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Sample records for oil recovery process

  1. Shale oil recovery process

    DOEpatents

    Zerga, Daniel P.

    1980-01-01

    A process of producing within a subterranean oil shale deposit a retort chamber containing permeable fragmented material wherein a series of explosive charges are emplaced in the deposit in a particular configuration comprising an initiating round which functions to produce an upward flexure of the overburden and to initiate fragmentation of the oil shale within the area of the retort chamber to be formed, the initiating round being followed in a predetermined time sequence by retreating lines of emplaced charges developing further fragmentation within the retort zone and continued lateral upward flexure of the overburden. The initiating round is characterized by a plurality of 5-spot patterns and the retreating lines of charges are positioned and fired along zigzag lines generally forming retreating rows of W's. Particular time delays in the firing of successive charges are disclosed.

  2. High conformance oil recovery process

    SciTech Connect

    Schievelbein, V.H.

    1980-01-22

    The conformance of an aqueous flooding oil recovery process, including steam, hot water or surfactant or other chemicalized water flood process, in a formation containing at least two zones of different permeability, the permeability of one zone being at least 50 percent greater than the permeability of the other zone, is improved by flooding until the higher permeability zone has been depleted, after which a fluid is injected into the depleted, high permeability zone, said fluid having relatively low viscosity at the time of injection and containing a mixture of at least two surface active agents which promotes the formation of a coarse emulsion in the flow channels of the formation which reduces the permeability of the high permeability zone. Since the viscosity of the fluid injected into the previously water flooded, high permeability zone is no greater than water, it is injected easily into the zone and moves through substantially the same flow channels as water would move in the formation. After the permeability of the first zone has been reduced substantially, flooding may then be accomplished in the second zone which was originally not invaded by the injected oil displacing fluid since its permeability was substantially less than the permeability of the first zone. The surface active agents are tailored to exhibit optimum emulsion formation properties with the particular aqueous fluid present in the flow channels of the formation to be treated.

  3. Oil recovery process using polymer microemulsion complexes

    SciTech Connect

    Baker, E.G.; Canter, N.H.; Robbins, M.L.

    1982-11-23

    A process for the enhanced recovery of oil from a subterranean formation using a polymer-microemulsion complex is disclosed. The polymer is polyethylene oxide or polyvinyl pyrrolidone which interacts with the surfactant of the microemulsion to form a physical association. The resulting complex is characterized by a complexation energy of at least 2 kcal/mole. Slugs containing the present polymer-microemulsion complexes are stable at high salinity, show reduced destabilization due to surfactant adsorption and retention by the formation, have low interfacial tensions and achieve an early banking, as well as increased displacement of crude oil.

  4. Process for tertiary oil recovery using tall oil pitch

    DOEpatents

    Radke, C.J.

    1983-07-25

    A process and compositions for enhancing the recovery of acid crudes are disclosed. The process involves injecting caustic solutions into the reservoir to maintain a pH of 11 to 13. The fluid contains an effective amount of multivalent cation for inhibiting alkaline silica dissolution with the reservoir. A tall oil pitch soap is added as a polymeric mobility control agent. (DMC)

  5. Oil recovery process and apparatus for oil refinery waste

    SciTech Connect

    Godino, R.L.; Elliott, J.D. Jr.

    1991-02-19

    This patent describes a process for recovery of oil from oily waste having high water content, a heavy hydrocarbon portion and inert solids. It comprises: mixing the waste with fluidizing oil to form a mixture; evaporating the water from the mixture to dewater the mixture; and feeding the dewatered mixture to a delayed coking process, including directing the dewatered mixture into a coke drum containing conventional coke feedstock and subjecting the dewatered mixture in the coke drum to coking conditions, whereby the heavy hydrocarbon portion changes to coke and light hydrocarbon material, the inert solids become trapped in the coke, and the fluidizing oil vaporizes.

  6. Process for tertiary oil recovery using tall oil pitch

    SciTech Connect

    Radke, C. J.

    1985-07-02

    Compositions and process employing same for enhancing the recovery of residual acid crudes, particularly heavy crudes, by injecting a composition comprising caustic in an amount sufficient to maintain a pH of at least about 11, preferably at least about 13, and a small but effective amount of a multivalent cation for inhibiting alkaline silica dissolution with the reservoir. Preferably a tall oil pitch soap is included and particularly for the heavy crudes a polymeric mobility control agent.

  7. Process for tertiary oil recovery using tall oil pitch

    DOEpatents

    Radke, Clayton J.

    1985-01-01

    Compositions and process employing same for enhancing the recovery of residual acid crudes, particularly heavy crudes, by injecting a composition comprising caustic in an amount sufficient to maintain a pH of at least about 11, preferably at least about 13, and a small but effective amount of a multivalent cation for inhibiting alkaline silica dissolution with the reservoir. Preferably a tall oil pitch soap is included and particularly for the heavy crudes a polymeric mobility control agent.

  8. Enhanced oil recovery update

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, R.V

    1989-03-01

    Technology continues to grow in the realm of enhanced oil recovery. Since 1950 several processes have proven economic for oil recovery. Others are still in their infancy and must be custom designed for each reservoir. This paper gives a general overview of these processes. The author focuses on the latest technology and the outlook for enhanced oil recovery operations.

  9. Supporting technology for enhanced oil recovery - EOR thermal processes

    SciTech Connect

    1995-03-01

    This report contains the results of efforts under the six tasks of the Eighth Amendment and Extension of Annex IV, Enhanced Oil Recovery Thermal Processes of the Venezuela/USA Agreement. The report is presented in sections and each section contains one or more reports prepared by various individuals or groups describing the results of efforts under each of the tasks. A statement of each task, taken from the agreement, is presented on the first page of each section.

  10. In-situ steam drive oil recovery process

    SciTech Connect

    Vanmeurs, P.; Waxman, M.H.; Vinegar, H.J.

    1987-02-03

    A process is described for heating a subterranean oil and water-containing reservoir formation, comprising: completing at least one each of heat-injecting and fluid-producing wells into a treatment interval of the formation which is at least about 100 feet thick, contains both oil and water, and is both undesirably impermeable and non-productive in response to injections of oil recovery fluids; arranging the wells to have boreholes which, substantially throughout the treatment interval, are substantially parallel and are separated by substantially equal distances of at least about 20 feet; in each heat-injecting well, substantially throughout the treatment interval, sealing the face of the reservoir formation with a solid material which is relatively heat-conductive and substantially fluid impermeable; in each fluid-producing well, substantially throughout the treatment interval, establishing fluid communication between the wellbore and the reservoir formation and arranging the well for producing fluid from the reservoir formation; and heating the interior of each heat-injecting well, at least substantially throughout the treatment interval, at a rate or rates capable of (a) increasing the temperature within the borehole interior to at least about 600/sup 0/C. and (b) maintaining a borehole interior temperature of at least about 600/sup 0/C. without causing it to become high enough to thermally damage equipment within the borehole while heat is being transmitted away from the borehole at a rate not significantly faster than that permitted by the thermal conductivity of the reservoir formation.

  11. The successive displacement process: Oil recovery during blowdown

    SciTech Connect

    Irwin, D.D.; Batychy, J.P.

    1996-12-31

    Much of Western Canada`s conventional crude oil occurs in vertically-continuous reefal carbonate structures. A common strategy has been to support oil production through downward vertical gas displacement. The gravity stable displacement yields excellent conformance and high oil recoveries with typical residual levels of 20% pore volume. Once the oil zone has been depleted leaving only a sandwich loss, the pools enter a blowdown phase to produce the gas cap from the top of structure. During the blowdown phase, if there is an underlying aquifer, the oil sandwich is displaced upwards into the previously gas-displaced oil zone, trapping gas. Due to the presence of the trapped gas saturation and the low connate water saturation (typical of carbonate reefs), the remaining oil saturation in this zone, as it is displaced by the underlying water is reduced to near miscible levels (10 - 15% PV), mobilizing incremental oil equal to 5 - 10% PV. Whether or not there an aquifer is present, bottom water injection can be applied to ensure displacement through the entire gas-displacement oil zone. The Successive Displacement (SDP), as this tertiary waterflood concept has been named, has been confirmed with full-diameter reservoir-condition core tests on carbonate cores in the laboratory. Observation from the initial stages of a full-field SDP application in Imperial Oil`s Bonnie Glen reservoir after about four years of operation provide further encouragement with performance indicating a reduction in the residual of 5-6% PV.

  12. Microbial processes in the Athabasca Oil Sands and their potential applications in microbial enhanced oil recovery.

    PubMed

    Harner, N K; Richardson, T L; Thompson, K A; Best, R J; Best, A S; Trevors, J T

    2011-11-01

    The Athabasca Oil Sands are located within the Western Canadian Sedimentary Basin, which covers over 140,200 km(2) of land in Alberta, Canada. The oil sands provide a unique environment for bacteria as a result of the stressors of low water availability and high hydrocarbon concentrations. Understanding the mechanisms bacteria use to tolerate these stresses may aid in our understanding of how hydrocarbon degradation has occurred over geological time, and how these processes and related tolerance mechanisms may be used in biotechnology applications such as microbial enhanced oil recovery (MEOR). The majority of research has focused on microbiology processes in oil reservoirs and oilfields; as such there is a paucity of information specific to oil sands. By studying microbial processes in oil sands there is the potential to use microbes in MEOR applications. This article reviews the microbiology of the Athabasca Oil Sands and the mechanisms bacteria use to tolerate low water and high hydrocarbon availability in oil reservoirs and oilfields, and potential applications in MEOR.

  13. Oil recovery process using a treated polymer solution

    SciTech Connect

    Luetzelschwab, W.E.

    1989-09-19

    This patent describes a process for recovering oil from a subterranean oil-bearing formation. It comprises the sequential steps of: contacting an aqueous acrylamide polymer-free liquid with an oxygenating agent, wherein the aqueous acrylamide polymer-free liquid initially contains hydrogen sulfide in a sufficient concentration to substantially degrade an acrylamide polymer; reducing the initial hydrogen sulfide concentration of the aqueous acrylamide polymer-free liquid; mixing the aqueous liquid with the acrylamide polymer to form an aqueous acrylamide polymer solution; injecting the aqueous acrylamide polymer solution into the subterranean oil-bearing formation; and recovering oil from the formation.

  14. Supporting technology for enhanced oil recovery for thermal processes

    SciTech Connect

    Reid, T.B.; Bolivar, J.

    1997-12-01

    This report contains the results of efforts under the six tasks of the Ninth Amendment and Extension of Annex IV, Enhanced Oil Recovery Thermal Processes of the Venezuela/USA Agreement. The report is presented in sections (for each of the 6 tasks) and each section contains one or more reports prepared by various individuals or groups describing the results of efforts under each of the tasks. A statement of each task, taken from the agreement, is presented on the first page of each section. The tasks are numbered 62 through 67. The first, second, third, fourth fifth, sixth, seventh, eighth, and ninth reports on Annex IV, [Venezuela MEM/USA-DOE Fossil Energy Report IV-1, IV-2, IV-3, IV-4, IV-5, IV-6, IV-7, and IV-8 (DOE/BETC/SP-83/15, DOE/BC-84/6/SP, DOE/BC-86/2/SP, DOE/BC-87/2/SP, DOE/BC-90/1/SP, DOE/BC-90/1/SP) (DOE/BC-92/1/SP, DOE/BC-93/3/SP, and DOE/BC-95/3/SP)] contain the results from the first 61 tasks. Those reports are dated April 1983, August 1984, March 1986, July 1987, November 1988, October 1991, February 1993, and March 1995 respectively.

  15. Supporting technology for enhanced oil recovery: Sixth amendment and extension to Annex IV enhanced oil recovery thermal processes

    SciTech Connect

    Reid, T.B. ); Rivas, O. )

    1991-10-01

    This report contains the results of efforts under the six tasks of the Sixth Amendment and Extension of Annex 4, Enhanced Oil Recovery Thermal Processes of the Venezuela/USA Agreement. The report is presented in sections (for each of the 6 tasks) and each section contains one or more reports prepared by various individuals or groups describing the results of efforts under each of the tasks. A statement of each task, taken from the agreement, is presented on the first page of each section. The tasks are numbered 44 through 49. Tasks are: DOE-SUPRI-laboratory research on steam foam, CAT-SCAN, and in-situ combustion; INTEVEP-laboratory research and field projects on steam foam; DOE-NIPER-laboratory research and field projects light oil steam flooding; INTEVEP-laboratory research and field studies on wellbore heat losses; DOE-LLNL-laboratory research and field projects on electromagnetic induction tomography; INTEVEP-laoboratory research on mechanistic studies.

  16. In situ recovery process for heavy oil sands

    SciTech Connect

    Pachovsky, R.A.

    1984-10-09

    Bitumen is recovered from a subterranean formation of heavy oil sands traversed by at least one injection well and at least one associated production well in fluid communication with each injection well. Air in admixture with a heating fluid selected from the group consisting of low quality steam, hot water, or mixtures thereof, and an alkalinity agent are injected into the formation by way of each injection well. The subterranean heavy oil sands are thereby raised to a temperature in the range of about 200/sup 0/ to 350/sup 0/ F. A portion of the bitumen at reduced viscosity is oxidized without burning to produce additional petroleum acids which are neutralized to form emulsifying agents. The condensed steam and/or hot water contacting the bitumen form with it a bitumen-water emulsion. By pressure from the injected mixture of air and heating fluid, the resulting bitumen-water emulsion is then recovered from each production well. Demulsification takes place at the surface and bitumen, hot water, and sand are separated. Increased oil recovery efficiency may be obtained by pressure controlled cycles.

  17. Investigation of Multiscale and Multiphase Flow, Transport and Reaction in Heavy Oil Recovery Processes

    SciTech Connect

    Yorstos, Yannis C.

    2003-03-19

    The report describes progress made in the various thrust areas of the project, which include internal drives for oil recovery, vapor-liquid flows, combustion and reaction processes and the flow of fluids with yield stress.

  18. Investigation of Multiscale and Multiphase Flow, Transport and Reaction in Heavy Oil Recovery Processes

    SciTech Connect

    Yorstos, Yanis C.

    2002-03-11

    The emphasis of this work was on investigating the mechanisms and factors that control the recovery of heavy oil with the objective to improve recovery efficiencies. For this purpose the interaction of flow transport and reaction at various scales from the pore network to the field scales were studied. Particular mechanisms to be investigated included the onset of gas flow in foamy oil production and in in-situ steam drive, gravity drainage in steam processes, the development of sustained combustion fronts and the propagation of foams in porous media. Analytical, computational and experimental methods were utilized to advance the state of the art in heavy oil recovery. Successful completion of this research was expected to lead to improvements in the Recovery efficiency of various heavy oil processes.

  19. Investigation of Multiscale and Multiphase Flow, Transport and Reaction in Heavy Oil Recovery Process

    SciTech Connect

    Yortsos, Yanis C.; Akkutlu, Yucel; Amilik, Pouya; Kechagia, Persefoni; Lu, Chuan; Shariati, Maryam; Tsimpanogiannis, Ioannis; Zhan, Lang

    2000-01-19

    The emphasis of this work was on investigating the mechanisms and factors that control the recovery of heavy oil, with the objective to improve recovery efficiencies. For this purpose, the interaction of flow, transport and reaction at various scales (from the pore-network to the field scales) were studied. Particular mechanisms investigated included the onset of gas flow in foamy oil production and in in-situ steam drive, gravity drainage in steam process, the development of sustained combustion fronts and the propagation of foams in porous media. Analytical, computational and experimental methods were utilized to advance the state of the art in heavy oil recovery. Successful completion of this research was expected to lead to improvements in the recovery efficiency of various heavy oil processes.

  20. Development of on-farm oil recovery and processing methods: Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Goodrum, J.W.; Kilgo, M.B.

    1987-09-02

    Using supercritical carbon dioxide (SC-CO2), peanut oil was extracted from ground peanuts at pressures of 2000 to 10,000 psi and temperatures of 25-120/degree/ C. Above 6000 psi, increasing the temperature to the maximum possible without heavily charring the peanuts (120/degree/C) significantly increased the initial extraction rate. Increasing the pressure at constant temperature increased the rate. At higher temperatures (75/degree/ C and above) roasting began to occur, however, this was not detrimental to the extraction rate or overall oil recovery. Decreasing the particle size increases the overall yield per batch of peanuts as seen in both the half factorial and particle size experiments. Increasing the moisture increases the amount of volatiles lost. The flow rate does not affect the solubility, percent oil recovered or volatiles lost for flow rates of 40 to 60 liters CO2/minute at STP. Recovery of peanut and rapeseed oil with a combined process of partial recovery in a screw press plus extraction of the remaining oil with SC-CO2 is technically a viable alternative to other oil recovery methods. Oil recoveries of 95% (peanuts) and 75% (rapeseed) have been demonstrated. The initial extraction rate for rapeseed was consistently lower than the rate for peanuts at the same extraction temperature and pressure. No differences in SC-CO2 extraction rates or yields were found between Dwarf Essex and Cascade varieties of rapeseed. 8 refs., 17 figs., 5 tabs.

  1. Combined effect of ohmic heating and enzyme assisted aqueous extraction process on soy oil recovery.

    PubMed

    Pare, Akash; Nema, Anurag; Singh, V K; Mandhyan, B L

    2014-08-01

    This research describes a new technological process for soybean oil extraction. The process deals with the combined effect of ohmic heating and enzyme assisted aqueous oil extraction process (EAEP) on enhancement of oil recovery from soybean seed. The experimental process consisted of following basic steps, namely, dehulling, wet grinding, enzymatic treatment, ohmic heating, aqueous extraction and centrifugation. The effect of ohmic heating parameters namely electric field strength (EFS), end point temperature (EPT) and holding time (HT) on aqueous oil extraction process were investigated. Three levels of electric field strength (i.e. OH600V, OH750V and OH900V), 3 levels of end point temperature (i.e. 70, 80 and 90 °C) and 3 levels of holding time (i.e. 0, 5 and 10 min.) were taken as independent variables using full factorial design. Percentage oil recovery from soybean by EAEP alone and EAEP coupled with ohmic heating were 53.12 % and 56.86 % to 73 % respectively. The maximum oil recovery (73 %) was obtained when the sample was heated and maintained at 90 °C using electric field strength of OH600V for a holding time of 10 min. The free fatty acid (FFA) of the extracted oil (i.e. in range of 0.97 to 1.29 %) was within the acceptable limit of 3 % (oleic acid) and 0.5-3 % prescribed respectively by PFA and BIS.

  2. Biochemically enhanced oil recovery and oil treatment

    DOEpatents

    Premuzic, E.T.; Lin, M.

    1994-03-29

    This invention relates to the preparation of new, modified organisms, through challenge growth processes, that are viable in the extreme temperature, pressure and pH conditions and salt concentrations of an oil reservoir and that are suitable for use in microbial enhanced oil recovery. The modified microorganisms of the present invention are used to enhance oil recovery and remove sulfur compounds and metals from the crude oil. 62 figures.

  3. Biochemically enhanced oil recovery and oil treatment

    DOEpatents

    Premuzic, Eugene T.; Lin, Mow

    1994-01-01

    This invention relates to the preparation of new, modified organisms, through challenge growth processes, that are viable in the extreme temperature, pressure and pH conditions and salt concentrations of an oil reservoir and that are suitable for use in microbial enhanced oil recovery. The modified microorganisms of the present invention are used to enhance oil recovery and remove sulfur compounds and metals from the crude oil.

  4. Supporting technology for enhanced oil recovery: Third ammendment and extension to Annex IV enhanced oil recovery thermal processes

    SciTech Connect

    Peterson, G.; Munoz, J.D.

    1987-07-01

    This report contains the results of efforts under the seven tasks of the Third Amendment and Extension of Annex IV, Enhanced Oil Recovery Thermal Processes of the Venezuela/USA Agreement. The report is presented in sections (for each of the tasks) and each section contains one or more reports prepared by various individuals or groups describing the results of effort under each of the tasks. A statement of each task, taken from the agreement, is presented on the first page of each section. The tasks are numbered 25 through 31. The first, second, and third reports on Annex IV, ((Venezuela-MEM/USA-DOE Fossil Energy Report IV-1, IV-2, and IV-3 (DOE/BETC/SP-83/15, DOE/BC-84/6/SP, and DOE/BC-86/2/SP)) contain the results from the first 24 tasks. Those reports are dated April 1983, August 1984, and March 1986. Selected papers have been processed for inclusion in the Energy Data Base.

  5. Gas-assisted gravity drainage (GAGD) process for improved oil recovery

    DOEpatents

    Rao, Dandina N [Baton Rouge, LA

    2012-07-10

    A rapid and inexpensive process for increasing the amount of hydrocarbons (e.g., oil) produced and the rate of production from subterranean hydrocarbon-bearing reservoirs by displacing oil downwards within the oil reservoir and into an oil recovery apparatus is disclosed. The process is referred to as "gas-assisted gravity drainage" and comprises the steps of placing one or more horizontal producer wells near the bottom of a payzone (i.e., rock in which oil and gas are found in exploitable quantities) of a subterranean hydrocarbon-bearing reservoir and injecting a fluid displacer (e.g., CO.sub.2) through one or more vertical wells or horizontal wells. Pre-existing vertical wells may be used to inject the fluid displacer into the reservoir. As the fluid displacer is injected into the top portion of the reservoir, it forms a gas zone, which displaces oil and water downward towards the horizontal producer well(s).

  6. Biodiesel production process from microalgae oil by waste heat recovery and process integration.

    PubMed

    Song, Chunfeng; Chen, Guanyi; Ji, Na; Liu, Qingling; Kansha, Yasuki; Tsutsumi, Atsushi

    2015-10-01

    In this work, the optimization of microalgae oil (MO) based biodiesel production process is carried out by waste heat recovery and process integration. The exergy analysis of each heat exchanger presented an efficient heat coupling between hot and cold streams, thus minimizing the total exergy destruction. Simulation results showed that the unit production cost of optimized process is 0.592$/L biodiesel, and approximately 0.172$/L biodiesel can be avoided by heat integration. Although the capital cost of the optimized biodiesel production process increased 32.5% and 23.5% compared to the reference cases, the operational cost can be reduced by approximately 22.5% and 41.6%. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Oil recovery process: injection of fatty alcohol followed by soap

    SciTech Connect

    Cardenas, R.; Carlin, J.

    1980-07-22

    A method is described for recovering crude oil from a subterranean reservoir having one or more injection means in fluid communication with one or more producing means. The method comprises injecting into said reservoir through said injection means an effective quantity of a solution of a fatty alcohol wherein the alcohol is selected from the group consisting of n-dodecyl, n-octyl and oleyl alcohols and mixtures thereof ranging in concentration from about 0.1 to about 10.0 weight percent of the injected solution and either a crude oil or a refined fraction of crude oil followed by an effective quantity of a solution comprising a soap and water wherein said soap is a sodium dodecyl sulfate ranging in concentration from about 0.05 to about 5.0 weight percent of the injected solution, said solutions combining with the crude oil present in the reservoir to form an oil-in-water emulsion, driving said solutions and emulsion through the reservoir by injection of a driving fluid and recovering the crude oil through said produciton means.

  8. Development and Optimization of Gas-Assisted Gravity Drainage (GAGD) Process for Improved Light Oil Recovery

    SciTech Connect

    Dandina N. Rao; Subhash C. Ayirala; Madhav M. Kulkarni; Wagirin Ruiz Paidin; Thaer N. N. Mahmoud; Daryl S. Sequeira; Amit P. Sharma

    2006-09-30

    This is the final report describing the evolution of the project ''Development and Optimization of Gas-Assisted Gravity Drainage (GAGD) Process for Improved Light Oil Recovery'' from its conceptual stage in 2002 to the field implementation of the developed technology in 2006. This comprehensive report includes all the experimental research, models developments, analyses of results, salient conclusions and the technology transfer efforts. As planned in the original proposal, the project has been conducted in three separate and concurrent tasks: Task 1 involved a physical model study of the new GAGD process, Task 2 was aimed at further developing the vanishing interfacial tension (VIT) technique for gas-oil miscibility determination, and Task 3 was directed at determining multiphase gas-oil drainage and displacement characteristics in reservoir rocks at realistic pressures and temperatures. The project started with the task of recruiting well-qualified graduate research assistants. After collecting and reviewing the literature on different aspects of the project such gas injection EOR, gravity drainage, miscibility characterization, and gas-oil displacement characteristics in porous media, research plans were developed for the experimental work to be conducted under each of the three tasks. Based on the literature review and dimensional analysis, preliminary criteria were developed for the design of the partially-scaled physical model. Additionally, the need for a separate transparent model for visual observation and verification of the displacement and drainage behavior under gas-assisted gravity drainage was identified. Various materials and methods (ceramic porous material, Stucco, Portland cement, sintered glass beads) were attempted in order to fabricate a satisfactory visual model. In addition to proving the effectiveness of the GAGD process (through measured oil recoveries in the range of 65 to 87% IOIP), the visual models demonstrated three possible

  9. A New Screening Methodology for Improved Oil Recovery Processes Using Soft-Computing Techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parada, Claudia; Ertekin, Turgay

    2010-05-01

    The first stage of production of any oil reservoir involves oil displacement by natural drive mechanisms such as solution gas drive, gas cap drive and gravity drainage. Typically, improved oil recovery (IOR) methods are applied to oil reservoirs that have been depleted naturally. In more recent years, IOR techniques are applied to reservoirs even before their natural energy drive is exhausted by primary depletion. Descriptive screening criteria for IOR methods are used to select the appropriate recovery technique according to the fluid and rock properties. This methodology helps in assessing the most suitable recovery process for field deployment of a candidate reservoir. However, the already published screening guidelines neither provide information about the expected reservoir performance nor suggest a set of project design parameters, which can be used towards the optimization of the process. In this study, artificial neural networks (ANN) are used to build a high-performance neuro-simulation tool for screening different improved oil recovery techniques: miscible injection (CO2 and N2), waterflooding and steam injection processes. The simulation tool consists of proxy models that implement a multilayer cascade feedforward back propagation network algorithm. The tool is intended to narrow the ranges of possible scenarios to be modeled using conventional simulation, reducing the extensive time and energy spent in dynamic reservoir modeling. A commercial reservoir simulator is used to generate the data to train and validate the artificial neural networks. The proxy models are built considering four different well patterns with different well operating conditions as the field design parameters. Different expert systems are developed for each well pattern. The screening networks predict oil production rate and cumulative oil production profiles for a given set of rock and fluid properties, and design parameters. The results of this study show that the networks are

  10. SOLVENT-BASED ENHANCED OIL RECOVERY PROCESSES TO DEVELOP WEST SAK ALASKA NORTH SLOPE HEAVY OIL RESOURCES

    SciTech Connect

    David O. Ogbe; Tao Zhu

    2004-01-01

    A one-year research program is conducted to evaluate the feasibility of applying solvent-based enhanced oil recovery processes to develop West Sak and Ugnu heavy oil resources found on the Alaska North Slope (ANS). The project objective is to conduct research to develop technology to produce and market the 300-3000 cp oil in the West Sak and Ugnu sands. During the first phase of the research, background information was collected, and experimental and numerical studies of vapor extraction process (VAPEX) in West Sak and Ugnu are conducted. The experimental study is designed to foster understanding of the processes governing vapor chamber formation and growth, and to optimize oil recovery. A specially designed core-holder and a computed tomography (CT) scanner was used to measure the in-situ distribution of phases. Numerical simulation study of VAPEX was initiated during the first year. The numerical work completed during this period includes setting up a numerical model and using the analog data to simulate lab experiments of the VAPEX process. The goal was to understand the mechanisms governing the VAPEX process. Additional work is recommended to expand the VAPEX numerical study using actual field data obtained from Alaska North Slope.

  11. Fluid Diversion and Sweep Improvement with Chemical Gels in Oil Recovery Processes

    SciTech Connect

    Seright, R.S.; Martin, F.D.

    1991-11-01

    This report describes progress made during the second year of the three-year project, Fluid diversion and Sweep Improvement with Chemical Gels in Oil Recovery Processes.'' The objectives of this project are to identify the mechanisms by which gel treatments divert fluids in reservoirs and to establish where and how gel treatments are best applied. Several different types of gelants are being examined. This research is directed at gel applications in water injection wells, in production wells, and in high-pressure gasfloods. The work examines how the flow properties of gels and gelling agents are influenced by permeability, lithology, and wettability. Other goals include determining the proper placement of gelants, the stability of in-place gels, and the types of gels required for the various oil recovery processes and for different scales of reservoir heterogeneity. 93 refs., 39 figs., 43 tabs.

  12. Investigation of Multiscale and Multiphase Flow, Transport and Reaction in Heavy Oil Recovery Processes

    SciTech Connect

    Yortsos, Yanis C.

    2001-08-07

    This project is an investigation of various multi-phase and multiscale transport and reaction processes associated with heavy oil recovery. The thrust areas of the project include the following: Internal drives, vapor-liquid flows, combustion and reaction processes, fluid displacements and the effect of instabilities and heterogeneities and the flow of fluids with yield stress. These find respective applications in foamy oils, the evolution of dissolved gas, internal steam drives, the mechanics of concurrent and countercurrent vapor-liquid flows, associated with thermal methods and steam injection, such as SAGD, the in-situ combustion, the upscaling of displacements in heterogeneous media and the flow of foams, Bingham plastics and heavy oils in porous media and the development of wormholes during cold production.

  13. Investigation of Multiscale and Multiphase Flow, Transport and Reaction in Heavy Oil Recovery Processes

    SciTech Connect

    Yortsos, Y.C.

    2001-05-29

    This report is an investigation of various multi-phase and multiscale transport and reaction processes associated with heavy oil recovery. The thrust areas of the project include the following: Internal drives, vapor-liquid flows, combustion and reaction processes, fluid displacements and the effect of instabilities and heterogeneities and the flow of fluids with yield stress. These find respective applications in foamy oils, the evolution of dissolved gas, internal steam drives, the mechanics of concurrent and countercurrent vapor-liquid flows, associated with thermal methods and steam injection, such as SAGD, the in-situ combustion, the upscaling of displacements in heterogeneous media and the flow of foams, Bingham plastics and heavy oils in porous media and the development of wormholes during cold production.

  14. Development of measures to improve technologies of energy recovery from gaseous wastes of oil shale processing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tugov, A. N.; Ots, A.; Siirde, A.; Sidorkin, V. T.; Ryabov, G. A.

    2016-06-01

    Prospects of the use of oil shale are associated with its thermal processing for the production of liquid fuel, shale oil. Gaseous by-products, such as low-calorie generator gas with a calorific value up to 4.3MJ/m3 or semicoke gas with a calorific value up to 56.57 MJ/m3, are generated depending on the oil shale processing method. The main methods of energy recovery from these gases are either their cofiring with oil shale in power boilers or firing only under gaseous conditions in reconstructed or specially designed for this fuel boilers. The possible use of gaseous products of oil shale processing in gas-turbine or gas-piston units is also considered. Experiments on the cofiring of oil shale gas and its gaseous processing products have been carried out on boilers BKZ-75-39FSl in Kohtla-Järve and on the boiler TP-101 of the Estonian power plant. The test results have shown that, in the case of cofiring, the concentration of sulfur oxides in exhaust gases does not exceed the level of existing values in the case of oil shale firing. The low-temperature corrosion rate does not change as compared to the firing of only oil shale, and, therefore, operation conditions of boiler back-end surfaces do not worsen. When implementing measures to reduce the generation of NO x , especially of flue gas recirculation, it has been possible to reduce the emissions of nitrogen oxides in the whole boiler. The operation experience of the reconstructed boilers BKZ-75-39FSl after their transfer to the firing of only gaseous products of oil shale processing is summarized. Concentrations of nitrogen and sulfur oxides in the combustion products of semicoke and generator gases are measured. Technical solutions that made it possible to minimize the damage to air heater pipes associated with the low-temperature sulfur corrosion are proposed and implemented. The technological measures for burners of new boilers that made it possible to burn gaseous products of oil shale processing with low

  15. Microbial enhanced oil recovery (MEOR).

    PubMed

    Brown, Lewis R

    2010-06-01

    Two-thirds of the oil ever found is still in the ground even after primary and secondary production. Microbial enhanced oil recovery (MEOR) is one of the tertiary methods purported to increase oil recovery. Since 1946 more than 400 patents on MEOR have been issued, but none has gained acceptance by the oil industry. Most of the literature on MEOR is from laboratory experiments or from field trials of insufficient duration or that lack convincing proof of the process. Several authors have made recommendations required to establish MEOR as a viable method to enhance oil recovery, and until these tests are performed, MEOR will remain an unproven concept rather than a highly desirable reality. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Simulation of EOR (enhanced oil recovery) processes in stochastically generated permeable media

    SciTech Connect

    Waggoner, J.R.; Castillo, J.L.; Lake, L.W. . Dept. of Petroleum Engineering)

    1990-01-01

    Many enhanced oil recovery (EOR) processes involve injecting an agent, such as steam or CO{sub 2}, that is much more mobile than the resident oil. Other EOR processes attempt to improve sweep efficiency by adding polymer or surfactant to the injected water to create a favorable mobility ratio. This study examines the effect of statistically generated heterogeneity on miscible displacements at unfavorable and favorable mobility ratios. The principal goal is to delineate the effects of fingering, dispersion and channeling on volumetric sweep efficiency. Two-dimensional heterogeneous permeability fields are generated with variability (heterogeneity) and spatial correlation as characterizing parameters. Four levels of correlation and three of variability make up a 12 element matrix. At each element of the matrix, a miscible displacement simulation at unit mobility ratio shows the effect of the heterogeneity, and simulations at mobility ratios of 10 and 0.5 show the effect of viscous force differences combined with heterogeneity. 20 refs., 7 figs., 3 tabs.

  17. A laboratory and field evaluation of the CO/sub 2/ huff 'n puff process for light oil recovery

    SciTech Connect

    Monger, T.G.; Coma, J.M.

    1986-01-01

    This paper is a laboratory and field investigation of the CO/sub 2/ huff 'n puff process for the enhanced recovery of light crude oil. The results of continuous and cyclic CO/sub 2/ displacements using a 31.2 /sup 0/API (870 kg/m/sup 3/) stock tank oil in watered-out Berea cores are presented. Fourteen single-well cyclic CO/sub 2/ field tests in south Louisianan sands are examined. Laboratory results demonstrate that the CO/sub 2/ huff 'n puff process recovers waterflood residual oil. Incremental oil recovery increased with the amount of CO/sub 2/ injected, and was not benefited by operating at the minimum miscibility pressure (MMP). Maximum ultimate incremental oil recovery required a soak period and additional water influx. Incremental oil recovery continued with a second cycle of CO/sub 2/, but a third cycle showed significant decline. Recovery factors averaging less than 2 Mscf (57 m/sup 3/) of CO/sub 2/ per barrel of incremental oil were achieved in nine out of fourteen field tests. Field results suggest that in the absence of mechanical problems, initial response improved with larger space occupied by CO/sub 2/, thicker perforation interval, and lower CO/sub 2/ reservoir viscosities; while lifetime response improved with lower prior water cut. Field results confirm that the CO/sub 2/ huff 'n puff process recovers waterflood residual oil, and that a second cycle can be successful.

  18. Core flooding tests to investigate the effects of IFT reduction and wettability alteration on oil recovery during MEOR process in an Iranian oil reservoir.

    PubMed

    Rabiei, Arash; Sharifinik, Milad; Niazi, Ali; Hashemi, Abdolnabi; Ayatollahi, Shahab

    2013-07-01

    Microbial enhanced oil recovery (MEOR) refers to the process of using bacterial activities for more oil recovery from oil reservoirs mainly by interfacial tension reduction and wettability alteration mechanisms. Investigating the impact of these two mechanisms on enhanced oil recovery during MEOR process is the main objective of this work. Different analytical methods such as oil spreading and surface activity measurements were utilized to screen the biosurfactant-producing bacteria isolated from the brine of a specific oil reservoir located in the southwest of Iran. The isolates identified by 16S rDNA and biochemical analysis as Enterobacter cloacae (Persian Type Culture Collection (PTCC) 1798) and Enterobacter hormaechei (PTCC 1799) produce 1.53 g/l of biosurfactant. The produced biosurfactant caused substantial surface tension reduction of the growth medium and interfacial tension reduction between oil and brine to 31 and 3.2 mN/m from the original value of 72 and 29 mN/m, respectively. A novel set of core flooding tests, including in situ and ex situ scenarios, was designed to explore the potential of the isolated consortium as an agent for MEOR process. Besides, the individual effects of wettability alteration and IFT reduction on oil recovery efficiency by this process were investigated. The results show that the wettability alteration of the reservoir rock toward neutrally wet condition in the course of the adsorption of bacteria cells and biofilm formation are the dominant mechanisms on the improvement of oil recovery efficiency.

  19. Aerobic microbial enhanced oil recovery

    SciTech Connect

    Torsvik, T.; Gilje, E.; Sunde, E.

    1995-12-31

    In aerobic MEOR, the ability of oil-degrading bacteria to mobilize oil is used to increase oil recovery. In this process, oxygen and mineral nutrients are injected into the oil reservoir in order to stimulate growth of aerobic oil-degrading bacteria in the reservoir. Experiments carried out in a model sandstone with stock tank oil and bacteria isolated from offshore wells showed that residual oil saturation was lowered from 27% to 3%. The process was time dependent, not pore volume dependent. During MEOR flooding, the relative permeability of water was lowered. Oxygen and active bacteria were needed for the process to take place. Maximum efficiency was reached at low oxygen concentrations, approximately 1 mg O{sub 2}/liter.

  20. Supporting technology for enhanced oil recovery: EOR thermal processes. Seventh Amendment and Extension to Annex 4, Enhanced oil recovery thermal processes

    SciTech Connect

    Reid, T B; Colonomos, P

    1993-02-01

    This report contains the results of efforts under the six tasks of the Seventh Amendment and Extension of Annex IV, Enhanced Oil Recovery Thermal Processes of the Venezuela/USA Agreement. The report is presented in sections (for each of the 6 tasks) and each section contains one or more reports prepared by various individuals or groups describing the results of efforts under each of the tasks. A statement of each task, taken from the agreement, is presented on the first page of each section. The tasks are numbered 50 through 55. The first, second, third, fourth, fifth, sixth and seventh reports on Annex IV, Venezuela MEM/USA-DOE Fossil Energy Report IV-1, IV-2, IV-3, IV-4, IV-5 and IV-6 (DOE/BETC/SP-83/15, DOE/BC-84/6/SP, DOE/BC-86/2/SP, DOE/BC-87/2/SP, DOE/BC-89/l/SP, DOE/BC-90/l/SP, and DOE/BC-92/l/SP) contain the results for the first 49 tasks. Those reports are dated April 1983, August 1984, March 1986, July 1987, November 1988, December 1989, and October 1991, respectively. Each task report has been processed separately for inclusion in the Energy Science and Technology Database.

  1. Harlequin duck population recovery following the 'Exxon Valdez' oil spill: Progress, process and constraints

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Esler, Daniel; Bowman, Timothy D.; Trust, Kimberly A.; Ballachey, Brenda E.; Dean, Thomas A.; Jewett, Stephen C.; O'Clair, Charles E.

    2002-01-01

    Following the 1989 'Exxon Valdez' oil spill in Prince William Sound, Alaska, we studied the status of recovery of harlequin duck Histrionicus histrionicus populations during 1995 to 1998. We evaluated potential constraints on full recovery, including (1) exposure to residual oil; (2) food limitation; and (3) intrinsic demographic limitations on population growth rates. In this paper, we synthesize the findings from our work and incorporate information from other harlequin duck research and monitoring programs to provide a comprehensive evaluation of the response of this species to the 'Exxon Valdez' spill. We conclude that harlequin duck populations had not fully recovered by 1998. Furthermore, adverse effects continued as many as 9 yr after the oil spill, in contrast to the conventional paradigm that oil spill effects on bird populations are short-lived. These conclusions are based on the findings that (1) elevated cytochrome P450 (CYP1A) induction on oiled areas indicated continued exposure to oil in 1998; (2) adult female winter survival was lower on oiled than unoiled areas during 1995 to 1998; (3) fall population surveys by the Alaska Department of Fish and Game indicated numerical declines in oiled areas during 1995 to 1997; and (4) densities on oiled areas in 1996 and 1997 were lower than expected using models that accounted for effects of habitat attributes. Based on hypothesized links between oil contamination and demography, we suggest that harlequin duck population recovery was constrained primarily by continued oil exposure. Full population recovery will also be delayed by the time necessary for intrinsic population growth to allow return to pre-spill numbers following cessation of residual oil spill effects. Although not all wildlife species were affected by the 'Exxon Valdez' oil spill, and some others may have recovered quickly from any effects, harlequin duck life history characteristics and benthic, nearshore feeding habits make them susceptible to

  2. DEVELOPMENT AND OPTIMIZATION OF GAS-ASSISTED GRAVITY DRAINAGE (GAGD) PROCESS FOR IMPROVED LIGHT OIL RECOVERY

    SciTech Connect

    Dandina N. Rao; Subhash C. Ayirala; Madhav M. Kulkarni; Amit P. Sharma

    2004-10-01

    This report describes the progress of the project ''Development and Optimization of Gas-Assisted Gravity Drainage (GAGD) Process for Improved Light Oil Recovery'' for the duration of the second project year (October 1, 2003--September 30, 2004). There are three main tasks in this research project. Task 1 is scaled physical model study of GAGD process. Task 2 is further development of vanishing interfacial tension (VIT) technique for miscibility determination. Task 3 is determination of multiphase displacement characteristics in reservoir rocks. In Section I, preliminary design of the scaled physical model using the dimensional similarity approach has been presented. Scaled experiments on the current physical model have been designed to investigate the effect of Bond and capillary numbers on GAGD oil recovery. Experimental plan to study the effect of spreading coefficient and reservoir heterogeneity has been presented. Results from the GAGD experiments to study the effect of operating mode, Bond number and capillary number on GAGD oil recovery have been reported. These experiments suggest that the type of the gas does not affect the performance of GAGD in immiscible mode. The cumulative oil recovery has been observed to vary exponentially with Bond and capillary numbers, for the experiments presented in this report. A predictive model using the bundle of capillary tube approach has been developed to predict the performance of free gravity drainage process. In Section II, a mechanistic Parachor model has been proposed for improved prediction of IFT as well as to characterize the mass transfer effects for miscibility development in reservoir crude oil-solvent systems. Sensitivity studies on model results indicate that provision of a single IFT measurement in the proposed model is sufficient for reasonable IFT predictions. An attempt has been made to correlate the exponent (n) in the mechanistic model with normalized solute compositions present in both fluid phases

  3. Enhanced oil recovery for thermal processes. First amendment and extension to Annex IV

    SciTech Connect

    Peterson, G.; Schwartz, E.

    1984-08-01

    This report contains the result of efforts under the several tasks of the First Amendment and Extension of Annex IV, Enhanced Oil Recovery Thermal processes. The report is presented in six sections (for each of the six tasks) and each section contains one or more reports prepared by various individuals or groups describing the results of efforts under each one of the tasks. Each section has been abstracted and processed for inclusion in the Energy Data Base. A statement of each task, taken from the agreement, is presented on the first page of each section. The tasks are numbered 8-13. The first report on Annex IV, Venezuela-MEM/USE-DOE Fossil Energy Report IV-1, (DOE/BETC/SP-83/15), contains the results from the first seven tasks. That report is dated April 1983, entitled, EOR Thermal Processes.

  4. Brushing up on oil recovery

    SciTech Connect

    Mackey, J.

    1995-12-01

    To be prepared for a range of oil spills, emergency response organizations must have an arsenal of powerful and adaptable equipment. Around the coastal United States, a network of oil spill cooperatives and emergency response organizations stand ready with the technology and the know-how to respond to the first sign of an oil spill. When the telephone rings, they may be required to mop up 200 gallons of oil that leaked off the deck of a ship or to contain and skim 2,000 gallons of oil from a broken hose at a loading terminal. In a few cases each year, they may find themselves responding to a major pollution incident, one that involves hundreds of people and tons of equipment. To clean an oil spill at a New Jersey marine terminal, the local cooperative used the Lundin Oil Recovery Inc. (LORI) skimming system to separate the oil and water and the lift the oil out of the river. The LORI skimming technology is based on sound principles of fluid management - using the natural movement of water instead of trying to fight against it. A natural feeding mechanism delivers oily water through the separation process, and a simple mechanical separation and recovery device - a brush conveyor - removes the pollutants from the water.

  5. Modified lignosulfonates as additives in oil recovery processes involving chemical recovery agents

    SciTech Connect

    Kalfoglou, G.

    1982-08-17

    A process for producing petroleum from subterranean formations is disclosed wherein production from the formation is obtained by driving a fluid from an injection well to a production well. The process involves injecting via the injection well into the formation an aqueous solution of modified lignosulfonate salt as a sacrificial agent to inhibit the deposition of surfactant and/or polymer on the reservoir matrix. The process may best be carried out by injecting the modified lignosulfonates into the formation through the injection well mixed with either a polymer, a surfactant solution and/or a micellar dispersion. This mixture would then be followed by a drive fluid such as water to push the chemicals to the production well. The lignosulfonates may be modified by any combination of any two or more of: reaction with chloroacetic acid, reaction with carbon dioxide, addition of the methylene sulfonate radical to the lignosulfonate molecule and oxidation with oxygen.

  6. Lignosulfonates carboxylated with chloroacetic acid as additives in oil recovery processes involving chemical recovery agents

    SciTech Connect

    Kalfoglou, G.

    1981-05-19

    A process for producing petroleum from subterranean formations is disclosed wherein production from the formation is obtained by driving a fluid from an injection well to a production well. The process involves injecting via the injection well into the formation an aqueous solution of lignosulfonates carboxylated with chloroacetic acid as a sacrificial agent to inhibit the deposition of surfactant and/or polymer on the reservoir matrix. The process may best be carried out by injecting the lignosulfonates carboxylated with chloroacetic acid into the formation through the injection well mixed with either a polymer, a surfactant solution and/or a micellar dispersion. This mixture would then be followed by a drive fluid such as water to push the chemicals to the production well.

  7. DEVELOPMENT AND OPTIMIZATION OF GAS-ASSISTED GRAVITY DRAINAGE (GAGD) PROCESS FOR IMPROVED LIGHT OIL RECOVERY

    SciTech Connect

    Dandina N. Rao

    2003-10-01

    This is the first Annual Technical Progress Report being submitted to the U. S. Department of Energy on the work performed under the Cooperative Agreement DE-FC26-02NT15323. This report follows two other progress reports submitted to U.S. DOE during the first year of the project: The first in April 2003 for the project period from October 1, 2002 to March 31, 2003, and the second in July 2003 for the period April 1, 2003 to June 30, 2003. Although the present Annual Report covers the first year of the project from October 1, 2002 to September 30, 2003, its contents reflect mainly the work performed in the last quarter (July-September, 2003) since the work performed during the first three quarters has been reported in detail in the two earlier reports. The main objective of the project is to develop a new gas-injection enhanced oil recovery process to recover the oil trapped in reservoirs subsequent to primary and/or secondary recovery operations. The project is divided into three main tasks. Task 1 involves the design and development of a scaled physical model. Task 2 consists of further development of the vanishing interfacial tension (VIT) technique for miscibility determination. Task 3 involves the determination of multiphase displacement characteristics in reservoir rocks. Each technical progress report, including this one, reports on the progress made in each of these tasks during the reporting period. Section I covers the scaled physical model study. A survey of literature in related areas has been conducted. Test apparatus has been under construction throughout the reporting period. A bead-pack visual model, liquid injection system, and an image analysis system have been completed and used for preliminary experiments. Experimental runs with decane and paraffin oil have been conducted in the bead pack model. The results indicate the need for modifications in the apparatus, which are currently underway. A bundle of capillary tube model has been considered and

  8. Using Biosurfactants Produced from Agriculture Process Waste Streams to Improve Oil Recovery in Fractured Carbonate Reservoirs

    SciTech Connect

    Stephen Johnson; Mehdi Salehi; Karl Eisert; Sandra Fox

    2009-01-07

    This report describes the progress of our research during the first 30 months (10/01/2004 to 03/31/2007) of the original three-year project cycle. The project was terminated early due to DOE budget cuts. This was a joint project between the Tertiary Oil Recovery Project (TORP) at the University of Kansas and the Idaho National Laboratory (INL). The objective was to evaluate the use of low-cost biosurfactants produced from agriculture process waste streams to improve oil recovery in fractured carbonate reservoirs through wettability mediation. Biosurfactant for this project was produced using Bacillus subtilis 21332 and purified potato starch as the growth medium. The INL team produced the biosurfactant and characterized it as surfactin. INL supplied surfactin as required for the tests at KU as well as providing other microbiological services. Interfacial tension (IFT) between Soltrol 130 and both potential benchmark chemical surfactants and crude surfactin was measured over a range of concentrations. The performance of the crude surfactin preparation in reducing IFT was greater than any of the synthetic compounds throughout the concentration range studied but at low concentrations, sodium laureth sulfate (SLS) was closest to the surfactin, and was used as the benchmark in subsequent studies. Core characterization was carried out using both traditional flooding techniques to find porosity and permeability; and NMR/MRI to image cores and identify pore architecture and degree of heterogeneity. A cleaning regime was identified and developed to remove organic materials from cores and crushed carbonate rock. This allowed cores to be fully characterized and returned to a reproducible wettability state when coupled with a crude-oil aging regime. Rapid wettability assessments for crushed matrix material were developed, and used to inform slower Amott wettability tests. Initial static absorption experiments exposed limitations in the use of HPLC and TOC to determine

  9. Biosurfactant and enhanced oil recovery

    DOEpatents

    McInerney, Michael J.; Jenneman, Gary E.; Knapp, Roy M.; Menzie, Donald E.

    1985-06-11

    A pure culture of Bacillus licheniformis strain JF-2 (ATCC No. 39307) and a process for using said culture and the surfactant lichenysin produced thereby for the enhancement of oil recovery from subterranean formations. Lichenysin is an effective surfactant over a wide range of temperatures, pH's, salt and calcium concentrations.

  10. Sea otter population status and the process of recovery from the 1989 'Exxon Valdez' oil spill

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bodkin, J.L.; Ballachey, B.E.; Dean, T.A.; Fukuyama, A.K.; Jewett, S.C.; McDonald, L.; Monson, D.H.; O'Clair, Charles E.; VanBlaricom, G.R.

    2002-01-01

    Sea otter Enhydra lutris populations were severely affected by the 1989 'Exxon Valdez' oil spill in western Prince William Sound, AK, and had not fully recovered by 2000. Here we present results of population surveys and incorporate findings from related studies to identify current population status and factors affecting recovery. Between 1993 and 2000, the number of sea otters in the spill-area of Prince William Sound increased by about 600 to nearly 2700. However, at Knight Island, where oil exposure and sea otter mortality in 1989 was most severe, no increase has been observed. Sea otter reproduction was not impaired, and the age and sex composition of captured otters are consistent with both intrinsic reproduction and immigration contributing to recovery. However, low resighting rates of marked otters at Knight Island compared to an unoiled reference area, and high proportions of young otters in beach cast carcasses through 1998, suggest that the lack of recovery was caused by relatively poor survival or emigration of potential recruits. Significantly higher levels of cytochrome P4501A (CYP1A), a biomarker of hydrocarbons, were found in sea otters at Knight Island from 1996 to 1998 compared to unoiled Montague Island, implicating oil effects in the lack of recovery at Knight Island. Delayed recovery does not appear to be directly related to food limitation. Although food availability was relatively low at both oiled and unoiled areas, we detected significant increases in sea otter abundance only at Montague Island, a finding inconsistent with food as a principal limiting factor. Persistent oil in habitats and prey provides a source of continued oil exposure and, combined with relatively low prey densities, suggests a potential interaction between oil and food. However, sea otters foraged more successfully at Knight Island and young females were in better condition than those at Montague Island. We conclude that progress toward recovery of sea otters in Prince

  11. Vanadium recovery from oil fly ash by leaching, precipitation and solvent extraction processes.

    PubMed

    Navarro, R; Guzman, J; Saucedo, I; Revilla, J; Guibal, E

    2007-01-01

    In order to reduce the environmental impact due to land disposal of oil fly ash from power plants and to valorize this waste material, the removal of vanadium was investigated using leaching processes (acidic and alkaline treatments), followed by a second step of metal recovery from leachates involving either solvent extraction or selective precipitation. Despite a lower leaching efficiency (compared to sulfuric acid), sodium hydroxide was selected for vanadium leaching since it is more selective for vanadium (versus other transition metals). Precipitation was preferred to solvent extraction for the second step in the treatment since: (a) it is more selective; enabling complete recovery of vanadate from the leachate in the form of pure ammonium vanadate; and (b) stripping of the loaded organic phase (in the solvent extraction process) was not efficient. Precipitation was performed in a two-step procedure: (a) aluminum was first precipitated at pH 8; (b) then ammonium chloride was added at pH 5 to bring about vanadium precipitation.

  12. Vanadium recovery from oil fly ash by leaching, precipitation and solvent extraction processes

    SciTech Connect

    Navarro, R.; Guzman, J.; Saucedo, I.; Guibal, E.

    2007-07-01

    In order to reduce the environmental impact due to land disposal of oil fly ash from power plants and to valorize this waste material, the removal of vanadium was investigated using leaching processes (acidic and alkaline treatments), followed by a second step of metal recovery from leachates involving either solvent extraction or selective precipitation. Despite a lower leaching efficiency (compared to sulfuric acid), sodium hydroxide was selected for vanadium leaching since it is more selective for vanadium (versus other transition metals). Precipitation was preferred to solvent extraction for the second step in the treatment since: (a) it is more selective; enabling complete recovery of vanadate from the leachate in the form of pure ammonium vanadate; and (b) stripping of the loaded organic phase (in the solvent extraction process) was not efficient. Precipitation was performed in a two-step procedure: (a) aluminum was first precipitated at pH 8; (b) then ammonium chloride was added at pH 5 to bring about vanadium precipitation.

  13. OCCIDENTAL VERTICAL MODIFIED IN SITU PROCESS FOR THE RECOVERY OF OIL FROM OIL SHALE. PHASE II

    SciTech Connect

    Nelson, Reid M.

    1980-09-01

    The progress presented in this report covers the period June 1, 1980 through August 31, 1980 under the work scope for.Phase II of the DOE/Occidental Oil Shale, Inc. (OOSI) Cooperative Agreement. The major activities at OOSI 1s Logan Wash site during the quarter were: mining the voids at all levels for Retorts 7, 8 and 8x; completing Mini-Retort (MR) construction; continuing surface facility construction; tracer testing the MR 1 s; conducting Retorts 7 & 8 related Rock Fragmentation tests; setting up and debugging the Sandia B-61 trailer; and preparing the Phase II instrumentation plan.

  14. DEVELOPMENT AND OPTIMIZATION OF GAS-ASSISTED GRAVITY DRAINAGE (GAGD) PROCESS FOR IMPROVED LIGHT OIL RECOVERY

    SciTech Connect

    Dandina N. Rao; Subhash C. Ayirala; Madhav M. Kulkarni; Thaer N.N. Mahmoud; Wagirin Ruiz Paidin

    2006-01-01

    This report describes the progress of the project ''Development And Optimization of Gas-Assisted Gravity Drainage (GAGD) Process for Improved Light Oil Recovery'' for the duration of the thirteenth project quarter (Oct 1, 2005 to Dec 30, 2005). There are three main tasks in this research project. Task 1 is a scaled physical model study of the GAGD process. Task 2 is further development of a vanishing interfacial tension (VIT) technique for miscibility determination. Task 3 is determination of multiphase displacement characteristics in reservoir rocks. Section I reports experimental work designed to investigate wettability effects of porous medium, on secondary and tertiary mode GAGD performance. The experiments showed a significant improvement of oil recovery in the oil-wet experiments versus the water-wet runs, both in secondary as well as tertiary mode. When comparing experiments conducted in secondary mode to those run in tertiary mode an improvement in oil recovery was also evident. Additionally, this section summarizes progress made with regard to the scaled physical model construction and experimentation. The purpose of building a scaled physical model, which attempts to include various multiphase mechanics and fluid dynamic parameters operational in the field scale, was to incorporate visual verification of the gas front for viscous instabilities, capillary fingering, and stable displacement. Preliminary experimentation suggested that construction of the 2-D model from sintered glass beads was a feasible alternative. During this reporting quarter, several sintered glass mini-models were prepared and some preliminary experiments designed to visualize gas bubble development were completed. In Section II, the gas-oil interfacial tensions measured in decane-CO{sub 2} system at 100 F and live decane consisting of 25 mole% methane, 30 mole% n-butane and 45 mole% n-decane against CO{sub 2} gas at 160 F have been modeled using the Parachor and newly proposed

  15. Microbial enhancement of oil recovery

    SciTech Connect

    Finnerty, W.R.; Singer, M.E.

    1983-03-01

    The purpose of this article is to present an overview of a supplementary biotechnology that will potentially aid in obtaining greater oil production and processing capabilities. This supplementary technology involves the application of microbiological processes to specific and well-defined problems in enhanced oil recovery (EOR). The discussion outlines scenarios for various microbiological processes that have been identified as promising areas for research and development, many of which are currently being addressed within the petroleum industry and by the Department of Energy. Microorganisms and microbial products can be used to recover oil from reservoirs. To be successful, the complexity of oil and the physical constraints in the reservoir must be taken into account. The three general approaches are: stimulation of the endogenous microbial population; injection of microorganisms with proven ability to perform well in situ; and the use of microbial products, such as xanthan gum, produced by Xanthomonas campestris.

  16. Fluid diversion and sweep improvement with chemical gels in oil recovery processes

    SciTech Connect

    Seright, F.S.; Martin, F.D.

    1991-04-01

    The objectives of this project are to identify the mechanisms by which gel treatments divert fluids in reservoirs and to establish where and how gel treatments are best applied. Several different types of gelants are being examined. This research is directed at gel applications in water injection wells, in production wells, and in high-pressure gas floods. The work will establish how the flow properties of gels and gelling agents are influenced by permeability, lithology, and wettability. Other goals include determining the proper placement of gelants, the stability of in-place gels, and the types of gels required for the various oil recovery processes and for different scales of reservoir heterogeneity. This report describes progress made during the first year of this three-year study the following tasks: gel screening studies; impact of gelation pH, rock permeability, and lithology on the performance of a monomer-based gel; preliminary study of the permeability reduction for CO{sub 2} and water using a resorcinol-formaldehyde gel; preliminary study of permeability reduction for oil and water using a resorcinol-formaldehyde gel; rheology of Cr(III)-xanthan gel and gelants in porous media; impact of diffusion, dispersion, and viscous fingering on gel placement in injection wells; examination of flow-profile changes for field applications of gel treatments in injection wells; and placement of gels in production wells. Papers have been indexed separately for inclusion on the data base.

  17. INVESTIGATION OF MULTISCALE AND MULTIPHASE FLOW, TRANSPORT AND REACTION IN HEAVY OIL RECOVERY PROCESSES

    SciTech Connect

    Yannis C. Yortsos

    2003-02-01

    This is final report for contract DE-AC26-99BC15211. The report describes progress made in the various thrust areas of the project, which include internal drives for oil recovery, vapor-liquid flows, combustion and reaction processes and the flow of fluids with yield stress. The report consists mainly of a compilation of various topical reports, technical papers and research reports published produced during the three-year project, which ended on May 6, 2002 and was no-cost extended to January 5, 2003. Advances in multiple processes and at various scales are described. In the area of internal drives, significant research accomplishments were made in the modeling of gas-phase growth driven by mass transfer, as in solution-gas drive, and by heat transfer, as in internal steam drives. In the area of vapor-liquid flows, we studied various aspects of concurrent and countercurrent flows, including stability analyses of vapor-liquid counterflow, and the development of novel methods for the pore-network modeling of the mobilization of trapped phases and liquid-vapor phase changes. In the area of combustion, we developed new methods for the modeling of these processes at the continuum and pore-network scales. These models allow us to understand a number of important aspects of in-situ combustion, including steady-state front propagation, multiple steady-states, effects of heterogeneity and modes of combustion (forward or reverse). Additional aspects of reactive transport in porous media were also studied. Finally, significant advances were made in the flow and displacement of non-Newtonian fluids with Bingham plastic rheology, which is characteristic of various heavy oil processes. Various accomplishments in generic displacements in porous media and corresponding effects of reservoir heterogeneity are also cited.

  18. Effects of Microwave Radiation on Oil Recovery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Esmaeili, Abdollah

    2011-12-01

    A variety of oil recovery methods have been developed and applied to mature and depleted reservoirs in order to improve the efficiency. Microwave radiation oil recovery method is a relatively new method and has been of great interest in the recent years. Crude oil is typically co-mingled with suspended solids and water. To increase oil recovery, it is necessary to remove these components. The separation of oil from water and solids using gravitational settling methods is typically incomplete. Oil-in-water and oil-water-solid emulsions can be demulsified and separated into their individual layers by microwave radiation. The data also show that microwave separation is faster than gravity separation and can be faster than conventional heating at many conditions. After separation of emulsion into water and oil layers, water can be discharged and oil is collected. High-frequency microwave recycling process can recover oil and gases from oil shale, residual oil, drill cuttings, tar sands oil, contaminated dredge/sediments, tires and plastics with significantly greater yields and lower costs than are available utilizing existing known technologies. This process is environmentally friendly, fuel-generating recycler to reduce waste, cut emissions, and save energy. This paper presents a critical review of Microwave radiation method for oil recovery.

  19. High efficiency shale oil recovery

    SciTech Connect

    Adams, D.C.

    1993-04-22

    The overall project objective is to demonstrate the high efficiency of the Adams Counter-Current shale oil recovery process. The efficiency will first be demonstrated on a small scale, in the current phase, after which the demonstration will be extended to the operation of a small pilot plant. Thus the immediate project objective is to obtain data on oil shale retorting operations in a small batch rotary kiln that will be representative of operations in the proposed continuous process pilot plant. Although an oil shale batch sample is sealed in the batch kiln from the start until the end of the run, the process conditions for the batch are the same as the conditions that an element of oil shale would encounter in a continuous process kiln. Similar chemical and physical conditions (heating, mixing, pyrolysis, oxidation) exist in both systems.The two most important data objectives in this phase of the project are to demonstrate (1) that the heat recovery projected for this project is reasonable and (2) that an oil shale kiln will run well and not plug up due to sticking and agglomeration. The following was completed this quarter. (1) Twelve pyrolysis runs were made on five different oil shales. All of the runs exhibited a complete absence of any plugging, tendency. Heat transfer for Green River oil shale in the rotary kiln was 84.6 Btu/hr/ft[sup 2]/[degrees]F, and this will provide for ample heat exchange in the Adams kiln. (2) One retorted residue sample was oxidized at 1000[degrees]F. Preliminary indications are that the ash of this run appears to have been completely oxidized. (3) Further minor equipment repairs and improvements were required during the course of the several runs.

  20. Optimization of the anaerobic treatment of a waste stream from an enhanced oil recovery process.

    PubMed

    Alimahmoodi, Mahmood; Mulligan, Catherine N

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this work was to optimize the anaerobic treatment of a waste stream from an enhanced oil recovery (EOR) process. The treatment of a simulated waste water containing about 150 mg chemical oxygen demand (COD)/L of total petroleum hydrocarbons (TPH) and the saturation level of CO2 was evaluated. A two-step anaerobic system was undertaken in the mesophilic temperature range (30-40°C). The method of evolutionary operation EVOP factorial design was used to optimize pH, temperature and organic loading rate with the target parameters of CO2 reduction and CH4 production in the first reactor and TPH removal in the second reactor. The results showed 98% methanogenic removal of CO2 and CH4 yield of 0.38 L/gCOD in the first reactor and 83% TPH removal in the second reactor. In addition to enhancing CO2 and TPH removal and CH4 production, application of this method showed the degree of importance of the operational variables and their interactive effects for the two reactors in series. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Supporting Technology for Enhanced Oil Recovery-EOR Thermal Processes Report IV-12

    SciTech Connect

    Izequeido, Alexandor

    2001-04-01

    This report contains the results of efforts under the six tasks of the Ninth Amendment and Extension of Annex IV, Enhanced Oil Recovery Thermal Processes of the Venezuela/USA Agreement. The report is presented in sections (for each of the 6 tasks) and each section contains one or more reports prepared by various individuals or groups describing the results of efforts under each of the tasks. A statement of each task, taken from the agreement, is presented on the first page of each section. The tasks are numbered 62 through 67. The first, second, third, fourth, fifth, sixth, seventh, eight, and ninth reports on Annex IV, [Venezuela MEM/USA-DOE Fossil Energy Report IV-1, IV-2, IV-3, IV-4, IV-5, IV-6, IV-7, and IV-8 (DOE/BETC/SP-83/15, DOE/BC-84/6/SP, DOE/BC-86/2/SP, DOE/BC-87/2/SP, DOE/BC-89/1/SP, DOE/BC-90/1/SP) DOE/BC-92/1/SP, DOE/BC-93/3/SP, and DOE/BC-95/3/SP] contain the results from the first 61 tasks. Those reports are dated April 1983, August 1984, March 1986, July 1! 987, November 1988, December 1989, October 1991, February 1993, and March 1995 respectively.

  2. Fluid diversion and sweep improvement with chemical gels in oil recovery processes. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Seright, R.S.; Martin, F.D.

    1992-09-01

    The objectives of this project were to identify the mechanisms by which gel treatments divert fluids in reservoirs and to establish where and how gel treatments are best applied. Several different types of gelants were examined, including polymer-based gelants, a monomer-based gelant, and a colloidal-silica gelant. This research was directed at gel applications in water injection wells, in production wells, and in high-pressure gas floods. The work examined how the flow properties of gels and gelling agents are influenced by permeability, lithology, and wettability. Other goals included determining the proper placement of gelants, the stability of in-place gels, and the types of gels required for the various oil recovery processes and for different scales of reservoir heterogeneity. During this three-year project, a number of theoretical analyses were performed to determine where gel treatments are expected to work best and where they are not expected to be effective. The most important, predictions from these analyses are presented. Undoubtedly, some of these predictions will be controversial. However, they do provide a starting point in establishing guidelines for the selection of field candidates for gel treatments. A logical next step is to seek field data that either confirm or contradict these predictions. The experimental work focused on four types of gels: (1) resorcinol-formaldehyde, (2) colloidal silica, (3) Cr{sup 3+}(chloride)-xanthan, and (4) Cr{sup 3+}(acetate)-polyacrylamide. All experiments were performed at 41{degrees}C.

  3. High efficiency shale oil recovery

    SciTech Connect

    Adams, D.C.

    1992-01-01

    The overall project objective is to demonstrate the high efficiency of the Adams Counter-Current shale oil recovery process. The efficiency will first be demonstrated on a small scale, in the current phase, after which the demonstration will be extended to the operation of a small pilot plant. Thus the immediate project objective is to obtain data on oil shale retorting operations in a small batch rotary kiln that will be representative of operations in the proposed continuous process pilot plant. Although an oil shale batch sample is sealed in the batch kiln from the start until the end of the run, the process conditions for the batch are the same as the conditions that an element of oil shale would encounter in a continuous process kiln. Similar chemical and physical (heating, mixing) conditions exist in both systems. The two most important data objectives in this phase of the project are to demonstrate (1) that the heat recovery projected for this project is reasonable and (2) that an oil shale kiln will run well and not plug up due to sticking and agglomeration. The following was completed and is reported on this quarter: (1) A software routine was written to eliminate intermittently inaccurate temperature readings. (2) We completed the quartz sand calibration runs, resolving calibration questions from the 3rd quarter. (3) We also made low temperature retorting runs to identify the need for certain kiln modifications and kiln modifications were completed. (4) Heat Conductance data on two Pyrolysis runs were completed on two samples of Occidental oil shale.

