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Sample records for oil ricinus communis

  1. Essential oil of the leaves of Ricinus communis L.: in vitro cytotoxicity and antimicrobial properties.

    PubMed

    Zarai, Zied; Ben Chobba, Ines; Ben Mansour, Riadh; Békir, Ahmed; Gharsallah, Néji; Kadri, Adel

    2012-08-13

    The aim of the present study was to appraise the antimicrobial activity of Ricinus communis L. essential oil against different pathogenic microorganisms and the cytotoxic activity against HeLa cell lines. The agar disk diffusion method was used to study the antibacterial activity of Ricinus communis L. essential oil against 12 bacterial and 4 fungi strains. The disc diameters of zone of inhibition (DD), the minimum inhibitory concentrations (MIC) and the concentration inhibiting 50% (IC50) were investigated to characterize the antimicrobial activities of this essential oil. The in vitro cytotoxicity of Ricinus communis L. essential oil was examined using a modified MTT assay; the viability and the IC50 were used to evaluate this test. The essential oil from the leaves of Ricinus communis L. was analyzed by GC-MS and bioassays were carried out. Five constituents of the oil were identified by GC-MS. The antimicrobial activity of the oil was investigated in order to evaluate its efficacy against twelve bacteria and four fungi species, using disc diffusion and minimum inhibitory concentration methods. The essential oil showed strong antimicrobial activity against all microorganisms tested with higher sensitivity for Bacillus subtilis, Staphylococcus aureus and Enterobacter cloacae. The cytotoxic and apoptotic effects of the essential oil on HeLa cell lines were examined by MTT assay. The cytotoxicity of the oil was quite strong with IC50 values less than 2.63 mg/ml for both cell lines. The present study showed the potential antimicrobial and anticarcinogenic properties of the essential oil of Ricinus communis L., indicating the possibilities of its potential use in the formula of natural remedies for the topical treatment of infections.

  2. Essential oil of the leaves of Ricinus communis L.: In vitro cytotoxicity and antimicrobial properties

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background The aim of the present study was to appraise the antimicrobial activity of Ricinus communis L. essential oil against different pathogenic microorganisms and the cytotoxic activity against HeLa cell lines. Methods The agar disk diffusion method was used to study the antibacterial activity of Ricinus communis L. essential oil against 12 bacterial and 4 fungi strains. The disc diameters of zone of inhibition (DD), the minimum inhibitory concentrations (MIC) and the concentration inhibiting 50% (IC50) were investigated to characterize the antimicrobial activities of this essential oil. The in vitro cytotoxicity of Ricinus communis L. essential oil was examined using a modified MTT assay; the viability and the IC50 were used to evaluate this test. Results The essential oil from the leaves of Ricinus communis L. was analyzed by GC–MS and bioassays were carried out. Five constituents of the oil were identified by GC–MS. The antimicrobial activity of the oil was investigated in order to evaluate its efficacy against twelve bacteria and four fungi species, using disc diffusion and minimum inhibitory concentration methods. The essential oil showed strong antimicrobial activity against all microorganisms tested with higher sensitivity for Bacillus subtilis, Staphylococcus aureus and Enterobacter cloacae. The cytotoxic and apoptotic effects of the essential oil on HeLa cell lines were examined by MTT assay. The cytotoxicity of the oil was quite strong with IC50 values less than 2.63 mg/ml for both cell lines. Conclusion The present study showed the potential antimicrobial and anticarcinogenic properties of the essential oil of Ricinus communis L., indicating the possibilities of its potential use in the formula of natural remedies for the topical treatment of infections. PMID:22888805

  3. Effects of Ricinus communis oil esters on salivary glands of Rhipicephalus sanguineus (Latreille, 1806) (Acari: Ixodidae).

    PubMed

    Arnosti, André; Brienza, Paula Desjardins; Furquim, Karim Christina Scopinho; Chierice, Gilberto Orivaldo; Neto, Salvador Claro; Bechara, Gervásio Henrique; Sampieri, Bruno Rodrigues; Camargo-Mathias, Maria Izabel

    2011-02-01

    This study showed the interference of esters extracted from Ricinus communis in the secretory cycle of salivary glands of Rhipicephalus sanguineus ticks, which consequently caused collateral effects on their feeding process. Ticks attached on hosts which were fed with commercial feed containing different concentrations of R. communis oil esters suffered damages such as cytoplasmic changes in their salivary glands, notably in the acinar cells, impairing the functioning of the acini and accelerating the organs degeneration as a whole. It was found that esters interfered with the activity of cellular secretion by changing the glycoprotein of salivary composition especially in acini II cells. It was also shown that the damages caused by esters in the salivary glands cells of these ectoparasites increased in higher concentrations of the product and degenerative glandular changes were more pronounced.

  4. Ricinus communis and Jatropha curcas (Euphorbiaceae) seed oil toxicity against Atta sexdens rubropilosa (Hymenoptera: Formicidae).

    PubMed

    Alonso, E C; Santos, D Y A C

    2013-04-01

    Leaf-cutting ants are the main herbivores in the New World tropics. Although the toxicity of seed oils against these ants has been poorly investigated, previous results revealed that seed oils exert considerable toxic activity against these insects. This paper analyzes the toxic action and deterrent properties of castor oil, Ricinus communis L., and physic nut oil, Jatropha curcas L., against workers of the leaf-cutting ant Atta sexdens rubropilosa reared in laboratory. Toxic effect was analyzed by feeding insects artificial diets supplemented with different oil concentrations and direct contact with the two oils. Deterrent activity was assessed by measuring the frequency of attendance to diets during the first 48 h of the ingestion bioassay. Castor oil at 10 and 30 mg/ml and physic nut oil at 5, 10, and 30 mg/ml were toxic by ingestion. In the direct contact bioassay, toxicity was observed for physic nut oil at 0.1 and 0.2 mg/ml, whereas castor oil exerted toxic effects only when the highest concentration was applied. Also, castor oil had a more pronounced deterrent effect against the leaf-cutting ant, compared with physic nut oil. Methods to apply these oils to control these insects are discussed.

  5. Potential of castor bean (Ricinus communis L.) for phytoremediation of mine tailings and oil production.

    PubMed

    Ruiz Olivares, Alejandro; Carrillo-González, Rogelio; González-Chávez, Ma del Carmen A; Soto Hernández, Ramón Marcos

    2013-01-15

    Bioenergy production combined with phytoremediation has been suggested to help in solving two critical world problems: the gradual reduction of fossil fuels and soil contamination. The aim of this research was to investigate the potential for the use of Ricinus communis L. (castor oil plant) as an energy crop and plant species to remediate metal-polluted sites. This study was performed in mine tailings containing high concentrations of Cu, Zn, Mn, Pb and Cd. Physico-chemical characterization, total, DTPA-extractable and water-soluble metals in rhizospheric tailings heap samples were carried. Metal concentrations in plant tissues and translocation factors (TFs) were also determined. The Ricinus seed-oil content was high between 41 and 64%, seeds from San Francisco site 6 had the highest oil content, while these from site 7 had the lowest. No trend between oil yield vs seed origin site was observed. Seed-oil content was negatively correlated with root concentration of Cu, Zn, Pb and Cd, but no correlation was observed with the extractable-metals. According to its shoot metal concentrations and TFs, castor bean is not a metal accumulator plant. This primary colonizing plant is well suited to cope with the local toxic conditions and can be useful for the stabilization of these residues, and for then decreasing metal bioavailability, dispersion and human health risks on these barren tailings heaps and in the surrounding area. Our work is the first report regarding combined oil production and a phytostabilization role for Ricinus plants in metal mine tailings and may give a new value to suitable metal-polluted areas.

  6. Isotope labeling-based quantitative proteomics of developing seeds of castor oil seed (Ricinus communis L.).

    PubMed

    Nogueira, Fábio C S; Palmisano, Giuseppe; Schwämmle, Veit; Soares, Emanuela L; Soares, Arlete A; Roepstorff, Peter; Domont, Gilberto B; Campos, Francisco A P

    2013-11-01

    In this study, we used a mass spectrometry-based quantification approach employing isotopic (ICPL) and isobaric (iTRAQ) labeling to investigate the pattern of protein deposition during castor oil seed (Ricinus communis L.) development, including that of proteins involved in fatty acid metabolism, seed-storage proteins (SSPs), toxins, and allergens. Additionally, we have used off-line hydrophilic interaction chromatography (HILIC) as a step of peptide fractionation preceding the reverse-phase nanoLC coupled to a LTQ Orbitrap. We were able to identify a total of 1875 proteins, and from these 1748 could be mapped to extant castor gene models, considerably expanding the number of proteins so far identified from developing castor seeds. Cluster validation and statistical analysis resulted in 975 protein trend patterns and the relative abundance of 618 proteins. The results presented in this work give important insights into certain aspects of the biology of castor oil seed development such as carbon flow, anabolism, and catabolism of fatty acid and the pattern of deposition of SSPs, toxins, and allergens such as ricin and 2S albumins. We also found, for the first time, some genes of SSP that are differentially expressed during seed development.

  7. Genotyping and Bioforensics of Ricinus communis

    SciTech Connect

    Hinckley, Aubree Christine

    2006-01-01

    The castor bean plant (Ricinus communis) is a member of the family Euphorbiaceae. In spite of its common name, the castor plant is not a true bean (i.e., leguminous plants belonging to the family, Fabaceae). Ricinus communis is native to tropical Africa, but because the plant was recognized for its production of oil with many desirable properties, it has been introduced and cultivated in warm temperate regions throughout the world (Armstrong 1999 and Brown 2005). Castor bean plants have also been valued by gardeners as an ornamental plant and, historically, as a natural rodenticide. Today, escaped plants grow like weeds throughout much of the southwestern United States, and castor seeds are even widely available to the public for order through the Internet. In this study, multiple loci of chloroplast noncoding sequence data and a few nuclear noncoding regions were examined to identify DNA polymorphisms present among representatives from a geographically diverse panel of Ricinus communis cultivated varieties. The primary objectives for this research were (1) to successfully cultivate castor plants and extract sufficient yields of high quality DNA from an assortment of castor cultivated varieties, (2) to use PCR and sequencing to screen available universal oligos against a small panel of castor cultivars, (3) to identify DNA polymorphisms within the amplified regions, and (4) to evaluate these DNA polymorphisms as appropriate candidates for assay development (see Figure 1). Additional goals were to design, test and optimize assays targeting any DNA polymorphisms that were discovered and to rapidly screen many castor cultivars to determine the amount of diversity present at that particular locus. Ultimately, the goal of this study was to construct a phylogeographic tree representing the genetic relationships present among Ricinus communis cultivars from diverse geographic regions. These research objectives were designed to test the hypothesis that cultivated varieties

  8. Castor (Ricinus communis L.)

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The castor plant has been cultivated for thousands of years, providing a useful source of medicine, lamp fuel and lubricant long before petroleum came into wide use. The oil content of castor seed ranges from 45 to 60%, with most cultivars closer to 50% oil content. The presence of the hydroxy fatty...

  9. Draft genome sequence of the oilseed species Ricinus communis

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Castor bean (Ricinus communis) is an oil crop that belongs to the spurge (Euphorbiaceae) family. Its seeds are the source of castor oil, used for the production of high-quality lubricants due to its high proportion of the unusual fatty acid ricinoleic acid. Castor bean seeds also produce ricin, a hi...

  10. BONE REGENERATION AFTER DEMINERALIZED BONE MATRIX AND CASTOR OIL (RICINUS COMMUNIS) POLYURETHANE IMPLANTATION

    PubMed Central

    Leite, Fábio Renato Manzolli; Ramalho, Lizeti Toledo de Oliveira

    2008-01-01

    Innocuous biocompatible materials have been searched to repair or reconstruct bone defects. Their goal is to restore the function of live or dead tissues. This study compared connective tissue and bone reaction when exposed to demineralized bovine bone matrix and a polyurethane resin derived from castor bean (Ricinus communis). Forty-five rats were assigned to 3 groups of 15 animals (control, bovine bone and polyurethane). A cylindrical defect was created on mandible base and filled with bovine bone matrix and the polyurethane. Control group received no treatment. Analyses were performed after 15, 45 and 60 days (5 animals each). Histological analysis revealed connective tissue tolerance to bovine bone with local inflammatory response similar to that of the control group. After 15 days, all groups demonstrated similar outcomes, with mild inflammatory reaction, probably due to the surgical procedure rather than to the material. In the polymer group, after 60 days, scarce multinucleated cells could still be observed. In general, all groups showed good stability and osteogenic connective tissue with blood vessels into the surgical area. The results suggest biocompatibility of both materials, seen by their integration into rat mandible. Moreover, the polyurethane seems to be an alternative in bone reconstruction and it is an inexhaustible source of biomaterial. PMID:19089203

  11. Bone regeneration after demineralized bone matrix and castor oil (Ricinus communis) polyurethane implantation.

    PubMed

    Leite, Fábio Renato Manzolli; Ramalho, Lizeti Toledo de Oliveira

    2008-01-01

    Innocuous biocompatible materials have been searched to repair or reconstruct bone defects. Their goal is to restore the function of live or dead tissues. This study compared connective tissue and bone reaction when exposed to demineralized bovine bone matrix and a polyurethane resin derived from castor bean (Ricinus communis). Forty-five rats were assigned to 3 groups of 15 animals (control, bovine bone and polyurethane). A cylindrical defect was created on mandible base and filled with bovine bone matrix and the polyurethane. Control group received no treatment. Analyses were performed after 15, 45 and 60 days (5 animals each). Histological analysis revealed connective tissue tolerance to bovine bone with local inflammatory response similar to that of the control group. After 15 days, all groups demonstrated similar outcomes, with mild inflammatory reaction, probably due to the surgical procedure rather than to the material. In the polymer group, after 60 days, scarce multinucleated cells could still be observed. In general, all groups showed good stability and osteogenic connective tissue with blood vessels into the surgical area. The results suggest biocompatibility of both materials, seen by their integration into rat mandible. Moreover, the polyurethane seems to be an alternative in bone reconstruction and it is an inexhaustible source of biomaterial.

  12. Effects of Ricinus communis, Brassica nigra and mineral oil Kemesol on some biochemical aspects of larvae stage of Spodoptera littoralis (Boisd) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae).

    PubMed

    Khatter, Najat A; Abuldahb, Faten F

    2010-04-01

    The third instars larvae of Spodotera littoralis were topically treated with two plant oils, Ricinus communis and Brassica nigra and one mineral oil, Kemesol 95% dissolved in petroleum ether and acetone at concentrations of 0.8, 1.6, 2.0, 3.0 & 4 %. The results revealed that the mean values of the total haemolymph and fat body protein was reduced in larvae treated with B. nigra and Kemesol 95%. A significant decrease was observed in haemolymph and fat body protein contents in larvae treated with all tested compound, the remarked decrease was noticed at the highest dose (4%) in both two solvents.

  13. Effects of ricinoleic acid esters from castor oil of Ricinus communis on the vitellogenesis of Rhipicephalus sanguineus (Latreille, 1806) (Acari: Ixodidae) ticks.

    PubMed

    Arnosti, André; Brienza, Paula Desjardins; Furquim, Karim Christina Scopinho; Chierice, Gilberto Orivaldo; Bechara, Gervásio Henrique; Calligaris, Izabela Braggião; Camargo-Mathias, Maria Izabel

    2011-02-01

    This study examines the effects of ricinoleic acid esters from Ricinus communis castor oil on the vitellogenesis of Rhipicephalus sanguineus ticks attached to hosts that were fed with commercial rabbit food containing these esters. The oocytes of ticks from the treatment group (TG) showed cytoplasmic changes that inhibited the development of oocytes I and II to the advanced stages (IV and V) in addition to preventing the maturation of oocytes V, resulting in small ones. In addition, sperm was not observed in ampoules. Our findings confirm the acaricide potential of ricinoleic acid esters. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Generational reproductive outcomes in Wistar rats maternally exposed to Ricinus communis oil at different stages of gestation.

    PubMed

    Salami, S A; Raji, Y

    2015-10-01

    Fetal programming hypothesis presupposes that stimulus or insult acting during critical periods of uterine growth and development may permanently alter tissue structure and function. Ricinus communis oil (RCO) has been reported to possess/used as laxative, labor-inducing and estrogenic properties. Generational reproductive effects of maternal exposure to RCO was investigated in rats. A total of 25 pregnant rats randomly assigned to five equal groups were treated with distilled water (control, group 1), RCO (950 mg/kg p.o.) during gestation days (GD) 1-7, 7-14, 14-21 and 1-21, respectively. Birth weight, morphometric data, anogenital distance (AGD), pubertal age, sperm parameters, hormonal profile, organ weight and histopathology were determined in the first (F1) and second (F2) filial generations. Results showed a significant decrease (P<0.05) in birth weight/morphometric data in male pups from the GD 1-7 and 7-14 groups. AGD decreased significantly in RCO-treated F1 males. Pubertal age of F1 females decreased significantly (P<0.05) compared with controls. At postnatal day 90, F1 males from the RCO-treated group showed significant decrease in testis weight, body weight, sperm count, motility and normal morphology. Testosterone levels were significantly decreased in RCO-treated F1 males, which also showed testicular interstitial edema and epididymal hypospermia. Only pubertal indexes were altered in F2 rats. Maternal exposure to RCO at early gestation periods impaired androgen-mediated reproductive end points in the first generation of rats. RCO exhibits endocrine disrupting capabilities.

  15. Cadmium tolerance and its phytoremediation by two oil yielding plants Ricinus communis (L.) and Brassica juncea (L.) from the contaminated soil.

    PubMed

    Bauddh, Kuldeep; Singh, Rana P

    2012-09-01

    The effect of increasing level of cadmium in soil was investigated on biomass production, antioxidants, Cd bioaccumulation and translocation in Ricinus communis vis-à-vis a commonly studied oil crop Brassica juncea. The plants were exposed to 25, 50, 75, 100, and 150 mg Cd/Kg soil for up to 60 days. It was found that R. communis produced higher biomass at all the contamination levels than that of B. juncea. Proline and malondialdehyde in the leaves increased with increase in Cd level in both the species, whereas soluble protein decreased. The bioaccumulation of Cd was higher in B. juncea on the basis of the per unit biomass, total metal accumulation per plant was higher in R. communis. The translocation of Cdfrom roots to shoot was also higher in B. juncea at all Cd concentrations. R. communis appeared more tolerant and capable to clean Cd contaminated soil for longer period in one sowing than B. juncea and the former can grow in wasteland soil also in which later cannot be cultivated.

  16. Antibody interactions with Ricinus communis agglutinins studied by biolayer interferometry

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Two related agglutinins are present in the seeds of Ricinus communis (castor): ricin, a dichain ribosome-inactivating protein and Ricinus communis agglutinin-1 (RCA-1), a much less toxic hemagglutinin. Because ricin has been used for experimental cancer chemotherapy as well as for intentional poison...

  17. Antinociceptive activity of Ricinus communis L. leaves

    PubMed Central

    Taur, Dnyaneshwar J; Waghmare, Maruti G; Bandal, Rajendra S; Patil, Ravindra Y

    2011-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the antinociceptive activity of the methanol extract of Ricinus communis leaves (MRCL). Methods Antinociceptive activity was evaluated using acetic acid induced writhing test, formalin induced paw licking and tail immersion method in mice at doses of 100, 125 and 150 mg/kg bw. Results The results indicated that MRCL exhibited considerable antinociceptive activity against three classical models of pain in mice. Preliminary phytochemical analysis suggested the presence of saponin, steroids and alkaloids. Conclusions It can be concluded that MRCL possesses antinociceptive potential that may be due to saponin, steroids and alkaloids in it. PMID:23569744

  18. Antinociceptive activity of Ricinus communis L. leaves.

    PubMed

    Taur, Dnyaneshwar J; Waghmare, Maruti G; Bandal, Rajendra S; Patil, Ravindra Y

    2011-04-01

    To evaluate the antinociceptive activity of the methanol extract of Ricinus communis leaves (MRCL). Antinociceptive activity was evaluated using acetic acid induced writhing test, formalin induced paw licking and tail immersion method in mice at doses of 100, 125 and 150 mg/kg bw. The results indicated that MRCL exhibited considerable antinociceptive activity against three classical models of pain in mice. Preliminary phytochemical analysis suggested the presence of saponin, steroids and alkaloids. It can be concluded that MRCL possesses antinociceptive potential that may be due to saponin, steroids and alkaloids in it.

  19. Rhipicephalus sanguineus (Acari: Ixodidae) female ticks exposed to castor oil (Ricinus communis): an ultrastructural overview.

    PubMed

    Sampieri, B R; Furquim, K C S; Nunes, P H; Camargo-Mathias, M I

    2013-02-01

    Tick control has been accomplished through the use of synthetic acaricides, which has created resistant individuals, as well as contaminating the environment and nontarget organisms. Substances of plant origin, such as oils and extracts of eucalyptus and neem leaves, have been researched as an alternative to replace the synthetic acaricides. Ricinoleic acid esters from castor oil have recently been shown as a promising alternative in eliminating bacterial contamination during ethanol fermentation, by acting as an effective biocide. The same positive results have been observed when these esters are added to the food given to tick-infested rabbits. This study tested the effect of these substance on the reproductive system of Rhipicephalus sanguineus females, added to rabbit food, more specifically on oogenesis. For this, four groups were established: four control groups (CG1, CG2, CG3, and CG4) and four treatment groups (TG1, TG2, TG3, and TG4) with one rabbit in each (New Zealand White), used as hosts. After full 4 days feeding (semi-engorgement), the females were collected and had their ovaries extracted. In this study, it was observed that R. sanguineus females exposed to esters had their ovaries modified, which was demonstrated through transmission electron microscopy techniques. The addition of ricinoleic esters to the diet of tick-infested rabbits revealed how toxic such substances are for the cytoplasmic organelles of oocytes and pedicel cells. These compounds can change the morphophysiology of germ and somatic cells, consequently influencing their viability and, therefore, confirming that the ricinoleic acid esters from castor oil are a promising substance in the control of R. sanguineus.

  20. Antifertility effects of Ricinus communis (Linn) on rats.

    PubMed

    Sandhyakumary, K; Bobby, R G; Indira, M

    2003-05-01

    The antifertility effects of 50% ethanol extracts of Ricinus communis have been studied in male rats. There was a drastic reduction in the epididymal sperm counts. Alteration in the motility, mode of movement and morphology of the sperms were observed. Reductions in the fructose and testosterone levels were suggestive of reduced reproductive performance. Reversibility tests showed that the antifertility effect of Ricinus communis was completely reversible on withdrawal of the drug. The ethanol extracts of Ricinus communis did not cause any hepatotoxicity since the hepatic GOT and GPT levels were unaltered.

  1. CastorDB: a comprehensive knowledge base for Ricinus communis

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Ricinus communis is an industrially important non-edible oil seed crop, native to tropical and subtropical regions of the world. Although, R. communis genome was assembled in 4X draft by JCVI, and is predicted to contain 31,221 proteins, the function of most of the genes remains to be elucidated. A large amount of information of different aspects of the biology of R. communis is available, but most of the data are scattered one not easily accessible. Therefore a comprehensive resource on Castor, Castor DB, is required to facilitate research on this important plant. Findings CastorDB is a specialized and comprehensive database for the oil seed plant R. communis, integrating information from several diverse resources. CastorDB contains information on gene and protein sequences, gene expression and gene ontology annotation of protein sequences obtained from a variety of repositories, as primary data. In addition, computational analysis was used to predict cellular localization, domains, pathways, protein-protein interactions, sumoylation sites and biochemical properties and has been included as derived data. This database has an intuitive user interface that prompts the user to explore various possible information resources available on a given gene or a protein. Conclusion CastorDB provides a user friendly comprehensive resource on castor with particular emphasis on its genome, transcriptome, and proteome and on protein domains, pathways, protein localization, presence of sumoylation sites, expression data and protein interacting partners. PMID:21914200

  2. Expression profile of the genes involved in reserve synthesis in castor (Ricinus communis L.)

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Oil derived from the seed of castor (Ricinus communis L.) contains 90% ricinoleate (12-hydroxy-oleate) and has numerous industrial uses. Despite its economic importance, the production of castor oil is hampered by the presence of detrimental seed storage proteins, the toxin ricin and hyper-allergeni...

  3. Seed Development in Castor (Ricinus communis L.): Morphology, Reserve Synthesis and Gene Expression

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Castor (Ricinus communis L.) is a non-eatable oilseed crop producing seed oil comprising 90% ricinoleate (12-hydroxy-oleate) which has numerous industrial uses. However, the production of castor oil is hampered by the presence of noxious seed storage proteins, the toxin ricin and hyper-allergenic 2S...

  4. Draft genome sequence of the oilseed species Ricinus communis.

    PubMed

    Chan, Agnes P; Crabtree, Jonathan; Zhao, Qi; Lorenzi, Hernan; Orvis, Joshua; Puiu, Daniela; Melake-Berhan, Admasu; Jones, Kristine M; Redman, Julia; Chen, Grace; Cahoon, Edgar B; Gedil, Melaku; Stanke, Mario; Haas, Brian J; Wortman, Jennifer R; Fraser-Liggett, Claire M; Ravel, Jacques; Rabinowicz, Pablo D

    2010-09-01

    Castor bean (Ricinus communis) is an oilseed crop that belongs to the spurge (Euphorbiaceae) family, which comprises approximately 6,300 species that include cassava (Manihot esculenta), rubber tree (Hevea brasiliensis) and physic nut (Jatropha curcas). It is primarily of economic interest as a source of castor oil, used for the production of high-quality lubricants because of its high proportion of the unusual fatty acid ricinoleic acid. However, castor bean genomics is also relevant to biosecurity as the seeds contain high levels of ricin, a highly toxic, ribosome-inactivating protein. Here we report the draft genome sequence of castor bean (4.6-fold coverage), the first for a member of the Euphorbiaceae. Whereas most of the key genes involved in oil synthesis and turnover are single copy, the number of members of the ricin gene family is larger than previously thought. Comparative genomics analysis suggests the presence of an ancient hexaploidization event that is conserved across the dicotyledonous lineage.

  5. Ricinus communis L. (castor bean) as a potential candidate for revegetating industrial waste contaminated sites in peri-urban Greater Hyderabad: remarks on seed oil.

    PubMed

    Boda, Ravi Kiran; Majeti, Narasimha Vara Prasad; Suthari, Sateesh

    2017-07-09

    Ricinus communis L. (castor bean or castor oil plant) was found growing on metal-contaminated sites (4) of peri-urban Greater Hyderabad comprises of erstwhile industrial areas viz Bollaram, Patancheru, Bharatnagar, and Kattedan industrial areas. During 2013-2017, about 60 research papers have appeared focusing the role of castor bean in phytoremediation of co-contaminated soils, co-generation of biomaterials, and environmental cleanup, as bioenergy crop and sustainable development. The present study is focused on its use as a multipurpose phytoremediation crop for phytostabilization and revegetation of waste disposed peri-urban contaminated soils. To determine the plant tolerance level, metal accumulation, chlorophyll, protein, proline, lipid peroxidation, oil content, and soil properties were characterized. It was noticed that the castor plant and soils have high concentration of metals such as cadmium (Cd), lead (Pb), iron (Fe), manganese (Mn), and zinc (Zn). The soils have high phosphorous (P), adequate nitrogen (N), and low concentration of potassium (K). Iron (Fe) concentrations ranged from1672±50.91 to 2166±155.78 mg kg(-1) in the soil. The trend of metal accumulation Fe>Zn>Mn>Pb>Cd was found in different plant parts at polluted sites. The translocation of Cd and Pb showed values more than one in industrial areas viz Bollaram, Kattedan, and Bharatnagar indicating the plants resistance to metal toxicity. Chlorophyll and protein content reduced while proline and malondialdehyde increased due to its tolerance level under metal exposure. The content of ricinoleic acid was higher, and the fatty acids composition of polluted areas was almost similar to that of the control area. Thus, R. communis L. can be employed for reclamation of heavy metal contaminated soils.

  6. Structure and stability of Ricinus communis haemagglutinin.

    PubMed Central

    Frénoy, J P; Tran, A T; Bourrillon, R

    1986-01-01

    The molecular properties of the haemagglutinin of Ricinus communis (RCA I or RCA 120) were evaluated by analytical ultracentrifugation, light-scattering, c.d. and fluorescence. The native molecule had a fairly expanded structure (f/f0 = 1.43) and dissociated into two subunits of equal size in 6 M-guanidinium chloride. This native structure was stable in alkali (up to pH 11) and resistant to thermal denaturation at neutrality. A pH-triggered change in the haemagglutinin conformation was observed and characterized by analytical ultracentrifugation, c.d. and fluorescence between pH 7 and 4.5, the range in which its affinity for galactosides decreased [Yamasaki, Absar & Funatsu (1985) Biochim, Biophys. Acta 828, 155-161]. These results are discussed in relation to those reported in the literature for other lectins and more especially ricin, for which a pH-dependent conformation transition has been observed in the same range of low pH. PMID:3827842

  7. A Developmental Analysis of the Enolase Isozymes from Ricinus communis.

    PubMed

    Miernyk, J A; Dennis, D T

    1992-06-01

    Enolase activity was measured in clarified homogenates of various tissues during the life cycle of the castor oil plant (Ricinus communis L. cv Baker 296). The proportions of total activity due to the plastid and cytosolic isozymes were determined after separation by ion-exchange chromatography. The contribution of the plastid isozyme varied from more than 30% of the total at the midpoint of endosperm development to less than 1% in mature leaves and roots. During endosperm development, enolase activity increased to a peak coincident with the maximum rate of storage lipid accumulation, then decreased to nearly undetectable levels in the mature seed. Plastid enolase protein, measured using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, increased in parallel with the increase in activity but decreased less rapidly and was still easily detectable in mature seeds.

  8. Acetone Powder From Dormant Seeds of Ricinus communis L

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cavalcanti, Elisa D. C.; Maciel, Fábio M.; Villeneuve, Pierre; Lago, Regina C. A.; Machado, Olga L. T.; Freire, Denise M. G.

    The influence of several factors on the hydrolytic activity of lipase, present in the acetone powder from dormant castor seeds (Ricinus communis) was evaluated. The enzyme showed a marked specificity for short-chain substrates. The best reaction conditions were an acid medium, Triton X-100 as the emulsifying agent and a temperature of 30°C. The lipase activity of the acetone powder of different castor oil genotypes showed great variability and storage stability of up to 90%. The toxicology analysis of the acetone powder from genotype Nordestina BRS 149 showed a higher ricin (toxic component) content, a lower 2S albumin (allergenic compound) content, and similar allergenic potential compared with untreated seeds.

  9. Acyl-ACP thioesterases from castor (Ricinus communis L.): an enzymatic system appropriate for high rates of oil synthesis and accumulation.

    PubMed

    Sánchez-García, Alicia; Moreno-Pérez, Antonio J; Muro-Pastor, Alicia M; Salas, Joaquín J; Garcés, Rafael; Martínez-Force, Enrique

    2010-06-01

    Acyl-acyl carrier protein (ACP) thioesterases are enzymes that terminate the intraplastidial fatty acid synthesis in plants by hydrolyzing the acyl-ACP intermediates and releasing free fatty acids to be incorporated into glycerolipids. These enzymes are classified in two families, FatA and FatB, which differ in amino acid sequence and substrate specificity. In the present work, both FatA and FatB thioesterases were cloned, sequenced and characterized from castor (Ricinus communis) seeds, a crop of high interest in oleochemistry. Single copies of FatA and FatB were found in castor resulting to be closely related with those of Jatropha curcas. The corresponding mature proteins were heterologously expressed in Escherichia coli for biochemical characterization after purification, resulting in high catalytic efficiency of RcFatA on oleoyl-ACP and palmitoleoyl-ACP and high efficiencies of RcFatB for oleoyl-ACP and palmitoyl-ACP. The expression profile of these genes displayed the highest levels in expanding tissues that typically are very active in lipid biosynthesis such as developing seed endosperm and young expanding leaves. The contribution of these two enzymes to the synthesis of castor oil is discussed.

  10. IN VITRO REGENERATION CASTOR (RICINUS COMMUNIS L.) USING COTYLEDON EXPLANTS

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    A novel plant regeneration protocol was established for castor (Ricinus communis L.), an important oilseed crop. Mature seed-derived cotyledon explants produced adventitious shoots when placed on Murashige and Skoog (MS) medium containing thidiazuron (TDZ). The rate of shoot regeneration was maximal...

  11. Role of ethylene in the germination metabolism of ricinus communis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cristescu, Simona; Dumitras, Dan C.; Godeanu, Adriana

    1999-03-01

    A CO2 laser-based photoacoustic method has been used to monitor the ethylene (C2H4) released by castor bean (Ricinus communis) seeds during germination. The relationship between the evolution of the C2H4 germinating seeds and the respiration intensity is presented.

  12. Tissue-specific expression and post-translational modifications of plant- and bacterial-type phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase isozymes of the castor oil plant, Ricinus communis L.

    PubMed Central

    O’Leary, Brendan; Fedosejevs, Eric T.; Hill, Allyson T.; Bettridge, James; Park, Joonho; Rao, Srinath K.; Leach, Craig A.; Plaxton, William C.

