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Sample records for oil production wastewater

  1. Halogens in oil and gas production-associated wastewater.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harkness, J.; Warner, N. R.; Dwyer, G. S.; Mitch, W.; Vengosh, A.

    2014-12-01

    Elevated chloride and bromide in oil and gas wastewaters that are released to the environment are one of the major environmental risks in areas impacted by shale gas development [Olmstead et al.,2013]. In addition to direct contamination of streams, the potential for formation of highly toxic disinfection by-products (DBPs) in drinking water in utilities located downstream from disposal sites poses a serious risk to human health. Here we report on the occurrence of iodide in oil and gas wastewater. We conducted systematic measurements of chloride, bromide, and iodide in (1) produced waters from conventional oil and gas wells from the Appalachian Basin; (2) hydraulic fracturing flowback fluids from unconventional Marcellus and Fayetteville shale gas, (3) effluents from a shale gas spill site in West Virginia; (4) effluents of oil and gas wastewater disposed to surface water from three brine treatment facilities in western Pennsylvania; and (5) surface waters downstream from the brine treatment facilities. Iodide concentration was measured by isotope dilution-inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry, which allowed for a more accurate measurement of iodide in a salt-rich matrix. Iodide in both conventional and unconventional oil and gas produced and flowback waters varied from 1 mg/L to 55 mg/L, with no systematic enrichment in hydraulic fracturing fluids. The similarity in iodide content between the unconventional Marcellus flowback waters and the conventional Appalachian produced waters clearly indicate that the hydraulic fracturing process does not induce additional iodide and the iodide content is related to natural variations in the host formations. Our data show that effluents from the brine treatment facilities have elevated iodide (mean = 20.9±1 mg/L) compared to local surface waters (0.03± 0.1 mg/L). These results indicate that iodide, in addition to chloride and bromide in wastewater from oil and gas production, poses an additional risk to downstream

  2. [Treatment of simulated produced wastewater from polymer flooding in oil production using dithiocarbamate-type flocculant].

    PubMed

    Gao, Yue; Jia, Yu-Yan; Gao, Bao-Yu; Cao, Bai-Chuan; Zhang, Yong-Qiang; Lu, Lei

    2010-10-01

    A dithiocarbamate flocculant, DTC (T403), was prepared by the reaction of amine-terminated polyoxypropane-ether compound known as Jeffamine-T403 and carbon disulfide in alkaline solution. The oil removal efficiency of DTC (T403) for simulated produced wastewater from polymer flooding in oil production was studied by Jar-test. The effect of the dosage of DTC (T403), hydrolyzed polyacrylamide (HPAM), Fe2+ and Fe3+ ions, and pH on the oil removal efficiency of DTC (T403) was investigated. The results showed that the chelate polymer formed by DTC (T403) and Fe2+ ion has good oil removal performance by net capturing mechanism. HPAM had a negative effect on oil removal efficiency of DTC (T403). For the treatment of the simulated wastewater containing 0-900 mg/L of HPAM and 300 mg/L of oil, the residual oil concentrations in water samples decreased below 10 mg/L when the dosage of Fe2+ and DTC (T403) was 10 mg/L and 25 mg/L, respectively. The oil removal efficiency of DTC (T403) was affected by pH and good oil removal efficiency was obtained when the pH was below 7.5. DTC (T403) is appropriate for the treatment of oily wastewater containing Fe2+ ion.

  3. Screening of industrial wastewaters as feedstock for the microbial production of oils for biodiesel production and high-quality pigments

    SciTech Connect

    Schneider, Teresa; Graeff-Honninger, Simone; French, William Todd; Hernandez, Rafael; Claupein, Wilhelm; Holmes, William E.; Merkt, Nikolaus

    2012-01-01

    The production of biodiesel has notably increased over the past decade. Currently, plant oil is the main feedstock for biodiesel production, but, due to concerns related to the competition with food production, alternative oil feedstocks have to be found. Oleaginous yeasts are known to produce high amounts of lipids, but no integrated process from microbial fermentation to final biodiesel production has reached commercial realization yet due to economic constraints. Therefore, growth and lipid production of red yeast Rhodotorula glutinis was tested on low-cost substrates, namely, wastewaters from potato, fruit juice, and lettuce processing. Additionally, the production of carotenoids as high-value by-products was examined. All evaluated wastewaters met the general criteria for microbial lipid production. However, no significant increase in lipid content was observed, probably due to lack of available carbon in wastewaters from fruit juice and lettuce processing, and excess of available nitrogen in potato processing wastewater, respectively. During growth on wastewaters from fruit juice and lettuce processing the carotenoid content increased significantly in the first 48 hours. The relations between carbon content, nitrogen content, and carotenoid production need to be further assessed. For economic viability, lipid and carotenoid production needs to be increased significantly. Lastly, the screening of feedstocks should be extended to other wastewaters.

  4. Screening of industrial wastewaters as feedstock for the microbial production of oils for biodiesel production and high-quality pigments

    DOE PAGES

    Schneider, Teresa; Graeff-Honninger, Simone; French, William Todd; Hernandez, Rafael; Claupein, Wilhelm; Holmes, William E.; Merkt, Nikolaus

    2012-01-01

    The production of biodiesel has notably increased over the past decade. Currently, plant oil is the main feedstock for biodiesel production, but, due to concerns related to the competition with food production, alternative oil feedstocks have to be found. Oleaginous yeasts are known to produce high amounts of lipids, but no integrated process from microbial fermentation to final biodiesel production has reached commercial realization yet due to economic constraints. Therefore, growth and lipid production of red yeast Rhodotorula glutinis was tested on low-cost substrates, namely, wastewaters from potato, fruit juice, and lettuce processing. Additionally, the production of carotenoids as high-valuemore » by-products was examined. All evaluated wastewaters met the general criteria for microbial lipid production. However, no significant increase in lipid content was observed, probably due to lack of available carbon in wastewaters from fruit juice and lettuce processing, and excess of available nitrogen in potato processing wastewater, respectively. During growth on wastewaters from fruit juice and lettuce processing the carotenoid content increased significantly in the first 48 hours. The relations between carbon content, nitrogen content, and carotenoid production need to be further assessed. For economic viability, lipid and carotenoid production needs to be increased significantly. Lastly, the screening of feedstocks should be extended to other wastewaters.« less

  5. Valorisation of wastewater from two-phase olive oil extraction in fired clay brick production.

    PubMed

    de la Casa, José A; Lorite, Miguel; Jiménez, Juan; Castro, Eulogio

    2009-09-30

    Wastewater issued from oil-washing stage (OWW) in the two-phase olive oil extraction method was used to replace fresh water in clay brick manufacture. The extrusion trials were performed with one of the ceramic bodies currently being used in a local brick factory for red facing bricks (RB) production. Fresh water or OWW was added to a final consistency of 2.4 kg/cm(2), the same value as used at industrial scale for this kind of clay mixture. Comparative results of technological properties of facing bricks are presented. Results show that the products obtained with olive oil wastewater are comparable to traditional ones in terms of extrusion performance and technological properties of end products. Even dry-bending strength of the body formed by wastewater improves by 33% compared to fresh water body. In addition, heating requirements can be reduced in the range 2.4-7.3% depending on the final product. This application can alleviate environmental impacts from the olive oil extraction industry and, at the same time, result in economic savings for the brick manufacturing industry.

  6. Comparative Studies of Oleaginous Fungal Strains (Mucor circinelloides and Trichoderma reesei) for Effective Wastewater Treatment and Bio-Oil Production

    PubMed Central

    Bhanja, Anshuman; Kalyanraman, V.

    2014-01-01

    Biological wastewater treatment typically requires the use of bacteria for degradation of carbonaceous and nitrogenous compounds present in wastewater. The high lipid containing biomass can be used to extract oil and the contents can be termed as bio-oil (or biodiesel or myco-diesel after transesterification). The separate experiments were conducted on actual wastewater samples with 5% v/v inoculum of Mucor circinelloides MTCC1297 and Trichoderma reesei NCIM992 strains. The observed reductions in chemical oxygen demand (COD) were 88.72% and 86.75% in 96 hrs and the observed substrate based biomass yields were 0.21 mg VSS/mg COD and 0.22 mg VSS/mg COD for M. circinelloides reactor and for T. reesei reactor, respectively. The resulted bio-oil production from wastewater treatment by M. circinelloides and T. reesei reactors was 142.2 mg/L and 74.1 mg/L, whereas biomass containing bio-oil contents (%w/w) were 22.11% and 9.82%, respectively. In this experiment, the fungal wastewater treatment was also compared with conventional bacterial process with respect to specific growth rate, biomass production, and oil content. This study suggests that wastewater can be used as a potential feedstock for bio-oil production with the use of oleaginous fungal strains and which could be a possible route of waste to energy. PMID:25530884

  7. Hydrothermal liquefaction of oil mill wastewater for bio-oil production in subcritical conditions.

    PubMed

    Hadhoum, Loubna; Balistrou, Mourad; Burnens, Gaëtan; Loubar, Khaled; Tazerout, Mohand

    2016-10-01

    The main purpose of this study is to investigate the direct hydrothermal liquefaction of oil mill wastewater (OMWW). Experiments were carried out at different temperatures (240-300°C), water contents (58-88wt.%) and reaction times (15-45min). Results show that the highest bio-oil yield was about 58wt.%, resulting in a higher heating value of 38MJ/kg. This was conducted at the following optimal conditions: water content 88wt.%, a temperature of 280°C, and 30min as reaction time. To put bio-oil into wide application, the various physical and chemical characteristics were determined. A detailed chemical composition analysis of bio-oil was performed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) coupled with a flame ionization detector (FID). The dominant compounds were identified by using NIST library. Analyses show that the bio-oil contains mainly oleic acid, hexadecanoic acid, fatty acid methyl ester, fatty acid ethyl ester, amino acid derived compounds and phenolic compounds. PMID:27344243

  8. Hydrothermal liquefaction of oil mill wastewater for bio-oil production in subcritical conditions.

    PubMed

    Hadhoum, Loubna; Balistrou, Mourad; Burnens, Gaëtan; Loubar, Khaled; Tazerout, Mohand

    2016-10-01

    The main purpose of this study is to investigate the direct hydrothermal liquefaction of oil mill wastewater (OMWW). Experiments were carried out at different temperatures (240-300°C), water contents (58-88wt.%) and reaction times (15-45min). Results show that the highest bio-oil yield was about 58wt.%, resulting in a higher heating value of 38MJ/kg. This was conducted at the following optimal conditions: water content 88wt.%, a temperature of 280°C, and 30min as reaction time. To put bio-oil into wide application, the various physical and chemical characteristics were determined. A detailed chemical composition analysis of bio-oil was performed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) coupled with a flame ionization detector (FID). The dominant compounds were identified by using NIST library. Analyses show that the bio-oil contains mainly oleic acid, hexadecanoic acid, fatty acid methyl ester, fatty acid ethyl ester, amino acid derived compounds and phenolic compounds.

  9. Oil Production by a Consortium of Oleaginous Microorganisms grown on primary effluent wastewater

    SciTech Connect

    Hall, Jacqueline; Hetrick, Mary; French, Todd; Hernandez, Rafael; Donaldson, Janet; Mondala, Andro; Holmes, William

    2011-01-01

    Municipal wastewater could be a potential growth medium that has not been considered for cultivating oleaginous microorganisms. This study is designed to determine if a consortium of oleaginous microorganism can successfully compete for carbon and other nutrients with the indigenous microorganisms contained in primary effluent wastewater. RESULTS: The oleaginous consortium inoculated with indigenous microorganisms reached stationary phase within 24 h, reaching a maximum cell concentration of 0.58 g L -1. Water quality post-oleaginous consortium growth reached a maximum chemical oxygen demand (COD) reduction of approximately 81%, supporting the consumption of the glucose within 8 h. The oleaginous consortium increased the amount of oil produced per gram by 13% compared with indigenous microorganisms in raw wastewater. Quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) results show a substantial population increase in bacteria within the first 24 h when the consortium is inoculated into raw wastewater. This result, along with the fatty acid methyl esters (FAMEs) results, suggests that conditions tested were not sufficient for the oleaginous consortium to compete with the indigenous microorganisms.

  10. [Pollution by wastewater from olive oil mills and drinking-water production. Case study of the Sebou river in Morocco].

    PubMed

    Foutlane, A; Saadallah, M; Echihabi, L; Bourchich, L

    2002-01-01

    The National Office for Drinking Water (ONEP), responsible for the drinking-water supply in Morocco, faces serious difficulties in producing water of good quality at a reasonable price from the River Sebou waters. The ONEP's three water treatment plants have been disrupted or even stopped due to the poor quality of waters received. The main source of pollution is the urban and industrial waste of the town of Fes, compounded by episodic pollution caused by the olive oil mills of Fes and its surrounding area. The ONEP study shows that the additional production costs incurred as a result of the pollution by wastewater from olive oil mills far exceeds the drinking-water rates charged in the study area.

  11. Reduce oil and grease content in wastewater

    SciTech Connect

    Capps, R.W. ); Matelli, G.N.; Bradford, M.L. )

    1993-06-01

    Poor water quality is often blamed on biological oxidation unit malfunction. However, poorly treated water entering the bio-unit is more often the problem. At the microscopic level, oil/water-separation dynamics are influenced by pH, fluid velocity, temperature, and unit volumes. Oily water's physical and chemical properties affect pretreatment systems such as API separators, corrugated plate interception (CPI) separators, air flotation and equalization systems. A better understanding of pretreatment systems' limits and efficiencies can improve wastewater quality before it upsets the biological oxidation (BIOX). Oil contamination in refinery wastewater originates from desalting, steam stripping, product treating, tank drains, sample drains and equipment washdown. The largest volumetric contributors are cooling tower blowdowns and contaminated stormwater. The paper describes the BIOX process; oil/water separation; oil/water emulsions and colloidal solutions; air flotation; surfactants; DAF (dissolved air flotation) process; IAF (induced air flotation) process; equalization; load factors; salts; and system design.

  12. Biohydrogen production from industrial wastewaters.

    PubMed

    Moreno-Andrade, Iván; Moreno, Gloria; Kumar, Gopalakrishnan; Buitrón, Germán

    2015-01-01

    The feasibility of producing hydrogen from various industrial wastes, such as vinasses (sugar and tequila industries), and raw and physicochemical-treated wastewater from the plastic industry and toilet aircraft wastewater, was evaluated. The results showed that the tequila vinasses presented the maximum hydrogen generation potential, followed by the raw plastic industry wastewater, aircraft wastewater, and physicochemical-treated wastewater from the plastic industry and sugar vinasses, respectively. The hydrogen production from the aircraft wastewater was increased by the adaptation of the microorganisms in the anaerobic sequencing batch reactor.

  13. Discharges of produced waters from oil and gas extraction via wastewater treatment plants are sources of disinfection by-products to receiving streams.

    PubMed

    Hladik, Michelle L; Focazio, Michael J; Engle, Mark

    2014-01-01

    Fluids co-produced with oil and gas production (produced waters) are often brines that contain elevated concentrations of bromide. Bromide is an important precursor of several toxic disinfection by-products (DBPs) and the treatment of produced water may lead to more brominated DBPs. To determine if wastewater treatment plants that accept produced waters discharge greater amounts of brominated DBPs, water samples were collected in Pennsylvania from four sites along a large river including an upstream site, a site below a publicly owned wastewater treatment plant (POTW) outfall (does not accept produced water), a site below an oil and gas commercial wastewater treatment plant (CWT) outfall, and downstream of the POTW and CWT. Of 29 DBPs analyzed, the site at the POTW outfall had the highest number detected (six) ranging in concentration from 0.01 to 0.09 μg L(-1) with a similar mixture of DBPs that have been detected at POTW outfalls elsewhere in the United States. The DBP profile at the CWT outfall was much different, although only two DBPs, dibromochloronitromethane (DBCNM) and chloroform, were detected, DBCNM was found at relatively high concentrations (up to 8.5 μg L(-1)). The water at the CWT outfall also had a mixture of inorganic and organic precursors including elevated concentrations of bromide (75 mg L(-1)) and other organic DBP precursors (phenol at 15 μg L(-1)). To corroborate these DBP results, samples were collected in Pennsylvania from additional POTW and CWT outfalls that accept produced waters. The additional CWT also had high concentrations of DBCNM (3.1 μg L(-1)) while the POTWs that accept produced waters had elevated numbers (up to 15) and concentrations of DBPs, especially brominated and iodinated THMs (up to 12 μg L(-1) total THM concentration). Therefore, produced water brines that have been disinfected are potential sources of DBPs along with DBP precursors to streams wherever these wastewaters are discharged.

  14. Discharges of produced waters from oil and gas extraction via wastewater treatment plants are sources of disinfection by-products to receiving streams

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hladik, Michelle L.; Focazio, Michael J.; Engle, Mark

    2014-01-01

    Fluids co-produced with oil and gas production (produced waters) are often brines that contain elevated concentrations of bromide. Bromide is an important precursor of several toxic disinfection by-products (DBPs) and the treatment of produced water may lead to more brominated DBPs. To determine if wastewater treatment plants that accept produced waters discharge greater amounts of brominated DBPs, water samples were collected in Pennsylvania from four sites along a large river including an upstream site, a site below a publicly owned wastewater treatment plant (POTW) outfall (does not accept produced water), a site below an oil and gas commercial wastewater treatment plant (CWT) outfall, and downstream of the POTW and CWT. Of 29 DBPs analyzed, the site at the POTW outfall had the highest number detected (six) ranging in concentration from 0.01 to 0.09 μg L− 1 with a similar mixture of DBPs that have been detected at POTW outfalls elsewhere in the United States. The DBP profile at the CWT outfall was much different, although only two DBPs, dibromochloronitromethane (DBCNM) and chloroform, were detected, DBCNM was found at relatively high concentrations (up to 8.5 μg L− 1). The water at the CWT outfall also had a mixture of inorganic and organic precursors including elevated concentrations of bromide (75 mg L− 1) and other organic DBP precursors (phenol at 15 μg L− 1). To corroborate these DBP results, samples were collected in Pennsylvania from additional POTW and CWT outfalls that accept produced waters. The additional CWT also had high concentrations of DBCNM (3.1 μg L− 1) while the POTWs that accept produced waters had elevated numbers (up to 15) and concentrations of DBPs, especially brominated and iodinated THMs (up to 12 μg L− 1 total THM concentration). Therefore, produced water brines that have been disinfected are potential sources of DBPs along with DBP precursors to streams wherever these wastewaters are discharged.

  15. Oil Production

    1989-07-01

    A horizontal and slanted well model was developed and incorporated into BOAST, a black oil simulator, to predict the potential production rates for such wells. The HORIZONTAL/SLANTED WELL MODEL can be used to calculate the productivity index, based on the length and location of the wellbore within the block, for each reservoir grid block penetrated by the horizontal/slanted wellbore. The well model can be run under either pressure or rate constraints in which wellbore pressuresmore » can be calculated as an option of infinite-conductivity. The model can simulate the performance of multiple horizontal/slanted wells in any geometric combination within reservoirs.« less

  16. Utilization of wastewater originated from naturally fermented virgin coconut oil manufacturing process for bioextract production: physico-chemical and microbial evolution.

    PubMed

    Tripetchkul, Sudarut; Kusuwanwichid, Sasithorn; Koonsrisuk, Songpon; Akeprathumchai, Saengchai

    2010-08-01

    Production of virgin coconut oil via natural fermentation has led to large amount of wastes being generated, i.e., coconut pulp and wastewater containing coconut crème. Objective of this study is to gain more insight into the feasibility of utilization of such wastes as raw materials together with several types of wastes such as fish waste and/or pineapple peel for bioextract production. Chemical, physico-chemical and biological changes including phytotoxicity of the fermented mixture were closely monitored. Physical observation suggested that fermentation of bioextract obtained with fish waste appeared to be complete within the first month of fermentation while bioextract obtained using pineapple waste seemed to be complete after 8 months post-fermentation. Fermentation broth is of blackish color with alcoholic as well as acidic odour with no gas bubble and/or yeast film present on top of the surface. During the whole fermentation interval, several attributes of both bioextracts, e.g., pH, chemical oxygen demand (COD) and organic acids, were statistically different. Further, the total bacteria and lactic acid bacteria present in pineapple bioextract were statistically higher than those of the fish bioextract (p<0.01). The highest germination indices of 123 and 106 were obtained at 21 and 14 days post-fermentation for fish and pineapple bioextracts, respectively. In addition, qualities of both bioextracts conformed well with those specified by the Thai standard for liquid biofertilizer after 1 month fermentation. Results further showed that wastewater derived from virgin coconut oil manufacturing process could effectively be employed together with other types of wastes such as fish waste and pineapple peel for bioextract production. However, for the best bioextract quality, fermentation should be carefully planned since over fermentation led to bioextract of low qualities. PMID:20362440

  17. Bacteria Provide Cleanup of Oil Spills, Wastewater

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2010-01-01

    Through Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) contracts with Marshall Space Flight Center, Micro-Bac International Inc., of Round Rock, Texas, developed a phototrophic cell for water purification in space. Inside the cell: millions of photosynthetic bacteria. Micro-Bac proceeded to commercialize the bacterial formulation it developed for the SBIR project. The formulation is now used for the remediation of wastewater systems and waste from livestock farms and food manufacturers. Strains of the SBIR-derived bacteria also feature in microbial solutions that treat environmentally damaging oil spills, such as that resulting from the catastrophic 2010 Deepwater Horizon oil rig explosion in the Gulf of Mexico.

  18. Effect of climatic conditions on the development of soil water repellency in soils treated with the wastewater of the olive oil production

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schaumann, Gabriele E.; Peikert, Benjamin; Tamimi, Nesreen; Steinmetz, Zacharias; Fischer, Jonas; Bibus, Daniel; Marei Sawalha, Amer; Dag, Arnon

    2014-05-01

    The disposal of untreated wastewater on soil can induce severe water repellency. The final degree of water repellency may strongly depend on the environmental conditions prevailing during and after disposal. Also unpolluted soil can develop severe water repellency upon exposure to extreme heat or draught events. The induced water repellency can be either persistent or of transient nature. However, the underlying mechanisms are not yet completely understood. The objective of this study was to investigate how climatic conditions determine the development and persistence of water repellency following wastewater disposal. Our hypothesis was that amphiphilic organic wastewater compounds physically sorb onto surfaces, which renders them hydrophobic. Depending on temperature and moisture, those compounds are degraded, chemically incorporated into SOM, or irreversibly sorbed to soil particles during the time after the first waste water-soil contact. According to our hypothesis, biological communities favor degradation and transformation of OM of waste water into SOM under moist soil conditions. This would reduce the initial hydrophobization. In contrast, drying irreversibly renders soil hydrophobic and phytotoxic due to immobilization of OMW OM in the soil. To test these hypotheses, we investigated effects of olive mil wastewater (OMW), the effluent originating from olive oil production, directly applied to soil. In Israel and Palastine, olive oil production generates large amounts of OMW within a short period of time between November and January. As sewage facilities do not accept OMW, it is often disposed onto soil, which leads to severe soil and groundwater pollution. If the above mentioned hypotheses match, pollution and hydrophobization might be minimized if the wastewater is discharged at the right time of the year. In order to test this, we conducted field (2-3 years) and laboratory (60 days) experiments in Israel (Gilat, arid climate) and in the West Bank (Bait

  19. Water issues associated with heavy oil production.

    SciTech Connect

    Veil, J. A.; Quinn, J. J.; Environmental Science Division

    2008-11-28

    Crude oil occurs in many different forms throughout the world. An important characteristic of crude oil that affects the ease with which it can be produced is its density and viscosity. Lighter crude oil typically can be produced more easily and at lower cost than heavier crude oil. Historically, much of the nation's oil supply came from domestic or international light or medium crude oil sources. California's extensive heavy oil production for more than a century is a notable exception. Oil and gas companies are actively looking toward heavier crude oil sources to help meet demands and to take advantage of large heavy oil reserves located in North and South America. Heavy oil includes very viscous oil resources like those found in some fields in California and Venezuela, oil shale, and tar sands (called oil sands in Canada). These are described in more detail in the next chapter. Water is integrally associated with conventional oil production. Produced water is the largest byproduct associated with oil production. The cost of managing large volumes of produced water is an important component of the overall cost of producing oil. Most mature oil fields rely on injected water to maintain formation pressure during production. The processes involved with heavy oil production often require external water supplies for steam generation, washing, and other steps. While some heavy oil processes generate produced water, others generate different types of industrial wastewater. Management and disposition of the wastewater presents challenges and costs for the operators. This report describes water requirements relating to heavy oil production and potential sources for that water. The report also describes how water is used and the resulting water quality impacts associated with heavy oil production.

  20. Effect of the organic loading rate on the production of polyhydroxyalkanoates in a multi-stage process aimed at the valorization of olive oil mill wastewater.

    PubMed

    Campanari, Sabrina; e Silva, Francisca A; Bertin, Lorenzo; Villano, Marianna; Majone, Mauro

    2014-11-01

    Mixed microbial culture polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHA) production has been investigated by using olive oil mill wastewater (OMW) as no-cost feedstock in a multi-stage process, also involving phenols removal and recovery. The selection of PHA-storing microorganisms occurred in a sequencing batch reactor (SBR), fed with dephenolized and fermented OMW and operated at different organic loading rates (OLR), ranging from 2.40 to 8.40gCOD/Ld. The optimal operating condition was observed at an OLR of 4.70gCOD/Ld, which showed the highest values of storage rate and yield (339±48mgCOD/gCODh and 0.56±0.05 COD/COD, respectively). The OLR applied to the SBR largely affected the performance of the PHA-accumulating reactor, which was fed through multiple pulsed additions of pretreated OMW. From an overall mass balance, involving all the stages of the process, an abatement of about 85% of the OMW initial COD (chemical oxygen demand) was estimated whereas the conversion of the influent COD into PHA was about 10% (or 22% by taking into account only the COD contained in the pretreated OMW, which is directly fed to the PHA production stages). Overall, polymer volumetric productivity (calculated from the combination of both the SBR and the accumulation reactor) accounted for 1.50gPHA/Ld.

  1. Bird mortality in oil field wastewater disposal facilities.

    PubMed

    Ramirez, Pedro

    2010-11-01

    Commercial and centralized oilfield wastewater disposal facilities (COWDFs) are used in the Western United States for the disposal of formation water produced from oil and natural gas wells. In Colorado, New Mexico, Utah, and Wyoming, COWDFs use large evaporation ponds to dispose of the wastewater. Birds are attracted to these large evaporation ponds which, if not managed properly, can cause wildlife mortality. The U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (USFWS) and the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) conducted 154 field inspections of 28 COWDFs in Wyoming from March 1998 through September 2008 and documented mortality of birds and other wildlife in 9 COWDFs. Of 269 bird carcasses recovered from COWDFs, grebes (Family Podicipedidae) and waterfowl (Anatidae) were the most frequent casualties. Most mortalities were attributed to oil on evaporation ponds, but sodium toxicity and surfactants were the suspected causes of mortality at three COWDFs. Although the oil industry and state and federal regulators have made much progress in reducing bird mortality in oil and gas production facilities, significant mortality incidents continue in COWDFs, particularly older facilities permitted in the early 1980's. Inadequate operation and management of these COWDFs generally results in the discharge of oil into the large evaporation ponds which poses a risk for birds and other wildlife.

  2. Bird Mortality in Oil Field Wastewater Disposal Facilities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramirez, Pedro

    2010-11-01

    Commercial and centralized oilfield wastewater disposal facilities (COWDFs) are used in the Western United States for the disposal of formation water produced from oil and natural gas wells. In Colorado, New Mexico, Utah, and Wyoming, COWDFs use large evaporation ponds to dispose of the wastewater. Birds are attracted to these large evaporation ponds which, if not managed properly, can cause wildlife mortality. The U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (USFWS) and the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) conducted 154 field inspections of 28 COWDFs in Wyoming from March 1998 through September 2008 and documented mortality of birds and other wildlife in 9 COWDFs. Of 269 bird carcasses recovered from COWDFs, grebes (Family Podicipedidae) and waterfowl (Anatidae) were the most frequent casualties. Most mortalities were attributed to oil on evaporation ponds, but sodium toxicity and surfactants were the suspected causes of mortality at three COWDFs. Although the oil industry and state and federal regulators have made much progress in reducing bird mortality in oil and gas production facilities, significant mortality incidents continue in COWDFs, particularly older facilities permitted in the early 1980’s. Inadequate operation and management of these COWDFs generally results in the discharge of oil into the large evaporation ponds which poses a risk for birds and other wildlife.

  3. Recovery of polyphenols from rose oil distillation wastewater using adsorption resins--a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Rusanov, Krasimir; Garo, Eliane; Rusanova, Mila; Fertig, Orlando; Hamburger, Matthias; Atanassov, Ivan; Butterweck, Veronika

    2014-11-01

    The production of rose oil from rose flowers by water steam distillation leaves a water fraction of the distillate as main part of the waste. Therefore, the rose oil distillation wastewater represents a serious environmental problem due to the high content of polyphenols which are difficult to decompose and have to be considered as biopollutants when discarded into the drainage system and rivers. On the other hand, natural polyphenols are valuable compounds with useful properties as bioactive substances. Until now there is no established practice for processing of rose oil distillation wastewater and utilization of contained substances. Thus, it was the aim of this study to develop a strategy to separate this wastewater into a polyphenol depleted water fraction and a polyphenol enriched fraction which could be developed into innovative value-added products. In a first step, the phytochemical profile of rose oil distillation wastewater was determined. Its HPLC-PDA-MS analysis revealed the presence of flavan-3-ols, flavanones, flavonols and flavones. In a second step, the development of a stepwise concentration of rose oil distillation wastewater was performed. The concentration process includes a filtration process to eliminate suspended solids in the wastewater, followed by adsorption of the contained phenolic compounds onto adsorption resins (XAD and SP). Finally, desorption of the polyphenol fraction from the resin matrix was achieved using ethanol and/or aqueous ethanol. The result of the process was a wastewater low in soluble organic compounds and an enriched polyphenol fraction (RF20 SP-207). The profile of this fraction was similar to that of rose oil distillation wastewater and showed the presence of flavonols such as quercetin and kaempferol glycosides as major metabolites. These compounds were isolated from the enriched polyphenol fraction and their structures confirmed by NMR. In summary, a pilot medium scale system was developed using adsorption resins

  4. Recovery of polyphenols from rose oil distillation wastewater using adsorption resins--a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Rusanov, Krasimir; Garo, Eliane; Rusanova, Mila; Fertig, Orlando; Hamburger, Matthias; Atanassov, Ivan; Butterweck, Veronika

    2014-11-01

    The production of rose oil from rose flowers by water steam distillation leaves a water fraction of the distillate as main part of the waste. Therefore, the rose oil distillation wastewater represents a serious environmental problem due to the high content of polyphenols which are difficult to decompose and have to be considered as biopollutants when discarded into the drainage system and rivers. On the other hand, natural polyphenols are valuable compounds with useful properties as bioactive substances. Until now there is no established practice for processing of rose oil distillation wastewater and utilization of contained substances. Thus, it was the aim of this study to develop a strategy to separate this wastewater into a polyphenol depleted water fraction and a polyphenol enriched fraction which could be developed into innovative value-added products. In a first step, the phytochemical profile of rose oil distillation wastewater was determined. Its HPLC-PDA-MS analysis revealed the presence of flavan-3-ols, flavanones, flavonols and flavones. In a second step, the development of a stepwise concentration of rose oil distillation wastewater was performed. The concentration process includes a filtration process to eliminate suspended solids in the wastewater, followed by adsorption of the contained phenolic compounds onto adsorption resins (XAD and SP). Finally, desorption of the polyphenol fraction from the resin matrix was achieved using ethanol and/or aqueous ethanol. The result of the process was a wastewater low in soluble organic compounds and an enriched polyphenol fraction (RF20 SP-207). The profile of this fraction was similar to that of rose oil distillation wastewater and showed the presence of flavonols such as quercetin and kaempferol glycosides as major metabolites. These compounds were isolated from the enriched polyphenol fraction and their structures confirmed by NMR. In summary, a pilot medium scale system was developed using adsorption resins

  5. Environmental control technology for shale oil wastewaters

    SciTech Connect

    Mercer, B.W.; Wakamiya, W.; Bell, N.E.; Mason, M.J.; Spencer, R.R.; English, C.J.; Riley, R.G.

    1982-09-01

    This report summarizes the results of studies conducted at Pacific Northwest Laboratory from 1976 to 1982 on environmental control technology for shale oil wastewaters. Experimental studies conducted during the course of the program were focused largely on the treatment and disposal of retort water, particularly water produced by in situ retorting of oil shale. Alternative methods were evaluated for the treatment and disposal of retort water and minewater. Treatment and disposal processes evaluated for retort water include evaporation for separation of water from both inorganic and organic pollutants; steam stripping for ammonia and volatile organics removal; activated sludge and anaerobic digestion for removal of biodegradable organics and other oxidizable substances; carbon adsorption for removal of nonbiodegradable organics; chemical coagulation for removal of suspended matter and heavy metals; wet air oxidation and solvent extraction for removal of organics; and land disposal and underground injection for disposal of retort water. Methods for the treatment of minewater include chemical processing and ion exchange for fluoride and boron removal. Preliminary cost estimates are given for several retort water treatment processes.

  6. 40 CFR 63.137 - Process wastewater provisions-oil-water separators.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 9 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Process wastewater provisions-oil-water... wastewater provisions—oil-water separators. (a) For each oil-water separator that receives, manages, or treats a Group 1 wastewater stream or a residual removed from a Group 1 wastewater stream, the owner...

  7. Olive mill wastewater membrane filtration fraction: Drying techniques and quality assessment of the dried product (abstract)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A current trend in olive mill wastewater (OMWW) management is to not only decrease environmental pollution but also utilize valuable co-products. Recovery of phenolics from OMWW could help olive oil processors add value to their co-product, increasing the sustainability of olive oil production. The ...

  8. Fractions of calcium in the plant-soil system affected by the application of olive oil wastewater.

    PubMed

    Gallardo-Lara, F; Azcón, M; Quesada, J L; Polo, A

    1998-09-01

    A pot experiment using calcareous soil was conducted in a growth chamber to examine the effects of olive oil wastewater applications on Ca fractions in the plant and on exchangeable Ca in soil after plant growth. The experimental treatments consisted of two rates of olive oil wastewater, two mineral fertilizer treatments including K, which supplied K in amounts equivalent to the K supplied by the olive oil wastewater treatments, a mineral fertilizer without K treatment (F), and a control. The pots were sown with ryegrass which was harvested 3 times at monthly intervals. The high rate of olive oil wastewater resulted in a prolonged increases in dry matter production. It also resulted in a reduction in the concentrations of soluble Ca, bound Ca, inorganic insoluble Ca and organic insoluble Ca in the plant shoots relative to the control and the F treatment. The low rate of olive oil wastewater produced similar but less marked effects, with decreases being observed in the soluble Ca and bound Ca fractions. After 3 months of plant growth, soil exchangeable Ca was higher in the control and F treatment soils than in the soils receiving olive oil wastewater or K fertilizer. At this time, there were no significant differences in exchangeable Ca between the soils receiving olive oil wastewater and those treated with K fertilizer. PMID:9731309

  9. Pollution control of industrial wastewater from soap and oil industries: a case study.

    PubMed

    Abdel-Gawad, S; Abdel-Shafy, M

    2002-01-01

    Industrial wastewater from soap and oil industries represents a heavy pollution source on their receiving water body. This paper studies a case of pollution control at Tanta Soap and Oil Company, Banha Factory, Egypt. The factory production includes soap, edible oil, and animal fodder. About 4,347 m3/day of industrial wastewater effluent was discharged via gravity sewers to the public sewerage system. Most of the effluent was cooling water because the cooling process in the factory was open circle. In spite of the huge quantity of cooling water being disposed of, disposal of wastewater was violating pertinent legislation. Three procedures were used for controlling the pollution at the Banha Factory. Firstly, all open circuit cooling systems were converted to closed circuit thus reducing the quantity of the discharged wastewater down to 767 m3/day. Secondly, the heavily polluted oil and grease (O&G) wastewater from the refinery unit is treated via two gravity oil separator (GOS) units, dissolved air floatation (DAF), and biological units in order to reduce the high levels of O&G, BOD, COD, and SS to the allowable limits. Thirdly, the heavily polluted waste effluent from the 'red water' saponification unit is treated separately by acidification to convert the emulsified fatty acid to free form in order to be separated through an oil separation unit. The effluent is then passed to liming stage to neutralize excess acidity and precipitate some of the dissolved matters. The mixture is finally clarified and the pH is adjusted to the allowable limits. The effluent wastewater from the three processes is collected and mixed in a final equalization tank for discharging effluent to the public sewerage system. The characteristics of the effluent water are very good with respect to the allowable Egyptian limits for discharging effluent to the public sewerage system.

  10. Industrial wastewater as raw material for exopolysaccharide production by Rhizobium leguminosarum.

    PubMed

    Sellami, Mohamed; Oszako, Tomasz; Miled, Nabil; Ben Rebah, Faouzi

    2015-06-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the exopolysaccharide (EPS) production by Rhizobium leguminosarum cultivated in wastewater generated by oil companies (WWOC1 and WWOC2) and fish processing industry (WWFP). The results obtained in Erlenmeyer flasks indicated that the rhizobial strain grew well in industrial wastewater. Generally, wastewater composition affected the growth and the EPS production. WWFP allowed good bacterial growth similar to that obtained with the standard medium (YMB). During growth, various quantities of EPS were produced and yields varied depending on the media. Growing in YMB, EPS production did not exceed 9.7 g/L obtained after 72 h of growth. In wastewater, the maximum EPS value reached 11.1 g/L obtained with the fish processing wastewater, after 72 h of growth. The use of a mixture of the oil company wastewater (WWOC2) and the fish processing wastewater (WWFP) as culture medium affected not only the rhizobial strain growth, but also EPS production. The highest EPS (42.4 g/L, after 96 h of culture) was obtained using a ratio of WWFP and WWOC2 of 50:50 (v:v). Therefore, this work shows the ability of Rhizobium leguminosarum, growing in industrial wastewater as new economic medium, to produce EPS. This biopolymer could be applied in enormous biotechnological areas.

  11. 40 CFR 63.137 - Process wastewater provisions-oil-water separators.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Chemical Manufacturing Industry for Process Vents, Storage Vessels, Transfer Operations, and Wastewater § 63.137 Process wastewater provisions—oil-water separators. (a) For each oil-water separator that... 40 Protection of Environment 10 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Process wastewater...

  12. 40 CFR 63.137 - Process wastewater provisions-oil-water separators.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Manufacturing Industry for Process Vents, Storage Vessels, Transfer Operations, and Wastewater § 63.137 Process wastewater provisions—oil-water separators. (a) For each oil-water separator that receives, manages, or... 40 Protection of Environment 9 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Process wastewater...

  13. 40 CFR 63.137 - Process wastewater provisions-oil-water separators.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Chemical Manufacturing Industry for Process Vents, Storage Vessels, Transfer Operations, and Wastewater § 63.137 Process wastewater provisions—oil-water separators. (a) For each oil-water separator that... 40 Protection of Environment 10 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Process wastewater...

  14. 40 CFR 63.137 - Process wastewater provisions-oil-water separators.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Chemical Manufacturing Industry for Process Vents, Storage Vessels, Transfer Operations, and Wastewater § 63.137 Process wastewater provisions—oil-water separators. (a) For each oil-water separator that... 40 Protection of Environment 10 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Process wastewater...

  15. Coupling of algal biofuel production with wastewater.

    PubMed

    Bhatt, Neha Chamoli; Panwar, Amit; Bisht, Tara Singh; Tamta, Sushma

    2014-01-01

    Microalgae have gained enormous consideration from scientific community worldwide emerging as a viable feedstock for a renewable energy source virtually being carbon neutral, high lipid content, and comparatively more advantageous to other sources of biofuels. Although microalgae are seen as a valuable source in majority part of the world for production of biofuels and bioproducts, still they are unable to accomplish sustainable large-scale algal biofuel production. Wastewater has organic and inorganic supplements required for algal growth. The coupling of microalgae with wastewater is an effective way of waste remediation and a cost-effective microalgal biofuel production. In this review article, we will primarily discuss the possibilities and current scenario regarding coupling of microalgal cultivation with biofuel production emphasizing recent progress in this area.

  16. Coupling of Algal Biofuel Production with Wastewater

    PubMed Central

    Panwar, Amit; Bisht, Tara Singh; Tamta, Sushma

    2014-01-01

    Microalgae have gained enormous consideration from scientific community worldwide emerging as a viable feedstock for a renewable energy source virtually being carbon neutral, high lipid content, and comparatively more advantageous to other sources of biofuels. Although microalgae are seen as a valuable source in majority part of the world for production of biofuels and bioproducts, still they are unable to accomplish sustainable large-scale algal biofuel production. Wastewater has organic and inorganic supplements required for algal growth. The coupling of microalgae with wastewater is an effective way of waste remediation and a cost-effective microalgal biofuel production. In this review article, we will primarily discuss the possibilities and current scenario regarding coupling of microalgal cultivation with biofuel production emphasizing recent progress in this area. PMID:24982930

  17. Application of Biotechnology to Construct a Sustainable Biodiesel Production System on Wastewater

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Xiaodan; Liu, Yuhuan; Xu, Erni; Liu, Jianqiang; Ruan, Roger; Fu, Guiming

    2010-11-01

    The potential of microalgae biodiesel is unlimited. The ingenious combination of microalgae biomass exploitation, decontamination of municipal wastewater, and CO2 fixation may gestate the ultimate hope for solving the problem of liquid alternative fuel. However, the municipal wastewater has some characteristics, such as high content of nitrogen and phosphorus, low C/N ratio, fluctuation of loading rate, toxicity of heavy metal, etc. To overcome these problems, studies are currently underway in our laboratory. In this paper, an idea of constructing a sustainable biodiesel production system from microalgae on wastewater is assumed. The system could realize CO2 fixation, decontamination of municipal wastewater, and production of high value-added biodiesel by microalgae. Firstly, municipal wastewater is used as the cultivation media and CO2 as gaseous fertilizer for mass culture of Shuihua microalgae. So with the harvest of large quantities of low-price Shuihua microalgae, the nitrogen, phosphorus and heavy metals can be removed from the wastewater, and the emission of greenhouse gas can be reduced. Secondly, try to breed a high-oil content engineering microalgae by heterotrophic cultivation which could realize high-density growth through the conjunction of the advanced methods of fermentation engineering with the microalgae breeding technology. Finally, make the high-oil content engineering microalgae cultivated on the decomposed Shuihua microalgae cells, and try to make the high-oil content engineering microalgae grow rapidly in the initial stage and start oil accumulation when nitrogen is exhausted by controlling the conditions of fermentation.

  18. Comprehensive techno-economic analysis of wastewater-based algal biofuel production: A case study.

    PubMed

    Xin, Chunhua; Addy, Min M; Zhao, Jinyu; Cheng, Yanling; Cheng, Sibo; Mu, Dongyan; Liu, Yuhuan; Ding, Rijia; Chen, Paul; Ruan, Roger

    2016-07-01

    Combining algae cultivation and wastewater treatment for biofuel production is considered the feasible way for resource utilization. An updated comprehensive techno-economic analysis method that integrates resources availability into techno-economic analysis was employed to evaluate the wastewater-based algal biofuel production with the consideration of wastewater treatment improvement, greenhouse gases emissions, biofuel production costs, and coproduct utilization. An innovative approach consisting of microalgae cultivation on centrate wastewater, microalgae harvest through flocculation, solar drying of biomass, pyrolysis of biomass to bio-oil, and utilization of co-products, was analyzed and shown to yield profound positive results in comparison with others. The estimated break even selling price of biofuel ($2.23/gallon) is very close to the acceptable level. The approach would have better overall benefits and the internal rate of return would increase up to 18.7% if three critical components, namely cultivation, harvest, and downstream conversion could achieve breakthroughs.

  19. Comprehensive techno-economic analysis of wastewater-based algal biofuel production: A case study.

    PubMed

    Xin, Chunhua; Addy, Min M; Zhao, Jinyu; Cheng, Yanling; Cheng, Sibo; Mu, Dongyan; Liu, Yuhuan; Ding, Rijia; Chen, Paul; Ruan, Roger

    2016-07-01

    Combining algae cultivation and wastewater treatment for biofuel production is considered the feasible way for resource utilization. An updated comprehensive techno-economic analysis method that integrates resources availability into techno-economic analysis was employed to evaluate the wastewater-based algal biofuel production with the consideration of wastewater treatment improvement, greenhouse gases emissions, biofuel production costs, and coproduct utilization. An innovative approach consisting of microalgae cultivation on centrate wastewater, microalgae harvest through flocculation, solar drying of biomass, pyrolysis of biomass to bio-oil, and utilization of co-products, was analyzed and shown to yield profound positive results in comparison with others. The estimated break even selling price of biofuel ($2.23/gallon) is very close to the acceptable level. The approach would have better overall benefits and the internal rate of return would increase up to 18.7% if three critical components, namely cultivation, harvest, and downstream conversion could achieve breakthroughs. PMID:27039331

  20. Two-stage SBR for treatment of oil refinery wastewater.

    PubMed

    Lee, L Y; Hu, J Y; Ong, S L; Ng, W J; Ren, J H; Wong, S H

    2004-01-01

    A two-stage sequencing batch reactor (SBR) system was used for treatment of oily wastewater with COD and oil and grease (O&G) concentrations ranging from 1,722-7,826 mg/L and 5,365-13,350 mg/L, respectively. A suitable start-up protocol was developed using gradual increase in oily wastewater composition with methanol as the co-substrate. This strategy enabled a short acclimation period of 12 days for the sludge in the two-stage SBR to adapt to the oily wastewater. After acclimation, the 1st stage and 2nd stage SBRs were able to achieve COD removals of 47.0+/-2.4% and 95.3+/-0.5%, respectively. The 1st stage SBR was able to achieve 99.8+/-0.1% of O&G removal and effluent O&G from the 1st stage SBR was only 6+/-2 mg/L. The 2nd stage SBR was used to further remove COD in the effluent from the 1st stage SBR. The final effluent from the 2nd stage SBR had a COD concentration of 97+/-16 mg/L with no detectable O&G content. Thus, a two-stage SBR system was shown to be feasible for treating high strength oily wastewater to meet the local discharge standards.

  1. Ammonia removal in constructed wetlands receiving oil sands wastewater

    SciTech Connect

    Bishay, F.S.; Bayley, S.E.; Nix, P.G.

    1995-12-31

    Constructed wetlands are a component of the mine decommissioning and reclamation plan for Suncor Inc., Oil Sands Group, a large oil sands mining and extraction operation in northeastern Alberta, A field, pilot-scale wetlands facility was built in 1991. Over a three year period (1992--1994) the feasibility of constructed wetlands as treatment systems for various oil sands wastewater streams was assessed. Ammonia and hydrocarbons are the primary contaminants. Ammonia removal rates were estimated by measuring inputs and outputs of ammonia, changes in storage, and removal processes. These removal rates were comparable to rates in other studies indicating that the presence of hydrocarbons was not limiting ammonia removal. Nitrogen in sediments and vegetation was elevated; however, removal to sediments or vegetation did not contribute significantly to overall ammonia removal. Volatilization and denitrification were measured in situ. Although neither of these measured processes accounted for all of the ammonia removal, nitrification/denitrification was thought to be the primary removal mechanism.

  2. Application of ozonated piggery wastewater for cultivation of oil-rich Chlorella pyrenoidosa.

    PubMed

    Gan, Ke; Mou, Xiaoqing; Xu, Yan; Wang, Haiying

    2014-11-01

    Ozonated and autoclaved piggery wastewaters were compared for cultivation of oil-rich Chlorella pyrenoidosa by measuring nutrient removal from the medium and growth rate and lipid production of the microalgae. The removal rates of chemical oxygen demand, NH4(+)-N, total nitrogen and total phosphorus by C. pyrenoidosa were not influenced by both sterilisation methods. The specific growth rate and biomass of C. pyrenoidosa were determined by analysing the chlorophyll concentration for eliminating the disturbance of bacteria growth in culture system. Bacteria raised from the residue in the ozonated medium achieved 30% of the total microorganisms at the end of cultivation. They reduced the growth of C. pyrenoidosa by 10.4%, but contributed to a faster decline of the nutrient content on the first day. Lipid production and fatty acid profile did not change markedly in both sterilisation methods. The results suggest that ozonation is acceptable for piggery wastewater treatment for C. pyrenoidosa cultivation.

  3. Combination of Fenton oxidation and composting for the treatment of the olive solid residue and the olive mile wastewater from the olive oil industry in Cyprus.

    PubMed

    Zorpas, Antonis A; Costa, Costa N

    2010-10-01

    Co-composting of olive oil solid residue (OOSR) and treated wastewaters (with Fenton) from the olive oil production process has been studied as an alternative method for the treatment of wastewater containing high organic and toxic pollutants in small olive oil industry in Cyprus. The experimental results indicated that the olive mill wastewater (OMW) is detoxified at the end of Fenton Process and the COD is reduced up to 70%. The final co-composted material of OOSR with the treated olive mile wastewater (TOMW) is presented with optimum characteristics and is suitable for agricultural purpose. The final product coming out from an in-Vessel reactor seems to mature faster than the product from the windrow system and is presented with a better soil conditioner. PMID:20627547

  4. Modelling of an oil refinery wastewater treatment plant.

    PubMed

    Pinzón Pardo, A L; Brdjanovic, D; Moussa, M S; López-Vázquez, C M; Meijer, S C F; Van Straten, H H A; Janssen, A J H; Amy, G; Van Loosdrecht, M C M

    2007-11-01

    The Activated Sludge Model No. 3 (ASM3) and Dutch calibration guidelines (STOWA) were evaluated in the modelling of an activated sludge system treating effluents from a large oil refinery. The plant was designed to remove suspended solids, organic matter and nitrogen from wastewater at an average water temperature of 34 degrees C. The plant consists of three tanks in series; the first two tanks operate in on-off aeration mode with pure oxygen for N-removal, whilst extra methanol is added for the denitrification, and the third tank is maintained as constantly aerobic. Calibration was performed based on a simplified influent characterisation and extra batch experiments (nitrification and denitrification). With the adjustment of only four parameters the model proved capable of describing the performance of the plant concerning both the liquid phase and the biomass. The model was further used to analyse possible modifications in the plant layout and optimize operational conditions in order to reduce operating costs. Modelling results indicated reduction in methanol dosage by implementing an idle time between aerobic and anoxic phases. In this way, surplus methanol was prevented from entering during the aerobic period. Moreover, simulations showed that the most cost-effective option regarding the denitrification process was a combined pre-post-denitrification scheme, without the need for enlarging existing basins. It can be concluded that although ASM3 and STOWA guidelines were originally developed for domestic wastewater application at a temperature range of 10 to 20 degrees C, they proved well capable of describing the performance of an oil refinery wastewater treatment plant operating at 34 degrees C. Moreover, the plant model proved useful for optimization of the plant performance regarding operational costs.

  5. MBBR evaluation for oil refinery wastewater treatment, with post-ozonation and BAC, for wastewater reuse.

    PubMed

    Schneider, E E; Cerqueira, A C F P; Dezotti, M

    2011-01-01

    This work evaluated the performance of a Moving Bed Biofilm Reactor (MBBR) in the treatment of an oil refinery wastewater. Also, it investigated the possibility of reuse of the MBBR effluent, after ozonation in series with a biological activated carbon (BAC) column. The best performance of the MBBR was achieved with a hydraulic retention time (HRT) of 6 hours, employing a bed to bioreactor volume ratio (V(B)/V(R)) of 0.6. COD and N-NH₄(+) MBBR effluent concentrations ranged from 40 to 75 mg L⁻¹ (removal efficiency of 69-89%) and 2 to 6 mg L⁻¹ (removal efficiency of 45-86%), respectively. Ozonation carried out for 15 min with an ozone concentration of 5 mg L⁻¹ was able to improve the treated wastewater biodegradability. The treatment performance of the BAC columns was practically the same for ozonated and non ozonated MBBR effluents. The dissolved organic carbon (DOC) content of the columns of the activated carbon columns (CAG) was in the range of 2.1-3.8 mg L⁻¹, and the corresponding DOC removal efficiencies were comprised between 52 and 75%. The effluent obtained at the end of the proposed treatment presented a quality, which meet the requirements for water reuse in the oil refinery.

  6. MBBR evaluation for oil refinery wastewater treatment, with post-ozonation and BAC, for wastewater reuse.

    PubMed

    Schneider, E E; Cerqueira, A C F P; Dezotti, M

    2011-01-01

    This work evaluated the performance of a Moving Bed Biofilm Reactor (MBBR) in the treatment of an oil refinery wastewater. Also, it investigated the possibility of reuse of the MBBR effluent, after ozonation in series with a biological activated carbon (BAC) column. The best performance of the MBBR was achieved with a hydraulic retention time (HRT) of 6 hours, employing a bed to bioreactor volume ratio (V(B)/V(R)) of 0.6. COD and N-NH₄(+) MBBR effluent concentrations ranged from 40 to 75 mg L⁻¹ (removal efficiency of 69-89%) and 2 to 6 mg L⁻¹ (removal efficiency of 45-86%), respectively. Ozonation carried out for 15 min with an ozone concentration of 5 mg L⁻¹ was able to improve the treated wastewater biodegradability. The treatment performance of the BAC columns was practically the same for ozonated and non ozonated MBBR effluents. The dissolved organic carbon (DOC) content of the columns of the activated carbon columns (CAG) was in the range of 2.1-3.8 mg L⁻¹, and the corresponding DOC removal efficiencies were comprised between 52 and 75%. The effluent obtained at the end of the proposed treatment presented a quality, which meet the requirements for water reuse in the oil refinery. PMID:21245566

  7. Online sensing and control of oil in process wastewater

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khomchenko, Irina B.; Soukhomlinoff, Alexander D.; Mitchell, T. F.; Selenow, Alexander E.

    2002-02-01

    Industrial processes, which eliminate high concentration of oil in their waste stream, find it extremely difficult to measure and control the water purification process. Most oil separation processes involve chemical separation using highly corrosive caustics, acids, surfactants, and emulsifiers. Included in the output of this chemical treatment process are highly adhesive tar-like globules, emulsified and surface oils, and other emulsified chemicals, in addition to suspended solids. The level of oil/hydrocarbons concentration in the wastewater process may fluctuate from 1 ppm to 10,000 ppm, depending upon the specifications of the industry and level of water quality control. The authors have developed a sensing technology, which provides the accuracy of scatter/absorption sensing in a contactless environment by combining these methodologies with reflective measurement. The sensitivity of the sensor may be modified by changing the fluid level control in the flow cell, allowing for a broad range of accurate measurement from 1 ppm to 10,000 ppm. Because this sensing system has been designed to work in a highly invasive environment, it can be placed close to the process source to allow for accurate real time measurement and control.

  8. Ammonia stripping, activated carbon adsorption and anaerobic biological oxidation as process combination for the treatment of oil shale wastewater.

    PubMed

    Alexandre, Verônica M F; do Nascimento, Felipe V; Cammarota, Magali C

    2016-10-01

    Anaerobic biodegradability of oil shale wastewater was investigated after the following pretreatment sequence: ammonia stripping and activated carbon adsorption. Anaerobic biological treatment of oil shale wastewater is technically feasible after stripping at pH 11 for reducing the N-NH3 concentration, adsorption with 5 g/L of activated carbon in order to reduce recalcitrance and pH adjustment with CO2 so that the sulphate concentration in the medium remains low. After this pretreatment sequence, it was possible to submit the wastewater without dilution to an anaerobic treatment with 62.7% soluble chemical oxygen demand removal and specific methane production of 233.2 mL CH4STP/g CODremoved.

  9. Bioremediation of wastewater from edible oil refinery factory using oleaginous microalga Desmodesmus sp. S1.

    PubMed

    Mar, Cho Cho; Fan, Yong; Li, Fu-Li; Hu, Guang-Rong

    2016-12-01

    Edible oil industry produced massive wastewater, which requires extensive treatment to remove pungent smell, high phosphate, carbon oxygen demand (COD), and metal ions prior to discharge. Traditional anaerobic and aerobic digestion could mainly reduce COD of the wastewater from oil refinery factories (WEORF). In this study, a robust oleaginous microalga Desmodesmus sp. S1 was adapted to grow in WEORF. The biomass and lipid content of Desmodesmus sp. S1 cultivated in the WEORF supplemented with sodium nitrate were 5.62 g·L(-1) and 14.49%, whereas those in the WEORF without adding nitrate were 2.98 g·L(-1) and 21.95%. More than 82% of the COD and 53% of total phosphorous were removed by Desmodesmus sp. S1. In addition, metal ions, including ferric, aluminum, manganese and zinc were also diminished significantly in the WEORF after microalgal growth, and pungent smell vanished as well. In comparison with the cells grown in BG-11 medium, the cilia-like bulges and wrinkles on the cell surface of Desmodesmus sp. S1 grown in WEORF became out of order, and more polyunsaturated fatty acids were detected due to stress derived from the wastewater. The study suggests that growing microalgae in WEORF can be applied for the dual roles of nutrient removal and biofuel feedstock production.

  10. Bioremediation of wastewater from edible oil refinery factory using oleaginous microalga Desmodesmus sp. S1.

    PubMed

    Mar, Cho Cho; Fan, Yong; Li, Fu-Li; Hu, Guang-Rong

    2016-12-01

    Edible oil industry produced massive wastewater, which requires extensive treatment to remove pungent smell, high phosphate, carbon oxygen demand (COD), and metal ions prior to discharge. Traditional anaerobic and aerobic digestion could mainly reduce COD of the wastewater from oil refinery factories (WEORF). In this study, a robust oleaginous microalga Desmodesmus sp. S1 was adapted to grow in WEORF. The biomass and lipid content of Desmodesmus sp. S1 cultivated in the WEORF supplemented with sodium nitrate were 5.62 g·L(-1) and 14.49%, whereas those in the WEORF without adding nitrate were 2.98 g·L(-1) and 21.95%. More than 82% of the COD and 53% of total phosphorous were removed by Desmodesmus sp. S1. In addition, metal ions, including ferric, aluminum, manganese and zinc were also diminished significantly in the WEORF after microalgal growth, and pungent smell vanished as well. In comparison with the cells grown in BG-11 medium, the cilia-like bulges and wrinkles on the cell surface of Desmodesmus sp. S1 grown in WEORF became out of order, and more polyunsaturated fatty acids were detected due to stress derived from the wastewater. The study suggests that growing microalgae in WEORF can be applied for the dual roles of nutrient removal and biofuel feedstock production. PMID:27260474

  11. Superior cottonwood and eucalyptus clones for biomass production in wastewater biomass production in wastewater bioremediation systems

    SciTech Connect

    Rockwood, D.L.; Pisano, S.M.; McConnell, W.V.

    1996-12-31

    Fast-growing cottonwood and Eucalyptus species have wastewater bioremediation potential. To estimate genetic variation in cottonwood`s response to sewage effluent, 10 clones were planted at Tallahassee in April 1992. Progenies and/or clones of E. Ampligolia (EA). E. Camaldulensis (EC), and E. Grandis (EG) were planted in a dry stormwater retention/bioremediation pond constructed in June 1993 at Tampa. Genetic variability within cottonwood and Eucalyptus species was observed and should be utilized to optimize biomass production and nutrient uptake in wastewater bioremediation applications. On good sites with freeze risk in northern Florida, three cottonwood clones are particularly productive. While as many as four EC and EG clones are promising, one EG clone appears superior for stormwater remediation, systems in central Florida.

  12. Fate and effect of naphthenic acids on oil refinery activated sludge wastewater treatment systems.

    PubMed

    Misiti, Teresa; Tezel, Ulas; Pavlostathis, Spyros G

    2013-01-01

    Naphthenic acids (NAs) are a complex group of alkyl-substituted acyclic, monocyclic and polycyclic carboxylic acids present in oil sands process waters, crude oil, refinery wastewater and petroleum products. Crude oil, desalter brine, influent, activated sludge mixed liquor and effluent refinery samples were received from six United States refineries. The total acid number (TAN) of the six crudes tested ranged from 0.12 to 1.5 mg KOH/g crude oil and correlated to the total NA concentration in the crudes. The total NA concentration in the desalter brine, influent, activated sludge mixed liquor and effluent samples ranged from 4.2 to 40.4, 4.5 to 16.6, 9.6 to 140.3 and 2.8 to 11.6 mg NA/L, respectively. The NAs in all wastewater streams accounted for less than 16% of the total COD, indicating that many other organic compounds are present and that NAs are a minor component in refinery wastewaters. Susceptibility tests showed that none of the activated sludge heterotrophic microcosms was completely inhibited by NAs up to 400 mg/L. Growth inhibition ranging from 10 to 59% was observed in all microcosms at and above 100 mg NA/L. NAs chronically-sorbed to activated sludge mixed liquor biomass and powdered activated carbon (PAC) were recalcitrant and persistent. More than 80% of the total NAs remained in the solid phase at the end of the 10-day desorption period (five successive desorption steps). Throughout a 90-day incubation period, the total NA concentration decreased by 33 and 51% in PAC-free and PAC-containing mixed liquor microcosms, respectively. The lower molecular weight fraction of NAs was preferentially degraded in both mixed liquors. The persistence of the residual, higher molecular weight NAs is likely a combination of molecular recalcitrance and decreased bioavailability when chronically-sorbed to the biomass and/or PAC. PMID:23141768

  13. Fate and effect of naphthenic acids on oil refinery activated sludge wastewater treatment systems.

    PubMed

    Misiti, Teresa; Tezel, Ulas; Pavlostathis, Spyros G

    2013-01-01

    Naphthenic acids (NAs) are a complex group of alkyl-substituted acyclic, monocyclic and polycyclic carboxylic acids present in oil sands process waters, crude oil, refinery wastewater and petroleum products. Crude oil, desalter brine, influent, activated sludge mixed liquor and effluent refinery samples were received from six United States refineries. The total acid number (TAN) of the six crudes tested ranged from 0.12 to 1.5 mg KOH/g crude oil and correlated to the total NA concentration in the crudes. The total NA concentration in the desalter brine, influent, activated sludge mixed liquor and effluent samples ranged from 4.2 to 40.4, 4.5 to 16.6, 9.6 to 140.3 and 2.8 to 11.6 mg NA/L, respectively. The NAs in all wastewater streams accounted for less than 16% of the total COD, indicating that many other organic compounds are present and that NAs are a minor component in refinery wastewaters. Susceptibility tests showed that none of the activated sludge heterotrophic microcosms was completely inhibited by NAs up to 400 mg/L. Growth inhibition ranging from 10 to 59% was observed in all microcosms at and above 100 mg NA/L. NAs chronically-sorbed to activated sludge mixed liquor biomass and powdered activated carbon (PAC) were recalcitrant and persistent. More than 80% of the total NAs remained in the solid phase at the end of the 10-day desorption period (five successive desorption steps). Throughout a 90-day incubation period, the total NA concentration decreased by 33 and 51% in PAC-free and PAC-containing mixed liquor microcosms, respectively. The lower molecular weight fraction of NAs was preferentially degraded in both mixed liquors. The persistence of the residual, higher molecular weight NAs is likely a combination of molecular recalcitrance and decreased bioavailability when chronically-sorbed to the biomass and/or PAC.

  14. WHAT HAPPENS TO FLUOROTELOMER POLYMER PRODUCTS DURING WASTEWATER TREATMENT?

    EPA Science Inventory

    Fluorotelomer based polymers formulate numerous products relied upon by society. Despite their widespread use and high opportunity for down-the-drain disposal, the fate and stability of fluorotelomer polymer products in wastewater treatment systems remains unknown. To address thi...

  15. Dual application of duckweed and azolla plants for wastewater treatment and renewable fuels and petrochemicals production

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Shortages in fresh water supplies today affects more than 1 billion people worldwide. Phytoremediation strategies, based on the abilities of aquatic plants to recycle nutrients offer an attractive solution for the bioremediation of water pollution and represents one of the most globally researched issues. The subsequent application of the biomass from the remediation for the production of fuels and petrochemicals offers an ecologically friendly and cost-effective solution for water pollution problems and production of value-added products. Results In this paper, the feasibility of the dual application of duckweed and azolla aquatic plants for wastewater treatment and production of renewable fuels and petrochemicals is explored. The differences in absorption rates of the key wastewater nutrients, ammonium and phosphorus by these aquatic macrophytes were used as the basis for optimization of the composition of wastewater effluents. Analysis of pyrolysis products showed that azolla and algae produce a similar range of bio-oils that contain a large spectrum of petrochemicals including straight-chain C10-C21 alkanes, which can be directly used as diesel fuel supplement, or a glycerin-free component of biodiesel. Pyrolysis of duckweed produces a different range of bio-oil components that can potentially be used for the production of “green” gasoline and diesel fuel using existing techniques, such as catalytic hydrodeoxygenation. Conclusions Differences in absorption rates of the key wastewater nutrients, ammonium and phosphorus by different aquatic macrophytes can be used for optimization of composition of wastewater effluents. The generated data suggest that the composition of the petrochemicals can be modified in a targeted fashion, not only by using different species, but also by changing the source plants’ metabolic profile, by exposing them to different abiotic or biotic stresses. This study presents an attractive, ecologically friendly and cost

  16. Products from vegetable oils

    SciTech Connect

    Bagby, M.O.

    1995-12-01

    Vegetable oils serve various industrial applications such as plasticizers, emulsifiers, surfactants, plastics and resins. Research and development approaches may take advantage of natural properties of the oils. More often it is advantageous to modify those properties for specific applications. One example is the preparation of ink vehicles using vegetable oils in the absence of petroleum. They are cost competitive with petroleum-based inks with similar quality factors. Vegetable oils have potential as renewable sources of fuels for the diesel engine. However, several characteristics can restrict their use. These include poor cold-engine startup, misfire and for selected fuels, high pour point and cloud point temperatures. Other characteristics include incomplete combustion causing carbon buildup, lube oil dilution and degradation, and elevated NO{sub x} emissions. Precombustion and fuel quality data are presented as a tool for understanding and solving these operational and durability problems.

  17. Effects of Wastewater from Oil Exploration on Soil Mesofauna.

    PubMed

    Ferreira, Raimundo N C; Weber, Olmar B; Correia, Maria E F; Benazzi-Ikeda, Eloísa S; Scoriza, Rafael N; Mesquita, Antonio L M

    2015-12-01

    Wastewater from oil exploration may contain substances that can alter the diversity of soil organisms. This study evaluated whether produced water treated by filtration or reverse osmosis and glutaraldehyde from reverse osmosis treatments negatively affected the mesofauna in an irrigated area. In the field, irrigation with produced water treated by reverse osmosis and filtration influenced Hymenoptera and Cosmochthonius sp., while Entomobryomorpha springtails were affected only by the reverse osmosis water. In the ecotoxicological tests, reproduction in the springtail Folsomia candida was inhibited by the reverse osmosis treatment, while reproduction in the earthworm Enchytraeus crypticus was affected by both water treatments. Although glutaraldehyde did not affect the survival of F. candida, the reproduction was inhibited (EC50 = 44.4 mg/L). No adverse effect of glutaraldehyde was observed on reproduction or survival of E. crypticus. These results indicate that produced water, when used in irrigated agriculture, may affect soil functional mesofauna. PMID:26450598

  18. Electrocoagulation of vegetable oil refinery wastewater using aluminum electrodes.

    PubMed

    Tezcan Un, Umran; Koparal, A Savas; Bakir Ogutveren, Ulker

    2009-01-01

    Electrocoagulation with aluminum electrodes was used to treat the vegetable oil refinery wastewater (VORW) in a batch reactor. The effects of operating parameters such as pH, current density, PAC (poly aluminum chloride) dosage and Na(2)SO(4) dosage on the removal of organics and COD removal efficiency have been investigated. It has been shown that the removal efficiency of COD increased with the increasing applied current density and increasing PAC and Na(2)SO(4) dosage and the most effective removal capacity was achieved at the pH 7. The results indicate that electrocoagulation is very efficient and able to achieve 98.9% COD removal in 90 min at 35 mAcm(-2) with a specific electrical energy consumption of 42 kWh(kgCOD(removed))(-1). The effluent was very clear and its quality exceeded the direct discharge standard.

  19. Isolation and characterization of acutely toxic fractions in oil sands wastewater

    SciTech Connect

    Verbeek, A.; Mackay, W.; MacKinnon, M.

    1995-12-31

    Extraction of oil from oil sand using the hot water flotation method results in the production of large volumes of wastewater that are acutely toxic to aquatic organisms. At Syncrude Canada Ltd. and Suncor Oil Sands Group Inc., this wastewater is stored in large tailings ponds that must eventually be reclaimed. The acute toxicity of these wastewaters was assessed and the acutely toxic fractions were identified. Samples were collected from the surface and fine tails zones of the Syncrude and Suncor tailings ponds during the summers of 1991 and 1992. The Microtox bioassay was used to assess the acute toxicity before and after various treatments. Where significant reductions in acute toxicity were found, further acute toxicity tests were carried out using Daphnia magna and rainbow trout. The Microtox IC{sub 50} of all centrifuged tailings pond water samples varied between 26.5 and 46%. Daphnia LC{sub 50}s varied between 76 and 98% and a rainbow trout LC{sub 50} was 12.5 %. Organic compounds that have a non-polar component, as removed by solid phase extraction with C{sub 18} sorbent, accounted for all the acute toxicity (100%) of all samples. Organic ``acids``, as removed by precipitation at pH 2.5, also accounted for all the acute toxicity (100%) of all samples except those from pond 1A of Suncor. In pond 1A, organic ``acids`` accounted for approximately 55--60% of the acute toxicity, nonpolar organic volatile compounds accounted for approximately 20--35% and the balance of the acute toxicity was due to non-polar organic compounds that were neither volatile nor organic ``acids``, as removed by precipitation at pH 2.5.

  20. Cultivation of Arthrospira (Spirulina) platensis in olive-oil mill wastewater treated with sodium hypochlorite.

    PubMed

    Markou, Giorgos; Chatzipavlidis, Iordanis; Georgakakis, Dimitris

    2012-05-01

    The subject of this paper is the cultivation of the cyanobacterium Arthrospira (Sprirulina) platensis in olive-oil mill wastewater (OMWW) treated with sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl). The main positive effect of NaOCl on the OMWW characteristics is the decrease of the phenol concentration and turbidity, rendering the OMWW suitable for A. platensis growth. Maximum biomass production (1696 mg/l) was obtained when the concentration of OMWW in the cultivation medium was 10% with the supplementation of 1g/l NaNO(3) and 5 g/l NaHCO(3). However, the addition of NaHCO(3) has no significant effect, indicating that the only limited nutrient in this wastewater is nitrogen, while carbon is provided by the organic compounds of the wastewater. The maximum of the removals of chemical oxygen demand (COD) and carbohydrates was 73.18% and 91.19%, respectively, while phenols, phosphorus and nitrates in some runs was completely removed.

  1. Phytoavailability and extractability of potassium, magnesium and manganese in calcareous soil amended with olive oil wastewater.

    PubMed

    Gallardo-Lara, F; Azcón, M; Polo, A

    2000-09-01

    Land disposal of olive oil wastewater using it as a soil amendment requires a knowledge of the effects that its application may produce on the status of the mineral nutrients in the plant-soil system. A pot experiment using calcareous soil was performed in a growth chamber to examine the effects of olive oil wastewater on the availability and postharvest soil extractability of K, Mg and Mn. The experiment included 6 treatments: two rates of olive oil wastewater, two mineral fertilizer treatments containing K (which supplied K in amounts equivalent to the K supplied by the olive oil wastewater treatments), a K-free mineral fertilizer treatment, and a control. The pots were sown with ryegrass as the test plant, harvesting 3 times at intervals of one month. Olive oil wastewater has demonstrated a considerable capacity for supplying K that can be assimilated by the plant, tending in fact to surpass the mineral potassium fertilizer tested. The application of olive oil wastewater tends to reduce the concentration of Mg in the plant, similarly to the effect of adding mineral potassium fertilizer. An enhancement of Mn availability takes place in the soil amended with olive oil wastewater, which on occasion has produced Mn concentrations in plant that could be considered phytotoxic or at least excessive. After harvesting, we observed an increase in the amount of exchangeable K in soil with added industrial wastewater. However, these increases are lower than those in soil treated with mineral potassium fertilizer. The levels of exchangeable, carbonate-bound, organic-bound and residual Mg in soil were higher in treatments incorporating olive oil wastewater than in those with added mineral K, with the opposite tendency occurring in the amount of Fe-Mn oxides-bound Mg in soil. Treatments based on olive oil wastewater, especially in high doses, increased the amount of exchangeable and carbonate-bound Mn in soil, in comparison with treatments adding mineral fertilizers with or

  2. Wastewater treatment from biodiesel production via a coupled photo-Fenton-aerobic sequential batch reactor (SBR) system.

    PubMed

    Ramírez, Ximena María Vargas; Mejía, Gina Maria Hincapié; López, Kelly Viviana Patiño; Vásquez, Gloria Restrepo; Sepúlveda, Juan Miguel Marín

    2012-01-01

    A coupled system of the photo-Fenton advanced oxidation technique and an aerobic sequential batch reactor (SBR) was used to treat wastewater from biodiesel production using either palm or castor oil. The photo-Fenton reaction and biological process were evaluated individually and were effective at treating the wastewater; nevertheless, each process required longer degradation times for the wastewater pollutants compared with the coupled system. The proposed coupled photo-Fenton/aerobic SBR system obtained a 90% reduction of the chemical oxygen demand (COD) in half of the time required for the biological system individually. PMID:22766873

  3. Determining the ecological viability of constructed wetlands for the treatment of oil sands wastewater

    SciTech Connect

    Lai, J.; Kiehlmann, E.; Pinto, L.; Bendell-Young, L.; Moore, M.; Nix, P.

    1995-12-31

    To determine the conditions for optimal degradation of naphthenic acids (C{sub n}H{sub 2n+z}O{sub 2}), the most toxic component of oil sands wastewater, the authors have monitored the mineralization of 2 representative naphthenic acids (NA), U-{sup 14}C-palmitic acid (linear, Z = 0) and 8-{sup 14}C-decahydro-2-naphthoic acid (bicyclic, Z = {minus}4) under varying conditions of temperature, phosphate and oxygen. The radiolabeled NA was added to biometer flasks containing wastewater {+-} amendments and evolved {sup 14}C-CO{sub 2} was trapped in a side arm and counted by LSC. The results indicate that low temperature (5 C) and anaerobiasis greatly inhibited NA degradation over the four week incubation period. Addition of phosphate (as buffered KP{sub i}) significantly increased {sup 14}C-CO{sub 2} production for both Z = 0 and Z = {minus}4 compounds; however, the subsequent high microbial growth rates also decreased PO{sub 2} which limited NA mineralization. Effluent toxicity was monitored at week 0 and week 4 using Microtox and fathead minnow tests. Although there was increased survival of fathead minnows in the phosphate-amended effluent, the IC{sub 20} values of the Microtox assay showed no improvement in either the phosphate-treated or untreated effluents. These results show that naphthenic acid analogues are readily degraded by indigenous microorganisms in oil sands wastewater and that phosphate addition accelerated the mineralization of these compounds if PO{sub 2} remained high.