  4. Ionic liquids for low-tension oil recovery processes: Phase behavior tests.

    PubMed

    Rodriguez-Escontrela, Iria; Puerto, Maura C; Miller, Clarence A; Soto, Ana

    2017-10-15

    Chemical flooding with surfactants for reducing oil-brine interfacial tensions (IFTs) to mobilize residual oil trapped by capillary forces has a great potential for Enhanced Oil Recovery (EOR). Surface-active ionic liquids (SAILs) constitute a class of surfactants that has recently been proposed for this application. For the first time, SAILs or their blends with an anionic surfactant are studied by determining equilibrium phase behavior for systems of about unit water-oil ratio at various temperatures. The test fluids were model alkane and aromatic oils, NaCl brine, and synthetic hard seawater (SW). Patterns of microemulsions observed are those of classical phase behavior (Winsor I-III-II transition) known to correlate with low IFTs. The two anionic room-temperature SAILs tested were made from common anionic surfactants by substituting imidazolium or phosphonium cations for sodium. These two anionic and two cationic SAILs were found to have little potential for EOR when tested individually. Thus, also tested were blends of an anionic internal olefin sulfonate (IOS) surfactant with one of the anionic SAILs and both cationic SAILs. Most promising for EOR was the anionic/cationic surfactant blend of IOS with [C12mim]Br in SW. A low equilibrium IFT of ∼2·10(-3)mN/m was measured between n-octane and an aqueous solution having the optimal blend ratio for this system at 25°C. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Microbial enhanced oil recovery research

    SciTech Connect

    Sharma, M.M.; Georgiou, G.

    1990-01-01

    The objective of this work is to develop an engineering framework for the exploitation of microorganisms to enhance oil recovery. Specific goals include: (1) investigation of the mechanisms of microbially induced oil mobilization; (2) the production, isolation, chemical characterization and study of the physical properties of microbially produced surfactants; (3) model studies in sandstone cores for the characterization of the interactions between growing microbially cultures and oil reservoirs; (4) development of simulators for MEOR; and (5) design of operational strategies for the sequential injection of microorganisms and nutrient in reservoirs are: (1) systematic discussion of the mechanisms important in MEOR processes; (2) Measurement of the growth characteristics of Bacillus Licheniformis under various conditions of pH, temperature and salt concentration for both aerobic and anaerobic growth.; (3) measurement of interfacial tension reducing ability of the biosurfactant under different conditions of pH and salt concentration; (4) development of some preliminary methods to concentrate and characterize the biosurfactant; (5) development of a compositional numerical simulator for MEOR processes; and (6) Measurement of the lowest interfacial tension (IFT) value reported for biosurfactants to date. Demonstration of the fact that the low IFT values required for oil recovery can be attained with biosurfactants.

  6. A study of surfactant adsorption with applications in surfactant assisted enhanced oil recovery processes

    SciTech Connect

    Hankins, N.P.

    1989-01-01

    A study is presented to assess the feasibility of high-pH preflushing to reduce surfactant adsorption in micellar flooding. Under static or dynamic flow conditions, adsorption of a pure anionic surfactant on Berea is eliminated at mild electrolyte above pH 8, 2 pH units above the experimental determined pzc. Static and dynamic studies of hydroxide consumption by Berea indicate mild dissolution at the pH range of interest. The effect of pH on the adsorption isotherm for Berea indicate a large increase in logarithmic slope at high pH. Similar studies are presented for kaolinite and alumina. A patch-wise, phase separation model is presented to quantify the relationship between adsorption, and bulk pH and salinity. The concept of the site-binding model is incorporated into the development of surface aggregates (both admicelles and hemimicelles), and it is confirmed that the aggregates are stabilized at high pH by the abstraction of positive charge to the surface beneath the aggregate, and by high counterion binding, allowing physical adsorption above the pzc. A novel sweep improvement process, surfactant assisted waterflooding, is presented. The chromatographic and phase separation behavior of dissimilar surfactants and their mixtures allows a selective and controllable blocking of watered-out zones of a reservoir. A mathematical model is developed, and the theory of coherence is extended to multidimensional, multiphase, multicomponent flow, allowing the development of a novel simulator, which is then applied. The results indicate that the blocking mechanism is very selective in markedly heterogeneous reservoir. Shorter reservoirs have the highest potential for application; high oil recoveries are then possible since blocking can be controlled to occur deep inside the watered out zones.

  7. Comparison of oil removal in surfactant alternating gas with water alternating gas, water flooding and gas flooding in secondary oil recovery process.

    PubMed

    Salehi, Mehdi Mohammad; Safarzadeh, Mohammad Amin; Sahraei, Eghbal; Nejad, Seyyed Alireza Tabatabaei

    2014-08-01

    Growing oil prices coupled with large amounts of residual oil after operating common enhanced oil recovery methods has made using methods with higher operational cost economically feasible. Nitrogen is one of the gases used in both miscible and immiscible gas injection process in oil reservoir. In heterogeneous formations gas tends to breakthrough early in production wells due to overriding, fingering and channeling. Surfactant alternating gas (SAG) injection is one of the methods commonly used to decrease this problem. Foam which is formed on the contact of nitrogen and surfactant increases viscosity of injected gas. This increases the oil-gas contact and sweep efficiency, although adsorption of surfactant on rock surface can causes difficulties and increases costs of process. Many parameters must be considered in design of SAG process. One of the most important parameters is SAG ratio that should be in optimum value to improve the flooding efficiency. In this study, initially the concentration of surfactant was optimized due to minimization of adsorption on rock surface which results in lower cost of surfactant. So, different sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) concentrations of 100, 500, 1000, 2000, 3000 and 4000 ppm were used to obtain the optimum concentration at 70 °C and 144.74×10(5) Pa. A simple, clean and relatively fast spectrophotometric method was used for determination of surfactant which is based on the formation of an ion-pair. Then the effect of surfactant to gas volume ratio on oil recovery in secondary oil recovery process during execution of immiscible surfactant alternating gas injection was examined experimentally. The experiments were performed with sand pack under certain temperature, pressure and constant rate. Experiments were performed with surfactant to gas ratio of 1:1, 1:2, 1:3, 2:1 and 3:1 and 1.2 pore volume injected. Then, comparisons were made between obtained results (SAG) with water flooding, gas flooding and water alternating gas

  8. HEAVY AND THERMAL OIL RECOVERY PRODUCTION MECHANISMS

    SciTech Connect

    Anthony R. Kovscek

    2002-07-01

    This technical progress report describes work performed from April 1 through June 30, 2002, for the project ''Heavy and Thermal Oil Recovery Production Mechanisms.'' We investigate a broad spectrum of topics related to thermal and heavy-oil recovery. Significant results were obtained in the areas of multiphase flow and rock properties, hot-fluid injection, improved primary heavy oil recovery, and reservoir definition. The research tools and techniques used are varied and span from pore-level imaging of multiphase fluid flow to definition of reservoir-scale features through streamline-based history-matching techniques. Briefly, experiments were conducted to image at the pore level matrix-to-fracture production of oil from a fractured porous medium. This project is ongoing. A simulation studied was completed in the area of recovery processes during steam injection into fractured porous media. We continued to study experimentally heavy-oil production mechanisms from relatively low permeability rocks under conditions of high pressure and high temperature. High temperature significantly increased oil recovery rate and decreased residual oil saturation. Also in the area of imaging production processes in laboratory-scale cores, we use CT to study the process of gas-phase formation during solution gas drive in viscous oils. Results from recent experiments are reported here. Finally, a project was completed that uses the producing water-oil ratio to define reservoir heterogeneity and integrate production history into a reservoir model using streamline properties.

  9. Enhanced oil recovery system

    DOEpatents

    Goldsberry, Fred L.

    1989-01-01

    All energy resources available from a geopressured geothermal reservoir are used for the production of pipeline quality gas using a high pressure separator/heat exchanger and a membrane separator, and recovering waste gas from both the membrane separator and a low pressure separator in tandem with the high pressure separator for use in enhanced oil recovery, or in powering a gas engine and turbine set. Liquid hydrocarbons are skimmed off the top of geothermal brine in the low pressure separator. High pressure brine from the geothermal well is used to drive a turbine/generator set before recovering waste gas in the first separator. Another turbine/generator set is provided in a supercritical binary power plant that uses propane as a working fluid in a closed cycle, and uses exhaust heat from the combustion engine and geothermal energy of the brine in the separator/heat exchanger to heat the propane.

  10. Comparison of the UCB sulfur recovery process with conventional sulfur recovery technology for treating recycle gas from a crude oil residuum hydrotreater. [UCBSRP sulfur recovery process

    SciTech Connect

    Lynn, S.; Neumann, D.W.; Sciamanna, S.F.; Vorhis, F.H.

    1986-03-31

    The University of California, Berkeley, Sulfur Recovery Process (UCBSRP) is being developed as an alternative to conventional sulfur recovery technology for removing hydrogen sulfide from gas streams and converting it to elemental sulfur. In the UCBSRP the hydrogen sulfide is absorbed by a physical solvent and the resulting solution of H/sub 2/S is mixed with a stoichiometrically equivalent amount of slulfur dioxide dissolved in the same solvent. The reaction between the two sulfur compounds forms water, which is miscible with the solvent, and elemental sulfur, which crystallizes from solution when its solubility is exceeded. Part of the sulfur formed in the reaction is burned to make the SO/sub 2/ needed in the process, and the heat of combustion is recovered in a waste-heat boiler. Sulfur is recovered by cooling the solution, settling the additional crystals that form, and centrifuging the slurry pumped from the bottom of the crystallizer-surge tank. In this report the UCBSRP is compared to conventional technology for the case of the removal of H/sub 2/S from the recycle gas of a high-pressure petroleum residuum hydrotreater. The conventional technology selected for this comparison consists of an absorber/stripper operation using diethanol amine as the absorbent, a Claus sulfur plant, and a SCOT tail-gas treating unit. From this comparison it is estimated that the DFC for the UCBSRP would be about 61% of that for the conventional technology. The utility costs for this application of the UCBSRP are estimated to be less than the credit for the high-pressure steam produced whereas the utility costs for the conventional process are substantially more. 6 refs., 3 figs., 9 tabs.

  11. Monitoring exogenous and indigenous bacteria by PCR-DGGE technology during the process of microbial enhanced oil recovery.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jun; Ma, Ting; Zhao, Lingxia; Lv, Jinghua; Li, Guoqiang; Zhang, Hao; Zhao, Ben; Liang, Fenglai; Liu, Rulin

    2008-06-01

    A field experiment was performed to monitor changes in exogenous bacteria and to investigate the diversity of indigenous bacteria during a field trial of microbial enhanced oil recovery (MEOR). Two wells (26-195 and 27-221) were injected with three exogenous strains and then closed to allow for microbial growth and metabolism. After a waiting period, the pumps were restarted and the samples were collected. The bacterial populations of these samples were analyzed by denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) with PCR-amplified 16S rRNA fragments. DGGE profiles indicated that the exogenous strains were retrieved in the production water samples and indigenous strains could also be detected. After the pumps were restarted, average oil yield increased to 1.58 and 4.52 tons per day in wells 26-195 and 27-221, respectively, compared with almost no oil output before the injection of exogenous bacteria. Exogenous bacteria and indigenous bacteria contributed together to the increased oil output. Sequence analysis of the DGGE bands revealed that Proteobacteria were a major component of the predominant bacteria in both wells. Changes in the bacteria population in the reservoirs during MEOR process were monitored by molecular analysis of the 16S rRNA gene sequence. DGGE analysis was a successful approach to investigate the changes in microorganisms used for enhancing oil recovery. The feasibility of MEOR technology in the petroleum industry was also demonstrated.

  12. High efficiency shale oil recovery

    SciTech Connect

    Adams, C.D.

    1992-07-18

    The overall project objective is to demonstrate the high efficiency of the Adams Counter-Current shale oil recovery process. The efficiency will first be demonstrated at bench-scale, in the current phase, after which the demonstration will be extended to the operation of a small pilot plant. Thus the immediate project objective is to obtain data on oil shale retorting operations in a small batch rotary kiln that will be representative of operations in the proposed continuous process pilot plant. Although an oil shale batch sample is sealed in the batch kiln from the start until the end of the run, the process conditions for the batch are the same as the conditions that an element of oil shale would encounter in a larger continuous process kiln. For example, similar conditions of heatup rate, oxidation of the residue and cool-down prevail for the element in both systems. This batch kiln is a unit constructed in a 1987 Phase I SBIR tar sand retorting project. The kiln worked fairly well in that project; however, the need for certain modifications was observed. These modifications are now underway to simplify the operation and make the data and analysis more exact. The second quarter agenda consisted of (a) kiln modifications; (b) sample preparation; and (c) Heat Transfer calibration runs (part of proposal task number 3 -- to be completed by the end of month 7).

  13. Comparison of oil removal in surfactant alternating gas with water alternating gas, water flooding and gas flooding in secondary oil recovery process

    PubMed Central

    Salehi, Mehdi Mohammad; Safarzadeh, Mohammad Amin; Sahraei, Eghbal; Nejad, Seyyed Alireza Tabatabaei

    2014-01-01

    Growing oil prices coupled with large amounts of residual oil after operating common enhanced oil recovery methods has made using methods with higher operational cost economically feasible. Nitrogen is one of the gases used in both miscible and immiscible gas injection process in oil reservoir. In heterogeneous formations gas tends to breakthrough early in production wells due to overriding, fingering and channeling. Surfactant alternating gas (SAG) injection is one of the methods commonly used to decrease this problem. Foam which is formed on the contact of nitrogen and surfactant increases viscosity of injected gas. This increases the oil–gas contact and sweep efficiency, although adsorption of surfactant on rock surface can causes difficulties and increases costs of process. Many parameters must be considered in design of SAG process. One of the most important parameters is SAG ratio that should be in optimum value to improve the flooding efficiency. In this study, initially the concentration of surfactant was optimized due to minimization of adsorption on rock surface which results in lower cost of surfactant. So, different sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) concentrations of 100, 500, 1000, 2000, 3000 and 4000 ppm were used to obtain the optimum concentration at 70 °C and 144.74×105 Pa. A simple, clean and relatively fast spectrophotometric method was used for determination of surfactant which is based on the formation of an ion-pair. Then the effect of surfactant to gas volume ratio on oil recovery in secondary oil recovery process during execution of immiscible surfactant alternating gas injection was examined experimentally. The experiments were performed with sand pack under certain temperature, pressure and constant rate. Experiments were performed with surfactant to gas ratio of 1:1, 1:2, 1:3, 2:1 and 3:1 and 1.2 pore volume injected. Then, comparisons were made between obtained results (SAG) with water flooding, gas flooding and water alternating gas

  14. PREDICTIVE MODELS. Enhanced Oil Recovery Model

    SciTech Connect

    Ray, R.M.

    1992-02-26

    PREDICTIVE MODELS is a collection of five models - CFPM, CO2PM, ICPM, PFPM, and SFPM - used in the 1982-1984 National Petroleum Council study of enhanced oil recovery (EOR) potential. Each pertains to a specific EOR process designed to squeeze additional oil from aging or spent oil fields. The processes are: 1 chemical flooding, where soap-like surfactants are injected into the reservoir to wash out the oil; 2 carbon dioxide miscible flooding, where carbon dioxide mixes with the lighter hydrocarbons making the oil easier to displace; 3 in-situ combustion, which uses the heat from burning some of the underground oil to thin the product; 4 polymer flooding, where thick, cohesive material is pumped into a reservoir to push the oil through the underground rock; and 5 steamflood, where pressurized steam is injected underground to thin the oil. CFPM, the Chemical Flood Predictive Model, models micellar (surfactant)-polymer floods in reservoirs, which have been previously waterflooded to residual oil saturation. Thus, only true tertiary floods are considered. An option allows a rough estimate of oil recovery by caustic or caustic-polymer processes. CO2PM, the Carbon Dioxide miscible flooding Predictive Model, is applicable to both secondary (mobile oil) and tertiary (residual oil) floods, and to either continuous CO2 injection or water-alternating gas processes. ICPM, the In-situ Combustion Predictive Model, computes the recovery and profitability of an in-situ combustion project from generalized performance predictive algorithms. PFPM, the Polymer Flood Predictive Model, is switch-selectable for either polymer or waterflooding, and an option allows the calculation of the incremental oil recovery and economics of polymer relative to waterflooding. SFPM, the Steamflood Predictive Model, is applicable to the steam drive process, but not to cyclic steam injection (steam soak) processes.

  15. Investigation of Multiscale and Multiphase Flow, Transport and Reaction in Heavy Oil Recovery Processes

    SciTech Connect

    Yortsos, Yanis C.

    2002-10-08

    In this report, the thrust areas include the following: Internal drives, vapor-liquid flows, combustion and reaction processes, fluid displacements and the effect of instabilities and heterogeneities and the flow of fluids with yield stress. These find respective applications in foamy oils, the evolution of dissolved gas, internal steam drives, the mechanics of concurrent and countercurrent vapor-liquid flows, associated with thermal methods and steam injection, such as SAGD, the in-situ combustion, the upscaling of displacements in heterogeneous media and the flow of foams, Bingham plastics and heavy oils in porous media and the development of wormholes during cold production.

  16. Enterobacter cloacae as biosurfactant producing bacterium: differentiating its effects on interfacial tension and wettability alteration Mechanisms for oil recovery during MEOR process.

    PubMed

    Sarafzadeh, Pegah; Hezave, Ali Zeinolabedini; Ravanbakhsh, Moosa; Niazi, Ali; Ayatollahi, Shahab

    2013-05-01

    Microbial enhanced oil recovery (MEOR) process utilizes microorganisms or their metabolites to mobilize the trapped oil in the oil formation after primary and secondary oil recovery stages. MEOR technique is considered as more environmentally friendly and low cost process. There are several identified mechanisms for more oil recovery using MEOR processes however; wettability alteration and interfacial tension (IFT) reduction are the important ones. Enterobacter Cloacae, a facultative bio-surfactant producer bacterium, was selected as a bacterial formulation due to its known performance on IFT reduction and wettability alteration. To quantify the effects of these two mechanisms, different tests including oil spreading, in situ and ex situ core flooding, wettability measurement (Amott), IFT, viscosity and pH measurements were performed. The obtained results revealed that the experimental procedure used in this study was able to quantitatively identify the individual effects of both mechanisms on the ultimate microbial oil recovery. The results demonstrated considerable effects of both mechanisms on the tertiary oil recovery; however after a proper shut in time period, more tertiary oil was recovered because of wettability alteration mechanism. Finally, SEM images taken from the treated cores showed biofilm formation on the rock pore surfaces, which is responsible for rock surface wettability alteration. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Enhanced oil recovery. Improved reservoir evaluation object of sponge coring process

    SciTech Connect

    Mickey, V.

    1981-04-01

    Oil saturation data determined by core analysis have improved. One result is the development of the sponge coring process. In the sponge coring method, the core sample is taken in much the same way as in conventional coring. The major difference is the porous, hard sponge that lines the core barrel. The sponge is so porous (approximately 80%) that cigarette smoke can be blown through it. It has one full darcy permeability and is oil-wet. The sponge is inside a thin polyvinyl chloride liner with small perforations in it. As the sponge core barrel is run into the hole, the sponge becomes wet with drilling fluid, usually water. Any oil in the core being forced out by the water and the reduction in pressure as the core is brought to surface is caught by the sponge. Since it is oil-wet the oil is retained. But water is forced out the small perforations in the liner. At the surface the 20-ft core is cut into 5-ft sections and put into special containers filled with fluid from the formation. That keeps the core in standard condition. Even much of the gas in solution remains in the core. This is noted during capping operations as the cap is forced back until the glue on it holds and seals the tube.

  18. High efficiency shale oil recovery

    SciTech Connect

    Adams, D.C.

    1992-01-01

    The overall project objective is to demonstrate the high efficiency of the Adams Counter-Current shale oil recovery process. The efficiency will first be demonstrated at bench-scale, in the current phase, after which the demonstration will be extended to the operation of a small pilot plant. Thus the immediate project objective is to obtain data on oil shale retorting operations in a small batch rotary kiln that will be representative of operations in the proposed continuous process pilot plant. Although a batch oil shale sample will be sealed in the batch kiln from the start until the end of the run, the process conditions for the batch will be the same as the conditions that an element of oil shale would encounter in a large continuous process kiln. For example, similar conditions of heat-up rate (20 deg F/min during the pyrolysis), oxidation of the residue and cool-down will prevail for the element in both systems. This batch kiln is a unit constructed in a 1987 Phase I SBIR tar sand retorting project. The kiln worked fairly well in that project; however, the need for certain modifications was observed. These modifications are now underway to simplify the operation and make the data and analysis more exact. The agenda for the first three months of the project consisted of the first of nine tasks and was specified as the following four items: 1. Sample acquisition and equipment alteration: Obtain seven oil shale samples, of varying grade each 10 lb or more, and samples of quartz sand. Order equipment for kiln modification. 3. Set up and modify kiln for operation, including electric heaters on the ends of the kiln. 4. Connect data logger and make other repairs and changes in rotary batch kiln.

  19. Double-wall tubing for oil recovery

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Back, L. H.; Carroll, W. F.; Jaffee, L. D.; Stimpson, L. D.

    1980-01-01

    Insulated double-wall tubing designed for steam injection oil recovery makes process more economical and allows deeper extension of wells. Higher quality wet steam is delivered through tubing to oil deposits with significant reductions in heat loss to surrounding rock allowing greater exploitation of previously unworkable reservoirs.

  20. Double-wall tubing for oil recovery

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Back, L. H.; Carroll, W. F.; Jaffee, L. D.; Stimpson, L. D.

    1980-01-01

    Insulated double-wall tubing designed for steam injection oil recovery makes process more economical and allows deeper extension of wells. Higher quality wet steam is delivered through tubing to oil deposits with significant reductions in heat loss to surrounding rock allowing greater exploitation of previously unworkable reservoirs.

  1. Recovery process

    SciTech Connect

    Apffel, F.

    1989-06-13

    This patent describes a process for manufacturing char and hydrocarbons from discarded used tires. The process consists of: introducing the substantially whole tires into a reactor; pyrolyzing the substantially whole tires in a reaction chamber continuously at a temperature and pressure and for a reaction time sufficient to cause the tires to dissociate into a vapor and a solid phase; the pyrolyzing step including directly heating the tires with a radiant heat source at temperatures of 1000{sup 0} to 3000{sup 0}F; producing char from the solid phase; and processing the vapor phase to produce hydrocarbons.

  2. A commercial microbial enhanced oil recovery process: statistical evaluation of a multi-project database

    SciTech Connect

    Portwood, J.T.

    1995-12-31

    This paper discusses a database of information collected and organized during the past eight years from 2,000 producing oil wells in the United States, all of which have been treated with special applications techniques developed to improve the effectiveness of MEOR technology. The database, believed to be the first of its kind, has been generated for the purpose of statistically evaluating the effectiveness and economics of the MEOR process in a wide variety of oil reservoir environments, and is a tool that can be used to improve the predictability of treatment response. The information in the database has also been evaluated to determine which, if any, reservoir characteristics are dominant factors in determining the applicability of MEOR.

  3. Novel simple process for tocopherols selective recovery from vegetable oils by adsorption and desorption with an anion-exchange resin.

    PubMed

    Hiromori, Kousuke; Shibasaki-Kitakawa, Naomi; Nakashima, Kazunori; Yonemoto, Toshikuni

    2016-03-01

    A novel and simple low-temperature process was used to recover tocopherols from a deodorizer distillate, which is a by-product of edible oil refining. The process consists of three operations: the esterification of free fatty acids with a cation-exchange resin catalyst, the adsorption of tocopherols onto an anion-exchange resin, and tocopherol desorption from the resin. No degradation of tocopherols occurred during these processes. In the tocopherol-rich fraction, no impurities such as sterols or glycerides were present. These impurities are commonly found in the product of the conventional process. This novel process improves the overall recovery ratio and the mass fraction of the product (75.9% and 51.0wt%) compared with those in the conventional process (50% and 35wt%).

  4. Recovery of algal oil from marine green macro-algae Enteromorpha intestinalis by acidic-hydrothermal process.

    PubMed

    Jeong, Gwi-Taek; Hong, Yong-Ki; Lee, Hyung-Ho; Kong, In-Soo; Kim, Joong Kyun; Park, Nam Gyu; Kim, Sung-Koo; Park, Don-Hee

    2014-09-01

    In this study, the recovery of algal oil from Enteromorpha intestinalis based on an acidic-hydrothermal reaction was investigated. Overall, the algal oil yield after the acidic-hydrothermal reaction was increased under the conditions of high reaction temperature, high catalyst concentration, and long reaction time within the tested ranges. Significantly, catalyst concentration, compared with reaction temperature and time, less affected algal oil recovery. The optimal acidic-hydrothermal reaction conditions for production of algal oil from E. intestinalis were as follows-200 °C reaction temperature, 2.92 % catalyst concentration, 54 min reaction time. Under these conditions, an 18.6 % algal oil yield was obtained. By increasing the combined severity factor, the algae oil recovery yield linearly increased.

  5. Study of hydrocarbon miscible solvent slug injection process for improved recovery of heavy oil from Schrader Bluff Pool, Milne Point Unit, Alaska. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    1995-11-01

    The National Energy Strategy Plan (NES) has called for 900,000 barrels/day production of heavy oil in the mid-1990s to meet our national needs. To achieve this goal, it is important that the Alaskan heavy oil fields be brought to production. Alaska has more than 25 billion barrels of heavy oil deposits. Conoco, and now BP Exploration have been producing from Schrader Bluff Pool, which is part of the super heavy oil field known as West Sak Field. Schrader Bluff reservoir, located in the Milne Point Unit, North Slope of Alaska, is estimated to contain up to 1.5 billion barrels of (14 to 21{degrees}API) oil in place. The field is currently under production by primary depletion; however, the primary recovery will be much smaller than expected. Hence, waterflooding will be implemented earlier than anticipated. The eventual use of enhanced oil recovery (EOR) techniques, such as hydrocarbon miscible solvent slug injection process, is vital for recovery of additional oil from this reservoir. The purpose of this research project was to determine the nature of miscible solvent slug which would be commercially feasible, to evaluate the performance of the hydrocarbon miscible solvent slug process, and to assess the feasibility of this process for improved recovery of heavy oil from Schrader Bluff reservoir. The laboratory experimental work includes: slim tube displacement experiments and coreflood experiments. The components of solvent slug includes only those which are available on the North Slope of Alaska.

  6. Recovery of oil from oily sludges

    SciTech Connect

    Srivatsa, S.R.

    1983-05-17

    A process is provided for enhancing oil recovery from an oily sludge containing a solid phase, an oil phase and a water phase by adding a positively charged latex flocculant to such sludge and immediately thereafter adding a chemical emulsion breaker which is negatively charged or nonionic, while controlling the proportions of said flocculant and said emulsion breaker to cause the entrapped oil phase to detach from the floc surface of the adsorptive solids and go into the water phase, and mechanically separating the oil from the solids and water.

  7. A process for high yield and scaleable recovery of high purity eicosapentaenoic acid esters from microalgae and fish oil.

    PubMed

    Belarbi; Molina; Chisti

    2000-04-01

    A low expense process is developed for recovering esterified eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) from microalgae and fish oil. Over 70% of the EPA content in the esterified crude extract of microalgae were recovered at purities exceeding 90%. The recovery scheme utilizes either wet or freeze-dried algal biomass. The process consists of only three main steps: 1) simultaneous extraction and transesterification of the algal biomass; 2) argentated silica gel column chromatography of the crude extract; and 3) removal of pigments by a second column chromatographic step. Argentated silica gel chromatography recovered about 70% of the EPA ester present in the crude fatty ester mixture of fish oil, but at a reduced purity ( approximately 83% pure) compared to the microalgal derived EPA. The optimal loading of the fatty ester mixture on the chromatographic support was about 3% (w/w) but loadings up to 4% did not affect the resolution significantly. The process was scaled up by a factor of nearly 320 by increasing the diameter of the chromatography columns. The elution velocity remained constant. Compared to the green alga Monodus subterraneus, the diatom Phaeodactylum tricornutum had important advantages as a potential commercial producer of EPA. For a microalgal EPA process to be competitive with fish oil derived EPA, P. tricornutum biomass (2.5% w/w EPA) needs to be obtained at less than $4/kg. If the EPA content in the alga are increased to 3.5%, the biomass may command a somewhat higher price. The quality of microalgal EPA compares favorably with that of the fish oil product. Compared to free fatty acid, EPA ester is more stable in storage. Shelf-life is extended by storing in hexane. The silver contamination in the final purified EPA was negligibly small (<210 ppb).

  8. A laboratory and field evaluation of the CO/sub 2/ Huff 'n' Puff process for light-oil recovery

    SciTech Connect

    Monger, T.G. ); Coma, J.M.

    1988-11-01

    Cyclic CO/sub 2/ injection for enhanced recovery of light crude oil is investigated. Results from watered-out Berea corefloods and 14 field tests demonstrate that first and second cycled recover waterflood residual oil. Factors that may improve performance include larger reservoir slug volume, soak period, thicker interval, and lower prior water cut.

  9. Experimental and modeling study of residual liquid recovery from spent sand in bitumen extraction processes from oil sands.

    PubMed

    Faradonbeh, Moosa Rabiei; Dong, Mingzhe; Harding, Thomas G; Abedi, Jalal

    2013-02-19

    Disposing solid residue with high liquid content into the environment may impact the immediate ecosystem and its surroundings. In bitumen recovery process from oil sands, it is environmentally and economically desirable to effectively recover as much of the liquid trapped in the spent solids as possible, prior to releasing it into the environment. An experiment was designed to investigate the effect of capillary force to enhance liquid recovery by using a thin, semipermeable layer as the membrane. The results indicate that by employing a membrane at the outlet, and pressurizing the air above the sand bed, the average liquid saturation can be decreased by 50%; however, the maximum pressure applied is restricted by the physical characteristics of the membrane. A mathematical model is developed to predict the liquid saturation profile along the sand pack during transient and steady-state conditions, and results are validated against measured average saturation using two different sand types. Results suggest that more liquid can be recovered from the spent sand bed by increasing the height of the bed; however, the required time to achieve the maximum recovery is increased as well. This method can be applied to reduce the liquid content of spent sand from any process before it is disposed of, thereby reducing possible hazards which may affect the environment.

  10. Combining physical and numerical simulation to investigate the CO sub 2 huff n' puff process for enhanced light-oil recovery

    SciTech Connect

    Thomas, J.

    1990-01-01

    Cyclic CO{sub 2} injection, more commonly referred to as the CO{sub 2} huff n' puff process, is an enhanced oil recovery method which targets remaining oil. Initially used for heavy oil recovery, it has been applied recently to the enhanced recovery of light oil with promising results. The CO{sub 2} huff 'n' puff process is physically simulated in laboratory experiments using Berea sandstone consolidated cores with live and dead oil systems. Corefloods provide extensive and systematic data at controlled conditions allowing selected process parameters to be investigated. This research used corefloods to examine the effect of an initial gas saturation and an impure CO{sub 2} source on the process. However, physical restraints such as time taken to perfrom experiments, and the fixed physical properties of the core, preclude corefloods under a wider range of conditions. Coreflood data can be used for tuning a compositional reservoir simulator. A well calibrated numerical model can in turn be used to predict the results of the CO{sub 2} huff n' puff process for diverse reservoir and operating conditons difficult to duplicate in the laboratory. This approach is used to calibrate a commercially available composition model. The calibrated model is then used to predict the effects of soak duration, remaining oil saturation, CO{sub 2} slug size and CO{sub 2} injection rate on ultimate recovery.

  11. Micellar slug for oil recovery

    SciTech Connect

    Morita, H.; Kawada, Y.; Yamada, J. I.

    1985-07-30

    A micellar slug for use in the recovery of oil, the slug containing a hydrocarbon, an aqueous medium, a surfactant, and a cosurfactant. The surfactant contains as an essential component an internal olefin sulfonate. This micellar slug has an excellent capability for decreasing an interfacial tension between oil and water and an excellent salinity tolerance and hard-water resistance. Furthermore, the micro-emulsion can be formed from this micellar slug in a wide composition range.

  12. Micellar slug for oil recovery

    SciTech Connect

    Morita, H.; Kawada, Y.; Ukigai, T.; Yamada, J.

    1985-08-27

    A micellar slug for use in the recovery of oil is described, the slug containing a hydrocarbon, an aqueous medium, a surfactant, and a cosurfactant. The surfactant contains as an essential component an alpha-olefin sulfonate having 10 to 26 carbon atoms and containing 0.1% to 15% by weight by weight of a disulfonate. This micellar slug has an excellent salinity tolerance and hard-water resistance. Furthermore, the micellar slugs of the present invention are capable of forming micro-emulsions having a sufficiently low interfacial tension and, therefore, can improve oil recovery efficiency.

  13. Micellar slug for oil recovery

    SciTech Connect

    Morita, H.; Kowada, Y.; Ukigai, T.; Yamada, J.

    1985-04-23

    A micellar slug for use in the recovery of oil is described, the slug containing a hydrocarbon, an aqueous medium, a surfactant, and a cosurfactant. The surfactant contains, as an essential component, a divalent metal salt of an alpha-olefin sulfonic acid. This micellar slug has an excellent salinity tolerance and hard-water resistance. Furthermore, the micro-emulsion formed from the present micellar slug is maintained stable in a subterranean reservoir formed by alkaline earth metal carbonates and, therefore, the oil recovery efficiency can be improved.

  14. Oil recovery from tar sands

    SciTech Connect

    Boesiger, D.D.; Siefkin, J.M.

    1983-01-11

    A process for recovering oil from oil wet and particularly from oil-wet, acidic tar sands is described in which these sands are subjected to vigorous fluidization in the presence of water, air and a surfactant but in the absence of an extraneous hydrocarbon solvent. This step produces a multiphase mixture including an oil containing froth enabling gravity separation, E.G. In hydrocyclone.

  15. Polymeric nanospheres as a displacement fluid in enhanced oil recovery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hendraningrat, Luky; Zhang, Julien

    2015-11-01

    This paper presents the investigation of using nanoscale polyacrylamide-based spheres (nanospheres) as a displacement fluid in enhanced oil recovery (EOR). Coreflood experiments were conducted to evaluate the impact of nanospheres and its concentration dispersed in model formation water on oil recovery during a tertiary oil recovery process. The coreflood results showed that nanospheres can enhance residual oil recovery in the sandstone rock samples and its concentration showed a significant impact into incremental oil. By evaluating the contact angle, it was observed that wettability alteration also might be involved in the possible oil displacement mechanism in this process together with fluid behavior and permeability to water that might divert injected fluid into unswept oil areas and enhance the residual oil recovery. These investigations promote nanospheres aqueous disperse solution as a potential displacement fluid in EOR.

  16. A new process for the management of olive oil mill waste water and recovery of natural antioxidants.

    PubMed

    Agalias, Apostolis; Magiatis, Prokopios; Skaltsounis, Alexios-Leandros; Mikros, Emmanuel; Tsarbopoulos, Anthony; Gikas, Evagelos; Spanos, Ioannis; Manios, Thrasyvoulos

    2007-04-04

    The high polyphenol content of the wastewater is the major environmental problem caused by the olive mills. A pilot scale system for the treatment of the olive oil mills wastewater was developed aiming at the recovery of high added value-contained polyphenols and the reduction of the environmental problems. The treatment system consists of three main successive sections: The first one includes successive filtration stages aiming at the gradual reduction of the wastewater suspended solids up to a limit of 25 microm. The second section includes passing of the filtered wastewater through a series of adsorbent resins (XAD16 and XAD7HP) in order to achieve the de-odoring and decolorization of the wastewater and the removal/ recovery of the polyphenol and lactone content. The third section of the procedure includes the thermal evaporation and recovery of the organic solvents mixture, which has been used in the resin regeneration process, and finally the separation of the polyphenols and other organic substance contents using fast centrifuge partition chromatography. The final outcome of the whole procedure is (i) an odorless yellowish wastewater with a 99.99% reduced content in polyphenols and 98% reduced COD, (ii) an extract rich in polyphenols and lactones with high antioxidant activity and high added value, (iii) an extract containing the coloring substances of the olive fruit, and (iv) pure hydroxytyrosol.

  17. Recovery rates, enhanced oil recovery and technological limits.

    PubMed

    Muggeridge, Ann; Cockin, Andrew; Webb, Kevin; Frampton, Harry; Collins, Ian; Moulds, Tim; Salino, Peter

    2014-01-13

    Enhanced oil recovery (EOR) techniques can significantly extend global oil reserves once oil prices are high enough to make these techniques economic. Given a broad consensus that we have entered a period of supply constraints, operators can at last plan on the assumption that the oil price is likely to remain relatively high. This, coupled with the realization that new giant fields are becoming increasingly difficult to find, is creating the conditions for extensive deployment of EOR. This paper provides a comprehensive overview of the nature, status and prospects for EOR technologies. It explains why the average oil recovery factor worldwide is only between 20% and 40%, describes the factors that contribute to these low recoveries and indicates which of those factors EOR techniques can affect. The paper then summarizes the breadth of EOR processes, the history of their application and their current status. It introduces two new EOR technologies that are beginning to be deployed and which look set to enter mainstream application. Examples of existing EOR projects in the mature oil province of the North Sea are discussed. It concludes by summarizing the future opportunities for the development and deployment of EOR.

  18. Recovery rates, enhanced oil recovery and technological limits

    PubMed Central

    Muggeridge, Ann; Cockin, Andrew; Webb, Kevin; Frampton, Harry; Collins, Ian; Moulds, Tim; Salino, Peter

    2014-01-01

    Enhanced oil recovery (EOR) techniques can significantly extend global oil reserves once oil prices are high enough to make these techniques economic. Given a broad consensus that we have entered a period of supply constraints, operators can at last plan on the assumption that the oil price is likely to remain relatively high. This, coupled with the realization that new giant fields are becoming increasingly difficult to find, is creating the conditions for extensive deployment of EOR. This paper provides a comprehensive overview of the nature, status and prospects for EOR technologies. It explains why the average oil recovery factor worldwide is only between 20% and 40%, describes the factors that contribute to these low recoveries and indicates which of those factors EOR techniques can affect. The paper then summarizes the breadth of EOR processes, the history of their application and their current status. It introduces two new EOR technologies that are beginning to be deployed and which look set to enter mainstream application. Examples of existing EOR projects in the mature oil province of the North Sea are discussed. It concludes by summarizing the future opportunities for the development and deployment of EOR. PMID:24298076

  19. Asphaltenes and improved oil recovery

    SciTech Connect

    Yen, T.F.

    1995-12-31

    Often, asphaltene is related solely to the downstream petroleum refining aspect, the logic being that these large, refractoric molecules in heavy ends or bottoms of barrels are difficult to convert into light petroleum hydrocarbons. The refinery bottoms or residues are largely asphaltics (asphaltene, resin, and preasphaltene). This persuades many investigators to correlate and interrelate asphaltene with catalyst compositions, conversion conditions, etc., in refining operations. Few papers appearing in the literature deal with asphaltene and upstream petroleum production and recovery. To this goal, the present paper summarizes the role which petroleum asphaltene plays in production and recovery, especially to improved oil recovery (IOR).

  20. Oil recovery apparatus and method

    SciTech Connect

    Lowe, J.G.

    1981-05-19

    An oil recovery apparatus and method, particularly for removing oil and grease from the discharge of dishwashing machines or the like, provides a small size assembly employing the same principle as in U.S. Pat. No. 4,051,024. This apparatus and method employs single rotating discs of plastic or plastic coated material and each disk has a pair of scraper blades arranged to scrape opposite sides of the rotating blade. Exterior of the container for the oil recovery apparatus is at least one filter basket adapted to receive the flow into the strainer container of large particles of food and other waste such as cigarette butts and the like. Each filter is disposed for the ready cleaning of accumulated matter from the basket. There is shown plural filters, valve controls, auxiliary heating and disc support means to be more fully described.

  1. Oil Recovery System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1983-01-01

    A Downhole Steam Generation System brings oil up from deep reservoirs. The system, developed by Foster-Miller Associates consists of a steam generator, a "packer" that keeps the steam from leaking up the wellbore, and tube string that supplies air, fuel, water and hydraulics to the generator and packer; all are encased in a standard seven-inch well casing. Downhole means that the steam generator is located far down the well casing rather than on the surface. This design is more efficient than surface generated steam. A COSMIC (Computer Software Management and Information Center) program aided in the design.

  2. Method for enhanced oil recovery

    DOEpatents

    Comberiati, Joseph R.; Locke, Charles D.; Kamath, Krishna I.

    1980-01-01

    The present invention is directed to an improved method for enhanced recovery of oil from relatively "cold" reservoirs by carbon dioxide flooding. In oil reservoirs at a temperature less than the critical temperature of 87.7.degree. F. and at a pore pressure greater than the saturation pressure of carbon dioxide at the temperature of the reservoir, the carbon dioxide remains in the liquid state which does not satisfactorily mix with the oil. However, applicants have found that carbon dioxide can be vaporized in situ in the reservoir by selectively reducing the pore pressure in the reservoir to a value less than the particular saturated vapor pressure so as to greatly enhance the mixing of the carbon dioxide with the oil.

  3. Review of EOR (enhanced oil recovery) project trends and thermal EOR (enhanced oil recovery) technology

    SciTech Connect

    Pautz, J. F.; Sarathi, P.; Thomas, R.

    1990-03-01

    Information on United States (US) enhanced oil recovery (EOR) projects is analyzed to discern trends in applications of EOR technologies. This work is based on an evaluation of current literature and analysis of the Department of Energy (DOE) EOR project data base which contains information on over 1,300 projects. Three-quarters of current US oil production attributed to EOR is derived from thermal EOR processes (TEOR). Changes in the technology of TEOR since the 1984 Enhanced Oil Recovery'' study by the National Petroleum Council (NPC) are reviewed in terms of the current applied technology and reported research. 87 refs., 4 figs., 20 tabs.

  4. Composition for use in oil recovery and method of use

    SciTech Connect

    Hodgson, P. K. G.

    1985-02-26

    Betaines containing the pyridine nucleus, some of which are novel per se, are dissolved in sea water or formation water, the concentration of betaine being from 200 to 100,000 ppm, to give a surfactant solution suitable for displacing crude oil from a formation in an enhanced oil recovery process. These betaines have low interfacial tension (against oil), a high tolerance towards divalent metal ions and good temperature stability as compared with betaines preposed for enhanced oil recovery.

  5. Enhanced oil recovery: French experiences and achievements

    SciTech Connect

    Jaques, J.

    1981-04-01

    Enhanced oil recovery (EOR) is directed at the remaining hydrocarbons after conventional recovery methods. Elf Aquitaine has drilled a horizontal hole of 300 m; Esso Rep is using gas injection to improve recovery in the Parentis field; CFP-Total and SNEA have conducted large scale operations in the Hassi Messaoud field in Algeria; the IFP has done the same thing in Romania since 1969. Esso Rep is beginning to see positive results in its work in France. The EOR program of the US is still out front, with injection of carbon dioxide in particular. Research in this area was conducted mainly by and at the IFP centers on 4 processes: (1) injection of water enriched with chemical additives (chemical processes); (2) thermal processes applicable mainly to heavy crude; (3) injection of carbon dioxide; and (4) application of these processes to fractured reservoirs. The field efforts to SNEA and Esso Rep are discussed in more detail.

  6. Enhanced oil recovery projects data base

    SciTech Connect

    Pautz, J.F.; Sellers, C.A.; Nautiyal, C.; Allison, E.

    1992-04-01

    A comprehensive enhanced oil recovery (EOR) project data base is maintained and updated at the Bartlesville Project Office of the Department of Energy. This data base provides an information resource that is used to analyze the advancement and application of EOR technology. The data base has extensive information on 1,388 EOR projects in 569 different oil fields from 1949 until the present, and over 90% of that information is contained in tables and graphs of this report. The projects are presented by EOR process, and an index by location is provided.

  7. Enhanced oil recovery projects data base

    SciTech Connect

    Pautz, J.F.; Sellers, C.A.; Nautiyal, C.; Allison, E.

    1992-04-01

    A comprehensive enhanced oil recovery (EOR) project data base is maintained and updated at the Bartlesville Project Office of the Department of Energy. This data base provides an information resource that is used to analyze the advancement and application of EOR technology. The data base has extensive information on 1,388 EOR projects in 569 different oil fields from 1949 until the present, and over 90% of that information is contained in tables and graphs of this report. The projects are presented by EOR process, and an index by location is provided.

  8. Microbial enhancement of oil recovery: Recent advances

    SciTech Connect

    Premuzic, E.T.; Woodhead, A.D.; Vivirito, K.J.

    1992-01-01

    During recent years, systematic, scientific, and engineering effort by researchers in the United States and abroad, has established the scientific basis for Microbial Enhanced Oil Recovery (MEOR) technology. The successful application of MEOR technology as an oil recovery process is a goal of the Department of Energy (DOE). Research efforts involving aspects of MEOR in the microbiological, biochemical, and engineering fields led DOE to sponsor an International Conference at Brookhaven National Laboratory in 1992, to facilitate the exchange of information and a discussion of ideas for the future research emphasis. At this, the Fourth International MEOR Conference, where international attendees from 12 countries presented a total of 35 papers, participants saw an equal distribution between research'' and field applications.'' In addition, several modeling and state-of-the-art'' presentations summed up the present status of MEOR science and engineering. Individual papers in this proceedings have been process separately for inclusion in the Energy Science and Technology Database.

  9. Venezuela-MEM/USA-DOE Fossil Energy Report IV-11: Supporting technology for enhanced oil recovery - EOR thermal processes

    SciTech Connect

    Venezuela

    2000-04-06

    This report contains the results of efforts under the six tasks of the Tenth Amendment anti Extension of Annex IV, Enhanced Oil Recovery Thermal Processes of the Venezuela/USA Energy Agreement. This report is presented in sections (for each of the six Tasks) and each section contains one or more reports that were prepared to describe the results of the effort under each of the Tasks. A statement of each Task, taken from the Agreement Between Project Managers, is presented on the first page of each section. The Tasks are numbered 68 through 73. The first through tenth report on research performed under Annex IV Venezuela MEM/USA-DOE Fossil Energy Report Number IV-1, IV-2, IV-3, IV-4, IV-5, IV-6, IV-7, IV-8, IV-9, IV-10 contain the results of the first 67 Tasks. These reports are dated April 1983, August 1984, March 1986, July 1987, November 1988, December 1989, October 1991, February 1993, March 1995, and December 1997, respectively.

  10. Micellar slug for oil recovery

    SciTech Connect

    Morita, H.; Kawada, Y.; Ukigai, T.; Yamada, J.

    1985-10-29

    A micellar slug for use in the recovery of oil, the slug containing a hydrocarbon, an aqueous medium, a surfactant, and a cosurfactant. The surfactant contains as an essential component an internal olefin sulfonate or sulfonates having 10 to 30 carbon atoms and an alpha-olefin sulfonate or sulfonates having 10 to 30 carbon atoms. This micellar slug has a sufficiently low interfacial tension, good salinity tolerance, hard-water resistance, ability to maintain the micro-emulsion against change in the composition of the micro-emulsion, and mobility controlled viscosity.

  11. Microbial enhanced oil recovery research

    SciTech Connect

    Sharma, M.M.; Georgiou, G.

    1990-03-01

    In the previous quarterly report we described the criteria for selecting a microorganism for Microbial Enhanced Oil Recovery studies. After careful consideration we chose Bacillus licheniformis JF-2 because of its ability to withstand reservoir conditions and the production of a surface active lipopeptide. Detailed experiments were conducted in stirred tank fermenters equipped with pH control and constant sparging of air or, in the case of anaerobic experiments, O{sub 2}-free nitrogen. The effect of temperature and pH on biomass production, glucose consumption and interfacial tension against decane were determined for both aerobic and anaerobic conditions. 5 figs., 2 tabs.

  12. Direct Oil Recovery from Saturated Carbon Nanotube Sponges.

    PubMed

    Li, Xiying; Xue, Yahui; Zou, Mingchu; Zhang, Dongxiao; Cao, Anyuan; Duan, Huiling

    2016-05-18

    Oil adsorption by porous materials is a major strategy for water purification and industrial spill cleanup; it is of great interest if the adsorbed oil can be safely recovered from those porous media. Here, direct oil recovery from fully saturated bulk carbon nanotube (CNT) sponges by displacing oil with water in controlled manner is shown. Surfactant-assisted electrocapillary imbibition is adopted to drive aqueous electrolyte into the sponge and extrude organic oil out continuously at low potentials (up to -1.2 V). More than 95 wt % of oil adsorbed within the sponge can be recovered, via a single electrocapillary process. Recovery of different oils with a wide range of viscosities is demonstrated, and the remaining CNT sponge can be reused with similar recovery capacity. A direct and efficient method is provided to recover oil from CNT sponges by water imbibition, which has many potential environmental and energy applications.

  13. HEAVY AND THERMAL OIL RECOVERY PRODUCTION MECHANISMS

    SciTech Connect

    Anthony R. Kovscek; Louis M. Castanier

    2002-09-30

    The Stanford University Petroleum Research Institute (SUPRI-A) conducts a broad spectrum of research intended to help improve the recovery efficiency from difficult to produce reservoirs including heavy oil and fractured low permeability systems. Our scope of work is relevant across near-, mid-, and long-term time frames. The primary functions of the group are to conduct direction-setting research, transfer research results to industry, and educate and train students for careers in industry. Presently, research in SUPRI-A is divided into 5 main project areas. These projects and their goals include: (1) Multiphase flow and rock properties--to develop better understanding of the physics of displacement in porous media through experiment and theory. This category includes work on imbibition, flow in fractured media, and the effect of temperature on relative permeability and capillary pressure. (2) Hot fluid injection--to improve the application of nonconventional wells for enhanced oil recovery and elucidate the mechanisms of steamdrive in low permeability, fractured porous media. (3) Mechanisms of primary heavy oil recovery--to develop a mechanistic understanding of so-called ''foamy oil'' and its associated physical chemistry. (4) In-situ combustion--to evaluate the effect of different reservoir parameters on the insitu combustion process. (5) Reservoir definition--to develop and improve techniques for evaluating formation properties from production information. What follows is a report on activities for the past year. Significant progress was made in all areas.

  14. Microbial enhanced oil recovery: Entering the log phase

    SciTech Connect

    Bryant, R.S.

    1995-12-31

    Microbial enhanced oil recovery (MEOR) technology has advanced internationally since 1980 from a laboratory-based evaluation of microbial processes to field applications. In order to adequately support the decline in oil production in certain areas, research on cost-effective technologies such as microbial enhanced oil recovery processes must focus on both near-term and long-term applications. Many marginal wells are desperately in need of an inexpensive improved oil recovery technology today that can assist producers in order to prevent their abandonment. Microbial enhanced waterflooding technology has also been shown to be an economically feasible technology in the United States. Complementary environmental research and development will also be required to address any potential environmental impacts of microbial processes. In 1995 at this conference, the goal is to further document and promote microbial processes for improved oil recovery and related technology for solving environmental problems.

  15. "Smart" Multifunctional Polymers for Enhanced Oil Recovery

    SciTech Connect

    Charles McCormick; Andrew Lowe

    2007-03-20

    Recent recommendations made by the Department of Energy, in conjunction with ongoing research at the University of Southern Mississippi, have signified a need for the development of 'smart' multi-functional polymers (SMFPs) for Enhanced Oil Recovery (EOR) processes. Herein we summarize research from the period of September 2003 through March 2007 focusing on both Type I and Type II SMFPs. We have demonstrated the synthesis and behavior of materials that can respond in situ to stimuli (ionic strength, pH, temperature, and shear stress). In particular, Type I SMFPs reversibly form micelles in water and have the potential to be utilized in applications that serve to lower interfacial tension at the oil/water interface, resulting in emulsification of oil. Type II SMFPs, which consist of high molecular weight polymers, have been synthesized and have prospective applications related to the modification of fluid viscosity during the recovery process. Through the utilization of these advanced 'smart' polymers, the ability to recover more of the original oil in place and a larger portion of that by-passed or deemed 'unrecoverable' by conventional chemical flooding should be possible.

  16. Oil spill recovery method and apparatus

    SciTech Connect

    Cain, H.A.; Meneghetti, L.M.

    1980-10-07

    The recovery of oil in an oil spill on water is achieved by a medium which not only absorbs the oil but causes it to become heavy and loose its buoyancy in relation to water so it can be made to sink, together with apparatus for effecting the deposit of the medium upon the oil in an oil spill and for collecting the sinking oil below the surface and before it attaches itself to the bottom surface so it can be removed to a place where the recovered oil may be extracted from the medium which sank the oil.

  17. Starting up microbial enhanced oil recovery.

    PubMed

    Siegert, Michael; Sitte, Jana; Galushko, Alexander; Krüger, Martin

    2014-01-01

    This chapter gives the reader a practical introduction into microbial enhanced oil recovery (MEOR) including the microbial production of natural gas from oil. Decision makers who consider the use of one of these technologies are provided with the required scientific background as well as with practical advice for upgrading an existing laboratory in order to conduct microbiological experiments. We believe that the conversion of residual oil into natural gas (methane) and the in situ production of biosurfactants are the most promising approaches for MEOR and therefore focus on these topics. Moreover, we give an introduction to the microbiology of oilfields and demonstrate that in situ microorganisms as well as injected cultures can help displace unrecoverable oil in place (OIP). After an initial research phase, the enhanced oil recovery (EOR) manager must decide whether MEOR would be economical. MEOR generally improves oil production but the increment may not justify the investment. Therefore, we provide a brief economical assessment at the end of this chapter. We describe the necessary state-of-the-art scientific equipment to guide EOR managers towards an appropriate MEOR strategy. Because it is inevitable to characterize the microbial community of an oilfield that should be treated using MEOR techniques, we describe three complementary start-up approaches. These are: (i) culturing methods, (ii) the characterization of microbial communities and possible bio-geochemical pathways by using molecular biology methods, and (iii) interfacial tension measurements. In conclusion, we hope that this chapter will facilitate a decision on whether to launch MEOR activities. We also provide an update on relevant literature for experienced MEOR researchers and oilfield operators. Microbiologists will learn about basic principles of interface physics needed to study the impact of microorganisms living on oil droplets. Last but not least, students and technicians trying to understand

  18. Steam mediated fluorochemically enhanced oil recovery

    SciTech Connect

    Karydas, A.

    1989-04-25

    A method is described for increasing steam mediated oil production using a steam injection recovery process, with one, two or more wells, which comprises: contacting a deposit containing crude oil or containing a crude oil generating material with an effective amount of a fluorochemical of formula ((R/sub f/)/sub n/(R')/sub p/)/sub m/Z. Each R/sub f/ is independently a straight or branched chain perfluoroalkyl, perfluoroalkoxy-perfluoroalkyl, omega-hydroperfluoroalkyl or perfluoroalkenyl, each R/sub f/ independently having 4 to 20 carbon atoms, n is 1, 2 or 3, p is 0 or 1, m is an integer from 1 to 5000, and R' is a direct bond when p is 0 or is an organic group having a valency of ntl and is covalently bonded to both R/sub f/ and Z.

  19. Sea otter (Enhydra lutris) perspective: Mechanisms of impact and potential recovery of nearshore vertebrate predators following the 1989 Exxon Valdez oil spill. Part A. Sea otter population status and the process of recovery from the 1989 Exxon Valdez oil spill

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bodkin, J.L.; Ballachey, B.E.; Dean, T.A.; Fukuyama, A.K.; Jewett, S.C.; McDonald, L.; Monson, D.H.; O'Clair, Charles E.; VanBlaricom, G.R.; Holland-Bartels, L. E.

    2002-01-01

    Sea otter (Enhydra lutris populations were severely affects by the 1989 Exxon Valdez oil spill in western Prince William Sound, AK, and had not fully recovered by 2000. Here we present results of population surveys and incorporate findings from related studies to identify current population status and factors affecting recovery. Between 1993 and 2000, the number of sea otters in the spill-area of Prince William Sound increased by about 600 to nearly 2700. However, at Knight Island, where oil exposure and sea otter mortality in 1989 approached 0.90, no increase has been observed. Sea otter reproduction was not impaired and the age and sex structure of animals captured are consistent with both intrinsic reproduction and immigration contributing to recovery. However, low resighting rates of marked animals at Knight Island compared to an unoiled reference area, and a high proportion of young animals in beach cast carcasses through 1998, suggest that the lack of recovery was caused by relatively poor survival or emigration of potential recruits. Significantly higher levels of cytochrome P4501A (CYP1A), a biomarker of hydrocarbons, were found in sea otters at Knight Island, in 1996-98 compared to unoiled Montague Island, implicating oil effects in the lack of recovery at Knight Island. Delayed recovery does not appear to be directly related to food limitation. Although food availability was relatively low at both oiled and unoiled areas, we detected significant increases in sea otter abundance only at Montague Island, as finding inconsistent with food as a principal limiting factor. Persistent oil in habitats and prey provides a source of continued oil exposure and, combined with relatively low prey densities, suggests a potential interaction between oil and food. However, sea otters foraged more successfully at Knight Island and young females were in better condition than those at Montague Island. We conclude that progress toward recovery of sea otters in Prince William

  20. Development of a microbial process for the recovery of petroleum oil from depleted reservoirs at 91-96°C.

    PubMed

    Arora, Preeti; Ranade, Dilip R; Dhakephalkar, Prashant K

    2014-08-01

    A consortium of bacteria growing at 91°C and above (optimally at 96°C) was developed for the recovery of crude oil from declining/depleted oil reservoirs having temperature of more than 91°C. PCR-DGGE-Sequencing analysis of 16S rRNA gene fragments of NJS-4 consortium revealed the presence of four strains identified as members of the genus Clostridium. The metabolites produced by NJS-4 consortium included volatile fatty acids, organic acids, surfactants, exopolysaccarides and CO2, which reduced viscosity, emulsified crude oil and increased the pressure that facilitated displacement of emulsified oil towards the surface. NJS-4 enhanced oil recovery by 26.7% and 10.1% in sand pack trials and core flood studies respectively in optimized nutrient medium comprised of sucrose and sodium acetate as carbon/energy source and urea as nitrogen source (pH 7-9, 96°C, and 4% salinity). Nutrient medium for MEOR was constituted using commercial grade cheap nutrients to improve the economic viability of MEOR process. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Effect of neglecting geothermal gradient on calculated oil recovery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Safari, Mehdi; Mohammadi, Majid; Sedighi, Mehdi

    2017-03-01

    Reduced recovery rate with time is a common challenge for most of the oil producing reservoirs. Water flooding is one of the most common methods used for enhanced oil recovery. Simulating water-flooding process is sometimes carried out without considering the effect of geothermal gradient, and an average temperature is assumed for all the grid blocks. However, the gradient plays a significant role on the reservoir fluid properties. So neglecting its effect might result in a large error in the calculated oil recovery results, especially for the thick reservoirs, which in theory can show significant variations in temperature with depth. In this paper, first, advancing the waterfront during injection into a geothermal oil reservoir is discussed. Then, the performance of considering either an average temperature or gradient temperature, are considered and compared with each other. The results suggest that assuming a fixed average reservoir temperature with no geothermal gradient, can lead to a pronounced error for calculated oil recovery.

  2. SURFACTANT BASED ENHANCED OIL RECOVERY AND FOAM MOBILITY CONTROL

    SciTech Connect

    George J. Hirasaki; Clarence A. Miller; Gary A. Pope; Richard E. Jackson

    2004-02-01

    Surfactant flooding has the potential to significantly increase recovery over that of conventional waterflooding. The availability of a large number of surfactant structures makes it possible to conduct a systematic study of the relation between surfactant structure and its efficacy for oil recovery. Also, the addition of an alkali such as sodium carbonate makes possible in situ generation of surfactant and significant reduction of surfactant adsorption. In addition to reduction of interfacial tension to ultra-low values, surfactants and alkali can be designed to alter wettability to enhance oil recovery. An alkaline surfactant process is designed to enhance spontaneous imbibition in fractured, oil-wet, carbonate formations. It is able to recover oil from dolomite core samples from which there was no oil recovery when placed in formation brine.

  3. Process for oil shale retorting

    DOEpatents

    Jones, John B.; Kunchal, S. Kumar

    1981-10-27

    Particulate oil shale is subjected to a pyrolysis with a hot, non-oxygenous gas in a pyrolysis vessel, with the products of the pyrolysis of the shale contained kerogen being withdrawn as an entrained mist of shale oil droplets in a gas for a separation of the liquid from the gas. Hot retorted shale withdrawn from the pyrolysis vessel is treated in a separate container with an oxygenous gas so as to provide combustion of residual carbon retained on the shale, producing a high temperature gas for the production of some steam and for heating the non-oxygenous gas used in the oil shale retorting process in the first vessel. The net energy recovery includes essentially complete recovery of the organic hydrocarbon material in the oil shale as a liquid shale oil, a high BTU gas, and high temperature steam.

  4. Development of More Effective Biosurfactants for Enhanced Oil Recovery

    SciTech Connect

    McInerney, J.J.; Han, S.O.; Maudgalya, S.; Mouttaki, H.; Folmsbee, M.; Knapp, R.; Nagle, D.; Jackson, B.E.; Stuadt, M.; Frey, W.

    2003-01-16

    The objectives of this were two fold. First, core displacement studies were done to determine whether microbial processes could recover residual oil at elevated pressures. Second, the importance of biosurfactant production for the recovery of residual oil was studies. In these studies, a biosurfactant-producing, microorganisms called Bacillus licheniformis strain JF-2 was used. This bacterium produces a cyclic peptide biosurfactant that significantly reduces the interfacial tension between oil and brine (7). The use of a mutant deficient in surfactant production and a mathematical MEOR simulator were used to determine the major mechanisms of oil recovery by these two strains.

  5. Compositions for use in oil recovery and method of use

    SciTech Connect

    Bretherick, L.; Hodgson, P. K. G.

    1985-02-05

    Betaines containing the morpholine nucleus, some of which are novel per se, are dissolved in sea water or formation water, the concentration of betaine being from 200 to 100,000 ppm to give a surfactant solution suitable for displacing crude oil from a formation in an enhanced oil recovery process. Included in the solution can be an anionic surfactant containing in its structure an ethoxylated benzene ring which shows a synergistic effect with the betaine in lowering the interfacial tension of the surfactant solution against oil. These betaines have high tolerance towards divalent metal cations and high temperature stability as compared with betaines previously proposed for enhanced oil recovery.

  6. Microbial enhanced oil recovery and compositions therefor

    DOEpatents

    Bryant, Rebecca S.

    1990-01-01

    A method is provided for microbial enhanced oil recovery, wherein a combination of microorganisms is empirically formulated based on survivability under reservoir conditions and oil recovery efficiency, such that injection of the microbial combination may be made, in the presence of essentially only nutrient solution, directly into an injection well of an oil bearing reservoir having oil present at waterflood residual oil saturation concentration. The microbial combination is capable of displacing residual oil from reservoir rock, which oil may be recovered by waterflooding without causing plugging of the reservoir rock. Further, the microorganisms are capable of being transported through the pores of the reservoir rock between said injection well and associated production wells, during waterflooding, which results in a larger area of the reservoir being covered by the oil-mobilizing microorganisms.

  7. Reservoir characterization and enhanced oil recovery research

    SciTech Connect

    Lake, L.W.; Pope, G.A.; Schechter, R.S.

    1992-03-01

    The research in this annual report falls into three tasks each dealing with a different aspect of enhanced oil recovery. The first task strives to develop procedures for accurately modeling reservoirs for use as input to numerical simulation flow models. This action describes how we have used a detail characterization of an outcrop to provide insights into what features are important to fluid flow modeling. The second task deals with scaling-up and modeling chemical and solvent EOR processes. In a sense this task is the natural extension of task 1 and, in fact, one of the subtasks uses many of the same statistical procedures for insight into the effects of viscous fingering and heterogeneity. The final task involves surfactants and their interactions with carbon dioxide and reservoir minerals. This research deals primarily with phenomena observed when aqueous surfactant solutions are injected into oil reservoirs.

  8. Elemental sulfur recovery process

    DOEpatents

    Flytzani-Stephanopoulos, Maria; Hu, Zhicheng

    1993-01-01

    An improved catalytic reduction process for the direct recovery of elemental sulfur from various SO.sub.2 -containing industrial gas streams. The catalytic process provides combined high activity and selectivity for the reduction of SO.sub.2 to elemental sulfur product with carbon monoxide or other reducing gases. The reaction of sulfur dioxide and reducing gas takes place over certain catalyst formulations based on cerium oxide. The process is a single-stage, catalytic sulfur recovery process in conjunction with regenerators, such as those used in dry, regenerative flue gas desulfurization or other processes, involving direct reduction of the SO.sub.2 in the regenerator off gas stream to elemental sulfur in the presence of a catalyst.

  9. Elemental sulfur recovery process

    DOEpatents

    Flytzani-Stephanopoulos, M.; Zhicheng Hu.

    1993-09-07

    An improved catalytic reduction process for the direct recovery of elemental sulfur from various SO[sub 2]-containing industrial gas streams. The catalytic process provides combined high activity and selectivity for the reduction of SO[sub 2] to elemental sulfur product with carbon monoxide or other reducing gases. The reaction of sulfur dioxide and reducing gas takes place over certain catalyst formulations based on cerium oxide. The process is a single-stage, catalytic sulfur recovery process in conjunction with regenerators, such as those used in dry, regenerative flue gas desulfurization or other processes, involving direct reduction of the SO[sub 2] in the regenerator off gas stream to elemental sulfur in the presence of a catalyst. 4 figures.

  10. Influence of pH on dynamics of microbial enhanced oil recovery processes using biosurfactant producing Pseudomonas putida: Mathematical modelling and numerical simulation.

    PubMed

    Sivasankar, P; Suresh Kumar, G

    2017-01-01

    In present work, the influence of reservoir pH conditions on dynamics of microbial enhanced oil recovery (MEOR) processes using Pseudomonas putida was analysed numerically from the developed mathematical model for MEOR processes. Further, a new strategy to improve the MEOR performance has also been proposed. It is concluded from present study that by reversing the reservoir pH from highly acidic to low alkaline condition (pH 5-8), flow and mobility of displaced oil, displacement efficiency, and original oil in place (OOIP) recovered gets significantly enhanced, resulting from improved interfacial tension (IFT) reduction by biosurfactants. At pH 8, maximum of 26.1% of OOIP was recovered with higher displacement efficiency. The present study introduces a new strategy to increase the recovery efficiency of MEOR technique by characterizing the biosurfactants for IFTmin/IFTmax values for different pH conditions and subsequently, reversing the reservoir pH conditions at which the IFTmin/IFTmax value is minimum. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Study of hydrocarbon miscible solvent slug injection process for improved recovery of heavy oil from Schrader Bluff Pool, Milne Point Unit, Alaska. Annual report, January 1, 1994--December 31, 1994

    SciTech Connect

    Sharma, G.D.