    2011-01-01

    This study employs transcript profiling together with immunoblotting and co-immunopurification to assess the tissue-specific expression, protein:protein interactions, and post-translational modifications (PTMs) of plant- and bacterial-type phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase (PEPC) isozymes (PTPC and BTPC, respectively) in the castor plant, Ricinus communis. Previous studies established that the Class-1 PEPC (PTPC homotetramer) of castor oil seeds (COS) is activated by phosphorylation at Ser-11 and inhibited by monoubiquitination at Lys-628 during endosperm development and germination, respectively. Elimination of photosynthate supply to developing COS by depodding caused the PTPC of the endosperm and cotyledon to be dephosphorylated, and then subsequently monoubiquitinated in vivo. PTPC monoubiquitination rather than phosphorylation is widespread throughout the castor plant and appears to be the predominant PTM of Class-1 PEPC that occurs in planta. The distinctive developmental patterns of PTPC phosphorylation versus monoubiquitination indicates that these two PTMs are mutually exclusive. By contrast, the BTPC: (i) is abundant in the inner integument, cotyledon, and endosperm of developing COS, but occurs at low levels in roots and cotyledons of germinated COS, (ii) shows a unique developmental pattern in leaves such that it is present in leaf buds and young expanding leaves, but undetectable in fully expanded leaves, and (iii) tightly interacts with co-expressed PTPC to form the novel and allosterically-desensitized Class-2 PEPC heteromeric complex. BTPC and thus Class-2 PEPC up-regulation appears to be a distinctive feature of rapidly growing and/or biosynthetically active tissues that require a large anaplerotic flux from phosphoenolpyruvate to replenish tricarboxylic acid cycle C-skeletons being withdrawn for anabolism. PMID:21841182

  13. Tissue-specific expression and post-translational modifications of plant- and bacterial-type phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase isozymes of the castor oil plant, Ricinus communis L.

    PubMed

    O'Leary, Brendan; Fedosejevs, Eric T; Hill, Allyson T; Bettridge, James; Park, Joonho; Rao, Srinath K; Leach, Craig A; Plaxton, William C

    2011-11-01

    This study employs transcript profiling together with immunoblotting and co-immunopurification to assess the tissue-specific expression, protein:protein interactions, and post-translational modifications (PTMs) of plant- and bacterial-type phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase (PEPC) isozymes (PTPC and BTPC, respectively) in the castor plant, Ricinus communis. Previous studies established that the Class-1 PEPC (PTPC homotetramer) of castor oil seeds (COS) is activated by phosphorylation at Ser-11 and inhibited by monoubiquitination at Lys-628 during endosperm development and germination, respectively. Elimination of photosynthate supply to developing COS by depodding caused the PTPC of the endosperm and cotyledon to be dephosphorylated, and then subsequently monoubiquitinated in vivo. PTPC monoubiquitination rather than phosphorylation is widespread throughout the castor plant and appears to be the predominant PTM of Class-1 PEPC that occurs in planta. The distinctive developmental patterns of PTPC phosphorylation versus monoubiquitination indicates that these two PTMs are mutually exclusive. By contrast, the BTPC: (i) is abundant in the inner integument, cotyledon, and endosperm of developing COS, but occurs at low levels in roots and cotyledons of germinated COS, (ii) shows a unique developmental pattern in leaves such that it is present in leaf buds and young expanding leaves, but undetectable in fully expanded leaves, and (iii) tightly interacts with co-expressed PTPC to form the novel and allosterically-desensitized Class-2 PEPC heteromeric complex. BTPC and thus Class-2 PEPC up-regulation appears to be a distinctive feature of rapidly growing and/or biosynthetically active tissues that require a large anaplerotic flux from phosphoenolpyruvate to replenish tricarboxylic acid cycle C-skeletons being withdrawn for anabolism.

  14. Enolase isozymes from Ricinus communis: partial purification and characterization of the isozymes.

    PubMed

    Miernyk, J A; Dennis, D T

    1984-09-01

    The plastid and cytosolic isozymes of enolase from developing endosperm of castor oil seeds, Ricinus communis L. cv. Baker 296, were separated and partially purified. Each purified isozyme had a specific activity of approximately 200 mumol min-1 mg protein. The isozymes have similar pH optima for the forward reaction, but different optima for the reverse reaction. The divalent metal specificity is the same for both isozymes. In addition to differences in charge, the isozymes can be distinguished by their different kinetic constants, thermostability, and sensitivity to fluoride inhibition. Antibodies against yeast enolase isozyme I cross-react with Ricinus plastid enolase but not with the cytosolic isozyme.

  15. Discovery and Characterization of Novel Signatures from the Ricinus communis L. (Castor Bean) Genome

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-11-01

    DISCOVERY AND CHARACTERIZATION OF NOVEL SIGNATURES FROM THE RICINUS COMMUNIS (CASTOR BEAN) GENOME Kevin P. O’Connell* and Evan W. Skowronski...2006 2. REPORT TYPE N/A 3. DATES COVERED - 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Discovery And Characterization Of Novel Signatures From The Ricinus Communis ...fingerprints” of ricin genes, and knowledge about the overall genetic diversity of Ricinus communis varieties worldwide, are required to establish

  16. Ricinus communis intoxications in human and veterinary medicine-a summary of real cases.

    PubMed

    Worbs, Sylvia; Köhler, Kernt; Pauly, Diana; Avondet, Marc-André; Schaer, Martin; Dorner, Martin B; Dorner, Brigitte G

    2011-10-01

    Accidental and intended Ricinus communis intoxications in humans and animals have been known for centuries but the causative agent remained elusive until 1888 when Stillmark attributed the toxicity to the lectin ricin. Ricinus communis is grown worldwide on an industrial scale for the production of castor oil. As by-product in castor oil production ricin is mass produced above 1 million tons per year. On the basis of its availability, toxicity, ease of preparation and the current lack of medical countermeasures, ricin has gained attention as potential biological warfare agent. The seeds also contain the less toxic, but highly homologous Ricinus communis agglutinin and the alkaloid ricinine, and especially the latter can be used to track intoxications. After oil extraction and detoxification, the defatted press cake is used as organic fertilizer and as low-value feed. In this context there have been sporadic reports from different countries describing animal intoxications after uptake of obviously insufficiently detoxified fertilizer. Observations in Germany over several years, however, have led us to speculate that the detoxification process is not always performed thoroughly and controlled, calling for international regulations which clearly state a ricin threshold in fertilizer. In this review we summarize knowledge on intended and unintended poisoning with ricin or castor seeds both in humans and animals, with a particular emphasis on intoxications due to improperly detoxified castor bean meal and forensic analysis.

  17. Ricinus communis Intoxications in Human and Veterinary Medicine-A Summary of Real Cases

    PubMed Central

    Worbs, Sylvia; Köhler, Kernt; Pauly, Diana; Avondet, Marc-André; Schaer, Martin; Dorner, Martin B.; Dorner, Brigitte G.

    2011-01-01

    Accidental and intended Ricinus communis intoxications in humans and animals have been known for centuries but the causative agent remained elusive until 1888 when Stillmark attributed the toxicity to the lectin ricin. Ricinus communis is grown worldwide on an industrial scale for the production of castor oil. As by-product in castor oil production ricin is mass produced above 1 million tons per year. On the basis of its availability, toxicity, ease of preparation and the current lack of medical countermeasures, ricin has gained attention as potential biological warfare agent. The seeds also contain the less toxic, but highly homologous Ricinus communis agglutinin and the alkaloid ricinine, and especially the latter can be used to track intoxications. After oil extraction and detoxification, the defatted press cake is used as organic fertilizer and as low-value feed. In this context there have been sporadic reports from different countries describing animal intoxications after uptake of obviously insufficiently detoxified fertilizer. Observations in Germany over several years, however, have led us to speculate that the detoxification process is not always performed thoroughly and controlled, calling for international regulations which clearly state a ricin threshold in fertilizer. In this review we summarize knowledge on intended and unintended poisoning with ricin or castor seeds both in humans and animals, with a particular emphasis on intoxications due to improperly detoxified castor bean meal and forensic analysis. PMID:22069699

  18. Characterization of ricin toxin family members from Ricinus communis.

    PubMed

    Leshin, Jonathan; Danielsen, Mark; Credle, Joel J; Weeks, Andrea; O'Connell, Kevin P; Dretchen, Kenneth

    2010-01-01

    Ricin inhibits translation by removal of a specific adenine from 28S RNA. The Ricinus communis genome encodes seven full-length ricin family members. All encoded proteins have the ability of hydrolyzing adenine in 28S rRNA. As expected, these proteins also inhibited an in vitro transcription/translation system. These data show that the ricin gene family contains at least seven members that have the ability to inhibit translation and that may contribute to the toxicity of R. communis. Copyright 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Identification of acylglycerols containing dihydroxy fatty acids in castor (Ricinus communis L.)oil by mass spectrometry

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Ricinoleate, a monohydroxy fatty acid, in castor oil has many industrial uses. Dihydroxy fatty acids can also be used in industry. The C18 HPLC fractions of castor oil were used for mass spectrometry to identify the acylglycerols containing dihydroxy fatty acids. Four diacylglycerols identified were...

  20. Analysis of castor by ELISAs that distinguish Ricin and Ricinus communis agglutinin (RCA)

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    To facilitate the analysis of castor (Ricinus communis L.) seed fractions and germplasm for ricin content, we investigated the use of enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) methods to differentiate between ricin toxin and the related Ricinus communis agglutinin (RCA). Both proteins are based on ...

  1. In vitro antimicrobial activity of an experimental dentifrice based on Ricinus communis.

    PubMed

    Leite, Vanessa Maria Fagundes; Pinheiro, Juliana Barchelli; Pisani, Marina Xavier; Watanabe, Evandro; de Souza, Raphael Freitas; Paranhos, Helena de Freitas Oliveira; Lovato-Silva, Cláudia Helena

    2014-01-01

    This study evaluated the antimicrobial activity of a Ricinus communis-based experimental dentifrice for denture hygiene against the following standard strains: Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, Streptococcus mutans, Enterococcus faecalis, Candida albicans and Candida glabrata. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) assay was performed with R. communis in pure oil at 2.5%. Only E. coli was not inhibited by R. communis, but the MIC (0.0781%) was effective against the other microorganisms. From these results it was determined the R. communis concentrations for experimental dentifrices, 1, 2, 5 and 10%, which were evaluated by the test-well diffusion in agar. The commercial dentifrices Colgate, Trihydral and Corega Brite were tested for comparative purposes. The diameter of the zones of bacterial growth inhibition produced around the wells was measured (in mm) with a rule under reflected light. Data were analyzed statistically by analysis of variance and Tukey's post-hoc test (α=0.05). Neither the commercial nor the experimental dentifrices were effective against E. coli. The experimental dentifrices containing R. communis at 2, 5 and 10% presented action against S. mutans, S. aureaus and E. faecallis. The experimental dentifrices showed no antimicrobial activity against Candida spp. and E. coli in any of the tested concentrations. Trihydral was the most effective. Comparing the experimental dentifrices, the product with 10% R. communis produced the largest zones of bacterial growth inhibition and had similar antimicrobial activity to the commercial dentifrices, except against S. aureus.

  2. [Control effects of Ricinus communis extracts on Meloidogyne incognita].

    PubMed

    Gao, Qian-Yuan; Hu, Fei-Long; Zhu, Hong-Hong; Liu, Man-Qiang; Li, Hui-Xin; Hu, Feng

    2011-11-01

    Toxicity test and pot experiment were conducted to study the nematocidal activity and control effects of Ricinus communis extracts on Meloidogyne incognita. The results showed that both the ricinine and the R. communis water extracts had high nematocidal activity. The ricinine at concentration 2 g x L(-1) and treated for 48 hours had the strongest nematocidal activity, leading to 91.5% of corrected mortality of M. incognita and with the LC50 being 0.6 g x L(-1), whereas the R. communis water extracts at concentration 100 g x L(-1) and treated for 48 hours had the strongest nematocidal activity, which led to 83.5% of corrected mortality of M. incognita, and the LC50 was 18.3 g x L(-1). With the inoculation of M. incognita treated with ricinine, R. communis water extracts, and R. communis leaf powder, respectively, on tomato seedlings, the mean number of plant root-knots was 17.6 +/- 1.7, 20.6 +/- 1.5 and 22.8 +/- 3.7, respectively, being significantly lower than the control (37.4 +/- 2.3), and the root length increased by 46.8%, 34.5% and 33.8%, and the plant height increased by 33.5%, 22.6% and 15.8%, and the fresh mass increased by 41.4%, 18.9% and 10.1%, respectively, compared with the control. All the results suggested that R. communis extracts could mitigate the harm of M. incognita, and had obvious effects on potted tomato against M. incognita.

  3. Ricinus communis treatment of denture stomatitis in institutionalised elderly.

    PubMed

    Pinelli, L A P; Montandon, A A B; Corbi, S C T; Moraes, T A; Fais, L M G

    2013-05-01

    This study compared the effectiveness of Ricinus communis (RC) with Nystatin (NYS) and Miconazole (MIC) in the treatment of institutionalised elderly with denture stomatitis (DS). They (n = 30) were randomly distributed into three groups: MIC, NYS or RC. Clinical and mycological evaluations were performed prior to the use of the antifungal (baseline) and repeated after 15 and 30 days of treatment. The sample was clinically examined for oral mucosal conditions. Standard photographs were taken of the palate, and the oral candidiasis was classified (Newton's criteria). Mycological investigation was performed by swabbing the palatal mucosa, and Candida spp. were quantified by counting the number of colony-forming units (cfu mL⁻¹). The clinical and mycological data were analysed, respectively by Wilcoxon and Student's t-test (α = 0.05). Significant improvement in the clinical appearance of DS in the MIC and RC groups was observed between the 1st and 3rd collections (MIC - P = 0.018; RC - P = 0.011) as well as between the 2nd and 3rd collections (MIC - P = 0.018; RC - P = 0.011). Neither groups showed a statistically significant reduction in cfu mL⁻¹ at any time. Although none of the treatments decreased the cfu mL⁻¹, it was concluded that Ricinus communis can improve the clinical condition of denture stomatitis in institutionalised elderly patients, showing similar results to Miconazole. © 2013 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  4. Castor bean (Ricinus communis L.) as a potential environmental bioindicator.

    PubMed

    Mendes, M G; Santos Junior, C D; Dias, A C C; Bonetti, A M

    2015-10-21

    Biomonitoring of air quality using living organisms is a very interesting approach to environmental impact assessment. Organisms with a vast distribution, such as plants, are widely used for these purposes. The castor bean (Ricinus communis L.) is an oleaginous plant that can potentially be used as a bioindicator plant owing to its rapid growth and large leaves, which have a wide surface area of contact with the air and the pollutants therein. This study investigated the the bioindicator potential of the castor bean by performing several tests. We observed statistically significant differences in the concentrations of chlorophyll a and b in the leaves of plants in polluted areas compared to that in the control group plants, which were located in a pollution-free area. Leaves of plants in the former group had higher peroxidase activity and showed a greater buffering ability than those of plants in the control group. The pKa values obtained via buffering capacity tests, revealed the presence of aminoazobenzene (an industrial dye) in leaves of R. communis. Genotoxicity was evaluated through the comet assay technique and revealed that other than some differences in DNA fragmentation, there is no statistically significant difference in this parameter between places analyzed. Our data indicate that R. communis can be a highly useful biological indicator. Further, we hypothesized that the castor bean can be a potential candidate for phytoremediation owing its physiological buffering capacity when exposed to substantial pollution.

  5. Toxicological assessment of Ricinus communis Linn root extracts.

    PubMed

    Ilavarasan, Raju; Mallika, Moni; Venkataraman, Subramanian

    2011-03-01

    Ricinus communis Linn (Euphorbiaceae) plant parts are claimed to be used as carminative, asthma, bronchitis, leprosy, anti-inflammatory, cathartic, and aphrodisiac. The toxicological study was carried out in the root part of the plant. The collected root was extracted with methanol and water. The extracts were vacuum-dried to yield the respective aqueous (AE) and methanol (ME) extracts. Toxicological assessment sought to determine the safety of Ricinus communis root extracts. The extracts were evaluated in the acute toxicity study (OECD-423 guidelines) and 90 days repeated dose toxicological assessment in Wistar albino rats. The acute oral toxicity of the aqueous (AE) and methanol (ME) extracts did not produce any toxic symptoms or mortality at the dose level of 2000 mg/kg in rats. In the 90 days (sub-chronic toxicity) repeated dose toxicity study the extracts (AE and ME) were administered 1000 mg/kg daily through oral route. The sub-chronic toxicity study demonstrated no significant changes in body weight, food, and water intake. Hematology parameters RBC, WBC, DLC, Hb, blood clotting time, and the biochemical parameters glucose, blood urea nitrogen, creatinine, total cholesterol, total protein, total bilirubin AST, ALT, and ALP were estimated. Histopathology observation of the major vital organs (liver, kidney, heart, spleen, lungs, ovary, testis, and brain) were tested. The hematology, biochemical and histopathology evaluations did not show any adverse effects in any of the organs tested. These results demonstrate the non-toxic nature of the root extracts AE and ME can be used for long-term usage in clinical practice.

  6. Variants of hamster fibroblasts resistant to Ricinus communis toxin (ricin).

    PubMed Central

    Meager, A; Ungkitchanukit, A; Hughes, R C

    1976-01-01

    1. Variant baby-hamster kidney (BHK) cell lines were isolated that grow in the presence of high concentrations of ricin, the toxic lectin of castor beans (Ricinus communis). The variant lines were independently derived from several cultures of normal BHK cells which had been exposed to the mutagen, methyl-N-nitro-N-nitrosoguanidine, before selection by ricin. 2. The cell lines maintain a high degree of resistance to ricin after growth in lectin-free medium for prolonged periods and therefore exhibit stable phenotypes that are different from normal BHK cells. 3. A preliminary classification of the phenotypes was made. Several cell lines bind normal amounts of 125I-labelled ricin, whereas other bind the lectin poorly. 4. A loss of surface receptors for two other lectins, R. communis RCA and Axinella polyploides, which have specificities similar to ricin, was also found in some but not all of the cell lines showing decreased surface concentrations of ricin receptors. 5. The binding to the ricin-resistant cells of lectins of different sugar specificity, namely Lens culinaris lectin and concanavalin A, was similar to, or higher than, to normal BHK cells. 6. Several of the ricin-resistant cell lines were shown to be cross-resistant to the weak cytotoxicity of Phaseolus vulgaris lectin. By contrast, some cell lines were more sensitive to concanavalin A than were normal BHK cells. Images PLATE 1 PMID:1275903

  7. Lectins as membrane components of mitochondria from Ricinus communis.

    PubMed Central

    Bowles, D J; Schnarrenberger, C; Kauss, H

    1976-01-01

    1. Mitochondria were isolated from developing endosperm of Ricinus communis and were fractionated into outer membrane and inner membrane. The relative purity of the two membrane fractions was determined by marker enzymes. The fractions were also examined by negative-stain electron microscopy. 2. Membrane fractions were sequentially extracted in the following way. (a) Suspension in 0.5M-potassium phosphate, pH7.1; (b)suspension in 0.1M-EDTA (disodium salt)/0.05M-potassium phosphate, pH7.1; (c) sonication in 0.05M-potassium phosphate, pH7.1;(d)sonication in aq. Triton X-100 (0.1%). The membranes were pelleted by centrifugation at 100 000g for 15 min, between each step. Agglutination activity in the extracts was investigated by using trypsin-treated rabbit erythrocytes. 3. The addition of lactose to inner mitochondrial membrane resulted in the solubilization of part of the lectin activity, indicating that the protein was attached to the membrane via its carbohydrate-binding site. Pretreatment of the membranes with lactose before tha usual extraction procedure showed that lactose could extract lectins that normally required more harsh treatment of the membrane for solubilization. 4. Lectins extracted from inner membranes were purified by affinity chromatography on agarose gel. Polyacrylamide-gel electrophoresis of purified samples in sodium dodecyl sulphate indicated that at least part of the lectin present in inner mitochondrial membrane was identical with the R. communis agglutinin of mol.wt. 120 000. Images PLATE 1 PLATE 2 PMID:1008861

  8. Lectins as membrane components of mitochondria from Ricinus communis.

    PubMed

    Bowles, D J; Schnarrenberger, C; Kauss, H

    1976-11-15

    1. Mitochondria were isolated from developing endosperm of Ricinus communis and were fractionated into outer membrane and inner membrane. The relative purity of the two membrane fractions was determined by marker enzymes. The fractions were also examined by negative-stain electron microscopy. 2. Membrane fractions were sequentially extracted in the following way. (a) Suspension in 0.5M-potassium phosphate, pH7.1; (b)suspension in 0.1M-EDTA (disodium salt)/0.05M-potassium phosphate, pH7.1; (c) sonication in 0.05M-potassium phosphate, pH7.1;(d)sonication in aq. Triton X-100 (0.1%). The membranes were pelleted by centrifugation at 100 000g for 15 min, between each step. Agglutination activity in the extracts was investigated by using trypsin-treated rabbit erythrocytes. 3. The addition of lactose to inner mitochondrial membrane resulted in the solubilization of part of the lectin activity, indicating that the protein was attached to the membrane via its carbohydrate-binding site. Pretreatment of the membranes with lactose before tha usual extraction procedure showed that lactose could extract lectins that normally required more harsh treatment of the membrane for solubilization. 4. Lectins extracted from inner membranes were purified by affinity chromatography on agarose gel. Polyacrylamide-gel electrophoresis of purified samples in sodium dodecyl sulphate indicated that at least part of the lectin present in inner mitochondrial membrane was identical with the R. communis agglutinin of mol.wt. 120 000.

  9. Forensic Applications of Light-Element Stable Isotope Ratios of Ricinus communis Seeds and Ricin Preparations

    SciTech Connect

    Kreuzer, Helen W.; West, Jason B.; Ehleringer, James

    2013-01-01

    Seeds of the castor plant Ricinus communis, also known as castor beans, are of forensic interest because they are the source of the poison ricin. We have tested whether stable isotope ratios of castor seeds and ricin prepared by various methods can be used as a forensic signature. We collected over 300 castor seed samples from locations around the world and measured the C, N, O, and H stable isotope ratios of the whole seeds, oil, and three types of ricin preparations. Our results demonstrate that N isotope ratios can be used to correlate ricin prepared by any of these methods to source seeds. Further, stable isotope ratios distinguished >99% of crude and purified ricin protein samples in pair-wise comparison tests. Stable isotope ratios therefore constitute a valuable forensic signature for ricin preparations.

  10. Forensic applications of light-element stable isotope ratios of Ricinus communis seeds and ricin preparations.

    PubMed

    Kreuzer, Helen W; West, Jason B; Ehleringer, James R

    2013-01-01

    Seeds of the castor plant Ricinus communis are of forensic interest because they are the source of the poison ricin. We tested whether stable isotope ratios of castor seeds and ricin preparations can be used as a forensic signature. We collected over 300 castor seed samples worldwide and measured the C, N, O, and H isotope ratios of the whole seeds and oil. We prepared ricin by three different procedures, acetone extraction, salt precipitation, and affinity chromatography, and compared their isotope ratios to those of the source seeds. The N isotope ratios of the ricin samples and source seeds were virtually identical. Therefore, N isotope ratios can be used to correlate ricin prepared by any of these methods to source seeds. Further, stable isotope ratios distinguished >99% of crude and purified ricin protein samples in pairwise comparison tests. Stable isotope ratios therefore constitute a valuable forensic signature for ricin preparations. © 2012 American Academy of Forensic Sciences.

  11. Affinity of bronchial secretion glycoproteins and cells of human bronchial mucosa for Ricinus communis lectins.

    PubMed

    Lhermitte, M; Lamblin, G; Degand, P; Roussel, P; Mazzuca, M

    1977-01-01

    The coupling of Ricinus communis lectins to Sephadex G 25 was used in order to study mucins and other glycoproteins from human bronchial secretion. The major part of human bronchial mucins and other glycoproteins such as immunoglobulins A, bronchotransferrin and alpha1-antichymotrypsin were isolated by this procedure. A parallel study of human bronchial mucosa was achieved with peroxidase labeled Ricinus communis lectins; this study characterized goblet cells and mucous cells which contain mucins, and serous cells which are involved in the synthesis or the secretion of the other glycoproteins.

  12. Response of brown hisex chicks to low levels of Jatropha curcas, Ricinus communis or their mixture.

    PubMed

    el Badwi, S M; Mousa, H M; Adam, S E; Hapke, H J

    1992-08-01

    Feeding Jatropha curcas seed at 0.5% of the basic diet for 2 w was not lethal to chicks. In chicks fed 0.5% Ricinus communis seed or a mixture of 0.5% J curcas + 0.5% R communis for 2 w, there was dullness, poor growth, locomotor disturbance and death. Pathological changes were correlated with alterations in clinical chemistry and hematology.

  13. Ricinus

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Castor (Ricinus communis L.) could become one of the premier crops for health enhancing phytochemicals. Immunotoxins derived from castor bean constituents have proven effective in targeting tumor cells without harming normal cells in humans. In addition, castor bean is currently undergoing intense r...

  14. TEMPORAL AND SPATIAL EXPRESSION OF 2S ALBUMIN IN CASTOR (Ricinus communis L.)

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    We studied the temporal and spatial expression of the 2S albumin in castor (Ricinus communis L.) during seed development, germination, post-germination, and plant development. Quantitative PCR analysis showed that the 2S albumin transcript accumulated to a maximum level at the middle of seed develop...

  15. Recognition factors of Ricinus communis agglutinin 1 (RCA(1)).

    PubMed

    Wu, Albert M; Wu, June H; Singh, Tanuja; Lai, Li-Ju; Yang, Zhangung; Herp, Anthony

    2006-04-01

    Ricinus communis agglutinin (RCA1) is one of the most important applied lectins that has been widely used as a tool to study cell surfaces and to purify glycans. Although the carbohydrate specificity of RCA1 has been described, the information obtained was mainly focused on inhibition of simple Galbeta1-related oligosaccharides and simple clusters. Here, all possible recognition factors of RCA1 of glycan binding were examined by enzyme-linked lectinosorbent (ELLSA) and inhibition assays, using known mammalian Gal/GalNAc carbohydrate structural units and natural polyvalent glycans. Among the glycoproteins (gps) tested and expressed as 50% nanogram inhibition, the high-density polyvalent Galbeta1-4GlcNAc (II) glycotopes occurring in natural gps, such as Pneumococcus type 14 capsular polysaccharide which is composed of repeating poly II residues, resulted in 9.0 x 10(4), 1.5 x 10(5), 2.3 x 10(4) and 2.1 x 10(4)-fold higher affinities to RCA1 than the monomeric Gal, linear I/II and Tri-antennary-II (Tri-II). Of the ligands tested and expressed as nanomoles of 50% inhibition, Tri-II was the best, being about 2, 4, 25.6 and 33.3 times better inhibitor than Di-II, II, I (Galbeta1-3GlcNAc) and Gal, respectively. From the results of this study, it is concluded that: (a) Galbeta1-4GlcNAc and other Galbeta1-related oligosaccharides are essential for lectin binding and their polyvalent form in macromolecules should be the most important recognition factor for RCA1; (b) the combining site of RCA1 may be a groove type, recognizing Galbeta1-4GlcNAc (II) as the major binding site; (c) its combining size may be large enough to accommodate a tetrasaccharide of beta-anomeric Gal at the non-reducing end and most complementary to human blood group I Ma active trisaccharide (Galbeta1-4GlcNAcbeta1-6Gal) and lacto-N-neotetraose (Galbeta1-4GlcNAcbeta1-3Galbeta1-4Glc); (d) RCA1 has a preference for the beta-anomer of Gal oligosaccharides with a Galbeta1-4 linkage > Galbeta1-6 > or = Galbeta

  16. Male contraceptive efficacy of Ricinus communis L. extract.

    PubMed

    Nath, Sushmita; Dutta Choudhury, Manabendra; Roychoudhury, Shubhadeep; Talukdar, Anupam Das; Misro, Man Mohan

    2013-08-26

    Ricinus communis L. (Rc), of Euphorbiaceae family is a widespread plant in tropical regions and it is used in traditional medicines as an antifertility agent in India and different parts of the world. The aim of the present study is to revalidate the ethnobotanical knowledge by evaluating the activity of only crude stem bark extracts of Rc. In this study, effects of extracts on male contraceptive efficacy were experimented in vitro with human sperm sample. The work is based on primordial and contemporary therapeutic uses of this plant. In this study, dose of petroleum ether extract, ethyl acetate extract, acetone extract and lyophilised aqueous extract of Rc were added to fresh human semen in 1:1 volumetric ratio. As the aqueous extract showed a promising result in 1:1 ratio, therefore, the Hypo-osmotic swelling test (HOS), Nuclear chromatin decondensation test (NCD) and Acrosomal status and function test (AFT) were also carried out with the aqueous extract of Rc. The sperm immobilisation effects of the extract appeared immediately in a dose-dependent manner when the samples were treated with four different extracts of this plant. At a concentration of 100mg/mL, 100% (p<0.001 and p<0.05) sperms lost their progressive motility. At a concentration of 300 mg/mL, 100% (p<0.001 and p<0.05) became immotile when treated with aqueous extract. There was 88% (p<0.001 and p<0.05) morphological deformities in sperm sample due the effect of aqueous extract when they were tested for HOS and 91% (p<0.05) sperms behaved against NCD as compared to control group. Also there was a distinct decline (p<0.05) in AFT with increase in dosage concentration. The findings of the study revealed that aqueous stem bark extract of the plant showed dose dependent loss of sperm motility by influencing the morphological deformation, blockage in nuclear envelope and distinct declination in acrosomal status of spermatozoa. This research, thus, opens up scope for future exploration of bark of the

  17. New efficient DNA extraction method to access the microbiome of Ricinus communis seeds.

    PubMed

    Santos, C D; Dias, A C C; Amaral, I M R; Bonetti, A M; Campos, T A

    2013-02-28

    Ricinus communis (castor bean) seeds are used to produce an alcohol-soluble oil that is used in more than 400 industrial processes. Despite its economic importance, there has been little research on the endophytic microbiota of castor bean seeds. This microbiota is important for plant metabolic processes and may have considerable biotechnological potential, such as production of lipases and plant growth promoter agents. We evaluated several DNA extraction methodologies in order to access the microbial diversity of castor bean through a metagenomic approach. Based on our observations, we developed a new methodology that takes advantage of the low solubility of calcium phosphates and the high affinity of these phosphates for proteins and polysaccharides. The extracted DNA quality was evaluated by PCR, using a selective primer pair for bacterial and mitochondrial 16S rDNA genes (799F and 1492R). We found this methodology quantitatively and qualitatively more efficient than the other approaches. In evaluating this new extraction methodology, we found that the difficulties of DNA extraction from castor bean seeds, such as abundant oil, polysaccharides, phenolic compounds, and plant enzymes, could be overcome. The resulting extracts had high concentration and purity, and they were obtained faster than with previous methods. The samples contained virtually all of the DNA, including the microbial DNA; this was validated by PCR analysis.

  18. [Terpenoids and sterols from Ricinus communis and their activities against diabetes].

    PubMed

    Li, Shen-Hua; Deng, Qing; Zhu, Li; Lai, Chun-Hua; Wang, Heng-Shan; Tan, Qin-Gang

    2014-02-01

    Seven terpenoids and three sterols were isolated from the methanol extracts of the aerial parts of Ricinus communis by chromatography methods and their structures were identified by spectra analysis as ficusic acid( 1), phytol(2), callyspinol(3) , lupeol(4), 30-norlupan-3beta-ol-20-one(5) , lup-20(29)-en-3beta,15alpha-diol(6) , acetylaleuritolic acid( 7), stigmast4-en-3-one(8) , stig-mast-4-en-6beta-ol-3-one(9) , and stigmast4-en-3,6-dione(10). Compounds 1-3 and 5-10 were obtained from this species for the first time and 5 and 6 showed significant inhibitive activity and good selectivity against 11beta-HSD of mouse and human in vitro. [Key words] Ricinus communis; terpenoids; sterols; 11beta-HSD

  19. Removal of Ni (II) from aqueous solutions by adsorption onto Ricinus communis seed shell activated carbons.

    PubMed

    Thamilarasu, P; Karunakaran, K

    2011-01-01

    The adsorption studies on the removal of Ni(II) from aqueous solution using Ricinus communis seed shells activated carbon and polypyrrole coated Ricinus communis seed shells activated carbon were carried out under various experimental conditions. The effects of various process parameters have been investigated by following the batch adsorption technique. Adsorption data was modeled with Freundlich, Langmuir and tempkin adsorption isotherms. Thermodynamics parameters such as DeltaH0, DeltaS0, and DeltaG0 were calculated indicating that the adsorption was spontaneous and endothermic nature. A mechanism, involving intra particle diffusion and surface adsorption, has been proposed for the adsorption of Ni(II) onto the adsorbent. Adsorbent used in this study is characterized by FTIR and SEM before and after the adsorption of metal ions.

  20. Lipolytic activity of ricin from Ricinus sanguineus and Ricinus communis on neutral lipids.

    PubMed Central

    Lombard, S; Helmy, M E; Piéroni, G

    2001-01-01

    The present study was carried out with a view of determining ricin lipolytic activity on neutral lipids in emulsion and in a membrane-like model. Using 2,3-dimercapto-1-propanol tributyrate (BAL-TC(4)) as substrate, the lipolytic activity of ricin was found to be proportional to ricin and substrate concentrations, with an apparent K(m) (K(m,app)) of 2.4 mM, a k(cat) of 200 min(-1) and a specific activity of 1.0 unit/mg of protein. This work was extended to p-nitrophenyl (pNP) fatty acid esters containing two to twelve carbon atoms. Maximum lipolytic activity was registered on pNP decanoate (pNPC(10)), with a K(m,app) of 3.5 mM, a k(cat) of 173 min(-1) and a specific activity of 3.5 units/mg of protein. Ricin lipolytic activity is pH and galactose dependent, with a maximum at pH 7.0 in the presence of 0.2 M galactose. Using the monolayer technique with dicaprin as substrate, ricin showed a lipolytic activity proportional to the ricin concentration at 20 mN/m, which is dependent on the surface pressure of the lipid monolayer and is detectable up to 30 mN/m, a surface pressure that is of the same order of magnitude as that of natural cell membranes. The methods based on pNPC(10) and BAL-TC(4) hydrolysis are simple and reproducible; thus they can be used for routine studies of ricin lipolytic activity. Ricin from Ricinus communis and R. sanguineus were treated with diethyl p-nitrophenylphosphate, an irreversible serine esterase inhibitor, and their lipolytic activities on BAL-TC(4) and pNPC(10), and cytotoxic activity, were concurrently recorded. A reduction in lipolytic activity was accompanied by a decrease in cytotoxicity on Caco2 cells. These data support the idea that the lipolytic activity associated with ricin is relevant to a lipase whose activity is pH and galactose dependent, sensitive to diethyl p-nitrophenylphosphate, and that a lipolytic step may be involved in the process of cell poisoning by ricin. Both colorimetric tests used in this study are sensitive

  1. Effects of demineralized bone matrix and a 'Ricinus communis' polymer on bone regeneration: a histological study in rabbit calvaria.

    PubMed

    Laureano Filho, José R; Andrade, Emanuel S S; Albergaria-Barbosa, José R; Camargo, Igor B; Garcia, Robson R

    2009-09-01

    The aim of the present study was to histologically analyze the effects of bovine and human demineralized bone matrix and a Ricinus communis polymer on the bone regeneration process. Two surgical bone defects were created in rabbit calvaria, one on the right and the other on the left side of the parietal suture. Eighteen rabbits were divided into three groups. In Group I, the experimental defect was treated with bovine demineralized bone matrix, Group II with human demineralized bone matrix, and in Group III, the experimental cavity was treated with polyurethane resin derived from Ricinus communis oil. The control defects were filled with the animals' own blood. The animals were sacrificed after 7 and 15 weeks. Histological analysis revealed that in all groups (control and experimental), bone regeneration increased with time. The least time required for bone regeneration was noted in the control group, with a substantial decrease in the thickness of the defect. All materials proved to be biologically compatible, but polyurethane resorbed more slowly and demonstrated considerably better results than the demineralized bone matrices.

  2. Regiospecific Identification of 2-(12-Ricinoleoylricinoleoyl)-1,3-diricinoleoyl-glycerol in Castor (Ricinus communis L.)Oil by ESI-MS4

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    (12-ricinoleoylricinoleoyl)diricinoleoylglycerol (RRRR), a tetraacylglycerol, was identified earlier in castor oil. Using ESI-MS4, 95% of the 12-ricinoleoylricinoleoyl chain was identified at the sn-2 position of the glycerol backbone of RRRR. Regiospecific location of the 12-ricinoleoylricinoleoyl ...

  3. An oleate 12-hydroxylase from Ricinus communis L. is a fatty acyl desaturase homolog

    SciTech Connect

    Van De Loo, F.J.; Broun, P.; Turner, S.; Somerville, C.

    1995-07-18

    Recent spectroscopic evidence implicating a binuclear iron site at the reaction center of fatty acyl desaturases suggested to us that certain fatty acyl hydroxylases may share significant amino acid sequence similarity with desaturases. To test this theory, we prepared a cDNA library from developing endosperm of the castor-oil plant (Ricinus communis L.) and obtained partial nucleotide sequences for 468 anonymous clones that were not expressed at high levels in leaves, a tissue deficient in 12-hydroxyoleic acid. This resulted in the identification of several cDNA clones encoding a polypeptide of 387 amino acids with a predicted molecular weight of 44,407 and with {approx}67% sequence homology to microsomal oleate desaturase from Arabidopsis. Expression of a full-length clone under control of the cauliflower mosaic virus 35S promoter in transgenic tobacco resulted in the accumulation of low levels of 12-hydroxyoleic acid in seeds, indicating that the clone encodes the castor oleate hydroxylase. These results suggest that fatty acyl desaturases and hydroxylases share similar reaction mechanisms and provide an example of enzyme evolution. 26 refs., 6 figs., 1 tab.

  4. Mitochondrial, plastid, and cytosolic isozymes of hexokinase from developing endosperm of Ricinus communis.

    PubMed

    Miernyk, J A; Dennis, D T

    1983-10-15

    Ion-filtration chromatography on DEAE-Sephadex A-25 at pH 5.5 resolved the total hexokinase activity in a 27,000g supernatant prepared from developing castor oil (Ricinus communis L., cv. Baker 296) seeds into three distinct peaks. These were designated one, two, and three in order of elution from the column. Ion-filtration chromatography of various subcellular fractions demonstrated that isozyme one is associated with the mitochondria, isozyme two with the leucoplasts, and isozyme three is located in the cytosol. Organelle-subfractionation studies showed that hexokinase one is associated with the mitochondrial outer membrane, and hexokinase two is located in the plastid stroma. Isozyme one could be specifically solubilized from the mitochondrial outer membrane by incubation with nucleoside triphosphates or hexose monophosphates. In addition to differences in net charge and localization, the three hexokinase isozymes could be distinguished by pH optima, substrate specificity, and response to sulfhydryl-directed inhibitors. Mr values, determined by gel permeation using Sephacryl S-200, were identical for all three isozymes at 38,000. The preferred divalent metal ion for each of the hexokinases is Mg+2, and none was affected by Na+, K+, or NH+4 at their pH optima, nor by Al+3 at pH 6.6 or 7.8.

  5. An oleate 12-hydroxylase from Ricinus communis L. is a fatty acyl desaturase homolog.

    PubMed Central

    van de Loo, F J; Broun, P; Turner, S; Somerville, C

    1995-01-01

    Recent spectroscopic evidence implicating a binuclear iron site at the reaction center of fatty acyl desaturases suggested to us that certain fatty acyl hydroxylases may share significant amino acid sequence similarity with desaturases. To test this theory, we prepared a cDNA library from developing endosperm of the castor-oil plant (Ricinus communis L.) and obtained partial nucleotide sequences for 468 anonymous clones that were not expressed at high levels in leaves, a tissue deficient in 12-hydroxyoleic acid. This resulted in the identification of several cDNA clones encoding a polypeptide of 387 amino acids with a predicted molecular weight of 44,407 and with approximately 67% sequence homology to microsomal oleate desaturase from Arabidopsis. Expression of a full-length clone under control of the cauliflower mosaic virus 35S promoter in transgenic tobacco resulted in the accumulation of low levels of 12-hydroxyoleic acid in seeds, indicating that the clone encodes the castor oleate hydroxylase. These results suggest that fatty acyl desaturases and hydroxylases share similar reaction mechanisms and provide an example of enzyme evolution. Images Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 PMID:7624314

  6. Antimicrobial potential of Ricinus communis leaf extracts in different solvents against pathogenic bacterial and fungal strains

    PubMed Central

    Naz, Rabia; Bano, Asghari

    2012-01-01

    Objective To investigate the in vitro antimicrobial activities of the leaf extract in different solvents viz., methanol, ethanol and water extracts of the selected plant Ricinus communis. Methods Agar well diffusion method and agar tube dilution method were carried out to perform the antibacterial and antifungal activity of methanol, ethanol and aqueous extracts. Results Methanol leaf extracts were found to be more active against Gram positive bacteria (Bacillus subtilis: ATCC 6059 and Staphylococcus aureus: ATCC 6538) as well as Gram negative bacteria (Pseudomonas aeruginosa: ATCC 7221 and Klebsiella pneumoniae) than ethanol and aqueous leaf extracts. Antifungal activity of methanol and aqueous leaf extracts were also carried out against selected fungal strains as Aspergillus fumigatus and Aspergillus flavus. Methanolic as well as aqueous leaf extracts of Ricinus communis were effective in inhibiting the fungal growth. Conclusions The efficient antibacterial and antifungal activity of Ricinus communis from the present investigation revealed that the methanol leaf extracts of the selected plant have significant potential to inhibit the growth of pathogenic bacterial and fungal strains than ethanol and aqueous leaf extracts. PMID:23593573

  7. Use of Energy Crop (Ricinus communis L.) for Phytoextraction of Heavy Metals Assisted with Citric Acid.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Hui; Chen, Xueping; He, Chiquan; Liang, Xia; Oh, Kokyo; Liu, Xiaoyan; Lei, Yanru

    2015-01-01

    Ricinus communis L. is a bioenergetic crop with high-biomass production and tolerance to cadmium (Cd) and lead (Pb), thus, the plant is a candidate crop for phytoremediation. Pot experiments were performed to study the effects of citric acid in enhancing phytoextraction of Cd/Pb by Ricinus communis L. Citric acid increased Cd and Pb contents in plant shoots in all treatments by about 78% and 18-45%, respectively, at the dosage of 10 mM kg(-1) soil without affecting aboveground biomass production. Addition of citric acid reduced CEC, weakened soil adsorption of heavy metals and activated Cd and Pb in soil solutions. The acid-exchangeable fraction (BCR-1) of Pb remained lower than 7% and significantly increased with citric acid amendment. Respective increases in soil evaluation index induces by 14% and 19% under the Cd1Pb50 and Cd1Pb250 treatments upon addition of citric acid resulted in soil quality improvement. Ricinus communis L. has great potential in citric acid-assisted phytoextraction for Cd and Pb remediation.

  8. Antimicrobial potential of Ricinus communis leaf extracts in different solvents against pathogenic bacterial and fungal strains.

    PubMed

    Naz, Rabia; Bano, Asghari

    2012-12-01

    To investigate the in vitro antimicrobial activities of the leaf extract in different solvents viz., methanol, ethanol and water extracts of the selected plant Ricinus communis. Agar well diffusion method and agar tube dilution method were carried out to perform the antibacterial and antifungal activity of methanol, ethanol and aqueous extracts. Methanol leaf extracts were found to be more active against Gram positive bacteria (Bacillus subtilis: ATCC 6059 and Staphylococcus aureus: ATCC 6538) as well as Gram negative bacteria (Pseudomonas aeruginosa: ATCC 7221 and Klebsiella pneumoniae) than ethanol and aqueous leaf extracts. Antifungal activity of methanol and aqueous leaf extracts were also carried out against selected fungal strains as Aspergillus fumigatus and Aspergillus flavus. Methanolic as well as aqueous leaf extracts of Ricinus communis were effective in inhibiting the fungal growth. The efficient antibacterial and antifungal activity of Ricinus communis from the present investigation revealed that the methanol leaf extracts of the selected plant have significant potential to inhibit the growth of pathogenic bacterial and fungal strains than ethanol and aqueous leaf extracts.

  9. Final report on the safety assessment of Ricinus Communis (Castor) Seed Oil, Hydrogenated Castor Oil, Glyceryl Ricinoleate, Glyceryl Ricinoleate SE, Ricinoleic Acid, Potassium Ricinoleate, Sodium Ricinoleate, Zinc Ricinoleate, Cetyl Ricinoleate, Ethyl Ricinoleate, Glycol Ricinoleate, Isopropyl Ricinoleate, Methyl Ricinoleate, and Octyldodecyl Ricinoleate.

    PubMed

    2007-01-01

    The oil derived from the seed of the Ricinus communis plant and its primary constituent, Ricinoleic Acid, along with certain of its salts and esters function primarily as skin-conditioning agents, emulsion stabilizers, and surfactants in cosmetics, although other functions are described. Ricinus Communis (Castor) Seed Oil is the naming convention for castor oil used in cosmetics. It is produced by cold pressing the seeds and subsequent clarification of the oil by heat. Castor oil does not contain ricin because ricin does not partition into the oil. Castor oil and Glyceryl Ricinoleate absorb ultraviolet (UV) light, with a maximum absorbance at 270 nm. Castor oil and Hydrogenated Castor Oil reportedly were used in 769 and 202 cosmetic products, respectively, in 2002; fewer uses were reported for the other ingredients in this group. The highest reported use concentration (81%) for castor oil is associated with lipstick. Castor oil is classified by Food and Drug Administration (FDA) as generally recognized as safe and effective for use as a stimulant laxative. The Joint Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO)/World Health Organization (WHO) Expert Committee on Food Additives established an acceptable daily castor oil intake (for man) of 0 to 0.7 mg/kg body weight. Castor oil is hydrolyzed in the small intestine by pancreatic enzymes, leading to the release of glycerol and Ricinoleic Acid, although 3,6-epoxyoctanedioic acid, 3,6-epoxydecanedioic acid, and 3,6-epoxydodecanedioic acid also appear to be metabolites. Castor oil and Ricinoleic Acid can enhance the transdermal penetration of other chemicals. Although chemically similar to prostaglandin E(1), Ricinoleic Acid did not have the same physiological properties. These ingredients are not acute toxicants, and a National Toxicology Program (NTP) subchronic oral toxicity study using castor oil at concentrations up to 10% in the diet of rats was not toxic. Other subchronic studies of castor oil produced similar findings

  10. Deuterium NMR used to indicate a common mechanism for the biosynthesis of ricinoleic acid by Ricinus communis and Claviceps purpurea.

    PubMed

    Billault, Isabelle; Mantle, Peter G; Robins, Richard J

    2004-03-17

    Previous studies have shown that ricinoleic acid from castor bean oil of Ricinus communis is synthesized by the direct hydroxyl substitution of oleate, while it has been proposed that ricinoleate is formed by hydration of linoleate in the ergot fungus Claviceps purpurea. The mechanism of the enzymes specific to ricinoleate synthesis has not yet been established, but hydroxylation and desaturation of fatty acids in plants apparently involve closely related mechanisms. As mechanistic differences in the enzymes involved in the biosynthesis of natural products can lead to different isotopic distributions in the product, we could expect ricinoleate isolated from castor or ergot oil to show distinct (2)H distribution patterns. To obtain information concerning the substrate and isotope effects that occur during the biosynthesis of ricinoleate, the site-specific natural deuterium distributions in methyl ricinoleate isolated from castor oil and in methyl ricinoleate and methyl linoleate isolated from ergot oils have been measured by quantitative (2)H NMR. First, the deuterium profiles for methyl ricinoleate from the plant and fungus are equivalent. Second, the deuterium profile for methyl linoleate from ergot is incompatible with this chemical species being the precursor of methyl ricinoleate. Hence, it is apparent that 12-hydroxylation in C. purpurea is consistent with the biosynthetic mechanisms proposed for R. communis and is compatible with the general fundamental mechanistic similarities between hydroxylation and desaturation previously proposed for plant fatty acid biosynthesis.

  11. Effect of ricinoleic acid esters from castor oil (Ricinus communis) on the oocyte yolk components of the tick Rhipicephalus sanguineus (Latreille, 1806) (Acari: Ixodidae).

    PubMed

    Sampieri, Bruno Rodrigues; Arnosti, André; Furquim, Karim Christina Scopinho; Chierice, Gilberto Orivaldo; Bechara, Gervásio Henrique; de Carvalho, Pedro Luiz Pucci Figueiredo; Nunes, Pablo Henrique; Camargo-Mathias, Maria Izabel

    2013-01-31

    Rhipicephalus sanguineus are bloodsucking ectoparasites, whose main host is the domestic dog, thus being present in urban areas and closely located to people. Eventually, this tick species parasitize humans and can become a potential vector of infectious diseases. Methods to control this type of pest have been the focus of many research groups worldwide. The use of natural products is increasingly considered nowadays, due to the low toxicity levels to the host and low waste generation to the environment. This study tested the effect of ricinoleic acid esters from castor oil (as an potential acaricide) on the reproductive system of R. sanguineus females, more specifically on the vitellogenesis process. For this, two groups were established: the control group (CG) and the treatment group (TG) with five rabbits in each (New Zealand White), used as hosts. NaCl and ester were added to rabbits' food and offered to the hosts. After full engorgement, the females were collected and had their ovaries extracted. The ticks ovaries were submitted to histochemical techniques so the effects of esters could be observed over polysaccharides, proteins and lipids yolk. Changes in the deposition of yolk components were observed. This caused modifications on elements of polysaccharide origin and on glycoprotein compounds, interfering in the final yolk synthesis and compromising the development of the future embryo.

  12. Quantification of ricin, RCA and comparison of enzymatic activity in 18 Ricinus communis cultivars by isotope dilution mass spectrometry

    PubMed Central

    Schieltz, David M.; McWilliams, Lisa G.; Kuklenyik, Zsuzsanna; Prezioso, Samantha M.; Carter, Andrew J.; Williamson, Yulanda M.; McGrath, Sara C.; Morse, Stephen A.; Barr, John R.

    2016-01-01

    The seeds of the Ricinus communis (Castor bean) plant are the source of the economically important commodity castor oil. Castor seeds also contain the proteins ricin and R. communis agglutinin (RCA), two toxic lectins that are hazardous to human health. Radial immunodiffusion (RID) and the enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) are two antibody-based methods commonly used to quantify ricin and RCA; however, antibodies currently used in these methods cannot distinguish between ricin and RCA due to the high sequence homology of the respective proteins. In this study, a technique combining antibody-based affinity capture with liquid chromatography and multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) mass spectrometry (MS) was used to quantify the amounts of ricin and RCA independently in extracts prepared from the seeds of eighteen representative cultivars of R. communis which were propagated under identical conditions. Additionally, liquid chromatography and MRM-MS was used to determine rRNA N-glycosidase activity for each cultivar and the overall activity in these cultivars was compared to a purified ricin standard. Of the cultivars studied, the average ricin content was 9.3 mg/g seed, the average RCA content was 9.9 mg/g seed, and the enzymatic activity agreed with the activity of a purified ricin reference within 35% relative activity. PMID:25576235

  13. Quantification of ricin, RCA and comparison of enzymatic activity in 18 Ricinus communis cultivars by isotope dilution mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Schieltz, David M; McWilliams, Lisa G; Kuklenyik, Zsuzsanna; Prezioso, Samantha M; Carter, Andrew J; Williamson, Yulanda M; McGrath, Sara C; Morse, Stephen A; Barr, John R

    2015-03-01

    The seeds of the Ricinus communis (Castor bean) plant are the source of the economically important commodity castor oil. Castor seeds also contain the proteins ricin and R. communis agglutinin (RCA), two toxic lectins that are hazardous to human health. Radial immunodiffusion (RID) and the enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) are two antibody-based methods commonly used to quantify ricin and RCA; however, antibodies currently used in these methods cannot distinguish between ricin and RCA due to the high sequence homology of the respective proteins. In this study, a technique combining antibody-based affinity capture with liquid chromatography and multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) mass spectrometry (MS) was used to quantify the amounts of ricin and RCA independently in extracts prepared from the seeds of eighteen representative cultivars of R. communis which were propagated under identical conditions. Additionally, liquid chromatography and MRM-MS was used to determine rRNA N-glycosidase activity for each cultivar and the overall activity in these cultivars was compared to a purified ricin standard. Of the cultivars studied, the average ricin content was 9.3 mg/g seed, the average RCA content was 9.9 mg/g seed, and the enzymatic activity agreed with the activity of a purified ricin reference within 35% relative activity. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  14. Ultrastructural changes in the ovary cells of engorged Rhipicephalus sanguineus female ticks treated with esters of ricinoleic acid from castor oil (Ricinus communis).

    PubMed

    Sampieri, Bruno Rodrigues; Arnosti, André; Nunes, Pablo Henrique; Furquim, Karim Christina Scopinho; Chierice, Gilberto Orivaldo; Mathias, Maria Izabel Camargo

    2012-05-01

    Rhipicephalus sanguineus is a widely distributed tick species that has adapted to the urban environment, and the dog is its main host. This species is also known as a vector and reservoir of diseases caused by bacteria, protozoa, and viruses. Currently, acaricides of synthetic chemical origin have been widely and indiscriminately used, leading to the development of resistance to these products by ticks and causing damage to the environment. Thus, these issues have made it necessary to seek other forms of controlling these ectoparasites. R. sanguineus was artificially infested in host New Zealand White rabbits, which were divided into four treatment groups: control (CG1 and CG2) and treatment (TG1 and TG2) groups. TG1 and TG2 hosts were provided with feed supplemented with esters of ricinoleic acid from castor oil at a concentration of 5 g/kg of feed for 7 and 15 days. Afterward, the ovaries of the female ticks were removed for analysis by transmission electron microscopy. The results showed ultrastructural changes in the somatic and germ cells of ovaries from TG1 and TG2 females, particularly with respect to chorion deposition, a protective membrane of the oocyte, as well as in the transport process of vitellogenic materials via the hemolymph and pedicel cells. Moreover, the mitochondria were less electron-dense and had cristae that were more disorganized than the mitochondria from CG1 and CG2 individuals. Thus, this study demonstrated the action of esters on the ovaries of R. sanguineus, signaling the prospect of a way to control this ectoparasite without affecting nontarget organisms or the environment.

  15. Evaluation of medicinal plant extracts and isolated compound epicatechin from Ricinus communis against Paramphistomum cervi.

    PubMed

    Zahir, Abdul Abduz; Rahuman, Abdul Abdul; Bagavan, Asokan; Geetha, Kannappan; Kamaraj, Chinnaperumal; Elango, Gandhi

    2012-10-01

    The purpose of this study is to determine the efficacies of hexane, chloroform, ethyl acetate, acetone, and methanol leaf extracts of Euphorbia hirta L., Psidium guajava L., Ricinus communis L., Solanum trilobatum L., and Tridax procumbens L. against sheep fluke Paramphistomum cervi (Digenea: Paramphistomatidae). All plant extracts showed moderate effects after 24 h of exposure; however, the highest parasite mortality was found in the methanol extract of R. communis. In the present study, bioassay-guided fractionation of methanol extract of R. communis led to the separation and identification of epicatechin as a potential new compound (LC(50) = 31.2; LC(90) = 105.0 ppm) against P. cervi. The structures were established from infrared, ultraviolet, (1)H-nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR), (13)C-NMR, and mass spectral data which confirmed the identification of the compound epicatechin from R. communis. Results of this study showed that the methanol extract of R. communis may be considered as a potent source and epicatechin as a new natural parasitic agent.

  16. Characterization of ATP-Dependent Fructose 6-Phosphate 1-Phosphotransferase Isozymes from Leaf and Endosperm Tissues of Ricinus communis1

    PubMed Central

    Knowles, Vicki L.; Greyson, Maureen F.; Dennis, David T.

    1990-01-01

    Plastid and cytosolic isozymes of ATP:fructose 6-phosphate 1-phosphotransferase (PFKp and PFKc, respectively) have been isolated from leaves and developing endosperm tissues of the castor oil plant (Ricinus communis L). Endosperm PFKp has been purified to apparent homogeneity. Polyclonal antibodies raised against one of the four polypeptides associated with potato tuber PFK (molecular mass, 46 kilodaltons) immunoprecipitated developing endosperm and leaf PFKp, but not PFKc isozymes. Western blots, sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, and analytical gel filtration show that PFKp from developing endosperm is a 220 kilodalton homotetramer composed of 57 kilodalton subunits. Kinetic studies of leaf PFKp and PFKc isozymes reveal both similarities and differences to the characteristics of the respective endosperm isozymes studied previously (WJ Garland, DT Dennis [1980] Arch Biochem Biophys 204: 302-317). The immunological and kinetic data suggest that leaf and developing endosperm PFKp are different but structurally related proteins. Images Figure 2 PMID:16667239

  17. Ricinus communis-based biopolymer and epidermal growth factor regulations on bone defect repair: A rat tibia model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mendoza-Barrera, C.; Meléndez-Lira, M.; Altuzar, V.; Tomás, S. A.

    2003-01-01

    We report the effect of the addition of an epidermal growth factor to a Ricinus communis-based biopolymer in the healing of a rat tibia model. Bone repair and osteointegration after a period of three weeks were evaluated employing photoacoustic spectroscopy and x-ray diffraction. A parallel study was performed at 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, and 8 weeks with energy dispersive x-ray spectroscopy. We conclude that the use of an epidermal growth factor (group EGF) in vivo accelerates the process of bony repair in comparison with other groups, and that the employment of the Ricinus communis-based biopolymer as a bone substitute decreases bone production.

  18. Graviresponsiveness and columella cell structure in primary and secondary roots of Ricinus communis.

    PubMed

    Moore, R; Pasieniuk, J

    1984-01-01

    In order to determine what structural changes are associated with the onset of graviresponsiveness by plant roots, we have monitored the quantitative ultrastructures of columella (i.e., graviperceptive) cells in primary and secondary roots of Ricinus communis. The relative volumes of cellular components in lateral (i.e., minimally graviresponsive) roots were not significantly different from those of primary roots. The relative volumes of cellular components in secondary roots growing laterally were not significantly different from those of graviresponsive secondary roots. Therefore, the onset of graviresponsiveness by secondary roots of R. communis is not correlated with changes in organellar concentrations in columella cells. These results are discussed relative to a model for the differential graviresponsiveness of plant roots.

  19. Development of a novel set of microsatellite markers for castor bean, Ricinus communis (Euphorbiaceae).

    PubMed

    Bajay, Miklos Maximiliano; Zucchi, Maria Imaculada; Kiihl, Tammy Aparecida Manabe; Batista, Carlos Eduardo Araújo; Monteiro, Mariza; Pinheiro, José Baldin

    2011-04-01

    Microsatellite primers were developed for castor bean (Ricinus communis L.) to investigate genetic diversity and population structure, and to provide support to germplasm management. Eleven microsatellite loci were isolated using an enrichment cloning protocol and used to characterize castor bean germplasm from the collection at the Instituto Agronômico de Campinas (IAC). In a survey of 76 castor bean accessions, the investigated loci displayed polymorphism ranging from two to five alleles. The information derived from microsatellite markers led to significant gains in conserved allelic richness and provides support to the implementation of several molecular breeding strategies for castor bean.

  20. New anti-inflammatory triterpene from the root of Ricinus communis.

    PubMed

    Srivastava, Pooja; Jyotshna; Gupta, Namita; Maurya, Anil Kumar; Shanker, Karuna

    2014-01-01

    Liquid-liquid partitioning of Ricinus communis root methanol extract resulted in enrichment of compounds. Purification of the n-hexane fraction led to the isolation and characterisation of two triterpenes: one known compound lupeol (1) and a new diketone pentacyclic triterpene named as erandone (urs-6-ene-3,16-dione) (2), from the plant. Their structures were determined by various spectroscopic techniques. Crude methanolic, enriched n-hexane fraction and isolates at doses 100 mg/kg p.o. exhibited significant (P < 0.001) anti-inflammatory activity in carrageenan-induced hind paw oedema model.

  1. Chronology of alveolar healing following immediate implantation of Ricinus communis polyurethane resin: histometric analysis in rats.

    PubMed

    Carvalho, T L; Teófilo, J M; Araújo, C A; Brentegani, L G

    1997-12-15

    The purpose of the present study was to determine whether granules of Ricinus communis polyurethane resin implanted immediately after tooth extraction interfere with the time course of alveolar wound healing in rats. Progressive bone neoformation in parallel to a decrease in the volume fraction of connective tissue was quantified by a histometric method 1, 2, 3, and 6 weeks after tooth extraction. In spite of the biocompatible nature, the presence of polyurethane resin granules in the cervical third led to a small (9-22%) but significant delay in bone formation in the middle and apical alveolar thirds from the second week on, as compared to controls.

  2. Isolation and fractionation of the endoplasmic reticulum from castor bean (Ricinus communis) endosperm for proteomic analyses.

    PubMed

    Simon, William J; Maltman, Daniel J; Slabas, Antoni R

    2008-01-01

    This chapter describes the preparation and isolation of highly purified endoplasmic reticulum (ER) from the endosperm of developing and germinating castor bean (Ricinus communis) seeds to provide a purified organelle fraction for differential proteomic analyses. The method uses a two-step ultracentrifugation protocol first described by Coughlan (1) and uses sucrose density gradients and a sucrose flotation step to yield purified ER devoid of other contaminating endomembrane material. Using a combination of one dimensional (1D) and two dimensional (2D) gel electrophoresis the complexity and reproducibility of the protein profile of the purified organelle is evaluated prior to detailed proteomic analyses using mass spectrometry based techniques.

  3. High-speed counter-current chromatographic isolation of ricinine, an insecticide from Ricinus communis.

    PubMed

    Cazal, Cristiane de Melo; Batalhão, Jaqueline Raquel; Domingues, Vanessa de Cássia; Bueno, Odair Corrêa; Filho, Edson Rodrigues; Forim, Moacir R; da Silva, Maria Fátima G Fernandes; Vieira, Paulo Cezar; Fernandes, João Batista

    2009-05-08

    The alkaloid ricinine, an insecticide for leaf-cutting ant (Atta sexdens rubropilosa), was obtained from Ricinus communis. A two-phase solvent system composed of CH(2)Cl(2)/EtOH/H(2)O (93:35:72, v/v/v) was used for high-speed counter-current chromatographic (HSCCC) isolation of ricinine in high yield and with over 96% purity, as determined by liquid and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS and GC-MS). Identification of ricinine was performed by comparison of (1)H NMR, (13)C NMR and LC-MS/MS data.

  4. Can adaptive modulation of traits to urban environments facilitate Ricinus communis L. invasiveness?

    PubMed

    Goyal, Neha; Pardha-Saradhi, P; Sharma, Gyan P

    2014-11-01

    This paper addresses the phenotypic variation among Ricinus communis L. populations in four urban habitat types (road verges, garbage dumps, construction debris, and natural area) in Delhi, India, by evaluating important traits such as plant height, basal circumference, seeds per plant, seed size, seed weight, specific leaf area, and reproductive index. An important biochemical marker, proline, considered as a good plant performance indicator under stress was also quantified in leaves of R. communis to evaluate its response in different habitats. Interestingly, the species showed significant variation in plant height, specific leaf area, seed size, seed weight, and leaf proline content in different habitat types. Leaf proline content was positively related to plant height, specific leaf area, and seed size while negatively related to the total number of seeds/plant. Interestingly, reproductive index, calculated as a ratio of the total number of seeds to the plant height also showed a negative relation with leaf proline content. Results indicated that R. communis exhibits adaptive modulation of growth, reproductive traits, and leaf proline content in various urban habitats which contributes to invasiveness, range expansion, and establishment of the species. The study also gives evidence of how morphological and physiological traits could directly affect invasiveness of R. communis.

  5. Effect of temperature on biomass allocation in seedlings of two contrasting genotypes of the oilseed crop Ricinus communis.

    PubMed

    Ribeiro, Paulo R; Zanotti, Rafael F; Deflers, Carole; Fernandez, Luzimar G; Castro, Renato D de; Ligterink, Wilco; Hilhorst, Henk W M

    2015-08-01

    Ricinus communis is becoming an important crop for oil production, and studying the physiological and biochemical aspects of seedling development may aid in the improvement of crop quality and yield. The objective of this study was to assess the effect of temperature on biomass allocation in two R. communis genotypes. Biomass allocation was assessed by measuring dry weight of roots, stems, and cotyledons of seedlings grown at three different temperatures. Root length of each seedling was measured. Biomass allocation was strongly affected by temperature. Seedlings grown at 25°C and 35°C showed greater biomass than seedlings grown at 20°C. Cotyledon and stem dry weight increased for both genotypes with increasing temperature, whereas root biomass allocation showed a genotype-dependent behavior. Genotype MPA11 showed a continuous increase in root dry weight with increasing temperature, while genotype IAC80 was not able to sustain further root growth at higher temperatures. Based on metabolite and gene expression profiles, genotype MPA11 increases its level of osmoprotectant molecules and transcripts of genes encoding for antioxidant enzymes and heat shock proteins to a higher extent than genotype IAC80. This might be causal for the ability to maintain homeostasis and support root growth at elevated temperatures in genotype MPA11.

  6. Evaluation of Ricinus communis L. for the Phytoremediation of Polluted Soil with Organochlorine Pesticides

    PubMed Central

    Rissato, Sandra Regina; Galhiane, Mário Sergio; Fernandes, João Roberto; Gomes, Homero Marques; Ribeiro, Renata; de Almeida, Marcos Vinícius

    2015-01-01

    Phytoremediation is an attractive alternative to conventional treatments of soil due to advantages such as low cost, large application areas, and the possibility of in situ treatment. This study presents the assessment of phytoremediation processes conducted under controlled experimental conditions to evaluate the ability of Ricinus communis L., tropical plant species, to promote the degradation of 15 persistent organic pollutants (POPs), in a 66-day period. The contaminants tested were hexachlorocyclohexane (HCH), DDT, heptachlor, aldrin, and others. Measurements made in rhizosphere soil indicate that the roots of the studied species reduce the concentration of pesticides. Results obtained during this study indicated that the higher the hydrophobicity of the organic compound and its molecular interaction with soil or root matrix the greater its tendency to concentrate in root tissues and the research showed the following trend: HCHs < diclofop-methyl < chlorpyrifos < methoxychlor < heptachlor epoxide < endrin < o,p′-DDE < heptachlor < dieldrin < aldrin < o,p′-DDT < p,p′-DDT by increasing order of log K ow values. The experimental results confirm the importance of vegetation in removing pollutants, obtaining remediation from 25% to 70%, and demonstrated that Ricinus communis L. can be used for the phytoremediation of such compounds. PMID:26301249

  7. Fractionation of Stable Cadmium Isotopes in the Cadmium Tolerant Ricinus communis and Hyperaccumulator Solanum nigrum

    PubMed Central

    Wei, Rongfei; Guo, Qingjun; Wen, Hanjie; Liu, Congqiang; Yang, Junxing; Peters, Marc; Hu, Jian; Zhu, Guangxu; Zhang, Hanzhi; Tian, Liyan; Han, Xiaokun; Ma, Jie; Zhu, Chuanwei; Wan, Yingxin

    2016-01-01

    Cadmium (Cd) isotopes provide new insights into Cd uptake, transport and storage mechanisms in plants. Therefore, the present study adopted the Cd-tolerant Ricinus communis and Cd-hyperaccumulator Solanum nigrum, which were cultured under controlled conditions in a nutrient solution with variable Cd supply, to test the isotopic fractionation of Cd during plant uptake. The Cd isotope compositions of nutrient solutions and organs of the plants were measured by multiple collector inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (MC-ICPMS). The mass balance of Cd isotope yields isotope fractionations between plant and Cd source (δ114/110Cdorgans-solution) of −0.70‰ to −0.22‰ in Ricinus communis and −0.51‰ to −0.33‰ in Solanum nigrum. Moreover, Cd isotope fractionation during Cd transport from stem to leaf differs between the Cd-tolerant and -hyperaccumulator species. Based on these results, the processes (diffusion, adsorption, uptake or complexation), which may induce Cd isotope fractionation in plants, have been discussed. Overall, the present study indicates potential applications of Cd isotopes for investigating plant physiology. PMID:27076359

  8. Fractionation of Stable Cadmium Isotopes in the Cadmium Tolerant Ricinus communis and Hyperaccumulator Solanum nigrum.

    PubMed

    Wei, Rongfei; Guo, Qingjun; Wen, Hanjie; Liu, Congqiang; Yang, Junxing; Peters, Marc; Hu, Jian; Zhu, Guangxu; Zhang, Hanzhi; Tian, Liyan; Han, Xiaokun; Ma, Jie; Zhu, Chuanwei; Wan, Yingxin

    2016-04-14

    Cadmium (Cd) isotopes provide new insights into Cd uptake, transport and storage mechanisms in plants. Therefore, the present study adopted the Cd-tolerant Ricinus communis and Cd-hyperaccumulator Solanum nigrum, which were cultured under controlled conditions in a nutrient solution with variable Cd supply, to test the isotopic fractionation of Cd during plant uptake. The Cd isotope compositions of nutrient solutions and organs of the plants were measured by multiple collector inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (MC-ICPMS). The mass balance of Cd isotope yields isotope fractionations between plant and Cd source (δ(114/110)Cdorgans-solution) of -0.70‰ to -0.22‰ in Ricinus communis and -0.51‰ to -0.33‰ in Solanum nigrum. Moreover, Cd isotope fractionation during Cd transport from stem to leaf differs between the Cd-tolerant and -hyperaccumulator species. Based on these results, the processes (diffusion, adsorption, uptake or complexation), which may induce Cd isotope fractionation in plants, have been discussed. Overall, the present study indicates potential applications of Cd isotopes for investigating plant physiology.

  9. Antioxidant, Antimicrobial, and Free Radical Scavenging Potential of Aerial Parts of Periploca aphylla and Ricinus communis

    PubMed Central

    Iqbal, Jamshed; Zaib, Sumera; Farooq, Umar; Khan, Afsar; Bibi, Irum; Suleman, Saba

    2012-01-01

    Context. Many diseases are associated with oxidative stress caused by free radicals. Objective. The present study evaluated the in vitro antioxidant and antibacterial activities of various extracts of aerial parts of Periploca aphylla and Ricinus communis. Materials and Methods. In vitro antioxidant activities of the plant extract were determined by DPPH and NO scavenging method. Superoxide anion radical activity was measured by the reduction of nitro blue tetrazolium as compared with standard antioxidants. Total phenolic contents and antibacterial activities of these plants were determined by gallic acid equivalent (GAE) and serial tube dilution method, respectively. Results. Plants showed significant radical scavenging activity. The results were expressed as IC50. n-Propyl gallate and 3-t-butyl-4-hydroxyanisole were used as standards for antioxidant assay. All the extracts of both plants showed comparable IC50 to those of standards. Plants extract exhibited high phenolic contents and antibacterial activities were comparable with standard drug, Ciprofloxacin. Discussion and Conclusion. The present study provides evidence that Periploca aphylla and Ricinus communis prove to be potent natural antioxidants and could replace synthetic antioxidants. Plants can also be used against pathogenic bacterial strains. PMID:22919511

  10. Evaluation of Ricinus communis L. for the Phytoremediation of Polluted Soil with Organochlorine Pesticides.

    PubMed

    Rissato, Sandra Regina; Galhiane, Mário Sergio; Fernandes, João Roberto; Gerenutti, Marli; Gomes, Homero Marques; Ribeiro, Renata; de Almeida, Marcos Vinícius

    2015-01-01

    Phytoremediation is an attractive alternative to conventional treatments of soil due to advantages such as low cost, large application areas, and the possibility of in situ treatment. This study presents the assessment of phytoremediation processes conducted under controlled experimental conditions to evaluate the ability of Ricinus communis L., tropical plant species, to promote the degradation of 15 persistent organic pollutants (POPs), in a 66-day period. The contaminants tested were hexachlorocyclohexane (HCH), DDT, heptachlor, aldrin, and others. Measurements made in rhizosphere soil indicate that the roots of the studied species reduce the concentration of pesticides. Results obtained during this study indicated that the higher the hydrophobicity of the organic compound and its molecular interaction with soil or root matrix the greater its tendency to concentrate in root tissues and the research showed the following trend: HCHs < diclofop-methyl < chlorpyrifos < methoxychlor < heptachlor epoxide < endrin < o,p'-DDE < heptachlor < dieldrin < aldrin < o,p'-DDT < p,p'-DDT by increasing order of log K ow values. The experimental results confirm the importance of vegetation in removing pollutants, obtaining remediation from 25% to 70%, and demonstrated that Ricinus communis L. can be used for the phytoremediation of such compounds.

  11. Fractionation of Stable Cadmium Isotopes in the Cadmium Tolerant Ricinus communis and Hyperaccumulator Solanum nigrum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wei, Rongfei; Guo, Qingjun; Wen, Hanjie; Liu, Congqiang; Yang, Junxing; Peters, Marc; Hu, Jian; Zhu, Guangxu; Zhang, Hanzhi; Tian, Liyan; Han, Xiaokun; Ma, Jie; Zhu, Chuanwei; Wan, Yingxin

    2016-04-01

    Cadmium (Cd) isotopes provide new insights into Cd uptake, transport and storage mechanisms in plants. Therefore, the present study adopted the Cd-tolerant Ricinus communis and Cd-hyperaccumulator Solanum nigrum, which were cultured under controlled conditions in a nutrient solution with variable Cd supply, to test the isotopic fractionation of Cd during plant uptake. The Cd isotope compositions of nutrient solutions and organs of the plants were measured by multiple collector inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (MC-ICPMS). The mass balance of Cd isotope yields isotope fractionations between plant and Cd source (δ114/110Cdorgans-solution) of ‑0.70‰ to ‑0.22‰ in Ricinus communis and ‑0.51‰ to ‑0.33‰ in Solanum nigrum. Moreover, Cd isotope fractionation during Cd transport from stem to leaf differs between the Cd-tolerant and -hyperaccumulator species. Based on these results, the processes (diffusion, adsorption, uptake or complexation), which may induce Cd isotope fractionation in plants, have been discussed. Overall, the present study indicates potential applications of Cd isotopes for investigating plant physiology.

  12. Liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry and chemometric analysis of Ricinus communis extracts for cultivar identification.

    PubMed

    Ovenden, Simon P B; Pigott, Eloise J; Rochfort, Simone; Bourne, David J

    2014-01-01

    Seeds of Ricinus communis contain the toxic protein ricin, a 64 kD heterodimeric type II ribosome-inactivating protein that has been used in several high-profile poisoning incidents. The ability to determine which cultivar the toxin was isolated from via an LC-MS method would be of significant use to law enforcement and forensic agencies. To analyse via LC-MS and chemometrics (principal components analysis (PCA), orthogonal partial-least-squares discriminant analysis (OPLS-DA)) extracts of R. communis to identify compounds specific to a particular cultivar. Seeds from eight specimens of six cultivars of R. communis ('carmencita', 'dehradun', 'gibsonii', 'impala', 'sanguineus' and 'zanzibariensis') were extracted using a standard methodology. These extracts were analysed by LC-MS then subjected to chemometric analysis (PCA and OPLS-DA). Identified compounds of importance were subjected to high-resolution Fourier transform (HRFT) MS and MS/MS to elucidate their structures. This analysis identified 17 ions as potential cultivar determinators. Through accurate mass measurement and MS/MS, molecular formulae for 13 ions were determined, including two known and 11 new peptides. Unique ions in extracts of 'carmencita', 'dehradun', 'gibsonii', 'impala' and 'zanzibariensis' were identified that would allow an individual cultivar to be distinguished from other cultivars in this study. Although 'sanguineus' extracts contained no unique compounds, a unique LC-MS profile would allow for cultivar assignment. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  13. Acaricidal properties of Ricinus communis leaf extracts against organophosphate and pyrethroids resistant Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus.

    PubMed

    Ghosh, Srikanta; Tiwari, Shashi Shankar; Srivastava, Sharad; Sharma, Anil Kumar; Kumar, Sachin; Ray, D D; Rawat, A K S

    2013-02-18

    Indian cattle ticks have developed resistance to commonly used acaricides and an attempt has been made to formulate an ecofriendly herbal preparation for the control of acaricide resistant ticks. A 95% ethanolic extract of Ricinus communis was used to test the efficacy against reference acaricide resistant lines by in vitro assay. In in vitro assay, the extract significantly affects the mortality rate of ticks in dose-dependent manner ranging from 35.0 ± 5.0 to 95.0 ± 5.0% with an additional effect on reproductive physiology of ticks by inhibiting 36.4-63.1% of oviposition. The leaf extract was found effective in killing 48.0, 56.7 and 60.0% diazinon, deltamethrin and multi-acaricide resistant ticks, respectively. However, the cidal and oviposition limiting properties of the extract were separated when the extract was fractionated with hexane, chloroform, n-butanol and water. The HPTLC finger printing profile of R. communis leaf extract under λ(max.) - 254 showed presence of quercetin, gallic acid, flavone and kaempferol which seemed to have synergistic acaricidal action. In vivo experiment resulted in 59.9% efficacy on Ist challenge, however, following 2nd challenge the efficacy was reduced to 48.5%. The results indicated that the 95% ethanolic leaf extract of R. communis can be used effectively in integrated format for the control of acaricide resistant ticks.

  14. Ricinus communis L. A Value Added Crop for Remediation of Cadmium Contaminated Soil.

    PubMed

    Bauddh, Kuldeep; Singh, Kripal; Singh, Rana P

    2016-02-01

    Heavy metal pollution of soil is a global environmental problem and therefore its remediation is of paramount importance. Cadmium (Cd) is a potential toxicant to living organisms and even at very low concentrations. This study was aimed to assess the effectiveness of Ricinus communis for remediation of Cd contaminated soils. For this, growth and biomass of R. communis and Cd accumulation, translocation and partitioning in different plant parts were investigated after 8 months of plant growth in Cd contaminated soil (17.50 mg Cd kg−1 soil). Eight months old plants stabilized 51 % Cd in its roots and rest of the metal was transferred to the stem and leaves. There were no significant differences in growth, biomass and yield between control and Cd treated plants, except fresh weight of shoots. The seed yield per plant was reduced only by 5 % of Cd contaminated plants than control. The amount of Cd translocated to the castor seeds was nominal i.e. 0.007 µg Cd g−1 seeds. The bioconcentration factor reduced significantly in shoots and seeds in comparison to roots. The data indicates that R. communis is highly tolerant to Cd contamination and can be used for remediation of heavy metal polluted sites.

  15. Transcriptome-Wide Identification and Characterization of MicroRNAs from Castor Bean (Ricinus communis L.)

    PubMed Central

    Li, Fei; Liu, Aizhong

    2013-01-01

    Background MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are endogenously encoded small RNAs that post-transcriptionally regulate gene expression and play essential roles in numerous developmental and physiological processes. Currently, little information on the transcriptome and tissue-specific expression of miRNAs is available in the model non-edible oilseed crop castor bean (Ricinus communis L.), one of the most important non-edible oilseed crops cultivated worldwide. Recent advances in sequencing technologies have allowed the identification of conserved and novel miRNAs in many plant species. Here, we used high-throughput sequencing technologies to identify and characterize the miRNAs in castor bean. Results Five small RNA libraries were constructed for deep sequencing from root tips, leaves, developing seeds (at the initial stage, seed1; and at the fast oil accumulation stage, seed2) and endosperms in castor bean. High-throughput sequencing generated a large number of sequence reads of small RNAs in this study. In total, 86 conserved miRNAs were identified, including 63 known and 23 newly identified. Sixteen miRNA isoform variants in length were found from the conserved miRNAs of castor bean. MiRNAs displayed diverse organ-specific expression levels among five libraries. Combined with criteria for miRNA annotation and a RT-PCR approach, 72 novel miRNAs and their potential precursors were annotated and 20 miRNAs newly identified were validated. In addition, new target candidates for miRNAs newly identified in this study were proposed. Conclusions The current study presents the first high-throughput small RNA sequencing study performed in castor bean to identify its miRNA population. It characterizes and increases the number of miRNAs and their isoforms identified in castor bean. The miRNA expression analysis provides a foundation for understanding castor bean miRNA organ-specific expression patterns. The present study offers an expanded picture of miRNAs for castor bean and other members

  16. Evaluation of automated and manual DNA purification methods for detecting Ricinus communis DNA during ricin investigations.

    PubMed

    Hutchins, Anne S; Astwood, Michael J; Saah, J Royden; Michel, Pierre A; Newton, Bruce R; Dauphin, Leslie A

    2014-03-01

    In April of 2013, letters addressed to the President of United States and other government officials were intercepted and found to be contaminated with ricin, heightening awareness about the need to evaluate laboratory methods for detecting ricin. This study evaluated commercial DNA purification methods for isolating Ricinus communis DNA as measured by real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Four commercially available DNA purification methods (two automated, MagNA Pure compact and MagNA Pure LC, and two manual, MasterPure complete DNA and RNA purification kit and QIAamp DNA blood mini kit) were evaluated. We compared their ability to purify detectable levels of R. communis DNA from four different sample types, including crude preparations of ricin that could be used for biological crimes or acts of bioterrorism. Castor beans, spiked swabs, and spiked powders were included to simulate sample types typically tested during criminal and public health investigations. Real-time PCR analysis indicated that the QIAamp kit resulted in the greatest sensitivity for ricin preparations; the MasterPure kit performed best with spiked powders. The four methods detected equivalent levels by real-time PCR when castor beans and spiked swabs were used. All four methods yielded DNA free of PCR inhibitors as determined by the use of a PCR inhibition control assay. This study demonstrated that DNA purification methods differ in their ability to purify R. communis DNA; therefore, the purification method used for a given sample type can influence the sensitivity of real-time PCR assays for R. communis. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.

  17. Green synthesis of silver nanoparticles by Ricinus communis var. carmencita leaf extract and its antibacterial study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ojha, Sunita; Sett, Arghya; Bora, Utpal

    2017-09-01

    In this study, we report synthesis of silver nanoparticles (RcAgNPs) from silver nitrate solution using methanolic leaf extract of Ricinus communis var. carmencita. The polyphenols present in the leaves reduce Ag++ ions to Ag0 followed by a color change. Silver nanoparticle formation was ensured by surface plasmon resonance between 400 nm to 500 nm. Crystallinity of the synthesized nanoparticles was confirmed by UHRTEM, SAED and XRD analysis. The capping of phytochemicals and thermal stability of RcAgNPs were assessed by FTIR spectra and TGA analysis, respectively. It also showed antibacterial activity against both gram positive and gram negative strains. RcAgNPs were non-toxic against normal cell line (mouse fibroblast cell line L929) at lower concentrations (80 µg ml-1).

  18. Characterization of the 11S globulin gene family in the castor plant Ricinus communis L.

    PubMed

    Chileh, Tarik; Esteban-García, Belén; Alonso, Diego López; García-Maroto, Federico

    2010-01-13

    The 11S globulin (legumin) gene family has been characterized in the castor plant Ricinus communis L. Phylogenetic analysis reveals the presence of two diverged subfamilies (RcLEG1 and RcLEG2) comprising a total of nine genes and two putative pseudogenes. The expression of castor legumin genes has been studied, indicating that it is seed specific and developmentally regulated, with a maximum at the stage when cellular endosperm reaches its full expansion (around 40-45 DAP). However, conspicuous differences are appreciated in the expression timing of individual genes. A characterization of the 5'-proximal regulatory regions for two genes, RcLEG1-1 and RcLEG2-1, representative of the two legumin subfamilies, has also been performed by fusion to the GUS reporter gene. The results obtained from heterologous expression in tobacco and transient expression in castor, indicating seed-specific regulation, support the possible utility of these promoters for biotechnological purposes.

  19. Phytochemical investigation characterisation and anticonvulsant activity of Ricinus communis seeds in mice.

    PubMed

    Tripathi, Avinash Chandra; Gupta, Rajiv; Saraf, Shailendra K

    2011-11-01

    The ethanol extract of the dried, powdered hull portion of Ricinus communis seeds indicated the presence of alkaloids, steroids, flavonoids, glycosides and phenolics, amongst others. Ricinine was isolated as an active constituent and characterised by various chemical and spectroscopic techniques. The anticonvulsant activity of the isolated compound was evaluated in mice using the maximal electroshock (MES) model. The isolated compound at a dose of 60 mg kg⁻¹ body weight, orally, significantly (p < 0.05) reduced the extensor tonus phase of convulsion by MES-induced seizures in albino mice when compared with the standard drug diazepam (30 mg kg⁻¹ body weight, orally). The results of this study support the folkloric use of the plant in epileptic remedies.

  20. Time-course proteome analysis of developing extrafloral nectaries of Ricinus communis.

    PubMed

    Shah, Mohibullah; Teixeira, Fabiano M; Soares, Emanoella L; Soares, Arlete A; Carvalho, Paulo C; Domont, Gilberto B; Thornburg, Robert W; Nogueira, Fábio C S; Campos, Francisco A P

    2016-02-01

    Floral and extrafloral nectaries are unique organs that secrete energy rich chemical components, but their contribution for nectar production is largely unknown. Here, we present the first comparative proteome dataset of four developmental stages of the extrafloral nectaries from castor plant (Ricinus communis), an important biofuel crop. Respectively, from stage I-IV, we identified 626, 613, 449 and 356 proteins, respectively, summing up 882 nonredundant proteins. Surprisingly, we identified two isoforms of the potent toxin ricin, indicating that ricin expression is not limited to seeds, but it may serve a general defense purpose for the castor plant. To date, this is the most complete dataset of proteins either from floral or extrafloral nectaries, thus contributing to lay the foundations for investigations on their ecological and evolutionary importance. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  1. Synthesis, Structural Characterization, and Bioactivity of the Stable Peptide RCB-1 from Ricinus communis.

    PubMed

    Boldbaatar, Delgerbat; Gunasekera, Sunithi; El-Seedi, Hesham R; Göransson, Ulf

    2015-11-25

    The Ricinus communis biomarker peptides RCB-1 to -3 comprise homologous sequences of 19 (RCB-1) or 18 (RCB-2 and -3) amino acid residues. They all include four cysteine moieties, which form two disulfide bonds. However, neither the 3D structure nor the biological activity of any of these peptides is known. The synthesis of RCB-1, using microwave-assisted, Fmoc-based solid-phase peptide synthesis, and a method for its oxidative folding are reported. The tertiary structure of RCB-1, subsequently established using solution-state NMR, reveals a twisted loop fold with antiparallel β-sheets reinforced by the two disulfide bonds. Moreover, RCB-1 was tested for antibacterial, antifungal, and cytotoxic activity, as well as in a serum stability assay, in which it proved to be remarkably stable.

  2. Concanavalin A and ricinus communis receptor sites in normal human oral mucosa.

    PubMed

    Dabelsteen, E; Fejerskov, O; Norén, O; Mackenzie, I C

    1978-01-01

    Fluorescein conjugates of concanavalin A (Con-A) and Ricinus communis fraction 120 (RCA120) were shown to bind to the cell surfaces of basal and spinous cell layers in oral buccal mucosa. Palatal epithelium showed distinct binding to basal and spinous cells; cell membranes in the granular layer occasionally bound Con-A and always RCA120. The ultrastructural localization of Con-A binding sites on exfoliated buccal cells was detected by the Con-A peroxidase staining method. The Con-A receptors were seen on the cell surface in association with the outer leaflet of the plasma membrane. The reaction products appeared as a homogeneous, electron-dense layer containing irregularly distributed globules.

  3. Molecular cytogenetic analysis and genomic organization of major DNA repeats in castor bean (Ricinus communis L.).

    PubMed

    Alexandrov, O S; Karlov, G I

    2016-04-01

    This article addresses the bioinformatic, molecular genetic, and cytogenetic study of castor bean (Ricinus communis, 2n = 20), which belongs to the monotypic Ricinus genus within the Euphorbiaceae family. Because castor bean chromosomes are small, karyotypic studies are difficult. However, the use of DNA repeats has yielded new prospects for karyotypic research and genome characterization. In the present study, major DNA repeat sequences were identified, characterized and localized on mitotic metaphase and meiotic pachytene chromosomes. Analyses of the nucleotide composition, curvature models, and FISH localization of the rcsat39 repeat suggest that this repeat plays a key role in building heterochromatic arrays in castor bean. Additionally, the rcsat390 sequences were determined to be chromosome-specific repeats located in the pericentromeric region of mitotic chromosome A (pachytene chromosome 1). The localization of rcsat39, rcsat390, 45S and 5S rDNA genes allowed for the development of cytogenetic landmarks for chromosome identification. General questions linked to heterochromatin formation, DNA repeat distribution, and the evolutionary emergence of the genome are discussed. The article may be of interest to biologists studying small genome organization and short monomer DNA repeats.

  4. Expression analysis of a sucrose carrier in the germinating seedling of Ricinus communis.

    PubMed

    Bick, J A; Neelam, A; Smith, E; Nelson, S J; Hall, J L; Williams, L E

    1998-10-01

    This study describes the expression of a sucrose carrier at various developmental stages in Ricinus communis. A partial-length cDNA clone, RcSUT1, was isolated by RT-PCR from Ricinus seedling RNA. This is almost identical to a sucrose carrier cDNA, Rscr1, which has previously been isolated by library screening. However, we have observed a very different expression pattern in the seedling to that previously reported. Northern analysis, with RcSUT1 as a probe, revealed high expression of a 2 kb transcript in the cotyledons of the germinating seedling; transcript levels were similar in cotyledons harvested 3-6 days after germination. A much lower level of this transcript was detected in the root, hypocotyl and endosperm RNA of the seedling and very low levels were also present in the sink and source leaves of the mature plant. This pattern of expression was also reflected at the protein level with an antipeptide antibody raised to part of the RcSUT1 deduced amino acid sequence. Tissue print hybridisation analysis of the hypocotyl revealed that the sucrose carrier transcripts were localised to the phloem cells of the vascular bundles. A more detailed analysis of sucrose carrier gene expression in the cotyledons of the germinating seedling was carried out by in situ hybridisation; the strongest signals were observed from the lower epidermal layer and the phloem, consistent with an active loading role for these cells. An ultrastructural study of the cells in the lower epidermis showed that they have wall ingrowths which are characteristic of transfer cells. The results are discussed in relation to the physiological role of the sucrose carrier in the Ricinus seedling and to the pathways of sucrose movement from endosperm to the sieve elements in the cotyledons.

  5. Identification and expression profiles of the WRKY transcription factor family in Ricinus communis.

    PubMed

    Li, Hui-Liang; Zhang, Liang-Bo; Guo, Dong; Li, Chang-Zhu; Peng, Shi-Qing

    2012-07-25

    In plants, WRKY proteins constitute a large family of transcription factors. They are involved in many biological processes, such as plant development, metabolism, and responses to biotic and abiotic stresses. A large number of WRKY transcription factors have been reported from Arabidopsis, rice, and other higher plants. The recent publication of the draft genome sequence of castor bean (Ricinus communis) has allowed a genome-wide search for R. communis WRKY (RcWRKY) transcription factors and the comparison of these positively identified proteins with their homologs in model plants. A total of 47 WRKY genes were identified in the castor bean genome. According to the structural features of the WRKY domain, the RcWRKY are classified into seven main phylogenetic groups. Furthermore, putative orthologs of RcWRKY proteins in Arabidopsis and rice could now be assigned. An analysis of expression profiles of RcWRKY genes indicates that 47 WRKY genes display differential expressions either in their transcript abundance or expression patterns under normal growth conditions. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. The phytoremediation potential of bioenergy crop Ricinus communis for DDTs and cadmium co-contaminated soil.

    PubMed

    Huang, Huagang; Yu, Ning; Wang, Lijun; Gupta, D K; He, Zhenli; Wang, Kai; Zhu, Zhiqiang; Yan, Xingchu; Li, Tingqiang; Yang, Xiao-e

    2011-12-01

    Cadmium (Cd) and dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT) or its metabolite residues are frequently detected in agricultural soils and food, posing a threat to human health. The objective of this study was to compare the ability of 23 genotypes of Ricinus communis in mobilizing and uptake of Cd and DDTs (p,p'-DDT, o,p'-DDT, p,p'-DDD and p,p'-DDE) in the co-contaminated soil. The plant genotypes varied largely in the uptake and accumulation of DDTs and Cd, with mean concentrations of 0.37, 0.43 and 70.51 for DDTs, and 1.22, 2.27 and 37.63 mg kg(-1) dw for Cd in leaf, stem and root, respectively. The total uptake of DDTs and Cd varied from 83.1 to 267.8 and 66.0 to 155.1 μg per pot, respectively. These results indicate that R. communis has great potential for removing DDTs and Cd from contaminated soils attributed to its fast growth, high biomass, strong absorption and accumulation for both DDTs and Cd. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Ricin and Ricinus communis agglutinin subunits are all derived from a single-size polypeptide precursor.

    PubMed

    Butterworth, A G; Lord, J M

    1983-12-01

    Antibodies have been raised in rabbits against the individually purified A and B subunits of the toxic castor bean lectin, ricin, and against the A' and B' subunits of Ricinus communis agglutinin type I. Each of the antisera recognised a single polypeptide species of Mr 60 500 when maturing castor bean endosperm mRNA was translated in vitro in a rabbit-reticulocyte-derived system. When dog pancreatic microsomal vesicles were included in the translational system, each subunit antiserum precipitated a group of 66 000-68 000-Mr core-glycosylated polypeptides which had been translocated into the lumen of the vesicles. The 60 500-Mr polypeptide appeared to be a common precursor to all four individual lectin subunits since (a) its glycosylated (66 000-68 000-Mr) forms were readily detected in the endoplasmic reticulum fraction isolated from maturing castor bean endosperm and (b) pulse-chase studies showed that the glycosylated precursors disappeared from the endoplasmic reticulum fraction with the concomittant appearance of authentic lectin subunits in a soluble protein fraction which included protein body matrix components. Antiserum prepared against whole R. communis agglutinin, type I, also precipitated the 65 000-Mr precursor in vitro and in vivo, but in addition precipitated a non-glycosylated 34 000-Mr polypeptide. This smaller protein is not a lectin subunit precursor, contradicting an earlier suggestion. It is most probably a precursor to the 2-S albumin storage proteins found in castor bean endosperm protein bodies.

  8. Antidiabetic activity of 50% ethanolic extract of Ricinus communis and its purified fractions.

    PubMed

    Shokeen, Poonam; Anand, Prachi; Murali, Y Krishna; Tandon, Vibha

    2008-11-01

    We investigated the antidiabetic activity of 50% ethanolic extract of roots of Ricinus communis (RCRE) along with its bioassay-guided purification. Five-hundred milligram per kilogram body weight appeared to be the effective dose as it caused the maximum lowering of the fasting blood glucose, both in normal as well as type 1 diabetic animals. The maximum hypoglycemic effect was always observed at the 8th h up to which the study has been conducted. Administration of the effective dose of RCRE to the diabetic rats for 20 days showed favorable effects not only on fasting blood glucose, but also on total lipid profile and liver and kidney functions on 10th and 20th day. RCRE was purified using silica gel column chromatography. Out of several different fractions tested, only one fraction (R-18) showed significant antihyperglycemic activity. RCRE seemed to have a high margin of safety as no mortality and no statistically significant difference in alkaline phosphatase, serum bilirubin, creatinine, serum glutamate oxaloacetate transaminase, serum glutamate pyruvate transaminase and total protein was observed even after the administration of the extract at a dose of 10 g/kg b.wt. Thus R. communis seems to have a promising value for the development of a potent phytomedicine for diabetes.

  9. Clinical trial for evaluation of Ricinus communis and sodium hypochlorite as denture cleanser.

    PubMed

    Badaró, Maurício Malheiros; Salles, Marcela Moreira; Leite, Vanessa Maria Fagundes; Arruda, Carolina Noronha Ferraz de; Oliveira, Viviane de Cássia; Nascimento, Cássio do; Souza, Raphael Freitas de; Paranhos, Helena de Freitas de Oliveira; Silva-Lovato, Cláudia Helena

    2017-01-01

    This study evaluated Ricinus communis and sodium hypochlorite solutions in terms of biofilm removal ability, remission of candidiasis, antimicrobial activity, and participant satisfaction. It was conducted a controlled clinical trial, randomized, double-blind, and crossover. Sixty-four denture wearers with (n=24) and without candidiasis (n=40) were instructed to brush (3 times/day) and immerse their dentures (20 min/day) in different storage solutions (S1 / S2: 0.25% / 0.5% sodium hypochlorite; S3: 10% R. communis; S4: Saline).The trial period for each solution was seven days and a washout period of seven days was used before starting the use of another solution. The variables were analyzed at baseline and after each trial period. The biofilm of inner surfaces of maxillary dentures was disclosed, photographed, and total and dyed areas were measured (Image Tool software). The percentage of biofilm was calculated. Remission of candidiasis was assessed by visual scale and score were attributed. Antimicrobial activity was assessed by the DNA-Checkerboard hybridization method. Patient satisfaction was measured using a questionnaire. S1 (4.41±7.98%) and S2 (2.93±5.23%) were more effective then S3 (6.95±10.93%) in biofilm remotion(P<0.0001). All solutions were different from the control (11.07±11.99%). S3 was the most effective solution in remission of candidiasis (50%), followed by S1 (46%). Concerning antimicrobial action, S1/S2 were similar and resulted in the lowest microorganism mean count (P=0.04), followed by S3. No significant differences were found with patient's satisfaction. 10% R. communis and 0.25% sodium hypochlorite were effective in biofilm removal, causing remission of candidiasis and reducing the formation of microbial colonies in denture surfaces. All solutions were approved by patients.

  10. Antimicrobial activity of complete denture cleanser solutions based on sodium hypochlorite and Ricinus communis - a randomized clinical study.

    PubMed

    Salles, Marcela Moreira; Badaró, Maurício Malheiros; Arruda, Carolina Noronha Ferraz de; Leite, Vanessa Maria Fagundes; Silva, Cláudia Helena Lovato da; Watanabe, Evandro; Oliveira, Viviane de Cássia; Paranhos, Helena de Freitas Oliveira

    2015-01-01

    To preserve oral health and to maintain the prosthetic devices, it is important not only to improve the properties of commonly known hygiene products, but also to investigate new materials with antimicrobial action. Objectives This study evaluated the antimicrobial activity of sodium hypochlorite (0.25% and 0.50%) and 10% Ricinus communis' solutions against specific microorganisms. Sixty four maxillary complete denture wearers were instructed to brush their dentures three times a day and to soak them (20 min/day) in the solutions: SH1: 0.25% sodium hypochlorite; SH2: 0.5% sodium hypochlorite; RC: 10% R. communis oil; and C: 0.85% saline (control). The solutions were used for 7 days in a randomized sequence. Following each period of use, there was a 1-week washout period. Antimicrobial activity was determined by Colony Forming Units (CFU) counts of Streptococcus mutans, Candida spp., and gram-negative microorganisms. For collecting biofilm, the internal surface of maxillary dentures was brushed with saline solution, and biofilm suspension obtained. After dilutions (100 - 10-3), aliquots were seeded in Mitis salivarius, CHROMagar Candida, and MacConkey agar for detecting S. mutans, Candida spp., or gram-negative microorganisms, respectively. After incubation, colonies were counted, and CFU/mL values were calculated. Then, transformation - log10 (CFU+1) - data were analyzed using the Friedman test (α=0.05). Results showed significant differences between the solutions (p<0.001). All three solutions showed antimicrobial activity against S. mutans. Against Candida spp., RC and SH1 solutions showed similar effect while SH2 showed superior activity. SH1 and SH2 solutions showed antimicrobial action against gram-negative microorganisms. The Candida species most frequently isolated was C. albicans, followed by C. tropicalis and C. glabrata. The 0.5% sodium hypochlorite solution was the most effective and might be used to control denture biofilm. C. albicans was the most

  11. Molecular and biochemical characterization of the OLE-1 high-oleic castor seed (Ricinus communis L.) mutant.

    PubMed

    Venegas-Calerón, Mónica; Sánchez, Rosario; Salas, Joaquín J; Garcés, Rafael; Martínez-Force, Enrique

    2016-07-01

    The natural OLE-1 high-oleic castor mutant has been characterized, demonstrating that point mutations in the FAH12 gene are responsible for the high-oleic phenotype. The contribution of each mutation was evaluated by heterologous expression in yeast, and lipid studies in developing OLE-1 seeds provided new evidence of unusual fatty acids channeling into TAGs. Ricinus communis L. is a plant of the Euphorbiaceae family well known for producing seeds whose oil has a very high ricinoleic (12-hydroxyoctadecenoic) acid content. Castor oil is considered the only commercially renewable source of hydroxylated fatty acids, which have many applications as chemical reactants. Accordingly, there has been great interest in the field of plant lipid biotechnology to define how ricinoleic acid is synthesized, which could also provide information that might serve to increase the content of other unusual fatty acids in oil crops. Accordingly, we set out to study the biochemistry of castor oil synthesis by characterizing a natural castor bean mutant deficient in ricinoleic acid synthesis (OLE-1). This mutant accumulates high levels of oleic acid and displays remarkable alterations in its seed lipid composition. To identify enzymes that are critical for this phenotype in castor oil, we cloned and sequenced the oleate desaturase (FAD2) and hydroxylase (FAH12) genes from wild-type and OLE-1 castor bean plants and analyzed their expression in different tissues. Heterologous expression in yeast confirmed that three modifications to the OLE-1 FAH12 protein were responsible for its weaker hydroxylase activity. In addition, we studied the expression of the genes involved in this biosynthetic pathway at different developmental stages, as well as that of other genes involved in lipid biosynthesis, both in wild-type and mutant seeds.

  12. Interaction Effect Between Herbivory and Plant Fertilization on Extrafloral Nectar Production and on Seed Traits: An Experimental Study With Ricinus communis (Euphorbiaceae).

    PubMed

    De Sibio, P R; Rossi, M N

    2016-08-01

    It is known that the release of volatile chemicals by many plants can attract the natural enemies of herbivorous insects. Such indirect interactions are likely when plants produce nectar from their extrafloral nectaries, and particularly when the production of extrafloral nectar (EFN) is induced by herbivory. In the present study, we conducted experiments to test whether foliar herbivory inflicted by Spodoptera frugiperda Smith (Noctuidae) increases nectar production by extrafloral nectaries on one of its host plants, Ricinus communis L. (Euphorbiaceae). Due to the current economic importance of R. communis, we also investigated whether the following seed traits-water content, dry mass, and essential oil production-are negatively affected by herbivory. Finally, we tested whether or not nectar production and seed traits are influenced by plant fertilization (plant quality). We found that nectar production was increased after herbivory, but it was not affected by the type of fertilization. Seed dry mass was higher in plants that were subjected to full fertilization, without herbivory; plants maintained in low fertilization conditions, however, had higher seed mass when subjected to herbivory. The same inverted pattern was observed for oil production. Therefore, our results suggest that EFN production in R. communis may act as an indirect defense strategy against herbivores, and that there is a trade-off between reproduction and plant growth when low-fertilized plants are subjected to herbivory.

  13. Effect of Solanum nigrum and Ricinus communis extracts on histamine and carrageenan-induced inflammation in the chicken skin.

    PubMed

    Lomash, V; Parihar, S K; Jain, N K; Katiyar, A K

    2010-02-09

    We studied anti-inflammatory effect of ethanolic extract of Solanum nigrum leaves and Ricinus communis root bark using chicken skin as model. Leaves of these plants were dried under shade and powdered. 5% Ethanol extracts were prepared using Soxhlet and injected intraperitoneally (400 mg/kg) 1 hour prior to the induction of inflammation. Inflammatory lesion were induced by intradermal injection of 0.02 ml 0.05%w/v histamine (0-2 min, 15 min, 30 min, 1 hr and 6 hr) and 1% w/v carrageenan (0-2 min, 30 min, 1 hr, 6 hr, 12 hr and 48 hr) in different group of birds. Increase in vascular permeability was studied using Evans blue as a permeability marker both qualitatively and quantitatively. Cellular events were studied in skin lesions at various time intervals and cells were counted at high power objective under microscope. Both, extracts exhibited significant decrease in permeability response at an early stage (0-2 min) of histamine as well as in carrageenan induced inflammatory lesions. There was a significant (p< 0.05) suppression in the emigration of heterophils, monocytoid cells, basophils and total leukocytosis in Solanum nigrum and Ricinus communis pretreated chicken skin lesions as compared to the control. The present study suggested antihistamine and anti-inflammatory properties of ethanolic extract of Solanum nigrum and Ricinus communis.

  14. De novo sequencing of RCB-1 to -3: peptide biomarkers from the castor bean plant Ricinus communis.

    PubMed

    Ovenden, Simon P B; Fredriksson, Sten-Ake; Bagas, Christina K; Bergström, Tomas; Thomson, Stuart A; Nilsson, Calle; Bourne, David J

    2009-05-15

    Ricinus communis (also know as the castor bean plant) whose forbears escaped from suburban gardens or commercial cultivation grow wild in many countries. In temperate and tropical climates seeds will develop to maturity, and plants may be perennial. In Australia these plants have become widespread and are regarded as noxious weeds in many localities. The seeds of R. communis contain ricin, a protein toxin which can easily be extracted into an aqueous solution. Ricin is toxic by ingestion, inhalation, and injection. The history of terrorist and anarchist interest in the use of seeds from R. communis has driven the development of strategies for determination of cultivar and geographic location of the source of an extract of wild-grown castor bean seed. This forensic information is of considerable interest to law enforcement and intelligence organizations. During forensic studies of both the metabolome and proteome of extracts from eight specimens of six different cultivars of R. communis ("zanzibariensis" collected from Kenya and Tanzania, "gibsonii", "impala", "dehradun", "carmencita", and "sanguineus" collected from Spain and Tanzania), three peptide biomarkers (designated Ricinus communis biomarkers, or RCB) were identified in both the MALDI and electrospray LC-MS spectra. Two of these peptides (RCB-1 and RCB-2) were present in varying amounts in all cultivars, while RCB-3 was present only in the "carmencita" cultivar. The amino acid sequences of RCB-1 to -3 were determined using LC-MS(n) fragmentation and de novo sequencing on both the intact and the carbamidomethyl modified peptides. The connectivity of the two disulfide bonds that were present in all three RCB were determined using a strategy of partial reduction and differential alkylation using tris-(2-carboxyethyl)phosphine with N-ethylmaleimide to reduce and alkylate the most accessible disulfide bond, followed by reduction and alkylation of the remaining disulfide bond with dithiolthreitol and

  15. Metabolite profiling of Ricinus communis germination at different temperatures provides new insights into thermo-mediated requirements for successful seedling establishment.

    PubMed

    Ribeiro, Paulo R; Willems, Leo A J; Mutimawurugo, Marie-Chantal; Fernandez, Luzimar G; de Castro, Renato D; Ligterink, Wilco; Hilhorst, Henk W M

    2015-10-01

    Ricinus communis seeds germinate to a high percentage and faster at 35 °C than at lower temperatures, but with compromised seedling establishment. However, seedlings are able to cope with high temperatures at later stages of seedling establishment if germination occurred at lower temperatures. Our objective was to assess the biochemical and molecular requirements of R. communis germination for successful seedling establishment at varying temperatures. For that, we performed metabolite profiling (GC-TOF-MS) and measured transcript levels of key genes involved in several energy-generating pathways, such as storage oil mobilization, β-oxidation and gluconeogenesis of seeds germinated at three different temperatures. We identified a thermo-sensitive window during seed germination in which high temperatures compromise seedling development, most likely by down-regulating some energy-generating pathways. Overexpression of malate synthase (MLS) and glycerol kinase (GK) genes resulted in higher starch levels in Nicotiana benthamiana leaves, which highlights the importance of these genes in energy-generating pathways for seedling establishment. Additionally, we showed that GABA, which is a stress-responsive metabolite, accumulated in response to the water content of the seeds during the initial phase of imbibition. Herewith, we provide new insights into the molecular requirements for vigorous seedling growth of R. communis under different environmental conditions. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Adenosine stimulates anabolic metabolism in developing castor bean (Ricinus communis L.) cotyledons.

    PubMed

    Flörchinger, Martin; Zimmermann, Marc; Traub, Michaela; Neuhaus, H Ekkehard; Möhlmann, Torsten

    2006-01-01

    In previous experiments it was shown that Castor-bean (Ricinus communis) endosperm releases carbohydrates, amino acids and nucleoside derivatives, which are subsequently imported into the developing cotyledons (Kombrink and Beevers in Plant Physiol 73:370-376, 1983). To investigate the importance of the most prominent nucleoside adenosine for the metabolism of growing Ricinus seedlings, we supplied adenosine to cotyledons of 5-days-old seedlings after removal of the endosperm. This treatment led to a 16% increase in freshweight of intact seedlings within 16 h, compared to controls. Using detached cotyledons, we followed uptake of radiolabelled adenosine and identified 40% of label in solubles (mostly ATP and ADP), 46% incorporation in RNA and 2.5% in DNA, indicating a highly active salvage pathway. About 7% of freshly imported adenosine entered the phloem, which indicates a major function of adenosine for cotyledon metabolism. Import and conversion of adenosine improved the energy content of cotyledons as revealed by a substantially increased ATP/ADP ratio. This effect was accompanied by slight increases in respiratory activity, decreased levels of hexose phosphates and increased levels of fructose-1,6-bisphosphate and triose phosphates. These alterations indicate a stimulation of glycolytic flux by activation of phosphofructokinase, and accordingly we determined a higher activity of this enzyme. Furthermore the rate of [(14)C]-sucrose driven starch biosynthesis in developing castor-bean is significantly increased by feeding of adenosine. In conclusion, our data indicate that adenosine imported from mobilizing endosperm into developing castor-bean cotyledons fulfils an important function as it promotes anabolic reactions in this rapidly developing tissue.

  17. Single nucleotide polymorphisms for assessing genetic diversity in castor bean (Ricinus communis)

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Castor bean (Ricinus communis) is an agricultural crop and garden ornamental that is widely cultivated and has been introduced worldwide. Understanding population structure and the distribution of castor bean cultivars has been challenging because of limited genetic variability. We analyzed the population genetics of R. communis in a worldwide collection of plants from germplasm and from naturalized populations in Florida, U.S. To assess genetic diversity we conducted survey sequencing of the genomes of seven diverse cultivars and compared the data to a reference genome assembly of a widespread cultivar (Hale). We determined the population genetic structure of 676 samples using single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) at 48 loci. Results Bayesian clustering indicated five main groups worldwide and a repeated pattern of mixed genotypes in most countries. High levels of population differentiation occurred between most populations but this structure was not geographically based. Most molecular variance occurred within populations (74%) followed by 22% among populations, and 4% among continents. Samples from naturalized populations in Florida indicated significant population structuring consistent with local demes. There was significant population differentiation for 56 of 78 comparisons in Florida (pairwise population ϕPT values, p < 0.01). Conclusion Low levels of genetic diversity and mixing of genotypes have led to minimal geographic structuring of castor bean populations worldwide. Relatively few lineages occur and these are widely distributed. Our approach of determining population genetic structure using SNPs from genome-wide comparisons constitutes a framework for high-throughput analyses of genetic diversity in plants, particularly in species with limited genetic diversity. PMID:20082707

  18. The synthesis of Ricinus communis agglutinin, cotranslational and posttranslational modification of agglutinin polypeptides.

    PubMed

    Roberts, L M; Lord, J M

    1981-09-01

    Polyadenylated RNA isolated from the endosperm tissue of maturing castor bean seeds was translated in a cell-free rabbit reticulocyte lysate system. Rabbit antibodies raised against Ricinus communis agglutinin were used to identify nascent agglutinin chains. In contrast to the authentic agglutinin polypeptides with molecular weights of 31000 (A chains) and 37000 (glycosylated B chains), immunoreactive translational products of Mr 33500 and 59000 were observed. The inclusion of canine pancreatic microsomes in the translational system resulted in the cotranslational segregation of these immunoreactive products into the lumen of the vesicles and their modification, to molecular weights of 32000 and 66000--69000 respectively. These cotranslational size modifications resulted from the cleavage of leader sequences and, in the case of the larger product, concomittant core glycosylation, 32000-Mr and 66000--69000-Mr proteins were also observed amongst the immunoreactive products initially formed during the labelling of intact endosperm tissue in vivo, together with 37000-Mr and 39000-Mr proteins. Pulse-chase experiments showed that 66000--69000-Mr proteins slowly disappeared while the smaller proteins were further cleaved to chains of Mr 31000 (authentic A chain), 34000 and 37000 (authentic glycosylated B chains). It was concluded that R. communis agglutinin polypeptides were synthesized in precursor form, possibly as a 'giant' precursor in the case of the B chain, on membrane-bound polysomes. Cotranslational translocation across the endoplasmic reticulum membrane was accompanied by proteolysis to remove leader sequences and, where appropriate, core glycosylation. Even after cotranslational processing agglutinin polypeptides were still in precursor form. Processing to authentic size appeared to occur posttranslationally.

  19. Clinical trial for evaluation of Ricinus communis and sodium hypochlorite as denture cleanser

    PubMed Central

    BADARÓ, Maurício Malheiros; SALLES, Marcela Moreira; LEITE, Vanessa Maria Fagundes; de ARRUDA, Carolina Noronha Ferraz; OLIVEIRA, Viviane de Cássia; do NASCIMENTO, Cássio; de SOUZA, Raphael Freitas; PARANHOS, Helena de Freitas de Oliveira; SILVA-LOVATO, Cláudia Helena

    2017-01-01

    Abstract The development of opportunistic infections due to poor denture hygiene conditions justified the search for effective hygiene protocols for controlling denture biofilm. Objective This study evaluated Ricinus communis and sodium hypochlorite solutions in terms of biofilm removal ability, remission of candidiasis, antimicrobial activity, and participant satisfaction. Material and Methods It was conducted a controlled clinical trial, randomized, double-blind, and crossover. Sixty-four denture wearers with (n=24) and without candidiasis (n=40) were instructed to brush (3 times/day) and immerse their dentures (20 min/day) in different storage solutions (S1 / S2: 0.25% / 0.5% sodium hypochlorite; S3: 10% R. communis; S4: Saline).The trial period for each solution was seven days and a washout period of seven days was used before starting the use of another solution. The variables were analyzed at baseline and after each trial period. The biofilm of inner surfaces of maxillary dentures was disclosed, photographed, and total and dyed areas were measured (Image Tool software). The percentage of biofilm was calculated. Remission of candidiasis was assessed by visual scale and score were attributed. Antimicrobial activity was assessed by the DNA-Checkerboard hybridization method. Patient satisfaction was measured using a questionnaire. Results S1 (4.41±7.98%) and S2 (2.93±5.23%) were more effective then S3 (6.95±10.93%) in biofilm remotion(P<0.0001). All solutions were different from the control (11.07±11.99%). S3 was the most effective solution in remission of candidiasis (50%), followed by S1 (46%). Concerning antimicrobial action, S1/S2 were similar and resulted in the lowest microorganism mean count (P=0.04), followed by S3. No significant differences were found with patient’s satisfaction. Conclusions 10% R. communis and 0.25% sodium hypochlorite were effective in biofilm removal, causing remission of candidiasis and reducing the formation of microbial

  20. Physiological and biochemical responses of Ricinus communis seedlings to different temperatures: a metabolomics approach.

    PubMed

    Ribeiro, Paulo Roberto; Fernandez, Luzimar Gonzaga; de Castro, Renato Delmondez; Ligterink, Wilco; Hilhorst, Henk W M

    2014-08-12

    Compared with major crops, growth and development of Ricinus communis is still poorly understood. A better understanding of the biochemical and physiological aspects of germination and seedling growth is crucial for the breeding of high yielding varieties adapted to various growing environments. In this context, we analysed the effect of temperature on growth of young R. communis seedlings and we measured primary and secondary metabolites in roots and cotyledons. Three genotypes, recommended to small family farms as cash crop, were used in this study. Seedling biomass was strongly affected by the temperature, with the lowest total biomass observed at 20°C. The response in terms of biomass production for the genotype MPA11 was clearly different from the other two genotypes: genotype MPA11 produced heavier seedlings at all temperatures but the root biomass of this genotype decreased with increasing temperature, reaching the lowest value at 35°C. In contrast, root biomass of genotypes MPB01 and IAC80 was not affected by temperature, suggesting that the roots of these genotypes are less sensitive to changes in temperature. In addition, an increasing temperature decreased the root to shoot ratio, which suggests that biomass allocation between below- and above ground parts of the plants was strongly affected by the temperature. Carbohydrate contents were reduced in response to increasing temperature in both roots and cotyledons, whereas amino acids accumulated to higher contents. Our results show that a specific balance between amino acids, carbohydrates and organic acids in the cotyledons and roots seems to be an important trait for faster and more efficient growth of genotype MPA11. An increase in temperature triggers the mobilization of carbohydrates to support the preferred growth of the aerial parts, at the expense of the roots. A shift in the carbon-nitrogen metabolism towards the accumulation of nitrogen-containing compounds seems to be the main biochemical

  1. Physiological and biochemical responses of Ricinus communis seedlings to different temperatures: a metabolomics approach

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Compared with major crops, growth and development of Ricinus communis is still poorly understood. A better understanding of the biochemical and physiological aspects of germination and seedling growth is crucial for the breeding of high yielding varieties adapted to various growing environments. In this context, we analysed the effect of temperature on growth of young R. communis seedlings and we measured primary and secondary metabolites in roots and cotyledons. Three genotypes, recommended to small family farms as cash crop, were used in this study. Results Seedling biomass was strongly affected by the temperature, with the lowest total biomass observed at 20°C. The response in terms of biomass production for the genotype MPA11 was clearly different from the other two genotypes: genotype MPA11 produced heavier seedlings at all temperatures but the root biomass of this genotype decreased with increasing temperature, reaching the lowest value at 35°C. In contrast, root biomass of genotypes MPB01 and IAC80 was not affected by temperature, suggesting that the roots of these genotypes are less sensitive to changes in temperature. In addition, an increasing temperature decreased the root to shoot ratio, which suggests that biomass allocation between below- and above ground parts of the plants was strongly affected by the temperature. Carbohydrate contents were reduced in response to increasing temperature in both roots and cotyledons, whereas amino acids accumulated to higher contents. Our results show that a specific balance between amino acids, carbohydrates and organic acids in the cotyledons and roots seems to be an important trait for faster and more efficient growth of genotype MPA11. Conclusions An increase in temperature triggers the mobilization of carbohydrates to support the preferred growth of the aerial parts, at the expense of the roots. A shift in the carbon-nitrogen metabolism towards the accumulation of nitrogen-containing compounds seems

  2. Dehydration of model membranes induced by lectins from Ricinus communis and Viscum album.

    PubMed Central

    Pohl, P; Saparov, S M; Pohl, E E; Evtodienko, V Y; Agapov, I I; Tonevitsky, A G

    1998-01-01

    The effects of ribosome-inactivating proteins (RIPs) from Ricinus communis and from Viscum album on the water permeability, Pf, and the surface dielectric constant, epsilon, of model membranes were studied. Pf was calculated from microelectrode measurements of the ion concentration distribution in the immediate vicinity of a planar membrane, and epsilon was obtained from the fluorescence of dansyl phosphatidylethanolamine incorporated into unilamellar vesicles. Pf and epsilon of fully saturated phosphatidylcholine membranes were affected only in the presence of a lectin receptor (monosialoganglioside, GM1) in the bilayer. It is suggested that the membrane area occupied by clustered lectin-receptor complexes is markedly less permeable to water. Protein binding to the receptor was not a prelude for hydrophobic lipid-protein interactions when the membranes were formed from a mixture of natural phospholipids with a high content of unsaturated fatty acids. These membranes, characterized by a high initial water permeability, were found to interact with the RIPs unspecifically. From a decrease of both Pf and epsilon it was concluded that not only water partitioning but also protein adsorption correlates with looser packing of polyunsaturated lipids at the lipid-water interface. PMID:9826608

  3. Naturally occurring and experimentally induced castor bean (Ricinus communis) poisoning in ducks

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Jensen, W.I.; Allen, J.P.

    1981-01-01

    Castor bean (Ricinus communis) poisoning accounted for the death of several thousand ducks in the Texas panhandle in the fall and winter months of 1969-1971. Signs of intoxication resembled those of botulism, except for mucoid, blood-tinged excreta. The most common lesions were severe fatty change in the liver, widely distributed internal petechial hemorrhages or ecchymoses, and catarrhal enteritis. Nearly intact castor beans were found in the stomach of one duck during field necropsy. Fragments of seed coat resembling castor bean were found in the stomachs of 10 of 14 ducks examined in the laboratory. Clinical signs and postmortem lesions observed in wild ducks were induced experimentally in mallards (Anas platyrhynchos) by force-feeding intact castor beans. Toxicity titrations were erratic, but the LD50 appeared to be between three and four seeds. The mouse toxicity test, used to detect Clostridium botulinum toxin in the blood serum of intoxicated ducks, was negative in every case. Hemagglutination and precipitin tests generally failed to detect castor bean in extracts of excreta or intestinal contents of experimentally intoxicated ducks.

  4. Root cooling strongly affects diel leaf growth dynamics, water and carbohydrate relations in Ricinus communis.

    PubMed

    Poiré, Richard; Schneider, Heike; Thorpe, Michael R; Kuhn, Arnd J; Schurr, Ulrich; Walter, Achim

    2010-03-01

    In laboratory and greenhouse experiments with potted plants, shoots and roots are exposed to temperature regimes throughout a 24 h (diel) cycle that can differ strongly from the regime under which these plants have evolved. In the field, roots are often exposed to lower temperatures than shoots. When the root-zone temperature in Ricinus communis was decreased below a threshold value, leaf growth occurred preferentially at night and was strongly inhibited during the day. Overall, leaf expansion, shoot biomass growth, root elongation and ramification decreased rapidly, carbon fluxes from shoot to root were diminished and carbohydrate contents of both root and shoot increased. Further, transpiration rate was not affected, yet hydrostatic tensions in shoot xylem increased. When root temperature was increased again, xylem tension reduced, leaf growth recovered rapidly, carbon fluxes from shoot to root increased, and carbohydrate pools were depleted. We hypothesize that the decreased uptake of water in cool roots diminishes the growth potential of the entire plant - especially diurnally, when the growing leaf loses water via transpiration. As a consequence, leaf growth and metabolite concentrations can vary enormously, depending on root-zone temperature and its heterogeneity inside pots.

  5. Preparation and evaluation of Ricinus communis agglutinin affinity adsorbents using polymeric supports.

    PubMed

    Cartellieri, S; Helmholz, H; Niemeyer, B

    2001-08-01

    A practicable and efficient procedure for preparation of Ricinus communis agglutinin (RCA) affinity adsorbents has been developed. For immobilization of RCA two different polymer-based supports, Toyopearl and TSKgel (TosoHaas), were used. RCA has been successfully immobilized onto these supports with amounts of coupled ligand between 15 and 23 mg/g dry support and corresponding coupling yields of 69-93% (w/w). The prepared affinity adsorbents were characterized concerning their binding capacity for the glycoprotein asialofetuin (ASF) and accessibility of the ligand binding sites. The high accessibility of 80% showed that steric hindrance was negligible at the present ligand density. RCA-Toyopearl was successfully applied in affinity chromatography of glycoproteins indicating its high specificity. A long-term stability test proved no change in capacity for a period of at least 12 months. High-performance affinity chromatography (HPLAC) was carried out using RCA-TSKgel. Experimental results showed that the prepared adsorbents are suitable for selective separation of glycoproteins and oligosaccharides and therefore can be used for investigations of adsorption characteristics of glycoconjugates and for laboratory-scale preparations.

  6. Comparison of chelates for enhancing Ricinus communis L. phytoremediation of Cd and Pb contaminated soil.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Hanzhi; Guo, Qingjun; Yang, Junxing; Ma, Jie; Chen, Gang; Chen, Tongbin; Zhu, Guangxu; Wang, Jian; Zhang, Guangxin; Wang, Xin; Shao, Chunyan

    2016-11-01

    We studied chelate effects on castor bean (Ricinus communis L.) growth. These effects included Cd and Pb accumulation in plant tissues and the chemical behavior of Cd and Pb in the plant rhizosphere and non-rhizosphere. Tests were conducted in a glasshouse using the rhizobag method. Two castor bean cultivars (Zibo-3 and Zibo-9) were grown in soil contaminated with 3.53mg/kg Cd and 274mg/kg Pb. The soil was treated with citric acid (CA), ethylenediamine disuccinic acid (EDDS) or ethylenediamine tetraacetic acid (EDTA) (5mmol/kg). EDDS-treated soil produced 28.8% and 59.4% greater biomass for Zibo-3 and Zibo-9 respectively. In contrast, CA and EDTA inhibited the growth of the two cultivars. Zibo-9 had greater tolerance than Zibo-3 to chelate toxicity. Based on Cd and Pb plant uptake, EDDS could substitute for EDTA for phytoremediation of Cd in soil. EDTA was the most effective of the three chelates for Pb phytoremediation but it is less suitable for field use due to toxicology environmental persistence. Acid extractable Cd and Pb in the rhizosphere or reducible Cd and Pb in the non-rhizosphere of soil were the main influences on Cd and Pb accumulation in castor bean. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  7. Evaluation of experimental cleanser solution of Ricinus communis: effect on soft denture liner properties.

    PubMed

    Pisani, Marina Xavier; da Silva, Cláudia Helena Lovato; Paranhos, Helena Freitas Oliveira; Souza, Raphael Freitas; Macedo, Ana Paula

    2012-06-01

    This study evaluated colour stability, hardness and roughness of soft denture liners after immersion in various cleansers. Thirty specimens (14 mm × 4 mm) of Elite Soft Relining (ES) and Mucopren Soft (MS) were randomly immersed in distilled water at 37°C, sodium hypochlorite 1%, and an experimental Ricinus communis solution (RC) for 7, 15 and 183 continuous days. anova (p < 0.05) and Tukey's test indicated that after T7 (μ =8.79 ± 7.36); T15 (μ = 4.23 ± 2.62) and T183 (μ = 8.78 ± 3.16), MS presented a higher increase in hardness than ES. After T7, MS underwent an increase in roughness (μ = 0.09 ± 0.80); ES underwent a decrease (μ = -0.08 ± 0.16). RC caused the smallest variation in roughness. After T15, both materials presented an increase in roughness. After T183, ES (μ = -0.30 ± 0.48) presented a higher roughness variation than MS (μ = -0.07 ± 0.32). Hypochlorite caused an increase in roughness (μ = 0.02 ± 0.19). After all periods ES presented higher colour alteration than MS; highest colour alteration was caused by hypochlorite. Both materials were more stable after immersion in RC. © 2010 The Gerodontology Society and John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  8. acetylcholinesterase inhibitory potential and insecticidal activity of an endophytic Alternaria sp. from Ricinus communis.

    PubMed

    Singh, Bahaderjeet; Thakur, Abhinay; Kaur, Sanehdeep; Chadha, B S; Kaur, Amarjeet

    2012-11-01

    Keeping in view the vast potential of endophytic fungi to produce bioactive molecules, this study aimed at isolating and screening endophytes for the production of acetylcholinesterase inhibitors. Fifty-four endophytic fungi were isolated from Ricinus communis and screened for their AChE inhibitory activity using Ellman's colorimetric assay method. Six isolates were found to possess AChE inhibitory activity with maximum inhibition of 78 % being evinced by culture Cas1 which was identified to be Alternaria sp. on the basis of molecular as well as microscopic methods. Optimization of inhibitor production was carried out using one factor at a time approach. Maximum production of inhibitor was obtained on potato dextrose broth after 10 days incubation. The IC(50) of the chloroform extract was observed to be 40 μg/ml. The extract was purified on silica gel and eluted stepwise with a gradient of chloroform/methanol. The insecticidal potential of the extract was evaluated by feeding the larvae of Spodoptera litura on diet containing varying concentrations of the extract. It was observed that with increase in the concentration of the extract, mortality of the larvae increased. The culture has the potential of being exploited in medicine as well as a biocontrol agent.

  9. Effect of experimental Ricinus communis solution for denture cleaning on the properties of acrylic resin teeth.

    PubMed

    Pisani, Marina Xavier; Macedo, Ana Paula; Paranhos, Helena de Freitas Oliveira; Silva, Cláudia Helena Lovato da

    2012-01-01

    This study evaluated Knoop hardness, surface roughness and color alteration of artificial teeth for dentures after immersion in water, 1% sodium hypochlorite and an experimental solution of 2% Ricinus communis (RC). Thirty specimens of Vipi, Biolux and Trilux were analyzed. Tests of Knoop hardness, surface roughness and color alteration were conducted immediately after specimen preparation (T0) and after two immersion protocols for 15 days (ΔT(15)) and 183 days (ΔT(183)). Data variation (ΔT) were subjected to ANOVA and Tukey's test (p<0.05). At ΔT(15), Vipi presented hardness increase and Biolux presented the highest variation (p=0.01). RC caused the highest increase in hardness (p=0) and the lowest increase (p=0.005) in roughness. Biolux presented the lowest color alteration (p =0). At ΔT(183), Trilux underwent the highest hardness variation (p=0). Biolux presented an increase in roughness (p=0). There was no significant differences in color alteration among the artificial teeth (p=0.06) and among solutions (p=0.08) after 183 days of immersion. All solutions (distilled water, 1% sodium hypochlorite and 2% RC) caused alterations on the analyzed properties. Both immersion protocols caused alterations on the analyzed properties.

  10. Bone cell responses to the composite of Ricinus communis polyurethane and alkaline phosphatase.

    PubMed

    Beloti, Marcio Mateus; de Oliveira, Paulo Tambasco; Tagliani, Marcela Martini; Rosa, Adalberto Luiz

    2008-02-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the response of osteoblastic cells to the composite of Ricinus communis polyurethane (RCP) and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) incubated in synthetic body fluid (SBF). RCP pure (RCPp) and RCP blended with ALP 6 mg/mL polymer (RCP+ALP) were incubated in SBF for 17 days. Four groups of RCP were tested: RCPp, RCP+ALP, and RCPp and RCP+ALP incubated in SBF (RCPp/SBF and RCP+ALP/SBF). Stem cells from rat bone marrow were cultured in conditions that allowed osteoblastic differentiation on RCP discs and were evaluated: cell adhesion, culture growth, cell viability, total protein content, ALP activity, and bone-like nodule formation. Data were compared by ANOVA or Kruskal-Wallis test. The group RCP+ALP was highly cytotoxic and, therefore, was not considered here. Cell adhesion (p = 0.14), culture growth (p = 0.39), viability (p = 0.46) and total protein content (p = 0.12) were not affected by either RCP composition or incubation in SBF. ALP activity was affected (p = 0.0001) as follows: RCPp < RCPp/SBF < RCP+ALP/SBF. Bone-like nodule formation was not observed on all evaluated groups. The composite RCP+ALP prior to SBF incubation is cytotoxic and must not be considered as biomaterial, but the incorporation of ALP to the RCP followed by SBF incubation could be a useful alternative to improve the biological properties of the RCP.

  11. Dehydration of model membranes induced by lectins from Ricinus communis and Viscum album.

    PubMed

    Pohl, P; Saparov, S M; Pohl, E E; Evtodienko, V Y; Agapov, I I; Tonevitsky, A G

    1998-12-01

    The effects of ribosome-inactivating proteins (RIPs) from Ricinus communis and from Viscum album on the water permeability, Pf, and the surface dielectric constant, epsilon, of model membranes were studied. Pf was calculated from microelectrode measurements of the ion concentration distribution in the immediate vicinity of a planar membrane, and epsilon was obtained from the fluorescence of dansyl phosphatidylethanolamine incorporated into unilamellar vesicles. Pf and epsilon of fully saturated phosphatidylcholine membranes were affected only in the presence of a lectin receptor (monosialoganglioside, GM1) in the bilayer. It is suggested that the membrane area occupied by clustered lectin-receptor complexes is markedly less permeable to water. Protein binding to the receptor was not a prelude for hydrophobic lipid-protein interactions when the membranes were formed from a mixture of natural phospholipids with a high content of unsaturated fatty acids. These membranes, characterized by a high initial water permeability, were found to interact with the RIPs unspecifically. From a decrease of both Pf and epsilon it was concluded that not only water partitioning but also protein adsorption correlates with looser packing of polyunsaturated lipids at the lipid-water interface.

  12. Evaluation of the cadmium and lead phytoextraction by castor bean (Ricinus communis L.) in hydroponics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Niu, Z. X.; Sun, L. N.

    2017-06-01

    Phytoextraction has been considered as an innovative method to remove toxic metals from soil; higher biomass plants such as castor bean (Ricinus communis L.) have already been considered as a hyperaccumulating candidate. In the present study, castor bean was used to accumulate the cadmium and lead in hydroponic culture, and the root exudates and biomass changes were analyzed. Results demonstrated that ratios of aerial biomass/ root biomass (AW/RW) in treatments declined with concentrations of Cd or Pb. Optical density (OD) at 190 nm and 280 nm of root exudates observed in Cd and Pb treatments were lower than the control. In single Cd or Pb treatments, bioconcentration factors (BCF) of Cd or Pb increased with time and decreased with concentrations, the highest BCFs appeared in Cd5 (14.36) and Pb50 (6.48), respectively. Cd-BCF or Pb-BCF showed positive correlations with AW/RW ratios and OD values, and they were negative correlated with Cd and Pb concentration. Results in this study may supply useful information for phytoremediation of soil contaminated with cadmium and lead in situ.

  13. Phosphatidylcholine synthesis in castor bean endosperm. I. Metabolism of L-serine. [Ricinus communis

    SciTech Connect

    Kinney, A.J.; Moore, T.S. Jr.

    1987-05-01

    Endosperm halves from 3-day-old castor bean (Ricinus communis var Hale) were incubated for 30 minutes with L(/sup 14/C)serine, after which label was observed in ethanolamine, choline, phosphatidylserine, phosphatidylethanolamine, phosphatidylcholine, ethanolaminephosphate, and CDPethanolamine, but not in cholinephosphate or CDPcholine. Only later did significant amounts of isotope become incorporated into cholinephosphate and CDPcholine. The choline kinase inhibitor hemicholinium-3 prevented the incorporation of label from serine into choline-phosphate and CDPcholine, reduced the incorporation of (/sup 14/C)choline into phosphatidylcholine by 65%, but inhibited the incorporation of label into phosphatidylcholine from serine by only 15%. The inhibitor did not prevent the incorporation of labeled methyl groups from S-adenosyl-L-methionine into phosphatidyldimethylethanolamine plus phosphatidyl-choline. The amount of incorporation of label from the methyl donor was only 8% of that from choline into phosphatidylcholine. The implications of these results for the pathway and regulation of phosphatidylcholine synthesis from the water-soluble precursors are discussed.

  14. Anticonceptive and estrogenic effects of a seed extract of Ricinus communis var. minor.

    PubMed

    Okwuasaba, F K; Osunkwo, U A; Ekwenchi, M M; Ekpenyong, K I; Onwukeme, K E; Olayinka, A O; Uguru, M O; Das, S C

    1991-09-01

    An ether-soluble fraction of a methanol extract of Ricinus communis var. minor seeds administered subcutaneously to adult female rats and rabbits at doses up to 1.2 g/kg and 600 mg/kg, respectively, in divided doses showed anti-implantation and anticonceptive activities. Laparotomy performed on Day 10 and Day 15 of pregnancy on mated female rats and rabbits treated with the extract did not reveal any uterine implantation sites. The animals were protected against pregnancy for over three gestation periods and among those that later delivered, there was no evidence of abnormality in the pups. In ovariectomized young female rats as well as in immature mice, the extract dose-dependently increased uterine wet weight. Furthermore, the extract induced premature opening of the vagina, increased the number of epithelial cells and cornified cells and decreased the leucocyte number in the vaginal smear. The estrogen-like activities exhibited by the extract were dose-dependent and the anticonceptive effect may be due at least in part to such estrogenic action.

  15. Graviresponsiveness and cap dimensions of primary and secondary roots of Ricinus communis (Euphorbiaceae).

    PubMed

    Moore, R; Pasieniuk, J

    1984-01-01

    After branching from the primary root, secondary roots of castor bean (Ricinus communis) grow laterally for 15-20 mm, after which they bend downward (i.e., become positively gravitropic). During the first 10 mm of growth, the lengths of caps of secondary roots increase from 120 +/- 26 to 220 +/- 28 micrometers. Although this increase is statistically significant (P < 0.1%), the resulting secondary roots are only minimally graviresponsive. A subsequent doubling of the lengths and widths of the root caps (i.e., to 420 +/- 34 and 450 +/- 41 micrometers, respectively) is positively correlated with the onset of gravicurvature. The graviresponsiveness and dimensions of caps of positively gravitropic secondary roots are not significantly different from those of positively gravitropic primary roots. These results indicate that (i) a statistically significant increase in the length and length : width ratio of a root cap does not necessarily result in the root becoming positively gravitropic, (ii) there may be a minimum cap length and (or) width necessary for graviresponsiveness, and (iii) the degree of graviresponsiveness exhibited by a particular root may be related to the size of its root cap.

  16. Relationship between Ricinus communis agglutinin-1 binding and nucleolar organizer regions in human gliomas.

    PubMed

    Niikawa, S; Hara, A; Shirakami, S; Zhang, W; Sakai, N; Yamada, H; Shimokawa, K

    1993-06-01

    Histochemical staining using lectins from Ricinus communis (RCA-1), Arachis hypogaea, and Canavalia ensiformis was investigated in 40 human gliomas, three central neurocytomas, one human neuroblastoma cell line (IMR-32), and two normal brain tissues. Staining was uniform in low-grade gliomas, but heterogeneous in high-grade gliomas, particularly with RCA-1. The correlation between RCA-1 reactivity and cellular proliferative potential was investigated in 10 high-grade gliomas using a combined staining technique: the silver colloid method for nucleolar organizer regions (Ag-NORs) and histochemistry with RCA-1. The mean number of Ag-NORs counted on a simple preparation was significantly greater in the nuclei of RCA-1-negative cells than in those of RCA-1-positive cells (p < 0.001). The staining intensity of inflammatory cells was obviously higher than that of neoplastic cells, and therefore inflammatory cells were easily discriminated from neoplastic cells. Combined RCA-1 histochemical and Ag-NOR silver colloid staining revealed heterogeneous expression of RCA-1 receptor in high-grade gliomas with changes in Ag-NOR number. This result seems to show that high-grade gliomas express heterogeneous cellular carbohydrate structure and proliferative potential even within the same tumor.

  17. Graviresponsiveness and the development of columella tissue in primary and lateral roots of Ricinus communis.

    PubMed

    Moore, R; Pasieniuk, J

    1984-01-01

    Half-tipped primary and lateral roots of Ricinus communis cv Hale bend toward the side of the root on which the intact half-tip remains. Therefore, the minimal graviresponsiveness of lateral roots is not due to the inability of their caps to produce growth effectors (presumably inhibitors). The columella tissues of primary (i.e. graviresponsive) roots are (a) 4.30 times longer, (b) 2.95 times wider, (c) 37.4 times more voluminous, and (d) composed of 17.2 times more cells than those of lateral roots. The onset of positive gravitropism by lateral roots is positively correlated with a (a) 2.99-fold increase in length, (b) 2.63-fold increase in width, (c) 20.7-fold increase in volume of their columella tissues. We propose that the minimal graviresponsiveness of lateral roots is due to the small size of their columella tissues, which results in their caps being unable to (a) establish a concentration gradient of the effector sufficient to induce gravicurvature and (b) produce as much as the effector as caps of graviresponsive roots.

  18. Naturally occurring and experimentally induced castor bean (Ricinus communis) poisoning in ducks.

    PubMed

    Jensen, W I; Allen, J P

    1981-01-01

    Castor bean (Ricinus communis) poisoning accounted for the death of several thousand ducks in the Texas panhandle in the fall and winter months of 1969-1971. Signs of intoxication resembled those of botulism, except for mucoid, blood-tinged excreta. The most common lesions were severe fatty change in the liver, widely distributed internal petechial hemorrhages or ecchymoses, and catarrhal enteritis. Nearly intact castor beans were found in the stomach of one duck during field necropsy. Fragments of seed coat resembling castor bean were found in the stomachs of 10 of 14 ducks examined in the laboratory. Clinical signs and postmortem lesions observed in wild ducks were induced experimentally in mallards (Anas platyrhynchos) by force-feeding intact castor beans. Toxicity titrations were erratic, but the LD50 appeared to be between three and four seeds. The mouse toxicity test, used to detect Clostridium botulinum toxin in the blood serum of intoxicated ducks, was negative in every case. Hemagglutination and precipitin tests generally failed to detect castor bean in extracts of excreta or intestinal contents of experimentally intoxicated ducks.

  19. Cytotoxic, cell agglutinating, and syncytium forming effect of purified lectins from Ricinus communis on cultured cells.

    PubMed

    Koga, M; Ohtsu, M; Funatsu, G

    1979-10-01

    The toxicity of lectins from castor bean (Ricinus communis L.), ricin-D, ricin-E, and castor bean hemagglutinin, was investigated on five cultured cell lines. The differential effect of their constituent polypeptide chains was also investigated using these cell lines. Ricin-D, ricin-E, and castor bean hemagglutinin (CBH) possessed cytoagglutinating activity and cytotoxic activity to all five cell lines. These lectins showed the strongest toxicity to L5178Y cells, which are leukemic cells. The toxic activity of ricin-D was stronger than that of CBH in all cell lines. The constituent polypebtide chains of ricin-D and CBH were separated by DEAE-cellulose chromatography and designated as isoleucine chain and alanine chain denoted by their N-terminal amino acids. Only alanine chain of ricin-D was toxic to cells grown in vitro, whereas isoleucine chain of ricin-D and alanine chain of CBH were not toxic to the cells. Moreover, it was found that both lectins caused syncytium formation in NIH3T3 cells infected with Moloney leukemia virus and this cell fusion activity was shown to be exclusively associated with the alanine chain. Cytotoxic, cell agglutinating, and syncytium forming effect of the lectins is due to binding of the alanine chain of ricin-D to galactose-like residues of the membrane constituents of these cells.

  20. In vivo biocompatibility of three different chemical compositions of Ricinus communis polyurethane.

    PubMed

    Barros, Valdemar M R; Rosa, Adalberto L; Beloti, Márcio M; Chierice, Gilberto

    2003-10-01

    Alteration in the chemical composition of a biomaterial may be undertaken to improve its biological properties. The aim of this work was to evaluate the biocompatibility of three chemical compositions of Ricinus communis polyurethane (RCP): RCPp (pure RCP), RCP + CaCO(3), and RCP +Ca(3)(PO(4))(2). RCP cylinders were surgically implanted in rabbit femurs. After 8, 12, and 16 weeks, the femurs were removed, fixed, sectioned, ground, and stained by Stevenel's blue/Alizarin red S for light microscopy and histomorphometry. The osseointegration and osseoconductivity were calculated by means of image analysis and the data were submitted to the Kruskal-Wallis test followed by Dunn's test. Osseointegration was already completed after 8 weeks on RCP + Ca(3)(PO(4))(2) because similar values were found from week 8 to 16, whereas it showed a time-dependent increase on RCPp and RCP +CaCO(3). The osseointegration was greater on RCP + Ca(3)(PO(4))(2) in all periods when compared with RCPp, and after 8 and 12 weeks when compared with RCP + CaCO(3). None of the RCP samples presented osseoconductivity. The present results showed that RCP blended with calcium phosphate improved the biocompatibility by both enhancing and accelerating its osseointegration. Based on the absence of osseoconductivity, RCP was considered to be a bioinert material.

  1. Temporal and spatial expression of 2S albumin in castor (Ricinus communis L.).

    PubMed

    Ahn, Yeh-Jin; Chen, Grace Q

    2007-11-28

    We studied the temporal and spatial expression of the 2S albumin in castor (Ricinus communis L.) during seed development, germination, post-germination, and plant development. Quantitative polymerase chain reaction analysis showed that the 2S albumin transcript accumulated to a maximum level at the middle of seed development, showing a bell-shaped temporal pattern. Residual levels of the transcript were present in the mature seed and degraded rapidly upon germination. Immunodetection analysis was performed using an anti-2S albumin antibody under reducing conditions. During seed development, the 2S albumin precursor pro-protein began to be synthesized at 26 days after pollination (DAP); the pro-protein was thereafter processed to mature proteins at 40 DAP, suggesting that the post-translation modification of 2S albumin takes place during this time period. Both the 2S albumin precursor pro-protein and the mature proteins accumulated throughout seed maturation and desiccation stages. During seed germination, both forms of the 2S albumin proteins were present in endosperm and cotyledon until the completion of germination and degraded rapidly afterwards. However, the antibody also detected a group of proteins/peptides in endosperm and cotyledon when the seeds progressed to germination and post-germination stages. A 14 kDa protein in the leaves of fully developed seedlings and mature plants also reacted to the anti-2S albumin antibody. The identity of the proteins accumulated in germinating seed and leaf remains unknown.

  2. ABA flow modelling in Ricinus communis exposed to salt stress and variable nutrition

    PubMed Central

    Peuke, Andreas D.

    2016-01-01

    In a series of experiments with Ricinus communis, abscisic acid (ABA) concentrations in tissues and transport saps, its de novo biosynthesis, long-distance transport, and metabolism (degradation) were affected by nutritional conditions, nitrogen (N) source, and nutrient limitation, or salt stress. In the present study these data were statistically re-evaluated, and new correlations presented that underpin the importance of this universal phytohormone. The biggest differences in ABA concentration were observed in xylem sap. N source had the strongest effect; however, nutrient limitation (particularly phosphorus limitation) and salt also had significant effects. ABA was found in greater concentration in phloem sap compared with xylem sap; however, the effect of treatment on ABA concentration in phloem was lower. In the leaves, ABA concentration was most variable compared with the other tissues. This variation was only affected by the N source. In roots, ABA was significantly decreased by nutrient limitation. Of the compartments in which ABA was quantified, xylem sap ABA concentration was most significantly correlated with leaf stomatal conductance and leaf growth. Additionally, ABA concentration in xylem was significantly correlated to that in phloem, indicating a 6-fold concentration increase from xylem to phloem. The ABA flow model showed that biosynthesis of ABA in roots affected the xylem flow of ABA. Moreover, ABA concentration in xylem affected the degradation of the phytohormone in shoots and also its export from shoots via phloem. The role of phloem transport is discussed since it stimulates ABA metabolism in roots. PMID:27440939

  3. Hepatoprotective role of Ricinus communis leaf extract against d-galactosamine induced acute hepatitis in albino rats.

    PubMed

    Babu, Pappithi Ramesh; Bhuvaneswar, Cherukupalle; Sandeep, Gandham; Ramaiah, Chintha Venkata; Rajendra, Wudayagiri

    2017-04-01

    Ricinus communis (RC) is a traditional medicinal plant which has been used by Chenchu and Yerukula tribes for treating their liver ailments. The present work is aimed to explore the hepatoprotective efficacy of Ricinus communis against d-galactosamine (D-GalN) induced hepatitis rat model and its therapeutic potential compared with standard drug, silymarin (100mg/kg.bw). In vitro antioxidant activity of Methanolic extract of Ricinus communis leaves (MERCL) was assayed through DPPH and H2O2 free radical scavenging activity. Qualitative and quantitative analysis of MERCL using HPLC, demonstrated that Rutin was found to be predominant bioactive compound in the extract. Hepatitis was induced by treating the rats with D-GalN at a single intraperitoneal dose of 800mg/kg.bw. Serum markers viz, Alanine aminotransferase (ALT), Aspartate aminotransferase (AST), Alkaline phosphatase (ALP) and Malondialdehyde (MDA) levels were significantly increased and the activity levels of antioxidant enzymes such as Superoxide dismutase (SOD),Catalase (CAT), Glutathione reductase (GR), Glutathione peroxidase (GPx), non-enzymatic antioxidant Glutathione (GSH) levels were decreased in the liver of hepatitis induced rats when compared to controls. Pre and post treatment with MERCL significantly altered the enzyme activities, GSH and MDA to normal levels. Histopathological observations also showed protective and curative effects of MERCL against D-GalN intoxication. These results demonstrated that MERCL significantly protected the liver from d-galactosamine induced hepatitis, improved the curative effect in the liver and hence, MERCL can be used as a potent hepatoprotective drug in future. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  4. A comparative ultrastructural localization of concanavalin A, wheat germ and Ricinus communis on glomeruli of normal rat kidney.

    PubMed

    Bretton, R; Bariety, J

    1976-10-01

    Three lectins, concanavalin A, peroxidase labeled wheat germ and peroxidase labeled Ricinus communis have been utilized to determine the localization of various saccharide determinants in the glomerulus of the normal rat kidney. In order to obtain a homogeneous penetration of the lectins throughout the whole section, various technical parameters were studied. Only with concanavalin A, a diffuse labeling of the endoplasmic reticulum was obtained. With the three lectins, the basement membrane, mesangial matrix and the cell coat of the three cell types in the glomerulus were labeled. Differences in the labeling of the capillary wall were also noted.

  5. In Vitro Assessment of Cytotoxicity, Antioxidant, and Anti-Inflammatory Activities of Ricinus communis (Euphorbiaceae) Leaf Extracts

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Ricinus communis has been utilized traditionally as medicine to treat inflammatory related diseases including wounds, sores, and boils. The leaves of R. communis were sequentially extracted with n-hexane, dichloromethane, acetone, and methanol using serial exhaustive extraction method. Antioxidant activity of all crude extracts was quantitatively measured against 2,2′-azino-bis (3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulphonic acid) free radical molecules using ABTS+ assay. Cytotoxic effect and anti-inflammatory activity of R. communis leaves extracts were evaluated on Human Caucasian skin fibroblast and Raw 264.7 macrophage cell lines, respectively. Methanol extract had the highest percentage free radical (ABTS+) scavenging activity of 95% at 2.50 mg/mL, acetone 91%, dichloromethane 62%, and hexane the least (50%). Percentage scavenging activity of ABTS+ free radical molecules increases with increase in concentrations of the plant extracts. Hexane and dichloromethane extracts had more than 90% cell viability at 100 µg/mL after 24 and 48 hours of exposure. Methanol extract had LC50 of 784 µg/mL after 24-hour exposure, hexane had 629.3 µg/mL and dichloromethane 573.6 µg/mL, and 544.6 µg/mL was the lowest with acetone extract. The study present the first report on the scavenging activity of R. communis leaf extracts against ABTS+ radicals and cytotoxic effects on human Caucasian skin fibroblast cell lines. PMID:25477994

  6. Biosynthesis of the Macrocyclic Diterpene Casbene in Castor Bean (Ricinus communis L.) Seedlings 1

    PubMed Central

    Dudley, Mark W.; Green, Terrence R.; West, Charles A.

    1986-01-01

    Farnesyl transferase (farnesyl pyrophosphate: isopentenyl pyrophosphate farnesyl transferase; geranylgeranyl pyrophosphate synthetase) was purified at least 400-fold from extracts of castor bean (Ricinus communis L.) seedlings that were elicited by exposure for 10 h to Rhizopus stolonifer spores. The purified enzyme was free of isopentenyl pyrophosphate isomerase and phosphatase activities which interfere with prenyl transferase assays. The purified enzyme showed a broad optimum for farnesyl transfer between pH 8 and 9. The molecular weight of the enzyme was estimated to be 72,000 ± 3,000 from its behavior on a calibrated G-100 Sephadex molecular sieving column. Mg2+ ion at 4 millimolar gave the greatest stimulation of activity; Mn2+ ion gave a small stimulation at 0.5 millimolar, but was inhibitory at higher concentrations. Farnesyl pyrophosphate (Km = 0.5 micromolar) in combination with isopentenyl pyrophosphate (Km = 3.5 micromolar) was the most effective substrate for the production of geranylgeranyl pyrophosphate. Geranyl pyrophosphate (Km = 24 micromolar) could replace farnesyl pyrophosphate as the allylic pyrophosphate substrate, but dimethylallyl pyrophosphate was not utilized by the enzyme. One peak of farnesyl transferase activity (geranylgeranyl pyrophosphate synthetase) and two peaks of geranyl transferase activity (farnesyl pyrophosphate synthetases) from extracts of whole elicited seedlings were resolved by DEAE A-25 Sephadex sievorptive ion exchange chromatography. These results suggest that the pathway for geranylgeranyl pyrophosphate synthesis in elicited castor bean seedlings involves the successive actions of two enzymes—a geranyl transferase which utilizes dimethylallypyrophosphate and isopentenyl pyrophosphate as substrates and a farnesyl transferase which utilizes the farnesyl pyrophosphate produced in the first step and isopentenyl pyrophosphate as substrates. PMID:16664818

  7. Components of complex lipid biosynthetic pathways in developing castor (Ricinus communis) seeds identified by MudPIT analysis of enriched endoplasmic reticulum.

    PubMed

    Brown, Adrian P; Kroon, Johan T M; Topping, Jennifer F; Robson, Joanne L; Simon, William J; Slabas, Antoni R

    2011-08-05

    Ricinoleic acid is a feedstock for nylon-11 (N11) synthesis which is currently obtained from castor (Ricinus communis) oil. Production of this fatty acid in a temperate oilseed crop is of great commercial interest, but the highest reported level in transgenic plant oils is 30%, below the 90% observed in castor and insufficient for commercial exploitation. To identify castor oil-biosynthetic enzymes and inform strategies to improve ricinoleic acid yields, we performed MudPIT analysis on endoplasmic reticulum (ER) purified from developing castor bean endosperm. Candidate enzymes for all steps of triacylglycerol synthesis were identified among 72 proteins in the data set related to complex-lipid metabolism. Previous reported proteomic data from oilseeds had not included any membrane-bound enzyme that might incorporate ricinoleic acid into oil. Analysis of enriched ER enabled determination of which protein isoforms for these enzymes were in developing castor seed. To complement this data, quantitative RT-PCR experiments with castor seed and leaf RNA were performed for orthologues of Arabidopsis oil-synthetic enzymes, determining which were highly expressed in the seed. These data provide important information for further manipulation of ricinoleic acid content in oilseeds and peptide data for future quantification strategies.

  8. In Vitro Analysis of Surface Roughness of Acrylic Resin Exposed to the Combined Hygiene Method of Brushing and Immersion in Ricinus communis and Sodium Hypochlorite.

    PubMed

    Badaró, Maurício Malheiros; Salles, Marcela Moreira; de Arruda, Carolina Noronha Ferraz; Oliveira, Viviane de Cássia; de Souza, Raphael Freitas; Paranhos, Helena Freitas Oliveira; Silva-Lovato, Cláudia Helena

    2017-08-01

    To evaluate a solution based on Ricinus communis (Castor oil) for denture cleansing, comparing it to sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl) for the surface roughness of heat-polymerized acrylic resin. Forty polished and unpolished resin specimens (90 × 30 × 4 mm) were evaluated before and after their exposure to protocol hygiene: brushing the specimens with a specific denture brush and mild soap for 3 minutes, three times a day, and immersing them in hygiene solutions (0.25% NaOCl-S1 and 0.5% NaOCl-S2; 10% R. communis-S3; saline-S4: control) for 20 minutes. Surface roughness was evaluated by rugosimeter and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) before and after the protocol. For evaluation of surface roughness, polished and unpolished surfaces were used. The roughness of the polished surface was not affected by time (p = 0.062), but was affected by solutions (p < 0.0001) and the interaction between factors (p = 0.005). For S1 and S4, the period did not influence the roughness. For S2, there was a change after 7 days, remaining stable after 14 days. For S3, there were changes, and stabilization occurred after 14 days. After 7 and 14 days, S2 and S3 promoted major changes, but after 21 days, there were no differences among solutions, except saline. The unpolished surface was not influenced by factors: period (p = 0.115), solution (p = 0.120), and their interaction (p = 0.382). SEM analysis showed similar results on the evaluation of surface roughness. The polished surface of the prosthesis was more susceptible to changes when exposed to hygiene solutions, and although the 0.5% NaOCl solution promoted an increase in the surface roughness compared with the same solution at 0.25% and R. communis at 10%, the values are clinically acceptable. © 2016 by the American College of Prosthodontists.

  9. Exploiting EST databases for the development and characterization of EST-SSR markers in castor bean (Ricinus communis L.)

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background The castor bean (Ricinus communis L.), a monotypic species in the spurge family (Euphorbiaceae, 2n = 20), is an important non-edible oilseed crop widely cultivated in tropical, sub-tropical and temperate countries for its high economic value. Because of the high level of ricinoleic acid (over 85%) in its seed oil, the castor bean seed derivatives are often used in aviation oil, lubricants, nylon, dyes, inks, soaps, adhesive and biodiesel. Due to lack of efficient molecular markers, little is known about the population genetic diversity and the genetic relationships among castor bean germplasm. Efficient and robust molecular markers are increasingly needed for breeding and improving varieties in castor bean. The advent of modern genomics has produced large amounts of publicly available DNA sequence data. In particular, expressed sequence tags (ESTs) provide valuable resources to develop gene-associated SSR markers. Results In total, 18,928 publicly available non-redundant castor bean EST sequences, representing approximately 17.03 Mb, were evaluated and 7732 SSR sites in 5,122 ESTs were identified by data mining. Castor bean exhibited considerably high frequency of EST-SSRs. We developed and characterized 118 polymorphic EST-SSR markers from 379 primer pairs flanking repeats by screening 24 castor bean samples collected from different countries. A total of 350 alleles were identified from 118 polymorphic SSR loci, ranging from 2-6 per locus (A) with an average of 2.97. The EST-SSR markers developed displayed moderate gene diversity (He) with an average of 0.41. Genetic relationships among 24 germplasms were investigated using the genotypes of 350 alleles, showing geographic pattern of genotypes across genetic diversity centers of castor bean. Conclusion Castor bean EST sequences exhibited considerably high frequency of SSR sites, and were rich resources for developing EST-SSR markers. These EST-SSR markers would be particularly useful for both genetic

  10. Uptake and phloem transport of glucose-fipronil conjugate in Ricinus communis involve a carrier-mediated mechanism.

    PubMed

    Wu, Han-Xiang; Yang, Wen; Zhang, Zhi-Xiang; Huang, Ting; Yao, Guang-Kai; Xu, Han-Hong

    2012-06-20

    Some compounds containing glucose are absorbed via the monosaccharide transporters of the plasma membrane. A glucose-fipronil conjugate, N-[3-cyano-1-[2,6-dichloro-4-(trifluoromethyl)phenyl]-4-[(trifluoromethyl)sulfinyl]-1H-pyrazol-5-yl]-1-(β-d-glucopyranosyl)-1H-1,2,3-triazole-4-methanamine (GTF), has been synthesized in our previous work. GTF exhibits moderate phloem mobility in Ricinus communis. In the current paper, we demonstrate that the uptake of GTF by Ricinus seedling cotyledon discs is partly mediated by an active carrier system (K(m)1 = 0.17 mM; V(max)1 = 2.2 nmol cm(-2) h(-1)). Four compounds [d-glucose, sucrose, phloridzin, and carbonyl cyanide m-chlorophenylhydrazone (CCCP)] were examined for their effect on GTF uptake. Phloridzin as well as CCCP markedly inhibit GTF uptake, and d-glucose weakly competes with it. The phloem transport of GTF in Ricinus seedlings is found to involve an active carrier-mediated mechanism that effectively contributes to the GTF phloem loading. The results prove that adding a glucose core is a reasonable and feasible approach to confer phloem mobility to fipronil by utilizing plant monosaccharide transporters.

  11. High light exposure on seed coat increases lipid accumulation in seeds of castor bean (Ricinus communis L.), a nongreen oilseed crop.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yang; Mulpuri, Sujatha; Liu, Aizhong

    2016-05-01

    Little was known on how sunlight affects the seed metabolism in nongreen seeds. Castor bean (Ricinus communis L.) is a typical nongreen oilseed crop and its seed oil is an important feedstock in industry. In this study, photosynthetic activity of seed coat tissues of castor bean in natural conditions was evaluated in comparison to shaded conditions. Our results indicate that exposure to high light enhances photosynthetic activity in seed coats and consequently increases oil accumulation. Consistent results were also reached using cultured seeds. High-throughput RNA-Seq analyses further revealed that genes involved in photosynthesis and carbon conversion in both the Calvin-Benson cycle and malate transport were differentially expressed between seeds cultured under light and dark conditions, implying several venues potentially contributing to light-enhanced lipid accumulation such as increased reducing power and CO2 refixation which underlie the overall lipid biosynthesis. This study demonstrated the effects of light exposure on oil accumulation in nongreen oilseeds and greatly expands our understanding of the physiological roles that light may play during seed development in nongreen oilseeds. Essentially, our studies suggest that potential exists to enhance castor oil yield through increasing exposure of the inflorescences to sunlight either by genetically changing the plant architecture (smart canopy) or its growing environment.

  12. Toxicity of six plant extracts and two pyridone alkaloids from Ricinus communis against the malaria vector Anopheles gambiae

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The African malaria vector, Anopheles gambiae s.s., is known to feed selectively on certain plants for sugar sources. However, the adaptive significance of this behaviour especially on how the extracts of such plants impact on the fitness of this vector has not been explored. This study determined the toxicity and larvicidal activity on this vector of extracts from six selected plants found in Kenya and two compounds identified from Ricinus communis: 3-carbonitrile-4-methoxy-N-methyl-2-pyridone (ricinine), and its carboxylic acid derivative 3-carboxy-4-methoxy-N-methyl-2-pyridone, the latter compound being reported for the first time from this plant. Methods Feeding assays tested for toxic effects of extracts from the plants Artemisia afra Jacq. ex Willd, Bidens pilosa L., Parthenium hysterophorus L., Ricinus coummunis L., Senna didymobotrya Fresen. and Tithonia diversifolia Hemsl. on adult females and larvicidal activity was tested against third-instar larvae of Anopheles gambiae s.s. Mortality of larvae and adult females was monitored for three and eight days, respectively; Probit analysis was used to calculate LC50. Survival was analysed with Kaplan-Meier Model. LC-MS was used to identify the pure compounds. Results Of the six plants screened, extracts from T. diversifolia and R. communis were the most toxic against adult female mosquitoes after 7 days of feeding, with LC50 of 1.52 and 2.56 mg/mL respectively. Larvicidal activity of all the extracts increased with the exposure time with the highest mortality recorded for the extract from R. communis after 72 h of exposure (LC50 0.18 mg/mL). Mosquitoes fed on solutions of the pure compounds, 3-carboxy-4-methoxy-N-methyl-2-pyridone and ricinine survived almost as long as those fed on the R. communis extract with mean survival of 4.93 ± 0.07, 4.85 ± 0.07 and 4.50 ± 0.05 days respectively. Conclusions Overall, these findings demonstrate that extracts from the six plant species exhibit

  13. Toxicity of six plant extracts and two pyridone alkaloids from Ricinus communis against the malaria vector Anopheles gambiae.

    PubMed

    Wachira, Sabina Wangui; Omar, Sabar; Jacob, Julia Wanjiru; Wahome, Martin; Alborn, Hans T; Spring, David R; Masiga, Daniel K; Torto, Baldwyn

    2014-07-04

    The African malaria vector, Anopheles gambiae s.s., is known to feed selectively on certain plants for sugar sources. However, the adaptive significance of this behaviour especially on how the extracts of such plants impact on the fitness of this vector has not been explored. This study determined the toxicity and larvicidal activity on this vector of extracts from six selected plants found in Kenya and two compounds identified from Ricinus communis: 3-carbonitrile-4-methoxy-N-methyl-2-pyridone (ricinine), and its carboxylic acid derivative 3-carboxy-4-methoxy-N-methyl-2-pyridone, the latter compound being reported for the first time from this plant. Feeding assays tested for toxic effects of extracts from the plants Artemisia afra Jacq. ex Willd, Bidens pilosa L., Parthenium hysterophorus L., Ricinus coummunis L., Senna didymobotrya Fresen. and Tithonia diversifolia Hemsl. on adult females and larvicidal activity was tested against third-instar larvae of Anopheles gambiae s.s. Mortality of larvae and adult females was monitored for three and eight days, respectively; Probit analysis was used to calculate LC50. Survival was analysed with Kaplan-Meier Model. LC-MS was used to identify the pure compounds. Of the six plants screened, extracts from T. diversifolia and R. communis were the most toxic against adult female mosquitoes after 7 days of feeding, with LC50 of 1.52 and 2.56 mg/mL respectively. Larvicidal activity of all the extracts increased with the exposure time with the highest mortality recorded for the extract from R. communis after 72 h of exposure (LC50 0.18 mg/mL). Mosquitoes fed on solutions of the pure compounds, 3-carboxy-4-methoxy-N-methyl-2-pyridone and ricinine survived almost as long as those fed on the R. communis extract with mean survival of 4.93 ± 0.07, 4.85 ± 0.07 and 4.50 ± 0.05 days respectively. Overall, these findings demonstrate that extracts from the six plant species exhibit varying bioactivity against the larvae

  14. In vitro control of Staphylococcus aureus (NCTC 6571) and Escherichia coli (ATCC 25922) by Ricinus communis L.

    PubMed Central

    Jeyaseelan, E. Christy; Jashothan, P.T. Justin

    2012-01-01

    Objective To evaluate antibacterial activity of hot and cold ethanol and methanol leaf extracts of Ricinus communis L (R. communis) against Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) (NCTC 6571) and Escherichia coli (E. coli) (ATCC 25922). Methods Leaf powder of R. communis L. was extracted with hot (in Soxhlet) and cold ethanol and methanol, separately. The antibacterial activity of the extracts was determined by agar well diffusion and macro broth dilution methods. The extracts were also subjected to phytochemical analysis. Results All the four test extracts showed inhibition on both S. aureus and E. coli. Hot and cold ethanol extracts revealed significantly (P<0.05) higher inhibition on S. aureus than methanol extracts, and the hot ethanol extract had the lowest minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC) values (5 mg/mL and 10 mg/mL, respectively). E. coli was highly inhibited by hot extracts of both ethanol and methanol with the MIC and MBC of 40 mg/mL and 80 mg/mL, respectively. Phytochemical analysis revealed the presence of saponins, cardiac glycosides, tannins, flavonoids and terpenoids in all test extracts. Conclusions This study demonstrates that the hot and cold methanol and ethanol extracts are potential sources for control of S. aureus and E. coli. Especially, the hot and cold extracts of ethanol are more inhibitive against S. aureus even at lower concentration. Further study is needed to identify the specific bioactive compounds, their mode of action and their nontoxic nature in vivo condition. PMID:23570001

  15. In vitro control of Staphylococcus aureus (NCTC 6571) and Escherichia coli (ATCC 25922) by Ricinus communis L.

    PubMed

    Jeyaseelan, E Christy; Jashothan, P T Justin

    2012-09-01

    To evaluate antibacterial activity of hot and cold ethanol and methanol leaf extracts of Ricinus communis L (R. communis) against Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) (NCTC 6571) and Escherichia coli (E. coli) (ATCC 25922). Leaf powder of R. communis L. was extracted with hot (in Soxhlet) and cold ethanol and methanol, separately. The antibacterial activity of the extracts was determined by agar well diffusion and macro broth dilution methods. The extracts were also subjected to phytochemical analysis. All the four test extracts showed inhibition on both S. aureus and E. coli. Hot and cold ethanol extracts revealed significantly (P<0.05) higher inhibition on S. aureus than methanol extracts, and the hot ethanol extract had the lowest minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC) values (5 mg/mL and 10 mg/mL, respectively). E. coli was highly inhibited by hot extracts of both ethanol and methanol with the MIC and MBC of 40 mg/mL and 80 mg/mL, respectively. Phytochemical analysis revealed the presence of saponins, cardiac glycosides, tannins, flavonoids and terpenoids in all test extracts. This study demonstrates that the hot and cold methanol and ethanol extracts are potential sources for control of S. aureus and E. coli. Especially, the hot and cold extracts of ethanol are more inhibitive against S. aureus even at lower concentration. Further study is needed to identify the specific bioactive compounds, their mode of action and their nontoxic nature in vivo condition.

  16. Biosynthesis of Starch in Proplastids of Germinating Ricinus communis Endosperm Tissue 1

    PubMed Central

    Reibach, Paul H.; Benedict, C. R.

    1982-01-01

    Electron photomicrographs of endosperm tissue from germinating seed of Ricinus communis L. cv. Hale show proplastids which contain prominent starch grains. The content of starch in endosperm tissue increased from 500 micrograms per seed, in imbibed seed, to 1,100 micrograms per seed in 5-day-old seedlings. The maximum net rate of starch deposition was 1.1 nanomoles glucose incorporated per minute per seed. About 200 micrograms of starch remained in the endosperm 9 days after imbibition. Starch content followed the same developmental pattern as the content of sucrose, free reducing sugars, and other metabolic processes found in this tissue. Two key enzymes of starch synthesis, adenosine diphosphoglucose (ADPG) pyrophosphorylase and ADPG-starch glucosyl transferase (starch synthetase) exhibited maximum activities at 4 and 5 days after germination, respectively. The maximum activity of ADPG pyrophosphorylase was 8.17 nanomoles ADPG formed per minute per seed, whereas starch synthetase exhibited an activity of 125 nanomoles glucose incorporated per minute per seed. These levels of enzyme activity are sufficient to account for the starch synthesis observed. Other enzymes which may be involved in starch synthesis include 3-phosphoglycerate kinase which showed an activity of 8.76 units per seed, triose-P isomerase (2.56 units per seed), fructose-1,6-bisphosphate aldolase (0.99 units per seed), fructose-1,6-bisphosphatase (0.23 units per seed), phosphoglucose isomerase (12.6 units per seed), and phosphoglucomutase (9.72 units per seed). The activities of these enzymes were similar to previously reported values. Starch synthetase was found in association with the fraction containing proplastids isolated from endosperm tissue. Of the total starch synthetase activity in the endosperm, 38% was particulate. Forty-four% of the total particulate activity of starch synthetase placed on sucrose gradients was associated with the band containing proplastids. The proplastids contained

  17. Albumin and Ricinus communis agglutinin decrease endothelial permeability via interactions with matrix.

    PubMed

    Qiao, R; Siflinger-Birnboim, A; Lum, H; Tiruppathi, C; Malik, A B

    1993-08-01

    We studied the effects of albumin and the lectin Ricinus communis agglutinin (RCA) on hydraulic conductivity (Lp) of bovine pulmonary microvascular endothelial cell monolayers (BPMVEC) because of the evidence that albumin and RCA can interfere with transendothelial albumin permeability (Siflinger-Birnboim, A., J. Schnitzer, H. Lum, F. Blumenstock, C. Shen, P. Del Vecchio, and A. Malik. J. Cell. Physiol. 149: 575-584, 1991). BPMVEC were seeded on microporous polycarbonate filters, and the liquid flux was measured by collecting effluent into a tubing of known inner diameter at transendothelial hydrostatic pressures (P) ranging from 5 to 20 cmH2O. Lp was calculated as the slope of the relationship of liquid flux per unit surface area (Jv) vs. P. Addition of RCA (50 micrograms/ml) or albumin (5 mg/ml) to the endothelial cell medium containing albumin-free Hanks' balanced saline solution (HBSS) decreased total Lp (expressed x 10(-6) cm.s-1 x cmH2O-1) from 17.2 +/- 3.6 during HBSS to 4.7 +/- 0.9 during albumin and 5.7 +/- 1.6 during RCA (P < 0.01 for both). The RCA effect, but not that of albumin, was prevented by the addition of D-galactose (0.1 M) (the cognate hapten monosaccharide of RCA). We determined the contribution of the extracellular matrix (ECM) in decreasing the Lp by obtaining ECM after treatment of the monolayers with 0.025 M NH4OH to detach endothelial cells from the ECM. Basal ECM Lp (expressed x 10(-6) cm.s-1 x cmH2O-1) was 57.0 +/- 15.3, and it decreased to 19.7 +/- 4.3 and 17.5 +/- 2.9 during RCA and albumin, respectively (P < 0.01 for both). In contrast, RCA and albumin did not alter the filter Lp values. Another lectin, Ulex europaeus agglutinin, and the protein immunoglobulin G had no effect on Lp values.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  18. Antimicrobial activity of complete denture cleanser solutions based on sodium hypochlorite and Ricinus communis – a randomized clinical study

    PubMed Central

    SALLES, Marcela Moreira; BADARÓ, Maurício Malheiros; de ARRUDA, Carolina Noronha Ferraz; LEITE, Vanessa Maria Fagundes; da SILVA, Cláudia Helena Lovato; WATANABE, Evandro; OLIVEIRA, Viviane de Cássia; PARANHOS, Helena de Freitas Oliveira

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT To preserve oral health and to maintain the prosthetic devices, it is important not only to improve the properties of commonly known hygiene products, but also to investigate new materials with antimicrobial action. Objectives This study evaluated the antimicrobial activity of sodium hypochlorite (0.25% and 0.50%) and 10% Ricinus communis’ solutions against specific microorganisms. Material and Methods Sixty four maxillary complete denture wearers were instructed to brush their dentures three times a day and to soak them (20 min/day) in the solutions: SH1: 0.25% sodium hypochlorite; SH2: 0.5% sodium hypochlorite; RC: 10% R. communis oil; and C: 0.85% saline (control). The solutions were used for 7 days in a randomized sequence. Following each period of use, there was a 1-week washout period. Antimicrobial activity was determined by Colony Forming Units (CFU) counts of Streptococcus mutans, Candida spp., and gram-negative microorganisms. For collecting biofilm, the internal surface of maxillary dentures was brushed with saline solution, and biofilm suspension obtained. After dilutions (100 - 10-3), aliquots were seeded in Mitis salivarius, CHROMagar Candida®, and MacConkey agar for detecting S. mutans, Candida spp., or gram-negative microorganisms, respectively. After incubation, colonies were counted, and CFU/mL values were calculated. Then, transformation - log10 (CFU+1) - data were analyzed using the Friedman test (α=0.05). Results showed significant differences between the solutions (p<0.001). Results All three solutions showed antimicrobial activity against S. mutans. Against Candida spp., RC and SH1 solutions showed similar effect while SH2 showed superior activity. SH1 and SH2 solutions showed antimicrobial action against gram-negative microorganisms. The Candida species most frequently isolated was C. albicans, followed by C. tropicalis and C. glabrata. Conclusions The 0.5% sodium hypochlorite solution was the most effective and might be used to

  19. Ricinoleic acid biosynthesis and triacylglycerol assembly in microsomal preparations from developing castor-bean (Ricinus communis) endosperm.

    PubMed Central

    Bafor, M; Smith, M A; Jonsson, L; Stobart, K; Stymne, S

    1991-01-01

    Microsomal membrane preparations from the developing endosperm of castor bean (Ricinus communis) catalysed the transfer of oleate from [14C]oleoyl-CoA to phosphatidylcholine (PtdCho). In the presence of NADH, radioactive ricinoleate (12-hydroxyoctadec-9-enoate) was synthesized from [14C]oleate, and this was largely recovered in PtdCho and as free fatty acid. The addition of unlabelled ricinoleoyl-CoA to these incubation mixtures did not increase the low [14C]ricinoleate concentration found in the acyl-CoA fraction nor decrease the [14C]ricinoleate concentration in PtdCho and free fatty acid, and thus no evidence was obtained for a hydroxylation with oleoyl-CoA as a substrate. The addition of NADH, necessary for the formation of ricinoleate, caused a decrease of the total radioactivity in PtdCho with a corresponding increase in the amount of label in free ricinoleic acid. This increase was due to the action of a phospholipase A, which released ricinoleic acid but not oleic acid from PtdCho. Such a phospholipase activity, attacking ricinoleoyl-PtdCho but not oleoyl-PtdCho, was also demonstrated in microsomal preparations from developing cotyledons of safflower and oil-seed rape. An analysis of the acyl groups at different positions in microsomal PtdCho of castor bean showed that ricinoleate was almost entirely associated with position sn-2. Likewise the [14C]ricinoleate in [14C]PtdCho formed after incubations with microsomal preparations with NADH and [14C]oleoyl-CoA resided in position sn-2 with none in position sn-1. In contrast, the [14C]linoleate formed by desaturation of [14C]oleoyl-PtdCho was present at both positions. In the presence of ATP, CoA and Mg2+, the ricinoleate acid released from PtdCho was activated to ricinoleoyl-CoA. The ricinoleoyl-CoA was an efficient acyl donor in the acylation of glycerol 3-phosphate (Gro3P) to yield phosphatidic acid and triacylglycerols. In microsomal preparations incubated with an equimolar mixture of [14C]oleoyl-CoA and

  20. Ricinoleic acid biosynthesis and triacylglycerol assembly in microsomal preparations from developing castor-bean (Ricinus communis) endosperm.

    PubMed

    Bafor, M; Smith, M A; Jonsson, L; Stobart, K; Stymne, S

    1991-12-01

    Microsomal membrane preparations from the developing endosperm of castor bean (Ricinus communis) catalysed the transfer of oleate from [14C]oleoyl-CoA to phosphatidylcholine (PtdCho). In the presence of NADH, radioactive ricinoleate (12-hydroxyoctadec-9-enoate) was synthesized from [14C]oleate, and this was largely recovered in PtdCho and as free fatty acid. The addition of unlabelled ricinoleoyl-CoA to these incubation mixtures did not increase the low [14C]ricinoleate concentration found in the acyl-CoA fraction nor decrease the [14C]ricinoleate concentration in PtdCho and free fatty acid, and thus no evidence was obtained for a hydroxylation with oleoyl-CoA as a substrate. The addition of NADH, necessary for the formation of ricinoleate, caused a decrease of the total radioactivity in PtdCho with a corresponding increase in the amount of label in free ricinoleic acid. This increase was due to the action of a phospholipase A, which released ricinoleic acid but not oleic acid from PtdCho. Such a phospholipase activity, attacking ricinoleoyl-PtdCho but not oleoyl-PtdCho, was also demonstrated in microsomal preparations from developing cotyledons of safflower and oil-seed rape. An analysis of the acyl groups at different positions in microsomal PtdCho of castor bean showed that ricinoleate was almost entirely associated with position sn-2. Likewise the [14C]ricinoleate in [14C]PtdCho formed after incubations with microsomal preparations with NADH and [14C]oleoyl-CoA resided in position sn-2 with none in position sn-1. In contrast, the [14C]linoleate formed by desaturation of [14C]oleoyl-PtdCho was present at both positions. In the presence of ATP, CoA and Mg2+, the ricinoleate acid released from PtdCho was activated to ricinoleoyl-CoA. The ricinoleoyl-CoA was an efficient acyl donor in the acylation of glycerol 3-phosphate (Gro3P) to yield phosphatidic acid and triacylglycerols. In microsomal preparations incubated with an equimolar mixture of [14C]oleoyl-CoA and

  1. In vitro effect of Aloe vera, Coriandrum sativum and Ricinus communis fractions on Leishmania infantum and on murine monocytic cells.

    PubMed

    Rondon, Fernanda C M; Bevilaqua, Claudia M L; Accioly, Marina P; Morais, Selene M; Andrade-Junior, Heitor F; Machado, Lyeghyna K A; Cardoso, Roselaine P A; Almeida, Camila A; Queiroz-Junior, Eudson M; Rodrigues, Ana Caroline M

    2011-06-10

    In South America, visceral leishmaniasis is a zoonosis caused by the protozoan species Leishmania infantum (syn. L. chagasi) and is primarily transmitted through the bite of the female Lutzomyia longipalpis. Its main reservoir in urban areas is the dog. The application of control measures recommended by health agencies have not achieved significant results in reducing the incidence of human cases, and the lack of effective drugs to treat dogs resulted in the prohibition of this course of action in Brazil. Therefore, it is necessary to search new alternatives for the treatment of canine and human visceral leishmaniasis. The objectives of this study were to evaluate the in vitro effect of fractions from Aloe vera (aloe), Coriandrum sativum (coriander), and Ricinus communis (castor) on promastigotes and amastigotes of L. infantum and to analyze the toxicity against the murine monocytic cells RAW 264.7. To determine the viability of these substances on 50% parasites (IC50), we used a tetrazolium dye (MTT) colorimetric assay (bromide 3-4.5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl-2,5-dephenyltetrazolium), and on amastigotes we performed an in situ ELISA. All fractions were effective against L. infantum promastigotes and did not differ from the positive control pentamidine (p>0.05). However, the R. communis ethyl acetate and chloroform fractions, as well as the C. sativum methanol fraction, were the most effective against amastigotes and did not differ from the positive control amphotericin B (p>0.05). The R. communis ethyl acetate fraction was the least toxic, presenting 83.5% viability of RAW 264.7 cells, which was similar to the results obtained with amphotericin B (p>0.05). Based on these results, we intend to undertake in vivo studies with R. communis ethyl acetate fractions due the high effectiveness against amastigotes and promastigotes of L. infantum and the low cytotoxicity towards murine monocytic cells.

  2. Intercropping for Management of Insect Pests of Castor, Ricinus communis, in the Semi—Arid Tropics of India

    PubMed Central

    Srinivasa Rao, M.; Venkateswarlu, B.

    2012-01-01

    Intercropping is one of the important cultural practices in pest management and is based on the principle of reducing insect pests by increasing the diversity of an ecosystem. On—farm experiments were conducted in villages of semi—arid tropical (SAT) India to identify the appropriate combination of castor (Ricinus communis L.) (Malpighiales: Euphorbiaceae) and intercropping in relation to pest incidence. The diversity created by introducing cluster bean, cowpea, black gram, or groundnut as intercrops in castor (1:2 ratio proportions) resulted in reduction of incidence of insect pests, namely semilooper (Achaea janata L.), leaf hopper (Empoasca flavescens Fabricius), and shoot and capsule borer (Conogethes punctiferalis Guenee). A buildup of natural enemies (Microplitis, coccinellids, and spiders) of the major pests of castor was also observed in these intercropping systems and resulted in the reduction of insect pests. Further, these systems were more efficient agronomically and economically, and were thus more profitable than a castor monocrop. PMID:22934569

  3. Methyl jasmonate promotes the transient reduction of the levels of 2-Cys peroxiredoxin in Ricinus communis plants.

    PubMed

    dos Santos Soares, Alexandra Martins; de Souza, Thiago Freitas; de Souza Domingues, Sarah Jane; Jacinto, Tânia; Tavares Machado, Olga Lima

    2004-06-01

    Jasmonates are signaling molecules that play a key role in the regulation of metabolic processes, reproduction and defense against insects and pathogens. This study investigated the effects of methyl jasmonate on the protein pattern of Ricinus communis plants and the activity of guaiacol peroxidase, an antioxidant enzyme. Methyl jasmonate treatment caused a transient reduction in guaiacol peroxidase activity. A similar response was observed for the levels of 2-Cys peroxiredoxin protein. Moreover, the levels of the small and large chains of Rubisco were also reduced. The transient reduction of the levels and activity of antioxidant enzymes could account for the increase in the levels of H2O2, an important signaling molecule in plant defense.

  4. Autotomy in rats after nerve section compared with nerve degeneration following intraneural injection of Ricinus communis agglutinin I.

    PubMed

    Wiesenfeld-Hallin, Z; Nennesmo, I; Kristensson, K

    1987-07-01

    Partial unilateral deafferentation of the hind limb of rats was carried out by section of the sciatic nerve or the intraneural injection of Ricinus communis agglutinin 1 (RCA I). The development of autotomy was observed over a 6 week period. The axotomized animals autotomized more than those injected with RCA I. A neuroma developed on the proximal stump of the axotomized nerves. Within 7 days the axons of the RCA I-injected nerve degenerated and the cell bodies in dorsal root ganglia L4 and L5 were destroyed. Since the RCA I-injected animals autotomized, it is concluded that purely central factors have a role in the generation of this abnormal behavior. As the axotomized animals autotomized more than the RCA I-treated ones it is further concluded that abnormal impulse activity arising from a neuroma may be an additional factor in causing autotomy.

  5. Central projection of rat sciatic nerve fibres as revealed by Ricinus communis agglutinin and horseradish peroxidase tracers.

    PubMed

    Leong, S K; Tan, C K

    1987-10-01

    The central projection of afferent fibres in the rat sciatic nerve has been studied by means of the suicide transport of a lectin, Ricinus communis agglutinin 60 (RCA 60), and the transganglionic transport of horseradish peroxidase (HRP). The results obtained from these two methods are similar; however, the RCA method gave a more consistent and better localisation of the primary afferent terminals than the HRP method. The present study has shown that primary afferents from the sciatic nerve project predominantly to the ipsilateral gracile nucleus. In addition, they also project to several other brainstem nuclei; these include the contralateral nucleus gracilis, the ipsilateral main cuneate nucleus, the external cuneate nucleus and the presumptive nucleus z.

  6. Intercropping for management of insect pests of castor, Ricinus communis, in the semi-arid tropics of India.

    PubMed

    Rao, M Srinivasa; Rama Rao, C A; Srinivas, K; Pratibha, G; Vidya Sekhar, S M; Sree Vani, G; Venkateswarlu, B

    2012-01-01

    Intercropping is one of the important cultural practices in pest management and is based on the principle of reducing insect pests by increasing the diversity of an ecosystem. On-farm experiments were conducted in villages of semi-arid tropical (SAT) India to identify the appropriate combination of castor (Ricinus communis L.) (Malpighiales: Euphorbiaceae) and intercropping in relation to pest incidence. The diversity created by introducing cluster bean, cowpea, black gram, or groundnut as intercrops in castor (1:2 ratio proportions) resulted in reduction of incidence of insect pests, namely semilooper (Achaea janata L.), leaf hopper (Empoasca flavescens Fabricius), and shoot and capsule borer (Conogethes punctiferalis Guenee). A buildup of natural enemies (Microplitis, coccinellids, and spiders) of the major pests of castor was also observed in these intercropping systems and resulted in the reduction of insect pests. Further, these systems were more efficient agronomically and economically, and were thus more profitable than a castor monocrop.

  7. Ricinus communis L. stem bark extracts regulate ovarian cell functions and secretory activity and their response to Luteinising hormone.

    PubMed

    Nath, S; Kadasi, A; Grossmann, R; Sirotkin, A V; Kolesarova, A; Talukdar, A D; Choudhury, M D

    2015-01-01

    Ricinus communis L. has ethnopharmacological contraceptive reputation but its stem bark has unexplored mechanisms of action in female reproductive system. In the present study, the effect of methanolic and aqueous extracts from the stem bark of the plant was examined on basic porcine ovarian granulosa cell functions and its response to Luteinising hormone (LH)-the upstream hormonal regulator. Systemic treatment of methanolic and aqueous extracts stimulated cell proliferation (proliferating cell nuclear antigen, PCNA) and also promoted cell apoptosis (caspase-3). Aqueous extract has inverted the stimulatory effect of LH on PCNA but not on caspase-3. Methanolic extract stimulated as well as inhibited progesterone release and stimulated testosterone secretion. Whereas aqueous extract inhibited both steroid releases and suppressed the stimulatory effect of LH on progesterone release and promoted the inhibitory effect of LH on testosterone release. In conclusion, the present study unveils the mechanism of action of R. communis stem bark in in vitro condition. These suggest its possible contraceptive efficacy by exerting its regulatory role over LH and on basic ovarian cell functions and secretion activity.

  8. Removal of malachite green from aqueous solution by activated carbon prepared from the epicarp of Ricinus communis by adsorption.

    PubMed

    Santhi, T; Manonmani, S; Smitha, T

    2010-07-15

    The use of low-cost, locally available, highly efficient and eco-friendly adsorbents has been investigated as an ideal alternative to the current expensive methods of removing dyes from wastewater. This study investigates the potential use of activated carbon prepared from the epicarp of Ricinus communis for the removal of malachite green (MG) dye from simulated wastewater. The effects of different system variables, adsorbent dosage, initial dye concentration, pH and contact time were investigated and optimal experimental conditions were ascertained. The results showed that as the amount of the adsorbent increased, the percentage of dye removal increased accordingly. Optimum pH value for dye adsorption was 7.0. Maximum dye was sequestered within 50 min of the start of every experiment. The adsorption of malachite green followed the pseudo-second-order rate equation and fits the Langmuir, Freundlich, Dubinin-Radushkevich (D-R) and Tempkin equations well. The maximum removal of MG was obtained at pH 7 as 99.04% for adsorbent dose of 1 g 50 mL(-1) and 25 mg L(-1) initial dye concentration at room temperature. Activated carbon developed from R. communis can be an attractive option for dye removal from diluted industrial effluents since test reaction made on simulated dyeing wastewater showed better removal percentage of MG. 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Activity of Ricinus communis (Euphorbiaceae) and ricinine against the leaf-cutting ant Atta sexdens rubropilosa (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) and the symbiotic fungus Leucoagaricus gongylophorus.

    PubMed

    Bigi, Maria Fátima; Torkomian, Vera L V; de Groote, Suzanne T C S; Hebling, Maria José A; Bueno, Odair C; Pagnocca, Fernando C; Fernandes, João B; Vieira, Paulo C; da Silva, Maria Fátima G F

    2004-09-01

    The focus of this study was the identification of compounds from plant extracts for use in crop protection. This paper reports on the toxic activity of fractions of leaf extracts of Ricinus communis L (Euphorbiaceae) and isolated active compounds in the leaf-cutting ant Atta sexdens rubropilosa Forel and its symbiotic fungus Leucoagaricus gongylophorus (Singer) Möller. The main compounds responsible for activity against the fungus and ant in leaf extracts of R communis were found to be fatty acids for the former and ricinine for the ants.

  10. Mining whole genomes and transcriptomes of Jatropha (Jatropha curcas) and Castor bean (Ricinus communis) for NBS-LRR genes and defense response associated transcription factors.

    PubMed

    Sood, Archit; Jaiswal, Varun; Chanumolu, Sree Krishna; Malhotra, Nikhil; Pal, Tarun; Chauhan, Rajinder Singh

    2014-11-01

    Jatropha (Jatropha curcas L.) and Castor bean (Ricinus communis) are oilseed crops of family Euphorbiaceae with the potential of producing high quality biodiesel and having industrial value. Both the bioenergy plants are becoming susceptible to various biotic stresses directly affecting the oil quality and content. No report exists as of today on analysis of Nucleotide Binding Site-Leucine Rich Repeat (NBS-LRR) gene repertoire and defense response transcription factors in both the plant species. In silico analysis of whole genomes and transcriptomes identified 47 new NBS-LRR genes in both the species and 122 and 318 defense response related transcription factors in Jatropha and Castor bean, respectively. The identified NBS-LRR genes and defense response transcription factors were mapped onto the respective genomes. Common and unique NBS-LRR genes and defense related transcription factors were identified in both the plant species. All NBS-LRR genes in both the species were characterized into Toll/interleukin-1 receptor NBS-LRRs (TNLs) and coiled-coil NBS-LRRs (CNLs), position on contigs, gene clusters and motifs and domains distribution. Transcript abundance or expression values were measured for all NBS-LRR genes and defense response transcription factors, suggesting their functional role. The current study provides a repertoire of NBS-LRR genes and transcription factors which can be used in not only dissecting the molecular basis of disease resistance phenotype but also in developing disease resistant genotypes in Jatropha and Castor bean through transgenic or molecular breeding approaches.

  11. Bis(β-lactosyl)-[60]fullerene as novel class of glycolipids useful for the detection and the decontamination of biological toxins of the Ricinus communis family

    PubMed Central

    Kanazawa, Takeru; Saito, Akihiro; Sato, Keita; Uzawa, Hirotaka; Seto, Yasuo

    2014-01-01

    Summary Glycosyl-[60]fullerenes were first used as decontaminants against ricin, a lactose recognition proteotoxin in the Ricinus communis family. A fullerene glycoconjugate carrying two lactose units was synthesized by a [3 + 2] cycloaddition reaction between C60 and the azide group in 6-azidohexyl β-lactoside per-O-acetate. A colloidal aqueous solution with brown color was prepared from deprotected bis(lactosyl)-C60 and was found stable for more than 6 months keeping its red color. Upon mixing with an aqueous solution of Ricinus communis agglutinin (RCA120), the colloidal solution soon caused precipitations, while becoming colorless and transparent. In contrast, a solution of concanavalin A (Con A) caused no apparent change, indicating that the precipitation was caused specifically by carbohydrate–protein interactions. This notable phenomenon was quantified by means of sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE), and the results were discussed in terms of detection and decontamination of the deadly biological toxin in the Ricinus communis family. PMID:25161707

  12. Bis(β-lactosyl)-[60]fullerene as novel class of glycolipids useful for the detection and the decontamination of biological toxins of the Ricinus communis family.

    PubMed

    Dohi, Hirofumi; Kanazawa, Takeru; Saito, Akihiro; Sato, Keita; Uzawa, Hirotaka; Seto, Yasuo; Nishida, Yoshihiro

    2014-01-01

    Glycosyl-[60]fullerenes were first used as decontaminants against ricin, a lactose recognition proteotoxin in the Ricinus communis family. A fullerene glycoconjugate carrying two lactose units was synthesized by a [3 + 2] cycloaddition reaction between C60 and the azide group in 6-azidohexyl β-lactoside per-O-acetate. A colloidal aqueous solution with brown color was prepared from deprotected bis(lactosyl)-C60 and was found stable for more than 6 months keeping its red color. Upon mixing with an aqueous solution of Ricinus communis agglutinin (RCA120), the colloidal solution soon caused precipitations, while becoming colorless and transparent. In contrast, a solution of concanavalin A (Con A) caused no apparent change, indicating that the precipitation was caused specifically by carbohydrate-protein interactions. This notable phenomenon was quantified by means of sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE), and the results were discussed in terms of detection and decontamination of the deadly biological toxin in the Ricinus communis family.

  13. The surface glycoproteins of human skin fibroblasts detected after electrophoresis by the binding of peanut (Arachis hypogaea) agglutinin and Ricinus communis (castor-bean) agglutinin I.

    PubMed

    Gordon, B B; Pena, S D

    1982-11-15

    A new methodology was developed to study the cell-surface glycoproteins of cultured human skin fibroblasts. This was based on the binding of a variety of biotinyl-lectins to nitrocellulose electrophoretic transfers of total fibroblast lysates after separation in sodium dodecyl sulphate/polyacrylamide gels, followed by reaction with avidin-biotinyl-peroxidase complexes and detection with 3,3'-diaminobenzidine. The technique proved to be very sensitive and a large number of glycoproteins were detected by binding of concanavalin A and wheat-germ agglutinin. Binding of peanut agglutinin and to a lesser extent of Ricinus communis agglutinin I were found to be dependent on prior removal of sialic acid residues from the glycoproteins. Since by treatment of intact viable cells with neuraminidase only external sialic acid residues were removed, peanut agglutinin and Ricinus communis agglutinin I could thus be utilized for selective detection of cell-surface glycoproteins. Also, because peanut agglutinin was known to bind preferentially to oligosaccharides of the O-glycosidic type, and Ricinus communis agglutinin I to those of the N-glycosidic type, the two lectins were complementary in displaying the surface glycoproteins and in providing information about their oligosaccharide composition.

  14. Salicylic acid transport in Ricinus communis involves a pH-dependent carrier system in addition to diffusion.

    PubMed

    Rocher, Françoise; Chollet, Jean-François; Legros, Sandrine; Jousse, Cyril; Lemoine, Rémi; Faucher, Mireille; Bush, Daniel R; Bonnemain, Jean-Louis

    2009-08-01

    Despite its important functions in plant physiology and defense, the membrane transport mechanism of salicylic acid (SA) is poorly documented due to the general assumption that SA is taken up by plant cells via the ion trap mechanism. Using Ricinus communis seedlings and modeling tools (ACD LogD and Vega ZZ softwares), we show that phloem accumulation of SA and hydroxylated analogs is completely uncorrelated with the physicochemical parameters suitable for diffusion (number of hydrogen bond donors, polar surface area, and, especially, LogD values at apoplastic pHs and Delta LogD between apoplast and phloem sap pH values). These and other data (such as accumulation in phloem sap of the poorly permeant dissociated form of monohalogen derivatives from apoplast and inhibition of SA transport by the thiol reagent p-chloromercuribenzenesulfonic acid [pCMBS]) lead to the following conclusions. As in intestinal cells, SA transport in Ricinus involves a pH-dependent carrier system sensitive to pCMBS; this carrier can translocate monohalogen analogs in the anionic form; the efficiency of phloem transport of hydroxylated benzoic acid derivatives is tightly dependent on the position of the hydroxyl group on the aromatic ring (SA corresponds to the optimal position) but moderately affected by halogen addition in position 5, which is known to increase plant defense. Furthermore, combining time-course experiments and pCMBS used as a tool, we give information about the localization of the SA carrier. SA uptake by epidermal cells (i.e. the step preceding the symplastic transport to veins) insensitive to pCMBS occurs via the ion-trap mechanism, whereas apoplastic vein loading involves a carrier-mediated mechanism (which is targeted by pCMBS) in addition to diffusion.

  15. Salicylic Acid Transport in Ricinus communis Involves a pH-Dependent Carrier System in Addition to Diffusion1[OA

    PubMed Central

    Rocher, Françoise; Chollet, Jean-François; Legros, Sandrine; Jousse, Cyril; Lemoine, Rémi; Faucher, Mireille; Bush, Daniel R.; Bonnemain, Jean-Louis

    2009-01-01

    Despite its important functions in plant physiology and defense, the membrane transport mechanism of salicylic acid (SA) is poorly documented due to the general assumption that SA is taken up by plant cells via the ion trap mechanism. Using Ricinus communis seedlings and modeling tools (ACD LogD and Vega ZZ softwares), we show that phloem accumulation of SA and hydroxylated analogs is completely uncorrelated with the physicochemical parameters suitable for diffusion (number of hydrogen bond donors, polar surface area, and, especially, LogD values at apoplastic pHs and Δ LogD between apoplast and phloem sap pH values). These and other data (such as accumulation in phloem sap of the poorly permeant dissociated form of monohalogen derivatives from apoplast and inhibition of SA transport by the thiol reagent p-chloromercuribenzenesulfonic acid [pCMBS]) lead to the following conclusions. As in intestinal cells, SA transport in Ricinus involves a pH-dependent carrier system sensitive to pCMBS; this carrier can translocate monohalogen analogs in the anionic form; the efficiency of phloem transport of hydroxylated benzoic acid derivatives is tightly dependent on the position of the hydroxyl group on the aromatic ring (SA corresponds to the optimal position) but moderately affected by halogen addition in position 5, which is known to increase plant defense. Furthermore, combining time-course experiments and pCMBS used as a tool, we give information about the localization of the SA carrier. SA uptake by epidermal cells (i.e. the step preceding the symplastic transport to veins) insensitive to pCMBS occurs via the ion-trap mechanism, whereas apoplastic vein loading involves a carrier-mediated mechanism (which is targeted by pCMBS) in addition to diffusion. PMID:19493970

  16. Serpentine bacteria influence metal translocation and bioconcentration of Brassica juncea and Ricinus communis grown in multi-metal polluted soils

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Ying; Rajkumar, Mani; Rocha, Inês; Oliveira, Rui S.; Freitas, Helena

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the effects of inoculation of rhizosphere or endophytic bacteria (Psychrobacter sp. SRS8 and Pseudomonas sp. A3R3, respectively) isolated from a serpentine environment on the plant growth and the translocation and accumulation of Ni, Zn, and Fe by Brassica juncea and Ricinus communis on a multi-metal polluted serpentine soil (SS). Field collected SS was diluted to 0, 25, 50, and 75% with pristine soil in order to obtain a range of heavy metal concentrations and used in microcosm experiments. Regardless of inoculation with bacteria, the biomass of both plant species decreased with increase of the proportion of SS. Inoculation of plants with bacteria significantly increased the plant biomass and the heavy metal accumulation compared with non-inoculated control in the presence of different proportion of SS, which was attributed to the production of plant growth promoting and/or metal mobilizing metabolites by bacteria. However, SRS8 showed a maximum increase in the biomass of the test plants grown even in the treatment of 75% SS. In turn, A3R3 showed maximum effects on the accumulation of heavy metals in both plants. Regardless of inoculation of bacteria and proportion of SS, both plant species exhibited low values of bioconcentration factor (<1) for Ni and Fe. The inoculation of both bacterial strains significantly increased the translocation factor (TF) of Ni while decreasing the TF of Zn in both plant species. Besides this contrasting effect, the TFs of all metals were <1, indicating that all studied bacteria–plant combinations are suitable for phytostabilization. This study demonstrates that the bacterial isolates A3R3 and SRS8 improved the growth of B. juncea and R. communis in SS soils and have a great potential to be used as inoculants in phytostabilization scenarios of multi-metal contaminated soils. PMID:25601876

  17. Serpentine bacteria influence metal translocation and bioconcentration of Brassica juncea and Ricinus communis grown in multi-metal polluted soils.

    PubMed

    Ma, Ying; Rajkumar, Mani; Rocha, Inês; Oliveira, Rui S; Freitas, Helena

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the effects of inoculation of rhizosphere or endophytic bacteria (Psychrobacter sp. SRS8 and Pseudomonas sp. A3R3, respectively) isolated from a serpentine environment on the plant growth and the translocation and accumulation of Ni, Zn, and Fe by Brassica juncea and Ricinus communis on a multi-metal polluted serpentine soil (SS). Field collected SS was diluted to 0, 25, 50, and 75% with pristine soil in order to obtain a range of heavy metal concentrations and used in microcosm experiments. Regardless of inoculation with bacteria, the biomass of both plant species decreased with increase of the proportion of SS. Inoculation of plants with bacteria significantly increased the plant biomass and the heavy metal accumulation compared with non-inoculated control in the presence of different proportion of SS, which was attributed to the production of plant growth promoting and/or metal mobilizing metabolites by bacteria. However, SRS8 showed a maximum increase in the biomass of the test plants grown even in the treatment of 75% SS. In turn, A3R3 showed maximum effects on the accumulation of heavy metals in both plants. Regardless of inoculation of bacteria and proportion of SS, both plant species exhibited low values of bioconcentration factor (<1) for Ni and Fe. The inoculation of both bacterial strains significantly increased the translocation factor (TF) of Ni while decreasing the TF of Zn in both plant species. Besides this contrasting effect, the TFs of all metals were <1, indicating that all studied bacteria-plant combinations are suitable for phytostabilization. This study demonstrates that the bacterial isolates A3R3 and SRS8 improved the growth of B. juncea and R. communis in SS soils and have a great potential to be used as inoculants in phytostabilization scenarios of multi-metal contaminated soils.

  18. Trace isotope analysis of Ricinus communis seed core for provenance determination by laser ablation-ICP-MS.

    PubMed

    Bagas, Christina K; Scadding, Rachel L; Scadding, Cameron J; Watling, R John; Roberts, Warren; Ovenden, Simon P B

    2017-01-01

    The castor bean plant, Ricinus communis, grows wild throughout many regions of Australia. The seeds of the plant contain the schedule 1 chemical agent ricin, a type II ribosomal inhibiting protein. Currently there are limited analytical techniques that can be applied in analysis of the seeds to establish attribution. In this study, laser ablation inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (LA-ICP-MS) was used for the analysis of seeds collected from 68 plants across 38 locations around Australia. Of the 92 elemental isotopes measured, fifteen ((24)Mg, (27)Al, (44)Ca, (53)Cr, (55)Mn, (57)Fe, (60)Ni, (65)Cu, (66)Zn, (75)As, (85)Rb, (88)Sr, (98)Mo, (138)Ba and (202)Hg) yielded data that were relevant to all collection sites. Data were further analysed using multivariate statistical analysis which facilitated the potential for the identification of unique provenance isotopes. Furthermore, this analysis indicated that (59)Co was present at significant levels in Victorian and Sydney specimens only. Crown Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Gene Structures, Evolution, Classification and Expression Profiles of the Aquaporin Gene Family in Castor Bean (Ricinus communis L.).

    PubMed

    Zou, Zhi; Gong, Jun; Huang, Qixing; Mo, Yeyong; Yang, Lifu; Xie, Guishui

    2015-01-01

    Aquaporins (AQPs) are a class of integral membrane proteins that facilitate the passive transport of water and other small solutes across biological membranes. Castor bean (Ricinus communis L., Euphobiaceae), an important non-edible oilseed crop, is widely cultivated for industrial, medicinal and cosmetic purposes. Its recently available genome provides an opportunity to analyze specific gene families. In this study, a total of 37 full-length AQP genes were identified from the castor bean genome, which were assigned to five subfamilies, including 10 plasma membrane intrinsic proteins (PIPs), 9 tonoplast intrinsic proteins (TIPs), 8 NOD26-like intrinsic proteins (NIPs), 6 X intrinsic proteins (XIPs) and 4 small basic intrinsic proteins (SIPs) on the basis of sequence similarities. Functional prediction based on the analysis of the aromatic/arginine (ar/R) selectivity filter, Froger's positions and specificity-determining positions (SDPs) showed a remarkable difference in substrate specificity among subfamilies. Homology analysis supported the expression of all 37 RcAQP genes in at least one of examined tissues, e.g., root, leaf, flower, seed and endosperm. Furthermore, global expression profiles with deep transcriptome sequencing data revealed diverse expression patterns among various tissues. The current study presents the first genome-wide analysis of the AQP gene family in castor bean. Results obtained from this study provide valuable information for future functional analysis and utilization.

  20. Ricinine: a pyridone alkaloid from Ricinus communis that activates the Wnt signaling pathway through casein kinase 1α.

    PubMed

    Ohishi, Kensuke; Toume, Kazufumi; Arai, Midori A; Sadhu, Samir K; Ahmed, Firoj; Mizoguchi, Takamasa; Itoh, Motoyuki; Ishibashi, Masami

    2014-09-01

    Wnt signaling plays important roles in proliferation, differentiation, development of cells, and various diseases. Activity-guided fractionation of the MeOH extract of the Ricinus communis stem led to the isolation of four compounds (1-4). The TCF/β-catenin transcription activities of 1 and 3 were 2.2 and 2.5 fold higher at 20 and 30μM, respectively. Cells treated with ricinine (1) had higher β-catenin and lower of p-β-catenin (ser 33, 37, 45, Thr 41) protein levels, whereas glycogen synthase kinase 3β (GSK3β) and casein kinase 1α (CK1α) protein levels remained unchanged. Cells treated with pyrvinium, an activator of CK1α, had lower β-catenin levels. However, the combined treatment of pyrvinium and 1 led to higher β-catenin levels than those in cells treated with pyrvinium alone, which suggested that 1 inhibited CK1α activity. Furthermore, 1 increased β-catenin protein levels in zebrafish embryos. These results indicated that 1 activated the Wnt signaling pathway by inhibiting CK1α. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Effects on spermatogenesis in swiss mice of a protein isolated from the roots of Ricinus communis (Linn.) (Euphorbiaceae).

    PubMed

    Nithya, R S; Anuja, M M; Swathy, S S; Rajamanickam, C; Indira, M

    2011-03-15

    This study was aimed to evaluate the effect on spermatogenesis of a 62 kDa protein (Rp) isolated from 50% ethanolic extract of the root of Ricinus communis in mice. A dose response study in mice revealed that 25mg/kg body weight/day was the most effective dose. Swiss strain mature male mice of 30 days old were divided into two group namely control and Rp treated (25mg/kg body weight/day). The study showed that sperm motility and count were decreased significantly in the treated group as compared to the control. The fertility index of the treated groups was reduced by 100%. The activity of HMG Co A reductase and cholesterol were increased significantly in the treated group. The testicular activities of 3βHSD, 17βHSD, glucose 6-phosphate dehydrogenase and malic enzyme and the level of serum testosterone were decreased significantly in the treated group. The expression of 3βHSD and 17βHSD were decreased and the expression of StAR increased significantly in the treated group as compared to the control. Proteolytic digestion of the native protein with trypsin and chymotrypsin showed that the proteolytic cleavage did not affect the spermicidal action of Rp. Hence this study can be concluded that Rp impaired spermatogenesis in vivo by suppressing the production of testosterone. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Phloem sugar flux and jasmonic acid-responsive cell wall invertase control extrafloral nectar secretion in Ricinus communis.

    PubMed

    Millán-Cañongo, Cynthia; Orona-Tamayo, Domancar; Heil, Martin

    2014-07-01

    Plants secrete extrafloral nectar (EFN) that attracts predators. The efficiency of the resulting anti-herbivore defense depends on the quantity and spatial distribution of EFN. Thus, according to the optimal defense hypothesis (ODH), plants should secrete EFN on the most valuable organs and when herbivore pressure is high. Ricinus communis plants secreted most EFN on the youngest (i.e., most valuable) leaves and after the simulation of herbivory via the application of jasmonic acid (JA). Here, we investigated the physiological mechanisms that might produce these seemingly adaptive spatiotemporal patterns. Cell wall invertase (CWIN; EC 3.2.1.26) was most active in the hours before peak EFN secretion, its decrease preceded the decrease in EFN secretion, and CWIN activity was inducible by JA. Thus, CWIN appears to be a central player in EFN secretion: its activation by JA is likely to cause the induction of EFN secretion after herbivory. Shading individual leaves decreased EFN secretion locally on these leaves with no effect on CWIN activity in the nectaries, which is likely to be because it decreased the content of sucrose, the substrate of CWIN, in the phloem. Our results demonstrate how the interplay of two physiological processes can cause ecologically relevant spatiotemporal patterns in a plant defense trait.

  3. Gene Structures, Evolution, Classification and Expression Profiles of the Aquaporin Gene Family in Castor Bean (Ricinus communis L.)

    PubMed Central

    Mo, Yeyong; Yang, Lifu; Xie, Guishui

    2015-01-01

    Aquaporins (AQPs) are a class of integral membrane proteins that facilitate the passive transport of water and other small solutes across biological membranes. Castor bean (Ricinus communis L., Euphobiaceae), an important non-edible oilseed crop, is widely cultivated for industrial, medicinal and cosmetic purposes. Its recently available genome provides an opportunity to analyze specific gene families. In this study, a total of 37 full-length AQP genes were identified from the castor bean genome, which were assigned to five subfamilies, including 10 plasma membrane intrinsic proteins (PIPs), 9 tonoplast intrinsic proteins (TIPs), 8 NOD26-like intrinsic proteins (NIPs), 6 X intrinsic proteins (XIPs) and 4 small basic intrinsic proteins (SIPs) on the basis of sequence similarities. Functional prediction based on the analysis of the aromatic/arginine (ar/R) selectivity filter, Froger’s positions and specificity-determining positions (SDPs) showed a remarkable difference in substrate specificity among subfamilies. Homology analysis supported the expression of all 37 RcAQP genes in at least one of examined tissues, e.g., root, leaf, flower, seed and endosperm. Furthermore, global expression profiles with deep transcriptome sequencing data revealed diverse expression patterns among various tissues. The current study presents the first genome-wide analysis of the AQP gene family in castor bean. Results obtained from this study provide valuable information for future functional analysis and utilization. PMID:26509832

  4. Gene Structures, Evolution and Transcriptional Profiling of the WRKY Gene Family in Castor Bean (Ricinus communis L.).

    PubMed

    Zou, Zhi; Yang, Lifu; Wang, Danhua; Huang, Qixing; Mo, Yeyong; Xie, Guishui

    2016-01-01

    WRKY proteins comprise one of the largest transcription factor families in plants and form key regulators of many plant processes. This study presents the characterization of 58 WRKY genes from the castor bean (Ricinus communis L., Euphorbiaceae) genome. Compared with the automatic genome annotation, one more WRKY-encoding locus was identified and 20 out of the 57 predicted gene models were manually corrected. All RcWRKY genes were shown to contain at least one intron in their coding sequences. According to the structural features of the present WRKY domains, the identified RcWRKY genes were assigned to three previously defined groups (I-III). Although castor bean underwent no recent whole-genome duplication event like physic nut (Jatropha curcas L., Euphorbiaceae), comparative genomics analysis indicated that one gene loss, one intron loss and one recent proximal duplication occurred in the RcWRKY gene family. The expression of all 58 RcWRKY genes was supported by ESTs and/or RNA sequencing reads derived from roots, leaves, flowers, seeds and endosperms. Further global expression profiles with RNA sequencing data revealed diverse expression patterns among various tissues. Results obtained from this study not only provide valuable information for future functional analysis and utilization of the castor bean WRKY genes, but also provide a useful reference to investigate the gene family expansion and evolution in Euphorbiaceus plants.

  5. Rat sperm immobilisation effects of a protein from Ricinus communis (Linn.): an in vitro comparative study with nonoxynol-9.

    PubMed

    Nithya, R S; Anuja, M M; Rajamanickam, C; Indira, M

    2012-12-01

    Previous study conducted in our department showed that 50% ethanolic extract of the root of Ricinus communis possess reversible antifertility effect and a 62-kDa protein (Rp) from this extract is responsible for the antifertility effects. In this study, we compared the spermicidal effect of this Rp with nonoxynol-9 (N-9) in vitro. The sperm immobilisation studies showed that 100 μg ml(-1) of Rp was able to immobilise the sperms completely within 30 s. Sperm revival test revealed that the spermicidal effect was irreversible. There was also a significant reduction in sperm viability and hypo-osmotic swelling in Rp and N-9 treated groups in comparison with the control. In Rp and N-9 treated groups, the number of acrosome-reacted cells was found to be high and also caused agglutination of the spermatozoa, indicating the loss of intactness of the plasma membrane, which was further supported by the significant reduction in the activity of membrane bound 5'-nucleotidase, acrosomal acrosin. In short, the protein Rp possesses spermicidal activity in vitro and its effects are similar to that of nonoxynol 9. © 2012 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  6. Tolerance of Ricinus communis L. to Cd and screening of high Cd accumulation varieties for remediation of Cd contaminated soils.

    PubMed

    Wu, Shanshan; Shen, Chuang; Yang, Zhongyi; Lin, Biyun; Yuan, Jiangang

    2016-11-01

    Response of castor (Ricinus communis L.) to cadmium (Cd) was assessed by a seed-suspending seedbed approach. Length of total radicle was the most sensitive indicator of Cd tolerance among the tested germination and growth characters. The ED50 value for Cd was 11.87 mg L(-1), indicating high Cd tolerance in castor. A pot experiment was conducted by growing 46 varieties of castor under CK (without Cd) and Cd1 (10 mg kg(-1) of Cd) and Cd2 (50 mg kg(-1) of Cd) treatments to investigate genotype variations in growth response and Cd accumulation of castor under different Cd exposures. Castor possessed high Cd accumulation ability; average shoot and root Cd concentrations of the 46 tested varieties were 21.83 and 185.43 mg kg(-1), and 174.99 and 1181.96 mg kg(-1) under Cd1 and Cd2, respectively. Great variation in Cd accumulation was observed among varieties, and Cd concentration of castor was genotype dependent. The correlation between biomass and Cd accumulation was significantly positive, while no significant correlation was observed between Cd concentration and Cd accumulation, which indicated that biomass performance is the dominant factor in determining Cd accumulation ability.

  7. Dynamics and control of phloem loading of indole-3-acetic acid in seedling cotyledons of Ricinus communis

    PubMed Central

    Tamas, Imre A.; Davies, Peter J.

    2016-01-01

    During seed germination, sugars and auxin are produced from stored precursors or conjugates respectively, and transported to the seedling axis. To elucidate the mode of travel of indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) into the phloem, a solution of [3H]IAA, together with [14C]sucrose, was injected into the endosperm cavity harboring the cotyledons of germinating seedlings of Ricinus communis. Phloem exudate from the cut hypocotyl was collected and the radioactivity recorded. Sucrose loading into the phloem was inhibited at higher IAA levels, and the rate of filling of the transient pool(s) was reduced by IAA. IAA was detected within 10min, with the concentration increasing over 30min and reaching a steady-state by 60min. The kinetics indicated that phloem loading of IAA involving both an active, carrier-based, and a passive, diffusion-based component, with IAA traveling along a pathway containing an intermediary pool, possibly the protoplasts of mesophyll cells. Phloem loading of IAA was altered by sucrose, K+, and a range of non-specific and IAA-specific analogs and inhibitors in a manner that showed that IAA moves into the phloem from the extra cotyledonary solution by multiple pathways, with a carrier-mediated pathway playing a principal role. PMID:27371947

  8. Dynamics and control of phloem loading of indole-3-acetic acid in seedling cotyledons of Ricinus communis.

    PubMed

    Tamas, Imre A; Davies, Peter J

    2016-08-01

    During seed germination, sugars and auxin are produced from stored precursors or conjugates respectively, and transported to the seedling axis. To elucidate the mode of travel of indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) into the phloem, a solution of [(3)H]IAA, together with [(14)C]sucrose, was injected into the endosperm cavity harboring the cotyledons of germinating seedlings of Ricinus communis Phloem exudate from the cut hypocotyl was collected and the radioactivity recorded. Sucrose loading into the phloem was inhibited at higher IAA levels, and the rate of filling of the transient pool(s) was reduced by IAA. IAA was detected within 10min, with the concentration increasing over 30min and reaching a steady-state by 60min. The kinetics indicated that phloem loading of IAA involving both an active, carrier-based, and a passive, diffusion-based component, with IAA traveling along a pathway containing an intermediary pool, possibly the protoplasts of mesophyll cells. Phloem loading of IAA was altered by sucrose, K(+), and a range of non-specific and IAA-specific analogs and inhibitors in a manner that showed that IAA moves into the phloem from the extra cotyledonary solution by multiple pathways, with a carrier-mediated pathway playing a principal role.

  9. Receptors for the lectins wheat germ. Ricinus communis I and soybean in ameloblastomas and normal oral mucosa.

    PubMed

    Vedtofte, P; Dabelsteen, E

    1981-11-01

    The histological distribution of receptors for the lectins Wheat germ (WGA). Ricinus communis I (RCA I) and Soybean (SBA) was examined in ameloblastomas and normal oral mucosa from 12 patients. The study utilized fluorescein-conjugated WGA, RCA I and SBA. Cell-membrane bound receptors for these 3 lectins were demonstrated in the spinous cell layer of the normal oral mucosa. WGA and RCA I receptors were also located in the basal cell layer, whereas SBA receptors were not detectable there. Cell-membrane bound WGA receptors were shown in the epithelial cells of the ameloblastomas. Titrations showed significant differences in staining reactivity related to the morphology of the peripheral epithelial cells of the ameloblastomas. The distribution of RCA I and SBA receptors in the peripheral cells was also related to the morphology of these cells and was independent of the histological types of the tumours. It is suggested that the distribution of these receptors is related to cellular activities such as cell differentiation and cell migration in the tumour and therefore possibly reflects the biological behavior of the tumours.

  10. Ultrastructural identification of Ricinus communis agglutinin-1 positive cells in primary dissociated cell cultures of human embryonic brain.

    PubMed

    Bobryshev, Y; Ashwell, K

    1994-12-01

    While Ricinus communis agglutinin 1 (RCA-1) can be used as a specific marker to study the development and differentiation of microglial cells in human embryogenesis, little is known about the structural heterogeneity and nature of RCA-1+ cells. To analyse the structural peculiarities of RCA-1+ cells, we have used primary dissociated cultures of human embryonic brain. These have been used as models for investigating many of the aspects of central nervous system (CNS) HIV infection. We have shown that primary dissociated cultures from human embryos as young as 10 weeks gestation contain RCA-1+ cells. The RCA-1+ cells exist in two forms, those without (type I) and those with (type II) processes. The former have a poorly developed ultrastructure, while the latter have well developed ultrastructural features, such as rough endoplasmic reticulum with short cisternae, abundant ribosomes, mitochondria, lysosomes and vacuoles. Furthermore, some of these cells with processes have well developed cytoskeletal features. In this paper, the classification of RCA-1+ cells of embryonic human brain is considered and their morphology compared to microglia identified in rodent CNS.

  11. Binding and cytotoxicity of Ricinus communis lectins to HeLa cells, Sarcoma 180 ascites tumor cells and erythrocytes.

    PubMed

    Oda, T; Aizono, Y; Funatsu, G

    1984-08-01

    The binding of Ricinus communis lectins to HeLa cells, Sarcoma 180 ascites tumor cells and human erythrocytes was studied in detail. Scatchard plots of binding of 125I-lectins to these cells gave biphasic lines except for HeLa cells at 0 degree C. The association constants of lectins for the three cell types at 37 degrees C were lower than those at 0 degree C. The numbers of total binding sites were estimated to be 7 to 16 X 10(7) per HeLa cell, 3 to 4 X 10(7) per Sarcoma 180 ascites tumor cell and 0.4 to 1 X 10(6) per erythrocyte. A fraction, 16 to 27% of the total amount of cell-bound lectin at 37 degrees C, appeared to be bound irreversibly as judged by non-removal on washing with 0.1 M lactose, whereas no lectin was irreversibly bound at 0 degree C. In the case of erythrocytes, no lectin became irreversibly bound even at 37 degrees C. The toxicity of lectins on HeLa cells and Sarcoma 180 ascites tumor cells was investigated. The toxicity of ricin D was 50 times for Sarcoma 180 ascites tumor cells and 140 times for HeLa cells as much as that for castor bean hemagglutinin. As to the sensitivities of both cell types to these lectins, it became apparent that Sarcoma 180 ascites tumor cells were more susceptible than HeLa cells.

  12. Effect of the chemical composition of Ricinus communis polyurethane on rat bone marrow cell attachment, proliferation, and differentiation.

    PubMed

    Beloti, Márcio M; Hiraki, Karen R N; Barros, Valdemar M R; Rosa, Adalberto L

    2003-01-01

    Alterations in the chemical composition of a polymer may be undertaken to improve its biological properties. The aim of this study was to investigate the in vitro biocompatibility of Ricinus communis polyurethane (RCP) with three different chemical compositions: RCPp (pure RCP), RCP+CaCO(3), and RCP+Ca(3)(PO(4))(2). Rat bone marrow cells were cultivated under conditions that allowed osteoblastic differentiation and were evaluated for cell attachment, cell proliferation, cell morphology, total protein content, alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity, and bonelike nodule formation. For the evaluation of attachment, cells were cultured for 4 h. After 3 days, cell morphology was evaluated. Cell proliferation was evaluated after 7 and 14 days. Total protein content and ALP activity were evaluated after 14 days. For bonelike nodule formation, cells were cultured for 21 days. Data were compared with an analysis of variance and Duncan's multiple range test when appropriate. Cell attachment and ALP activity were not affected by RCP chemical composition. Proliferation, total protein content, and bonelike nodule formation were all affected by RCP chemical composition. These results suggest that initial cell events are not affected by RCP chemical composition, whereas RCPs blended with calcium carbonate or, better yet, calcium phosphate, by favoring events that promote matrix mineralization, are more biocompatible materials.

  13. Gene Structures, Evolution and Transcriptional Profiling of the WRKY Gene Family in Castor Bean (Ricinus communis L.)

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Qixing; Mo, Yeyong; Xie, Guishui

    2016-01-01

    WRKY proteins comprise one of the largest transcription factor families in plants and form key regulators of many plant processes. This study presents the characterization of 58 WRKY genes from the castor bean (Ricinus communis L., Euphorbiaceae) genome. Compared with the automatic genome annotation, one more WRKY-encoding locus was identified and 20 out of the 57 predicted gene models were manually corrected. All RcWRKY genes were shown to contain at least one intron in their coding sequences. According to the structural features of the present WRKY domains, the identified RcWRKY genes were assigned to three previously defined groups (I–III). Although castor bean underwent no recent whole-genome duplication event like physic nut (Jatropha curcas L., Euphorbiaceae), comparative genomics analysis indicated that one gene loss, one intron loss and one recent proximal duplication occurred in the RcWRKY gene family. The expression of all 58 RcWRKY genes was supported by ESTs and/or RNA sequencing reads derived from roots, leaves, flowers, seeds and endosperms. Further global expression profiles with RNA sequencing data revealed diverse expression patterns among various tissues. Results obtained from this study not only provide valuable information for future functional analysis and utilization of the castor bean WRKY genes, but also provide a useful reference to investigate the gene family expansion and evolution in Euphorbiaceus plants. PMID:26849139

  14. Dissipation of excess photosynthetic energy contributes to salinity tolerance: a comparative study of salt-tolerant Ricinus communis and salt-sensitive Jatropha curcas.

    PubMed

    Lima Neto, Milton C; Lobo, Ana K M; Martins, Marcio O; Fontenele, Adilton V; Silveira, Joaquim Albenisio G

    2014-01-01

    The relationships between salt tolerance and photosynthetic mechanisms of excess energy dissipation were assessed using two species that exhibit contrasting responses to salinity, Ricinus communis (tolerant) and Jatropha curcas (sensitive). The salt tolerance of R. communis was indicated by unchanged electrolyte leakage (cellular integrity) and dry weight in leaves, whereas these parameters were greatly affected in J. curcas. The leaf Na+ content was similar in both species. Photosynthesis was intensely decreased in both species, but the reduction was more pronounced in J. curcas. In this species biochemical limitations in photosynthesis were more prominent, as indicated by increased C(i) values and decreased Rubisco activity. Salinity decreased both the V(cmax) (in vivo Rubisco activity) and J(max) (maximum electron transport rate) more significantly in J. curcas. The higher tolerance in R. communis was positively associated with higher photorespiratory activity, nitrate assimilation and higher cyclic electron flow. The high activity of these alternative electron sinks in R. communis was closely associated with a more efficient photoprotection mechanism. In conclusion, salt tolerance in R. communis, compared with J. curcas, is related to higher electron partitioning from the photosynthetic electron transport chain to alternative sinks. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  15. Characterization and evaluation of antibacterial and antiproliferative activities of crude protein extracts isolated from the seed of Ricinus communis in Bangladesh.

    PubMed

    Al-Mamun, M Abdulla; Akter, Zerin; Uddin, Md Josim; Ferdaus, K M K B; Hoque, K M F; Ferdousi, Z; Reza, M Abu

    2016-07-12

    Ricinus communis (Euphorbiaceae) has previously been reported to possess analgesic, antihistamine, antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities. This study was designed for isolation, characterization and evaluation of antibacterial and anti-proliferative activities of R. communis seed protein. The concentration and molecular weight of R. communis seed protein were estimated by SDS-PAGE and spectrophotometric analysis, respectively. Lectin activity was evaluated by hemagglutination assay on mice blood. In vitro susceptibility of four human pathogenic bacteria including Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Enterobacter aerogenes and Staphylococcus aureus was detected using disk diffusion assay, and minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) value was determined using micro-dilution method. A total of twenty four Swiss albino mice containing Ehrlich's ascites carcinoma (EAC) cells were treated with the crude protein of R. communis at 50 and 100 μg/ml/d/mouse for 6 days. Growth inhibitory activity of R. communis seed protein on EAC cells was determined by haemocytometer counting using trypan blue dye and DAPI (4΄,6-diamidino-2-phenylindole) staining was used to assess apoptotic cells. The protein concentration of six R. communis (castor) varieties ranged between 21-35 mg/ml and molecular weight between 14-200 kDa. Castor protein agglutinated mice blood at 3.125 μg/wall. The seed protein shows considerable antimicrobial activity against E. coli, P. aeruginosa and S. aureus, exhibiting MIC values of 250, 125 and 62.5 μg/ml, respectively. Administration of seed protein led to 54 % growth inhibition of EAC cells at 100 μg/ml. DAPI staining indicates marked features of apoptosis including condensation of cytoplasm, nuclear fragmentation and aggregation of apoptotic bodies etc. Our study suggests that the lectin rich R. communis seed protein has strong antibacterial and anticancer activities.

  16. Diurnal changes in assimilate concentrations and fluxes in the phloem of castor bean (Ricinus communis L.) and tansy (Tanacetum vulgare L.).

    PubMed

    Kallarackal, Jose; Bauer, Susanne N; Nowak, Heike; Hajirezaei, Mohammad-Reza; Komor, Ewald

    2012-07-01

    Reports about diurnal changes of assimilates in phloem sap are controversial. We determined the diurnal changes of sucrose and amino acid concentrations and fluxes in exudates from cut aphid stylets on tansy leaves (Tanacetum vulgare), and sucrose, amino acid and K(+) concentrations and fluxes in bleeding sap of castor bean pedicel (Ricinus communis). Approximately half of the tansy sieve tubes exhibited a diurnal cycle of sucrose concentrations and fluxes in phloem sap. Data from many tansy plants indicated an increased sucrose flux in the phloem during daytime in case of low N-nutrition, not at high N-nutrition. The sucrose concentration in phloem sap of young Ricinus plants changed marginally between day and night, whereas the sucrose flux increased 1.5-fold during daytime (but not in old Ricinus plants). The amino acid concentrations and fluxes in tansy sieve tubes exhibited a similar diurnal cycle as the sucrose concentrations and fluxes, including their dependence on N-nutrition. The amino acid fluxes, but not the concentrations, in phloem sap of Ricinus were higher at daytime. The sucrose/amino acid ratio showed no diurnal cycle neither in tansy nor in Ricinus. The K(+)-concentrations in phloem sap of Ricinus, but not the K(+) fluxes, decreased slightly during daytime and the sucrose/K(+)-ratio increased. In conclusion, a diurnal cycle was observed in sucrose, amino acid and K(+) fluxes, but not necessarily in concentrations of these assimilates. Because of the large variations between different sieve tubes and different plants, the nutrient delivery to sink tissues is not homeostatic over time.

  17. Phloem mobility and translocation of fluorescent conjugate containing glucose and NBD in castor bean (Ricinus communis).

    PubMed

    Lei, Zhiwei; Wang, Jie; Mao, Genlin; Wen, Yingjie; Xu, Hanhong

    2014-03-05

    Phloem mobility is an important factor for long-distance transport of systemic pesticides in plants. Our previous study revealed that a fluorescent glucose-insecticide conjugate, N-{3-cyano-1-[2,6-dichloro-4-(trifluoromethyl)phenyl]-4-iodo-1H-pyrazol-5-yl}-N-{[1-(β-D-glucopyranosyl)-1H-1,2,3-triazole-4-yl]methyl}-N-{[1-((N-(7-nitrobenz-2-oxa-1,3-diazole-4-amine))-propyl)-1H-1,2,3-triazole-4-yl]methyl}amine (IPGN), can be transported in tobacco cells. Several studies have also indicated that glucose moieties can guide the conjugates into plant cells. In this study, we investigated the phloem mobility of IPGN within castor bean seedlings. Cotyledon uptake experiment results show that IPGN could enter the phloem of the mid-veins of cotyledons. The results of further quantitative analysis show that IPGN was present in small amounts in the phloem sap despite the inconsistencies of physicochemical properties with diffusion through the plasma membrane. Its concentration in the phloem sap (about 370nM at 5h) was much lower than that in the incubation medium (100μM), which suggests that IPGN exhibited weak phloem mobility. After the leaves of Ricinus plantlets were treated with IPGN, green fluorescence could be observed in the phloem of the petioles, bud apical nodes, bud mid-veins, and mid-veins of the untreated leaves. The localization of the fluorescent conjugate at various levels of Ricinus plantlets indicates that it was translocated at a distance to sink organs via sieve tubes. The results proved that introducing a glucose group is a feasible approach to modify non-phloem-mobile pesticides and produce phloem-mobile pesticides.

  18. Discovery of an extended bundle sheath in Ricinus communis L. and its role as a temporal storage compartment for the iron chelator nicotianamine.

    PubMed

    Rutten, T; Krüger, C; Melzer, M; Stephan, U W; Hell, R

    2003-07-01

    The extended bundle sheath (EBS) is a specialized layer of cells that enhances the lateral transport of photoassimilates within the leaf. This little-known tissue is often considered to be legume-specific. We identified an EBS in cotyledons and leaves of the non-legume Ricinus communis L. By means of cytological and immunological studies and using the localization of the iron-chelator nicotianamine as an established indicator for mass transport, we confirmed its role as a transport tissue and a temporal sink. Observations on cotyledons of Ricinus seedlings further proved that the EBS carries out these tasks from a very early stage of development onwards. This is the first time that information has been obtained on the physiological role of an EBS in a non-legume. Our results support the idea of its widespread occurrence among higher plants.

  19. Sucrose carrier RcSCR1 is involved in sucrose retrieval, but not in sucrose unloading in growing hypocotyls of Ricinus communis L.

    PubMed

    Eisenbarth, D A; Weig, A R

    2005-01-01

    The transport of assimilates from source to sink tissues is mediated by the phloem. Along the vascular system the phloem changes its physiological function from loading phloem to transport and unloading phloem. Sucrose carrier proteins have been identified in the transport phloem, but it is unclear whether the physiological role of these transporters is phloem unloading of sucrose or retrieval of apoplasmic sucrose back into the sieve element/companion cell complex. Here, we describe the dynamic expression of the Ricinus communis sucrose carrier RcSCR1 in the hypocotyl at different sink strengths. Our results indicate that phloem unloading in castor bean is not catalysed by the phloem loader RcSCR1. However, this sucrose carrier represents the molecular basis of the sucrose retrieval mechanism along the transport phloem, which is dynamically adjusted to the sink strength. As a consequence, we assume that other release carrier(s) exist in sink tissues, such as the hypocotyl, in R. communis.

  20. Experimental effect of feeding on Ricinus communis and Bougainvillea glabra on the development of the sand fly Phlebotomus papatasi (Diptera: Psychodidae) from Egypt.

    PubMed

    Kaldas, Rania M; El Shafey, Azza S; Shehata, Magdi G; Samy, Abdallah M; Villinski, Jeffrey T

    2014-04-01

    Plants are promising sources of agents useful for the control of vectors of human diseases including leishmaniasis. The effect of Ricinus communis (Euphorbiaceae) and Bougainvillea glabra (Nyctaginaceae), on transmission of leishmaniasis was investigated using them as diets for Phlebotomus papatasi to monitor their effect on life-history traits. P. papatasi were allowed to feed separately on both plants then offered a blood-meal. Fed-females were observed daily for egg-laying and subsequent developmental stages. P. papatasi was able to feed on B. glabra (29.41% females and 46.30% males) and R. communis (5.80% females and 10.43% males). 34.28% of females died within 24-48 hours post-feeding on R. communis, whereas, it was 16.5% in females fed on B. glabra. Overall fecundity of surviving females was reduced compared to controls, reared on standard laboratory diet; however there was no effect on the sex ratio of progeny. Female P. papatasi in the control group had significantly longer life span compared to plant-fed group. Feeding on these plants not only decreased sand fly survival rates but incurred negative effects on fecundity. Findings indicate that planting high densities of R. communis and B. glabra in sand flies-endemic areas will reduce population sizes and reduce the risk of Leishmania major infections.

  1. A comparison of polyphenolic content, antioxidant activity and insecticidal properties of Jatropha species and wild Ricinus communis L. found in Mauritius.

    PubMed

    Rampadarath, Sillma; Puchooa, Daneshwar; Ranghoo-Sanmukhiya, Vijayanti Mala

    2014-09-01

    To evaluate the phytochemical, antimicrobial and insecticidal properties of different Jatropha species and Ricinus communis (castor) (R. communis) growing in Mauritius. Qualitative and quantitative methods were used for the determination of the presence of phytochemicals in the crude plants solvent extracts. The antimicrobial sensitivity (disc diffusion method) and Antibacterial activity (MIC-microdilution method) of 13 microorganisms were studied. The insecticidal properties of the crude solvent extracts against larvae of two insects, Bactrocera zonata and Bactrocera cucurbitae (Diptera, Tephritidae), which cause important economic losses to local fruits were also demonstrated. Ethyl acetate was proved to be a good solvent for extraction. Jatropha multifida showed very interesting activity against Bacillus algicola and Staphylococcus epidermis. Both R. communis and Jatropha multifida were proved to be very effective as biopesticide against different types of insect larvae. This study was able to demonstrate that Jatropha species as well as R. communis growing in Mauritius possess antimicrobial, phytochemical and insecticidal properties. Copyright © 2014 Hainan Medical College. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Potential application of waste from castor bean (Ricinus communis L.) for production for xylanase of interest in the industry.

    PubMed

    Herculano, Polyanna Nunes; Moreira, