press conference be Monday, March 24, 2014, at the Cosmonaut Hotel in Baikonur, Kazakhstan. The mission to the International Space Station is set to launch March 26 from the Baikonur Cosmodrome. Photo Credit: (NASA/Bill Ingalls)

  19. Expedition 28 Press Conference

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2011-06-06

    Russian backup Flight Engineer Oleg Kononenko speaks during a press conference, Monday, June 6, 2011, at the Cosmonaut Hotel in Baikonur, Kazakhstan. The mission is set to launch on Tuesday, June 8, from the Baikonur Cosmodrome. Photo Credit: (NASA/Carla Cioffi)

  20. Expedition 29 Press Conference

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2011-11-12

    Expedition 29 backup crew members Joseph Acaba, left, and Russian Flight Engineer Gennady Padalka share a few words during a press conference held at the Cosmonaut Hotel in Baikonur, Kazakhstan on Saturday, Nov. 12, 2011. Photo Credit: (NASA/Carla Cioffi)

  1. Expedition 29 Press Conference

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2011-11-12

    Expedition 29 Flight Engineer Anatoly Ivanishin is seen at a press conference held at the Cosmonaut Hotel, Saturday, Nov. 12, 2011 at the Cosmonaut Hotel in Baikonur, Kazakhstan. The mission is set to launch November 14 from the Baikonur Cosmodrome. Photo Credit: (NASA/Carla Cioffi)

  2. Expedition 40 Press Conference

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2014-05-27

    A man taking a picture with a cell phone is seen reflected in the glass separating the quarantined crew during a press conference on Tuesday, May 27, 2014, at the Cosmonaut Hotel in Baikonur, Kazakhstan. The mission to the International Space Station is set to launch May 29 from the Baikonur Cosmodrome. Photo Credit: (NASA/Joel Kowsky)

  3. Expedition 29 Press Conference

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2011-11-12

    Expedition 29 Russian Flight Engineer Anatoly Ivanishin answers a reporter’s question during a press conference held at the Cosmonaut Hotel in Baikonur, Kazakhstan on Saturday, Nov. 12, 2011. The launch of the Soyuz spacecraft with Ivanishin, Soyuz Commander Anton Shkaplerov and NASA Flight Engineer Dan Burbank is scheduled for November 14. Photo Credit: (NASA/Carla Cioffi)

  4. Expedition 28 Press Conference

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2011-06-06

    Expedition 28 NASA Flight Engineer Mike Fossum, left, looks on as Soyuz Commander Sergei Volkov speaks during a press conference, Monday, June 6, 2011, at the Cosmonaut Hotel in Baikonur, Kazakhstan. The mission is set to launch on Tuesday, June 8, from the Baikonur Cosmodrome. Photo Credit: (NASA/Carla Cioffi)

  5. Expedition 41 Press Conference

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2014-09-24

    NASA Expedition 41 backup crew member Flight Engineer Mikhail Kornienko of the Russian Federal Space Agency (Roscosmos) answers a question during a press conference Wednesday, Sept. 24, 2014 at the Cosmonaut Hotel in Baikonur, Kazakhstan. The prime crew is set to launch Sept. 26 from the Baikonur Cosmodrome. Photo Credit: (NASA/Aubrey Gemignani)

  6. Meet the Press

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Quick, Brian L.

    2004-01-01

    Objective: To field questions from a room of students simulating a press conference. Type of speech: Impromptu. Point value: 10 participation points. To receive all 10 points, students must (1) address three questions from the lectern and ask three questions from their seat (3 points), (2) respond thoroughly to each question by providing a…

  7. Expedition 6 Press Conference

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2003-05-05

    Expedition 6 Flight Engineer Nikolai Budarin, left, Commander Ken Bowersox and International Space Station Science Officer Don Pettit, right, pose for photos at a press conference at the Gagarin Cosmonaut Training Center in Star City, Russia, Thursday, May 6, 2003. Photo Credit: (NASA/Bill Ingalls)

  8. Expedition 6 Press Conference

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2003-05-05

    Expedition 6 Flight Engineer Nikolai Budarin, left, Commander Ken Bowersox and NASA International Space Station Science Officer Don Pettit, right, answer questions during a press conference at the Gagarin Cosmonaut Training Center in Star City, Russia, Thursday, May 6, 2003. Photo Credit: (NASA/Bill Ingalls)

  9. Constellation Program Press Conference

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2006-06-04

    NASA Administrator Michael Griffin, left, Scott Horowitz, NASA Associate Administrator for Exploration Systems and Jeff Hanley, Constellation Program Manager, right, are seen during a press conference outlining specific center responsibilities associated with the Constellation Program for robotic and human Moon and Mars exploration, Monday, June 5, 2006, at NASA Headquarters in Washington. Photo Credit (NASA/Bill Ingalls)

  10. Constellation Program Press Conference

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2006-06-04

    Scott Horowitz, NASA Associate Administrator for Exploration Systems, center, speaks as Jeff Hanley, Constellation Program Manager, right, looks on during a press conference outlining specific center responsibilities associated with the Constellation Program for robotic and human Moon and Mars exploration, Monday, June 5, 2006, at NASA Headquarters in Washington. Photo Credit (NASA/Bill Ingalls)

  11. Google Moon Press Conference

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2009-07-19

    Andrew Chaikin, author of "A Man on the Moon" speaks during a press conference, Monday, July 20, 2009, announcing the launch of Moon in Google Earth, an immersive 3D atlas of the Moon, accessible within Google Earth 5.0, Monday, July 20, 2009, at the Newseum in Washington. Photo Credit: (NASA/Bill Ingalls)

  12. Google Moon Press Conference

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2009-07-19

    Buzz Aldrin, the second man to walk on the moon, speaks during a press conference, Monday, July 20, 2009, announcing the launch of Moon in Google Earth, an immersive 3D atlas of the Moon, accessible within Google Earth 5.0, Monday, July 20, 2009, at the Newseum in Washington. Photo Credit: (NASA/Bill Ingalls)

  13. Google Moon Press Conference

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2009-07-19

    Apollo 11 astronaut Buzz Aldrin, the second man to walk on the Moon, speaks during a press conference, Monday, July 20, 2009, announcing the launch of Moon in Google Earth, an immersive 3D atlas of the Moon, accessible within Google Earth 5.0, Monday, July 20, 2009, at the Newseum in Washington. Photo Credit: (NASA/Bill Ingalls)

  14. Google Moon Press Conference

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2009-07-19

    NASA Deputy Administrator Lori Garver, speaks during a press conference, Monday, July 20, 2009, announcing the launch of Moon in Google Earth, an immersive 3D atlas of the Moon, accessible within Google Earth 5.0, Monday, July 20, 2009, at the Newseum in Washington. Photo Credit: (NASA/Bill Ingalls)

  15. Google Moon Press Conference

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2009-07-19

    Tiffany Montague, Technical Program Manager for NASA and Google Lunar X PRIZE, Google, Inc., speaks during a press conference, Monday, July 20, 2009, announcing the launch of Moon in Google Earth, an immersive 3D atlas of the Moon, accessible within Google Earth 5.0, Monday, July 20, 2009, at the Newseum in Washington. Photo Credit: (NASA/Bill Ingalls)

  16. Google Moon Press Conference

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2009-07-19

    Brian McLendon, VP of Engineering, Google, Inc., speaks during a press conference, Monday, July 20, 2009, announcing the launch of Moon in Google Earth, an immersive 3D atlas of the Moon, accessible within Google Earth 5.0, Monday, July 20, 2009, at the Newseum in Washington. Photo Credit: (NASA/Bill Ingalls)

  17. Google Moon Press Conference

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2009-07-19

    Yoshinori Yoshimura, a respresentative from the Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency (JAXA), speaks during a press conference, Monday, July 20, 2009, announcing the launch of Moon in Google Earth, an immersive 3D atlas of the Moon, accessible within Google Earth 5.0, Monday, July 20, 2009, at the Newseum in Washington. Photo Credit: (NASA/Bill Ingalls)

  18. Google Moon Press Conference

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2009-07-19

    Michael Weiss-Malik, Product Manager for Moon in Google Earth, Google, Inc., speaks during a press conference, Monday, July 20, 2009, announcing the launch of Moon in Google Earth, an immersive 3D atlas of the Moon, accessible within Google Earth 5.0, Monday, July 20, 2009, at the Newseum in Washington. Photo Credit: (NASA/Bill Ingalls)

  19. Google Moon Press Conference

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2009-07-19

    Miles O'Brien, former chief science and tech correspondent for CNN, speaks during a press conference, Monday, July 20, 2009, announcing the launch of Moon in Google Earth, an immersive 3D atlas of the Moon, accessible within Google Earth 5.0, Monday, July 20, 2009, at the Newseum in Washington. Photo Credit: (NASA/Bill Ingalls)

  20. Meet the Press

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Quick, Brian L.

    2004-01-01

    Objective: To field questions from a room of students simulating a press conference. Type of speech: Impromptu. Point value: 10 participation points. To receive all 10 points, students must (1) address three questions from the lectern and ask three questions from their seat (3 points), (2) respond thoroughly to each question by providing a…

  1. Expedition 52 Press Conference

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2017-07-10

    Expedition 52 flight engineers Paolo Nespoli of ESA, left, Sergey Ryazanskiy of Roscosmos, center, and Expedition 52 flight engineer Randy Bresnik of NASA pose for group photograph at the conclusion of their crew press conference at the Gagarin Cosmonaut Training Center (GCTC), Monday, July 10, 2017 in Star City, Russia. Photo Credit: (NASA/Bill Ingalls)

  2. Expedition 50 Press Conference

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2016-10-26

    Expedition 50 NASA astronaut Peggy Whitson, left, Russian cosmonaut Oleg Novitskiy of Roscosmos, center, and ESA astronaut Thomas Pesquet pose for a group photograph at the conclusion of a press conference, Wednesday, Oct. 26, 2016, at the Gagarin Cosmonaut Training Center (GCTC) in Star City, Russia. Photo Credit: (NASA/Bill Ingalls)

  3. MAVEN Press Briefing

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2013-10-28

    A model of the MAVEN spacecraft is pictured during a press conference for the upcoming launch of the Mars Atmosphere and Volatile Evolution (MAVEN) mission, at NASA Headquarters in Washington on Monday, Oct. 28th, 2013. MAVEN is the agency's next mission to Mars and the first devoted to understanding the upper atmosphere of the Red Planet. (Photo credit: NASA/Jay Westcott)

  4. MAVEN Press Briefing

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2013-10-28

    Jim Green, director, Planetary Science Division, NASA Headquarters, discusses the upcoming launch of the Mars Atmosphere and Volatile Evolution (MAVEN) mission, at a press conference at NASA Headquarters in Washington on Monday, Oct. 28th, 2013. MAVEN is the agency's next mission to Mars and the first devoted to understanding the upper atmosphere of the Red Planet. (Photo credit: NASA/Jay Westcott)

  5. Expedition 52 Press Conference

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2017-07-10

    A painting of Yuri Gagarin is seen in the lobby of the building where the Expedition 52 prime and backup crews held a crew press conference on the grounds of the Gagarin Cosmonaut Training Center (GCTC), Monday, July 10, 2017 in Star City, Russia. Photo Credit: (NASA/Bill Ingalls)

  6. Constellation Program Press Conference

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2006-06-04

    Jeff Hanley, Constellation Program Manager, speaks during a press conference outlining specific center responsibilities associated with the Constellation Program for robotic and human Moon and Mars exploration, Monday, June 5, 2006, at NASA Headquarters in Washington. Photo Credit (NASA/Bill Ingalls)

  7. Constellation Program Press Conference

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2006-06-04

    Scott Horowitz, NASA Associate Administrator for Exploration Systems, left, looks on as Jeff Hanley, Constellation Program Manager, speaks during a press conference outlining specific center responsibilities associated with the Constellation Program for robotic and human Moon and Mars exploration, Monday, June 5, 2006, at NASA Headquarters in Washington. Photo Credit (NASA/Bill Ingalls)

  8. Constellation Program Press Conference

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2006-06-04

    NASA Administrator Michael Griffin, left, looks on as Scott Horowitz, NASA Associate Administrator for Exploration Systems speaks during a press conference outlining specific center responsibilities associated with the Constellation Program for robotic and human Moon and Mars exploration, Monday, June 5, 2006, at NASA Headquarters in Washington. Photo Credit (NASA/Bill Ingalls)

  9. Constellation Program Press Conference

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2006-06-04

    Members of the media listen during a press conference with NASA Administrator Michael Griffin, Scott Horowitz, NASA Associate Administrator for Exploration Systems and Jeff Hanley, Constellation Program Manager, outlining specific center responsibilities associated with the Constellation Program for robotic and human Moon and Mars exploration, Monday, June 5, 2006, at NASA Headquarters in Washington. Photo Credit (NASA/Bill Ingalls)

  10. Constellation Program Press Conference

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2006-06-04

    NASA Administrator Michael Griffin, speaks during a press conference outlining specific center responsibilities associated with the Constellation Program for robotic and human Moon and Mars exploration, Monday, June 5, 2006, at NASA Headquarters in Washington. Photo Credit (NASA/Bill Ingalls)

  11. Constellation Program Press Conference

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2006-06-04

    Scott Horowitz, NASA Associate Administrator for Exploration Systems, left, and Jeff Hanley, Constellation Program Manager, are seen during a press conference outlining specific center responsibilities associated with the Constellation Program for robotic and human Moon and Mars exploration, Monday, June 5, 2006, at NASA Headquarters in Washington. Photo Credit (NASA/Bill Ingalls)

  12. Optically Aligned Drill Press

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Adderholdt, Bruce M.

    1994-01-01

    Precise drill press equipped with rotary-indexing microscope. Microscope and drill exchange places when turret rotated. Microscope axis first aligned over future hole, then rotated out of way so drill axis assumes its precise position. New procedure takes less time to locate drilling positions and produces more accurate results. Apparatus adapted to such other machine tools as milling and measuring machines.

  13. Optically Aligned Drill Press

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Adderholdt, Bruce M.

    1994-01-01

    Precise drill press equipped with rotary-indexing microscope. Microscope and drill exchange places when turret rotated. Microscope axis first aligned over future hole, then rotated out of way so drill axis assumes its precise position. New procedure takes less time to locate drilling positions and produces more accurate results. Apparatus adapted to such other machine tools as milling and measuring machines.

  14. America's Enduring Ethnic Press.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marzolf, Marion

    Studies of the history of newspapers in the United States have virtually ignored the ethnically oriented, foreign language press. This gap in journalistic investigation should be filled by considering the two conflicting roles which ethnic newspapers fill: assimilation of the ethnic group into the mainstream of American culture and maintenance and…

  15. Drill Press Work Sample.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shawsheen Valley Regional Vocational-Technical High School, Billerica, MA.

    This manual contains a work sample intended to assess a handicapped student's interest in and to screen interested students into a training program in basic machine shop I. (The course is based on the entry level of the drill press operator.) Section 1 describes the assessment, correlates the work performed and worker traits required for…

  16. Google Moon Press Conference

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2009-07-19

    Alan Eustace, Senior VP of Engineering and Research, Google, Inc., speaks during a press conference, Monday, July 20, 2009, announcing the launch of Moon in Google Earth, an immersive 3D atlas of the Moon, accessible within Google Earth 5.0, Monday, July 20, 2009, at the Newseum in Washington. Photo Credit: (NASA/Bill Ingalls)

  17. The effect of fat replacers on batter and cake properties.

    PubMed

    Psimouli, Vassiliki; Oreopoulou, Vassiliki

    2013-10-01

    Fat was replaced at 35% to 100% in cakes by maltodextrin (dextrose equivalent = 3), inulin (high performance and granulated), oligofructose, citrus pectin, and microparticulated protein. Fat replacement by 35% did not induce significant differences in general. Above 65% fat replacement resulted in statistically significant (P < 0.05) decreased viscosity (except for pectin) that was followed by statistically significant decrease in air incorporation and broader bubble size distribution. The starch gelatinization temperature showed a statistically significant increase when fat was replaced by fructose oligosaccharides. The cakes presented statistically significant increase of hardness, elasticity, and decrease of volume development as fat replacement increased above 65%. Also cakes with increased fat replacement received lower scores on taste and flavor, whereas at total fat replacement they were evaluated as not acceptable. Nevertheless, at 65% fat replacement, the samples presented acceptable textural, physical, and sensorial attributes. © 2013 Institute of Food Technologists®

  18. Bench- and pilot-scale sludge electrodewatering in a diaphragm filter press.

    PubMed

    Saveyn, H; Van der Meeren, P; Pauwels, G; Timmerman, R

    2006-01-01

    Electrodewatering is a technique in which pressure dewatering is combined with electrokinetic effects to realize an improved solid/liquid separation and hence increased filter cake dry matter contents. In order to be energy efficient, it is shown that sludge should be dewatered by pressure dewatering to a high extent prior to electric field application, and a sufficient contact time for the electric field must be guaranteed. In order to realize these goals, a bench- and pilot-scale diaphragm filter press suited for electrodewatering were constructed for treatment of sewage and other types of sludges. It was shown that electrodewatering of sludge is a feasible technique, especially for biological sludge types. Other types of sludge are less suited for electrodewatering because of the restricted improvements that can be realized in cake dry matter content and the high electric energy consumption. Furthermore, it was shown in pilot-scale tests that the use of a diaphragm filter press with electrodewatering facilities was very well suited to deliver dry filter cakes of sewage sludge at a moderate energy consumption. Depending on local market prices for investment, operating and sludge disposal costs, this technology may therefore lead to important savings in the sludge management process.

  19. Navy Bean Flour Particle Size and Protein Content Affect Cake Baking and Batter Quality(1).

    PubMed

    Singh, Mukti; Byars, Jeffrey A; Liu, Sean X

    2015-06-01

    Whole navy bean flour and its fine and coarse particle size fractions were used to completely replace wheat flour in cakes. Replacement of wheat flour with whole bean flour significantly increased the protein content. The protein content was adjusted to 3 levels with navy bean starch. The effect of navy bean flour and its fractions at 3 levels of protein on cake batter rheology and cake quality was studied and compared with wheat flour samples. Batters prepared from navy bean flour and its fractions had higher viscosity than the cake flour. Reducing the protein content by addition of starch significantly lowered the viscosity of cake batters. The whole navy bean flour and coarse bean fraction cakes were softer than cakes made with wheat flour but had reduced springiness. Principal component analysis showed a clear discrimination of cakes according to protein. It also showed that low protein navy bean flour cakes were similar to wheat flour cakes. Navy bean flour with protein content adjusted to the level of cake (wheat) flour has potential as a healthy alternative in gluten-free cakes.

  20. Theory of the caking of carbon compositions and coal charges

    SciTech Connect

    Syskov, K.I.; Lapina, N.A.; Gromova, O.B.; Petrov, N.V.

    1981-01-01

    Results are presented of theoretical studies and experimental investigations of the mechanism of caking of coal charges and carbon compositions. The caking of carbon compositions and of coal charges is due to the sorption of the binder (the liquid component of the plastic coal mass) by the filler (the noncaking components). The influence of the main factors (degree of grinding of the filler, molding pressure, rate of heating) on the size of the increase in the yield of coke from binder has been studied. 18 refs.

  1. Cake properties in ultrafiltration of TiO2 fine particles combined with HA: in situ measurement of cake thickness by fluid dynamic gauging and CFD calculation of imposed shear stress for cake controlling.

    PubMed

    Du, Xing; Qu, Fangshu; Liang, Heng; Li, Kai; Chang, Haiqing; Li, Guibai

    2016-05-01

    In this study, the cake buildup of TiO2 fine particles in the presence of humid acid (HA) and cake layer controlling during ultrafiltration (UF) were investigated. Specifically, we measured the cake thickness using fluid dynamic gauging (FDG) method under various solution conditions, including TiO2 concentration (0.1-0.5 g/L), HA concentration (0-5 mg/L, total organic carbon (TOC)), and pH values (e.g., 4, 6 and 10), and calculated the shear stress distribution induced by stirring using computational fluid dynamics (CFD) to analyze the cake layer controlling conditions, including the operation flux (50-200 L m(-2) h(-1)) and TiO2 concentration (0.1-0.5 g/L). It was found that lower TiO2/HA concentration ratio could lead to exceedingly severe membrane fouling because of the formation of a relatively denser cake layer by filling the voids of cake layer with HA, and pH was essential for cake layer formation owing to the net repulsion between particles. Additionally, it was observed that shear stress was rewarding for mitigating cake growth under lower operation flux as a result of sufficient back-transport forces, and exhibited an excellent performance on cake layer controlling in lower TiO2 concentrations due to slight interaction forces on the vicinity of membrane.

  2. Old ingredients for a new recipe? Neem cake, a low-cost botanical by-product in the fight against mosquito-borne diseases.

    PubMed

    Benelli, Giovanni; Murugan, Kadarkarai; Panneerselvam, Chellasamy; Madhiyazhagan, Pari; Conti, Barbara; Nicoletti, Marcello

    2015-02-01

    Mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae) represent an important threat to millions of people worldwide, since they act as vectors for important pathogens, such as malaria, yellow fever, dengue and West Nile. Control programmes mainly rely on chemical treatments against larvae, indoor residual spraying and insecticide-treated bed nets. In recent years, huge efforts have been carried out to propose new eco-friendly alternatives, with a special focus on the evaluation of plant-borne mosquitocidal compounds. Major examples are neem-based products (Azadirachta indica A. Juss, Meliaceae) that have been proven as really effective against a huge range of pests of medical and veterinary importance, including mosquitoes. Recent research highlighted that neem cake, a cheap by-product from neem oil extraction, is an important source of mosquitocidal metabolites. In this review, we examined (i) the latest achievements about neem cake metabolomics with special reference to nor-terpenoid and related content; (ii) the neem cake ovicidal, larvicidal and pupicidal toxicity against Aedes, Anopheles and Culex mosquito vectors; (iii) its non-target effects against vertebrates; and (iv) its oviposition deterrence effects on mosquito females. Overall, neem cake can be proposed as an eco-friendly and low-cost source of chemicals to build newer and safer control tools against mosquito vectors.

  3. Layer-cake vs. fruit-cake stratigraphy of megadune-related snows of East Antarctica

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wise, D. U.; Cianfarra, P.; Salvini, F.

    2009-12-01

    Published models of snow deposits of the East Antarctic Plateau visualize km-scale snow stripes in scattered megadune fields as actively-forming stratigraphic zones growing through later Holocene time in parallel with other patches and zones of more normal snow and ice, in effect a stratigraphy of lumps scattered like fruit-cake “goodies.” An alternate four-unit layer-cake model seems more appropriate based on superposition relationships in satellite images. In this model the oldest unit (#1) contains upslope-climbing, relic megadune sets and cosets of pseudo-beds beneath the striped surfaces. This unit is transitional upward into unit #2, divisible into several facies: a) abandoned megadune plains or wind-swept snow regs to use a sand desert term, b) sudden appearance of high topographic relief “Duke of York” dunes from the children’s song of the Grand Old Duke’s soldiers abandoned “neither up nor down,” c) extensions of megadune snow stripes growing into downslope-migrating, lobate dunes, and d) downslope-migrating sheets of coalesced, mostly lobate dune forms, commonly lineated on regional scales. Unit #3 is a pile of snow blankets, transverse and longitudinal dunes that commonly form snow ergs, another sand desert term. This unit is semi-transparent to radar as indicted by near-surface trends and patterns on Modis images disappearing on radar images to show clearly defined unit #2 facies patterns for the same area. These three stratigraphic units appear analogous to an abbreviated form of the aqueous Bouma sequence of fining upward turbiditic beds that pass from upper flow regime (UFR), upstream-climbing antidunes through transitional units into lower flow regime (LFR), downstream-migrating dunes. If megadunes are UFR, very rapid deposition necessitated massive supplies of moisture-rich air available only from open water in the Ross and Weddell Seas or across narrow winter ice shelves of the Southern Ocean, a climate much warmer than present

  4. Influence of external cake formation on optimization of crossflow filtration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuberkar, Vinod Trimbakrao

    The external foulant cake is an extremely important aspect of membrane filtration processes, influencing permeation rates of all species. This thesis work provides understanding of the mechanisms of formation and removal of the external cake, and of its influence on permeation rates. The prevention of formation of non-adhesive cakes using backpulsing was studied by solving the convection-diffusion equation for concentration polarization and depolarization during cyclic operation of forward filtration and reverse filtration. The theory predicted an optimum duration of the forward filtration which maximizes the net flux. Theoretical predictions showed very good agreement with experimental results for backpulsing of washed yeast suspensions. The removal of an adhesive cake was studied using filtration of bacterial suspensions with and without backpulsing. Due to the strong adhesive nature of the bacterial cake, the removal of the external cake is incomplete. A phenomenological model based on nonuniform cleaning of the membrane was proposed. The model contains an adjustable parameter termed the cleaning efficiency which provides measure of the removal of the adhesive cake. Though the model does not have fully predictive abilities, as the cleaning efficiency depends on the operating conditions, it provides important understanding of the underlying physical phenomena. During the filtration of a multicomponent mixture, the large particles form an external cake on the membrane, which then acts as a secondary membrane for other species in the mixture, affecting their permeation rates. This phenomenon was studied for a mixture of yeast and bovine serum albumin (BSA). In the absence of yeast, BSA aggregates block the membrane pores and eventually form an external fouling layer on the membrane surface, which prevents BSA monomers from access to the membrane pores. BSA transmission then drops to 25--40%. For filtration of a yeast-BSA mixture, yeast cells form the external cake

  5. Valorization of By-Products from Palm Oil Mills for the Production of Generic Fermentation Media for Microbial Oil Synthesis.

    PubMed

    Tsouko, Erminda; Kachrimanidou, Vasiliki; Dos Santos, Anderson Fragoso; do Nascimento Vitorino Lima, Maria Eduarda; Papanikolaou, Seraphim; de Castro, Aline Machado; Freire, Denise Maria Guimarães; Koutinas, Apostolis A

    2017-04-01

    This study demonstrates the production of a generic nutrient-rich feedstock using by-product streams from palm oil production that could be used as a substitute for commercial fermentation supplements. Solid-state fermentations of palm kernel cake (PKC) and palm-pressed fiber (PPF) were conducted in tray bioreactors and a rotating drum bioreactor by the fungal strain Aspergillus oryzae for the production of crude enzymes. The production of protease was optimized (319.3 U/g) at an initial moisture content of 55 %, when PKC was used as the sole substrate. The highest free amino nitrogen (FAN) production (5.6 mg/g) obtained via PKC hydrolysis using the crude enzymes produced via solid-state fermentation was achieved at 50 °C. Three initial PKC concentrations (48.7, 73.7, and 98.7 g/L) were tested in hydrolysis experiments, leading to total Kjeldahl nitrogen to FAN conversion yields up to 27.9 %. Sequential solid-state fermentation followed by hydrolysis was carried out in the same rotating drum bioreactor, leading to the production of 136.7 U/g of protease activity during fermentation and 196.5 mg/L of FAN during hydrolysis. Microbial oil production was successfully achieved with the oleaginous yeast strain Lipomyces starkeyi DSM 70296 cultivated on the produced PKC hydrolysate mixed with commercial carbon sources, including glucose, xylose, mannose, galactose, and arabinose.

  6. STEREO Press Briefing

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2011-08-17

    Craig DeForest, a staff scientist at the Southwest Research Institute in Boulder, Colo., speaks during a press briefing, Thursday, Aug. 18, 2011, at NASA Headquarters in Washington. The briefing was held to discusses new details about the structure of solar storms and the impact they have on Earth. The new information comes from NASA's Solar Terrestrial Relations Observatory, or STEREO, spacecraft and other NASA probes. Photo Credit: (NASA/GSFC/Rebecca Roth)

  7. STEREO Press Briefing

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2011-08-17

    Madhulika Guhathakurta, seated left, STEREO program scientist, speaks during a press briefing, Thursday, Aug. 18, 2011, at NASA Headquarters in Washington as Craig DeForest, David Webb and Alysha Reinard, look on. The briefing was held to discusses new details about the structure of solar storms and the impact they have on Earth. The new information comes from NASA's Solar Terrestrial Relations Observatory, or STEREO, spacecraft and other NASA probes. Photo Credit: (NASA/GSFC/Rebecca Roth)

  8. STEREO Press Briefing

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2011-08-17

    Craig DeForest, second from left, speaks during a press briefing, Thursday, Aug. 18, 2011, at NASA Headquarters in Washington as Madhulika Guhathakurta, left, David Webb and Alysha Reinard look on. The briefing was held to discusses new details about the structure of solar storms and the impact they have on Earth. The new information comes from NASA's Solar Terrestrial Relations Observatory, or STEREO, spacecraft and other NASA probes. Photo Credit: (NASA/GSFC/Rebecca Roth)

  9. STEREO Press Briefing

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2011-08-17

    Madhulika Guhathakurta, seated left, STEREO program scientist, speaks during a press briefing, Thursday, Aug. 18, 2011, at NASA Headquarters in Washington as Craig DeForest, David Webb and Alysha Reinard, look on. The briefing was held to discusses new details about the structure of solar storms and the impact they have on Earth. The new information comes from NASA's Solar Terrestrial Relations Observatory, or STEREO, spacecraft and other NASA probes. Photo Credit: (NASA/GSFC/Rebecca Roth).

  10. STEREO Press Briefing

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2011-08-17

    David Webb, a research physicist from the Institute for Scientific Research at Boston College speaks during a press briefing, Thursday, Aug. 18, 2011, at NASA Headquarters in Washington. The briefing was held to discuss new details about the structure of solar storms and the impact they have on Earth. The new information comes from NASA's Solar Terrestrial Relations Observatory, or STEREO, spacecraft and other NASA probes. Photo Credit: (NASA/GSFC/Rebecca Roth)

  11. Expedition 41 Press Conference

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2014-09-24

    Expedition 41 Soyuz Commander Alexander Samokutyaev of the Russian Federal Space Agency (Roscosmos) and Flight Engineer Elena Serova of Roscosmos hold up tiger toys that will be carried with them to the International Space Station to commemorate International Tiger Day at a press conference held at the Cosmonaut Hotel in Baikonur, Kazakhstan on Wednesday, Sept. 24, 2014. The mission is set to launch Sept. 26 from the Baikonur Cosmodrome. Photo Credit: (NASA/Aubrey Gemignani)

  12. Expedition 32 Press Conference

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2012-07-13

    Quarantined Expedition 32 JAXA (Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency) Flight Engineer Akihiko Hoshide answers reporters questions from behind glass during a prelaunch press conference held at the Cosmonaut Hotel on Friday, July 13, 2012 in Baikonur, Kazakhstan. The launch of the Soyuz spacecraft with Hoshide, Soyuz Commander Yuri Malenchenko, and NASA Flight Engineer Sunita Williams is scheduled for 8:40 a.m. local time on Sunday, July 15. Photo Credit (NASA/Carla Cioffi)

  13. Expedition 34 Press Conference

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2012-12-18

    Expedition 34/35 NASA Flight Engineer Tom Marshburn answers a reporter's question at a press conference held at the Cosmonaut Hotel, on Tuesday, Dec. 18, 2012, in Baikonur, Kazakhstan. Launch of the Soyuz rocket is scheduled for December 19 and will send Marshburn, Roman Romanenko of ROSCOSMOS and Chris Hadfield of the Canadian Space Agency on a five-month mission aboard the International Space Station. Photo Credit: (NASA/Carla Cioffi)

  14. Expedition 32 Press Conference

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2012-07-13

    Quarantined Expedition 32 JAXA (Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency) Flight Engineer Akihiko Hoshide, left, answers reporters questions from behind glass during a prelaunch press conference held at the Cosmonaut Hotel on Friday, July 13, 2012 in Baikonur, Kazakhstan. Seated next to him is Soyuz Commander Yuri Malenchenko. The launch of the Soyuz spacecraft with Hoshide, Malenchenko, and NASA Flight Engineer Sunita Williams is scheduled for 8:40 a.m. local time on Sunday, July 15. Photo Credit (NASA/Carla Cioffi)

  15. Expedition 34 Press Conference

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2012-12-18

    Expedition 34/35 Flight Engineer and Expedition 35 Commander Chris Hadfield of the Canadian Space Agency (CSA) answers a reporter's question at a press conference held at the Cosmonaut Hotel, on Tuesday, Dec. 18, 2012, in Baikonur, Kazakhstan. Launch of the Soyuz rocket is scheduled for December 19 and will send Hadfield, Tom Marshburn of NASA and Roman Romanenko of ROSCOSMOS on a five-month mission aboard the International Space Station. Photo Credit: (NASA/Carla Cioffi)

  16. Expedition 33 Press Conference

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2012-10-22

    Expedition 33 Soyuz Commander Oleg Novitskiy answers a reporters question during a press conference held at the Cosmonaut Hotel, on Monday, October 22, 2012, in Baikonur, Kazakhstan. Launch of the Soyuz rocket is scheduled for October 23 and will send Expedition 33/34 Flight Engineer Kevin Ford of NASA, Soyuz Commander Oleg Novitskiy and Flight Engineer Evgeny Tarelkin of ROSCOSMOS on a five-month mission aboard the International Space Station. Photo Credit: (NASA/Bill Ingalls)

  17. Expedition 32 Press Conference

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2012-07-13

    Quarantined Expedition 32 Soyuz Commander Yuri Malenchenko, right, answers reporters questions from behind glass during a prelaunch press conference held at the Cosmonaut Hotel on Friday, July 13, 2012 in Baikonur, Kazakhstan. Seated next to him is JAXA Flight Engineer Akihiko Hoshide. The launch of the Soyuz spacecraft with Malenchenko, NASA Flight Engineer Sunita Williams and Hoshide is scheduled for 8:40 a.m. local time on Sunday, July 15. Photo Credit (NASA/Carla Cioffi)

  18. Expedition 37 Press Conference

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2013-09-24

    Expedition 37 NASA Flight Engineer Michael Hopkins answers a reporter's question at a press conference held at the Cosmonaut Hotel, on Tuesday, Sept. 24, 2013, in Baikonur, Kazakhstan. Launch of the Soyuz rocket is scheduled for September 26 and will send Hopkins, Soyuz Commander Oleg Kotov and Russian Flight Engineer Sergei Ryazansky on a five and a half-month mission aboard the International Space Station. Photo Credit: (NASA/Carla Cioffi)

  19. Expedition 37 Press Conference

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2013-09-24

    Expedition 37 backup crewmember Alexander Skvortsov anwers a reporter’s question at a press conference held at the Cosmonaut Hotel, on Tuesday, Sept. 24, 2013, in Baikonur, Kazakhstan. Launch of the Soyuz rocket is scheduled for September 26 and will send Kotov, Hopkins and Ryazansky on a five and a half-month mission aboard the International Space Station. Photo Credit: (NASA/Carla Cioffi)

  20. Astrobiology Press Conference

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2010-12-02

    Steven Benner, a distinguished fellow at the Foundation for Applied Molecular Evolution, speaks during a press conference, Thursday, Dec. 2, 2010, at NASA Headquarters in Washington. NASA-funded astrobiology research has changed the fundamental knowledge about what comprises all known life on Earth. Researchers conducting tests in the harsh environment of Mono Lake in California have discovered the first known microorganism on Earth able to thrive and reproduce using the toxic chemical arsenic. Photo Credit: (NASA/Paul E. Alers)

  1. Astrobiology Press Conference

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2010-12-02

    Felisa Wolfe-Simon, a lead researcher and NASA astrobiology research fellow, speaks during a press conference, Thursday, Dec. 2, 2010, at NASA Headquarters in Washington. NASA-funded astrobiology research has changed the fundamental knowledge about what comprises all known life on Earth. Researchers conducting tests in the harsh environment of Mono Lake in California have discovered the first known microorganism on Earth able to thrive and reproduce using the toxic chemical arsenic. Photo Credit: (NASA/Paul E. Alers)

  2. Astrobiology Press Conference

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2010-12-02

    Felisa Wolfe-Simon, director, Astrobiology Program, NASA Headquarters, speaks during a press conference, Thursday, Dec. 2, 2010, at NASA Headquarters in Washington. NASA-funded astrobiology research has changed the fundamental knowledge about what comprises all known life on Earth. Researchers conducting tests in the harsh environment of Mono Lake in California have discovered the first known microorganism on Earth able to thrive and reproduce using the toxic chemical arsenic. Photo Credit: (NASA/Paul E. Alers)

  3. Astrobiology Press Conference

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2010-12-02

    Pamela Conrad, an astrobiologist from Goddard Space Flight Center, speaks during a press conference, Thursday, Dec. 2, 2010, at NASA Headquarters in Washington. NASA-funded astrobiology research has changed the fundamental knowledge about what comprises all known life on Earth. Researchers conducting tests in the harsh environment of Mono Lake in California have discovered the first known microorganism on Earth able to thrive and reproduce using the toxic chemical arsenic. Photo Credit: (NASA/Paul E. Alers)

  4. Expedition 38 Press Conference

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2013-11-06

    Expedition 38 backup crew member Reid Wiseman of NASA is seen in quarantine, behind glass, during the final press conference held a day ahead of the launch of Expedition 38 prime crew members; Flight Engineer Koichi Wakata of the Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency, Soyuz Commander Mikhail Tyurin of Roscosmos, and, Flight Engineer Rick Mastracchio of NASA, to the International Space Station, Wednesday, Nov. 6, 2013 at the Cosmonaut Hotel in Baikonur, Kazakhstan. Photo Credit: (NASA/Bill Ingalls)

  5. Expedition 41 Press Conference

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2014-09-24

    NASA Expedition 41 backup crew member Flight Engineer Scott Kelly of NASA answers a question during a press conference Wednesday, Sept. 24, 2014 at the Cosmonaut Hotel in Baikonur, Kazakhstan. Expedition 41 Flight Engineer Barry Wilmore of NASA, Soyuz Commander Alexander Samokutyaev of the Russian Federal Space Agency (Roscosmos), and Flight Engineer Elena Serova of Roscosmos are set to launch Sept. 26 from the Baikonur Cosmodrome. Photo Credit: (NASA/Aubrey Gemignani)

  6. Expedition 38 Press Conference

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2013-11-06

    Expedition 38 Soyuz Commander Mikhail Tyurin of Roscosmos, right, talks as Flight Engineer Koichi Wakata of the Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency, listens, from quarantine behind glass, during the final press conference held a day ahead of their launch with fellow crew mate, Flight Engineer Rick Mastracchio of NASA, to the International Space Station, Wednesday, Nov. 6, 2013 at the Cosmonaut Hotel in Baikonur, Kazakhstan. Photo Credit: (NASA/Bill Ingalls)

  7. Expedition 38 Press Conference

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2013-11-06

    Expedition 38 Flight Engineer Koichi Wakata of the Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency is seen in quarantine, behind glass, during the final press conference held a day ahead of his launch with fellow crew mates, Expedition 38 Soyuz Commander Mikhail Tyurin of Roscosmos, and, Flight Engineer Rick Mastracchio of NASA, to the International Space Station, Wednesday, Nov. 6, 2013 at the Cosmonaut Hotel in Baikonur, Kazakhstan. Photo Credit: (NASA/Bill Ingalls)

  8. Expedition 41 Press Conference

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2014-09-24

    Expedition 41 Flight Engineer Barry Wilmore of NASA answers a question during a press conference on Wednesday, Sept. 24, 2014, at the Cosmonaut Hotel in Baikonur, Kazakhstan. Launch of the Soyuz rocket is scheduled for Sept. 26 and will carry Wilmore, Elena Serova of the Russian Federal Space Agency (Roscosmos), and Alexander Samokutyaev of Roscosmos into orbit to begin their five and a half month mission on the International Space Station. Photo Credit: (NASA/Aubrey Gemignani)

  9. Expedition 38 Press Conference

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2013-11-06

    Expedition 38 Soyuz Commander Mikhail Tyurin of Roscosmos is seen in quarantine behind glass during the final press conference held a day ahead of his launch with fellow crew mates, Flight Engineer Koichi Wakata of the Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency, and, Flight Engineer Rick Mastracchio of NASA, to the International Space Station, Wednesday, Nov. 6, 2013 at the Cosmonaut Hotel in Baikonur, Kazakhstan. Photo Credit: (NASA/Bill Ingalls)

  10. Expedition 38 Press Conference

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2013-11-06

    Expedition 38 backup crew member Alexander Gerst of the European Space Agency is seen in quarantine, behind glass, during the final press conference held a day ahead of the launch of Expedition 38 prime crew members; Flight Engineer Koichi Wakata of the Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency, Soyuz Commander Mikhail Tyurin of Roscosmos, and, Flight Engineer Rick Mastracchio of NASA, to the International Space Station, Wednesday, Nov. 6, 2013 at the Cosmonaut Hotel in Baikonur, Kazakhstan. Photo Credit: (NASA/Bill Ingalls)

  11. Kepler Press Conference

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2009-08-05

    William Bo-Ricki, Kepler principal investigator at NASA's Ames Research Center, speaks during a press conference, Thursday, Aug. 6, 2009, at NASA Headquarters in Washington about the scientific observations coming from the Kepler spacecraft that was launched this past March. Kepler is NASA's first mission that is capable of discovering earth-sized planets in the habitable zones of stars like our Sun. Photo Credit: (NASA/Paul E. Alers)

  12. Kepler Press Conference

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2009-08-05

    Jon Morse, NASA's Astrophysics Division Director, left, speaks during a press conference, Thursday, Aug. 6, 2009, at NASA Headquarters in Washington about the scientific observations coming from the Kepler spacecraft that was launched this past March asWilliam Bo-Ricki, Kepler principal investigator at NASA's Ames Research Center, looks on. Kepler is NASA's first mission that is capable of discovering earth-sized planets in the habitable zones of stars like our Sun. Photo Credit: (NASA/Paul E. Alers)

  13. Kepler Press Conference

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2009-08-05

    Sara Seager, Professor of Planetary Science at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology, speaks during a press conference, Thursday, Aug. 6, 2009, at NASA Headquarters in Washington about the scientific observations coming from the Kepler spacecraft that was launched this past March. Kepler is NASA's first mission that is capable of discovering earth-sized planets in the habitable zones of stars like our Sun. Photo Credit: (NASA/Paul E. Alers)

  14. MAVEN Press Briefing

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2013-10-28

    Bruce Jakosky, MAVEN principal investigator, University of Colorado Boulder Laboratory for Atmospheric and Space Physics, discusses the upcoming launch of the Mars Atmosphere and Volatile Evolution (MAVEN) mission, at a press conference at NASA Headquarters in Washington on Monday, Oct. 28th, 2013. MAVEN is the agency's next mission to Mars and the first devoted to understanding the upper atmosphere of the Red Planet. (Photo credit: NASA/Jay Westcott)

  15. STEREO Press Briefing

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2011-08-17

    Madhulika Guhathakurta, seated left, STEREO program scientist, speaks during a press briefing, Thursday, Aug. 18, 2011, at NASA Headquarters in Washington. The briefing was held to discusses new details about the structure of solar storms and the impact they have on Earth. The new information comes from NASA's Solar Terrestrial Relations Observatory, or STEREO, spacecraft and other NASA probes. Photo Credit: (NASA/GSFC/Rebecca Roth)

  16. STEREO Press Briefing

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2011-08-17

    Alysha Reinard, as research scientist with National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration and the University of Colorado Boulder, speaks during a press briefing, Thursday, Aug. 18, 2011, at NASA Headquarters in Washington. The briefing was held to discusses new details about the structure of solar storms and the impact they have on Earth. The new information comes from NASA's Solar Terrestrial Relations Observatory, or STEREO, spacecraft and other NASA probes. Photo Credit: (NASA/GSFC/Rebecca Roth)

  17. Expedition 41 Press Conference

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2014-09-24

    Expedition 41 prime crew members, Flight Engineer Barry Wilmore of NASA, left, Soyuz Commander Alexander Samokutyaev of the Russian Federal Space Agency (Roscosmos), center, and Flight Engineer Elena Serova of Roscosmos, right, pose for a photo at the conclusion of the press conference held at the Cosmonaut Hotel in Baikonur, Kazakhstan on Wednesday, Sept. 24, 2014. Their mission to the International Space Station is set to launch Sept. 26 from the Baikonur Cosmodrome. Photo Credit: (NASA/Aubrey Gemignani)

  18. Expedition 52 Press Conference

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2017-07-10

    Expedition 52 prime and backup crews: Paolo Nespoli of ESA, left, Randy Bresnik of NASA, Sergey Ryazanskiy of Roscosmos, Alexander Misurkin of Roscosmos, Norishige Kanai of the Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency (JAXA) and, Mark Vande Hei of NASA pose for group photograph at the conclusion of their crew press conference at the Gagarin Cosmonaut Training Center (GCTC), Monday, July 10, 2017 in Star City, Russia. Photo Credit: (NASA/Bill Ingalls)

  19. Expedition 40 Press Conference

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2014-05-27

    Expedition 40 Flight Engineer Alexander Gerst of the European Space Agency, ESA, left, Soyuz Commander Maxim Suraev of the Russian Federal Space Agency, Roscosmos, center, and Flight Engineer Reid Wiseman of NASA, right, wave to those gathered at the conclusion of a press conference, Tuesday, May 27, 2014, at the Cosmonaut Hotel in Baikonur, Kazakhstan. The mission to the International Space Station is set to launch May 29 from the Baikonur Cosmodrome. Photo Credit: (NASA/Joel Kowsky)

  20. Expedition 42 Press Conference

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2014-11-22

    Expedition 42 Flight Engineer Terry Virts of NASA (left), Soyuz Commander Anton Shkaplerov of the Russian Federal Space Agency (Roscosmos) (center), and Flight Engineer Samantha Cristoforetti of the European Space Agency (right), pose for a photo at the conclusion of the press conference, Saturday, Nov. 22, 2014, at the Cosmonaut Hotel in Baikonur, Kazakhstan. The mission to the International Space Station is set to launch Nov. 24 from the Baikonur Cosmodrome. Photo Credit: (NASA/Aubrey Gemignani)

  1. Expedition 40 Press Conference

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2014-05-27

    Expedition 40 Flight Engineer Alexander Gerst of the European Space Agency, ESA, left, Soyuz Commander Maxim Suraev of the Russian Federal Space Agency, Roscosmos, center, and Flight Engineer Reid Wiseman of NASA, right, pose for a picture at the conclusion of a press conference, Tuesday, May 27, 2014, at the Cosmonaut Hotel in Baikonur, Kazakhstan. The mission to the International Space Station is set to launch May 29 from the Baikonur Cosmodrome. Photo Credit: (NASA/Joel Kowsky)

  2. Expedition 41 Press Conference

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2014-09-24

    Expedition 41 Flight Engineer Barry Wilmore of NASA, left, Soyuz Commander Alexander Samokutyaev of the Russian Federal Space Agency (Roscosmos), center, and Flight Engineer Elena Serova of Roscosmos, right, wave to the crowd at the conclusion of the press conference, Wednesday, Sept. 24, 2014, at the Cosmonaut Hotel in Baikonur, Kazakhstan. The mission to the International Space Station is set to launch Sept. 26 from the Baikonur Cosmodrome. Photo Credit: (NASA/Aubrey Gemignani)

  3. MAVEN Press Briefing

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2013-10-28

    John Grunsfeld, associate administrator for the Science Mission Directorate, NASA Headquarters, Washington, introduces a panel to discuss the upcoming launch of the Mars Atmosphere and Volatile Evolution (MAVEN) mission, at a press conference at NASA Headquarters in Washington on Monday, Oct. 28th, 2013. MAVEN is the agency's next mission to Mars and the first devoted to understanding the upper atmosphere of the Red Planet. (Photo credit: NASA/Jay Westcott)

  4. MAVEN Press Briefing

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2013-10-28

    John Grunsfeld, associate administrator for the Science Mission Directorate, NASA Headquarters, Washington, discusses the upcoming launch of the Mars Atmosphere and Volatile Evolution (MAVEN) mission, at a press conference at NASA Headquarters in Washington on Monday, Oct. 28th, 2013. MAVEN is the agency's next mission to Mars and the first devoted to understanding the upper atmosphere of the Red Planet. (Photo credit: NASA/Jay Westcott)

  5. MAVEN Press Briefing

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2013-10-28

    David Mitchell, MAVEN project manager, NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center, discusses the upcoming launch of the Mars Atmosphere and Volatile Evolution (MAVEN) mission, at a press conference at NASA Headquarters in Washington on Monday, Oct. 28th, 2013. MAVEN is the agency's next mission to Mars and the first devoted to understanding the upper atmosphere of the Red Planet. (Photo credit: NASA/Jay Westcott)

  6. Kepler Press Conference

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2009-08-05

    Alan Boss, an astrophyscist at the Carnegie Institution at the Department of Terrestrial Magnetism speaks during a press conference, Thursday, Aug. 6, 2009, at NASA Headquarters in Washington about the scientific observations coming from the Kepler spacecraft that was launched this past March. Kepler is NASA's first mission that is capable of discovering earth-sized planets in the habitable zones of stars like our Sun. Photo Credit: (NASA/Paul E. Alers)

  7. 37. PRESSING TILES FROM PLASTER MOLDS, USING A HAND PRESS ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    37. PRESSING TILES FROM PLASTER MOLDS, USING A HAND PRESS CONSTRUCTED IN 1986. - Moravian Pottery & Tile Works, Southwest side of State Route 313 (Swamp Road), Northwest of East Court Street, Doylestown, Bucks County, PA

  8. Use of neem cake as an organic substrate component

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Nursery and greenhouse growers continue to seek materials to decrease costs of plant production while maintaining environmental stewardship. Incorporation of neem cake as a substrate component could potentially impact nitrogen release as a result of altering substrate bacterial activity. The study...

  9. Using Layer-Cake Geology to Illustrate Structural Topographic Relationships.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wagner, John Robert

    1987-01-01

    Discusses some of the difficulties of visualizing underlying geologic structural patterns by using maps or wooden blocks. Suggests the use of a modified layer cake to show dipping beds, folds, faults and differential erosion, as well as the relationships of stream valleys to outcrop patterns. (TW)

  10. Using Layer-Cake Geology to Illustrate Structural Topographic Relationships.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wagner, John Robert

    1987-01-01

    Discusses some of the difficulties of visualizing underlying geologic structural patterns by using maps or wooden blocks. Suggests the use of a modified layer cake to show dipping beds, folds, faults and differential erosion, as well as the relationships of stream valleys to outcrop patterns. (TW)

  11. Evaluation of Egg Replacers in a Yellow Cake System

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Eggs replacers were substituted in at 50% and 100% of the dried whole eggs in the yellow cake system. The egg replacers were composed of either whey protein isolate, wheat starch, guar gum, xanthan gum or their blends. At 50% substitution, treatments performed closer to that of control compared to 1...

  12. Integrated pore blockage-cake filtration model for crossflow filtration

    SciTech Connect

    Daniel, Richard C.; Billing, Justin M.; Russell, Renee L.; Shimskey, Rick W.; Smith, Harry D.; Peterson, Reid A.

    2011-07-01

    Crossflow filtration is to be a key process in the treatment and disposal of approximately 60,000 metric tons of high-level radioactive waste stored at the Hanford Site in Richland, Washington. Pacific Northwest National Laboratory is assessing filter performance with waste simulant materials that mimic the chemical and physical properties of Hanford tank waste. Prior simulant studies indicated that waste filtration performance may be limited by pore and cake fouling. To limit the shutdown of waste treatment operations, the pre-treatment facility plans to recover filter flux losses from cake formation and filter fouling by frequently backpulsing the filter elements. The objective of the current paper is to develop a simple model of flux decline resulting from cake and pore fouling and potential flux recovery through backpulsing of the filters for Hanford waste filtration operations. To this end, a model capable of characterizing the decline in waste-simulant filter flux as a function of both irreversible pore blockage and reversible cake formation is proposed. This model is used to characterize the filtration behavior of Hanford waste simulants in both continuous and backpulsed operations. The model is then used to infer the optimal backpulse frequency under specific operating conditions.

  13. Antioxidative Polyphenols from Defatted Oilseed Cakes: Effect of Solvents

    PubMed Central

    Teh, Sue-Siang; Bekhit, Alaa El-Din; Birch, John

    2014-01-01

    Defatted hemp, flax and canola seed cakes were extracted with different solvent systems namely methanol, ethanol, acetone, methanol 80%, acetone 80% and mixed solvent of methanol:acetone:water (MAW, 7:7:6, v/v/v). Each extract was analyzed for antioxidant capacity using ferric reducing/antioxidant power (FRAP) and 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging assays. MAW exhibited the highest extraction of phenolic and flavonoid contents in the seed cakes, followed by acetone 80% and methanol 80%. The antioxidant capacity was proportional to the polyphenols recovery in the extracts. Canola seed cakes possessed the highest recovery of polyphenols and antioxidant capacity, followed by hemp and flax seed cakes. MAW extract of canola contained total phenolic content, 2104.67 ± 2.52 mg GAE/100 g fresh weight; total flavonoids, 37.79 ± 0.04 mg LUE/100 g fresh weight; percentage inhibition of DPPH•, 33.03 ± 0.38%; FRAP assay, 8.78 ± 0.07 μmol Fe (II)/g fresh weight. Identification of individual polyphenol compounds were performed HPLC. MAW extract of canola had the highest (P < 0.05) concentration of all individual polyphenols except gallic acid and catechin. Highest concentration of quercetin and luteolin in MAW extract of hemp was obtained among all solvent systems. PMID:26784664

  14. Significance of starch properties and quantity on sponge cake volume

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    We evaluated the qualitative and quantitative effects of wheat starch on sponge cake (SC) baking quality. Twenty wheat flours, including soft white and club wheat of normal, partial waxy and waxy endosperm, and hard wheat, were tested for amylose content, pasting properties, and SC baking quality. S...

  15. Effect of selected spices on chemical and sensory markers in fortified rye-buckwheat cakes.

    PubMed

    Przygodzka, Małgorzata; Zieliński, Henryk; Ciesarová, Zuzana; Kukurová, Kristina; Lamparski, Grzegorz

    2016-07-01

    The aim of this study was to find out the effect of selected spices on chemical and sensorial markers in cakes formulated on rye and light buckwheat flour fortified with spices. Among collection of spices, rye-buckwheat cakes fortified individually with cloves, nutmeg, allspice, cinnamon, vanilla, and spice mix revealed the highest sensory characteristics and overall quality. Cakes fortified with cloves, allspice, and spice mix showed the highest antioxidant capacity, total phenolics, rutin, and almost threefold higher available lysine contents. The reduced furosine content as well as free and total fluorescent intermediatory compounds were observed as compared to nonfortified cakes. The FAST index was significantly lowered in all cakes enriched with spices, especially with cloves, allspice, and mix. In contrast, browning index increased in compare to cakes without spices. It can be suggested that clove, allspice, vanilla, and spice mix should be used for production of safety and good quality cakes.

  16. Biodiesel and biohydrogen production from cotton-seed cake in a biorefinery concept.

    PubMed

    Panagiotopoulos, I A; Pasias, S; Bakker, R R; de Vrije, T; Papayannakos, N; Claassen, P A M; Koukios, E G

    2013-05-01

    Biodiesel production from cotton-seed cake (CSC) and the pretreatment of the remaining biomass for dark fermentative hydrogen production was investigated. The direct conversion to biodiesel with alkali free fatty acids neutralization pretreatment and alkali transesterification resulted in a biodiesel with high esters content and physicochemical properties fulfilling the EN-standards. Blends of cotton-seed oil methyl esters (CME) and diesel showed an improvement in lubricity and cetane number. Moreover, CME showed good compatibility with commercial biodiesel additives. On the basis of conversion of the remaining CSC to sugars fermentable towards hydrogen, the optimal conditions included removal of the oil of CSC and pretreatment at 10% NaOH (w/w dry matter). The extreme thermophilic bacterium Caldicellulosiruptor saccharolyticus showed good hydrogen production, 84-112% of the control, from NaOH-pretreated CSC and low hydrogen production, 15-20% of the control, from the oil-rich and not chemically pretreated CSC, and from Ca(OH)2-pretreated CSC. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Gravity drainage of activated sludge: new experimental method and considerations of settling velocity, specific cake resistance and cake compressibility.

    PubMed

    Dominiak, Dominik; Christensen, Morten; Keiding, Kristian; Nielsen, Per Halkjær

    2011-02-01

    A laboratory scale setup was used for characterization of gravitational drainage of waste activated sludge. The aim of the study was to assess how time of drainage and cake dry matter depended on volumetric load, SS content and sludge floc properties. It was demonstrated that activated sludge forms compressible cakes, even at the low pressures found in gravitational drainage. The values of specific cake resistance were two to three orders of magnitude lower than those obtained in pressure filtration. Despite the compressible nature of sludge, key macroscopic parameters such as time of drainage and cake solid content showed simple functional dependency of the volumetric load and SS of a given sludge. This suggests that the proposed method may be applied for design purposes without the use of extensive numerical modeling. The possibilities for application of this new technique are, among others, the estimation of sludge drainability prior to mechanical dewatering on a belt filter, or the application of surplus sludge on reed beds, as well as adjustments of sludge loading, concentration or sludge pre-treatment in order to optimize the drainage process.

  18. Expedition 18 Press Conference

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2008-10-10

    Expedition 18 Commander Michael Fincke answers reporters' questions during a press conference held at the Cosmonaut Hotel, Saturday, Oct. 11, 2008, in Baikonur, Kazakhstan. Fincke will launch on the Soyuz TMA-13 spacecraft along with Expedition 18 Flight Engineer Yuri V. Lonchakov and American spaceflight participant Richard Garriott on Oct. 12 and dock with the International Space Station on Oct. 14. Fincke and Lonchakov will spend six months on the station, while Garriott will return to Earth Oct. 24 with two of the Expedition 17 crew members currently on the International Space Station. Photo Credit: (NASA/Bill Ingalls)

  19. Expedition 18 Press Conference

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2008-10-10

    American spaceflight participant Richard Garriott, left, and Expedition 18 Commander Michael Fincke answer reporters' questions during a press conference held at the Cosmonaut Hotel, Saturday, Oct. 11, 2008, in Baikonur, Kazakhstan. Garriott and Fincke will launch on the Soyuz TMA-13 spacecraft along with Expedition 18 Flight Engineer Yuri V. Lonchakov on Oct. 12 and dock with the International Space Station on Oct. 14. Fincke and Lonchakov will spend six months on the station, while Garriott will return to Earth Oct. 24 with two of the Expedition 17 crew members currently on the International Space Station. Photo Credit: (NASA/Bill Ingalls)

  20. Expedition 18 Press Conference

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2008-10-10

    Expedition 18 Flight Engineer Yuri V. Lonchakov, right, Expedition 18 Commander Michael Fincke and American spaceflight participant Richard Garriott, left, pose for photographs after a press conference held at the Cosmonaut Hotel, Saturday, Oct. 11, 2008, in Baikonur, Kazakhstan. The Expedition 18 crew will launch on the Soyuz TMA-13 spacecraft on Oct. 12 and dock with the International Space Station on Oct. 14. Fincke and Lonchakov will spend six months on the station, while Garriott will return to Earth Oct. 24 with two of the Expedition 17 crew members currently on the International Space Station. Photo Credit: (NASA/Bill Ingalls)

  1. Expedition 18 Press Conference

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2008-10-10

    The quarantined crew, from left, American spaceflight participant Richard Garriott, Expedition 18 Commander Michael Fincke, Flight Engineer Yuri V. Lonchakov, back up Expedition 18 Commander Gennady Padalka, Flight Engineer Mike Barratt and spaceflight participant Nik Halik answer reporters questions during a press conference at the Cosmonaut Hotel, Saturday, Oct. 11, 2008, in Baikonur, Kazakhstan. Fincke, Lonchakov and Garriott are scheduled to launch Oct. 12 and dock with the International Space Station on Oct. 14. Fincke and Lonchakov will spend six months on the station, while Garriott will return to Earth Oct. 24 with two of the Expedition 17 crew members currently on the International Space Station. Photo Credit: (NASA/Bill Ingalls)

  2. Expedition 18 Press Conference

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2008-10-10

    Expedition 18 Commander Michael Fincke, left, and Flight Engineer Yuri V. Lonchakov answer reporters' questions during a press conference held at the Cosmonaut Hotel, Saturday, Oct. 11, 2008, in Baikonur, Kazakhstan. Fincke and Lonchakov will launch on the Soyuz TMA-13 spacecraft along with American spaceflight participant Richard Garriott on Oct. 12 and dock with the International Space Station on Oct. 14. Fincke and Lonchakov will spend six months on the station, while Garriott will return to Earth Oct. 24 with two of the Expedition 17 crew members currently on the International Space Station. Photo Credit: (NASA/Bill Ingalls)

  3. Expedition 18 Press Conference

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2008-10-10

    American spaceflight participant Richard Garriott answers reporters' questions during a press conference held at the Cosmonaut Hotel, Saturday, Oct. 11, 2008, in Baikonur, Kazakhstan. Garriott will launch on the Soyuz TMA-13 spacecraft along with Expedition 18 Commander Michael Fincke and Flight Engineer Yuri V. Lonchakov on Oct. 12 and dock with the International Space Station on Oct. 14. Fincke and Lonchakov will spend six months on the station, while Garriott will return to Earth Oct. 24 with two of the Expedition 17 crew members currently on the International Space Station. Photo Credit: (NASA/Bill Ingalls)

  4. Expedition 18 Press Conference

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2008-10-10

    Expedition 18 Flight Engineer Yuri V. Lonchakov answers reporters' questions during a press conference held at the Cosmonaut Hotel, Saturday, Oct. 11, 2008, in Baikonur, Kazakhstan. Lonchakov will launch on the Soyuz TMA-13 spacecraft along with Expedition 18 Commander Michael Fincke and American spaceflight participant Richard Garriott on Oct. 12 and dock with the International Space Station on Oct. 14. Fincke and Lonchakov will spend six months on the station, while Garriott will return to Earth Oct. 24 with two of the Expedition 17 crew members currently on the International Space Station. Photo Credit: (NASA/Bill Ingalls)

  5. Expedition 43 Press Conference

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2015-03-26

    Expedition 43 Russian cosmonaut Gennady Padalka of the Russian Federal Space Agency (Roscosmos) listens to a reporter’s question as he and, Russian cosmonaut Mikhail Kornienko of Roscosmos, and NASA Astronaut Scott Kelly participate in a crew press conference, Thursday, March 26, 2015, at the Cosmonaut Hotel in Baikonur, Kazakhstan. Kelly, Kornienko, and Padalka launched to the International Space Station in the Soyuz TMA-16M spacecraft from the Baikonur Cosmodrome in Kazakhstan March 28, Kazakh time (March 27 Eastern time.) As the one-year crew, Kelly and Kornienko will return to Earth on Soyuz TMA-18M in March 2016. Photo Credit (NASA/Bill Ingalls)

  6. Expedition 43 Press Conference

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2015-03-26

    Expedition 43 Russian cosmonaut Mikhail Kornienko of the Russian Federal Space Agency (Roscosmos) answers reporter’s questions as he and, Russian cosmonaut Gennady Padalka of Roscosmos, and NASA Astronaut Scott Kelly participate in a crew press conference, Thursday, March 26, 2015, at the Cosmonaut Hotel in Baikonur, Kazakhstan. Kelly, Kornienko, and Padalka launched to the International Space Station in the Soyuz TMA-16M spacecraft from the Baikonur Cosmodrome in Kazakhstan March 28, Kazakh time (March 27 Eastern time.) As the one-year crew, Kelly and Kornienko will return to Earth on Soyuz TMA-18M in March 2016. Photo Credit (NASA/Bill Ingalls)

  7. Expedition 40 Press Conference

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2014-05-27

    Expedition 40 Soyuz Commander Maxim Suraev of the Russian Federal Space Agency, Roscosmos, second left, reacts as he is introduced during a press conference, Tuesday, May 27, 2014, at the Cosmonaut Hotel in Baikonur, Kazakhstan. Expedition 40 Soyuz Commander Maxim Suraev of the Russian Federal Space Agency, Roscosmos, Flight Engineer Alexander Gerst of the European Space Agency, ESA, and Flight Engineer Reid Wiseman of NASA will launch aboard their Soyuz TMA-13M spacecraft on their mission to the International Space Station in the early hours of May 29. Photo Credit: (NASA/Joel Kowsky)

  8. Astrobiology Press Conference

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2010-12-02

    Steven Benner, a distinguished fellow at the Foundation for Applied Molecular Evolution, right, speaks during a press conference as Mary Voytek, director of the Astrobiology Program at NASA looks on, Thursday, Dec. 2, 2010, at NASA Headquarters in Washington. NASA-funded astrobiology research has changed the fundamental knowledge about what comprises all known life on Earth. Researchers conducting tests in the harsh environment of Mono Lake in California have discovered the first known microorganism on Earth able to thrive and reproduce using the toxic chemical arsenic. Photo Credit: (NASA/Paul E. Alers)

  9. Astrobiology Press Conference

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2010-12-02

    Felisa Wolfe-Simon, a lead researcher and NASA astrobiology research fellow, speaks during a press conference, as Mary Voytek, Steven Benner and Pamela Conrad look on, Thursday, Dec. 2, 2010, at NASA Headquarters in Washington. NASA-funded astrobiology research has changed the fundamental knowledge about what comprises all known life on Earth. Researchers conducting tests in the harsh environment of Mono Lake in California have discovered the first known microorganism on Earth able to thrive and reproduce using the toxic chemical arsenic. Photo Credit: (NASA/Paul E. Alers)

  10. Kepler Press Conference

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2009-08-05

    William Bo-Ricki, Kepler principal investigator at NASA's Ames Research Center, second from left, speaks during a press conference, Thursday, Aug. 6, 2009, at NASA Headquarters in Washington about the scientific observations coming from the Kepler spacecraft that was launched this past March as Jon Morse, NASA's Astrophysics Division Director, left, looks on. Kepler is NASA's first mission that is capable of discovering earth-sized planets in the habitable zones of stars like our Sun. Photo Credit: (NASA/Paul E. Alers)

  11. Kepler Press Conference

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2009-08-05

    William Bo-Ricki, Kepler principal investigator at NASA's Ames Research Center, second from left, speaks during a press conference, Thursday, Aug. 6, 2009, at NASA Headquarters in Washington about the scientific observations coming from the Kepler spacecraft that was launched this past March. Others seated include Jon Morse, NASA's Astrophysics Director, Sara Seager, Professor of Planetary Science and Physics at MIT, and Alan Boss, an Astrophysicist at the Carnegie Institution at the Department of Terrestrial Magnetism in Washington, right. Kepler is NASA's first mission that is capable of discovering earth-sized planets in the habitable zones of stars like our Sun. Photo Credit: (NASA/Paul E. Alers)

  12. Expedition 40 Press Conference

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2014-05-27

    Expedition 40 prime crew members Flight Engineer Alexander Gerst of the European Space Agency, ESA, far left, Soyuz Commander Maxim Suraev of the Russian Federal Space Agency, Roscosmos, second left, and Flight Engineer Reid Wiseman of NASA, center, pose for a picture with Expedition 40 backup crew members Flight Engineer Terry Virts of NASA, third right, Soyuz Commander Anton Shkaplerov of Roscosmos, and Flight Engineer Samantha Cristoforetti of ESA at the conclusion a press conference, Tuesday, May 27, 2014, at the Cosmonaut Hotel in Baikonur, Kazakhstan. The mission to the International Space Station is set to launch May 29 from the Baikonur Cosmodrome. Photo Credit: (NASA/Joel Kowsky)

  13. Expedition 42 Press Conference

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2014-11-22

    Family visits with Expedition 42 Soyuz Commander Anton Shkaplerov of the Russian Federal Space Agency (Roscosmos) through glass at the conclusion of the press conference, Saturday, Nov. 22, 2014, at the Cosmonaut Hotel in Baikonur, Kazakhstan. Launch of the Soyuz rocket is scheduled for Nov. 24 and will carry Shkaplerov, Flight Engineer Terry Virts of NASA , and Flight Engineer Samantha Cristoforetti of the European Space Agency into orbit to begin their five and a half month mission on the International Space Station. Photo Credit: (NASA/Aubrey Gemignani)

  14. Expedition 42 Press Conference

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2014-11-22

    Flight Engineer Samantha Cristoforetti of the European Space Agency (ESA) speaks with friends and family through glass at the conclusion of the press conference, Saturday, Nov. 22, 2014, at the Cosmonaut Hotel in Baikonur, Kazakhstan. Launch of the Soyuz rocket is scheduled for Nov. 24 and will carry Cristoforetti, Flight Engineer Terry Virts of NASA , and Soyuz Commander Anton Shkaplerov of the Russian Federal Space Agency (Roscosmos) into orbit to begin their five and a half month mission on the International Space Station. Photo Credit: (NASA/Aubrey Gemignani)

  15. Expedition 41 Press Conference

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2014-09-24

    Expedition 41 prime crew members, Flight Engineer Barry Wilmore of NASA, right, Soyuz Commander Alexander Samokutyaev of the Russian Federal Space Agency (Roscosmos), center, and Flight Engineer Elena Serova of Roscosmos, left, pose for a photo with items they will take with them to the International Space Station at the conclusion of the press conference held at the Cosmonaut Hotel in Baikonur, Kazakhstan on Wednesday, Sept. 24, 2014. The mission is set to launch Sept. 26 from the Baikonur Cosmodrome. Photo Credit: (NASA/Aubrey Gemignani)

  16. Expedition 40 Press Conference

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2014-05-27

    A reflection of the audience can been seen in the quarantine glass as Expedition 40 Flight Engineer Alexander Gerst of the European Space Agency, ESA, left, Soyuz Commander Maxim Suraev of the Russian Federal Space Agency, Roscosmos, center, and Flight Engineer Reid Wiseman of NASA, right, pose for a group picture at the conclusion of a press conference, Tuesday, May 27, 2014, at the Cosmonaut Hotel in Baikonur, Kazakhstan. The mission to the International Space Station is set to launch May 29 from the Baikonur Cosmodrome. Photo Credit: (NASA/Joel Kowsky)

  17. Kepler Press Conference

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2009-08-05

    William Bo-Ricki, Kepler principal investigator at NASA's Ames Research Center, second from left, is joined by Jon Morse, left, Sara Seager, and Alan Boss while speaking at a press conference, Thursday, Aug. 6, 2009, at NASA Headquarters in Washington about the scientific observations coming from the Kepler spacecraft that was launched this past March. Kepler is NASA's first mission that is capable of discovering earth-sized planets in the habitable zones of stars like our Sun. Photo Credit: (NASA/Paul E. Alers)

  18. Four Theories of the Press.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Siebert, Fred S.; And Others

    A systematic understanding of the press requires an understanding of the social and political structures within which the press operates. This book discusses four theories that have determined the kind of press the Western world has had: authoritarian, libertarian, socially responsible, and Soviet communist. Each chapter discusses press…

  19. Relative importance of moisture migration and amylopectin retrogradation for pound cake crumb firming.

    PubMed

    Luyts, A; Wilderjans, E; Van Haesendonck, I; Brijs, K; Courtin, C M; Delcour, J A

    2013-12-15

    Moisture migration largely impacts cake crumb firmness during storage at ambient temperature. To study the importance of phenomena other than crumb to crust moisture migration and to exclude moisture and temperature gradients during baking, crustless cakes were baked using an electrical resistance oven (ERO). Cake crumb firming was evaluated by texture analysis. First, ERO cakes with properties similar to those baked conventionally were produced. Cake batter moisture content (MC) was adjusted to ensure complete starch gelatinisation in the baking process. In cakes baked conventionally, most of the increase in crumb firmness during storage was caused by moisture migration. Proton nuclear magnetic resonance ((1)H NMR) showed that the population containing protons of crystalline starch grew during cake storage. These and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) data pointed to only limited amylopectin retrogradation. The limited increase in amylopectin retrogradation during cake storage cannot solely account for the significant firming of ERO cakes and, hence, other phenomena are involved in cake firming. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Caking of medium rank, low vitrinite coal types and their blends during pyrolysis under pressure

    SciTech Connect

    Greeff, S.C.; Ooms, A.; Slaghuis, J.H.

    1997-12-31

    Bituminous coals of medium rank (RoV 0.6--0.7) with a low vitrinite content show, as a rule, no propensities to caking when heated at atmospheric pressure. It was found, however, that this property of coal changes when heated under elevated pressures. Standard caking tests (e.g., ASTM D 720-91) were found inadequate to assess caking propensities under pressure. Caking of coal at pressures up to 26 bar under different dynamic gas atmospheres was investigated. Argon, carbon dioxide, syngas (H{sub 2} + CO) and steam were used. It was found that, independent of gas type, mild to extensive caking of these coals occurred. A series of experiments at 26 bar Argon pressure was conducted on several coals from the Mpumalanga Province of South Africa. The caking propensity of each individual coal was assessed as well as that of various blends. Depending on the type of coal and the blending ratio, it was found that caking was not necessarily proportional to that of the individual coals in the blends. Attenuation or synergism occurred in certain blends. The caking of coal depends mainly on the rank and vitrinite content. Ash content, oxidation and devolatilized coal (due to dolerite intrusions) contribute to lower caking propensities. It is known that caking of coal can seriously influence the operation of a fixed bed coal reactor such as a Lurgi gasifier. Even mild caking of coal will change the particle size distribution in the reactor. This in turn will affect the permeability and gas flow distribution through such a reactor. With the knowledge of the caking propensity of individual coal types, blends of coals can be optimized to reduce caking and subsequently enhance gasifier operation.

  1. The Layer Cake Walls of Valles Marineris

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2007-01-01

    are the 'usual' set that the CRISM team uses to provide an overview of infrared data, because dust has a less obscuring effect, and because they are sensitive to a wide variety of minerals. Layering is clearly evident in the wall rocks. The conspicuous band running along the base of the chasma wall appears slightly yellowish, and the scarp at the edge of the topographic bench appears slightly green.

    The bottom two panels use combinations of wavelengths to show the strengths of absorptions that provide 'fingerprints' of different minerals. In the lower left panel, red shows strength of a 0.53-micron absorption due to oxidized iron in dust, green shows strength of an inflection in the spectrum at 0.6 microns that may be related to rock coatings, and blue shows strength of a 1-micron absorption due to the igneous minerals olivine and pyroxene. The conspicuous horizontal band appears slightly blue, indicating a stronger signature of olivine and/or pyroxene. In the lower right panel, red is a measure of an absorption particular to olivine, green is a measure of a 2.3-micron absorption due to phyllosilicates (clay-like minerals formed when rock was subjected to liquid water), and blue is a measure of absorptions particular to pyroxene. The conspicuous horizontal band is now resolved into an upper portion richer in pyroxene, underlain by material richer in olivine than the rest of the wall rock. Also, erosion-resistant material forming the topographic bench is underlain by phyllosilicate-containing material exposed on the scarp.

    Taken together, these data reveal a layer cake-like composition of the crustal material exposed in Coprates Chasma's wall. Most of the rock is rich in pyroxene, which is expected because much of Mars' crust consists of volcanic basaltic rock. However discrete layers are richer in olivine, and in some layers the presence of phyllosilicates indicates interaction of rock with liquid water. Because the phyllosilicate-containing layer is low on

  2. The Layer Cake Walls of Valles Marineris

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2007-01-01

    are the 'usual' set that the CRISM team uses to provide an overview of infrared data, because dust has a less obscuring effect, and because they are sensitive to a wide variety of minerals. Layering is clearly evident in the wall rocks. The conspicuous band running along the base of the chasma wall appears slightly yellowish, and the scarp at the edge of the topographic bench appears slightly green.

    The bottom two panels use combinations of wavelengths to show the strengths of absorptions that provide 'fingerprints' of different minerals. In the lower left panel, red shows strength of a 0.53-micron absorption due to oxidized iron in dust, green shows strength of an inflection in the spectrum at 0.6 microns that may be related to rock coatings, and blue shows strength of a 1-micron absorption due to the igneous minerals olivine and pyroxene. The conspicuous horizontal band appears slightly blue, indicating a stronger signature of olivine and/or pyroxene. In the lower right panel, red is a measure of an absorption particular to olivine, green is a measure of a 2.3-micron absorption due to phyllosilicates (clay-like minerals formed when rock was subjected to liquid water), and blue is a measure of absorptions particular to pyroxene. The conspicuous horizontal band is now resolved into an upper portion richer in pyroxene, underlain by material richer in olivine than the rest of the wall rock. Also, erosion-resistant material forming the topographic bench is underlain by phyllosilicate-containing material exposed on the scarp.

    Taken together, these data reveal a layer cake-like composition of the crustal material exposed in Coprates Chasma's wall. Most of the rock is rich in pyroxene, which is expected because much of Mars' crust consists of volcanic basaltic rock. However discrete layers are richer in olivine, and in some layers the presence of phyllosilicates indicates interaction of rock with liquid water. Because the phyllosilicate-containing layer is low on

  3. The Layer Cake Walls of Valles Marineris

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2007-01-01

    are the 'usual' set that the CRISM team uses to provide an overview of infrared data, because dust has a less obscuring effect, and because they are sensitive to a wide variety of minerals. Layering is clearly evident in the wall rocks. The conspicuous band running along the base of the chasma wall appears slightly yellowish, and the scarp at the edge of the topographic bench appears slightly green.

    The bottom two panels use combinations of wavelengths to show the strengths of absorptions that provide 'fingerprints' of different minerals. In the lower left panel, red shows strength of a 0.53-micron absorption due to oxidized iron in dust, green shows strength of an inflection in the spectrum at 0.6 microns that may be related to rock coatings, and blue shows strength of a 1-micron absorption due to the igneous minerals olivine and pyroxene. The conspicuous horizontal band appears slightly blue, indicating a stronger signature of olivine and/or pyroxene. In the lower right panel, red is a measure of an absorption particular to olivine, green is a measure of a 2.3-micron absorption due to phyllosilicates (clay-like minerals formed when rock was subjected to liquid water), and blue is a measure of absorptions particular to pyroxene. The conspicuous horizontal band is now resolved into an upper portion richer in pyroxene, underlain by material richer in olivine than the rest of the wall rock. Also, erosion-resistant material forming the topographic bench is underlain by phyllosilicate-containing material exposed on the scarp.

    Taken together, these data reveal a layer cake-like composition of the crustal material exposed in Coprates Chasma's wall. Most of the rock is rich in pyroxene, which is expected because much of Mars' crust consists of volcanic basaltic rock. However discrete layers are richer in olivine, and in some layers the presence of phyllosilicates indicates interaction of rock with liquid water. Because the phyllosilicate-containing layer is low on

  4. MAVEN Press Briefing

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2013-10-28

    L-R: Dwayne Brown, NASA Public Affairs Officer, Jim Green, director, Planetary Science Division, NASA Headquarters, Lisa May, MAVEN program executive, NASA Headquarters, Kelly Fast, MAVEN program scientist, NASA Headquarters, Bruce Jakosky, MAVEN principal investigator, University of Colorado Boulder Laboratory for Atmospheric and Space Physics, and David Mitchell, MAVEN project manager, NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, Md. discuss the upcoming launch of the Mars Atmosphere and Volatile Evolution (MAVEN) mission, at a press conference at NASA Headquarters in Washington on Monday, Oct. 28th, 2013. MAVEN is the agency's next mission to Mars and the first devoted to understanding the upper atmosphere of the Red Planet. (Photo credit: NASA/Jay Westcott)

  5. MAVEN Press Briefing

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2013-10-28

    L-R: Jim Green, director, Planetary Science Division, NASA Headquarters, Lisa May, MAVEN program executive, NASA Headquarters, Kelly Fast, MAVEN program scientist, NASA Headquarters, Bruce Jakosky, MAVEN principal investigator, University of Colorado Boulder Laboratory for Atmospheric and Space Physics, and David Mitchell, MAVEN project manager, NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, Md. are applauded at the end of a panel discussion on the upcoming launch of the Mars Atmosphere and Volatile Evolution (MAVEN) mission, at a press conference at NASA Headquarters in Washington on Monday, Oct. 28th, 2013. MAVEN is the agency's next mission to Mars and the first devoted to understanding the upper atmosphere of the Red Planet. (Photo credit: NASA/Jay Westcott)

  6. Expedition 38 Press Conference

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2013-11-06

    Expedition 38 Flight Engineer Koichi Wakata of the Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency is seen in quarantine, behind glass, during the final press conference held a day ahead of his launch with fellow crew mates, Expedition 38 Soyuz Commander Mikhail Tyurin of Roscosmos, and, Flight Engineer Rick Mastracchio of NASA, to the International Space Station, Wednesday, Nov. 6, 2013 at the Cosmonaut Hotel in Baikonur, Kazakhstan. An Olympic torch that will be launched with the crew for a four-day visit to the station is seen on the left. The torch will return to Earth with another trio of station residents on Nov. 11 and will be part of the torch relay that ends with the lighting of the flame at the Fisht Stadium in Sochi, Russia Feb. 7 to mark the opening of the 2014 Winter Olympics. Photo Credit: (NASA/Bill Ingalls)

  7. Expedition 38 Press Conference

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2013-11-06

    Expedition 38 Flight Engineer Rick Mastracchio of NASA talks, while in quarantine behind glass, during the final press conference held a day ahead of his launch with fellow crew mates, Soyuz Commander Mikhail Tyurin of Roscosmos, and, Flight Engineer Koichi Wakata of the Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency, to the International Space Station, Wednesday, Nov. 6, 2013 at the Cosmonaut Hotel in Baikonur, Kazakhstan. An Olympic torch that will be launched with the crew for a four-day visit to the station is seen next to Mastracchio. The torch will return to Earth with another trio of station residents on Nov. 11 and will be part of the torch relay that ends with the lighting of the flame at the Fisht Stadium in Sochi, Russia Feb. 7 to mark the opening of the 2014 Winter Olympics. Photo Credit: (NASA/Bill Ingalls)

  8. Segmentation of Retinal Blood Vessels Based on Cake Filter

    PubMed Central

    Bao, Xi-Rong; Ge, Xin; She, Li-Huang; Zhang, Shi

    2015-01-01

    Segmentation of retinal blood vessels is significant to diagnosis and evaluation of ocular diseases like glaucoma and systemic diseases such as diabetes and hypertension. The retinal blood vessel segmentation for small and low contrast vessels is still a challenging problem. To solve this problem, a new method based on cake filter is proposed. Firstly, a quadrature filter band called cake filter band is made up in Fourier field. Then the real component fusion is used to separate the blood vessel from the background. Finally, the blood vessel network is got by a self-adaption threshold. The experiments implemented on the STARE database indicate that the new method has a better performance than the traditional ones on the small vessels extraction, average accuracy rate, and true and false positive rate. PMID:26636095

  9. Novel cake characteristics of waste-activated sludge.

    PubMed

    Wu, R M; Lee, D J; Wang, C H; Chen, J P; Tan, R B

    2001-04-01

    Breaking down the time limit constraints for conventional compression-permeation (C-P) cell test, this work has, for the first time, experimentally evaluated the cake characteristics of viable waste-activated sludge subject to polyelectrolyte flocculation and to freeze/thaw treatment under a pressure range of 25-200 kPa. There exists a threshold pressure exceeding which the cake structure would significantly deteriorate. Also, the present biological sludge is a "super-compactible" sludge, whose compactibility is greater than most data ever reported in open literature. The information presented herein has implications to filter design/operation and can be used as a reference data set for examining the existing filtration theories.

  10. Segmentation of Retinal Blood Vessels Based on Cake Filter.

    PubMed

    Bao, Xi-Rong; Ge, Xin; She, Li-Huang; Zhang, Shi

    2015-01-01

    Segmentation of retinal blood vessels is significant to diagnosis and evaluation of ocular diseases like glaucoma and systemic diseases such as diabetes and hypertension. The retinal blood vessel segmentation for small and low contrast vessels is still a challenging problem. To solve this problem, a new method based on cake filter is proposed. Firstly, a quadrature filter band called cake filter band is made up in Fourier field. Then the real component fusion is used to separate the blood vessel from the background. Finally, the blood vessel network is got by a self-adaption threshold. The experiments implemented on the STARE database indicate that the new method has a better performance than the traditional ones on the small vessels extraction, average accuracy rate, and true and false positive rate.

  11. Process for changing caking coals to noncaking coals

    DOEpatents

    Beeson, Justin L.

    1980-01-01

    Caking coals are treated in a slurry including alkaline earth metal hydroxides at moderate pressures and temperatures in air to form noncaking carbonaceous material. Hydroxides such as calcium hydroxide, magnesium hydroxide or barium hydroxide are contemplated for slurrying with the coal to interact with the agglomerating constituents. The slurry is subsequently dewatered and dried in air at atmospheric pressure to produce a nonagglomerating carbonaceous material that can be conveniently handled in various coal conversion and combustion processes.

  12. Characterization of liquid and solid product from pyrolysis of Pongamia glabra deoiled cake.

    PubMed

    Chutia, Rahul Singh; Kataki, Rupam; Bhaskar, Thallada

    2014-08-01

    In the present study, a new feedstock, Pongamia glabra deoiled cake (PGDC), is reported for pyrolysis. Experiments were conducted in a laboratory scale fixed-bed pyrolyzer at temperatures ranging from 350 to 600°C with varying heating rates of 10, 20, 40°C/min in nitrogen atmosphere. The highest liquid yield of 30.60% was observed at 500°C with heating rate of 40°Cmin(-1). The biochar obtained had a porous structure and was characterized by powder X-ray diffraction (XRD), Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy along with elemental analysis. The representative bio-oil sample was characterized by CHN analyzer, GC-MS, NMR and FTIR spectroscopy. The bio-oil has a calorific value of 28.19MJ/kg and contains a higher amount of aliphatic compounds. The present investigation suggests that within the realm of biomass energy conversion technologies the PGDC can be used as a feedstock for pyrolysis conversion, thereby serving the demand of second generation biofuels.

  13. Structural development of sucrose-sweetened and sucrose-free sponge cakes during baking.

    PubMed

    Baeva, Marianna Rousseva; Terzieva, Vesselina Velichkova; Panchev, Ivan Nedelchev

    2003-06-01

    The influence of sucrose, wheat starch and sorbitol upon the heat- and mass-exchanging processes forming the structure of sponge cake was studied. Under the influence of wheat starch and sorbitol the structure of the sucrose-free sponge cake was formed at more uniform total moisture release. This process was done at lower temperatures and smoother change of the sponge cake height with respect to the sucrose-sweetened sponge cake. The porous and steady structure of both cakes was finally formed at identical time--between 18th and 19th minute, at the applied conditions for baking of each batter (metal pan with diameter 15.4 cm and depth 6.2 cm containing 300 g of batter and placed in an electric oven "Rahovetz-02", Bulgaria for 30 min at 180 degrees C). The water-losses at the end of baking (10.30% and 10.40% for the sucrose-sweetened cake and sucrose-free cake, respectively) and the final temperatures reached in the crumb central layers (96.6 degrees C and 96.3 degrees C for the sucrose-sweetened cake and sucrose-free cake, respectively) during baking of both samples were not statistically different. The addition of wheat starch and sorbitol in sucrose-free sponge cake lead to the statistically different values for the porosity (76.15% and 72.98%) and the volume (1014.17 cm3 and 984.25 cm3) of the sucrose-sweetened and sucrose-free sponge cakes, respectively. As a result, the sucrose-free sponge cake formed during baking had a more homogeneous and finer microstructure with respect to that ofthe sucrose-sweetened one.

  14. Processing sunflower oil for fuel

    SciTech Connect

    Backer, L.F.; Jacobsen, L.; Olson, C.

    1982-05-01

    Research on processing of sunflower seed for oil was initiated to evaluate the equipment that might adapt best to on-farm or small factory production facilities. The first devices identified for evaluation were auger press expeller units, primary oil cleaning equipment, and final filters. A series of standard finishing filtration tests were carried out on sunflower oil and sunflower oil - diesel fuel blends using sunflower oil from four different sources.

  15. Direct Estimate of Cocoa Powder Content in Cakes by Colorimetry and Photoacoustic Spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dóka, O.; Bicanic, D.; Kulcsár, R.

    2014-12-01

    Cocoa is a very important ingredient in the food industry and largely consumed worldwide. In this investigation, colorimetry and photoacoustic spectroscopy were used to directly assess the content of cocoa powder in cakes; both methods provided satisfactory results. The calibration curve was constructed using a series of home-made cakes containing varying amount of cocoa powder. Then, at a later stage, the same calibration curve was used to quantify the cocoa content of several commercially available cakes. For self-made cakes, the relationship between the PAS signal and the content of cocoa powder was linear while a quadratic dependence was obtained for the colorimetric index (brightness) and total color difference ().

  16. CIDER PRESS, LOOKING SOUTHEAST ACROSS THE SCHUYLKILL RIVER. THIS PRESS, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    CIDER PRESS, LOOKING SOUTHEAST ACROSS THE SCHUYLKILL RIVER. THIS PRESS, CARVED OUT OF A LARGE BOULDER AT THE RIVERS EDGE, PROBABLY DATES FROM THE LIFETIME OF JOHN BARTRAM, IF NOT TO THE SWEDISH SETTLERS BEFORE HIM. THE IRON FENCE IS A NINETEENTH-CENTURY ADDITION - John Bartram House & Garden, 54th Street & Lindbergh Boulevard, Philadelphia, Philadelphia County, PA

  17. PRESS SHOP. SEVEN BLISS PRESSES STAMP OUT A VARIETY OF ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    PRESS SHOP. SEVEN BLISS PRESSES STAMP OUT A VARIETY OF CARTRIDGE AND SHELL CASINGS. THIS DEPARTMENT WAS TRANSFORMED FROM A MONEY-LOSING OPERATION TO A PROFIT CENTER UNDER THE FIRST WORKER-MANAGED QUALITY CIRCLE IN THE PLANT. - American Brass Foundry, 70 Sayre Street, Buffalo, Erie County, NY

  18. Study of pressing machine pressure relief characteristics based on AMESim

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Chuanli; Zhang, Hui; Yu, Caofeng; Wu, Xiaolei

    2016-01-01

    When a working cylinder of the pressing machine working cylinder was stuck and underwent retracted conversion, pressure shock was high in working cylinder cavity and flow pulsation was distinct in the pipeline due to the high working pressure and frequent retracted transformation of the working cylinder, which not only shortened the service life of the pressing machine, but also exerted serious impacts on the machining precision and quality, especially after the pressing machine applied loads and high-pressure oil in work rod end cavity of working cylinder needed to be relieved in a short time. In order to research and analyze the better pressure relief characteristics of the two types of pressure relief circuits of the pressing machine, the paper established models, carried out simulation and analysis and then made contrastive analysis of the working cylinder rod velocity, rod acceleration and port pressure pulsation according to the simulation results.

  19. Coating of Prilled Urea with Neem (Azadirachta Indica Juss) Oil for Efficient Nitrogen Use in Rice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prasad, R.; Singh, S.; Saxena, V. S.; Devkumar, C.

    A field study made with rice at the Indian Agricultural Research Institute, New Delhi, showed that coating urea with neem oil, neem cake or neem oil microemulsion improved rice growth and resulted in more grain and straw than did commercial prilled urea.

  20. Commercial Human Spaceflight Press Conference

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2010-02-02

    NASA Administrator Charles Bolden speaks during a press conference, Tuesday, Feb. 2, 2010, at the National Press Club in Washington, where it was announced that NASA has awarded $50 million through funded agreements to further the commercial sector's capability to support transport of crew to and from low Earth orbit. Photo Credit: (NASA/Bill Ingalls)