    1995-07-01

    Alaska is the second largest oil producing state in the nation and currently contributes nearly 24% of the nations oil production. It is imperative that Alaskan heavy oil fields be brought into production. Schrader Bluff reservoir, located in the Milne Point Unit, which is part of the heavy oil field known as West Sak is estimated to contain 1.5 billion barrels of (14 to 21 degree API) oil-in-place. The field is currently under production by primary depletion. The eventual implementation of enhanced oil recovery (EOR) techniques will be vital for the recovery of additional oil from this reservoir. The availability of hydrocarbon gases (solvents) on the Alaska North Slope make the hydrocarbon miscible solvent injection process an important consideration for the EOR project in Schrader Bluff reservoir. Since Schrader Bluff oil is heavy and viscous, a water-alternating-gas (WAG) type of process for oil recovery is appropriate since such a process tends to derive synergetic benefits from both water injection (which provides mobility control and improvement in sweep efficiency) and miscible gas injection (which provides improved displacement efficiency). A miscible solvent slug injection process rather than continuous solvent injection is considered appropriate. Slim tube displacement studies, PVT data and asphaltene precipitation studies are needed for Schrader bluff heavy oil to define possible hydrocarbon solvent suitable for miscible solvent slug displacement process. Coreflood experiments are also needed to determine the effect of solvent slug size, WAG ratio and solvent composition on the recovery and solvent breakthrough. A compositional reservoir simulation study will be conducted later to evaluate the complete performance of the hydrocarbon solvent slug process and to assess the feasibility of this process for improving recovery of heavy oil from Schrader Bluff reservoir.

  12. Development of More Effective Biosurfactants for Enhanced Oil Recovery/Advanced Recovery Concepts Awards

    SciTech Connect

    McInerney, M.J.; Marsh, T.L.; Zhang, X.; Knapp, R.M.; Nagle, Jr., D.P.; Sharma, P.K.; Jackson, B.E.

    2002-05-28

    The objectives of this were two fold. First, core displacement studies were done to determine whether microbial processes could recover residual oil at elevated pressures. Second, the importance of biosurfactant production for the recovery of residual oil was studies. In these studies, a biosurfactant-producing, microorganisms called Bacillus licheniformis strain JF-2 was used. This bacterium produces a cyclic peptide biosurfactant that significantly reduces the interfacial tension between oil and brine (7). The use of a mutant deficient in surfactant production and a mathematical MEOR simulator were used to determine the major mechanisms of oil recovery by these two strains.

  13. Chemically assisted in situ recovery of oil shale

    SciTech Connect

    Ramierz, W.F.

    1993-12-31

    The purpose of the research project was to investigate the feasibility of the chemically assisted in situ retort method for recovering shale oil from Colorado oil shale. The chemically assisted in situ procedure uses hydrogen chloride (HCl), steam (H{sub 2}O), and carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) at moderate pressure to recovery shale oil from Colorado oil shale at temperatures substantially lower than those required for the thermal decomposition of kerogen. The process had been previously examined under static, reaction-equilibrium conditions, and had been shown to achieve significant shale oil recoveries from powdered oil shale. The purpose of this research project was to determine if these results were applicable to a dynamic experiment, and achieve penetration into and recovery of shale oil from solid oil shale. Much was learned about how to perform these experiments. Corrosion, chemical stability, and temperature stability problems were discovered and overcome. Engineering and design problems were discovered and overcome. High recovery (90% of estimated Fischer Assay) was observed in one experiment. Significant recovery (30% of estimated Fischer Assay) was also observed in another experiment. Minor amounts of freed organics were observed in two more experiments. Penetration and breakthrough of solid cores was observed in six experiments.

  14. Method for maximizing shale oil recovery from an underground formation

    DOEpatents

    Sisemore, Clyde J.

    1980-01-01

    A method for maximizing shale oil recovery from an underground oil shale formation which has previously been processed by in situ retorting such that there is provided in the formation a column of substantially intact oil shale intervening between adjacent spent retorts, which method includes the steps of back filling the spent retorts with an aqueous slurry of spent shale. The slurry is permitted to harden into a cement-like substance which stabilizes the spent retorts. Shale oil is then recovered from the intervening column of intact oil shale by retorting the column in situ, the stabilized spent retorts providing support for the newly developed retorts.

  15. China onshore heavy oil reservoir features and new recovery measures

    SciTech Connect

    Naiju Wang

    1995-12-31

    China is known as being rich in onshore heavy oil resources, with a variety of reservoir characteristics, and complex conditions for thermal recoveries. Over the past decade, with improvement in technology, the scale of heavy oil production has continually expanded, and China has now become one of the major heavy oil producing countries in the world. To date, a complete set of techniques associated with huff and puff processes has been developed with some unique features. This paper analyzes several problems inherent in heavy oil development, and presents technical measures for the future development of heavy oil.

  16. Acoustic Wave Stimulated Enhanced Oil Recovery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reichmann, Sven; Giese, Rüdiger; Amro, Mohammed

    2013-04-01

    High demand and the finite oil deposits will be a problem in the future. To temper the impact of a shortage in crude oil, a lot of research in the field of enhanced oil recovery (EOR) is worldwide ongoing. Using seismic waves to stimulate recovery of oil is known as seismic-EOR. The development of a stimulation procedure using seismic sources and the evaluation of the obtained data in a real oil field is the aim of the project WAVE.O.R. The project is funded by the German scientific society for oil, gas and coal (DGMK). The Technical University of Freiberg (TUBAF) and the German Research Center for Geosciences (GFZ) in Potsdam developed a flooding cell connected with magnetostrictive actuators as sources for seismic energy. This device is eligible to survey the impact of different seismic stimulation parameter like frequency, alignment, amplitude and rock characteristics on oil recovery. The obtained laboratory data of flooding experiments using seismic waves were analyzed for key features like water breakthrough point, oil recovery and oil fraction. New approach has been developed, which consists of the connection of a principal component analysis with a clustering algorithm. This new technique allows us a better understanding and thus prediction of the recovery behavior of oil bearing sediments. The experiments show promising possibilities to enhance oil recovery with seismic stimulation. Especially the combination of different frequencies between 100 Hz and 4000 Hz had a positive impact on oil recovery. The responsible mechanisms were identified and discussed. Data obtained with the laboratory device will be applied in a field test using a borehole device developed by the GFZ in the project "Seismic Prediction While Drilling" (SPWD). For this purpose experiments are conducted to obtain the radiation pattern of the seismic sources used by the SPWD device in a borehole. In addition, the development of a control setup for the 1-D actuator array is an aim of the

  17. Microfluidics: an enabling screening technology for enhanced oil recovery (EOR).

    PubMed

    Lifton, Victor A

    2016-05-21

    Oil production is a critical industrial process that affects the entire world population and any improvements in its efficiency while reducing its environmental impact are of utmost societal importance. The paper reviews recent applications of microfluidics and microtechnology to study processes of oil extraction and recovery. It shows that microfluidic devices can be useful tools in investigation and visualization of such processes used in the oil & gas industry as fluid propagation, flooding, fracturing, emulsification and many others. Critical macro-scale processes that define oil extraction and recovery are controlled by the micro-scale processes based on wetting, adhesion, surface tension, colloids and other concepts of microfluidics. A growing number of research efforts demonstrates that microfluidics is becoming, albeit slowly, an accepted methodology in this area. We propose several areas of development where implementation of microfluidics may bring about deeper understanding and hence better control over the processes of oil recovery based on fluid propagation, droplet generation, wettability control. Studies of processes such as hydraulic fracturing, sand particle propagation in porous networks, high throughput screening of chemicals (for example, emulsifiers and surfactants) in microfluidic devices that simulate oil reservoirs are proposed to improve our understanding of these complicated physico-chemical systems. We also discuss why methods of additive manufacturing (3D printing) should be evaluated for quick prototyping and modification of the three-dimensional structures replicating natural oil-bearing rock formations for studies accessible to a wider audience of researchers.

  18. Study of hydrocarbon miscible solvent slug injection process for improved recovery of heavy oil from Schrader Bluff Pool, Milne Point Unit, Alaska. Annual report, December 1, 1992--December 31, 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Sharma, G.D.

    1994-01-01

    The shallow Cretaceous sands of the Schrader Bluff Reservoir occur between depths of 4,000 and 4,800 feet below surface and are estimated to contain up to 1.5 billion barrels of oil in place. The field is currently under production by primary depletion. Initial production indicated that primary recovery will fall short of earlier estimates and waterflooding will have to be employed much earlier than expected. A large portion of the oil-in-place thus would still be left behind in this reservoir after primary and secondary recovery methods have been applied. Enhanced oil recovery (EOR) techniques will be needed to recover the additional portion of remaining oil in this huge reservoir and to add significant additional reserves. Slim tube displacement studies, PVT data and asphaltene precipitation studies are needed for Schrader Bluff heavy oil to define possible hydrocarbon solvent suitable for miscible solvent slug displacement process. Such studies are essential because the API gravity of the crude in Schrader Bluff reservoir varies significantly from well to well. Coreflood experiments are also needed to determine effect of solvent slug size, WAG ratio and solvent composition on the oil recovery and solvent breakthrough. A compositional reservoir simulation study will be conducted later to evaluate the complete performance of the hydrocarbon solvent slug process and to assess the feasibility of this process for improving recovery of heavy oil from Schrader Bluff reservoir. This report contains the following: reservoir description; slim tube displacement studies; and coreflood experiments.

  19. Sulfonation of phenols extracted from the pyrolysis oil of oil palm shells for enhanced oil recovery.

    PubMed

    Awang, Mariyamni; Seng, Goh Meng

    2008-01-01

    The cost of chemicals prohibits many technically feasible enhanced oil recovery methods to be applied in oil fields. It is shown that by-products from oil palm processing can be a source of valuable chemicals. Analysis of the pyrolysis oil from oil palm shells, a by-product of the palm oil industry, reveals a complex mixture of mainly phenolic compounds, carboxylic acids, and aldehydes. The phenolic compounds were extracted from the pyrolysis oil by liquid-liquid extraction using alkali and an organic solvent and analyzed, indicating the presence of over 93% phenols and phenolic compounds. Simultaneous sulfonation and alkylation of the pyrolysis oil was carried out to produce surfactants for application in oil fields. The lowest measured surface tension and critical micelle concentration was 30.2 mNm(-1) and 0.22 wt%, respectively. Displacement tests showed that 7-14% of the original oil in place was recovered by using a combination of surfactants and xanthan (polymer) as additives.

  20. Oil recovery from petroleum sludge through ultrasonic assisted solvent extraction.

    PubMed

    Hu, Guangji; Li, Jianbing; Huang, Shuhui; Li, Yubao

    2016-09-18

    The effect of ultrasonic assisted extraction (UAE) process on oil recovery from refinery oily sludge was examined in this study. Two types of UAE treatment including UAE probe (UAEP) system and UAE bath (UAEB) system were investigated. Their oil recovery efficiencies were compared to that of mechanical shaking extraction (MSE). Three solvents including cyclohexane (CHX), ethyl acetate (EA), and methyl ethyl ketone (MEK) were examined as the extraction solvents. The influence of experimental factors on oil and solvent recovery was investigated using an orthogonal experimental design. Results indicated that solvent type, solvent-to-sludge (S/S) ratio, and treatment duration could have significant effects on oil recovery in UAE treatment. Under the optimum conditions, UAEP treatment can obtain an oil recovery of 68.8% within 20 s, which was higher than that (i.e., 62.0%) by MSE treatment after 60 min' extraction. UAEB treatment can also obtain a promising oil recovery within shorter extraction duration (i.e., 15 min) than MSE. UAE was thus illustrated as an effective and improved approach for oily sludge recycling.

  1. Aqueous flooding methods for tertiary oil recovery

    DOEpatents

    Peru, Deborah A.

    1989-01-01

    A method of aqueous flooding of subterranean oil bearing formation for tertiary oil recovery involves injecting through a well into the formation a low alkaline pH aqueous sodium bicarbonate flooding solution. The flooding solution's pH ranges from about 8.25 to 9.25 and comprises from 0.25 to 5 weight percent and preferably about 0.75 to 3.0 weight percent of sodium bicarbonate and includes a petroleum recovery surfactant of 0.05 to 1.0 weight percent and between 1 and 20 weight percent of sodium chloride. After flooding, an oil and water mixture is withdrawn from the well and the oil is separated from the oil and water mixture.

  2. Adsorption calorimetry in enhanced oil recovery

    SciTech Connect

    Noll, L.A.

    1988-05-01

    Adsorption calorimetry is a technique which has been used at the National Institute for Petroleum and Energy Reserch (NIPER) to help in the understanding of adsorption as it impacts enhanced oil recovery by chemical flooding. Abstraction of chemicals by reservoir minerals comprises a major obstacle to the technical and economic success of this process. Adsorption is also important in other fields such as catalysis, lubrication, ore flotation, and printing. Adsorption calorimetry is useful because it measures both the amount of adsorption and its enthalpy. The enthalpy helps to guide the extrapolation of adsorption to higher temperatures as well as acting as a probe of surface properties such as heterogeneity. Adsorption calorimetry helps to distinguish physical from chemisorption. It is also useful in distinguishing water-wet from oil-wet surfaces. This paper discusses flow adsorption calorimetry. The advantage of using a flowing system over the classic immersion technique is that it is fast and easy to use, and data for the entire isotherm are collected on a single sample of solid. In flow calorimetry the surface excess amount and the thermal data are obtained simultaneously on one and the same sample of solid, thus avoiding some sampling problems. Some disadvantages of the method are somewhat short equilibration times and the cumulative nature of the data. Aspects of adsorption of special interest to enhanced oil recovery such as the nature and charge of minerals, the structure and charge of surfactants, the effects of brine and temperature, and the effects of aqueous or hydrocarbon environment are important parameters of surfactant flooding; they are treated in this paper.

  3. Exsolution Enhanced Oil Recovery with Concurrent CO2 Sequestration

    SciTech Connect

    Zuo, Lin; Benson, Sally M.

    2013-01-01

    A novel EOR method using carbonated water injection followed by depressurization is introduced. Results from micromodel experiments are presented to demonstrate the fundamental principles of this oil recovery method. A depressurization process (1 MPa/hr) was applied to a micromodel following carbonated water injection (Ca ≈ 10-5). The exsolved CO2 in water-filled pores blocked water flow in swiped portions and displaced water into oil-filled pores. Trapped oil after the carbonated water injection was mobilized by sequentially invading water. This method's self-distributed mobility control and local clogging was tested in a sandstone sample under reservoir conditions. A 10% incremental oil recovery was achieved by lowering the pressure 2 MPa below the CO2 liberation pressure. Additionally, exsolved CO2 resides in the pores of a reservoir as an immobile phase with a high residual saturation after oil production, exhibiting a potential synergy opportunity between CO2 EOR and CO2 sequestration

  4. Foam-oil interaction in porous media: implications for foam assisted enhanced oil recovery.

    PubMed

    Farajzadeh, R; Andrianov, A; Krastev, R; Hirasaki, G J; Rossen, W R

    2012-11-15

    The efficiency of a foam displacement process in enhanced oil recovery (EOR) depends largely on the stability of foam films in the presence of oil. Experimental studies have demonstrated the detrimental impact of oil on foam stability. This paper reviews the mechanisms and theories (disjoining pressure, coalescence and drainage, entering and spreading of oil, oil emulsification, pinch-off, etc.) suggested in the literature to explain the impact of oil on foam stability in the bulk and porous media. Moreover, we describe the existing approaches to foam modeling in porous media and the ways these models describe the oil effect on foam propagation in porous media. Further, we present various ideas on an improvement of foam stability and longevity in the presence of oil. The outstanding questions regarding foam-oil interactions and modeling of these interactions are pointed out. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Enhanced oil recovery with polymer flooding

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parsa, Shima; Weitz, David

    2016-11-01

    Polymer flooding is a method for enhanced oil recovery, however the mechanism responsible for the effectiveness of polymer flooding is not well understood. We use confocal microscopy and bulk transport measurements to probe the effectiveness of different molecular weight and concentrations of Polyacrylamide solution in imbibition of crude oil in 3D micromodel. We show that large molecular weight and moderate to high concentration of polymer is required for enhanced recovery. By directly measuring the pore level velocities in the medium, we show that polymer retention in the medium results in diversion of flow in some pores. The inhomogeneous changes in the flow velocities result in redistribution of viscous forces and enhanced recovery of oil.

  6. Plant hydrocarbon recovery process

    SciTech Connect

    Dzadzic, P.M.; Price, M.C.; Shih, C.J.; Weil, T.A.

    1982-01-26

    A process for production and recovery of hydrocarbons from hydrocarbon-containing whole plants in a form suitable for use as chemical feedstocks or as hydrocarbon energy sources which process comprises: (A) pulverizing by grinding or chopping hydrocarbon-containing whole plants selected from the group consisting of euphorbiaceae, apocynaceae, asclepiadaceae, compositae, cactaceae and pinaceae families to a suitable particle size, (B) drying and preheating said particles in a reducing atmosphere under positive pressure (C) passing said particles through a thermal conversion zone containing a reducing atmosphere and with a residence time of 1 second to about 30 minutes at a temperature within the range of from about 200* C. To about 1000* C., (D) separately recovering the condensable vapors as liquids and the noncondensable gases in a condition suitable for use as chemical feedstocks or as hydrocarbon fuels.

  7. RESEARCH OIL RECOVERY MECHANISMS IN HEAVY OIL RESERVOIRS

    SciTech Connect

    Anthony R. Kovscek; William E. Brigham

    1999-06-01

    The United States continues to rely heavily on petroleum fossil fuels as a primary energy source, while domestic reserves dwindle. However, so-called heavy oil (10 to 20{sup o}API) remains an underutilized resource of tremendous potential. Heavy oils are much more viscous than conventional oils. As a result, they are difficult to produce with conventional recovery methods such as pressure depletion and water injection. Thermal recovery is especially important for this class of reservoirs because adding heat, usually via steam injection, generally reduces oil viscosity dramatically. This improves displacement efficiency. The research described here was directed toward improved understanding of thermal and heavy-oil production mechanisms and is categorized into: (1) flow and rock properties; (2) in-situ combustion; (3) additives to improve mobility control; (4) reservoir definition; and (5) support services. The scope of activities extended over a three-year period. Significant work was accomplished in the area of flow properties of steam, water, and oil in consolidated and unconsolidated porous media, transport in fractured porous media, foam generation and flow in homogeneous and heterogeneous porous media, the effects of displacement pattern geometry and mobility ratio on oil recovery, and analytical representation of water influx. Significant results are described.

  8. HEAVY AND THERMAL OIL RECOVERY PRODUCTION MECHANISMS

    SciTech Connect

    Anthony R. Kovscek

    2003-04-01

    This technical progress report describes work performed from January 1 through March 31, 2003 for the project ''Heavy and Thermal Oil Recovery Production Mechanisms,'' DE-FC26-00BC15311. In this project, a broad spectrum of research is undertaken related to thermal and heavy-oil recovery. The research tools and techniques span from pore-level imaging of multiphase fluid flow to definition of reservoir-scale features through streamline-based history matching techniques. During this period, previous analysis of experimental data regarding multidimensional imbibition to obtain shape factors appropriate for dual-porosity simulation was verified by comparison among analytic, dual-porosity simulation, and fine-grid simulation. We continued to study the mechanisms by which oil is produced from fractured porous media at high pressure and high temperature. Temperature has a beneficial effect on recovery and reduces residual oil saturation. A new experiment was conducted on diatomite core. Significantly, we show that elevated temperature induces fines release in sandstone cores and this behavior may be linked to wettability. Our work in the area of primary production of heavy oil continues with field cores and crude oil. On the topic of reservoir definition, work continued on developing techniques that integrate production history into reservoir models using streamline-based properties.

  9. HEAVY AND THERMAL OIL RECOVERY PRODUCTION MECHANISMS

    SciTech Connect

    Anthony R. Kovscek; Louis M. Castanier

    2004-03-01

    This technical progress report describes work performed from July 1 through September, 2003 for the project ''Heavy and Thermal Oil Recovery Production Mechanisms,'' DE-FC26-00BC15311. In this project, a broad spectrum of research is undertaken related to thermal and heavy-oil recovery. The research tools and techniques span from pore-level imaging of multiphase fluid flow to definition of reservoir-scale features through streamline-based history-matching techniques. During this period, work focused on completing project tasks in the area of multiphase flow and rock properties. The area of interest is the production mechanisms of oil from porous media at high temperature. Temperature has a beneficial effect on oil recovery and reduces residual oil saturation. Work continued to delineate how the wettability of reservoir rock shifts from mixed and intermediate wet conditions to more water-wet conditions as temperature increases. One mechanism for the shift toward water-wet conditions is the release of fines coated with oil-wet material from pore walls. New experiments and theory illustrate the role of temperature on fines release.

  10. Improved oil recovery in nanopores: NanoIOR

    PubMed Central

    de Almeida, James Moraes; Miranda, Caetano Rodrigues

    2016-01-01

    Fluid flow through minerals pores occurs in underground aquifers, oil and shale gas reservoirs. In this work, we explore water and oil flow through silica nanopores. Our objective is to model the displacement of water and oil through a nanopore to mimic the fluid infiltration on geological nanoporous media and the displacement of oil with and without previous contact with water by water flooding to emulate an improved oil recovery process at nanoscale (NanoIOR). We have observed a barrier-less infiltration of water and oil on the empty (vacuum) simulated 4 nm diameter nanopores. For the water displacement with oil, we have obtained a critical pressure of 600 atm for the oil infiltration, and after the flow was steady, a water layer was still adsorbed to the surface, thus, hindering the direct contact of the oil with the surface. In addition, oil displacement with water was assessed, with and without an adsorbed water layer (AWL). Without the AWL, the pressure needed for oil infiltration was 5000 atm, whereas, with the AWL the infiltration was observed for pressures as low as 10 atm. Hence, the infiltration is greatly affected by the AWL, significantly lowering the critical pressure for oil displacement. PMID:27319357

  11. Improved oil recovery in nanopores: NanoIOR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Almeida, James Moraes; Miranda, Caetano Rodrigues

    2016-06-01

    Fluid flow through minerals pores occurs in underground aquifers, oil and shale gas reservoirs. In this work, we explore water and oil flow through silica nanopores. Our objective is to model the displacement of water and oil through a nanopore to mimic the fluid infiltration on geological nanoporous media and the displacement of oil with and without previous contact with water by water flooding to emulate an improved oil recovery process at nanoscale (NanoIOR). We have observed a barrier-less infiltration of water and oil on the empty (vacuum) simulated 4 nm diameter nanopores. For the water displacement with oil, we have obtained a critical pressure of 600 atm for the oil infiltration, and after the flow was steady, a water layer was still adsorbed to the surface, thus, hindering the direct contact of the oil with the surface. In addition, oil displacement with water was assessed, with and without an adsorbed water layer (AWL). Without the AWL, the pressure needed for oil infiltration was 5000 atm, whereas, with the AWL the infiltration was observed for pressures as low as 10 atm. Hence, the infiltration is greatly affected by the AWL, significantly lowering the critical pressure for oil displacement.

  12. "Smart" Multifunctional Polymers for Enhanced Oil Recovery

    SciTech Connect

    Charles McCormick; Andrew Lowe

    2005-10-15

    Herein we report the synthesis and solution characterization of a novel series of AB diblock copolymers with neutral, water-soluble A blocks comprised of N,N-dimethylacrylamide (DMA) and pH-responsive B blocks of N,N-dimethylvinylbenzylamine (DMVBA). To our knowledge, this represents the first example of an acrylamido-styrenic block copolymer prepared directly in homogeneous aqueous solution. The best blocking order (using polyDMA as a macro-CTA) was shown to yield well-defined block copolymers with minimal homopolymer impurity. Reversible aggregation of these block copolymers in aqueous media was studied by {sup 1}H NMR spectroscopy and dynamic light scattering. Finally, an example of core-crosslinked micelles was demonstrated by the addition of a difunctional crosslinking agent to a micellar solution of the parent block copolymer. Our ability to form micelles directly in water that are responsive to pH represents an important milestone in developing ''smart'' multifunctional polymers that have potential for oil mobilization in Enhanced Oil Recovery Processes.

  13. Alkaline flooding for enhanced oil recovery

    SciTech Connect

    Gittler, W.E.

    1983-09-01

    There are over 12 active projects of varying size using one of 3 major types of alkaline agents. These include sodium silicate, caustic soda, and soda ash. Among the largest pilots currently is the THUMS project in the Wilmington field, California. Plans called for the injection of a 4% weight concentration of sodium orthosilicate over a 60% PV. Through the first 3 yr, over 27 million bbl of chemicals have been injected. Gulf Oil is operating several alkaline floods, one of which is located off shore in the Quarantine Bay field, Louisiana. In this pilot, sodium hydroxide in a weight concentration of 5 to 12% is being injected. Belco Petroleum Corp. has reported that their pilot operating in the Isenhour Unit in Wyoming is using a .5% weight concentration of soda ash in conjunction with a polymer. Other uses for alkaline agents in chemical flooding include the use of silicate as a preflush or sacrificial agent in micellar/polymer and surfactant recovery systems. In addition, caustic has been tested in the surface-mixed caustic emulsion process while orthosilicate has been tested in a recovery method known as mobility-controlled caustic floods.

  14. Hydrophobic meshes for oil spill recovery devices.

    PubMed

    Deng, Da; Prendergast, Daniel P; MacFarlane, John; Bagatin, Roberto; Stellacci, Francesco; Gschwend, Philip M

    2013-02-01

    Widespread use of petrochemicals often leads to accidental releases in aquatic environments, occasionally with disastrous results. We have developed a hydrophobic and oleophilic mesh that separates oil from water continuously in situ via capillary action, providing a means of recovering spilt oil from surface waters. Steel mesh is dip-coated in a xylene solution of low-density polyethylene, creating a hydrophobic surface with tunable roughness and opening size. The hydrophobic mesh allows oil to pass through the openings while preventing the concomitant passage of water. A bench-top prototype demonstrated the efficacy of such an oil recovery device and allowed us to quantify the factors governing the ability of the mesh to separate oil and water. Preliminary data analysis suggested that the oleophilic openings behave somewhat like capillary tubes: the oil flux is inversely proportional to oil viscosity, and directly proportional to the size of the mesh openings. An unpinned meniscus model was found to predict the water intrusion pressure successfully, which increased as the opening size decreased. The trade-off between water intrusion and oil flow rate suggests an optimal pore size for given oil properties and sea conditions.

  15. Enhanced oil recovery: Project Roundup. 17 waterflood developments in Rocky Mountains reported

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1981-09-01

    Progress reports on enhanced oil recovery projects primarily in the Rocky Mountain region are presented. The types of recovery processes covered include waterflooding, carbon dioxide injection, steamflooding, polymer/alkalin

  16. Research on oil recovery mechanisms in heavy oil reservoirs

    SciTech Connect

    Kovscek, Anthony R.; Brigham, William E., Castanier, Louis M.

    2000-03-16

    The research described here was directed toward improved understanding of thermal and heavy-oil production mechanisms and is categorized into: (1) flow and rock properties, (2) in-situ combustion, (3) additives to improve mobility control, (4) reservoir definition, and (5) support services. The scope of activities extended over a three-year period. Significant work was accomplished in the area of flow properties of steam, water, and oil in consolidated and unconsolidated porous media, transport in fractured porous media, foam generation and flow in homogeneous and heterogeneous porous media, the effects of displacement pattern geometry and mobility ratio on oil recovery, and analytical representation of water influx.

  17. Microgravity, industry related research for oil recovery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hart, D'arcy; Hansen, Noah; Legros, Jean-Claude; Schramm, Laurier L.

    1997-01-01

    C-CORE of St. John's, Canada, has established CIRUS-Consortium for Industrial Research in the Use of Space-whose mandate is to provide benefits to industry for the energy and environment sectors. Research to date has focused on enhanced oil recovery and contaminant transport by the study of fluid physics in microgravity. Three experiments performed by CIRUS members in ground-based or parabolic flight programs have been chosen for further development. These experiments are combined in a Get Away Special (GAS) container which will fly on board NASA's space shuttle. The development program for the GAS container is entitled MIRROR-Microgravity, Industry Related Research for Oil Recovery. Research projects in the MIRROR program include the study of diffusion coefficients of crude oil (DCCO), foam stability in the absence of gravity drainage and capillary flow in porous media. This paper describes the development and potential benefits of the DCCO and foam stability projects.

  18. A field laboratory for improved oil recovery

    SciTech Connect

    Hildebrandt, A.F.; McDonald, J.; Claridge, E.; Killough, J.

    1992-09-01

    The purpose of Annex III of the Memorandum of Understanding, undertaken by the Houston Petroleum Research Center at the University of Houston, was to develop a field laboratory for research in improved oil recovery using a Gulf Coast reservoir in Texas. The participants: (1) make a field site selection and conducted a high resolution seismic survey in the demonstration field, (2) obtained characteristics of the reservoir (3) developed an evaluation of local flood efficiency in different parts of the demonstration reservoir, (4) used diverse methodology to evaluate the potential recovery of the remaining oil in the test reservoir, (5) developed cross-well seismic tomography, and (6) will transfer the learned technologies to oil operators through publication and workshops. This abstract is an overview of these tasks.

  19. Uncertain environmental costs and the optimum rate of oil recovery

    SciTech Connect

    Dabirian, S.; Wong, D.C.

    1995-10-01

    The socially optimal rate of oil recovery from a known reservoir is analyzed when enviromental costs are uncertain and planners are either risk neutral or risk averse. It is shown that the rate of oil recovery has the same characteristics whether environmental costs are certain or uncertain. In either case, the rate of oil recovery falls monotonically to zero over the time horizon. However, the planner`s attitude toward risk is an important consideration. Risk averse planners, as a rule, begin oil recovery at a higher rate, reduce the rate of recovery more rapidly, and complete the oil recovery in a shorter time than risk neutral planners. 7 refs., 2 figs.

  20. Integrated palm oil processing

    SciTech Connect

    Compere, A.L.; Griffith, W.L.; Googin, J.M.

    1983-01-01

    Tree palms are a promising source of fuel extenders and substitutes. They are perennials which bear oil for a period of two to three decades after a roughly four year preliminary growth period. Tree palms are now one of the most efficient energy crops: the best modern varieties can provide up to 6 tonnes per hectare per year of mesocarp and kernal oils. Palms are particularly attractive in areas where more conventional farming would pose a significant threat of laterization of cause major ecological problems. Technology for palm oil production is can range between village level manual operations and highly industrialized mills. Process energy is often supplied by combustion of byproducts. Although palm oil is a good energy crop, its physical and combustion properties preclude most use in conventional diesel engines, although palm oil could be directly blended with residual fuel oils for use in some large engines. At present, two uses for palm oil as a diesel fuel extender or substitute appear attractive: microemulsion blends using palm soapstock and monoesters produced by exchanging small alcohols for the glycerol in triglycerides. The amount of alcohols required for conversion of a substantial fraction of palm oil or palm oil soapstock to fuel extenders or substitutes is proportionately small, and, to a major extent, can be supplied by palm processing waste materials. Fermentation and gasification produced alcohols in the one to four carbon range are suitable for use in formulating palm oil based fuels. On a stoichiometric basis, it appears that the value of the palm oil and alcohols are very close to their value as export items. Use of these palm oil fuels could help to decrease balance of payments problems for developing countries, as well as provide a secure market for agricultural products and improved rural employment.

  1. Surfactant Based Enhanced Oil Recovery and Foam Mobility Control

    SciTech Connect

    George J. Hirasaki; Clarence A. Miller; Gary A. Pope

    2005-07-01

    Surfactant flooding has the potential to significantly increase recovery over that of conventional waterflooding. The availability of a large number of surfactant structures makes it possible to conduct a systematic study of the relation between surfactant structure and its efficacy for oil recovery. A combination of two surfactants was found to be particularly effective for application in carbonate formations at low temperature. A formulation has been designed for a particular field application. The addition of an alkali such as sodium carbonate makes possible in situ generation of surfactant and significant reduction of surfactant adsorption. In addition to reduction of interfacial tension to ultra-low values, surfactants and alkali can be designed to alter wettability to enhance oil recovery. The design of the process to maximize the region of ultra-low IFT is more challenging since the ratio of soap to synthetic surfactant is a parameter in the conditions for optimal salinity. Compositional simulation of the displacement process demonstrates the interdependence of the various components for oil recovery. An alkaline surfactant process is designed to enhance spontaneous imbibition in fractured, oil-wet, carbonate formations. It is able to recover oil from dolomite core samples from which there was no oil recovery when placed in formation brine. Mobility control is essential for surfactant EOR. Foam is evaluated to improve the sweep efficiency of surfactant injected into fractured reservoirs. UTCHEM is a reservoir simulator specially designed for surfactant EOR. It has been modified to represent the effects of a change in wettability. Simulated case studies demonstrate the effects of wettability.

  2. URANIUM RECOVERY PROCESS

    DOEpatents

    Hyman, H.H.; Dreher, J.L.

    1959-07-01

    The recovery of uranium from the acidic aqueous metal waste solutions resulting from the bismuth phosphate carrier precipitation of plutonium from solutions of neutron irradiated uranium is described. The waste solutions consist of phosphoric acid, sulfuric acid, and uranium as a uranyl salt, together with salts of the fission products normally associated with neutron irradiated uranium. Generally, the process of the invention involves the partial neutralization of the waste solution with sodium hydroxide, followed by conversion of the solution to a pH 11 by mixing therewith sufficient sodium carbonate. The resultant carbonate-complexed waste is contacted with a titanated silica gel and the adsorbent separated from the aqueous medium. The aqueous solution is then mixed with sufficient acetic acid to bring the pH of the aqueous medium to between 4 and 5, whereby sodium uranyl acetate is precipitated. The precipitate is dissolved in nitric acid and the resulting solution preferably provided with salting out agents. Uranyl nitrate is recovered from the solution by extraction with an ether such as diethyl ether.

  3. SURFACTANT BASED ENHANCED OIL RECOVERY AND FOAM MOBILITY CONTROL

    SciTech Connect

    George J. Hirasaki; Clarence A. Miller; Gary A. Pope; Richard E. Jackson

    2004-07-01

    Surfactant flooding has the potential to significantly increase recovery over that of conventional waterflooding. The availability of a large number of surfactants makes it possible to conduct a systematic study of the relation between surfactant structure and its efficacy for oil recovery. Also, the addition of an alkali such as sodium carbonate makes possible in situ generation of surfactant and significant reduction of surfactant adsorption. In addition to reduction of interfacial tension to ultra-low values, surfactants and alkali can be designed to alter wettability to enhance oil recovery. An alkaline surfactant process is designed to enhance spontaneous imbibition in fractured, oil-wet, carbonate formations. It is able to recover oil from dolomite core samples from which there was no oil recovery when placed in formation brine. Mobility control is essential for surfactant EOR. Foam is evaluted to improve the sweep efficiency of surfactant injected into fractured reservoirs. UTCHEM is a reservoir simulator specially designed for surfactant EOR. A dual-porosity version is demonstrated as a potential scale-up tool for fractured reservoirs.

  4. CT imaging of enhanced oil recovery experiments

    SciTech Connect

    Gall, B.L.

    1992-12-01

    X-ray computerized tomography (Cr) has been used to study fluid distributions during chemical enhanced oil recovery experiments. Four CT-monitored corefloods were conducted, and oil saturation distributions were calculated at various stages of the experiments. Results suggested that this technique could add significant information toward interpretation and evaluation of surfactant/polymer EOR recovery methods. CT-monitored tracer tests provided information about flow properties in the core samples. Nonuniform fluid advance could be observed, even in core that appeared uniform by visual inspection. Porosity distribution maps based on CT density calculations also showed the presence of different porosity layers that affected fluid movement through the cores. Several types of CT-monitored corefloods were conducted. Comparisons were made for CT-monitored corefloods using chemical systems that were highly successful in reducing residual oil saturations in laboratory experiments and less successful systems. Changes were made in surfactant formulation and in concentration of the mobility control polymer. Use of a poor mobility control agent failed to move oil that was not initially displaced by the injected surfactant solution; even when a good'' surfactant system was used. Use of a less favorable surfactant system with adequate mobility control could produce as much oil as the use of a good surfactant system with inadequate mobility control. The role of mobility control, therefore, becomes a critical parameter for successful application of chemical EOR. Continuation of efforts to use CT imaging in connection with chemical EOR evaluations is recommended.

  5. CT imaging of enhanced oil recovery experiments

    SciTech Connect

    Gall, B.L.

    1992-12-01

    X-ray computerized tomography (Cr) has been used to study fluid distributions during chemical enhanced oil recovery experiments. Four CT-monitored corefloods were conducted, and oil saturation distributions were calculated at various stages of the experiments. Results suggested that this technique could add significant information toward interpretation and evaluation of surfactant/polymer EOR recovery methods. CT-monitored tracer tests provided information about flow properties in the core samples. Nonuniform fluid advance could be observed, even in core that appeared uniform by visual inspection. Porosity distribution maps based on CT density calculations also showed the presence of different porosity layers that affected fluid movement through the cores. Several types of CT-monitored corefloods were conducted. Comparisons were made for CT-monitored corefloods using chemical systems that were highly successful in reducing residual oil saturations in laboratory experiments and less successful systems. Changes were made in surfactant formulation and in concentration of the mobility control polymer. Use of a poor mobility control agent failed to move oil that was not initially displaced by the injected surfactant solution; even when a ``good`` surfactant system was used. Use of a less favorable surfactant system with adequate mobility control could produce as much oil as the use of a good surfactant system with inadequate mobility control. The role of mobility control, therefore, becomes a critical parameter for successful application of chemical EOR. Continuation of efforts to use CT imaging in connection with chemical EOR evaluations is recommended.

  6. HEAVY AND THERMAL OIL RECOVERY PRODUCTION MECHANISMS

    SciTech Connect

    Anthony R. Kovscek

    2003-01-01

    This technical progress report describes work performed from October 1 through December 31, 2002 , for the project ''Heavy and Thermal Oil Recovery Production Mechanisms.'' In this project, a broad spectrum of research is undertaken related to thermal and heavy-oil recovery. The research tools and techniques used are varied and span from pore-level imaging of multiphase fluid flow to definition of reservoir-scale features through streamline-based history-matching techniques. During this period, experimental data regarding multidimensional imbibition was analyzed to obtain shape factors appropriate for dual-porosity simulation. It is shown that the usual assumption of constant, time-independent shape factors is incorrect. In other work, we continued to study the mechanisms by which oil is produced from fractured media at high pressure and high temperature. High temperature significantly increased the apparent wettability and affected water relative permeability of cores used in previous experiments. A phenomenological and mechanistic cause for this behavior is sought. Our work in the area of primary production of heavy oil continues with field cores and crude oil. On the topic of reservoir definition, work continued on developing techniques that integrate production history into reservoir models using streamline-based properties.

  7. An evaluation of known remaining oil resources in the United States. Appendix, Project on Advanced Oil Recovery and the States

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-10-01

    This volume contains appendices for the following: Overview of improved oil recovery methods (enhanced oil recovery methods and advanced secondary recovery methods); Benefits of improved oil recovery, selected data for the analyzed states; and List of TORIS fields and reservoirs.

  8. Feasibility study of enhanced oil recovery in six oil fields of Colombia. Export trade information (Final)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1986-09-01

    The study was prepared for the Empresa Colombiana de Petroleos by Scientific Software-Intercomp, Inc. The primary objectives of the study were to determine which of the reservoirs in the principal fields were amenable to enhanced oil recovery (EOR) processes, to evaluate which process was the most effective from both a technical and economic point of view, and to propose the steps required to further investigate the recommended EOR methods at the laboratory and field (pilot) level. The Final Report (Volume 1) is divided into the following sections (along with summary, conclusions, recommendations, tables and figures): (1) Data Gathering and Review; (2) Enhanced Oil Recovery Reservoir Screening; (3) Laboratory and Field Coordination; (4) Rescreening of Selected Reservoirs; and (5) Enhanced Oil Recovery Pilots.

  9. Heavily Oiled Salt Marsh following the Deepwater Horizon Oil Spill, Ecological Comparisons of Shoreline Cleanup Treatments and Recovery

    PubMed Central

    Zengel, Scott; Bernik, Brittany M.; Rutherford, Nicolle; Nixon, Zachary; Michel, Jacqueline

    2015-01-01

    The Deepwater Horizon oil spill affected hundreds of kilometers of coastal wetland shorelines, including salt marshes with persistent heavy oiling that required intensive shoreline “cleanup” treatment. Oiled marsh treatment involves a delicate balance among: removing oil, speeding the degradation of remaining oil, protecting wildlife, fostering habitat recovery, and not causing further ecological damage with treatment. To examine the effectiveness and ecological effects of treatment during the emergency response, oiling characteristics and ecological parameters were compared over two years among heavily oiled test plots subject to: manual treatment, mechanical treatment, natural recovery (no treatment, oiled control), as well as adjacent reference conditions. An additional experiment compared areas with and without vegetation planting following treatment. Negative effects of persistent heavy oiling on marsh vegetation, intertidal invertebrates, and shoreline erosion were observed. In areas without treatment, oiling conditions and negative effects for most marsh parameters did not considerably improve over two years. Both manual and mechanical treatment were effective at improving oiling conditions and vegetation characteristics, beginning the recovery process, though recovery was not complete by two years. Mechanical treatment had additional negative effects of mixing oil into the marsh soils and further accelerating erosion. Manual treatment appeared to strike the right balance between improving oiling and habitat conditions while not causing additional detrimental effects. However, even with these improvements, marsh periwinkle snails showed minimal signs of recovery through two years, suggesting that some ecosystem components may lag vegetation recovery. Planting following treatment quickened vegetation recovery and reduced shoreline erosion. Faced with comparable marsh oiling in the future, we would recommend manual treatment followed by planting. We

  10. Heavily Oiled Salt Marsh following the Deepwater Horizon Oil Spill, Ecological Comparisons of Shoreline Cleanup Treatments and Recovery.

    PubMed

    Zengel, Scott; Bernik, Brittany M; Rutherford, Nicolle; Nixon, Zachary; Michel, Jacqueline

    2015-01-01

    The Deepwater Horizon oil spill affected hundreds of kilometers of coastal wetland shorelines, including salt marshes with persistent heavy oiling that required intensive shoreline "cleanup" treatment. Oiled marsh treatment involves a delicate balance among: removing oil, speeding the degradation of remaining oil, protecting wildlife, fostering habitat recovery, and not causing further ecological damage with treatment. To examine the effectiveness and ecological effects of treatment during the emergency response, oiling characteristics and ecological parameters were compared over two years among heavily oiled test plots subject to: manual treatment, mechanical treatment, natural recovery (no treatment, oiled control), as well as adjacent reference conditions. An additional experiment compared areas with and without vegetation planting following treatment. Negative effects of persistent heavy oiling on marsh vegetation, intertidal invertebrates, and shoreline erosion were observed. In areas without treatment, oiling conditions and negative effects for most marsh parameters did not considerably improve over two years. Both manual and mechanical treatment were effective at improving oiling conditions and vegetation characteristics, beginning the recovery process, though recovery was not complete by two years. Mechanical treatment had additional negative effects of mixing oil into the marsh soils and further accelerating erosion. Manual treatment appeared to strike the right balance between improving oiling and habitat conditions while not causing additional detrimental effects. However, even with these improvements, marsh periwinkle snails showed minimal signs of recovery through two years, suggesting that some ecosystem components may lag vegetation recovery. Planting following treatment quickened vegetation recovery and reduced shoreline erosion. Faced with comparable marsh oiling in the future, we would recommend manual treatment followed by planting. We caution

  11. SURFACTANT - POLYMER INTERACTION FOR IMPROVED OIL RECOVERY

    SciTech Connect

    Unknown

    1998-10-01

    The goal of this research is to use the interaction between a surfactant and a polymer for efficient displacement of tertiary oil by improving slug integrity, adsorption and mobility control. Surfactant--polymer flooding has been shown to be highly effective in laboratory-scale linear floods. The focus of this proposal is to design an inexpensive surfactant-polymer mixture that can efficiently recover tertiary oil by avoiding surfactant slug degradation high adsorption and viscous/heterogeneity fingering. A mixture comprising a ''pseudo oil'' with appropriate surfactant and polymer has been selected to study micellar-polymer chemical flooding. The physical properties and phase behavior of this system have been determined. A surfactant-polymer slug has been designed to achieve high efficiency recovery by improving phase behavior and mobility control. Recovery experiments have been performed on linear cores and a quarter 5-spot. The same recovery experiments have been simulated using a commercially available simulator (UTCHEM). Good agreement between experimental data and simulation results has been achieved.

  12. An integrated process for the recovery of high added-value compounds from olive oil using solid support free liquid-liquid extraction and chromatography techniques.

    PubMed

    Angelis, Apostolis; Hamzaoui, Mahmoud; Aligiannis, Nektarios; Nikou, Theodora; Michailidis, Dimitris; Gerolimatos, Panagiotis; Termentzi, Aikaterini; Hubert, Jane; Halabalaki, Maria; Renault, Jean-Hugues; Skaltsounis, Alexios-Léandros

    2017-03-31

    An integrated extraction and purification process for the direct recovery of high added value compounds from extra virgin olive oil (EVOO) is proposed by using solid support free liquid-liquid extraction and chromatography techniques. Two different extraction methods were developed on a laboratory-scale Centrifugal Partition Extractor (CPE): a sequential strategy consisting of several "extraction-recovery" cycles and a continuous strategy based on stationary phase co-current elution. In both cases, EVOO was used as mobile phase diluted in food grade n-hexane (feed mobile phase) and the required biphasic system was obtained by adding ethanol and water as polar solvents. For the sequential process, 17.5L of feed EVOO containing organic phase (i.e. 7L of EVOO treated) were extracted yielding 9.5g of total phenolic fraction corresponding to a productivity of 5.8g/h/L of CPE column. Regarding the second approach, the co-current process, 2L of the feed oil phase (containing to 0.8L of EVOO) were treated at 100mL/min yielding 1.03g of total phenolic fraction corresponding to a productivity of 8.9g/h/L of CPE column. The total phenolic fraction was then fractionated by using stepwise gradient elution Centrifugal Partition Chromatography (CPC). The biphasic solvent systems were composed of n-hexane, ethyl acetate, ethanol and water in different proportions (X/Y/2/3, v/v). In a single run of 4h on a column with a capacity of 1L, 910mg of oleocanthal, 882mg of oleacein, 104mg of hydroxytyrosol were successfully recovered from 5g of phenolic extract with purities of 85%, 92% and 90%, respectively. CPC fractions were then submitted to orthogonal chromatographic steps (adsorption on silica gel or size exclusion chromatography) leading to the isolation of additional eleven compounds belonging to triterpens, phenolic compounds and secoiridoids. Among them, elenolic acid ethylester was found to be new compound. Thin Layer Chromatography (TLC), Nuclear magnetic Resonance (NMR) and

  13. Enhanced Oil Recovery: Aqueous Flow Tracer Measurement

    SciTech Connect

    Joseph Rovani; John Schabron

    2009-02-01

    A low detection limit analytical method was developed to measure a suite of benzoic acid and fluorinated benzoic acid compounds intended for use as tracers for enhanced oil recovery operations. Although the new high performance liquid chromatography separation successfully measured the tracers in an aqueous matrix at low part per billion levels, the low detection limits could not be achieved in oil field water due to interference problems with the hydrocarbon-saturated water using the system's UV detector. Commercial instrument vendors were contacted in an effort to determine if mass spectrometry could be used as an alternate detection technique. The results of their work demonstrate that low part per billion analysis of the tracer compounds in oil field water could be achieved using ultra performance liquid chromatography mass spectrometry.

  14. Annual production report: enhanced oil recovery

    SciTech Connect

    Leonard, J.

    1984-04-02

    Results of the 1984 Oil Gas J. enhanced oil recovery survey reveal a large increase over totals of the 1982 survey in both barrels per day of total production and total number of active projects. EOR now represents over 5.3% of total U.S. daily oil production. Active U.S. projects reported a productive capacity of 461,000 bpd attributable to enhanced oil recovery methods (thermal, chemical, gas) which equates to an increase of 23% over the 1982 survey. The number of active U.S. projects in the survey totals 373 and represents an increase of 36%. Steam injection now accounts for 77.7% of total domestic EOR with 358,000 bpd. Chemical projects are up 62% and chemical EOR production has leaped an impressive 204% to 13,400 bpd. Gas projects (miscible and immiscible) have increased 68%, but gas EOR production has increased only 15.4%, to 83,000 bpd. Tables of data present these trends and conclusions.

  15. Aqueous flooding methods for tertiary oil recovery

    SciTech Connect

    Peru, D.A.

    1989-04-04

    A method is described for flooding of a subterranean petroleum bearing formation for tertiary oil recovery, comprising the steps of providing at least one production well having at least one inlet within the subterranean petroleum bearing formation, and at least one injection well having at least one outlet within the subterranean petroleum bearing formation, injecting into the petroleum bearing formation through the injection well, a low alkaline pH aqueous sodium bicarbonate flooding solution having a pH in the range of from about 8.25 to about 9.25 comprising from about 0.25 to about 5 weight percent of sodium bicarbonate, from about 0.05 to about 1.0 weight percent of petroleum recovery surfactant, and from about 1 to about 20 weight percent of sodium chloride, based on the total weight of the aqueous flooding solution, withdrawing through at least one inlet of the production wells, an oil and water mixture comprising petroleum from the subterranean petroleum bearing formation and at least a portion of the low alkaline pH sodium bicarbonate aqueous flooding solution, and separating the oil from the aqueous oil and water mixture.

  16. Combined heating and chemical treatment for oil recovery from aging crude oil.

    PubMed

    Hou, Chunjuan; Jiang, Qingzhe; Song, Zhaozheng; Tan, Guorong; Shi, Zhan

    2016-07-01

    With increasing use of chemical oil displacement agents in tertiary recovery and the application of various demulsifiers for crude oil dehydration, a large amount of aging crude oil containing a high ratio of water is produced, and it is very difficult for processing and utilisation. In this article, we chose aging crude oil samples from a union station in an oilfield in China. Sample composition was analysed to demonstrate that the key of aging crude oil dehydration is the removal of solid impurities. Thus, an efficient method of combining heating and chemical treatments was developed to treat aging crude oil. It includes two steps: The first step is washing of aging crude oil with hot water with sodium dodecylbenzene sulfonate; the second step is chemical demulsification of the above mixture with hydrochloric acid and sodium chloride solution. The result showed that 2.9% of solid impurities and 29.2% of water were removed in the first step; 27.2% of oil, 24.3% of water, and 3.47% of solid impurities in the aging crude oil were recycled in the second step. A total 87.07% of aging crude oil could be solved with this method. The present two-step treatment method can ensure that the dehydration process runs normally and efficiently in the union station, making it a promising method in the recycling of aging crude oil.

  17. High-Temperature Nuclear Reactors for In-Situ Recovery of Oil from Oil Shale

    SciTech Connect

    Forsberg, Charles W.

    2006-07-01

    The world is exhausting its supply of crude oil for the production of liquid fuels (gasoline, jet fuel, and diesel). However, the United States has sufficient oil shale deposits to meet our current oil demands for {approx}100 years. Shell Oil Corporation is developing a new potentially cost-effective in-situ process for oil recovery that involves drilling wells into oil shale, using electric heaters to raise the bulk temperature of the oil shale deposit to {approx}370 deg C to initiate chemical reactions that produce light crude oil, and then pumping the oil to the surface. The primary production cost is the cost of high-temperature electrical heating. Because of the low thermal conductivity of oil shale, high-temperature heat is required at the heater wells to obtain the required medium temperatures in the bulk oil shale within an economically practical two to three years. It is proposed to use high-temperature nuclear reactors to provide high-temperature heat to replace the electricity and avoid the factor-of-2 loss in converting high-temperature heat to electricity that is then used to heat oil shale. Nuclear heat is potentially viable because many oil shale deposits are thick (200 to 700 m) and can yield up to 2.5 million barrels of oil per acre, or about 125 million dollars/acre of oil at $50/barrel. The concentrated characteristics of oil-shale deposits make it practical to transfer high-temperature heat over limited distances from a reactor to the oil shale deposits. (author)

  18. Tall oil as additive in gas drive hydrocarbon oil recovery

    SciTech Connect

    Djabbarah, N.F.

    1988-04-12

    A miscible displacement process for recovering oil from a subterranean, oil-containing formation penetrated by at least one injection well and at least one spaced-apart production well and having fluid communication between the injection and the production wells is described comprising: (a) injecting a slug of til oil into the formation through the injection well; (b) injecting a slug of a displacing fluid into the formation through the injection well, the displacing fluid being selected from the group consisting of carbon monoxide, carbon dioxide, methane, nitrogen, air, flue gas, combustion gas and mixtures thereof, the injection of the tall oil lowering the minimum miscibility pressure of the displacing fluid in the formation oil; and (c) recovering the oil through the production well.

  19. Oil recovery performances of surfactant solutions by capillary imbibition.

    PubMed

    Babadagli, Tayfun; Boluk, Yaman

    2005-02-01

    Critical parameters playing a role in oil recovery by capillary imbibition of surfactant solutions were studied. Experiments conducted on sandstone and carbonate samples using different oil and surfactant types were evaluated for surfactant selection. In this evaluation interfacial tension (IFT), surfactant type, solubility characteristics of surfactants, rock type, initial water (pre-wet rock), and surfactant concentration were considered. In addition to these, a new technique was adopted to facilitate the surfactant screening process. This technique is based on assigning inorganic and organic property values and plotting organic conception diagrams (OCD) for surfactants. OCD defines the property of a compound in terms of physical chemistry in such a way that the property that depends much on the van der Waals force is called "organic" and the one that depends much on electric affinity is called "inorganic." Correlations between the capillary imbibition recovery performance and the properties of surfactant and oil (organic value (OV), inorganic value (IV), and IFT of surfactant solutions, oil viscosity, and surfactant type) were obtained. These correlations are expected to be useful in selecting the proper surfactant for improved oil recovery as well as identifying the effects of surfactant properties on the capillary imbibition performance.

  20. URANIUM RECOVERY PROCESS

    DOEpatents

    Stevenson, J.W.; Werkema, R.G.

    1959-07-28

    The recovery of uranium from magnesium fluoride slag obtained as a by- product in the production of uranium metal by the bomb reduction prccess is presented. Generally the recovery is accomplished by finely grinding the slag, roasting ihe ground slag air, and leaching the roasted slag with a hot, aqueous solution containing an excess of the sodium bicarbonate stoichiometrically required to form soluble uranium carbonate complex. The roasting is preferably carried out at between 425 and 485 deg C for about three hours. The leaching is preferably done at 70 to 90 deg C and under pressure. After leaching and filtration the uranium may be recovered from the clear leach liquor by any desired method.

  1. Chemical systems for improved oil recovery: Phase behavior, oil recovery, and mobility control studies

    SciTech Connect

    Llave, F.; Gall, B.; Gao, H., Scott, L., Cook, I.

    1995-09-01

    Selected surfactant systems containing a series of ethoxylated nonionic surfactants in combination with an anionic surfactant system have been studied to evaluate phase behavior as well as oil recovery potential. These experiments were conducted to evaluate possible improved phase behavior and overall oil recovery potential of mixed surfactant systems over a broad range of conditions. Both polyacrylamide polymers and Xanthan biopolymers were evaluated. Studies were initiated to use a chemical flooding simulation program, UTCHEM, to simulate oil recovery for laboratory and field applications and evaluate its use to simulate oil saturation distributions obtained in CT-monitoring of oil recovery experiments. The phase behavior studies focused on evaluating the effect of anionic-nonionic surfactant proportion on overall phase behavior. Two distinct transition behaviors were observed, depending on the dominant surfactant in the overall system. The first type of transition corresponded to more conventional behavior attributed to nonionic-dominant surfactant systems. This behavior is manifested by an oil-water-surfactant system that inverts from a water-external (highly conducting) microemulsion to an oil-external (nonconducting) one, as a function of temperature. The latter type which inverts in an opposite manner can be attributed to the separation of the anionic-nonionic mixtures into water- and oil-soluble surfactants. Both types of transition behavior can still be used to identify relative proximity to optimal areas. Determining these transition ranges provided more insight on how the behavior of these surfactant mixtures was affected by altering component proportions. Efforts to optimize the chemical system for oil displacement experiments were also undertaken. Phase behavior studies with systems formulated with biopolymer in solution were conducted.

  2. URANIUM RECOVERY PROCESS

    DOEpatents

    Bailes, R.H.; Long, R.S.; Olson, R.S.; Kerlinger, H.O.

    1959-02-10

    A method is described for recovering uranium values from uranium bearing phosphate solutions such as are encountered in the manufacture of phosphate fertilizers. The solution is first treated with a reducing agent to obtain all the uranium in the tetravalent state. Following this reduction, the solution is treated to co-precipitate the rcduced uranium as a fluoride, together with other insoluble fluorides, thereby accomplishing a substantially complete recovery of even trace amounts of uranium from the phosphate solution. This precipitate usually takes the form of a complex fluoride precipitate, and after appropriate pre-treatment, the uranium fluorides are leached from this precipitate and rccovered from the leach solution.

  3. Occidental vertical modified in situ process for the recovery of oil from oil shale. Phase II. Quarterly progress report, September 1, 1980-November 30, 1980

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1981-01-01

    The major activities at OOSI's Logan Wash site during the quarter were: mining the voids at all levels for Retorts 7 and 8; blasthole drilling; tracer testing MR4; conducting the start-up and burner tests on MR3; continuing the surface facility construction; and conducting Retorts 7 and 8 related Rock Fragmentation tests. Environmental monitoring continued during the quarter, and the data and analyses are discussed. Sandia National Laboratory and Laramie Energy Technology Center (LETC) personnel were active in the DOE support of the MR3 burner and start-up tests. In the last section of this report the final oil inventory for Retort 6 production is detailed. The total oil produced by Retort 6 was 55,696 barrels.

  4. Study of hydrocarbon miscible solvent slug injection process for improved recovery of heavy oil from Schrader Bluff Pool, Milne Point Unit, Alaska. [Quarterly] report, January 1, 1993--March 31, 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Sharma, G.D.

    1993-06-01

    The ultimate objective of this three-year research project is to evaluate the performance of the hydrocarbon miscible solvent slug process and to assess the feasibility of this process for improving recovery of heavy oil from Schrader Bluff reservoir. This will be accomplished through measurement of PVT and fluid properties of Schrader Bluff oil, determination of phase behavior of Schrader Bluff oil solvent mixtures, asphaltene precipitation tests, slim tube displacement tests, core flood experiments and reservoir simulation studies. The expected results from this project include: determination of optimum hydrocarbon solvent composition suitable for hydrocarbon miscible solvent slug displacement process, optimum slug sizes of solvent needed, solvent recovery factor, solvent requirements, extent and timing of solvent recycle, displacement and sweep efficiency to be achieved and oil recovery. Work performed during quarter includes preliminary reservoir fluid characterization and multiple contact test runs using equation-of-state (EOS) simulator. Reservoir fluid samples are being acquired from Conoco Inc., and the process is expected to continue through the next quarter. Also, the experimental apparatus for the displacement study was set up.

  5. Oil recovery; Technology that tames large spills

    SciTech Connect

    Valenti, M.

    1991-05-01

    This paper reports that the threat of oil spills is growing with the increasing use of larger tankers, the expansion of offshore oil exploration, and-as was demonstrated recently in the Persian Gulf-the dangers of war and terrorism. Aware of the environmental havoc that massive spills can cause, engineers are working hard to devise effective methods of scooping oil from the water's surface and cleaning contaminated shorelines. Techniques are being developed, which combine mechanical, chemical, and biological processes to contain spills.

  6. Enhanced oil recovery and applied geoscience research program

    SciTech Connect

    Thomas, C.P.

    1992-01-01

    The objectives of this research program are to develop microbial enhanced oil recovery (MEOR) systems for application to reservoirs containing medium to heavy oils and to evaluate reservoir wettability and its effects on oil recovery. The MEOR research goals include: (a) the development of bacterial cultures that are effective for oil displacement under a broad range of reservoir conditions; (b) improved understanding of the mechanisms by which microbial systems displace oil under reservoir conditions; (c) determination of the feasibility of combining microbial systems with or following conventional enhanced oil recovery (EOR) processes, such as miscible and immiscible gas flooding, polymer and chemical flooding, and thermal methods; (d) development of an MEOR field process design; and (e) implementation of an industry cost-shared field demonstration project. The goals of the reservoir wettability project are to develop: (a) a better methods for assessment of reservoir core wettability, (b) more certainty in relating laboratory core analysis procedures to fields conditions; (c) a better understanding of the effects of reservoir matrix properties and heterogeneity on wettability, and (d) improved ability to predict and influence EOR response through control of wettability in reservoirs. The focus of this report is a comparative analysis of potentially useful surfactants produced by Bacillus licheniformis and Bacillus subtilis growing on various sources of carbohydrates. Historically, molasses has been the feedstock of choice for the in situ production of biosurfactants. We propose utilizing alternative carbon substrates (i.e., processing wastes from the agricultural industry) as replacements for molasses. These wastes are currently disposed of at a cost and may be employed as viable feedstocks for the production of biosurfactants.

  7. Integrated palm oil processing

    SciTech Connect

    Compere, A.L.; Googin, J.M.; Griffith, W.L.

    1983-12-01

    Tree palms are a promising source of fuel extenders and substitutes. They are perennials which bear oil for a period of two to three decades after a roughly four year preliminary growth period. Because palms are an important crop in many areas of Asia, Africa, and South America, considerable attention has been given to palm genetic improvement, with the result that tree palms are one of the most efficient energy crops, providing much better solar energy capture than, for example, sugar cane and cassava. Tree palms are particularly attractive in areas where more conventional farming would pose a significant threat of laterization or cause major ecological problems. Technology for palm oil production, including harvest, tree management, and oil pressing are generally suited to village or plantation use, and, for the most part, have been directed toward supplying process energy through the combustion of process waste products, such as palm fruit residue and palm bunch fibers.

  8. Uncertainty Quantification for CO2-Enhanced Oil Recovery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dai, Z.; Middleton, R.; Bauman, J.; Viswanathan, H.; Fessenden-Rahn, J.; Pawar, R.; Lee, S.

    2013-12-01

    CO2-Enhanced Oil Recovery (EOR) is currently an option for permanently sequestering CO2 in oil reservoirs while increasing oil/gas productions economically. In this study we have developed a framework for understanding CO2 storage potential within an EOR-sequestration environment at the Farnsworth Unit of the Anadarko Basin in northern Texas. By coupling a EOR tool--SENSOR (CEI, 2011) with a uncertainty quantification tool PSUADE (Tong, 2011), we conduct an integrated Monte Carlo simulation of water, oil/gas components and CO2 flow and reactive transport in the heterogeneous Morrow formation to identify the key controlling processes and optimal parameters for CO2 sequestration and EOR. A global sensitivity and response surface analysis are conducted with PSUADE to build numerically the relationship among CO2 injectivity, oil/gas production, reservoir parameters and distance between injection and production wells. The results indicate that the reservoir permeability and porosity are the key parameters to control the CO2 injection, oil and gas (CH4) recovery rates. The distance between the injection and production wells has large impact on oil and gas recovery and net CO2 injection rates. The CO2 injectivity increases with the increasing reservoir permeability and porosity. The distance between injection and production wells is the key parameter for designing an EOR pattern (such as a five (or nine)-spot pattern). The optimal distance for a five-spot-pattern EOR in this site is estimated from the response surface analysis to be around 400 meters. Next, we are building the machinery into our risk assessment framework CO2-PENS to utilize these response surfaces and evaluate the operation risk for CO2 sequestration and EOR at this site.

  9. Recovery of transuranics from process residues

    SciTech Connect

    Gray, J.H.; Gray, L.W.

    1987-01-01

    Process residues are generated at both the Rocky Flats Plant (RFP) and the Savannah River Plant (SRP) during aqueous chemical and pyrochemical operations. Frequently, process operations will result in either impure products or produce residues sufficiently contaminated with transuranics to be nondiscardable as waste. Purification and recovery flowsheets for process residues have been developed to generate solutions compatible with subsequent Purex operations and either solid or liquid waste suitable for disposal. The ''scrub alloy'' and the ''anode heel alloy'' are examples of materials generated at RFP which have been processed at SRP using the developed recovery flowsheets. Examples of process residues being generated at SRP for which flowsheets are under development include LECO crucibles and alpha-contaminated hydraulic oil.

  10. Microbial enhancement of oil recovery: Recent advances. Proceedings

    SciTech Connect

    Premuzic, E.T.; Woodhead, A.D.; Vivirito, K.J.

    1992-12-31

    During recent years, systematic, scientific, and engineering effort by researchers in the United States and abroad, has established the scientific basis for Microbial Enhanced Oil Recovery (MEOR) technology. The successful application of MEOR technology as an oil recovery process is a goal of the Department of Energy (DOE). Research efforts involving aspects of MEOR in the microbiological, biochemical, and engineering fields led DOE to sponsor an International Conference at Brookhaven National Laboratory in 1992, to facilitate the exchange of information and a discussion of ideas for the future research emphasis. At this, the Fourth International MEOR Conference, where international attendees from 12 countries presented a total of 35 papers, participants saw an equal distribution between ``research`` and ``field applications.`` In addition, several modeling and ``state-of-the-art`` presentations summed up the present status of MEOR science and engineering. Individual papers in this proceedings have been process separately for inclusion in the Energy Science and Technology Database.

  11. Sonochemical approaches to enhanced oil recovery.

    PubMed

    Abramov, Vladimir O; Abramova, Anna V; Bayazitov, Vadim M; Altunina, Lyubov K; Gerasin, Artyom S; Pashin, Dmitriy M; Mason, Timothy J

    2015-07-01

    Oil production from wells reduces with time and the well becomes uneconomic unless enhanced oil recovery (EOR) methods are applied. There are a number of methods currently available and each has specific advantages and disadvantages depending on conditions. Currently there is a big demand for new or improved technologies in this field, the hope is that these might also be applicable to wells which have already been the subject of EOR. The sonochemical method of EOR is one of the most promising methods and is important in that it can also be applied for the treatment of horizontal wells. The present article reports the theoretical background of the developed sonochemical technology for EOR in horizontal wells; describes the requirements to the equipment needed to embody the technology. The results of the first field tests of the technology are reported. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Mixed surfactant systems for enhanced oil recovery

    SciTech Connect

    Llave, F.M.; Gall, B.L.; Noll, L.A.

    1990-12-01

    The results of an evaluation of mixed surfactant systems for enhanced oil recovery are described. Several surfactant combinations have been studied. These include alkyl aryl sulfonates as primary surfactants and carboxymethylated ethoxylated (CME) surfactants and ethoxylated sulfonates (ES) as secondary surfactants. The ethoxylated surfactants increase the salinity tolerance of the primary surfactants and, in theory, allow tailoring of the surfactant system to match selected reservoir conditions. The experiments conducted included interfacial tension (IFT) measurements, phase behavior measurements, adsorption and/or chromatographic separation of mixed surfactant systems, measurements of solution properties such as the critical micelle concentration (CMC) of surfactant mixtures, and crude oil displacement experiments. The effects of temperature, surfactant concentration, salinity, presence of divalent ions, hydrocarbon type, and component proportions in the mixed surfactant combinations, and injection strategies on the performance potential of the targeted surfactant/hydrocarbon systems were studied. 40 refs., 37 figs., 8 tabs.

  13. Carbon dioxide enhanced oil recovery performance according to the literature

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Olea, Ricardo A.

    2017-07-17

    IntroductionThe need to increase the efficiency of oil recovery and environmental concerns are bringing to prominence the use of carbon dioxide (CO2) as a tertiary recovery agent. Assessment of the impact of flooding with CO2 all eligible reservoirs in the United States not yet undergoing enhanced oil recovery (EOR) requires making the best possible use of the experience gained in 40 years of applications. Review of the publicly available literature has located relevant CO2-EOR information for 53 units (fields, reservoirs, pilot areas) in the United States and 17 abroad.As the world simultaneously faces an increasing concentration of CO2 in the atmosphere and a higher demand for fossil fuels, the CO2-EOR process continues to gain popularity for its efficiency as a tertiary recovery agent and for the potential for having some CO2 trapped in the subsurface as an unintended consequence of the enhanced production (Advanced Resources International and Melzer Consulting, 2009). More extensive application of CO2-EOR worldwide, however, is not making it significantly easier to predict the exact outcome of the CO2 flooding in new reservoirs. The standard approach to examine and manage risks is to analyze the intended target by conducting laboratory work, running simulation models, and, finally, gaining field experience with a pilot test. This approach, though, is not always possible. For example, assessment of the potential of CO2-EOR at the national level in a vast country such as the United States requires making forecasts based on information already available.Although many studies are proprietary, the published literature has provided reviews of CO2-EOR projects. Yet, there is always interest in updating reports and analyzing the information under new perspectives. Brock and Bryan (1989) described results obtained during the earlier days of CO2-EOR from 1972 to 1987. Most of the recovery predictions, however, were based on intended injections of 30 percent the size of

  14. Exploring Innovation Processes from a Complexity Perspective. Part II. Experiences from the Subsea Increased Oil Recovery Case

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aasen, Tone Merethe Berg; Johannessen, Stig

    2007-01-01

    In this second part of the papers, exploring innovation processes from a complexity perspective, we present an empirical example to strengthen further the relevance of the approach. The example draws on a longitudinal research initiative conducted in cooperation with the Norwegian petroleum company Statoil ASA. We conducted our research into the…

  15. Exploring Innovation Processes from a Complexity Perspective. Part II. Experiences from the Subsea Increased Oil Recovery Case

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aasen, Tone Merethe Berg; Johannessen, Stig

    2007-01-01

    In this second part of the papers, exploring innovation processes from a complexity perspective, we present an empirical example to strengthen further the relevance of the approach. The example draws on a longitudinal research initiative conducted in cooperation with the Norwegian petroleum company Statoil ASA. We conducted our research into the…

  16. Environmental regulations handbook for enhanced oil recovery

    SciTech Connect

    Madden, M.P. ); Blatchford, R.P.; Spears, R.B. )

    1991-12-01

    This handbook is intended to assist owners and operators of enhanced oil recovery (EOR) operations in acquiring some introductory knowledge of the various state agencies, the US Environmental Protection Agency, and the many environmental laws, rules and regulations which can have jurisdiction over their permitting and compliance activities. It is a compendium of summarizations of environmental rules. It is not intended to give readers specific working details of what is required from them, nor can it be used in that manner. Readers of this handbook are encouraged to contact environmental control offices nearest to locations of interest for current regulations affecting them.

  17. Retrofitting heavy oil processes

    SciTech Connect

    Hamilton, G.L.; Fitzgerald, M.; D'Amico, V.

    1986-01-01

    Refiners, faced with the need to process the bottom end of the heavy high sulfur crude oil barrel in today's uncertain economic environment, are reluctant to commit large amounts of money to expensive upgrading processes. In order to conserve scarce capital while improving operating margins, additional valuable products can be produced by retrofits such as conversion of an idle crude unit to visbreaking, delayed coking or deasphalting service, or conversion of hydrodesulfurizers to mild hydrocracking.

  18. Processes of recovering fatty acids and sterols from tall oil pitch

    SciTech Connect

    Hughes, R. E.

    1985-06-18

    An improved process of enhancing the recovery of fatty acids from tall oil pitch is disclosed. The process includes a hydrolysis step for increasing the free fatty acid available for recovery from tall oil pitch during the distillation process. The hydrolysis step also enables the recovery of sterols where the tall oil pitch is of the type which is rich in sterol esters.

  19. Enhanced oil recovery using electrical methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rehman, Muhammad Moshin

    Heavy Oil Recovery is gaining much popularity because of huge consumption of oil in the modern industry. Main concern in the extraction of heavy oil is its high viscosity. Heating heavy oil by different electrical means has come out to be a promising solution for viscosity reduction. This includes the low frequency resistive heating, induction heating and high frequency microwave heating or the dielectric heating. Application of low frequency resistive heating is limited by the requirement of brine (conducting fluid) inside the reservoir while Induction heating is only applicable in the presence of ferrous elements in the reservoir. High frequency microwave heating can be used effectively for enhancing the oil productivity. Ultrasonic stimulation is another technique capable of reducing the viscosity of heavy oil without employing the heating techniques. Although many models have been presented addressing microwave heating of heavy oil but, no model has been found in the literature addressing the design of microwave sources and the experimental verification of the results. Similarly some authors have also addressed the ultrasonic stimulation of heavy oil but no one has discussed the behavior of ultrasonic waves at different power level along with the experimental verification. This thesis presents complete mathematical modeling of microwave heating, with numerical solution by considering two-dimensional radial model. In addition, the design, positioning, and orientation of the array of microwave antennas have also been considered in numerical simulations while results of some of the cases are also verified experimentally. Similarly, the Thesis discusses the ultrasonic modeling with numerical solution and experimental verification at different power levels and positioning of the ultrasonic transducer. These models present the results in the form of temperature & pressure distribution and productivity enhancement. For numerical simulations, a Finite Element Analysis

  20. Hydrogen recovery process

    DOEpatents

    Baker, Richard W.; Lokhandwala, Kaaeid A.; He, Zhenjie; Pinnau, Ingo

    2000-01-01

    A treatment process for a hydrogen-containing off-gas stream from a refinery, petrochemical plant or the like. The process includes three separation steps: condensation, membrane separation and hydrocarbon fraction separation. The membrane separation step is characterized in that it is carried out under conditions at which the membrane exhibits a selectivity in favor of methane over hydrogen of at least about 2.5.

  1. Multicomponent Evaluation Test of Harbor Oil Spill Recovery System.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    current need exists within the Navy for a systematic evaluation of available oil spill recovery components individually and in combination as an oil...to fill this Navy need. The main emphasis of this program currently underway at NCEL is a comparative evaluation of oil spill containment booms...skimmers, and related equipment resulting in the recommendation of a harbor oil spill recovery system for Navy use.

  2. OPTICAL FIBER SENSOR TECHNOLOGIES FOR EFFICIENT AND ECONOMICAL OIL RECOVERY

    SciTech Connect

    Anbo Wang; Kristie L. Cooper; Gary R. Pickrell

    2003-06-01

    Efficient recovery of petroleum reserves from existing oil wells has been proven to be difficult due to the lack of robust instrumentation that can accurately and reliably monitor processes in the downhole environment. Commercially available sensors for measurement of pressure, temperature, and fluid flow exhibit shortened lifetimes in the harsh downhole conditions, which are characterized by high pressures (up to 20 kpsi), temperatures up to 250 C, and exposure to chemically reactive fluids. Development of robust sensors that deliver continuous, real-time data on reservoir performance and petroleum flow pathways will facilitate application of advanced recovery technologies, including horizontal and multilateral wells. This is the final report for the four-year program ''Optical Fiber Sensor Technologies for Efficient and Economical Oil Recovery'', funded by the National Petroleum Technology Office of the U.S. Department of Energy, and performed by the Center for Photonics Technology of the Bradley Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering at Virginia Tech from October 1, 1999 to March 31, 2003. The main objective of this research program was to develop cost-effective, reliable optical fiber sensor instrumentation for real-time monitoring of various key parameters crucial to efficient and economical oil production. During the program, optical fiber sensors were demonstrated for the measurement of temperature, pressure, flow, and acoustic waves, including three successful field tests in the Chevron/Texaco oil fields in Coalinga, California, and at the world-class oil flow simulation facilities in Tulsa, Oklahoma. Research efforts included the design and fabrication of sensor probes, development of signal processing algorithms, construction of test systems, development and testing of strategies for the protection of optical fibers and sensors in the downhole environment, development of remote monitoring capabilities allowing real-time monitoring of the field

  3. Prospects for enhanced oil recovery in the United States

    SciTech Connect

    Claridge, E.L.

    1982-08-01

    It appears that only one third of the crude oil discovered in the United States will be recovered by primary and secondary recovery methods. The application of tertiary recovery methods is not proceeding at a rate sufficient to prevent the abandonment of about 250 billion barrels at a rate of about 10 billion barrels per year, which has begun and will continue unless significant steps are taken, either to make tertiary recovery more immediately attractive or to ''moth-ball'' the oil fields and their leases and operating unit agreements until economic conditions are made more favorable. The current status and prospects of each major process are examined. The reasons why thermal recovery is the principal process at present, but is unable to expand much, why CO/sub 2/ flooding is about to begin on a large scale but not in many places where it would be applicable, and why chemical flooding has lost promise even though it is needed for most of the fields nearing abandonment, are discussed. It appears likely that no more than 15 billion barrels will be recovered by EOR processes by 2000 A.D.

  4. URANIUM RECOVERY PROCESS

    DOEpatents

    Yeager, J.H.

    1958-08-12

    In the prior art processing of uranium ores, the ore is flrst digested with nitric acid and filtered, and the uranium values are then extracted tom the filtrate by contacting with an organic solvent. The insoluble residue has been processed separately in order to recover any uranium which it might contain. The improvement consists in contacting a slurry, composed of both solution and residue, with the organic solvent prior to filtration. Tbe result is that uranium values contained in the residue are extracted along with the uranium values contained th the solution in one step.

  5. Actinide recovery process

    DOEpatents

    Muscatello, Anthony C.; Navratil, James D.; Saba, Mark T.

    1987-07-28

    Process for the removal of plutonium polymer and ionic actinides from aqueous solutions by absorption onto a solid extractant loaded on a solid inert support such as polystyrenedivinylbenzene. The absorbed actinides can then be recovered by incineration, by stripping with organic solvents, or by acid digestion. Preferred solid extractants are trioctylphosphine oxide and octylphenyl-N,N-diisobutylcarbamoylmethylphosphine oxide and the like.

  6. Ultrasound-assisted CO2 flooding to improve oil recovery.

    PubMed

    Hamidi, Hossein; Sharifi Haddad, Amin; Mohammadian, Erfan; Rafati, Roozbeh; Azdarpour, Amin; Ghahri, Panteha; Ombewa, Peter; Neuert, Tobias; Zink, Aaron

    2017-03-01

    CO2 flooding process as a common enhanced oil recovery method may suffer from interface instability due to fingering and gravity override, therefore, in this study a method to improve the performance of CO2 flooding through an integrated ultraosund-CO2 flooding process is presented. Ultrasonic waves can deliver energy from a generator to oil and affect its properties such as internal energy and viscosity. Thus, a series of CO2 flooding experiments in the presence of ultrasonic waves were performed for controlled and uncontrolled temperature conditions. Results indicate that oil recovery was improved by using ultrasound-assisted CO2 flooding compared to conventional CO2 flooding. However, the changes were more pronounced for uncontrolled temperature conditions of ultrasound-assisted CO2 flooding. It was found that ultrasonic waves create a more stable interface between displacing and displaced fluids that could be due to the reductions in viscosity, capillary pressure and interfacial tension. In addition, higher CO2 injection rates, increases the recovery factor in all the experiments which highlights the importance of injection rate as another factor on reduction of the fingering effects and improvement of the sweep efficiency.

  7. Actinide recovery process

    DOEpatents

    Muscatello, A.C.; Navratil, J.D.; Saba, M.T.

    1985-06-13

    Process for the removal of plutonium polymer and ionic actinides from aqueous solutions by absorption onto a solid extractant loaded on a solid inert support such as polystyrene-divinylbenzene. The absorbed actinides can then be recovered by incineration, by stripping with organic solvents, or by acid digestion. Preferred solid extractants are trioctylphosphine oxide and octylphenyl-N,N-diisobutylcarbamoylmethylphosphine oxide and the like. 2 tabs.

  8. Microbial enhanced oil recovery research. Annex 5, Summary annual report

    SciTech Connect

    Sharma, M.M.; Georgiou, G.

    1990-12-31

    The objective of this work is to develop an engineering framework for the exploitation of microorganisms to enhance oil recovery. Specific goals include: (1) investigation of the mechanisms of microbially induced oil mobilization; (2) the production, isolation, chemical characterization and study of the physical properties of microbially produced surfactants; (3) model studies in sandstone cores for the characterization of the interactions between growing microbially cultures and oil reservoirs; (4) development of simulators for MEOR; and (5) design of operational strategies for the sequential injection of microorganisms and nutrient in reservoirs are: (1) systematic discussion of the mechanisms important in MEOR processes; (2) Measurement of the growth characteristics of Bacillus Licheniformis under various conditions of pH, temperature and salt concentration for both aerobic and anaerobic growth.; (3) measurement of interfacial tension reducing ability of the biosurfactant under different conditions of pH and salt concentration; (4) development of some preliminary methods to concentrate and characterize the biosurfactant; (5) development of a compositional numerical simulator for MEOR processes; and (6) Measurement of the lowest interfacial tension (IFT) value reported for biosurfactants to date. Demonstration of the fact that the low IFT values required for oil recovery can be attained with biosurfactants.

  9. URANIUM RECOVERY PROCESS

    DOEpatents

    Kaufman, D.

    1958-04-15

    A process of recovering uranium from very low-grade ore residues is described. These low-grade uraniumcontaining hydroxide precipitates, which also contain hydrated silica and iron and aluminum hydroxides, are subjected to multiple leachings with aqueous solutions of sodium carbonate at a pH of at least 9. This leaching serves to selectively extract the uranium from the precipitate, but to leave the greater part of the silica, iron, and aluminum with the residue. The uranium is then separated from the leach liquor by the addition of an acid in sufficient amount to destroy the carbonate followed by the addition of ammonia to precipitate uranium as ammonium diuranate.

  10. METAL RECOVERY PROCESS

    DOEpatents

    Werner, L.B.; Hill, O.F.

    1957-12-01

    A process is presented for the separation of plutonium from the niobium oxide which is frequently used as a carrier precipitate to separate the plutonium from solutions of dissolved fuel elements. The niobium oxide, plutonium bearing precipitate is treated with hydrogen fluoride converting the niobium to the volatile pentafluoride, while the plutonium is changed into the substantially non- volatile plutonium tetrafluoride. After the niobium has been removed, the plutonium tetrafluoride is reacted with elemental fluorine, converting it to a higher plutonium fluoride and this may in turn be volitilized away from any residual impurities.

  11. Stillage processing for nutrient recovery

    SciTech Connect

    Sweeten, J.M.; Coble, C.G.; Egg, R.P.; Lawhon, J.T.; McBee, G.G.; Schelling, G.T.

    1983-06-01

    Stillage from fermentation of grain sorghum and sweet potatoes was processed for dry matter and nutrient recovery by combinations of screw press, vibrating screen, centrifugation, ultrafiltration, and reverse osmosis, yielding up to 98% dry matter removal. For most processes, protein removal equaled or exceeded dry matter removal.

  12. Mechanisms of microbial oil recovery by Clostridium acetobutylicum and Bacillus strain JF-2

    SciTech Connect

    Marsh, T.L.; Zhang, X.; Knapp, R.M.; McInerney, M.J.; Sharma, P.K.; Jackson, B.E.

    1995-12-31

    Core displacement experiments at elevated pressures were conducted to determine whether microbial processes are effective under conditions that simulate those found in an actual oil reservoir. The in-situ growth of Clostridium acetobutylicum and Bacillus strain JF-2 resulted in the recovery of residual oil. About 21 and 23% of the residual oil was recovered by C. acetobutylicum and Bacillus strain JF-2, respectively. Flooding cores with cell-free culture fluids of C. acetobutylicum with and without the addition of 50 mM acetone and 100 mM butanol did not result in the recovery of residual oil. Mathematical simulations showed that the amount of gas produced by the clostridial fermentation was not showed that the amount of gas produced by the clostridial fermentation was not sufficient to recover residual oil. Oil recovery by Bacillus strain JF-2 was highly correlated to surfactant production. A biosurfactant-deficient mutant of strain JF-2 was not capable of recovering residual oil. These data show that surfactant production is an important mechanism for microbially enhanced oil recovery. The mechanism for oil recovery by C. acetobutylicum is not understood at this time, but the production of acids, solvents, or gases alone cannot explain the observed increases in oil recovery by this organism.

  13. On the use of sodium lignosulphonate for enhanced oil recovery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Azis, M. M.; Rachmadi, H.; Wintoko, J.; Yuliansyah, A. T.; Hasokowati, W.; Purwono, S.; Rochmadi, W.; Murachman, B.

    2017-05-01

    There has been large interest to utilize oil reservoirs in Indonesia by using Enhanced Oil Recovery (EOR) processes. Injection of surfactant as a part of chemical injection technique in EOR is known to aid the mobility and reduction in surface tension. One potential surfactant for EOR application is Sodium Lignosulphonate (SLS) which can be made from various sources particularly empty fruit bunch of oil palm and black liquor from kraft pulp production. Here, we will discuss a number of methods for SLS production which includes lignin isolation techniques and sulphonation reaction. The use of SLS alone as EOR surfactant, however, is often not feasible as the Interfacial Tension (IFT) value of SLS is typically above the order of 10-3 dyne/cm which is mandated for EOR application. Hence, brief discussion on SLS formulation screening is provided which illustrates an extensive labwork experience during the SLS development in our lab.

  14. Heavy oil recovery process: Conceptual engineering of a downhole methanator and preliminary estimate of facilities cost for application to North Slope Alaska

    SciTech Connect

    Gondouin, M.

    1991-10-31

    The West Sak (Upper Cretaceous) sands, overlaying the Kuparuk field, would rank among the largest known oil fields in the US, but technical difficulties have so far prevented its commercial exploitation. Steam injection is the most successful and the most commonly-used method of heavy oil recovery, but its application to the West Sak presents major problems. Such difficulties may be overcome by using a novel approach, in which steam is generated downhole in a catalytic Methanator, from Syngas made at the surface from endothermic reactions (Table 1). The Methanator effluent, containing steam and soluble gases resulting from exothermic reactions (Table 1), is cyclically injected into the reservoir by means of a horizontal drainhole while hot produced fluids flow form a second drainhole into a central production tubing. The downhole reactor feed and BFW flow downward to two concentric tubings. The large-diameter casing required to house the downhole reactor assembly is filled above it with Arctic Pack mud, or crude oil, to further reduce heat leaks. A quantitative analysis of this production scheme for the West Sak required a preliminary engineering of the downhole and surface facilities and a tentative forecast of well production rates. The results, based on published information on the West Sak, have been used to estimate the cost of these facilities, per daily barrel of oil produced. A preliminary economic analysis and conclusions are presented together with an outline of future work. Economic and regulatory conditions which would make this approach viable are discussed. 28 figs.

  15. Heavy oil recovery process: Conceptual engineering of a downhole methanator and preliminary estimate of facilities cost for application to North Slope Alaska

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-01-01

    Results from Tasks 8 and 9 are presented. Task 8 addressed the cost of materials and manufacturing of the Downhole Methanator and the cost of drilling and completing the vertical cased well and two horizontal drain holes in the West Sak reservoir. Task 9 addressed the preliminary design of surface facilities to support the enhanced recovery of heavy oil. Auxiliary facilities include steam reformers for carbon dioxide-rich natural gas reforming, emergency electric generators, nitrogen gas generators, and an ammonia synthesis unit. The ammonia is needed to stabilize the swelling of clays in the reservoir. Cost estimations and a description of how they were obtained are given.

  16. Using CO2 Prophet to estimate recovery factors for carbon dioxide enhanced oil recovery

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Attanasi, Emil D.

    2017-07-17

    IntroductionThe Oil and Gas Journal’s enhanced oil recovery (EOR) survey for 2014 (Koottungal, 2014) showed that gas injection is the most frequently applied method of EOR in the United States and that carbon dioxide (CO2 ) is the most commonly used injection fluid for miscible operations. The CO2-EOR process typically follows primary and secondary (waterflood) phases of oil reservoir development. The common objective of implementing a CO2-EOR program is to produce oil that remains after the economic limit of waterflood recovery is reached. Under conditions of miscibility or multicontact miscibility, the injected CO2 partitions between the gas and liquid CO2 phases, swells the oil, and reduces the viscosity of the residual oil so that the lighter fractions of the oil vaporize and mix with the CO2 gas phase (Teletzke and others, 2005). Miscibility occurs when the reservoir pressure is at least at the minimum miscibility pressure (MMP). The MMP depends, in turn, on oil composition, impurities of the CO2 injection stream, and reservoir temperature. At pressures below the MMP, component partitioning, oil swelling, and viscosity reduction occur, but the efficiency is increasingly reduced as the pressure falls farther below the MMP. CO2-EOR processes are applied at the reservoir level, where a reservoir is defined as an underground formation containing an individual and separate pool of producible hydrocarbons that is confined by impermeable rock or water barriers and is characterized by a single natural pressure system. A field may consist of a single reservoir or multiple reservoirs that are not in communication but which may be associated with or related to a single structural or stratigraphic feature (U.S. Energy Information Administration [EIA], 2000). The purpose of modeling the CO2-EOR process is discussed along with the potential CO2-EOR predictive models. The data demands of models and the scope of the assessments require tradeoffs between reservoir

  17. Oil recovery in the presence of microbubbles in the filtration flow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mikhailov, D. N.

    2012-05-01

    This paper presents mathematical models for oil-gas flow taking into account the various processes due to the formation of gas micronuclei (microbubbles) in oil: slip of oil relative to the walls of the pore channels (gas lubrication), changes in oil viscosity, and motion of microbubles with respect to oil. We consider examples of oil flow in the near-wellbore zone for the case where a reduction in pressure to the saturation pressure leads to the formation of gas microbubbles and micronuclei and examples of the action of a water-gas mixture in the case where oil foams in the contact area with the injected gas, i.e., a finely dispersed mixture of oil and microbubbles is formed. The behavior of indicator curves for an oil well with the formation of microbubbles is simulated, and the effect of microbubbles on the oil recovery factor in a water-alternating-gas injection process is studied.

  18. Processing sunflower oil for fuel

    SciTech Connect

    Backer, L.F.; Jacobsen, L.; Olson, C.

    1982-05-01

    Research on processing of sunflower seed for oil was initiated to evaluate the equipment that might adapt best to on-farm or small factory production facilities. The first devices identified for evaluation were auger press expeller units, primary oil cleaning equipment, and final filters. A series of standard finishing filtration tests were carried out on sunflower oil and sunflower oil - diesel fuel blends using sunflower oil from four different sources.

  19. Optimization of Surfactant Mixtures and Their Interfacial Behavior for Advanced Oil Recovery

    SciTech Connect

    Somasundaran, Prof. P.

    2001-02-27

    The goal of this report is to develop improved extraction processes to mobilize and produce the oil left untapped using conventional techniques. Current chemical schemes for recovering the residual oil have been in general less than satisfactory. High cost of the processes as well as significant loss of chemicals by adsorption on reservoir materials and precipitation has limited the utility of chemical-flooding operations. There is a need to develop cost-effective, improved reagent schemes to increase recovery from domestic oil reservoirs. The goal of the report was to develop and evaluate novel mixtures of surfactants for improved oil recovery.

  20. Evaluation of nonwoven polypropylene oil sorbents in marine oil-spill recovery.

    PubMed

    Wei, Q F; Mather, R R; Fotheringham, A F; Yang, R D

    2003-06-01

    Mechanical recovery of oil by oil sorbents is one of the most important countermeasures in marine oil-spill response. Polypropylene is the ideal material for marine oil-spill recovery due to its low density, low water uptake and excellent physical and chemical resistance. Different forms of polypropylene nonwoven sorbents were evaluated in this study in terms of initial oil-sorption capacities and oil-retention properties. The investigation revealed that the fibre diameter, sorbent porosity and oil property are the most important factors in the oil-sorption performance of polypropylene nonwoven sorbents.

  1. Shale-oil-recovery systems incorporating ore beneficiation. Final report.

    SciTech Connect

    Weiss, M.A.; Klumpar, I.V.; Peterson, C.R.; Ring, T.A.

    1982-10-01

    This study analyzed the recovery of oil from oil shale by use of proposed systems which incorporate beneficiation of the shale ore (that is concentration of the kerogen before the oil-recovery step). The objective was to identify systems which could be more attractive than conventional surface retorting of ore. No experimental work was carried out. The systems analyzed consisted of beneficiation methods which could increase kerogen concentrations by at least four-fold. Potentially attractive low-enrichment methods such as density separation were not examined. The technical alternatives considered were bounded by the secondary crusher as input and raw shale oil as output. A sequence of ball milling, froth flotation, and retorting concentrate is not attractive for Western shales compared to conventional ore retorting; transporting the concentrate to another location for retorting reduces air emissions in the ore region but cost reduction is questionable. The high capital and energy cost s results largely from the ball milling step which is very inefficient. Major improvements in comminution seem achievable through research and such improvements, plus confirmation of other assumptions, could make high-enrichment beneficiation competitive with conventional processing. 27 figures, 23 tables.

  2. Microbial enhanced heavy crude oil recovery through biodegradation using bacterial isolates from an Omani oil field.

    PubMed

    Al-Sayegh, Abdullah; Al-Wahaibi, Yahya; Al-Bahry, Saif; Elshafie, Abdulkadir; Al-Bemani, Ali; Joshi, Sanket

    2015-09-16

    Biodegradation is a cheap and environmentally friendly process that could breakdown and utilizes heavy crude oil (HCO) resources. Numerous bacteria are able to grow using hydrocarbons as a carbon source; however, bacteria that are able to grow using HCO hydrocarbons are limited. In this study, HCO degrading bacteria were isolated from an Omani heavy crude oil field. They were then identified and assessed for their biodegradation and biotransformation abilities under aerobic and anaerobic conditions. Bacteria were grown in five different minimum salts media. The isolates were identified by MALDI biotyper and 16S rRNA sequencing. The nucleotide sequences were submitted to GenBank (NCBI) database. The bacteria were identified as Bacillus subtilis and B. licheniformis. To assess microbial growth and biodegradation of HCO by well-assay on agar plates, samples were collected at different intervals. The HCO biodegradation and biotransformation were determined using GC-FID, which showed direct correlation of microbial growth with an increased biotransformation of light hydrocarbons (C12 and C14). Among the isolates, B. licheniformis AS5 was the most efficient isolate in biodegradation and biotransformation of the HCO. Therefore, isolate AS5 was used for heavy crude oil recovery experiments, in core flooding experiments using Berea core plugs, where an additional 16 % of oil initially in place was recovered. This is the first report from Oman for bacteria isolated from an oil field that were able to degrade and transform HCO to lighter components, illustrating the potential use in HCO recovery. The data suggested that biodegradation and biotransformation processes may lead to additional oil recovery from heavy oil fields, if bacteria are grown in suitable medium under optimum growth conditions.

  3. Microbial enhanced oil recovery research. [Peptides

    SciTech Connect

    Sharma, M.M.; Georgiou, G. )

    1991-01-01

    The objective of this work is to develop an engineering framework for the exploitation of microorganisms to enhance oil recovery. Specific goals include: (1) the production, isolation, chemical characterization and study of the physical properties of microbially produced surfactants; (2) development of simulators for MEOR; (3) model studies in sandstone cores for the characterization of the interactions between growing microbially cultures and oil reservoirs,; (4) design of operation strategies for the sequential injection of microorganisms and nutrient in reservoirs. Accomplishments are: (1) ultra low interfacial tensions (0.003 mN/M) were obtained between decane and 5% NaCl brine using biosurfactants obtained from Bacillus Licheniformis, JF-2 which is the lowest IFT ever reported for biosurfactants; (2) a method to was developed isolate the biosurfactant from the growth medium; (3) the structure of the isolated biosurfactant has been determined; (4) several techniques have been proposed to increase the yield of the surfactant; and (5) an MEOR simulator has been completed.

  4. Evaluation of Reservoir Wettability and its Effect on Oil Recovery

    SciTech Connect

    Buckley, Jill S.

    2002-01-29

    The objectives of this five-year project were: (1) to achieve improved understanding of the surface and interfacial properties of crude oils and their interactions with mineral surfaces, (2) to apply the results of surface studies to improve predictions of oil production from laboratory measurements, and (3) to use the results of this research to recommend ways to improve oil recovery by waterflooding.

  5. Alkaline assisted thermal oil recovery: Kinetic and displacement studies

    SciTech Connect

    Saneie, S.; Yortsos, Y.C.

    1993-06-01

    This report deals with two major issues of chemical assisted flooding - the interaction of caustic, one of the proposed additives to steam flood, with the reservoir rock, and the displacement of oil by a chemical flood at elevated temperatures. A mathematical model simulating the kinetics of silica dissolution and hydroxyl ion consumption in a typical alkaline flooding environment is first developed. The model is based on the premise that dissolution occurs via hydrolysis of active sites through the formation of an intermediate complex, which is in equilibrium with the silicic acid in solution. Both static (batch) and dynamic (core flood) processes are simulated to examine the sensitivity of caustic consumption and silica dissolution to process parameters, and to determine rates of propagation of pH values. The model presented provides a quantitative description of the quartz-alkali interaction in terms of pH, salinity, ion exchange properties, temperature and contact time, which are of significant importance in the design of soluble silicate flooding processes. The modeling of an adiabatic hot waterflood assisted by the simultaneous injection of a chemical additive is next presented. The model is also applicable to the hot alkaline flooding under conditions of negligible adsorption of the generated anionic surfactant and of hydroxide adsorption being Langmuirian. The theory of generalized simple waves (coherence ) is used to develop solutions for the temperature, concentration, and oil saturation profiles, as well as the oil recovery curves. It is shown that, for Langmuir adsorption kinetics, the chemical resides in the heated region of the reservoir if its injection concentration is below a critical value, and in the unheated region if its concentration exceeds this critical value. Results for a chemical slug injection in a tertiary recovery process indicate recovery performance is maximized when chemical resides in the heated region of the reservior.

  6. Oil recovery from refinery oily sludge via ultrasound and freeze/thaw.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Ju; Li, Jianbing; Thring, Ronald W; Hu, Xuan; Song, Xinyuan

    2012-02-15

    The effective disposal of oily sludge generated from the petroleum industry has received increasing concerns, and oil recovery from such waste was considered as one feasible option. In this study, three different approaches for oil recovery were investigated, including ultrasonic treatment alone, freeze/thaw alone and combined ultrasonic and freeze/thaw treatment. The results revealed that the combined process could achieve satisfactory performance by considering the oil recovery rate and the total petroleum hydrocarbon (TPH) concentrations in the recovered oil and wastewater. The individual impacts of five different factors on the combined process were further examined, including ultrasonic power, ultrasonic treatment duration, sludge/water ratio in the slurry, as well as bio-surfactant (rhamnolipids) and salt (NaCl) concentrations. An oil recovery rate of up to 80.0% was observed with an ultrasonic power of 66 W and an ultrasonic treatment duration of 10 min when the sludge/water ratio was 1:2 without the addition of bio-surfactant and salt. The examination of individual factors revealed that the addition of low concentration of rhamnolipids (<100mg/L) and salt (<1%) to the sludge could help improve the oil recovery from the combined treatment process. The experimental results also indicated that ultrasound and freeze/thaw could promote the efficiency of each other, and the main mechanism of oil recovery enhancement using ultrasound was through enhanced desorption of petroleum hydrocarbons (PHCs) from solid particles. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Dynamics of subcritical CO/sub 2//brine floods for heavy oil recovery

    SciTech Connect

    Rojas, G.; Faroug, S.M.

    1985-03-01

    Immiscible carbon dioxide flooding is an important, field-proven heavy oil recovery method, particularly suited for thin, marginal, or otherwise poor heavy oil reservoirs, where thermal recovery processes are likely to be uneconomical. This paper describes dynamics of this recovery technique, based upon experiments conducted in a scaled model. The experiments represent a medium heavy oil (1032 mPa.s at 23/sup 0/ C) occurring in a shallow, thin sand. Carbon dioxide was injected at subcritical conditions (5.5 MPa, 21-23/sup 0/ C), together with brine. The scaled experiment results showed that oil recoveries at CO/sub 2/ and brine breakthroughs were ratedependent. While recovery at CO/sub 2/ breakthrough decreased with increasing rate, recovery at brine breakthrough increased. Reduction of interfacial tension between brine and oil, leading to the formation of brine-in-oil emulsions, was found to be an additional effective mechanism of heavy oil recovery by CO/sub 2//brine injection.

  8. Physical Constraints on Microbially Enhanced Oil Recovery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marshall, S. L.

    2007-12-01

    Secondary and tertiary oil recovery from mature or depleted reservoirs usually involves modification of fluid properties (especially the oil-water interfacial tension), or increasing the efficiency of water flooding by selective permeability reduction. The use of microbes for both of these strategies - through production of biosurfactants and extracellular polymeric material, respectively - is the subject of considerable current interest, but as pointed out by Bryant and Lockhart [SPE paper 79719, 2002] is constrained by chemical reaction kinetics. Continuing in the spirit of the engineering analysis presented by these authors, the purpose of this paper is to consider, on the basis of simplified physical models, the constraints that apply to the injection of microbes as a concentrated slurry and their subsequent dispersion through the pores of the formation. This involves solution of the advection-dispersion equation in conjunction with the Newtonian flow distribution between an injection well and a production well, and a more general flow distribution based on a non-Newtonian (power-law) constitutive equation used to describe the rheological properties of concentrated suspensions. By analogy with the better-known example of blood flow through capillaries, such deviations from Newtonian flow behavior are expected to become more significant in flow through media of low permeabilities, where the diameters of the suspended particles are non-negligible in relation to the mean diameters of the flow channels. The nature and extent of these deviations from Newtonian behavior are examined by calculating the pressure drops corresponding to a given flow rate in one dimension at different suspension concentrations, and the nonlinearities resulting from retention or `filtration' of bacteria by the porous medium are investigated by performing a population-balance analysis to determine the evolving profiles of retained bacteria as a function of distance and time. These

  9. Microbial enhanced oil recovery research. [Peptides

    SciTech Connect

    Sharma, M.M.; Georgiou, G. )

    1992-01-01

    The surface active lipopeptide produced by Bacillus licheniformis JF-2 was isolated to near apparent homogeneity. NMR experiments revealed that this compound consists of a heptapeptide with an amino acid sequence similar to surfactin and a heterogeneous fatty acid consisting of the normal-, anteiso-, and iso- branched isomers. The surface activity of the B. licheniformis JF-2 surfactant was shown to depend on the presence of fermentation products and is strongly affected by the pH. Under conditions of optimal salinity and pH the interfacial tension against decane was 6 [times] 10[sup 3] mN/m which is one of the lowest values ever obtained with a microbial surfactant. Microbial compounds which exhibit particularly high surface activity are classified as biosurfactants. Microbial biosurfactants include a wide variety of surface and interfacially active compounds, such as glycolipids, lipopeptides polysaccharideprotein complexes, phospholipids, fatty acids and neutral lipids. Biosurfactants are easily biodegradable and thus are particularly suited for environmental applications such as bioremediation and the dispersion of oil spills. Bacillus licheniformis strain JF-2 has been shown to be able to grow and produce a very effective biosurfactant under both aerobic and anaerobic conditions and in the presence of high salt concentrations. The production of biosurfactants in anaerobic, high salt environments is potentially important for a variety of in situ applications such as microbial enhanced oil recovery. As a first step towards evaluating the commercial utility of the B. licheniformis JF-2 surfactant, we isolated t-he active. compound from the culture supernatant, characterized its chemical structure and investigated its phase behavior. We found that the surface activity of the surfactant is strongly dependent on the pH of the aqueous. phase. This may be important for the biological function of the surfactant and is of interest for several applications in surfactancy.

  10. Optimization of parameters for enhanced oil recovery from enzyme treated wild apricot kernels.

    PubMed

    Rajaram, Mahatre R; Kumbhar, Baburao K; Singh, Anupama; Lohani, Umesh Chandra; Shahi, Navin C

    2012-08-01

    Present investigation was undertaken with the overall objective of optimizing the enzymatic parameters i.e. moisture content during hydrolysis, enzyme concentration, enzyme ratio and incubation period on wild apricot kernel processing for better oil extractability and increased oil recovery. Response surface methodology was adopted in the experimental design. A central composite rotatable design of four variables at five levels was chosen. The parameters and their range for the experiments were moisture content during hydrolysis (20-32%, w.b.), enzyme concentration (12-16% v/w of sample), combination of pectolytic and cellulolytic enzyme i.e. enzyme ratio (30:70-70:30) and incubation period (12-16 h). Aspergillus foetidus and Trichoderma viride was used for production of crude enzyme i.e. pectolytic and cellulolytic enzyme respectively. A complete second order model for increased oil recovery as the function of enzymatic parameters fitted the data well. The best fit model for oil recovery was also developed. The effect of various parameters on increased oil recovery was determined at linear, quadric and interaction level. The increased oil recovery ranged from 0.14 to 2.53%. The corresponding conditions for maximum oil recovery were 23% (w.b.), 15 v/w of the sample, 60:40 (pectolytic:cellulolytic), 13 h. Results of the study indicated that incubation period during enzymatic hydrolysis is the most important factor affecting oil yield followed by enzyme ratio, moisture content and enzyme concentration in the decreasing order. Enzyme ratio, incubation period and moisture content had insignificant effect on oil recovery. Second order model for increased oil recovery as a function of enzymatic hydrolysis parameters predicted the data adequately.

  11. Enhanced oil recovery by surfactant-enhanced volumetric sweep efficiency: Second annual report, September 30, 1986-September 30, 1987

    SciTech Connect

    Harwell, J H; Scamehorn, J F

    1988-04-01

    It is widely known that heterogeneities in oil reservoirs occurring as a result of permeability variations in the rock can have a detrimental effect on an oil recovery process; preferential diversion of injected displacement fluid occurs through the high-permeability zones, leaving the lower-permeability zones at a high residual oil content at a time when it is no longer economically viable to continue the oil recovery process. A novel oil recovery process is described which aims to improve the volumetric sweep efficiency of oil recovery. High-permeability zones are partially or completely plugged off by using the chromatographic and phase behavior of surfactants and their mixtures and the preferential invasion of high-permeability areas by low-viscosity injected fluids. The plugging will divert flow into regions of higher oil saturation. 85 refs., 46 figs., 6 tabs.

  12. Oil recovery enhancement from fractured, low permeability reservoirs. Annual report 1990--1991, Part 1

    SciTech Connect

    Poston, S.W.

    1991-12-31

    Joint funding by the Department of Energy and the State of Texas has Permitted a three year, multi-disciplinary investigation to enhance oil recovery from a dual porosity, fractured, low matrix permeability oil reservoir to be initiated. The Austin Chalk producing horizon trending thru the median of Texas has been identified as the candidate for analysis. Ultimate primary recovery of oil from the Austin Chalk is very low because of two major technological problems. The commercial oil producing rate is based on the wellbore encountering a significant number of natural fractures. The prediction of the location and frequency of natural fractures at any particular region in the subsurface is problematical at this time, unless extensive and expensive seismic work is conducted. A major portion of the oil remains in the low permeability matrix blocks after depletion because there are no methods currently available to the industry to mobilize this bypassed oil. The following multi-faceted study is aimed to develop new methods to increase oil and gas recovery from the Austin Chalk producing trend. These methods may involve new geological and geophysical interpretation methods, improved ways to study production decline curves or the application of a new enhanced oil recovery technique. The efforts for the second year may be summarized as one of coalescing the initial concepts developed during the initial phase to more in depth analyses. Accomplishments are predicting natural fractures; relating recovery to well-log signatures; development of the EOR imbibition process; mathematical modeling; and field test.

  13. OPTICAL FIBER SENSOR TECHNOLOGIES FOR EFFICIENT AND ECONOMICAL OIL RECOVERY

    SciTech Connect

    A. Wang; H. Xiao; R. May

    1999-10-29

    Efficient and complete recovery of petroleum reserves from existing oil wells has proven difficult due to a lack of robust instrumentation that can monitor processes in the downhole environment. Commercially available sensors for measurement of pressure, temperature, and fluid flow exhibit shortened lifetimes in the harsh downhole conditions, which are characterized by high pressures (up to 20 kpsi), temperatures up to 250 C, and exposure to chemically reactive fluids. Development of robust sensors that deliver continuous, real-time data on reservoir performance and petroleum flow pathways will facilitate application of advanced recovery technologies, including horizontal and multi-lateral wells. The main objective of the research program is to develop cost-effective, reliable fiber sensor instrumentation for real-time monitoring and /or control of various key parameters crucial to efficient and economical oil production. This report presents the detailed research work and technical progress from October 1, 1998 to September 30, 1999. The research performed over the first year of the program has followed the schedule as proposed, and solid research progress has been made in specification of the technical requirements, design and fabrication of the SCIIB sensor probes, development of the sensor systems, development of DSP-based signal processing techniques, and construction of the test systems. These technical achievements will significantly help to advance continued research on sensor tests and evaluation during the second year of the program.

  14. Recycled fatty acid crude petroleum recovery process

    SciTech Connect

    Herter, G. L.; Herter, C.

    1984-11-06

    A method of recovering crude oil for subsequent processing. The method contemplates the step of exposing the source of crude oil such as a subterranean petroleum reservoir or a vessel or container of tar sands, kerogen or the like to aliphatic or carboxylic acid, preferably oleic acid, to produce a solvated crude oil mixture of reduced viscosity. This mixture is saponifyed by reacting it with a nucleophilic base, preferably a hydroxide of potassium or sodium, under pressure whereby to separate the solvated mixture into petroleum crude and an acid soap which migrates to an aqueous phase. The petroleum crude is separated from the aqueous soap through conventional techniques. Afterwards, a desaponification step contemplates recovery of the aliphatic or carboxylic acid for subsequent recycling in the previously mentioned exposing step. Reuse is facilitated by desaponifying aqueous soap within a high pressure containment vessel reacted with an acid suitable for donating a hydrated proton to the aqueous phase of the soap. This reconstituted acid is recycled for injection into the inputting step. Preferably carbonic acid is generated for the desaponifying step by injecting high pressure carbon dioxide within the containment vessel. By-products of the chemical reaction are separated and/or filtered as necessary to effectuate necessary purification sub-steps.

  15. Coreflood assay using extremophile microorganisms for recovery of heavy oil in Mexican oil fields.

    PubMed

    Castorena-Cortés, Gladys; Roldán-Carrillo, Teresa; Reyes-Avila, Jesús; Zapata-Peñasco, Icoquih; Mayol-Castillo, Martha; Olguín-Lora, Patricia

    2012-10-01

    A considerable portion of oil reserves in Mexico corresponds to heavy oils. This feature makes it more difficult to recover the remaining oil in the reservoir after extraction with conventional techniques. Microbial enhanced oil recovery (MEOR) has been considered as a promising technique to further increase oil recovery, but its application has been developed mainly with light oils; therefore, more research is required for heavy oil. In this study, the recovery of Mexican heavy oil (11.1°API and viscosity 32,906 mPa s) in a coreflood experiment was evaluated using the extremophile mixed culture A7, which was isolated from a Mexican oil field. Culture A7 includes fermentative, thermophilic, and anaerobic microorganisms. The experiments included waterflooding and MEOR stages, and were carried out under reservoir conditions (70°C and 9.65 MPa). MEOR consisted of injections of nutrients and microorganisms followed by confinement periods. In the MEOR stages, the mixed culture A7 produced surface-active agents (surface tension reduction 27 mN m⁻¹), solvents (ethanol, 1738 mg L⁻¹), acids (693 mg L⁻¹), and gases, and also degraded heavy hydrocarbon fractions in an extreme environment. The interactions of these metabolites with the oil, as well as the bioconversion of heavy oil fractions to lighter fractions (increased alkanes in the C₈-C₃₀ range), were the mechanisms responsible for the mobility and recovery of heavy oil from the porous media. Oil recovery by MEOR was 19.48% of the residual oil in the core after waterflooding. These results show that MEOR is a potential alternative to heavy oil recovery in Mexican oil fields.

  16. Floating Heavy Oil Recovery: Current State Analysis

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-07-27

    Oil Properties Viscosity Complex modulus Water content Visual Stability (mPa·s) (Pa) (wt%) Corexit 9500 Corexit 9527 Saturates Aromatics Resins Boscan ...to propel tankers and other large vessels (EIA, 2006). Similar to crude oils they continue to be shipped worldwide for consumption. The...characteristics of high density oil when spilled, however, differentiate them from crude oils in the affect that their behaviour will have on required response

  17. Method for in situ shale oil recovery

    SciTech Connect

    McKee, J.M.; Horton, R.L.

    1986-03-25

    A method is described of in situ processing of oil shale in a subterranean formation. The method consists of: rubblizing a section of oil shale in the subterranean formation, wherein the section has boundaries which form a retort chamber having a top end and a bottom end; removing the rubblized shale from the retort chamber; crushing the rubblized shale so as to produce shale particles of various sizes within a certain overall size range; separating the shale particles according to size into a plurality of shale particle groups, wherein each group includes shale particles within a predetermined group size range, and wherein each group size range makes up a portion of the overall size range; sequentially reloading substantially all of the shale particle groups into the retort chamber so that the shale particle groups are graded according to particle size within the chamber, wherein the largest shale particles are at the bottom end of the retort chamber and the smallest shale particles are at the top end of the retort chamber, the particles being evenly distributed throughout the retort chamber during reloading; retorting the reloaded shale particles such that liquid hydrocarbon products are produced; removing the liquid hydrocarbon products from the retort chamber.

  18. Microbial enhanced oil recovery and wettability research program

    SciTech Connect

    Thomas, C.P.; Bala, G.A.; Duvall, M.L.

    1991-07-01

    This report covers research results for the microbial enhanced oil recovery (MEOR) and wettability research program conducted by EG G Idaho, Inc. at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL). The isolation and characterization of microbial species collected from various locations including target oil field environments is underway to develop more effective oil recovery systems for specific applications. The wettability research is a multi-year collaborative effort with the New Mexico Petroleum Recovery Research Center (NMPRRC), to evaluate reservoir wettability and its effects on oil recovery. Results from the wettability research will be applied to determine if alteration of wettability is a significant contributing mechanism for MEOR systems. Eight facultatively anaerobic surfactant producing isolates able to function in the reservoir conditions of the Minnelusa A Sands of the Powder River Basin in Wyoming were isolated from naturally occurring oil-laden environments. Isolates were characterized according to morphology, thermostability, halotolerance, growth substrates, affinity to crude oil/brine interfaces, degradative effects on crude oils, and biochemical profiles. Research at the INEL has focused on the elucidation of microbial mechanisms by which crude oil may be recovered from a reservoir and the chemical and physical properties of the reservoir that may impact the effectiveness of MEOR. Bacillus licheniformis JF-2 (ATCC 39307) has been used as a benchmark organism to quantify MEOR of medium weight crude oils (17.5 to 38.1{degrees}API) the capacity for oil recovery of Bacillus licheniformis JF-2 utilizing a sucrose-based nutrient has been elucidated using Berea sandstone cores. Spacial distribution of cells after microbial flooding has been analyzed with scanning electron microscopy. Also the effect of microbial surfactants on the interfacial tensions (IFT) of aqueous/crude oil systems has been measured. 87 refs., 60 figs., 15 tabs.

  19. 26 CFR 1.43-2 - Qualified enhanced oil recovery project.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 true Qualified enhanced oil recovery project. 1.43-2... TAXES Credits Against Tax § 1.43-2 Qualified enhanced oil recovery project. (a) Qualified enhanced oil recovery project. A “qualified enhanced oil recovery project” is any project that meets all of the...

  20. Activities of the Oil Implementation Task Force, reporting period March--August 1991; Contracts for field projects and supporting research on enhanced oil recovery, reporting period October--December 1990

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-10-01

    Activities of DOE's Oil Implementation Task Force for the period March--August 1991 are reviewed. Contracts for fields projects and supporting research on enhanced oil recovery are discussed, with a list of related publications given. Enhanced recovery processes covered include chemical flooding, gas displacement, thermal recovery, and microbial recovery.

  1. Distribution and Recovery of Crude Oil in Various Types of Porous Media and Heterogeneity Configurations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tick, G. R.; Ghosh, J.; Greenberg, R. R.; Akyol, N. H.

    2015-12-01

    A series of pore-scale experiments were conducted to understand the interfacial processes contributing to the removal of crude oil from various porous media during surfactant-induced remediation. Effects of physical heterogeneity (i.e. media uniformity) and carbonate soil content on oil recovery and distribution were evaluated through pore scale quantification techniques. Additionally, experiments were conducted to evaluate impacts of tetrachloroethene (PCE) content on crude oil distribution and recovery under these same conditions. Synchrotron X-ray microtomography (SXM) was used to obtain high-resolution images of the two-fluid-phase oil/water system, and quantify temporal changes in oil blob distribution, blob morphology, and blob surface area before and after sequential surfactant flooding events. The reduction of interfacial tension in conjunction with the sufficient increase in viscous forces as a result of surfactant flushing was likely responsible for mobilization and recovery of lighter fractions of crude oil. Corresponding increases in viscous forces were insufficient to initiate and maintain the displacement of the heavy crude oil in more homogeneous porous media systems during surfactant flushing. Interestingly, higher relative recoveries of heavy oil fractions were observed within more heterogeneous porous media indicating that wettability may be responsible for controlling mobilization in these systems. Compared to the "pure" crude oil experiments, preliminary results show that crude oil with PCE produced variability in oil distribution and recovery before and after each surfactant-flooding event. Such effects were likely influenced by viscosity and interfacial tension modifications associated with the crude-oil/solvent mixed systems.

  2. Effect of Brine Composition on Wettability Alteration and Oil Recovery from Oil-wet Carbonate Rocks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Purswani, P.; Karpyn, Z.

    2016-12-01

    Brine composition is known to affect the effectiveness of waterflooding during enhanced oil recovery from carbonate reservoirs. Recent studies have identified Mg2+, Ca2+ and SO42- as critical ions, responsible for incremental oil recovery via wettability alteration. To investigate the underlying mechanism of wettability alteration and, to evaluate the individual contribution of these ions towards improving oil recovery, a series of coreflooding experiments are performed. Various characterization techniques like zeta potential (ZP), drop angle analysis and inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP MS) analysis are performed to evaluate the surface interactions taking place at the carbonate core samples, brine solution and crude oil interfaces. Total dissolved solids and electrical conductivity measurements confirm the ionic strength of the brine samples. Acid number calculations, ZP and contact angle measurements confirm the initial oil-wetting state of the core. ICP MS analysis of the effluent brine, confirm the relationship between the ionic interactions and oil recovery.

  3. Laboratory methods for enhanced oil recovery core floods

    SciTech Connect

    Robertson, E.P.; Bala, G.A.; Thomas, C.P.

    1994-03-01

    Current research at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) is investigating microbially enhanced oil recovery (MEOR) systems for application to oil reservoirs. Laboratory corefloods are invaluable in developing technology necessary for a field application of MEOR. Methods used to prepare sandstone cores for experimentation, coreflooding techniques, and quantification of coreflood effluent are discussed in detail. A technique to quantify the small volumes of oil associated with laboratory core floods is described.

  4. Recovery of bitumen from bituminous oil-in-water emulsions

    SciTech Connect

    Seitzer, W.H.

    1984-06-26

    Bitumen recovery from a tar sands emulsion or other bituminous oil-in-water emulsion is increased by milling the emulsion for a time sufficient to cause a bitumen-rich liquid fraction to rise to the surface, and separating such fraction. Addition of water to the starting emulsion or during milling further enhances the recovery of bitumen.

  5. Microbial Enhanced Oil Recovery in Fractional-Wet Systems: A Pore-Scale Investigation

    SciTech Connect

    Armstrong, Ryan T.; Wildenschild, Dorthe

    2012-10-24

    Microbial enhanced oil recovery (MEOR) is a technology that could potentially increase the tertiary recovery of oil from mature oil formations. However, the efficacy of this technology in fractional-wet systems is unknown, and the mechanisms involved in oil mobilization therefore need further investigation. Our MEOR strategy consists of the injection of ex situ produced metabolic byproducts produced by Bacillus mojavensis JF-2 (which lower interfacial tension (IFT) via biosurfactant production) into fractional-wet cores containing residual oil. Two different MEOR flooding solutions were tested; one solution contained both microbes and metabolic byproducts while the other contained only the metabolic byproducts. The columns were imaged with X-ray computed microtomography (CMT) after water flooding, and after MEOR, which allowed for the evaluation of the pore-scale processes taking place during MEOR. Results indicate that the larger residual oil blobs and residual oil held under relatively low capillary pressures were the main fractions recovered during MEOR. Residual oil saturation, interfacial curvatures, and oil blob sizes were measured from the CMT images and used to develop a conceptual model for MEOR in fractional-wet systems. Overall, results indicate that MEOR was effective at recovering oil from fractional-wet systems with reported additional oil recovered (AOR) values between 44 and 80%; the highest AOR values were observed in the most oil-wet system.

  6. Isolation and Characterization of Biosurfactant Producing Bacteria for the Application in Enhanced Oil Recovery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prasad, Niraj; Dasgupta, Sumita; Chakraborty, Mousumi; Gupta, Smita

    2017-07-01

    In the present study, a biosurfactant producing bacterial strain was isolated, screened and identified. Further, various fermentation conditions (such as pH (5-10), incubation period (24-96h) and incubation temperature (20-60 °C) were optimized for maximum production of biosurfactant. The produced biosurfactant was characterized by measuring emulsification index, foaming characteristics, rhamnolipid detection, interfacial tension between water and oil and stability against pH and temperature for its potential application in oil recovery process. The additional oil recovery for two different sand, sand1 and sand2, was found to be 49% and 38%, respectively.

  7. Modification of chemical and physical factors in steamflood to increase heavy oil recovery

    SciTech Connect

    Yortsos, Yanis C.

    2000-01-19

    This report covers the work performed in the various physicochemical factors for the improvement of oil recovery efficiency. In this context the following general areas were studied: (1) The understanding of vapor-liquid flows in porous media, including processes in steam injection; (2) The effect of reservoir heterogeneity in a variety of foams, from pore scale to macroscopic scale; (3) The flow properties of additives for improvement of recovery efficiency, particularly foams and other non-Newtonian fluids; and (4) The development of optimization methods to maximize various measures of oil recovery.

  8. Microbial surfactant-enhanced mineral oil recovery under laboratory conditions.

    PubMed

    Bordoloi, N K; Konwar, B K

    2008-05-01

    Microbial enhanced oil recovery (MEOR) is potentially useful to recover incremental oil from a reservoir being beyond primary and secondary recovery operations. Effort has been made to isolate and characterize natural biosurfactant produced by bacterial isolates collected from various oil fields of ONGC in Assam. Production of biosurfactant has been considered to be an effective major index for the purpose of enhanced oil recovery. On the basis of the index, four promising bacterial isolates: Pseudomonas aeruginosa (MTCC7815), P. aeruginosa (MTCC7814), P. aeruginosa (MTCC7812) and P. aeruginosa (MTCC8165) were selected for subsequent testing. Biosurfactant produced by the promising bacterial isolates have been found to be effective in the recovery of crude oil from saturated column under laboratory conditions. Two bacterial strains: P. aeruginosa (MTCC7815) and P. aeruginosa (MTCC7812) have been found to be the highest producer of biosurfactant. Tensiometer studies revealed that biosurfactants produced by these bacterial strains could reduce the surface tension (sigma) of the growth medium from 68 to 30 mN m(-1) after 96 h of growth. The bacterial biosurfactants were found to be functionally stable at varying pH (2.5-11) conditions and temperature of 100 degrees C. The treatment of biosurfactant containing, cell free culture broth in crude oil saturated sand pack column could release about 15% more crude oil at 90 degrees C than at room temperature and 10% more than at 70 degrees C under laboratory condition.

  9. Recovery of oil from oil-in-water emulsion using biopolymers by adsorptive method.

    PubMed

    Elanchezhiyan, S Sd; Sivasurian, N; Meenakshi, Sankaran

    2014-09-01

    In the present study, it is aimed to identify, a low cost sorbent for the recovery of oil from oil-in-water emulsion using biopolymers such as chitin and chitosan. Chitin has the greater adsorption capacity than chitosan due to its hydrophobic nature. The characterizations of chitin and chitosan were done using FTIR, SEM, EDAX, XRD, TGA and DSC techniques. Under batch equilibrium mode, a systematic study was performed to optimize the various equilibrium parameters viz., contact time, pH, dosage, initial concentration of oil, and temperature. The adsorption process reached equilibrium at 40 min of contact time and the percentage removal of oil was found to be higher (90%) in the acidic medium. The Freundlich and Langmuir models were applied to describe the equilibrium isotherms and the isotherm constants were calculated. Thermodynamic parameters such as ΔG°, ΔH° and ΔS° were calculated to find out the nature of the sorption mechanism. The kinetic studies were investigated with reaction-based and diffusion-based models. The suitable mechanism for the removal of oil has been established. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. An Exogenous Surfactant-Producing Bacillus subtilis Facilitates Indigenous Microbial Enhanced Oil Recovery.

    PubMed

    Gao, Peike; Li, Guoqiang; Li, Yanshu; Li, Yan; Tian, Huimei; Wang, Yansen; Zhou, Jiefang; Ma, Ting

    2016-01-01

    This study used an exogenous lipopeptide-producing Bacillus subtilis to strengthen the indigenous microbial enhanced oil recovery (IMEOR) process in a water-flooded reservoir in the laboratory. The microbial processes and driving mechanisms were investigated in terms of the changes in oil properties and the interplay between the exogenous B. subtilis and indigenous microbial populations. The exogenous B. subtilis is a lipopeptide producer, with a short growth cycle and no oil-degrading ability. The B. subtilis facilitates the IMEOR process through improving oil emulsification and accelerating microbial growth with oil as the carbon source. Microbial community studies using quantitative PCR and high-throughput sequencing revealed that the exogenous B. subtilis could live together with reservoir microbial populations, and did not exert an observable inhibitory effect on the indigenous microbial populations during nutrient stimulation. Core-flooding tests showed that the combined exogenous and indigenous microbial flooding increased oil displacement efficiency by 16.71%, compared with 7.59% in the control where only nutrients were added, demonstrating the application potential in enhanced oil recovery in water-flooded reservoirs, in particular, for reservoirs where IMEOR treatment cannot effectively improve oil recovery.

  11. An Exogenous Surfactant-Producing Bacillus subtilis Facilitates Indigenous Microbial Enhanced Oil Recovery

    PubMed Central

    Gao, Peike; Li, Guoqiang; Li, Yanshu; Li, Yan; Tian, Huimei; Wang, Yansen; Zhou, Jiefang; Ma, Ting

    2016-01-01

    This study used an exogenous lipopeptide-producing Bacillus subtilis to strengthen the indigenous microbial enhanced oil recovery (IMEOR) process in a water-flooded reservoir in the laboratory. The microbial processes and driving mechanisms were investigated in terms of the changes in oil properties and the interplay between the exogenous B. subtilis and indigenous microbial populations. The exogenous B. subtilis is a lipopeptide producer, with a short growth cycle and no oil-degrading ability. The B. subtilis facilitates the IMEOR process through improving oil emulsification and accelerating microbial growth with oil as the carbon source. Microbial community studies using quantitative PCR and high-throughput sequencing revealed that the exogenous B. subtilis could live together with reservoir microbial populations, and did not exert an observable inhibitory effect on the indigenous microbial populations during nutrient stimulation. Core-flooding tests showed that the combined exogenous and indigenous microbial flooding increased oil displacement efficiency by 16.71%, compared with 7.59% in the control where only nutrients were added, demonstrating the application potential in enhanced oil recovery in water-flooded reservoirs, in particular, for reservoirs where IMEOR treatment cannot effectively improve oil recovery. PMID:26925051

  12. Micro-Employees Employment, Enhanced Oil-Recovery Improvement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Allahtavakoli, M.; Allahtavakoli, Y.

    2009-04-01

    Employment of Micro-organisms, as profitable micro-employees in improvement of Enhanced Oil Recovery (EOR), leads us to a famous method named "MEOR". Applying micro-organisms in MEOR makes it more lucrative than other EOR ways because feeding these micro-employees is highly economical and their metabolic processes require some cheap food-resources such as molasses. In addition, utilizing the local micro-organism in reservoirs will reduce the costs effectively; Furthermore these micro-organisms are safety and innocuous to some extent. In MEOR, the micro-organisms are always employed for two purposes, "Restoring pressure to reservoir" and "Decreasing Oil-Viscosity". As often as more, the former is achievable by In-Situ Mechanism or by applying the micro-organisms producing Biopolymers and the latter is also reachable by applying the micro-organisms producing Bio-surfactants. This paper as a proposal which was propounded to National Iranian Oil Company (NIOC) is an argument for studying and reviewing "Interaction between Micro-organisms and Reservoir physiochemical properties", "Biopolymer producers and Bio-Surfactant Producers", "In-Situ Mechanism", "Proposed Methods in MEOR" and their limitations.

  13. Economic Implementation and Optimization of Secondary Oil Recovery

    SciTech Connect

    Cary D. Brock

    2006-01-09

    The St Mary West Barker Sand Unit (SMWBSU or Unit) located in Lafayette County, Arkansas was unitized for secondary recovery operations in 2002 followed by installation of a pilot injection system in the fall of 2003. A second downdip water injection well was added to the pilot project in 2005 and 450,000 barrels of saltwater has been injected into the reservoir sand to date. Daily injection rates have been improved over initial volumes by hydraulic fracture stimulation of the reservoir sand in the injection wells. Modifications to the injection facilities are currently being designed to increase water injection rates for the pilot flood. A fracture treatment on one of the production wells resulted in a seven-fold increase of oil production. Recent water production and increased oil production in a producer closest to the pilot project indicates possible response to the water injection. The reservoir and wellbore injection performance data obtained during the pilot project will be important to the secondary recovery optimization study for which the DOE grant was awarded. The reservoir characterization portion of the modeling and simulation study is in progress by Strand Energy project staff under the guidance of University of Houston Department of Geosciences professor Dr. Janok Bhattacharya and University of Texas at Austin Department of Petroleum and Geosystems Engineering professor Dr. Larry W. Lake. A geologic and petrophysical model of the reservoir is being constructed from geophysical data acquired from core, well log and production performance histories. Possible use of an outcrop analog to aid in three dimensional, geostatistical distribution of the flow unit model developed from the wellbore data will be investigated. The reservoir model will be used for full-field history matching and subsequent fluid flow simulation based on various injection schemes including patterned water flooding, addition of alkaline surfactant-polymer (ASP) to the injected water

  14. Kuwaiti oil sector shows more signs of recovery

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-04-06

    This paper reports that Kuwait's oil sector continues to show signs of recovery from the Persian Gulf war. On Mar. 23 Kuwait Petroleum Co. (KPC) loaded the country's first shipment of liquefied petroleum gas for export since the Iraqi invasion in August 1990. In addition, the first shipment of Kuwaiti crude recovered from giant oil lakes formed by hundreds of wild wells sabotaged in the war was to arrive by tanker in Naples, Italy, late last month. The tanker is carrying 210,000 bbl of crude. However, the project to clean up the lakes and recover more oil, undertaken by Bechtel Corp. with Kuwait Oil Co. (KOC), has reached a stand still.

  15. Feasibility study of heavy oil recovery in the Midcontinent region (Kansas, Missouri, Oklahoma)

    SciTech Connect

    Olsen, D.K.; Johnson, W.I.

    1993-08-01

    This report is one of a series of publications assessing the feasibility/constraints of increasing domestic heavy oil production. Each report covers a select area of the United States. The Midcontinent (Kansas, Nssouri, Oklahoma) has produced significant oil, but contrary to early reports, the area does not contain the huge volumes of heavy oil that, along with the development of steam and in situ combustion as oil production technologies, sparked the area`s oil boom of the 1960s. Recovery of this heavy oil has proven economically unfeasible for most operators due to the geology of the formations rather than the technology applied to recover the oil. The geology of the southern Midcontinent, as well as results of field projects using thermal enhanced oil recovery (TEOR) methods to produce the heavy oil, was examined based on analysis of data from secondary sources. Analysis of the performance of these projects showed that the technology recovered additional heavy oil above what was produced from primary production from the consolidated, compartmentalized, fluvial dominated deltaic sandstone formations in the Cherokee and Forest City basins. The only projects producing significant economic and environmentally acceptable heavy oil in the Midcontinent are in higher permeability, unconsolidated or friable, thick sands such as those found in south-central Oklahoma. There are domestic heavy oil reservoirs in other sedimentary basins that are in younger formations, are less consolidated, have higher permeability and can be economically produced with current TEOR technology. Heavy oil production from the carbonates of central and wester Kansas has not been adequately tested, but oil production is anticipated to remain low. Significant expansion of Midcontinent heavy oil production is not anticipated because the economics of oil production and processing are not favorable.

  16. Enhanced oil recovery using flash-driven steamflooding

    DOEpatents

    Roark, Steven D.

    1990-01-01

    The present invention is directed to a novel steamflooding process which utilizes three specific stages of steam injection for enhanced oil recovery. The three stages are as follows: As steam is being injected into an oil-bearing reservoir through an injection well, the production rate of a production well located at a distance from the injection well is gradually restricted to a point that the pressure in the reservoir increases at a predetermined rate to a predetermined maximum value. After the maximum pressure has been reached, the production rate is increased to a value such that the predetermined maximum pressure value is maintained. Production at maximum pressure is continued for a length of time that will be unique for each individual reservoir. In some cases, this step of the steamflooding process of the invention may be omitted entirely. In the third stage of the steamflooding process of the invention, production rates at the producing well are increased gradually to allow the pressure to decrease down from the maximum pressure value to the original pressure value at the producing well. The rate of pressure reduction will be unique for each reservoir. After completing stage three, the three stages can be repeated or the steamflood may be terminated as considered desirable.

  17. Polymers for mobility control in enhanced oil recovery

    SciTech Connect

    McCormick, C.L.; Hester, R.D.

    1990-06-01

    This report focuses on the FY-89 results of a fundamental research program underway in the Polymer Science Laboratories at the University of Southern Mississippi to develop novel associative polymers which should be significantly more efficient than those presently used in Enhanced Oil Recovery processes. These new systems rely on cooperative hydrophobic associations to yield appropriate rheological behavior. We hope to ultimately develop, with the help of appropriate rheological behavior. We hope to ultimately develop, with the help of industry, simple copolymer systems which could be easily utilized by independent oil operators in mobility control processes. Research has focused on preparation, characterization and rheological study of copolymers possessing intra- or intermolecular associations. Associative copolymers of acrylamide with N-alklacrylamides; terpolymers of acrylamide, N-decylacrylamide, and NaAMPS, NaA, or NaAMB; and copolymers of acrylamide with the zwitterionic AMPDAPS monomer have been shown to possess rheological behavior of potential in EOR processes. The salt-induced conformational responses and resulting association mechanisms are being studied by a number of techniques including rheometry, gel permeation chromatography, quasielastic light scattering, and fluorescence spectroscopy. 114 refs., 50 figs., 18 tabs.

  18. A review on applications of nanotechnology in the enhanced oil recovery part B: effects of nanoparticles on flooding

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheraghian, Goshtasp; Hendraningrat, Luky

    2016-11-01

    Chemical flooding is of increasing interest and importance due to high oil prices and the need to increase oil production. Research in nanotechnology in the petroleum industry is advancing rapidly, and an enormous progress in the application of nanotechnology in this area is to be expected. The nanotechnology has been widely used in several other industries, and the interest in the oil industry is increasing. Nanotechnology has the potential to profoundly change enhanced oil recovery and to improve mechanism of recovery, and it is chosen as an alternative method to unlock the remaining oil resources and applied as a new enhanced oil recovery method in last decade. This paper therefore focuses on the reviews of the application of nanotechnology in chemical flooding process in oil recovery and reviews the applications of nanomaterials for improving oil recovery that have been proposed to explain oil displacement by polymer flooding within oil reservoirs, and also this paper highlights the research advances of polymer in oil recovery. Nanochemical flooding is an immature method from an application point of view.

  19. DEVELOPMENT OF BIOSURFACTANT-MEDIATED OIL RECOVERY IN MODEL POROUS SYSTEMS AND COMPUTER SIMULATIONS OF BIOSURFACTANT-MEDIATED OIL RECOVERY

    SciTech Connect

    M.J. McInerney; S.K. Maudgalya; R. Knapp; M. Folmsbee

    2004-05-31

    Current technology recovers only one-third to one-half of the oil that is originally present in an oil reservoir. Entrapment of petroleum hydrocarbons by capillary forces is a major factor that limits oil recovery (1, 3, 4). Hydrocarbon displacement can occur if interfacial tension (IFT) between the hydrocarbon and aqueous phases is reduced by several orders of magnitude. Microbially-produced biosurfactants may be an economical method to recover residual hydrocarbons since they are effective at low concentrations. Previously, we showed that substantial mobilization of residual hydrocarbon from a model porous system occurs at biosurfactant concentrations made naturally by B. mojavensis strain JF-1 if a polymer and 2,3-butanediol were present (2). In this report, we include data on oil recovery from Berea sandstone experiments along with our previous data from sand pack columns in order to relate biosurfactant concentration to the fraction of oil recovered. We also investigate the effect that the JF-2 biosurfactant has on interfacial tension (IFT). The presence of a co-surfactant, 2,3-butanediol, was shown to improve oil recoveries possibly by changing the optimal salinity concentration of the formulation. The JF-2 biosurfactant lowered IFT by nearly 2 orders of magnitude compared to typical values of 28-29 mN/m. Increasing the salinity increased the IFT with or without 2,3-butanediol present. The lowest interfacial tension observed was 0.1 mN/m. Tertiary oil recovery experiments showed that biosurfactant solutions with concentrations ranging from 10 to 60 mg/l in the presence of 0.1 mM 2,3-butanediol and 1 g/l of partially hydrolyzed polyacrylamide (PHPA) recovered 10-40% of the residual oil present in Berea sandstone cores. When PHPA was used alone, about 10% of the residual oil was recovered. Thus, about 10% of the residual oil recovered in these experiments was due to the increase in viscosity of the displacing fluid. Little or no oil was recovered at

  20. Seismic stimulation for enhanced oil recovery

    SciTech Connect

    Pride, S.R.; Flekkoy, E.G.; Aursjo, O.

    2008-07-22

    The pore-scale effects of seismic stimulation on two-phase flow are modeled numerically in random 2D grain0pack geometries. Seismic stimulation aims to enhance oil production by sending seismic waves across a reservoir to liberate immobile patches of oil. For seismic amplitudes above a well-defined (analytically expressed) dimensionless criterion, the force perturbation associated with the waves indeed can liberate oil trapped on capillary barriers and get it flowing again under the background pressure gradient. Subsequent coalescence of the freed oil droplets acts to enhance oil movement further because longer bubbles overcome capillary barriers more efficiently than shorter bubbles do. Poroelasticity theory defines the effective force that a seismic wave adds to the background fluid-pressure gradient. The lattice-Boltzmann model in two dimensions is used to perform pore-scale numerical simulations. Dimensionless numbers (groups of material and force parameters) involved in seismic stimulation are defined carefully so that numerical simulations can be applied to field-scale conditions. Using the analytical criteria defined in the paper, there is a significant range of reservoir conditions over which seismic stimulation can be expected to enhance oil production.

  1. Evaluation of bioemulsifier mediated Microbial Enhanced Oil Recovery using sand pack column.

    PubMed

    Suthar, Harish; Hingurao, Krushi; Desai, Anjana; Nerurkar, Anuradha

    2008-10-01

    Bacillus licheniformis K125, isolated from an oil reservoir, produces an effective bioemulsifier. The crude bioemulsifier showed 66% emulsification activity (E(24)) and reduced the surface tension of water from 72 to 34 mN/m. It contains substantial amount of polysaccharide, protein and lipid. This bioemulsifier is pseudoplastic non-Newtonian in nature. It forms oil in water emulsion which remains stable at wide range of pH, temperature and salinity. It gave 43+/-3.3% additional oil recovery upon application to a sand pack column designed to simulate an oil reservoir. This is 13.7% higher than that obtained from crude lipopeptide biosurfactants produced by the standard strain, Bacillus mojavensis JF2 and 8.5% higher than hot water spring isolate, Bacillus licheniformis TT42. The increased oil recovery obtained by using the crude bioemulsifier can be attributed to its combined surface and emulsification activity. Its mechanism of oil recovery must be similar to the mechanism exhibited by surfactant-polymer flooding process of chemical enhanced oil recovery.

  2. Enhanced oil recovery and applied geoscience research program. [Technical progress] report, January 1--March 31, 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Thomas, C.P.

    1993-07-01

    The objectives of this research program are to develop microbial enhanced oil recovery (MEOR) systems for application to reservoirs containing medium to heavy oils and to evaluate reservoir wettability and its effects on oil recovery. The MEOR research goals include: (a) the development of bacterial cultures that are effective for oil displacement under a broad range of reservoir conditions, (b) improved understanding of the mechanisms by which microbial systems displace oil under reservoir conditions, (c) determination of the feasibility of combining microbial systems with or following conventional enhanced oil recovery (EOR) processes, (d) development and implementation of industry cost-shared field demonstration projects of MEOR technology. The goals of the reservoir wettability project are to develop: (a) a better methods for assessment of reservoir core wettability, (b) more certainty in relating laboratory core analysis procedures to field conditions, (c) a better understanding of the effects of reservoir matrix properties and heterogeneity on wettability, and (d) improved ability to predict and influence waterflood and EOR response through control of wettability in reservoirs. Accomplishments for this quarter are presented for: MEOR research and field application; and evaluation of reservoir wettability and its effects on oil recovery.

  3. Evaluation of Reservoir Wettability and its Effect on Oil Recovery

    SciTech Connect

    Buckley, Jill S.

    1999-07-01

    The objective of this five-year project are: (1) to achieve improved understanding of the surface and interfacial properties of crude oils and their interactions with mineral surfaces, (2) to apply the results of surface studies to improve predictions of oil production from laboratory measurements, and (3) to use the results of this research to recommend ways to improve oil recovery by waterflooding. During the second year of this project we have tested the generality of the proposed mechanisms by which crude oil components can alter wetting. Using these mechanisms, we have begun a program of characterizing crude oils with respect to their wettability altering potential. Wettability assessment has been improved by replacing glass with mica as a standard surface material and crude oils have been used to alter wetting in simple square glass capillary tubes in which the subsequent imbibition of water can be followed visually.

  4. Lithium niobate ultrasonic transducer design for Enhanced Oil Recovery.

    PubMed

    Wang, Zhenjun; Xu, Yuanming; Gu, Yuting

    2015-11-01

    Due to the strong piezoelectric effect possessed by lithium niobate, a new idea that uses lithium niobate to design high-power ultrasonic transducer for Enhanced Oil Recovery technology is proposed. The purpose of this paper is to lay the foundation for the further research and development of high-power ultrasonic oil production technique. The main contents of this paper are as follows: firstly, structure design technique and application of a new high-power ultrasonic transducer are introduced; secondly, the experiment for reducing the viscosity of super heavy oil by this transducer is done, the optimum ultrasonic parameters for reducing the viscosity of super heavy oil are given. Experimental results show that heavy large molecules in super heavy oil can be cracked into light hydrocarbon substances under strong cavitation effect caused by high-intensity ultrasonic wave. Experiment proves that it is indeed feasible to design high-power ultrasonic transducer for ultrasonic oil production technology using lithium niobate.

  5. Sol-forming oil-displacing system intended to enhance oil recovery from deposits with difficult-to-recover reserves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kozlov, V. V.; Altunina, L. K.; Stasyeva, L. A.; Kuvshinov, V. A.

    2016-11-01

    The paper presents the results of laboratory tests of the sol-forming NINKA®-Z system intended to enhance oil recovery from deposits with difficult-to-recover reserves. The kinetic and rheological features of solation in the oil-displacing system have been investigated. A physical modeling of the oil displacement process was carried out under the conditions of a heterogeneous reservoir at a low temperature using the sol-forming NINKA®-Z system. The investigations have proved its high efficiency, and the system was recommended for pilot tests.

  6. Enhancement of oil recovery using zirconium-chitosan hybrid composite by adsorptive method.

    PubMed

    Elanchezhiyan, S Sd; Sivasurian, N; Meenakshi, Sankaran

    2016-07-10

    Recovery of oil from oil-in-water emulsion has been investigated by many scientists and it continues to be a challenging task for environmental scientists so far. Among all the techniques, adsorption is found to be an appropriate process for the removal of oil from oil-in-water emulsion owing to its high efficiency and easy operation. A hybrid material, zirconium-chitosan composite (Zr-CS-HC) was prepared to remove the oil from oil-in-water emulsion and oil was measured by extractive gravimetric method. Various parameters viz., agitation time, pH, sorbent dosage and initial oil concentration for maximum sorption were optimized. In this study, the maximum oil removal percentage was found to be at pH 3.0 and a minimum contact time of 50min using prepared sorbent. The pH of the sorption studies revealed that oil sorption was favored in acidic condition. The sorbent was characterized using FTIR, SEM with EDAX, XRD, TGA and DSC; contact angle and heat of combustion. The experimental data were explained using Freundlich, Langmuir, D-R and Tempkin isotherms to find the best fit for the sorption process. Thermodynamic parameters such as ΔG°, ΔH° and ΔS° were calculated to understand the nature of sorption process. This work provides a potential platform for the expansion of oil removal technology.

  7. Advanced treatment of oil recovery wastewater from polymer flooding by UV/H2O2/O3 and fine filtration.

    PubMed

    Guang-Meng, Ren; De-Zhi, Sun; Chunk, Jong Shik

    2006-01-01

    In order to purify oil recovery wastewater from polymer flooding (ORWPF) in tertiary oil recovery in oil fields, advanced treatment of UV/H2O2/O3 and fine filtration were investigated. The experimental results showed that polyacrylamide and oil remaining in ORWPF after the conventional treatment process could be effectively removed by UV/H2O2/O3 process. Fine filtration gave a high performance in eliminating suspended solids. The treated ORWPF can meet the quality requirement of the wastewater-bearing polymer injection in oilfield and be safely re-injected into oil reservoirs for oil recovery.

  8. Shoreline oiling effects and recovery of salt marsh macroinvertebrates from the Deepwater Horizon Oil Spill

    PubMed Central

    Fleeger, John W.; Bourgoin, Stefan M.; Mendelssohn, Irving A.; Lin, Qianxin; Hou, Aixin

    2017-01-01

    Salt marshes in northern Barataria Bay, Louisiana, USA were oiled, sometimes heavily, in the aftermath of the Deepwater Horizon oil spill. Previous studies indicate that fiddler crabs (in the genus Uca) and the salt marsh periwinkle (Littoraria irrorata) were negatively impacted in the short term by the spill. Here, we detail longer-term effects and recovery from moderate and heavy oiling over a 3-year span, beginning 30 months after the spill. Although neither fiddler crab burrow density nor diameter differed between oiled and reference sites when combined across all sampling events, these traits differed among some individual sampling periods consistent with a pattern of lingering oiling impacts. Periwinkle density, however, increased in all oiling categories and shell-length groups during our sampling period, and periwinkle densities were consistently highest at moderately oiled sites where Spartina alterniflora aboveground biomass was highest. Periwinkle shell length linearly increased from a mean of 16.5 to 19.2 mm over the study period at reference sites. In contrast, shell lengths at moderately oiled and heavily oiled sites increased through month 48 after the spill, but then decreased. This decrease was associated with a decline in the relative abundance of large adults (shell length 21–26 mm) at oiled sites which was likely caused by chronic hydrocarbon toxicity or oil-induced effects on habitat quality or food resources. Overall, the recovery of S. alterniflora facilitated the recovery of fiddler crabs and periwinkles. However, our long-term record not only indicates that variation in periwinkle mean shell length and length-frequency distributions are sensitive indicators of the health and recovery of the marsh, but agrees with synoptic studies of vegetation and infaunal communities that full recovery of heavily oiled sites will take longer than 66 months. PMID:28828273

  9. Shoreline oiling effects and recovery of salt marsh macroinvertebrates from the Deepwater Horizon Oil Spill.

    PubMed

    Deis, Donald R; Fleeger, John W; Bourgoin, Stefan M; Mendelssohn, Irving A; Lin, Qianxin; Hou, Aixin

    2017-01-01

    Salt marshes in northern Barataria Bay, Louisiana, USA were oiled, sometimes heavily, in the aftermath of the Deepwater Horizon oil spill. Previous studies indicate that fiddler crabs (in the genus Uca) and the salt marsh periwinkle (Littoraria irrorata) were negatively impacted in the short term by the spill. Here, we detail longer-term effects and recovery from moderate and heavy oiling over a 3-year span, beginning 30 months after the spill. Although neither fiddler crab burrow density nor diameter differed between oiled and reference sites when combined across all sampling events, these traits differed among some individual sampling periods consistent with a pattern of lingering oiling impacts. Periwinkle density, however, increased in all oiling categories and shell-length groups during our sampling period, and periwinkle densities were consistently highest at moderately oiled sites where Spartina alterniflora aboveground biomass was highest. Periwinkle shell length linearly increased from a mean of 16.5 to 19.2 mm over the study period at reference sites. In contrast, shell lengths at moderately oiled and heavily oiled sites increased through month 48 after the spill, but then decreased. This decrease was associated with a decline in the relative abundance of large adults (shell length 21-26 mm) at oiled sites which was likely caused by chronic hydrocarbon toxicity or oil-induced effects on habitat quality or food resources. Overall, the recovery of S. alterniflora facilitated the recovery of fiddler crabs and periwinkles. However, our long-term record not only indicates that variation in periwinkle mean shell length and length-frequency distributions are sensitive indicators of the health and recovery of the marsh, but agrees with synoptic studies of vegetation and infaunal communities that full recovery of heavily oiled sites will take longer than 66 months.

  10. Polymer-microemulsion complexes for the enhanced recovery of oil

    SciTech Connect

    Baker, E.G.; Canter, N.H.; Robbins, M.L.

    1982-10-12

    A polymer-microemulsion complex useful for the enhanced recovery of crude oil is disclosed. The polymer is polyethylene oxide or polyvinyl pyrrolidone and interacts with the surfactant of the microemulsion to form a physical association. The resulting complex is characterized by a complexation energy of at least 2 kcal/mole. The polymer microemulsion complexes are stable at high salinity, reduce adsorption and retention by the formation, lower interfacial tension, achieve retentions as low as 0.1 mg surfactant/gm sand at high salinity and provide for early banking , as well as high recovery of oil.

  11. Alkyl bicarbamates supramolecular organogelators with effective selective gelation and high oil recovery from oil/water mixtures.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yongzhen; Wu, Songquan; Yan, Xingru; Ma, Tao; Shao, Lu; Liu, Yuyan; Guo, Zhanhu

    2017-01-01

    A series of alkyl bicarbamates supramolecular organogelators were synthesized with different structures and lengths of alkyl chains. The driving forces for the self-assembly of small molecules, including the intermolecular H bonding, π-π stacking and van der Waals interactions, played an important role in the formation of different 3D network structures, i.e., fibers, ribbons, sheets, and prisms. And a probable formation process of the gel networks was proposed. Furthermore, the phase-selective gelling performances were investigated for oil removal from aqueous solution. Interestingly, the gelling properties were found to be affected by the length and structure of alkyl chains, while some gelators with intermediate alkyl chain lengths could effectively gel all the tested oils from water surface within 15 min, such as Russian crude oil, diesel, gasoline, soybean oil, peanut oil, olive oil, cyclohexane, hexane and ethyl acetate. Advantageously, fast gelation, high rate of oil removal (>95%) and excellent oil retention rate (close to 100%) were realized in the recovery of oil spills from water surface. This kind of supramolecular gelators demonstrates good potential applications in the delivery or removal of organic pollution from oil/water mixtures.

  12. Oil spill recovery method and apparatus

    SciTech Connect

    Pinder, R.F. III.

    1991-09-17

    This patent describes a method of recovering oil from the surface of a body of water and into a tank vessel, the tank vessel having a below-waterline seachest member hydraulically connected to at least one internal tank. It comprises providing a length of hose for carrying a flow of liquid; providing an adaptor member on the hose, the adaptor member constructed and arranged for connection to the tank vessel seachest member; and drawing the oil through the hose, the adaptor member, the seachest member, and into the tank vessel internal tank.

  13. Oil spill recovery: Oil booms and skimmers. (Latest citations from the US Patent bibliographic file with exemplary claims). Published Search

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-02-01

    The bibliography contains citations of selected patents concerning booms, skimmers and skimming techniques used for oil spill recovery. Patents covering oil absorbent materials, dispersants, floating booms, methods and equipment for oil spill containment and collection, marine barriers, cryogenic beach cleaners, microbial materials, and ultrasonic oil removal are included. Citations concerning oil/water separation for non-oil spill recovery applications are examined in a separate bibliography. (Contains a minimum of 177 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

  14. Zeta potential in oil-water-carbonate systems and its impact on oil recovery during controlled salinity water-flooding

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jackson, Matthew D.; Al-Mahrouqi, Dawoud; Vinogradov, Jan

    2016-11-01

    Laboratory experiments and field trials have shown that oil recovery from carbonate reservoirs can be increased by modifying the brine composition injected during recovery in a process termed controlled salinity water-flooding (CSW). However, CSW remains poorly understood and there is no method to predict the optimum CSW composition. This work demonstrates for the first time that improved oil recovery (IOR) during CSW is strongly correlated to changes in zeta potential at both the mineral-water and oil-water interfaces. We report experiments in which IOR during CSW occurs only when the change in brine composition induces a repulsive electrostatic force between the oil-brine and mineral-brine interfaces. The polarity of the zeta potential at both interfaces must be determined when designing the optimum CSW composition. A new experimental method is presented that allows this. Results also show for the first time that the zeta potential at the oil-water interface may be positive at conditions relevant to carbonate reservoirs. A key challenge for any model of CSW is to explain why IOR is not always observed. Here we suggest that failures using the conventional (dilution) approach to CSW may have been caused by a positively charged oil-water interface that had not been identified.

  15. Zeta potential in oil-water-carbonate systems and its impact on oil recovery during controlled salinity water-flooding.

    PubMed

    Jackson, Matthew D; Al-Mahrouqi, Dawoud; Vinogradov, Jan

    2016-11-23

    Laboratory experiments and field trials have shown that oil recovery from carbonate reservoirs can be increased by modifying the brine composition injected during recovery in a process termed controlled salinity water-flooding (CSW). However, CSW remains poorly understood and there is no method to predict the optimum CSW composition. This work demonstrates for the first time that improved oil recovery (IOR) during CSW is strongly correlated to changes in zeta potential at both the mineral-water and oil-water interfaces. We report experiments in which IOR during CSW occurs only when the change in brine composition induces a repulsive electrostatic force between the oil-brine and mineral-brine interfaces. The polarity of the zeta potential at both interfaces must be determined when designing the optimum CSW composition. A new experimental method is presented that allows this. Results also show for the first time that the zeta potential at the oil-water interface may be positive at conditions relevant to carbonate reservoirs. A key challenge for any model of CSW is to explain why IOR is not always observed. Here we suggest that failures using the conventional (dilution) approach to CSW may have been caused by a positively charged oil-water interface that had not been identified.

  16. Zeta potential in oil-water-carbonate systems and its impact on oil recovery during controlled salinity water-flooding

    PubMed Central

    Jackson, Matthew D.; Al-Mahrouqi, Dawoud; Vinogradov, Jan

    2016-01-01

    Laboratory experiments and field trials have shown that oil recovery from carbonate reservoirs can be increased by modifying the brine composition injected during recovery in a process termed controlled salinity water-flooding (CSW). However, CSW remains poorly understood and there is no method to predict the optimum CSW composition. This work demonstrates for the first time that improved oil recovery (IOR) during CSW is strongly correlated to changes in zeta potential at both the mineral-water and oil-water interfaces. We report experiments in which IOR during CSW occurs only when the change in brine composition induces a repulsive electrostatic force between the oil-brine and mineral-brine interfaces. The polarity of the zeta potential at both interfaces must be determined when designing the optimum CSW composition. A new experimental method is presented that allows this. Results also show for the first time that the zeta potential at the oil-water interface may be positive at conditions relevant to carbonate reservoirs. A key challenge for any model of CSW is to explain why IOR is not always observed. Here we suggest that failures using the conventional (dilution) approach to CSW may have been caused by a positively charged oil-water interface that had not been identified. PMID:27876833

  17. Polymers for enhanced oil recovery: fundamentals and selection criteria.

    PubMed

    Rellegadla, Sandeep; Prajapat, Ganshyam; Agrawal, Akhil

    2017-06-01

    With a rising population, the demand for energy has increased over the years. As per the projections, both fossil fuel and renewables will remain as major energy source (678 quadrillion BTU) till 2030 with fossil fuel contributing 78% of total energy consumption. Hence, attempts are continuously made to make fossil fuel production more sustainable and cheaper. From the past 40 years, polymer flooding has been carried out in marginal oil fields and have proved to be successful in many cases. The common expectation from polymer flooding is to obtain 50% ultimate recovery with 15 to 20% incremental recovery over secondary water flooding. Both naturally derived polymers like xanthan gum and synthetic polymers like partially hydrolyzed polyacrylamide (HPAM) have been used for this purpose. Earlier laboratory and field trials revealed that salinity and temperature are the major issues with the synthetic polymers that lead to polymer degradation and adsorption on the rock surface. Microbial degradation and concentration are major issues with naturally derived polymers leading to loss of viscosity and pore throat plugging. Earlier studies also revealed that polymer flooding is successful in the fields where oil viscosity is quite higher (up to 126 cp) than injection water due to improvement in mobility ratio during polymer flooding. The largest successful polymer flood was reported in China in 1990 where both synthetic and naturally derived polymers were used in nearly 20 projects. The implementation of these projects provides valuable suggestions for further improving the available processes in future. This paper examines the selection criteria of polymer, field characteristics that support polymer floods and recommendation to design a large producing polymer flooding.

  18. Nonmonotonic Elasticity of the Crude Oil-Brine Interface in Relation to Improved Oil Recovery.

    PubMed

    Chávez-Miyauchi, Tomás E; Firoozabadi, Abbas; Fuller, Gerald G

    2016-03-08

    Injection of optimized chemistry water in enhanced oil recovery (EOR) has gained much interest in the past few years. Crude oil-water interfaces can have a viscoelastic character affected by the adsorption of amphiphilic molecules. The brine concentration as well as surfactants may strongly affect the fluid-fluid interfacial viscoelasticity. In this work we investigate interfacial viscoelasticity of two different oils in terms of brine concentration and a nonionic surfactant. We correlate these measurements with oil recovery in a glass-etched flow microchannel. Interfacial viscoelasticity develops relatively fast in both oils, stabilizing at about 48 h. The interfaces are found to be more elastic than viscous. The interfacial elastic (G') and viscous (G″) moduli increase as the salt concentration decreases until a maximum in viscoelasticity is observed around 0.01 wt % of salt. Monovalent (Na(+)) and divalent (Mg(2+)) cations are used to investigate the effect of ion type; no difference is observed at low salinity. The introduction of a small amount of a surfactant (100 ppm) increases the elasticity of the crude oil-water interface at high salt concentration. Aqueous solutions that give the maximum interface viscoelasticity and high salinity brines are used to displace oil in a glass-etched "porous media" micromodel. Pressure fluctuations after breakthrough are observed in systems with high salt concentration while at low salt concentration there are no appreciable pressure fluctuations. Oil recovery increases by 5-10% in low salinity brines. By using a small amount of a nonionic surfactant with high salinity brine, oil recovery is enhanced 10% with no pressure fluctuations. Interface elasticity reduces the snap-off of the oil phase, leading to reduced pressure fluctuations. This study sheds light on significance of interface viscoelasticity in oil recovery by change in salt concentration and by addition of a small amount of a nonionic surfactant.

  19. Studies on the effect of ohmic heating on oil recovery and quality of sesame seeds.

    PubMed

    Kumari, Kirti; Mudgal, V D; Viswasrao, Gajanan; Srivastava, Himani

    2016-04-01

    This research describes a new technological process for sesame oil extraction. The process deals with the effect of ohmic heating on enhancement of oil recovery and quality of cleaned and graded sesame seed. The effect of ohmic heating parameters namely electric field strength (EFS), end point temperature (EPT) and holding time (HT) on oil extraction process were investigated. Three levels of electric field strength (600, 750 and 900 V/m), end point temperature (65, 75 and 85 °C) and holding time (5, 10 and 15 min.) were taken as independent variables using full factorial design. Percentage oil recovered from sesame seed through mechanical extracted oil by application of ohmic heating varies from 39.98 to 43.15 %. The maximum oil recovery 43.15 % was obtained when the sample was heated and maintained at 85 °C using EFS of 900 V/m for a holding time of 10 min as against 34.14 % in control sample. The free fatty acid (FFA) of the extracted oil was within the acceptable limit (1.52 to 2.26 % oleic acid) of 0.5 to 3 % as prescribed respectively by Prevention of Food Adulteration (PFA) and Bureau of Indian Standards (BIS). The peroxide value of extracted oil was also found within the acceptable limit (0.78 to 1.01 meq/kg). The optimum value for maximum oil recovery, minimum residual oil content, free fatty acid (FFA) and peroxide value were 41.24 %, 8.61 %, 1.74 % oleic acid and 0.86 meq/kg, respectively at 722.52 V/m EFS at EPT 65 °C for 5 min. holding time which was obtained by response surface methodology.

  20. Optimization of Surfactant Mixtures and Their Interfacial Behavior for Advanced Oil Recovery, Annual Report, September 30, 1999-September 30, 2000

    SciTech Connect

    Somasundaran, Prof. P.

    2001-04-04

    The goal of this report is to develop improved extraction processes to mobilize and produce the oil left untapped using conventional techniques. Current chemical schemes for recovering the residual oil have been in general less than satisfactory. High cost of the processes as well as significant loss of chemicals by adsorption on reservoir materials and precipitation has limited the utility of chemical-flooding operations. There is a need to develop cost-effective, improved reagent schemes to increase recovery from domestic oil reservoirs. The goal of the report was to develop and evaluate novel mixtures of surfactants for improved oil recovery.

  1. SOVENT BASED ENHANCED OIL RECOVERY FOR IN-SITU UPGRADING OF HEAVY OIL SANDS

    SciTech Connect

    Munroe, Norman

    2009-01-30

    With the depletion of conventional crude oil reserves in the world, heavy oil and bitumen resources have great potential to meet the future demand for petroleum products. However, oil recovery from heavy oil and bitumen reservoirs is much more difficult than that from conventional oil reservoirs. This is mainly because heavy oil or bitumen is partially or completely immobile under reservoir conditions due to its extremely high viscosity, which creates special production challenges. In order to overcome these challenges significant efforts were devoted by Applied Research Center (ARC) at Florida International University and The Center for Energy Economics (CEE) at the University of Texas. A simplified model was developed to assess the density of the upgraded crude depending on the ratio of solvent mass to crude oil mass, temperature, pressure and the properties of the crude oil. The simplified model incorporated the interaction dynamics into a homogeneous, porous heavy oil reservoir to simulate the dispersion and concentration of injected CO2. The model also incorporated the characteristic of a highly varying CO2 density near the critical point. Since the major challenge in heavy oil recovery is its high viscosity, most researchers have focused their investigations on this parameter in the laboratory as well as in the field resulting in disparaging results. This was attributed to oil being a complex poly-disperse blend of light and heavy paraffins, aromatics, resins and asphaltenes, which have diverse behaviors at reservoir temperature and pressures. The situation is exacerbated by a dearth of experimental data on gas diffusion coefficients in heavy oils due to the tedious nature of diffusivity measurements. Ultimately, the viscosity and thus oil recovery is regulated by pressure and its effect on the diffusion coefficient and oil swelling factors. The generation of a new phase within the crude and the differences in mobility between the new crude matrix and the

  2. Surfactant Based Enhanced Oil Recovery and Foam Mobility Control

    SciTech Connect

    George J. Hirasaki; Clarence A. Miller

    2006-09-09

    Surfactant flooding has the potential to significantly increase recovery over that of conventional waterflooding. The availability of a large number of surfactant structures makes it possible to conduct a systematic study of the relation between surfactant structure and its efficacy for oil recovery. A mixture of two surfactants was found to be particularly effective for application in carbonate formations at low temperature. The mixture is single phase for higher salinity or calcium concentrations than that for either surfactant used alone. This makes it possible to inject the surfactant slug with polymer close to optimal conditions and yet be single phase. A formulation has been designed for a particular field application. It uses partially hydrolyzed polyacrylamide for mobility control. The addition of an alkali such as sodium carbonate makes possible in situ generation of naphthenic soap and significant reduction of synthetic surfactant adsorption. The design of the process to maximize the region of ultra-low IFT takes advantage of the observation that the ratio of soap to synthetic surfactant is a parameter in the conditions for optimal salinity. Even for a fixed ratio of soap to surfactant, the range of salinity for low IFT was wider than that reported for surfactant systems in the literature. Low temperature, forced displacement experiments in dolomite and silica sandpacks demonstrate that greater than 95% recovery of the waterflood remaining oil is possible with 0.2% surfactant concentration, 0.5 PV surfactant slug, with no alcohol. Compositional simulation of the displacement process demonstrates the role of soap/surfactant ratio on passage of the profile through the ultralow IFT region, the importance of a wide salinity range of low IFT, and the importance of the viscosity of the surfactant slug. Mobility control is essential for surfactant EOR. Foam is evaluated to improve the sweep efficiency of surfactant injected into fractured reservoirs as well as a

  3. Gas miscible displacement enhanced oil recovery: Technology status report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1986-10-01

    Gas miscible displacement enhanced oil recovery research is conducted by the US Department of Energy's Morgantown Energy Technology Center to advance the application of miscible carbon dioxide flooding. This research is an integral part of a multidisciplinary effort to improve the technology for producing additional oil from US resources. This report summarizes the problems of the technology and the 1986 results of the ongoing research that was conducted to solve those problems. Poor reservoir volumetric sweep efficiency is the major problem associated with gas flooding and all miscible displacements. This problem results from the channeling and viscous fingering that occur due to the large differences between viscosity or density of the displacing and displaced fluids (i.e., carbon dioxide and oil, respectively). Simple modeling and core flooding studies indicate that, because of differences in fluid viscosities, breakthrough can occur after only 30% of the total pore volume (PV) of the rock has been injected with gas, while field tests have shown breakthrough occurring much earlier. The differences in fluid densities lead to gravity segregation. The lower density carbon dioxide tends to override the residual fluids in the reservoir. This process would be considerably more efficient if a larger area of the reservoir could be contacted by the gas. Current research has focused on the mobility control, computer simulation, and reservoir heterogeneity studies. Three mobility control methods have been investigated: (1) the use of polymers for direct thickening of high-density carbon dioxide, (2) mobile ''foam-like dispersions'' of carbon dioxide and an aqueous surfactant, and (3) in situ deposition of chemical precipitates. 22 refs., 14 figs., 6 tabs.

  4. Corona processing of insulating oil

    SciTech Connect

    Rohwein, G.J.

    1996-07-01

    It is well known that sustained corona discharge in insulating oil lowers its dielectric strength and simultaneously reduces its corona resistance. Therefore, for operating stresses in the corona regime, activity typically increases with time and, if allowed to continue, eventually leads to breakdown of the oil and failure of the component or system. It is, therefore, common practice to periodically replace oil in devices such as large power transformers and switch gear before breakdown occurs. Sealed components such as capacitors are typically replaced. Recent experiments have demonstrated that the dielectric properties of corona weakened oil can not only be restored, but actually improved by a simple regeneration process. These experiments were carried out on high voltage pulse transformer windings which were operated at high rep rates until partial discharges formed. Reprocessing the oil after each operating cycle resulted in successively longer operational periods before partial discharges appeared. In a separate experiment, a process was developed to precondition transformer oil to raise its corona inception voltage before using it to insulate a high voltage component, thus giving it a longer initial service life for a given operating stress or permitting higher stress operation for limited operating times.

  5. Calculation of energy recovery and greenhouse gas emission reduction from palm oil mill effluent treatment by an anaerobic granular-sludge process.

    PubMed

    Show, K Y; Ng, C A; Faiza, A R; Wong, L P; Wong, L Y

    2011-01-01

    Conventional aerobic and low-rate anaerobic processes such as pond and open-tank systems have been widely used in wastewater treatment. In order to improve treatment efficacy and to avoid greenhouse gas emissions, conventional treatment can be upgraded to a high performance anaerobic granular-sludge system. The anaerobic granular-sludge systems are designed to capture the biogas produced, rendering a potential for claims of carbon credits under the Kyoto Protocol for reducing emissions of greenhouse gases. Certified Emission Reductions (CERs) would be issued, which can be exchanged between businesses or bought and sold in international markets at the prevailing market prices. As the advanced anaerobic granular systems are capable of handling high organic loadings concomitant with high strength wastewater and short hydraulic retention time, they render more carbon credits than other conventional anaerobic systems. In addition to efficient waste degradation, the carbon credits can be used to generate revenue and to finance the project. This paper presents a scenario on emission avoidance based on a methane recovery and utilization project. An example analysis on emission reduction and an overview of the global emission market are also outlined.

  6. Heavy Oil Recovery Ohmsett Test Report

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-06-01

    operational variability of the system. All pumps selected thus far are of a centrifugal submersible design and are hydraulically powered. Mounted on the...tank bottoms, as well as refloated oil from the tops. Submersible pumps can be suspended at a variable depth within each tank in a cascade... submersible pumps are attached to the diver’s hose and intermediate pumps may be needed at the surface. The issues with this approach are lack of visibility

  7. SURFACTANT - POLYMER INTERACTION FOR IMPROVED OIL RECOVERY

    SciTech Connect

    Unknown

    1997-09-01

    The goal of this research is to use the interaction between a surfactant and a polymer for efficient displacement of tertiary oil by improving slug integrity, adsorption and mobility control. Surfactant--polymer flooding has been shown to be highly effective in laboratory-scale linear floods. The focus of this proposal is to design an inexpensive surfactant-polymer mixture that can efficiently recover tertiary oil by avoiding surfactant slug degradation, high adsorption and viscous/heterogeneity fingering. This report contains data concerning selection of appropriate fluids for use in laboratory experiments and numerical simulations. A mixture comprising a ''pseudo oil'' with appropriate surfactant and polymer is proposed. The properties of this system has been determined. The experimental set-up has been conditioned for use and experiments involving the aforementioned system have already started. A commercial simulator has been acquired for use in reproducing the experiments. A graduate student has been trained in its use. Linear stability analysis equations have been developed and phase maps for one and two-dimensions are currently computed.

  8. Investigation of oil recovery improvement by coupling an interfacial tension agent and a mobility control agent in light oil reservoirs. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Pitts, M.

    1995-12-01

    This research studied the oil recovery potential of flooding light oil reservoirs by combining interfacial tension reducing agent(s) with a mobility control agent. The specific objectives were: To define the mechanisms and limitations of co-injecting interfacial tension reduction agent(s) and a mobility control agent to recover incremental oil. Specifically, the study focused on the fluid-fluid and fluid-rock interactions. To evaluate the economics of the combination technology and investigate methods to make the process more profitable. Specific areas of study were to evaluate different chemical concentration tapers and the volume of chemical injection required to give optimal oil recovery.

  9. Recent advancement of hybrid materials used in chemical enhanced oil recovery (CEOR): A review

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hamza, M. F.; Sinnathambi, C. M.; Merican, Z. M. A.

    2017-06-01

    Depletion of natural oil reserves has forced oil industries to focus on tertiary recovery methods to extract residual oil after exhausting the primary and secondary methods. Among the Enhance Oil Recovery (EOR) technologies, Chemical EOR (CEOR) is gaining popularity. Despite research efforts to increase the recovery using CEOR, increasing complexity in extraction methods are encountered. With changes in reservoir conditions (high temperature, pressure and salinity) and crude oil properties, existing chemicals used in CEOR, such as alkali, polymers and surfactants do not function desirably. These conditions have detrimental effects on the performance of EOR chemicals, like precipitation, degradation, etc. Development and utilization of effective EOR hybrids such as surfactant-polymer, polymer-nanomaterial, surfactant-nanomaterial and polymer-surfactant-nanomaterial had prevailed the effects of harsh reservoir conditions, and their applications in oil fields in recent years have increased the success of EOR. The synergistic effects between the hybrid components play major roles in improving the properties that could withstand the effect of extreme reservoir conditions and changes in crude oil properties. Therefore, this paper is aimed at reviewing recent advances in CEOR hybrid technologies, and discusses the basic concept, applications, advancement and limitations of different hybrid materials used in CEOR processes.

  10. Pollutant in palm oil production process.

    PubMed

    Hosseini, Seyed Ehsan; Abdul Wahid, Mazlan

    2015-07-01

    Palm oil mill effluent (POME) is a by-product of the palm industry and it releases large amounts of greenhouse gases (GHGs). Water systems are also contaminated by POME if it is released into nonstandard ponds or rivers where it endangers the lives of fish and water fowl. In this paper, the environmental bottlenecks faced by palm oil production were investigated by analyzing the data collected from wet extraction palm oil mills (POMs) located in Malaysia. Strategies for reducing pollution and technologies for GHG reduction from the wet extraction POMs were also proposed. Average GHG emissions produced from processing 1 ton of crude palm oil (CPO) was 1100 kg CO2eq. This amount can be reduced to 200 kg CO2eq by capturing biogases. The amount of GHG emissions from open ponds could be decreased from 225 to 25 kg CO2eq/MT CPO by covering the ponds. Installation of biogas capturing system can decrease the average of chemical oxygen demand (COD) to about 17,100 mg/L and stabilizing ponds in the final step could decrease COD to 5220 mg/L. Using a biogas capturing system allows for the reduction of COD by 80% and simultaneously using a biogas capturing system and by stabilizing ponds can mitigate COD by 96%. Other ways to reduce the pollution caused by POME, including the installation of wet scrubber vessels and increasing the performance of biogas recovery and biogas upgrading systems, are studied in this paper. Around 0.87 m3 POME is produced per 1 ton palm fruit milled. POME consists of around 2% oil, 2-4% suspended solid, 94-96% water. In palm oil mills, more than 90% of GHGs were emitted from POME. From 1 ton crude palm oil, 1100 kg CO2eq GHGs are generated, which can be reduced to 200 kg CO2eq by installation of biogas capturing equipment.

  11. Occidental vertical modified in situ process for the recovery of oil from oil shale, Phase 2. Construction, operation, testing, and environmental impact. Final report, August 1981-December 1982. Volume 1

    SciTech Connect

    Stevens, A.L.; Zahradnik, R.L.; Kaleel, R.J.

    1984-01-01

    Occidential Oil Shale, Inc. (OOSI) recently completed the demonstration of mining, rubblization, ignition, and simulataneous processing of two commericalized modified in situ (MIS) retorts at the Logas Wash facility near DeBeque, Colorado. Upon completion of Retort 6 in 1978, Occidential began incorporating all of the knowledge previously acquired in an effort to design two more commercial-sized MIS retorts. Any commercial venture of the future would require the ability to operate simultaneously more than one retort. Thus, Retorts 7 and 8 were developed during 1980 and 1981 through joint funding of the DOE and OOSI in Phase II. Rubblization of the retorts produced an average rubble void of 18.5% in the low grade shale (17 gallons per ton) at the Logan Wash site. After rubblization, bulkheads were constructed, inlet and offgas pipes were installed and connected to surface processing facilities and liquid product handling systems were connected to the retorts. Extensive instrumentation was installed in cooperation with Sandia National Laboratories for monitoring the complete operation of the retorts. After pre-ignition testing, Retort 8 was ignited in December of 1981 and Retort 7 was ignited in January of 1982. The retorts were operated without interruption from ignition until mid- November of 1982 at which time inlet gas injection was terminated and water quenching was begun. Total product yield from the two retorts was approximately 200,000 barrels of oil, or 70% of the Fischer Assay oil-in-place in the rubblized rock in the two retrots. Water quenching studies were conducted over a period of several months, with the objective of determining the rate of heat extraction from the retorts as well as determining the quantity and quality of offgas and water coming out from the quenching process. Data from these studies are also included in this Summary Report. 62 figs., 18 tabs.

  12. Distillation and solvent extraction process for rerefining used lubricating oil

    SciTech Connect

    Beard, H.J.; Fletcher, L.C.; O'blasny, R.

    1982-11-23

    Used oil is rerefined by distillation and extraction with tetrahydrofurfuryl alcohol. In accordance with the process, used oil is rerefined by distillation to remove a volatile forecut followed by further distillation with recirculation provisions to obtain the desired fractions of lubricating oil products while reducing the vaporization temperature of the oil. The recycle effect tends to reduce coking and cracking while providing a greater recovery of lubricating oil products through the carrier effect of the light ends. After the desired fractions of lubricating oil have been obtained by the distillation phase of the process, tetrahydrofurfuryl alcohol is utilized in an extraction process to remove impurities remaining in the distilled oil. The tetrahydrofurfuryl alcohol-lube oil mixture is separated into a raffinate and extract stream for distilling and steam stripping the tetrahydrofurfuryl alcohol therefrom. In one embodiment of the invention, a waste oil feedstock has water, gasoline and other similarly volatile components removed in a first stage evaporator (16). Heavier fuel, such as fuel oil is then removed in the second stage evaporator (28). A light lube oil fraction is then obtained by distillation with a third stage wiped-film evaporator (40). Finally, a heavy lube oil fraction is obtained by distillation of the bottoms from the evaporator (40) in a fourth-stage with a wiped-film evaporator (64). The heavy and light lube oil fractions are then treated in the fifth stage of the process in which each of the lube oil fractions mix with tetrahydrofurfuryl alcohol in extraction columns (80) and (96). Each of the tetrahydrofurfuryl alcohol and oil fractions are then separated into raffinate and extract streams for further treatment to further separate and recover the finished light and heavy lube oil products and tetrahydrofurfuryl alcohol which is reused in the fifth stage of the process.

  13. Potential uses for cuphea oil processing byproducts and processed oils

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Cuphea spp. has seeds that contain high levels of medium chain fatty acids and have the potential to be commercially cultivated. In the course of processing and refining Cuphea oil a number of bi-products are generated. Developing commercial uses for these bi-products would improve the economics of...

  14. A field laboratory for improved oil recovery. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Hildebrandt, A.F.; McDonald, J.; Claridge, E.; Killough, J.

    1992-09-01

    The purpose of Annex III of the Memorandum of Understanding, undertaken by the Houston Petroleum Research Center at the University of Houston, was to develop a field laboratory for research in improved oil recovery using a Gulf Coast reservoir in Texas. The participants: (1) make a field site selection and conducted a high resolution seismic survey in the demonstration field, (2) obtained characteristics of the reservoir (3) developed an evaluation of local flood efficiency in different parts of the demonstration reservoir, (4) used diverse methodology to evaluate the potential recovery of the remaining oil in the test reservoir, (5) developed cross-well seismic tomography, and (6) will transfer the learned technologies to oil operators through publication and workshops. This abstract is an overview of these tasks.

  15. Foam-improved oil recovery: Modelling the effect of an increase in injection pressure.

    PubMed

    Hernández, Elizabeth Mas; Grassia, Paul; Shokri, Nima

    2015-06-01

    A model, called pressure-driven growth, is analysed for propagation of a foam front through an oil reservoir during improved oil recovery using foam. Numerical simulations of the model predict, not only the distance over which the foam front propagates, but also the instantaneous front shape. A particular case is studied here in which the pressure used to drive the foam along is suddenly increased at a certain point in time. This transiently produces a concave front shape (seen from the domain ahead of the front): such concavities are known to be delicate to handle numerically. As time proceeds however, the front evolves back towards a convex shape, and this can be predicted by a long-time asymptotic analysis of the model. The increase in driving pressure is shown to be beneficial to the improved oil recovery process, because it gives a more uniform sweep of the oil reservoir by the foam.

  16. Activities of the Oil Implementation Task Force; Contracts for field projects and supporting research on enhanced oil recovery, July--September 1990

    SciTech Connect

    Tiedemann, H.A. )

    1991-05-01

    The report contains a general introduction and background to DOE's revised National Energy Strategy Advanced Oil Recovery Program and activities of the Oil Implementation Task Force; a detailed synopsis of the symposium, including technical presentations, comments and suggestions; a section of technical information on deltaic reservoirs; and appendices containing a comprehensive listing of references keyed to general deltaic and geological aspects of reservoirs and those relevant to six selected deltaic plays. Enhanced recovery processes include chemical floodings, gas displacement, thermal recovery, geoscience, and microbial recovery.

  17. A review on applications of nanotechnology in the enhanced oil recovery part A: effects of nanoparticles on interfacial tension

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheraghian, Goshtasp; Hendraningrat, Luky

    2016-01-01

    Chemical enhanced oil recovery is another strong growing technology with the potential of a step change innovation, which will help to secure future oil supply by turning resources into reserves. While Substantial amount of crude oil remains in the reservoir after primary and secondary production, conventional production methods give access to on average only one-third of original oil in place, the use of surfactants and polymers allows for recovery of up to another third of this oil. Chemical flooding is of increasing interest and importance due to high oil prices and the need to increase oil production. Research in nanotechnology in the petroleum industry is advancing rapidly and an enormous progress in the application of nanotechnology in this area is to be expected. Nanotechnology has the potential to profoundly change enhanced oil recovery and to improve mechanism of recovery. This paper, therefore, focuses on the reviews of the application of nano technology in chemical flooding process in oil recovery and reviews the application nano in the polymer and surfactant flooding on the interfacial tension process.

  18. High efficiency shale oil recovery. Final report, January 1, 1992--June 30, 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Adams, D.C.

    1993-09-29

    The Adams Counter-current shale oil recovery process is an improved retorting technology enabling highly efficient oil recovery from oil shale. The high efficiency results primarily from the following facts: it (1) recovers the ash heat to preheat the feed ore; (2) burns and uses the coke energy and (3) operates without using hot ash recycling as a heat carrier. This latter feature is doubly important, contributing to high oil yield and to the generation of highly reactive coke which can be burned below 1000{degree}F, avoiding the endothermal calcination of the mineral carbonates and helping to clean the ash of contaminants. This project demonstrates that oil shale can be retorted under the specified conditions and achieve the objectives of very high efficiency. The project accomplished the following: 51 quartz sand rotary kiln runs provided significant engineering data. A heat transfer value of 107 Btu/hr/ft{sup 2}/{degree}F was obtained at optimum RPM; eight oil shale samples were obtained and preliminary shakedown runs were made. Five of the samples were selected for kiln processing and twelve pyrolysis runs were made on the five different oil shales;average off recovery was 109% of Fisher Assay; retorted residue from all five samples was oxidized at approximately 1000{degree}F. The ash from these runs was oxidized to varying extents, depending on the oil shale and oxidizing temperatures. While 1000{degree}F is adequately hot to provide process heat from coke combustion for these ores, some Eastern oil shales, without mineral carbonates, may be oxidized at higher temperatures, perhaps 100--300 degrees hotter, to obtain a more complete oxidation and utilization of the coke.

  19. BIOTIGER, A NATURAL MICROBIAL PRODUCT FOR ENHANCED HYDROCARBON RECOVERY FROM OIL SANDS.

    SciTech Connect

    Brigmon, R; Topher Berry, T; Whitney Jones, W; Charles Milliken, C

    2008-05-27

    BioTiger{trademark} is a unique microbial consortia that resulted from over 8 years of extensive microbiology screening and characterization of samples collected from a century-old Polish waste lagoon. BioTiger{trademark} shows rapid and complete degradation of aliphatic and aromatic hydrocarbons, produces novel surfactants, is tolerant of both chemical and metal toxicity and shows good activity at temperature and pH extremes. Although originally developed and used by the U.S. Department of Energy for bioremediation of oil-contaminated soils, recent efforts have proven that BioTiger{trademark} can also be used to increase hydrocarbon recovery from oil sands. This enhanced ex situ oil recovery process utilizes BioTiger{trademark} to optimize bitumen separation. A floatation test protocol with oil sands from Ft. McMurray, Canada was used for the BioTiger{trademark} evaluation. A comparison of hot water extraction/floatation test of the oil sands performed with BioTiger{trademark} demonstrated a 50% improvement in separation as measured by gravimetric analysis in 4 h and a five-fold increase at 25 hr. Since BioTiger{trademark} performs well at high temperatures and process engineering can enhance and sustain metabolic activity, it can be applied to enhance recovery of hydrocarbons from oil sands or other complex recalcitrant matrices.

  20. Reactive Transport Modeling of Microbe-mediated Fe (II) Oxidation for Enhanced Oil Recovery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Surasani, V.; Li, L.

    2011-12-01

    Microbially Enhanced Oil Recovery (MEOR) aims to improve the recovery of entrapped heavy oil in depleted reservoirs using microbe-based technology. Reservoir ecosystems often contain diverse microbial communities those can interact with subsurface fluids and minerals through a network of nutrients and energy fluxes. Microbe-mediated reactions products include gases, biosurfactants, biopolymers those can alter the properties of oil and interfacial interactions between oil, brine, and rocks. In addition, the produced biomass and mineral precipitates can change the reservoir permeability profile and increase sweeping efficiency. Under subsurface conditions, the injection of nitrate and Fe (II) as the electron acceptor and donor allows bacteria to grow. The reaction products include minerals such as Fe(OH)3 and nitrogen containing gases. These reaction products can have large impact on oil and reservoir properties and can enhance the recovery of trapped oil. This work aims to understand the Fe(II) oxidation by nitrate under conditions relevant to MEOR. Reactive transport modeling is used to simulate the fluid flow, transport, and reactions involved in this process. Here we developed a complex reactive network for microbial mediated nitrate-dependent Fe (II) oxidation that involves both thermodynamic controlled aqueous reactions and kinetic controlled Fe (II) mineral reaction. Reactive transport modeling is used to understand and quantify the coupling between flow, transport, and reaction processes. Our results identify key parameter controls those are important for the alteration of permeability profile under field conditions.

  1. Oil recovery from naturally fractured reservoirs by steam injection methods. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Reis, J.C.; Miller, M.A.

    1995-05-01

    Oil recovery by steam injection is a proven, successful technology for nonfractured reservoirs, but has received only limited study for fractured reservoirs. Preliminary studies suggest recovery efficiencies in fractured reservoirs may be increased by as much as 50% with the application of steam relative to that of low temperature processes. The key mechanisms enhancing oil production at high temperature are the differential thermal expansion between oil and the pore volume, and the generation of gases within matrix blocks. Other mechanisms may also contribute to increased production. These mechanisms are relatively independent of oil gravity, making steam injection into naturally fractured reservoirs equally attractive to light and heavy oil deposits. The objectives of this research program are to quantify the amount of oil expelled by these recovery mechanisms and to develop a numerical model for predicting oil recovery in naturally fractured reservoirs during steam injection. The experimental study consists of constructing and operating several apparatuses to isolate each of these mechanisms. The first measures thermal expansion and capillary imbibition rates at relatively low temperature, but for various lithologies and matrix block shapes. The second apparatus measures the same parameters, but at high temperatures and for only one shape. A third experimental apparatus measures the maximum gas saturations that could build up within a matrix block. A fourth apparatus measures thermal conductivity and diffusivity of porous media. The numerical study consists of developing transfer functions for oil expulsion from matrix blocks to fractures at high temperatures and incorporating them, along with the energy equation, into a dual porosity thermal reservoir simulator. This simulator can be utilized to make predictions for steam injection processes in naturally-fractured reservoirs. Analytical models for capillary imbibition have also been developed.

  2. Development of Bottom Oil Recovery Systems. Revised

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-02-01

    designed a recovery system based on dredging technology. It could handle harsh wind /wave conditions but has significant logistical requirements, due...Knots m/s Meter(s) per second M/T Motor tanker M/V Motor vessel m Meter or meters m2 Square meters m3 Cubic meters MBTA Migratory Bird ...usable for some bottom types. Wind 30 kts (45-kt gusts) Wave 0-2m (0-5ft) Current 0-2 kts Lightning ɝmiles Minimum depth of about 9m (30 ft

  3. 26 CFR 1.43-1 - The enhanced oil recovery credit-general rules.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ....614-2(b)) in a property may claim the credit for qualified enhanced oil recovery costs (as described... the taxpayer's qualified enhanced oil recovery costs for the taxable year, reduced by the phase-out... mineral interest in a property, incurs $100 of qualified enhanced oil recovery costs. The reference price...

  4. 26 CFR 1.43-1 - The enhanced oil recovery credit-general rules.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ....614-2(b)) in a property may claim the credit for qualified enhanced oil recovery costs (as described... the taxpayer's qualified enhanced oil recovery costs for the taxable year, reduced by the phase-out... mineral interest in a property, incurs $100 of qualified enhanced oil recovery costs. The reference price...

  5. 26 CFR 1.43-4 - Qualified enhanced oil recovery costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 1 2011-04-01 2009-04-01 true Qualified enhanced oil recovery costs. 1.43-4... TAXES Credits Against Tax § 1.43-4 Qualified enhanced oil recovery costs. (a) Qualifying costs—(1) In... “qualified enhanced oil recovery costs” if the amounts are paid or incurred with respect to an asset which...

  6. 26 CFR 1.43-4 - Qualified enhanced oil recovery costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 true Qualified enhanced oil recovery costs. 1.43-4... TAXES Credits Against Tax § 1.43-4 Qualified enhanced oil recovery costs. (a) Qualifying costs—(1) In... “qualified enhanced oil recovery costs” if the amounts are paid or incurred with respect to an asset which...

  7. Evaluation of Reservoir Wettability and its Effect on Oil Recovery

    SciTech Connect

    Jill S. Buckley

    1998-04-13

    This project has three main goals. The first is to achieve improved understanding of the surface and interfacial properties of crude oils and their interactions with mineral surfaces. The second goal is to apply the results of surface studies to improved predictions of oil production in laboratory experiments. Finally, we aim to use the results of this research to recommend ways to improve oil recovery by waterflooding. In order to achieve these goals, the mechanisms of wetting alteration must be explained. We propose a methodology for studying those mechanisms on mineral surfaces, then applying the results to prediction and observation of wetting alteration in porous media. Improved understanding of the underlying mechanisms will show when and how wettability in the reservoir can be altered and under what circumstances that alteration would be beneficial in terms of increased production of oil.

  8. Evaluation of Reservoir Wettability and its Effect on Oil Recovery

    SciTech Connect

    Buckley, Jill S.

    1999-11-09

    This project has three main goals. The first is to achieve improved understanding of the surface and interfacial properties of crude oils and their interactions with mineral surfaces. The second goal is to apply the results of surface studies to improved predictions of oil production in laboratory experiments. Finally, we aim to use the results of this research to recommend ways to improve oil recovery by waterflooding. In order to achieve these goals, the mechanisms of wetting alteration must be explained. We propose a methodology for studying those mechanisms on mineral surfaces, then applying the results to prediction and observation of wetting alteration in porous media. Improved understanding of the underlying mechanisms will show when and how wettability in the reservoir can be altered and under what circumstances that alteration would be beneficial in terms of increased production of oil.

  9. A study of the effects of enhanced oil recovery agents on the quality of Strategic Petroleum Reserves crude oil. [Physical and chemical interactions of Enhanced Oil Recovery reagents with hydrocarbons present in petroleum

    SciTech Connect

    Kabadi, V.N.

    1992-10-01

    The project was initiated on September 1, 1990. The objective of the project was to carry out a literature search to estimate the types and extents of long time interactions of enhanced oil recovery (EOR) agents, such as surfactants, caustics and polymers, with crude oil. This information is necessary to make recommendations about mixing EOR crude oil with crude oils from primary and secondary recovery processes in the Strategic Petroleum Reserve (SPR). Data were sought on both adverse and beneficial effects of EOR agents that would impact handling, transportation and refining of crude oil. An extensive literature search has been completed, and the following informations has been compiled: (1) a listing of existing EOR test and field projects; (2) a listing of currently used EOR agents; and (3) evidence of short and long term physical and chemical interactions of these EOR-agents with hydrocarbons, and their effects on the quality of crude oil at long times. This information is presented in this report. Finally some conclusions are derived and recommendations are made. Although the conclusions are based mostly on extrapolations because of lack of specific data, it is recommended that the enhancement of the rates of biodegradation of oil catalyzed by the EOR agents needs to be further studied. There is no evidence of substantial long term effects on crude oil because of other interactions. Some recommendations are also made regarding the types of studies that would be necessary to determine the effect of certain EOR agents on the rates of biodegradation of crude oil.

  10. Biosurfactant production by Bacillus subtilis B30 and its application in enhancing oil recovery.

    PubMed

    Al-Wahaibi, Yahya; Joshi, Sanket; Al-Bahry, Saif; Elshafie, Abdulkadir; Al-Bemani, Ali; Shibulal, Biji

    2014-02-01

    The fermentative production of biosurfactants by Bacillus subtilis strain B30 and the evaluation of biosurfactant based enhanced oil recovery using core-flood were investigated. Different carbon sources (glucose, sucrose, starch, date molasses, cane molasses) were tested to determine the optimal biosurfactant production. The isolate B30 produced a biosurfactant that could reduce the surface tension and interfacial tension to 26.63±0.45 mN/m and 3.79±0.27 mN/m, respectively in less than 12h in both glucose or date molasses based media. A crude biosurfactant concentration of 0.3-0.5 g/l and critical micelle dilution (CMD) values of 1:8 were observed. The biosurfactants gave stable emulsions with wide range of hydrocarbons including light and heavy crude oil. The biosurfactants were partially purified and identified as a mixture of lipopeptides similar to surfactin, using high performance thin layer chromatography and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. The biosurfactants were stable over wide range of pH, salinity and temperatures. The crude biosurfactant preparation enhanced light oil recovery by 17-26% and heavy oil recovery by 31% in core-flood studies. The results are indicative of the potential of the strain for the development of ex situ microbial enhanced oil recovery processes using glucose or date molasses based minimal media.

  11. Improved oil recovery using horizontal wells at Elk Hills, California

    SciTech Connect

    Gangle, F.J.; Schultz, K.L.; McJannet, G.S.; Ezekwe, N.

    1995-03-01

    Eight horizontal wells have been drilled and completed in a steeply dipping Stevens sand reservoir in the Elk Hills field, Kern County, California. The subject reservoir, called the Stevens 26R, is a turbidite channel sand deposit one mile wide, three miles long, and one mile deep. Formation beds have a gross thickness up to 1,500 feet and dips as high as 60 degrees on the flanks. The original oil column of 1,810 feet has been pulled down to 200 feet by continual production since 1976. The reservoir management operating strategy has been full pressure maintenance by crestal gas injection since 1976. The steep dip of the formation makes gravity drainage the dominant drive mechanism. Additionally, improved recovery is coming from cycling dry gas through the large secondary gas cap region. The prudent placement of the horizontal wells above the oil/water contact promises to improve oil recovery and extend the operating life of the reservoir. Field results are given to compare the performance of the horizontal wells with the conventional wells. The horizontal wells produce at higher rates, lower draw downs, and lower gas/oil ratio which will extend the life of the project and result in higher recovery.

  12. Oil Recovery Enhancement from Fractured, Low Permeability Reservoirs. [Carbonated Water

    DOE R&D Accomplishments Database

    Poston, S. W.

    1991-01-01

    The results of the investigative efforts for this jointly funded DOE-State of Texas research project achieved during the 1990-1991 year may be summarized as follows: Geological Characterization - Detailed maps of the development and hierarchical nature the fracture system exhibited by Austin Chalk outcrops were prepared. The results of these efforts were directly applied to the development of production decline type curves applicable to a dual-fracture-matrix flow system. Analysis of production records obtained from Austin Chalk operators illustrated the utility of these type curves to determine relative fracture/matrix contributions and extent. Well-log response in Austin Chalk wells has been shown to be a reliable indicator of organic maturity. Shear-wave splitting concepts were used to estimate fracture orientations from Vertical Seismic Profile, VSP data. Several programs were written to facilitate analysis of the data. The results of these efforts indicated fractures could be detected with VSP seismic methods. Development of the EOR Imbibition Process - Laboratory displacement as well as Magnetic Resonance Imaging, MRI and Computed Tomography, CT imaging studies have shown the carbonated water-imbibition displacement process significantly accelerates and increases recovery from oil saturated, low permeability rocks. Field Tests - Two operators amenable to conducting a carbonated water flood test on an Austin Chalk well have been identified. Feasibility studies are presently underway.

  13. Oil recovery enhancement from fractured, low permeability reservoirs. [Carbonated Water

    SciTech Connect

    Poston, S.W.

    1991-01-01

    The results of the investigative efforts for this jointly funded DOE-State of Texas research project achieved during the 1990-1991 year may be summarized as follows: Geological Characterization - Detailed maps of the development and hierarchical nature the fracture system exhibited by Austin Chalk outcrops were prepared. The results of these efforts were directly applied to the development of production decline type curves applicable to a dual-fracture-matrix flow system. Analysis of production records obtained from Austin Chalk operators illustrated the utility of these type curves to determine relative fracture/matrix contributions and extent. Well-log response in Austin Chalk wells has been shown to be a reliable indicator of organic maturity. Shear-wave splitting concepts were used to estimate fracture orientations from Vertical Seismic Profile, VSP data. Several programs were written to facilitate analysis of the data. The results of these efforts indicated fractures could be detected with VSP seismic methods.Development of the EOR Imbibition Process - Laboratory displacement as well as Magnetic Resonance Imaging, MRI and Computed Tomography, CT imaging studies have shown the carbonated water-imbibition displacement process significantly accelerates and increases recovery from oil saturated, low permeability rocks.Field Tests - Two operators amenable to conducting a carbonated water flood test on an Austin Chalk well have been identified. Feasibility studies are presently underway.

  14. CO2 Enhanced Oil Recovery from the Residual Zone - A Sustainable Vision for North Sea Oil Production

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stewart, Jamie; Haszeldine, Stuart; Wilkinson, Mark; Johnson, Gareth

    2014-05-01

    This paper presents a 'new vision for North Sea oil production' where previously unattainable residual oil can be produced with the injection of CO2 that has been captured at power stations or other large industrial emitters. Not only could this process produce incremental oil from a maturing basin, reducing imports, it also has the capability to store large volumes of CO2 which can offset the emissions of additional carbon produced. Around the world oil production from mature basins is in decline and production from UK oil fields peaked in 1998. Other basins around the world have a similar story. Although in the UK a number of tax regimes, such as 'brown field allowances' and 'new field allowances' have been put in place to re-encourage investment, it is recognised that the majority of large discoveries have already been made. However, as a nation our demand for oil remains high and in the last decade imports of crude oil have been steadily increasing. The UK is dependent on crude oil for transport and feedstock for chemical and plastics production. Combined with the necessity to provide energy security, there is a demand to re-assess the potential for CO2 Enhanced Oil Recovery (CO2-EOR) in the UK offshore. Residual oil zones (ROZ) exist where one of a number of natural conditions beyond normal capillary forces have caused the geometry of a field's oil column to be altered after filling [1]. When this re-structuring happens the primary interest to the hydrocarbon industry has in the past been in where the mobile oil has migrated to. However it is now considered that significant oil resource may exist in the residual zone play where the main oil column has been displaced. Saturations within this play are predominantly close to residual saturation (Sr) and would be similar to that of a water-flooded field [2]. Evidence from a number of hydrocarbon fairways shows that, under certain circumstances, these residual zones in US fields are comparable in thickness to the

  15. Enhanced oil recovery and applied geoscience research program. [Quarterly] report, April 1--June 30, 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Thomas, C.P.

    1993-12-31

    The objectives of this research program are to develop microbial enhanced oil recovery (MEOR) systems for application to reservoirs containing medium to heavy oils and to evaluate reservoir wettability and its effects on oil recovery. The MEOR research goals include: (a) development of bacterial cultures that are effective for oil displacement under a broad range of reservoir conditions, (b) improved understanding of the mechanisms by which microbial systems displace oil under reservoir conditions, (c) determination of the feasibility of combining microbial systems with or following conventional enhanced oil recovery (EOR) processes, (d) development and implementation of industry cost-shared field demonstration projects for MEOR technology. The goals of the reservoir wettability project are to develop: (a) better methods for assessment of reservoir core wettability, (b) more certainty in relating laboratory core analysis procedures to field conditions, (c) a better understanding of the effects of reservoir matrix properties and heterogeneity on wettability, and (d) improved ability to predict and influence waterflood and EOR response through control of wettability in reservoirs.

  16. Surfactant based enhanced oil recovery mediated by naturally occurring microorganisms

    SciTech Connect

    Thomas, C.P.; Bala, G.A.; Duvall, M.L.

    1991-01-01

    Oil recovery experiments using Bacillus licheniformis JF-2 and a sucrose based nutrient were performed using Berea sandstone cores ranging in permeability from 85 to 510 md (0.084 to 0.503 {mu}m{sup 2}). Bacillus licheniformis JF-2, a surfactant producing microorganism isolated from an oilfield environment, is nonpathogenic and will not reduce sulfate. Oil recovery efficiencies (E{sub r}) for four different crude oils ranging from 19.1 to 38.1{degrees}API (0.9396 to 0.8343 g/cm{sup 3}) varied from 2.8 to 42.6% of the waterflood residual oil. Injection of cell-free'' supernatants resulted in E{sub r} values from 7.0 to 16.4%. Microbially-mediated systems reduced interfacial tension (IFT) about 20 mN/m for four different crude oils. Following microbial flood experimentation microorganisms were distributed throughout the core (110 md (0.109 {mu}m{sup 2}) Berea sandstone) with a predominance of cells located near the outlet end. 34 refs., 6 figs., 7 tabs.

  17. Solid olive waste in environmental cleanup: oil recovery and carbon production for water purification.

    PubMed

    El-Hamouz, Amer; Hilal, Hikmat S; Nassar, Nashaat; Mardawi, Zahi

    2007-07-01

    A potentially-economic three-fold strategy, to use solid olive wastes in water purification, is presented. Firstly, oil remaining in solid waste (higher than 5% of waste) was recovered by the Soxhlet extraction technique, which can be useful for the soap industry. Secondly, the remaining solid was processed to yield relatively high-surface area active carbon (AC). Thirdly, the resulting carbon was employed to reversibly adsorb chromate ions from water, aiming to establish a water purification process with reusable AC. The technique used here enabled oil recovery together with the production of a clean solid, suitable for making AC. This process also has the advantage of low production cost.

  18. The Application Of Microbial Enhanced Oil Recovery On Unconventional Oil: A Field Specific Approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goodman, Sean; Millar, Andrew; Allison, Heather; McCarthy, Alan

    2014-05-01

    A substantial amount of the world's recoverable oil reserves are made from unconventional or heavy resources. However, great difficulty has been had in recovering this oil after primary and secondary recovery methods have been employed. Therefore, tertiary methods such as microbial enhanced oil recovery (MEOR) have been employed. MEOR involves the use of bacteria and their metabolic products to alter the oil properties or rock permeability within a reservoir in order to promote the flow of oil. Although MEOR has been trialed in the past with mixed outcomes, its feasibility on heavier oils has not been demonstrated. The aim of this study is to show that MEOR can be successfully applied to unconventional oils. By using an indigenous strain of bacteria isolated from a reservoir of interest and applied to field specific microcosms, we will look into the effect of these bacteria compared to variant inoculums to identify which mechanisms of action the bacteria are using to improve recovery. Using this information, we will be able to identify genes of interest and groups of bacteria that may be beneficial for MEOR and look accurately identify favorable bacteria within a reservoir.

  19. Transformation of Resources to Reserves: Next Generation Heavy-Oil Recovery Techniques

    SciTech Connect

    Stanford University; Department of Energy Resources Engineering Green Earth Sciences

    2007-09-30

    crude oil. A significant number of laboratory-scale tests were made to evaluate the solution gas drive potential of West Sak (AK) viscous oil. The West Sak sample has a low acid number, low asphaltene content, and does not appear foamy under laboratory conditions. Tests show primary recovery of about 22% of the original oil in place under a variety of conditions. The acid number of other Alaskan North Slope samples tests is greater, indicating a greater potential for recovery by heavy-oil solution gas drive. Effective cold production leads to reservoir pressure depletion that eases the implementation of thermal recovery processes. When viewed from a reservoir perspective, thermal recovery is the enhanced recovery method of choice for viscous and heavy oils because of the significant viscosity reduction that accompanies the heating of oil. One significant issue accompanying thermal recovery in cold environments is wellbore heat losses. Initial work on thermal recovery found that a technology base for delivering steam, other hot fluids, and electrical heat through cold subsurface environments, such as permafrost, was in place. No commercially available technologies are available, however. Nevertheless, the enabling technology of superinsulated wells appears to be realized. Thermal subtasks focused on a suite of enhanced recovery options tailored to various reservoir conditions. Generally, electrothermal, conventional steam-based, and thermal gravity drainage enhanced oil recovery techniques appear to be applicable to 'prime' Ugnu reservoir conditions to the extent that reservoir architecture and fluid conditions are modeled faithfully here. The extent of reservoir layering, vertical communication, and subsurface steam distribution are important factors affecting recovery. Distribution of steam throughout reservoir volume is a significant issue facing thermal recovery. Various activities addressed aspects of steam emplacement. Notably, hydraulic fracturing of horizontal

  20. Evaluation of Reservoir Wettability and its Effect on Oil Recovery.

    SciTech Connect

    Buckley, J.S.

    1998-01-15

    We report on the first year of the project, `Evaluation of Reservoir Wettability and its Effect on Oil Recovery.` The objectives of this five-year project are (1) to achieve improved understanding of the surface and interfacial properties of crude oils and their interactions with mineral surfaces, (2) to apply the results of surface studies to improve predictions of oil production from laboratory measurements, and (3) to use the results of this research to recommend ways to improve oil recovery by waterflooding. During the first year of this project we have focused on understanding the interactions between crude oils and mineral surfaces that establish wetting in porous media. As background, mixed-wetting and our current understanding of the influence of stable and unstable brine films are reviewed. The components that are likely to adsorb and alter wetting are divided into two groups: those containing polar heteroatoms, especially organic acids and bases; and the asphaltenes, large molecules that aggregate in solution and precipitate upon addition of n-pentane and similar agents. Finally, the test procedures used to assess the extent of wetting alteration-tests of adhesion and adsorption on smooth surfaces and spontaneous imbibition into porous media are introduced. In Part 1, we report on studies aimed at characterizing both the acid/base and asphaltene components. Standard acid and base number procedures were modified and 22 crude oil samples were tested. Our approach to characterizing the asphaltenes is to focus on their solvent environment. We quantify solvent properties by refractive index measurements and report the onset of asphaltene precipitation at ambient conditions for nine oil samples. Four distinct categories of interaction mechanisms have been identified that can be demonstrated to occur when crude oils contact solid surfaces: polar interactions can occur on dry surfaces, surface precipitation is important if the oil is a poor solvent for its

  1. Cost-cutting for offshore sulfur recovery processes studied

    SciTech Connect

    Quinlan, M.P.; Echterhoff, L.W.; Leppin, D.; Meyer, H.S.

    1997-07-21

    An increasing portion of future US gas supply is likely to come from offshore, primarily Gulf of Mexico. Because this gas can be sour, the industry has sought lower cost H{sub 2}S-removal/recovery processes for treating it. Usually the gas contains < 5 tons/day (tpd) of sulfur. A study to compare several emerging sulfur-removal/recovery processes against a baseline Amine/LO-CAT II process has indicated that some emerging processes, though not yet commercialized, show considerable potential for reducing costs. Specifically, the major findings were that Double Loop and CrystaSulf, developed by Radian International LLC, Austin, were the least expensive capital-cost processes by a significant margin and that Marathon Oil Co.`s Hysulf`s cost has the potential to compete with Double Loop and CrystaSulf.

  2. Essays on carbon policy and enhanced oil recovery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cook, Benjamin R.

    The growing concerns about climate change have led policy makers to consider various regulatory schemes designed to reduce the stock and growth of atmospheric CO2 concentrations while at the same time improving energy security. The most prominent proposals are the so called "cap-and-trade" frameworks which set aggregate emission levels for a jurisdiction and then issue or sell a corresponding number of allowances to emitters. Typically, these policy measures will also encourage the deployment of carbon capture and storage (CCS) in geological formations and mature oil fields through subsidies or other incentives. The ability to store CO 2 in mature oil fields through the deployment of CO2 enhanced oil recovery (CO2--EOR) is particularly attractive as it can simultaneously improve oil recovery at those fields, and serve as a possible financial bridge to the development of CO2 transportation infrastructure. The purpose of this research is to explore the impact that a tandem subsidy-tax policy regime may have on bargaining between emitters and sequestration providers, and also to identify oil units in Wyoming that can profitably undertake CO 2--EOR as a starting point for the build-out of CO2 pipelines. In the first essay an economics lab experiment is designed to simulate private bargaining between carbon emitters (such as power plants) and carbon sequestration sites when the emitter faces carbon taxes, sequestration subsidies or both. In a tax-subsidy policy regime the carbon tax (or purchased allowances) can be avoided by sequestering the carbon, and in some cases the emitter can also earn a subsidy to help pay for the sequestration. The main policy implications of the experiment results are that the sequestration market might be inefficient, and sequestration providers seem to have bargaining power sufficient to command high prices. This may lead to the integration of CO2 sources and sequestration sites, and reduced prices for the injectable CO2 purchased by oil

  3. Optimization of Pumpkin Oil Recovery by Using Aqueous Enzymatic Extraction and Comparison of the Quality of the Obtained Oil with the Quality of Cold-Pressed Oil

    PubMed Central

    Roszkowska, Beata; Czaplicki, Sylwester; Tańska, Małgorzata

    2016-01-01

    Summary The study was carried out to optimize pumpkin oil recovery in the process of aqueous extraction preceded by enzymatic maceration of seeds, as well as to compare the quality of the obtained oil to the quality of cold-pressed pumpkin seed oil. Hydrated pulp of hulless pumpkin seeds was macerated using a 2% (by mass) cocktail of commercial pectinolytic, cellulolytic and proteolytic preparations (Rohapect® UF, Rohament® CL and Colorase® 7089). The optimization procedure utilized response surface methodology based on Box- -Behnken plan of experiment. The optimized variables of enzymatic pretreatment were pH, temperature and maceration time. The results showed that the pH value, temperature and maceration time of 4.7, 54 °C and 15.4 h, respectively, were conducive to maximize the oil yield up to 72.64%. Among these variables, the impact of pH was crucial (above 73% of determined variation) for oil recovery results. The oil obtained by aqueous enzymatic extraction was richer in sterols, squalene and tocopherols, and only slightly less abundant in carotenoids than the cold-pressed one. However, it had a lower oxidative stability, with induction period shortened by approx. 30% in relation to the cold-pressed oil. PMID:28115898

  4. Measuring recovery: validity of the "Recovery Process Inventory" and the "Recovery Attitudes Questionnaire".

    PubMed

    Jaeger, Matthias; Konrad, Albrecht; Rueegg, Sebastian; Rabenschlag, Franziska

    2013-11-30

    Considerable lack of publications and inconsistent results on construct validity make it difficult to choose an appropriate instrument to measure recovery. The aim of the present study was to evaluate additional psychometric aspects of two established measures of personal recovery with differing focuses. Bivariate associations of the recovery measures with personal, clinical and subjective factors were conducted as indicators of concurrent (convergent and divergent) validity. The scales were also tested concerning internal consistency. The sample comprised of 81 inpatients on an acute psychiatric ward (main diagnoses: 27% substance-related disorders, 27% schizophrenic disorders, 25% affective disorders, 10% neurotic or stress-related disorders, and 11% personality disorders). The "Recovery Attitudes Questionnaire (RAQ)" has to be reevaluated before further administration due to serious psychometric shortcomings concerning internal consistency and concurrent validity. The "Recovery Process Inventory (RPI)" total scale showed acceptable concurrent and within-scale validity and can be recommended in order to measure the personal recovery process for clinical and scientific purposes.

  5. Microfluidic diffusivity meter: a tool to optimize CO2 driven enhanced oil recovery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Puneeth, S. B.; Kim, Young Ho; Goel, Sanket

    2017-02-01

    As the energy demands continue to swell with growing population and there persists a lack of unexploited oilfields, the prime focus of any nation would be to maximize the oil recovery factor from existing oil fields. CO2-Enhanced oil recovery is a process to improve the recovery of crude oil from an oil field and works at high pressure and in very deep conditions. CO2 and oil are miscible at high pressure, resulting in low viscosity and oil swells. This swelling can be measured based on mathematical calculations in real time and correlated with the CO2 concentration. This process has myriad advantages over its counterparts which include being able to harness oil trapped in reservoirs besides being cheaper and more efficient. A Diffusivity meter is inevitable in the measurement of the diffusion co-efficient of two samples. Diffusivity meters currently available in the market are weighed down by disadvantages like the requirement of large samples for testing, high cost and complexity. This elicits the need for a Microfluidic based diffusivity meter capable of analyzing Nano-liter sample volumes besides being more precise and affordable. The scope of this work involves the design and development of a Microfluidic robust and inexpensive prototype diffusivity meter using a capillary tube and endorsing its performance by comparison of results with known diffusivity range and supervision of the results with an electronic microscope coupled to PC and Data Acquisition System. The prototype produced at the end of the work is expected to outweigh disadvantages in existing products in terms of sample size, efficiency and time saving.

  6. Process for preparing lubricating oil from used waste lubricating oil

    DOEpatents

    Whisman, Marvin L.; Reynolds, James W.; Goetzinger, John W.; Cotton, Faye O.

    1978-01-01

    A re-refining process is described by which high-quality finished lubricating oils are prepared from used waste lubricating and crankcase oils. The used oils are stripped of water and low-boiling contaminants by vacuum distillation and then dissolved in a solvent of 1-butanol, 2-propanol and methylethyl ketone, which precipitates a sludge containing most of the solid and liquid contaminants, unspent additives, and oxidation products present in the used oil. After separating the purified oil-solvent mixture from the sludge and recovering the solvent for recycling, the purified oil is preferably fractional vacuum-distilled, forming lubricating oil distillate fractions which are then decolorized and deodorized to prepare blending stocks. The blending stocks are blended to obtain a lubricating oil base of appropriate viscosity before being mixed with an appropriate additive package to form the finished lubricating oil product.

  7. Rhamnolipids Produced by Indigenous Acinetobacter junii from Petroleum Reservoir and its Potential in Enhanced Oil Recovery.

    PubMed

    Dong, Hao; Xia, Wenjie; Dong, Honghong; She, Yuehui; Zhu, Panfeng; Liang, Kang; Zhang, Zhongzhi; Liang, Chuanfu; Song, Zhaozheng; Sun, Shanshan; Zhang, Guangqing

    2016-01-01

    Biosurfactant producers are crucial for incremental oil production in microbial enhanced oil recovery (MEOR) processes. The isolation of biosurfactant-producing bacteria from oil reservoirs is important because they are considered suitable for the extreme conditions of the reservoir. In this work, a novel biosurfactant-producing strain Acinetobacter junii BD was isolated from a reservoir to reduce surface tension and emulsify crude oil. The biosurfactants produced by the strain were purified and then identified via electrospray ionization-Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry (ESI FT-ICR-MS). The biosurfactants generated by the strain were concluded to be rhamnolipids, the dominant rhamnolipids were C26H48O9, C28H52O9, and C32H58O13. The optimal carbon source and nitrogen source for biomass and biosurfactant production were NaNO3 and soybean oil. The results showed that the content of acid components increased with the progress of crude oil biodegradation. A glass micromodel test demonstrated that the strain significantly increased oil recovery through interfacial tension reduction, wettability alteration and the mobility of microorganisms. In summary, the findings of this study indicate that the newly developed BD strain and its metabolites have great potential in MEOR.

  8. Rhamnolipids Produced by Indigenous Acinetobacter junii from Petroleum Reservoir and its Potential in Enhanced Oil Recovery

    PubMed Central

    Dong, Hao; Xia, Wenjie; Dong, Honghong; She, Yuehui; Zhu, Panfeng; Liang, Kang; Zhang, Zhongzhi; Liang, Chuanfu; Song, Zhaozheng; Sun, Shanshan; Zhang, Guangqing

    2016-01-01

    Biosurfactant producers are crucial for incremental oil production in microbial enhanced oil recovery (MEOR) processes. The isolation of biosurfactant-producing bacteria from oil reservoirs is important because they are considered suitable for the extreme conditions of the reservoir. In this work, a novel biosurfactant-producing strain Acinetobacter junii BD was isolated from a reservoir to reduce surface tension and emulsify crude oil. The biosurfactants produced by the strain were purified and then identified via electrospray ionization-Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry (ESI FT-ICR-MS). The biosurfactants generated by the strain were concluded to be rhamnolipids, the dominant rhamnolipids were C26H48O9, C28H52O9, and C32H58O13. The optimal carbon source and nitrogen source for biomass and biosurfactant production were NaNO3 and soybean oil. The results showed that the content of acid components increased with the progress of crude oil biodegradation. A glass micromodel test demonstrated that the strain significantly increased oil recovery through interfacial tension reduction, wettability alteration and the mobility of microorganisms. In summary, the findings of this study indicate that the newly developed BD strain and its metabolites have great potential in MEOR. PMID:27872613

  9. Microbial Enhanced Oil Recovery and Wettability Research Program. Annual report, FY 1991

    SciTech Connect

    Bala, G.A.; Barrett, K.B.; Eastman, S.L.; Herd, M.D.; Jackson, J.D.; Robertson, E.P.; Thomas, C.P.

    1993-09-01

    This report covers research results for fiscal year 1991 for the Microbial Enhanced Oil Recovery (MEOR) and Wettability Research Program conducted by EG&G Idaho, Inc. at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory ONEL) for the US Department of Energy Idaho Field Office (DOE-ID). The program is funded by the Assistant Secretary of Fossil Energy, and managed by DOE-ID and the Bartlesville Project Office (BPO). The objectives of this multi-year program are to develop MEOR systems for application to reservoirs containing medium to heavy crude oils and to design and implement an industry cost-shared field demonstration project of the developed technology. An understanding of the controlling mechanisms will first be developed through the use of laboratory scale testing to determine the ability of microbially mediated processes to recover oil under reservoir conditions and to develop the design criteria for scale-up to the field. Concurrently with this work, the isolation and characterization of microbial species collected from various locations including target oil field environments is underway to develop more effective oil recovery systems for specific applications. Research focus includes the study of biogenic product and formation souring processes including mitigation and prevention. Souring research performed in FY 1991 also included the development of microsensor probe technology for the detection of total sulfide in collaboration with the Montana State University Center for Interfacial Microbial Process Engineering (CIMPE). Wettability research is a multi-year collaborative effort with the New Mexico Petroleum Recovery Research Center (NMPRRC) at the New Mexico institute of Mining and Technology, Socorro, NM to evaluate reservoir wettability and its effects on oil recovery. Results from the wettability research will be applied to determine if alteration of wettability is a significant contributing mechanism for MEOR systems.

  10. An Analysis of the Distribution and Economics of Oil Fields for Enhanced Oil Recovery-Carbon Capture and Storage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hall, Kristyn Ann

    The rising carbon dioxide emissions contributing to climate change has lead to the examination of potential ways to mitigate the environmental impact. One such method is through the geological sequestration of carbon (CCS). Although there are several different forms of geological sequestration (i.e. Saline Aquifers, Oil and Gas Reservoirs, Unminable Coal Seams) the current projects are just initiating the large scale-testing phase. The lead entry point into CCS projects is to combine the sequestration with enhanced oil recovery (EOR) due to the improved economic model as a result of the oil recovery and the pre-existing knowledge of the geological structures. The potential scope of CCS-EOR projects throughout the continental United States in terms of a systematic examination of individual reservoir storage potential has not been examined. Instead the majority of the research completed has centered on either estimating the total United States storage potential or the potential of a single specific reservoir. The purpose of this paper is to examine the relationship between oil recovery, carbon dioxide storage and cost during CCS-EOR. The characteristics of the oil and gas reservoirs examined in this study from the Nehring Oil and Gas Database were used in the CCS-EOR model developed by Sean McCoy to estimate the lifting and storage costs of the different reservoirs throughout the continental United States. This allows for an examination of both technical and financial viability of CCS-EOR as an intermediate step for future CCS projects in other geological formations. One option for mitigating climate change is to store industrial CO2 emissions in geologic reservoirs as part of a process known as carbon capture and storage (CCS). There is general consensus that large-scale deployment of CCS would best be initiated by combining geologic sequestration with enhanced oil recovery (EOR), which can use CO2 to improve production from declining oil fields. Revenues from the

  11. Development of an In Situ Biosurfactant Production Technology for Enhanced Oil Recovery

    SciTech Connect

    M.J. McInerney; R.M. Knapp; Kathleen Duncan; D.R. Simpson; N. Youssef; N. Ravi; M.J. Folmsbee; T.Fincher; S. Maudgalya; Jim Davis; Sandra Weiland

    2007-09-30

    The long-term economic potential for enhanced oil recovery (EOR) is large with more than 300 billion barrels of oil remaining in domestic reservoirs after conventional technologies reach their economic limit. Actual EOR production in the United States has never been very large, less than 10% of the total U. S. production even though a number of economic incentives have been used to stimulate the development and application of EOR processes. The U.S. DOE Reservoir Data Base contains more than 600 reservoirs with over 12 billion barrels of unrecoverable oil that are potential targets for microbially enhanced oil recovery (MEOR). If MEOR could be successfully applied to reduce the residual oil saturation by 10% in a quarter of these reservoirs, more than 300 million barrels of oil could be added to the U.S. oil reserve. This would stimulate oil production from domestic reservoirs and reduce our nation's dependence on foreign imports. Laboratory studies have shown that detergent-like molecules called biosurfactants, which are produced by microorganisms, are very effective in mobilizing entrapped oil from model test systems. The biosurfactants are effective at very low concentrations. Given the promising laboratory results, it is important to determine the efficacy of using biosurfactants in actual field applications. The goal of this project is to move biosurfactant-mediated oil recovery from laboratory investigations to actual field applications. In order to meet this goal, several important questions must be answered. First, it is critical to know whether biosurfactant-producing microbes are present in oil formations. If they are present, then it will be important to know whether a nutrient regime can be devised to stimulate their growth and activity in the reservoir. If biosurfactant producers are not present, then a suitable strain must be obtained that can be injected into oil reservoirs. We were successful in answering all three questions. The specific objectives

  12. Microscopic study of oil recovery by carbon dioxide. Final report, October 1, 1978-August 31, 1980

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, G.C.

    1980-12-01

    Visual examinations of microscopic behavior of CO/sub 2/ flooding processes were conducted using a high pressure glass-bead packed transparent flow tube. The apparatus and techniques developed have made it possible to observe the physical phenomena of the displacement of oil by CO/sub 2/ under both miscible and immiscible conditions. Effects of CO/sub 2/ slug size and formation dip on oil recovery were also investigated. The results have been recorded in a series of magnified color photographs for after-run study and interpretation. Four natural crude oils ranging from API gravities of 15 to 48 were chosen for displacement tests. The majority of the tests were performed at a temperature of 120/sup 0/F and pressures from 1000 to 2500 psi. Three types of displacement, namely: (a) immiscible, (b) semi-miscible, and (c) miscible, were observed within the testing pressure range. Type (b) is a dispersion process in which oil is disintegrated into micro-size particles and transported in the CO/sub 2/ stream. More than one type of displacement could exist simultaneously in a flooding system. A CO/sub 2/ slug that is too large is wasteful and can cause early CO/sub 2/ breakthrough. A slug that is too small would allow the trailing water to channel through the oil bank and thus degenerate to an ordinary waterflooding; nevertheless, the oil recovery would be significantly increased over that achieved by a straight waterflooding.

  13. Improved recovery of tall oil from black liquors

    SciTech Connect

    Zucker, J.

    1980-12-09

    Applying a d.c. of less than 15 V to acidified black liquor separates a significant amount of tall oil remaining in the black liquor sludge. An apparatus with graphite electrodes for this process is described.

  14. Optimization of Surfactant Mixtures and Their Interfacial Behavior for Advanced Oil Recovery

    SciTech Connect

    Somasundaran, Prof. P.

    2002-03-04

    The objective of this project was to develop a knowledge base that is helpful for the design of improved processes for mobilizing and producing oil left untapped using conventional techniques. The main goal was to develop and evaluate mixtures of new or modified surfactants for improved oil recovery. In this regard, interfacial properties of novel biodegradable n-alkyl pyrrolidones and sugar-based surfactants have been studied systematically. Emphasis was on designing cost-effective processes compatible with existing conditions and operations in addition to ensuring minimal reagent loss.

  15. Recovery of fatty acid from a solvated hydrocarbon mixture applicable to the Beaver-Herter solvent extraction process

    SciTech Connect

    Beaver, W.H.; Turpin, J.L.; Babcock, R.E.

    1985-01-01

    The Herter process is a patented solvent extraction enhanced oil recovery process. This process utilizes fatty acid as a solvent to mix with and reduce the viscosity of a heavy reservoir oil or a tar sand. This method differs from other solvent extraction oil recovery methods in that the recovery of the fatty acid solvent for further use, rather than the initial expense of the solvent, is the prime economic consideration. The fatty acid is recovered by saponification of the solvated oil mixture using an aqueous base, followed by migration of the resulting soap into the aqueous phase, and then desaponification of the aqueous phase.

  16. Quantitation of microbial products and their effectiveness in enhanced oil recovery. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, X.; Knapp, R.M.; McInerney, M.J.

    1995-02-01

    A three-dimensional, three-phase, multiple-component numerical simulator was developed to investigate transport and growth of microorganisms in porous media and the impacts of microbial activities on oil recovery. The microbial activities modeled in this study included: (1) growth, retention, chemotaxis, and end product inhibition of growth, (2) the formation of metabolic products, and (3) the consumption of nutrients. Major mechanisms for microbial enhanced oil recovery (MEOR) processes were modeled as follows: (1) improvement in sweep efficiency of a displacement process due to in situ plugging of highly-permeable production zones by cell mass or due to improved mobility control achieved by increasing the viscosity of the displacing fluid with a biopolymer, and (2) solubilization and mobilization of residual oil in porous media due to the reduction of the interfacial tension between oleic and aqueous phases by the production of a biosurfactant. The numerical solutions for mathematical models involved two steps. The distributions of pressure and phase saturations were solved from continuity equations and Darcy flow velocities for the aqueous phase were computed. This was followed by the solution of convection-dispersion equations for individual components. Numerical solutions from the proposed model were compared to results obtained from analytical equations, commercial simulators, and laboratory experiments. The comparison indicated that the model accurately quantified microbial transport and metabolism in porous media, and predicted additional crude oil recovery due to microbial processes. 50 refs., 41 figs., 26 tabs.

  17. Edible Oils, Microbial Modification Processes

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    US produces huge amount of vegetable oils headed with soybean oil (20 billion pounds of soybean oil with 1 billion pound carry over annually). Finding new uses for the huge surplus of vegetable oil is important to US agriculture community. However, studies on oil biotechnology and bioprocesses are...

  18. Improvement in oil recovery using cosolvents with CO sub 2 gas floods

    SciTech Connect

    Raible, C.

    1992-01-01

    This report presents the results of investigations to improve oil recovery using cosolvents in CO{sub 2} gas floods. Laboratory experiments were conducted to evaluate the application and selection of cosolvents as additives to gas displacement processes. A cosolvent used as a miscible additive changed the properties of the supercritical gas phase. Addition of a cosolvent resulted in increased viscosity and density of the gas mixture, and enhanced extraction of oil compounds into the CO{sub 2} rich phase. Gas phase properties were measured in an equilibrium cell with a capillary viscometer and a high pressure densitometer. A number of requirements must be considered in the application of a cosolvent. Cosolvent miscibility with CO{sub 2}, brine solubility, cosolvent volatility and relative quantity of the cosolvent partitioning into the oil phase were factors that must be considered for the successful application of cosolvents. Coreflood experiments were conducted with selected cosolvents to measure oil recovery efficiency. The results indicate lower molecular weight additives, such as propane, are the most effective cosolvents to increase oil recovery.

  19. Improvement in oil recovery using cosolvents with CO{sub 2} gas floods

    SciTech Connect

    Raible, C.

    1992-01-01

    This report presents the results of investigations to improve oil recovery using cosolvents in CO{sub 2} gas floods. Laboratory experiments were conducted to evaluate the application and selection of cosolvents as additives to gas displacement processes. A cosolvent used as a miscible additive changed the properties of the supercritical gas phase. Addition of a cosolvent resulted in increased viscosity and density of the gas mixture, and enhanced extraction of oil compounds into the CO{sub 2} rich phase. Gas phase properties were measured in an equilibrium cell with a capillary viscometer and a high pressure densitometer. A number of requirements must be considered in the application of a cosolvent. Cosolvent miscibility with CO{sub 2}, brine solubility, cosolvent volatility and relative quantity of the cosolvent partitioning into the oil phase were factors that must be considered for the successful application of cosolvents. Coreflood experiments were conducted with selected cosolvents to measure oil recovery efficiency. The results indicate lower molecular weight additives, such as propane, are the most effective cosolvents to increase oil recovery.

  20. SolarOil Project, Phase I preliminary design report. [Solar Thermal Enhanced Oil Recovery project

    SciTech Connect

    Baccaglini, G.; Bass, J.; Neill, J.; Nicolayeff, V.; Openshaw, F.

    1980-03-01

    The preliminary design of the Solar Thermal Enhanced Oil Recovery (SolarOil) Plant is described in this document. This plant is designed to demonstrate that using solar thermal energy is technically feasible and economically viable in enhanced oil recovery (EOR). The SolarOil Plant uses the fixed mirror solar concentrator (FMSC) to heat high thermal capacity oil (MCS-2046) to 322/sup 0/C (611/sup 0/F). The hot fluid is pumped from a hot oil storage tank (20 min capacity) through a once-through steam generator which produces 4.8 MPa (700 psi) steam at 80% quality. The plant net output, averaged over 24 hr/day for 365 days/yr, is equivalent to that of a 2.4 MW (8.33 x 10/sup 6/ Btu/hr) oil-fired steam generator having an 86% availability. The net plant efficiency is 57.3% at equinox noon, a 30%/yr average. The plant will be demonstrated at an oilfield site near Oildale, California.

  1. Microbial consortia in Oman oil fields: a possible use in enhanced oil recovery.

    PubMed

    Al-Bahry, Saif N; Elshafie, Abdulkader E; Al-Wahaibi, Yahya M; Al-Bemani, Ali S; Joshi, Sanket J; Al-Maaini, Ratiba A; Al-Alawi, Wafa J; Sugai, Yuichi; Al-Mandhari, Mussalam

    2013-01-01

    Microbial enhanced oil recovery (MEOR) is one of the most economical and efficient methods for extending the life of production wells in a declining reservoir. Microbial consortia from Wafra oil wells and Suwaihat production water, Al-Wusta region, Oman were screened. Microbial consortia in brine samples were identified using denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis and 16S rRNA gene sequences. The detected microbial consortia of Wafra oil wells were completely different from microbial consortia of Suwaihat formation water. A total of 33 genera and 58 species were identified in Wafra oil wells and Suwaihat production water. All of the identified microbial genera were first reported in Oman, with Caminicella sporogenes for the first time reported from oil fields. Most of the identified microorganisms were found to be anaerobic, thermophilic, and halophilic, and produced biogases, biosolvants, and biosurfactants as by-products, which may be good candidates for MEOR.

  2. Flexible, Mechanically Durable Aerogel Composites for Oil Capture and Recovery.

    PubMed

    Karatum, Osman; Steiner, Stephen A; Griffin, Justin S; Shi, Wenbo; Plata, Desiree L

    2016-01-13

    More than 30 years separate the two largest oil spills in North American history (the Ixtoc I and Macondo well blowouts), yet the responses to both disasters were nearly identical in spite of advanced material innovation during the same time period. Novel, mechanically durable sorbents could enable (a) sorbent use in the open ocean, (b) automated deployment to minimize workforce exposure to toxic chemicals, and (c) mechanical recovery of spilled oils. Here, we explore the use of two mechanically durable, low-density (0.1-0.2 g cm(-3)), highly porous (85-99% porosity), hydrophobic (water contact angles >120°), flexible aerogel composite blankets as sorbent materials for automated oil capture and recovery: Cabot Thermal Wrap (TW) and Aspen Aerogels Spaceloft (SL). Uptake of crude oils (Iraq and Sweet Bryan Mound oils) was 8.0 ± 0.1 and 6.5 ± 0.3 g g(-1) for SL and 14.0 ± 0.1 and 12.2 ± 0.1 g g(-1) for TW, respectively, nearly twice as high as similar polyurethane- and polypropylene-based devices. Compound-specific uptake experiments and discrimination against water uptake suggested an adsorption-influenced sorption mechanism. Consistent with that mechanism, chemical extraction oil recoveries were 95 ± 2 (SL) and 90 ± 2% (TW), but this is an undesirable extraction route in decentralized oil cleanup efforts. In contrast, mechanical extraction routes are favorable, and a modest compression force (38 N) yielded 44.7 ± 0.5% initially to 42.0 ± 0.4% over 10 reuse cycles for SL and initially 55.0 ± 0.1% for TW, degrading to 30.0 ± 0.2% by the end of 10 cycles. The mechanical integrity of SL deteriorated substantially (800 ± 200 to 80 ± 30 kPa), whereas TW was more robust (380 ± 80 to 700 ± 100 kPa) over 10 uptake-and-compression extraction cycles.

  3. Enhanced liquid hydrocarbon recovery process

    SciTech Connect

    Sydansk, R.D.

    1992-07-14

    This patent describes a process for recovering liquid hydrocarbons. It comprises: injecting into a fractured subterranean formation a polymer enhanced foam comprising a polymer selected from a synthetic polymer or a biopolymer, a surfactant, an aqueous solvent and a gas, recovering liquid hydrocarbons from the formation.

  4. First joint SPE/DOE symposium on enhanced oil recovery, proceedings supplement

    SciTech Connect

    1980-01-01

    The First Joint Symposium on Enhanced Oil Recovery sponsored by the Society of Petroleum Engineers and the US Department of Energy was held in Tulsa, Oklahoma. Besides the thirty-three technical papers which covered all phases of enhanced oil recovery and were published in the Proceedings, the Symposium included a session on Enhanced Oil Recovery Incentives where ten papers were presented which discussed the status of enhanced oil recovery technology, and included papers on incentive programs of the United States, Canada and Venezuela. These papers are published in this Proceedings Supplement under the following titles: Federal Government Role in enhanced Oil Recovery; Financial Realities of an Adequate Petroleum Supply; Major Technology Constraints in Enhanced Oil Recovery; Decontrol-Opportunities and Dangers; Status of EOR Technology; Impact of Federal Incentives on US Production; Canadian Incentives Program; and Heavy Oil Incentives in Venezuela.

  5. Influence of corn oil recovery on life-cycle greenhouse gas emissions of corn ethanol and corn oil biodiesel

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Zhichao; Dunn, Jennifer B.; Han, Jeongwoo; Wang, Michael

    2015-11-04

    Corn oil recovery and conversion to biodiesel has been widely adopted at corn ethanol plants recently. The US EPA has projected 2.6 billion liters of biodiesel will be produced from corn oil in 2022. Corn oil biodiesel may qualify for federal renewable identification number (RIN) credits under the Renewable Fuel Standard, as well as for low greenhouse gas (GHG) emission intensity credits under California’s Low Carbon Fuel Standard. Because multiple products [ethanol, biodiesel, and distiller’s grain with solubles (DGS)] are produced from one feedstock (corn), however, a careful co-product treatment approach is required to accurately estimate GHG intensities of both ethanol and corn oil biodiesel and to avoid double counting of benefits associated with corn oil biodiesel production. This study develops four co-product treatment methods: (1) displacement, (2) marginal, (3) hybrid allocation, and (4) process-level energy allocation. Life-cycle GHG emissions for corn oil biodiesel were more sensitive to the choice of co-product allocation method because significantly less corn oil biodiesel is produced than corn ethanol at a dry mill. Corn ethanol life-cycle GHG emissions with the displacement, marginal, and hybrid allocation approaches are similar (61, 62, and 59 g CO2e/MJ, respectively). Although corn ethanol and DGS share upstream farming and conversion burdens in both the hybrid and process-level energy allocation methods, DGS bears a higher burden in the latter because it has lower energy content per selling price as compared to corn ethanol. As a result, with the process-level allocation approach, ethanol’s life-cycle GHG emissions are lower at 46 g CO2e/MJ. Corn oil biodiesel life-cycle GHG emissions from the marginal, hybrid allocation, and process-level energy allocation methods were 14, 59, and 45 g CO2e/MJ, respectively. Sensitivity analyses were conducted to investigate the influence corn oil yield, soy biodiesel, and

  6. Influence of corn oil recovery on life-cycle greenhouse gas emissions of corn ethanol and corn oil biodiesel

    DOE PAGES

    Wang, Zhichao; Dunn, Jennifer B.; Han, Jeongwoo; ...

    2015-11-04

    Corn oil recovery and conversion to biodiesel has been widely adopted at corn ethanol plants recently. The US EPA has projected 2.6 billion liters of biodiesel will be produced from corn oil in 2022. Corn oil biodiesel may qualify for federal renewable identification number (RIN) credits under the Renewable Fuel Standard, as well as for low greenhouse gas (GHG) emission intensity credits under California’s Low Carbon Fuel Standard. Because multiple products [ethanol, biodiesel, and distiller’s grain with solubles (DGS)] are produced from one feedstock (corn), however, a careful co-product treatment approach is required to accurately estimate GHG intensities of bothmore » ethanol and corn oil biodiesel and to avoid double counting of benefits associated with corn oil biodiesel production. This study develops four co-product treatment methods: (1) displacement, (2) marginal, (3) hybrid allocation, and (4) process-level energy allocation. Life-cycle GHG emissions for corn oil biodiesel were more sensitive to the choice of co-product allocation method because significantly less corn oil biodiesel is produced than corn ethanol at a dry mill. Corn ethanol life-cycle GHG emissions with the displacement, marginal, and hybrid allocation approaches are similar (61, 62, and 59 g CO2e/MJ, respectively). Although corn ethanol and DGS share upstream farming and conversion burdens in both the hybrid and process-level energy allocation methods, DGS bears a higher burden in the latter because it has lower energy content per selling price as compared to corn ethanol. As a result, with the process-level allocation approach, ethanol’s life-cycle GHG emissions are lower at 46 g CO2e/MJ. Corn oil biodiesel life-cycle GHG emissions from the marginal, hybrid allocation, and process-level energy allocation methods were 14, 59, and 45 g CO2e/MJ, respectively. Sensitivity analyses were conducted to investigate the influence corn oil yield, soy biodiesel, and defatted DGS displacement

  7. Influence of corn oil recovery on life-cycle greenhouse gas emissions of corn ethanol and corn oil biodiesel.

    PubMed

    Wang, Zhichao; Dunn, Jennifer B; Han, Jeongwoo; Wang, Michael Q

    2015-01-01

    Corn oil recovery and conversion to biodiesel has been widely adopted at corn ethanol plants recently. The US EPA has projected 2.6 billion liters of biodiesel will be produced from corn oil in 2022. Corn oil biodiesel may qualify for federal renewable identification number (RIN) credits under the Renewable Fuel Standard, as well as for low greenhouse gas (GHG) emission intensity credits under California's Low Carbon Fuel Standard. Because multiple products [ethanol, biodiesel, and distiller's grain with solubles (DGS)] are produced from one feedstock (corn), however, a careful co-product treatment approach is required to accurately estimate GHG intensities of both ethanol and corn oil biodiesel and to avoid double counting of benefits associated with corn oil biodiesel production. This study develops four co-product treatment methods: (1) displacement, (2) marginal, (3) hybrid allocation, and (4) process-level energy allocation. Life-cycle GHG emissions for corn oil biodiesel were more sensitive to the choice of co-product allocation method because significantly less corn oil biodiesel is produced than corn ethanol at a dry mill. Corn ethanol life-cycle GHG emissions with the displacement, marginal, and hybrid allocation approaches are similar (61, 62, and 59 g CO2e/MJ, respectively). Although corn ethanol and DGS share upstream farming and conversion burdens in both the hybrid and process-level energy allocation methods, DGS bears a higher burden in the latter because it has lower energy content per selling price as compared to corn ethanol. As a result, with the process-level allocation approach, ethanol's life-cycle GHG emissions are lower at 46 g CO2e/MJ. Corn oil biodiesel life-cycle GHG emissions from the marginal, hybrid allocation, and process-level energy allocation methods were 14, 59, and 45 g CO2e/MJ, respectively. Sensitivity analyses were conducted to investigate the influence corn oil yield, soy biodiesel, and defatted DGS displacement credits

  8. Hydrothermal alkali metal recovery process

    DOEpatents

    Wolfs, Denise Y.; Clavenna, Le Roy R.; Eakman, James M.; Kalina, Theodore

    1980-01-01

    In a coal gasification operation or similar conversion process carried out in the presence of an alkali metal-containing catalyst wherein solid particles containing alkali metal residues are produced, alkali metal constituents are recovered from the particles by treating them with a calcium or magnesium-containing compound in the presence of water at a temperature between about 250.degree. F. and about 700.degree. F. and in the presence of an added base to establish a pH during the treatment step that is higher than would otherwise be possible without the addition of the base. During the treating process the relatively high pH facilitates the conversion of water-insoluble alkali metal compounds in the alkali metal residues into water-soluble alkali metal constituents. The resultant aqueous solution containing water-soluble alkali metal constituents is then separated from the residue solids, which consist of the treated particles and any insoluble materials formed during the treatment step, and recycled to the gasification process where the alkali metal constituents serve as at least a portion of the alkali metal constituents which comprise the alkali metal-containing catalyst. Preferably, the base that is added during the treatment step is an alkali metal hydroxide obtained by water washing the residue solids produced during the treatment step.

  9. Enhanced Oil Recovery by Horizontal Waterflooding

    SciTech Connect

    Scott Robinowitz; Dwight Dauben; June Schmeling

    2005-09-05

    suitable for use with flat plate or higher-temperature collectors. Operation of the controls test facility and computer modeling of collector loop and building load dynamics are yielding quantitative evaluations of the performance of different control strategies for active solar-heating systems. Research is continuing on ''passive'' approaches to solar heating and cooling, where careful considerations of architectural design, construction materials, and the environment are used to moderate a building's interior climate. Computer models of passive concepts are being developed and incorporated into building energy analysis computer programs which are in the public domain. The resulting passive analysis capabilities are used in systems studies leading to design tools and in the design of commercial buildings on a case study basis. The investigation of specific passive cooling methods is an ongoing project; for example, a process is being studied in which heat-storage material would be cooled by radiation to the night sky, and would then provide ''coolness'' to the building. Laboratory personnel involved in the solar cooling, controls, and passive projects are also providing technical support to the Active Heating and Cooling Division and the Passive and Hybrid Division of DOE in developing program plans, evaluating proposals, and making technical reviews of projects at other institutions and in industry. Low-grade heat is a widespread energy resource that could make a significant contribution to energy needs if economical methods can be developed for converting it to useful work. Investigations continued this year on the feasibility of using the ''shape-memory'' alloy, Nitinol, as a basis for constructing heat engines that could operate from energy sources, such as solar-heated water, industrial waste heat, geothermal brines, and ocean thermal gradients. Several projects are investigating longer-term possibilities for utilizing solar energy. One project involves the

  10. URANIUM LEACHING AND RECOVERY PROCESS

    DOEpatents

    McClaine, L.A.

    1959-08-18

    A process is described for recovering uranium from carbonate leach solutions by precipitating uranium as a mixed oxidation state compound. Uranium is recovered by adding a quadrivalent uranium carbon;te solution to the carbonate solution, adjusting the pH to 13 or greater, and precipitating the uranium as a filterable mixed oxidation state compound. In the event vanadium occurs with the uranium, the vanadium is unaffected by the uranium precipitation step and remains in the carbonate solution. The uranium-free solution is electrolyzed in the cathode compartment of a mercury cathode diaphragm cell to reduce and precipitate the vanadium.

  11. 26 CFR 1.43-4 - Qualified enhanced oil recovery costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    .... Offshore drilling platform. K, the owner of an operating mineral interest in an offshore oil field located... of the field, K commences an enhanced oil recovery project that involves the application of a... 26 Internal Revenue 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Qualified enhanced oil recovery costs. 1.43-4...

  12. 26 CFR 1.43-4 - Qualified enhanced oil recovery costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    .... Offshore drilling platform. K, the owner of an operating mineral interest in an offshore oil field located... of the field, K commences an enhanced oil recovery project that involves the application of a... 26 Internal Revenue 1 2014-04-01 2013-04-01 true Qualified enhanced oil recovery costs. 1.43-4...

  13. 26 CFR 1.43-4 - Qualified enhanced oil recovery costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    .... Offshore drilling platform. K, the owner of an operating mineral interest in an offshore oil field located... of the field, K commences an enhanced oil recovery project that involves the application of a... 26 Internal Revenue 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Qualified enhanced oil recovery costs. 1.43-4...

  14. PROCESS FOR RECOVERY OF CONSTITUENTS OF ORES

    DOEpatents

    McCullough, R.F.

    1959-05-01

    A process for U recovery from leached zone material is described. Calcination with alkali metal carbonate at 600 to 2000 deg F followed by digestion with H/sub 2/SO/sub 4/ and filtration forms the basis of the process. (T.R.H.)

  15. Effect of enhanced-oil-recovery chemicals on crude refining. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Brubaker, I.M.; Hilfman, L.; Malloy, T.P.

    1983-04-01

    The purpose of this project is to study the refining processibility of crude oils produced during enhanced oil recovery (EOR) operations using chemical flooding techniques. Results indicate that: (1) Preparative distillation of crude oils containing surfactants produced several effects depending on the structure of the surfactant and the nature of the crude oil - (a) complete destruction of the surfactant; (b) concentration of the surfactant in the vacuum resid fraction; and (c) complexation of the surfactant with hetero-species in the crude oil and possible concentration in the vacuum resid. (2) The activity of a RCD Unibon (BOC) catalyst was reduced when a vacuum resid fraction with a sodium-containing surfactant was processed. The exchange of sodium by ammonium ion produced a surfactant that did not reduce the catalytic activity. (3) The sodium and surfactant levels in EOR crude oils studied can be reduced by desalting, a typical treatment for whole crude oil. (4) Solvent extraction (Demex) of surfactant-containing vacuum resids produced an oil and pitch comparable in quality to those produced by extraction of virgin resids. The sodium contents of the products of the surfactant-doped resid were higher than the corresponding products from the virgin resids, and the surfactant was not clearly separated into either phase. (5) Low Pressure Coking was not affected by the presence of the sodium sulfonate-containing surfactant in the City of Long Beach vacuum resid. The surfactant was destroyed during the process. (6) The sodium sulfonate-based surfactant in the City of Long Beach crude oil did not have an adverse effect on the fouling properties of the crude oil.

  16. Fluid diversion and sweep improvement with chemical gels in oil recovery processes. [Four types of gels: resorcinol-formaldehyde; colloidal silica; Cr sup 3+ (chloride)-xanthan; and Cr sup 3+ (acetate)-polyacrylamide

    SciTech Connect

    Seright, R.S.; Martin, F.D.

    1992-09-01

    The objectives of this project were to identify the mechanisms by which gel treatments divert fluids in reservoirs and to establish where and how gel treatments are best applied. Several different types of gelants were examined, including polymer-based gelants, a monomer-based gelant, and a colloidal-silica gelant. This research was directed at gel applications in water injection wells, in production wells, and in high-pressure gas floods. The work examined how the flow properties of gels and gelling agents are influenced by permeability, lithology, and wettability. Other goals included determining the proper placement of gelants, the stability of in-place gels, and the types of gels required for the various oil recovery processes and for different scales of reservoir heterogeneity. During this three-year project, a number of theoretical analyses were performed to determine where gel treatments are expected to work best and where they are not expected to be effective. The most important, predictions from these analyses are presented. Undoubtedly, some of these predictions will be controversial. However, they do provide a starting point in establishing guidelines for the selection of field candidates for gel treatments. A logical next step is to seek field data that either confirm or contradict these predictions. The experimental work focused on four types of gels: (1) resorcinol-formaldehyde, (2) colloidal silica, (3) Cr{sup 3+}(chloride)-xanthan, and (4) Cr{sup 3+}(acetate)-polyacrylamide. All experiments were performed at 41{degrees}C.

  17. Resource recovery of Eichhornia crassipes as oil superabsorbent.

    PubMed

    Yin, Tiantian; Zhang, Xinying; Liu, Xiaoyan; Wang, Chaoqun

    2017-03-06

    The elastic cellulose-based aerogels (CBAs) with highly porous (99.56%) and low-density (0.0065gcm(-1)) were prepared using Eichhornia crassipes as cellulose source and polyvinyl alcohol directly as cross-linker via a facile and environment-friendly process. The prepared CBAs exhibited excellent oil/solvent sorption capacities (60.33-152.21gg(-1)), super-hydrophobicity (water contact angle of 156.7°) as well as remarkable reusability. More importantly, the absorbed oil could be quickly recovered by simple squeezing without significantly structure damage (at least 16 times). All these merits make CBAs very promising materials for oil spillage cleaning.

  18. Enhanced oil recovery and applied geoscience research program. [Quarterly] report, July 1--September 30, 1992

    SciTech Connect

    Thomas, C.P.

    1992-12-31

    The objectives of this research program are to develop microbial enhanced oil recovery (MEOR) systems for application to reservoirs containing medium to heavy oils and to evaluate reservoir wettability and its effects on oil recovery. The MEOR research goals include: (a) the development of bacterial cultures that are effective for oil displacement under a broad range of reservoir conditions; (b) improved understanding of the mechanisms by which microbial systems displace oil under reservoir conditions; (c) determination of the feasibility of combining microbial systems with or following conventional enhanced oil recovery (EOR) processes, such as miscible and immiscible gas flooding, polymer and chemical flooding, and thermal methods; (d) development of an MEOR field process design; and (e) implementation of an industry cost-shared field demonstration project. The goals of the reservoir wettability project are to develop: (a) a better methods for assessment of reservoir core wettability, (b) more certainty in relating laboratory core analysis procedures to fields conditions; (c) a better understanding of the effects of reservoir matrix properties and heterogeneity on wettability, and (d) improved ability to predict and influence EOR response through control of wettability in reservoirs. The focus of this report is a comparative analysis of potentially useful surfactants produced by Bacillus licheniformis and Bacillus subtilis growing on various sources of carbohydrates. Historically, molasses has been the feedstock of choice for the in situ production of biosurfactants. We propose utilizing alternative carbon substrates (i.e., processing wastes from the agricultural industry) as replacements for molasses. These wastes are currently disposed of at a cost and may be employed as viable feedstocks for the production of biosurfactants.

  19. International conference on microbial enhancement of oil recovery

    SciTech Connect

    Donaldson, E.C.; Clark, J.B.

    1983-02-01

    An International Conference on Microbial Enhancement of Oil Recovery (MEOR) was held May 16-21, 1982 at Afton, Oklahoma. Its objective was to bring together microbiologists and engineers from around the world who are trying to develop methods for the application of microbial systems to the petroleum industry (32 scientists from 12 foreign countries attended). The conference generated 32 papers, nine poster presentations, and a short course on the fundamentals of petroleum reservoir geology. It showed that a new, more fundamental, approach is being taken in the search for ways to apply microbes to oil recovery. Great effort is being expended by microbiologists to understand the complex subsurface environment of a petroleum reservoir in relation to microbial metabolism; and by engineers to understand the fundamental activities of microbes before attempting to bring the two systems together. The conference was organized into seven formal sessions and three informal poster sessions that followed consecutively during the five days of the conference. A review of the papers revealed that they fall naturally into the following four divisions which are used in the organization of the proceedings: (1) microbes and their metabolites; (2) transport of bacteria in porous geological materials; (3) application to heavy oils; (4) MEOR field applications. All papers have been abstracted and indexed for the Energy Data Base.

  20. Process for the preparation of gas oil

    SciTech Connect

    Akbar, M.; Kanbier, D.; Kwant, P.B.; Tjan, P.W.

    1980-04-29

    A process for the preparation of gas oil from residual oils by combination of two stages of thermal cracking, cyclone separation, vacuum distillation, deasphalting, atmospheric distillation, and recycling of certain streams.

  1. Three approaches for estimating recovery factors in carbon dioxide enhanced oil recovery

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Verma, Mahendra K.

    2017-07-17

    PrefaceThe Energy Independence and Security Act of 2007 authorized the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) to conduct a national assessment of geologic storage resources for carbon dioxide (CO2) and requested the USGS to estimate the “potential volumes of oil and gas recoverable by injection and sequestration of industrial carbon dioxide in potential sequestration formations” (42 U.S.C. 17271(b)(4)). Geologic CO2 sequestration associated with enhanced oil recovery (EOR) using CO2 in existing hydrocarbon reservoirs has the potential to increase the U.S. hydrocarbon recoverable resource. The objective of this report is to provide detailed information on three approaches that can be used to calculate the incremental recovery factors for CO2-EOR. Therefore, the contents of this report could form an integral part of an assessment methodology that can be used to assess the sedimentary basins of the United States for the hydrocarbon recovery potential using CO2-EOR methods in conventional oil reservoirs.

  2. TOGA: A TOUGH code for modeling three-phase, multi-component, and non-isothermal processes involved in CO2-based Enhanced Oil Recovery

    SciTech Connect

    Pan, Lehua; Oldenburg, Curtis M.

    2016-10-10

    TOGA is a numerical reservoir simulator for modeling non-isothermal flow and transport of water, CO2, multicomponent oil, and related gas components for applications including CO2-enhanced oil recovery (CO2-EOR) and geologic carbon sequestration in depleted oil and gas reservoirs. TOGA uses an approach based on the Peng-Robinson equation of state (PR-EOS) to calculate the thermophysical properties of the gas and oil phases including the gas/oil components dissolved in the aqueous phase, and uses a mixing model to estimate the thermophysical properties of the aqueous phase. The phase behavior (e.g., occurrence and disappearance of the three phases, gas + oil + aqueous) and the partitioning of non-aqueous components (e.g., CO2, CH4, and n-oil components) between coexisting phases are modeled using K-values derived from assumptions of equal-fugacity that have been demonstrated to be very accurate as shown by comparison to measured data. Models for saturated (water) vapor pressure and water solubility (in the oil phase) are used to calculate the partitioning of the water (H2O) component between the gas and oil phases. All components (e.g., CO2, H2O, and n hydrocarbon components) are allowed to be present in all phases (aqueous, gaseous, and oil). TOGA uses a multiphase version of Darcy’s Law to model flow and transport through porous media of mixtures with up to three phases over a range of pressures and temperatures appropriate to hydrocarbon recovery and geologic carbon sequestration systems. Transport of the gaseous and dissolved components is by advection and Fickian molecular diffusion. New methods for phase partitioning and thermophysical property modeling in TOGA have been validated against experimental data published in the literature for describing phase partitioning and phase behavior. Flow and transport has been verified by testing against related TOUGH2 EOS modules and

  3. High efficiency shale oil recovery. Fifth quarterly report, January 1, 1993--March 31, 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Adams, D.C.

    1993-04-22

    The overall project objective is to demonstrate the high efficiency of the Adams Counter-Current shale oil recovery process. The efficiency will first be demonstrated on a small scale, in the current phase, after which the demonstration will be extended to the operation of a small pilot plant. Thus the immediate project objective is to obtain data on oil shale retorting operations in a small batch rotary kiln that will be representative of operations in the proposed continuous process pilot plant. Although an oil shale batch sample is sealed in the batch kiln from the start until the end of the run, the process conditions for the batch are the same as the conditions that an element of oil shale would encounter in a continuous process kiln. Similar chemical and physical conditions (heating, mixing, pyrolysis, oxidation) exist in both systems.The two most important data objectives in this phase of the project are to demonstrate (1) that the heat recovery projected for this project is reasonable and (2) that an oil shale kiln will run well and not plug up due to sticking and agglomeration. The following was completed this quarter. (1) Twelve pyrolysis runs were made on five different oil shales. All of the runs exhibited a complete absence of any plugging, tendency. Heat transfer for Green River oil shale in the rotary kiln was 84.6 Btu/hr/ft{sup 2}/{degrees}F, and this will provide for ample heat exchange in the Adams kiln. (2) One retorted residue sample was oxidized at 1000{degrees}F. Preliminary indications are that the ash of this run appears to have been completely oxidized. (3) Further minor equipment repairs and improvements were required during the course of the several runs.

  4. Commercial scale demonstration enhanced oil recovery by micellar-polymer flood. Technical progress report, November 1984

    SciTech Connect

    Mueller, L.M.

    1984-01-01

    This report describes work conducted on the Maraflood oil recovery process, M-1 Project, throughout the month of November, 1984. Information is presented under two Work Breakdown Structure (WBS) elements: WBS 2100 - Fluid Injection and WBS 2300 - Performance Monitoring. Fluid Injection reporting includes a discussion of hydrogen peroxide stimulation of twelve 5.0-acre injection wells. Performance Monitoring reporting includes discussions of the 2.5-acre and 5.0-acre pattern oil cut performance for November, 1984, the October, 1984, high sulfonate content wells, and the October, 1984, tritiated water analysis. 16 figures.

  5. Commercial scale demonstration enhanced oil recovery by micellar-polymer flood. Monthly progress report, March 1985

    SciTech Connect

    Mueller, L.M.

    1985-03-01

    This report describes work conducted on the Maraflood oil recovery process, M-1 Project, throughout the month of March 1985. Information is presented under two Work Breakdown Structure (WBS) elements: WBS 2300 - performance monitoring; and WBS 2400 - economic monitoring. Performance monitoring reporting includes discussions of the 2.5-acre and 5.0-acre pattern oil cut performance for March 1985. Economic monitoring discusses the abandonment of one producing well in the 2.5-acre pattern area of the M-1 Project. 15 figures.

  6. Commercial scale demonstration enhanced oil recovery by micellar-polymer flood. Technical progress report

    SciTech Connect

    Mueller, L.M.

    1985-10-01

    This report describes work conducted on the Maraflood oil recovery process, M-1 Project, throughout the month of October, 1985. Information is presented under two Work Breakdown Structure (WBS) elements: WBS 2100 - Fluid Injection and WBS 2300 - Performance Monitoring. Fluid Injection reporting consists of a short discussion concerning injection wells recently stimulated in the 5.0-acre pattern area and the reason for this area's sudden injection rate increase. Performance Monitoring reporting includes a discussion of the 2.5-acre and 5.0-acre pattern oil cut performance for October, 1985. 16 figs.

  7. Simulation study to determine the feasibility of injecting hydrogen sulfide, carbon dioxide and nitrogen gas injection to improve gas and oil recovery oil-rim reservoir

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eid, Mohamed El Gohary

    This study is combining two important and complicated processes; Enhanced Oil Recovery, EOR, from the oil rim and Enhanced Gas Recovery, EGR from the gas cap using nonhydrocarbon injection gases. EOR is proven technology that is continuously evolving to meet increased demand and oil production and desire to augment oil reserves. On the other hand, the rapid growth of the industrial and urban development has generated an unprecedented power demand, particularly during summer months. The required gas supplies to meet this demand are being stretched. To free up gas supply, alternative injectants to hydrocarbon gas are being reviewed to support reservoir pressure and maximize oil and gas recovery in oil rim reservoirs. In this study, a multi layered heterogeneous gas reservoir with an oil rim was selected to identify the most optimized development plan for maximum oil and gas recovery. The integrated reservoir characterization model and the pertinent transformed reservoir simulation history matched model were quality assured and quality checked. The development scheme is identified, in which the pattern and completion of the wells are optimized to best adapt to the heterogeneity of the reservoir. Lateral and maximum block contact holes will be investigated. The non-hydrocarbon gases considered for this study are hydrogen sulphide, carbon dioxide and nitrogen, utilized to investigate miscible and immiscible EOR processes. In November 2010, re-vaporization study, was completed successfully, the first in the UAE, with an ultimate objective is to examine the gas and condensate production in gas reservoir using non hydrocarbon gases. Field development options and proces schemes as well as reservoir management and long term business plans including phases of implementation will be identified and assured. The development option that maximizes the ultimate recovery factor will be evaluated and selected. The study achieved satisfactory results in integrating gas and oil

  8. Recovery of different waste vegetable oils for biodiesel production: a pilot experience in Bahia State, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Torres, Ednildo Andrade; Cerqueira, Gilberto S; Tiago, M Ferrer; Quintella, Cristina M; Raboni, Massimo; Torretta, Vincenzo; Urbini, Giordano

    2013-12-01

    In Brazil, and mainly in the State of Bahia, crude vegetable oils are widely used in the preparation of food. Street stalls, restaurants and canteens make a great use of palm oil and soybean oil. There is also some use of castor oil, which is widely cultivated in the Sertão Region (within the State of Bahia), and widely applied in industry. This massive use in food preparation leads to a huge amount of waste oil of different types, which needs either to be properly disposed of, or recovered. At the Laboratorio Energia e Gas-LEN (Energy & Gas lab.) of the Universidade Federal da Bahia, a cycle of experiments were carried out to evaluate the recovery of waste oils for biodiesel production. The experiences were carried out on a laboratory scale and, in a semi-industrial pilot plant using waste oils of different qualities. In the transesterification process, applied waste vegetable oils were reacted with methanol with the support of a basic catalyst, such as NaOH or KOH. The conversion rate settled at between 81% and 85% (in weight). The most suitable molar ratio of waste oils to alcohol was 1:6, and the amount of catalyst required was 0.5% (of the weight of the incoming oil), in the case of NaOH, and 1%, in case of KOH. The quality of the biodiesel produced was tested to determine the final product quality. The parameters analyzed were the acid value, kinematic viscosity, monoglycerides, diglycerides, triglycerides, free glycerine, total glycerine, clearness; the conversion yield of the process was also evaluated.

  9. Visual display of reservoir parameters affecting enhanced oil recovery

    SciTech Connect

    Wood, J.R.

    1996-04-30

    This project consists of two parts. In Part 1, well logs, other well data, drilling, and production data for the Pioneer Field in the southern San Joaquin Valley of California were obtained, assembled, and input to a commercial relational database manager. These data are being used in PC-based geologic mapping, evaluation, and visualization software programs to produce 2-D and 3-D representations of the reservoir geometry, facies and subfacies, stratigraphy, porosity, oil saturation, and other measured and model parameters. Petrographic and petrophysical measurements made on samples from Pioneer Field, including core, cuttings and liquids, are being used to calibrate the log suite. In Part 2, these data sets are being used to develop algorithms to correlate log response to geologic and engineering measurements. Rock alteration due to interactions with hot fluids are being quantitatively modeled and used to predict the reservoir response if the rock were subjected to thermally enhanced oil recovery (TEOR).

  10. Interfacial activity in alkaline flooding enhanced oil recovery

    SciTech Connect

    Chan, M.K.

    1981-01-01

    The ionization of long-chained organic acids in the crude oil to form soaps was shown to be primarily responsible for the lowering of oil-water interfacial tension at alkaline pH. These active acids can be concentrated by silica gel chromatography into a minor polar fraction. An equilibrium chemical model was proposed based on 2 competing reactions: the ionization of acids to form active anions, and the formation of undissociated soap between acid anions and sodium ions. It correlates the interfacial activity with the interfacial concentration of active acid anions which is expressed in terms of the concentrations of the chemical species in the system. The model successfully predicts the observed oil-alkaline solution interfacial phenomenon, including its dependence on pH, alkali and salt concentrations, type of acid present and type of soap formed. Flooding at different alkali concentrations to activate different acid species present in the crude was shown to give better recovery than flooding at a single high alkali concentration. Treating the crude oil with a dilute solution of mineral acids liberates additional free active acids and yields better interfacial activity during subsequent alkali contact.

  11. Reliability of Low-Salinity Waterflooding in Oil Recovery: Effects of Reservoir Conditions and Fractures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Namnoum, Ali; Abdelaziz, Ramadan

    2016-04-01

    ​Low-salinity waterflooding is a relatively new technique for enhanced oil recovery. The paper aims at understanding the thermal, physical and chemical processes in the fractured reservoirs. The effects of water injection in the fractured formations are simulated by TOUGH2 and TOUGHREACT analyses with a case study. Using TOUGHREACT as a geochemical model provides an inclusive insight into possible changes in the mineral composition.

  12. Microbial enhanced oil recovery research. Final report, Annex 5

    SciTech Connect

    Sharma, M.M.; Gerogiou, G.

    1993-07-01

    The objective of this project was to develop an engineering framework for the exploitation of microorganisms to enhance oil recovery. An order of magnitude analysis indicated that selective plugging and the production of biosurfactants are the two most likely mechanisms for the mobilization of oil in microbial enhanced oil recovery (MEOR). The latter, biosurfactant production, is easier to control within a reservoir environment and was investigated in some detail. An extensive literature survey indicated that the bacterium Bacillus licheniformis JF-2 produces a very effective surface active agent capable of increasing the capillary number to values sufficiently low for oil mobilization. In addition, earlier studies had shown that growth of this bacterium and biosurfactant production occur under conditions that are typically encountered in MEOR, namely temperatures up to 55{degrees}C, lack of oxygen and salinities of up to 10% w/v. The chemical structure of the surfactant, its interfacial properties and its production by fermentation were characterized in some detail. In parallel, a set of experiments as conducted to measure the transport of Bacillus licheniformis JF-2 in sandpacks. It was shown that the determining parameters for cell transport in porous media are: cell size and degree of coagulation, presence of dispersants, injection velocity and cell concentration. The mechanisms of bacteria retention within the pores of the reservoir were analyzed based on heuristic arguments. A mathematical simulator of MEOR was developed using conservation equations in which the mechanisms of bacteria retention and the growth kinetics of the cells were incorporated. The predictions of the model agreed reasonably well with experimental results.

  13. Solar Thermal Enhanced Oil Recovery (STEOR). Volume 2: Appendices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elzinga, E.; Arnold, C.; Allen, D.; Garman, R.; Joy, P.; Mitchell, P.; Shaw, H.

    1980-11-01

    Detailed information describing the technical, economic, operational, and environmental feasibility of solar thermal enhanced oil recovery using line focusing distributed collectors is presented. The site description, conceptual designs, foundation design for solar collectors, design basis and preliminary design are given. The fatigue testing of flexible hoses is described. Solar control and a failure modes and effects analysis of solar thermal system are presented. The basis for the preliminary cost estimate and backup data for the market and economic analysis are presented. The environmental impact analysis and air quality analysis are given. Engineering drawings and specifications are included.

  14. Metallic Recovery and Ferrous Melting Processes

    SciTech Connect

    Luis Trueba

    2004-05-30

    The effects of melting atmosphere and charge material type on the metallic and alloy recovery of ferrous charge materials were investigated in two sets of experiments (Tasks 1 and 2). In addition, thermodynamic studies were performed (Task 3) to determine the suitability of ladle treatment for the production of ductile iron using scrap charge materials high in manganese and sulfur. Task 1--In the first set of experiments, the charge materials investigated were thin steel scrap, thick steel scrap, cast iron scrap, and pig iron in the rusty and clean states. Melting atmospheres in this set of experiments were varied by melting with and without a furnace cover. In this study, it was found that neither covered melting nor melting clean (non-rusty) ferrous charge materials improved the metallic recovery over the recovery experienced with uncovered melting or rusty charge materials. However, the silicon and manganese recoveries were greater with covered melting and clean materials. Silicon and manganese in the molten iron react with oxygen dissolved in the iron from uncovered melting and oxidized iron (surface rust). Silica and manganese silicates are formed which float to the slag decreasing recoveries of silicon and manganese. Cast iron and pig iron had higher metallic recoveries than steel scrap. Carbon recovery was affected by the carbon content of the charge materials, and not by the melting conditions. Irons with higher silicon contents had higher silicon recovery than irons with lower silicon contents. Task 2--In the second set of experiments, briquetted turnings and borings were used to evaluate the effects of briquette cleanliness, carbon additions, and melting atmosphere on metallic and alloy recovery. The melting atmosphere in this set of experiments was varied by melting in air and with an argon atmosphere using the SPAL process. In this set of experiments, carbon additions to the briquettes were found to have the greatest effect on metallic and alloy

  15. ADVANCED OIL RECOVERY TECHNOLOGIES FOR IMPROVED RECOVERY FROM SLOPE BASIN CLASTIC RESERVOIRS, NASH DRAW BRUSHY CANYON POOL, EDDY COUNTY, NM

    SciTech Connect

    Mark B. Murphy

    2003-07-30

    The overall objective of this project is to demonstrate that a development program based on advanced reservoir management methods can significantly improve oil recovery at the Nash Draw Pool (NDP). The plan includes developing a control area using standard reservoir management techniques and comparing its performance to an area developed using advanced reservoir management methods. Specific goals are (1) to demonstrate that an advanced development drilling and pressure maintenance program can significantly improve oil recovery compared to existing technology applications and (2) to transfer these advanced methodologies to oil and gas producers in the Permian Basin and elsewhere throughout the U.S. oil and gas industry.

  16. ADVANCED OIL RECOVERY TECHNOLOGIES FOR IMPROVED RECOVERY FROM SLOPE BASIN CLASTIC RESERVOIRS, NASH DRAW BRUSHY CANYON POOL, EDDY COUNTY, NM

    SciTech Connect

    Mark B. Murphy

    2002-12-31

    The overall objective of this project is to demonstrate that a development program based on advanced reservoir management methods can significantly improve oil recovery at the Nash Draw Pool (NDP). The plan includes developing a control area using standard reservoir management techniques and comparing its performance to an area developed using advanced reservoir management methods. Specific goals are (1) to demonstrate that an advanced development drilling and pressure maintenance program can significantly improve oil recovery compared to existing technology applications and (2) to transfer these advanced methodologies to oil and gas producers in the Permian Basin and elsewhere throughout the U.S. oil and gas industry.

  17. ADVANCED OIL RECOVERY TECHNOLOGIES FOR IMPROVED RECOVERY FROM SLOPE BASIN CLASTIC RESERVOIRS, NASH DRAW BRUSHY CANYON POOL, EDDY COUNTY, NM

    SciTech Connect

    Mark B. Murphy

    2003-10-31

    The overall objective of this project is to demonstrate that a development program based on advanced reservoir management methods can significantly improve oil recovery at the Nash Draw Pool (NDP). The plan includes developing a control area using standard reservoir management techniques and comparing its performance to an area developed using advanced reservoir management methods. Specific goals are (1) to demonstrate that an advanced development drilling and pressure maintenance program can significantly improve oil recovery compared to existing technology applications and (2) to transfer these advanced methodologies to oil and gas producers in the Permian Basin and elsewhere throughout the U.S. oil and gas industry.

  18. ADVANCED OIL RECOVERY TECHNOLOGIES FOR IMPROVED RECOVERY FROM SLOPE BASIN CLASTIC RESERVOIRS, NASH DRAW BRUSHY CANYON POOL, EDDY COUNTY, NM

    SciTech Connect

    Mark B. Murphy

    2004-01-31

    The overall objective of this project is to demonstrate that a development program based on advanced reservoir management methods can significantly improve oil recovery at the Nash Draw Pool (NDP). The plan includes developing a control area using standard reservoir management techniques and comparing its performance to an area developed using advanced reservoir management methods. Specific goals are (1) to demonstrate that an advanced development drilling and pressure maintenance program can significantly improve oil recovery compared to existing technology applications and (2) to transfer these advanced methodologies to oil and gas producers in the Permian Basin and elsewhere throughout the U.S. oil and gas industry.

  19. Assessment of Research Needs for Oil Recovery from Heavy-Oil Sources and Tar Sands (FERWG-IIIA)

    SciTech Connect

    Penner, S.S.

    1982-03-01

    The Fossil Energy Research Working Group (FERWG), at the request of J.W. Mares (Assistant Secretary for Fossil Energy) and A.W. Trivelpiece (Director, Office of Energy Research), has reviewed and evaluated the U.S. programs on oil recovery from heavy oil sources and tar sands. These studies were performed in order to provide an independent assessment of research areas that affect the prospects for oil recovery from these sources. This report summarizes the findings and research recommendations of FERWG.

  20. Spectral Induced Polarization (SIP) monitoring during Microbial Enhanced Oil Recovery (MEOR)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heenan, J. W.; Ntarlagiannis, D.; Slater, L. D.

    2010-12-01

    Jeffrey Heenan, Dimitrios Ntarlagiannis, Lee Slater Department of Earth and Environmental Sciences, Rutgers University, Newark NJ Microbial Enhanced Oil Recovery (MEOR) is an established, cost effective, method for enhancing tertiary oil recovery. Although not commonly used for shallow heavy oils, it could be a viable alternative since it can offer sustainable economic recovery and minimal environmental impact. A critical component of successful MEOR treatments is accurate, real time monitoring of the biodegradation processes resulting from the injection of microbial communities into the formation; results of recent biogeophysical research suggest that minimally-invasive geophysical methods could significantly contribute to such monitoring efforts. Here we present results of laboratory experiments, to assess the sensitivity of the spectral induced polarization method (SIP) to MEOR treatments. We used heavy oil, obtained from a shallow oilfield in SW Missouri, to saturate three sand columns. We then followed common industry procedures,and used a commercially available microbial consortia, to treat the oil columns. The active MEOR experiments were performed in duplicate while a control column maintained similar conditions, without promoting microbial activity and oil degradation. We monitored the SIP signatures, between 0.001 Hz and 1000 Hz, for a period of six months. To support the geophysical measurements we also monitored common geochemical parameters, including pH, Eh and fluid conductivity, and collected weekly fluid samples from the outflow and inflow for further analysis; fluid samples were analyzed to confirm that microbes actively degraded the heavy oils in the column while destructive analysis of the solid materials was performed upon termination of the experiment. Preliminary analysis of the results suggests that SIP is sensitive to MEOR processes. In both inoculated columns we recorded an increase in the low frequency polarization with time; measureable

  1. High efficiency shale oil recovery. Fourth quarterly report, October 1, 1992--December 31, 1992

    SciTech Connect

    Adams, D.C.

    1992-12-31

    The overall project objective is to demonstrate the high efficiency of the Adams Counter-Current shale oil recovery process. The efficiency will first be demonstrated on a small scale, in the current phase, after which the demonstration will be extended to the operation of a small pilot plant. Thus the immediate project objective is to obtain data on oil shale retorting operations in a small batch rotary kiln that will be representative of operations in the proposed continuous process pilot plant. Although an oil shale batch sample is sealed in the batch kiln from the start until the end of the run, the process conditions for the batch are the same as the conditions that an element of oil shale would encounter in a continuous process kiln. Similar chemical and physical (heating, mixing) conditions exist in both systems. The two most important data objectives in this phase of the project are to demonstrate (1) that the heat recovery projected for this project is reasonable and (2) that an oil shale kiln will run well and not plug up due to sticking and agglomeration. The following was completed and is reported on this quarter: (1) A software routine was written to eliminate intermittently inaccurate temperature readings. (2) We completed the quartz sand calibration runs, resolving calibration questions from the 3rd quarter. (3) We also made low temperature retorting runs to identify the need for certain kiln modifications and kiln modifications were completed. (4) Heat Conductance data on two Pyrolysis runs were completed on two samples of Occidental oil shale.

  2. Applications of EOR (enhanced oil recovery) technology in field projects--1990 update

    SciTech Connect

    Pautz, J.F.; Thomas, R.D.

    1991-01-01

    Trends in the type and number of US enhanced oil recovery (EOR) projects are analyzed for the period from 1980 through 1989. The analysis is based on current literature and news media and the Department of Energy (DOE) EOR Project Data Base, which contains information on over 1,348 projects. The characteristics of the EOR projects are grouped by starting date and process type to identify trends in reservoir statistics and applications of process technologies. Twenty-two EOR projects starts were identified for 1989 and ten project starts for 1988. An obvious trend over recent years has been the decline in the number of project starts since 1981 until 1988 which corresponds to the oil price decline during that period. There was a modest recovery in 1989 of project starts, which lags the modest recovery of oil prices in 1987 that was reconfirmed in 1989. During the time frame of 1980 to 1989, there has been a gradual improvement in costs of operation for EOR technology. The perceived average cost of EOR has gone down from a $30/bbl range to low $20/bbl. These costs of operation seems to stay just at the price of oil or slightly above to result in marginal profitability. The use of polymer flooding has drastically decreased both in actual and relative numbers of project starts since the oil price drop in 1986. Production from polymer flooding is down more than 50%. Long-term plans for large, high-cost projects such as CO{sub 2} flooding in West Texas, steamflooding in California, and hydrocarbon flooding on the North Slope have continued to be implemented. EOR process technologies have been refined to be more cost effective as shown by the continued application and rising production attributable to EOR. 8 refs., 6 figs., 13 tabs.

  3. PROCESS FOR THE RECOVERY OF URANIUM

    DOEpatents

    Morris, G.O.

    1955-06-21

    This patent relates to a process for the recovery of uranium from impure uranium tetrafluoride. The process consists essentially of the steps of dissolving the impure uranium tetrafluoride in excess dilute sulfuric acid in the presence of excess hydrogen peroxide, precipitating ammonium uranate from the solution so formed by adding an excess of aqueous ammonia, dissolving the precipitate in sulfuric acid and adding hydrogen peroxide to precipitate uranium peroxdde.

  4. Sacrificial adsorbate for surfactants utilized in chemical floods of enhanced oil recovery operations

    DOEpatents

    Johnson, Jr., James S.; Westmoreland, Clyde G.

    1982-01-01

    The present invention is directed to a sacrificial or competitive adsorbate for surfactants contained in chemical flooding emulsions for enhanced oil recovery operations. The adsorbate to be utilized in the method of the present invention is a caustic effluent from the bleach stage or the weak black liquor from the digesters and pulp washers of the kraft pulping process. This effluent or weak black liquor is injected into an oil-bearing subterranean earth formation prior to or concurrent with the chemical flood emulsion and is adsorbed on the active mineral surfaces of the formation matrix so as to effectively reduce adsorption of surfactant in the chemical flood. Alternatively, the effluent or liquor can be injected into the subterranean earth formation subsequent to a chemical flood to displace the surfactant from the mineral surfaces for the recovery thereof.

  5. Evaluation of microwave digestion systems for mercury recovery in an oil matrix

    SciTech Connect

    Whitaker, M.J.; Clymire, J.W.

    1997-09-01

    The scope of this document is to characterize three microwave systems developed by CEM Corporation. The purpose of this investigative work was to evaluate the performance of each system for dissolution qualities and the recovery of mercury in an oil based matrix. The microwave systems evaluated were the heavy duty vessel system (HDV), the advanced composite system (ACV), and the open vessel system (OVS). All three systems have automated features, but all systems are limited by one factor or another. EPA method 3051 was the procedure used for sample preparation for this project. This particular microwave digestion method can also be used for other metal analytes of interest. Of the three different systems, only the HDV (now UDV) demonstrated complete digestion of the oil based matrix in a one step process and acceptable mercury recoveries.

  6. Sacrificial adsorbate for surfactants utilized in chemical floods of enhanced oil recovery operations

    DOEpatents

    Johnson, J.S. Jr.; Westmoreland, C.G.

    1980-08-20

    The present invention is directed to a sacrificial or competitive adsorbate for surfactants contained in chemical flooding emulsions for enhanced oil recovery operations. The adsorbate to be utilized in the method of the present invention is a caustic effluent from the bleach stage or the weak black liquor from the digesters and pulp washers of the kraft pulping process. This effluent or weak black liquor is injected into an oil-bearing subterranean earth formation prior to or concurrent with the chemical flood emulsion and is adsorbed on the active mineral surfaces of the formation matrix so as to effectively reduce adsorption of surfactant in the chemical flood. Alternatively, the effluent or liquor can be injected into the subterranean earth formation subsequent to a chemical flood to displace the surfactant from the mineral surfaces for the recovery thereof.

  7. Topography of retinal recovery processes in humans

    PubMed Central

    Mazinani, Babac E; Merx, Elke; Plange, Niklas; Walter, Peter; Roessler, Gernot F

    2014-01-01

    Background The purpose of this study was to examine retinal recovery processes to pographically by the application of three flash sequences with specific interstimulus intervals. Methods Twelve healthy subjects underwent multifocal electroretinography with a light-emitting diode stimulator. Every flash sequence consisted of three flashes with 25 msec between the first and the second flash and 35 msec between the second and the third flash. The interval between the third and the first flash of the next step was 85 msec. The interstimulus interval-dependent amplitude reductions of the multifocal electroretinographic response for these three intervals yielded three data points that were used to determine the complete curve of the recovery kinetics. Results Amplitude reductions were higher with shorter interstimulus intervals. The mean half-life periods of the recovery kinetics for the different concentric rings and all subjects were: ring 1, 29.3±5.9 msec; ring 2, 24.2±6.4 msec; ring 3, 23±4.1 msec; ring 4, 23.1±4.6 msec; and ring 5, 22.3±4.4 msec. The differences between the first and all other rings were statistically significant (P<0.05). Conclusion The kinetics of the amplitude recovery after short interstimulus intervals showed a spatial distribution, with faster recovery toward the macular periphery. PMID:25349472

  8. Thermal acidization and recovery process for recovering viscous petroleum

    DOEpatents

    Poston, Robert S.

    1984-01-01

    A thermal acidization and recovery process for increasing production of heavy viscous petroleum crude oil and synthetic fuels from subterranean hydrocarbon formations containing clay particles creating adverse permeability effects is described. The method comprises injecting a thermal vapor stream through a well bore penetrating such formations to clean the formation face of hydrocarbonaceous materials which restrict the flow of fluids into the petroleum-bearing formation. Vaporized hydrogen chloride is then injected simultaneously to react with calcium and magnesium salts in the formation surrounding the bore hole to form water soluble chloride salts. Vaporized hydrogen fluoride is then injected simultaneously with its thermal vapor to dissolve water-sensitive clay particles thus increasing permeability. Thereafter, the thermal vapors are injected until the formation is sufficiently heated to permit increased recovery rates of the petroleum.

  9. Solar heated oil shale pyrolysis process

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Qader, S. A. (Inventor)

    1985-01-01

    An improved system for recovery of a liquid hydrocarbon fuel from oil shale is presented. The oil shale pyrolysis system is composed of a retort reactor for receiving a bed of oil shale particules which are heated to pyrolyis temperature by means of a recycled solar heated gas stream. The gas stream is separated from the recovered shale oil and a portion of the gas stream is rapidly heated to pyrolysis temperature by passing it through an efficient solar heater. Steam, oxygen, air or other oxidizing gases can be injected into the recycle gas before or after the recycle gas is heated to pyrolysis temperature and thus raise the temperature before it enters the retort reactor. The use of solar thermal heat to preheat the recycle gas and optionally the steam before introducing it into the bed of shale, increases the yield of shale oil.

  10. Geomechanical Study of Bakken Formation for Improved Oil Recovery

    SciTech Connect

    Ling, Kegang; Zeng, Zhengwen; He, Jun; Pei, Peng; Zhou, Xuejun; Liu, Hong; Huang, Luke; Ostadhassan, Mehdi; Jabbari, Hadi; Blanksma, Derrick; Feilen, Harry; Ahmed, Salowah; Benson, Steve; Mann, Michael; LeFever, Richard; Gosnold, Will

    2013-12-31

    On October 1, 2008 US DOE-sponsored research project entitled “Geomechanical Study of Bakken Formation for Improved Oil Recovery” under agreement DE-FC26-08NT0005643 officially started at The University of North Dakota (UND). This is the final report of the project; it covers the work performed during the project period of October 1, 2008 to December 31, 2013. The objectives of this project are to outline the methodology proposed to determine the in-situ stress field and geomechanical properties of the Bakken Formation in Williston Basin, North Dakota, USA to increase the success rate of horizontal drilling and hydraulic fracturing so as to improve the recovery factor of this unconventional crude oil resource from the current 3% to a higher level. The success of horizontal drilling and hydraulic fracturing depends on knowing local in-situ stress and geomechanical properties of the rocks. We propose a proactive approach to determine the in-situ stress and related geomechanical properties of the Bakken Formation in representative areas through integrated analysis of field and well data, core sample and lab experiments. Geomechanical properties are measured by AutoLab 1500 geomechanics testing system. By integrating lab testing, core observation, numerical simulation, well log and seismic image, drilling, completion, stimulation, and production data, in-situ stresses of Bakken formation are generated. These in-situ stress maps can be used as a guideline for future horizontal drilling and multi-stage fracturing design to improve the recovery of Bakken unconventional oil.

  11. OPTICAL FIBER SENSOR TECHNOLOGIES FOR EFFICIENT AND ECONOMICAL OIL RECOVERY

    SciTech Connect

    Kristie Cooper; Gary Pickrell; Anbo Wang

    2003-04-01

    This report summarizes technical progress over the fourth year of the ''Optical Fiber Sensor Technologies for Efficient and Economical Oil Recovery'' program, funded by the Federal Energy Technology Center of the U.S. Department of Energy, and performed by the Center for Photonics Technology of the Bradley Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering at Virginia Tech. During the reporting period, research efforts under the program were focused on the development and evaluation of the fiber optic flow sensor system, and field testing in Tulsa, OK and the second field test of the pressure and temperature sensors in Coalinga, CA. The feasibility of a self-compensating fiber optic flow sensor based on a cantilever beam and interferometer for real-time flow rate measurements in the fluid filled pipes of oil field was clearly demonstrated. In addition, field testing of the pressure and temperature sensors deployed downhole continued. These accomplishments are summarized here: (1) Theoretical analysis and simulations were performed to ensure performance of the design. (2) The sensor fabrication and packaging techniques were investigated and improved. (3) Prototype flow sensors were fabricated based on the fabrication experience of hundreds of test sensors. (4) A lab-scale flow testing system was constructed and used for sensor evaluation. (5) Field-testing was performed in both the indoor and outdoor flow testing facility at the University of Tulsa, OK. (6) Testing of a multimode white light pressure and temperature sensor system continued at the oil site of Chevron/Texaco Company (Coalinga CA).

  12. Thermally-enhanced oil recovery method and apparatus

    DOEpatents

    Stahl, Charles R.; Gibson, Michael A.; Knudsen, Christian W.

    1987-01-01

    A thermally-enhanced oil recovery method and apparatus for exploiting deep well reservoirs utilizes electric downhole steam generators to provide supplemental heat to generate high quality steam from hot pressurized water which is heated at the surface. A downhole electric heater placed within a well bore for local heating of the pressurized liquid water into steam is powered by electricity from the above-ground gas turbine-driven electric generators fueled by any clean fuel such as natural gas, distillate or some crude oils, or may come from the field being stimulated. Heat recovered from the turbine exhaust is used to provide the hot pressurized water. Electrical power may be cogenerated and sold to an electric utility to provide immediate cash flow and improved economics. During the cogeneration period (no electrical power to some or all of the downhole units), the oil field can continue to be stimulated by injecting hot pressurized water, which will flash into lower quality steam at reservoir conditions. The heater includes electrical heating elements supplied with three-phase alternating current or direct current. The injection fluid flows through the heater elements to generate high quality steam to exit at the bottom of the heater assembly into the reservoir. The injection tube is closed at the bottom and has radial orifices for expanding the injection fluid to reservoir pressure.

  13. Postischemic fish oil treatment confers task-dependent memory recovery.

    PubMed

    de Oliveira, Janaína Nicolau; Reis, Luane Oliveira; Ferreira, Emilene Dias Fiuza; Godinho, Jacqueline; Bacarin, Cristiano Correia; Soares, Ligia Mendes; de Oliveira, Rúbia Maria Weffort; Milani, Humberto

    2017-08-01

    A series of our previous studies demonstrated that fish oil (FO), equivalent to 300mg/kg docosahexahenoic acid (DHA), facilitates memory recovery after transient, global cerebral ischemia (TGCI) in the aversive radial maze (AvRM). The present study sought to address two main issues: (i) whether the memory-protective effect of FO that has been observed in the AvRM can be replicated in the passive avoidance test (PAT) and object location test (OLT) and (ii) whether FO at doses that are lower than those used previously can also prevent TGCI-induced memory loss. In Experiment 1, naive rats were trained in the PAT, subjected to TGCI (4-vessel occlusion model), and tested for retrograde memory performance 8 and 15days after ischemia. Fish oil (300mg/kg/day DHA) was given orally for 8days. The first dose was delivered 4h postischemia. In Experiment 2, the rats were subjected to TGCI, treated with the same FO regimen, and then trained and tested in the OLT. In Experiment 3, the rats were trained in the AvRM, subjected to TGCI, administered FO (100, 200, and 300mg/kg DHA), and tested for memory performance up to 3weeks after TGCI. At the end of the behavioral tests, the brains were examined for neurodegeneration and neuroblast proliferation. All of the behavioral tests (PAT, OLT, and AvRM) were sensitive to ischemia, but only the AvRM was able to detect the memory-protective effect of FO. Ischemia-induced neurodegeneration and neuroblast proliferation were unaffected by FO treatment. These results suggest that (i) the beneficial effect of FO on memory recovery after TGCI is task-dependent, (ii) doses of FO<300mg/kg DHA can protect memory function in the radial maze, and (iii) cognitive recovery occurs in the absence of neuronal rescue and/or hippocampal neurogenesis. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Metal oxide-based nanoparticles: revealing their potential to enhance oil recovery in different wettability systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hendraningrat, Luky; Torsæter, Ole

    2015-02-01

    This paper presents systematic studies of hydrophilic metal oxide nanoparticles (NPs) dispersed in brine intended to reveal their potential to enhance oil recovery (EOR) in various rock wettability systems. The stability in suspension (nanofluid) of the NPs has been identified as a key factor related to their use as an EOR agent. Experimental techniques have been developed for nanofluid stability using three coupled methods: direct visual observation, surface conductivity and particle size measurements. The use of a dispersant has been investigated and has been shown to successfully improve metal oxide nanofluid stability as a function of its concentration. The dispersant alters the nanofluid properties, i.e. surface conductivity, pH and particle size distribution. A two-phase coreflood experiment was conducted by injecting the stable nanofluids as a tertiary process (nano-EOR) through core plugs with various wettabilities ranging from water-wet to oil-wet. The combination of metal oxide nanofluid and dispersant improved the oil recovery to a greater extent than either silica-based nanofluid or dispersant alone in all wettability systems. The contact angle, interfacial tension (IFT) and effluent were also measured. It was observed that metal oxide-based nanofluids altered the quartz plates to become more water-wet, and the results are consistent with those of the coreflood experiment. The particle adsorption during the transport process was identified from effluent analysis. The presence of NPs and dispersant reduced the IFT, but its reduction is sufficient to yield significant additional oil recovery. Hence, wettability alteration plays a dominant role in the oil displacement mechanism using nano-EOR.

  15. A study of the effects of enhanced oil recovery agents on the quality of Strategic Petroleum Reserves crude oil. Final technical report

    SciTech Connect

    Kabadi, V.N.

    1992-10-01

    The project was initiated on September 1, 1990. The objective of the project was to carry out a literature search to estimate the types and extents of long time interactions of enhanced oil recovery (EOR) agents, such as surfactants, caustics and polymers, with crude oil. This information is necessary to make recommendations about mixing EOR crude oil with crude oils from primary and secondary recovery processes in the Strategic Petroleum Reserve (SPR). Data were sought on both adverse and beneficial effects of EOR agents that would impact handling, transportation and refining of crude oil. An extensive literature search has been completed, and the following informations has been compiled: (1) a listing of existing EOR test and field projects; (2) a listing of currently used EOR agents; and (3) evidence of short and long term physical and chemical interactions of these EOR-agents with hydrocarbons, and their effects on the quality of crude oil at long times. This information is presented in this report. Finally some conclusions are derived and recommendations are made. Although the conclusions are based mostly on extrapolations because of lack of specific data, it is recommended that the enhancement of the rates of biodegradation of oil catalyzed by the EOR agents needs to be further studied. There is no evidence of substantial long term effects on crude oil because of other interactions. Some recommendations are also made regarding the types of studies that would be necessary to determine the effect of certain EOR agents on the rates of biodegradation of crude oil.

  16. Recovery of polyphenols from rose oil distillation wastewater using adsorption resins--a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Rusanov, Krasimir; Garo, Eliane; Rusanova, Mila; Fertig, Orlando; Hamburger, Matthias; Atanassov, Ivan; Butterweck, Veronika

    2014-11-01

    for the recovery of polyphenols from rose oil distillation wastewater suggesting an industrial scalability of the process.

  17. Biosurfactant-biopolymer driven microbial enhanced oil recovery (MEOR) and its optimization by an ANN-GA hybrid technique.

    PubMed

    Dhanarajan, Gunaseelan; Rangarajan, Vivek; Bandi, Chandrakanth; Dixit, Abhivyakti; Das, Susmita; Ale, Kranthikiran; Sen, Ramkrishna

    2017-08-20

    A lipopeptide biosurfactant produced by marine Bacillus megaterium and a biopolymer produced by thermophilic Bacillus licheniformis were tested for their application potential in the enhanced oil recovery. The crude biosurfactant obtained after acid precipitation effectively reduced the surface tension of deionized water from 70.5 to 28.25mN/m and the interfacial tension between lube oil and water from 18.6 to 1.5mN/m at a concentration of 250mgL(-1). The biosurfactant exhibited a maximum emulsification activity (E24) of 81.66% against lube oil. The lipopeptide micelles were stabilized by addition of Ca(2+) ions to the biosurfactant solution. The oil recovery efficiency of Ca(2+) conditioned lipopeptide solution from a sand-packed column was optimized by using artificial neural network (ANN) modelling coupled with genetic algorithm (GA) optimization. Three important parameters namely lipopeptide concentration, Ca(2+) concentration and solution pH were considered for optimization studies. In order to further improve the recovery efficiency, a water soluble biopolymer produced by Bacillus licheniformis was used as a flooding agent after biosurfactant incubation. Upon ANN-GA optimization, 45% tertiary oil recovery was achieved, when biopolymer at a concentration of 3gL(-1) was used as a flooding agent. Oil recovery was only 29% at optimal conditions predicted by ANN-GA, when only water was used as flooding solution. The important characteristics of biopolymers such as its viscosity, pore plugging capabilities and bio-cementing ability have also been tested. Thus, as a result of biosurfactant incubation and biopolymer flooding under the optimal process conditions, a maximum oil recovery of 45% was achieved. Therefore, this study is novel, timely and interesting for it showed the combined influence of biosurfactant and biopolymer on solubilisation and mobilization of oil from the soil. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Steam-on-a-chip for oil recovery: the role of alkaline additives in steam assisted gravity drainage.

    PubMed

    de Haas, Thomas W; Fadaei, Hossein; Guerrero, Uriel; Sinton, David

    2013-10-07

    We present a lab-on-a-chip approach to informing thermal oil recovery processes. Bitumen - a major global resource - is an extremely viscous oil which is extracted by injecting steam underground in a process known as Steam Assisted Gravity Drainage (SAGD). Here, a microfluidic network saturated with bitumen provides a physical model of the SAGD reservoir; steam is injected into the chip, and the oil recovery dynamics are visualized and quantified in real-time. The unique advantage of this approach is the pore-scale quantification of fluid phase dynamics under relevant reservoir conditions and pore sizes. High resolution is achieved by leveraging the inherent fluorescence of the native bitumen. The approach is applied to quantify the efficacy of an alkaline steam additive. With the additive, the mean characteristic size of oil-in-water emulsions formed during SAGD is reduced from 150 μm to 6 μm, and the corresponding recovery effectiveness is improved by ~50%. These results demonstrate that pore-scale process quantification enabled by lab-on-a-chip methods can improve the efficacy, and the associated carbon footprint, of energy intensive thermal oil recovery processes.

  19. Linear oil displacement by the emulsion entrapment process. [Dissertation

    SciTech Connect

    Schmidt, D.P.

    1982-01-01

    Lack of mobility control is one of the major impediments to successful enhanced oil recovery, especially for high viscosity oils. This work presents experimental and theoretical results for linear secondary oil displacements using dilute, stable suspensions of oil drops. The major hypothesis is that emulsions provide mobility control through entrapment or local permeability reduction, not through viscosity ratio improvement. In order to describe the displacement process, previous emulsion filtration theory is extended to longer cores and to two-phase flow. Quantitative agreement between theory and experiment is satisfactory for continuous secondary oil displacement with various drop-size emulsions in unconsolidated sand packs of permeabilities ranging from 0.7 ..mu..m/sup 2/ to 3.3 ..mu..m/sup 2/. Linear emulsion floods are shown to be most effective when the mean drop-size to pore-size ratio is in the region between straining and interception at the emulsion shock. Floods are more effective when the emulsion concentration is high which minimizes retention lag. Additionally, a parallel flooding apparatus is utilized to determine qualitatively the macroscopic benefits of emulsion mobility control. Direct analogies are established between augmented oil recovery with dilute emulsions and with entrapping polymers.

  20. Biosurfactant-producing and oil-degrading Bacillus subtilis strains enhance oil recovery in laboratory sand-pack columns.

    PubMed

    Gudiña, Eduardo J; Pereira, Jorge F B; Costa, Rita; Coutinho, João A P; Teixeira, José A; Rodrigues, Lígia R

    2013-10-15

    Microbial Enhanced Oil Recovery (MEOR) technology uses microorganisms and their metabolites to retrieve unrecoverable oil from mature reservoirs. In situ stimulation of biosurfactant-producing and oil-degrading microorganisms reduces the capillary forces retaining the oil inside the reservoir and decreases its viscosity, thus promoting oil flow and consequently production. In this work, a sand-pack column model was designed to simulate oil recovery operations and evaluate mobilization of residual oil by the selected microorganisms. Four different hydrocarbon mixtures and three Bacillus subtilis strains isolated from crude oil samples were used. Additional oil recoveries ranged from 6 to 24% depending on the hydrocarbon mixture and microorganism used. Biosurfactant production was observed with all the microorganisms and hydrocarbon mixtures studied. The oils recovered after incubation with B. subtilis isolates showed a reduction in the percentage of long-chain n-alkanes and lower viscosity when compared with the original oils. The results obtained suggest that stimulation of the selected B. subtilis strains in situ can contribute to mobilize entrapped oil in mature reservoirs.

  1. Impacts, recovery rates, and treatment options for spilled oil in marshes.

    PubMed

    Michel, Jacqueline; Rutherford, Nicolle

    2014-05-15

    In a review of the literature on impacts of spilled oil on marshes, 32 oil spills and field experiments were identified with sufficient data to generate recovery curves and identify influencing factors controlling the rate of recovery. For many spills, recovery occurred within 1-2 growing seasons, even in the absence of any treatment. Recovery was longest for spills with the following conditions: Cold climate; sheltered settings; thick oil on the marsh surface; light refined products with heavy loading; oils that formed persistent thick residues; and intensive treatment. Recovery was shortest for spills with the following conditions: Warm climate; light to heavy oiling of the vegetation only; medium crude oils; and less-intensive treatment. Recommendations are made for treatment based on the following oiling conditions: Free-floating oil on the water in the marsh; thicker oil (>0.5 cm) on marsh surface; thinner oil (<0.5 cm) on marsh surface; heavy oil loading on vegetation; and light to moderate oil loading on vegetation. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Effects of Dual-Pump Recovery on Crude-Oil Contamination of Groundwater, Bemidji, Minnesota

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Delin, G. N.; Herkelrath, W. N.; Lounsbury, S.

    2009-12-01

    In 1979 a crude-oil pipeline ruptured near Bemidji, Minnesota spilling about 1.7 million liters of crude oil onto a glacial-outwash deposit. Initial remediation efforts in 1979-80 removed about 75% of this oil. In 1983 the U.S. Geological Survey and several academic institutions began research to study the fate and transport of the petroleum hydrocarbons in the unsaturated and saturated zones at the site. In 1998 the Minnesota Pollution Control Agency (MPCA) requested that the pipeline company remove as much of the remaining oil as possible. A dual-pump recovery system was installed using five wells to remove the free-phase oil. Each well had an oil skimming pump as well as a deeper pump in the groundwater, which was used to create a cone of depression in the water table near the well. The oil/water mixture from the skimming pump was pumped to a treatment facility where the oil was separated for later removal from the site. Pumped wastewater was injected into an upgradient infiltration gallery. Despite large public and private expenditures on development and implementation of this type of remediation system, few well-documented field-scale case studies have been published. The renewed remediation presented an opportunity to document how the dissolution, biodegradation, vapor transport, and other processes changed as the site transitioned from natural attenuation to a condition of pump-and-treat remediation and back again following termination of the remediation. Impacts of the remediation were evaluated in part using measurements of oil thicknesses in wells, dissolved-oxygen concentrations in groundwater, and concentrations of methane and other gases in the unsaturated zone. The remediation from 1999 - 2004 resulted in removal of about 114,000 liters of crude oil from the site, or about 27% of the total that remained following the initial remediation in 1979-80. Although the renewed remediation decreased oil thicknesses in the immediate vicinity of remediation

  3. Light oil recovery from cyclic CO sub 2 injection; Influence of low pressures, impure CO sub 2 , and reservoir gas

    SciTech Connect

    Monger, T.G.; Ramos, J.C.; Thomas, J. )

    1991-02-01

    This paper is a laboratory and field investigation of the CO{sub 2} huff n puff process for the enhanced recovery of light crude oil. Cyclic CO{sub 2} displacement results with live and dead oils in watered-out Berea cores are presented. Sixty-five single-well cyclic CO{sub 2} field tests conducted in a pressure-depleted reservoir are evaluated.

  4. The fifth international conference on microbial enhanced oil recovery and related biotechnology for solving environmental problems: 1995 Conference proceedings

    SciTech Connect

    Bryant, R.

    1995-12-31

    This volume contains 41 papers covering the following topics: field trials of microbial enhanced recovery of oil; control and treatment of sour crudes and natural gas with microorganisms; bioremediation of hydrocarbon contamination in soils; microbial plugging processes; microbial waste water treatment; the use of microorganisms as biological indicators of oils; and characterization and behavior of microbial systems. Selected papers are indexed separately for inclusion in the Energy Science and Technology Database.

  5. Cost Effective Surfactant Formulations for Improved Oil Recovery in Carbonate Reservoirs

    SciTech Connect

    William A. Goddard; Yongchun Tang; Patrick Shuler; Mario Blanco; Yongfu Wu

    2007-09-30

    This report summarizes work during the 30 month time period of this project. This was planned originally for 3-years duration, but due to its financial limitations, DOE halted funding after 2 years. The California Institute of Technology continued working on this project for an additional 6 months based on a no-cost extension granted by DOE. The objective of this project is to improve the performance of aqueous phase formulations that are designed to increase oil recovery from fractured, oil-wet carbonate reservoir rock. This process works by increasing the rate and extent of aqueous phase imbibition into the matrix blocks in the reservoir and thereby displacing crude oil normally not recovered in a conventional waterflood operation. The project had three major components: (1) developing methods for the rapid screening of surfactant formulations towards identifying candidates suitable for more detailed evaluation, (2) more fundamental studies to relate the chemical structure of acid components of an oil and surfactants in aqueous solution as relates to their tendency to wet a carbonate surface by oil or water, and (3) a more applied study where aqueous solutions of different commercial surfactants are examined for their ability to recover a West Texas crude oil from a limestone core via an imbibition process. The first item, regarding rapid screening methods for suitable surfactants has been summarized as a Topical Report. One promising surfactant screening protocol is based on the ability of a surfactant solution to remove aged crude oil that coats a clear calcite crystal (Iceland Spar). Good surfactant candidate solutions remove the most oil the quickest from the surface of these chips, plus change the apparent contact angle of the remaining oil droplets on the surface that thereby indicate increased water-wetting. The other fast surfactant screening method is based on the flotation behavior of powdered calcite in water. In this test protocol, first the calcite

  6. Huff and puff process for retorting oil shale

    SciTech Connect

    Russum, L. W.

    1984-06-05

    Greater product yield and quality as well as simplified gas recovery can be attained by a huff and puff process for retorting oil shale. The process can be advantageously carried out in in situ retorts under ground as well as in surface retorts above ground. In the process, an active retort of raw oil shale is retorted without prior combustion of oil shale therein with retort off gases, which have been heated in a spent shale retort. In the preferred mode, retort off gases from the active retort and air are alternately injected into the spent retort to cyclically heat the off gases and combust the coked shale. The retort off gases can be deoiled and optionally scrubbed of carbon dioxide and hydrogen sulfide before being heated in the spent retort.

  7. Rare Earth Elements in Alberta Oil Sand Process Streams

    DOE PAGES

    Roth, Elliot; Bank, Tracy; Howard, Bret; ...

    2017-04-05

    The concentrations of rare earth elements in Alberta, Canada oil sands and six oil sand waste streams were determined using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP–MS). The results indicate that the rare earth elements (REEs) are largely concentrated in the tailings solvent recovery unit (TSRU) sample compared to the oil sand itself. The concentration of lanthanide elements is ~1100 mg/kg (1100 ppm or 0.11 weight %), which represents a >20× increase in the concentration compared to the oil sand itself and a >7× increase compared to the North American Shale Composite (NASC). The process water, which is used to extractmore » the oil from oil sands, and the water fraction associated with the different waste streams had very low concentrations of REEs that were near or below the detection limits of the instrument, with the highest total concentration of REEs in the water fraction being less than 10 μg/L (ppb). Size and density separations were completed, and the REEs and other potentially interesting and valuable metals, such as Ti and Zr, were concentrated in different fractions. These results give insights into the possibility of recovering REEs from waste streams generated from oil sand processing.« less

  8. Use of taurine additives in enhanced oil recovery with anionic surfactants

    SciTech Connect

    Prukop, G.; Chea, C.K.

    1990-12-11

    This patent describes a method disclosed for increasing the recovery of oil in enhanced oil recovery operations employing anionic surfactant by blending a taurine with the anionic surfactant. The taurine may also increase the salt and divalent ion tolerance of the aniomic surfactant.

  9. Elastic waves and plasma - a new era of enhanced oil recovery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pashchenko, A. F.; Ageev, P. G.

    2016-06-01

    New technology of enhanced oil recovery - plasma pulse treatment is described. The basic problems of residual oil recovery observed, taking in consideration elastic properties of a reservoir and dominant frequencies of a stratum. Numerical estimates of major parameters of an impact to the reservoir while plasma pulse treatment obtained. Positive results of PPT application introduced.

  10. Process for the preparation of gas oil

    SciTech Connect

    Akbar, M.; Kanbier, D.; Kwant, P.B.; Tjan, P.W.

    1980-05-06

    A process is disclosed for the conversion of asphaltine containing mineral hydrocarbon oil to distillate gas oil by a processing sequence comprising thermal cracking, flashing, atmospheric fractionation, vacuum fractionation, thermal cracking , catalytic cracking or hydrocracking, and atmospheric fractionation with certain recycle of intermediate streams to achieve efficient, economic operations.

  11. Chemical kinetics and oil shale process design

    SciTech Connect

    Burnham, A.K.

    1993-07-01

    Oil shale processes are reviewed with the goal of showing how chemical kinetics influences the design and operation of different processes for different types of oil shale. Reaction kinetics are presented for organic pyrolysis, carbon combustion, carbonate decomposition, and sulfur and nitrogen reactions.

  12. Improved techniques for fluid diversion in oil recovery. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Seright, R.

    1996-01-01

    This three-year project had two technical objectives. The first objective was to compare the effectiveness of gels in fluid diversion (water shutoff) with those of other types of processes. Several different types of fluid-diversion processes were compared, including those using gels, foams, emulsions, particulates, and microorganisms. The ultimate goals of these comparisons were to (1) establish which of these processes are most effective in a given application and (2) determine whether aspects of one process can be combined with those of other processes to improve performance. Analyses and experiments were performed to verify which materials are the most effective in entering and blocking high-permeability zones. The second objective of the project was to identify the mechanisms by which materials (particularly gels) selectively reduce permeability to water more than to oil. A capacity to reduce water permeability much more than oil or gas permeability is critical to the success of gel treatments in production wells if zones cannot be isolated during gel placement. Topics covered in this report include (1) determination of gel properties in fractures, (2) investigation of schemes to optimize gel placement in fractured systems, (3) an investigation of why some polymers and gels can reduce water permeability more than oil permeability, (4) consideration of whether microorganisms and particulates can exhibit placement properties that are superior to those of gels, and (5) examination of when foams may show placement properties that are superior to those of gels.

  13. Oil field experiments of microbial improved oil recovery in Vyngapour, West Siberia, Russia

    SciTech Connect

    Murygina, V.P.; Mats, A.A.; Arinbasarov, M.U.; Salamov, Z.Z.; Cherkasov, A.B.

    1995-12-31

    Experiments on microbial improved oil recovery (MIOR) have been performed in the Vyngapour oil field in West Siberia for two years. Now, the product of some producing wells of the Vyngapour oil field is 98-99% water cut. The operation of such wells approaches an economic limit. The nutritious composition containing local industry wastes and sources of nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium was pumped into an injection well on the pilot area. This method is called {open_quotes}nutritional flooding.{close_quotes} The mechanism of nutritional flooding is based on intensification of biosynthesis of oil-displacing metabolites by indigenous bacteria and bacteria from food industry wastes in the stratum. 272.5 m{sup 3} of nutritious composition was introduced into the reservoir during the summer of 1993, and 450 m3 of nutritious composition-in 1994. The positive effect of the injections in 1993 showed up in 2-2.5 months and reached its maximum in 7 months after the injections were stopped. By July 1, 1994, 2,268.6 tons of oil was produced over the base variant, and the simultaneous water extraction reduced by 33,902 m{sup 3} as compared with the base variant. The injections in 1994 were carried out on the same pilot area.

  14. The application of microbial combination flooding oil recovery technology in heavy oil reservoir with low temperature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Yongbin; Wang, Jing; Wang, Yanjun; Ju, Dengfeng; Fu, Yaxiu; Lei, Xiaoyang; Jing, Jizhe; Liu, Guiying

    2017-04-01

    HuabeiBaolige Oilfield belongs to the common heavy oil reservoirs with low temperature, which were tapped by the conventional waterflooding. The formation temperature of Baolige Oilfield is 38~58°C, and the oil viscosity of reservoir is 13.7~2000mPa•s. Thanks to the high oil-water viscosity ratio and strong heterogeneity, the small waterflooding swept volume and serious water breakthrough are caused by waterflooding fingering, causing that the workable reserve cannot be used efficiently during the oilfield development. According to the characteristic that the environment of the reservoirs is fit for the growth and reproduction of microorganism, the microbial enhanced oil recovery (MEOR) technology is used to improve oilfield development status. On the basis of continuous and further studies of MEOR, the industrialized application of MEOR has been fulfilled. By the continuous and further study, the efficient system of the combination flooding technology with oil displacement microbial fields was formed, and MEOR technologies have been enriched. All the above researches could provide technical ideas for the comprehensive treatment for similar blocks.

  15. Methods for enhancing mapping of thermal fronts in oil recovery

    DOEpatents

    Lee, D.O.; Montoya, P.C.; Wayland, J.R. Jr.

    1984-03-30

    A method for enhancing the resistivity contrasts of a thermal front in an oil recovery production field as measured by the controlled source audio frequency magnetotelluric (CSAMT) technique is disclosed. This method includes the steps of: (1) preparing a CSAMT-determined topological resistivity map of the production field; (2) introducing a solution of a dopant material into the production field at a concentration effective to alter the resistivity associated with the thermal front; said dopant material having a high cation exchange capacity which might be selected from the group consisting of montmorillonite, illite, and chlorite clays; said material being soluble in the conate water of the production field; (3) preparing a CSAMT-determined topological resistivity map of the production field while said dopant material is moving therethrough; and (4) mathematically comparing the maps from step (1) and step (3) to determine the location of the thermal front. This method is effective with the steam flood, fire flood and water flood techniques.

  16. Methods for enhancing mapping of thermal fronts in oil recovery

    DOEpatents

    Lee, David O.; Montoya, Paul C.; Wayland, Jr., James R.

    1987-01-01

    A method for enhancing the resistivity contrasts of a thermal front in an oil recovery production field as measured by the CSAMT technique is disclosed. This method includes the steps of: (a) preparing a CSAMT-determined topological resistivity map of the production field; (b) introducing a solution of a dopant material into the production field at a concentration effective to alter the resistivity associated with the thermal front; said dopant material having a high cation exchange capacity which might be selected from the group consisting of montmorillonite, illite, and chlorite clays; said material being soluble in the connate water of the production field; (c) preparing a CSAMT-determined topological resistivity map of the production field while said dopant material is moving therethrough; and (d) mathematically comparing the maps from step (a) and step (c) to determine the location of the thermal front. This method is effective with the steam flood, fire flood and water flood techniques.

  17. Waterflood control system for maximizing total oil recovery

    DOEpatents

    Patzek, Tadeusz Wiktor; Silin, Dimitriy Borisovich; De, Asoke Kumar

    2007-07-24

    A control system and method for determining optimal fluid injection pressure is based upon a model of a growing hydrofracture due to waterflood injection pressure. This model is used to develop a control system optimizing the injection pressure by using a prescribed injection goal coupled with the historical times, pressures, and volume of injected fluid at a single well. In this control method, the historical data is used to derive two major flow components: the transitional component, where cumulative injection volume is scaled as the square root of time, and a steady-state breakthrough component, which scales linearly with respect to time. These components provide diagnostic information and allow for the prevention of rapid fracture growth and associated massive water break through that is an important part of a successful waterflood, thereby extending the life of both injection and associated production wells in waterflood secondary oil recovery operations.

  18. Waterflood control system for maximizing total oil recovery

    DOEpatents

    Patzek, Tadeusz Wiktor; Silin, Dimitriy Borisovic; De, Asoke Kumar

    2005-06-07

    A control system and method for determining optimal fluid injection pressure is based upon a model of a growing hydrofracture due to waterflood injection pressure. This model is used to develop a control system optimizing the injection pressure by using a prescribed injection goal coupled with the historical times, pressures, and volume of injected fluid at a single well. In this control method, the historical data is used to derive two major flow components: the transitional component, where cumulative injection volume is scaled as the square root of time, and a steady-state breakthrough component, which scales linearly with respect to time. These components provide diagnostic information and allow for the prevention of rapid fracture growth and associated massive water break through that is an important part of a successful waterflood, thereby extending the life of both injection and associated production wells in waterflood secondary oil recovery operations.

  19. Design and feasibility study for a portable oil recovery turbopump

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1982-01-01

    A portable oil recovery turbopump concept, using the Firefly module as primer mover, for the offloading of distressed tank vessels is examined. The demands to be met both in terms of the type of petroleum to be offloaded, as well as the operational requirements placed on the pump, are studied with respect to the capability of different pump configurations. Two configurations, one a centrifugal type and the other a screw type pump, are developed and evaluated. While the centrifugal configuration is found to be effective in a large proportion of tank vessel offloading situations, the screw type will be required where high viscosity cargoes are involved. The feasibility of the turbopump concept, with the Firefly module as prime mover, is established.

  20. Emotional processing following recovery from anorexia nervosa.

    PubMed

    Oldershaw, Anna; DeJong, Hannah; Hambrook, David; Broadbent, Hannah; Tchanturia, Kate; Treasure, Janet; Schmidt, Ulrike

    2012-11-01

    Evidence suggests that poor emotional processing perpetuates anorexia nervosa (AN); however, emotional processing following recovery and interactions between aspects of processing remain unknown. This study examined beliefs about emotions, emotional tolerance and avoidance and emotion suppression to preserve relationships in recovered AN patients. It also explored whether beliefs about emotion are related to emotional avoidance. A cross-sectional between-groups design was employed. Currently ill (n = 40), recovered AN patients (n = 24) and a sample of healthy controls (n = 48) completed measures of clinical and demographic background in addition to the Beliefs About Emotions, Distress Tolerance and Silencing the Self emotional processing questionnaires. Recovered and healthy control groups were comparable (except for higher externalised self-perception in recovered participants) and both had better emotional processing than current AN patients. Beliefs about emotions correlated with level of emotional avoidance. This study demonstrates functional levels of emotional processing following recovery from AN. It substantiates models proposing that maladaptive beliefs about emotions link to emotional avoidance and supports inclusion of these factors as treatment foci. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd and Eating Disorders Association.

  1. Catalyst for elemental sulfur recovery process

    DOEpatents

    Flytzani-Stephanopoulos, M.; Liu, W.

    1995-01-24

    A catalytic reduction process is described for the direct recovery of elemental sulfur from various SO[sub 2]-containing industrial gas streams. The catalytic process provides high activity and selectivity, as well as stability in the reaction atmosphere, for the reduction of SO[sub 2] to elemental sulfur product with carbon monoxide or other reducing gases. The reaction of sulfur dioxide and reducing gas takes place over a metal oxide composite catalyst having one of the following empirical formulas: [(FO[sub 2])[sub 1[minus]n](RO)[sub n

  2. Technical review of enhanced oil recovery literature. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    1980-04-01

    This report represents the work done under DOE grant No. DE-FG05-79ER10086. It reviews the chemical, miscible and thermal areas of enhanced and recovery (EOR) and has produced a comprehensive bibliography and glossary of terms. The analysis looks into several areas of interest, including: screening criteria, process design, variable interaction and reservoir applicability. In this summary section, the following are shown: (1) screening criteria for process selection; (2) screening guide summary for EOR process; and (3) representative schematics of three major process operations.

  3. Designer-Wet Micromodels for Studying Potential Changes in Wettability during Microbial Enhanced Oil Recovery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Armstrong, R. T.; Wildenschild, D.

    2010-12-01

    Microbial Enhanced Oil Recovery (MEOR) is a process where microorganisms are used for tertiary recovery of oil. Some bacteria can facilitate the mobilization of oil through the production of amphiphilic compounds called biosurfactants that reduce the interfacial tension (IFT) between immiscible phases. Additionally, most bacteria have an inclination to colonize surfaces and form biofilm, which can change a reservoir's wetting properties or clog preferential flow paths. Herein, we aim to understand changes in wettability during MEOR under mixed wettability conditions within silicon etched micromodels and to identify the type of oil field (i.e. based on wettability) in which MEOR is likely to be most profitable. To quantify porous media wettability, macro-scale indexes (obtained with techniques such as the Carter or Amott methods) are used regularly. However, these measurements lack the capability for characterization of changes in wettability during MEOR treatment, and only provide macro-scale information. In an effort to understand micro-scale temporal and spatial changes in wettability we measure interfacial curvature from stereo microscope images using level set methods. Curvature, from the perspective of the oil phase, is positive for a concave interface (i.e. water-wet surface) and negative for a convex interface (i.e. oil-wet surface). Thus, shifts in the radius of curvature distribution (i.e. from positive to negative or conversely) are indicative of wettability changes. Both curvature distributions using level-set methods and the Carter method are used to characterize wettability before and after microbial treatment. In preliminary studies aimed at understanding wettability changes due to microbial surface interactions by Bacillus mojavensis JF-2, oil droplets were placed on glass slides suspended in growth media and the resulting contact angle was measured over time. Results showed that a water-wet surface will become more water wet as JF-2 accumulated in

  4. Antioxidants, mechanisms, and recovery by membrane processes.

    PubMed

    Bazinet, Laurent; Doyen, Alain

    2017-03-04

    Antioxidants molecules have a great interest for bio-food and nutraceutical industries since they play a vital role for their capacity to reduce oxidative processes. Consequently, these molecules, generally present in complex matrices, have to be fractionated and purified to characterize them and to test their antioxidant activity. However, as natural or synthetics antioxidant molecules differ in terms of structural composition and physico-chemical properties, appropriate separation technologies must be selected. Different fractionation technologies are available but the most commonly used are filtration processes. Indeed, these technologies allow fractionation according to molecular size (pressure-driven processes), charge, or both size and charge (electrically driven processes). In this context, and after summarizing the reaction mechanisms of the different classes and nature of antioxidants as well as membrane fractionation technologies, this manuscript presents the specific applications of these membranes processes for the recovery of antioxidant molecules.

  5. Modeling and simulation of multiphase multicomponent multiphysics porous media flows in the context of chemical enhanced oil recovery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dutta, Sourav; Daripa, Prabir; Fluids Team

    2015-11-01

    One of the most important methods of chemical enhanced oil recovery (EOR) involves the use of complex flooding schemes comprising of various layers of fluids mixed with suitable amounts of polymer or surfactant or both. The fluid flow is characterized by the spontaneous formation of complex viscous fingering patterns which is considered detrimental to oil recovery. Here we numerically study the physics of such EOR processes using a modern, hybrid method based on a combination of a discontinuous, multiscale finite element formulation and the method of characteristics. We investigate the effect of different types of heterogeneity on the fingering mechanism of these complex multiphase flows and determine the impact on oil recovery. We also study the effect of surfactants on the dynamics of the flow via reduction of capillary forces and increase in relative permeabilities. Supported by the grant NPRP 08-777-1-141 from the Qatar National Research Fund (a member of The Qatar Foundation).

  6. High efficiency shale oil recovery. Second quarterly report, April 1, 1992--June 30, 1992

    SciTech Connect

    Adams, C.D.

    1992-07-18

    The overall project objective is to demonstrate the high efficiency of the Adams Counter-Current shale oil recovery process. The efficiency will first be demonstrated at bench-scale, in the current phase, after which the demonstration will be extended to the operation of a small pilot plant. Thus the immediate project objective is to obtain data on oil shale retorting operations in a small batch rotary kiln that will be representative of operations in the proposed continuous process pilot plant. Although an oil shale batch sample is sealed in the batch kiln from the start until the end of the run, the process conditions for the batch are the same as the conditions that an element of oil shale would encounter in a larger continuous process kiln. For example, similar conditions of heatup rate, oxidation of the residue and cool-down prevail for the element in both systems. This batch kiln is a unit constructed in a 1987 Phase I SBIR tar sand retorting project. The kiln worked fairly well in that project; however, the need for certain modifications was observed. These modifications are now underway to simplify the operation and make the data and analysis more exact. The second quarter agenda consisted of (a) kiln modifications; (b) sample preparation; and (c) Heat Transfer calibration runs (part of proposal task number 3 -- to be completed by the end of month 7).

  7. A Sugar-Based Gelator for Marine Oil-Spill Recovery.

    PubMed

    Vibhute, Amol M; Muvvala, Venkatanarayana; Sureshan, Kana M

    2016-06-27

    Marine oil spills constitute an environmental disaster with severe adverse effects on the economy and ecosystem. Phase-selective organogelators (PSOGs), molecules that can congeal oil selectively from oil-water mixtures, have been proposed to be useful for oil-spill recovery. However, a major drawback lies in the mode of application of the PSOG to an oil spill spread over a large area. The proposed method of using carrier solvents is impractical for various reasons. Direct application of the PSOG as a solid, although it would be ideal, is unknown, presumably owing to poor dispersion of the solid through the oil. We have designed five cheap and easy-to-make glucose-derived PSOGs that disperse in the oil phase uniformly when applied as a fine powder. These gelators were shown to selectively congeal many oils, including crude oil, from oil-water mixtures to form stable gels, which is an essential property for efficient oil-spill recovery. We have demonstrated that these PSOGs can be applied aerially as a solid powder onto a mixture of crude oil and sea water and the congealed oil can then be scooped out. Our innovative mode of application and low cost of the PSOG offers a practical solution to oil-spill recovery.

  8. 26 CFR 1.43-2 - Qualified enhanced oil recovery project.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...) that is reasonably expected to result in more than an insignificant increase in the amount of crude oil... reasonably be expected to result in more than an insignificant increase in the amount of crude oil that... merely accelerates the recovery of crude oil considered an application of one or more qualified...

  9. Characterization and Alteration of Wettability States of Alaskan Reserviors to Improve Oil Recovery Efficiency (including the within-scope expansion based on Cyclic Water Injection - a pulsed waterflood for Enhanced Oil Recovery)

    SciTech Connect

    Abhijit Dandekar; Shirish Patil; Santanu Khataniar

    2008-12-31

    Numerous early reports on experimental works relating to the role of wettability in various aspects of oil recovery have been published. Early examples of laboratory waterfloods show oil recovery increasing with increasing water-wetness. This result is consistent with the intuitive notion that strong wetting preference of the rock for water and associated strong capillary-imbibition forces gives the most efficient oil displacement. This report examines the effect of wettability on waterflooding and gasflooding processes respectively. Waterflood oil recoveries were examined for the dual cases of uniform and non-uniform wetting conditions. Based on the results of the literature review on effect of wettability and oil recovery, coreflooding experiments were designed to examine the effect of changing water chemistry (salinity) on residual oil saturation. Numerous corefloods were conducted on reservoir rock material from representative formations on the Alaska North Slope (ANS). The corefloods consisted of injecting water (reservoir water and ultra low-salinity ANS lake water) of different salinities in secondary as well as tertiary mode. Additionally, complete reservoir condition corefloods were also conducted using live oil. In all the tests, wettability indices, residual oil saturation, and oil recovery were measured. All results consistently lead to one conclusion; that is, a decrease in injection water salinity causes a reduction in residual oil saturation and a slight increase in water-wetness, both of which are comparable with literature observations. These observations have an intuitive appeal in that water easily imbibes into the core and displaces oil. Therefore, low-salinity waterfloods have the potential for improved oil recovery in the secondary recovery process, and ultra low-salinity ANS lake water is an attractive source of injection water or a source for diluting the high-salinity reservoir water. As part of the within-scope expansion of this project

  10. Process for converting heavy oil deposited on coal to distillable oil in a low severity process

    DOEpatents

    Ignasiak, Teresa; Strausz, Otto; Ignasiak, Boleslaw; Janiak, Jerzy; Pawlak, Wanda; Szymocha, Kazimierz; Turak, Ali A.

    1994-01-01

    A process for removing oil from coal fines that have been agglomerated or blended with heavy oil comprises the steps of heating the coal fines to temperatures over 350.degree. C. up to 450.degree. C. in an inert atmosphere, such as steam or nitrogen, to convert some of the heavy oil to lighter, and distilling and collecting the lighter oils. The pressure at which the process is carried out can be from atmospheric to 100 atmospheres. A hydrogen donor can be added to the oil prior to deposition on the coal surface to increase the yield of distillable oil.

  11. Oil spill recovery: Oil booms and skimmers. September 1971-June 1989 (A Bibliography from the US Patent data base). Report for September 1971-June 1989

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-02-01

    This bibliography contains citations of selected patents concerning booms, skimmers, and skimming techniques for oil spill recovery. Selected patents include oil absorbent materials, dispersants, floating booms, methods and equipment for oil spill containment and collection, marine barriers, cryogenic beach cleaners, microbial materials, and ultrasonic oil removal. Citations concerning oil-water separation for non-oil spill recovery applications are excluded and examined in a separate bibliography. (This updated bibliography contains 138 citations, 11 of which are new entries to the previous edition.)

  12. Oil-spill recovery: oil booms and skimmers. January 1971-October 1988 (Citations from the US Patent data base). Report for January 1971-October 1988

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1988-10-01

    This bibliography contains citations of selected patents concerning booms, skimmers, and skimming techniques for oil spill recovery. Selected patents include oil absorbent materials, dispersants, floating booms, methods and equipment for oil-spill containment and collection, marine barriers, cryogenic beach cleaners, microbial materials, and ultrasonic oil removal. Citations concerning oil-water separation for non-oil spill recovery applications are excluded and examined in a separate bibliography. (Contains 127 citations fully indexed and including a title list.)

  13. The Utilization of the Microflora Indigenous to and Present in Oil-Bearing Formations to Selectively Plug the More Porous Zones Thereby Increasing Oil Recovery During Waterflooding

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, Lewis R.; Byrnes, Martin J.; Stephens, James O.; Vadie, Alex A.

    1999-07-01

    This project was designed to demonstrate that a microbially enhanced oil recovery process (MEOR), developed in part under DOE Contract No. DE-AC22-90BC14665, will increase oil recovery from fluvial dominated deltaic oil reservoirs. The process involves stimulating the in-situ indigenous microbial population in the reservoir to grow in the more permeable zones, thus diverting flow to other areas of the reservoir, thereby increasing the effectiveness of the waterflood. This five and a half year project is divided into three phases, Phase I, Planning and Analysis (9 months), Phase II, Implementation (45 months), and Phase III, Technology Transfer (12 months). Phase I was completed and reported in the first annual report. This fifth annual report covers the completion of Phase II and the first six months of Phase III.

  14. Applicability of anaerobic nitrate-dependent Fe(II) oxidation to microbial enhanced oil recovery (MEOR).

    PubMed

    Zhu, Hongbo; Carlson, Han K; Coates, John D

    2013-08-06

    Microbial processes that produce solid-phase minerals could be judiciously applied to modify rock porosity with subsequent alteration and improvement of floodwater sweep in petroleum reservoirs. However, there has been little investigation of the application of this to enhanced oil recovery (EOR). Here, we investigate a unique approach of altering reservoir petrology through the biogenesis of authigenic rock minerals. This process is mediated by anaerobic chemolithotrophic nitrate-dependent Fe(II)-oxidizing microorganisms that precipitate iron minerals from the metabolism of soluble ferrous iron (Fe(2+)) coupled to the reduction of nitrate. This mineral biogenesis can result in pore restriction and reduced pore throat diameter. Advantageously and unlike biomass plugs, these biominerals are not susceptible to pressure or thermal degradation. Furthermore, they do not require continual substrate addition for maintenance. Our studies demonstrate that the biogenesis of insoluble iron minerals in packed-bed columns results in effective hydrology alteration and homogenization of heterogeneous flowpaths upon stimulated microbial Fe(2+) biooxidation. We also demonstrate almost 100% improvement in oil recovery from hydrocarbon-saturated packed-bed columns as a result of this metabolism. These studies represent a novel departure from traditional microbial EOR approaches and indicate the potential for nitrate-dependent Fe(2+) biooxidation to improve volumetric sweep efficiency and enhance both the quality and quantity of oil recovered.

  15. Lloydminster fireflood performance, modifications promise good recoveries. [Canadian oil fields

    SciTech Connect

    Fairfield, W.H.; White, P.D.

    1982-02-08

    Efforts to increase ultimate recovery by thermal methods began 16 years ago with steam huff-and-puff and displacement steam drive. These early efforts were not successful. The first in situ combustion drive, the Golden Lake Sparky Fireflood, was initiated 12 years ago and is the subject of this work. It consists of one 20-acre inverted five-spot pattern and two approximately 30-acre inverted seven-spots. All three patterns are currently operating, and the project shows promise of accomplishing recoveries in excess of 30%. It is currently being expanded to include two additional patterns. Field characteristics are discussed along with observations on combustion operations Sparky sands. A critique of the fireflood process is given and the oxygen fireflood - a modification to the fireflood process - is outlined. 4 refs.

  16. Potential Mississippi oil recovery and economic impact from CO sub 2 miscible flooding

    SciTech Connect

    Moring, J.A.; Rogers, R.E. )

    1991-01-01

    Maturing of Mississippi oil reservoirs has resulted in a steady decline in crude oil production in the state. This paper reports that, to evaluate the potential of enhanced recovery processes, particularly in the use of the state's large CO{sub 2} reserves, for arresting this trend, the subject study was performed. A computer data base of over 1315 Mississippi reservoirs was established. All reservoirs were screened for applicability of the carbon dioxide miscible process. With models developed by the National Petroleum Council and DOE, incremental oil that could be produced from the carbon dioxide miscible process was calculated. Under selected economic conditions, carbon dioxide miscible flooding with utilization of carbon dioxide from the state's Norphlet formation (3-7 tcf reserves of high-purity CO{sub 2}) could produce 120 million barrels of incremental oil in Mississippi. Incremental state revenues as a consequence of this production were calculated to be $45 million of severance taxes, $50 million of corporate income taxes, and $60 million of royalty payments, expressed as present values.

  17. Ultrasonic technology for enhanced oil recovery from failing oil wells and the equipment for its implemention.

    PubMed

    Abramov, Vladimir O; Mullakaev, Marat S; Abramova, Anna V; Esipov, Igor B; Mason, Timothy J

    2013-09-01

    A new method for the ultrasonic enhancement of oil recovery from failing wells is described. The technology involves lowering a source of power ultrasound to the bottom of the well either for a short treatment before removal or as a permanent placement for intermittent use. In wells where the permeability is above 20 mD and the porosity is greater than 15% ultrasonic treatment can increase oil production by up to 50% and in some cases even more. For wells of lower permeability and porosity ultrasonic treatment alone is less successful but high production rates can be achieved when ultrasound is applied in conjunction with chemicals. An average productivity increase of nearly 3 fold can be achieved for this type of production well using the combined ultrasound with chemical treatment technology. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Oil Recovery Increases by Low-Salinity Flooding: Minnelusa and Green River Formations

    SciTech Connect

    Eric P. Robertson

    2010-09-01

    Waterflooding is by far the most widely used method in the world to increase oil recovery. Historically, little consideration has been given in reservoir engineering practice to the effect of injection brine composition on waterflood displacement efficiency or to the possibility of increased oil recovery through manipulation of the composition of the injected water. However, recent work has shown that oil recovery can be significantly increased by modifying the injection brine chemistry or by injecting diluted or low salinity brine. This paper reports on laboratory work done to increase the understanding of improved oil recovery by waterflooding with low salinity injection water. Porous media used in the studies included outcrop Berea sandstone (Ohio, U.S.A.) and reservoir cores from the Green River formation of the Uinta basin (Utah, U.S.A.). Crude oils used in the experimental protocols were taken from the Minnelusa formation of the Powder River basin (Wyoming, U.S.A.) and from the Green River formation, Monument Butte field in the Uinta basin. Laboratory corefloods using Berea sandstone, Minnelusa crude oil, and simulated Minnelusa formation water found a significant relationship between the temperature at which the oil- and water-saturated cores were aged and the oil recovery resulting from low salinity waterflooding. Lower aging temperatures resulted in very little to no additional oil recovery, while cores aged at higher temperatures resulted in significantly higher recoveries from dilute-water floods. Waterflood studies using reservoir cores and fluids from the Green River formation of the Monument Butte field also showed significantly higher oil recoveries from low salinity waterfloods with cores flooded with fresher water recovering 12.4% more oil on average than those flooded with undiluted formation brine.

  19. Process for sulfonation of gas oils

    SciTech Connect

    Berg, R. C.

    1980-12-23

    A process for the production of oil-soluble sulfonates from a gas oil such as a vacuum gas oil. Water-soluble sulfonic acids are separated from the effluent of the sulfonation zone, and the remainder of the effluent is then passed through a saponification zone to produce oil-soluble sulfonates which are then recovered. The remaining hydrocarbons are fractionated, with the resultant heavy fraction being passed through a reforming zone to produce additional aromatics which are then recycled to the sulfonation zone.

  20. Pyrolysis processing for solid waste resource recovery

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Serio, Michael A. (Inventor); Kroo, Erik (Inventor); Wojtowicz, Marek A. (Inventor); Suuberg, Eric M. (Inventor)

    2007-01-01

    Solid waste resource recovery in space is effected by pyrolysis processing, to produce light gases as the main products (CH.sub.4, H.sub.2, CO.sub.2, CO, H.sub.2O, NH.sub.3) and a reactive carbon-rich char as the main byproduct. Significant amounts of liquid products are formed under less severe pyrolysis conditions, and are cracked almost completely to gases as the temperature is raised. A primary pyrolysis model for the composite mixture is based on an existing model for whole biomass materials, and an artificial neural network models the changes in gas composition with the severity of pyrolysis conditions.

  1. Metal, mineral waste processing and secondary recovery

    SciTech Connect

    Reddy, R.G.

    1987-04-01

    Approximately 40 million tons of precious metals chemical wastes are produced in the United States every year. An estimated five percent of these wastes are being reused/recycled to recover the precious and critical metals they contain. The rest of these chemical wastes are disposed of by the methods incineration, dumping at sea and dumping on land. In this paper, an attempt is made to review the research work published during 1985-1986 on metal, mineral waste processing, secondary recovery and safe disposal.

  2. Low-rank coal oil agglomeration product and process

    DOEpatents

    Knudson, Curtis L.; Timpe, Ronald C.; Potas, Todd A.; DeWall, Raymond A.; Musich, Mark A.

    1992-01-01

    A selectively-sized, raw, low-rank coal is processed to produce a low ash and relative water-free agglomerate with an enhanced heating value and a hardness sufficient to produce a non-decrepitating, shippable fuel. The low-rank coal is treated, under high shear conditions, in the first stage to cause ash reduction and subsequent surface modification which is necessary to facilitate agglomerate formation. In the second stage the treated low-rank coal is contacted with bridging and binding oils under low shear conditions to produce agglomerates of selected size. The bridging and binding oils may be coal or petroleum derived. The process incorporates a thermal deoiling step whereby the bridging oil may be completely or partially recovered from the agglomerate; whereas, partial recovery of the bridging oil functions to leave as an agglomerate binder, the heavy constituents of the bridging oil. The recovered oil is suitable for recycling to the agglomeration step or can serve as a value-added product.

  3. Low-rank coal oil agglomeration product and process

    DOEpatents

    Knudson, C.L.; Timpe, R.C.; Potas, T.A.; DeWall, R.A.; Musich, M.A.

    1992-11-10

    A selectively-sized, raw, low-rank coal is processed to produce a low ash and relative water-free agglomerate with an enhanced heating value and a hardness sufficient to produce a non-degradable, shippable fuel. The low-rank coal is treated, under high shear conditions, in the first stage to cause ash reduction and subsequent surface modification which is necessary to facilitate agglomerate formation. In the second stage the treated low-rank coal is contacted with bridging and binding oils under low shear conditions to produce agglomerates of selected size. The bridging and binding oils may be coal or petroleum derived. The process incorporates a thermal deoiling step whereby the bridging oil may be completely or partially recovered from the agglomerate; whereas, partial recovery of the bridging oil functions to leave as an agglomerate binder, the heavy constituents of the bridging oil. The recovered oil is suitable for recycling to the agglomeration step or can serve as a value-added product.

  4. Microbial processes in oil fields: culprits, problems, and opportunities.

    PubMed

    Youssef, Noha; Elshahed, Mostafa S; McInerney, Michael J

    2009-01-01

    Our understanding of the phylogenetic diversity, metabolic capabilities, ecological roles, and community dynamics of oil reservoir microbial communities is far from complete. The lack of appreciation of the microbiology of oil reservoirs can lead to detrimental consequences such as souring or plugging. In contrast, knowledge of the microbiology of oil reservoirs can be used to enhance productivity and recovery efficiency. It is clear that (1) nitrate and/or nitrite addition controls H2S production, (2) oxygen injection stimulates hydrocarbon metabolism and helps mobilize crude oil, (3) injection of fermentative bacteria and carbohydrates generates large amounts of acids, gases, and solvents that increases oil recovery particularly in carbonate formations, and (4) nutrient injection stimulates microbial growth preferentially in high permeability zones and improves volumetric sweep efficiency and oil recovery. Biosurfactants significantly lower the interfacial tension between oil and water and large amounts of biosurfactant can be made in situ. However, it is still uncertain whether in situ biosurfactant production can be induced on the scale needed for economic oil recovery. Commercial microbial paraffin control technologies slow the rate of decline in oil production and extend the operational life of marginal oil fields. Microbial technologies are often applied in marginal fields where the risk of implementation is low. However, more quantitative assessments of the efficacy of microbial oil recovery will be needed before microbial oil recovery gains widespread acceptance.

  5. Oil spill recovery: Oil booms and skimmers. (Latest citations from the US Patent Bibliographic file with exemplary claims). Published Search

    SciTech Connect

    1995-07-01

    The bibliography contains citations of selected patents concerning booms, skimmers, and skimming techniques used for oil spill recovery. Patents cover cleanup and containment systems, floating booms, collection and storage, barriers, and dispersants. Visible markings, lighters for transferring oil, and pollution monitoring systems are also included. (Contains 50-250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

  6. Production of microbial rhamnolipid by Pseudomonas aeruginosa MM1011 for ex situ enhanced oil recovery.

    PubMed

    Amani, Hossein; Müller, Markus Michael; Syldatk, Christoph; Hausmann, Rudolf

    2013-07-01

    Recently, several investigations have been carried out on the in situ bacteria flooding, but the ex situ biosurfactant production and addition to the sand pack as agents for microbial enhanced oil recovery (MEOR) has little been studied. In order to develop suitable technology for ex situ MEOR processes, it is essential to carry out tests about it. Therefore, this work tries to fill the gap. The intention of this study was to investigate whether the rhamnolipid mix could be produced in high enough quantities for enhanced oil recovery in the laboratory scale and prove its potential use as an effective material for field application. In this work, the ability of Pseudomonas aeruginosa MM1011 to grow and produce rhamnolipid on sunflower as sole carbon source under nitrogen limitation was shown. The production of Rha-C10-C10 and Rha2-C10-C10 was confirmed by thin-layer chromatography and high-performance liquid chromatography analysis. The rhamnolipid mixture obtained was able to reduce the surface and interfacial tension of water to 26 and 2 mN/m, respectively. The critical micelle concentration was 120 mg/L. Maximum rhamnolipid production reached to about 0.7 g/L in a shake flask. The yield of rhamnolipid per biomass (Y RL/x ), rhamnolipid per sunflower oil (Y RL/s ), and the biomass per sunflower oil (Y x/s ) for shake flask were obtained about 0.01, 0.0035, and 0.035 g g(-1), respectively. The stability of the rhamnolipid at different salinities, pH and temperature, and also, its emulsifying activity has been investigated. It is an effective surfactant at very low concentrations over a wide range of temperatures, pHs, and salt concentrations, and it also has the ability to emulsify oil, which is essential for enhanced oil recovery. With 120 mg/L rhamnolipid, 27 % of original oil in place was recovered after water flooding from a sand pack. This result not only suggests rhamnolipids as appropriate model biosurfactants for MEOR, but it even shows the potential as a

  7. Applicability of solvent based Huff-and-Puff Method to enhance heavy oil recovery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qazvini Firouz, Alireza

    Over and above solvent based processes, specifically, the cyclic solvent injection well known as "Huff-and-Puff', has demonstrated a significant potential to enhance heavy oil recovery. Solvent and CO2 Huff-and-Puff are analogies to cyclic steam stimulation; however, in this method, steam is replaced with CO2, hydrocarbon solvent or mixture of the two. This study attempts to validate the feasibility of the Solvent Based Huff-and-Puff Method with respect to enhancing heavy oil recovery and to investigate the effect of fluid, operation, and reservoir parameters on its' performance. Thus, both experimental and reservoir simulation approaches were applied and, the impact of the aforementioned parameters on the performance of the process was investigated. All experiments were conducted in a Berea core with the dimensions of 30.48 cm by 5.07 cm. The core has a permeability of 1800 md and a porosity of 24% which was mounted in a high pressure, stainless steel core holder. Before conducting each Huff-and-Puff Test, the core was saturated with an oil sample representative of Saskatchewan heavy oil reservoirs and exhibited a viscosity of 952 mPa.s, at a temperature of 28°C. Prior to the tests, a complete phase behavior (PVT) analysis of the oil sample and solvents mixture was conducted using CMG- WinProp(TM) software. Over 12 sets of Huff-and-Puff Experiments, utilizing the pure solvent of carbon dioxide, methane, and mixtures of CO2 and propane, were performed at different operating pressures. A soaking time period of 24 hrs and a cut-off pressure of 276 kPa were considered for all cycles. In addition, all Huff-and-Puff Cycles were continued for each operating pressure until production dropped below one percent of the original oil in place. The production trend and recovery factor for each experiment were determined. The final oil recoveries, at the highest operating pressure of 7239 kPa for pure CO2 and, at 6895 kPa for pure methane, were 71 and 50 % OOIP, respectively

  8. A study of water chemistry extends the benefits of using silica-based nanoparticles on enhanced oil recovery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hendraningrat, Luky; Torsæter, Ole

    2016-01-01

    Chemistry of the injected water has been investigated as an important parameter to improve/enhance oil recovery (IOR/EOR). Numerous extensive experiments have observed that water chemistry, such as ionic composition and salinity, can be modified for IOR/EOR purposes. However, the possible oil displacement mechanism remains debatable. Nanoparticle recently becomes more popular that have shown a great potential for IOR/EOR purposes in lab-scale, where in most experiments, water-based fluid were used as dispersed fluid. As yet, there has been no discussion in the literature on the study of water chemistry on enhanced oil recovery using silica-based nanoparticles. A broad range of laboratory studies involving rock, nanoparticles and fluid characterization; fluid-fluid and fluid-rock interactions; surface conductivity measurement; coreflood experiment; injection strategy formulation; filtration mechanism and contact angle measurement are conducted to investigate the impact of water chemistry, such as water salinity and ionic composition including hardness cations, on the performance of silica-based nanoparticles in IOR/EOR process and reveal possible displacement mechanism. The experimental results demonstrated that water salinity and ionic composition significantly impacted oil recovery using hydrophilic silica-based nanoparticles and that the oil recovery increased with the salinity. The primary findings from this study are that the water salinity, the ionic composition and the injection strategy are important parameters to be considered in Nano-EOR.

  9. Steatosis recovery after treatment with a balanced sunflower or olive oil-based diet: Involvement of perisinusoidal stellate cells

    PubMed Central

    Hernández, Raquel; Martínez-Lara, Esther; Cañuelo, Ana; del Moral, Mª Luisa; Blanco, Santos; Siles, Eva; Jiménez, Ana; Pedrosa, Juan Ángel; Peinado, Mª Ángeles

    2005-01-01

    AIM: To analyze the relationship between perisinusoidal stellate cell (PSC) activation and the dietary fat quantity and composition in the treatment of hepatic steatosis. METHODS: Using an experimental rat model of steatosis based on the intake of a hyperlipidic diet (14% fat as olive oil or sunflower oil, HL-O and HL-S, respectively), we analyzed the liver’s capability of recovery after the treatment with a normal-lipidic diet (5% fat as olive oil or sunflower oil, NL-O and NL-S, respectively) by immunocytochemical and Western blot analysis of glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) expression in PSCs, collagen quantification and serum aminotransferase determination. RESULTS: The fatty infiltration in the steatotic livers decreased after the treatment with both NL diets, indicating liver recovery. This decrease was accompanied with a lower collagen deposition and aminotransferase level as well as changes in the PSC population that increased the GFAP expression. The above-mentioned effects were more pronounced in animals fed on NL-O based diet. CONCLUSION: Treatment with a balanced diet enriched in olive oil contributes to the liver recovery from a steatotic process. The PSC phenotype is a marker of this hepatic-recovery model. PMID:16437720

  10. Evaluation of New Approaches to the Containment and Recovery of Oil in Fast Water

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2002-12-01

    MAXIMUM 200 WORDS ) This report describes the efforts to identify and close performance gaps for containing and recovering oil spills in fast water ... Words fast water oil boom VOSS oil spills skimmers SORS 18. Distribution Statement This document is available to the U.S. public through the National...the Containment and Recovery of Oil in Fast Water This document is available to the U.S. public through the National Technical Information Service

  11. Alternative concepts for supplying carbon dioxide for enhanced oil recovery projects. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Amirijafari, B; Grange, F; Ford, H; Pforzheimer, T; Williams, B

    1980-07-01

    The objectives of a study of alternative concepts for supplying carbon dioxide for enhanced oil recovery (EOR) were to: define the CO/sub 2/ requirements for candidate EOR reservoirs; generate alternative concepts for collecting, transporting, storing and processing CO/sub 2/ from naturally occurring sources; compare the alternatives on the basis of cost effectiveness; reestimate the magnitude of the CO/sub 2/ EOR reserve base on the results of the above findings; and recommend future DOE program activities. These objectives were met, and conclusions derived from the study are given.

  12. Methanogenic degradation of petroleum hydrocarbons in subsurface environments remediation, heavy oil formation, and energy recovery.

    PubMed

    Gray, N D; Sherry, A; Hubert, C; Dolfing, J; Head, I M

    2010-01-01

    Hydrocarbons are common constituents of surface, shallow, and deep-subsurface environments. Under anaerobic conditions, hydrocarbons can be degraded to methane by methanogenic microbial consortia. This degradation process is widespread in the geosphere. In comparison with other anaerobic processes, methanogenic hydrocarbon degradation is more sustainable over geological time scales because replenishment of an exogenous electron acceptor is not required. As a consequence, this process has been responsible for the formation of the world's vast deposits of heavy oil, which far exceed conventional oil assets such as those found in the Middle East. Methanogenic degradation is also a potentially important component of attenuation in hydrocarbon contamination plumes. Studies of the organisms, syntrophic partnerships, mechanisms, and geochemical signatures associated with methanogenic hydrocarbon degradation have identified common themes and diagnostic markers for this process in the subsurface. These studies have also identified the potential to engineer methanogenic processes to enhance the recovery of energy assets as biogenic methane from residual oils stranded in petroleum systems. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Study on the Reutilization of Clear Fracturing Flowback Fluids in Surfactant Flooding with Additives for Enhanced Oil Recovery (EOR)

    PubMed Central

    Dai, Caili; Wang, Kai; Liu, Yifei; Fang, Jichao; Zhao, Mingwei

    2014-01-01

    An investigation was conducted to study the reutilization of clear fracturing flowback fluids composed of viscoelastic surfactants (VES) with additives in surfactant flooding, making the process more efficient and cost-effective. The clear fracturing flowback fluids were used as surfactant flooding system with the addition of α-olefin sulfonate (AOS) for enhanced oil recovery (EOR). The interfacial activity, emulsification activity and oil recovery capability of the recycling system were studied. The interfacial tension (IFT) between recycling system and oil can be reduced by 2 orders of magnitude to 10−3 mN/m, which satisfies the basic demand of surfactant flooding. The oil can be emulsified and dispersed more easily due to the synergetic effect of VES and AOS. The oil-wet surface of quartz can be easily converted to water-wet through adsorption of surfactants (VES/AOS) on the surface. Thirteen core plug flooding tests were conducted to investigate the effects of AOS concentrations, slug sizes and slug types of the recycling system on the incremental oil recovery. The investigations prove that reclaiming clear fracturing flowback fluids after fracturing operation and reuse it in surfactant flooding might have less impact on environment and be more economical. PMID:25409507

  14. Study on the reutilization of clear fracturing flowback fluids in surfactant flooding with additives for Enhanced Oil Recovery (EOR).

    PubMed

    Dai, Caili; Wang, Kai; Liu, Yifei; Fang, Jichao; Zhao, Mingwei

    2014-01-01

    An investigation was conducted to study the reutilization of clear fracturing flowback fluids composed of viscoelastic surfactants (VES) with additives in surfactant flooding, making the process more efficient and cost-effective. The clear fracturing flowback fluids were used as surfactant flooding system with the addition of α-olefin sulfonate (AOS) for enhanced oil recovery (EOR). The interfacial activity, emulsification activity and oil recovery capability of the recycling system were studied. The interfacial tension (IFT) between recycling system and oil can be reduced by 2 orders of magnitude to 10(-3) mN/m, which satisfies the basic demand of surfactant flooding. The oil can be emulsified and dispersed more easily due to the synergetic effect of VES and AOS. The oil-wet surface of quartz can be easily converted to water-wet through adsorption of surfactants (VES/AOS) on the surface. Thirteen core plug flooding tests were conducted to investigate the effects of AOS concentrations, slug sizes and slug types of the recycling system on the incremental oil recovery. The investigations prove that reclaiming clear fracturing flowback fluids after fracturing operation and reuse it in surfactant flooding might have less impact on environment and be more economical.

  15. Production and characterisation of glycolipid biosurfactant by Halomonas sp. MB-30 for potential application in enhanced oil recovery.

    PubMed

    Dhasayan, Asha; Kiran, G Seghal; Selvin, Joseph

    2014-12-01

    Biosurfactant-producing Halomonas sp. MB-30 was isolated from a marine sponge Callyspongia diffusa, and its potency in crude oil recovery from sand pack column was investigated. The biosurfactant produced by the strain MB-30 reduced the surface tension to 30 mN m(-1) in both glucose and hydrocarbon-supplemented minimal media. The critical micelle concentration of biosurfactant obtained from glucose-based medium was at 0.25 mg ml(-1) at critical micelle dilution 1:10. The chemical structure of glycolipid biosurfactant was characterised by infrared spectroscopy and proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy. The emulsification activity of MB-30 biosurfactant was tested with different hydrocarbons, and 93.1 % emulsification activity was exhibited with crude oil followed by kerosene (86.6 %). The formed emulsion was stable for up to 1 month. To identify the effectiveness of biosurfactant for enhanced oil recovery in extreme environments, the interactive effect of pH, temperature and salinity on emulsion stability with crude oil and kerosene was evaluated. The stable emulsion was formed at and above pH 7, temperature >80 °C and NaCl concentration up to 10 % in response surface central composite orthogonal design model. The partially purified biosurfactant recovered 62 % of residual crude oil from sand pack column. Thus, the stable emulsifying biosurfactant produced by Halomonas sp. MB-30 could be used for in situ biosurfactant-mediated enhanced oil recovery process and hydrocarbon bioremediation in extreme environments.

  16. Production, Characterization, and Application of Bacillus licheniformis W16 Biosurfactant in Enhancing Oil Recovery.

    PubMed

    Joshi, Sanket J; Al-Wahaibi, Yahya M; Al-Bahry, Saif N; Elshafie, Abdulkadir E; Al-Bemani, Ali S; Al-Bahri, Asma; Al-Mandhari, Musallam S

    2016-01-01

    The biosurfactant production by Bacillus licheniformis W16 and evaluation of biosurfactant based enhanced oil recovery (EOR) using core-flood under reservoir conditions were investigated. Previously reported nine different production media were screened for biosurfactant production, and two were further optimized with different carbon sources (glucose, sucrose, starch, cane molasses, or date molasses), as well as the strain was screened for biosurfactant production during the growth in different media. The biosurfactant reduced the surface tension and interfacial tension to 24.33 ± 0.57 mN m(-1) and 2.47 ± 0.32 mN m(-1) respectively within 72 h, at 40°C, and also altered the wettability of a hydrophobic surface by changing the contact angle from 55.67 ± 1.6 to 19.54°± 0.96°. The critical micelle dilution values of 4X were observed. The biosurfactants were characterized by different analytical techniques and identified as lipopeptide, similar to lichenysin-A. The biosurfactant was stable over wide range of extreme environmental conditions. The core flood experiments showed that the biosurfactant was able to enhance the oil recovery by 24-26% over residual oil saturation (Sor). The results highlight the potential application of lipopeptide biosurfactant in wettability alteration and microbial EOR processes.

  17. Production, Characterization, and Application of Bacillus licheniformis W16 Biosurfactant in Enhancing Oil Recovery

    PubMed Central

    Joshi, Sanket J.; Al-Wahaibi, Yahya M.; Al-Bahry, Saif N.; Elshafie, Abdulkadir E.; Al-Bemani, Ali S.; Al-Bahri, Asma; Al-Mandhari, Musallam S.

    2016-01-01

    The biosurfactant production by Bacillus licheniformis W16 and evaluation of biosurfactant based enhanced oil recovery (EOR) using core-flood under reservoir conditions were investigated. Previously reported nine different production media were screened for biosurfactant production, and two were further optimized with different carbon sources (glucose, sucrose, starch, cane molasses, or date molasses), as well as the strain was screened for biosurfactant production during the growth in different media. The biosurfactant reduced the surface tension and interfacial tension to 24.33 ± 0.57 mN m−1 and 2.47 ± 0.32 mN m−1 respectively within 72 h, at 40°C, and also altered the wettability of a hydrophobic surface by changing the contact angle from 55.67 ± 1.6 to 19.54°± 0.96°. The critical micelle dilution values of 4X were observed. The biosurfactants were characterized by different analytical techniques and identified as lipopeptide, similar to lichenysin-A. The biosurfactant was stable over wide range of extreme environmental conditions. The core flood experiments showed that the biosurfactant was able to enhance the oil recovery by 24–26% over residual oil saturation (Sor). The results highlight the potential application of lipopeptide biosurfactant in wettability alteration and microbial EOR processes. PMID:27933041

  18. Application of decline curve analysis to estimate recovery factors for carbon dioxide enhanced oil recovery

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Jahediesfanjani, Hossein

    2017-07-17

    IntroductionIn the decline curve analysis (DCA) method of estimating recoverable hydrocarbon volumes, the analyst uses historical production data from a well, lease, group of wells (or pattern), or reservoir and plots production rates against time or cumu­lative production for the analysis. The DCA of an individual well is founded on the same basis as the fluid-flow principles that are used for pressure-transient analysis of a single well in a reservoir domain and therefore can provide scientifically reasonable and accurate results. However, when used for a group of wells, a lease, or a reservoir, the DCA becomes more of an empirical method. Plots from the DCA reflect the reservoir response to the oil withdrawal (or production) under the prevailing operating and reservoir conditions, and they continue to be good tools for estimating recoverable hydrocarbon volumes and future production rates. For predicting the total recov­erable hydrocarbon volume, the DCA results can help the analyst to evaluate the reservoir performance under any of the three phases of reservoir productive life—primary, secondary (waterflood), or tertiary (enhanced oil recovery) phases—so long as the historical production data are sufficient to establish decline trends at the end of the three phases.

  19. PROCESS FOR THE RECOVERY OF PLUTONIUM

    DOEpatents

    Ritter, D.M.

    1959-01-13

    An improvement is presented in the process for recovery and decontamination of plutonium. The carrier precipitate containing plutonium is dissolved and treated with an oxidizing agent to place the plutonium in a hexavalent oxidation state. A lanthanum fluoride precipitate is then formed in and removed from the solution to carry undesired fission products. The fluoride ions in the reniaining solution are complexed by addition of a borate sueh as boric acid, sodium metaborate or the like. The plutonium is then reduced and carried from the solution by the formation of a bismuth phosphate precipitate. This process effects a better separation from unwanted flssion products along with conccntration of the plutonium by using a smaller amount of carrier.

  20. Stratigraphy of Citronelle Oil Field, AL: Perspectives from Enhanced Oil Recovery and Potential CO2 Sequestration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hills, D. J.; Pashin, J. C.; Kopaska-Merkel, D. C.; Esposito, R. A.

    2008-12-01

    The Citronelle Dome is a giant salt-cored anticline in the eastern Mississippi Interior Salt Basin of south Alabama. The dome forms an elliptical structural closure containing multiple opportunities for enhanced oil recovery (EOR) and large-capacity saline reservoir CO2 sequestration. The Citronelle Oil Field, which is on the crest of the dome, has produced more than 168 MMbbl of 42° gravity oil from marginal marine sandstone in the Lower Cretaceous Donovan Sand. Recently, EOR field tests have begun in the northeastern part of the oil field. Citronelle Unit B-19-10 #2 well (Alabama State Oil and Gas Board Permit No. 3232) will serve as the CO2 injector for the first field test. CO2 will be injected into the Upper Donovan 14-1 and 16-2 sandstone units. All well logs in the 4-square-mile area surrounding the test site have been digitized and used to construct a network of nineteen stratigraphic cross sections correlating Sands 12 through 20A in the Upper Donovan. Detailed study of Citronelle cores has shown that depositional environments in the Donovan Sand differed significantly from the earlier model that has guided past development of the Citronelle Field. The cross sections demonstrate the extreme facies heterogeneity of the Upper Donovan, and this heterogeneity is well expressed within the five-spot well pattern where the field test will be conducted. Many other features bearing on the performance of the CO2 injection test have been discovered. Of particular interest is the 16-2 sand, which is interpreted as a composite of two tiers of channel fills. Pay strata are typically developed in the lower tier, and this is where CO2 will be injected. The upper tier is highly heterogeneous and is interpreted to contain sandstone fills of variable reservoir quality, as well as mudstone plugs.

  1. Hydrothermal alkali metal catalyst recovery process

    DOEpatents

    Eakman, James M.; Clavenna, LeRoy R.

    1979-01-01

    In a coal gasification operation or similar conversion process carried out in the presence of an alkali metal-containing catalyst wherein solid particles containing alkali metal residues are produced, alkali metal constituents are recovered from the particles primarily in the form of water soluble alkali metal formates by treating the particles with a calcium or magnesium-containing compound in the presence of water at a temperature between about 250.degree. F. and about 700.degree. F. and in the presence of added carbon monoxide. During the treating process the water insoluble alkali metal compounds comprising the insoluble alkali metal residues are converted into water soluble alkali metal formates. The resultant aqueous solution containing water soluble alkali metal formates is then separated from the treated particles and any insoluble materials formed during the treatment process, and recycled to the gasification process where the alkali metal formates serve as at least a portion of the alkali metal constituents which comprise the alkali metal-containing catalyst. This process permits increased recovery of alkali metal constituents, thereby decreasing the overall cost of the gasification process by reducing the amount of makeup alkali metal compounds necessary.

  2. Wettability and Oil Recovery by Imbibition and Viscous Displacement from Fractured and Heterogeneous Carbonates

    SciTech Connect

    Norman R. Morrow; Jill Buckley

    2006-04-01

    About one-half of U.S. oil reserves are held in carbonate formations. The remaining oil in carbonate reservoirs is regarded as the major domestic target for improved oil recovery. Carbonate reservoirs are often fractured and have great complexity even at the core scale. Formation evaluation and prediction is often subject to great uncertainty. This study addresses quantification of crude oil/brine/rock interactions and the impact of reservoir heterogeneity on oil recovery by spontaneous imbibition and viscous displacement from pore to field scale. Wettability-alteration characteristics of crude oils were measured at calcite and dolomite surfaces and related to the properties of the crude oils through asphaltene content, acid and base numbers, and refractive index. Oil recovery was investigated for a selection of limestones and dolomites that cover over three orders of magnitude in permeability and a factor of four variation in porosity. Wettability control was achieved by adsorption from crude oils obtained from producing carbonate reservoirs. The induced wettability states were compared with those measured for reservoir cores. The prepared cores were used to investigate oil recovery by spontaneous imbibition and viscous displacement. The results of imbibition tests were used in wettability characterization and to develop mass transfer functions for application in reservoir simulation of fractured carbonates. Studies of viscous displacement in carbonates focused on the unexpected but repeatedly observed sensitivity of oil recovery to injection rate. The main variables were pore structure, mobility ratio, and wettability. The potential for improved oil recovery from rate-sensitive carbonate reservoirs by increased injection pressure, increased injectivity, decreased well spacing or reduction of interfacial tension was evaluated.

  3. ADVANCED OIL RECOVERY TECHNOLOGIES FOR IMPROVED RECOVERY FROM SLOPE BASIN CLASTIC RESERVOIRS, NASH DRAW BRUSHY CANYON POOL, EDDY COUNTY, NM

    SciTech Connect

    Mark B. Murphy

    2002-09-30

    The overall objective of this project is to demonstrate that a development program-based on advanced reservoir management methods-can significantly improve oil recovery at the Nash Draw Pool (NDP). The plan includes developing a control area using standard reservoir management techniques and comparing its performance to an area developed using advanced reservoir management methods. Specific goals are (1) to demonstrate that an advanced development drilling and pressure maintenance program can significantly improve oil recovery compared to existing technology applications and (2) to transfer these advanced methodologies to oil and gas producers in the Permian Basin and elsewhere throughout the U.S. oil and gas industry. This is the twenty-eighth quarterly progress report on the project. Results obtained to date are summarized.

  4. Reservoir characterization and enhanced oil recovery research. Annual report, September 1988--August 1989

    SciTech Connect

    Lake, L.W.; Pope, G.A.; Schechter, R.S.

    1992-03-01

    The research in this annual report falls into three tasks each dealing with a different aspect of enhanced oil recovery. The first task strives to develop procedures for accurately modeling reservoirs for use as input to numerical simulation flow models. This action describes how we have used a detail characterization of an outcrop to provide insights into what features are important to fluid flow modeling. The second task deals with scaling-up and modeling chemical and solvent EOR processes. In a sense this task is the natural extension of task 1 and, in fact, one of the subtasks uses many of the same statistical procedures for insight into the effects of viscous fingering and heterogeneity. The final task involves surfactants and their interactions with carbon dioxide and reservoir minerals. This research deals primarily with phenomena observed when aqueous surfactant solutions are injected into oil reservoirs.

  5. High efficiency shale oil recovery. First quarter report, January 1, 1992--March 31, 1992

    SciTech Connect

    Adams, D.C.

    1992-12-01

    The overall project objective is to demonstrate the high efficiency of the Adams Counter-Current shale oil recovery process. The efficiency will first be demonstrated at bench-scale, in the current phase, after which the demonstration will be extended to the operation of a small pilot plant. Thus the immediate project objective is to obtain data on oil shale retorting operations in a small batch rotary kiln that will be representative of operations in the proposed continuous process pilot plant. Although a batch oil shale sample will be sealed in the batch kiln from the start until the end of the run, the process conditions for the batch will be the same as the conditions that an element of oil shale would encounter in a large continuous process kiln. For example, similar conditions of heat-up rate (20 deg F/min during the pyrolysis), oxidation of the residue and cool-down will prevail for the element in both systems. This batch kiln is a unit constructed in a 1987 Phase I SBIR tar sand retorting project. The kiln worked fairly well in that project; however, the need for certain modifications was observed. These modifications are now underway to simplify the operation and make the data and analysis more exact. The agenda for the first three months of the project consisted of the first of nine tasks and was specified as the following four items: 1. Sample acquisition and equipment alteration: Obtain seven oil shale samples, of varying grade each 10 lb or more, and samples of quartz sand. Order equipment for kiln modification. 3. Set up and modify kiln for operation, including electric heaters on the ends of the kiln. 4. Connect data logger and make other repairs and changes in rotary batch kiln.

  6. Mixing in three-phase systems: Implications for enhanced oil recovery and unconventional gas extraction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jimenez-Martinez, J.; Porter, M. L.; Hyman, J.; Carey, J. W.; Viswanathan, H. S.

    2015-12-01

    Although the mixing of fluids within a porous media is a common process in natural and industrial systems, how the degree of mixing depends on the miscibility of multiple phases is poorly characterized. Often, the direct consequence of miscible mixing is the modification of the resident fluid (brine and hydrocarbons) rheological properties. We investigate supercritical (sc)CO2 displacement and mixing processes in a three-phase system (scCO2, oil, and H2O) using a microfluidics experimental system that accommodates the high pressures and temperatures encountered in fossil fuel extraction operations. The miscibility of scCO2 with the resident fluids, low with aqueous solutions and high with hydrocarbons, impacts the mixing processes that control sweep efficiency in enhanced oil recovery (EOR) and the unlocking of the system in unconventional oil and gas extraction. Using standard volume-averaging techniques we upscale the aqueous phase saturation to the field-scale (i.e., Darcy scale) and interpret the results as a simpler two-phase system. This process allows us to perform a statistical analysis to quantify i) the degree of heterogeneity in the system resulting from the immiscible H2O and ii) how that heterogeneity impacts mixing between scCO2 and oil and their displacement. Our results show that when scCO2 is used for miscible displacement, the presence of an aqueous solution, which is common in secondary and tertiary EOR and unconventional oil and gas extraction, strongly impacts the mixing of scCO2 with the hydrocarbons due to low scCO2-H2O miscibility. H2O, which must be displaced advectively by the injected scCO2, introduces spatio-temporal variability into the system that acts as a barrier between the two miscibile fluids. This coupled with the effect of viscosity contrast, i.e., viscous fingering, has an impact on the mixing of the more miscible pair.

  7. Signs point to economic recovery and increased oil demand

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, S.P.A.

    1983-08-01

    A strengthening U.S. economy bodes well for the oil industry. Increased oil consumption, resulting from an expanding economy and somewhat lower oil prices, could have a major role in solidifying world oil prices at or near current levels through the end of 1983. A continuation of economic growth through 1984 and 1985 can be expected to put upward pressure on oil prices in those years.

  8. Harbor Oil Spill Removal/Recovery Systems. Phase 2.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1976-07-01

    conducting a human factors study of oil spill cleanup equipment; development of oil spill cleanup scenarios, an oil spill cleanup data report form, and...alternative methods of using oil spill containment boom; and a study of boom materials. This report summarizes Phase II. The objectives of Phase III...currently underway, are to conduct cost and system effectiveness studies of oil spill cleanup procedures, and to evaluate new equipment at OHMSETT. (MM)

  9. [Recovery of consciousness: process-oriented approach].

    PubMed

    Gusarova, S B

    2014-01-01

    Traditionally psychological neurorehabilitation of neurosurgical patients is provided subject to availability of clear consciousness and minimal potential to communicate verbally. Cognitive and emotional disorders, problems in social adaptation, neurotic syndromes are normally targets in such cases. We work with patients having survived severe brain damage being in different states of consciousness: vegetative state, minimal state of consciousness, mutism, confusion, posttraumatic Korsaroff syndrom. Psychologist considers recovery of consciousness as the target besides traditional tasks. Construction of communication with patient is central part of such job, where the patient remains unable to contact verbally, yet it is impossible to consider potential aphasia. This is a non-verbal "dialogue" with patient created by psychologist with gradual development and involving other people and objects of environment. Inline with modern neuroscientific achievements demonstrating ability to recognize by patients with severe brain injury (A. Owen, S. Laureys, M. Monti, M. Coleman, A. Soddu, M. Boly and others) we base upon psychological science, on psychotherapeutic approaches containing instruments inevitable to work with patients in altered states of consciousness and creation of non-verbal communication with patient (Jung, Reich, Alexander, Lowen, Keleman, Arnold and Amy Mindell, S. Tomandl, D. Boadella, A. Längle, P. Levin etc). This article will include 15 years of experience to apply Process-oriented approach by A. Mindell to recovery of consciousness of neurosurgical patients based on work with "minimal signals" (micro moves, breath, mimic reactions etc.), principle of feedback, psychosomatic resonance, empathy.

  10. Recovery of NORM from scales generated by oil extraction.

    PubMed

    Al Attar, Lina; Safia, Bassam; Ghani, Basem Abdul; Al Abdulah, Jamal

    2016-03-01

    Scales, containing naturally occurring radioactive materials (NORM), are a major problem in oil production that lead to costly remediation and disposal programmes. In view of environmental protection, radio and chemical characterisation is an essential step prior to waste treatment. This study focuses on developing of a protocol to recover (226)Ra and (210)Pb from scales produced by petroleum industry. X-ray diffractograms of the scales indicated the presence of barite-strontium (Ba0.75Sr0.25SO4) and hokutolite (Ba0.69Pb0.31SO4) as main minerals. Quartz, galena and Ca2Al2SiO6(OH)2 or sphalerite and iron oxide were found in minor quantities. Incineration to 600 °C followed by enclosed-digestion and acid-treatment gave complete digestion. Using (133)Ba and (210)Pb tracers as internal standards gave recovery ranged 87-91% for (226)Ra and ca. 100% for (210)Pb. Radium was finally dissolved in concentrated sulphuric acid, while (210)Pb dissolved in the former solution as well as in 8 M nitric acid. Dissolving the scales would provide better estimation of their radionuclides contents, facilitate the determination of their chemical composition, and make it possible to recycle NORM wastes in terms of radionuclides production. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Research on oil recovery mechanisms in heavy oil reservoirs. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    1996-08-01

    The Research on Heavy Oil Recovery Mechanisms at Stanford University has been ongoing for the past twenty years. During this span of time, 106 technical reports have been published by the Department of Energy, over 200 technical papers have been presented at meetings of professional societies, and most importantly, over 120 students have performed research as graduate research assistants and are now employed by the oil industry or research institutions. Funding was provided by the Department of Energy and also by a group of oil companies. The support of industry is very important to us, not only from the financial viewpoint, but also from the constant exchange of ideas with technical experts from the companies. Meetings are held yearly with industry representatives and informal exchange of information is constant. Support from industry has been steady since 1980. SUPRI personnel is also active in participating in technical meetings and seminars organized by technical societies and other research organizations. We strongly believe that information exchange is one of the most cost effective way to improve research.

  12. The Carver-Greenfield Process{reg_sign}: Resource recovery system for wet, oily wastes

    SciTech Connect

    Trowbridge, T.D.; Holcombe, T.C.

    1994-12-31

    A combination dehydration/solvent extraction treatment technology, the patented Carver-Greenfield (C-G) Process, can be used to separate wet, oily solid-liquid waste materials into three separate product streams convenient for resource recovery or other disposition: (1) clean, dry solids suitable for fixation or non-hazardous landfilling; (2) water virtually free of solids and oils which can be processed in an industrial or public wastewater treatment facility or which can be returned to the land with the solids; and (3) oil indigenous to the feed, a mixture of extracted hydrocarbon-soluble compounds suitable for resource recovery via recycle to an oil refinery or other processing facility. Hazardous contaminants, e.g. PCBs, in the indigenous oil may be isolated in a small, volume reduced stream for more economic disposal. This paper discusses the C-G Process application flexibilities for resource recovery from oil refinery wastes, sites contaminated with residual coal tars, spent drilling fluids (US EPA SITE Program), as well as to various wet and oily hazardous soil and sludge wastes containing PCB`s and similar ``trace component`` hazardous materials.

  13. Investigation of biosurfactant-producing indigenous microorganisms that enhance residue oil recovery in an oil reservoir after polymer flooding.

    PubMed

    She, Yue-Hui; Zhang, Fan; Xia, Jing-Jing; Kong, Shu-Qiong; Wang, Zheng-Liang; Shu, Fu-Chang; Hu, Ji-Ming

    2011-01-01

    Three biosurfactant-producing indigenous microorganisms (XDS1, XDS2, XDS3) were isolated from a petroleum reservoir in the Daqing Oilfield (China) after polymer flooding. Their metabolic, biochemical, and oil-degradation characteristics, as well as their oil displacement in the core were studied. These indigenous microorganisms were identified as short rod bacillus bacteria with white color, round shape, a protruding structure, and a rough surface. Strains have peritrichous flagella, are able to produce endospores, are sporangia, and are clearly swollen and terminal. Bacterial cultures show that the oil-spreading values of the fermentation fluid containing all three strains are more than 4.5 cm (diameter) with an approximate 25 mN/m surface tension. The hydrocarbon degradation rates of each of the three strains exceeded 50%, with the highest achieving 84%. Several oil recovery agents were produced following degradation. At the same time, the heavy components of crude oil were degraded into light components, and their flow characteristics were also improved. The surface tension and viscosity of the crude oil decreased after being treated by the three strains of microorganisms. The core-flooding tests showed that the incremental oil recoveries were 4.89-6.96%. Thus, XDS123 treatment may represent a viable method for microbial-enhanced oil recovery.

  14. Oil shale, tar sand, coal research advanced exploratory process technology, jointly sponsored research

    SciTech Connect

    Speight, J.G.

    1992-01-01

    Accomplishments for the past quarter are presented for the following five tasks: oil shale; tar sand; coal; advanced exploratory process technology; and jointly sponsored research. Oil shale research covers oil shale process studies. Tar sand research is on process development of Recycle Oil Pyrolysis and Extraction (ROPE) Process. Coal research covers: coal combustion; integrated coal processing concepts; and solid waste management. Advanced exploratory process technology includes: advanced process concepts;advanced mitigation concepts; and oil and gas technology. Jointly sponsored research includes: organic and inorganic hazardous waste stabilization; CROW field demonstration with Bell Lumber and Pole; development and validation of a standard test method for sequential batch extraction fluid; PGI demonstration project; operation and evaluation of the CO[sub 2] HUFF-N-PUFF Process; fly ash binder for unsurfaced road aggregates; solid state NMR analysis of Mesaverde Group, Greater Green River Basin, tight gas sands; flow-loop testing of double-wall pipe for thermal applications; characterization of petroleum residue; shallow oil production using horizontal wells with enhanced oil recovery techniques; surface process study for oil recovery using a thermal extraction process; NMR analysis of samples from the ocean drilling program; in situ treatment of manufactured gas plant contaminated soils demonstration program; and solid state NMR analysis of naturally and artificially matured kerogens.

  15. Additional Reserve Recovery Using New Polymer Treatment on High Water Oil Ratio Wells in Alameda Field, Kingman County, Kansas

    SciTech Connect

    James Spillane

    2005-10-01

    The Chemical Flooding process, like a polymer treatment, as a tertiary (enhanced) oil recovery process can be a very good solution based on the condition of this field and its low cost compared to the drilling of new wells. It is an improved water flooding method in which high molecular-weight (macro-size molecules) and water-soluble polymers are added to the injection water to improve the mobility ratio by enhancing the viscosity of the water and by reducing permeability in invaded zones during the process. In other words, it can improve the sweep efficiency by reducing the water mobility. This polymer treatment can be performed on the same active oil producer well rather than on an injector well in the existence of strong water drive in the formation. Some parameters must be considered before any polymer job is performed such as: formation temperature, permeability, oil gravity and viscosity, location and formation thickness of the well, amount of remaining recoverable oil, fluid levels, well productivity, water oil ratio (WOR) and existence of water drive. This improved oil recovery technique has been used widely and has significant potential to extend reservoir life by increasing the oil production and decreasing the water cut. This new technology has the greatest potential in reservoirs that are moderately heterogeneous, contain moderately viscous oils, and have adverse water-oil mobility ratios. For example, many wells in Kansas's Arbuckle formation had similar treatments and we have seen very effective results. In addition, there were previous polymer treatments conducted by Texaco in Alameda Field on a number of wells throughout the Viola-Simpson formation in the early 70's. Most of the treatments proved to be very successful.

  16. Profitability Analysis of Soybean Oil Processes.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Ming-Hsun; Rosentrater, Kurt A

    2017-10-07

    Soybean oil production is the basic process for soybean applications. Cash flow analysis is used to estimate the profitability of a manufacturing venture. Besides capital investments, operating costs, and revenues, the interest rate is the factor to estimate the net present value (NPV), break-even points, and payback time; which are benchmarks for profitability evaluation. The positive NPV and reasonable payback time represent a profitable process, and provide an acceptable projection for real operating. Additionally, the capacity of the process is another critical factor. The extruding-expelling process and hexane extraction are the two typical approaches used in industry. When the capacities of annual oil production are larger than 12 and 173 million kg respectively, these two processes are profitable. The solvent free approach, known as enzyme assisted aqueous extraction process (EAEP), is profitable when the capacity is larger than 17 million kg of annual oil production.

  17. Analysis of potential used oil recovery from individuals. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Gottlieb, M.

    1981-07-01

    To assist the Department of Energy in its investigation of methods for recycling used motor oil, Market Facts conducted a telephone survey of individuals who change their own motor oil. The study examined the amount of oil used, oil change practices, oil disposal methods, and perceptions and attitudes toward used motor oil disposal and oil recycling. The results of this survey are presented in this report. The findings of this study confirm the generally held view that about half the vehicle households in the United States now do their own oil changes and additions. These do-it-yourselfers (DIY) households account for almost two-thirds of the motor oil consumed by all US households and produce about one-third of one billion gallons of used motor oil annually. At least half of this used motor oil, more than 170 million gallons, is returned to the environment in a form that pollutes the ground and endangers the water supply. Measures such as requiring information about proper disposal and the need for recycling used oil to be printed on motor oil containers have been taken in many states. The need for reminder advertising and reinforcement education and information and practical measures to ease the burden of compliance is suggested. These results suggest that careful consideration be given to the logistics of these measures. The most appealing of the measures would appear to be making a special container available to DIY oil changers. Employing civic groups as collection agents would also seem to be attractive.

  18. Technical difficulties and solutions of direct transesterification process of microbial oil for biodiesel synthesis.

    PubMed

    Yousuf, Abu; Khan, Maksudur Rahman; Islam, M Amirul; Wahid, Zularisam Ab; Pirozzi, Domenico

    2017-01-01

    Microbial oils are considered as alternative to vegetable oils or animal fats as biodiesel feedstock. Microalgae and oleaginous yeast are the main candidates of microbial oil producers' community. However, biodiesel synthesis from these sources is associated with high cost and process complexity. The traditional transesterification method includes several steps such as biomass drying, cell disruption, oil extraction and solvent recovery. Therefore, direct transesterification or in situ transesterification, which combines all the steps in a single reactor, has been suggested to make the process cost effective. Nevertheless, the process is not applicable for large-scale biodiesel production having some difficulties such as high water content of biomass that makes the reaction rate slower and hurdles of cell disruption makes the efficiency of oil extraction lower. Additionally, it requires high heating energy in the solvent extraction and recovery stage. To resolve these difficulties, this review suggests the application of antimicrobial peptides and high electric fields to foster the microbial cell wall disruption.

  19. MINERAL-SURFACTANT INTERACTIONS FOR MINIMUM REAGENTS PRECIPITATION AND ADSORPTION FOR IMPROVED OIL RECOVERY

    SciTech Connect

    P. Somasundaran

    2004-10-30

    Significant surfactant loss by adsorption or precipitation on reservoir minerals can cause chemical flooding processes to be less than satisfactory for enhanced oil recovery. This project is aimed towards an understanding of the role of reservoir minerals and their dissolved species in chemical loss by precipitation or adsorption of surfactants/polymers in enhanced oil recovery. Emphasis will be on the type and nature of different minerals in the oil reservoirs. Macroscopic adsorption, precipitation, wettability and nanoscopic orientation/conformation studies for aggregates of various surfactant/polymer mixtures on reservoir rocks systems is planned for exploring the cause of chemical loss by means of precipitation or adsorption, and the effect of rock mineralogy on the chemical loss. During this reporting period, the minerals proposed in this study: sandstone, limestone, gypsum, kaolinite and pyrite, have been characterized to obtain their particle size distribution and surface area, which will be used in the analysis of adsorption and wettability data. The effect of surfactant mixing ratio on the adsorption of mixture of C{sub 12}-C{sub 4}-C{sub 12} Gemini surfactant (synthesized during last period) and sugar-based nonionic surfactant n-dodecyl-{beta}-D-maltoside (DM) has been studied. It was discovered that even trace amounts of Gemini in the mixture is sufficient to force significant adsorption of DM. DM adsorption on silica increased from relatively negligible levels to very high levels. It is clear form analysis of the results that desired adsorption of either surfactant component in the mixtures can be obtained by controlling the mixing ratio, the total mixture concentration, pH etc. Along with these adsorption studies, changes in mineral wettability due to the adsorption of Gemini/DM mixtures were determined under relevant conditions to identify the nano-structure of the adsorbed layers. With increasing total surfactant adsorption, the silica mineral

  20. Development of epoxide compound from kapok oil for enhanced oil recovery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anam, M. K.; Supranto; Murachman, B.; Purwono, S.

    2017-06-01

    Epoxide compound is made by reacting Kapok Oil with acetic acid and hydrogen peroxide with in situ method. The epoxidation reaction was varied at temperatures of 60 °C, 70 °C and 80 °C, while the time of reaction time was varied at 15 minutes, 30 minutes, 60 minutes and 90 minutes. The reaction rate coefficient for the epoxide was obtained as {\\boldsymbol{k}}{\\boldsymbol{=}}{{124}}{\\boldsymbol{,}}{{82}} {{\\exp }} {\\boldsymbol{\\bigg(}}\\frac{{\\boldsymbol-}{{24}}{\\boldsymbol{,}}{{14}}}{{\\boldsymbol{R}}{\\boldsymbol{T}}}{\\boldsymbol{\\bigg)}}. The addition of the epoxide compound 0.5 w/w in the formulation of SLS was able to reduce the IFT value up to 9.95 x 10-2 m N/m. The addition of co-surfactant (1-octanol) was varied between 0.1 and 0.4 of the total mass of the main formulation (SLS + epoxide + water formation). The smallest interfacial tension value is obtained on the addition of co-surfactants as much as 0.2 w/w, with the IFT value is 2.43 x 10-3 m N/m. The effectiveness of the chemicals was tested through micro displacement using artificial porous medium. The experimental results show that some chemicals developed in the laboratory can be used as EOR chemicals. The oil displacement experiments show that as much as 20 to 80 of remaining oil can be recovered by flooding it with the chemicals. The results also show that the oil recovery depends on type of chemicals and chemical concentration.

  1. CO2 Sequestration and Enhanced Oil Recovery at Depleted Oil/Gas Reservoirs

    DOE PAGES

    Dai, Zhenxue; Viswanathan, Hari; Xiao, Ting; ...

    2017-08-18

    This study presents a quantitative evaluation of the operational and technical risks of an active CO2-EOR project. A set of risk factor metrics is defined to post-process the Monte Carlo (MC) simulations for statistical analysis. The risk factors are expressed as measurable quantities that can be used to gain insight into project risk (e.g. environmental and economic risks) without the need to generate a rigorous consequence structure, which include (a) CO2 injection rate, (b) net CO2 injection rate, (c) cumulative CO2 storage, (d) cumulative water injection, (e) oil production rate, (f) cumulative oil production, (g) cumulative CH4 production, and (h)more » CO2 breakthrough time. The Morrow reservoir at the Farnsworth Unit (FWU) site, Texas, is used as an example for studying the multi-scale statistical approach for CO2 accounting and risk analysis. A set of geostatistical-based MC simulations of CO2-oil/gas-water flow and transport in the Morrow formation are conducted for evaluating the risk metrics. A response-surface-based economic model has been derived to calculate the CO2-EOR profitability for the FWU site with a current oil price, which suggests that approximately 31% of the 1000 realizations can be profitable. If government carbon-tax credits are available, or the oil price goes up or CO2 capture and operating expenses reduce, more realizations would be profitable.« less

  2. Improved Recovery from Gulf of Mexico Reservoirs, Volume 4, Comparison of Methane, Nitrogen and Flue Gas for Attic Oil. February 14, 1995 - October 13, 1996. Final Report

    SciTech Connect

    Wolcott, Joanne; Shayegi, Sara

    1997-01-13

    Gas injection for attic oil recovery was modeled in vertical sandpacks to compare the process performance characteristics of three gases, namely methane, nitrogen and flue gas. All of the gases tested recovered the same amount of oil over two cycles of gas injection. Nitrogen and flue gas recovered oil more rapidly than methane because a large portion of the methane slug dissolved in the oil phase and less free gas was available for oil displacement. The total gas utilization for two cycles of gas injection was somewhat better for nitrogen as compared to methane and flue gas. The lower nitrogen utilization was ascribed to the lower compressibility of nitrogen.

  3. Cyclic CO sub 2 injection for light oil recovery: Performance of a cost shared field test in Louisiana

    SciTech Connect

    Bassiouni, Z.A.

    1990-01-01

    The ultimate objective of this research is to provide a base of knowledge on the CO{sub 2} huff n' puff process for the enhanced recovery of Louisiana crude oil. Project goals include laboratory corefloods to investigate several parameters important to the process, and numerical simulation to interpret coreflood results. Additional activities include construction and analysis of a field test data base to facilitate target reservoir screening, and to identify sensitive operational parameters. This quarter, one final horizontal coreflood was performed to examine the influence of remaining oil saturation. An environmental assessment was performed in order to assess environmental impacts; and a numerical simulation was performed. 7 refs., 4 figs.

  4. Improved Criteria for Increasing CO2 Storage Potential with CO2 Enhanced Oil Recovery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bauman, J.; Pawar, R.

    2013-12-01

    In recent years it has been found that deployment of CO2 capture and storage technology at large scales will be difficult without significant incentives. One of the technologies that has been a focus in recent years is CO2 enhanced oil/gas recovery, where additional hydrocarbon recovery provides an economic incentive for deployment. The way CO2 EOR is currently deployed, maximization of additional oil production does not necessarily lead to maximization of stored CO2, though significant amounts of CO2 are stored regardless of the objective. To determine the potential of large-scale CO2 storage through CO2 EOR, it is necessary to determine the feasibility of deploying this technology over a wide range of oil/gas field characteristics. In addition it is also necessary to accurately estimate the ultimate CO2 storage potential and develop approaches that optimize oil recovery along with long-term CO2 storage. This study uses compositional reservoir simulations to further develop technical screening criteria that not only improve oil recovery, but maximize CO2 storage during enhanced oil recovery operations. Minimum miscibility pressure, maximum oil/ CO2 contact without the need of significant waterflooding, and CO2 breakthrough prevention are a few key parameters specific to the technical aspects of CO2 enhanced oil recovery that maximize CO2 storage. We have developed reduced order models based on simulation results to determine the ultimate oil recovery and CO2 storage potential in these formations. Our goal is to develop and demonstrate a methodology that can be used to determine feasibility and long-term CO2 storage potential of CO2 EOR technology.

  5. GREEN TECHNOLOGIES SOLUTIONS-OIL RECOVERY (GTS-OR)

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Technical product bulletin: this surface washing agent used in oil spill cleanups may clean oil from beaches, rocks, riprap, pilings, and seawalls. May be used in freshwater, estuarine, and marine environments.

  6. Comparison of biochemical microbial effects in enhanced oil recovery (MEOR)

    SciTech Connect

    Premuzic, E.T.; Lin, M.S.; Manowitz, B.

    1992-11-01

    Experimental data dealing with the interactions between certain microbial species and crude oils indicates that these interactions are selective and occur via biochemical pathways which can be characterized by the chemical composition of the initial crude oil and that of the end products. In the studies discussed in this paper, the microbial species used were thermophilic and/or thermoadapted microorganisms which thrive in harsh environments (e.g., pH, temperature, pressure, salinity). Crude oils chosen for biotreatment represented a wide range of oils, which varied from relatively light oils to heavy, high sulfur content oils. The crude oils used have also been distinguished in terms of their geological history, i.e., heavy, because they are immature or heavy, because they have been biodegraded. The significance of ``biodegraded`` vs. ``biotreated`` crude oil in MEOR also discussed.

  7. Comparison of biochemical microbial effects in enhanced oil recovery (MEOR)

    SciTech Connect

    Premuzic, E.T.; Lin, M.S.; Manowitz, B.

    1992-11-01

    Experimental data dealing with the interactions between certain microbial species and crude oils indicates that these interactions are selective and occur via biochemical pathways which can be characterized by the chemical composition of the initial crude oil and that of the end products. In the studies discussed in this paper, the microbial species used were thermophilic and/or thermoadapted microorganisms which thrive in harsh environments (e.g., pH, temperature, pressure, salinity). Crude oils chosen for biotreatment represented a wide range of oils, which varied from relatively light oils to heavy, high sulfur content oils. The crude oils used have also been distinguished in terms of their geological history, i.e., heavy, because they are immature or heavy, because they have been biodegraded. The significance of biodegraded'' vs. biotreated'' crude oil in MEOR also discussed.

  8. The Prestige crisis: operational oceanography applied to oil recovery, by the Basque fishing fleet.

    PubMed

    González, Manuel; Uriarte, Adolfo; Pozo, Rogelio; Collins, Michael

    2006-01-01

    On 19th November 2002, the oil tanker Prestige (containing 77,000 tonnes of heavy fuel no. 2 (M100)) sank in 3500 m of water, off the coast of northwestern Spain. Intermittent discharge of oil from the stricken tanker, combined with large-scale sea surface dispersion, created a tracking and recovery problem. Initially, conventional oil recovery approaches were adopted, close to the wreck. With time and distance from the source, the oil dispersed dramatically and became less viscous. Consequently, a unique monitoring, prediction and data dissemination system was established, based upon the principles of 'operational oceanography'; this utilised in situ tracked buoys and numerical (spill trajectory) modelling outputs, in combination with remote sensing (satellite sensors and visual observation). Overall, wind effects on the surface waters were found to be the most important mechanism controlling the smaller oil slick movements. The recovery operation involved up to 180 fishing boats, 9-30 m in length. Such labour-intensive recovery of the oil (21,000 tonnes, representing an unprecedented ratio of 6.6 tonnes at sea, per tonne recovered on land) continued over a 10 month period. The overall recovery at sea, by the fishing vessels, represented 63% of the total oil recovered at sea; this compares to only 37% recovered by specialised 'counter- pollution' vessels.

  9. Review of technology for Arctic offshore oil and gas recovery

    SciTech Connect

    Sackinger, W. M.

    1980-08-01

    The technical background briefing report is the first step in the preparation of a plan for engineering research oriented toward Arctic offshore oil and gas recovery. A five-year leasing schedule for the ice-prone waters of the Arctic offshore is presented, which also shows the projected dates of the lease sale for each area. The estimated peak production rates for these areas are given. There is considerable uncertainty for all these production estimates, since no exploratory drilling has yet taken place. A flow chart is presented which relates the special Arctic factors, such as ice and permafrost, to the normal petroleum production sequence. Some highlights from the chart and from the technical review are: (1) in many Arctic offshore locations the movement of sea ice causes major lateral forces on offshore structures, which are much greater than wave forces; (2) spray ice buildup on structures, ships and aircraft will be considerable, and must be prevented or accommodated with special designs; (3) the time available for summer exploratory drilling, and for deployment of permanent production structures, is limited by the return of the pack ice. This time may be extended by ice-breaking vessels in some cases; (4) during production, icebreaking workboats will service the offshore platforms in most areas throughout the year; (5) transportation of petroleum by icebreaking tankers from offshore tanker loading points is a highly probable situation, except in the Alaskan Beaufort; and (6) Arctic pipelines must contend with permafrost, making instrumentation necessary to detect subtle changes of the pipe before rupture occurs.

  10. Life cycle inventory of CO2 in an enhanced oil recovery system.

    PubMed

    Jaramillo, Paulina; Griffin, W Michael; McCoy, Sean T

    2009-11-01

    Enhanced oil recovery (EOR) has been identified as a method of sequestering CO(2) recovered from power plants. In CO(2)-flood EOR, CO(2) is injected into an oil reservoir to reduce oil viscosity, reduce interfacial tension, and cause oil swelling which improves oil recovery. Previous studies suggest that substantial amounts of CO(2) from power plants could be sequestered in EOR projects, thus reducing the amount of CO(2) emitted into the atmosphere. This claim, however, ignores the fact that oil, a carbon rich fuel, is produced and 93% of the carbon in petroleum is refined into combustible products ultimately emitted into the atmosphere. In this study we analyze the net life cycle CO(2)emissions in an EOR system. This study assesses the overall life cycle emissions associated with sequestration via CO(2)-flood EOR under a number of different scenarios and explores the impact of various methods for allocating CO(2) system emissions and the benefits of sequestration.

  11. Dissolved air flotation and centrifugation as methods for oil recovery from ruptured microalgal cells.

    PubMed

    Ghasemi Naghdi, Forough; Schenk, Peer M

    2016-10-01

    Solvent-free microalgal lipid recovery is highly desirable for safer, more sustainable and more economical microalgal oil production. Dispersed air flotation and centrifugation were evaluated for the ability to separate oil and debris from a slurry mixture of osmotically fractured Chaetoceros muelleri cells with and without utilizing collectors. Microalgal oil partially phase-separated as a top layer and partially formed an oil-in-water emulsion. Although collectors, such as sodium dodecyl sulphate enhanced selective flotation, by just adjusting the pH and cell concentration of the mixture, up to 78% of the lipids were recovered in the froth. Using centrifugation of fractured microalgal slurry resulted in removal of 60% cell debris and up to 68.5% of microalgal oil was present in the supernatant. Both methods, centrifugation and flotation provided options for separation of microalgal oil from C. muelleri slurry with similar fatty acid recoveries of 57% and 60%, respectively. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  12. Catalyst for elemental sulfur recovery process

    DOEpatents

    Flytzani-Stephanopoulos, Maria; Liu, Wei

    1995-01-01

    A catalytic reduction process for the direct recovery of elemental sulfur from various SO.sub.2 -containing industrial gas streams. The catalytic process provides high activity and selectivity, as well as stability in the reaction atmosphere, for the reduction of SO.sub.2 to elemental sulfur product with carbon monoxide or other reducing gases. The reaction of sulfur dioxide and reducing gas takes place over a metal oxide composite catalyst having one of the following empirical formulas: [(OF.sub.2).sub.1-n (RO.sub.1)n].sub.1-k M.sub.k, [(FO.sub.2).sub.1-n (RO.sub.1.5).sub.n ].sub.1-k M.sub.k, or [Ln.sub.x Zr.sub.1-x O.sub.2-0.5x ].sub.1-k M.sub.k wherein FO.sub.2 is a fluorite-type oxide; RO represents an alkaline earth oxide; RO.sub.1.5 is a Group IIIB or rare earth oxide; Ln is a rare earth element having an atomic number from 57 to 65 or mixtures thereof; M is a transition metal or a mixture of transition metals; n is a number having a value from 0.0 to 0.35; k is a number having a value from 0.0 to about 0.5; and x is a number having a value from about 0.45 to about 0.55.

  13. Electromagnetic Imaging of CO2 Sequestration at an Enhanced-Oil-Recovery Site

    SciTech Connect

    Kirkendall, B; Roberts, J

    2004-02-17

    The two year LDRD-ER-089 project Electromagnetic Imaging of CO{sub 2} Sequestration at an Enhanced-Oil-Recovery Site used a dual track approach to imaging and interpreting the effectiveness and migration of CO2 injection at an enhanced oil recovery site. Both field data and laboratory data were used together to aid in the interpretation and understanding of CO{sub 2} flow in a heavily fracture enhanced oil recovery site. In particular, project highlights include; {lg_bullet} The development of a low-noise digital field system to measure the EM induction response to CO{sub 2} in a variety of field conditions. Central to this system is a low-noise induction receiver antenna that can measure the low-energy response of the CO{sub 2}. This system has consistently measured a shallow pseudo-miscible CO{sub 2} flood at source frequencies between 2.0 kHz and 10 kHz. In addition, the existing and added oil and brine in the formation have also been characterized. {lg_bullet} Comparisons of cross-well images with induction logs acquired before drilling suggest the EM induction resolution for CO2 imaging is equivalent with applications to waterflood imaging completed at LLNL. {lg_bullet} The development and use of laboratory equipment to conduct fluid and gas time-lapsed injection studies of core samples using fluids acquired in the field. Measurements of the resistivity during this injection process and the ability to make instantaneous measurements of the frequency response provide a unique dataset for interpretation. {lg_bullet} The development of an optimum finite difference grid spacing that allows for stable inversions at different frequencies. {lg_bullet} The use of time-lapse field images to show the change of electrical conductivity in the field scales to the laboratory results. Using this result, we can approximate an interpretation of field images based on the rate-of-change of the laboratory results. {lg_bullet} The application of Q-domain processing is not

  14. Physicochemical technologies for enhanced oil recovery in deposits with difficult-to-recover reserves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Altunina, L. K.; Kuvshinov, V. A.; Kuvshinov, I. V.

    2016-11-01

    The results of laboratory and field tests as well as the commercial use of new physicochemical technologies intended to enhance oil recovery in deposits with difficult-to-recover reserves are presented. They are based on the concept of reservoir energy used to generate gels, sols, and surfactant compositions preserving a complex of properties in the reservoir which are optimal for oil displacement.

  15. 26 CFR 1.43-2 - Qualified enhanced oil recovery project.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... mechanism to force the oil to flow to a production well. The recovery methods described in paragraph (e)(3... production from a second set of wells (production wells); (B) Cyclic steam injection—The alternating injection of steam and production of oil with condensed steam from the same well or wells; and (C) In situ...

  16. The effect of ZnO nanoparticles on improved oil recovery in spontaneous imbibition mechanism of heavy oil production

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tajmiri, M.; Ehsani, M. R.; Mousavi, S. M.; Roayaei, E.; Emadi, A.

    2015-07-01

    Spontaneous imbibition (SI) gets a controversial subject in oil- wet carbonate reservoirs. The new concept of nanoparticles applications in an EOR area have been recently raised by researches about oil viscosity reduction and generate emulsion without surfactant. But a lot of questions have been remained about which nanoparticles can alter wettability from oil- wet to water- wet to improve oil recovery. This study introduces the new idea of adding ZnO nanoparticles (0.2%wt concentration) by experimental work on oil recovery. The main goals of this research were to prove that ZnO nanoparticles have the ability to reduce viscosity and also alter wettability. The ultimate objective was to determine the potential of these nanoparticles to imbibe into and displace oil. Through the use of Amott- cell, laboratory tests were conducted in two experiments on four cylindrical core samples (three sandstones and one carbonate) were taken from real Iranian heavy oil reservoir. In the first experiment, core samples were saturated by crude oil and in the second experiment, nanoparticles were flooding into core samples and then saturated by crude oil for about two weeks and after that they were immersed in distilled water and the amount of recovery was monitored during 30 days for both tests. We expected that ZnO nanoparticles decreased the surface tension which reduced the capillary forces through SI and wettability alteration took place towards a more water-wet system and caused the oil relative permeability to increase which dominated the gravitational forces to pull out the oil. Our results proved this expectation from ZnO nanoparticles clearly because carbonate core was oil- wet and the capillary pressure was high and negative to push water into the core so the original oil in place (OOIP) was zero whereas by adding ZnO nanoparticles OOIP was increased to 8.89%. SI yielded recovery values from 17.3, 2 and 15 without nanoparticles to 20.68, 17.57 and 36.2 % OOIP with

  17. Steam drive oil recovery method utilizing a downhole steam generator

    SciTech Connect

    Nopkins, D. N.; Snavely, E. S.

    1984-10-23

    Viscous oil is recovered from a subterranean, viscous oil-containing formation by a steam flooding technique wherein steam is generated in a downhole steam generator located in an injection well by spontaneous combustion of a pressurized mixture of a water-soluble fuel such as sugars and alcohols dissolved in water or a stable hydrocarbon fuel-in-water emulsion and substantially pure oxygen. The generated mixture of steam and combustion gases pass through the formation, displacing oil and reducing the oil's viscosity and the mobilized oil is produced from the formation via a spaced-apart production well.

  18. Microfluidic and micro-core methods for enhanced oil recovery and carbon storage applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nguyen, Phong

    Injection of CO2 into the subsurface, for both storage and oil recovery, is an emerging strategy to mitigate atmospheric CO2 emissions and associated climate change. In this thesis microfluidic and micro-core methods were developed to inform combined CO2-storage and oil recovery operations and determine relevant fluid properties. Pore scale studies of nanoparticle stabilized CO2-in-water foam and its application in oil recovery to show significant improvement in oil recovery rate with different oils from around the world (light, medium, and heavy). The CO2 nanoparticle-stabilized CO2 foams generate a three-fold increase in oil recovery (an additional 15% of initial oil in place) as compared to an otherwise similar CO2 gas flood. Nanoparticle-stabilized CO2 foam flooding also results in significantly smaller oil-in-water emulsion sizes. All three oils show substantial additional oil recovery and a positive reservoir homogenization effect. A supporting microfluidic approach is developed to quantify the minimum miscibility pressure (MMP) -- a critical parameter for combined CO 2 storage and enhanced oil recovery. The method leverages the inherent fluorescence of crude oils, is faster than conventional technologies, and provides quantitative, operator-independent measurements. In terms of speed, a pressure scan for a single minimum miscibility pressure measurement required less than 30 min, in stark contrast to days or weeks with existing rising bubble and slimtube methods. In practice, subsurface geology also interacts with injected CO 2. Commonly carbonate dissolution results in pore structure, porosity, and permeability changes. These changes are measured by x-ray microtomography (micro-CT), liquid permeability measurements, and chemical analysis. Chemical composition of the produced liquid analyzed by inductively coupled plasma-atomic emission spectrometer (ICP-AES) shows concentrations of magnesium and calcium. This work leverages established advantages of

  19. Production of lipopeptide biosurfactants by Bacillus atrophaeus 5-2a and their potential use in microbial enhanced oil recovery.

    PubMed