  4. Antioxidant activity of oregano, parsley, and olive mill wastewaters in bulk oils and oil-in-water emulsions enriched in fish oil.

    PubMed

    Jimenez-Alvarez, D; Giuffrida, F; Golay, P A; Cotting, C; Lardeau, A; Keely, Brendan J

    2008-08-27

    The antioxidant activity of oregano, parsley, olive mill wastewaters (OMWW), Trolox, and ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) was evaluated in bulk oils and oil-in-water (o/w) emulsions enriched with 5% tuna oil by monitoring the formation of hydroperoxides, hexanal, and t-t-2,4-heptadienal in samples stored at 37 degrees C for 14 days. In bulk oil, the order of antioxidant activity was, in decreasing order (p < 0.05), OMWW > oregano > parsley > EDTA > Trolox. The antioxidant activity in o/w emulsion followed the same order except that EDTA was as efficient an antioxidant as OMWW. In addition, the total phenolic content, the radical scavenging properties, the reducing capacity, and the iron chelating activity of OMWW, parsley, and oregano extracts were determined by the Folin-Ciocalteau, oxygen radical absorbance capacity, ferric reducing antioxidant power, and iron(II) chelating activity assays, respectively. The antioxidant activity of OMWW, parsley, and oregano in food systems was related to their total phenolic content and radical scavenging capacity but not to their ability to chelate iron in vitro. OMWW was identified as a promising source of antioxidants to retard lipid oxidation in fish oil-enriched food products.

  5. Antioxidant activity of oregano, parsley, and olive mill wastewaters in bulk oils and oil-in-water emulsions enriched in fish oil.

    PubMed

    Jimenez-Alvarez, D; Giuffrida, F; Golay, P A; Cotting, C; Lardeau, A; Keely, Brendan J

    2008-08-27

    The antioxidant activity of oregano, parsley, olive mill wastewaters (OMWW), Trolox, and ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) was evaluated in bulk oils and oil-in-water (o/w) emulsions enriched with 5% tuna oil by monitoring the formation of hydroperoxides, hexanal, and t-t-2,4-heptadienal in samples stored at 37 degrees C for 14 days. In bulk oil, the order of antioxidant activity was, in decreasing order (p < 0.05), OMWW > oregano > parsley > EDTA > Trolox. The antioxidant activity in o/w emulsion followed the same order except that EDTA was as efficient an antioxidant as OMWW. In addition, the total phenolic content, the radical scavenging properties, the reducing capacity, and the iron chelating activity of OMWW, parsley, and oregano extracts were determined by the Folin-Ciocalteau, oxygen radical absorbance capacity, ferric reducing antioxidant power, and iron(II) chelating activity assays, respectively. The antioxidant activity of OMWW, parsley, and oregano in food systems was related to their total phenolic content and radical scavenging capacity but not to their ability to chelate iron in vitro. OMWW was identified as a promising source of antioxidants to retard lipid oxidation in fish oil-enriched food products. PMID:18636737

  6. Olive oil mill wastewater for soil nitrogen and carbon conservation.

    PubMed

    Aguilar, Manuel Jimenez

    2009-06-01

    In this work the application of two levels of N fertilizer (NH(4)NO(3)) dissolved in water or olive oil mill wastewater (OOMW) diluted 10 or 20 times in water, has been studied in relation to the properties of two soils (Loam and Silt-Clay-Loam). Also, the effect of irrigation water bubbled with CO(2) (Dissolved Inorganic Carbon, DIC) was studied. Nitrate N, ammonium N, total N, organic C (OC), and CaCO(3) contents were determined in the soil as well as pH, electrical conductivity (EC), oxidation-reduction potential (ORP), and absorbance at 250 and 360 nm. Our data provide evidence that inorganic-N fertilizer dissolved in OOMW significantly reduced the emission of nitrates from soils for two months, increasing OC values. Moreover, OOMW significantly lowered the ORP. The irrigation with DIC also increased soil OC. Thus, the application of inorganic-N fertilizers dissolved in OOMW diluted with water on soils and the irrigation with water bubbled with CO(2) could reduce the environmental impact of OOMW, nitrates, and CO(2).

  7. Oil industry wastewater treatment with fouling resistant membranes containing amphiphilic comb copolymers.

    PubMed

    Asatekin, Ayse; Mayes, Anne M

    2009-06-15

    The oil industry produces large volumes of wastewater, including oil well produced water brought to the surface during oil drilling, and refinery wastewater. These streams are difficult to treat due to large concentrations of oil. Ultrafiltration (UF) is very promising for their treatment to remove oil, but has been limited by economic obstacles due to severe membrane fouling. In a recent study, novel UF membranes incorporating the amphiphilic comb copolymer additive polyacrylonitrile-graft-poly(ethylene oxide), PAN-g-PEO, were found to exhibit complete resistance to irreversible fouling by several classes of organic foulants (J. Membr. Sci. 2007, 298, 136-146). The current work focuses on application of these novel UF membranes to the treatment of oily wastewater feed streams, employing three industrial samples of oil well produced water and refinery wastewater. UF membranes cast with 20 wt % PAN-g-PEO in PAN achieved removals of dispersed and free oils of over 96% based on chemical oxygen demand (COD) for produced water samples, comparable to a PAN UF commercial membrane control. For refinery wastewater treatment the COD removal values were substantially lower, between 41 and 44%, due to higher contents of dissolved organics. Comb copolymer modified membranes showed significantly better fouling resistance than controls, recovering fully their initial fluxes after a simulated backwash for each of the three wastewater samples tested. The results indicate that UF membranes incorporating PAN-g-PEO can be cleaned completely by physical methods alone, which should extend membrane lifetimes substantially and improve the process economics for treatment of oil-contaminated waters.

  8. Oil industry wastewater treatment with fouling resistant membranes containing amphiphilic comb copolymers.

    PubMed

    Asatekin, Ayse; Mayes, Anne M

    2009-06-15

    The oil industry produces large volumes of wastewater, including oil well produced water brought to the surface during oil drilling, and refinery wastewater. These streams are difficult to treat due to large concentrations of oil. Ultrafiltration (UF) is very promising for their treatment to remove oil, but has been limited by economic obstacles due to severe membrane fouling. In a recent study, novel UF membranes incorporating the amphiphilic comb copolymer additive polyacrylonitrile-graft-poly(ethylene oxide), PAN-g-PEO, were found to exhibit complete resistance to irreversible fouling by several classes of organic foulants (J. Membr. Sci. 2007, 298, 136-146). The current work focuses on application of these novel UF membranes to the treatment of oily wastewater feed streams, employing three industrial samples of oil well produced water and refinery wastewater. UF membranes cast with 20 wt % PAN-g-PEO in PAN achieved removals of dispersed and free oils of over 96% based on chemical oxygen demand (COD) for produced water samples, comparable to a PAN UF commercial membrane control. For refinery wastewater treatment the COD removal values were substantially lower, between 41 and 44%, due to higher contents of dissolved organics. Comb copolymer modified membranes showed significantly better fouling resistance than controls, recovering fully their initial fluxes after a simulated backwash for each of the three wastewater samples tested. The results indicate that UF membranes incorporating PAN-g-PEO can be cleaned completely by physical methods alone, which should extend membrane lifetimes substantially and improve the process economics for treatment of oil-contaminated waters. PMID:19603666

  9. A review on palm oil mill biogas plant wastewater treatment using coagulation-ozonation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dexter, Z. D.; Joseph, C. G.; Zahrim, A. Y.

    2016-06-01

    Palm oil mill effluent (POME) generated from the palm oil industry is highly polluted and requires urgent attention for treatment due to its high organic content. Biogas plant containing anaerobic digester is capable to treat the high organic content of the POME while generating valuable biogas at the same time. This green energy from POME is environmental-friendly but the wastewater produced is still highly polluted and blackish in colour. Therefore a novel concept of combining coagulation with ozonation treatment is proposed to treat pollution of this nature. Several parameters should be taken under consideration in order to ensure the effectiveness of the hybrid treatment including ozone dosage, ozone contact time, pH of the water or wastewater, coagulant dosage, and mixing and settling time. This review paper will elucidate the importance of hybrid coagulation-ozonation treatment in producing a clear treated wastewater which is known as the main challenge in palm oil industry

  10. Wastewater use in algae production for generation of renewable resources: a review and preliminary results

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Microalgae feedstock production can be integrated with wastewater and industrial sources of carbon dioxide. This study reviews the literature on algae grown on wastewater and includes a preliminary analysis of algal production based on anaerobic digestion sludge centrate from the Howard F. Curren Advanced Wastewater Treatment Plant (HFC AWTP) in Tampa, Florida and secondary effluent from the City of Lakeland wastewater treatment facilities in Lakeland, Florida. It was demonstrated that a mixed culture of wild algae species could successfully be grown on wastewater nutrients and potentially scaled to commercial production. Algae have demonstrated the ability to naturally colonize low-nutrient effluent water in a wetland treatment system utilized by the City of Lakeland. The results from these experiments show that the algae grown in high strength wastewater from the HFC AWTP are light-limited when cultivated indoor since more than 50% of the outdoor illumination is attenuated in the greenhouse. An analysis was performed to determine the mass of algae that can be supported by the wastewater nutrients (mainly nitrogen and phosphorous) available from the two Florida cities. The study was guided by the growth and productivity data obtained for algal growth in the photobioreactors in operation at the University of South Florida. In the analysis, nutrients and light are assumed to be limited, while CO2 is abundantly available. There is some limitation on land, especially since the HFC AWTP is located at the Port of Tampa. The temperature range in Tampa is assumed to be suitable for algal growth year round. Assuming that the numerous technical challenges to achieving commercial-scale algal production can be met, the results presented suggest that an excess of 71 metric tons per hectare per year of algal biomass can be produced. Two energy production options were considered; liquid biofuels from feedstock with high lipid content, and biogas generation from anaerobic

  11. Wastewater use in algae production for generation of renewable resources: a review and preliminary results.

    PubMed

    Dalrymple, Omatoyo K; Halfhide, Trina; Udom, Innocent; Gilles, Benjamin; Wolan, John; Zhang, Qiong; Ergas, Sarina

    2013-01-05

    Microalgae feedstock production can be integrated with wastewater and industrial sources of carbon dioxide. This study reviews the literature on algae grown on wastewater and includes a preliminary analysis of algal production based on anaerobic digestion sludge centrate from the Howard F. Curren Advanced Wastewater Treatment Plant (HFC AWTP) in Tampa, Florida and secondary effluent from the City of Lakeland wastewater treatment facilities in Lakeland, Florida. It was demonstrated that a mixed culture of wild algae species could successfully be grown on wastewater nutrients and potentially scaled to commercial production. Algae have demonstrated the ability to naturally colonize low-nutrient effluent water in a wetland treatment system utilized by the City of Lakeland. The results from these experiments show that the algae grown in high strength wastewater from the HFC AWTP are light-limited when cultivated indoor since more than 50% of the outdoor illumination is attenuated in the greenhouse.An analysis was performed to determine the mass of algae that can be supported by the wastewater nutrients (mainly nitrogen and phosphorous) available from the two Florida cities. The study was guided by the growth and productivity data obtained for algal growth in the photobioreactors in operation at the University of South Florida. In the analysis, nutrients and light are assumed to be limited, while CO2 is abundantly available. There is some limitation on land, especially since the HFC AWTP is located at the Port of Tampa. The temperature range in Tampa is assumed to be suitable for algal growth year round. Assuming that the numerous technical challenges to achieving commercial-scale algal production can be met, the results presented suggest that an excess of 71 metric tons per hectare per year of algal biomass can be produced. Two energy production options were considered; liquid biofuels from feedstock with high lipid content, and biogas generation from anaerobic

  12. Treatments of oil-refinery and steel-mill wastewaters by mesocosm constructed wetland systems.

    PubMed

    Yang, L; Hu, C C

    2005-01-01

    In this study, two types of industrial wastewater, oil-refining and steel-milling, were selected for investigating their feasibility of treatment by mesocosm constructed wetland systems. The secondly treated effluents from the wastewater treatment plants were directly discharged into the systems controlled at different flow rates. Three wetland mesocosms were installed in the two industries: mesocosms A and B were in the oil refinery, and mesocosm C was in the steel mill. The substratum media used in wetland systems were sand (mesocosm A) and gravel (mesocosms B and C), while the vegetation types selected were reeds (mesocosms A and B) and mixed species of reeds and cattails (mesocosm C). The flow regimes were controlled as free water surface (FWS) and subsurface flow (SSF) for the sand- and gravel-beds, respectively. According to the experimental results, we found that the system treating oil-refining wastewater performed better than that treating steel-milling wastewater learned by comparing the removal efficiencies of COD, total N and total P. In addition, it was found that for oil-refining wastewater treatments, the SSF wetland system (mesocosm B) performed better than FWS (mesocosm A) wetland system when comparing both of their removal of pollutants and growth of vegetation. Besides, the effluents from these two industrial wetland treatment systems might be reclaimed and reused for boiler water, cooling, cleaning and miscellaneous purposes in industries. Further treatments are required if the constructed wetland effluents are thought about being reused for processing in industries.

  13. Biogasification products of water hyacinth wastewater reclamation

    SciTech Connect

    Chynoweth, D.P.; Biljetina, R.; Srivastava, V.J.; Hayes, T.D.

    1984-01-01

    This paper describes the results of research in progress to evaluate the use of water hyacinth for wastewater treatment and subsequent conversion of hyacinth and sludge to methane by anaerobic digestion. Laboratory studies have been directed toward evaluating advanced biogasification concepts and establishing a data base for the design and operation of an experimental test unit (ETU) located at the water hyacinth wastewater treatment facility at Walt Disney World (WDW) located in Kissimmee, Florida. Laboratory-scale kinetic experiments have been conducted using continuously-stirred tank reactors (CSTR) and a novel non-mixed upflow solids reactor (USR) receiving a hyacinth/sludge blend at retention times of 15 down to 2.1 days. The data suggest that best performance is achieved in the USR which has longer solids and organism retention. A larger-scale ETU (160 cu ft) was designed and installed at WDW in 1983 and started up in 1984. The purpose of this unit is to validate laboratory experiments and to evaluate larger-scale equipment used for chopping, slurry preparation, mixing, and effluent dewatering. The ETU includes a front end designed for multiple feed processing and storage, a fully instrumented USR digester, and tanks for effluent and gas storage. The ETU is currently being operated on a 2:1 blend (dry wt basis) of water hyacinth and primary sludge. Performance is good without major operational problems. Results of laboratory studies and start-up and operation of the ETU will be presented. 7 references, 4 figures, 1 table.

  14. Biohydrogen production and wastewater treatment from organic wastewater by anaerobic fermentation with UASB

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Lu; Li, Yong-feng; Wang, Yi-xuan; Yang, Chuan-ping

    2010-11-01

    In order to discuss the ability of H2-production and wastewater treatment, an up-flow anaerobic sludge bed (UASB) using a synthesized substrate with brown sugar wastewater was conducted to investigate the hydrogen yield, hydrogen producing rate, fermentation type of biohydrogen production, and the chemical oxygen demand (COD) removal rate, respectively. The results show that when the biomass of inoculants was 22.5 g SSṡL-1 and the influent concentration, hydraulic retention time (HRT) and initial pH were within the ranges of 4000˜6000 mg CODṡL-1, 8 h and 5-5.5, respectively, and the biohydrogen producing reactor could work effectively. The maximum hydrogen production rate is 5.98 Lṡd-1. Simultaneously, the concentration of ethanol and acetic acid is around 80% of the aqueous terminal production in the system, which presents the typical ethanol type fermentation. pH is at the range of 4˜4.5 during the whole performing process, however, the removal rate of COD is just about 20%. Therefore, it's still needs further research to successfully achieve the biohydrogen production and wastewater treatment, simultaneously.

  15. Energy production from food industry wastewaters using bioelectrochemical cells

    SciTech Connect

    Hamilton, Choo Yieng

    2009-01-01

    Conversion of waste and renewable resources to energy using microbial fuel cells (MFCs) is an upcoming technology for enabling a cleaner and sustainable environment. This paper assesses the energy production potential from the US food industry wastewater resource. It also reports on an experimental study investigating conversion of wastewater from a local milk dairy plant to electricity. An MFC anode biocatalyst enriched on model sugar and organic acid substrates was used as the inoculum for the dairy wastewater MFC. The tests were conducted using a two-chamber MFC with a porous three dimensional anode and a Pt/C air-cathode. Power densities up to 690 mW/m2 (54 W/m3) were obtained. Analysis of the food industry wastewater resource indicated that MFCs can potentially recover 2 to 260 kWh/ton of food processed from wastewaters generated during food processing, depending on the biological oxygen demand and volume of water used in the process. A total of 1960 MW of power can potentially be produced from US milk industry wastewaters alone. Hydrogen is an alternate form of energy that can be produced using bioelectrochemical cells. Approximately 2 to 270 m3 of hydrogen can be generated per ton of the food processed. Application of MFCs for treatment of food processing wastewaters requires further investigations into electrode design, materials, liquid flow management, proton transfer, organic loading and scale-up to enable high power densities at the larger scale. Potential for water recycle also exists, but requires careful consideration of the microbiological safety and regulatory aspects and the economic feasibility of the process.

  16. The detection of rotaviruses in products of wastewater treatment.

    PubMed Central

    Bates, J.; Goddard, M. R.; Butler, M.

    1984-01-01

    Rotaviruses present in products of wastewater treatment were assayed in MA104 cells by indirect immunofluorescence. Levels in settled sewage, activated sludge and effluent were greater than 10(3) per litre in March and April but virus was not detected during later months. This pattern correlated with the decline in laboratory reports of human rotavirus infection. PMID:6096445

  17. Hyperthermophilic hydrogen production from wastewater biosolids by caldicellulosiruptor bescii

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Wastewater biosolids are abundant renewable resources that are rich in organic matter and offer a low cost potential feedstock for biohydrogen production. Relevant literature indicates that biosolids conversion rates are relatively low and therefore this option is not considered feasible. This study...

  18. Conventional methods and emerging wastewater polishing technologies for palm oil mill effluent treatment: a review.

    PubMed

    Liew, Wai Loan; Kassim, Mohd Azraai; Muda, Khalida; Loh, Soh Kheang; Affam, Augustine Chioma

    2015-02-01

    The Malaysian palm oil industry is a major revenue earner and the country is ranked as one of the largest producers in the world. However, growth of the industry is synonymous with a massive production of agro-industrial wastewater. As an environmental protection and public health concern, the highly polluting palm oil mill effluent (POME) has become a major attention-grabber. Hence, the industry is targeting for POME pollution abatement in order to promote a greener image of palm oil and to achieve sustainability. At present, most palm oil mills have adopted the ponding system for treatment. Due to the successful POME pollution abatement experiences, Malaysia is currently planning to revise the effluent quality standards towards a more stringent discharge limits. Hence, the current trend of POME research focuses on developing tertiary treatment or polishing systems for better effluent management. Biotechnologically-advanced POME tertiary (polishing) technologies as well as other physicochemical methods are gaining much attention as these processes are the key players to push the industry towards the goal of environmental sustainability. There are still ongoing treatment technologies being researched and the outcomes maybe available in a while. However, the research completed so far are compiled herein and reported for the first time to acquire a better perspective and insight on the subject with a view of meeting the new standards. To this end, the most feasible technology could be the combination of advanced biological processes (bioreactor systems) with extended aeration, followed by solids separation prior to discharge. Chemical dosing is favoured only if effluent of higher quality is anticipated. PMID:25463585

  19. Conventional methods and emerging wastewater polishing technologies for palm oil mill effluent treatment: a review.

    PubMed

    Liew, Wai Loan; Kassim, Mohd Azraai; Muda, Khalida; Loh, Soh Kheang; Affam, Augustine Chioma

    2015-02-01

    The Malaysian palm oil industry is a major revenue earner and the country is ranked as one of the largest producers in the world. However, growth of the industry is synonymous with a massive production of agro-industrial wastewater. As an environmental protection and public health concern, the highly polluting palm oil mill effluent (POME) has become a major attention-grabber. Hence, the industry is targeting for POME pollution abatement in order to promote a greener image of palm oil and to achieve sustainability. At present, most palm oil mills have adopted the ponding system for treatment. Due to the successful POME pollution abatement experiences, Malaysia is currently planning to revise the effluent quality standards towards a more stringent discharge limits. Hence, the current trend of POME research focuses on developing tertiary treatment or polishing systems for better effluent management. Biotechnologically-advanced POME tertiary (polishing) technologies as well as other physicochemical methods are gaining much attention as these processes are the key players to push the industry towards the goal of environmental sustainability. There are still ongoing treatment technologies being researched and the outcomes maybe available in a while. However, the research completed so far are compiled herein and reported for the first time to acquire a better perspective and insight on the subject with a view of meeting the new standards. To this end, the most feasible technology could be the combination of advanced biological processes (bioreactor systems) with extended aeration, followed by solids separation prior to discharge. Chemical dosing is favoured only if effluent of higher quality is anticipated.

  20. Reuse of drinking water treatment sludge for olive oil mill wastewater treatment.

    PubMed

    Fragoso, R A; Duarte, E A

    2012-01-01

    Olive mill wastewater (OMW) results from the production of olive oil, which is an important traditional agro-industry in Mediterranean countries. In continuous three-phase centrifugation 1.0-1.2 m(3) of OMW are produced per ton of processed olives. Discharge of OMW is of serious environmental concern due to its high content of organic matter with phytotoxic properties, namely phenolic compounds. Meanwhile, drinking water treatment sludge (DWTS) is produced in high amounts and has long been considered as a waste for landfill. The aim of this work was the assessment of reusing DWTS for OMW treatment. High performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) analysis was carried out to determine the phenolic compounds present and to evaluate if they are recalcitrant. Treatability assays were performed using a dosage of DWTS from 50 to 300 g L(-1). Treatment efficiency was evaluated based on the removal of chemical oxygen demand (COD), biochemical oxygen demand (BOD), total solids (TS), total suspended solids (TSS), total volatile solids (TVS), oil and grease (OG), phenols (total phosphorous (TP) and HPLC fraction). Results from OMW HPLC characterization identified a total of 13 compounds; the major ones were hydroxytyrosol, tyrosol, caffeic acid, p-cumaric acid and oleuropein. Treatability assays led to a maximum reduction of about 90% of some of the phenolic compounds determined by HPLC. Addition of 200-300 g L(-1) of DWTS reduced 40-50% of COD, 45-50% of TP, a maximum of nearly 70% TSS and 45% for TS and TVS. The OG fraction showed a reduction of about 90%, achieved adding 300 g L(-1) od DWTS. This study points out the possibility of establishing an integrated management of OMW and DWTS, contributing to a decrease in the environmental impact of two industrial activities, olive oil production and drinking water treatment.

  1. Fat, oil and grease waste from municipal wastewater: characterization, activation and sustainable conversion into biofuel.

    PubMed

    Pastore, Carlo; Pagano, Michele; Lopez, Antonio; Mininni, Giuseppe; Mascolo, Giuseppe

    2015-01-01

    Fat, oil and grease (FOG) recovered by the oil/water separator of a wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) were sampled, characterized, activated and converted into biofuel. Free acids (50-55%) and fatty soaps (26-32%) not only composed the main components, but they were also easily separable from the starting waste. The respective free fatty acid profiles were gas-chromatographically evaluated, interestingly verifying that free acids had a different profile (mainly oleic acid) with respect to the soapy fraction (saturated fatty acids were dominant). The inorganic composition was also determined for soaps, confirming that calcium is the most commonly present metal. The chemical activation of this fatty waste was made possible by converting the starting soaps into the respective free fatty acids by using formic acid as activator, coproducing the relevant formates. The activated fatty matter was then converted into biofuel through direct esterification under very mild conditions (345 K, atmospheric pressure) and obtaining thermodynamic conversion in less than 2 h. The process was easily scaled up, isolating at the end pure biodiesel (purity > 96%) through distillation under vacuum, providing a final product conformed to commercial purposes.

  2. Fat, oil and grease waste from municipal wastewater: characterization, activation and sustainable conversion into biofuel.

    PubMed

    Pastore, Carlo; Pagano, Michele; Lopez, Antonio; Mininni, Giuseppe; Mascolo, Giuseppe

    2015-01-01

    Fat, oil and grease (FOG) recovered by the oil/water separator of a wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) were sampled, characterized, activated and converted into biofuel. Free acids (50-55%) and fatty soaps (26-32%) not only composed the main components, but they were also easily separable from the starting waste. The respective free fatty acid profiles were gas-chromatographically evaluated, interestingly verifying that free acids had a different profile (mainly oleic acid) with respect to the soapy fraction (saturated fatty acids were dominant). The inorganic composition was also determined for soaps, confirming that calcium is the most commonly present metal. The chemical activation of this fatty waste was made possible by converting the starting soaps into the respective free fatty acids by using formic acid as activator, coproducing the relevant formates. The activated fatty matter was then converted into biofuel through direct esterification under very mild conditions (345 K, atmospheric pressure) and obtaining thermodynamic conversion in less than 2 h. The process was easily scaled up, isolating at the end pure biodiesel (purity > 96%) through distillation under vacuum, providing a final product conformed to commercial purposes. PMID:25909724

  3. Pesticide interactions with soils affected by olive oil mill wastewater

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Keren, Yonatan; Bukhanovsky, Nadezhda; Borisover, Mikhail

    2013-04-01

    Soil pesticide sorption is well known to affect the fate of pesticides, their bioavailability and the potential to contaminate air and water. Soil - pesticide interactions may be strongly influenced by soil organic matter (SOM) and organic matter (OM)-rich soil amendments. One special OM source in soils is related to olive oil production residues that may include both solid and liquid wastes. In the Mediterranean area, the olive oil production is considered as an important field in the agricultural sector. Due to the significant rise in olive oil production, the amount of wastes is growing respectively. Olive oil mill waste water (OMWW) is the liquid byproduct in the so-called "three phase" technological process. Features of OMWW include the high content of fatty aliphatic components and polyphenols and their often-considered toxicity. One way of OMWW disposal is the land spreading, e.g., in olive orchards. The land application of OMWW (either controlled or not) is supposed to affect the multiple soil properties, including hydrophobicity and the potential of soils to interact with pesticides. Therefore, there is both basic and applied interest in elucidating the interactions between organic compounds and soils affected by OMWW. However, little is known about the impact of OMWW - soil interactions on sorption of organic compounds, and specifically, on sorption of agrochemicals. This paper reports an experimental study of sorption interactions of a series of organic compounds including widely used herbicides such as diuron and simazine, in a range of soils that were affected by OMWW (i) historically or (ii) in the controlled land disposal experiments. It is demonstrated that there is a distinct increase in apparent sorption of organic chemicals in soils affected by OMWW. In selected systems, this increase may be explained by increase in SOM content. However, the SOM quality places a role: the rise in organic compound - soil interactions may both exceed the SOM

  4. Cultivation of microalgal Chlorella for biomass and lipid production using wastewater as nutrient resource.

    PubMed

    Chiu, Sheng-Yi; Kao, Chien-Ya; Chen, Tsai-Yu; Chang, Yu-Bin; Kuo, Chiu-Mei; Lin, Chih-Sheng

    2015-05-01

    Using wastewater for microalgal cultures is beneficial for minimizing the use of freshwater, reducing the cost of nutrient addition, removing nitrogen and phosphorus from wastewater and producing microalgal biomass as bioresources for biofuel or high-value by-products. There are three main sources of wastewater, municipal (domestic), agricultural and industrial wastewater, which contain a variety of ingredients. Some components in the wastewater, such as nitrogen and phosphorus, are useful ingredients for microalgal cultures. In this review, the effects on the biomass and lipid production of microalgal Chlorella cultures using different kinds of wastewater were summarized. The use of the nutrients resource in wastewater for microalgal cultures was also reviewed. The effect of ammonium in wastewater on microalgal Chlorella growth was intensively discussed. In the end, limitations of wastewater-based of microalgal culture were commented in this review article.

  5. Hydrothermal liquefaction of mixed-culture algal biomass from wastewater treatment system into bio-crude oil.

    PubMed

    Chen, Wan-Ting; Zhang, Yuanhui; Zhang, Jixiang; Yu, Guo; Schideman, Lance C; Zhang, Peng; Minarick, Mitchell

    2014-01-01

    In this study, a mixed-culture algal biomass harvested from a functioning wastewater treatment system (AW) was hydrothermally converted into bio-crude oils. The highest bio-crude oil yield (49% of volatile matter) and the highest energy recovery were obtained at 300 °C with 1 h retention time. The highest heating value of the bio-crude oil was 33.3 MJ/kg, produced at 320 °C and 1h retention time. Thermogravimetric analysis showed approximately 60% of the bio-crude oils were distilled in the range of 200-550 °C; and the solid residue might be suitable for use in asphalt. GC-MS results indicated that the bio-crude oil contained hydrocarbons and fatty acids, while the aqueous product was rich in organic acids and cyclic amines. The nitrogen recovery (NR) in the bio-crude oil ranged from 8.41% to 16.8%, which was lower than the typical range of 25%-53% from previous studies. PMID:24287452

  6. Cassava wastewater as a substrate for the simultaneous production of rhamnolipids and polyhydroxyalkanoates by Pseudomonas aeruginosa.

    PubMed

    Costa, Siddhartha G V A O; Lépine, François; Milot, Sylvain; Déziel, Eric; Nitschke, Marcia; Contiero, Jonas

    2009-08-01

    Glycerol, cassava wastewater (CW), waste cooking oil and CW with waste frying oils were evaluated as alternative low-cost carbon substrates for the production of rhamnolipids and polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHAs) by various Pseudomonas aeruginosa strains. The polymers and surfactants produced were characterized by gas chromatography-mass spectrophotometry (MS) and by high-performance liquid chromatography-MS, and their composition was found to vary with the carbon source and the strain used in the fermentation. The best overall production of rhamnolipids and PHAs was obtained with CW with frying oil as the carbon source, with PHA production corresponding to 39% of the cell dry weight and rhamnolipid production being 660 mg l(-1). Under these conditions, the surface tension of the culture decreased to 30 mN m(-1), and the critical micelle concentration was 26.5 mg l(-1). It would appear that CW with frying oil has the highest potential as an alternative substrate, and its use may contribute to a reduction in the overall environmental impact generated by discarding such residues.

  7. Problems Associated with Declining National Oil Production

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jackson, J. S.

    2009-12-01

    Forecasts of peak oil production have focussed on the global impacts of declining production. Meanwhile, national oil production has declined in 20 countries, leading to local problems that receive little comment outside of the effected regions. Two problems deserve wider recognition: declining state revenues and fuel substitution. Most oil producing countries with large reserves adopted licensing practices that provide significant revenues to the host governments such that oil revenues generate from 40 to 80 percent of total government funds. Typically these governments allocate a fraction of this revenue to their state oil companies, utilizing the remainder for other activities. As oil revenues decline with falling production, host governments face a dilemma: either to increase state oil company budgets in order to stem the decline, or to starve the state oil company while maintaining other government programs. The declining oil revenues in these states can significantly reduce the government's ability to address important national issues. Mexico, Indonesia, and Yemen illustrate this situation in its early phases. Fuel substitution occurs whenever one fuel proves less expensive than another. The substitution of coal for wood in the eighteenth century and oil for coal in the twentieth century are classic examples. China and India appear to be at peak oil production, while their economies generate increasing demand for energy. Both countries are substituting coal and natural gas for oil with attendant environmental impacts. Coal-to-liquids projects are proposed in in both China, which will require significant water resources if they are executed. These examples suggest that forecasting the impact of peak oil at a regional level requires more than an assessment of proven-probable-possible reserves and a forecast of supply-demand scenarios. A range of government responses to declining oil income scenarios must also be considered, together with scenarios describing

  8. Olive orchard amended with olive mill wastewater: effects on olive fruit and olive oil quality.

    PubMed

    Mechri, B; Issaoui, M; Echbili, A; Chehab, H; Mariem, F B; Braham, M; Hammami, M

    2009-12-30

    The aim of this work was to study the effects of agronomic application of olive mill wastewater (OMW) in a field of olive trees on olive fruit and olive oil quality. Agronomic application of OMW increased significantly the fungal:bacteria ratio, whereas the root colonisation and the photosynthetic rates decreased significantly. Consequently, the oil content expressed as a percentage of dry weight, decreased significantly after agronomic application of OMW. Land spreading of OMW altered the relative proportion of individual olive fruit sugar and decreased significantly the nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) of the fruit. A significant increase was observed in total phenol content of oil after agronomic application of OMW. alpha-Tocopherol content, on the contrary, decreased with OMW application. The fatty acid composition of the oil was not affected by the treatments. To our knowledge, this is the first report of change in the olive fruit and olive oil quality following agronomic application of OMW.

  9. Utilization of treated swine wastewater for greenhouse tomato production.

    PubMed

    Cheng, J; Shearin, T E; Peet, M M; Willits, D H

    2004-01-01

    An integrated system has been developed to recycle waste organics and treated wastewater from a swine farm to make value-added products and to protect the environment from potential contamination. The farm is a farrow-to-wean swine operation with approximately 4,000 sows. A high-strength wastewater (chemical oxygen demand, 18,000 mg/l; total Khejdal nitrogen, 1,600 mg/l; total phosphorus, 360 mg/l) is produced from the swine operation. An ambient-temperature anaerobic digester has been used to treat the swine wastewater and to produce biogas (from an average 475 m3/day in winter to 950 m3/day in summer). The biogas is combusted in an engine to produce electricity (around 900 kW-hr/day). The digester effluent that is rich in nutrients (N, P, and minerals) is then utilized for fertigation for greenhouse tomato production. A trickling nitrification biofilter has been developed to convert ammonium in the effluent into nitrate. The nitrified anaerobic effluent is used as both fertilizer and irrigation water for approximately 14,400 tomato plants in greenhouses. Experimental data indicate that the tomato greenhouses have used approximately 12 m3 of the effluent and 3.84 kg nitrogen per day. At the same time, the greenhouses have a daily yield of 520 kg (37 g/plant) of marketable fruit. PMID:15344776

  10. Effects of wastewater microalgae harvesting methods on polyhydroxybutyrate production.

    PubMed

    Rahman, Asif; Anthony, Renil J; Sathish, Ashik; Sims, Ronald C; Miller, Charles D

    2014-03-01

    Microalgae have gained considerable attention recently as a sustainable means to produce biofuels and bioproducts. It has previously been demonstrated that single strain microalgae can be harvested and processed through a wet lipid extraction procedure (WLEP). After WLEP processing, acetone, butanol, ethanol, and biodiesel can be produced, and growth of recombinant Escherichia coli can be achieved from the microalgae. This study demonstrates the application of different wastewater microalgae harvesting techniques and processing through WLEP on the production of polyhydroxybutyrate (PHB) by E. coli. The harvesting techniques include: cationic potato starch (CPS), cationic corn starch (CCS), aluminum sulfate, and centrifugation. The microalgae-based media were used to grow E. coli to ∼10(13)CFU/mL and produce approximately 7.8% of dry cell weight as PHB. This study demonstrates the feasibility of harvesting wastewater algae to produce PHB and the potential for bioproduct generation.

  11. Electricity Generation and Wastewater Treatment of Oil Refinery in Microbial Fuel Cells Using Pseudomonas putida

    PubMed Central

    Majumder, Dip; Maity, Jyoti Prakash; Tseng, Min-Jen; Nimje, Vanita Roshan; Chen, Hau-Ren; Chen, Chien-Cheng; Chang, Young-Fo; Yang, Tsui-Chu; Chen, Chen-Yen

    2014-01-01

    Microbial fuel cells (MFCs) represent a novel platform for treating wastewater and at the same time generating electricity. Using Pseudomonas putida (BCRC 1059), a wild-type bacterium, we demonstrated that the refinery wastewater could be treated and also generate electric current in an air-cathode chamber over four-batch cycles for 63 cumulative days. Our study indicated that the oil refinery wastewater containing 2213 mg/L (ppm) chemical oxygen demand (COD) could be used as a substrate for electricity generation in the reactor of the MFC. A maximum voltage of 355 mV was obtained with the highest power density of 0.005 mW/cm2 in the third cycle with a maximum current density of 0.015 mA/cm2 in regard to the external resistor of 1000 Ω. A maximum coulombic efficiency of 6 × 10−2% was obtained in the fourth cycle. The removal efficiency of the COD reached 30% as a function of time. Electron transfer mechanism was studied using cyclic voltammetry, which indicated the presence of a soluble electron shuttle in the reactor. Our study demonstrated that oil refinery wastewater could be used as a substrate for electricity generation. PMID:25247576

  12. Electricity generation and wastewater treatment of oil refinery in microbial fuel cells using Pseudomonas putida.

    PubMed

    Majumder, Dip; Maity, Jyoti Prakash; Tseng, Min-Jen; Nimje, Vanita Roshan; Chen, Hau-Ren; Chen, Chien-Cheng; Chang, Young-Fo; Yang, Tsui-Chu; Chen, Chen-Yen

    2014-09-22

    Microbial fuel cells (MFCs) represent a novel platform for treating wastewater and at the same time generating electricity. Using Pseudomonas putida (BCRC 1059), a wild-type bacterium, we demonstrated that the refinery wastewater could be treated and also generate electric current in an air-cathode chamber over four-batch cycles for 63 cumulative days. Our study indicated that the oil refinery wastewater containing 2213 mg/L (ppm) chemical oxygen demand (COD) could be used as a substrate for electricity generation in the reactor of the MFC. A maximum voltage of 355 mV was obtained with the highest power density of 0.005 mW/cm² in the third cycle with a maximum current density of 0.015 mA/cm² in regard to the external resistor of 1000 Ω. A maximum coulombic efficiency of 6 × 10⁻²% was obtained in the fourth cycle. The removal efficiency of the COD reached 30% as a function of time. Electron transfer mechanism was studied using cyclic voltammetry, which indicated the presence of a soluble electron shuttle in the reactor. Our study demonstrated that oil refinery wastewater could be used as a substrate for electricity generation.

  13. Electricity generation and wastewater treatment of oil refinery in microbial fuel cells using Pseudomonas putida.

    PubMed

    Majumder, Dip; Maity, Jyoti Prakash; Tseng, Min-Jen; Nimje, Vanita Roshan; Chen, Hau-Ren; Chen, Chien-Cheng; Chang, Young-Fo; Yang, Tsui-Chu; Chen, Chen-Yen

    2014-01-01

    Microbial fuel cells (MFCs) represent a novel platform for treating wastewater and at the same time generating electricity. Using Pseudomonas putida (BCRC 1059), a wild-type bacterium, we demonstrated that the refinery wastewater could be treated and also generate electric current in an air-cathode chamber over four-batch cycles for 63 cumulative days. Our study indicated that the oil refinery wastewater containing 2213 mg/L (ppm) chemical oxygen demand (COD) could be used as a substrate for electricity generation in the reactor of the MFC. A maximum voltage of 355 mV was obtained with the highest power density of 0.005 mW/cm² in the third cycle with a maximum current density of 0.015 mA/cm² in regard to the external resistor of 1000 Ω. A maximum coulombic efficiency of 6 × 10⁻²% was obtained in the fourth cycle. The removal efficiency of the COD reached 30% as a function of time. Electron transfer mechanism was studied using cyclic voltammetry, which indicated the presence of a soluble electron shuttle in the reactor. Our study demonstrated that oil refinery wastewater could be used as a substrate for electricity generation. PMID:25247576

  14. Degradation and remediation of soils polluted with oil-field wastewater

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gabbasova, I. M.; Suleymanov, R. R.; Garipov, T. T.

    2013-02-01

    The changes in the properties of gray forest soils and leached chernozems under the impact of contamination with highly saline oil-field wastewater were studied in a model experiment. It was shown that the soil contamination results in the development of technogenic salinization and alkalization leading to worsening of the major soil properties. The salinization of the soils with oil-field wastewater transformed the soil exchange complex: the cation exchange capacity decreased, and the exchangeable sodium percentage increased to up to 25% of the CEC upon the wastewater infiltration and up to 60% of the CEC upon the continuous soil saturation with the wastewater independently of the soil type. The content of exchangeable magnesium also increased due to the phenomenon of super-equivalent exchange. Despite the saturation of the soil adsorption complex with sodium, no development of the soil alkalization took place in the presence of the high concentration of soluble salts. However, the soil alkalization was observed upon the soil washing from soluble salts. The gypsum application to the washed soils lowered the exchangeable sodium concentration to acceptable values and normalized the soil reaction. The gypsum application without the preliminary washing of the soils from soluble salts was of low efficiency; even after six months, the content of exchangeable sodium remained very high. The subsequent soil washing resulted in the removal of the soluble salts but did not affect the degree of the soil alkalization.

  15. Valorization of lubricant-based wastewater for bacterial neutral lipids production: Growth-linked biosynthesis.

    PubMed

    Da Silva, Pedro D M P; Lima, Filipa; Alves, Maria Madalena; Bijmans, Martijn F M; Pereira, Maria Alcina

    2016-09-15

    Lipids produced by microorganisms are currently of great interest as raw material for either biofuels or oleochemicals production. Significant biosynthesis of neutral lipids, such as triacylglycerol (TAG) and wax esters (WE) are thought to be limited to a few strains. Hydrocarbonoclastic bacteria (HCB), key players in bioremediation of hydrocarbon contaminated ecosystems, are among this group of strains. Hydrocarbon rich wastewaters have been overlooked concerning their potential as raw material for microbial lipids production. In this study, lubricant-based wastewater was fed, as sole carbon source, to two HCB representative wild strains: Alcanivorax borkumensis SK2, and Rhodococcus opacus PD630. Neutral lipid production was observed with both strains cultivated under uncontrolled conditions of pH and dissolved oxygen. A. borkumensis SK2 was further investigated in a pH- and OD-controlled fermenter. Different phases were assessed separately in terms of lipids production and alkanes removal. The maximum TAG production rate occurred during stationary phase (4 mg-TAG/L h). The maximum production rate of WE-like compounds was 15 mg/L h, and was observed during exponential growth phase. Hydrocarbons removal was 97% of the gas chromatography (GC) resolved straight-chain alkanes. The maximum removal rate was observed during exponential growth phase (6 mg-alkanes/L h). This investigation proposes a novel approach for the management of lubricant waste oil, aiming at its conversion into valuable lipids. The feasibility of the concept is demonstrated under low salt (0.3%) and saline (3.3%) conditions, and presents clues for its technological development, since growth associated oil production opens the possibility for establishing continuous fermentation processes. PMID:27244293

  16. Valorization of lubricant-based wastewater for bacterial neutral lipids production: Growth-linked biosynthesis.

    PubMed

    Da Silva, Pedro D M P; Lima, Filipa; Alves, Maria Madalena; Bijmans, Martijn F M; Pereira, Maria Alcina

    2016-09-15

    Lipids produced by microorganisms are currently of great interest as raw material for either biofuels or oleochemicals production. Significant biosynthesis of neutral lipids, such as triacylglycerol (TAG) and wax esters (WE) are thought to be limited to a few strains. Hydrocarbonoclastic bacteria (HCB), key players in bioremediation of hydrocarbon contaminated ecosystems, are among this group of strains. Hydrocarbon rich wastewaters have been overlooked concerning their potential as raw material for microbial lipids production. In this study, lubricant-based wastewater was fed, as sole carbon source, to two HCB representative wild strains: Alcanivorax borkumensis SK2, and Rhodococcus opacus PD630. Neutral lipid production was observed with both strains cultivated under uncontrolled conditions of pH and dissolved oxygen. A. borkumensis SK2 was further investigated in a pH- and OD-controlled fermenter. Different phases were assessed separately in terms of lipids production and alkanes removal. The maximum TAG production rate occurred during stationary phase (4 mg-TAG/L h). The maximum production rate of WE-like compounds was 15 mg/L h, and was observed during exponential growth phase. Hydrocarbons removal was 97% of the gas chromatography (GC) resolved straight-chain alkanes. The maximum removal rate was observed during exponential growth phase (6 mg-alkanes/L h). This investigation proposes a novel approach for the management of lubricant waste oil, aiming at its conversion into valuable lipids. The feasibility of the concept is demonstrated under low salt (0.3%) and saline (3.3%) conditions, and presents clues for its technological development, since growth associated oil production opens the possibility for establishing continuous fermentation processes.

  17. Effects of Saline-Wastewater Injection on Water Quality in the Altamont-Bluebell Oil and Gas Field, Duchesne County, Utah, 1990-2005

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Steiger, Judy I.

    2007-01-01

    The Altamont-Bluebell oil and gas field in the Uinta Basin in northeastern Utah has been an important oil and natural gas production area since the 1950s. Saline water is produced along with oil during the oil-well drilling and pumping process. The saline wastewater is disposed of by injection into wells completed in the Duchesne River Formation, Uinta Formation, and other underlying formations. There are concerns that the injected saline wastewater could migrate into the upper part of the Duchesne River and Uinta Formations and surficial deposits that are used for drinking-water supply and degrade the quality of the drinking water. The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Utah Department of Natural Resources, Division of Oil, Gas, and Mining, began a program in 1990 to monitor water quality in five wells in the Altamont-Bluebell oil and gas field. By 1996, water-quality samples had been collected from 20 wells. Ten of the 20 wells were sampled yearly during 1996-2005 and analyzed for bromide, chloride, and stable isotopes. Comparison of major chemical constituents, bromide-to-chloride ratios, trend analysis, and isotope ratios were used to assess if saline wastewater is migrating into parts of the formation that are developed for drinking-water supplies. Results of four different analyses all indicate that saline wastewater injected into the lower part of the Duchesne River and Uinta Formations and underlying formations is not migrating upward into the upper parts of the formations that are used for drinking-water supplies.

  18. The use of waterworks sludge for the treatment of vegetable oil refinery industry wastewater.

    PubMed

    Basibuyuk, M; Kalat, D G

    2004-03-01

    Water treatment works using coagulation/flocculation in the process stream will generate a waste sludge. This sludge is termed as ferric, alum, or lime sludge based on which coagulant was primarily used. The works in Adana, Turkey uses ferric chloride. The potential for using this sludge for the treatment of vegetable oil refinery industry wastewater by coagulation has been investigated. The sludge acted as a coagulant and excellent oil and grease, COD and TSS removal efficiencies were obtained. The optimum conditions were a pH of 6 and a sludge dose of 1100 mg SS l(-1). The efficiency of sludge was also compared with alum and ferric chloride for the vegetable oil refinery wastewater. At doses of 1300-1900 mg SS l(-1), the sludge was as effective as ferric chloride and alum at removing oil and grease, COD, and TSS. In addition, various combinations of ferric chloride and waterworks sludge were also examined. Under the condition of 12.5 mg l(-1) fresh ferric chloride and 1000 mg SS l(-1) sludge dose, 99% oil and grease 99% TSS and 83% COD removal efficiencies were obtained. PMID:15176752

  19. The use of waterworks sludge for the treatment of vegetable oil refinery industry wastewater.

    PubMed

    Basibuyuk, M; Kalat, D G

    2004-03-01

    Water treatment works using coagulation/flocculation in the process stream will generate a waste sludge. This sludge is termed as ferric, alum, or lime sludge based on which coagulant was primarily used. The works in Adana, Turkey uses ferric chloride. The potential for using this sludge for the treatment of vegetable oil refinery industry wastewater by coagulation has been investigated. The sludge acted as a coagulant and excellent oil and grease, COD and TSS removal efficiencies were obtained. The optimum conditions were a pH of 6 and a sludge dose of 1100 mg SS l(-1). The efficiency of sludge was also compared with alum and ferric chloride for the vegetable oil refinery wastewater. At doses of 1300-1900 mg SS l(-1), the sludge was as effective as ferric chloride and alum at removing oil and grease, COD, and TSS. In addition, various combinations of ferric chloride and waterworks sludge were also examined. Under the condition of 12.5 mg l(-1) fresh ferric chloride and 1000 mg SS l(-1) sludge dose, 99% oil and grease 99% TSS and 83% COD removal efficiencies were obtained.

  20. Scenedesmus quadricauda for Nutrient Removal and Lipid Production in Wastewater.

    PubMed

    Wong, Y K; Yung, K K L; Tsang, Y F; Xia, Y; Wang, L; Ho, K C

    2015-12-01

    Scenedesmus quadricauda, a local freshwater microalga, was used to treat primary settled and filtrate wastewater and to produce algal lipid. For the primary settled wastewater, the maximum biomass concentrations of acclimated and unacclimated microalgae were 0.995 g/L and 0.940 g/L, respectively. Over 90% orthophosphate and 95% ammonia nitrogen in the acclimated and unacclimated cultures, respectively, were removed after five days. The lipid contents of the microalgae were higher than 13% in all cultures. The highest growth rate occurred in the 25% filtrate culture. Over 80% phosphate was removed under the 25% and 50% filtrate cultures within six days, while over 90% ammonia nitrogen was removed within five days under both conditions. The lipid content was the highest (18.1%) under the 50% filtrate condition. C16:0, C18:2n6, and C18:3n3 were dominant fatty acids. In conclusion, S. quadricauda is a viable candidate for wastewater treatment and lipid production. PMID:26652116

  1. Transgenic oil palm: production and projection.

    PubMed

    Parveez, G K; Masri, M M; Zainal, A; Majid, N A; Yunus, A M; Fadilah, H H; Rasid, O; Cheah, S C

    2000-12-01

    Oil palm is an important economic crop for Malaysia. Genetic engineering could be applied to produce transgenic oil palms with high value-added fatty acids and novel products to ensure the sustainability of the palm oil industry. Establishment of a reliable transformation and regeneration system is essential for genetic engineering. Biolistic was initially chosen as the method for oil palm transformation as it has been the most successful method for monocotyledons to date. Optimization of physical and biological parameters, including testing of promoters and selective agents, was carried out as a prerequisite for stable transformation. This has resulted in the successful transfer of reporter genes into oil palm and the regeneration of transgenic oil palm, thus making it possible to improve the oil palm through genetic engineering. Besides application of the Biolistics method, studies on transformation mediated by Agrobacterium and utilization of the green fluorescent protein gene as a selectable marker gene have been initiated. Upon the development of a reliable transformation system, a number of useful targets are being projected for oil palm improvement. Among these targets are high-oleate and high-stearate oils, and the production of industrial feedstock such as biodegradable plastics. The efforts in oil palm genetic engineering are thus not targeted as commodity palm oil. Due to the long life cycle of the palm and the time taken to regenerate plants in tissue culture, it is envisaged that commercial planting of transgenic palms will not occur any earlier than the year 2020.

  2. Nutrients removal and lipids production by Chlorella pyrenoidosa cultivation using anaerobic digested starch wastewater and alcohol wastewater.

    PubMed

    Yang, Libin; Tan, Xiaobo; Li, Deyi; Chu, Huaqiang; Zhou, Xuefei; Zhang, Yalei; Yu, Hong

    2015-04-01

    The cultivation of microalgae Chlorella pyrenoidosa (C. pyrenoidosa) using anaerobic digested starch wastewater (ADSW) and alcohol wastewater (AW) was evaluated in this study. Different proportions of mixed wastewater (AW/ADSW=0.176:1, 0.053:1, 0.026:1, v/v) and pure ADSW, AW were used for C. pyrenoidosa cultivation. The different proportions between ADSW and AW significantly influenced biomass growth, lipids production and pollutants removal. The best performance was achieved using mixed wastewater (AW/ADSW=0.053:1, v/v), leading to a maximal total biomass of 3.01±0.15 g/L (dry weight), lipids productivity of 127.71±6.31 mg/L/d and pollutants removal of COD=75.78±3.76%, TN=91.64±4.58% and TP=90.74±4.62%.

  3. Nutrients removal and lipids production by Chlorella pyrenoidosa cultivation using anaerobic digested starch wastewater and alcohol wastewater.

    PubMed

    Yang, Libin; Tan, Xiaobo; Li, Deyi; Chu, Huaqiang; Zhou, Xuefei; Zhang, Yalei; Yu, Hong

    2015-04-01

    The cultivation of microalgae Chlorella pyrenoidosa (C. pyrenoidosa) using anaerobic digested starch wastewater (ADSW) and alcohol wastewater (AW) was evaluated in this study. Different proportions of mixed wastewater (AW/ADSW=0.176:1, 0.053:1, 0.026:1, v/v) and pure ADSW, AW were used for C. pyrenoidosa cultivation. The different proportions between ADSW and AW significantly influenced biomass growth, lipids production and pollutants removal. The best performance was achieved using mixed wastewater (AW/ADSW=0.053:1, v/v), leading to a maximal total biomass of 3.01±0.15 g/L (dry weight), lipids productivity of 127.71±6.31 mg/L/d and pollutants removal of COD=75.78±3.76%, TN=91.64±4.58% and TP=90.74±4.62%. PMID:25638404

  4. Evaluation of different carbon sources for growth and biosurfactant production by Pseudomonas fluorescens isolated from wastewaters.

    PubMed

    Stoimenova, Emilia; Vasileva-Tonkova, Evgenia; Sotirova, Anna; Galabova, Danka; Lalchev, Zdravko

    2009-01-01

    The indigenous strain Pseudomonas fluorescens, isolated from industrial wastewater, was able to produce glycolipid biosurfactants from a variety of carbon sources, including hydrophilic compounds, hydrocarbons, mineral oils, and vegetable oils. Hexadecane, mineral oils, vegetable oils, and glycerol were preferred carbon sources for growth and biosurfactant production by the strain. Biosurfactant production was detected by measuring the surface and interfacial tension, rhamnose concentration and emulsifying activity. The surface tension of supernatants varied from 28.4 mN m(-1) with phenanthrene to 49.6 mN m(-1) with naphthalene and heptane as carbon sources. The interfacial tension has changed in a narrow interval between 6.4 and 7.6 mN m(-1). The emulsifying activity was determined to be highest in media with vegetable oils as substrates. The biosurfactant production on insoluble carbon sources contributed to a significant increase of cell hydrophobicity and correlated with an increased growth of the strain on these substrates. Based on these results, a mechanism of biosurfactant-enhanced interfacial uptake of hydrophobic substrates could be proposed as predominant for the strain. With hexadecane as a carbon source, the pH value of 7.0-7.2 and temperature of (28 +/- 2) degrees C were optimum for growth and biosurfactant production by P. fluorescens cells. The increased specific protein and biosurfactant release during growth of the strain on hexadecane in the presence of NaCl at contents up to 2% could be due to increased cell permeability. The capability of P. fluorescens strain HW-6 to adapt its own metabolism to use different nutrients as energy sources and to keep up relatively high biosurfactant levels in the medium during the stationary phase is a promising feature for its possible application in biological treatments.

  5. Iran outlines oil productive capacity

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-11-09

    National Iranian Oil Co. (NIOC) tested production limits last month to prove a claim of 4 million bd capacity made at September's meeting of the organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries. Onshore fields account for 3.6 million bd of the total, with offshore fields providing the rest. NIOC plans to expand total capacity to 4.5 million bd by April 1993, consisting of 4 million b/d onshore and 500,000 b/d offshore. Middle East Economic Survey says questions remain about completion dates for gas injection, drilling, and offshore projects, but expansion targets are attainable within the scheduled time. NIOC said some slippage may be unavoidable, but it is confident the objective will be reached by third quarter 1993 at the latest. More than 60 rigs are working or about to be taken under contract to boost development drilling in onshore fields and provide gas injection in some. NIOC has spent $3.2 billion in foreign exchange on the drilling program in the last 2 1/2 years.

  6. Biogas and biohydrogen production potential of high strength automobile industry wastewater during anaerobic degradation.

    PubMed

    Bajaj, Mini; Winter, Josef

    2013-10-15

    High strength automobile industry wastewater, collected from decanters (DECA) of the pre-treatment plant after oil, grease and sludge separation, was investigated for production of methane in the absence and presence of glucose or excess aerobic sludge (AS) from a lab scale suspension reactor as co-substrates. The highest methane production from DECA wastewater was 335.4 L CH4/kg CODsoluble removal which decreased in the presence of the co-substrates to 232.5 (with 2 g/L glucose) and to 179 (with 40% AS) L CH4/kg CODsoluble removal, respectively. Around 95% of total methane was produced within 5 days of incubation of DECA at 37 °C when no co-substrate was added. Addition of co-substrates did not improve biodegradation of DECA but overall methane production from DECA + co-substrates was increased due to co-substrate biodegradation. The anaerobic inoculum, capable of producing 2.4 mol of hydrogen/mol of glucose under zinc induced inhibitory conditions, was unable to produce hydrogen from DECA as substrate under the same conditions.

  7. Survey of dissolved air flotation system efficiency for reduce of pollution of vegetable oil industry wastewater.

    PubMed

    Keramati, H; Alidadi, H; Parvaresh, A R; Movahedian, H; Mahvi, A H

    2008-10-01

    The aim of this research was to sudy the reduction of pollution of vegetable oil manufacturing wastewater with DAF system. At first phase of this examination, the optimum dosage of the coagulants was determined. The coagulants that used in this study were Alum and Ferric Chloride. The second phase was flotation in this series of examinations, oil, COD, total solid, volatile solid, fixed solid and suspended solid measured in raw wastewater and the effluent of the DAF pilot. Optimum value of pH for alum and ferric chloride obtained 7.5 and 5.5, respectively. Optimum dosage for these obtained 30 and 32 mg L(-1) in this research. Mean removal for the parameters ofoil, COD, total solid, volatile solid, fixed solid and suspended solid obtained 75.85, 78.27, 77.32, 82.47, 73.52 and 85.53%, respectively. With pressure rising from 3 to 4 and 5 atm removing rate of COD, total solid, volatile solid, fixed solid parameters reduced, but oil and suspended solid have increase. In addition, following increase of flotation time up to 120 sec all of the measured parameters have increase in removing rate. Optimum A/S for removal of COD, total solid, volatile solid, fixed solid parameters obtained 0.001 and for oil and suspended solid obtained 0.0015.

  8. New production techniques for alberta oil sands.

    PubMed

    Carrigy, M A

    1986-12-19

    Low world oil prices represent a serious threat to expanded commercial development of the Canadian oil sands in the near term, as they do to all of the higher cost alternatives to crude oil such as oil shales and coal liquefaction. Nonetheless, research and field testing of new technology for production of oil from oil sands are being pursued by industry and government in Alberta. New production technology is being developed in Canada to produce synthetic oil from the vast resources of bitumen trapped in the oil sands and bituminous carbonates of northern Alberta. This technology includes improved methods of mining, extraction, and upgrading of bitumen from near-surface deposits as well as new drilling and production techniques for thermal production of bitumen from the more deeply buried reservoirs. Of particular interest are the cluster drilling methods designed to reduce surface disturbance and the techniques for horizontal drilling of wells from underground tunnels to increase the contact of injection fluids with the reservoir.

  9. Options for reducing oil content of sludge from a petroleum wastewater treatment plant.

    PubMed

    Kwon, Tae-Soon; Lee, Jae-Young

    2015-10-01

    Wastewater treatment plants at petroleum refineries often produce substantial quantities of sludge with relatively high concentrations of oil. Disposal of this waste is costly, in part because the high oil content requires use of secure disposal methods akin to handling of hazardous wastes. This article examines the properties of oily sludge and evaluates optional methods for reducing the oil content of this sludge to enable use of lower cost disposal methods. To reduce the oil content or break the structure of oily sludge, preliminary lab-scale experiments involving mechanical treatment, surfactant extraction, and oxidation are conducted. By applying surfactants, approximately 36% to 45% of oils are extracted from oily sludge. Of this, about 33% of oils are rapidly oxidised via radiation by an electron beam within 10 s of exposure. The Fenton reaction is effective for destruction of oily sludge. It is also found that 56% of oils were removed by reacting oily sludge with water containing ozone of 0.5 mg l(-1) over a period of 24 h. Oxidation using ozone thus can also be effectively used as a pretreatment for oily sludge. PMID:26261236

  10. Options for reducing oil content of sludge from a petroleum wastewater treatment plant.

    PubMed

    Kwon, Tae-Soon; Lee, Jae-Young

    2015-10-01

    Wastewater treatment plants at petroleum refineries often produce substantial quantities of sludge with relatively high concentrations of oil. Disposal of this waste is costly, in part because the high oil content requires use of secure disposal methods akin to handling of hazardous wastes. This article examines the properties of oily sludge and evaluates optional methods for reducing the oil content of this sludge to enable use of lower cost disposal methods. To reduce the oil content or break the structure of oily sludge, preliminary lab-scale experiments involving mechanical treatment, surfactant extraction, and oxidation are conducted. By applying surfactants, approximately 36% to 45% of oils are extracted from oily sludge. Of this, about 33% of oils are rapidly oxidised via radiation by an electron beam within 10 s of exposure. The Fenton reaction is effective for destruction of oily sludge. It is also found that 56% of oils were removed by reacting oily sludge with water containing ozone of 0.5 mg l(-1) over a period of 24 h. Oxidation using ozone thus can also be effectively used as a pretreatment for oily sludge.

  11. Study of reverse osmosis for treating oil-shale in-situ wastewaters. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Hicks, R.E.; Liang, L.

    1981-01-31

    The results of a study to determine the feasibility of using reverse osmosis for the treatment of the three major wastewater streams evolved during modified in-situ oil shale processing: gas condensate, retort water and excess mine drainage water, are presented in this report. Data was obtained from laboratory tests on real wastewaters treated with composite reverse osmosis membranes. It was found that reverse osmosis can be used to treat retort waters to a quality suitable for reuse within the plant while it can be used to treat excess mine drainage waters for discharge to a receiving stream. Furthermore, although reverse osmosis is also a feasible process for the treatment of gas condensate, a better treatment appears to be steam stripping which alone can produce a water of a quality suitable for plant reuse. The annual operating costs of treating mine drainage waters range from $2.00 to $2.30 per 1000 gallons of permeate while the costs of treating retort waters range from $2.70 to $2.90 per 1000 gallons of permeate, exclusive of the costs of concentrate disposal. The major uncertainty in the use of reverse osmosis for treating oil shale wastewaters is membrane lifetime. Recommendations are made for a field test program to determine the long term susceptibility of composite membranes to fouling and/or degradation.

  12. Olive oil mill wastewater for remediation of slag contaminated soil.

    PubMed

    Ferrara, Luciano; Panzella, Lucia; Napolitano, Alessandra; Giudicianni, Italo; d'Ischia, Marco; Arienzo, Michele

    2013-12-01

    Two olive mill wastewaters (OMW) samples, OMWa and OMWb, containing different polyphenolic loads were used for decontaminating an unauthorized dump site in the Campania region, south Italy. In a bench-scale experiment, OMWa at pH 6.0 (OMWapH6.0) and 4.7 (OMWapH4.7), OMWb at pH 4.7 (OMWbpH4.7) and OMWa free of the polyphenolic moiety polyphenol-free OMWa (PF-OMWa) were added to the soil for a 96 h contact time. At 96 h, OMWapH4.7 was more effective than OMWapH6.0, with Cd, Cu, Pb and Zn removal percentages of 30.7-68.1. Cd and Pb levels were 6.0 and 915 mg kg(-1), respectively, decreasing below the regulatory limits for industrial and commercial areas (15.0 and 1 × 10(3) mg kg(-1), respectively). A threefold decrease in Zn levels was also observed from 13.5 × 10(3) to 4.3 × 10(3) mg kg(-1). The metal removal efficiency of PF-OMWa dropped from 30.7 % to 15.6 % for Cd and from 37.9 % to 1.3 % for Pb. OMWbpH4.7 at 96 h was more efficient than OMWapH4.7, with mean removal percentages of 32.5 versus 7.8, respectively.

  13. Use of coagulants in treatment of olive oil wastewater model solutions by induced air flotation.

    PubMed

    Meyssami, B; Kasaeian, A B

    2005-02-01

    Natural polyelectrolytes are suitable coagulants for the treatment of industrial and minicipal wastewaters because they are safe and have environmental benefits. Chitosan, a natural cationic polyelectrolyte, and other similar coagulants were used in the treatment of an olive oil water suspension as a model for the processing wastewater. The effect of chitosan, starch, alum and ferric chloride on the coagulation of oil droplets were determined by the jar test apparatus and turbidometric measurements. Olive oil emulsion samples were prepared by the use of surface active agents and other agents that could form stable oil water emulsions. The effect of parameters such as pH, ionic strength and optimum dosage of the coagulants were determined in the jar test experiments. Following the jar experiments, with the optimum concentration of the suitable coagulant, the emulsions were placed in an induced air flotation (IAF) cell to separate the coagulated oil droplets from solution. In the air flotation experiments, the effect of temperature, surfactant concentration and air flowrate were determined on the decrease of turbidity and COD of the emulsion samples. In the jar experiments, chitosan and alum used together at concentrations of 15 and 25 ppm, respectively, at pH 6 produced the lowest turbidity values. In the air flotation experiments, a concentration of 100 ppm of chitosan, an air flowrate of 3 l/min, aeration time of 45 s, temperature of 20 degrees C and pH 6 produced optimum levels. At optimum conditions of coagulation and flotation stages, the COD of the olive oil emulsion could be reduced by 95%.

  14. Ultrasound pretreatment for enhanced biogas production from olive mill wastewater.

    PubMed

    Oz, Nilgun Ayman; Uzun, Alev Cagla

    2015-01-01

    This study investigates applicability of low frequency ultrasound technology to olive mill wastewaters (OMWs) as a pretreatment step prior to anaerobic batch reactors to improve biogas production and methane yield. OMWs originating from three phase processes are characterized with high organic content and complex nature. The treatment of the wastewater is problematic and alternative treatment options should be investigated. In the first part of the study, OMW samples were subjected to ultrasound at a frequency of 20kHz with applied powers varying between 50 and 100W under temperature controlled conditions for different time periods in order to determine the most effective sonication conditions. The level of organic matter solubilization at ultrasound experiments was assessed by calculating the ratio of soluble chemical oxygen demand/total chemical oxygen demand (SCOD/TCOD). The results revealed that the optimum ultrasonic condition for diluted OMW is 20kHz, 0.4W/mL for 10min. The application of ultrasound to OMW increased SCOD/TCOD ratio from 0.59 to 0.79. Statistical analysis (Friedman's tests) show that ultrasound was significantly effective on diluted OMW (p<0.05) in terms of SCOD parameter, but not for raw OMW (p>0.05). For raw OMW, this increase has been found to be limited due to high concentration of suspended solids (SS). In the second part of the study, biogas and methane production rates of anaerobic batch reactor fed with the ultrasound pretreated OMW samples were compared with the results of control reactor fed with untreated OMW in order to determine the effect of sonication. A nonparametric statistical procedure, Mann-Whitney U test, was used to compare biogas and methane production from anaerobic batch reactors for control and ultrasound pretreated samples. Results showed that application of low frequency ultrasound to OMW significantly improved both biogas and methane production in anaerobic batch reactor fed with the wastewater (p<0.05). Anaerobic

  15. Cassava flour wastewater as a substrate for biosurfactant production.

    PubMed

    Nitschke, Marcia; Pastore, Glaucia

    2003-01-01

    Five cassava flour wastewater (manipueira) preparations were tested as culture media for biosurfactant production by a wild-type Bacillus sp. isolate. No-solids (F), no-solids diluted (F/2), natural (I), natural diluted (I/2), and decanted (IPS) were the tested manipueira media. The microorganism was able to grow and to produce biosurfactant on all manipueira preparations. The media whose solids were removed (F and F/2) showed better results than preparations with the presence of solids (I, I/2, and IPS). No-solids medium (F) showed a surface tension of 26,59 mN/m and reciprocal of critical micelle concentration of over 100 and was selected as a potential substrate for biosurfactant production.

  16. Effect of mine wastewater on nutrient removal and lipid production by a green microalga Micratinium reisseri from concentrated municipal wastewater.

    PubMed

    Ji, Min-Kyu; Kabra, Akhil N; Salama, El-Sayed; Roh, Hyun-Seog; Kim, Jung Rae; Lee, Dae Sung; Jeon, Byong-Hun

    2014-04-01

    Effect of mine wastewater on the nutrient removal efficiency of a green microalga Micratinium reisseri from concentrated municipal wastewater (CMW) with simultaneous lipid production was investigated. Different dilution ratios (1-10%) of CMW either with mine wastewater (MWF) or mine wastewater without Fe (MWOF) were used. M. reisseri showed the highest growth (0.8gL(-1)) and nutrient uptake (35.9mgTNL(-1) and 5.4mgTPL(-1)) at 3% MWF ([Fe]tot=6.7mgL(-1)), and the highest lipid productivity (10.4mgL(-1)day(-1)) at 5% MWF ([Fe]tot=11.2mgL(-1)) after 15days. CMW supported the algal autoflocculation due to formation of phosphate, calcium and magnesium precipitates at a high suspension pH. Fatty acid methyl ester analysis revealed that the microalgal lipids possessed 79-82% of C16/C18 fatty acids. Application of mine wastewater improved the nutrient removal efficiency, growth and lipid productivity of M. reisseri cultivated in CMW.

  17. Production of Biohydrogen from Wastewater by Klebsiella oxytoca ATCC 13182.

    PubMed

    Thakur, Veena; Tiwari, K L; Jadhav, S K

    2015-08-01

    Production of biohydrogen from distillery effluent was carried out by using Klebsiella oxytoca ATCC 13182. The work focuses on optimization of pH, temperature, and state of bacteria, which are the various affecting factors for fermentative biohydrogen production. Results indicates that at 35 °C for suspended cultures, the production was at its maximum (i.e., 91.33 ± 0.88 mL) when compared with other temperatures. At 35 °C and at pH 5 and 6, maximum productions of 117.67 ± 1.45 and 111.67 ± 2.72 mL were observed with no significant difference. When immobilized, Klebsiella oxytoca ATCC 13182 was used for biohydrogen production at optimized conditions, production was 186.33 ± 3.17 mL. Hence, immobilized cells were found to be more advantageous for biological hydrogen production over suspended form. Physicochemical analysis of the effluent was conducted before and after fermentation and the values suggested that the fermentative process is an efficient method for biological treatment of wastewater. PMID:26237683

  18. Production of Biohydrogen from Wastewater by Klebsiella oxytoca ATCC 13182.

    PubMed

    Thakur, Veena; Tiwari, K L; Jadhav, S K

    2015-08-01

    Production of biohydrogen from distillery effluent was carried out by using Klebsiella oxytoca ATCC 13182. The work focuses on optimization of pH, temperature, and state of bacteria, which are the various affecting factors for fermentative biohydrogen production. Results indicates that at 35 °C for suspended cultures, the production was at its maximum (i.e., 91.33 ± 0.88 mL) when compared with other temperatures. At 35 °C and at pH 5 and 6, maximum productions of 117.67 ± 1.45 and 111.67 ± 2.72 mL were observed with no significant difference. When immobilized, Klebsiella oxytoca ATCC 13182 was used for biohydrogen production at optimized conditions, production was 186.33 ± 3.17 mL. Hence, immobilized cells were found to be more advantageous for biological hydrogen production over suspended form. Physicochemical analysis of the effluent was conducted before and after fermentation and the values suggested that the fermentative process is an efficient method for biological treatment of wastewater.

  19. Oil refinery wastewater treatment using coupled electrocoagulation and fixed film biological processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pérez, Laura S.; Rodriguez, Oscar M.; Reyna, Silvia; Sánchez-Salas, José Luis; Lozada, J. Daniel; Quiroz, Marco A.; Bandala, Erick R.

    2016-02-01

    Oil refinery wastewater was treated using a coupled treatment process including electrocoagulation (EC) and a fixed film aerobic bioreactor. Different variables were tested to identify the best conditions using this procedure. After EC, the effluent was treated in an aerobic biofilter. EC was capable to remove over 88% of the overall chemical oxygen demand (COD) in the wastewater under the best working conditions (6.5 V, 0.1 M NaCl, 4 electrodes without initial pH adjustment) with total petroleum hydrocarbon (TPH) removal slightly higher than 80%. Aluminum release from the electrodes to the wastewater was found an important factor for the EC efficiency and closely related with several operational factors. Application of EC allowed to increase the biodegradability of the sample from 0.015, rated as non-biodegradable, up to 0.5 widely considered as biodegradable. The effluent was further treated using an aerobic biofilter inoculated with a bacterial consortium including gram positive and gram negative strains and tested for COD and TPH removal from the EC treated effluent during 30 days. Cell count showed the typical bacteria growth starting at day three and increasing up to a maximum after eight days. After day eight, cell growth showed a plateau which agreed with the highest decrease on contaminant concentration. Final TPHs concentration was found about 600 mgL-1 after 30 days whereas COD concentration after biological treatment was as low as 933 mgL-1. The coupled EC-aerobic biofilter was capable to remove up to 98% of the total TPH amount and over 95% of the COD load in the oil refinery wastewater.

  20. Oil refinery wastewater treatment using coupled electrocoagulation and fixed film biological processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pérez, Laura S.; Rodriguez, Oscar M.; Reyna, Silvia; Sánchez-Salas, José Luis; Lozada, J. Daniel; Quiroz, Marco A.; Bandala, Erick R.

    2016-02-01

    Oil refinery wastewater was treated using a coupled treatment process including electrocoagulation (EC) and a fixed film aerobic bioreactor. Different variables were tested to identify the best conditions using this procedure. After EC, the effluent was treated in an aerobic biofilter. EC was capable to remove over 88% of the overall chemical oxygen demand (COD) in the wastewater under the best working conditions (6.5 V, 0.1 M NaCl, 4 electrodes without initial pH adjustment) with total petroleum hydrocarbon (TPH) removal slightly higher than 80%. Aluminum release from the electrodes to the wastewater was found an important factor for the EC efficiency and closely related with several operational factors. Application of EC allowed to increase the biodegradability of the sample from 0.015, rated as non-biodegradable, up to 0.5 widely considered as biodegradable. The effluent was further treated using an aerobic biofilter inoculated with a bacterial consortium including gram positive and gram negative strains and tested for COD and TPH removal from the EC treated effluent during 30 days. Cell count showed the typical bacteria growth starting at day three and increasing up to a maximum after eight days. After day eight, cell growth showed a plateau which agreed with the highest decrease on contaminant concentration. Final TPHs concentration was found about 600 mgL-1 after 30 days whereas COD concentration after biological treatment was as low as 933 mgL-1. The coupled EC-aerobic biofilter was capable to remove up to 98% of the total TPH amount and over 95% of the COD load in the oil refinery wastewater.

  1. Hydroprocessing Bio-oil and Products Separation for Coke Production

    SciTech Connect

    Elliott, Douglas C.; Neuenschwander, Gary G.; Hart, Todd R.

    2013-04-01

    Fast pyrolysis of biomass can be used to produce a raw bio-oil product, which can be upgraded by catalytic hydroprocessing to hydrocarbon liquid products. In this study the upgraded products were distilled to recover light naphtha and oils and to produce a distillation resid with useful properties for coker processing and production of renewable, low-sulfur electrode carbon. For this hydroprocessing work, phase separation of the bio-oil was applied as a preparatory step to concentrate the heavier, more phenolic components thus generating a more amenable feedstock for resid production. Low residual oxygen content products were produced by continuous-flow, catalytic hydroprocessing of the phase separated bio-oil.

  2. Enhancing microalgal photosynthesis and productivity in wastewater treatment high rate algal ponds for biofuel production.

    PubMed

    Sutherland, Donna L; Howard-Williams, Clive; Turnbull, Matthew H; Broady, Paul A; Craggs, Rupert J

    2015-05-01

    With microalgal biofuels currently receiving much attention, there has been renewed interest in the combined use of high rate algal ponds (HRAP) for wastewater treatment and biofuel production. This combined use of HRAPs is considered to be an economically feasible option for biofuel production, however, increased microalgal productivity and nutrient removal together with reduced capital costs are needed before it can be commercially viable. Despite HRAPs being an established technology, microalgal photosynthesis and productivity is still limited in these ponds and is well below the theoretical maximum. This paper critically evaluates the parameters that limit microalgal light absorption and photosynthesis in wastewater HRAPs and examines biological, chemical and physical options for improving light absorption and utilisation, with the view of enhancing biomass production and nutrient removal.

  3. Hydrogen production from wastewater sludge using a Clostridium strain.

    PubMed

    Wang, C C; Chang, C W; Chu, C P; Lee, D J; Chang, B V; Liao, C S

    2003-09-01

    Limited data in literature revealed a relatively low hydrogen yield from wastewater sludge, ca. 0.16 mg/g-dried solids, using anaerobic fermentation. We demonstrated in this work a much higher hydrogen yield, around 1.1 mg-H2/g-dried solids using a clostridium strain isolated from the sludge sample. The formed hydrogen would be consumed after passing the peak value at around 30-36 h of fermentation. We examined the effects of employing five different pre-treatments on substrate sludge, but noted no appreciable enhancement in hydrogen yield as commonly expected for methane production. Since a vast amount of organic matters had been released to water after hydrogen fermentation, we externally dosed methanogenic bacteria to the fermented liquor to produce methane. The fermented liquor could produce more methane than the non-fermented sample, indicating that the dosed methanogenic bacteria readily utilized the organic matters derived from the fermentation test.

  4. Alcorn wells bolster Philippines oil production

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-09-21

    This paper reports that Alcorn International Inc., Houston, is producing about 16,500 b/d of oil from West Linapacan A field in the South China Sea off the Philippines. The field's current production alone is more than fivefold the Philippines' total average oil flow of 3,000 b/d in 1991. It's part of a string of oil and gas strikes off Palawan Island that has made the region one of the hottest exploration/development plays in the Asia-Pacific theater.

  5. Phytoremediation of aquaculture wastewater for water recycling and production of fish feed.

    PubMed

    Ghaly, A E; Kamal, M; Mahmoud, N S

    2005-01-01

    Five plants were examined for their ability to remove nutrients from aquaculture wastewater and suitability as fish feed: alfalfa, white clover, oat, fall rye, barley. The seeds were first germinated in water in a hydroponic system, and the plants were fed wastewater from Tilapia production facility. Clover and alfalfa seeds were infected with fungus shortly after germination, and their roots were completely destroyed by day 14. Oat, rye and barley had the fastest growth and showed greater tolerance to fungal disease compared with alfalfa and clover. Although substantial amounts of soluble and insoluble substances were released by the seeds during the germination period, the plants were able to remove all the pollutants in wastewater and significant portions of those released substances. The total reductions in total solids, COD, NO3-N, NO2-N, phosphate and potassium ranged from 54.7% to 91.0%, 56.0% to 91.5%, 82.9% to 98.1%, 95.9% to 99.5%, 54.5% to 93.6% and 99.6% to 99.8%, respectively. Oat, barley and rye grow well in this type of hydroponic system and can be used as a fish feed after being supplemented with fat, Ca, Na, Mn and Fe. Oil seeds and the chlorides of these elements could be added to these plants when formulating the fish feed. For a continuous operation, a two-unit system could be configured to allow for one week germination and one week cleaning and startup in one unit while the other unit is in operation. PMID:15607774

  6. Microalgae cultivation using an aquaculture wastewater as growth medium for biomass and biofuel production.

    PubMed

    Guo, Zhen; Liu, Yuan; Guo, Haiyan; Yan, Song; Mu, Jun

    2013-12-01

    Microalgae as a main feedstock has attracted much attention in recent years but is still not economically feasible due to high algal culture cost. The objective of this study was to develop a comprehensive eco-friendly technology for cultivating microalgae Platymonas subcordiformis using aquaculture wastewater as growth medium for biomass and biofuel production. Platymonas subcordiformis was grown in pretreated flounder aquaculture wastewaters taken from different stages. Each of wastewater contained different levels of nutrients. The biomass yield of microalgae and associated nitrogen and phosphorous removal were investigated. The results showed that algal cell density increased 8.9 times than the initial level. Platymonas subcordiformis removed nitrogen and phosphorus from wastewater with an average removal efficiency of 87%-95% for nitrogen and 98%-99% for phosphorus. It was feasible to couple the removal of nitrogen and phosphorus from wastewater to algal biomass and biofuel production. However, further studies are required to make this technologies economically viable for algae biofuel production.

  7. Microbial desalination cells for improved performance in wastewater treatment, electricity production, and desalination.

    PubMed

    Luo, Haiping; Xu, Pei; Roane, Timberley M; Jenkins, Peter E; Ren, Zhiyong

    2012-02-01

    The low conductivity and alkalinity in municipal wastewater significantly limit power production from microbial fuel cells (MFCs). This study integrated desalination with wastewater treatment and electricity production in a microbial desalination cell (MDC) by utilizing the mutual benefits among the above functions. When using wastewater as the sole substrate, the power output from the MDC (8.01 W/m(3)) was four times higher than a control MFC without desalination function. In addition, the MDC removed 66% of the salts and improved COD removal by 52% and Coulombic efficiency by 131%. Desalination in MDCs improved wastewater characteristics by increasing the conductivity by 2.5 times and stabilizing anolyte pH, which therefore reduced system resistance and maintained microbial activity. Microbial community analysis revealed a more diverse anode microbial structure in the MDC than in the MFC. The results demonstrated that MDC can serve as a viable option for integrated wastewater treatment, energy production, and desalination.

  8. Production of Spirulina sp by utilization of wastewater from the powder type energy drinks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sumantri, Indro; Priyambada, Ika Bagus

    2015-12-01

    Wastewater of energy drink type of powder produced when the the production equipment required cleaning treatment to produce one taste to others. These equipments washed by water, so that, it produced wastewater. It contains high organic substances and classified as high degradable due to food product. The content of wastewater is high carbon and nitrogen substances. Microalgae is an autotrophic microorganism, live without carbon presence, utilized to digest the substances in wastewater especially for nitrogen substances. Spirulina sp is the type of microalgae selected to utilize the wastewater of energy drink, the selection criteria is the size of Spirulina sp is relatively large and easy to separated from its solution. The experiment conducted by cultivate the seeding microalgae with certain nutrients until the certain volume. The synthetic wastewater obtained from one of energy drink type of powder with commercial brand as Kuku Bima Ener-G, the wastewater concentration selected under the close to the real condition of wastewater as basis of COD measurement (6 sachet/L or COD of 12.480mg/L) and aqueous concentration (1 sachet/L or COD of 2080mg/L). The batch experiments with 1L volume conducted and with variable of percent volume of wastewater added in order to observe the growth of microlagae. The response of the microalgae growth obtained by increasing the optical density of the microalgae solution and continued by calculation for the growth rate of microalgae. The result of the experiments indicated that for the aqueous concentration (1 sachet/L or COD of 2080mg/L) the optimum added of wastewater is 40 % with growrate of 0.55/day while for the concentrated wastewater (6 sachet/L or COD of 12.480mg/L), the optimum condition is 25 % wastewater added with growth rate of 0.43/day.

  9. Biodiesel production using waste frying oil

    SciTech Connect

    Charpe, Trupti W.; Rathod, Virendra K.

    2011-01-15

    Research highlights: {yields} Waste sunflower frying oil is successfully converted to biodiesel using lipase as catalyst. {yields} Various process parameters that affects the conversion of transesterification reaction such as temperature, enzyme concentration, methanol: oil ratio and solvent are optimized. {yields} Inhibitory effect of methanol on lipase is reduced by adding methanol in three stages. {yields} Polar solvents like n-hexane and n-heptane increases the conversion of tranesterification reaction. - Abstract: Waste sunflower frying oil is used in biodiesel production by transesterification using an enzyme as a catalyst in a batch reactor. Various microbial lipases have been used in transesterification reaction to select an optimum lipase. The effects of various parameters such as temperature, methanol:oil ratio, enzyme concentration and solvent on the conversion of methyl ester have been studied. The Pseudomonas fluorescens enzyme yielded the highest conversion. Using the P. fluorescens enzyme, the optimum conditions included a temperature of 45 deg. C, an enzyme concentration of 5% and a methanol:oil molar ratio 3:1. To avoid an inhibitory effect, the addition of methanol was performed in three stages. The conversion obtained after 24 h of reaction increased from 55.8% to 63.84% because of the stage-wise addition of methanol. The addition of a non-polar solvent result in a higher conversion compared to polar solvents. Transesterification of waste sunflower frying oil under the optimum conditions and single-stage methanol addition was compared to the refined sunflower oil.

  10. Biodegradation of phytosanitary products in biological wastewater treatment.

    PubMed

    Massot, A; Estève, K; Noilet, P; Méoule, C; Poupot, C; Mietton-Peuchot, M

    2012-04-15

    Agricultural activity generates two types of waste: firstly, biodegradable organic effluents generally treated by biological processes and, secondly, phytosanitary effluents which contain residues of plant protection products. The latter are collected and treated. Current technological solutions are essentially based on concentration or physical-chemical processes. However, recent improvements in the biodegradability of pesticides open the way to the consideration of alternative, biological, treatment using mixed liquor from wastewater plant activated sludge. The feasibility of the biological treatment of viticultural effluents has been evaluated by the application of pesticides to activated sludge. The necessity for selection of a pesticide-resistant biomass has been highlighted. The elimination of the phytosanitary products shows the potential of a resistant biomass in the treatment of pesticides. The aerated biological storage ponds at three wineries, followed by a sand or reed-bed filter, were used for the treatment of the total annual volume of the viticulture effluents and validate the laboratory experiments. The results show that the biological purification of pesticides by activated sludge is possible by allowing approximately 8 days for biomass adaptation. Stability of purification occurs between 20 and 30 days. PMID:22284913

  11. Phanerochaete flavido-alba Laccase Induction and Modification of Manganese Peroxidase Isoenzyme Pattern in Decolorized Olive Oil Mill Wastewaters

    PubMed Central

    Pérez, J.; de la Rubia, T.; Hamman, O. Ben; Martínez, J.

    1998-01-01

    Lignin-degrading enzymes were partially purified from supernatant solutions obtained from Phanerochaete flavido-alba-decolorized olive oil mill wastewaters (OMW). The dominant enzymes, manganese peroxidases, exhibited different isoform patterns in decolorized OMW-containing cultures than in residue-free samples. Laccase induction was also detected in OMW-containing cultures but not in control cultures. PMID:9647858

  12. Simultaneous nutrient removal and lipid production from pretreated piggery wastewater by Chlorella vulgaris YSW-04.

    PubMed

    Ji, Min-Kyu; Kim, Hyun-Chul; Sapireddy, Veer Raghavulu; Yun, Hyun-Shik; Abou-Shanab, Reda A I; Choi, Jaeyoung; Lee, Wontae; Timmes, Thomas C; Inamuddin; Jeon, Byong-Hun

    2013-03-01

    The feasibility of using a microalga Chlorella vulgaris YSW-04 was investigated for removal of nutrients from piggery wastewater effluent. The consequent lipid production by the microalga was also identified and quantitatively determined. The wastewater effluent was diluted to different concentrations ranging from 20 to 80 % of the original using either synthetic media or distilled water. The dilution effect on both lipid production and nutrient removal was evaluated, and growth rate of C. vulgaris was also monitored. Dilution of the wastewater effluent improved microalgal growth, lipid productivity, and nutrient removal. The growth rate of C. vulgaris was increased with decreased concentration of piggery wastewater in the culture media regardless of the diluent type. Lipid production was relatively higher when using synthetic media than using distilled water for dilution of wastewater. The composition of fatty acids accumulated in microalgal biomass was dependent upon both dilution ratio and diluent type. The microalga grown on a 20 % concentration of wastewater effluent diluted with distilled water was more promising for generating high-efficient biodiesel compared to the other culture conditions. The highest removal of inorganic nutrients was also achieved at the same dilution condition. Our results revealed the optimal pretreatment condition for the biodegradation of piggery wastewater with microalgae for subsequent production of high-efficient biodiesel. PMID:22569638

  13. Chlorella vulgaris production enhancement with supplementation of synthetic medium in dairy manure wastewater.

    PubMed

    Shi, Jun; Pandey, Pramod K; Franz, Annaliese K; Deng, Huiping; Jeannotte, Richard

    2016-03-01

    To identify innovative ways for better utilizing flushed dairy manure wastewater, we have assessed the effect of dairy manure and supplementation with synthetic medium on the growth of Chlorella vulgaris. A series of experiments were carried out to study the impacts of pretreatment of dairy wastewater and the benefits of supplementing dairy manure wastewater with synthetic medium on C. vulgaris growth increment and the ultrastructure (chloroplast, starch, lipid, and cell wall) of C. vulgaris cells. Results showed that the biomass production of C. vulgaris in dairy wastewater can be enhanced by pretreatment and using supplementation with synthetic media. A recipe combining pretreated dairy wastewater (40 %) and synthetic medium (60 %) exhibited an improved growth of C. vulgaris. The effects of dairy wastewater on the ultrastructure of C. vulgaris cells were distinct compared to that of cells grown in synthetic medium. The C. vulgaris growth in both synthetic medium and manure wastewater without supplementing synthetic medium was lower than the growth in dairy manure supplemented with synthetic medium. We anticipate that the results of this study will help in deriving an enhanced method of coupling nutrient-rich dairy manure wastewater for biofuel production.

  14. Cultivating Chlorella sp. in a pilot-scale photobioreactor using centrate wastewater for microalgae biomass production and wastewater nutrient removal.

    PubMed

    Min, Min; Wang, Liang; Li, Yecong; Mohr, Michael J; Hu, Bing; Zhou, Wenguang; Chen, Paul; Ruan, Roger

    2011-09-01

    This study is concerned with a novel mass microalgae production system which, for the first time, uses "centrate", a concentrated wastewater stream, to produce microalgal biomass for energy production. Centrate contains a high level of nutrients that support algal growth. The objective of this study was to investigate the growth characteristics of a locally isolated microalgae strain Chlorella sp. in centrate and its ability to remove nutrients from centrate. A pilot-scale photobioreactor (PBR) was constructed at a local wastewater treatment plant. The system was tested under different harvesting rates and exogenous CO(2) levels with the local strain of Chlorella sp. Under low light conditions (25 μmol·m(-2)s(-1)) the system can produce 34.6 and 17.7 g·m(-2)day(-1) biomass in terms of total suspended solids and volatile suspended solids, respectively. At a one fourth harvesting rate, reduction of chemical oxygen demand, total Kjeldahl nitrogen, and soluble total phosphorus were 70%, 61%, and 61%, respectively. The addition of CO(2) to the system did not exhibit a positive effect on biomass productivity or nutrient removal in centrate which is an organic carbon rich medium. The unique PBR system is highly scalable and provides a great opportunity for biomass production coupled with wastewater treatment. PMID:21494756

  15. AlgaeSim: a model for integrated algal biofuel production and wastewater treatment.

    PubMed

    Drexler, Ivy L C; Joustra, Caryssa; Prieto, Ana; Bair, Robert; Yeh, Daniel H

    2014-02-01

    AlgaeSim, a dynamic multiple-systems (C, N, P) mass balance model, was developed to explore the potential for algae biomass production from wastewater by coupling two photobioreactors into the main treatment train at a municipal wastewater resource recovery facility (WRRF) in Tampa, Florida. The scoping model examined the synergy between algae cultivation and wastewater treatment through algal growth and substrate removal kinetics, as well as through macroeconomic analyses of biomass conversion to bioproducts. Sensitivity analyses showed that biomass production is strongly dependent on Monod variables and harvesting regime, with sensitivity changing with growth phase. Profitability was sensitive to processing costs and market prices of products. Under scenarios based on current market conditions and typical algae production, AlgaeSim shows that a WRRF can potentially generate significant profit if algae are processed for biodiesel, biogas, or fertilizer. Wastewater resource recovery facilities could similarly save on operating costs resulting from the reduction in aeration (for nitrification) and chemicals (for denitrification).

  16. Optimisation of bioflocculant production by a biofilm forming microorganism from poultry slaughterhouse wastewater for use in poultry wastewater treatment.

    PubMed

    Dlangamandla, C; Dyantyi, S A; Mpentshu, Y P; Ntwampe, S K O; Basitere, M

    2016-01-01

    Poultry slaughterhouse wastewater contains nutrients that are sufficient for microbial growth; moreover, the wastewater has microorganisms which can be harnessed to perform specific functions. Additionally, these microorganisms can grow either in planktonic (free floating) mode or sessile (attached) mode. This study focused on the optimisation of bioflocculant production by quantifying flocculation activity, determined using kaolin clay (4 g/L), by isolates prevalent in poultry slaughterhouse wastewater. Subsequent to their identification and characterisation, six bacterial strains were initially isolated from the poultry wastewater. Although all the isolated microorganisms produced bioflocculants under different conditions, i.e. pH and temperature, the strain that produced bioflocculants with a higher flocculation activity was isolate BF-3, a Comamonas sp., achieving a flocculation activity of 93.8% at 32.9 °C and pH 6.5. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) analysis of the bioflocculant of the isolate, showed the presence of hydroxyl, carboxyl, alkane and amine functional groups, an indication that the bioflocculant was a protein constituent.

  17. Optimisation of bioflocculant production by a biofilm forming microorganism from poultry slaughterhouse wastewater for use in poultry wastewater treatment.

    PubMed

    Dlangamandla, C; Dyantyi, S A; Mpentshu, Y P; Ntwampe, S K O; Basitere, M

    2016-01-01

    Poultry slaughterhouse wastewater contains nutrients that are sufficient for microbial growth; moreover, the wastewater has microorganisms which can be harnessed to perform specific functions. Additionally, these microorganisms can grow either in planktonic (free floating) mode or sessile (attached) mode. This study focused on the optimisation of bioflocculant production by quantifying flocculation activity, determined using kaolin clay (4 g/L), by isolates prevalent in poultry slaughterhouse wastewater. Subsequent to their identification and characterisation, six bacterial strains were initially isolated from the poultry wastewater. Although all the isolated microorganisms produced bioflocculants under different conditions, i.e. pH and temperature, the strain that produced bioflocculants with a higher flocculation activity was isolate BF-3, a Comamonas sp., achieving a flocculation activity of 93.8% at 32.9 °C and pH 6.5. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) analysis of the bioflocculant of the isolate, showed the presence of hydroxyl, carboxyl, alkane and amine functional groups, an indication that the bioflocculant was a protein constituent. PMID:27120651

  18. Microbial screening and analytical methods for the production of polyol oils from soybean oil

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The objective of this study is to develop a new useful method including microbial screening and product identification for a bioprocess to produce polyol oils from soybean oil. Methods for separating of product polyol oils from soybean oil substrate and free fatty acid byproducts using HPLC and TLC...

  19. Treatment of HMX-production wastewater in an aerobic granular reactor.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jin-Hua; Wang, Min-Hui; Zhu, Xiao-Meng

    2013-04-01

    Aerobic granules were applied to the treatment of HMX-production wastewater using a gradual domestication method in a SBR. During the process, the granules showed a good settling ability, a high biomass retention rate, and high biological activity. After 40 days of stable operation, aerobic granular sludge performed very effectively in the removal of carbon and nitrogen compounds from HMX-production wastewater. Organic matter removal rates up to 97.57% and nitrogen removal efficiencies up to 80% were achieved during the process. Researchers conclude that using aerobic granules to treat explosive wastewater has good prospects for success.

  20. Effect of static magnetic field on the oxygen production of Scenedesmus obliquus cultivated in municipal wastewater.

    PubMed

    Tu, Renjie; Jin, Wenbiao; Xi, Tingting; Yang, Qian; Han, Song-Fang; Abomohra, Abd El-Fatah

    2015-12-01

    Algal-bacterial symbiotic system, with biological synergism of physiological functions of both algae and bacteria, has been proposed for cultivation of microalgae in municipal wastewater for biomass production and wastewater treatment. The algal-bacterial symbiotic system can enhance dissolved oxygen production which enhances bacterial growth and catabolism of pollutants in wastewater. Therefore, the oxygen production efficiency of microalgae in algal-bacterial systems is considered as the key factor influencing the wastewater treatment efficiency. In the present study, we have proposed a novel approach which uses static magnetic field to enhance algal growth and oxygen production rate with low operational cost and non-toxic secondary pollution. The performance of oxygen production with the magnetic field was evaluated using Scenedesmus obliquus grown in municipal wastewater and was calculated based on the change in dissolved oxygen concentration. Results indicated that magnetic treatment stimulates both algal growth and oxygen production. Application of 1000 GS of magnetic field once at logarithmic growth phase for 0.5 h increased the chlorophyll-a content by 11.5% over the control after 6 days of growth. In addition, magnetization enhanced the oxygen production rate by 24.6% over the control. Results of the study confirmed that application of a proper magnetic field could reduce the energy consumption required for aeration during the degradation of organic matter in municipal wastewater in algal-bacterial symbiotic systems.

  1. In situ reactive oxygen species production for tertiary wastewater treatment.

    PubMed

    Guitaya, Léa; Drogui, Patrick; Blais, Jean François

    2015-05-01

    The goal of this research was to develop a new approach for tertiary water treatment, particularly disinfection and removal of refractory organic compounds, without adding any chemical. Hydrogen peroxide can indeed be produced from dissolved oxygen owing to electrochemical processes. Using various current intensities (1.0 to 4.0 A), it was possible to in situ produce relatively high concentration of H2O2 with a specific production rate of 0.05 × 10(-5) M/min/A. Likewise, by using ultraviolet-visible absorption spectroscopy method, it was shown that other reactive oxygen species (ROS) including HO(*) radical and O3 could be simultaneously formed during electrolysis. The ROS concentration passed from 0.45 × 10(-5) M after 20 min of electrolysis to a concentration of 2.87 × 10(-5) M after 100 min of electrolysis. The disinfection and the organic matter removal were relatively high during the tertiary treatment of municipal and domestic wastewaters. More than 90 % of organic compounds (chemical oxygen demand) can be removed, whereas 99 % of faecal coliform abatement can be reached. Likewise, the process was also effective in removing turbidity (more than 90 % of turbidity was removed) so that the effluent became more and more transparent.

  2. Impacts of cell surface characteristics on population dynamics in a sequencing batch yeast reactor treating vegetable oil-containing wastewater.

    PubMed

    Lv, Wenzhou; Hesham, Abd El-Latif; Zhang, Yu; Liu, Xinchun; Yang, Min

    2011-06-01

    Ten yeast strains acquired from different sources and capable of utilizing vegetable oil or related compounds (fatty acid or oleic acid) as sole carbon sources were inoculated into a sequencing batch reactor (SBR) for the treatment of high-strength vegetable oil-containing wastewater. The SBR system stably removed >89% of chemical oxygen demand (COD) and >99% of oil when fed with wastewater containing 15 g/L COD and 10 g/L oil in average. Denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis of polymerase chain reaction-amplified 26S rRNA genes showed that among the ten yeast strains, only Candida lipolytica, Candida tropicalis, and Candida halophila were dominant in the system. To elucidate the major factors affecting the selection of yeast strains in the SBR system, the three dominant strains were compared with two non-dominant strains in terms of COD removal performance, biomass yield, cell settleability, cell flocculation ability, cell emulsification ability, and surface hydrophobicity. Results showed that hydrophobicity and emulsification ability of yeast cells were the two most important factors determining the selection of yeast strains in the treatment of high-strength oil-containing wastewater.

  3. Biodiesel production from indigenous microalgae grown in wastewater.

    PubMed

    Komolafe, Oladapo; Velasquez Orta, Sharon B; Monje-Ramirez, Ignacio; Yáñez Noguez, Isaura; Harvey, Adam P; Orta Ledesma, María T

    2014-02-01

    This paper describes a process for producing biodiesel sustainably from microalgae grown in wastewater, whilst significantly reducing the wastewater's nutrients and total coliform. Furthermore, ozone-flotation harvesting of the resultant biomass was investigated, shown to be viable, and resulted in FAMEs of greater oxidation stability. Desmodesmus sp. and two mixed cultures were successfully grown on wastewater. Desmodesmus sp. grew rapidly, to a higher maximum biomass concentration of 0.58 g/L. A native mixed culture dominated by Oscillatoria and Arthrospira, reached 0.45 g/L and exhibited the highest lipid and FAME yield. The FAME obtained from ozone-flotation exhibited the greatest oxidative stability, as the degree of saturation was high. In principle ozone could therefore be used as a combined method of harvesting and reducing FAME unsaturation. During microalgae treatment, the total nitrogen in wastewater was reduced by 55.4-83.9%. More importantly, total coliform removal was as high as 99.8%.

  4. Integration of microalgal cultivation system for wastewater remediation and sustainable biomass production.

    PubMed

    Gupta, Prabuddha L; Lee, Seung-Mok; Choi, Hee-Jeong

    2016-08-01

    Untreated wastewaters have been a great concern and can cause major pollution problems for environment. Conventional approaches for treating wastewater involve tremendous capital cost, have major short comings and are not sustainable. Microalgae culture offers an interesting step for wastewater treatment. Microalgae serve the dual purpose of phycoremediation along with the production of potentially valuable biomass, which can be used for several purposes. The ability of microalgae to accumulate nitrogen, phosphorus, heavy metals and other toxic compounds can be integrated with wastewater treatment system to offer an elegant solution towards tertiary and quaternary treatment. The current review explores possible role of microalgal based wastewater treatment and explores the current progress, key challenges, limitations and future prospects with special emphasis on strategies involved in harvesting, boosting biomass and lipid yield. PMID:27357407

  5. Mixotrophic cultivation of a microalga Scenedesmus obliquus in municipal wastewater supplemented with food wastewater and flue gas CO2 for biomass production.

    PubMed

    Ji, Min-Kyu; Yun, Hyun-Shik; Park, Young-Tae; Kabra, Akhil N; Oh, In-Hwan; Choi, Jaeyoung

    2015-08-15

    The biomass and lipid/carbohydrate production by a green microalga Scenedesmus obliquus under mixotrophic condition using food wastewater and flue gas CO2 with municipal wastewater was investigated. Different dilution ratios (0.5-2%) of municipal wastewater with food wastewater were evaluated in the presence of 5, 10 and 14.1% CO2. The food wastewater (0.5-1%) with 10-14.1% CO2 supported the highest growth (0.42-0.44 g L(-1)), nutrient removal (21-22 mg TN L(-1)), lipid productivity (10-11 mg L(-1)day(-1)) and carbohydrate productivity (13-16 mg L(-1)day(-1)) by S. obliquus after 6 days of cultivation. Food wastewater increased the palmitic and oleic acid contents up to 8 and 6%, respectively. Thus, application of food wastewater and flue gas CO2 can be employed for enhancement of growth, lipid/carbohydrate productivity and wastewater treatment efficiency of S. obliquus under mixotrophic condition, which can lead to development of a cost effective strategy for microalgal biomass production.

  6. Molecular assessment of microbiota structure and dynamics along mixed olive oil and winery wastewaters biotreatment.

    PubMed

    Eusébio, Ana; Tacão, Marta; Chaves, Sandra; Tenreiro, Rogério; Almeida-Vara, Elsa

    2011-07-01

    The major parcel of the degradation occurring along wastewater biotreatments is performed either by the native microbiota or by added microbial inocula. The main aim of this study was to apply two fingerprinting methods, temperature gradient gel electrophoresis (TGGE) and length heterogeneity-PCR (LH-PCR) analysis of 16S rRNA gene fragments, in order to assess the microbiota structure and dynamics during mixed olive oil and winery wastewaters aerobic biotreatment performed in a jet-loop reactor (JLR). Sequence homology analysis showed the presence of bacterial genera Gluconacetobacter, Klebsiella, Lactobacillus, Novosphingobium, Pseudomonas, Prevotella, Ralstonia, Sphingobium and Sphingomonas affiliated with five main phylogenetic groups: alpha-, beta- and gamma-Proteobacteria, Firmicutes and Bacteroidetes. LH-PCR analysis distinguished eight predominant DNA fragments correlated with the samples showing highest performance (COD removal rates of 67 up to 75%). Cluster analysis of both TGGE and LH-PCR fingerprinting profiles established five main clusters, with similarity coefficients higher than 79% (TGGE) and 62% (LH-PCR), and related with hydraulic retention time, indicating that this was the main factor responsible for the shifts in the microbiota structure. Canonical correspondence analysis revealed that changes observed on temperature and O(2) level were also responsible for shifts in microbiota composition. Community level metabolic profile analysis was used to test metabolic activities in samples. Integrated data revealed that the microbiota structure corresponds to bacterial groups with high degradative potential and good suitability for this type of effluents biotreatments.

  7. Production of biodiesel from microalgae Chlamydomonas polypyrenoideum grown on dairy industry wastewater.

    PubMed

    Kothari, Richa; Prasad, Ravindra; Kumar, Virendra; Singh, D P

    2013-09-01

    This study involves a process of phyco-remediation of dairy industry wastewater by algal strain Chlamydomonas polypyrenoideum. The results of selected algal strain indicated that dairy industry wastewater was good nutrient supplement for algal growth in comparable with BG-11 growth medium. Alga grown on dairy industry wastewater reduced the pollution load of nitrate (90%), nitrite (74%), phosphate (70%), chloride (61%), fluoride (58%), and ammonia (90%) on 10th day of its growth as compared to that of uninoculated wastewater. The lipid content of algal biomass grown on dairy wastewater on 10th day (1.6g) and 15th day (1.2 g) of batch experiment was found to be higher than the lipid content of algal biomass grown in BG-11 growth medium on 10th day (1.27 g) and 15th day (1.0 g) of batch experiment. The results on FTIR analysis of the extracted bio-oil through transesterification reaction was comparable with bio-oil obtained from other sources. PMID:23896442

  8. Production of biodiesel from microalgae Chlamydomonas polypyrenoideum grown on dairy industry wastewater.

    PubMed

    Kothari, Richa; Prasad, Ravindra; Kumar, Virendra; Singh, D P

    2013-09-01

    This study involves a process of phyco-remediation of dairy industry wastewater by algal strain Chlamydomonas polypyrenoideum. The results of selected algal strain indicated that dairy industry wastewater was good nutrient supplement for algal growth in comparable with BG-11 growth medium. Alga grown on dairy industry wastewater reduced the pollution load of nitrate (90%), nitrite (74%), phosphate (70%), chloride (61%), fluoride (58%), and ammonia (90%) on 10th day of its growth as compared to that of uninoculated wastewater. The lipid content of algal biomass grown on dairy wastewater on 10th day (1.6g) and 15th day (1.2 g) of batch experiment was found to be higher than the lipid content of algal biomass grown in BG-11 growth medium on 10th day (1.27 g) and 15th day (1.0 g) of batch experiment. The results on FTIR analysis of the extracted bio-oil through transesterification reaction was comparable with bio-oil obtained from other sources.

  9. Wetland treatment of oil and gas well wastewaters. Quarterly technical report, August 25--November 24, 1992

    SciTech Connect

    Kadlec, R.H.; Srinivasan, K.R.

    1992-12-24

    In this quarterly report, results of efforts on Tasks 2 and 3 are presented and discussed. Construction of a laboratory-type wetland (green house) has been begun and this undertaking is described in this report. The literature search has shown that clay amendments to wetlands are beginning to be used in Europe for P removal in agricultural drainage systems. The authors have undertaken similar studies on the use of inexpensive amendments to wetlands such as modified-clays and algae to enhance the performance of a constructed wetland for the treatment of oil and gas well wastewaters. The results from these studies are presented and analyzed in this report. Further, the literature search (nominally completed under Task 1) unearthed more recent studies (some unpublished) and a summary is included in this quarterly report.

  10. Sequential treatment of olive oil mill wastewater with adsorption and biological and photo-Fenton oxidation.

    PubMed

    Aytar, Pınar; Gedikli, Serap; Sam, Mesut; Farizoğlu, Burhanettin; Çabuk, Ahmet

    2013-05-01

    Olive oil mill wastewater (OMWW), a recalcitrant pollutant, has features including high phenolic content and dark color; thereby, several chemical or physical treatments or biological processes were not able to remediate it. In this study, the treatment efficiencies of three treatments, including adsorption, biological application, and photo-Fenton oxidation were sequentially evaluated for OMWW. Adsorption, biological treatment, and photo-Fenton caused decreasing phenolic contents of 48.69 %, 59.40 %, and 95 %, respectively. However, after three sequential treatments were performed, higher reduction percentages in phenolic (total 99 %) and organic contents (90 %) were observed. Although the studied fungus has not induced significant color reduction, photo-Fenton oxidation was considered to be an attractive solution, especially for color reduction. Besides, toxicity of OMWW treatment was significantly reduced. PMID:23054778

  11. Sequential treatment of olive oil mill wastewater with adsorption and biological and photo-Fenton oxidation.

    PubMed

    Aytar, Pınar; Gedikli, Serap; Sam, Mesut; Farizoğlu, Burhanettin; Çabuk, Ahmet

    2013-05-01

    Olive oil mill wastewater (OMWW), a recalcitrant pollutant, has features including high phenolic content and dark color; thereby, several chemical or physical treatments or biological processes were not able to remediate it. In this study, the treatment efficiencies of three treatments, including adsorption, biological application, and photo-Fenton oxidation were sequentially evaluated for OMWW. Adsorption, biological treatment, and photo-Fenton caused decreasing phenolic contents of 48.69 %, 59.40 %, and 95 %, respectively. However, after three sequential treatments were performed, higher reduction percentages in phenolic (total 99 %) and organic contents (90 %) were observed. Although the studied fungus has not induced significant color reduction, photo-Fenton oxidation was considered to be an attractive solution, especially for color reduction. Besides, toxicity of OMWW treatment was significantly reduced.

  12. Ozonation kinetics of phenolic acids present in wastewaters from olive oil mills

    SciTech Connect

    Benitez, F.J.; Beltran-Heredia, J.; Acero, J.L.; Pinilla, M.L.

    1997-03-01

    A kinetic study of the degradation by ozone of eight phenolic acids present in wastewaters from olive oil mills has been performed by using a competition kinetic method. The selected phenolic acids are: caffeic, p-coumaric, syringic, vanillic, 3,4,5-trimethoxybenzoic, veratric, p-hydroxy-benzoic, and protocatechuic. The influence of the operating variables (temperature, pH, and ozone partial pressure in the gas stream) is established, and the stoichiometric ratios for the individual direct reactions between ozone and each acid are determined. Once the reaction rate constants are evaluated, they are correlated as a function of temperature and pH into kinetic expressions which are provided for every phenolic acid. The global process occurs in the fast and pseudo-first-order kinetic regime of absorption, a condition required by the competition model to be used.

  13. Microbial lipid production from potato processing wastewater using oleaginous filamentous fungi Aspergillus oryzae.

    PubMed

    Muniraj, Iniya Kumar; Xiao, Liwen; Hu, Zhenhu; Zhan, Xinmin; Shi, Jianghong

    2013-06-15

    Use of potato processing wastewater for microbial lipid production by oleaginous filamentous fungus Aspergillus oryzae was studied with the purpose of recycling potato processing wastewater for biodiesel production. The wastewater contained high concentrations of solids, starch and nutrients. Sterilization of the potato processing wastewater resulted in a thick gelatinized medium, causing the fungi to grow slow. In order to overcome this problem, the wastewater was diluted with tap water at three dilution ratios (25%, 50% and 75% before fermentation). Dilution of the wastewater not only enhanced lipid production, starch utilization and amylase secretion but also COD and nutrient removal. The dilution ratio of 25% was found to be optimum for lipid production and the maximum lipid concentration obtained was 3.5 g/L. Lipid accumulation was influenced by amylase secretion, and the amylase activity was up to 53.5 IU/mL at 25% dilution. The results show that phosphate limitation may be the mechanism to stimulate the lipid accumulation. In addition to lipid production, removals of COD, total soluble nitrogen and total soluble phosphorus up to 91%, 98% and 97% were achieved, respectively. Microbial lipids of A. oryzae contained major fatty acids such as palmitic acid (11.6%), palmitolic acid (15.6%), stearic acid (19.3%), oleic acid (30.3%), linolenic acid (5.5%) and linoleic acid (6.5%) suggesting that the lipids be suitable for second generation biodiesel production.

  14. Trends in heavy oil production and refining in California

    SciTech Connect

    Olsen, D.K.; Ramzel, E.B.; Pendergrass, R.A. II.

    1992-07-01

    This report is one of a series of publications assessing the feasibility of increasing domestic heavy oil production and is part of a study being conducted for the US Department of Energy. This report summarizes trends in oil production and refining in Canada. Heavy oil (10{degrees} to 20{degrees} API gravity) production in California has increased from 20% of the state's total oil production in the early 1940s to 70% in the late 1980s. In each of the three principal petroleum producing districts (Los Angeles Basin, Coastal Basin, and San Joaquin Valley) oil production has peaked then declined at different times throughout the past 30 years. Thermal production of heavy oil has contributed to making California the largest producer of oil by enhanced oil recovery processes in spite of low oil prices for heavy oil and stringent environmental regulation. Opening of Naval Petroleum Reserve No. 1, Elk Hills (CA) field in 1976, brought about a major new source of light oil at a time when light oil production had greatly declined. Although California is a major petroleum-consuming state, in 1989 the state used 13.3 billion gallons of gasoline or 11.5% of US demand but it contributed substantially to the Nation's energy production and refining capability. California is the recipient and refines most of Alaska's 1.7 million barrel per day oil production. With California production, Alaskan oil, and imports brought into California for refining, California has an excess of oil and refined products and is a net exporter to other states. The local surplus of oil inhibits exploitation of California heavy oil resources even though the heavy oil resources exist. Transportation, refining, and competition in the market limit full development of California heavy oil resources.

  15. Trends in heavy oil production and refining in California

    SciTech Connect

    Olsen, D.K.; Ramzel, E.B.; Pendergrass, R.A. II

    1992-07-01

    This report is one of a series of publications assessing the feasibility of increasing domestic heavy oil production and is part of a study being conducted for the US Department of Energy. This report summarizes trends in oil production and refining in Canada. Heavy oil (10{degrees} to 20{degrees} API gravity) production in California has increased from 20% of the state`s total oil production in the early 1940s to 70% in the late 1980s. In each of the three principal petroleum producing districts (Los Angeles Basin, Coastal Basin, and San Joaquin Valley) oil production has peaked then declined at different times throughout the past 30 years. Thermal production of heavy oil has contributed to making California the largest producer of oil by enhanced oil recovery processes in spite of low oil prices for heavy oil and stringent environmental regulation. Opening of Naval Petroleum Reserve No. 1, Elk Hills (CA) field in 1976, brought about a major new source of light oil at a time when light oil production had greatly declined. Although California is a major petroleum-consuming state, in 1989 the state used 13.3 billion gallons of gasoline or 11.5% of US demand but it contributed substantially to the Nation`s energy production and refining capability. California is the recipient and refines most of Alaska`s 1.7 million barrel per day oil production. With California production, Alaskan oil, and imports brought into California for refining, California has an excess of oil and refined products and is a net exporter to other states. The local surplus of oil inhibits exploitation of California heavy oil resources even though the heavy oil resources exist. Transportation, refining, and competition in the market limit full development of California heavy oil resources.

  16. A review on hydrolytic enzymes in the treatment of wastewater with high oil and grease content.

    PubMed

    Cammarota, M C; Freire, D M G

    2006-11-01

    Wastewater from dairies and slaughterhouses contains high levels of fats and proteins that present low biodegradability. A large number of pretreatment systems are employed to remove oil and grease (O&G) to prevent a host of problems that may otherwise arise in the biological process, and reduce the efficiency of the treatment station. Problems caused by excessive O&G include a reduction in the cell-aqueous phase transfer rates, a sedimentation hindrance due to the development of filamentous microorganisms, development and flotation of sludge with poor activity, clogging and the emergence of unpleasant odors. Therefore the application of a pretreatment to hydrolyze and dissolve lipids may improve the biological degradation of fatty wastewaters, accelerating the process and improving time efficiency. However thus far, only a few studies describing the degradation of fats and oils by alkaline/acid/enzymatic hydrolysis have been reported; the treatment of effluents from several origins is a new and promising application for lipases. Among the strains that produce the hydrolytic enzymes studied, the fungus Penicillium restrictum is a particularly promising one. When cultivated in low-cost solid medium composed of agro-industrial waste, P. restrictum produces a pool of hydrolases capable of degrading the most complex organic compounds. This degradation enables a considerable increase in organic matter removal efficiency to be realized, which results in the attainment of a high-quality effluent in the subsequent biological treatment stage. Consequently, there is presently a wide variety of ongoing scientific investigation in the field of developing enzymatic hydrolysis processes to precede traditional biological treatment.

  17. Production of polyhydroxyalcanoates (PHAs) using milk whey and dairy wastewater activated sludge production of bioplastics using dairy residues.

    PubMed

    Bosco, Francesca; Chiampo, Fulvia

    2010-04-01

    The production of polyhydroxyalcanoates (PHAs), which are biodegradable plastics, was studied using milk whey and dairy wastewater activated sludge to define a suitable C/N ratio, the pre-treatments required to reduce the protein content, and the effect of pH correction. The results show good production of PHAs at a C/N=50 and without pH correction. The use of dairy wastewater activated sludge has the advantage of not requiring aseptic conditions. PMID:20226388

  18. Treatment of concentrated industrial wastewaters originating from oil shale and the like by electrolysis polyurethane foam interaction

    DOEpatents

    Tiernan, Joan E.

    1990-01-01

    Highly concentrated and toxic petroleum-based and synthetic fuels wastewaters such as oil shale retort water are treated in a unit treatment process by electrolysis in a reactor containing oleophilic, ionized, open-celled polyurethane foams and subjected to mixing and laminar flow conditions at an average detention time of six hours. Both the polyurethane foams and the foam regenerate solution are re-used. The treatment is a cost-effective process for waste-waters which are not treatable, or are not cost-effectively treatable, by conventional process series.

  19. Production of polyhydroxyalkanoates from waste frying oil by Cupriavidus necator

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHAs) are biopolymers, which can replace petrochemical plastics in many applications. However, these bioplastics are currently far more expensive than petrochemical plastics. Many researchers are investigating the use of inexpensive substrates derived from waste streams. Waste frying oil is abundant and can be used in PHA production without filtration. Cupriavidus necator (formerly known as Ralstonia eutropha) is a versatile organism for the production of PHAs. Small-scale batch fermentation studies have been set up, using different concentrations of pure vegetable oil, heated vegetable oil and waste frying oil. These oils are all rapeseed oils. It has been shown that Cupriavidus necator produced the homopolymer polyhydroxybutyrate (PHB) from the rapeseed oils. The achieved PHB concentration from waste frying oil was 1.2 g/l, which is similar to a concentration that can be obtained from glucose. The PHB harvest from pure oil and heated oil was 0.62 g/l and 0.9 g/l respectively. A feed of waste frying oil could thus achieve more biopolymer than pure vegetable oil. While the use of a waste product is beneficial from a life-cycle perspective, PHB is not the only product that can be made from waste oil. The collection of waste frying oil is becoming more widespread, making waste oil a good alternative to purified oil or glucose for PHB production. PMID:21906352

  20. Production of polyhydroxyalkanoates from waste frying oil by Cupriavidus necator.

    PubMed

    Verlinden, Rob Aj; Hill, David J; Kenward, Melvin A; Williams, Craig D; Piotrowska-Seget, Zofia; Radecka, Iza K

    2011-06-10

    Polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHAs) are biopolymers, which can replace petrochemical plastics in many applications. However, these bioplastics are currently far more expensive than petrochemical plastics. Many researchers are investigating the use of inexpensive substrates derived from waste streams. Waste frying oil is abundant and can be used in PHA production without filtration.Cupriavidus necator (formerly known as Ralstonia eutropha) is a versatile organism for the production of PHAs. Small-scale batch fermentation studies have been set up, using different concentrations of pure vegetable oil, heated vegetable oil and waste frying oil. These oils are all rapeseed oils.It has been shown that Cupriavidus necator produced the homopolymer polyhydroxybutyrate (PHB) from the rapeseed oils. The achieved PHB concentration from waste frying oil was 1.2 g/l, which is similar to a concentration that can be obtained from glucose. The PHB harvest from pure oil and heated oil was 0.62 g/l and 0.9 g/l respectively. A feed of waste frying oil could thus achieve more biopolymer than pure vegetable oil. While the use of a waste product is beneficial from a life-cycle perspective, PHB is not the only product that can be made from waste oil. The collection of waste frying oil is becoming more widespread, making waste oil a good alternative to purified oil or glucose for PHB production.

  1. Production of a newly isolated Paenibacillus polymyxa biocontrol agent using monosodium glutamate wastewater and potato wastewater.

    PubMed

    Gu, Likun; Bai, Zhihui; Jin, Bo; Zhang, Jianyun; Li, Wenying; Zhuang, Guoqiang; Zhang, Hongxun

    2010-01-01

    A phyllosphere bacterial strain EBL-06 was isolated from wheat leaves. The morphology, cultural characteristics, phospholipid fatty acids, physiological and antagonistic fungus activities of this strain were investigated. A phylogenetic tree was constructed by comparing with the published 16S rDNA sequences of the relevant bacteria. The results showed that the isolate EBL-06 was a strain of Paenibacillus polymyxa; this strain performed a high level of antagonistic fungus activity toward a broad spectrum of phytopathogens, such as Botrytis cinerea, Cladosporium cucumerinum, Fusarium spp. The isolate EBL-06 can grow well using monosodium glutamate wastewater (MGW) and potato wastewater (PW) as culture medium. The maximum yield of 6.5 x 10(9) CFU/mL of the isolate EBL-06 anti-fungus biocontrol agent was reached in 15 hr cultivation at 28 degrees C, pH 6.0-7.5 using the mixture of MGW and PW (1:9).

  2. Iodide, bromide, and ammonium in hydraulic fracturing and oil and gas wastewaters: environmental implications.

    PubMed

    Harkness, Jennifer S; Dwyer, Gary S; Warner, Nathaniel R; Parker, Kimberly M; Mitch, William A; Vengosh, Avner

    2015-02-01

    The expansion of unconventional shale gas and hydraulic fracturing has increased the volume of the oil and gas wastewater (OGW) generated in the U.S. Here we demonstrate that OGW from Marcellus and Fayetteville hydraulic fracturing flowback fluids and Appalachian conventional produced waters is characterized by high chloride, bromide, iodide (up to 56 mg/L), and ammonium (up to 420 mg/L). Br/Cl ratios were consistent for all Appalachian brines, which reflect an origin from a common parent brine, while the I/Cl and NH4/Cl ratios varied among brines from different geological formations, reflecting geogenic processes. There were no differences in halides and ammonium concentrations between OGW originating from hydraulic fracturing and conventional oil and gas operations. Analysis of discharged effluents from three brine treatment sites in Pennsylvania and a spill site in West Virginia show elevated levels of halides (iodide up to 28 mg/L) and ammonium (12 to 106 mg/L) that mimic the composition of OGW and mix conservatively in downstream surface waters. Bromide, iodide, and ammonium in surface waters can impact stream ecosystems and promote the formation of toxic brominated-, iodinated-, and nitrogen disinfection byproducts during chlorination at downstream drinking water treatment plants. Our findings indicate that discharge and accidental spills of OGW to waterways pose risks to both human health and the environment.

  3. Iodide, bromide, and ammonium in hydraulic fracturing and oil and gas wastewaters: environmental implications.

    PubMed

    Harkness, Jennifer S; Dwyer, Gary S; Warner, Nathaniel R; Parker, Kimberly M; Mitch, William A; Vengosh, Avner

    2015-02-01

    The expansion of unconventional shale gas and hydraulic fracturing has increased the volume of the oil and gas wastewater (OGW) generated in the U.S. Here we demonstrate that OGW from Marcellus and Fayetteville hydraulic fracturing flowback fluids and Appalachian conventional produced waters is characterized by high chloride, bromide, iodide (up to 56 mg/L), and ammonium (up to 420 mg/L). Br/Cl ratios were consistent for all Appalachian brines, which reflect an origin from a common parent brine, while the I/Cl and NH4/Cl ratios varied among brines from different geological formations, reflecting geogenic processes. There were no differences in halides and ammonium concentrations between OGW originating from hydraulic fracturing and conventional oil and gas operations. Analysis of discharged effluents from three brine treatment sites in Pennsylvania and a spill site in West Virginia show elevated levels of halides (iodide up to 28 mg/L) and ammonium (12 to 106 mg/L) that mimic the composition of OGW and mix conservatively in downstream surface waters. Bromide, iodide, and ammonium in surface waters can impact stream ecosystems and promote the formation of toxic brominated-, iodinated-, and nitrogen disinfection byproducts during chlorination at downstream drinking water treatment plants. Our findings indicate that discharge and accidental spills of OGW to waterways pose risks to both human health and the environment. PMID:25587644

  4. Removal Of Phenol From Wastewater By Using Low-Cost Catalyst From Metal Production

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Galbičková, Blanka; Soldán, Maroš; Belčík, Michal; Balog, Karol

    2014-12-01

    Utilization of AOPs (Advanced oxidation processes) as an emerging technology for removing of pollutants from wastewater is developed. In this paper, UV photodegradation was used for removing of phenol from wastewater. As a source of UV radiation medium pressure mercury lamp with output 400W was used. The influence of low-cost catalysts on this process was also monitored. Wastes from metal production, red mud and black nickel mud, were used as catalysts.

  5. [Trend of "zero energy consumption and wastewater" in fuel ethanol production].

    PubMed

    Mao, Zhonggui; Zhang, Jianhua

    2008-06-01

    The energy consumption in a Chinese ethanol manufacturer with cassava as the feedstock, has been reduced to a zero-closed level. If the R & D on technical integration of high ethanol concentration fermentation, methane fermentation technique, steam and electricity co-generation system, new distillation technology, and the wastewater reutilization, is carried out continuously, the proposed "zero energy consumption and wastewater" technique could be realized in fuel ethanol production process.

  6. HEAVY AND THERMAL OIL RECOVERY PRODUCTION MECHANISMS

    SciTech Connect

    Anthony R. Kovscek; Louis M. Castanier

    2002-09-30

    The Stanford University Petroleum Research Institute (SUPRI-A) conducts a broad spectrum of research intended to help improve the recovery efficiency from difficult to produce reservoirs including heavy oil and fractured low permeability systems. Our scope of work is relevant across near-, mid-, and long-term time frames. The primary functions of the group are to conduct direction-setting research, transfer research results to industry, and educate and train students for careers in industry. Presently, research in SUPRI-A is divided into 5 main project areas. These projects and their goals include: (1) Multiphase flow and rock properties--to develop better understanding of the physics of displacement in porous media through experiment and theory. This category includes work on imbibition, flow in fractured media, and the effect of temperature on relative permeability and capillary pressure. (2) Hot fluid injection--to improve the application of nonconventional wells for enhanced oil recovery and elucidate the mechanisms of steamdrive in low permeability, fractured porous media. (3) Mechanisms of primary heavy oil recovery--to develop a mechanistic understanding of so-called ''foamy oil'' and its associated physical chemistry. (4) In-situ combustion--to evaluate the effect of different reservoir parameters on the insitu combustion process. (5) Reservoir definition--to develop and improve techniques for evaluating formation properties from production information. What follows is a report on activities for the past year. Significant progress was made in all areas.

  7. Bio-Refineries Bioprocess Technologies for Waste-Water Treatment, Energy and Product Valorization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Keith Cowan, A.

    2010-04-01

    Increasing pressure is being exerted on communities and nations to source energy from forms other than fossil fuels. Also, potable water is becoming a scarce resource in many parts of the world, and there remains a large divide in the demand and utilization of plant products derived from genetically modified organisms (GMOs) and non-GMOs. The most extensive user and manager of terrestrial ecosystems is agriculture which is also the de facto steward of natural resources. As stated by Miller (2008) no other industry or institution comes close to the comparative advantage held for this vital responsibility while simultaneously providing food, fiber, and other biology-based products, including energy. Since modern commercial agriculture is transitioning from the production of bulk commodities to the provision of standardized products and specific-attribute raw materials for differentiated markets, we can argue that processes such as mass cultivation of microalgae and the concept of bio-refineries be seen as part of a `new' agronomy. EBRU is currently exploring the integration of bioprocess technologies using microalgae as biocatalysts to achieve waste-water treatment, water polishing and endocrine disruptor (EDC) removal, sustainable energy production, and exploitation of the resultant biomass in agriculture as foliar fertilizer and seed coatings, and for commercial extraction of bulk commodities such as bio-oils and lecithin. This presentation will address efforts to establish a fully operational solar-driven microalgae bio-refinery for use not only in waste remediation but to transform waste and biomass to energy, fuels, and other useful materials (valorisation), with particular focus on environmental quality and sustainability goals.

  8. Renewable and sustainable bioenergies production from palm oil mill effluent (POME): win-win strategies toward better environmental protection.

    PubMed

    Lam, Man Kee; Lee, Keat Teong

    2011-01-01

    Palm oil industry is one of the leading agricultural industries in Malaysia with average crude palm oil production of more than 13 million tonne per year. However, production of such huge amount of crude palm oil has consequently resulted to even larger amount of palm oil mill effluent (POME). POME is a highly polluting wastewater with high chemical oxygen demand (COD) and biochemical oxygen demand (BOD) in which can caused severe pollution to the environment, typically pollution to water resources. On the other hand, POME was identified as a potential source to generate renewable bioenergies such as biomethane and biohydrogen through anaerobic digestion. In other words, a combination of wastewater treatment and renewable bioenergies production would be an added advantage to the palm oil industry. In line with the world's focus on sustainability concept, such strategy should be implemented immediately to ensure palm oil is produced in an environmental friendly and sustainable manner. This review aims to discuss various technologies to convert POME to biomethane and biohydrogen in a commercial scale. Furthermore, discussion on using POME to culture microalgae for biodiesel and bioethanol production was included in the present paper as a new remedy to utilize POME with a greater beneficial return.

  9. Renewable and sustainable bioenergies production from palm oil mill effluent (POME): win-win strategies toward better environmental protection.

    PubMed

    Lam, Man Kee; Lee, Keat Teong

    2011-01-01

    Palm oil industry is one of the leading agricultural industries in Malaysia with average crude palm oil production of more than 13 million tonne per year. However, production of such huge amount of crude palm oil has consequently resulted to even larger amount of palm oil mill effluent (POME). POME is a highly polluting wastewater with high chemical oxygen demand (COD) and biochemical oxygen demand (BOD) in which can caused severe pollution to the environment, typically pollution to water resources. On the other hand, POME was identified as a potential source to generate renewable bioenergies such as biomethane and biohydrogen through anaerobic digestion. In other words, a combination of wastewater treatment and renewable bioenergies production would be an added advantage to the palm oil industry. In line with the world's focus on sustainability concept, such strategy should be implemented immediately to ensure palm oil is produced in an environmental friendly and sustainable manner. This review aims to discuss various technologies to convert POME to biomethane and biohydrogen in a commercial scale. Furthermore, discussion on using POME to culture microalgae for biodiesel and bioethanol production was included in the present paper as a new remedy to utilize POME with a greater beneficial return. PMID:20940036

  10. Reduction of nutrients, microbes, and personal care products in domestic wastewater by a benchtop electrocoagulation unit

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Symonds, E. M.; Cook, M. M.; McQuaig, S. M.; Ulrich, R. M.; Schenck, R. O.; Lukasik, J. O.; van Vleet, E. S.; Breitbart, M.

    2015-03-01

    To preserve environmental and human health, improved treatment processes are needed to reduce nutrients, microbes, and emerging chemical contaminants from domestic wastewater prior to discharge into the environment. Electrocoagulation (EC) treatment is increasingly used to treat industrial wastewater; however, this technology has not yet been thoroughly assessed for its potential to reduce concentrations of nutrients, a variety of microbial surrogates, and personal care products found in domestic wastewater. This investigation's objective was to determine the efficiency of a benchtop EC unit with aluminum sacrificial electrodes to reduce concentrations of the aforementioned biological and chemical pollutants from raw and tertiary-treated domestic wastewater. EC treatment resulted in significant reductions (p < 0.05, α = 0.05) in phosphate, all microbial surrogates, and several personal care products from raw and tertiary-treated domestic wastewater. When wastewater was augmented with microbial surrogates representing bacterial, viral, and protozoan pathogens to measure the extent of reduction, EC treatment resulted in up to 7-log10 reduction of microbial surrogates. Future pilot and full-scale investigations are needed to optimize EC treatment for the following: reducing nitrogen species, personal care products, and energy consumption; elucidating the mechanisms behind microbial reductions; and performing life cycle analyses to determine the appropriateness of implementation.

  11. Production of a High Efficiency Microbial Flocculant by Proteus mirabilis TJ-1 Using Compound Organic Wastewater

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Zhiqiang; Xia, Siqing; Zhang, Jiao

    2010-11-01

    The production of a high efficiency microbial flocculant (MBF) by Proteus mirabilis TJ-1 using compound organic wastewater was investigated. To cut down the cost of the MBF production, several nutritive organic wastewaters were selected to replace glucose and peptone as the carbon source and the nitrogen source in the optimized medium of strain TJ-1, respectively. The compound wastewater of the milk candy and the soybean milk was found to be good carbon source and nitrogen source for this strain to produce MBF. The cost-effective culture medium consists of (per liter): 800 mL wastewater of milk candy, 200 mL wastewater of soybean milk, 0.3 g MgSO4ṡ7 H2O, 5 g K2HPO4, 2 g and KH2PO4, pH 7.0. The economic cost for the MBF production can be cut down over a half by using the developed culture medium. Furthermore, the utilization of the two wastewaters in the preparation of culture medium of strain TJ-1 can not only save their big treatment cost, but also realize their resource reuse.

  12. Reduction of nutrients, microbes, and personal care products in domestic wastewater by a benchtop electrocoagulation unit

    PubMed Central

    Symonds, E. M.; Cook, M. M.; McQuaig, S. M.; Ulrich, R. M.; Schenck, R. O.; Lukasik, J. O.; Van Vleet, E. S.; Breitbart, M.

    2015-01-01

    To preserve environmental and human health, improved treatment processes are needed to reduce nutrients, microbes, and emerging chemical contaminants from domestic wastewater prior to discharge into the environment. Electrocoagulation (EC) treatment is increasingly used to treat industrial wastewater; however, this technology has not yet been thoroughly assessed for its potential to reduce concentrations of nutrients, a variety of microbial surrogates, and personal care products found in domestic wastewater. This investigation's objective was to determine the efficiency of a benchtop EC unit with aluminum sacrificial electrodes to reduce concentrations of the aforementioned biological and chemical pollutants from raw and tertiary-treated domestic wastewater. EC treatment resulted in significant reductions (p < 0.05, α = 0.05) in phosphate, all microbial surrogates, and several personal care products from raw and tertiary-treated domestic wastewater. When wastewater was augmented with microbial surrogates representing bacterial, viral, and protozoan pathogens to measure the extent of reduction, EC treatment resulted in up to 7-log10 reduction of microbial surrogates. Future pilot and full-scale investigations are needed to optimize EC treatment for the following: reducing nitrogen species, personal care products, and energy consumption; elucidating the mechanisms behind microbial reductions; and performing life cycle analyses to determine the appropriateness of implementation. PMID:25797885

  13. Production integrated treatment of textile wastewater by closing raw material cycles.

    PubMed

    Krull, R

    2005-01-01

    A method for the in-house treatment of partial wastewater flows and the recycling of treated process water into the textile finishing process was developed in order to recycle effluents from textile finishing industry and feed them back into the production process. The method is based on a two-stage biological anaerobic-aerobic process to split colouring wastewater agents and to degrade organic substances contained in the water as well as a chemical stage to remove the remaining color of the water with the help of ozone. In the framework of a research and development project a demonstration plant for a treatment capacity of 1440 m3 per working day was installed and started in a textile finishing company. At the plant, a wastewater flow and a recycling flow are treated separately in two different treatment lanes. Approximately 40% of the total wastewater flows, i.e. 576 m3/d are treated in the wastewater lane, and a maximum of 60% of total wastewater, i.e. 864 m3/d are treated in the recycling lane. Thanks to the preliminary treatment of wastewater flows, which are discharged into the municipal sewage works, a reduction of average COD levels in the sewage works effluents could be achieved.

  14. Effect of fermented wastewaters from butter production on phosphates removal in a sequencing batch reactor.

    PubMed

    Janczukowicz, Wojciech; Rodziewicz, Joanna; Thornton, Arthur; Czaplicka, Kamila

    2012-09-01

    This study determined the potential for fermented wastewaters from butter production plant to act as a carbon source to facilitate phosphates removal. Synthetic dairy wastewaters were treated using SBR, with doses of fermented wastewaters. An increase in the fermented wastewater doses were found to improve the effluent quality in respect of phosphates and nitrates. The lowest concentrations of phosphate and nitrates, respectively 0.10 ± 0.04 mg PO(4)-PL(-1) and 1.03 ± 0.22 mg NO(3)-NL(-1), were noted in the effluent from the reactor fed with fermented wastewaters in a dose of 0.25 L d(-1) per 0.45 L d(-1) of wastewaters fed to the reactor. In the case of the two highest doses, an increase in effluent COD was stated. The higher effectiveness resulted from the fact that the introduction of fermented wastewaters caused an increase in the easily-available carbon compounds content and the predominance of acetic acid amongst VFAs available to dephosphatating and denitrifying bacteria.

  15. Utilization of secondary-treated wastewater for the production of freshwater microalgae.

    PubMed

    Gómez-Serrano, C; Morales-Amaral, M M; Acién, F G; Escudero, R; Fernández-Sevilla, J M; Molina-Grima, E

    2015-08-01

    In this work, we studied the potential use of secondary-treated wastewater as nutrient source in the production of freshwater microalgae strains. Experiments were performed indoors in a semicontinuous mode, at 0.3 day(-1), simulating outdoor conditions. We demonstrated that all the tested strains can be produced by using only secondary-treated wastewater as the nutrient source. The utilization of secondary-treated wastewater imposes nutrient-limiting conditions, with maximal biomass productivity dropping to 0.5 g l(-1) day(-1) and modifies the biochemical composition of the biomass by increasing the amount of lipids and carbohydrates while reducing the biomass protein content. We measured fatty acid content and productivity of up to 25 %d.wt. and 110 mg l(-1) day(-1), respectively. We demonstrated that all the tested strains were capable of completely removing the nitrogen and phosphorus contained in the secondary-treated wastewater, and while the use of this effluent reduced the cells' photosynthetic efficiency, the nitrogen and phosphorus coefficient yield increased. Muriellopsis sp. and S. subpicatus were selected as the most promising strains for outdoor production using secondary-treated wastewater as the culture medium; this was not only because of their high productivity but also their photosynthetic efficiency, of up to 2.5 %, along with nutrient coefficient yields of up to 96 gbiomass gN (-1) and 166 gbiomass gP (-1). Coupling microalgae production processes to tertiary treatment in wastewater treatment plants make it possible to recover nutrients contained in the water and to produce valuable biomass, especially where nutrient removal is required prior to wastewater discharge.

  16. Biodiesel production from indigenous microalgae grown in wastewater.

    PubMed

    Komolafe, Oladapo; Velasquez Orta, Sharon B; Monje-Ramirez, Ignacio; Yáñez Noguez, Isaura; Harvey, Adam P; Orta Ledesma, María T

    2014-02-01

    This paper describes a process for producing biodiesel sustainably from microalgae grown in wastewater, whilst significantly reducing the wastewater's nutrients and total coliform. Furthermore, ozone-flotation harvesting of the resultant biomass was investigated, shown to be viable, and resulted in FAMEs of greater oxidation stability. Desmodesmus sp. and two mixed cultures were successfully grown on wastewater. Desmodesmus sp. grew rapidly, to a higher maximum biomass concentration of 0.58 g/L. A native mixed culture dominated by Oscillatoria and Arthrospira, reached 0.45 g/L and exhibited the highest lipid and FAME yield. The FAME obtained from ozone-flotation exhibited the greatest oxidative stability, as the degree of saturation was high. In principle ozone could therefore be used as a combined method of harvesting and reducing FAME unsaturation. During microalgae treatment, the total nitrogen in wastewater was reduced by 55.4-83.9%. More importantly, total coliform removal was as high as 99.8%. PMID:24412481

  17. Effect of industrial waste products on phosphorus mobilisation and biomass production in abattoir wastewater irrigated soil.

    PubMed

    Seshadri, Balaji; Kunhikrishnan, Anitha; Bolan, Nanthi; Naidu, Ravi

    2014-09-01

    This study evaluated the effect of alkaline industrial by-products such as flyash (FA) and redmud (RM) on phosphorus (P) mobilisation in abattoir wastewater irrigated soils, using incubation, leaching and plant growth (Napier grass [Pennisetum purpureum]) experiments. The soil outside the wastewater irrigated area was also collected and treated with inorganic (KH2PO4 [PP]) and organic (poultry manure [PM]) P treatments, to study the effect of FA and RM on P mobilisation using plant growth experiment. Among the amendments, FA showed the highest increase in Olsen P, oxalic acid content and phosphatase activity. The highest increase in Olsen P for PM treated non-irrigated soils showed the ability of FA and RM in mobilising organic P better than inorganic P (PP). There was over 85 % increase in oxalic acid content in the plant growth soils compared to the incubated soil, showing the effect of Napier grass in the exudation of oxalic acid. Both amendments (FA and RM) showed an increase in phosphatase activity at over 90 % at the end of the 5-week incubation period. The leaching experiment indicated a decrease in water soluble P thereby ensuring the role of FA and RM in minimising P loss to water bodies. FA and RM showed an increase in plant biomass for all treatments, where FA amended soil showed the highest increase as evident from FA's effect on Olsen P. Therefore, the use of FA and RM mobilised P in abattoir wastewater irrigated soils and increased biomass production of Napier grass plants through root exudation of oxalic acid.

  18. Effect of industrial waste products on phosphorus mobilisation and biomass production in abattoir wastewater irrigated soil.

    PubMed

    Seshadri, Balaji; Kunhikrishnan, Anitha; Bolan, Nanthi; Naidu, Ravi

    2014-09-01

    This study evaluated the effect of alkaline industrial by-products such as flyash (FA) and redmud (RM) on phosphorus (P) mobilisation in abattoir wastewater irrigated soils, using incubation, leaching and plant growth (Napier grass [Pennisetum purpureum]) experiments. The soil outside the wastewater irrigated area was also collected and treated with inorganic (KH2PO4 [PP]) and organic (poultry manure [PM]) P treatments, to study the effect of FA and RM on P mobilisation using plant growth experiment. Among the amendments, FA showed the highest increase in Olsen P, oxalic acid content and phosphatase activity. The highest increase in Olsen P for PM treated non-irrigated soils showed the ability of FA and RM in mobilising organic P better than inorganic P (PP). There was over 85 % increase in oxalic acid content in the plant growth soils compared to the incubated soil, showing the effect of Napier grass in the exudation of oxalic acid. Both amendments (FA and RM) showed an increase in phosphatase activity at over 90 % at the end of the 5-week incubation period. The leaching experiment indicated a decrease in water soluble P thereby ensuring the role of FA and RM in minimising P loss to water bodies. FA and RM showed an increase in plant biomass for all treatments, where FA amended soil showed the highest increase as evident from FA's effect on Olsen P. Therefore, the use of FA and RM mobilised P in abattoir wastewater irrigated soils and increased biomass production of Napier grass plants through root exudation of oxalic acid. PMID:24862480

  19. Treatment of concentrated industrial wastewaters originating from oil shale and the like by electrolysis polyurethane foam interaction

    DOEpatents

    Tiernan, Joan E.

    1991-01-01

    Highly concentrated and toxic petroleum-based and synthetic fuels wastewaters such as oil shale retort water are treated in a unit treatment process by electrolysis in a reactor containing oleophilic, ionized, open-celled polyurethane foams and subjected to mixing and l BACKGROUND OF THE INVENTION The invention described herein arose in the course of, or under, Contract No. DE-AC03-76SF00098 between the U.S. Department of Energy and the University of California.

  20. Production of polyol oils from soybean oil by Pseudomonas aeruginosa E03-12.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Soy-polyols are important starting materials for the manufacture of polymers such as polyurethane. We have been trying to develop a bioprocess for the production of polyol oils directly from soybean oil. We reported earlier the polyol products produced from soybean oil by Acinetobacter haemolyticus ...

  1. Production of polyol oils from soybean oil by bioprocess and Philippines edible medicinal wild mushrooms

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We have been trying to develop a bioprocess for the production of polyol oils directly from soybean oil. We reported earlier the polyol products produced from soybean oil by Acinetobacter haemolyticus A01-35 (NRRL B-59985) (Hou and Lin, 2013). The objective of this study is to identify the chemical ...

  2. Reducing microplastics from facial exfoliating cleansers in wastewater through treatment versus consumer product decisions.

    PubMed

    Chang, Michelle

    2015-12-15

    Microplastics (<5mm) have been discovered in fresh and saltwater ecosystems, sediments, and wastewater effluent around the world. Their ability to persist and accumulate up food chains should be a concern as research is still experimenting with techniques to assess their long-term effects on the environment. I sought to characterize the microbeads found in facial exfoliating cleansers so as to better understand how to reduce this source of pollution through consumer use and wastewater treatment solutions. By sampling products from national-grossing cosmetic personal care brands, I was able to gather information on the size, color, volume, mass, and concentration of polyethylene beads in the cleansers. From that data, I modeled onto a consumer survey the estimated volume of microplastics entering a wastewater stream. Through inquiry, I learned the practices of two local wastewater treatment facilities. My findings show that consumer decisions and treatment protocols both play crucial parts in minimizing microplastic pollution.

  3. Reducing microplastics from facial exfoliating cleansers in wastewater through treatment versus consumer product decisions.

    PubMed

    Chang, Michelle

    2015-12-15

    Microplastics (<5mm) have been discovered in fresh and saltwater ecosystems, sediments, and wastewater effluent around the world. Their ability to persist and accumulate up food chains should be a concern as research is still experimenting with techniques to assess their long-term effects on the environment. I sought to characterize the microbeads found in facial exfoliating cleansers so as to better understand how to reduce this source of pollution through consumer use and wastewater treatment solutions. By sampling products from national-grossing cosmetic personal care brands, I was able to gather information on the size, color, volume, mass, and concentration of polyethylene beads in the cleansers. From that data, I modeled onto a consumer survey the estimated volume of microplastics entering a wastewater stream. Through inquiry, I learned the practices of two local wastewater treatment facilities. My findings show that consumer decisions and treatment protocols both play crucial parts in minimizing microplastic pollution. PMID:26563542

  4. Using wastewater after lipid fermentation as substrate for bacterial cellulose production by Gluconacetobacter xylinus.

    PubMed

    Huang, Chao; Guo, Hai-Jun; Xiong, Lian; Wang, Bo; Shi, Si-Lan; Chen, Xue-Fang; Lin, Xiao-Qing; Wang, Can; Luo, Jun; Chen, Xin-De

    2016-01-20

    In this study, lipid fermentation wastewater (fermentation broth after separation with yeast biomass) with high Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD) value of 25,591 mg/L was used as substrate for bacterial cellulose (BC) production by Gluconacetobacter xylinus for the first time. After 5 days of fermentation, the highest BC yield (0.659 g/L) was obtained. Both monosaccharide and polysaccharides present in lipid fermentation wastewater could be utilized by G. xylinus simultaneously during fermentation. By this bioconversion, 30.0% of COD could be removed after 10 days of fermentation and the remaining wastewater could be used for further BC fermentation. The crystallinity of BC samples in lipid fermentation wastewater increased gradually during fermentation but overall the environment of lipid fermentation wastewater showed small influence on BC structure by comparison with that in traditional HS medium by using FE-SEM, FTIR, and XRD. By this work, the possibility of using lipid fermentation wastewater containing low value carbohydrate polymer (extracellular polysaccharides) for high value carbohydrate polymer (BC) production was proven. PMID:26572346

  5. Using wastewater after lipid fermentation as substrate for bacterial cellulose production by Gluconacetobacter xylinus.

    PubMed

    Huang, Chao; Guo, Hai-Jun; Xiong, Lian; Wang, Bo; Shi, Si-Lan; Chen, Xue-Fang; Lin, Xiao-Qing; Wang, Can; Luo, Jun; Chen, Xin-De

    2016-01-20

    In this study, lipid fermentation wastewater (fermentation broth after separation with yeast biomass) with high Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD) value of 25,591 mg/L was used as substrate for bacterial cellulose (BC) production by Gluconacetobacter xylinus for the first time. After 5 days of fermentation, the highest BC yield (0.659 g/L) was obtained. Both monosaccharide and polysaccharides present in lipid fermentation wastewater could be utilized by G. xylinus simultaneously during fermentation. By this bioconversion, 30.0% of COD could be removed after 10 days of fermentation and the remaining wastewater could be used for further BC fermentation. The crystallinity of BC samples in lipid fermentation wastewater increased gradually during fermentation but overall the environment of lipid fermentation wastewater showed small influence on BC structure by comparison with that in traditional HS medium by using FE-SEM, FTIR, and XRD. By this work, the possibility of using lipid fermentation wastewater containing low value carbohydrate polymer (extracellular polysaccharides) for high value carbohydrate polymer (BC) production was proven.

  6. Dispersion Of Crude Oil And Petroleum Products In Freshwater

    EPA Science Inventory

    The objective of this research was to investigate the relationship between dispersion effectiveness in freshwater and the surfactant composition for fresh and weathered crude oil. Although limited research on the chemical dispersion of crude oil and petroleum products in freshwat...

  7. Green processing for commercial production of feruloylated vegetable oils

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Covalent incorporation of ferulic acid into vegetable oils produces a desirable product for cosmetic applications. Current practice involves the biocatalytic transesterification of ethyl ferulate with soybean oil, followed by a molecular distillation step to remove unconsumed ethyl ferulate and the...

  8. Identification and removal of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in wastewater treatment processes from coke production plants.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Wanhui; Wei, Chaohai; Yan, Bo; Feng, Chunhua; Zhao, Guobao; Lin, Chong; Yuan, Mengyang; Wu, Chaofei; Ren, Yuan; Hu, Yun

    2013-09-01

    Identification and removal of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) were investigated at two coke plants located in Shaoguan, Guangdong Province of China. Samples of raw coking wastewaters and wastewaters from subunits of a coke production plant were analyzed using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC/MS) to provide a detailed chemical characterization of PAHs. The identification and characterization of PAH isomers was based on a positive match of mass spectral data of sample peaks with those for PAH isomers in mass spectra databases with electron impact ionization mass spectra and retention times of internal reference compounds. In total, 270 PAH compounds including numerous nitrogen, oxygen, and sulfur heteroatomic derivatives were positively identified for the first time. Quantitative analysis of target PAHs revealed that total PAH concentrations in coking wastewaters were in the range of 98.5 ± 8.9 to 216 ± 20.2 μg/L, with 3-4-ring PAHs as dominant compounds. Calculation of daily PAH output from four plant subunits indicated that PAHs in the coking wastewater came mainly from ammonia stripping wastewater. Coking wastewater treatment processes played an important role in removing PAHs in coking wastewater, successfully removing 92 % of the target compounds. However, 69 weakly polar compounds, including PAH isomers, were still discharged in the final effluent, producing 8.8 ± 2.7 to 31.9 ± 6.8 g/day of PAHs with potential toxicity to environmental waters. The study of coking wastewater herein proposed can be used to better predict improvement of coke production facilities and treatment conditions according to the identification and removal of PAHs in the coke plant as well as to assess risks associated with continuous discharge of these contaminants to receiving waters.

  9. [Pollution hazard for water bodies at oil production].

    PubMed

    Zholdakova, Z I; Beliaeva, N I

    2015-01-01

    In the paper there have been summarizes the concepts of the danger of the pollution ofwater bodies in oil production (the most dangerous are reagents used in the drilling, drilling waste, oil and petrochemicals, oil biodestructors. There was shown the danger of the spread of oil pollution. New indices, presenting a hazard during drilling and oil production have been substantiated The tasks aimed to the improvement of the standards and methods of the control of the water pollution by oil, as well as of the documents regulating the conditions of environmental protection during the drilling have been conceived.

  10. [Pollution hazard for water bodies at oil production].

    PubMed

    Zholdakova, Z I; Beliaeva, N I

    2015-01-01

    In the paper there have been summarizes the concepts of the danger of the pollution ofwater bodies in oil production (the most dangerous are reagents used in the drilling, drilling waste, oil and petrochemicals, oil biodestructors. There was shown the danger of the spread of oil pollution. New indices, presenting a hazard during drilling and oil production have been substantiated The tasks aimed to the improvement of the standards and methods of the control of the water pollution by oil, as well as of the documents regulating the conditions of environmental protection during the drilling have been conceived. PMID:26031037

  11. Bio gas oil production from waste lard.

    PubMed

    Hancsók, Jeno; Baladincz, Péter; Kasza, Tamás; Kovács, Sándor; Tóth, Csaba; Varga, Zoltán

    2011-01-01

    Besides the second generations bio fuels, one of the most promising products is the bio gas oil, which is a high iso-paraffin containing fuel, which could be produced by the catalytic hydrogenation of different triglycerides. To broaden the feedstock of the bio gas oil the catalytic hydrogenation of waste lard over sulphided NiMo/Al(2)O(3) catalyst, and as the second step, the isomerization of the produced normal paraffin rich mixture (intermediate product) over Pt/SAPO-11 catalyst was investigated. It was found that both the hydrogenation and the decarboxylation/decarbonylation oxygen removing reactions took place but their ratio depended on the process parameters (T = 280-380°C, P = 20-80 bar, LHSV = 0.75-3.0  h(-1) and H(2)/lard ratio: 600  Nm(3)/m(3)). In case of the isomerization at the favourable process parameters (T = 360-370°C, P = 40-50 bar, LHSV = 1.0  h(-1) and H(2)/hydrocarbon ratio: 400  Nm(3)/m(3)) mainly mono-branching isoparaffins were obtained. The obtained products are excellent Diesel fuel blending components, which are practically free of heteroatoms. PMID:21403875

  12. Depuration in aerated ponds of citrus processing wastewater with a high concentration of essential oils.

    PubMed

    Zema, Demetrio Antonio; Andiloro, Serafina; Bombino, Giuseppe; Tamburino, Vincenzo; Sidari, Rossana; Caridi, Andrea

    2012-06-01

    Citrus processing wastewater was treated in aerated pilot plants in order to evaluate the following: (a) energy efficiency under different air flow rates and times; and (b) limits of spontaneous microflora in adapting to essential oils. In comparison to permanent air flow, night aeration for 12 hours determined an increase of up to 12% of the monthly removal rate of chemical oxygen demand (COD) and a consequent reduction by 10% of energy consumptions per unit of COD removed from 0.63 to 0.57 kWh/kg(COD). Lowering night aeration from 14 to 7 1/m3/h reduced by only 10% the removal rate of COD; the energy consumption per unit of COD removed (0.32 kWh/kg(COD)) was consequently reduced by more than 40%. Dissolved oxygen was maintained at very low level, rarely exceeding 0.2 ppm, with no bad smell. The consequent high oxygen deficit of 98-99% of saturation induced high oxygen transfer efficiency. The microbial population was characterized mainly by aerobic bacteria; only 5-8% of bacteria were strictly anaerobic. In the deep tank layer under the air diffuser a small amount of sludge settled (0.03-0.04 kg of dry matter per kg of COD removed), containing only 3% of total organic matter detected at the end of the depuration process. The fact that the concentration of essential oils could be progressively increased up to 1400 ppm without noticeably slowing down the biological processes demonstrated the remarkable microbial adaptation. PMID:22856297

  13. Treated wastewater irrigation: uptake of pharmaceutical and personal care products by common vegetables under field conditions.

    PubMed

    Wu, Xiaoqin; Conkle, Jeremy L; Ernst, Frederick; Gan, Jay

    2014-10-01

    Global water shortage is placing an unprecedented pressure on water supplies. Treated wastewater is a valuable water resource, but its reuse for agricultural irrigation faces a roadblock: the public concern over the potential accumulation of contaminants of emerging concern (CECs) into human diet. In the present study, we measured the levels of 19 commonly occurring pharmaceutical and personal care products (PPCPs) in 8 vegetables irrigated with treated wastewater under field conditions. Tertiary treated wastewater without or with a fortification of each PPCP at 250 ng/L, was used to irrigate crops until harvest. Plant samples at premature and mature stages were collected. Analysis of edible tissues showed a detection frequency of 64% and 91% in all vegetables from the treated wastewater and fortified water treatments, respectively. The edible samples from the two treatments contained the same PPCPs, including caffeine, meprobamate, primidone, DEET, carbamazepine, dilantin, naproxen, and triclosan. The total concentrations of PPCPs detected in edible tissues from the treated wastewater and fortified irrigation treatments were in the range of 0.01-3.87 and 0.15-7.3 ng/g (dry weight), respectively. Annual exposure of PPCPs from the consumption of mature vegetables irrigated with the fortified water was estimated to be only 3.69 μg per capita. Results from the present study showed that the accumulation of PPCPs in vegetables irrigated with treated wastewater was likely limited under field conditions.

  14. Enhancement of lipid productivity of Rhodosporidium toruloides in distillery wastewater by increasing cell density.

    PubMed

    Ling, Jiayin; Nip, Saiwa; Shim, Hojae

    2013-10-01

    This study is to improve the process of producing lipid convertible to biodiesel, from distillery wastewater while simultaneously removing organics and nutrients efficiently by inoculating oleaginous yeast Rhodosporidium toruloides in the presence of indigenous microorganisms. The lipid productivity of R. toruloides was studied using real wastewater obtained from distillery and local municipal wastewater treatment plants. Under the conditions of mix rate of 1:1 with domestic wastewater, initial soluble chemical oxygen demand (SCOD) over 20,000 mg/L and initial cell density of 2×10(7) cells/mL at 30 °C, lipid content and lipid yield achieved were 43.65±1.74% and 3.54±0.04 g/L, with the associated removal efficiencies for COD, total nitrogen (TN), and total phosphorus (TP), 86.11±0.41%, 57.81±0.29%, and 67.69±0.73%, respectively, after three days of cultivation in real distillery wastewater without pH adjustment. The pH of wastewater increased from 3.71 to over 8 in 7 days of cultivation.

  15. The effects of adsorbing organic pollutants from super heavy oil wastewater by lignite activated coke.

    PubMed

    Tong, Kun; Lin, Aiguo; Ji, Guodong; Wang, Dong; Wang, Xinghui

    2016-05-01

    The adsorption of organic pollutants from super heavy oil wastewater (SHOW) by lignite activated coke (LAC) was investigated. Specifically, the effects of LAC adsorption on pH, BOD5/COD(Cr)(B/C), and the main pollutants before and after adsorption were examined. The removed organic pollutants were characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), Boehm titrations, gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS), and liquid chromatography with organic carbon detection (LC-OCD). FTIR spectra indicated that organic pollutants containing -COOH and -NH2 functional groups were adsorbed from the SHOW. Boehm titrations further demonstrated that carboxyl, phenolic hydroxyl, and lactonic groups on the surface of the LAC increased. GC-MS showed that the removed main organic compounds are difficult to be degraded or extremely toxics to aquatic organisms. According to the results of LC-OCD, 30.37 mg/L of dissolved organic carbons were removed by LAC adsorption. Among these, hydrophobic organic contaminants accounted for 25.03 mg/L. Furthermore, LAC adsorption was found to increase pH and B/C ratio of the SHOW. The mechanisms of adsorption were found to involve between the hydrogen bonding and the functional groups of carboxylic, phenolic, and lactonic on the LAC surface. In summary, all these results demonstrated that LAC adsorption can remove bio-refractory DOCs, which is beneficial for biodegradation.

  16. Olive oil mill wastewater purification by combination of coagulation- flocculation and biological treatments.

    PubMed

    Jaouani, A; Vanthournhout, M; Penninckx, M J

    2005-06-01

    In order to define an efficient pre-treatment of Olive Oil Mill Wastewater (OOMW) to overcome major obstacles to biological treatment, various organic and mineral coagulants have been tested. In particular, the application of quicklime until a pH around 12 - 12.4 was reached, allowed the reduction of almost 37% of the initial COD, and approximately 88% and 71% of the colour and phenolic content of the waste. Hence, further biological treatments with an adapted aerobic consortium (AC) and a white rot fungus (WRF) strain were improved. The WRF Coriolopsis polyzona was more efficient than AC to reduce colour and polyphenols when the waste was prior diluted or pre-treated; however, it was less effective in COD removal. The combined treatment: lime - AC of OOMW having initial COD of 102 g l(-1) led to the elimination of about 77, 91 and 63%, of the COD, phenols and colour, respectively. Interestingly, the opposite combination AC - lime permitted better COD, phenols and colour reduction to respectively, 21, 11 and 11% of the initial values. This latter condition is technically recommended since only one step separation was needed and no pH correction was necessary before undergoing aerobic treatment. Moreover, the process would produce a sludge potentially rich in organic matter, and consequently, useful as an agricultural amendment or/and as an additive in animal nutrition.

  17. The effects of adsorbing organic pollutants from super heavy oil wastewater by lignite activated coke.

    PubMed

    Tong, Kun; Lin, Aiguo; Ji, Guodong; Wang, Dong; Wang, Xinghui

    2016-05-01

    The adsorption of organic pollutants from super heavy oil wastewater (SHOW) by lignite activated coke (LAC) was investigated. Specifically, the effects of LAC adsorption on pH, BOD5/COD(Cr)(B/C), and the main pollutants before and after adsorption were examined. The removed organic pollutants were characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), Boehm titrations, gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS), and liquid chromatography with organic carbon detection (LC-OCD). FTIR spectra indicated that organic pollutants containing -COOH and -NH2 functional groups were adsorbed from the SHOW. Boehm titrations further demonstrated that carboxyl, phenolic hydroxyl, and lactonic groups on the surface of the LAC increased. GC-MS showed that the removed main organic compounds are difficult to be degraded or extremely toxics to aquatic organisms. According to the results of LC-OCD, 30.37 mg/L of dissolved organic carbons were removed by LAC adsorption. Among these, hydrophobic organic contaminants accounted for 25.03 mg/L. Furthermore, LAC adsorption was found to increase pH and B/C ratio of the SHOW. The mechanisms of adsorption were found to involve between the hydrogen bonding and the functional groups of carboxylic, phenolic, and lactonic on the LAC surface. In summary, all these results demonstrated that LAC adsorption can remove bio-refractory DOCs, which is beneficial for biodegradation. PMID:26808249

  18. Microalgae cultivation using an aquaculture wastewater as growth medium for biomass and biofuel production.

    PubMed

    Guo, Zhen; Liu, Yuan; Guo, Haiyan; Yan, Song; Mu, Jun

    2013-12-01

    Microalgae as a main feedstock has attracted much attention in recent years but is still not economically feasible due to high algal culture cost. The objective of this study was to develop a comprehensive eco-friendly technology for cultivating microalgae Platymonas subcordiformis using aquaculture wastewater as growth medium for biomass and biofuel production. Platymonas subcordiformis was grown in pretreated flounder aquaculture wastewaters taken from different stages. Each of wastewater contained different levels of nutrients. The biomass yield of microalgae and associated nitrogen and phosphorous removal were investigated. The results showed that algal cell density increased 8.9 times than the initial level. Platymonas subcordiformis removed nitrogen and phosphorus from wastewater with an average removal efficiency of 87%-95% for nitrogen and 98%-99% for phosphorus. It was feasible to couple the removal of nitrogen and phosphorus from wastewater to algal biomass and biofuel production. However, further studies are required to make this technologies economically viable for algae biofuel production. PMID:25078847

  19. Physical and oxidative stability of functional olive oil-in-water emulsions formulated using olive mill wastewater biophenols and whey proteins.

    PubMed

    Caporaso, Nicola; Genovese, Alessandro; Burke, Róisín; Barry-Ryan, Catherine; Sacchi, Raffaele

    2016-01-01

    The present paper reports on the use of phenolic extracts from olive mill wastewater (OMW) in model olive oil-in-water (O/W) emulsions to study their effect on their physical and chemical stability. Spray-dried OMW polyphenols were added to a model 20% olive O/W emulsion stabilized with whey protein isolate (WPI) and xanthan gum, in phosphate buffer solution at pH 7. The emulsions were characterised under accelerated storage conditions (40 °C) up to 30 days. Physical stability was evaluated by analysing the creaming rate, mean particle size distribution and mean droplet size, viscosity and rheological properties, while chemical stability was assessed through the measurement of primary and secondary oxidation products. The rheological behaviour and creaming stability of the emulsions were dramatically improved by using xanthan gum, whereas the concentration of WPI and the addition of encapsulated OMW phenolics did not result in a significant improvement of physical stability. The formation of oxidation products was higher when higher concentrations of encapsulated polyphenols were used, indicating a possible binding with the WPI added in the system as a natural emulsifier. This paper might help in solving the issue of using the olive mill wastewater from olive processing in formulating functional food products with high antioxidant activity and improved health properties.

  20. Integration of biotechnological wastewater treatment units in textile finishing factories: from end of the pipe solutions to combined production and wastewater treatment units.

    PubMed

    Feitkenhauer, H; Meyer, U

    2001-08-23

    Increasing costs for water, wastewater and energy put pressure on textile finishing plants to increase the efficiency of wet processing. An improved water management can decrease the use of these resources and is a prerequisite for the integration of an efficient, anaerobic on-site pretreatment of effluents that will further cut wastewater costs. A two-phase anaerobic treatment is proposed, and successful laboratory experiments with model effluents from the cotton finishing industry are reported. The chemical oxygen demand of this wastewater was reduced by over 88% at retention times of 1 day or longer. The next step to boost the efficiency is to combine the production and wastewater treatment. The example of cotton fabric desizing (removing size from the fabric) illustrates how this final step of integration uses the acidic phase bioreactor as a part of the production and allows to close the water cycle of the system.

  1. Discovery of oil reserves through production geology

    SciTech Connect

    Harker, S.D.

    1988-01-01

    Production geology, effectively integrated with other disciplines, resulted in an increase in main area Claymore reserves of 29 million standard bbl to date. From mid-1983 to mid-1987, daily oil production increased from 43,000 to 55,000 standard bbl. The Claymore field is located in the North Sea, 110 mi northeast of Aberdeen, Scotland. It was discovered in 1974 and brought on stream in 1977. In 1978, main area Claymore peak daily production was 62,000 standard bbl. Production is from Late Jurassic sandstones in a truncated, tilted fault block on the southwest margin of the Witch Ground graben. The Sgiath and Piper formations of the lower reservoir are overlain by the Claymore Sandstone Member of the Kimmeridge Clay Formation. The Claymore consists of up to 1,630 ft of thinly bedded, fine-grained turbidite sandstones and contained 95% of the main area Claymore original oil in place. The Claymore Sandstone Member is divided into two informal units: low gamma-ray sands and high gamma-ray sands. Areal sweep and water injection effectiveness are evaluated by the use of well logs, flowmeter surveys, and RFT pressures. New well locations are selected only after very detailed sedimentology and structural geology appraisal. True vertical thickness logs are used for stratigraphic correlation. Together with core studies, high-resolution dipmeter is used for bed definition as well as structural interpretation. Three-dimensional seismic coverage is fully integrated with the use of many true-scale structural cross sections. The integration of all available geological, geophysical, and engineering data is crucial to the continuing success of main area Claymore reservoir management.

  2. Geographic analysis of the feasibility of collocating algal biomass production with wastewater treatment plants.

    PubMed

    Fortier, Marie-Odile P; Sturm, Belinda S M

    2012-10-16

    Resource demand analyses indicate that algal biodiesel production would require unsustainable amounts of freshwater and fertilizer supplies. Alternatively, municipal wastewater effluent can be used, but this restricts production of algae to areas near wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs), and to date, there has been no geospatial analysis of the feasibility of collocating large algal ponds with WWTPs. The goals of this analysis were to determine the available areas by land cover type within radial extents (REs) up to 1.5 miles from WWTPs; to determine the limiting factor for algal production using wastewater; and to investigate the potential algal biomass production at urban, near-urban, and rural WWTPs in Kansas. Over 50% and 87% of the land around urban and rural WWTPs, respectively, was found to be potentially available for algal production. The analysis highlights a trade-off between urban WWTPs, which are generally land-limited but have excess wastewater effluent, and rural WWTPs, which are generally water-limited but have 96% of the total available land. Overall, commercial-scale algae production collocated with WWTPs is feasible; 29% of the Kansas liquid fuel demand could be met with implementation of ponds within 1 mile of all WWTPs and supplementation of water and nutrients when these are limited. PMID:22970803

  3. Method and apparatus for improving oil production in oil wells

    SciTech Connect

    Vogen, W.V.

    1987-06-23

    This patent describes a method for improving the production of oil from appropriate wells, comprising: attaching the lower end of an elastic steel column to the upper end of a liner; the upper end of the column extending to the top of the well and above; attaching the upper end of the column to a reaction mass vertically above through vertically mounted compression spring means and, in parallel with a vertically mounted servo-controlled hydraulic cylinder-piston assembly; applying a substantially constant upward load to the reactions mass; reciprocating the piston of the hydraulic cylinder under servo control to apply vertical vibration to the upper end of the column with resultant vertical displacement of the upper end of the column; developing a displacement signal while developing an electrical, pressure-differential signal corresponding to the pressure across the cylinder-piston assembly; adjusting the vertical vibration through the servo control in accordance with the displacement signal and the pressure differential signal: to seek and find an appropriate resonant frequency for the column in the range of 5 Hz to 25 Hz; and maintaining the frequency at resonance.

  4. Co-Cultivation of Fungal and Microalgal Cells as an Efficient System for Harvesting Microalgal Cells, Lipid Production and Wastewater Treatment

    PubMed Central

    Wrede, Digby; Taha, Mohamed; Miranda, Ana F.; Kadali, Krishna; Stevenson, Trevor; Ball, Andrew S.; Mouradov, Aidyn

    2014-01-01

    The challenges which the large scale microalgal industry is facing are associated with the high cost of key operations such as harvesting, nutrient supply and oil extraction. The high-energy input for harvesting makes current commercial microalgal biodiesel production economically unfeasible and can account for up to 50% of the total cost of biofuel production. Co-cultivation of fungal and microalgal cells is getting increasing attention because of high efficiency of bio-flocculation of microalgal cells with no requirement for added chemicals and low energy inputs. Moreover, some fungal and microalgal strains are well known for their exceptional ability to purify wastewater, generating biomass that represents a renewable and sustainable feedstock for biofuel production. We have screened the flocculation efficiency of the filamentous fungus A. fumigatus against 11 microalgae representing freshwater, marine, small (5 µm), large (over 300 µm), heterotrophic, photoautotrophic, motile and non-motile strains. Some of the strains are commercially used for biofuel production. Lipid production and composition were analysed in fungal-algal pellets grown on media containing alternative carbon, nitrogen and phosphorus sources contained in wheat straw and swine wastewater, respectively. Co-cultivation of algae and A. fumigatus cells showed additive and synergistic effects on biomass production, lipid yield and wastewater bioremediation efficiency. Analysis of fungal-algal pellet's fatty acids composition suggested that it can be tailored and optimised through co-cultivating different algae and fungi without the need for genetic modification. PMID:25419574

  5. Co-cultivation of fungal and microalgal cells as an efficient system for harvesting microalgal cells, lipid production and wastewater treatment.

    PubMed

    Wrede, Digby; Taha, Mohamed; Miranda, Ana F; Kadali, Krishna; Stevenson, Trevor; Ball, Andrew S; Mouradov, Aidyn

    2014-01-01

    The challenges which the large scale microalgal industry is facing are associated with the high cost of key operations such as harvesting, nutrient supply and oil extraction. The high-energy input for harvesting makes current commercial microalgal biodiesel production economically unfeasible and can account for up to 50% of the total cost of biofuel production. Co-cultivation of fungal and microalgal cells is getting increasing attention because of high efficiency of bio-flocculation of microalgal cells with no requirement for added chemicals and low energy inputs. Moreover, some fungal and microalgal strains are well known for their exceptional ability to purify wastewater, generating biomass that represents a renewable and sustainable feedstock for biofuel production. We have screened the flocculation efficiency of the filamentous fungus A. fumigatus against 11 microalgae representing freshwater, marine, small (5 µm), large (over 300 µm), heterotrophic, photoautotrophic, motile and non-motile strains. Some of the strains are commercially used for biofuel production. Lipid production and composition were analysed in fungal-algal pellets grown on media containing alternative carbon, nitrogen and phosphorus sources contained in wheat straw and swine wastewater, respectively. Co-cultivation of algae and A. fumigatus cells showed additive and synergistic effects on biomass production, lipid yield and wastewater bioremediation efficiency. Analysis of fungal-algal pellet's fatty acids composition suggested that it can be tailored and optimised through co-cultivating different algae and fungi without the need for genetic modification. PMID:25419574

  6. Co-cultivation of fungal and microalgal cells as an efficient system for harvesting microalgal cells, lipid production and wastewater treatment.

    PubMed

    Wrede, Digby; Taha, Mohamed; Miranda, Ana F; Kadali, Krishna; Stevenson, Trevor; Ball, Andrew S; Mouradov, Aidyn

    2014-01-01

    The challenges which the large scale microalgal industry is facing are associated with the high cost of key operations such as harvesting, nutrient supply and oil extraction. The high-energy input for harvesting makes current commercial microalgal biodiesel production economically unfeasible and can account for up to 50% of the total cost of biofuel production. Co-cultivation of fungal and microalgal cells is getting increasing attention because of high efficiency of bio-flocculation of microalgal cells with no requirement for added chemicals and low energy inputs. Moreover, some fungal and microalgal strains are well known for their exceptional ability to purify wastewater, generating biomass that represents a renewable and sustainable feedstock for biofuel production. We have screened the flocculation efficiency of the filamentous fungus A. fumigatus against 11 microalgae representing freshwater, marine, small (5 µm), large (over 300 µm), heterotrophic, photoautotrophic, motile and non-motile strains. Some of the strains are commercially used for biofuel production. Lipid production and composition were analysed in fungal-algal pellets grown on media containing alternative carbon, nitrogen and phosphorus sources contained in wheat straw and swine wastewater, respectively. Co-cultivation of algae and A. fumigatus cells showed additive and synergistic effects on biomass production, lipid yield and wastewater bioremediation efficiency. Analysis of fungal-algal pellet's fatty acids composition suggested that it can be tailored and optimised through co-cultivating different algae and fungi without the need for genetic modification.

  7. Market analysis of shale oil co-products. Appendices

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-12-01

    Data are presented in these appendices on the marketing and economic potential for soda ash, aluminia, and nahcolite as by-products of shale oil production. Appendices 1 and 2 contain data on the estimated capital and operating cost of an oil shales/mineral co-products recovery facility. Appendix 3 contains the marketing research data.

  8. Wastewater Disposal from Unconventional Oil and Gas Development Degrades Stream Quality at a West Virginia Injection Facility.

    PubMed

    Akob, Denise M; Mumford, Adam C; Orem, William; Engle, Mark A; Klinges, J Grace; Kent, Douglas B; Cozzarelli, Isabelle M

    2016-06-01

    The development of unconventional oil and gas (UOG) resources has rapidly increased in recent years; however, the environmental impacts and risks are poorly understood. A single well can generate millions of liters of wastewater, representing a mixture of formation brine and injected hydraulic fracturing fluids. One of the most common methods for wastewater disposal is underground injection; we are assessing potential risks of this method through an intensive, interdisciplinary study at an injection disposal facility in West Virginia. In June 2014, waters collected downstream from the site had elevated specific conductance (416 μS/cm) and Na, Cl, Ba, Br, Sr, and Li concentrations, compared to upstream, background waters (conductivity, 74 μS/cm). Elevated TDS, a marker of UOG wastewater, provided an early indication of impacts in the stream. Wastewater inputs are also evident by changes in (87)Sr/(86)Sr in streamwater adjacent to the disposal facility. Sediments downstream from the facility were enriched in Ra and had high bioavailable Fe(III) concentrations relative to upstream sediments. Microbial communities in downstream sediments had lower diversity and shifts in composition. Although the hydrologic pathways were not able to be assessed, these data provide evidence demonstrating that activities at the disposal facility are impacting a nearby stream and altering the biogeochemistry of nearby ecosystems. PMID:27158829

  9. Wastewater disposal from unconventional oil and gas development degrades stream quality at a West Virginia injection facility

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Akob, Denise M.; Mumford, Adam; Orem, William H.; Engle, Mark A.; Klinges, Julia (Grace); Kent, Douglas B.; Cozzarelli, Isabelle M.

    2016-01-01

    The development of unconventional oil and gas (UOG) resources has rapidly increased in recent years; however, the environmental impacts and risks are poorly understood. A single well can generate millions of liters of wastewater, representing a mixture of formation brine and injected hydraulic fracturing fluids. One of the most common methods for wastewater disposal is underground injection; we are assessing potential risks of this method through an intensive, interdisciplinary study at an injection disposal facility in West Virginia. In June 2014, waters collected downstream from the site had elevated specific conductance (416 μS/cm) and Na, Cl, Ba, Br, Sr, and Li concentrations, compared to upstream, background waters (conductivity, 74 μS/cm). Elevated TDS, a marker of UOG wastewater, provided an early indication of impacts in the stream. Wastewater inputs are also evident by changes in 87Sr/86Sr in streamwater adjacent to the disposal facility. Sediments downstream from the facility were enriched in Ra and had high bioavailable Fe(III) concentrations relative to upstream sediments. Microbial communities in downstream sediments had lower diversity and shifts in composition. Although the hydrologic pathways were not able to be assessed, these data provide evidence demonstrating that activities at the disposal facility are impacting a nearby stream and altering the biogeochemistry of nearby ecosystems.

  10. Endocrine disrupting activities of surface water associated with a West Virginia oil and gas industry wastewater disposal site.

    PubMed

    Kassotis, Christopher D; Iwanowicz, Luke R; Akob, Denise M; Cozzarelli, Isabelle M; Mumford, Adam C; Orem, William H; Nagel, Susan C

    2016-07-01

    Currently, >95% of end disposal of hydraulic fracturing wastewater from unconventional oil and gas operations in the US occurs via injection wells. Key data gaps exist in understanding the potential impact of underground injection on surface water quality and environmental health. The goal of this study was to assess endocrine disrupting activity in surface water at a West Virginia injection well disposal site. Water samples were collected from a background site in the area and upstream, on, and downstream of the disposal facility. Samples were solid-phase extracted, and extracts assessed for agonist and antagonist hormonal activities for five hormone receptors in mammalian and yeast reporter gene assays. Compared to reference water extracts upstream and distal to the disposal well, samples collected adjacent and downstream exhibited considerably higher antagonist activity for the estrogen, androgen, progesterone, glucocorticoid and thyroid hormone receptors. In contrast, low levels of agonist activity were measured in upstream/distal sites, and were inhibited or absent at downstream sites with significant antagonism. Concurrent analyses by partner laboratories (published separately) describe the analytical and geochemical profiling of the water; elevated conductivity as well as high sodium, chloride, strontium, and barium concentrations indicate impacts due to handling of unconventional oil and gas wastewater. Notably, antagonist activities in downstream samples were at equivalent authentic standard concentrations known to disrupt reproduction and/or development in aquatic animals. Given the widespread use of injection wells for end-disposal of hydraulic fracturing wastewater, these data raise concerns for human and animal health nearby. PMID:27073166

  11. Endocrine disrupting activities of surface water associated with a West Virginia oil and gas industry wastewater disposal site

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kassotis, Christopher D.; Iwanowicz, Luke; Akob, Denise M.; Cozzarelli, Isabelle M.; Mumford, Adam; Orem, William H.; Nagel, Susan C.

    2016-01-01

    Currently, >95% of end disposal of hydraulic fracturing wastewater from unconventional oil and gas operations in the US occurs via injection wells. Key data gaps exist in understanding the potential impact of underground injection on surface water quality and environmental health. The goal of this study was to assess endocrine disrupting activity in surface water at a West Virginia injection well disposal site. Water samples were collected from a background site in the area and upstream, on, and downstream of the disposal facility. Samples were solid-phase extracted, and extracts assessed for agonist and antagonist hormonal activities for five hormone receptors in mammalian and yeast reporter gene assays. Compared to reference water extracts upstream and distal to the disposal well, samples collected adjacent and downstream exhibited considerably higher antagonist activity for the estrogen, androgen, progesterone, glucocorticoid and thyroid hormone receptors. In contrast, low levels of agonist activity were measured in upstream/distal sites, and were inhibited or absent at downstream sites with significant antagonism. Concurrent analyses by partner laboratories (published separately) describe the analytical and geochemical profiling of the water; elevated conductivity as well as high sodium, chloride, strontium, and barium concentrations indicate impacts due to handling of unconventional oil and gas wastewater. Notably, antagonist activities in downstream samples were at equivalent authentic standard concentrations known to disrupt reproduction and/or development in aquatic animals. Given the widespread use of injection wells for end-disposal of hydraulic fracturing wastewater, these data raise concerns for human and animal health nearby.

  12. Screening of microbes for the production of polyol oils from soybean oil

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Introduction. More than 30.6 million tons of soybean oil were produced worldwide annually and the major use of this oil is for food products. Triacylglycerols (TAG) containing hydroxy fatty acids (FA), e.g., castor oil, have many industrial uses such as the manufacture of aviation lubricant, plasti...

  13. Combined effect of oil, oil products and dispersants on the blue-green algae Synechocystis aquatilis and Anabaena variabilis

    SciTech Connect

    Gapochka, L.D.; Brodskii, L.I.; Kravchenko, M.E.; Fedorov, V.D.

    1980-01-01

    The study of the combined effect of oil, oil products and dispersants on the growth of the blue-green algae Synechocystis aquatilis and Anabaena variabilis has shown that out of 12 studied oil-dispersant pairs 6 revealed a positive relationship, which provides evidence for a decrease in oil and oil products toxic effect in the presence of a dispersant. The positive interaction between oil and oil products was found. The negative oil and oil products effect on all studied indices of A. variabilis culture increases with time.

  14. Thin Layer Drying Kinetics of By-Products from Olive Oil Processing

    PubMed Central

    Montero, Irene; Miranda, Teresa; Arranz, Jose Ignacio; Rojas, Carmen Victoria

    2011-01-01

    The thin-layer behavior of by-products from olive oil production was determined in a solar dryer in passive and active operation modes for a temperature range of 20–50 °C. The increase in the air temperature reduced the drying time of olive pomace, sludge and olive mill wastewater. Moisture ratio was analyzed to obtain effective diffusivity values, varying in the oil mill by-products from 9.136 × 10−11 to 1.406 × 10−9 m2/s in forced convection (ma = 0.22 kg/s), and from 9.296 × 10−11 to 6.277 × 10−10 m2/s in natural convection (ma = 0.042 kg/s). Diffusivity values at each temperature were obtained using the Fick’s diffusion model and, regardless of the convection, they increased with the air temperature. The temperature dependence on the effective diffusivity was determined by an Arrhenius type relationship. The activation energies were found to be 38.64 kJ/mol, 30.44 kJ/mol and 47.64 kJ/mol for the olive pomace, the sludge and the olive mill wastewater in active mode, respectively, and 91.35 kJ/mol, 14.04 kJ/mol and 77.15 kJ/mol in natural mode, in that order. PMID:22174639

  15. Thin layer drying kinetics of by-products from olive oil processing.

    PubMed

    Montero, Irene; Miranda, Teresa; Arranz, Jose Ignacio; Rojas, Carmen Victoria

    2011-01-01

    The thin-layer behavior of by-products from olive oil production was determined in a solar dryer in passive and active operation modes for a temperature range of 20-50 °C. The increase in the air temperature reduced the drying time of olive pomace, sludge and olive mill wastewater. Moisture ratio was analyzed to obtain effective diffusivity values, varying in the oil mill by-products from 9.136 × 10(-11) to 1.406 × 10(-9) m(2)/s in forced convection (m(a) = 0.22 kg/s), and from 9.296 × 10(-11) to 6.277 × 10(-10) m(2)/s in natural convection (m(a) = 0.042 kg/s). Diffusivity values at each temperature were obtained using the Fick's diffusion model and, regardless of the convection, they increased with the air temperature. The temperature dependence on the effective diffusivity was determined by an Arrhenius type relationship. The activation energies were found to be 38.64 kJ/mol, 30.44 kJ/mol and 47.64 kJ/mol for the olive pomace, the sludge and the olive mill wastewater in active mode, respectively, and 91.35 kJ/mol, 14.04 kJ/mol and 77.15 kJ/mol in natural mode, in that order. PMID:22174639

  16. Oil from hydrocracking as a raw material for the production of white oils

    SciTech Connect

    Potanina, V.A.; Dremova, T.I.; Ponomareva, T.P.; Zlotnikov, V.Z.

    1984-01-01

    This article investigates the feasibility of using distillate oil from hydrocracking for white oil production. A process technology has been developed in the USSR for the manufacture of high-quality oils by hydrocracking a heavy distillate feed in high-pressure equipment. The neutral and hydrocracked oil sample and a blend of these stocks were subjected to treatment with oleum, neutralization with 65% ethyl alcohol, and contact finishing to obtain white oils. The physicochemical properties of the white oils are given. It is determined that the hydrocracked oil can be used as the raw material in manufacturing perfume oil meeting the standard GOST 4225-76, and that the blends can be used to obtain pharmaceutical white oil meeting the standard GOST 3164-78.

  17. The use of artificial neural network (ANN) for the prediction and simulation of oil degradation in wastewater by AOP.

    PubMed

    Mustafa, Yasmen A; Jaid, Ghydaa M; Alwared, Abeer I; Ebrahim, Mothana

    2014-06-01

    The application of advanced oxidation process (AOP) in the treatment of wastewater contaminated with oil was investigated in this study. The AOP investigated is the homogeneous photo-Fenton (UV/H2O2/Fe(+2)) process. The reaction is influenced by the input concentration of hydrogen peroxide H2O2, amount of the iron catalyst Fe(+2), pH, temperature, irradiation time, and concentration of oil in the wastewater. The removal efficiency for the used system at the optimal operational parameters (H2O2 = 400 mg/L, Fe(+2) = 40 mg/L, pH = 3, irradiation time = 150 min, and temperature = 30 °C) for 1,000 mg/L oil load was found to be 72%. The study examined the implementation of artificial neural network (ANN) for the prediction and simulation of oil degradation in aqueous solution by photo-Fenton process. The multilayered feed-forward networks were trained by using a backpropagation algorithm; a three-layer network with 22 neurons in the hidden layer gave optimal results. The results show that the ANN model can predict the experimental results with high correlation coefficient (R (2) = 0.9949). The sensitivity analysis showed that all studied variables (H2O2, Fe(+2), pH, irradiation time, temperature, and oil concentration) have strong effect on the oil degradation. The pH was found to be the most influential parameter with relative importance of 20.6%. PMID:24595749

  18. Life Cycle Assessment for the Production of Oil Palm Seeds

    PubMed Central

    Muhamad, Halimah; Ai, Tan Yew; Khairuddin, Nik Sasha Khatrina; Amiruddin, Mohd Din; May, Choo Yuen

    2014-01-01

    The oil palm seed production unit that generates germinated oil palm seeds is the first link in the palm oil supply chain, followed by the nursery to produce seedling, the plantation to produce fresh fruit bunches (FFB), the mill to produce crude palm oil (CPO) and palm kernel, the kernel crushers to produce crude palm kernel oil (CPKO), the refinery to produce refined palm oil (RPO) and finally the palm biodiesel plant to produce palm biodiesel. This assessment aims to investigate the life cycle assessment (LCA) of germinated oil palm seeds and the use of LCA to identify the stage/s in the production of germinated oil palm seeds that could contribute to the environmental load. The method for the life cycle impact assessment (LCIA) is modelled using SimaPro version 7, (System for Integrated environMental Assessment of PROducts), an internationally established tool used by LCA practitioners. This software contains European and US databases on a number of materials in addition to a variety of European- and US-developed impact assessment methodologies. LCA was successfully conducted for five seed production units and it was found that the environmental impact for the production of germinated oil palm was not significant. The characterised results of the LCIA for the production of 1000 germinated oil palm seeds showed that fossil fuel was the major impact category followed by respiratory inorganics and climate change. PMID:27073598

  19. Life Cycle Assessment for the Production of Oil Palm Seeds.

    PubMed

    Muhamad, Halimah; Ai, Tan Yew; Khairuddin, Nik Sasha Khatrina; Amiruddin, Mohd Din; May, Choo Yuen

    2014-12-01

    The oil palm seed production unit that generates germinated oil palm seeds is the first link in the palm oil supply chain, followed by the nursery to produce seedling, the plantation to produce fresh fruit bunches (FFB), the mill to produce crude palm oil (CPO) and palm kernel, the kernel crushers to produce crude palm kernel oil (CPKO), the refinery to produce refined palm oil (RPO) and finally the palm biodiesel plant to produce palm biodiesel. This assessment aims to investigate the life cycle assessment (LCA) of germinated oil palm seeds and the use of LCA to identify the stage/s in the production of germinated oil palm seeds that could contribute to the environmental load. The method for the life cycle impact assessment (LCIA) is modelled using SimaPro version 7, (System for Integrated environMental Assessment of PROducts), an internationally established tool used by LCA practitioners. This software contains European and US databases on a number of materials in addition to a variety of European- and US-developed impact assessment methodologies. LCA was successfully conducted for five seed production units and it was found that the environmental impact for the production of germinated oil palm was not significant. The characterised results of the LCIA for the production of 1000 germinated oil palm seeds showed that fossil fuel was the major impact category followed by respiratory inorganics and climate change.

  20. Life Cycle Assessment for the Production of Oil Palm Seeds.

    PubMed

    Muhamad, Halimah; Ai, Tan Yew; Khairuddin, Nik Sasha Khatrina; Amiruddin, Mohd Din; May, Choo Yuen

    2014-12-01

    The oil palm seed production unit that generates germinated oil palm seeds is the first link in the palm oil supply chain, followed by the nursery to produce seedling, the plantation to produce fresh fruit bunches (FFB), the mill to produce crude palm oil (CPO) and palm kernel, the kernel crushers to produce crude palm kernel oil (CPKO), the refinery to produce refined palm oil (RPO) and finally the palm biodiesel plant to produce palm biodiesel. This assessment aims to investigate the life cycle assessment (LCA) of germinated oil palm seeds and the use of LCA to identify the stage/s in the production of germinated oil palm seeds that could contribute to the environmental load. The method for the life cycle impact assessment (LCIA) is modelled using SimaPro version 7, (System for Integrated environMental Assessment of PROducts), an internationally established tool used by LCA practitioners. This software contains European and US databases on a number of materials in addition to a variety of European- and US-developed impact assessment methodologies. LCA was successfully conducted for five seed production units and it was found that the environmental impact for the production of germinated oil palm was not significant. The characterised results of the LCIA for the production of 1000 germinated oil palm seeds showed that fossil fuel was the major impact category followed by respiratory inorganics and climate change. PMID:27073598

  1. Life-Cycle Assessment of Pyrolysis Bio-Oil Production*

    SciTech Connect

    Steele, Philip; Puettmann, Maureen E.; Penmetsa, Venkata Kanthi; Cooper, Jerome E.

    2012-07-01

    As part ofthe Consortium for Research on Renewable Industrial Materials' Phase I life-cycle assessments ofbiofuels, lifecycle inventory burdens from the production of bio-oil were developed and compared with measures for residual fuel oil. Bio-oil feedstock was produced using whole southern pine (Pinus taeda) trees, chipped, and converted into bio-oil by fast pyrolysis. Input parameters and mass and energy balances were derived with Aspen. Mass and energy balances were input to SimaPro to determine the environmental performance of bio-oil compared with residual fuel oil as a heating fuel. Equivalent functional units of 1 MJ were used for demonstrating environmental preference in impact categories, such as fossil fuel use and global warming potential. Results showed near carbon neutrality of the bio-oil. Substituting bio-oil for residual fuel oil, based on the relative carbon emissions of the two fuels, estimated a reduction in CO2 emissions by 0.075 kg CO2 per MJ of fuel combustion or a 70 percent reduction in emission over residual fuel oil. The bio-oil production life-cycle stage consumed 92 percent of the total cradle-to-grave energy requirements, while feedstock collection, preparation, and transportation consumed 4 percent each. This model provides a framework to better understand the major factors affecting greenhouse gas emissions related to bio-oil production and conversion to boiler fuel during fast pyrolysis.

  2. A Study on the Preparation of Regular Multiple Micro-Electrolysis Filler and the Application in Pretreatment of Oil Refinery Wastewater

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Ruihong; ZHU, Jianzhong; Li, Yingliu; Zhang, Hui

    2016-01-01

    Through a variety of material screening experiments, Al was selected as the added metal and constituted a multiple micro-electrolysis system of Fe/C/Al. The metal proportion of alloy-structured filler was also analyzed with the best Fe/C/Al ratio of 3:1:1. The regular Fe/C/Al multiple micro-electrolysis fillers were prepared using a high-temperature anaerobic roasting method. The optimum conditions for oil refinery wastewater treated by Fe/C/Al multiple micro-electrolysis were determined to be an initial pH value of 3, reaction time of 80 min, and 0.05 mol/L Na2SO4 additive concentration. The reaction mechanism of the treatment of oil refinery wastewater by Fe/C/Al micro-electrolysis was investigated. The process of the treatment of oil refinery wastewater with multiple micro-electrolysis conforms to the third-order reaction kinetics. The gas chromatography–mass spectrometry (GC–MS) used to analyze the organic compounds of the oil refinery wastewater before and after treatment and the Ultraviolet–visible spectroscopy (UV–VIS) absorption spectrum analyzed the degradation process of organic compounds in oil refinery wastewater. The treatment effect of Fe/C/Al multiple micro-electrolysis was examined in the continuous experiment under the optimum conditions, which showed high organic compound removal and stable treatment efficiency. PMID:27136574

  3. [Experiment study on the metamorphic amylum production wastewater treatment by anaerobic baffled reactor].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Gao-Sheng; Zhan, Li-Wei; Wang, Ren-Qing

    2008-11-01

    The present study reports the start-up of treating metamorphic amylum production wastewater by anaerobic baffled reactor (ABR) and the bio-chemical features of granular sludge. The optimal conditions in treatment of the metamorphic amylum production wastewater were proposed, and the running performance in treating salt-containing wastewater was studied. Our results show that the common anaerobic activated sludge can be acclimated by increasing the organic loading and salt-concentration at the same time, and the granular sludge tolerant to low salt can be achieved by the acclimation. When chloric ion was 8,500 mg/L and salinity was 1.6%, the anaerobic activated sludge could degrade organic materials normally in the wastewater after the acclimation, and the COD removal is over 85%. When the concentration of metamorphic amylum production wastewater in the experiment was 12,640 mg/L and the optimal hydraulic retention time was 48 h, the removal efficiency of COD was 85.9%. Effect of sharp decrease of chloric ion concentration on sludge microorganism is larger than that of the sharp increase in the system. The system can endure the change of chloric ion concentration by increasing from 8,500 mg/L to 12,500 mg/L or decreasing from 8,500 mg/L to 4,500 mg/L, and it is more tolerant to the sudden increase than that of the sudden decrease of chloric ion concentration. The ABR system can treat the wastewater with chloric ion below 15,000 mg/L and salinity of about 2.5%.

  4. Sequential shape-selective adsorption and photocatalytic transformation of acrylonitrile production wastewater.

    PubMed

    Dai, Yunrong; Song, Yonghui; Tu, Xiang; Jiang, Yanpeng; Yuan, Yu

    2015-11-15

    Acrylonitrile production wastewater has been widely recognized as one type of refractory organic wastewater because of its complicated composition and low bioavailability. It usually contains plenty of micromolecular nitrile and pyridine, resulting in high chemical oxygen demand (CODCr), total organic carbon (TOC) and total nitrogen (TN) concentrations. In this study, a novel microporous zeolite, CS-Z1, was developed as an adsorbent for rapidly shape-selective adsorption of the micromolecular pollutants from the acrylonitrile production wastewater, and a visible light-driven Ti-β-Bi2O3 photocatalysis was introduced to sequentially treat the residual macromolecular pollutants for complete purification. The adsorption processes by CS-Z1 were mostly achieved within the first 5 min, and the equilibrium was reached quickly after 30 min, where the CODCr, TOC and TN removal efficiencies of the wastewater were as high as 93.5%, 92.2% and 96.8%, respectively, much higher than those by other adsorbents. Furthermore, the adsorption efficiencies of CS-Z1 were barely affected by the variation of pH value and temperature, which was mainly attributed to the shape-selective adsorption mechanism of the CS-Z1 zeolite. The Ti-β-Bi2O3 photocatalysis could remove more than 95% of the residual macromolecular pollutants in the wastewater, where a synergistic mechanism of reduction-oxidation/polymerization was proposed. In a 108 h of CS-Z1 adsorption and Ti-β-Bi2O3 photocatalysis sequential process, the CODCr, TOC and TN concentrations was reduced to below 20, 7 and 5 mg L(-1), respectively, demonstrating the excellent practical potential of the sequential treatment system for acrylonitrile production wastewater.

  5. Thermo-Oxidization of Municipal Wastewater Treatment Plant Sludge for Production of Class A Biosolids

    EPA Science Inventory

    Bench-scale reactors were used to test a novel thermo-oxidation process on municipal wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) waste activated sludge (WAS) using hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) to achieve a Class A sludge product appropriate for land application. Reactor ...

  6. Biohydrogen Production from Cheese Processing Wastewater by Anaerobic Fermentation Using Mixed Microbial Communities

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Hydrogen (H2) production from simulated cheese processing wastewater via anaerobic fermentation was conducted using mixed microbial communities under mesophilic conditions. In batch H2 fermentation experiments H2 yields of 8 and 10 mM/g-COD fed were achieved at food-to-microorganism (F/M) ratios of ...

  7. Algal production in wastewater treatment high rate algal ponds for potential biofuel use.

    PubMed

    Park, J B K; Craggs, R J

    2011-01-01

    Wastewater treatment High Rate Algal Ponds with CO2 addition could provide cost-effective and efficient tertiary-level wastewater treatment with the co-benefit of algal biomass production for biofuel use. Wastewater grown algal biomass can have a lipid content of 10-30% of dry weight, which could be used to make biodiesel. This research investigated algal biomass and total lipid production by two pilot-scale wastewater treatment HRAP(S) (4-day HRT) with and without CO2 addition under New Zealand mid summer (Nov-Jan) conditions. The influence of CO2 addition on wastewater treatment performance was also determined. CO2 was added to one of the HRAPs (the HRAP(E)) by maintaining the maximum pH of the pond below 8. Measurements of HRAP influent and effluent water qualities, total lipid content and algal biomass production were made twice a week over the experimental period. Both HRAP(S) achieved high levels of organic compound and nutrient removal, with >85% SBOD5, >92 NH4(+)-N and >70% DRP removal. Algal/bacterial biomass production in the HRAP(E) (15.2 g/m2/d) was improved by CO2 addition by approximately 30% compared with that of the control HRAP(W) (10.6 g/m2/d). Total lipid content of the biomass grown on both HRAP(S) was slightly reduced (from 25% to 20%) with CO2 addition and the maximum total lipid content of approximately 40% was observed in the HRAP(W) when low NH4(+)-N concentration (<0.5 mg/L) and high maximum pH (>10.0) occurred. Total lipid content of the biomass increased by approximately 15% under nitrogen limiting conditions, however, overall algal/bacterial biomass production was reduced by half during the period of nitrogen limitation. More research is required to maintain algal production under near nitrogen-limiting conditions. PMID:21977667

  8. A combination of solvent extraction and freeze thaw for oil recovery from petroleum refinery wastewater treatment pond sludge.

    PubMed

    Hu, Guangji; Li, Jianbing; Hou, Haobo

    2015-01-01

    A combination of solvent extraction and freeze thaw was examined for recovering oil from the high-moisture petroleum refinery wastewater treatment pond sludge. Five solvents including cyclohexane (CHX), dichloromethane (DCM), methyl ethyl ketone (MEK), ethyl acetate (EA), and 2-propanol (2-Pro) were examined. It was found that these solvents except 2-Pro showed a promising oil recovery rate of about 40%, but the recycling of DCM solvent after oil extraction was quite low. Three solvents (CHX, MEK and EA) were then selected for examining the effect of freeze/thaw treatment on improving the quality of recovered oil. This treatment increased the total petroleum hydrocarbon (TPH) content in recovered oil from about 40% to 60% for both MEK and EA extractions, but little effect was observed for CHX extraction. Although the solid residue after oil recovery had a significantly decreased TPH content, a high concentration of heavy metals was observed, indicating that this residue may require proper management. In general, the combination of solvent extraction with freeze/thaw is effective for high-moisture oily hazardous waste treatment.

  9. A combination of solvent extraction and freeze thaw for oil recovery from petroleum refinery wastewater treatment pond sludge.

    PubMed

    Hu, Guangji; Li, Jianbing; Hou, Haobo

    2015-01-01

    A combination of solvent extraction and freeze thaw was examined for recovering oil from the high-moisture petroleum refinery wastewater treatment pond sludge. Five solvents including cyclohexane (CHX), dichloromethane (DCM), methyl ethyl ketone (MEK), ethyl acetate (EA), and 2-propanol (2-Pro) were examined. It was found that these solvents except 2-Pro showed a promising oil recovery rate of about 40%, but the recycling of DCM solvent after oil extraction was quite low. Three solvents (CHX, MEK and EA) were then selected for examining the effect of freeze/thaw treatment on improving the quality of recovered oil. This treatment increased the total petroleum hydrocarbon (TPH) content in recovered oil from about 40% to 60% for both MEK and EA extractions, but little effect was observed for CHX extraction. Although the solid residue after oil recovery had a significantly decreased TPH content, a high concentration of heavy metals was observed, indicating that this residue may require proper management. In general, the combination of solvent extraction with freeze/thaw is effective for high-moisture oily hazardous waste treatment. PMID:25464326

  10. A novel application of modified bamboo charcoal to treat oil-containing wastewater and its modified mechanism.

    PubMed

    Hu, Cui; Zou, Xiaoming; Liu, Jia; Zhang, Shucong; Feng, Yi; Huang, Xiangfeng

    2014-01-01

    Three conventional coalescence filters including walnut shells (WS), polystyrene resin particles (PR), and quartz sand (QS) were compared with bamboo charcoal (BC) to treat oily wastewater in a coalescence system process. The results showed the order of oil removal efficiency was QS>BC>WS>PR. To improve the oil removal efficiency of BC further, six types of modified BC were prepared. The results showed that the modified BC using silane coupling agent (SCA) significantly increased oil removal efficiency, but the other types (including the use of NaOH, HNO3, H2O2, FeCl3 and ultrasound) of modified BC exhibited nearly the same level of efficiency as that of pure BC. Infra-red, X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, and the contact angle for modified BC were measured to reveal the modified mechanism. It was found that the higher oil removal efficiency of the SCA-modified BC occurred due to the changed crystal structure of the BC and the increase in its surface hydrophobicity, which resulted in higher oil removal efficiency. Therefore, modified bamboo charcoal is an attractive filter candidate for oil removal in a coalescence system process. PMID:25521135

  11. Biomass and pigments production in photosynthetic bacteria wastewater treatment: effects of light sources.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Qin; Zhang, Panyue; Zhang, Guangming

    2015-03-01

    This study is aimed at enhancing biomass and pigments production together with pollution removal in photosynthetic bacteria (PSB) wastewater treatment via different light sources. Red, yellow, blue, white LED and incandescent lamp were used. Results showed different light sources had great effects on the PSB. PSB had the highest biomass production, COD removal and biomass yield with red LED. The corresponding biomass, COD removal and biomass yield reached 2580 mg/L, 88.6% and 0.49 mg-biomass/mg-COD-removal, respectively. The hydraulic retention time of wastewater treatment could be shortened to 72 h with red LED. Mechanism analysis showed higher ATP was produced with red LED than others. Light sources could significantly affect the pigments production. The pigments productions were greatly higher with LED than incandescent lamp. Yellow LED had the highest pigments production while red LED produced the highest carotenoid/bacteriochlorophyll ratio. Considering both efficiency and energy cost, red LED was the optimal light source.

  12. 40 CFR 112.9 - Spill Prevention, Control, and Countermeasure Plan Requirements for onshore oil production...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... PROGRAMS OIL POLLUTION PREVENTION Requirements for Petroleum Oils and Non-Petroleum Oils, Except Animal Fats and Oils and Greases, and Fish and Marine Mammal Oils; and Vegetable Oils (Including Oils from... Countermeasure Plan Requirements for onshore oil production facilities (excluding drilling and...

  13. 40 CFR 112.9 - Spill Prevention, Control, and Countermeasure Plan Requirements for onshore oil production...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... PROGRAMS OIL POLLUTION PREVENTION Requirements for Petroleum Oils and Non-Petroleum Oils, Except Animal Fats and Oils and Greases, and Fish and Marine Mammal Oils; and Vegetable Oils (Including Oils from... Countermeasure Plan Requirements for onshore oil production facilities (excluding drilling and...

  14. 40 CFR 112.9 - Spill Prevention, Control, and Countermeasure Plan Requirements for onshore oil production...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... PROGRAMS OIL POLLUTION PREVENTION Requirements for Petroleum Oils and Non-Petroleum Oils, Except Animal Fats and Oils and Greases, and Fish and Marine Mammal Oils; and Vegetable Oils (Including Oils from... Countermeasure Plan Requirements for onshore oil production facilities (excluding drilling and...

  15. 40 CFR 112.9 - Spill Prevention, Control, and Countermeasure Plan Requirements for onshore oil production...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... PROGRAMS OIL POLLUTION PREVENTION Requirements for Petroleum Oils and Non-Petroleum Oils, Except Animal Fats and Oils and Greases, and Fish and Marine Mammal Oils; and Vegetable Oils (Including Oils from... Countermeasure Plan Requirements for onshore oil production facilities (excluding drilling and...

  16. 40 CFR 112.9 - Spill Prevention, Control, and Countermeasure Plan Requirements for onshore oil production...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... PROGRAMS OIL POLLUTION PREVENTION Requirements for Petroleum Oils and Non-Petroleum Oils, Except Animal Fats and Oils and Greases, and Fish and Marine Mammal Oils; and Vegetable Oils (Including Oils from... Countermeasure Plan Requirements for onshore oil production facilities (excluding drilling and...

  17. Chemical composition of fat and oil products

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Fats and oils are an important dietary component, and contribute to the nutritional and sensory quality of foods. This chapter focuses on the chemical composition of fats and oils, and how these compositions affect the functional properties of fats and oils in foods. The focus will remain on the mos...

  18. Recovering distilled water and pure salt products from industrial wastewater: Three case studies

    SciTech Connect

    Schooley, K.E.; Ludlum, R.S.

    1996-08-01

    Industry is slowly moving beyond the concept of zero liquid discharge toward the ideal of zero waste discharge. While zero liquid discharge means no liquids are discharged off site, the tons of dry solids removed from treated wastewater are often hauled to landfills off site if they cannot be stored at the plant. In recent years, some plants have opted to recover valuable salts and chemicals from wastewater to reduce the cost of hauling away useless mixed salts. Some plants even recover some of the cost of wastewater treatment by selling recovered salt. This paper will discuss three industrial sites where all wastewater is treated and recycled and most salts removed from the wastewater are turned into saleable products. The case studies will be a coal mine in Poland, where distilled water and sodium chloride are recovered from mine drainage; a uranium mine in the Czech Republic, where distilled water and ammonium alum are recovered from acid waste; and a power plant in New York, where distilled water and calcium chloride are recovered from scrubber blowdown.

  19. Removal of pharmaceuticals and personal care products (PPCPs) from wastewater: A review.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jianlong; Wang, Shizong

    2016-11-01

    The pharmaceutical and personal care products (PPCPs) are emerging pollutants which might pose potential hazards to environment and health. These pollutants are becoming ubiquitous in the environments because they cannot be effectively removed by the conventional wastewater treatment plants due to their toxic and recalcitrant performance. The presence of PPCPs has received increasing attention in recent years, resulting in great concern on their occurrence, transformation, fate and risk in the environments. A variety of technologies, including physical, biological and chemical processes have been extensively investigated for the removal of PPCPs from wastewater. In this paper, the classes, functions and the representatives of the frequently detected PPCPs in aquatic environments were summarized. The analytic methods for PPCPs were briefly introduced. The removal efficiency of PPCPs by wastewater treatment plants was analyzed and discussed. The removal of PPCPs from wastewater by physical, chemical and biological processes was analyzed, compared and summarized. Finally, suggestions are made for future study of PPCPs. This review can provide an overview for the removal of PPCPs from wastewater. PMID:27552641

  20. Pharmaceuticals and consumer products in four wastewater treatment plants in urban and suburb areas of Shanghai.

    PubMed

    Sui, Qian; Wang, Dan; Zhao, Wentao; Huang, Jun; Yu, Gang; Cao, Xuqi; Qiu, Zhaofu; Lu, Shuguang

    2015-04-01

    Ten pharmaceuticals and two consumer products were investigated in four wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) in Shanghai, China. The concentrations of target compounds in the wastewater influents ranged from below the limit of quantification (LOQ) to 9340 ng/L, with the frequency of detection of 31-100%, and the removal efficiencies were observed to be -82 to 100% in the four WWTPs. Concentrations of most target compounds (i.e. diclofenac, caffeine, metoprolol, sulpiride) in the wastewater influents were around three to eight times higher in urban WWTPs than in suburb ones, probably due to the different population served and lifestyles. Mean concentrations of target compounds in the wastewater influent generally decreased by 5-76% after rainfall due to the dilution of raw sewage by rainwater, which infiltrated into the sewer system. In the WWTPs located in the suburb area, the increased flow of wastewater influent led to a shortened hydraulic retention time (HRT) and decreased removal efficiencies of some compounds. On the contrary, the influence of rainfall was not significant on the removal efficiencies of investigated compounds in urban WWTPs, probably due to the almost unchanged influent flow, good removal performance, or bypass system employed. PMID:25391230

  1. Pharmaceuticals and consumer products in four wastewater treatment plants in urban and suburb areas of Shanghai.

    PubMed

    Sui, Qian; Wang, Dan; Zhao, Wentao; Huang, Jun; Yu, Gang; Cao, Xuqi; Qiu, Zhaofu; Lu, Shuguang

    2015-04-01

    Ten pharmaceuticals and two consumer products were investigated in four wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) in Shanghai, China. The concentrations of target compounds in the wastewater influents ranged from below the limit of quantification (LOQ) to 9340 ng/L, with the frequency of detection of 31-100%, and the removal efficiencies were observed to be -82 to 100% in the four WWTPs. Concentrations of most target compounds (i.e. diclofenac, caffeine, metoprolol, sulpiride) in the wastewater influents were around three to eight times higher in urban WWTPs than in suburb ones, probably due to the different population served and lifestyles. Mean concentrations of target compounds in the wastewater influent generally decreased by 5-76% after rainfall due to the dilution of raw sewage by rainwater, which infiltrated into the sewer system. In the WWTPs located in the suburb area, the increased flow of wastewater influent led to a shortened hydraulic retention time (HRT) and decreased removal efficiencies of some compounds. On the contrary, the influence of rainfall was not significant on the removal efficiencies of investigated compounds in urban WWTPs, probably due to the almost unchanged influent flow, good removal performance, or bypass system employed.

  2. Full-scale bioreactor pretreatment of highly toxic wastewater from styrene and propylene oxide production.

    PubMed

    Dao, Linh; Grigoryeva, Tatiana; Laikov, Alexander; Devjatijarov, Ruslan; Ilinskaya, Olga

    2014-10-01

    The wastewater originating from simultaneous production of styrene and propylene oxide (SPO) is classified as highly polluted with chemical oxygen demand level in the range 5965 to 9137mgL(-1)-as well as highly toxic. The dilution factor providing for a 10 percent toxic effect of wastewater samples in a test with Paramecium caudatum was 8.0-9.5. Biological approach for pretreatment and detoxification of the wastewater under full-scale bioreactor conditions was investigated. The number of suspended microorganisms and the clean up efficiency were increased up to 5.5-6.58×10(8)CFUmL(-1) and 88 percent, respectively during the bioreactor's operation. Isolates in the Citrobacter, Burkholderia, Pseudomonas, and Paracoccus genera were dominant in the mature suspended, as well as the immobilized microbial community of the bioreactor. The most dominant representatives were tested for their ability to biodegrade the major components of the SPO wastewater and evidence of their role in the treatment process was demonstrated. The investigated pretreatment process allowed the wastewater to be detoxified for conventional treatment with activated sludge and was closely related to the maturation of the bioreactor's microbial community. PMID:25086231

  3. Evaluation of growth, nutrient utilization and production of bioproducts by a wastewater-isolated microalga.

    PubMed

    Frampton, Dion M F; Gurney, Robert H; Dunstan, Graeme A; Clementson, Lesley A; Toifl, Melissa C; Pollard, Chris B; Burn, Stewart; Jameson, Ian D; Blackburn, Susan I

    2013-02-01

    Treatment of wastewater while producing microalgal biomass is receiving ever-increasing attention, particularly in the biofuels arena. In this study, a wastewater chlorophyte isolate, Kirchneriella sp., was tested for its ability to be mass cultivated, utilize nutrients from defined media and wastewater, and produce bioproducts of commercial interest. Growth studies were carried out in various systems at scales up to 60L, with Kirchneriella sp. showing an excellent amenability to being cultured. Biomass concentrations of greater than 1gL(-1) were consistently achieved, nitrogen and phosphorus uptake was rapid, and stable medium-term cultures were maintained. Nitrogen limitation affected biomass yield, fatty acid methyl ester (FAME) yield, and cetane index. In contrast, a low phosphorus condition had no effect. Kirchneriella sp. showed an ability to produce several products of commercial value, including carbohydrate-rich biomass, FAME/biodiesel and the pigments β,β-carotene and lutein. PMID:23313670

  4. Treatability studies on different refinery wastewater samples using high-throughput microbial electrolysis cells (MECs).

    PubMed

    Ren, Lijiao; Siegert, Michael; Ivanov, Ivan; Pisciotta, John M; Logan, Bruce E

    2013-05-01

    High-throughput microbial electrolysis cells (MECs) were used to perform treatability studies on many different refinery wastewater samples all having appreciably different characteristics, which resulted in large differences in current generation. A de-oiled refinery wastewater sample from one site (DOW1) produced the best results, with 2.1±0.2 A/m(2) (maximum current density), 79% chemical oxygen demand removal, and 82% headspace biological oxygen demand removal. These results were similar to those obtained using domestic wastewater. Two other de-oiled refinery wastewater samples also showed good performance, with a de-oiled oily sewer sample producing less current. A stabilization lagoon sample and a stripped sour wastewater sample failed to produce appreciable current. Electricity production, organics removal, and startup time were improved when the anode was first acclimated to domestic wastewater. These results show mini-MECs are an effective method for evaluating treatability of different wastewaters.

  5. Olive oil mill wastewaters before and after treatment: a critical review from the ecotoxicological point of view.

    PubMed

    Justino, Celine I L; Pereira, Ruth; Freitas, Ana C; Rocha-Santos, Teresa A P; Panteleitchouk, Teresa S L; Duarte, Armando C

    2012-03-01

    The olive oil mill wastewater (OMW) is a problematic and polluting effluent which may degrade the soil and water quality, with critical negative impacts on ecosystems functions and services provided. The main purpose of this review paper is presenting the state of the art of OMW treatments focusing on their efficiency to reduce OMW toxicity, and emphasizing the role of ecotoxicological tests on the evaluation of such efficiency before the up-scale of treatment methodologies being considered. In the majority of research works, the reduction of OMW toxicity is related to the degradation of phenolic compounds (considered as the main responsible for the toxic effects of OMW on seed germination, on bacteria, and on different species of soil and aquatic invertebrates) or the decrease of chemical oxygen demand content, which is not scientifically sound. Batteries of ecotoxicological tests are not applied before and after OMW treatments as they should be, thus leading to knowledge gaps in terms of accurate and real assessment of OMW toxicity. Although the toxicity of OMW is usually high, the evaluation of effects on sub-lethal endpoints, on individual and multispecies test systems, are currently lacking, and the real impacts yielded by its dilution, in freshwater trophic chains of receiving systems can not be assessed. As far as the terrestrial compartment is considered, ecotoxicological data available include tests only with plants and the evaluation of soil microbial parameters, reflecting concerns with the impacts on crops when using OMW for irrigation purposes. The evaluation of its ecotoxicity to other edaphic species were not performed giving rise to a completely lack of knowledge about the consequences of such practice on other soil functions. OMW production is a great environmental problem in Mediterranean countries; hence, engineers, chemists and ecotoxicologists should face this problem together to find an ecologically friend solution. PMID:22042608

  6. [Intensification of microbial degradation of crude oil and oil products in the presence of perfluorodecalin].

    PubMed

    Bakulin, M K; Zakharov, V Iu; Chebotarev, E V

    2004-01-01

    The possibility of using perfluorinated organic compounds for growing microorganisms and degrading xenobiotics has been demonstrated for the first time with perfluorodecalin (PFD), a gas-transporting component of the blood substitute Perftoran. In particular, this is promising for intensifying microbial degradation of oil and oil products and production of biodegrader biomass in synthetic mineral media. Addition of PFD to a mineral medium with crude oil and masut increased 4.5-10.2 times maximum concentrations and growth rates of all bacterial strains under study (Pseudomonas, Rhodococcus, and Bacillus genera). The degree of oil product consumption was increased 8.7-12.7 times.

  7. Enzymatic Products from Modified Soybean Oil Containing Hydrazinoester

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We use soybean oil to produce new, non-petroleum based products. The starting material is the ene reaction product of soybean oil and diethyl azodicarboxylate (DEAD), which can then be hydrolyzed chemically and enzymatically. Chemical hydrolysis gives hydrazino-fatty acids, whereas enzymatic hydro...

  8. Microalgal biomass and lipid production in mixed municipal, dairy, pulp and paper wastewater together with added flue gases.

    PubMed

    Gentili, Francesco G

    2014-10-01

    The aim of the study was to grow microalgae on mixed municipal and industrial wastewater to simultaneously treat the wastewater and produce biomass and lipids. All algal strains grew in all wastewater mixtures; however, Selenastrum minutum had the highest biomass and lipids yields, up to 37% of the dry matter. Nitrogen and phosphorus removal were high and followed a similar trend in all three strains. Ammonium was reduced from 96% to 99%; this reduction was due to algal growth and not to stripping to the atmosphere, as confirmed by the amount of nitrogen in the dry algal biomass. Phosphate was reduced from 91% to 99%. In all strains used the lipid content was negatively correlated to the nitrogen concentration in the algal biomass. Mixtures of pulp and paper wastewater with municipal and dairy wastewater have great potential to grow algae for biomass and lipid production together with effective wastewater treatment. PMID:25016463

  9. Microalgal biomass and lipid production in mixed municipal, dairy, pulp and paper wastewater together with added flue gases.

    PubMed

    Gentili, Francesco G

    2014-10-01

    The aim of the study was to grow microalgae on mixed municipal and industrial wastewater to simultaneously treat the wastewater and produce biomass and lipids. All algal strains grew in all wastewater mixtures; however, Selenastrum minutum had the highest biomass and lipids yields, up to 37% of the dry matter. Nitrogen and phosphorus removal were high and followed a similar trend in all three strains. Ammonium was reduced from 96% to 99%; this reduction was due to algal growth and not to stripping to the atmosphere, as confirmed by the amount of nitrogen in the dry algal biomass. Phosphate was reduced from 91% to 99%. In all strains used the lipid content was negatively correlated to the nitrogen concentration in the algal biomass. Mixtures of pulp and paper wastewater with municipal and dairy wastewater have great potential to grow algae for biomass and lipid production together with effective wastewater treatment.

  10. Biomass and carotenoid production in photosynthetic bacteria wastewater treatment: effects of light intensity.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Qin; Zhang, Panyue; Zhang, Guangming

    2014-11-01

    This study investigated the feasibility of using photosynthetic bacteria (PSB) to produce biomass and carotenoid while treating wastewater. The effects of light intensity on the biomass, carotenoid and bacteriochlorophyll accumulation in together with pollutant removal were studied. Results showed that it was feasible to use PSB to treat wastewater as well as to produce biomass or carotenoid. 2000 lux was an optimal intensity for biomass production and COD removal, and the corresponding values were 2645 mg/L and 94.7%. 8000 lux was an optimal light intensity for carotenoid production (1.455 mg/L). Mechanism analysis displayed that the greater the bacteriochlorophyll and carotenoid were secreted, the lower the light conversion efficiency turned out to be. The highest light conversion efficiency was achieved at 500 lux; the ATP production, biomass production, and COD removal were the highest at 2000 lux, but the bacteriochlorophyll and carotenoid content were the lowest at 2000 lux. PMID:25218205

  11. Biomass and carotenoid production in photosynthetic bacteria wastewater treatment: effects of light intensity.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Qin; Zhang, Panyue; Zhang, Guangming

    2014-11-01

    This study investigated the feasibility of using photosynthetic bacteria (PSB) to produce biomass and carotenoid while treating wastewater. The effects of light intensity on the biomass, carotenoid and bacteriochlorophyll accumulation in together with pollutant removal were studied. Results showed that it was feasible to use PSB to treat wastewater as well as to produce biomass or carotenoid. 2000 lux was an optimal intensity for biomass production and COD removal, and the corresponding values were 2645 mg/L and 94.7%. 8000 lux was an optimal light intensity for carotenoid production (1.455 mg/L). Mechanism analysis displayed that the greater the bacteriochlorophyll and carotenoid were secreted, the lower the light conversion efficiency turned out to be. The highest light conversion efficiency was achieved at 500 lux; the ATP production, biomass production, and COD removal were the highest at 2000 lux, but the bacteriochlorophyll and carotenoid content were the lowest at 2000 lux.

  12. Hydrocracking of vacuum gas oil-vegetable oil mixtures for biofuels production.

    PubMed

    Bezergianni, Stella; Kalogianni, Aggeliki; Vasalos, Iacovos A

    2009-06-01

    Hydrocracking of vacuum gas oil (VGO)--vegetable oil mixtures is a prominent process for the production of biofuels. In this work both pre-hydrotreated and non-hydrotreated VGO are assessed whether they are suitable fossil components in a VGO-vegetable oil mixture as feed-stocks to a hydrocracking process. This assessment indicates the necessity of a VGO pre-hydrotreated step prior to hydrocracking the VGO-vegetable oil mixture. Moreover, the comparison of two different mixing ratios suggests that higher vegetable oil content favors hydrocracking product yields and qualities. Three commercial catalysts of different activity are utilized in order to identify a range of products that can be produced via a hydrocracking route. Finally, the effect of temperature on hydrocracking VGO-vegetable oil mixtures is studied in terms of conversion and selectivity to diesel, jet/kerosene and naphtha.

  13. Sulfidogenesis interference on methane production from carbohydrate-rich wastewater.

    PubMed

    Godoi, L A G; Damianovic, M H R Z; Foresti, E

    2015-01-01

    Two anaerobic fixed-structured bed reactors were fed with synthetic wastewater simulating the soluble fraction of sugarcane vinasse to evaluate the interference of sulfidogenesis on methanogenesis. The reactors running in parallel were subjected to the same operating conditions. The influent organic matter concentration (in term of chemical oxygen demand (COD)) remained close to 4,000 mgCOD L(-1) and the hydraulic retention time was 24 hours. One reactor, the methanogenic (control reactor), received sulfate only to provide the sulfur required as a nutrient to the methanogenic biomass. The other one, the sulfidogenic/methanogenic reactor (SMR), received sulfate concentration corresponding to COD/sulfate ratios of 4, 5 and 3. In the last phase, the COD removal efficiencies were higher than 96% in both reactors and the SMR achieved 97% of sulfate removal efficiency (COD/sulfate ratio of 3 and influent sulfate concentration close to 1,300 mgSO4(2-) L(-1)). Both reactors also had similar methane yields in this phase, close to 350 mLCH4 gCODremoved(-1) at standard temperature and pressure. These results indicated no significant inhibition of methanogenic activity under the sulfidogenic conditions assessed. PMID:26524457

  14. Economic analysis of municipal wastewater utilization for thermoelectric power production

    SciTech Connect

    Safari, I.; Walker, M.; Abbasian, J.; Arastoopour, H.; Hsieh, M-K.; Theregowda, R.; Dzombak, D.; Miller, D.

    2011-01-01

    The thermoelectric power industry in the U.S. uses a large amount of freshwater. The large water demand is increasingly a problem, especially for new power plant development, as availability of freshwater for new uses diminishes in the United States. Reusing non-traditional water sources, such as treated municipal wastewater, provides one option to mitigate freshwater usage in the thermoelectric power industry. The amount of freshwater withdrawal that can be displaced with non-traditional water sources at a particular location requires evaluation of the water management and treatment requirements, considering the quality and abundance of the non-traditional water sources. This paper presents the development of an integrated costing model to assess the impact of degraded water treatment, as well as the implications of increased tube scaling in the main condenser. The model developed herein is used to perform case studies of various treatment, condenser cleaning and condenser configurations to provide insight into the ramifications of degraded water use in the cooling loops of thermoelectric power plants. Further, this paper lays the groundwork for the integration of relationships between degraded water quality, scaling characteristics and volatile emission within a recirculating cooling loop model.

  15. Sulfidogenesis interference on methane production from carbohydrate-rich wastewater.

    PubMed

    Godoi, L A G; Damianovic, M H R Z; Foresti, E

    2015-01-01

    Two anaerobic fixed-structured bed reactors were fed with synthetic wastewater simulating the soluble fraction of sugarcane vinasse to evaluate the interference of sulfidogenesis on methanogenesis. The reactors running in parallel were subjected to the same operating conditions. The influent organic matter concentration (in term of chemical oxygen demand (COD)) remained close to 4,000 mgCOD L(-1) and the hydraulic retention time was 24 hours. One reactor, the methanogenic (control reactor), received sulfate only to provide the sulfur required as a nutrient to the methanogenic biomass. The other one, the sulfidogenic/methanogenic reactor (SMR), received sulfate concentration corresponding to COD/sulfate ratios of 4, 5 and 3. In the last phase, the COD removal efficiencies were higher than 96% in both reactors and the SMR achieved 97% of sulfate removal efficiency (COD/sulfate ratio of 3 and influent sulfate concentration close to 1,300 mgSO4(2-) L(-1)). Both reactors also had similar methane yields in this phase, close to 350 mLCH4 gCODremoved(-1) at standard temperature and pressure. These results indicated no significant inhibition of methanogenic activity under the sulfidogenic conditions assessed.

  16. Production of polyol oils from soybean oil through bioprocess

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Soy-polyol oils (oxygenated acylglycerols) are important starting materials for the manufacture of polymers such as polyurethane. Currently, they are produced by a two-step chemical process involving epoxidation and then the subsequent opening of the oxirane ring. The objective of this study is to d...

  17. [Bio-oil production from biomass pyrolysis in molten salt].

    PubMed

    Ji, Dengxiang; Cai, Tengyue; Ai, Ning; Yu, Fengwen; Jiang, Hongtao; Ji, Jianbing

    2011-03-01

    In order to investigate the effects of pyrolysis conditions on bio-oil production from biomass in molten salt, experiments of biomass pyrolysis were carried out in a self-designed reactor in which the molten salt ZnCl2-KCl (with mole ratio 7/6) was selected as heat carrier, catalyst and dispersion agent. The effects of metal salt added into ZnCl2-KCl and biomass material on biomass pyrolysis were discussed, and the main compositions of bio-oil were determined by GC-MS. Metal salt added into molten salt could affect pyrolysis production yields remarkably. Lanthanon salt could enhance bio-oil yield and decrease water content in bio-oil, when mole fraction of 5.0% LaCl3 was added, bio-oil yield could reach up to 32.0%, and water content of bio-oil could reduce to 61.5%. The bio-oil and char yields were higher when rice straw was pyrolysed, while gas yield was higher when rice husk was used. Metal salts showed great selectivity on compositions of bio-oil. LiCl and FeCl2 promoted biomass to pyrolyse into smaller molecular weight compounds. CrCl3, CaCl2 and LaCl3 could restrain second pyrolysis of bio-oil. The research provided a scientific reference for production of bio-oil from biomass pyrolysis in molten salt.

  18. Anaerobic biofilm reactors for dark fermentative hydrogen production from wastewater: A review.

    PubMed

    Barca, Cristian; Soric, Audrey; Ranava, David; Giudici-Orticoni, Marie-Thérèse; Ferrasse, Jean-Henry

    2015-06-01

    Dark fermentation is a bioprocess driven by anaerobic bacteria that can produce hydrogen (H2) from organic waste and wastewater. This review analyses a relevant number of recent studies that have investigated dark fermentative H2 production from wastewater using two different types of anaerobic biofilm reactors: anaerobic packed bed reactor (APBR) and anaerobic fluidized bed reactor (AFBR). The effect of various parameters, including temperature, pH, carrier material, inoculum pretreatment, hydraulic retention time, substrate type and concentration, on reactor performances was investigated by a critical discussion of the results published in the literature. Also, this review presents an in-depth study on the influence of the main operating parameters on the metabolic pathways. The aim of this review is to provide to researchers and practitioners in the field of H2 production key elements for the best operation of the reactors. Finally, some perspectives and technical challenges to improve H2 production were proposed. PMID:25746594

  19. Microalgae cultivation as tertiary unit operation for treatment of pharmaceutical wastewater associated with lipid production.

    PubMed

    Hemalatha, Manupati; Venkata Mohan, S

    2016-09-01

    Microalgae based treatment was studied to polish sequential batch reactor (SBR) treated pharmaceutical wastewater under mixotrophic mode of operation with simultaneous biomass/lipid production. At the end of biomass growth phase (BGP), carbon removal efficiency was observed to be 73% along with good removal of nitrates (62%). Since microalgae assimilate nutrients from wastewater for growth, an increment in total biomass productivity (2.8g/l) was observed. Subjecting to nutrient stress phase (NSP), total lipid content of 17.2% with neutral lipids of 6.2% was observed under light condition. Contrarily, dark condition depicted total lipid content of 15.8% with neutral lipids constituting 6.5%. The nutrient stress in combination with light showed marked influence on the profile of saturated and unsaturated fatty acids. Integration of microalgae cultivation improves environmental sustainability and enables greener routes of biofuels and value added products synthesis in a biorefinery approach. PMID:27177715

  20. Pilot-scale production of microbial lipid using starch wastewater as raw material.

    PubMed

    Xue, Feiyan; Gao, Bin; Zhu, Yongqiang; Zhang, Xu; Feng, Wei; Tan, Tianwei

    2010-08-01

    The aim of this research was to develop a cost-effective pilot-scale fermentation process for lipid production by Rhodotorula glutinis using starch wastewater. A temperature range of 30-37 degrees C, and an initial chemical oxygen demand (COD) higher than 30,000 mg/L, were optimal for growth and lipid synthesis in flask culture. Cultivation in a 5-L fermenter yielded more than 60 g/L biomass with a 30% (w/w) lipid content after 60 h. Pilot-scale production of microbial lipid in a 300-L fermenter using starch wastewater without sterilization and pH adjustment yielded 40 g/L biomass and 35% lipid content with 80% COD degradation after only 30-40 h of cultivation. Transesterification experiments demonstrated that lipids can be used for biodiesel production. PMID:20371176

  1. Integrated catalytic wet air oxidation and biological treatment of wastewater from Vitamin B 6 production

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kang, Jianxiong; Zhan, Wei; Li, Daosheng; Wang, Xiaocong; Song, Jing; Liu, Dongqi

    This study investigated the feasibility of coupling a catalytic wet air oxidation (CWAO), with CuO/Al 2O 3 as catalyst, and an anaerobic/aerobic biological process to treat wastewater from Vitamin B 6 production. Results showed that the CWAO enhanced the biodegradability (BOD 5/COD) from 0.10 to 0.80. The oxidized effluents with COD of 10,000 mg l -1 was subjected to subsequent continuous anaerobic/aerobic oxidation, and 99.3% of total COD removal was achieved. The quality of the effluent obtained met the discharge standards of water pollutants for pharmaceutical industry Chemical Synthesis Products Category (GB21904-2008), and thereby it implies that the integrated CWAO and anaerobic/aerobic biological treatment may offer a promising process to treat wastewater from Vitamin B 6 production.

  2. Medicinal and cosmetics soap production from Jatropha oil.

    PubMed

    Shahinuzzaman, M; Yaakob, Zahira; Moniruzzaman, M

    2016-06-01

    Soap is the most useful things which we use our everyday life in various cleansing and cosmetics purposes. Jatropha oil is nonedible oil which has more benefits to soap making. It has also cosmetics and medicinal properties. But the presence of toxic Phorbol esters in Jatropha oil is the main constrains to use it. So it is necessary to search a more suitable method for detoxifying the Jatropha oil before the use as the main ingredient of soap production. This review implies a more suitable method for removing phorbol esters from Jatropha oil. Several parameters such as the % yield of pure Jatropha oil soap, TFM value of soap, total alkali content, free caustic alkalinity content, pH, the antimicrobial activity, and CMC value of general soap should be taken into consideration for soap from detoxified Jatropha oil. PMID:26777540

  3. Genetic discovery for oil production and quality in sesame

    PubMed Central

    Wei, Xin; Liu, Kunyan; Zhang, Yanxin; Feng, Qi; Wang, Linhai; Zhao, Yan; Li, Donghua; Zhao, Qiang; Zhu, Xiaodong; Zhu, Xiaofeng; Li, Wenjun; Fan, Danlin; Gao, Yuan; Lu, Yiqi; Zhang, Xianmei; Tang, Xiumei; Zhou, Congcong; Zhu, Chuanrang; Liu, Lifeng; Zhong, Ruichun; Tian, Qilin; Wen, Ziruo; Weng, Qijun; Han, Bin; Huang, Xuehui; Zhang, Xiurong

    2015-01-01

    Oilseed crops are used to produce vegetable oil. Sesame (Sesamum indicum), an oilseed crop grown worldwide, has high oil content and a small diploid genome, but the genetic basis of oil production and quality is unclear. Here we sequence 705 diverse sesame varieties to construct a haplotype map of the sesame genome and de novo assemble two representative varieties to identify sequence variations. We investigate 56 agronomic traits in four environments and identify 549 associated loci. Examination of the major loci identifies 46 candidate causative genes, including genes related to oil content, fatty acid biosynthesis and yield. Several of the candidate genes for oil content encode enzymes involved in oil metabolism. Two major genes associated with lignification and black pigmentation in the seed coat are also associated with large variation in oil content. These findings may inform breeding and improvement strategies for a broad range of oilseed crops. PMID:26477832

  4. Medicinal and cosmetics soap production from Jatropha oil.

    PubMed

    Shahinuzzaman, M; Yaakob, Zahira; Moniruzzaman, M

    2016-06-01

    Soap is the most useful things which we use our everyday life in various cleansing and cosmetics purposes. Jatropha oil is nonedible oil which has more benefits to soap making. It has also cosmetics and medicinal properties. But the presence of toxic Phorbol esters in Jatropha oil is the main constrains to use it. So it is necessary to search a more suitable method for detoxifying the Jatropha oil before the use as the main ingredient of soap production. This review implies a more suitable method for removing phorbol esters from Jatropha oil. Several parameters such as the % yield of pure Jatropha oil soap, TFM value of soap, total alkali content, free caustic alkalinity content, pH, the antimicrobial activity, and CMC value of general soap should be taken into consideration for soap from detoxified Jatropha oil.

  5. Wastewater treatment high rate algal ponds (WWT HRAP) for low-cost biofuel production.

    PubMed

    Mehrabadi, Abbas; Craggs, Rupert; Farid, Mohammed M

    2015-05-01

    Growing energy demand and water consumption have increased concerns about energy security and efficient wastewater treatment and reuse. Wastewater treatment high rate algal ponds (WWT HRAPs) are a promising technology that could help solve these challenges concurrently where climate is favorable. WWT HRAPs have great potential for biofuel production as a by-product of WWT, since the costs of algal cultivation and harvest for biofuel production are covered by the wastewater treatment function. Generally, 800-1400 GJ/ha/year energy (average biomass energy content: 20 GJ/ton; HRAP biomass productivity: 40-70 tons/ha/year) can be produced in the form of harvestable biomass from WWT HRAP which can be used to provide community-level energy supply. In this paper the benefits of WWT HRAPs are compared with conventional mass algal culture systems. Moreover, parameters to effectively increase algal energy content and overall energy production from WWT HRAP are discussed including selection of appropriate algal biomass biofuel conversion pathways.

  6. A data-driven model for maximization of methane production in a wastewater treatment plant.

    PubMed

    Kusiak, Andrew; Wei, Xiupeng

    2012-01-01

    A data-driven approach for maximization of methane production in a wastewater treatment plant is presented. Industrial data collected on a daily basis was used to build the model. Temperature, total solids, volatile solids, detention time and pH value were selected as parameters for the model construction. First, a prediction model of methane production was built by a multi-layer perceptron neural network. Then a particle swarm optimization algorithm was used to maximize methane production based on the model developed in this research. The model resulted in a 5.5% increase in methane production.

  7. Non-OPEC oil production: The key to the future

    SciTech Connect

    Borg, I.Y.

    1990-05-11

    The dramatic increase in non-OPEC oil production that has occurred since the fuel crises of the seventies was accelerated by the subsequent increases in oil prices on world markets. Current moderate world prices are attributable to increased supply in the last decade from these countries. Among those nations whose production has more than doubled since 1973 are China, Mexico, the UK, Norway, Egypt, India, Oman, Brazil, Colombia, Angola, and Syria. In this context, non-OPEC nations include the Communist oil-producing countries, since their ability to meet their own domestic demand has forestalled the day when they will compete for supplies on world markets. The prospect for continued growth in non-OPEC oil production is good. Prospects for additions to reserves continue to be bright in virgin exploration areas and semimature oil-producing provinces. Non-OPEC oil production may reach peak levels in the 1995--2000 time frame. However, production will be increasingly countered by growing demand, especially in South and Central America and Asia. It is almost certain that by the mid-nineties, competition for oil supplies in world markets will elevate the price of oil available from the well endowed OPEC nations. Supply disruptions as well may be in the offing by the turn of the century as surpluses on world markets disappear. 92 refs., 20 figs., 5 tabs.

  8. Application of ICP-OES for Evaluating Energy Extraction and Production Wastewater Discharge Impacts on Surface Waters in Western Pennsylvania

    EPA Science Inventory

    Oil and gas extraction and coal-fired electrical power generating stations produce wastewaters that are treated and discharged to rivers in Western Pennsylvania with public drinking water system (PDWS) intakes. Inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectroscopy (ICP-OES) w...

  9. Treating wastewater with high oil and grease content using an Anaerobic Membrane Bioreactor (AnMBR). Filtration and cleaning assays.

    PubMed

    Diez, V; Ramos, C; Cabezas, J L

    2012-01-01

    An Anaerobic Membrane Bioreactor (AnMBR) pilot plant was studied to improve certain operational conditions of AnMBRs that treat high oil and grease wastewaters discharged from a snacks factory. A comparison of its performance and behavior was made with an upflow anaerobic reactor throughout the first eight weeks of its operation. Raw snack food wastewater was characterized by oil and grease concentrations of up to 6,000 mg/l, with chemical oxygen demand (COD) and biological oxygen demand (BOD(5)) concentrations of up to 22,000 and 10,300 mg/l, respectively. The AnMBR achieved COD removal efficiencies of 97% at an organic loading rate (OLR) of 5.1 kg COD/m(3) d. The filtration flux, and the suction, backwash and relaxation times for each cycle were all varied: an 11 min filtration time involving 10 s pre-relaxation, 20 s backwash and 70 s post-relaxation was finally selected. The filtration flux for long-term operation was between 6.5 and 8.0 l/m(2) h. The study also tested physical cleaning strategies such as intensive backwashing cycles and extended relaxation mode, and different chemical cleaning methods, such as chemically enhanced backwash on air and chemical cleaning by immersion.

  10. Integration of biofiltration and advanced oxidation processes for tertiary treatment of an oil refinery wastewater aiming at water reuse.

    PubMed

    Nogueira, A A; Bassin, J P; Cerqueira, A C; Dezotti, M

    2016-05-01

    The combination of biological and chemical oxidation processes is an interesting approach to remove ready, poor, and non-biodegradable compounds from complex industrial wastewaters. In this study, biofiltration followed by H2O2/UV oxidation (or microfiltration) and final reverse osmosis (RO) step was employed for tertiary treatment of an oil refinery wastewater. Biofiltration alone allowed obtaining total organic carbon (TOC), chemical oxygen demand (COD), UV absorbance at 254 nm (UV254), ammonium, and turbidity removal of around 46, 46, 23, 50, and 61 %, respectively. After the combined biological-chemical oxidation treatment, TOC and UV254 removal amounted to 88 and 79 %, respectively. Whereas, the treatment performance achieved with different UV lamp powers (55 and 95 W) and therefore distinct irradiance levels (26.8 and 46.3 mW/cm(2), respectively) were very similar and TOC and UV254 removal rates were highly affected by the applied C/H2O2 ratio. Silt density index (SDI) was effectively reduced by H2O2/UV oxidation, favoring further RO application. C/H2O2 ratio of 1:4, 55 W UV lamp, and 20-min oxidation reaction corresponded to the experimental condition which provided the best cost/benefit ratio for TOC, UV254, and SDI reduction from the biofilter effluent. The array of treatment processes proposed in this study has shown to be adequate for tertiary treatment of the oil refinery wastewater, ensuring the mitigation of membrane fouling problems and producing a final effluent which is suitable for reuse applications. PMID:26850095

  11. Removal of cadmium(II) from wastewater using activated carbon prepared from Agro Industrial by-products.

    PubMed

    Hema, M; Srinivasan, K

    2011-10-01

    Removal of cadmium from wastewater using activated carbons prepared from Cocos nucifera (coconut) and Azadirachta indica (neem) oilcakes-an agricultural solid by-product was investigated. Batch experiments were performed to evaluate the effect of pH, agitation time, initial metal ion concentration and adsorbent dose on the cadmium sorption in coconut oil cake activated carbon (COCAC) and neem oil cake activated carbon (NOCAC). The experiments demonstrated that the adsorption process corresponds to the pseudo-second-order-kinetic model and the equilibrium adsorption data fit well with Temkin isotherm model. The adsorption capacity 'b' calculated from the Langmuir isotherm was 188.68 mg/g for COCAC and 23.7 mg/g for NOCAC. The percent removal of Cd(II) in COCAC increased in pH from 2 to 5, and remained constant up to pH 8, increasing the percent removal with increasing pH for NOCAC. Desorption studies were performed with 0.1M hydrochloric acid. It was found that quantitative recovery of the metal ion is possible. It was also observed that the mechanism of adsorption seems to be ion exchange. Reuse of both carbons were carried out for five cycles at optimum conditions. Adsorption efficiency of carbons was reduced from 99 to 89% in the case of COCAC and 97 to 86% for NOCAC. PMID:23505814

  12. [Fate of ARB and ARGs During Wastewater Treatment Process of Spiramycin Production].

    PubMed

    Qin, Cai-xia; Tong, Juan; Shen, Pei-hong; Wei, Yuan-song

    2015-09-01

    Antibiotic resistant bacteria (ARB) and antibiotic resistance gene(ARG) pose great risk to both environment and human health. This study aimed to investigate the fate of macrolide resistant bacteria, six macrolide resistance genes ermB, ermF, ermX, mefA, ereA, mphB and three transfer elements ISCR1, intIl and Tn916/1545 during wastewater biological treatment processes of spiramycin production. Samples were collected from an antibiotic wastewater treatment station in different seasons. Results showed that the total heterotrophs and Enterococci were mostly removed during wastewater biological treatment, with the reduction of 1. 6-2. 1 logs for total heterotrophs and of 3. 7 logs for Enterococci, respectively. For 94 antibiotic resistant Enterococci individually isolated from four different treatment units including adjusting tank, anaerobic tank, anoxic tank, and aerobic tank, all of these strains showed resistance to spiramycin, azithromycin, erythromycin, and clarithromycin; moreover, the antibiotic resistance rates was not reduced in the effluent. Results of PCR and quantitative PCR showed that 80% of antibiotic resistant Enterococci were positive for PCR amplification of erAB, but negative for PCR amplification of other genes. Concentrations of ermB and ermF were peaked in the spring and autumn samples. Resistance genes of ermB, ermF, mefA, ereA, mphB and transfer element of Tn916/1545 were reduced to some degree during antibiotic production wastewater treatment, but concentrations of ermX, intIl, ISCRl in the effluent were higher than those in the influent. The abundance of mefA, ereA and Tn916/1545 were reduced during wastewater treatment process, and the better removal performance for mefA, ereA, Tn916/1545 occurred in spring than in autumn; however, the abundance of ermX, intI1 and ISCR1 were increased.

  13. [Fate of ARB and ARGs During Wastewater Treatment Process of Spiramycin Production].

    PubMed

    Qin, Cai-xia; Tong, Juan; Shen, Pei-hong; Wei, Yuan-song

    2015-09-01

    Antibiotic resistant bacteria (ARB) and antibiotic resistance gene(ARG) pose great risk to both environment and human health. This study aimed to investigate the fate of macrolide resistant bacteria, six macrolide resistance genes ermB, ermF, ermX, mefA, ereA, mphB and three transfer elements ISCR1, intIl and Tn916/1545 during wastewater biological treatment processes of spiramycin production. Samples were collected from an antibiotic wastewater treatment station in different seasons. Results showed that the total heterotrophs and Enterococci were mostly removed during wastewater biological treatment, with the reduction of 1. 6-2. 1 logs for total heterotrophs and of 3. 7 logs for Enterococci, respectively. For 94 antibiotic resistant Enterococci individually isolated from four different treatment units including adjusting tank, anaerobic tank, anoxic tank, and aerobic tank, all of these strains showed resistance to spiramycin, azithromycin, erythromycin, and clarithromycin; moreover, the antibiotic resistance rates was not reduced in the effluent. Results of PCR and quantitative PCR showed that 80% of antibiotic resistant Enterococci were positive for PCR amplification of erAB, but negative for PCR amplification of other genes. Concentrations of ermB and ermF were peaked in the spring and autumn samples. Resistance genes of ermB, ermF, mefA, ereA, mphB and transfer element of Tn916/1545 were reduced to some degree during antibiotic production wastewater treatment, but concentrations of ermX, intIl, ISCRl in the effluent were higher than those in the influent. The abundance of mefA, ereA and Tn916/1545 were reduced during wastewater treatment process, and the better removal performance for mefA, ereA, Tn916/1545 occurred in spring than in autumn; however, the abundance of ermX, intI1 and ISCR1 were increased. PMID:26717693

  14. Production and Characterization of Biodiesel from Tung Oil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, Ji-Yeon; Kim, Deog-Keun; Wang, Zhong-Ming; Lu, Pengmei; Park, Soon-Chul; Lee, Jin-Suk

    The feasibility of biodiesel production from tung oil was investigated. The esterification reaction of the free fatty acids of rung oil was performed using Amberlyst-15. Optimal molar ratio of methanol to oil was determined to be 7.5:1, and Amberlyst-15 was 20.8wt% of oil by response surface methodology. Under these reaction conditions, the acid value of rung oil was reduced to 0.72mg KOH/g. In the range of the molar equivalents of methanol to oil under 5, the esterification was strongly affected by the amount of methanol but not the catalyst. When the molar ratio of methanol to oil was 4.1:1 and Amberlyst-15 was 29.8wt% of the oil, the acid value decreased to 0.85mg KOH/g. After the transesterification reaction of pretreated rung oil, the purity of rung biodiesel was 90.2wt%. The high viscosity of crude rung oil decreased to 9.8mm2/s at 40 °C. Because of the presence of eleostearic acid, which is a main component of tung oil, the oxidation stability as determined by the Rancimat method was very low, 0.5h, but the cold filter plugging point, -11 °C, was good. The distillation process did not improve the fatty acid methyl ester content and the viscosity.

  15. Anaerobic treatment of army ammunition production wastewater containing perchlorate and RDX.

    PubMed

    Atikovic, Emina; Suidan, Makram T; Maloney, Stephen W

    2008-08-01

    Perchlorate is an oxidizer that has been routinely used in solid rocket motors by the Department of Defense and National Aeronautics and Space Administration. Royal Demolition Explosive (RDX) is a major component of military high explosives and is used in a wide variety of munitions. Perchlorate bearing wastewater typically results from production of solid rocket motors, while RDX is transferred to Army industrial wastewaters during load, assemble and pack operations for new munitions, and hot water or steam washout for disposal and deactivation of old munitions (commonly referred to as demilitarization, or simply demil). Biological degradation in Anaerobic Fluidized Bed Reactors (AFBR), has been shown to be an effective method for the removal of both perchlorate and RDX in contaminated wastewater. The focus of this study was to determine the effectiveness of removal of perchlorate and RDX, individually and when co-mingled, using ethanol as an electron donor under steady state conditions. Three AFBRs were used to assess the effectiveness of this process in treating the wastewater. The performance of the bioreactors was monitored relative to perchlorate, RDX, and chemical oxygen demand removal effectiveness. The experimental results demonstrated that the biodegradation of perchlorate and RDX was more effective in bioreactors receiving the single contaminant than in the bioreactor where both contaminants were fed.

  16. Electricity and disinfectant production from wastewater: Microbial Fuel Cell as a self-powered electrolyser.

    PubMed

    Gajda, Iwona; Greenman, John; Melhuish, Chris; Ieropoulos, Ioannis A

    2016-01-01

    This study presents a simple and sustainable Microbial Fuel Cell as a standalone, self-powered reactor for in situ wastewater electrolysis, recovering nitrogen from wastewater. A process is proposed whereby the MFC electrical performance drives the electrolysis of wastewater towards the self-generation of catholyte within the same reactor. The MFCs were designed to harvest the generated catholyte in the internal chamber, which showed that liquid production rates are largely proportional to electrical current generation. The catholyte demonstrated bactericidal properties, compared to the control (open-circuit) diffusate, and reduced observable biofilm formation on the cathode electrode. Killing effects were confirmed using bacterial kill curves constructed by exposing a bioluminescent Escherichia coli target, as a surrogate coliform, to catholyte where a rapid kill rate was observed. Therefore, MFCs could serve as a water recovery system, a disinfectant/cleaner generator that limits undesired biofilm formation and as a washing agent in waterless urinals to improve sanitation. This simple and ready to implement MFC system can convert organic waste directly into electricity and self-driven nitrogen along with water recovery. This could lead to the development of energy positive bioprocesses for sustainable wastewater treatment. PMID:27172836

  17. Bioelectricity production from microbial fuel cell using mixed bacterial culture isolated from distillery wastewater.

    PubMed

    Samsudeen, N; Radhakrishnan, T K; Matheswaran, Manickam

    2015-11-01

    The effect of various system parameters such as wastewater Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD) concentration, pH, conductivity, membrane size and thickness on efficient energy production using mixed isolated culture from the distillery wastewater in the MFC was studied. The power density increased with increase in the anolyte pH from 6 to 8. The peak power density and COD removal efficiency was observed as 63.8±0.65 mW/m(2) and 63.5±1.5% at pH 8, respectively. The MFC performance increased with increasing COD concentration (800-3200 mg/l), conductivity (1.1-9.7 mS/cm) and membrane area (8-24 cm(2)). The MFC operating with wastewater COD concentration of 3200 mg/l and its conductivity of 9.7 mS/cm produced the highest power density of 202±6 mW/m(2) with a corresponding current density of 412±12 mA/m(2). The results showed that the efficient electricity generation and simultaneous treatment of distillery wastewater can be attained in the MFC.

  18. Electricity and disinfectant production from wastewater: Microbial Fuel Cell as a self-powered electrolyser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gajda, Iwona; Greenman, John; Melhuish, Chris; Ieropoulos, Ioannis A.

    2016-05-01

    This study presents a simple and sustainable Microbial Fuel Cell as a standalone, self-powered reactor for in situ wastewater electrolysis, recovering nitrogen from wastewater. A process is proposed whereby the MFC electrical performance drives the electrolysis of wastewater towards the self-generation of catholyte within the same reactor. The MFCs were designed to harvest the generated catholyte in the internal chamber, which showed that liquid production rates are largely proportional to electrical current generation. The catholyte demonstrated bactericidal properties, compared to the control (open-circuit) diffusate, and reduced observable biofilm formation on the cathode electrode. Killing effects were confirmed using bacterial kill curves constructed by exposing a bioluminescent Escherichia coli target, as a surrogate coliform, to catholyte where a rapid kill rate was observed. Therefore, MFCs could serve as a water recovery system, a disinfectant/cleaner generator that limits undesired biofilm formation and as a washing agent in waterless urinals to improve sanitation. This simple and ready to implement MFC system can convert organic waste directly into electricity and self-driven nitrogen along with water recovery. This could lead to the development of energy positive bioprocesses for sustainable wastewater treatment.

  19. Electricity and disinfectant production from wastewater: Microbial Fuel Cell as a self-powered electrolyser

    PubMed Central

    Gajda, Iwona; Greenman, John; Melhuish, Chris; Ieropoulos, Ioannis A.

    2016-01-01

    This study presents a simple and sustainable Microbial Fuel Cell as a standalone, self-powered reactor for in situ wastewater electrolysis, recovering nitrogen from wastewater. A process is proposed whereby the MFC electrical performance drives the electrolysis of wastewater towards the self-generation of catholyte within the same reactor. The MFCs were designed to harvest the generated catholyte in the internal chamber, which showed that liquid production rates are largely proportional to electrical current generation. The catholyte demonstrated bactericidal properties, compared to the control (open-circuit) diffusate, and reduced observable biofilm formation on the cathode electrode. Killing effects were confirmed using bacterial kill curves constructed by exposing a bioluminescent Escherichia coli target, as a surrogate coliform, to catholyte where a rapid kill rate was observed. Therefore, MFCs could serve as a water recovery system, a disinfectant/cleaner generator that limits undesired biofilm formation and as a washing agent in waterless urinals to improve sanitation. This simple and ready to implement MFC system can convert organic waste directly into electricity and self-driven nitrogen along with water recovery. This could lead to the development of energy positive bioprocesses for sustainable wastewater treatment. PMID:27172836

  20. Swine manure-based pilot-scale algal biomass production system for fuel production and wastewater treatment--a case study.

    PubMed

    Min, Min; Hu, Bing; Mohr, Michael J; Shi, Aimin; Ding, Jinfeng; Sun, Yong; Jiang, Yongcheng; Fu, Zongqiang; Griffith, Richard; Hussain, Fida; Mu, Dongyan; Nie, Yong; Chen, Paul; Zhou, Wenguang; Ruan, Roger

    2014-02-01

    Integration of wastewater treatment with algae cultivation is one of the promising ways to achieve an economically viable and environmentally sustainable algal biofuel production on a commercial scale. This study focused on pilot-scale algal biomass production system development, cultivation process optimization, and integration with swine manure wastewater treatment. The areal algal biomass productivity for the cultivation system that we developed ranged from 8.08 to 14.59 and 19.15-23.19 g/m(2) × day, based on ash-free dry weight and total suspended solid (TSS), respectively, which were higher than or comparable with those in literature. The harvested algal biomass had lipid content about 1.77-3.55%, which was relatively low, but could be converted to bio-oil via fast microwave-assisted pyrolysis system developed in our lab. The lipids in the harvested algal biomass had a significantly higher percentage of total unsaturated fatty acids than those grown in lab conditions, which may be attributed to the observed temperature and light fluctuations. The nutrient removal rate was highly correlated to the biomass productivity. The NH₃-N, TN, COD, and PO₄-P reduction rates for the north-located photo-bioreactor (PBR-N) in July were 2.65, 3.19, 7.21, and 0.067 g/m(2) × day, respectively, which were higher than those in other studies. The cultivation system had advantages of high mixotrophic growth rate, low operating cost, as well as reduced land footprint due to the stacked-tray bioreactor design used in the study. PMID:24203276

  1. Enhanced Microbial Pathways for Methane Production from Oil Shale

    SciTech Connect

    Paul Fallgren

    2009-02-15

    Methane from oil shale can potentially provide a significant contribution to natural gas industry, and it may be possible to increase and continue methane production by artificially enhancing methanogenic activity through the addition of various substrate and nutrient treatments. Western Research Institute in conjunction with Pick & Shovel Inc. and the U.S. Department of Energy conducted microcosm and scaled-up reactor studies to investigate the feasibility and optimization of biogenic methane production from oil shale. The microcosm study involving crushed oil shale showed the highest yield of methane was produced from oil shale pretreated with a basic solution and treated with nutrients. Incubation at 30 C, which is the estimated temperature in the subsurface where the oil shale originated, caused and increase in methane production. The methane production eventually decreased when pH of the system was above 9.00. In the scaled-up reactor study, pretreatment of the oil shale with a basic solution, nutrient enhancements, incubation at 30 C, and maintaining pH at circumneutral levels yielded the highest rate of biogenic methane production. From this study, the annual biogenic methane production rate was determined to be as high as 6042 cu. ft/ton oil shale.

  2. Hydraulic retention time effects on wastewater nutrient removal and bioproduct production via rotating algal biofilm reactor.

    PubMed

    Iman Shayan, Sahand; Agblevor, Foster A; Bertin, Lorenzo; Sims, Ronald C

    2016-07-01

    Rotating algal biofilm reactor (RABR) technology was successfully employed in an effective strategy to couple the removal of wastewater nutrients with accumulation of valuable bioproducts by grown algae. A secondary stage municipal wastewater was fed to the developed system and the effects of the hydraulic retention time (HRT) parameter on both nutrient removal and bioproduct production were evaluated under fed-batch operation mode. Two sets of bench scale RABRs were designed and operated with HRTs of 2 and 6days in order to provide competitive environment for algal growth. The HRT significantly affected nitrogen and phosphorus uptakes along with lipid and starch accumulations by microalgae in harvested biofilms. Domination of nitrogen removal in 2-day HRT with higher lipid accumulation (20% on dried weight basis) and phosphorus removal in 6-day HRT with higher starch production (27% on dried weight basis) was observed by comparing the performances of the RABRs in duplicate runs. PMID:27038261

  3. Cyanobacteria cultivation in industrial wastewaters and biodiesel production from their biomass: a review.

    PubMed

    Balasubramanian, Lavanya; Subramanian, Geetha; Nazeer, Thayiba Thanveer; Simpson, Hannah Shalini; Rahuman, Shifina T; Raju, Preetha

    2011-01-01

    As an alternative fuel biodiesel has become increasingly important due to diminishing petroleum reserves and adverse environmental consequences of exhaust gases from petroleum-fueled engines. Recently, research interest has focused on the production of biofuel from microalgae. Cyanobacteria appeared to be suitable candidates for cultivation in wastes and wastewaters because they produce biomass in satisfactory quantity and can be harvested relatively easily due to their size and structure. In addition, their biomass composition can be manipulated by several environmental and operational factors to produce biomass with concrete characteristics. Herein, we review the culture of cyanobacteria in wastewaters and also the potential resources that can be transformed into biodiesel successfully for meeting the ever-increasing demand for biodiesel production. PMID:21838795

  4. Hydrogen production from continuous flow, microbial reverse-electrodialysis electrolysis cells treating fermentation wastewater.

    PubMed

    Watson, Valerie J; Hatzell, Marta; Logan, Bruce E

    2015-11-01

    A microbial reverse-electrodialysis electrolysis cell (MREC) was used to produce hydrogen gas from fermentation wastewater without the need for additional electrical energy. Increasing the number of cell pairs in the reverse electrodialysis stack from 5 to 10 doubled the maximum current produced from 60 A/m(3) to 120 A/m(3) using acetate. However, more rapid COD removal required a decrease in the anolyte hydraulic retention time (HRT) from 24 to 12 h to stabilize anode potentials. Hydrogen production using a fermentation wastewater (10 cell pairs, HRT=8 h) reached 0.9±0.1 L H2/Lreactor/d (1.1±0.1 L H2/g-COD), with 58±5% COD removal and a coulombic efficiency of 74±5%. These results demonstrated that consistent rates of hydrogen gas production could be achieved using an MREC if effluent anolyte COD concentrations are sufficient to produce stable anode potentials.

  5. Production and properties of a surfactant obtained from Bacillus subtilis grown on cassava wastewater.

    PubMed

    Nitschke, Marcia; Pastore, Glaucia Maria

    2006-01-01

    The production and properties of a biosurfactant, synthesized by Bacillus subtilis LB5a strain, using cassava wastewater as substrate were investigated. The microorganism was able to grow and to produce surfactant on cassava waste, reducing the surface tension of medium to 26.6 mN/m and giving a crude surfactant concentration of 3.0 g/L after 48 h. The surface-active compound retained its properties during exposure to elevate temperatures (100 degrees C), high salinity (20% NaCl) and a wide range of pH values. The surfactant was capable of forming stable emulsions with various hydrocarbons. Preliminary chemical characterization revealed that the surfactant has a lipopeptide composition with a CMC value of about 33 mg/L. Cassava wastewater proved to be a suitable substrate for biosurfactant biosynthesis, providing not only bacterial growth and product accumulation but also a surfactant that has interesting and useful properties with potential for many industrial applications.

  6. Myths and facts on wastewater injection, hydraulic fracturing, enhanced oil recovery, and induced seismicity

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rubinstein, Justin L.; Mahani, Alireza Babaie

    2015-01-01

    The central United States has undergone a dramatic increase in seismicity over the past 6 years (Fig. 1), rising from an average of 24 M≥3 earthquakes per year in the years 1973–2008 to an average of 193 M≥3 earthquakes in 2009–2014, with 688 occurring in 2014 alone. Multiple damaging earthquakes have occurred during this increase including the 2011 M 5.6 Prague, Oklahoma, earthquake; the 2011 M 5.3 Trinidad, Colorado, earthquake; and the 2011M 4.7 Guy‐Greenbrier, Arkansas, earthquake. The increased seismicity is limited to a few areas and the evidence is mounting that the seismicity in many of these locations is induced by the deep injection of fluids from nearby oil and gas operations. Earthquakes that are caused by human activities are known as induced earthquakes. Most injection operations, though, do not appear to induce earthquakes. Although the message that these earthquakes are induced by fluid injection related to oil and gas production has been communicated clearly, there remains confusion in the popular press beyond this basic level of understanding.

  7. Microalgae biomass growth using primary treated wastewater as nutrient source and their potential use for lipids production

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frementiti, Anastacia; Aravantinou, Andriana F.; Manariotis, Ioannis D.

    2015-04-01

    The great demand for energy, the rising price of the crude oil and the rapid decrease of the supply of fossil fuels are the main reasons that have increased the interest for the production of fuels from renewable resources. Microalgae are considered to be the most promising new source of biomass and biofuels, since their lipid content in some cases is up to 70%. The microalgal growth and its metabolism processes are essential in wastewater treatment with many economical prospects. The aim of this work was to evaluate the algal production in a laboratory scale open pond. The pond had a working volume of 30 L and was fed with sterilized primary treated wastewater. Chlorococcum sp. was used as a model microalgal. Experiments were conducted under controlled environmental conditions in order to investigate the removal of nutrients, biomass growth, and lipids accumulation in microalgae. Chlorococcum sp. cultures behavior was investigated under batch, fill and draw, and continuous operation mode, at two different radiation intensities (100 and 200 μmol/m2s). The maximum biomass concentration of 630 mg/L was observed with the fill and draw mode. Moreover, the growth rates of microalgal biomass were depended on the influent nutrients concentration. Specifically, the phosphates were the limiting factor for biomass growth in continuous condition; the phosphates removal in this condition, reached a 100%. Chemical demand oxygen (COD) was not removed efficiently by Chlorococcum sp. since it was an autotrophic microalgal with no organic carbon demands for its growth. The lipids content in the dry weight of Chlorococcum sp. ranged from 1 to 9% depending on the concentration of nutrients and the operating conditions.

  8. Evaluation of residual antibacterial potency in antibiotic production wastewater using a real-time quantitative method.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Hong; Zhang, Yu; Yang, Min; Liu, Miaomiao

    2015-11-01

    While antibiotic pollution has attracted considerable attention due to its potential in promoting the dissemination of antibiotic resistance genes in the environment, the antibiotic activity of their related substances has been neglected, which may underestimate the environmental impacts of antibiotic wastewater discharge. In this study, a real-time quantitative approach was established to evaluate the residual antibacterial potency of antibiotics and related substances in antibiotic production wastewater (APW) by comparing the growth of a standard bacterial strain (Staphylococcus aureus) in tested water samples with a standard reference substance (e.g. oxytetracycline). Antibiotic equivalent quantity (EQ) was used to express antibacterial potency, which made it possible to assess the contribution of each compound to the antibiotic activity in APW. The real-time quantitative method showed better repeatability (Relative Standard Deviation, RSD 1.08%) compared with the conventional fixed growth time method (RSD 5.62-11.29%). And its quantification limits ranged from 0.20 to 24.00 μg L(-1), depending on the antibiotic. We applied the developed method to analyze the residual potency of water samples from four APW treatment systems, and confirmed a significant contribution from antibiotic transformation products to potent antibacterial activity. Specifically, neospiramycin, a major transformation product of spiramycin, was found to contribute 13.15-22.89% of residual potency in spiramycin production wastewater. In addition, some unknown related substances with antimicrobial activity were indicated in the effluent. This developed approach will be effective for the management of antibacterial potency discharge from antibiotic wastewater and other waste streams.

  9. Evaluation of residual antibacterial potency in antibiotic production wastewater using a real-time quantitative method.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Hong; Zhang, Yu; Yang, Min; Liu, Miaomiao

    2015-11-01

    While antibiotic pollution has attracted considerable attention due to its potential in promoting the dissemination of antibiotic resistance genes in the environment, the antibiotic activity of their related substances has been neglected, which may underestimate the environmental impacts of antibiotic wastewater discharge. In this study, a real-time quantitative approach was established to evaluate the residual antibacterial potency of antibiotics and related substances in antibiotic production wastewater (APW) by comparing the growth of a standard bacterial strain (Staphylococcus aureus) in tested water samples with a standard reference substance (e.g. oxytetracycline). Antibiotic equivalent quantity (EQ) was used to express antibacterial potency, which made it possible to assess the contribution of each compound to the antibiotic activity in APW. The real-time quantitative method showed better repeatability (Relative Standard Deviation, RSD 1.08%) compared with the conventional fixed growth time method (RSD 5.62-11.29%). And its quantification limits ranged from 0.20 to 24.00 μg L(-1), depending on the antibiotic. We applied the developed method to analyze the residual potency of water samples from four APW treatment systems, and confirmed a significant contribution from antibiotic transformation products to potent antibacterial activity. Specifically, neospiramycin, a major transformation product of spiramycin, was found to contribute 13.15-22.89% of residual potency in spiramycin production wastewater. In addition, some unknown related substances with antimicrobial activity were indicated in the effluent. This developed approach will be effective for the management of antibacterial potency discharge from antibiotic wastewater and other waste streams. PMID:26395288

  10. Oil Production, The Price Crash and Uncertainty in Climate Change

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murray, J. W.

    2015-12-01

    World oil production increased to about 74 million barrels per day by January 2005, and was fairly constant until 2011 when it started to increase to 77.8 mb/d in 2014. This spectacular increase of 4 mb/d was almost entirely due to a sharp increase in production in the US from shale formations, called light tight oil (LTO). World oil production minus this increase in US LTO Production has been flat since 2005 at about 74 mb/d. When US production starts to decline, world oil production likely will as well. That surge is forecast to end soon because LTO is expensive to produce, the first year decline rates are extremely high requiring many new wells each year to maintain or increase production and the most productive locations have already been drilled. It is unprofitable for the Exploration and Production (E&P) companies. Full-year free cash flow has been negative for most tight oil E&P companies since 2009. The total negative cash flow for the 19 largest E&P companies totaled 10.5B in 2014. The surge in US LTO production created an imbalance in global supply and demand and resulted in a 50% decrease in the price of oil. The tight-oil producers who were are financially marginal at an oil price greater than 90 per barrel are even more so at the lower price. As a result the surge in US production of LTO is declining, making it unlikely that world oil production will exceed the present value of about 28 Gb/yr (equivalent to 75 mb/d) (175 EJ/yr). Many of the SRES (IPCC Special Report on Emission Scenarios) and RCP (IPCC Representative Concentration Pathways) projections (especially RCP 8.5 and 6) require CO2 emissions due to oil consumption in the range of 32 Gb/yr to 57 Gb/yr (200 to 350 EJ/yr). The higher values would require a doubling of world oil production. It is highly uncertain whether the higher CO2 scenarios will be reached. This is an element of uncertainty missing from most considerations of future climate change.

  11. Evaluation of pharmaceuticals and personal care products with emphasis on anthelmintics in human sanitary waste, sewage, hospital wastewater, livestock wastewater and receiving water.

    PubMed

    Sim, Won-Jin; Kim, Hee-Young; Choi, Sung-Deuk; Kwon, Jung-Hwan; Oh, Jeong-Eun

    2013-03-15

    We investigated 33 pharmaceuticals and personal care products (PPCPs) with emphasis on anthelmintics and their metabolites in human sanitary waste treatment plants (HTPs), sewage treatment plants (STPs), hospital wastewater treatment plants (HWTPs), livestock wastewater treatment plants (LWTPs), river water and seawater. PPCPs showed the characteristic specific occurrence patterns according to wastewater sources. The LWTPs and HTPs showed higher levels (maximum 3000 times in influents) of anthelmintics than other wastewater treatment plants, indicating that livestock wastewater and human sanitary waste are one of principal sources of anthelmintics. Among anthelmintics, fenbendazole and its metabolites are relatively high in the LWTPs, while human anthelmintics such as albendazole and flubendazole are most dominant in the HTPs, STPs and HWTPs. The occurrence pattern of fenbendazole's metabolites in water was different from pharmacokinetics studies, showing the possibility of transformation mechanism other than the metabolism in animal bodies by some processes unknown to us. The river water and seawater are generally affected by the point sources, but the distribution patterns in some receiving water are slightly different from the effluent, indicating the influence of non-point sources.

  12. Evaluation of pharmaceuticals and personal care products with emphasis on anthelmintics in human sanitary waste, sewage, hospital wastewater, livestock wastewater and receiving water.

    PubMed

    Sim, Won-Jin; Kim, Hee-Young; Choi, Sung-Deuk; Kwon, Jung-Hwan; Oh, Jeong-Eun

    2013-03-15

    We investigated 33 pharmaceuticals and personal care products (PPCPs) with emphasis on anthelmintics and their metabolites in human sanitary waste treatment plants (HTPs), sewage treatment plants (STPs), hospital wastewater treatment plants (HWTPs), livestock wastewater treatment plants (LWTPs), river water and seawater. PPCPs showed the characteristic specific occurrence patterns according to wastewater sources. The LWTPs and HTPs showed higher levels (maximum 3000 times in influents) of anthelmintics than other wastewater treatment plants, indicating that livestock wastewater and human sanitary waste are one of principal sources of anthelmintics. Among anthelmintics, fenbendazole and its metabolites are relatively high in the LWTPs, while human anthelmintics such as albendazole and flubendazole are most dominant in the HTPs, STPs and HWTPs. The occurrence pattern of fenbendazole's metabolites in water was different from pharmacokinetics studies, showing the possibility of transformation mechanism other than the metabolism in animal bodies by some processes unknown to us. The river water and seawater are generally affected by the point sources, but the distribution patterns in some receiving water are slightly different from the effluent, indicating the influence of non-point sources. PMID:23357510

  13. A novel cleaner production process of citric acid by recycling its treated wastewater.

    PubMed

    Xu, Jian; Su, Xian-Feng; Bao, Jia-Wei; Zhang, Hong-Jian; Zeng, Xin; Tang, Lei; Wang, Ke; Zhang, Jian-Hua; Chen, Xu-Sheng; Mao, Zhong-Gui

    2016-07-01

    In this study, a novel cleaner production process of citric acid was proposed to completely solve the problem of wastewater management in citric acid industry. In the process, wastewater from citric acid fermentation was used to produce methane through anaerobic digestion and then the anaerobic digestion effluent was further treated with air stripping and electrodialysis before recycled as process water for the later citric acid fermentation. This proposed process was performed for 10 batches and the average citric acid production in recycling batches was 142.4±2.1g/L which was comparable to that with tap water (141.6g/L). Anaerobic digestion was also efficient and stable in operation. The average chemical oxygen demand (COD) removal rate was 95.1±1.2% and methane yield approached to 297.7±19.8mL/g TCODremoved. In conclusion, this novel process minimized the wastewater discharge and achieved the cleaner production in citric acid industry.

  14. Recovery and characterization of by-products from egg processing plant wastewater using coagulants.

    PubMed

    Xu, L J; Sheldon, B W; Carawan, R E; Larick, D K; Chao, A C

    2001-01-01

    The effectiveness of precipitation or coagulation technology to treat commercial egg processing plant wastewater, using such coagulants as lignosulfonate, bentonite, carboxymethylcellulose, and ferric chloride, was evaluated. For simulated and industrial waste-water, chemical oxygen demand, turbidity, and total solids were reduced over 90, 97, and 95%, respectively, for all coagulants tested. Protein and fat recoveries were over 95% for all coagulants. The optimal coagulant concentration for maximum by-product recovery depended on initial wastewater concentrations of protein, total solids, and fat. The dried by-products contained high concentrations of protein (30 to 50%) and fat (30 to 40%) and had similar essential amino acid profiles as standard proteins from the United Nations Food and Agricultural Organization (FAO). The relative protein digestibilities of each recovered solid (carboxymethycellulose, lignosulfonate, bentonite, and ferric chloride) and corn meal relative to a liquid whole egg standard were approximately 80, 90, 60, 30, and 56%, respectively. These compositional and in vitro digestibility studies suggest that the recovered by-products could be useful as livestock feed ingredients or for other applications.

  15. Treatment of saline wastewaters from marine-products processing factories by activated sludge reactor.

    PubMed

    Khannous, L; Souissi, N; Ghorbel, B; Jarboui, R; Kallel, M; Nasri, M; Gharsallah, N

    2003-10-01

    An activated sludge reactor, operated at room temperature (20-30 degrees C) was used to treat saline wastewaters generated by marine-products industries. The system was operated continuously and the influence of the organic loading rates (OLRs), varying from 250 to 1000 mg COD l(-1) day(-1), on chemical oxygen demand (COD) removal was investigated. The system, inoculated with NaCl-acclimated culture, removed up to 98% and 88% of the influent COD concentrations at OLRs of 250 and 1000 mg COD L(-1) day(-1), respectively. Since the organic pollution is essentially composed of proteins, microorganisms, which produced proteolytic enzymes, were isolated from the activated sludge culture. One bacterium with the highest protease activity, identified as Bacillus cereus, was chosen for protease production in fishery wastewaters of different concentrations containing combined heads and viscera powder. Protease synthesis was strongly enhanced when cells were cultivated in two times diluted fishery wastewaters. The enhancement of protease synthesis could have been due to the presence in effluent of organic matters or salts, which stimulated the growth of the strain and protease production.

  16. Characterization of the resistome in manure, soil and wastewater from dairy and beef production systems.

    PubMed

    Noyes, Noelle R; Yang, Xiang; Linke, Lyndsey M; Magnuson, Roberta J; Cook, Shaun R; Zaheer, Rahat; Yang, Hua; Woerner, Dale R; Geornaras, Ifigenia; McArt, Jessica A; Gow, Sheryl P; Ruiz, Jaime; Jones, Kenneth L; Boucher, Christina A; McAllister, Tim A; Belk, Keith E; Morley, Paul S

    2016-01-01

    It has been proposed that livestock production effluents such as wastewater, airborne dust and manure increase the density of antimicrobial resistant bacteria and genes in the environment. The public health risk posed by this proposed outcome has been difficult to quantify using traditional microbiological approaches. We utilized shotgun metagenomics to provide a first description of the resistome of North American dairy and beef production effluents, and identify factors that significantly impact this resistome. We identified 34 mechanisms of antimicrobial drug resistance within 34 soil, manure and wastewater samples from feedlot, ranch and dairy operations. The majority of resistance-associated sequences found in all samples belonged to tetracycline resistance mechanisms. We found that the ranch samples contained significantly fewer resistance mechanisms than dairy and feedlot samples, and that the resistome of dairy operations differed significantly from that of feedlots. The resistome in soil, manure and wastewater differed, suggesting that management of these effluents should be tailored appropriately. By providing a baseline of the cattle production waste resistome, this study represents a solid foundation for future efforts to characterize and quantify the public health risk posed by livestock effluents.

  17. Characterization of the resistome in manure, soil and wastewater from dairy and beef production systems

    PubMed Central

    Noyes, Noelle R.; Yang, Xiang; Linke, Lyndsey M.; Magnuson, Roberta J.; Cook, Shaun R.; Zaheer, Rahat; Yang, Hua; Woerner, Dale R.; Geornaras, Ifigenia; McArt, Jessica A.; Gow, Sheryl P.; Ruiz, Jaime; Jones, Kenneth L.; Boucher, Christina A.; McAllister, Tim A.; Belk, Keith E.; Morley, Paul S.

    2016-01-01

    It has been proposed that livestock production effluents such as wastewater, airborne dust and manure increase the density of antimicrobial resistant bacteria and genes in the environment. The public health risk posed by this proposed outcome has been difficult to quantify using traditional microbiological approaches. We utilized shotgun metagenomics to provide a first description of the resistome of North American dairy and beef production effluents, and identify factors that significantly impact this resistome. We identified 34 mechanisms of antimicrobial drug resistance within 34 soil, manure and wastewater samples from feedlot, ranch and dairy operations. The majority of resistance-associated sequences found in all samples belonged to tetracycline resistance mechanisms. We found that the ranch samples contained significantly fewer resistance mechanisms than dairy and feedlot samples, and that the resistome of dairy operations differed significantly from that of feedlots. The resistome in soil, manure and wastewater differed, suggesting that management of these effluents should be tailored appropriately. By providing a baseline of the cattle production waste resistome, this study represents a solid foundation for future efforts to characterize and quantify the public health risk posed by livestock effluents. PMID:27095377

  18. Treatment of saline wastewaters from marine-products processing factories by activated sludge reactor.

    PubMed

    Khannous, L; Souissi, N; Ghorbel, B; Jarboui, R; Kallel, M; Nasri, M; Gharsallah, N

    2003-10-01

    An activated sludge reactor, operated at room temperature (20-30 degrees C) was used to treat saline wastewaters generated by marine-products industries. The system was operated continuously and the influence of the organic loading rates (OLRs), varying from 250 to 1000 mg COD l(-1) day(-1), on chemical oxygen demand (COD) removal was investigated. The system, inoculated with NaCl-acclimated culture, removed up to 98% and 88% of the influent COD concentrations at OLRs of 250 and 1000 mg COD L(-1) day(-1), respectively. Since the organic pollution is essentially composed of proteins, microorganisms, which produced proteolytic enzymes, were isolated from the activated sludge culture. One bacterium with the highest protease activity, identified as Bacillus cereus, was chosen for protease production in fishery wastewaters of different concentrations containing combined heads and viscera powder. Protease synthesis was strongly enhanced when cells were cultivated in two times diluted fishery wastewaters. The enhancement of protease synthesis could have been due to the presence in effluent of organic matters or salts, which stimulated the growth of the strain and protease production. PMID:14669806

  19. Characterization of the resistome in manure, soil and wastewater from dairy and beef production systems.

    PubMed

    Noyes, Noelle R; Yang, Xiang; Linke, Lyndsey M; Magnuson, Roberta J; Cook, Shaun R; Zaheer, Rahat; Yang, Hua; Woerner, Dale R; Geornaras, Ifigenia; McArt, Jessica A; Gow, Sheryl P; Ruiz, Jaime; Jones, Kenneth L; Boucher, Christina A; McAllister, Tim A; Belk, Keith E; Morley, Paul S

    2016-01-01

    It has been proposed that livestock production effluents such as wastewater, airborne dust and manure increase the density of antimicrobial resistant bacteria and genes in the environment. The public health risk posed by this proposed outcome has been difficult to quantify using traditional microbiological approaches. We utilized shotgun metagenomics to provide a first description of the resistome of North American dairy and beef production effluents, and identify factors that significantly impact this resistome. We identified 34 mechanisms of antimicrobial drug resistance within 34 soil, manure and wastewater samples from feedlot, ranch and dairy operations. The majority of resistance-associated sequences found in all samples belonged to tetracycline resistance mechanisms. We found that the ranch samples contained significantly fewer resistance mechanisms than dairy and feedlot samples, and that the resistome of dairy operations differed significantly from that of feedlots. The resistome in soil, manure and wastewater differed, suggesting that management of these effluents should be tailored appropriately. By providing a baseline of the cattle production waste resistome, this study represents a solid foundation for future efforts to characterize and quantify the public health risk posed by livestock effluents. PMID:27095377

  20. Evaluation of primary and secondary production using wastewater as a culture medium.

    PubMed

    Nandini, S; Ramírez-García, Pedro; Sarma, S S S

    2010-10-01

    The ability of rotifers and cladocerans to convert primary to secondary production in wastewaters was tested. Scenedesmus acutus was cultured on Bold's (defined) medium, wastewater from the tertiary phase of water treatment and a mixture of both. The algal growth rates (µ) ranged from 0.4 to 0.7 day⁻¹, being highest in defined medium. The demographic characteristics of Brachionus rubens and Moina macrocopa were tested using algae at a density of 1.0 x 10⁶ cells mL⁻¹. Into each test jar, we introduced 20 neonates (< 12-h-old) of either B. rubens or M. macrocopa. Daily (for M. macrocopa) or twice a day (for B. rubens), dead adults and the neonates were enumerated and removed. Average life-span and generation time of B. rubens were not significantly influenced by the algal treatment type. Gross and net reproductive rates were significantly influenced by the medium on which the algae was cultured; in the case of B. rubens, they ranged from 20-36 and 10-22 offspring female⁻¹; the corresponding values for M. macrocopa were higher (38-110 and 13-31 offspring female⁻¹, respectively). The rate of population increase was higher for Brachionus (0.41-0.65 day⁻¹)) compared to Moina (0.28-0.57 day⁻¹). Brachionus had significantly higher growth rates on algae cultured on Bold medium than on treated wastewater while Moina grew significantly better on Scenedesmus cultured on Bold medium or a mixture of treated wastewater and Bold medium than on treated wastewater alone. PMID:19748945

  1. Efficient recovery of nitrate and phosphate from wastewater by an amine-grafted adsorbent for cyanobacterial biomass production.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jungmin; Hwang, Min-Jin; Lee, Sang-Jun; Noh, Won; Kwon, Jung Min; Choi, Jin Soo; Kang, Chang-Min

    2016-04-01

    Various types of wastewater have been widely utilized in microalgae and cyanobacteria cultivation for environmental and economic reasons. However, the problems of low cell growth and biomass contamination due to direct use of wastewater remain unresolved. In the present study, nitrate and phosphate were separated from wastewater by adsorption and subsequently used for cyanobacterial biomass production. To this end, an amine-grafted magnetic absorbent was synthesized. The synthesized absorbent recovered ca. 78% nitrate and 93% phosphate from wastewater. Regenerated medium was prepared using recovered nutrients as nitrogen and phosphate sources, which were efficiently assimilated by cyanobacterial culture. Compared to synthetic medium, there was no difference in growth and nutrient removal using regenerated medium. The proposed indirect method of wastewater utilization would prevent contamination of the produced biomass by unfavorable substances, which will broaden its potential applications. PMID:26827169

  2. Outer Continental Shelf Oil and Gas Leasing/Production Program

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1988-01-01

    This annual report on the Outer Continental Shelf (OCS) Oil and Gas Leasing and Production program summarizes receipts and expenditures, and includes information on OCS safety violations as reported by the US Coast Guard. 3 figs., 12 tabs.

  3. Heavy and Thermal Oil Recovery Production Mechanisms, SUPRI TR-127

    SciTech Connect

    Kovscek, Anthony R.; Brigham, William E.; Castanier, Louis M.

    2001-09-07

    The program spans a spectrum of topics and is divided into five categories: (i) multiphase flow and rock properties, (ii) hot fluid injection, (iii) primary heavy-oil production, (iv) reservoir definition, and (v) in-situ combustion.

  4. In situ gas fuel production during the treatment of textile wastewater at supercritical conditions.

    PubMed

    Kıpçak, Ekin; Akgün, Mesut

    2013-01-01

    Supercritical water gasification has recently received much attention as a potential alternative to energy conversion methods applied to aqueous/non-aqueous biomass sources, industrial wastes or fossil fuels such as coal because of the unique physical properties of water above its critical conditions (i.e. 374.8 °C and 22.1 MPa). This paper presents the results obtained for the hydrothermal gasification of textile wastewater at supercritical conditions. The experiments were carried out at five reaction temperatures (between 450 and 650 °C) and five reaction times (between 30 and 150 s), under a constant pressure of 25 MPa. It was found that the gaseous products contained considerable amounts of hydrogen, carbon monoxide, carbon dioxide, and C(1)-C(4) hydrocarbons, such as methane, ethane, propane and propylene. The maximum amount of the obtained gaseous product was 1.23 mL per mL textile wastewater, at a reaction temperature of 600 °C, with a reaction time of 150 s. At this state, the product comprised 13.02% hydrogen, 38.93% methane, 4.33% ethane, 0.10% propane, 0.01% propylene, 7.97% carbon monoxide, 27.22% carbon dioxide and 8.00% nitrogen. In addition, a 62.88% decrease in the total organic carbon (TOC) content was observed and the color of the wastewater was removed. Moreover, for the hydrothermal decomposition of the textile wastewater, a first-order reaction rate was designated with an activation energy of 50.42 (±2.33) kJ/mol and a pre-exponential factor of 13.29 (±0.41) s(-1).

  5. Cultivation of Chlorella vulgaris JSC-6 with swine wastewater for simultaneous nutrient/COD removal and carbohydrate production.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yue; Guo, Wanqian; Yen, Hong-Wei; Ho, Shih-Hsin; Lo, Yung-Chung; Cheng, Chieh-Lun; Ren, Nanqi; Chang, Jo-Shu

    2015-12-01

    Swine wastewater, containing a high concentration of COD and ammonia nitrogen, is suitable for the growth of microalgae, leading to simultaneous COD/nutrients removal from the wastewater. In this study, an isolated carbohydrate-rich microalga Chlorella vulgaris JSC-6 was adopted to perform swine wastewater treatment. Nearly 60-70% COD removal and 40-90% NH3-N removal was achieved in the mixotrophic and heterotrophic culture, depending on the dilution ratio of the wastewater, while the highest removal percentage was obtained with 20-fold diluted wastewater. Mixotrophic cultivation by using fivefold diluted wastewater resulted in the highest biomass concentration of 3.96 g/L. The carbohydrate content of the microalga grown on the wastewater can reach up to 58% (per dry weight). The results indicated that the microalgae-based wastewater treatment can efficiently reduce the nutrients and COD level, and the resulting microalgal biomass had high carbohydrate content, thereby having potential applications for the fermentative production of biofuels or chemicals. PMID:26433786

  6. Catalytic production of conjugated fatty acids and oils.

    PubMed

    Philippaerts, An; Goossens, Steven; Jacobs, Pierre A; Sels, Bert F

    2011-06-20

    The reactive double bonds in conjugated vegetable oils are of high interest in industry. Traditionally, conjugated vegetable oils are added to paints, varnishes, and inks to improve their drying properties, while recently there is an increased interest in their use in the production of bioplastics. Besides the industrial applications, also food manufactures are interested in conjugated vegetable oils due to their various positive health effects. While the isomer type is less important for their industrial purposes, the beneficial health effects are mainly associated with the c9,t11, t10,c12 and t9,t11 CLA isomers. The production of CLA-enriched oils as additives in functional foods thus requires a high CLA isomer selectivity. Currently, CLAs are produced by conjugation of oils high in linoleic acid, for example soybean and safflower oil, using homogeneous bases. Although high CLA productivities and very high isomer selectivities are obtained, this process faces many ecological drawbacks. Moreover, CLA-enriched oils can not be produced directly with the homogeneous bases. Literature reports describe many catalytic processes to conjugate linoleic acid, linoleic acid methyl ester, and vegetable oils rich in linoleic acid: biocatalysts, for example enzymes and cells; metal catalysts, for example homogeneous metal complexes and heterogeneous catalysts; and photocatalysts. This Review discusses state-of-the-art catalytic processes in comparison with some new catalytic production routes. For each category of catalytic process, the CLA productivities and the CLA isomer selectivity are compared. Heterogeneous catalysis seems the most attractive approach for CLA production due to its easy recovery process, provided that the competing hydrogenation reaction is limited and the CLA production rate competes with the current homogeneous base catalysis. The most important criteria to obtain high CLA productivity and isomer selectivity are (1) absence of a hydrogen donor, (2

  7. Catalytic production of conjugated fatty acids and oils.

    PubMed

    Philippaerts, An; Goossens, Steven; Jacobs, Pierre A; Sels, Bert F

    2011-06-20

    The reactive double bonds in conjugated vegetable oils are of high interest in industry. Traditionally, conjugated vegetable oils are added to paints, varnishes, and inks to improve their drying properties, while recently there is an increased interest in their use in the production of bioplastics. Besides the industrial applications, also food manufactures are interested in conjugated vegetable oils due to their various positive health effects. While the isomer type is less important for their industrial purposes, the beneficial health effects are mainly associated with the c9,t11, t10,c12 and t9,t11 CLA isomers. The production of CLA-enriched oils as additives in functional foods thus requires a high CLA isomer selectivity. Currently, CLAs are produced by conjugation of oils high in linoleic acid, for example soybean and safflower oil, using homogeneous bases. Although high CLA productivities and very high isomer selectivities are obtained, this process faces many ecological drawbacks. Moreover, CLA-enriched oils can not be produced directly with the homogeneous bases. Literature reports describe many catalytic processes to conjugate linoleic acid, linoleic acid methyl ester, and vegetable oils rich in linoleic acid: biocatalysts, for example enzymes and cells; metal catalysts, for example homogeneous metal complexes and heterogeneous catalysts; and photocatalysts. This Review discusses state-of-the-art catalytic processes in comparison with some new catalytic production routes. For each category of catalytic process, the CLA productivities and the CLA isomer selectivity are compared. Heterogeneous catalysis seems the most attractive approach for CLA production due to its easy recovery process, provided that the competing hydrogenation reaction is limited and the CLA production rate competes with the current homogeneous base catalysis. The most important criteria to obtain high CLA productivity and isomer selectivity are (1) absence of a hydrogen donor, (2

  8. Coupling microbial fuel cells with a membrane photobioreactor for wastewater treatment and bioenergy production.

    PubMed

    Tse, Hei Tsun; Luo, Shuai; Li, Jian; He, Zhen

    2016-11-01

    Microbial fuel cells (MFCs) and membrane photobioreactors are two emerging technologies for simultaneous wastewater treatment and bioenergy production. In this study, those two technologies were coupled to form an integrated treatment system, whose performance was examined under different operating conditions. The coupled system could achieve 92-97 % removal of soluble chemical oxygen demand (SCOD) and nearly 100 % removal of ammonia. Extending the hydraulic retention time (HRT) of the membrane photobioreactor to 3.0 days improved the production of algal biomass from 44.4 ± 23.8 to 133.7 ± 12.9 mg L(-1) (based on the volume of the treated water). When the MFCs were operated in a loop mode, their effluent (which was the influent to the algal reactor) contained nitrate and had a high pH, leading to the decreased algal production in the membrane photobioreactor. Energy analysis showed that the energy consumption was mainly due to the recirculation of the anolyte and the catholyte in the MFCs and that decreasing the recirculation rates could significantly reduce energy consumption. The energy production was dominated by indirect electricity generation from algal biomass. The highest energy production of 0.205 kWh m(-3) was obtained with the highest algal biomass production, resulting in a theoretically positive energy balance of 0.033 kWh m(-3). Those results have demonstrated that the coupled system could be an alternative approach for energy-efficient wastewater treatment and using wastewater effluent for algal production. PMID:27318829

  9. Coupling microbial fuel cells with a membrane photobioreactor for wastewater treatment and bioenergy production.

    PubMed

    Tse, Hei Tsun; Luo, Shuai; Li, Jian; He, Zhen

    2016-11-01

    Microbial fuel cells (MFCs) and membrane photobioreactors are two emerging technologies for simultaneous wastewater treatment and bioenergy production. In this study, those two technologies were coupled to form an integrated treatment system, whose performance was examined under different operating conditions. The coupled system could achieve 92-97 % removal of soluble chemical oxygen demand (SCOD) and nearly 100 % removal of ammonia. Extending the hydraulic retention time (HRT) of the membrane photobioreactor to 3.0 days improved the production of algal biomass from 44.4 ± 23.8 to 133.7 ± 12.9 mg L(-1) (based on the volume of the treated water). When the MFCs were operated in a loop mode, their effluent (which was the influent to the algal reactor) contained nitrate and had a high pH, leading to the decreased algal production in the membrane photobioreactor. Energy analysis showed that the energy consumption was mainly due to the recirculation of the anolyte and the catholyte in the MFCs and that decreasing the recirculation rates could significantly reduce energy consumption. The energy production was dominated by indirect electricity generation from algal biomass. The highest energy production of 0.205 kWh m(-3) was obtained with the highest algal biomass production, resulting in a theoretically positive energy balance of 0.033 kWh m(-3). Those results have demonstrated that the coupled system could be an alternative approach for energy-efficient wastewater treatment and using wastewater effluent for algal production.

  10. Bioprospecting for oil producing microalgal strains: evaluation of oil and biomass production for ten microalgal strains.

    PubMed

    Araujo, Glacio S; Matos, Leonardo J B L; Gonçalves, Luciana R B; Fernandes, Fabiano A N; Farias, Wladimir R L

    2011-04-01

    Microalgae have the ability to grow rapidly, synthesize and accumulate large amounts (approximately 20-50% of dry weight) of lipids. A successful and economically viable algae based oil industry depends on the selection of appropriate algal strains. In this study ten species of microalgae were prospected to determine their suitability for oil production: Chaetoceros gracilis, Chaetoceros mulleri, Chlorella vulgaris, Dunaliella sp., Isochrysis sp., Nannochloropsis oculata, Tetraselmis sp., Tetraselmis chui, Tetraselmis tetrathele and Thalassiosira weissflogii. The study was carried out in 3 L glass flasks subjected to constant aeration and controlled artificial illumination and temperature at two different salinities. After harvesting, the extraction of oil was carried out using the Bligh and Dyer method assisted by ultrasound. Results showed that C. gracilis presented the highest oil content and that C. vulgaris presented the highest oil production. PMID:21353534

  11. Vegetable Oil from Leaves and Stems: Vegetative Production of Oil in a C4 Crop

    SciTech Connect

    2012-01-01

    PETRO Project: Arcadia Biosciences, in collaboration with the University of California-Davis, is developing plants that produce vegetable oil in their leaves and stems. Ordinarily, these oils are produced in seeds, but Arcadia Biosciences is turning parts of the plant that are not usually harvested into a source of concentrated energy. Vegetable oil is a concentrated source of energy that plants naturally produce and is easily separated after harvest. Arcadia Biosciences will isolate traits that control oil production in seeds and transfer them into leaves and stems so that all parts of the plants are oil-rich at harvest time. After demonstrating these traits in a fast-growing model plant, Arcadia Biosciences will incorporate them into a variety of dedicated biofuel crops that can be grown on land not typically suited for food production

  12. Wastewater treatment in production of MgA zeolite

    SciTech Connect

    Barsukov, V.V.; Akopyants, T.V.; Rudova, S.A.; Shumovskii, A.V.

    1986-09-01

    This paper reports the development of zero-waste technology for treatment of chloride waste formed in the manufacture of MgA microbead zeolite, based on the method and flow plan used in treating similar wastes formed in the manufacture of bead zeolite. The first crystals of sodium chloride appeared at a magnesium chloride concentration of 8-9% by weight. With a magnesium chloride concentration of 35% by weight, at 50 C, the sodium chloride was almost completely precipitated. Under these conditions, the magnesium chloride did not precipitate. Sodium chloride crystals were washed with water in order to obtain a commercial product meeting the requirements of the specification Tu 6-12-33-78. This product is recommended for use in regenerating cation exchange filters in thermal power plants.

  13. Cultivation of Chlorella protothecoides in anaerobically treated brewery wastewater for cost-effective biodiesel production.

    PubMed

    Darpito, Cornelius; Shin, Won-Sub; Jeon, Seungjib; Lee, Hansol; Nam, Kibok; Kwon, Jong-Hee; Yang, Ji-Won

    2015-03-01

    The use of wastewater has been investigated to overcome the economic challenge involved with a production of microalgae-based biodiesel. In this study, to achieve economical biodiesel production along with effective wastewater treatment at the same time, anaerobically treated brewery wastewater (ABWW) was utilized as a low-cost nutrient source, in the cultivation of Chlorella protothecoides. About 96 and 90 % of total nitrogen and phosphorus in ABWW were removed, respectively, while C. protothecoides was accumulating 1.88 g L(-1) of biomass. The C. protothecoides grown in ABWW showed increases in cell size and cell aggregation, resulting in a near 80 % enhanced harvesting efficiency within 20 min, as compared with only 4 % in BG-11. In addition, the total fatty acid content of the C. protothecoides grown in ABWW increased by 1.84-fold (35.94 ± 1.54 % of its dry cell weight), relative to that of BG-11. PMID:25270406

  14. Rice production with minimal irrigation and no nitrogen fertilizer by intensive use of treated municipal wastewater.

    PubMed

    Muramatsu, Ayumi; Watanabe, Toru; Sasaki, Atsushi; Ito, Hiroaki; Kajihara, Akihiko

    2014-01-01

    We designed a new cultivation system of rice with circulated irrigation to remove nitrogen from treated municipal wastewater effectively and assessed the possibility of nitrogen removal in the new system without any adverse effects on rice production through bench-scale experiments through two seasons. Overgrowth of the rice plant, which can lead to lodging and tasteless rice, was found in the first season probably because nitrogen supply based on standard practice in normal paddy fields was too much in the closed irrigation system. In the second season, therefore, the amount of treated wastewater initially applied to the system was reduced but this resulted in a considerably decreased yield. On the other hand, the taste of the rice was significantly improved. The two-season experiments revealed that the new system enabled rice production with minimal irrigation (approximately 50% on the yield base compared to normal paddy fields) and no nitrogen fertilizer. The system also achieved >95% removal of nitrogen from the treated wastewater used for circulated irrigation. The accumulation of harmful metals in the rice was not observed after one season of cultivation in the new system. The accumulation after cultivation using the same soil repeatedly for a longer time should be examined by further studies.

  15. Phosphorus retention in filter materials for wastewater treatment and its subsequent suitability for plant production.

    PubMed

    Hylander, Lars D; Kietlińska, Agnieszka; Renman, Gunno; Simán, Gyula

    2006-05-01

    Constructed sand filter beds are advantageous for the treatment of wastewater in areas with a low population density. Phosphorus-sorbing materials with additional beneficial characteristics may be used instead of sand. This study aimed at determining and comparing phosphorus (P) retention capacities of amorphous and crystalline blast furnace slags, limestone, opoka, Polonite and sand, for filtering domestic wastewater through columns over a period of 67 weeks. The P-enriched filter materials were subsequently tested for their fertilizer effectiveness in a pot experiment where barley was cultivated. Polonite, i.e. calcinated bedrock opoka, was most effective in removing P. This occurred at a relatively high hydraulic conductivity that reduced the risk of clogging. Barley grown in two types of slag, with a grain size of 0.25-4 mm, was most effective in dry matter production followed by Polonite. Fine-grained slags and Polonite were suggested as most suited of the investigated materials to recycle P back to agriculture.

  16. Cultivation of Nannochloropsis for eicosapentaenoic acid production in wastewaters of pulp and paper industry.

    PubMed

    Polishchuk, Anna; Valev, Dimitar; Tarvainen, Marko; Mishra, Sujata; Kinnunen, Viljami; Antal, Taras; Yang, Baoru; Rintala, Jukka; Tyystjärvi, Esa

    2015-10-01

    The eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) containing marine microalga Nannochloropsis oculata was grown in an effluent from anaerobic digestion of excess activated sludge from a wastewater treatment plant serving a combination of a pulp and a paper mill and a municipality (digester effluent, DE), mixed with the effluent of the same wastewater treatment plant. The maximum specific growth rate and photosynthesis of N. oculata were similar in the DE medium and in artificial sea water medium (ASW) but after 7 days, algae grown in the DE medium contained seven times more triacylglycerols (TAGs) per cell than cells grown in ASW, indicating mild stress in the DE medium. However, the volumetric rate of EPA production was similar in the ASW and DE media. The results suggest that N. oculata could be used to produce EPA, utilizing the nutrients available after anaerobic digestion of excess activated sludge of a pulp and paper mill. PMID:26162525

  17. Cultivation of Nannochloropsis for eicosapentaenoic acid production in wastewaters of pulp and paper industry.

    PubMed

    Polishchuk, Anna; Valev, Dimitar; Tarvainen, Marko; Mishra, Sujata; Kinnunen, Viljami; Antal, Taras; Yang, Baoru; Rintala, Jukka; Tyystjärvi, Esa

    2015-10-01

    The eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) containing marine microalga Nannochloropsis oculata was grown in an effluent from anaerobic digestion of excess activated sludge from a wastewater treatment plant serving a combination of a pulp and a paper mill and a municipality (digester effluent, DE), mixed with the effluent of the same wastewater treatment plant. The maximum specific growth rate and photosynthesis of N. oculata were similar in the DE medium and in artificial sea water medium (ASW) but after 7 days, algae grown in the DE medium contained seven times more triacylglycerols (TAGs) per cell than cells grown in ASW, indicating mild stress in the DE medium. However, the volumetric rate of EPA production was similar in the ASW and DE media. The results suggest that N. oculata could be used to produce EPA, utilizing the nutrients available after anaerobic digestion of excess activated sludge of a pulp and paper mill.

  18. Land use greenhouse gas emissions from conventional oil production and oil sands.

    PubMed

    Yeh, Sonia; Jordaan, Sarah M; Brandt, Adam R; Turetsky, Merritt R; Spatari, Sabrina; Keith, David W

    2010-11-15

    Debates surrounding the greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from land use of biofuels production have created a need to quantify the relative land use GHG intensity of fossil fuels. When contrasting land use GHG intensity of fossil fuel and biofuel production, it is the energy yield that greatly distinguishes the two. Although emissions released from land disturbed by fossil fuels can be comparable or higher than biofuels, the energy yield of oil production is typically 2-3 orders of magnitude higher, (0.33-2.6, 0.61-1.2, and 2.2 5.1 PJ/ha) for conventional oil production, oil sands surface mining, and in situ production, respectively). We found that land use contributes small portions of GHGs to life cycle emissions of California crude and in situ oil sands production ( <0.4% or < 0.4 gCO₂e/MJ crude refinery feedstock) and small to modest portions for Alberta conventional oil (0.1-4% or 0.1-3.4 gCO₂e/MJ) and surface mining of oil sands (0.9-11% or 0.8-10.2 gCO₂e/MJ).Our estimates are based on assumptions aggregated over large spatial and temporal scales and assuming 100% reclamation. Values on finer spatial and temporal scales that are relevant to policy targets need to account for site-specific information, the baseline natural and anthropogenic disturbance.

  19. Production and pipeline transport of oil-water dispersions

    SciTech Connect

    Carniani, E.; Celsi, A.; Ercolani, D.

    1997-07-01

    Oil-water dispersions are becoming increasingly important for their potential application in the economical exploitation of heavy-oil fields and as novel fuels to be utilized for gasification in industrial power plants and in small heating systems. Snamprogetti in co-operation with Agip and Eniricerche is involved in a research project, partially supported by the Holding Company ENI and Europen Union (Thermie project), for the developing of a new integrated process to produce heavy crude oil from the marginal fields located in the Adriatic Sea as oil-water dispersions. The process scheme provides the multiphase pipeline transportation of the oil in reservoir water dispersion (primary dispersion) from the platform to the onshore processing Oil Centre for oil production and for the preparation of a very stable dispersion of oil in fresh water (secondary dispersion) to be utilized for direct burning. To obtain the necessary information for the design of the production, transportation and processing systems Snamprogetti has equipped a pilot plant to perform dispersion preparations and characterizations, single phase and multiphase transportation tests. The present work provides experimental data relevant to pumping tests of primary and secondary dispersions showing a stable flow configuration for the secondary and a tendency to stratification for the primary in certain flow conditions. During multiphase pumping tests of primary dispersions a markedly non-newtonian behavior has been observed when strong segregation phenomena occur. A comparison with results obtained by one-phase and multiphase flow programs is also presented.

  20. Oil production by Mortierella isabellina from whey treated with lactase.

    PubMed

    Demir, Muammer; Turhan, Irfan; Kucukcetin, Ahmet; Alpkent, Zafer

    2013-01-01

    Whey, a by-product of cheese manufacturing is rich in nutrients such as lactose, proteins, and mineral salts. The fungus Mortierella isabellina was used for production of oil containing γ-linoleic acid (GLA) during fermentation on deproteinized whey permeate (DP-WP) with and without lactase addition. The maximum oil concentration was 3.65 g/L in DP-whey (16.0% lactose) without enzyme treatment. Treatment of DP-WP with lactase resulted in an increase in oil content to 17.13 g/L. Palmitic (22.50-25.80%) and oleic acids (37.60-48.56%) were the major fatty acids along with GLA (2.18-5.48%), linoleic (16.21-22.43%) and stearic acid (3.20-10.08%). This study suggests that whey can be utilized as a feedstock for production of microbial oil.

  1. Microbial response to single-cell protein production and brewery wastewater treatment.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jackson Z; Logan, Andrew; Terry, Seth; Spear, John R

    2015-01-01

    As global fisheries decline, microbial single-cell protein (SCP) produced from brewery process water has been highlighted as a potential source of protein for sustainable animal feed. However, biotechnological investigation of SCP is difficult because of the natural variation and complexity of microbial ecology in wastewater bioreactors. In this study, we investigate microbial response across a full-scale brewery wastewater treatment plant and a parallel pilot bioreactor modified to produce an SCP product. A pyrosequencing survey of the brewery treatment plant showed that each unit process selected for a unique microbial community. Notably, flow equalization basins were dominated by Prevotella, methanogenesis effluent had the highest levels of diversity, and clarifier wet-well samples were sources of sequences for the candidate bacterial phyla of TM7 and BD1-5. Next, the microbial response of a pilot bioreactor producing SCP was tracked over 1 year, showing that two different production trials produced two different communities originating from the same starting influent. However, SCP production resulted generally in enrichment of several clades of rhizospheric diazotrophs of Alphaproteobacteria and Betaproteobacteria in the bioreactor and even more so in the final product. These diazotrophs are potentially useful as the basis of a SCP product for commercial feed production. PMID:24837420

  2. Biodiesel from wastewater: lipid production in high rate algal pond receiving disinfected effluent.

    PubMed

    Assemany, Paula Peixoto; Calijuri, Maria Lucia; do Couto, Eduardo de Aguiar; Santiago, Aníbal Fonseca; Dos Reis, Alberto José Delgado

    2015-01-01

    The production of different species of microalgae in consortium with other micro-organisms from wastewaters may represent an alternative process, to reduce the costs, for obtaining biofuels. The aim of this study was to evaluate the influence of pre-ultraviolet disinfection (UV) in the production of lipids from biomass produced in high rate ponds. Two high rate algal ponds were evaluated: a pond that received domestic sewage without disinfection and the other receiving domestic sewage previously disinfected by UV radiation (uvHRAP). The UV disinfection did not lead to significant differences in fatty acid profile and total lipid productivities, although it increased algal biomass concentration and productivity as well as lipid content. Moreover, the overall biomass concentrations and productivities decreased with the UV disinfection, mostly as a consequence of a loss in bacterial load. We thus conclude that uvHRAP disinfection may represent a potential strategy to promote the cleaner and safer growth of algal biomass when cultivated in consortium with other micro-organisms. Mainly regarding the use of wastewater as culture medium, together with a cheaper production of lipids for biodiesel, pre-disinfection may represent an advance since extraction costs could be significantly trimmed due to the increase in lipid content.

  3. Microbial response to single-cell protein production and brewery wastewater treatment

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Jackson Z; Logan, Andrew; Terry, Seth; Spear, John R

    2015-01-01

    As global fisheries decline, microbial single-cell protein (SCP) produced from brewery process water has been highlighted as a potential source of protein for sustainable animal feed. However, biotechnological investigation of SCP is difficult because of the natural variation and complexity of microbial ecology in wastewater bioreactors. In this study, we investigate microbial response across a full-scale brewery wastewater treatment plant and a parallel pilot bioreactor modified to produce an SCP product. A pyrosequencing survey of the brewery treatment plant showed that each unit process selected for a unique microbial community. Notably, flow equalization basins were dominated by Prevotella, methanogenesis effluent had the highest levels of diversity, and clarifier wet-well samples were sources of sequences for the candidate bacterial phyla of TM7 and BD1-5. Next, the microbial response of a pilot bioreactor producing SCP was tracked over 1 year, showing that two different production trials produced two different communities originating from the same starting influent. However, SCP production resulted generally in enrichment of several clades of rhizospheric diazotrophs of Alphaproteobacteria and Betaproteobacteria in the bioreactor and even more so in the final product. These diazotrophs are potentially useful as the basis of a SCP product for commercial feed production. PMID:24837420

  4. Rhagoletis cerasi: Oviposition Reduction Effects of Oil Products

    PubMed Central

    Daniel, Claudia

    2014-01-01

    The European cherry fruit fly, Rhagoletis cerasi (L.) (Diptera: Tephritidae), is a highly destructive pest. Methods to control it are limited and alternatives are needed. Observations of cherry fruit flies suggest that females exert much effort to penetrate cherries at color change stage (from green to yellow) for oviposition. Therefore, the question arose as to whether a physical barrier on the fruit surface could reduce oviposition. The effects of different commercial horticultural oil products on R. cerasi oviposition were evaluated in a series of laboratory, semi-field and field experiments. In the laboratory experiments, the rate of successful oviposition on fruits treated with 0.25% v/v of the rapeseed oil product Telmion was significantly reduced by 90% compared to the untreated control. In semi-field experiments, deposits of 1% of rapeseed, mineral and paraffinic oil significantly reduced oviposition for up to 3 days. Semi-field experiments indicated that the oil products lose efficacy within 3 to 6 days after application due to degradation. Although treatments with the rapeseed oil product Telmion reduced infestation rates in an on-farm field experiment, the infested fruit clearly exceeded the level of market tolerance of 2%. Further research is needed to assess whether combinations of oil products, higher application rates and different formulations might improve field efficacy. PMID:26462686

  5. Wetland treatment of oil and gas well wastewaters. Quarterly technical report, November 25, 1992--February 24, 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Kadlec, R.H.; Srinivasan, K.R.

    1993-04-02

    During the first quarter of the above contract, all the elements of Task 1 were completed. The first quarterly report presented an overview of a wetland and its increasing use in industrial wastewater treatment. An idealized, reaction engineering description of wetlands was presented to demonstrate how the various processes that occur in a wetland can be modeled. Previous work on the use of wetlands to remove BOD, TSS, Phosphorus and Nitrogen was reviewed. Recent literature on the application of wetland technology to the treatment of petroleum-related wastewater was critically evaluated and an outline of the research plans for the first year was delineated. Further, our literature search (nominally completed under Task 1) unearthed more recent studies (some unpublished) and a summary was included in the second quarterly report. In the second quarterly report, results of our efforts on the construction of a laboratory-type wetland were also reported. Initial studies on the use of wetland amendments such as modified-clays and algae cells were presented and discussed. Adsorption of heavy metal ions, Cu{sup 2+} and Cr(VI) onto soils drawn from the laboratory-type wetland built as a part of this contract has been undertaken and these results are presented and discussed in this quarterly report. A number of studies on the design and preparation of modified-clays for the adsorption of Cr(VI) and {beta}-naphthoic acid (NA) has been carried out during this quarter and these are also described and discussed in this report. The choice of {beta}-naphthoic acid (NA) as an ionogenic organic compound was made on the basis of a recent personal communication to the Project Director that NA is a major contaminant in many oil and gas well wastewaters.

  6. Flavor production from a non-stick oil by moulds.

    PubMed

    Fujikawa, H; Ibe, A; Wauke, T; Morozumi, S; Mori, H

    2001-02-01

    Natural flavor was accidentally produced from rice cake products in Japan. A non-stick oil had been sprayed on the products during the production process. It was found that a Penicillium corylophilum strain, a contaminant of the oil, produced the flavor from the oil. The ingredients of the flavor were four volatile substances, 2-heptanone, 2-nonanone, 2-heptanol, and 2-nonanol. Challenge tests with the mould strain in a rice cake system were performed under various conditions. The volatile substances were produced in the largest amounts at 25 degrees C, followed by 20 or 30 degrees C then 10 degrees C. 2-Heptanone was produced most remarkably at 25 degrees C, followed by 2-nonanone, 2-heptanol, and 2-nonanol. The growth patterns of the mould were similar between 20-30 degrees C, and the growth at 10 degrees C was delayed. The non-stick oil itself had neither flavor nor volatile substance. The flavor was also produced from coconut oil, which was one of the materials of the non-stick oil. No bacteria or yeasts tested produced any flavor from the non-stick oil, whereas most of the moulds tested produced flavor components.

  7. Algal biomass production and wastewater treatment in high rate algal ponds receiving disinfected effluent.

    PubMed

    Santiago, Aníbal Fonseca; Calijuri, Maria Lucia; Assemany, Paula Peixoto; Calijuri, Maria do Carmo; dos Reis, Alberto José Delgado

    2013-01-01

    Algal biomass production associated with wastewater is usually carried out in high rate algal ponds (HRAPs), which are concomitantly used in the treatment of such effluent. However, most types of wastewater have high levels of bacteria that can inhibit the growth of algal biomass by competing for space and nutrients. The objective of this study was to assess the influence of ultraviolet (UV) pre-disinfection on the performance of HRAPs used for wastewater treatment and algal biomass production. Two HRAPs were tested: one received effluent from an upflow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB) reactor- HRAP -and the second received UASB effluent pre-disinfected by UV radiation-(UV)HRAP. Physical, chemical and microbiological parameters were monitored, as well as algal biomass productivity and daily pH and dissolved oxygen (DO) variation. The (UV)HRAP presented highest DO and pH values, as well as greater percentage of chlorophyll a in the biomass, which indicates greater algal biomass productivity. The average percentages of chlorophyll a found in the biomass obtained from the HRAP and the (UV)HRAP were 0.95 +/- 0.65% and 1.58 +/- 0.65%, respectively. However, total biomass productivity was greater in the HRAP (11.4 gVSSm(-2) day(-1)) compared with the (UV)HRAP (9.3 gVSSm(-2) day(-1)). Mean pH values were 7.7 +/- 0.7 in the HRAP and 8.1 +/- 1.0 in the (UV)HRAP, and mean values of DO percent saturation were 87 +/- 26% and 112 +/- 31% for the HRAP and the (UV)HRAP, respectively. Despite these differences, removal efficiencies of organic carbon, chemical oxygen demand, ammoniacal nitrogen and soluble phosphorus were statistically equal at the 5% significance level.

  8. Ozonation of wastewater: removal and transformation products of drugs of abuse.

    PubMed

    Rodayan, Angela; Segura, Pedro Alejandro; Yargeau, Viviane

    2014-07-15

    In this study amphetamine, methamphetamine, methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA), cocaine (COC), benzoylecgonine (BE), ketamine (KET) and oxycodone (OXY) in wastewater at concentrations of 100 μgL(-1) were subjected to ozone to determine their removals as a function of ozone dose and to identify significant oxidation transformation products (OTPs) produced as a result of ozonation. A method based on high resolution mass spectrometry and differential analysis was used to facilitate and accelerate the identification and structural elucidation of the transformation products. The drug removal ranged from 3 to 50% depending on the complexity of the matrix and whether a mixture or individual drugs were ozonated. Both transient and persistent oxidation transformation products were identified for MDMA, COC and OXY and their chemical formulae were determined. Three possible structures of the persistent transformation product of MDMA (OTP-213) with chemical formula C10H16O4N, were determined based on MS(n) mass spectra and the most plausible structure (OTP-213a) was determined based on the chemistry of ozone. These results indicate that ozone is capable of removing drugs of abuse from wastewater to varying extents and that persistent transformation products are produced as a result of treatment. PMID:24315025

  9. Cost-effective production of bacterial cellulose in static cultures using distillery wastewater.

    PubMed

    Wu, Jyh-Ming; Liu, Ren-Han

    2013-03-01

    Thin stillage (TS), wastewater from rice wine distillery, was used as a cost-free feedstock to replace the costly traditional Hestrin and Schramm (HS) medium for BC production by Gluconacetobacter xylinus. Due to the rich organic acids and amino acids content in TS, BC production was significantly enhanced as 50 (v/v) % of HS medium was replaced with TS. In the 50/50 TS-HS medium, BC concentration of 6.26 g/l could be obtained after 7 days static cultivation which is approximately 50% higher than that could be produced in HS-only medium. The BC produced by TS containing medium had slightly denser reticulated structures and higher crystallinity index values but with lower water holding capacities than that obtained from HS medium. Based on the 50% cost-free TS, the 50/50 TS-HS medium had a BC production feedstock cost about 67% lower than that of traditional HS medium. The employment of cost-free TS to replace a portion of HS medium to achieve a higher BC production not only can reduce the BC production cost but also solve the wastewater disposal problem of winery industry.

  10. Analysis of vegetable oil production in central Iowa

    SciTech Connect

    Claar, P.W. II.; Colvin, T.S.; Marley, S.J.

    1982-01-01

    Vegetable oil can be used as an emergency substitute for diesel fuel for farming applications. This paper is an economic and energy analysis for vegetable oil production on a 180-ha (450-acre) central Iowa farm. The following data are presented as the basis for the economic analysis: (1) the yields of four varieties of sunflowers at three planting dates; (2) the measured sunflower harvesting losses-preharvest, header, threshing, and separating and cleaning for each variety and date of planting; and (3) the quantities of sunflower oil yielded from the pressing operation. Based on the data presented, it was concluded that even though a farmer could satisfatorily produce sunflowers, the on-farm processed sunflower oil does not compete with current diesel fuel prices. On-farm processed soybean oil has more potential as a substitute fuel from an economic standpoint in central Iowa. 8 tables.

  11. Peaking of world oil production: Impacts, mitigation, & risk management

    SciTech Connect

    Hirsch, R.L.; Bezdek, Roger; Wendling, Robert

    2005-02-01

    The peaking of world oil production presents the U.S. and the world with an unprecedented risk management problem. As peaking is approached, liquid fuel prices and price volatility will increase dramatically, and, without timely mitigation, the economic, social, and political costs will be unprecedented. Viable mitigation options exist on both the supply and demand sides, but to have substantial impact, they must be initiated more than a decade in advance of peaking.... The purpose of this analysis was to identify the critical issues surrounding the occurrence and mitigation of world oil production peaking. We simplified many of the complexities in an effort to provide a transparent analysis. Nevertheless, our study is neither simple nor brief. We recognize that when oil prices escalate dramatically, there will be demand and economic impacts that will alter our simplified assumptions. Consideration of those feedbacks will be a daunting task but one that should be undertaken. Our aim in this study is to-- • Summarize the difficulties of oil production forecasting; • Identify the fundamentals that show why world oil production peaking is such a unique challenge; • Show why mitigation will take a decade or more of intense effort; • Examine the potential economic effects of oil peaking; • Describe what might be accomplished under three example mitigation scenarios. • Stimulate serious discussion of the problem, suggest more definitive studies, and engender interest in timely action to mitigate its impacts.

  12. Bioconversion of wastewater from sweet potato starch production to Paenibacillus polymyxa biofertilizer for tea plants.

    PubMed

    Xu, Shengjun; Bai, Zhihui; Jin, Bo; Xiao, Runlin; Zhuang, Guoqiang

    2014-02-28

    Wastewater from the sweet potato starch industry is a large source of nutrient-rich substrates. We assessed whether this wastewater could be used to produce Paenibacillus polymyxa biofertilizer for foliar application to tea trees. Using the central composite design methods we experientially determined that the optimal culture conditions for P. polymyxa were pH, 6.5; temperature, 29.0 °C; and incubation time, 16 h. Under these conditions, a maximum biomass of 9.7 × 10(9) cfu/mL was achieved. We then conducted a yearlong field investigation to determine the effect of P. polymyxa biofertilizer on the growth of tea plants (Camellia sinensis). Tea yield, quantity of water extract, and tea polyphenol levels were significantly higher after foliar application of the biofertilizer compared to that in the controls by an average of 16.7%, 6.3%, and 10.4%, respectively. This approach appears to be technically feasible for organic tea production, and is an environmentally friendly way to utilize wastewater.

  13. Integrated production of polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHAs) with municipal wastewater and sludge treatment at pilot scale.

    PubMed

    Morgan-Sagastume, F; Hjort, M; Cirne, D; Gérardin, F; Lacroix, S; Gaval, G; Karabegovic, L; Alexandersson, T; Johansson, P; Karlsson, A; Bengtsson, S; Arcos-Hernández, M V; Magnusson, P; Werker, A

    2015-04-01

    A pilot-scale process was operated over 22 months at the Brussels North Wastewater Treatment Plant (WWTP) in order to evaluate polyhydroxyalkanoate (PHA) production integration with services of municipal wastewater and sludge management. Activated sludge was produced with PHA accumulation potential (PAP) by applying feast-famine selection while treating the readily biodegradable COD from influent wastewater (average removals of 70% COD, 60% CODsol, 24% nitrogen, and 46% phosphorus). The biomass PAP was evaluated to be in excess of 0.4gPHA/gVSS. Batch fermentation of full-scale WWTP sludge at selected temperatures (35, 42 and 55 °C) produced centrate (6-9.4 gCODVFA/L) of consistent VFA composition, with optimal fermentation performance at 42 °C. Centrate was used to accumulate PHA up to 0.39 gPHA/gVSS. The centrate nutrients are a challenge to the accumulation process but producing a biomass with 0.5 gPHA/gVSS is considered to be realistically achievable within the typically available carbon flows at municipal waste management facilities.

  14. Biological Denitrification of High Nitrate Processing Wastewaters from Explosives Production Plant.

    PubMed

    Cyplik, Paweł; Marecik, Roman; Piotrowska-Cyplik, Agnieszka; Olejnik, Anna; Drożdżyńska, Agnieszka; Chrzanowski, Lukasz

    2012-05-01

    Wastewater samples originating from an explosives production plant (3,000 mg N l(-1) nitrate, 4.8 mg l(-1) nitroglycerin, 1.9 mg l(-1) nitroglycol and 1,200 mg l(-1) chemical oxygen demand) were subjected to biological purification. An attempt to completely remove nitrate and to decrease the chemical oxygen demand was carried out under anaerobic conditions. A soil isolated microbial consortium capable of biodegrading various organic compounds and reduce nitrate to atmospheric nitrogen under anaerobic conditions was used. Complete removal of nitrates with simultaneous elimination of nitroglycerin and ethylene glycol dinitrate (nitroglycol) was achieved as a result of the conducted research. Specific nitrate reduction rate was estimated at 12.3 mg N g(-1) VSS h(-1). Toxicity of wastewater samples during the denitrification process was studied by measuring the activity of dehydrogenases in the activated sludge. Mutagenicity was determined by employing the Ames test. The maximum mutagenic activity did not exceed 0.5. The obtained results suggest that the studied wastewater samples did not exhibit mutagenic properties.

  15. Biodiesel production potential of mixed microalgal culture grown in domestic wastewater.

    PubMed

    Soydemir, Gulfem; Keris-Sen, Ulker Diler; Sen, Unal; Gurol, Mirat D

    2016-01-01

    In this study, a mixed microalgal culture grown in secondarily treated domestic wastewater effluent was investigated for biodiesel production using in situ transesterification method with conventional heating. The total lipid content of the mixed culture was found as 26.2% ± 0.6 by weight of dry biomass, and 74% of the lipids were contributed by total glycerides. In situ transesterification with conventional heating process under acidic conditions produced higher biodiesel yield with chloroform as the co-solvent (82.1% ± 3.9) compared to hexane (55.3% ± 3.9) under the same reaction conditions. The gas chromatography analysis showed that FAME composition was mainly composed of palmitic, palmitoleic, stearic, oleic, linoleic and linolenic acid methyl esters., and thus the mixed microalgal culture fed by domestic wastewaters has had comparable biodiesel conversion yields and FAME composition to mono-culture and pure cultures fed by synthetic culture media. Hence, this study showed that secondarily treated domestic wastewater could potentially be a suitable and sustainable medium for microalgae grown to be used as biodiesel feedstock.

  16. Seasonal variation of endocrine disrupting compounds, pharmaceuticals and personal care products in wastewater treatment plants.

    PubMed

    Yu, Yong; Wu, Laosheng; Chang, Andrew C

    2013-01-01

    The occurrence of 14 endocrine disrupting compounds (EDCs), pharmaceuticals and personal care products (PPCPs) in influents, effluents and sludge from five wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) in southern California was studied in winter and summer. All 14 compounds were detected in influent samples from the five WWTPs except for estrone. Paracetamol, naproxen and ibuprofen were the dominant compounds, with mean concentrations of 41.7, 35.7 and 22.3 μg/L, respectively. The treatment removal efficiency for most compounds was more than 90% and concentrations in the effluents were relatively low. Seasonal variation of the compounds' concentration in the wastewater was significant: the total concentration of each compound in the wastewater was higher in winter than in summer, which is attributed to more human consumption of pharmaceuticals during winter and faster degradation of the compounds in summer. The highest concentrations of triclosan and octylphenol were detected in sewage sludge, with mean concentrations of 1505 and 1179 ng/g, respectively. Risk quotients (RQs), expressed as the ratios of environmental concentrations and the predicted no-effect concentrations (PNEC), were less than unity for all the compounds except for estrone in the effluents, indicating no immediate ecological risk is expected. However, RQs were higher than unity for 2 EDCs (estrone and octylphenol) and carbamazepine in sludge samples, indicating a significant ecotoxicological risk to human health. Therefore, appropriate treatment of sewage sludge is required before its application. PMID:23178835

  17. Ethanol production potential from fermented rice noodle wastewater treatment using entrapped yeast cell sequencing batch reactor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Siripattanakul-Ratpukdi, Sumana

    2012-03-01

    Fermented rice noodle production generates a large volume of starch-based wastewater. This study investigated the treatment of the fermented rice noodle wastewater using entrapped cell sequencing batch reactor (ECSBR) compared to traditional sequencing batch reactor (SBR). The yeast cells were applied because of their potential to convert reducing sugar in the wastewater to ethanol. In present study, preliminary treatment by acid hydrolysis was performed. A yeast culture, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, with calcium alginate cell entrapment was used. Optimum yeast cell loading in batch experiment and fermented rice noodle treatment performances using ECSBR and SBR systems were examined. In the first part, it was found that the cell loadings (0.6-2.7 × 108 cells/mL) did not play an important role in this study. Treatment reactions followed the second-order kinetics with the treatment efficiencies of 92-95%. In the second part, the result showed that ECSBR performed better than SBR in both treatment efficiency and system stability perspectives. ECSBR maintained glucose removal of 82.5 ± 10% for 5-cycle treatment while glucose removal by SBR declined from 96 to 40% within the 5-cycle treatment. Scanning electron microscopic images supported the treatment results. A number of yeast cells entrapped and attached onto the matrix grew in the entrapment matrix.

  18. Biotechnological processes for biodiesel production using alternative oils.

    PubMed

    Azócar, Laura; Ciudad, Gustavo; Heipieper, Hermann J; Navia, Rodrigo

    2010-10-01

    As biodiesel (fatty acid methyl ester (FAME)) is mainly produced from edible vegetable oils, crop soils are used for its production, increasing deforestation and producing a fuel more expensive than diesel. The use of waste lipids such as waste frying oils, waste fats, and soapstock has been proposed as low-cost alternative feedstocks. Non-edible oils such as jatropha, pongamia, and rubber seed oil are also economically attractive. In addition, microalgae, bacteria, yeast, and fungi with 20% or higher lipid content are oleaginous microorganisms known as single cell oil and have been proposed as feedstocks for FAME production. Alternative feedstocks are characterized by their elevated acid value due to the high level of free fatty acid (FFA) content, causing undesirable saponification reactions when an alkaline catalyst is used in the transesterification reaction. The production of soap consumes the conventional catalyst, diminishing FAME production yield and simultaneously preventing the effective separation of the produced FAME from the glycerin phase. These problems could be solved using biological catalysts, such as lipases or whole-cell catalysts, avoiding soap production as the FFAs are esterified to FAME. In addition, by-product glycerol can be easily recovered, and the purification of FAME is simplified using biological catalysts.

  19. Oil industry waste: a potential feedstock for biodiesel production.

    PubMed

    Abbas, Javeria; Hussain, Sabir; Iqbal, Muhammad Javid; Nadeem, Habibullah; Qasim, Muhammad; Hina, Saadia; Hafeez, Farhan

    2016-08-01

    The worldwide rising energy demands and the concerns about the sustainability of fossil fuels have led to the search for some low-cost renewable fuels. In this scenario, the production of biodiesel from various vegetable and animal sources has attracted worldwide attention. The present study was conducted to evaluate the production of biodiesel from the oil industry waste following base-catalysed transesterification. The transesterification reaction gave a yield of 83.7% by 6:1 methanol/oil molar ratio, at 60°C over 80 min of reaction time in the presence of NaOH. The gas chromatographic analysis of the product showed the presence of 16 fatty acid methyl esters with linoleic and oleic acid as principal components representing about 31% and 20.7% of the total methyl esters, respectively. The fourier transform infrared spectroscopy spectrum of oil industry waste and transesterified product further confirmed the formation of methyl esters. Furthermore, the fuel properties of oil industry waste methyl esters, such as kinematic viscosity, cetane number, cloud point, pour point, flash point, acid value, sulphur content, cold filter plugging point, copper strip corrosion, density, oxidative stability, higher heating values, ash content, water content, methanol content and total glycerol content, were determined and discussed in the light of ASTM D6751 and EN 14214 biodiesel standards. Overall, this study presents the production of biodiesel from the oil industry waste as an approach of recycling this waste into value-added products. PMID:26776601

  20. Oil industry waste: a potential feedstock for biodiesel production.

    PubMed

    Abbas, Javeria; Hussain, Sabir; Iqbal, Muhammad Javid; Nadeem, Habibullah; Qasim, Muhammad; Hina, Saadia; Hafeez, Farhan

    2016-08-01

    The worldwide rising energy demands and the concerns about the sustainability of fossil fuels have led to the search for some low-cost renewable fuels. In this scenario, the production of biodiesel from various vegetable and animal sources has attracted worldwide attention. The present study was conducted to evaluate the production of biodiesel from the oil industry waste following base-catalysed transesterification. The transesterification reaction gave a yield of 83.7% by 6:1 methanol/oil molar ratio, at 60°C over 80 min of reaction time in the presence of NaOH. The gas chromatographic analysis of the product showed the presence of 16 fatty acid methyl esters with linoleic and oleic acid as principal components representing about 31% and 20.7% of the total methyl esters, respectively. The fourier transform infrared spectroscopy spectrum of oil industry waste and transesterified product further confirmed the formation of methyl esters. Furthermore, the fuel properties of oil industry waste methyl esters, such as kinematic viscosity, cetane number, cloud point, pour point, flash point, acid value, sulphur content, cold filter plugging point, copper strip corrosion, density, oxidative stability, higher heating values, ash content, water content, methanol content and total glycerol content, were determined and discussed in the light of ASTM D6751 and EN 14214 biodiesel standards. Overall, this study presents the production of biodiesel from the oil industry waste as an approach of recycling this waste into value-added products.

  1. Biotechnological processes for biodiesel production using alternative oils.

    PubMed

    Azócar, Laura; Ciudad, Gustavo; Heipieper, Hermann J; Navia, Rodrigo

    2010-10-01

    As biodiesel (fatty acid methyl ester (FAME)) is mainly produced from edible vegetable oils, crop soils are used for its production, increasing deforestation and producing a fuel more expensive than diesel. The use of waste lipids such as waste frying oils, waste fats, and soapstock has been proposed as low-cost alternative feedstocks. Non-edible oils such as jatropha, pongamia, and rubber seed oil are also economically attractive. In addition, microalgae, bacteria, yeast, and fungi with 20% or higher lipid content are oleaginous microorganisms known as single cell oil and have been proposed as feedstocks for FAME production. Alternative feedstocks are characterized by their elevated acid value due to the high level of free fatty acid (FFA) content, causing undesirable saponification reactions when an alkaline catalyst is used in the transesterification reaction. The production of soap consumes the conventional catalyst, diminishing FAME production yield and simultaneously preventing the effective separation of the produced FAME from the glycerin phase. These problems could be solved using biological catalysts, such as lipases or whole-cell catalysts, avoiding soap production as the FFAs are esterified to FAME. In addition, by-product glycerol can be easily recovered, and the purification of FAME is simplified using biological catalysts. PMID:20697706

  2. Managing wastewater effluent to enhance aquatic receiving ecosystem productivity: a coastal lagoon in Western Australia.

    PubMed

    Machado, Daniel A; Imberger, Jörg

    2012-05-30

    Large amounts of waste are generated in urban centers that if properly managed could promote ecological services. In order to promote nutrient cycling and productivity without endangering aquatic ecosystems, management of wastewater treatment and effluent discharges to receiving waters must be assessed on a case-by-case basis. We applied this premise to examine a municipal wastewater treated effluent discharge in a shallow oligotrophic coastal lagoon in Western Australia. Three-dimensional hydrodynamic-ecological modeling (ELCOM-CAEDYM) was used to assess the reaction of ecosystem for effluent quality. Two scenarios were evaluated for the summer 2000-2001 period, the actual or "current" (conventional secondary treatment) and an "alternative" (involving substitution of biological nutrient removal by advanced treatment). The residence time of the simulated numerical domain averaged 8.4 ± 1.3 days. For the current scenario the model successfully estimated phytoplankton biomass, as chlorophyll-a concentration (Chl-a), that is within field-measured ranges and previously recorded levels. The model was able to reproduce nitrogen as the main limiting nutrient for primary production in the coastal ecosystem. Simulated surface Chl-a means were 0.26 (range 0.19-0.38) μg Chl-a/L for the current scenario and 0.37 (range 0.19-0.67) μg Chl-a/L for the alternative one. Comparison of the alternative scenario with field-measured Chl-a levels suggests moderate primary production increase (16-42%), within local historical variability. These results, suggest that such a scenario could be used, as part of a comprehensive wastewater management optimization strategy, to foster receiving ecosystem's productivity and related ecological services maintaining its oligotrophic state. PMID:22322127

  3. [Pollution characteristics of volatile organic compounds from wastewater treatment system of vitamin C production].

    PubMed

    Guo, Bin; Lu, Guo-Li; Ren, Ai-Ling; Du, Zhao; Xing, Zhi-Xian; Han, Peng; Gao, Bo; Liu, Shu-Ya

    2013-12-01

    Using a portable gas chromatography and mass spectrometry (GC-MS), the volatile organic compounds (VOCs) pollution in each unit of the wastewater treatment system for vitamin C production was studied, and the species characteristics of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) were analyzed and summarized. The results showed that 32 kinds of volatile organic compounds were identified, and the total mass concentration range of volatilizing VOCs was 0.9629-32.0970 mg x m(-3). The most species and the largest concentration (25 and 32.0970 mg x m(-3)) of volatilizing VOCs were found in grit chamber, which was located in the most front-end of the wastewater treatment system and was in semi-closed state. The proportion of molecular sulfide in the grit chamber was as high as 30.02%; Higher proportions of aromatic hydrocarbons were monitored in the subsequent processing units, with percentages of 21.06%-31.48%. The main types of VOCs monitored were chlorinated hydrocarbons and ketones, accounting for 6.39%-55.80% and 10.40%-58.08% of the total amount, respectively; 14 kinds of VOCs were detected in every unit of the wastewater treatment system: acetone, 2-butanone, n-hexane, chloroform, chlorobenzene etc, among which, vinyl chloride, styrene and 1,3-butadiene belong to the highly toxic substances. The vinyl chloride concentration exceeded the standard of "atmospheric pollutants emission standards" (GB 16297-1996), while 1,3-butadiene and other pollutants have no national standard limits. The results of this study provide a scientific basis for the revision of China's pharmaceutical wastewater VOCs emission standards.

  4. Biodiesel production from seed oil of Cleome viscosa L.

    PubMed

    Kumari, Rashmi; Jain, Vinod Kumar; Kumar, Sushil

    2012-07-01

    Edible oil seed crops, such as rapeseed, sunflower, soyabean and safflower and non-edible seed oil plantation crops Jatropha and Pongamia have proved to be internationally viable commercial sources of vegetable oils for biodiesel production. Considering the paucity of edible oils and unsustainability of arable land under perennial plantation of Jatropha and Pongamia in countries such as India, the prospects of seed oil producing Cleome viscosa, an annual wild short duration plant species of the Indogangetic plains, were evaluated for it to serve as a resource for biodiesel. The seeds of C. viscosa resourced from its natural populations growing in Rajasthan, Haryana and Delhi areas of Aravali range were solvent extracted to obtain the seed oil. The oil was observed to be similar in fatty acid composition to the non-edible oils of rubber, Jatropha and Pongamia plantation crops and soybean, sunflower, safflower, linseed and rapeseed edible oil plants in richness of unsaturated fatty acids. The Cleome oil shared the properties of viscosity, density, saponification and calorific values with the Jatropha and Pongamia oils, except that it was comparatively acidic. The C. viscosa biodiesel had the properties of standard biodiesel specified by ASTM and Indian Standard Bureau, except that it had low oxidation stability. It proved to be similar to Jatropha biodiesel except in cloud point, pour point, cold filter plugging point and oxidation stability. In view of the annual habit of species and biodiesel quality, it can be concluded that C. viscosa has prospects to be developed into a short-duration biodiesel crop.

  5. Biodiesel production from seed oil of Cleome viscosa L.

    PubMed

    Kumari, Rashmi; Jain, Vinod Kumar; Kumar, Sushil

    2012-07-01

    Edible oil seed crops, such as rapeseed, sunflower, soyabean and safflower and non-edible seed oil plantation crops Jatropha and Pongamia have proved to be internationally viable commercial sources of vegetable oils for biodiesel production. Considering the paucity of edible oils and unsustainability of arable land under perennial plantation of Jatropha and Pongamia in countries such as India, the prospects of seed oil producing Cleome viscosa, an annual wild short duration plant species of the Indogangetic plains, were evaluated for it to serve as a resource for biodiesel. The seeds of C. viscosa resourced from its natural populations growing in Rajasthan, Haryana and Delhi areas of Aravali range were solvent extracted to obtain the seed oil. The oil was observed to be similar in fatty acid composition to the non-edible oils of rubber, Jatropha and Pongamia plantation crops and soybean, sunflower, safflower, linseed and rapeseed edible oil plants in richness of unsaturated fatty acids. The Cleome oil shared the properties of viscosity, density, saponification and calorific values with the Jatropha and Pongamia oils, except that it was comparatively acidic. The C. viscosa biodiesel had the properties of standard biodiesel specified by ASTM and Indian Standard Bureau, except that it had low oxidation stability. It proved to be similar to Jatropha biodiesel except in cloud point, pour point, cold filter plugging point and oxidation stability. In view of the annual habit of species and biodiesel quality, it can be concluded that C. viscosa has prospects to be developed into a short-duration biodiesel crop. PMID:22822531

  6. Opportunities to improve oil productivity in unstructured deltaic reservoirs

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-01-01

    This report contains presentations presented at a technical symposium on oil production. Chapter 1 contains summaries of the presentations given at the Department of Energy (DOE)-sponsored symposium and key points of the discussions that followed. Chapter 2 characterizes the light oil resource from fluvial-dominated deltaic reservoirs in the Tertiary Oil Recovery Information System (TORIS). An analysis of enhanced oil recovery (EOR) and advanced secondary recovery (ASR) potential for fluvial-dominated deltaic reservoirs based on recovery performance and economic modeling as well as the potential resource loss due to well abandonments is presented. Chapter 3 provides a summary of the general reservoir characteristics and properties within deltaic deposits. It is not exhaustive treatise, rather it is intended to provide some basic information about geologic, reservoir, and production characteristics of deltaic reservoirs, and the resulting recovery problems.

  7. Method for creating high carbon content products from biomass oil

    DOEpatents

    Parker, Reginald; Seames, Wayne

    2012-12-18

    In a method for producing high carbon content products from biomass, a biomass oil is added to a cracking reactor vessel. The biomass oil is heated to a temperature ranging from about 100.degree. C. to about 800.degree. C. at a pressure ranging from about vacuum conditions to about 20,700 kPa for a time sufficient to crack the biomass oil. Tar is separated from the cracked biomass oil. The tar is heated to a temperature ranging from about 200.degree. C. to about 1500.degree. C. at a pressure ranging from about vacuum conditions to about 20,700 kPa for a time sufficient to reduce the tar to a high carbon content product containing at least about 50% carbon by weight.

  8. A Vernonia Diacylglycerol Acyltransferase Can Increase Renewable Oil Production.

    PubMed

    Hatanaka, Tomoko; Serson, William; Li, Runzhi; Armstrong, Paul; Yu, Keshun; Pfeiffer, Todd; Li, Xi-Le; Hildebrand, David

    2016-09-28

    Increasing the production of plant oils such as soybean oil as a renewable resource for food and fuel is valuable. Successful breeding for higher oil levels in soybean, however, usually results in reduced protein, a second valuable seed component. This study shows that by manipulating a highly active acyl-CoA:diacylglycerol acyltransferase (DGAT) the hydrocarbon flux to oil in oilseeds can be increased without reducing the protein component. Compared to other plant DGATs, a DGAT from Vernonia galamensis (VgDGAT1A) produces much higher oil synthesis and accumulation activity in yeast, insect cells, and soybean. Soybean lines expressing VgDGAT1A show a 4% increase in oil content without reductions in seed protein contents or yield per unit land area. Incorporation of this trait into 50% of soybeans worldwide could result in an increase of 850 million kg oil/year without new land use or inputs and be worth ∼U.S.$1 billion/year at 2012 production and market prices.

  9. Tyrosinase inhibitory constituents from a polyphenol enriched fraction of rose oil distillation wastewater.

    PubMed

    Solimine, Jessica; Garo, Eliane; Wedler, Jonas; Rusanov, Krasimir; Fertig, Orlando; Hamburger, Matthias; Atanassov, Ivan; Butterweck, Veronika

    2016-01-01

    During the water steam distillation process of rose flowers, the non-volatile phenolic compounds remain in the waste. We recently developed a strategy to separate rose oil distillation water (RODW) into a polyphenol depleted water fraction and a polyphenol enriched fraction (RF20-SP207). Bioassay-guided investigation of RF20-SP207 led to the isolation of quercetin, kaempferol and ellagic acid. Their structures were elucidated by spectroscopic analysis as well as by comparison with literature data. Tyrosinase inhibition studies were performed with RF20-SP207, fractions I-IV, and the isolated compounds of the most active fraction. RF20-SP207 strongly inhibited the enzyme with an IC50 of 0.41 μg/mL. From the tested fractions only fraction IV (IC50=5.81 μg/mL) exhibited strong anti-tyrosinase activities. Quercetin, kaempferol and ellagic acid were identified in fraction IV and inhibited mushroom tyrosinase with IC50 values of 4.2 μM, 5.5 μM and 5.2 μM, respectively, which is approximately 10 times more potent than that of the positive control kojic acid (56.1μM). The inhibition kinetics, analyzed by Lineweaver-Burk plots, indicated that RF20-SP207 and fraction IV are uncompetitive inhibitors of tyrosinase when l-tyrosine is used as a substrate. A mixed inhibition was determined for ellagic acid, and a competitive inhibition for quercetin and kaempferol. In conclusion, the recovered polyphenol fraction RF20-SP207 from RODW was found to be a potent tyrosinase inhibitor. This value-added product could be used as an active ingredient in cosmetic products related to hyperpigmentation.

  10. Tyrosinase inhibitory constituents from a polyphenol enriched fraction of rose oil distillation wastewater.

    PubMed

    Solimine, Jessica; Garo, Eliane; Wedler, Jonas; Rusanov, Krasimir; Fertig, Orlando; Hamburger, Matthias; Atanassov, Ivan; Butterweck, Veronika

    2016-01-01

    During the water steam distillation process of rose flowers, the non-volatile phenolic compounds remain in the waste. We recently developed a strategy to separate rose oil distillation water (RODW) into a polyphenol depleted water fraction and a polyphenol enriched fraction (RF20-SP207). Bioassay-guided investigation of RF20-SP207 led to the isolation of quercetin, kaempferol and ellagic acid. Their structures were elucidated by spectroscopic analysis as well as by comparison with literature data. Tyrosinase inhibition studies were performed with RF20-SP207, fractions I-IV, and the isolated compounds of the most active fraction. RF20-SP207 strongly inhibited the enzyme with an IC50 of 0.41 μg/mL. From the tested fractions only fraction IV (IC50=5.81 μg/mL) exhibited strong anti-tyrosinase activities. Quercetin, kaempferol and ellagic acid were identified in fraction IV and inhibited mushroom tyrosinase with IC50 values of 4.2 μM, 5.5 μM and 5.2 μM, respectively, which is approximately 10 times more potent than that of the positive control kojic acid (56.1μM). The inhibition kinetics, analyzed by Lineweaver-Burk plots, indicated that RF20-SP207 and fraction IV are uncompetitive inhibitors of tyrosinase when l-tyrosine is used as a substrate. A mixed inhibition was determined for ellagic acid, and a competitive inhibition for quercetin and kaempferol. In conclusion, the recovered polyphenol fraction RF20-SP207 from RODW was found to be a potent tyrosinase inhibitor. This value-added product could be used as an active ingredient in cosmetic products related to hyperpigmentation. PMID:26592852

  11. APPLICATIONS OF LAYERED DOUBLE HYDROXIDES IN REMOVING OXYANIONS FROM OIL REFINING AND COAL MINING WASTEWATER

    SciTech Connect

    Song Jin; Paul Fallgren

    2006-03-01

    Western Research Institute (WRI), in conjunction with the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), conducted a study of using the layered double hydroxides (LDH) as filter material to remove microorganisms, large biological molecules, certain anions and toxic oxyanions from various waste streams, including wastewater from refineries. Results demonstrate that LDH has a high adsorbing capability to those compounds with negative surface charge. Constituents studied include model bacteria, viruses, arsenic, selenium, vanadium, diesel range hydrocarbons, methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE), mixed petroleum constituents, humic materials and anions. This project also attempted to modify the physical structure of LDH for the application as a filtration material. Flow characterizations of the modified LDH materials were also investigated. Results to date indicate that LDH is a cost-effective new material to be used for wastewater treatment, especially for the treatment of anions and oxyanions.

  12. Land and water impacts of oil sands production in Alberta.

    PubMed

    Jordaan, Sarah M

    2012-04-01

    Expansion of oil sands development results not only in the release of greenhouse gas emissions, but also impacts land and water resources. Though less discussed internationally due to to their inherently local nature, land and water impacts can be severe. Research in key areas is needed to manage oil sands operations effectively; including improved monitoring of ground and surface water quality. The resulting information gap means that such impacts are not well understood. Improved analyses of oil sands products are required that compare land and water use with other transportation fuel pathways and use a regional perspective so local effects can be considered and mitigated.

  13. Large-scale biohydrogen production from bio-oil.

    PubMed

    Sarkar, Susanjib; Kumar, Amit

    2010-10-01

    Large amount of hydrogen is consumed during the upgrading of bitumen into synthetic crude oil (SCO), and this hydrogen is exclusively produced from natural gas in Western Canada. Because of large amount of emission from natural gas, alternative sources for hydrogen fuel especially renewable feedstocks could significantly reduce CO(2) emissions. In this study, biomass is converted to bio-oil by fast pyrolysis. This bio-oil is steam reformed near bitumen upgrading plant for producing hydrogen fuel. A techno-economic model is developed to estimate the cost of hydrogen from biomass through the pathway of fast pyrolysis. Three different feedstocks including whole-tree biomass, forest residues (i.e. limbs, branches, and tops of tree produced during logging operations), and straw (mostly from wheat and barley crops) are considered for biohydrogen production. Delivered cost of biohydrogen from whole-tree-based biomass ($2.40/kg of H(2)) is lower than that of forest residues ($3.00/kg of H(2)) and agricultural residues ($4.55/kg of H(2)) at a plant capacity of 2000 dry tonnes/day. In this study, bio-oil is produced in the field/forest and transported to a distance of 500 km from the centralized remote bio-oil production plant to bitumen upgrading plant. Feedstock delivery cost and capital cost are the largest cost contributors to the bio-oil production cost, while more than 50% of the cost of biohydrogen production is contributed by bio-oil production and transportation. Carbon credits of $133, $214, and $356/tonne of CO(2) equivalent could make whole-tree, forest residues, and straw-based biohydrogen production competitive with natural gas-based H(2) for a natural gas price of $5/GJ, respectively.

  14. Aerobic inhibition assessment for anaerobic treatment effluent of antibiotic production wastewater.

    PubMed

    Cetecioglu, Zeynep

    2014-02-01

    Biological treatment of antibiotic production effluents is an economical approach; however, there are still difficulties to overcome because of the recalcitrant characteristics of these compounds to biodegradation. This study aims to reveal that anaerobic treatment technology can be an option as pretreatment before the activated sludge system treatment to treat antibiotic production effluents. The ISO 8192 method was chosen to test the inhibitory effect of raw and treated antibiotic production effluents in this work. Inhibition tests, which were applied according to ISO 8192, highlighted that the anaerobic treatment effluent is less inhibitory than antibiotic production effluent for activated sludge system. Early EC50 concentrations (30-min values) of raw and treated wastewaters were lower than 180-min values. Also, triple effects (sulfamethoxazole-erythromycin-tetracycline) of antibiotics are more toxic than dual effects (sulfamethoxazole-tetracycline). In light of the experimental results obtained and their evaluation, it can be concluded that anaerobic digestion can be applied as a biological pretreatment method for pharmaceutical industry wastewater including antibiotic mixtures prior to aerobic treatment.

  15. High salinity in molasses wastewaters shifts anaerobic digestion to carboxylate production.

    PubMed

    De Vrieze, Jo; Coma, Marta; Debeuckelaere, Matthias; Van der Meeren, Paul; Rabaey, Korneel

    2016-07-01

    Biorefinery wastewaters are often treated by means of anaerobic digestion to produce biogas. Alternatively, these wastewaters can be fermented, leading to the formation of carboxylates. Here, we investigated how lab-scale upflow anaerobic sludge blanket reactors could be shifted to fermentation by changing organic loading rate, hydraulic retention time, pH, and salinity. A strong increase in volatile fatty acid concentration up to 40 g COD L(-1) was achieved through increasing salinity above 30 mS cm(-1), as well as a decrease in methane production by more than 90%, which could not be obtained by adjusting the other parameters, thus, indicating a clear shift from methane to carboxylate production. Microbial community analysis revealed a shift in bacterial community to lower evenness and richness values, following the increased salinity and VFA concentration during the fermentation process. A selective enrichment of the hydrogenotrophic Methanomicrobiales took place upon the shift to fermentation, despite a severe decrease in methane production. Particle size distribution revealed a strong degranulation of the sludge in the reactor, related to the high salinity, which resulted in a wash-out of the biomass. This research shows that salinity is a key parameter enabling a shift from methane to carboxylate production in a stable fermentation process. PMID:27110885

  16. Conversion of crude oil to methane by a microbial consortium enriched from oil reservoir production waters

    PubMed Central

    Berdugo-Clavijo, Carolina; Gieg, Lisa M.

    2014-01-01

    The methanogenic biodegradation of crude oil is an important process occurring in petroleum reservoirs and other oil-containing environments such as contaminated aquifers. In this process, syntrophic bacteria degrade hydrocarbon substrates to products such as acetate, and/or H2 and CO2 that are then used by methanogens to produce methane in a thermodynamically dependent manner. We enriched a methanogenic crude oil-degrading consortium from production waters sampled from a low temperature heavy oil reservoir. Alkylsuccinates indicative of fumarate addition to C5 and C6 n-alkanes were identified in the culture (above levels found in controls), corresponding to the detection of an alkyl succinate synthase encoding gene (assA/masA) in the culture. In addition, the enrichment culture was tested for its ability to produce methane from residual oil in a sandstone-packed column system simulating a mature field. Methane production rates of up to 5.8 μmol CH4/g of oil/day were measured in the column system. Amounts of produced methane were in relatively good agreement with hydrocarbon loss showing depletion of more than 50% of saturate and aromatic hydrocarbons. Microbial community analysis revealed that the enrichment culture was dominated by members of the genus Smithella, Methanosaeta, and Methanoculleus. However, a shift in microbial community occurred following incubation of the enrichment in the sandstone columns. Here, Methanobacterium sp. were most abundant, as were bacterial members of the genus Pseudomonas and other known biofilm forming organisms. Our findings show that microorganisms enriched from petroleum reservoir waters can bioconvert crude oil components to methane both planktonically and in sandstone-packed columns as test systems. Further, the results suggest that different organisms may contribute to oil biodegradation within different phases (e.g., planktonic vs. sessile) within a subsurface crude oil reservoir. PMID:24829563

  17. Utilization of papaya waste and oil production by Chlorella protothecoides

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Algae derived oils have outstanding potential for use in biodiesel production. Chlorella protothecoides has been shown to accumulate lipid up to 60% of its cellular dry weight with glucose supplementation under heterotrophic growth conditions. To reduce production costs, alternative carbon feedstock...

  18. Literature review on production process to obtain extra virgin olive oil enriched in bioactive compounds. Potential use of byproducts as alternative sources of polyphenols.

    PubMed

    Frankel, Edwin; Bakhouche, Abdelhakim; Lozano-Sánchez, Jesús; Segura-Carretero, Antonio; Fernández-Gutiérrez, Alberto

    2013-06-01

    This review describes the olive oil production process to obtain extra virgin olive oil (EVOO) enriched in polyphenol and byproducts generated as sources of antioxidants. EVOO is obtained exclusively by mechanical and physical processes including collecting, washing, and crushing of olives, malaxation of olive paste, centrifugation, storage, and filtration. The effect of each step is discussed to minimize losses of polyphenols from large quantities of wastes. Phenolic compounds including phenolic acids, alcohols, secoiridoids, lignans, and flavonoids are characterized in olive oil mill wastewater, olive pomace, storage byproducts, and filter cake. Different industrial pilot plant processes are developed to recover phenolic compounds from olive oil byproducts with antioxidant and bioactive properties. The technological information compiled in this review will help olive oil producers to improve EVOO quality and establish new processes to obtain valuable extracts enriched in polyphenols from byproducts with food ingredient applications.

  19. Biopolymer Production Kinetics of Mixed Culture Using Wastewater Sludge as a Raw Material and the Effect of Different Cations on Biopolymer Applications in Water and Wastewater Treatment.

    PubMed

    More, T T; Yan, S; Tyagi, R D; Surampalli, R Y

    2016-05-01

    Thirteen extracellular polymeric substances (EPS) producing bacterial strains were cultivated (as mixed culture) in the sterilized sludge (suspended solids of 25 g/L) and the batch fermentation was carried out. Mixed culture revealed a high specific growth rate of 0.35/hr. The EPS production rate was higher up to 24 hours, which gradually decreased with further incubation. The kinetic estimates demonstrated growth-associated EPS production. Broth EPS revealed higher flocculation activity when combined with different cations (Ca(2+), Mg(2+), Fe(3+), and Al(3+)) in river water (≥90%), municipal wastewater (≥90%), and brewery wastewater (≥80%), respectively. A low dose (5 to 40 mg/L) of trivalent cations was required to achieve higher flocculation compared to the divalent cations (50 to 250 mg/L). Flocculation performance of EPS was comparable to Magnafloc-155 (chemical polymer) and, hence, it could be used as a flocculant. PMID:27131306

  20. Biopolymer Production Kinetics of Mixed Culture Using Wastewater Sludge as a Raw Material and the Effect of Different Cations on Biopolymer Applications in Water and Wastewater Treatment.

    PubMed

    More, T T; Yan, S; Tyagi, R D; Surampalli, R Y

    2016-05-01

    Thirteen extracellular polymeric substances (EPS) producing bacterial strains were cultivated (as mixed culture) in the sterilized sludge (suspended solids of 25 g/L) and the batch fermentation was carried out. Mixed culture revealed a high specific growth rate of 0.35/hr. The EPS production rate was higher up to 24 hours, which gradually decreased with further incubation. The kinetic estimates demonstrated growth-associated EPS production. Broth EPS revealed higher flocculation activity when combined with different cations (Ca(2+), Mg(2+), Fe(3+), and Al(3+)) in river water (≥90%), municipal wastewater (≥90%), and brewery wastewater (≥80%), respectively. A low dose (5 to 40 mg/L) of trivalent cations was required to achieve higher flocculation compared to the divalent cations (50 to 250 mg/L). Flocculation performance of EPS was comparable to Magnafloc-155 (chemical polymer) and, hence, it could be used as a flocculant.

  1. Oil production by Candida curvata and extraction, composition and properties of the oil

    SciTech Connect

    Hammond, E.G.; Glatz, B.A.; Choi, Y.; Teasdale, M.T.

    1981-01-01

    A strain of the yeast C. curvata was grown in cheese whey permeate under conditions that allowed for oil production. The N-C ratio of the fermentation medium influenced the amount of oil produced. Concentrated permeate could be used as a substrate, but the efficiency of conversion to oil was reduced. The yeast grew well and produced oil in several different types of whey and milk permeates and also in nonsterile systems. The lipid of C. curvata amounted to approximately 50% of its dry weight and could be extracted by sequential treatment with ethanol, hexane, and benzene. The extraction with benzene was necessary for good yields even though nearly all the material extracted with benzene was soluble in hexane. The lipid was 80-90% triglyceride, contained little free fatty acid, and could be degummed by traditional methods. The triglyceride was 30.4% palmitic, 0.84% palmitoleic acid, 11.4% stearic, 51.0% oleic, 6.2% linoleic, and 0.4% linolenic acid. The saturated acyl groups were almost completely on the sn-1 and 3 positions of the glycerol. The oil melting point was -10 to 22 degrees. No tocopherol was detected and the oil oxidized at a rate similar to that for soybean oil at 55 degrees. The oil contained a variety of linear hydrocarbons and 4 sterols. The polar lipids include phosphatidylcholine, phosphatidylethanolamine, phosphatidylinositol, and phosphatidic acid.

  2. Immobilization of biofilms of Pseudomonas aeruginosa NY3 and their application in the removal of hydrocarbons from highly concentrated oil-containing wastewater on the laboratory scale.

    PubMed

    Nie, Maiqian; Nie, Hongyun; He, Meili; Lin, Yingying; Wang, Lei; Jin, Pengkang; Zhang, SenYuan

    2016-05-15

    To explore the potential of Pseudomonas aeruginosa NY3 for the treatment of highly concentrated crude oil-contaminated water, the immobilization of strain NY3 on the surface of polyurethane foam (PUF), the conditions for using these biofilms and the possibility of recovering the used biofilms were studied. The results demonstrated that the biofilm formation process for strain NY3 was quick and easy. Under optimum conditions, the biomass immobilized on the PUF surface could reach 488.32 mg dry cell/g dry PUF. The results demonstrated that when the degradation time was 12 h, the average oil removal rate in 2 g crude oil/L contaminated water was approximately 90% for 40d. Meanwhile, the biofilms could be recovered for reuse. The recovery ability and the high and steady oil removal rate facilitated the application of the biofilms for the removal of concentrated oil from wastewater. PMID:26963906

  3. Research status and development trend of ultrasonic oil production technique in China.

    PubMed

    Wang, Zhenjun; Xu, Yuanming; Suman, Bajracharya

    2015-09-01

    This paper presents an overview of research status and development trend of ultrasonic oil production technique for Enhanced Oil Recovery in China. As one of EOR techniques, ultrasonic oil production attracts more attention due to its simplicity, lower expenses, good applicability and no reservoir pollution. Through the comparison of the development of ultrasonic oil production both in China and other countries, this paper summarize the recent research progress in ultrasonic oil production techniques and practices in China. Finally, the development of oil production equipment and development trend of ultrasonic oil production technique in China are given.

  4. Past, Present, and Future Production of Bio-oil

    SciTech Connect

    Steele, Philip; Yu, Fei; Gajjela, Sanjeev

    2009-04-01

    Bio-oil is a liquid product produced by fast pyrol-ysis of biomass. The fast pyrolysis is performed by heating the biomass rapidly (2 sec) at temperatures ranging from 350 to 650 oC. The vapors produced by this rapid heating are then condensed to produce a dark brown water-based emulsion composed of frag-ments of the original hemicellulose, cellulose and lignin molecules contained in the biomass. Yields range from 60 to 75% based on the feedstock type and the pyrolysis reactor employed. The bio-oil pro-duced by this process has a number of negative prop-erties that are produced mainly by the high oxygen content (40 to 50%) contributed by that contained in water (25 to 30% of total mass) and oxygenated compounds. Each bio-oil contains hundreds of chemi-cal compounds. The chemical composition of bio-oil renders it a very recalcitrant chemical compound. To date, the difficulties in utilizing bio-oil have limited its commercial development to the production of liq-uid smoke as food flavoring. Practitioners have at-tempted to utilize raw bio-oil as a fuel; they have also applied many techniques to upgrade bio-oil to a fuel. Attempts to utilize raw bio-oil as a combustion engine fuel have resulted in engine or turbine dam-age; however, Stirling engines have been shown to successfully combust raw bio-oil without damage. Utilization of raw bio-oil as a boiler fuel has met with more success and an ASTM standard has recently been released describing bio-oil characteristics in relation to assigned fuel grades. However, commercialization has been slow to follow and no reports of distribution of these bio-oil boiler fuels have been reported. Co-feeding raw bio-oil with coal has been successfully performed but no current power generation facilities are following this practice. Upgrading of bio-oils to hydrocarbons via hydroprocessing is being performed by several organizations. Currently, limited catalyst life is the obstacle to commercialization of this tech-nology. Researchers

  5. Production of hydrogen and methane from wastewater sludge using anaerobic fermentation.

    PubMed

    Ting, C H; Lin, K R; Lee, D J; Tay, J H

    2004-01-01

    The hydrogen and methane were produced from wastewater sludge using a Clostridium strain. The original sludge and the pre-treated (acidified, sterilized, freeze/thawed, and sonicated) sludges were tested. Some pre-treatment could enhance hydrogen yield, and the other tests could enhance methane yield. Hydrogen yield followed freeze/thawed>acidified>sterilized>original sludge>sonicated; while methane yield followed sonicated>freeze/thawed>sterilized>acidified>original sludge. The production and consumption of acetate correlated closely with the trends in both yields.

  6. Net energy production and emissions mitigation of domestic wastewater treatment system: a comparison of different biogas-sludge use alternatives.

    PubMed

    Chen, Shaoqing; Chen, Bin

    2013-09-01

    Wastewater treatment systems are increasingly designed for the recovery of valuable chemicals and energy in addition to waste stream disposal. Herein, the life-cycle energy production and emissions mitigation of a typical domestic wastewater treatment system were assessed, in which different combinations of biogas use and sludge processing lines for industrial or household applications were considered. The results suggested that the reuse of biogas and sludge was so important in the system's overall energy balance and environmental performance that it may offset the cost in the plant's installation and operation. Combined heat and power and household utilization were two prior options for net energy production, provided an ideal power conversion efficiency and biogas production. The joint application of household biogas use and sludge nutrient processing achieved both high net energy production and significant environmental remediation across all impact categories, representing the optimal tradeoff for domestic wastewater treatment.

  7. Net energy production and emissions mitigation of domestic wastewater treatment system: a comparison of different biogas-sludge use alternatives.

    PubMed

    Chen, Shaoqing; Chen, Bin

    2013-09-01

    Wastewater treatment systems are increasingly designed for the recovery of valuable chemicals and energy in addition to waste stream disposal. Herein, the life-cycle energy production and emissions mitigation of a typical domestic wastewater treatment system were assessed, in which different combinations of biogas use and sludge processing lines for industrial or household applications were considered. The results suggested that the reuse of biogas and sludge was so important in the system's overall energy balance and environmental performance that it may offset the cost in the plant's installation and operation. Combined heat and power and household utilization were two prior options for net energy production, provided an ideal power conversion efficiency and biogas production. The joint application of household biogas use and sludge nutrient processing achieved both high net energy production and significant environmental remediation across all impact categories, representing the optimal tradeoff for domestic wastewater treatment. PMID:23880131

  8. Combined process for the treatment of olive oil mill wastewater: absorption on sawdust and combustion of the impregnated sawdust.

    PubMed

    Chouchene, Ajmia; Jeguirim, Mejdi; Trouvé, Gwenaëlle; Favre-Reguillon, Alain; Le Buzit, Gérard

    2010-09-01

    Olive oil mill wastewater (OMWW) generated by the olive oil extraction industry constitutes a major pollutant, causing a severe environmental threats because of the high chemical oxygen demand and the high content of polyphenol. This work studied a combined process of absorption on sawdust, a low-cost renewable absorbents, and an energetic valorisation via combustion was studied. The thermal behaviour of different OMWW/sawdust blends was studied under inert and oxidative atmosphere from 20 to 900 degrees C using thermogravimetric analysis (TGA). Gaseous emissions such as CO(2), CO and volatile organic compounds (VOCs) were measured under oxidative conditions at 600 degrees C in a fixed-bed reactor. Kinetic parameters were obtained and compared for the different mixtures of OMWW and sawdust. The absorption of the organic content of OMWW on sawdust improves the decomposition of cellulosic compounds at low temperatures in both atmospheres. Compared to sawdust, absorption of the organic content of OMWW on sawdust favours a combustion process with lower molar ratio of CO/CO(2) in the exhaust. Combustion of an impregnated sawdust containing 40 wt.% of the organic content of the OMWW generates the same amount of gas in the exhaust as sawdust. OMWW/sawdust blends may therefore be a promising biofuel with low environmental impacts.

  9. Treatment and biotransformation of highly polluted agro-industrial wastewater from a palm oil mill into vermicompost using earthworms.

    PubMed

    Lim, Su Lin; Wu, Ta Yeong; Clarke, Charles

    2014-01-22

    In this laboratory-scale study, earthworms were introduced as biodegraders of palm oil mill effluent (POME), which is a wastewater produced from the wet process of palm oil milling. POME was absorbed into amendments (soil or rice straw) in different ratios as feedstocks for the earthworm, Eudrilus eugeniae. The presence of earthworms led to significant increases in pH, electrical conductivity, and nutrient content but decreases in the C/N ratio (0.687-75.8%), soluble chemical oxygen demand (19.7-87.9%), and volatile solids (0.687-52.7%). However, earthworm growth was reduced in all treatments by the end of the treatment process. Rice straw was a better amendment/absorbent relative to soil, with a higher nutrient content and greater reduction in soluble chemical oxygen demand with a lower C/N ratio in the vermicompost. Among all treatments investigated, the treatment with 1 part rice straw and 3 parts POME (w/v) (RS1:3) produced the best quality vermicompost with high nutritional status. PMID:24372356

  10. Treatment and biotransformation of highly polluted agro-industrial wastewater from a palm oil mill into vermicompost using earthworms.

    PubMed

    Lim, Su Lin; Wu, Ta Yeong; Clarke, Charles

    2014-01-22

    In this laboratory-scale study, earthworms were introduced as biodegraders of palm oil mill effluent (POME), which is a wastewater produced from the wet process of palm oil milling. POME was absorbed into amendments (soil or rice straw) in different ratios as feedstocks for the earthworm, Eudrilus eugeniae. The presence of earthworms led to significant increases in pH, electrical conductivity, and nutrient content but decreases in the C/N ratio (0.687-75.8%), soluble chemical oxygen demand (19.7-87.9%), and volatile solids (0.687-52.7%). However, earthworm growth was reduced in all treatments by the end of the treatment process. Rice straw was a better amendment/absorbent relative to soil, with a higher nutrient content and greater reduction in soluble chemical oxygen demand with a lower C/N ratio in the vermicompost. Among all treatments investigated, the treatment with 1 part rice straw and 3 parts POME (w/v) (RS1:3) produced the best quality vermicompost with high nutritional status.

  11. Respirometric studies on the effectiveness of biogas production from wastewaters originating from dairy, sugar and tanning industry.

    PubMed

    Debowski, M; Krzemieniewski, M; Zieliński, M; Dudek, M; Grala, A

    2013-01-01

    The objective of the present study was to determine the effectiveness of biogas production during methane fermentation of wastewaters originating from the dairy, tanning and sugar industries, by means ofrespirometric measurements conducted at a temperature of 35 degrees C. Experiments were carried out with the use of model tanks of volume 0.5 dm3. A high production yield of biogas, with methane content exceeding 60%, was achieved in the case of the anaerobic treatment of wastewaters from the dairy and sugar industries. A significantly lower effect was observed in the case of tanning wastewaters. The effectiveness of the fermentation process decreased with increasing loading of the tanks with a feedstock of organic compounds. By loading a model tank with this feedstock, the effectiveness of treatment ranged from 62.8% to 71.4% residual chemical oxygen demand for dairy wastewaters and from 57.9% to 64.1% for sugar industry wastewaters. The efficiency of organic compound removal from tanning wastewaters was below 50%, regardless of the method applied.

  12. Respirometric studies on the effectiveness of biogas production from wastewaters originating from dairy, sugar and tanning industry.

    PubMed

    Debowski, M; Krzemieniewski, M; Zieliński, M; Dudek, M; Grala, A

    2013-01-01

    The objective of the present study was to determine the effectiveness of biogas production during methane fermentation of wastewaters originating from the dairy, tanning and sugar industries, by means ofrespirometric measurements conducted at a temperature of 35 degrees C. Experiments were carried out with the use of model tanks of volume 0.5 dm3. A high production yield of biogas, with methane content exceeding 60%, was achieved in the case of the anaerobic treatment of wastewaters from the dairy and sugar industries. A significantly lower effect was observed in the case of tanning wastewaters. The effectiveness of the fermentation process decreased with increasing loading of the tanks with a feedstock of organic compounds. By loading a model tank with this feedstock, the effectiveness of treatment ranged from 62.8% to 71.4% residual chemical oxygen demand for dairy wastewaters and from 57.9% to 64.1% for sugar industry wastewaters. The efficiency of organic compound removal from tanning wastewaters was below 50%, regardless of the method applied. PMID:24191477

  13. Activated sludge is a potential source for production of biodegradable plastics from wastewater.

    PubMed

    Khardenavis, A; Guha, P K; Kumar, M S; Mudliar, S N; Chakrabarti, T

    2005-05-01

    Increased utilization of synthetic plastics caused severe environmental pollution due to their non-biodegradable nature. In the search for environmentally friendly materials to substitute for conventional plastics, different biodegradable plastics have been developed by microbial fermentations. However, limitations of these materials still exist due to high cost. This study aims at minimization of cost for the production of biodegradable plastics P(3HB) and minimization of environmental pollution. The waste biological sludge generated at wastewater treatment plants is used for the production of P(3HB) and wastewater is used as carbon source. Activated sludge was induced by controlling the carbon: nitrogen ratio to accumulate storage polymer. Initially polymer accumulation was studied by using different carbon and nitrogen sources. Maximum accumulation of polymer was observed with carbon source acetic acid and diammonium hydrogen phosphate (DAHP) as nitrogen source. Further studies were carried out to optimize the carbon: nitrogen ratios using acetic acid and DAHP. A maximum of 65.84% (w/w) P(3HB) production was obtained at C/N ratio of 50 within 96 hours of incubation. PMID:15974272

  14. Enhanced fumaric acid production from brewery wastewater and insight into the morphology of Rhizopus oryzae 1526.

    PubMed

    Das, Ratul Kumar; Brar, Satinder Kaur

    2014-03-01

    The present work explores brewery wastewater as a novel substrate for fumaric acid production employing the filamentous fungal strain Rhizopus oryzae 1526 through submerged fermentation. The effects of different parameters such as substrate total solid concentrations, fermentation pH, incubation temperature, flask shaking speed, and inoculum size on the fungal morphologies were investigated. Different morphological forms (mycelium clumps, suspended mycelium, and solid/hairy pellets) of R. oryzae 1526 were obtained at different applied fermentation pH, incubation temperature, flask shaking speed, and inoculum size. Among all the obtained morphologies, pellet morphology was found to be the most favorable for enhanced production of fumaric acid for different studied parameters. Scanning electron microscopic investigation was done to reveal the detailed morphologies of the pellets formed under all optimized conditions. With all the optimized growth conditions (pH 6, 25 °C, 200 rpm, 5% (v/v) inoculum size, 25 g/L total solid concentration, and pellet diameter of 0.465 ± 0.04 mm), the highest concentration of fumaric acid achieved was 31.3 ± 2.77 g/L. The results demonstrated that brewery wastewater could be used as a good substrate for the fungal strain R. oryzae 1526 in submerged fermentation for the production of fumaric acid. PMID:24469587

  15. Indications of Transformation Products from Hydraulic Fracturing Additives in Shale Gas Wastewater

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elsner, Martin; Hoelzer, Kathrin; Sumner, Andrew J.; Karatum, Osman; Nelson, Robert K.; Drollette, Brian D.; O'Connor, Megan P.; D'Ambro, Emma; Getzinger, Gordon J.; Ferguson, P. Lee; Reddy, Christopher M.; Plata, Desiree L.

    2016-04-01

    Unconventional natural gas development (UNGD) generates large volumes of wastewater, whose detailed composition must be known for adequate risk assessment and treatment. In particular, there is a need to elucidate the structures of organic chemical additives, extracted geogenic compounds, and transformation products. This study investigated six Fayetteville Shale UNGD wastewater samples for their organic composition using purge-and-trap gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (P&T-GC-MS) in combination with liquid-liquid extraction with comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography-time of flight-mass spectrometry (GCxGC-TOF-MS). Following application of strict compound identification confidence criteria, we classified compounds according to their putative origin. Samples displayed distinct chemical distributions composed of typical geogenic substances (hydrocarbons), disclosed UNGD additives (e.g., hydrocarbons, phthalates, such as diisobutyl phthalate, and radical initiators, such as azobisisobutyronitrile), and undisclosed compounds (e.g., halogenated hydrocarbons, such as 2-bromohexane or 4-bromoheptane). Undisclosed chloromethyl alkanoates (chloromethyl propanoate, pentanoate, and octanoate) were identified as putative delayed acids (those that release acidic moieties only after hydrolytic cleavage, whose rate could potentially be controlled), suggesting they were deliberately introduced to react in the subsurface. Identification of halogenated methanes and acetones, in contrast, suggested they were formed as unintended by-products. Our study highlights the possibility that UNGD operations generate transformation products, knowledge of which is crucial for risk assessment and treatment strategies, and underscores the value of disclosing potential precursors that are injected into the subsurface.

  16. Activated sludge is a potential source for production of biodegradable plastics from wastewater.

    PubMed

    Khardenavis, A; Guha, P K; Kumar, M S; Mudliar, S N; Chakrabarti, T

    2005-05-01

    Increased utilization of synthetic plastics caused severe environmental pollution due to their non-biodegradable nature. In the search for environmentally friendly materials to substitute for conventional plastics, different biodegradable plastics have been developed by microbial fermentations. However, limitations of these materials still exist due to high cost. This study aims at minimization of cost for the production of biodegradable plastics P(3HB) and minimization of environmental pollution. The waste biological sludge generated at wastewater treatment plants is used for the production of P(3HB) and wastewater is used as carbon source. Activated sludge was induced by controlling the carbon: nitrogen ratio to accumulate storage polymer. Initially polymer accumulation was studied by using different carbon and nitrogen sources. Maximum accumulation of polymer was observed with carbon source acetic acid and diammonium hydrogen phosphate (DAHP) as nitrogen source. Further studies were carried out to optimize the carbon: nitrogen ratios using acetic acid and DAHP. A maximum of 65.84% (w/w) P(3HB) production was obtained at C/N ratio of 50 within 96 hours of incubation.

  17. Integrated Use of Fluidized Bed Technology for Oil Production from Oil Shale

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Siirde, Andres; Martins, Ants

    The plant unit which consists of a fluidized bed retort and CFB furnace for burning the by-products of retorting (semicoke and semicoke gas) is presented in this paper. The oil shale retort consists of a fast fluidized bed shaft, coarse semicoke bit, semicoke separation chamber and cyclone for the separation of fine semicoke particles. The crashed oil shale and hot ash from the CFB ash separator are fed concurrently into the fast fluidized bed shaft. For fluidizing the mixture of oil shale and hot ash particles, the recycle semicoke gas is used. The pyrolysis of oil shale begins in fluidized bed and is completed in the semicoke separation chamber. The coarse semicoke particles are separated from fluidized bed directly while the medium size particles are separated from the gases in the semicoke separation chamber and the finest semicoke particles in the cyclone. All the fractions of semicoke from the fluidized bed retort and semicoke gas from the oil fractionator are burnt in the CFB furnace. The semicoke ash is separated from flue gases in the CFB ash separator. A part of separated hot ash is fed into the fluidized bed retort as a solid heat carrier material and the rest into the furnace through the ash cooler or separated from the process. The retention of sulphur dioxide formed during the semicoke and semicoke gas combustion, is guaranteed for about 99 % due to the high CaO content in the semicoke ash and convenient temperature (about 850°C) in the CFB furnace. The described plant unit is useful for retorting oil shale and other solid hydrocarbon-containing fuels. The advantages of the present retorting process and system are: improved oil yield, greater throughput, lower retorting time, avoidance of moving parts in the retorting zones, reduced downtime, etc. A new plant unit for oil shale oil production has been elaborated and defended by the Estonian Utility Model EE 200700671 UI.

  18. Recent Trends in Water Use and Production for California Oil Production.

    PubMed

    Tiedeman, Kate; Yeh, Sonia; Scanlon, Bridget R; Teter, Jacob; Mishra, Gouri Shankar

    2016-07-19

    Recent droughts and concerns about water use for petroleum extraction renew the need to inventory water use for oil production. We quantified water volumes used and produced by conventional oil production and hydraulic fracturing (HF) in California. Despite a 25% decrease in conventional oil production from 1999 to 2012, total water use increased by 30% though much of that increase was derived from reuse of produced water. Produced water volumes increased by 50%, with increasing amounts disposed in unlined evaporation ponds or released to surface water. Overall freshwater use (constituting 1.2% of the state's nonagricultural water consumption) increased by 46% during this period due to increased freshwater-intensive tertiary oil production. HF has been practiced in California for more than 30 years, accounting for 1% of total oil production in 2012 from mostly directional and vertical wells. Water use intensity for HF wells in California averaged at 3.5 vol water/vol oil production in 2012 and 2.4 vol/vol in 2013, higher than the range from literature estimates and net water use intensity of conventional production (1.2 vol/vol in 2012). Increasing water use and disposal for oil production have important implications for water management and have potentially adverse health, environmental, and ecological impacts. PMID:27175896

  19. Recent Trends in Water Use and Production for California Oil Production.

    PubMed

    Tiedeman, Kate; Yeh, Sonia; Scanlon, Bridget R; Teter, Jacob; Mishra, Gouri Shankar

    2016-07-19

    Recent droughts and concerns about water use for petroleum extraction renew the need to inventory water use for oil production. We quantified water volumes used and produced by conventional oil production and hydraulic fracturing (HF) in California. Despite a 25% decrease in conventional oil production from 1999 to 2012, total water use increased by 30% though much of that increase was derived from reuse of produced water. Produced water volumes increased by 50%, with increasing amounts disposed in unlined evaporation ponds or released to surface water. Overall freshwater use (constituting 1.2% of the state's nonagricultural water consumption) increased by 46% during this period due to increased freshwater-intensive tertiary oil production. HF has been practiced in California for more than 30 years, accounting for 1% of total oil production in 2012 from mostly directional and vertical wells. Water use intensity for HF wells in California averaged at 3.5 vol water/vol oil production in 2012 and 2.4 vol/vol in 2013, higher than the range from literature estimates and net water use intensity of conventional production (1.2 vol/vol in 2012). Increasing water use and disposal for oil production have important implications for water management and have potentially adverse health, environmental, and ecological impacts.

  20. Environmental effects of offshore oil production

    SciTech Connect

    Middletich, B.S.

    1981-01-01

    The papers deal with two major categories of oil field impacts: hydrocarbon and sulfur discharges from producing platforms; and the effects of the structures themselves in the marine environment. The studies can also be broken down into those that deal with the fate of the polluting discharges (dispersion, degradation, consumption); and those that deal with the affected organisms themselves. Some studies used control sites to compare effects near the platforms. Others analyzed composition, density, and quality of organisms throughout the field, offering comparisons between control sites and oil field sites. The presence of pollutants in particulates was studied and measured. Effectiveness of degradation of petro pollutants by bacteria is also examined. Biocides used in the working stream to control sulfur oxidizing bacteria were treated briefly. Effects of the structures and potential pollution was also described for the fouling community, i.e., barnacles, etc. Effects of the presence of the structures on migratory and resident birds are examined for hundreds of species constantly using the area as a fly-way or habitat.

  1. Photosynthetic bacteria production from food processing wastewater in sequencing batch and membrane photo-bioreactors.

    PubMed

    Chitapornpan, S; Chiemchaisri, C; Chiemchaisri, W; Honda, R; Yamamoto, K

    2012-01-01

    Application of photosynthetic process could be highly efficient and surpass anaerobic treatment in releasing less greenhouse gas and odor while the biomass produced can be utilized. The combination of photosynthetic process with membrane separation is possibly effective for water reclamation and biomass production. In this study, cultivation of mixed culture photosynthetic bacteria from food processing wastewater was investigated in a sequencing batch reactor (SBR) and a membrane bioreactor (MBR) supplied with infrared light. Both photo-bioreactors were operated at a hydraulic retention time (HRT) of 10 days. Higher MLSS concentration achieved in the MBR through complete retention of biomass resulted in a slightly improved performance. When the system was operated with MLSS controlled by occasional sludge withdrawal, total biomass production of MBR and SBR photo-bioreactor was almost equal. However, 64.5% of total biomass production was washed out with the effluent in SBR system. Consequently, the higher biomass could be recovered for utilization in MBR. PMID:22258682

  2. Environmental Compliance for Oil and Gas Exploration and Production

    SciTech Connect

    Hansen, Christine

    1999-10-26

    The Appalachian/Illinois Basin Directors is a group devoted to increasing communication among the state oil and gas regulatory agencies within the Appalachian and Illinois Basin producing region. The group is comprised of representatives from the oil and gas regulatory agencies from states in the basin (Attachment A). The directors met to discuss regulatory issues common to the area, organize workshops and seminars to meet the training needs of agencies dealing with the uniqueness of their producing region and perform other business pertinent to this area of oil and gas producing states. The emphasis of the coordinated work was a wide range of topics related to environmental compliance for natural gas and oil exploration and production.

  3. A model for methane production in anaerobic digestion of swine wastewater.

    PubMed

    Yang, Hongnan; Deng, Liangwei; Liu, Gangjin; Yang, Di; Liu, Yi; Chen, Ziai

    2016-10-01

    A study was conducted using a laboratory-scale anaerobic sequencing batch digester to investigate the quantitative influence of organic loading rates (OLRs) on the methane production rate during digestion of swine wastewater at temperatures between 15 °C and 35 °C. The volumetric production rate of methane (Rp) at different OLRs and temperatures was obtained. The maximum volumetric methane production rates (Rpmax) were 0.136, 0.796, 1.294, 1.527 and 1.952 LCH4 L(-1) d(-1) at corresponding organic loading rates of 1.2, 3.6, 5.6, 5.6 and 7.2 g volatile solids L(-1) d(-1), respectively, which occurred at 15, 20, 25, 30 and 35 °C, respectively. A new model was developed to describe the quantitative relationship between Rp and OLR. In addition to the maximum volumetric methane production rate (Rpmax) and the half-saturation constant (KLR) commonly used in previous models such as the modified Stover-Kincannon model and Deng model, the new model introduced a new index (KD) that denoted the speed of volumetric methane production rate approaching the maximum as a function of temperature. The new model more satisfactorily described the influence of OLR on the rate of methane production than other models as confirmed by higher determination coefficients (R(2)) (0.9717-0.9900) and lower bias between the experimental and predicted data in terms of the root mean square error and the Akaike Information Criterion. Data from other published research also validated the applicability and generality of the new kinetic model to different types of wastewater.

  4. Production of lubricating oils by hydrocracking

    SciTech Connect

    Kirker, G.W.; Varghese, P.

    1989-03-14

    A process is described for producing a lubricating oil base stock from a hydrocarbon feedstock which comprises: a hydrocracking a hydrocarbon feedstock having a boiling point above about 343/sup 0/C (650/sup 0/F) and containing polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in the presence of a catalyst having cracking and hydrogenation activity and comprising a layered silicate having a framework composed essentially of only tetrahedral sheets. The sheets contain interspathic polymeric silica and interspathic polymeric oxide of an element selected from the group consisting of Al, B, Cr, Ga, In, Mo, No, Ni, Ti, Tl, W and Zr. The process produces a hydrocrackate having a boiling point above about 343/sup 0/C (650/sup 0/F) which contains a lesser proportion of polycyclics than the charge stock.

  5. Fuel from wastewater : harnessing a potential energy source in Canada through the co-location of algae biofuel production to sources of effluent, heat and CO2.

    SciTech Connect

    Passell, Howard David; Whalen, Jake; Pienkos, Philip P.; O'Leary, Stephen J.; Roach, Jesse Dillon; Moreland, Barbara D.; Klise, Geoffrey Taylor

    2010-12-01

    Sandia National Laboratories is collaborating with the National Research Council (NRC) Canada and the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) to develop a decision-support model that will evaluate the tradeoffs associated with high-latitude algae biofuel production co-located with wastewater, CO2, and waste heat. This project helps Canada meet its goal of diversifying fuel sources with algae-based biofuels. The biofuel production will provide a wide range of benefits including wastewater treatment, CO2 reuse and reduction of demand for fossil-based fuels. The higher energy density in algae-based fuels gives them an advantage over crop-based biofuels as the 'production' footprint required is much less, resulting in less water consumed and little, if any conversion of agricultural land from food to fuel production. Besides being a potential source for liquid fuel, algae have the potential to be used to generate electricity through the burning of dried biomass, or anaerobically digested to generate methane for electricity production. Co-locating algae production with waste streams may be crucial for making algae an economically valuable fuel source, and will certainly improve its overall ecological sustainability. The modeling process will address these questions, and others that are important to the use of water for energy production: What are the locations where all resources are co-located, and what volumes of algal biomass and oil can be produced there? In locations where co-location does not occur, what resources should be transported, and how far, while maintaining economic viability? This work is being funded through the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Biomass Program Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, and is part of a larger collaborative effort that includes sampling, strain isolation, strain characterization and cultivation being performed by the NREL and Canada's NRC. Results from the NREL / NRC collaboration including specific

  6. Indications of Transformation Products from Hydraulic Fracturing Additives in Shale-Gas Wastewater.

    PubMed

    Hoelzer, Kathrin; Sumner, Andrew J; Karatum, Osman; Nelson, Robert K; Drollette, Brian D; O'Connor, Megan P; D'Ambro, Emma L; Getzinger, Gordon J; Ferguson, P Lee; Reddy, Christopher M; Elsner, Martin; Plata, Desiree L

    2016-08-01

    Unconventional natural gas development (UNGD) generates large volumes of wastewater, the detailed composition of which must be known for adequate risk assessment and treatment. In particular, transformation products of geogenic compounds and disclosed additives have not been described. This study investigated six Fayetteville Shale wastewater samples for organic composition using a suite of one- and two-dimensional gas chromatographic techniques to capture a broad distribution of chemical structures. Following the application of strict compound-identification-confidence criteria, we classified compounds according to their putative origin. Samples displayed distinct chemical distributions composed of typical geogenic substances (hydrocarbons and hopane biomarkers), disclosed UNGD additives (e.g., hydrocarbons, phthalates such as diisobutyl phthalate, and radical initiators such as azobis(isobutyronitrile)), and undisclosed compounds (e.g., halogenated hydrocarbons, such as 2-bromohexane or 4-bromoheptane). Undisclosed chloromethyl alkanoates (chloromethyl propanoate, pentanoate, and octanoate) were identified as potential delayed acids (i.e., those that release acidic moieties only after hydrolytic cleavage, the rate of which could be potentially controlled), suggesting they were deliberately introduced to react in the subsurface. In contrast, the identification of halogenated methanes and acetones suggested that those compounds were formed as unintended byproducts. Our study highlights the possibility that UNGD operations generate transformation products and underscores the value of disclosing additives injected into the subsurface.

  7. Indications of Transformation Products from Hydraulic Fracturing Additives in Shale-Gas Wastewater.

    PubMed

    Hoelzer, Kathrin; Sumner, Andrew J; Karatum, Osman; Nelson, Robert K; Drollette, Brian D; O'Connor, Megan P; D'Ambro, Emma L; Getzinger, Gordon J; Ferguson, P Lee; Reddy, Christopher M; Elsner, Martin; Plata, Desiree L

    2016-08-01

    Unconventional natural gas development (UNGD) generates large volumes of wastewater, the detailed composition of which must be known for adequate risk assessment and treatment. In particular, transformation products of geogenic compounds and disclosed additives have not been described. This study investigated six Fayetteville Shale wastewater samples for organic composition using a suite of one- and two-dimensional gas chromatographic techniques to capture a broad distribution of chemical structures. Following the application of strict compound-identification-confidence criteria, we classified compounds according to their putative origin. Samples displayed distinct chemical distributions composed of typical geogenic substances (hydrocarbons and hopane biomarkers), disclosed UNGD additives (e.g., hydrocarbons, phthalates such as diisobutyl phthalate, and radical initiators such as azobis(isobutyronitrile)), and undisclosed compounds (e.g., halogenated hydrocarbons, such as 2-bromohexane or 4-bromoheptane). Undisclosed chloromethyl alkanoates (chloromethyl propanoate, pentanoate, and octanoate) were identified as potential delayed acids (i.e., those that release acidic moieties only after hydrolytic cleavage, the rate of which could be potentially controlled), suggesting they were deliberately introduced to react in the subsurface. In contrast, the identification of halogenated methanes and acetones suggested that those compounds were formed as unintended byproducts. Our study highlights the possibility that UNGD operations generate transformation products and underscores the value of disclosing additives injected into the subsurface. PMID:27419914

  8. Biomass production of papyrus (Cyperus papyrus) in constructed wetland treating low-strength domestic wastewater.

    PubMed

    Perbangkhem, Thaneeya; Polprasert, Chongchin

    2010-01-01

    In this study, the pilot-scale constructed wetlands were fed with low-strength domestic wastewater to investigate the energy-capturing efficiency and plant productivity. Papyrus was a selected emergent macrophyte planted in the systems. The wastewater was intermittently fed to the systems, corresponding to the organic loading rates of 10, 16, 31, and 63 kg BOD/ha-d. With abundant sunshine in the tropical-climate area, papyrus converted solar radiation to biomass of about 2200-3100 g dry weight/m(2) from the two-month period of the experiments. Furthermore, the energy contents of papyrus are 16.2, 17.2, and 16.8 MJ/kg for culms, umbels, and total above-ground parts, respectively. From the plant productivity and the energy contents of papyrus obtained from this study, the energy capturing efficiencies can be estimated to be in the range of 4.4-6.0%, which are relatively high, compared with those of other plants. PMID:19758797

  9. Studies on the production of B. thuringiensis based biopesticides using wastewater sludge as a raw material.

    PubMed

    Vidyarthi, A S; Tyagi, R D; Valero, J R; Surampalli, R Y

    2002-11-01

    Growth and delta-endotoxin yield of Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) subsp kurstaki in tryptic soy yeast extract (TSY) medium, soybean meal based commercial medium and wastewater sludge medium were studied. The viable spores (VS) count in sludge medium was comparable to that obtained in laboratory and commercial media. The entomotoxicity of the fermentation liquid (Bt grown sludge) against Choristoneura fumiferana was comparable to the concentrated commercial Bt formulation available in the market (Foray 48B). A higher entomotoxicity was observed in a sludge medium than in the TSY or soybean meal media. The secondary and mixed (mixture of primary and secondary) sludges from various wastewater treatment plants were also evaluated for spore formation and entomotoxicity yield. The VS count was higher in a mixed sludge compared to the secondary sludge at a similar sludge solids concentration. Both VS count and entomotoxicity yield was found to be a function of sludge solids concentration in the medium. The optimum value of solids concentration for Bt production was found to be 25 g (-1) (dry weight basis). Beyond this concentration, a drop in VS count and entomotoxicity yield was observed. A low C:N ratio in the secondary sludge and a high C:N ratio in the mixed sludge resulted in a higher entomotoxicity. The optimum value of C:N ratio in combined sludge for Bt production was found to be 7.9-9.9. Relationships between entomotoxicity and maximum specific growth as well as with specific sporulation rate were developed.

  10. Carbonyl Emissions From Oil and Gas Production Facilities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lyman, S. N.; O'Neil, T.; Tran, T.

    2015-12-01

    A number of recent studies have targeted emissions of methane and other hydrocarbons from oil and gas exploration and production activity. These measurements are greatly increasing understanding of the atmospheric impacts of oil and gas development. Very few measurements exist, however, of emissions of formaldehyde and other carbonyls from oil and gas equipment. Carbonyls are toxic and serve as important ozone precursors, especially during winter ozone episodes in places like Utah's Uintah Basin. Current air quality models are only able to reproduce observed high wintertime ozone if they incorporate emissions inventories with very high carbonyl emissions. We measured carbonyl emissions from oil and gas equipment and facilities—including glycol dehydrators, liquid storage tanks, raw gas leaks, raw gas-burning engines, and produced water surface impoundments—in Rocky Mountain oil and gas fields. Carbonyl emissions from raw gas were below detection, but emissions of formaldehyde, acetaldehyde, and other carbonyls were detected from liquid storage tanks, glycol dehydrators, and other oil and gas equipment. In some cases, carbonyls may be formed from the degradation of methanol and other chemicals used in oil and gas production, but the collected data provide evidence for other non-combustion formation pathways. Raw gas-burning engines also emitted carbonyls. Emissions from all measured sources were a small fraction of total volatile organic compound emissions. We incorporated our measurements into an emissions inventory, used that inventory in an air quality model (WRF-SMOKE-CAMx), and were unable to reproduce observed high wintertime ozone. This could be because (1) emission sources we have not yet measured, including compressors, gas processing plants, and others, are large; (2) non-carbonyl emissions, especially those that quickly degrade into carbonyls during photochemical processing, are underestimated in the inventory; or (3) the air quality model is unable

  11. Treatment of olive oil mill wastewater by combined process electro-Fenton reaction and anaerobic digestion.

    PubMed

    Khoufi, Sonia; Aloui, Fathi; Sayadi, Sami

    2006-06-01

    In this work, we investigated an integrated technology for the treatment of the recalcitrant contaminants of olive mill wastewaters (OMW), allowing water recovery and reuse for agricultural purposes. The method involves an electrochemical pre-treatment step of the wastewater using the electro-Fenton reaction followed by an anaerobic bio-treatment. The electro-Fenton process removed 65.8% of the total polyphenolic compounds and subsequently decreased the OMW toxicity from 100% to 66.9%, which resulted in improving the performance of the anaerobic digestion. A continuous lab-scale methanogenic reactor was operated at a loading rate of 10 g chemical oxygen demand (COD)l(-1) d(-1) without any apparent toxicity. Furthermore, in the combined process, a high overall reduction in COD, suspended solids, polyphenols and lipid content was achieved by the two successive stages. This result opens promising perspectives since its conception as a fast and cheap pre-treatment prior to conventional anaerobic post-treatment. The use of electro-coagulation as post-treatment technology completely detoxified the anaerobic effluent and removed its toxic compounds. PMID:16678883

  12. Treatment of olive oil mill wastewater by combined process electro-Fenton reaction and anaerobic digestion.

    PubMed

    Khoufi, Sonia; Aloui, Fathi; Sayadi, Sami

    2006-06-01

    In this work, we investigated an integrated technology for the treatment of the recalcitrant contaminants of olive mill wastewaters (OMW), allowing water recovery and reuse for agricultural purposes. The method involves an electrochemical pre-treatment step of the wastewater using the electro-Fenton reaction followed by an anaerobic bio-treatment. The electro-Fenton process removed 65.8% of the total polyphenolic compounds and subsequently decreased the OMW toxicity from 100% to 66.9%, which resulted in improving the performance of the anaerobic digestion. A continuous lab-scale methanogenic reactor was operated at a loading rate of 10 g chemical oxygen demand (COD)l(-1) d(-1) without any apparent toxicity. Furthermore, in the combined process, a high overall reduction in COD, suspended solids, polyphenols and lipid content was achieved by the two successive stages. This result opens promising perspectives since its conception as a fast and cheap pre-treatment prior to conventional anaerobic post-treatment. The use of electro-coagulation as post-treatment technology completely detoxified the anaerobic effluent and removed its toxic compounds.

  13. Lipase production by Penicillium restrictum using solid waste of industrial babassu oil production as substrate.

    PubMed

    Palma, M B; Pinto, A L; Gombert, A K; Seitz, K H; Kivatinitz, S C; Castilho, L R; Freire, D M

    2000-01-01

    Lipase, protease, and amylase production by Penicillium restrictum in solid-state fermentation was investigated. The basal medium was an industrial waste of babassu oil (Orbignya oleifera) production. It was enriched with peptone, olive oil, and Tween-80. The supplementation positively influenced both enzyme production and fungal growth. Media enriched with Tween-80 provided the highest protease activity (8.6 U/g), whereas those enriched with peptone and olive oil led to the highest lipase (27.8 U/g) and amylase (31.8 U/g) activities, respectively.

  14. Physicochemical analysis and adequation of olive oil mill wastewater after advanced oxidation process for reclamation by pressure-driven membrane technology.

    PubMed

    Ochando-Pulido, Javier Miguel; Victor-Ortega, Maria Dolores; Hodaifa, Gassan; Martinez-Ferez, Antonio

    2015-01-15

    Physicochemical characterization of olive mill wastewaters (OMW) was studied after a primary and secondary treatment was implemented in an olive oil factory in Jaén (Spain), comprising natural precipitation, Fenton-like reaction, flocculation-sedimentation and olive stone filtration in series. The application of membrane technology in improving the quality of the secondary-treated OMW (OMW/ST) was examined, to reduce the hazardous electroconductivity (EC) values (2-3 mS cm(-1)). Particle size distribution on OMW/ST shows supra-micron colloids and suspended solids as well as sub-micron particles with a mean size below 1.5 μm remaining in considerable concentration. The high organic pollutants percentage (31.7%) registered with an average diameter below 3 kDa is sensibly relevant for membrane fouling. Mesophilic aerobic bacteria growth warns of possible membrane biofouling formation. The saturation index indicates to work upon recovery factor below 90%. Finally, operating at a pressure equal to 15 bar ensured low fouling and high flux production on the selected NF membrane (69.9 L h(-1)m(-2)) and significant rejection efficiencies (55.5% and 88.5% for EC and COD). This permits obtaining an effluent with good quality according to the recommendations of the Food and Agricultural Association (FAO) with the goal of reusing the regenerated water for irrigation.

  15. Effect of spent cotton stalks on color removal and chemical oxygen demand lowering in olive oil mill wastewater by white rot fungi.

    PubMed

    Kahraman, S; Yeşilada, O

    1999-01-01

    Wastewater from olive oil mill was decolorized (and its chemical oxygen demand reduced in static cultivation) using the fungi Coriolus versicolor, Funalia trogii, Phanerochaete chrysosporium and Pleurotus sajor-caju. The effect of cotton stalk on decolorizing and COD removing capability was demonstrated. P. chrysosporium (in 20% medium with cotton stalk) reduced the COD by 48% and color by 58%, F. trogii (in 30% medium with cotton stalk)) by 51 and 55%, respectively.

  16. Design and development of decentralized water and wastewater technologies: a combination of safe wastewater disposal and fertilizer production.

    PubMed

    Fach, S; Fuchs, S

    2010-01-01

    Modern wastewater treatment plants are often inappropriate for communities in developing countries. Such communities lack the funding, resources and skilled labour required to implement, operate, and maintain these plants. This research was conducted to investigate and establish an appropriate wastewater treatment system for the district of Gunung Kidul, Indonesia. Due to its lack of water during the dry season, this district is considered one of the poorest areas in the nation. First, wastewater was stored in septic tank units for a retention time of 26 days. Anaerobic conditions occurred, resulting in an 80% reduction of initial COD. The retained sludge was well stabilized with great potential, if dewatered, for reuse as fertilizer. Consequently, supernatant was separated for experiments consisting of lab scale aerobic sand filtering unit. Through filtration, further removals of COD (about 30%) and pathogens were achieved. Rich in nitrogen, the resulting effluent could be used for irrigation and soil conditioning. With faecal sludge and also a mixture of septic sludge and food waste, the hydrolysis stage of anaerobic digestion was examined. This paper discusses the laboratory findings in Karlsruhe and the design and implementation of a treatment system in Glompong, Indonesia.

  17. Identification of characteristic organic contaminants in wastewaters from modern paper production sites and subsequent tracing in a river.

    PubMed

    Dsikowitzky, Larissa; Botalova, Oxana; Illgut, Sarah; Bosowski, Sylwana; Schwarzbauer, Jan

    2015-12-30

    The paper industry is one of the most significant industrial branches that contributes to water pollution. Recent studies regarding the chemical composition of wastewaters from modern paper production sites are sparse, and organic contaminants originating from this source may remain undetected and uncontrolled. Therefore, for this study, non-target screening analyses of wastewaters from five different paper production sites were performed, including an extended analysis of one facility, for the identification of volatile non-polar to semi-polar organic contaminants. The identified contaminants were also traced in the adjacent river. Several specific agents related to paper production, including photoinitiators, ink and thermal paper constituents, were present in most wastewaters and were therefore considered to be characteristic paper industry contaminants. A couple of contaminants identified in this study are being reported for the first time and might be toxic, but have been neglected in previous studies. Bisphenol A and 2,4,7,9-tetramethyl-5-decyne-4,7-diol were found in untreated wastewaters, treated wastewater and in river water. Bisphenol A was present in river water downstream from where the paper industry discharges at a concentration that was reported to affect the reproduction of gastropods. Thus, our findings imply that paper industry discharges pose a risk to the populations of sensitive macroinvertebrates. PMID:26188868

  18. Identification of characteristic organic contaminants in wastewaters from modern paper production sites and subsequent tracing in a river.

    PubMed

    Dsikowitzky, Larissa; Botalova, Oxana; Illgut, Sarah; Bosowski, Sylwana; Schwarzbauer, Jan

    2015-12-30

    The paper industry is one of the most significant industrial branches that contributes to water pollution. Recent studies regarding the chemical composition of wastewaters from modern paper production sites are sparse, and organic contaminants originating from this source may remain undetected and uncontrolled. Therefore, for this study, non-target screening analyses of wastewaters from five different paper production sites were performed, including an extended analysis of one facility, for the identification of volatile non-polar to semi-polar organic contaminants. The identified contaminants were also traced in the adjacent river. Several specific agents related to paper production, including photoinitiators, ink and thermal paper constituents, were present in most wastewaters and were therefore considered to be characteristic paper industry contaminants. A couple of contaminants identified in this study are being reported for the first time and might be toxic, but have been neglected in previous studies. Bisphenol A and 2,4,7,9-tetramethyl-5-decyne-4,7-diol were found in untreated wastewaters, treated wastewater and in river water. Bisphenol A was present in river water downstream from where the paper industry discharges at a concentration that was reported to affect the reproduction of gastropods. Thus, our findings imply that paper industry discharges pose a risk to the populations of sensitive macroinvertebrates.

  19. Evaluating oil quality and monitoring production from heavy oil reservoirs using geochemical methods: Application to the Boscan Field, Venezuela

    SciTech Connect

    Kaufman, R.L.; Noguera, V.H.; Bantz, D.M.; Rodriguez, R.

    1996-08-01

    Many oil fields worldwide contain heavy oil in one or more reservoir units. The low gravity of these oils is most frequently due to biodegradation and/or low maturity. The challenge is to find ways to economically recover this oil. Methods which reduce the operating costs of producing heavy oil add significant value to such projects. Geochemical techniques which use the composition of the reservoir fluids as natural tracers offer cost effective methods to assist with reservoir management. The low viscosity and gravity of heavy oil, combined with frequent high water cuts, low flow rates, and the presence of downhole artificial lift equipment, make many conventional production logging methods difficult to apply. Therefore, monitoring production, especially if the produced oil is commingled from multiple reservoirs, can be difficult. Geochemical methods can be used to identify oil/water contacts, tubing string leaks and to allocate production to individual zones from commingled production. An example of a giant heavy oil field where geochemical methods may be applicable is the Boscan Field in Venezuela. Low maturity oil, averaging 10{degrees} API gravity, is produced from the Eocene Upper and Lower Boscan (Miosa) Sands. Geochemical, stratigraphic and engineering data have helped to better define the controls on oil quality within the field, identified new reservoir compartments and defined unique characteristics of the Upper and Lower Boscan oils. This information can be used to identify existing wells in need of workovers due to mechanical problems and to monitor production from new infill wells.

  20. The Effects of Different Irrigation Treatments on Olive Oil Quality and Composition: A Comparative Study between Treated and Olive Mill Wastewater.

    PubMed

    Ben Brahim, Samia; Gargouri, Boutheina; Marrakchi, Fatma; Bouaziz, Mohamed

    2016-02-17

    In the present paper, two irrigation treatments were applied to olive trees cv. Chemlali: irrigation with treated wastewater (TWW) and with olive mill wastewater (OMW), which was spread at three levels (50, 100, and 200 m(3)/ha). This work is interested in two topics: (1) the influence of different irrigation treatments on olive oil composition and quality and (2) the comparison between OMW and TWW application using different statistical analyses. The obtained variance analysis (ANOVA) has confirmed that there are no significant differences in oil quality indices and flavonoids between the control and treatments amended by OMW or TWW (p > 0.05). However, the irrigation affected some aspects of olive oil composition such as the reduction in palmitic acid (16.32%) and increase in linoleic acid (19.55%). Furthermore, the total phenols and α-tocopherol contents increased significantly following OMW and TWW treatments. Principal component analysis (PCA) and hierarchical cluster analysis (HCA) defined three irrigation groups: OMW 50 and 100 m(3)/ha, OMW 200 m(3)/ha and control, and TWW treatment. The full factorial design revealed that OMW amendment by 100 m(3)/ha is the best irrigation treatment. Thus, the optimal performances in terms of olive oil quality and composition were shown by olive oil extracted from olives grown under irrigation with 100 m(3)/ha of OMW.

  1. Production of crude oils in Pakistan: Outlook for the future

    SciTech Connect

    Ahmad, S.

    1995-12-31

    Pakistan`s sedimentary basins cover an area of 827,000 km{sub 2} that stretches from the Karakurum Mountains in the north to the Arabian Sea in the south. The first exploration well in the region was drilled near Kundal in 1866, just seven years after the Drake well in Pennsylvania. To date, 384 exploration wells have been drilled in Pakistan resulting in 45 oil and 55 gas discoveries, thus generating a highly favourable success ratio of 1:4. The drilling density in Pakistan is one well/1000 square kilometers. Pakistan has proven oil reserves of around 500 million barrels of oil, whereas proven gas reserves are about 31 trillion cubic feet. However, Pakistan`s resource potential is estimated to be 40 billion barrels of oil and 200 TCF of gas. The purpose of this paper is to describe: (i) habitat and production of crude oil in Pakistan, (ii) Pakistan`s current energy needs and future outlook, and (iii) steps being taken by the Government of Pakistan to promote exploration for oil and gas.

  2. Low-rank coal oil agglomeration product and process

    DOEpatents

    Knudson, Curtis L.; Timpe, Ronald C.; Potas, Todd A.; DeWall, Raymond A.; Musich, Mark A.

    1992-01-01

    A selectively-sized, raw, low-rank coal is processed to produce a low ash and relative water-free agglomerate with an enhanced heating value and a hardness sufficient to produce a non-decrepitating, shippable fuel. The low-rank coal is treated, under high shear conditions, in the first stage to cause ash reduction and subsequent surface modification which is necessary to facilitate agglomerate formation. In the second stage the treated low-rank coal is contacted with bridging and binding oils under low shear conditions to produce agglomerates of selected size. The bridging and binding oils may be coal or petroleum derived. The process incorporates a thermal deoiling step whereby the bridging oil may be completely or partially recovered from the agglomerate; whereas, partial recovery of the bridging oil functions to leave as an agglomerate binder, the heavy constituents of the bridging oil. The recovered oil is suitable for recycling to the agglomeration step or can serve as a value-added product.

  3. Low-rank coal oil agglomeration product and process

    DOEpatents

    Knudson, C.L.; Timpe, R.C.; Potas, T.A.; DeWall, R.A.; Musich, M.A.

    1992-11-10

    A selectively-sized, raw, low-rank coal is processed to produce a low ash and relative water-free agglomerate with an enhanced heating value and a hardness sufficient to produce a non-degradable, shippable fuel. The low-rank coal is treated, under high shear conditions, in the first stage to cause ash reduction and subsequent surface modification which is necessary to facilitate agglomerate formation. In the second stage the treated low-rank coal is contacted with bridging and binding oils under low shear conditions to produce agglomerates of selected size. The bridging and binding oils may be coal or petroleum derived. The process incorporates a thermal deoiling step whereby the bridging oil may be completely or partially recovered from the agglomerate; whereas, partial recovery of the bridging oil functions to leave as an agglomerate binder, the heavy constituents of the bridging oil. The recovered oil is suitable for recycling to the agglomeration step or can serve as a value-added product.

  4. Biogas production from cheese whey wastewater: laboratory- and full-scale studies.

    PubMed

    Stamatelatou, K; Giantsiou, N; Diamantis, V; Alexandridis, C; Alexandridis, A; Aivasidis, A

    2014-01-01

    A two-phase system for biogas production from cheese whey wastewater (CWW) was designed, set up and operated at laboratory and full scale for a whole cheese production season (8-9 months). The high efficiency and stability of the laboratory-scale system was demonstrated under various organic loading rates (OLRs) reaching 13 g chemical oxygen demand (COD) L(-1)d(-1) and producing up to 9 L L(-1)d(-1) of biogas (approximately 55% in methane). The COD removal was above 95% and the pH was maintained above 6.3 without any chemical addition. The full-scale system was operated at lower OLRs than its normal capacity, following the good response and high stability in disturbances of the laboratory-scale unit.

  5. Diverse bacteria isolated from microtherm oil-production water.

    PubMed

    Sun, Ji-Quan; Xu, Lian; Zhang, Zhao; Li, Yan; Tang, Yue-Qin; Wu, Xiao-Lei

    2014-02-01

    In total, 435 pure bacterial strains were isolated from microtherm oil-production water from the Karamay Oilfield, Xinjiang, China, by using four media: oil-production water medium (Cai medium), oil-production water supplemented with mineral salt medium (CW medium), oil-production water supplemented with yeast extract medium (CY medium), and blood agar medium (X medium). The bacterial isolates were affiliated with 61 phylogenetic groups that belong to 32 genera in the phyla Actinobacteria, Firmicutes, and Proteobacteria. Except for the Rhizobium, Dietzia, and Pseudomonas strains that were isolated using all the four media, using different media led to the isolation of bacteria with different functions. Similarly, nonheme diiron alkane monooxygenase genes (alkB/alkM) also clustered according to the isolation medium. Among the bacterial strains, more than 24 % of the isolates could use n-hexadecane as the sole carbon source for growth. For the first time, the alkane-degrading ability and alkB/alkM were detected in Rhizobium, Rhodobacter, Trichococcus, Micrococcus, Enterococcus, and Bavariicoccus strains, and the alkM gene was detected in Firmicutes strains.

  6. Integrating Sunflower Oil Seed Crops into Florida Horticultural Production Systems

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Locally produced biodiesel feedstock plant oil creates a unique possibility to integrate multiple-goal oriented cover crops into Florida horticultural production systems. Typically, cover crops are planted to improve soil fertility and the natural suppression of soilborne pests at times when fields...

  7. A cost analysis of microalgal biomass and biodiesel production in open raceways treating municipal wastewater and under optimum light wavelength.

    PubMed

    Kang, Zion; Kim, Byung-Hyuk; Ramanan, Rishiram; Choi, Jong-Eun; Yang, Ji-Won; Oh, Hee-Mock; Kim, Hee-Sik

    2015-01-01

    Open raceway ponds are cost-efficient for mass cultivation of microalgae compared with photobioreactors. Although low-cost options like wastewater as nutrient source is studied to overcome the commercialization threshold for biodiesel production from microalgae, a cost analysis on the use of wastewater and other incremental increases in productivity has not been elucidated. We determined the effect of using wastewater and wavelength filters on microalgal productivity. Experimental results were then fitted into a model, and cost analysis was performed in comparison with control raceways. Three different microalgal strains, Chlorella vulgaris AG10032, Chlorella sp. JK2, and Scenedesmus sp. JK10, were tested for nutrient removal under different light wavelengths (blue, green, red, and white) using filters in batch cultivation. Blue wavelength showed an average of 27% higher nutrient removal and at least 42% higher chemical oxygen demand removal compared with white light. Naturally, the specific growth rate of microalgae cultivated under blue wavelength was on average 10.8% higher than white wavelength. Similarly, lipid productivity was highest in blue wavelength, at least 46.8% higher than white wavelength, whereas FAME composition revealed a mild increase in oleic and palmitic acid levels. Cost analysis reveals that raceways treating wastewater and using monochromatic wavelength would decrease costs from 2.71 to 0.73 $/kg biomass. We prove that increasing both biomass and lipid productivity is possible through cost-effective approaches, thereby accelerating the commercialization of low-value products from microalgae, like biodiesel.

  8. Comparing the dynamic performance of wastewater treatment systems: A metafrontier Malmquist productivity index approach.

    PubMed

    Molinos-Senante, María; Hernández-Sancho, Francesc; Sala-Garrido, Ramón

    2015-09-15

    The assessment of productivity change of wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) is essential to improve the performance over time of the facilities evaluated. This study assessed and compared the productivity growth of WWTPs operating with non-homogeneous technologies. The metafrontier Malmquist productivity index (MMPI) was computed for a sample of 99 WWTPs encompassing 4 alternative technologies: activated sludge (AS), aerated lagoon (AL), trickling filter (TF) and rotating biological contactor (BD). The results indicated that, on average, WWTPs with AS and BD exhibited better performance over time than WWTPs with AL and TF. The MMPI indicates that, over the period 2007-2009, the productivity rose by 0.9% and 0.3% for AS and BD technologies, respectively, whilst for the AL and TF processes, the productivity decreased by 0.5% and 2.2%, respectively. The decomposition of the MMPI into efficiency change (EC) and technical change (TC) illustrated that EC was a positive driver of productivity change for WWTPs that use AS, whilst TC contributed positively to the productivity growth of WWTPs using AL and BD. Several policy implications to help managers make informed decisions were drawn from our empirical analysis.

  9. Butanol and ethanol production from tapioca starch wastewater by Clostridium spp.

    PubMed

    Ouephanit, Chanika; Virunanon, Chompunuch; Burapatana, Vorakan; Chulalaksananukul, Warawut

    2011-01-01

    Total (TWW) and tapioca starch wash wastewater (TSWW) from a cassava processing plant in Thailand were analyzed for their composition with a view to evaluate their potential as substrates for solvent production by ABE fermentation with Clostridium spp. Starch was detected at a 1.63-fold higher level in the TWW than that in the TSWW (24.4% and 15.0% (w/w), respectively). The chemical oxygen demand (COD) was broadly similar (20,093 and 20,433 mg/L), but the biological oxygen demand (BOD) was 1.84-fold higher (18,000 and 9,750 mg/L) in the TWW than that in the TSWW. Thus, the TSWW was selected as a substrate to evaluate its potential for butanol and ethanol production by two Clostridium spp. The combined ethanol plus butanol production in the TSWW at pH 6.5 was higher than that at pH 4.5, being around 27.8- and 3.4-fold higher in C. butyricum TISTR 1032 and C. acetobutylicum ATCC 824, respectively. In both strains, the butanol (and combined butanol plus ethanol) production level was improved at pH 5.5. The addition of yeast extract increased the bacterial cell production, but did not significantly improve solvent productivity in C. acetobutylicum, and even decreased butanol production by C. butyricum. PMID:22020468

  10. Comparing the dynamic performance of wastewater treatment systems: A metafrontier Malmquist productivity index approach.

    PubMed

    Molinos-Senante, María; Hernández-Sancho, Francesc; Sala-Garrido, Ramón

    2015-09-15

    The assessment of productivity change of wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) is essential to improve the performance over time of the facilities evaluated. This study assessed and compared the productivity growth of WWTPs operating with non-homogeneous technologies. The metafrontier Malmquist productivity index (MMPI) was computed for a sample of 99 WWTPs encompassing 4 alternative technologies: activated sludge (AS), aerated lagoon (AL), trickling filter (TF) and rotating biological contactor (BD). The results indicated that, on average, WWTPs with AS and BD exhibited better performance over time than WWTPs with AL and TF. The MMPI indicates that, over the period 2007-2009, the productivity rose by 0.9% and 0.3% for AS and BD technologies, respectively, whilst for the AL and TF processes, the productivity decreased by 0.5% and 2.2%, respectively. The decomposition of the MMPI into efficiency change (EC) and technical change (TC) illustrated that EC was a positive driver of productivity change for WWTPs that use AS, whilst TC contributed positively to the productivity growth of WWTPs using AL and BD. Several policy implications to help managers make informed decisions were drawn from our empirical analysis. PMID:26197425

  11. Butanol and ethanol production from tapioca starch wastewater by Clostridium spp.

    PubMed

    Ouephanit, Chanika; Virunanon, Chompunuch; Burapatana, Vorakan; Chulalaksananukul, Warawut

    2011-01-01

    Total (TWW) and tapioca starch wash wastewater (TSWW) from a cassava processing plant in Thailand were analyzed for their composition with a view to evaluate their potential as substrates for solvent production by ABE fermentation with Clostridium spp. Starch was detected at a 1.63-fold higher level in the TWW than that in the TSWW (24.4% and 15.0% (w/w), respectively). The chemical oxygen demand (COD) was broadly similar (20,093 and 20,433 mg/L), but the biological oxygen demand (BOD) was 1.84-fold higher (18,000 and 9,750 mg/L) in the TWW than that in the TSWW. Thus, the TSWW was selected as a substrate to evaluate its potential for butanol and ethanol production by two Clostridium spp. The combined ethanol plus butanol production in the TSWW at pH 6.5 was higher than that at pH 4.5, being around 27.8- and 3.4-fold higher in C. butyricum TISTR 1032 and C. acetobutylicum ATCC 824, respectively. In both strains, the butanol (and combined butanol plus ethanol) production level was improved at pH 5.5. The addition of yeast extract increased the bacterial cell production, but did not significantly improve solvent productivity in C. acetobutylicum, and even decreased butanol production by C. butyricum.

  12. Biodiesel production from microalgae oil catalyzed by a recombinant lipase.

    PubMed

    Huang, Jinjin; Xia, Ji; Jiang, Wei; Li, Ying; Li, Jilun

    2015-03-01

    A recombinant Rhizomucor miehei lipase was constructed and expressed in Pichia pastoris. The target enzyme was termed Lipase GH2 and it can be used as a free enzyme for catalytic conversion of microalgae oil mixed with methanol or ethanol for biodiesel production in an n-hexane solvent system. Conversion rates of two major types of biodiesel, fatty acid methyl ester (FAME) and fatty acid ethyl ester (FAEE), reached maximal values (>90%) after 24h. The process of FAME production is generally more simple and economical than that of FAEE production, even though the two processes show similar conversion rates. In spite of the damaging effect of ethanol on enzyme activity, we successfully obtained ethyl ester by the enzymatic method. Our findings indicate that Lipase GH2 is a useful catalyst for conversion of microalgae oil to FAME or FAEE, and this system provides efficiency and reduced costs in biodiesel production.

  13. Development of catalyst production facilities at Ufa Oil Refinery

    SciTech Connect

    Propkopyuk, S.G.; Rozenbaum, B.L.; Putilin, N.Ye.; Amirkhanov, K.Sh.; Morozov, B.F.; Britenkova, T.G.

    1982-08-03

    The Ufa Order of Lenin Oil Refinery is one of the USSR's largest facilities for production of catalysts for oil refining and petrochemistry, as well as for the food industry. Nine types of catalysts are produced for cracking, selective hydrogenation and oligomerization. A plant for production of NaY zeolite catalysts by the ash method has been remodeled. The production of nickel catalysts on kieselgur is growing rapidly. The facility for producing copper-chromium type MKhB catalyst is to be remodeled during the 11th Five-Year Plan. Production of cracking catalysts will be basically redesigned, increasing the capacity by 50% and significantly improving the operating characteristics of microspherical catalysts.

  14. Biodiesel production from microalgae oil catalyzed by a recombinant lipase.

    PubMed

    Huang, Jinjin; Xia, Ji; Jiang, Wei; Li, Ying; Li, Jilun

    2015-03-01

    A recombinant Rhizomucor miehei lipase was constructed and expressed in Pichia pastoris. The target enzyme was termed Lipase GH2 and it can be used as a free enzyme for catalytic conversion of microalgae oil mixed with methanol or ethanol for biodiesel production in an n-hexane solvent system. Conversion rates of two major types of biodiesel, fatty acid methyl ester (FAME) and fatty acid ethyl ester (FAEE), reached maximal values (>90%) after 24h. The process of FAME production is generally more simple and economical than that of FAEE production, even though the two processes show similar conversion rates. In spite of the damaging effect of ethanol on enzyme activity, we successfully obtained ethyl ester by the enzymatic method. Our findings indicate that Lipase GH2 is a useful catalyst for conversion of microalgae oil to FAME or FAEE, and this system provides efficiency and reduced costs in biodiesel production. PMID:25585254

  15. Dual purpose microalgae-bacteria-based systems that treat wastewater and produce biodiesel and chemical products within a biorefinery.

    PubMed

    Olguín, Eugenia J

    2012-01-01

    Excess greenhouse gas emissions and the concomitant effect on global warming have become significant environmental, social and economic threats. In this context, the development of renewable, carbon-neutral and economically feasible biofuels is a driving force for innovation worldwide. A lot of effort has been put into developing biodiesel from microalgae. However, there are still a number of technological, market and policy barriers that are serious obstacles to the economic feasibility and competitiveness of such biofuels. Conversely, there are also a number of business opportunities if the production of such alternative biofuel becomes part of a larger integrated system following the Biorefinery strategy. In this case, other biofuels and chemical products of high added value are produced, contributing to an overall enhancement of the economic viability of the whole integrated system. Additionally, dual purpose microalgae-bacteria-based systems for treating wastewater and production of biofuels and chemical products significantly contribute to a substantial saving in the overall cost of microalgae biomass production. These types of systems could help to improve the competitiveness of biodiesel production from microalgae, according to some recent Life Cycle Analysis studies. Furthermore, they do not compete for fresh water resources for agricultural purposes and add value to treating the wastewater itself. This work reviews the most recent and relevant information about these types of dual purpose systems. Several aspects related to the treatment of municipal and animal wastewater with simultaneous recovery of microalgae with potential for biodiesel production are discussed. The use of pre-treated waste or anaerobic effluents from digested waste as nutrient additives for weak wastewater is reviewed. Isolation and screening of microalgae/cyanobacteria or their consortia from various wastewater streams, and studies related to population dynamics in mixed cultures

  16. Dual purpose microalgae-bacteria-based systems that treat wastewater and produce biodiesel and chemical products within a biorefinery.

    PubMed

    Olguín, Eugenia J

    2012-01-01

    Excess greenhouse gas emissions and the concomitant effect on global warming have become significant environmental, social and economic threats. In this context, the development of renewable, carbon-neutral and economically feasible biofuels is a driving force for innovation worldwide. A lot of effort has been put into developing biodiesel from microalgae. However, there are still a number of technological, market and policy barriers that are serious obstacles to the economic feasibility and competitiveness of such biofuels. Conversely, there are also a number of business opportunities if the production of such alternative biofuel becomes part of a larger integrated system following the Biorefinery strategy. In this case, other biofuels and chemical products of high added value are produced, contributing to an overall enhancement of the economic viability of the whole integrated system. Additionally, dual purpose microalgae-bacteria-based systems for treating wastewater and production of biofuels and chemical products significantly contribute to a substantial saving in the overall cost of microalgae biomass production. These types of systems could help to improve the competitiveness of biodiesel production from microalgae, according to some recent Life Cycle Analysis studies. Furthermore, they do not compete for fresh water resources for agricultural purposes and add value to treating the wastewater itself. This work reviews the most recent and relevant information about these types of dual purpose systems. Several aspects related to the treatment of municipal and animal wastewater with simultaneous recovery of microalgae with potential for biodiesel production are discussed. The use of pre-treated waste or anaerobic effluents from digested waste as nutrient additives for weak wastewater is reviewed. Isolation and screening of microalgae/cyanobacteria or their consortia from various wastewater streams, and studies related to population dynamics in mixed cultures

  17. Enzymatic hydrolysis of fractionated products from oil thermally oxidated

    SciTech Connect

    Yashida, H.; Alexander, J.C.

    1983-01-01

    Enzymatic hydrolysis of the acylglycerol products obtained from thermally oxidized vegetable oils was studied. Corn, sunflower and soybean oils were heated in the laboratory at 180/sup 0/C for 50, 70 and 100 hr with aeration and directly fractionated by silicic acid column chromatography. By successive elution with 20%, then 60% isopropyl ether in n-hexane, and diethyl ether, the thermally oxidized oils were separated into three fractions: the nonpolar fraction (monomeric compounds), slightly polar fraction (dimeric compounds), and polar fraction comprising oligomeric compounds. Enzymatic hydrolysis with pancreatic lipase showed that the monomers were hydrolyzed as rapidly as the corresponding unheated oils, the dimers much more slowly, and the oligomeric compounds barely at all. Overall, the hydrolysis of the dimers was less than 23% of that for the monomers, with small differences among the oils. Longer heating periods resulted in greater reductions in hydrolysis of the dimeric compounds. These results suggest that the degree of enzymatic hydrolysis of the fractionated acylglycerol compounds is related to differences in the thermal oxidative deterioration, and amounts of polar compounds in the products. (33 Refs.)

  18. Development of hydrate risk quantification in oil and gas production

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chaudhari, Piyush N.

    Subsea flowlines that transport hydrocarbons from wellhead to the processing facility face issues from solid deposits such as hydrates, waxes, asphaltenes, etc. The solid deposits not only affect the production but also pose a safety concern; thus, flow assurance is significantly important in designing and operating subsea oil and gas production. In most subsea oil and gas operations, gas hydrates form at high pressure and low temperature conditions, causing the risk of plugging flowlines, with a undesirable impact on production. Over the years, the oil and gas industry has shifted their perspective from hydrate avoidance to hydrate management given several parameters such as production facility, production chemistry, economic and environmental concerns. Thus, understanding the level of hydrate risk associated with subsea flowlines is an important in developing efficient hydrate management techniques. In the past, hydrate formation models were developed for various flow-systems (e.g., oil dominated, water dominated, and gas dominated) present in the oil and gas production. The objective of this research is to extend the application of the present hydrate prediction models for assessing the hydrate risk associated with subsea flowlines that are prone to hydrate formation. It involves a novel approach for developing quantitative hydrate risk models based on the conceptual models built from the qualitative knowledge obtained from experimental studies. A comprehensive hydrate risk model, that ranks the hydrate risk associated with the subsea production system as a function of time, hydrates, and several other parameters, which account for inertial, viscous, interfacial forces acting on the flow-system, is developed for oil dominated and condensate systems. The hydrate plugging risk for water dominated systems is successfully modeled using The Colorado School of Mines Hydrate Flow Assurance Tool (CSMHyFAST). It is found that CSMHyFAST can be used as a screening tool in

  19. Biomethane production in an AnSBBR treating wastewater from biohydrogen process.

    PubMed

    Lullio, T G; Souza, L P; Ratusznei, S M; Rodrigues, J A D; Zaiat, M

    2014-11-01

    An anaerobic sequencing batch reactor containing immobilized biomass (AnSBBR) was used to produce biomethane by treating the effluent from another AnSBBR used to produce biohydrogen from glucose- (AR-EPHG) and sucrose-based (AR-EPHS) wastewater. In addition, biomethane was also produced from sucrose-based synthetic wastewater (AR-S) in a single AnSBBR to compare the performance of biomethane production in two steps (acidogenic and methanogenic) in relation to a one-step operation. The system was operated at 30 °C and at a fixed stirring rate of 300 rpm. For AR-EPHS treatment, concentrations were 1,000, 2,000, 3,000, and 4,000 mg chemical oxygen demand (COD) L(-1) and cycle lengths were 6 and 8 h. The applied volumetric organic loads were 2.15, 4.74, 5.44, and 8.22 g COD L(-1) day(-1). For AR-EPHG treatment, concentration of 4,000 mg COD L(-1) and 4-h cycle length (7.21 g COD L(-1) day(-1)) were used. For AR-S treatment, concentration was 4,000 mg COD L(-1) day(-1) and cycle lengths were 8 (7.04 g COD L(-1) day(-1)) and 12 h (4.76 g COD L(-1) day(-1)). The condition of 8.22 g COD L(-1) day(-1) (AR-EPHS) showed the best performance with respect to the following parameters: applied volumetric organic load of 7.56 g COD L(-1) day(-1), yield between produced methane and removed organic material of 0.016 mol CH4 g COD(-1), CH4 content in the produced biogas of 85 %, and molar methane productivity of 127.9 mol CH4 m(-3) day(-1). In addition, a kinetic study of the process confirmed the trend that, depending on the biodegradability characteristics of the wastewaters used, the two-step treatment (acidogenic for biohydrogen production and methanogenic for biomethane production) has potential advantages over the single-step process.

  20. Thermal pretreatment of olive mill wastewater for efficient methane production: control of aromatic substances degradation by monitoring cyclohexane carboxylic acid.

    PubMed

    Pontoni, Ludovico; d'Antonio, Giuseppe; Esposito, Giovanni; Fabbricino, Massimiliano; Frunzo, Luigi; Pirozzi, Francesco

    2015-01-01

    Anaerobic digestion is investigated as a sustainable depurative strategy of olive oil mill wastewater (OOMW). The effect of thermal pretreatment on the anaerobic biodegradation of aromatic compounds present in (OMWW) was investigated. The anaerobic degradation of phenolic compounds, well known to be the main concern related to this kind of effluents, was monitored in batch anaerobic tests at a laboratory scale on samples pretreated at mild (80±1 °C), intermediate (90±1 °C) and high temperature (120±1 °C). The obtained results showed an increase of 34% in specific methane production (SMP) for OMWW treated at the lowest temperature and a decrease of 18% for treatment at the highest temperature. These results were related to the different decomposition pathways of the lignocellulosic compounds obtained in the tested conditions. The decomposition pathway was determined by measuring the concentrations of volatile organic acids, phenols, and chemical oxygen demand (COD) versus time. Cyclohexane carboxylic acid (CHCA) production was identified in all the tests with a maximum concentration of around 200 µmol L(-1) in accordance with the phenols degradation, suggesting that anaerobic digestion of aromatic compounds follows the benzoyl-CoA pathway. Accurate monitoring of this compound was proposed as the key element to control the process evolution. The total phenols (TP) and total COD removals were, with SMP, the highest (TP 62.7%-COD 63.2%) at 80 °C and lowest (TP 44.9%-COD 32.2%) at 120 °C. In all cases, thermal pretreatment was able to enhance the TP removal ability (up to 42% increase).

  1. Thermal pretreatment of olive mill wastewater for efficient methane production: control of aromatic substances degradation by monitoring cyclohexane carboxylic acid.

    PubMed

    Pontoni, Ludovico; d'Antonio, Giuseppe; Esposito, Giovanni; Fabbricino, Massimiliano; Frunzo, Luigi; Pirozzi, Francesco

    2015-01-01

    Anaerobic digestion is investigated as a sustainable depurative strategy of olive oil mill wastewater (OOMW). The effect of thermal pretreatment on the anaerobic biodegradation of aromatic compounds present in (OMWW) was investigated. The anaerobic degradation of phenolic compounds, well known to be the main concern related to this kind of effluents, was monitored in batch anaerobic tests at a laboratory scale on samples pretreated at mild (80±1 °C), intermediate (90±1 °C) and high temperature (120±1 °C). The obtained results showed an increase of 34% in specific methane production (SMP) for OMWW treated at the lowest temperature and a decrease of 18% for treatment at the highest temperature. These results were related to the different decomposition pathways of the lignocellulosic compounds obtained in the tested conditions. The decomposition pathway was determined by measuring the concentrations of volatile organic acids, phenols, and chemical oxygen demand (COD) versus time. Cyclohexane carboxylic acid (CHCA) production was identified in all the tests with a maximum concentration of around 200 µmol L(-1) in accordance with the phenols degradation, suggesting that anaerobic digestion of aromatic compounds follows the benzoyl-CoA pathway. Accurate monitoring of this compound was proposed as the key element to control the process evolution. The total phenols (TP) and total COD removals were, with SMP, the highest (TP 62.7%-COD 63.2%) at 80 °C and lowest (TP 44.9%-COD 32.2%) at 120 °C. In all cases, thermal pretreatment was able to enhance the TP removal ability (up to 42% increase). PMID:25624137

  2. CHARACTERISTICS OF SPILLED OILS, FUELS, AND PETROLEUM PRODUCTS: 1. COMPOSITION AND PROPERTIES OF SELECTED OILS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Multicomponent composition and corresponding physical properties data of crude oils and petroleum products are needed as input to environmental fate simulations. Complete sets of such data, however, are not available in the literature due to the complexity and expense of making t...

  3. Determining the dispersibility of South Louisiana crude oil by eight oil dispersant products listed on the NCP Product Schedule.

    PubMed

    Venosa, Albert D; Holder, Edith L

    2013-01-15

    We recently conducted a laboratory study to measure the dispersion effectiveness of eight dispersants currently listed on the National Contingency Plan Product Schedule. Results are useful in determining how many commercial dispersant products would have been effective for use on South Louisiana crude oil in the Deepwater Horizon oil spill. The test used was a modification of the Baffled Flask Test (BFT), which is being proposed to replace the current Swirling Flask Test (SFT). The modifications of the BFT in this study included use of one oil rather than two, increasing replication from 4 runs to 6, and testing at two temperatures, 5 °C and 25 °C. Results indicated that temperature was not as critical a variable as the literature suggested, likely because of the low viscosity and light weight of the SLC. Of the eight dispersants tested, only three gave satisfactory results in the laboratory flasks at both temperatures. PMID:23211999

  4. Determining the dispersibility of South Louisiana crude oil by eight oil dispersant products listed on the NCP Product Schedule.

    PubMed

    Venosa, Albert D; Holder, Edith L

    2013-01-15

    We recently conducted a laboratory study to measure the dispersion effectiveness of eight dispersants currently listed on the National Contingency Plan Product Schedule. Results are useful in determining how many commercial dispersant products would have been effective for use on South Louisiana crude oil in the Deepwater Horizon oil spill. The test used was a modification of the Baffled Flask Test (BFT), which is being proposed to replace the current Swirling Flask Test (SFT). The modifications of the BFT in this study included use of one oil rather than two, increasing replication from 4 runs to 6, and testing at two temperatures, 5 °C and 25 °C. Results indicated that temperature was not as critical a variable as the literature suggested, likely because of the low viscosity and light weight of the SLC. Of the eight dispersants tested, only three gave satisfactory results in the laboratory flasks at both temperatures.

  5. Some modern notions on oil and gas reservoir production regulation

    SciTech Connect

    Lohrenz, J.; Monash, E.A.

    1980-05-21

    The historic rhetoric of oil and gas reservoir production regulations has been burdened with misconceptions. One was that most reservoirs are rate insensitive. Another was that a reservoir's decline is primarily a function of reservoir mechaism rather than a choice unconstrained by the laws of physics. Relieved of old notions like these, we introduce some modern notions, the most basic being that production regulation should have the purpose of obtaining the highest value from production per irreversible diminution of thermodynamically available energy. The laws of thermodynamics determine the available energy. What then is value. Value may include contributions other than production per se and purely monetary economic outcomes.

  6. Biopolymers Production by Mixed Culture and Their Applications in Water and Wastewater Treatment.

    PubMed

    More, Tanaji T; Yan, Song; Tyagi, Rajeshwar Dayal; Surampalli, Rao Y

    2015-06-01

    Thirteen extracellular polymeric substances (EPS) producing bacterial strains were cultivated (as pure/mixed culture) in sterilized sludge (suspended solids: 25 g/L). The mixed culture produced higher concentrations of EPS (4.9 g/L) as compared to that of the pure culture (2.7-3.7 g/L). The harvested EPS were examined for their flocculation performance (turbidity removal and dewatering) in jar tests using kaolin suspensions with Ca2+. Broth (B-EPS) revealed high kaolin flocculating activity (91.2%) at very low concentrations (0.8 mg B-EPS/g kaolin) and it was comparable to the chemical polymer, Magnafloc-155 (90.4% at 0.2 mg/g kaolin). B-EPS also exhibited very good flocculation performance (turbidity removal %) in river water (93.5%), municipal wastewater (91.7%) and brewery wastewater (81.8%). The study revealed that the mixed culture consortium could be used for the production of highly efficient flocculants.

  7. Nutrient removal and biofuel production in high rate algal pond using real municipal wastewater.

    PubMed

    Kim, Byung-Hyuk; Kang, Zion; Ramanan, Rishiram; Choi, Jong-Eun; Cho, Dae-Hyun; Oh, Hee-Mock; Kim, Hee-Sik

    2014-08-01

    This study evaluated the growth and nutrient removal ability of an indigenous algal consortium on real untreated municipal wastewater in a high rate algal pond (HRAP). The HRAP was operated semicontinuously under different hydraulic retention times (HRT: 2, 4, 6, and 8 days). The average removal efficiencies of chemical oxygen demand, and total nitrogen and phosphate of real municipal wastewater were maintained at 85.44 ± 5.10%, 92.74 ± 5.82%, and 82.85 ± 8.63%, respectively, in 2 day HRT. Algae dominated the consortium and showed high settling efficiency (99%), and biomass and lipid productivity of 0.500 ± 0.03 g/l/day and 0.103 ± 0.0083 g/l/day (2 day HRT), respectively. Fatty acid methyl ester analysis revealed a predominance of palmitate (C16:0), palmitoleate (C16:1), linoleate (C18:2), and linolenate (C18:3). Microalgal diversity analyses determined the presence of Chlorella, Scenedesmus, and Stigeoclonium as the dominant microalgae. The algal consortium provides significant value not only in terms of energy savings and nutrient removal but also because of its bioenergy potential as indicated by the lipid content (20-23%) and FAME profiling. PMID:24759425

  8. Biopolymers Production by Mixed Culture and Their Applications in Water and Wastewater Treatment.

    PubMed

    More, Tanaji T; Yan, Song; Tyagi, Rajeshwar Dayal; Surampalli, Rao Y

    2015-06-01

    Thirteen extracellular polymeric substances (EPS) producing bacterial strains were cultivated (as pure/mixed culture) in sterilized sludge (suspended solids: 25 g/L). The mixed culture produced higher concentrations of EPS (4.9 g/L) as compared to that of the pure culture (2.7-3.7 g/L). The harvested EPS were examined for their flocculation performance (turbidity removal and dewatering) in jar tests using kaolin suspensions with Ca2+. Broth (B-EPS) revealed high kaolin flocculating activity (91.2%) at very low concentrations (0.8 mg B-EPS/g kaolin) and it was comparable to the chemical polymer, Magnafloc-155 (90.4% at 0.2 mg/g kaolin). B-EPS also exhibited very good flocculation performance (turbidity removal %) in river water (93.5%), municipal wastewater (91.7%) and brewery wastewater (81.8%). The study revealed that the mixed culture consortium could be used for the production of highly efficient flocculants. PMID:26459822

  9. Combining urban wastewater treatment with biohydrogen production--an integrated microalgae-based approach.

    PubMed

    Batista, Ana Paula; Ambrosano, Lucas; Graça, Sofia; Sousa, Catarina; Marques, Paula A S S; Ribeiro, Belina; Botrel, Elberis P; Castro Neto, Pedro; Gouveia, Luisa

    2015-05-01

    The aim of the present work was the simultaneous treatment of urban wastewater using microalgae and the energetic valorization of the obtained biomass. Chlorella vulgaris (Cv), Scenedesmus obliquus (Sc) and a naturally occurring algal Consortium C (ConsC) were grown in an urban wastewater. The nutrient removals were quite high and the treated water fits the legislation (PT Dec-Lei 236/98) in what concerns the parameters analysed (N, P, COD). After nutrient depletion the microalgae remained two more weeks in the photobioreactor (PBR) under nutritional stress conditions, to induce sugar accumulation (22-43%). The stressed biomass was converted into biohydrogen (bioH2), a clean energy carrier, through dark fermentation by a strain of the bacteria Enterobacter aerogenes. The fermentation kinetics were monitored and fitted to a modified Gompertz model. The highest bioH2 production yield was obtained for S. obliquus (56.8 mL H2/gVS) which was very similar when using the same algae grown in synthetic media.

  10. Nutrient removal and biofuel production in high rate algal pond using real municipal wastewater.

    PubMed

    Kim, Byung-Hyuk; Kang, Zion; Ramanan, Rishiram; Choi, Jong-Eun; Cho, Dae-Hyun; Oh, Hee-Mock; Kim, Hee-Sik

    2014-08-01

    This study evaluated the growth and nutrient removal ability of an indigenous algal consortium on real untreated municipal wastewater in a high rate algal pond (HRAP). The HRAP was operated semicontinuously under different hydraulic retention times (HRT: 2, 4, 6, and 8 days). The average removal efficiencies of chemical oxygen demand, and total nitrogen and phosphate of real municipal wastewater were maintained at 85.44 ± 5.10%, 92.74 ± 5.82%, and 82.85 ± 8.63%, respectively, in 2 day HRT. Algae dominated the consortium and showed high settling efficiency (99%), and biomass and lipid productivity of 0.500 ± 0.03 g/l/day and 0.103 ± 0.0083 g/l/day (2 day HRT), respectively. Fatty acid methyl ester analysis revealed a predominance of palmitate (C16:0), palmitoleate (C16:1), linoleate (C18:2), and linolenate (C18:3). Microalgal diversity analyses determined the presence of Chlorella, Scenedesmus, and Stigeoclonium as the dominant microalgae. The algal consortium provides significant value not only in terms of energy savings and nutrient removal but also because of its bioenergy potential as indicated by the lipid content (20-23%) and FAME profiling.

  11. Microbial electrolysis cell scale-up for combined wastewater treatment and hydrogen production.

    PubMed

    Gil-Carrera, L; Escapa, A; Mehta, P; Santoyo, G; Guiot, S R; Morán, A; Tartakovsky, B

    2013-02-01

    This study demonstrates microbial electrolysis cell (MEC) scale-up from a 50mL to a 10L cell. Initially, a 50mL membraneless MEC with a gas diffusion cathode was operated on synthetic wastewater at different organic loads. It was concluded that process scale-up might be best accomplished using a "reactor-in-series" concept. Consequently, 855mL and 10L MECs were built and operated. By optimizing the hydraulic retention time (HRT) of the 855mL MEC and individually controlling the applied voltages of three anodic compartments with a real-time optimization algorithm, a COD removal of 5.7g L(R)(-1)d(-1) and a hydrogen production of 1.0-2.6L L(R)(-1)d(-1) was achieved. Furthermore, a two MECs in series 10L setup was constructed and operated on municipal wastewater. This test showed a COD removal rate of 0.5g L(R)(-1)d(-1), a removal efficiency of 60-76%, and an energy consumption of 0.9Whperg of COD removed. PMID:23334014

  12. Nanotechnologies for Removal of Pharmaceuticals and Personal Care Products from Water and Wastewater. A Review.

    PubMed

    Cincinelli, Alessandra; Martellini, Tania; Coppini, Ester; Fibbi, Donatella; Katsoyiannis, Athanasios

    2015-05-01

    The occurrence of pharmaceuticals and other hazardous substances in surface waters and drinking water and the long-term exposure may represent a potential risk for both the environment and human health. Many studies have evidenced that conventional technologies used for wastewater treatment do not completely remove pharmaceuticals and personal care products (PPCPs) residues, which can be detected in receiving waters at concentrations ranging from few ng L(-1) until more than μg L(-1). Nanomaterials are of fundamental importance in the current research efforts to develop more efficient water treatment and remediation systems in place of conventional technologies. This review provides a comprehensive overview of the most relevant works available in literature reporting the use of nanosorbents (nanotubes and zeolites), nanofiltration (NF) and advanced oxidation processes (AOPs) for the removal of PPCPs compounds from water and wastewater. The literature review of laboratory- and pilot-scale studies have shown that nanomaterials are promising tools in environmental cleaning processes and water purification, even if more researches are necessary. PMID:26504950

  13. Nanotechnologies for Removal of Pharmaceuticals and Personal Care Products from Water and Wastewater. A Review.

    PubMed

    Cincinelli, Alessandra; Martellini, Tania; Coppini, Ester; Fibbi, Donatella; Katsoyiannis, Athanasios

    2015-05-01

    The occurrence of pharmaceuticals and other hazardous substances in surface waters and drinking water and the long-term exposure may represent a potential risk for both the environment and human health. Many studies have evidenced that conventional technologies used for wastewater treatment do not completely remove pharmaceuticals and personal care products (PPCPs) residues, which can be detected in receiving waters at concentrations ranging from few ng L(-1) until more than μg L(-1). Nanomaterials are of fundamental importance in the current research efforts to develop more efficient water treatment and remediation systems in place of conventional technologies. This review provides a comprehensive overview of the most relevant works available in literature reporting the use of nanosorbents (nanotubes and zeolites), nanofiltration (NF) and advanced oxidation processes (AOPs) for the removal of PPCPs compounds from water and wastewater. The literature review of laboratory- and pilot-scale studies have shown that nanomaterials are promising tools in environmental cleaning processes and water purification, even if more researches are necessary.

  14. Microbial Fuel Cell-driven caustic potash production from wastewater for carbon sequestration.

    PubMed

    Gajda, Iwona; Greenman, John; Melhuish, Chris; Santoro, Carlo; Ieropoulos, Ioannis

    2016-09-01

    This work reports on the novel formation of caustic potash (KOH) directly on the MFC cathode locking carbon dioxide into potassium bicarbonate salt (kalicinite) while producing, instead of consuming electrical power. Using potassium-rich wastewater as a fuel for microorganisms to generate electricity in the anode chamber, has resulted in the formation of caustic catholyte directly on the surface of the cathode electrode. Analysis of this liquid has shown to be highly alkaline (pH>13) and act as a CO2 sorbent. It has been later mineralised to kalicinite thus locking carbon dioxide into potassium bicarbonate salt. This work demonstrates an electricity generation method as a simple, cost-effective and environmentally friendly route towards CO2 sequestration that perhaps leads to a carbon negative economy. Moreover, it shows a potential application for both electricity production and nutrient recovery in the form of minerals from nutrient-rich wastewater streams such as urine for use as fertiliser in the future. PMID:27133363

  15. Role of extracellular polymeric substances (EPS) production in bioaggregation: application to wastewater treatment.

    PubMed

    Ding, Zhiji; Bourven, Isabelle; Guibaud, Gilles; van Hullebusch, Eric D; Panico, Antonio; Pirozzi, Francesco; Esposito, Giovanni

    2015-12-01

    This paper reviews the formation, structure, and stability of bioaggregates with an emphasis on the composition and distribution of extracellular polymeric substances (EPS) and their role in bioaggregation. Bioaggregation is ubiquitous in natural environment and is of great importance in biological wastewater treatment processes. It greatly influences the flocculability, settleability, and dewaterability for flocs and sludge retention and shear resistance for biofilms. The physico-chemical and microbial structures of bioaggregates are dependent on operational conditions as well as microbial diversity and spatial distribution. The formation of bioaggregates is mediated by the physico-chemical interactions as well as the microbial interactions such as EPS production and quorum sensing. EPS are composed of a mixture of macromolecules including proteins, polysaccharides, humic-like substances, and nucleic acids, which entrap the microbial cells in a three-dimensional matrix. The composition and physico-chemical characteristics of EPS have significant influence on the maintenance of the bioaggregate structure and the process performance of the wastewater treatment. However, the mechanisms of bioaggregation are still unclear and the conclusions on the role of EPS were mostly drawn from the established correlations and hypotheses. This paper expects to provide up-to-date knowledge on bioaggregation and insights for further studies and applications. PMID:26381665

  16. Production of polyol oils from soybean oil by bioprocess: results of microbial screening and identification of positive cultures

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Recently we reported methods for microbial screening and production of polyol oils from soybean oil through bioprocessing (Hou and Lin, 2013). Soy-polyol oils (oxygenated acylglycerols) are important starting materials for the manufacture of polymers such as polyurethane. Currently, they are produce...

  17. [Characteristics and chlorinated disinfection by-products formation potential of dissolved organic matter fractions in treated wastewater].

    PubMed

    Sun, Ying-xue; Wu, Qian-yuan; Tian, Jie; Wang, Li-sha; Hu, Hong-ying

    2009-08-15

    Dissolved organic matter (DOM) from a biological treated wastewater of municipal wastewater treated plant was isolated and fractionated using resin adsorption into four different fractions. These fractions are operationally categorized as hydrophilic substances (HIS), hydrophobic acids (HOA), hydrophobic neutrals (HON), and hydrophobic bases (HOB). The dissolved organic carbon (DOC) and specific UV absorbance, characteristics of three dimensional excitation emission matrix fluorescence spectroscopy (3DEEM) and disinfection byproducts formation potential of each fraction was investigated in this paper. The results showed that HIS and HOA were the main fractions and occupied 33% and 30% of DOC in the treated wastewater sample, respectively. The fraction of HIS contained more humus, which were predominately microbially derived, while the fraction of HOA contained more aromatic proteins and soluble microbial products by the analysis of 3DEEM. The chlorinated trihalomethane formation potential (THMFP) of HIS fraction was 630.4 microg x L(-1) and occupied 73.7% of that formed in wastewater sample. The chlorinated haloacetic acids formation potential (HAAFP) of HIS and HOA fractions were 644.6 microg x L(-1) and 123.2 microg x L(-1), which was found to be the most reactive precursor in the fractions of treated wastewater to the disinfection by-products formation.

  18. Screening, separating, and completely recovering polyphenol oxidases and other biochemicals from sweet potato wastewater in starch production.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Shi; Zhang, Yi-Feng; Zeng, Zhao-Qin; Lin, Jia; Zhang, Ya-Wen; Ni, He; Li, Hai-Hang

    2015-02-01

    Polyphenol oxidase (PPO) has multiple functions, and the lack of commercially available enzyme sources limits its widespread application in various industries. An accurate PPO assay was developed by HPLC determination of the substrate oxidation. Resources screening indicated that sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas L.) wastewater in starch production has high PPO activity. A procedure was developed for separately recovering PPO, β-amylase, sporamins, and small molecular nutrients (SMNs) from sweet potato wastewater. The wastewater was adjusted to pH 3.5 to precipitate PPO, and then adjusted to 50 % acetone to precipitate β-amylase and further to 80 % acetone to precipitate sporamins. The SMNs were obtained after acetone recovery. Purified powders of 4.3 × 10(5) units of PPO, 4.0 × 10(6) units of β-amylase, 8.70 g sporamins, and 20.2 g SMNs were obtained from the wastewater of 1 kg sweet potato. More than 50 million tons of sweet potato is used for starch production annually around the world. Through this simple procedure, huge amount of biochemical resources can be recovered from the wastewater, which greatly increases the economic value of the crop and saves the environment. PMID:25190667

  19. Techno-economical efficiency and productivity change of wastewater treatment plants: the role of internal and external factors.

    PubMed

    Hernández-Sancho, F; Molinos-Senante, M; Sala-Garrido, R

    2011-12-01

    Efficiency and productivity are important measures for identifying best practice in businesses and optimising resource-use. This study analyses how these two measures change across the period 2003-2008 for 196 wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) in Spain, by using the benchmarking methods of Data Envelopment Analysis and the Malmquist Productivity Index. To identify which variables contribute to the sustainability of the WWTPs, differences in efficiency scores and productivity indices for external factors are also investigated. Our results indicate that both efficiency and productivity decreased over the five years. We verify that the productivity drop is primarily explained by technical change. Furthermore, certain external variables affected WWTP efficiency, including plant size, treatment technology and energy consumption. However, plants with low energy consumption are the only ones which improve their productivity. Finally, the benchmarking analyses proved to be useful as management tools in the wastewater sector, by providing vital information for improving the sustainability of plants. PMID:22037729

  20. Techno-economical efficiency and productivity change of wastewater treatment plants: the role of internal and external factors.

    PubMed

    Hernández-Sancho, F; Molinos-Senante, M; Sala-Garrido, R

    2011-12-01

    Efficiency and productivity are important measures for identifying best practice in businesses and optimising resource-use. This study analyses how these two measures change across the period 2003-2008 for 196 wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) in Spain, by using the benchmarking methods of Data Envelopment Analysis and the Malmquist Productivity Index. To identify which variables contribute to the sustainability of the WWTPs, differences in efficiency scores and productivity indices for external factors are also investigated. Our results indicate that both efficiency and productivity decreased over the five years. We verify that the productivity drop is primarily explained by technical change. Furthermore, certain external variables affected WWTP efficiency, including plant size, treatment technology and energy consumption. However, plants with low energy consumption are the only ones which improve their productivity. Finally, the benchmarking analyses proved to be useful as management tools in the wastewater sector, by providing vital information for improving the sustainability of plants.

  1. Olive Oil Based Emulsions in Frozen Puff Pastry Production

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gabriele, D.; Migliori, M.; Lupi, F. R.; de Cindio, B.

    2008-07-01

    Puff pastry is an interesting food product having different industrial applications. It is obtained by laminating layers of dough and fats, mainly shortenings or margarine, having specific properties which provides required spreading characteristic and able to retain moisture into dough. To obtain these characteristics, pastry shortenings are usually saturated fats, however the current trend in food industry is mainly oriented towards unsatured fats such as olive oil, which are thought to be safer for human health. In the present work, a new product, based on olive oil, was studied as shortening replacer in puff pastry production. To ensure the desired consistency, for the rheological matching between fat and dough, a water-in-oil emulsion was produced based on olive oil, emulsifier and a hydrophilic thickener agent able to increase material structure. Obtained materials were characterized by rheological dynamic tests in linear viscoelastic conditions, aiming to setup process and material consistency, and rheological data were analyzed by using the weak gel model. Results obtained for tested emulsions were compared to theological properties of a commercial margarine, adopted as reference value for texture and stability. Obtained emulsions are characterized by interesting rheological properties strongly dependent on emulsifier characteristics and water phase composition. However a change in process temperature during fat extrusion and dough lamination seems to be necessary to match properly typical dough rheological properties.

  2. Use of cheese whey to enhance Geotrichum candidum biomass production in olive mill wastewater.

    PubMed

    Aouidi, Fathia; Khelifi, Eltaeif; Asses, Nedra; Ayed, Lamia; Hamdi, Moktar

    2010-08-01

    Geotrichum candidum is a yeast-like filamentous fungus that has attracted industrial interest. The present work investigated G. candidum biomass production in agro-industrial wastewaters (olive mill wastewater (OMW) and cheese whey (CW)) as the only substrate. Different solid media (Sabouraud dextrose agar (SDA), CW, OMW, and OMW/CW mixtures in different proportions) were tested. OMW/CW mixtures proved to be suitable for optimal mycelia growth of G. candidum with a very high hyphae density. The highest fungal and expansion rate growth of 83 +/- 1 mm and 12.4 day(-1), respectively, were obtained on a 20:80 mixture of OMW/CW, which was incubated for 7 days. This optimal mixture was used to study the biomass production and the OMW decolorization ability of G. candidum in the presence of CW in liquid medium. Liquid cultures were also conducted in OMW and CW separately. After 5 days of incubation, fungal biomass reached 9.26 g l(-1) in the OMW/CW mixture and only 2.83 g l(-1) in CW, while no biomass production was observed in OMW alone. OMW decolorization and dephenolization by G. candidum also improved in the presence of CW with a decolorization efficiency of 54.5% and a total phenolic reduction of 55.3%, compared with the control which yielded values of about 10% and 15%, respectively. These results suggested that OMW/CW--as the only substrate--could be used as a cost-effective medium to produce G. candidum biomass, without the need for water dilution or supplementation with other nutriments. PMID:20526856

  3. Removal of boron from ceramic industry wastewater by adsorption-flocculation mechanism using palm oil mill boiler (POMB) bottom ash and polymer.

    PubMed

    Chong, Mei Fong; Lee, Kah Peng; Chieng, Hui Jiun; Syazwani Binti Ramli, Ili Izyan

    2009-07-01

    Boron is extensively used in the ceramic industry for enhancing mechanical strength of the tiles. The discharge of boron containing wastewater to the environment causes severe pollution problems. Boron is also dangerous for human consumption and causes organisms' reproductive impediments if the safe intake level is exceeded. Current methods to remove boron include ion-exchange, membrane filtration, precipitation-coagulation, biological and chemical treatment. These methods are costly to remove boron from the wastewater and hence infeasible for industrial wastewater treatment. In the present research, adsorption-flocculation mechanism is proposed for boron removal from ceramic wastewater by using Palm Oil Mill Boiler (POMB) bottom ash and long chain polymer or flocculant. Ceramic wastewater is turbid and milky in color which contains 15 mg/L of boron and 2000 mg/L of suspended solids. The optimum operating conditions for boron adsorption on POMB bottom ash and flocculation using polymer were investigated in the present research. Adsorption isotherm of boron on bottom ash was also investigated to evaluate the adsorption capacity. Adsorption isotherm modeling was conducted based on Langmuir and Freundlich isotherms. The results show that coarse POMB bottom ash with particle size larger than 2 mm is a suitable adsorbent where boron is removed up to 80% under the optimum conditions (pH=8.0, dosage=40 g bottom ash/300 ml wastewater, residence time=1h). The results also show that KP 1200 B cationic polymer is effective in flocculating the suspended solids while AP 120 C anionic polymer is effective in flocculating the bottom ash. The combined cationic and anionic polymers are able to clarify the ceramic wastewater under the optimum conditions (dosage of KP 1200 B cationic polymer=100 mg/L, dosage of AP 120 C anionic polymer=50 mg/L, mixing speed=200 rpm). Under the optimum operating conditions, the boron and suspended solids concentration of the treated wastewater were

  4. Removal of boron from ceramic industry wastewater by adsorption-flocculation mechanism using palm oil mill boiler (POMB) bottom ash and polymer.

    PubMed

    Chong, Mei Fong; Lee, Kah Peng; Chieng, Hui Jiun; Syazwani Binti Ramli, Ili Izyan

    2009-07-01

    Boron is extensively used in the ceramic industry for enhancing mechanical strength of the tiles. The discharge of boron containing wastewater to the environment causes severe pollution problems. Boron is also dangerous for human consumption and causes organisms' reproductive impediments if the safe intake level is exceeded. Current methods to remove boron include ion-exchange, membrane filtration, precipitation-coagulation, biological and chemical treatment. These methods are costly to remove boron from the wastewater and hence infeasible for industrial wastewater treatment. In the present research, adsorption-flocculation mechanism is proposed for boron removal from ceramic wastewater by using Palm Oil Mill Boiler (POMB) bottom ash and long chain polymer or flocculant. Ceramic wastewater is turbid and milky in color which contains 15 mg/L of boron and 2000 mg/L of suspended solids. The optimum operating conditions for boron adsorption on POMB bottom ash and flocculation using polymer were investigated in the present research. Adsorption isotherm of boron on bottom ash was also investigated to evaluate the adsorption capacity. Adsorption isotherm modeling was conducted based on Langmuir and Freundlich isotherms. The results show that coarse POMB bottom ash with particle size larger than 2 mm is a suitable adsorbent where boron is removed up to 80% under the optimum conditions (pH=8.0, dosage=40 g bottom ash/300 ml wastewater, residence time=1h). The results also show that KP 1200 B cationic polymer is effective in flocculating the suspended solids while AP 120 C anionic polymer is effective in flocculating the bottom ash. The combined cationic and anionic polymers are able to clarify the ceramic wastewater under the optimum conditions (dosage of KP 1200 B cationic polymer=100 mg/L, dosage of AP 120 C anionic polymer=50 mg/L, mixing speed=200 rpm). Under the optimum operating conditions, the boron and suspended solids concentration of the treated wastewater were

  5. Irrigation with Treated Urban Wastewater for Bioenergy Crop Production in the Far West Texas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ganjegunte, G. K.; Clark, J. A.; Wu, Y.

    2011-12-01

    In the recent years, interest in biobased fuels is increasing and the congressionally mandated goal is to use at least 36 billion gallons of bio-based transportation fuels by 2022. However, in 2009 the U.S. produced about 10.75 billion gallons of ethanol, primarily as corn starch ethanol and 550 million gallons of biodiesel. Thus, there is a huge gap between the current capacity and the mandated goal. USDA estimates that about 27 million acres of land has to be brought under bioenergy crops to produce 36 billion gallons of bio-based fuels. Meeting the challenge of bridging this huge gap requires a comprehensive regional strategy that includes bringing addition area from different regions within the country under bioenergy crops. In the southwest U.S. region such as west Texas or southern New Mexico, bringing vast abandoned crop lands and areas having permeable soils under bioenergy crops can be a part of such a regional strategy. While the region has adequate supply of land, finding reliable source of water to produce bioenergy crops is the main challenge. This challenge can be met by developing marginal quality water sources for bioenergy crops production. Use of marginal quality waters such as treated urban wastewater/saline groundwater to irrigate bioenergy crops may prove beneficial, if the bioenergy crops can grow under elevated salinity and the effects on soil and shallow groundwater can be minimized by appropriate management. The region has enormous potential for marginal quality water irrigation to produce bioenergy crops for a greater farm return. For example, at present, in El Paso alone, the total volume of treated municipal and industrial wastewater is about 65,000 acre-feet/year, of which only 13% is being reused for industrial processes and irrigating urban landscapes. The major concern associated with treated wastewater irrigation is its salinity (electrical conductivity or EC which measures salinity ranges from 1.8 to 2.1 dS m-1) and sodicity

  6. Engineered tobacco and microalgae secreting the fungal laccase POXA1b reduce phenol content in olive oil mill wastewater.

    PubMed

    Chiaiese, Pasquale; Palomba, Francesca; Tatino, Filippo; Lanzillo, Carmine; Pinto, Gabriele; Pollio, Antonino; Filippone, Edgardo

    2011-12-10

    Olive oil mill wastewaters (OMWs) are characterised by low pH and a high content of mono- and polyaromatic compounds that exert microbial and phytotoxic activity. The laccase cDNA of the poxA1b gene from Pleurotus ostreatus, carrying a signal peptide sequence for enzyme secretion and driven by the CaMV 35S promoter, was cloned into a plant expression vector. Nuclear genetic transformation was carried out by co-cultivation of Agrobacterium tumefaciens with tobacco cv Samsun NN leaves and cells of five different microalgae accessions belonging to the genera Chlamydomonas, Chlorella and Ankistrodesmus. Transgenic plants and microalgae were able to express and secrete the recombinant laccase in the root exudates and the culture medium, respectively. In comparison to untransformed controls, the ability to reduce phenol content in OMW solution was enhanced up to 2.8-fold in transgenic tobacco lines and by up to about 40% in two microalgae accessions. The present work provides new evidence for metabolic improvement of green organisms through the transgenic approach to remediation.

  7. Comparative study of olive oil mill wastewater treatment using free and immobilized Coriolopsis polyzona and Pycnoporus coccineus.

    PubMed

    Neifar, Mohamed; Jaouani, Atef; Martínez, María Jesús; Penninckx, Michel J

    2012-10-01

    The efficiency of the two white-rot fungi Pycnoporus coccineus and Coriolopsis polyzona in the Olive Oil Mill Wastewater (OOMW) treatment was investigated. Both fungi were active in the decolourisation and COD removal of OOMW at 50 g/L COD, but only the first fungus remains effective on the crude effluent (COD=100 g/L). Moreover P. coccineus was less affected by oxygen supplementation and exhibited a high tolerance to agitation in comparison to C. polyzona. However, it required a nitrogen supplementation to obtain faster and higher COD removal. To overcome the negative effect of agitation on fungi growth and efficiency, immobilisation of C. polyzona and P. coccineus in polyurethane foam was applied. The immobilized system showed better COD decreases during three consecutive batches without remarkable loss of performances. The results obtained in this study suggested that immobilized C. polyzona and especially immobilized P. coccineus might be applicable to a large scale for the removal colour and COD of OOMW. PMID:23124741

  8. Cleaner production of citric acid by recycling its extraction wastewater treated with anaerobic digestion and electrodialysis in an integrated citric acid-methane production process.

    PubMed

    Xu, Jian; Su, Xian-Feng; Bao, Jia-Wei; Chen, Yang-Qiu; Zhang, Hong-Jian; Tang, Lei; Wang, Ke; Zhang, Jian-Hua; Chen, Xu-Sheng; Mao, Zhong-Gui

    2015-01-01

    To solve the pollution problem of extraction wastewater in citric acid production, an integrated citric acid-methane production process was proposed. Extraction wastewater was treated through anaerobic digestion and the anaerobic digestion effluent (ADE) was recycled for the next batch of citric acid fermentation, thus eliminating wastewater discharge and reducing water consumption. Excessive Na(+) contained in ADE could significantly inhibit citric acid fermentation in recycling and was removed by electrodialysis in this paper. Electrodialysis performance was improved after pretreatment of ADE with air stripping and activated carbon adsorption to remove precipitable metal ions and pigments. Moreover, the concentrate water was recycled and mixed with feed to improve the water recovery rate above 95% in electrodialysis treatment, while the dilute water was collected for citric acid fermentation. The removal rate of Na(+) in ADE was above 95% and the citric acid production was even higher than that with tap water.

  9. Characterizing risk factors for pediatric lamp oil product exposures

    PubMed Central

    SHEIKH, S.; CHANG, A.; KIESZAK, S.; LAW, R.; BENNETT, H. K. W.; ERNST, E.; BOND, G. R.; SPILLER, H. A.; SCHURZ-ROGERS, H.; CHU, A.; BRONSTEIN, A. C.; SCHIER, J. G.

    2015-01-01

    Poisonings from lamp oil ingestion continue to occur worldwide among the pediatric population despite preventive measures such as restricted sale of colored and scented lamp oils. This suggests that optimal prevention practices for unintentional pediatric exposures to lamp oil have yet to be identified and/or properly implemented. Objective To characterize demographic, health data, and potential risk factors associated with reported exposures to lamp oil by callers to poison centers (PCs) in the US and discuss their public health implications. Study design . This was a two part study in which the first part included characterizing all exposures to a lamp oil product reported to the National Poison Data System (NPDS) with regard to demographics, exposure, health, and outcome data from 1/1/2000 to 12/31/2010. Regional penetrance was calculated using NPDS data by grouping states into four regions and dividing the number of exposure calls by pediatric population per region (from the 2000 US census). Temporal analyses were performed on NPDS data by comparing number of exposures by season and around the July 4th holiday. Poisson regression was used to model the count of exposures for these analyses. In the second part of this project, in order to identify risk factors we conducted a telephone-based survey to the parents of children from five PCs in five different states. The 10 most recent lamp oil product exposure calls for each poison center were systematically selected for inclusion. Calls in which a parent or guardian witnessed a pediatric lamp oil product ingestion were eligible for inclusion. Data on demographics, exposure information, behavioral traits, and health were collected. A descriptive analysis was performed and Fisher’s exact test was used to evaluate associations between variables. All analyses were conducted using SAS v9.3. Results Among NPDS data, 2 years was the most common patient age reported and states in the Midwestern region had the highest

  10. Effect of food wastewater on biomass production by a green microalga Scenedesmus obliquus for bioenergy generation.

    PubMed

    Ji, Min-Kyu; Yun, Hyun-Shik; Park, Sanghyun; Lee, Hongkyun; Park, Young-Tae; Bae, Sunyoung; Ham, Jungyeob; Choi, Jaeyoung

    2015-03-01

    Effect of food wastewater (FW) on the biomass, lipid and carbohydrate production by a green microalga Scenedesmus obliquus cultivated in Bold's Basal Medium (BBM) was investigated. Different dilution ratios (0.5-10%) of BBM either with FW or salt solution (NaCl) or sea water (SW) were evaluated. S. obliquus showed the highest growth (0.41 g L(-1)), lipid productivity (13.3 mg L(-1) day L(-1)), carbohydrate productivity (14.7 mg L(-1) day L(-1)) and nutrient removal (38.9 mg TN L(-1) and 12.1 mg TP L(-1)) with 1% FW after 6 days of cultivation. The FW promoted algal autoflocculation due to formation of inorganic precipitates at an alkali pH. Fatty acid methyl ester analysis revealed that the palmitic and oleic acid contents were increased up to 8% with FW. Application of FW improved the growth, lipid/carbohydrate productivity and biomass recovery efficiency of S. obliquus, which can be exploited for cost effective production of microalgae biomass. PMID:25553643

  11. Production of volatile fatty acids from wastewater screenings using a leach-bed reactor.

    PubMed

    Cadavid-Rodríguez, Luz Stella; Horan, Nigel J

    2014-09-01

    Screenings recovered from the inlet works of wastewater treatment plants were digested without pre-treatment or dilution using a lab-scale, leach-bed reactor. Variations in recirculation ratio of the leachate of 4 and 8 l/lreactor/day and pH values of 5 and 6 were evaluated in order to determine the optimal operating conditions for maximum total volatile fatty acids (VFA) production. By increasing the recirculation ratio of the leachate from 4 to 8 l/lreactor/day it was possible to increase VFA production (11%) and soluble COD (17%) and thus generate up to 264 g VFA/kg-dry screenings. These VFA were predominantly acetic acid with some propionic and butyric acid. The optimum pH for VFA production was 6.0, when the methanogenic phase was inhibited. Below pH 5.0, acid-producing fermentation was inhibited and some alcohols were produced. Ammonia release during the hydrolysis of screenings provided adequate alkalinity; consequently, a digestion process without pH adjustment could be recommended. The leach-bed reactor was able to achieve rapid rates of screenings degradation with the production of valuable end-products that will reduce the carbon footprint associated with current screenings disposal techniques.

  12. Nigeria`s oil production behavior: Tests of alternative hypotheses

    SciTech Connect

    Awokuse, T.O.; Jones, C.T.

    1994-12-31

    The sudden quadrupling of world oil prices in 1973-1974 marked the beginning of several formal inquiries by economists into the production behavior of members of the Organization of the Petroleum Exporting Countries (OPEC). Interest in the organization was further heightened in 1979 when nominal oil prices further doubled. However, oil market analysts have differed in their evaluation of OPEC`s role in the determination of world oil prices. Most energy economists have modeled OPEC as a cartel. Morris Adelman has suggested that OPEC`s true nature lies somewhere between two polar cases of a dominant-firm industry and an imperfect, market-sharing cartel. In the former case, one large, dominant firm (i.e., Saudi Arabia) serves as the {open_quotes}swing producer,{close_quotes} allowing other cartel members and non-OPEC oil producers to produce whatever they wished, controlling the market price by itself through its own output adjustments. The latter case of an imperfect market-sharing cartel is a loose collusive arrangement in which all members agree on an acceptable price level and individual output shares for each producer. Adelman believes that OPEC wobbles between these two cases, depending upon market conditions.

  13. Spray drying of a phenolic-rich membrane filtration fraction of olive mill wastewater: Optimization and dried product quality

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Olive mill wastewater (OMWW) from two California mills (3-phase and 2-phase) was subjected to a two-step membrane filtration process using a novel vibratory system. The obtained reverse osmosis retentate (RO-R) is a phenolic-rich co-product stream, and the reverse osmosis permeate is a near-pure wat...

  14. Biomass production from fermented starch wastewater in photo-bioreactor with internal overflow recirculation.

    PubMed

    Prachanurak, Pradthana; Chiemchaisri, Chart; Chiemchaisri, Wilai; Yamamotob, Kazuo

    2014-08-01

    A photo-bioreactor with internal overflow recirculation was applied to treat real fermented starch wastewater and convert it to photosynthetic biomass for further utilization. The photo-bioreactor was operated at a hydraulic retention time of 10days by circulating mixed liquor through overflow pipes and penetrating light through infrared transmitting filter. During the operation of 154days, the average BOD and COD removals were 95% and 88%, respectively. Majority of photosynthetic bacteria was found attached on pipes as biofilm contributed to 82% of total biomass production. Photosynthetic biomass yield was 0.51g dried solid/g BOD removed and crude protein content of 0.58g/g dried solid. Rhodopseudomonas palustris was found in the photosynthetic system as the predominant bacterial group by denaturing gradient gel electrophoretic analysis (DGGE) and 16S rDNA sequencing method. PMID:24745900

  15. Pluggable microbial fuel cell stacks for septic wastewater treatment and electricity production.

    PubMed

    Yazdi, Hadi; Alzate-Gaviria, Liliana; Ren, Zhiyong Jason

    2015-03-01

    Septic tanks and other decentralized wastewater treatment systems play an important role in protecting public health and water resource for remote or developing communities. Current septic systems do not have energy production capability, yet such feature can be very valuable for areas lack access to electricity. Here we present an easy-to-operate microbial fuel cell (MFC) stack that consists a common base and multiple pluggable units, which can be connected in either series or parallel for electricity generation during waste treatment in septic tanks. Lab studies showed such easy configuration obtained a power density of 142±6.71mWm(-2) when 3 units are connected in parallel, and preliminary calculation indicates that a system that costs approximately US $25 can power a 6-watt LED light for 4h per day with great improvement potential. Detailed electrochemical characterizations provide insights on system internal loss and technology advancement needed.

  16. Microbial fuel cells and osmotic membrane bioreactors have mutual benefits for wastewater treatment and energy production.

    PubMed

    Hou, Dianxun; Lu, Lu; Ren, Zhiyong Jason

    2016-07-01

    This study demonstrates that microbial fuel cells (MFCs) and osmotic membrane bioreactors (OMBRs) can be mutually beneficial when integrated together for wastewater treatment. When connecting MFCs with OMBRs, the solute buildup increased conductivity and buffer capacity, which greatly increased MFC power density from 3 W/m(3) up to 11.5 W/m(3). In turn, the MFCs conditioned and reduced sludge production and therefore reduced forward osmosis (FO) membrane fouling. The MFC-OMBR equipped with new thin-film composite (TFC) membrane showed excellent organic (>95%) and phosphorus removal (>99%) and therefore maintained effluent sCOD below 20 mg/L. However, the nitrogen removal was limited due to the negative surface charge of the thin-film composite membrane and solution chemistry, which led to higher flux of ammonium toward the OMBR draw solution. Further studies are needed to improve nitrogen removal, reduce fouling, and optimize system integration. PMID:27105032

  17. Growing duckweed in swine wastewater for nutrient recovery and biomass production.

    PubMed

    Xu, Jiele; Shen, Genxiang

    2011-01-01

    Spirodela oligorrhiza, a promising duckweed identified in previous studies, was examined under different cropping conditions for nutrient recovery from swine wastewater and biomass production. To prevent algae bloom during the start-up of a duckweed system, inoculating 60% of the water surface with duckweed fronds was required. In the growing season, the duckweed system was capable of removing 83.7% and 89.4% of total nitrogen (TN) and total phosphorus (TP) respectively from 6% swine lagoon water in eight weeks at a harvest frequency of twice a week. The total biomass harvested was 5.30 times that of the starting amount. In winter, nutrients could still be substantially removed in spite of the limited duckweed growth, which was probably attributed to the improved protein accumulation of duckweed plants and the nutrient uptake by the attached biofilm (algae and bacteria) on duckweed and walls of the system.

  18. Water footprints of products of oil palm plantations and palm oil mills in Thailand.

    PubMed

    Suttayakul, Phetrada; H-Kittikun, Aran; Suksaroj, Chaisri; Mungkalasiri, Jitti; Wisansuwannakorn, Ruthairat; Musikavong, Charongpun

    2016-01-15

    The water footprint (WF) of fresh fruit bunches (FFBs) from oil palm plantations and crude palm oil (CPO) from palm oil mills in southern and eastern Thailand were determined over 25 years. Climatic conditions, soil characteristics, and the characteristics of oil palm growth were considered. The WF of FFBs was 1063 m(3)/ton (t) on average. Green, blue, and grey waters comprised of 68, 18, and 14% of total WF, respectively. The oil palm plantations in Thailand required smaller amounts of indirect blue water. The average WF for producing a ton of CPO of seven mills was 5083 m(3). Most of the waters used in the mills originated from indirect green, blue and grey waters from the plantations. The direct blue water used in the mills had less impact on the total WF, lower than 1% of the total WF. Average percentages of green, blue, and grey waters of 69, 16, and 15% of total WF were determined for the mills, respectively. The water deprivation of the FFBs and CPO ranged from 0.73-12.9 and 3.44-58.3 m(3)H2Oeq/t, respectively. In 2013, the CPO production in Thailand including green, blue, and grey waters from plantation and blue water from mills required 11,343 million m(3) water. If the oil palm variety Suratthani 7 is used in the plantation, it would increase the yield from 15.2 to 22.8 t FFBs/ha-year and decrease the WF to 888 m(3)/t FFBs. The average value of the oil extraction rate (OER) of mills was 18.1%. With an increase in the OER of 1%, a reduction of the WF of 250 m(3)/t CPO or 5.1% of total WF could be obtained.

  19. Single-Stage Operation of Hybrid Dark-Photo Fermentation to Enhance Biohydrogen Production through Regulation of System Redox Condition: Evaluation with Real-Field Wastewater.

    PubMed

    Chandra, Rashmi; Nikhil, G N; Mohan, S Venkata

    2015-01-01

    Harnessing hydrogen competently through wastewater treatment using a particular class of biocatalyst is indeed a challenging issue. Therefore, biohydrogen potential of real-field wastewater was evaluated by hybrid fermentative process in a single-stage process. The cumulative hydrogen production (CHP) was observed to be higher with distillery wastewater (271 mL) than with dairy wastewater (248 mL). Besides H₂ production, the hybrid process was found to be effective in wastewater treatment. The chemical oxygen demand (COD) removal efficiency was found higher in distillery wastewater (56%) than in dairy wastewater (45%). Co-culturing photo-bacterial flora assisted in removal of volatile fatty acids (VFA) wherein 63% in distillery wastewater and 68% in case of dairy wastewater. Voltammograms illustrated dominant reduction current and low cathodic Tafel slopes supported H₂ production. Overall, the augmented dark-photo fermentation system (ADPFS) showed better performance than the control dark fermentation system (DFS). This kind of holistic approach is explicitly viable for practical scale-up operation. PMID:25927577

  20. Single-Stage Operation of Hybrid Dark-Photo Fermentation to Enhance Biohydrogen Production through Regulation of System Redox Condition: Evaluation with Real-Field Wastewater

    PubMed Central

    Chandra, Rashmi; Nikhil, G. N.; Mohan, S. Venkata

    2015-01-01

    Harnessing hydrogen competently through wastewater treatment using a particular class of biocatalyst is indeed a challenging issue. Therefore, biohydrogen potential of real-field wastewater was evaluated by hybrid fermentative process in a single-stage process. The cumulative hydrogen production (CHP) was observed to be higher with distillery wastewater (271 mL) than with dairy wastewater (248 mL). Besides H2 production, the hybrid process was found to be effective in wastewater treatment. The chemical oxygen demand (COD) removal efficiency was found higher in distillery wastewater (56%) than in dairy wastewater (45%). Co-culturing photo-bacterial flora assisted in removal of volatile fatty acids (VFA) wherein 63% in distillery wastewater and 68% in case of dairy wastewater. Voltammograms illustrated dominant reduction current and low cathodic Tafel slopes supported H2 production. Overall, the augmented dark-photo fermentation system (ADPFS) showed better performance than the control dark fermentation system (DFS). This kind of holistic approach is explicitly viable for practical scale-up operation. PMID:25927577

  1. Effects of industrial wastewater on growth and biomass production in commonly grown vegetables.

    PubMed

    Uzma, Syeda; Azizullah, Azizullah; Bibi, Roqaia; Nabeela, Farhat; Muhammad, Uzair; Ali, Imran; Rehman, Zia Ur; Häder, Donat-Peter

    2016-06-01

    In developing countries like Pakistan, irrigation of crops with industrial and municipal wastewater is a common practice. However, the impact of wastewater irrigation on vegetables growth has rarely been studied. Therefore, the present study was conducted to determine the effect of industrial wastewater on the germination and seedling growth of some commonly grown vegetables in Pakistan. Wastewater samples were collected from two different industries (marble industry and match alam factory) at Hayatabad Industrial Estate (HIE) in Peshawar, Pakistan, and their effect on different growth parameters of four vegetables including Hibiscus esculentus, Lactuca sativa, Cucumis sativus, and Cucumis melo was investigated. The obtained results revealed that wastewater from marble industry did not affect seed germination except a minor inhibition in H. esculentus. Effluents from match alam factory stimulated seed germination in C. melo and C. sativus but had no effect on seed germination in the other two vegetables. Wastewater increased root and shoot length in H. esculentus, L. sativa and C. melo, but decreased it in C. sativus. Similarly, differential effects of wastewater were observed on fresh and dry biomass of seedlings in all vegetables. It can be concluded that wastewater may have different effects on different crops, depending upon the nature of wastewater and sensitivity of a plant species to wastewater. PMID:27149970

  2. Utilization of palm oil sludge through pyrolysis for bio-oil and bio-char production.

    PubMed

    Thangalazhy-Gopakumar, Suchithra; Al-Nadheri, Wail Mohammed Ahmed; Jegarajan, Dinesh; Sahu, J N; Mubarak, N M; Nizamuddin, S

    2015-02-01

    In this study, pyrolysis technique was utilized for converting palm oil sludge to value added materials: bio-oil (liquid fuel) and bio-char (soil amendment). The bio-oil yield obtained was 27.4±1.7 wt.% having a heating value of 22.2±3.7 MJ/kg and a negligible ash content of 0.23±0.01 wt.%. The pH of bio-oil was in alkaline region. The bio-char yielded 49.9±0.3 wt.%, which was further investigated for sorption efficiency by adsorbing metal (Cd(2+) ions) from water. The removal efficiency of Cd(2+) was 89.4±2%, which was almost similar to the removal efficiency of a commercial activated carbon. The adsorption isotherm was well described by Langmuir model. Therefore, pyrolysis is proved as an efficient tool for palm oil sludge management, where the waste was converted into valuable products. PMID:25278112

  3. Utilization of palm oil sludge through pyrolysis for bio-oil and bio-char production.

    PubMed

    Thangalazhy-Gopakumar, Suchithra; Al-Nadheri, Wail Mohammed Ahmed; Jegarajan, Dinesh; Sahu, J N; Mubarak, N M; Nizamuddin, S

    2015-02-01

    In this study, pyrolysis technique was utilized for converting palm oil sludge to value added materials: bio-oil (liquid fuel) and bio-char (soil amendment). The bio-oil yield obtained was 27.4±1.7 wt.% having a heating value of 22.2±3.7 MJ/kg and a negligible ash content of 0.23±0.01 wt.%. The pH of bio-oil was in alkaline region. The bio-char yielded 49.9±0.3 wt.%, which was further investigated for sorption efficiency by adsorbing metal (Cd(2+) ions) from water. The removal efficiency of Cd(2+) was 89.4±2%, which was almost similar to the removal efficiency of a commercial activated carbon. The adsorption isotherm was well described by Langmuir model. Therefore, pyrolysis is proved as an efficient tool for palm oil sludge management, where the waste was converted into valuable products.

  4. Production of light oil by injection of hot inert gas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ruidas, Bidhan C.; Ganguly, Somenath

    2016-05-01

    Hot inert gas, when injected into an oil reservoir is capable of generating a vaporization-condensation drive and as a consequence, a preferential movement of the lighter components to the production well. This form of displacement is an important unit mechanism in hot flue-gas injection, or in thermal recovery from a watered-out oil reservoir. This article presents the movement of heat front vis-à-vis the changes in the saturation profile, and the gas-phase composition. The plateau in the temperature profile due to the exchange of latent heat, and the formation of water bank at the downstream are elaborated. The broadening of the vaporization-condensation zone with continued progression is discussed. The effect of inert gas temperature on the cumulative production of oil is reviewed. The results provide insight to the vaporization-condensation drive as a stand-alone mechanism. The paper underscores the relative importance of this mechanism, when operated in tandem with other processes in improved oil recovery and CO2 sequestration.

  5. Photolysis of the antidepressants amisulpride and desipramine in wastewaters: Identification of transformation products formed and their fate.

    PubMed

    Gros, Meritxell; Williams, Mike; Llorca, Marta; Rodriguez-Mozaz, Sara; Barceló, Damià; Kookana, Rai S

    2015-10-15

    Attenuation of pharmaceuticals due to natural sunlight is expected to be an important removal pathway in wastewater treatment plants using treatment lagoon systems. In this work, the photolysis of two antidepressants, amisulpride and desipramine, has been investigated in both ultrapure water and wastewater under simulated solar irradiation. Results showed that for amisulpride short irradiation times (t1/2 approximately 3h in pure water and 4h in wastewater) were adequate to degrade the parent compound while a longer exposure period was required for desipramine (t1/2 of approximately 36 h in pure water), although its degradation is enhanced almost three times by indirect photolysis in wastewaters. A significant number of transformation products (TPs) were identified for both pharmaceuticals by high-resolution mass spectrometry. In general, TPs formed are not persistent although acute toxicity tests for desipramine and its TPs showed an increase of the mixture toxicity after solar irradiation, suggesting that some TPs may be more toxic than the parent compound. In wastewaters collected from treatment lagoons, only amisulpride and one of its major TPs, TP 357, were detected. This indicates that long solar exposure times may be necessary for an effective elimination of these substances in lagoon systems or that photolysis may not be the main removal pathway for these particular compounds.

  6. Comparison of fipronil sources in North Carolina surface water and identification of a novel fipronil transformation product in recycled wastewater.

    PubMed

    McMahen, Rebecca L; Strynar, Mark J; McMillan, Larry; DeRose, Eugene; Lindstrom, Andrew B

    2016-11-01

    Fipronil is a phenylpyrazole insecticide that is widely used in residential and agricultural settings to control ants, roaches, termites, and other pests. Fipronil and its transformation products have been found in a variety of environmental matrices, but the source[s] which makes the greatest contribution to fipronil in surface water has yet to be determined. A sampling effort designed to prioritize known fipronil inputs (golf courses, residential areas, biosolids application sites and wastewater facilities) was conducted in North Carolina to learn more about the origins of fipronil in surface water. High resolution mass spectrometry (HRMS) analysis indicated that fipronil and its known derivatives were routinely present in all samples, but concentrations were substantially elevated near wastewater treatment plant outfalls (range 10-500ng/L combined), suggesting that they predominate as environmental sources. Corresponding recycled wastewater samples, which were treated with NaOCl for disinfection, showed disappearance of fipronil and all known degradates. HRMS and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) analysis techniques were used to determine that all fipronil-related compounds are oxidized to a previously unidentified fipronil sulfone chloramine species in recycled wastewater. The implications of the presence of a new fipronil-related compound in recycled wastewater need to be considered.

  7. Comparison of fipronil sources in North Carolina surface water and identification of a novel fipronil transformation product in recycled wastewater.

    PubMed

    McMahen, Rebecca L; Strynar, Mark J; McMillan, Larry; DeRose, Eugene; Lindstrom, Andrew B

    2016-11-01

    Fipronil is a phenylpyrazole insecticide that is widely used in residential and agricultural settings to control ants, roaches, termites, and other pests. Fipronil and its transformation products have been found in a variety of environmental matrices, but the source[s] which makes the greatest contribution to fipronil in surface water has yet to be determined. A sampling effort designed to prioritize known fipronil inputs (golf courses, residential areas, biosolids application sites and wastewater facilities) was conducted in North Carolina to learn more about the origins of fipronil in surface water. High resolution mass spectrometry (HRMS) analysis indicated that fipronil and its known derivatives were routinely present in all samples, but concentrations were substantially elevated near wastewater treatment plant outfalls (range 10-500ng/L combined), suggesting that they predominate as environmental sources. Corresponding recycled wastewater samples, which were treated with NaOCl for disinfection, showed disappearance of fipronil and all known degradates. HRMS and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) analysis techniques were used to determine that all fipronil-related compounds are oxidized to a previously unidentified fipronil sulfone chloramine species in recycled wastewater. The implications of the presence of a new fipronil-related compound in recycled wastewater need to be considered. PMID:27378152

  8. Photolysis of the antidepressants amisulpride and desipramine in wastewaters: Identification of transformation products formed and their fate.

    PubMed

    Gros, Meritxell; Williams, Mike; Llorca, Marta; Rodriguez-Mozaz, Sara; Barceló, Damià; Kookana, Rai S

    2015-10-15

    Attenuation of pharmaceuticals due to natural sunlight is expected to be an important removal pathway in wastewater treatment plants using treatment lagoon systems. In this work, the photolysis of two antidepressants, amisulpride and desipramine, has been investigated in both ultrapure water and wastewater under simulated solar irradiation. Results showed that for amisulpride short irradiation times (t1/2 approximately 3h in pure water and 4h in wastewater) were adequate to degrade the parent compound while a longer exposure period was required for desipramine (t1/2 of approximately 36 h in pure water), although its degradation is enhanced almost three times by indirect photolysis in wastewaters. A significant number of transformation products (TPs) were identified for both pharmaceuticals by high-resolution mass spectrometry. In general, TPs formed are not persistent although acute toxicity tests for desipramine and its TPs showed an increase of the mixture toxicity after solar irradiation, suggesting that some TPs may be more toxic than the parent compound. In wastewaters collected from treatment lagoons, only amisulpride and one of its major TPs, TP 357, were detected. This indicates that long solar exposure times may be necessary for an effective elimination of these substances in lagoon systems or that photolysis may not be the main removal pathway for these particular compounds. PMID:26068227

  9. Microbial-chemical indicator for anaerobic digester performance assessment in full-scale wastewater treatment plants for biogas production.

    PubMed

    Traversi, Deborah; Romanazzi, Valeria; Degan, Raffaella; Lorenzi, Eugenio; Carraro, Elisabetta; Gilli, Giorgio

    2015-06-01

    Anaerobic digestion was introduced into wastewater treatment plants several years ago, but anaerobic digestion performance has not yet been achieved. The variability of the microbial community in digesters is poorly understood, and despite the crucial role of anaerobic digestion reactors, the microbial equilibrium that yields the best performance in these reactors has only recently been hypothesised. In this study, two full-scale continuous anaerobic reactors, placed in Torino's main wastewater treatment plant in northern Italy, were followed to develop a summary indicator for measuring anaerobic digestion performance. A total of 100 sludge samples were collected. The samples were characterised chemically and physically, and microbial groups were quantified by qRT-PCR. A chemical biological performance index strictly correlated to specific biogas production (rho=0.739, p<0.01) is proposed. This approach will produce new management tools for anaerobic digestion in wastewater treatment plants.

  10. The impact of oil seepages and municipal wastewaters on Tembi River sediments, Masjedsoleyman (SW Iran)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bavarsad, Zeynab; Moore, Farid; Modaberi, Soroush; Hessam, Alireza

    2010-05-01

    Oil seepage in Masjedsoleyman oil-producing region and urban and industrial effluents discharge into the main stream of Masjedsoleyman and eventually into Tembi River has polluted this river. The water of Masjedsoleyman main stream is used for livestock drinking and Tembi River is famous as a tourist site and camping. In this study, ten sampling stations were chosen along the main stream of Masjed¬soleyman and Tembi River. Heavy metal concentrations (Zn, Ni, Cu, Cd, Co, Cr, Pb, Fe), carbonate content, texture, pH, total petroleum hydrocarbon (TPH), total organic carbon (TOC) and free hydrocarbon(S1) in sediments samples were analyzed using ICP-MS, GC-MS and Rockeval 6. In order to determine the most important transporting phase in the sediment, Tessier sequential extraction is used. Correlation between metals and petroleum hydrocarbon and physical properties of sediment, probable source and spread of pollution are discussed. The concentration of contaminants is compared with threshold effect concentration (TEC) and probable effect concentration (PEC). Contamination factor (CF) has been calculated to assess the degree of pollution in sediments. Enrichment factors illustrate maximum enrichment of metals in sediments of Dare Khersan of Masjedsoleyman stream. Sequential extraction analysis shows iron, chrome, copper and zinc accumulate mainly in residual phase. In the majority of sediment Pb occurs in the organic fraction. Cd in sediments appears mainly in the exchangeable fraction, followed by the Fe-Mn oxides and residual fractions. The bioavailability of heavy metals decrease as Cd> Ni> Co> Pb> Cr> Zn> Cu> Fe. This study shows that the major source of heavy metals is the discharge of municipal sewage but the source of Ni is the oil seepages. Comparing the heavy metal concentrations with the consensus-based TEC and PEC values revealed that some metals such as Cd, Cr, Ni and Zn in some sediment samples are higher than both TEC and PEC, values

  11. Implications of Increasing Light Tight Oil Production for U.S. Refining

    EIA Publications

    2015-01-01

    EIA retained Turner, Mason & Company to provide analysis of the implications of increasing domestic light tight oil production for U.S. refining, focusing on regional crude supply/demand balances, refinery crude slates, operations, capital investment, product yields, crude oil exports/imports, petroleum product exports, infrastructure constraints and expansions, and crude oil price relationships.

  12. Continuous biohydrogen production from fruit wastewater at low pH conditions.

    PubMed

    Diamantis, Vasileios; Khan, Abid; Ntougias, Spyridon; Stamatelatou, Katerina; Kapagiannidis, Anastasios G; Aivasidis, Alexander

    2013-07-01

    Biohydrogen production from a simulated fruit wastewater (soluble COD = 3.17 ± 0.10 g L⁻¹) was carried out in a continuous stirred tank reactor (CSTR) of 2 L operational volume without biomass inoculation, heat pre-treatment or pH adjustment, resulting in a low operational pH (3.75 ± 0.09). The hydraulic retention time (HRT) varied from 15 to 5 h. A strong negative correlation (p < 0.01) between the biogas production rate and the HRT was observed. Biogas production rates were higher at 30 °C than at 25 °C (p < 0.01), when the CSTR was operated under the same HRT. The biogas hydrogen content was estimated as high as 55.8 ± 2.3 % and 55.4 ± 2.5 % at 25 and 30 °C, respectively. The main fermentation end products were acetic and butyric acids, followed by ethanol. Significant differences (p < 0.01) during the operation of the CSTR at 25 or 30 °C were identified for butyric acid at almost all HRTs examined. Simulation of the acidogenesis process in the CSTR (based on COD and carbon balances) indicated the possible metabolic compounds produced at 25 and 30 °C reactions and provided an adequate fit of the experimental data.

  13. Chemical characterization and anaerobic biodegradability of hydrothermal liquefaction aqueous products from mixed-culture wastewater algae.

    PubMed

    Tommaso, Giovana; Chen, Wan-Ting; Li, Peng; Schideman, Lance; Zhang, Yuanhui

    2015-02-01

    This study examined the chemical characteristics and the anaerobic degradability of the aqueous product from hydrothermal liquefaction (HTL-ap) from the conversion of mixed-culture algal biomass grown in a wastewater treatment system. The effects of the HTL reaction times from 0 to 1.5 h, and reaction temperatures from 260 °C to 320 °C on the anaerobic degradability of the HTL-ap were quantified using biomethane potential assays. Comparing chemical oxygen demand data for HTL-ap from different operating conditions, indicated that organic matter may partition from organic phase to aqueous phase at 320 °C. Moderate lag phase and the highest cumulative methane production were observed when HTL-ap was obtained at 320 °C. The longest lag phase and the smallest production rate were observed in the process fed with HTL-ap obtained at 300 °C. Nevertheless, after overcoming adaptation issues, this HTL-ap led to the second highest accumulated specific methane production. Acetogenesis was identified as a possible rate-limiting pathway.

  14. Decolourisation of palm oil mill biogas plant wastewater using Poly-Diallyldimethyl Ammonium Chloride (polyDADMAC) and other chemical coagulants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zahrim, A. Y.; Dexter, Z. D.

    2016-06-01

    Palm oil mill effluent was expected as a future source of renewable biogas. Nevertheless,colours in palm oil mill biogas plant wastewater (POMBPW) causes negative perception among the public and the wastewater is difficult to be treated biologically. In this study, the performance of various chemical coagulants i.e., calcium lactate, magnesium hydroxide, ferric chloride, aluminium chlorohydrate i.e. CK-800, CK-1000, and polyDADMAC, forPOMBPW colour removal were investigated. PolyDADMAC (1,000 mg/L) shows best colour removal (∼48%). The main coagulation process with polyDADMACcould be due to charge neutralization-bridging mechanism. The zeta potential analysis supports the finding where the value became positive as the dosage increases. The addition of polyDADMAC has increased the conductivity of the treated wastewater up to 9.22%; however, the final pH is maintained (8.0-8.3). It can be deduced that polyDADMAC has potential to treat POMBPW at low dosage.

  15. Influence of paternal exposure to oil and oil products on time to pregnancy and spontaneous abortions.

    PubMed

    Bull, N; Riise, T; Moen, B E

    1999-08-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the influence of exposure to oil and oil products among men on the time taken for their wives to conceive and on the incidence of spontaneous abortion among them. A cross-sectional study was performed by posting questionnaires to 1,269 men employed as offshore mechanics, offshore operators, offshore drilling personnel, car mechanics (the 'exposed' occupations) and carpenters ('unexposed'). The married men were asked to give a separate questionnaire to their wives for details about their pregnancies. The time elapsed between the beginning of coitus without contraception and the wife becoming pregnant (time to pregnancy) was analyzed with Cox regression analysis by calculating fecundability ratios for the pregnancies for the men exposed to oil and oil products as compared with the men who were not exposed. Spontaneous abortions were analyzed with logistic regression by calculating odds ratios for the pregnancies in which the men were exposed vs. not exposed. A total of 741 (58%) men returned the questionnaires. A total of 301 pregnancies were analyzed for time taken to conceive and 580 for spontaneous abortion. The results were adjusted for variables that could significantly influence conception time (previous infections of the reproductive system and coffee drinking) or the incidence of spontaneous abortion (mother's age, parity and smoking). The outcomes between the exposed and unexposed pregnancies showed no significant differences. Car mechanics had a lower fecundability ratio before 1992 than after 1992. Paternal exposure to hydrocarbons in the occupations studied did not seem to have had a major influence on time to conception or the incidence of spontaneous abortion among the wives of the men exposed to oil products.

  16. Influence of paternal exposure to oil and oil products on time to pregnancy and spontaneous abortions.

    PubMed

    Bull, N; Riise, T; Moen, B E

    1999-08-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the influence of exposure to oil and oil products among men on the time taken for their wives to conceive and on the incidence of spontaneous abortion among them. A cross-sectional study was performed by posting questionnaires to 1,269 men employed as offshore mechanics, offshore operators, offshore drilling personnel, car mechanics (the 'exposed' occupations) and carpenters ('unexposed'). The married men were asked to give a separate questionnaire to their wives for details about their pregnancies. The time elapsed between the beginning of coitus without contraception and the wife becoming pregnant (time to pregnancy) was analyzed with Cox regression analysis by calculating fecundability ratios for the pregnancies for the men exposed to oil and oil products as compared with the men who were not exposed. Spontaneous abortions were analyzed with logistic regression by calculating odds ratios for the pregnancies in which the men were exposed vs. not exposed. A total of 741 (58%) men returned the questionnaires. A total of 301 pregnancies were analyzed for time taken to conceive and 580 for spontaneous abortion. The results were adjusted for variables that could significantly influence conception time (previous infections of the reproductive system and coffee drinking) or the incidence of spontaneous abortion (mother's age, parity and smoking). The outcomes between the exposed and unexposed pregnancies showed no significant differences. Car mechanics had a lower fecundability ratio before 1992 than after 1992. Paternal exposure to hydrocarbons in the occupations studied did not seem to have had a major influence on time to conception or the incidence of spontaneous abortion among the wives of the men exposed to oil products. PMID:10628044

  17. Effect of carbon source on biomass growth and nutrients removal of Scenedesmus obliquus for wastewater advanced treatment and lipid production.

    PubMed

    Shen, Qiao-Hui; Jiang, Jia-Wei; Chen, Li-Ping; Cheng, Li-Hua; Xu, Xin-Hua; Chen, Huan-Lin

    2015-08-01

    The combination of tertiary wastewater treatment and microalgal lipid production is considered to be a promising approach to water eutrophication as well as energy crisis. To intensify wastewater treatment and microalgal biofuel production, the effect of organic and inorganic carbon on algal growth and nutrient removal of Scenedesmus obliquus were examined by varying TOC (total organic carbon) concentrations of 20-120mgL(-1) in wastewater and feeding CO2 concentrations in the range of 0.03-15%, respectively. The results showed that the maximal biomass and average lipid productivity were 577.6 and 16.7mgL(-1)d(-1) with 5% CO2 aeration. The total nitrogen, total phosphorus and TOC removal efficiencies were 97.8%, 95.6% and 59.1% respectively within 6days when cultured with real secondary municipal wastewater. This work further showed that S. obliquus could be utilized for simultaneous organic pollutants reduction, N, P removal and lipid accumulation.

  18. Production of valuable hydrocarbons by flash pyrolysis of oil shale

    DOEpatents

    Steinberg, M.; Fallon, P.T.

    1985-04-01

    A process for the production of gas and liquid hydrocarbons from particulated oil shale by reaction with a pyrolysis gas at a temperature of from about 700/sup 0/C to about 1100/sup 0/C, at a pressure of from about 400 psi to about 600 psi, for a period of about 0.2 second to about 20 seconds. Such a pyrolysis gas includes methane, helium, or hydrogen. 3 figs., 3 tabs.

  19. Robust control charts in industrial production of olive oil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grilo, Luís M.; Mateus, Dina M. R.; Alves, Ana C.; Grilo, Helena L.

    2014-10-01

    Acidity is one of the most important variables in the quality analysis and characterization of olive oil. During the industrial production we use individuals and moving range charts to monitor this variable, which is not always normal distributed. After a brief exploratory data analysis, where we use the bootstrap method, we construct control charts, before and after a Box-Cox transformation, and compare their robustness and performance.

  20. Stable Isotope and Isotopomeric Constraints on Nitrous Oxide Production in a Wastewater Treatment Plant

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bellucci, F.; Gonzalez-Meler, M. A.; Sturchio, N. C.; Bohlke, J. K.; Ostrom, N. E.; Kozak, J. A.

    2011-12-01

    Estimates of US anthropogenic greenhouse gas emissions by USEPA (Inventory of U.S. Greenhouse Gas Emissions and Sinks: 1990-2009; 2011) indicate that wastewater treatment plants are the 7th highest contributor to atmospheric nitrous oxide. This unregulated gas has an estimated global warming potential (GWP) 310 times that of carbon dioxide on a per mol basis. There is general agreement that, within wastewater treatment plants, the vast majority of the nitrous oxide emissions occur in the aerobic zones for biological ammonia oxidation and/or downstream from anoxic zones used in biological nitrogen removal. However, the exact mechanism of production is not well understood, as both incomplete nitrification and denitrification might contribute to the overall nitrous oxide emissions. Determining the dominant biological pathways responsible for these emissions is important for the development of improved treatment systems that can reduce nitrous oxide greenhouse gas emissions to the atmosphere. In this study, we determined the total nitrous oxide flux from a single tank of one of the aeration basins from a large metropolitan wastewater treatment plant in Stickney, Illinois. Furthermore, we analyzed the changes in nitrogen and oxigen stable isotopic composition for ammonium, nitrate, and nitrous oxide, as well as the intramolecular site preference (SP) for δ15N within the linear N-N-O molecule, along the 520 meter wastewater flow path within the tank. Assuming the measured tank was representative of the 32 tanks constituting the 4 aeration basins of the plant, we estimate the combined annual nitrous oxide flux from this source to be approximately 230 metric ton/y. The δ15N values for ammonium ranged between +19.9% and +6.4%, those for nitrate ranged between +20.4% and +5.3%, and those for nitrous oxide ranged between -34.4% and 0.4%. The nitrous oxide SP ranged between +11.7% and -4.5%. The concentrations and δ15N values of ammonium and nitrate showed trends along the

  1. Upgrading and Refining of Crude Oils and Petroleum Products by Ionizing Irradiation.

    PubMed

    Zaikin, Yuriy A; Zaikina, Raissa F

    2016-06-01

    A general trend in the oil industry is a decrease in the proven reserves of light crude oils so that any increase in future oil exploration is associated with high-viscous sulfuric oils and bitumen. Although the world reserves of heavy oil are much greater than those of sweet light oils, their exploration at present is less than 12 % of the total oil recovery. One of the main constraints is very high expenses for the existing technologies of heavy oil recovery, upgrading, transportation, and refining. Heavy oil processing by conventional methods is difficult and requires high power inputs and capital investments. Effective and economic processing of high viscous oil and oil residues needs not only improvements of the existing methods, such as thermal, catalytic and hydro-cracking, but the development of new technological approaches for upgrading and refining of any type of problem oil feedstock. One of the perspective approaches to this problem is the application of ionizing irradiation for high-viscous oil processing. Radiation methods for upgrading and refining high-viscous crude oils and petroleum products in a wide temperature range, oil desulfurization, radiation technology for refining used oil products, and a perspective method for gasoline radiation isomerization are discussed in this paper. The advantages of radiation technology are simple configuration of radiation facilities, low capital and operational costs, processing at lowered temperatures and nearly atmospheric pressure without the use of any catalysts, high production rates, relatively low energy consumption, and flexibility to the type of oil feedstock.

  2. Upgrading and Refining of Crude Oils and Petroleum Products by Ionizing Irradiation.

    PubMed

    Zaikin, Yuriy A; Zaikina, Raissa F

    2016-06-01

    A general trend in the oil industry is a decrease in the proven reserves of light crude oils so that any increase in future oil exploration is associated with high-viscous sulfuric oils and bitumen. Although the world reserves of heavy oil are much greater than those of sweet light oils, their exploration at present is less than 12 % of the total oil recovery. One of the main constraints is very high expenses for the existing technologies of heavy oil recovery, upgrading, transportation, and refining. Heavy oil processing by conventional methods is difficult and requires high power inputs and capital investments. Effective and economic processing of high viscous oil and oil residues needs not only improvements of the existing methods, such as thermal, catalytic and hydro-cracking, but the development of new technological approaches for upgrading and refining of any type of problem oil feedstock. One of the perspective approaches to this problem is the application of ionizing irradiation for high-viscous oil processing. Radiation methods for upgrading and refining high-viscous crude oils and petroleum products in a wide temperature range, oil desulfurization, radiation technology for refining used oil products, and a perspective method for gasoline radiation isomerization are discussed in this paper. The advantages of radiation technology are simple configuration of radiation facilities, low capital and operational costs, processing at lowered temperatures and nearly atmospheric pressure without the use of any catalysts, high production rates, relatively low energy consumption, and flexibility to the type of oil feedstock. PMID:27573274

  3. Organic Substances from Unconventional Oil and Gas Production in Shale

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Orem, W. H.; Varonka, M.; Crosby, L.; Schell, T.; Bates, A.; Engle, M.

    2014-12-01

    Unconventional oil and gas (UOG) production has emerged as an important element in the US and world energy mix. Technological innovations in the oil and gas industry, especially horizontal drilling and hydraulic fracturing, allow for the enhanced release of oil and natural gas from shale compared to conventional oil and gas production. This has made commercial exploitation possible on a large scale. Although UOG is enormously successful, there is surprisingly little known about the effects of this technology on the targeted shale formation and on environmental impacts of oil and gas production at the surface. We examined water samples from both conventional and UOG shale wells to determine the composition, source and fate of organic substances present. Extraction of hydrocarbon from shale plays involves the creation and expansion of fractures through the hydraulic fracturing process. This process involves the injection of large volumes of a water-sand mix treated with organic and inorganic chemicals to assist the process and prop open the fractures created. Formation water from a well in the New Albany Shale that was not hydraulically fractured (no injected chemicals) had total organic carbon (TOC) levels that averaged 8 mg/L, and organic substances that included: long-chain fatty acids, alkanes, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, heterocyclic compounds, alkyl benzenes, and alkyl phenols. In contrast, water from UOG production in the Marcellus Shale had TOC levels as high as 5,500 mg/L, and contained a range of organic chemicals including, solvents, biocides, scale inhibitors, and other organic chemicals at thousands of μg/L for individual compounds. These chemicals and TOC decreased rapidly over the first 20 days of water recovery as injected fluids were recovered, but residual organic compounds (some naturally-occurring) remained up to 250 days after the start of water recovery (TOC 10-30 mg/L). Results show how hydraulic fracturing changes the organic

  4. Personal care product preservatives: risk assessment and mixture toxicities with an industrial wastewater.

    PubMed

    Carbajo, Jose B; Perdigón-Melón, Jose A; Petre, Alice L; Rosal, Roberto; Letón, Pedro; García-Calvo, Eloy

    2015-04-01

    The aquatic toxicity of eight preservatives frequently used in personal care products (PCPs) (iodopropynyl butylcarbamate, bronopol, diazolidinyl urea, benzalkonium chloride, zinc pyrithione, propylparaben, triclosan and a mixture of methylchloroisothiazolinone and methylisothiazolinone) was assessed by means of two different approaches: a battery of bioassays composed of single species tests of bacteria (Vibrio fischeri and Pseudomonas putida) and protozoa (Tetrahymena thermophila), and a whole biological community resazurin-based assay using activated sludge. The tested preservatives showed considerable toxicity in the studied bioassays, but with a marked difference in potency. In fact, all biocides except propylparaben and diazolidinyl urea had EC50 values lower than 1 mg L(-1) in at least one assay. Risk quotients for zinc pyrithione, benzalkonium chloride, iodopropynyl butylcarbamate and triclosan as well as the mixture of the studied preservatives exceeded 1, indicating a potential risk for the process performance and efficiency of municipal sewage treatment plants (STPs). These four single biocides explained more than 95% of the preservative mixture risk in all bioassays. Each individual preservative was also tested in combination with an industrial wastewater (IWW) from a cosmetics manufacturing facility. The toxicity assessment was performed on binary mixtures (preservative + IWW) and carried out using the median-effect principle, which is a special case of the concept of Concentration Addition (CA). Almost 70% of all experiments resulted in EC50 values within a factor of 2 of the values predicted by the median-effect principle (CI values between 0.5 and 2). The rest of the mixtures whose toxicity was mispredicted by CA were assessed with the alternative concept of Independent Action (IA), which showed higher predictive power for the biological community assay. Therefore, the concept used to accurately predict the toxicity of mixtures of a preservative

  5. Personal care product preservatives: risk assessment and mixture toxicities with an industrial wastewater.

    PubMed

    Carbajo, Jose B; Perdigón-Melón, Jose A; Petre, Alice L; Rosal, Roberto; Letón, Pedro; García-Calvo, Eloy

    2015-04-01

    The aquatic toxicity of eight preservatives frequently used in personal care products (PCPs) (iodopropynyl butylcarbamate, bronopol, diazolidinyl urea, benzalkonium chloride, zinc pyrithione, propylparaben, triclosan and a mixture of methylchloroisothiazolinone and methylisothiazolinone) was assessed by means of two different approaches: a battery of bioassays composed of single species tests of bacteria (Vibrio fischeri and Pseudomonas putida) and protozoa (Tetrahymena thermophila), and a whole biological community resazurin-based assay using activated sludge. The tested preservatives showed considerable toxicity in the studied bioassays, but with a marked difference in potency. In fact, all biocides except propylparaben and diazolidinyl urea had EC50 values lower than 1 mg L(-1) in at least one assay. Risk quotients for zinc pyrithione, benzalkonium chloride, iodopropynyl butylcarbamate and triclosan as well as the mixture of the studied preservatives exceeded 1, indicating a potential risk for the process performance and efficiency of municipal sewage treatment plants (STPs). These four single biocides explained more than 95% of the preservative mixture risk in all bioassays. Each individual preservative was also tested in combination with an industrial wastewater (IWW) from a cosmetics manufacturing facility. The toxicity assessment was performed on binary mixtures (preservative + IWW) and carried out using the median-effect principle, which is a special case of the concept of Concentration Addition (CA). Almost 70% of all experiments resulted in EC50 values within a factor of 2 of the values predicted by the median-effect principle (CI values between 0.5 and 2). The rest of the mixtures whose toxicity was mispredicted by CA were assessed with the alternative concept of Independent Action (IA), which showed higher predictive power for the biological community assay. Therefore, the concept used to accurately predict the toxicity of mixtures of a preservative

  6. Production of porous carbonaceous adsorbent from physical activation of sewage sludge: application to wastewater treatment.

    PubMed

    Rio, S; Le Coq, L; Faur, C; Le Cloirec, P

    2006-01-01

    With an objective of production of carbonaceous sorbent for industrial effluent treatment, physical activation by steam of biological sludge collected from the municipal wastewater treatment plant of Nantes (France) was studied and optimised using experimental design. Thus, this activation process consists of a carbonisation under N2 atmosphere at 600 degrees C for 1 h, followed by a thermal oxidation using steam (760 degrees C, 0.5 h, 2.5 L/Umin). The global mass yield of the process is equal to 38%. The thermal treatment allows a specific surface area of up to 225 m2/g to be reached, the porous structure being composed of both micropores and mesopores. The content of acidic surface groups is 0.71 mEq/g whereas that of basic surface groups is 0.55 mEq/g. The adsorption properties of the sorbent made from sludge are estimated with regard to various pollutants representative of industrial pollution of wastewaters and compared with those of commercial activated carbon. Whereas the adsorption capacities of organic micropollutants are quite low because of proportionality to the microporosity, the important mesoporosity of the sorbent leads to interesting properties for macromolecules removal from aqueous solutions, such as dyes (q(m) = 175-200 mg/g). Furthermore, the surface functional groups and Ca2+ ions within the materials allow high copper ion adsorption capacities of 140 mg/g to be obtained. Finally, a techno-economic approach shows that the sludge activation process seems to be economically competitive with regard to incineration.

  7. Microalgal species growing on piggery wastewater as a valuable candidate for nutrient removal and biodiesel production.

    PubMed

    Abou-Shanab, Reda A I; Ji, Min-Kyu; Kim, Hyun-Chul; Paeng, Ki-Jung; Jeon, Byong-Hun

    2013-01-30

    Six microalgal species were examined in this study to determine their effectiveness in the coupling of piggery wastewater treatment and biodiesel production. The dry biomasses of Ourococcus multisporus, Nitzschia cf. pusilla, Chlamydomonas mexicana, Scenedesmus obliquus, Chlorella vulgaris, and Micractinium reisseri were 0.34 ± 0.08, 0.37 ± 0.13, 0.56 ± 0.35, 0.53 ± 0.30, 0.49 ± 0.26, and 0.35 ± 0.08 g dwt/L, respectively. The highest removal of nitrogen (62%), phosphorus (28%), and inorganic carbon (29%) were achieved by C. mexicana. In the absence of microalgae, the spontaneous precipitation of phosphorus, calcium, and inorganic carbon occurred at slightly alkaline pH. The highest lipid productivity and lipid content (0.31 ± 0.03 g/L and 33 ± 3%, respectively) were found in C. mexicana. The fatty acid compositions of the studied species were mainly palmitic, linoleic, α-linolenic, and oleic. The results of our study suggest that C. mexicana is one of the most promising candidates for simultaneous nutrient removal and high-efficient biodiesel production.

  8. Integrating photobiological hydrogen production with dye-metal bioremoval from simulated textile wastewater.

    PubMed

    Kaushik, Anubha; Mona, Sharma; Kaushik, C P

    2011-11-01

    The study reports production of hydrogen in photobioreactors with free (PBR(Fr)) and immobilized (PBR(Imm)) Nostoc biomass at enhanced and sustained rates. Before running the photobioreactors, effects of different immobilization matrices and cyanobacterial dose on hydrogen production were studied in batch mode. As hydrogen production in the PBRs declined spent biomass from the photobioreactors were collected and utilized further for column biosorption of highly toxic dyes (Reactive Red 198+Crystal Violet) and metals (hexavalent chromium and bivalent cobalt) from simulated textile wastewater. Breakthrough time, adsorption capacity and exhaustion time of the biosorption column were studied. The photobioreactors with free and immobilized cyanobacterium produced hydrogen at average rates of 101 and 151 μmol/h/mg Chl a, respectively over 15 days, while the adsorption capacity of the spent biomass was up to 1.4 and 0.23 mg/g for metals and 15 and 1.75 mg/g for the dyes, respectively in continuous column mode.

  9. Energy return on investment for algal biofuel production coupled with wastewater treatment.

    PubMed

    Beal, Colin M; Stillwell, Ashlynn S; King, Carey W; Cohen, Stuart M; Berberoglu, Halil; Bhattarai, Rajendra P; Connelly, Rhykka L; Webber, Michael E; Hebner, Robert E

    2012-09-01

    This study presents a second-order energy return on investment analysis to evaluate the mutual benefits of combining an advanced wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) (with biological nutrient removal) with algal biofuel production. With conventional, independently operated systems, algae production requires significant material inputs, which require energy directly and indirectly, and the WWTP requires significant energy inputs for treatment of the waste streams. The second-order energy return on investment values for independent operation of the WWTP and the algal biofuels production facility were determined to be 0.37 and 0.42, respectively. By combining the two, energy inputs can be reduced significantly. Consequently, the integrated system can outperform the isolated system, yielding a second-order energy return on investment of 1.44. Combining these systems transforms two energy sinks to a collective (second-order) energy source. However, these results do not include capital, labor, and other required expenses, suggesting that profitable deployment will be challenging. PMID:23012769

  10. The influence of the energy absorbed from microwave pretreatment on biogas production from secondary wastewater sludge.

    PubMed

    Sólyom, Katalin; Mato, Rafael B; Pérez-Elvira, Sara Isabel; Cocero, María José

    2011-12-01

    In this study, microwave treatment is analyzed as a way to accelerate the hydrolysis in anaerobic digestion of municipal wastewater sludge. The influence of the absorbed energy, power and athermal microwave effect on organic matter solubilization and biogas production has been studied. In addition, a novel method that considers the absorbed energy in the microwave system is proposed, in order to obtain comparable experimental results. The absorbed energy is calculated from an energy balance. The highest solubilization was achieved using 0.54 kJ/ml at 1000 W, where an increment of 7.1% was observed in methane production, compared to the untreated sample. Using a higher energy value (0.83 kJ/ml), methane production further increased (to 15.4%), but solubilization decreased. No power influence was found when 0.54 kJ/ml was applied at 1000, 600 and 440 W. Microwave heating was compared to conventional heating in two different experimental setups, providing similar methane yields in all cases.

  11. Life cycle inventory for the production of germinated oil palm seeds at a selected seed production unit in Malaysia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khairuddin, Nik Sasha Khatrina; Ismail, B. S.; Muhamad, Halimah; May, Choo Yuen

    2013-11-01

    The increasing global demand for edible oil has encouraged Malaysia to increase the areas under oil palm cultivation. The total demand for germinated oil palm seeds in the years 2009, 2010, 2011 and 2012 were 86.4, 76.5, 72.6 and 75.2 million, respectively. Production of germinated oil palm seeds is the first link in the palm oil supply chain. Therefore, good management practices at seed production stage is required to ensure only high quality germinated oil palm seeds are produced before sale to customers. Life cycle assessment (LCA) has been used as a tool to assess environmental impact of the processes throughout a product's lifespan and this approach is an important tool for assessing green house gas (GHG) emission. For this study, a gate-to-gate life cycle inventory (LCI) of a single germinated oil palm seed production unit was carried out. The functional unit used for this LCI was one germinated oil palm seed. To determine the environmental impact for the production of germinated oil palm seeds, information on the inputs were obtained. The inputs for the production of germinated oil palm seeds involved materials such as polyethylene bags, electricity, water, chemicals and fungicides. For this study, the system boundary involved seed germination process and management of germinated oil palm seeds. It was found that the amount of input such as materials and energy used in the production of germinated oil palm seeds was very minimal.

  12. Effect of the chlortetracycline addition method on methane production from the anaerobic digestion of swine wastewater.

    PubMed

    Huang, Lu; Wen, Xin; Wang, Yan; Zou, Yongde; Ma, Baohua; Liao, Xindi; Liang, Juanboo; Wu, Yinbao

    2014-10-01

    Effects of antibiotic residues on methane production in anaerobic digestion are commonly studied using the following two antibiotic addition methods: (1) adding manure from animals that consume a diet containing antibiotics, and (2) adding antibiotic-free animal manure spiked with antibiotics. This study used chlortetracycline (CTC) as a model antibiotic to examine the effects of the antibiotic addition method on methane production in anaerobic digestion under two different swine wastewater concentrations (0.55 and 0.22mg CTC/g dry manure). The results showed that CTC degradation rate in which manure was directly added at 0.55mg CTC/g (HSPIKE treatment) was lower than the control values and the rest of the treatment groups. Methane production from the HSPIKE treatment was reduced (p<0.05) by 12% during the whole experimental period and 15% during the first 7days. The treatments had no significant effect on the pH and chemical oxygen demand value of the digesters, and the total nitrogen of the 0.55mg CTC/kg manure collected from mediated swine was significantly higher than the other values. Therefore, different methane production under different antibiotic addition methods might be explained by the microbial activity and the concentrations of antibiotic intermediate products and metabolites. Because the primary entry route of veterinary antibiotics into an anaerobic digester is by contaminated animal manure, the most appropriate method for studying antibiotic residue effects on methane production may be using manure from animals that are given a particular antibiotic, rather than adding the antibiotic directly to the anaerobic digester.

  13. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in Italian preserved food products in oil.

    PubMed

    Sannino, Anna

    2016-06-01

    A method based on gas chromatography/ tandem mass spectrometry was used to assess levels of 16 EU priority polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in 48 preserved food products in oil including foods such as vegetables in oil, fish in oil and oil-based sauces obtained from the Italian market. The benzo[a]pyrene concentrations ranged from <0.04 to 0.40 µg kg(-1), and 72.9% of the samples showed detectable levels of this compound. The highest contamination level was observed for chrysene with three additional PAHs (benzo[a]anthracene, benzo[b]fluoranthene and benzo[c]fluorene) giving mean values higher than the mean value for benzo[a]pyrene. Chrysene was detected in all the samples at concentrations ranging from 0.07 to 1.80 µg kg(-1) (median 0.31 µg kg(-1)). The contamination expressed as PAH4 (sum of benzo(a)pyrene, chrysene, benzo(a)anthracene and benzo(b)fluoranthene), for which the maximum tolerable limit has been set by Commission Regulation (EU) No. 835/2011, varied between 0.10 and 2.94 µg kg(-1). PMID:26886159

  14. Plans for first oil production revived in two Sudanese fields

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-05-03

    A Vancouver, British Columbia, independent and its Sudanese partner have filed a development plan with the government of Sudan to produce an initial 40,000 b/d from Heglig and Unity oil fields in Sudan. Arakis Energy Corp., and the private Sudanese company State Petroleum Corp. (SPC) want to begin the first commercial hydrocarbon production in the destitute, war torn country. They are picking up where Chevron Corp. left off after years of grappling with an ambitious, costly - and ultimately futile - effort to export crude-oil from Sudan. After finding almost 300 million bbl of oil in Sudan during the early 1980s, Chevron scuttled a $2 billion project to export 50,000 b/d of Sudanese crude in 1986. It drilled 90 wells and sank more than $1 billion into the project. But it dropped the plan, citing the 1986 collapse of oil prices and concerns over security after repeated guerrilla attacks delayed work. The paper details the project.

  15. Engineered microbes and methods for microbial oil production

    DOEpatents

    Stephanopoulos, Gregory; Tai, Mitchell; Chakraborty, Sagar

    2015-02-10

    Some aspects of this invention provide engineered microbes for oil production. Methods for microbe engineering and for use of engineered microbes are also provided herein. In some embodiments, microbes are provided that are engineered to modulate a combination of rate-controlling steps of lipid synthesis, for example, a combination of a step generating metabolites, acetyl-CoA, ATP or NADPH for lipid synthesis (a push step), and a step sequestering a product or an intermediate of a lipid synthesis pathway that mediates feedback inhibition of lipid synthesis (a pull step). Such push-and-pull engineered microbes exhibit greatly enhanced conversion yields and TAG synthesis and storage properties.

  16. The effect of amino acids on lipid production and nutrient removal by Rhodotorula glutinis cultivation in starch wastewater.

    PubMed

    Liu, Meng; Zhang, Xu; Tan, Tian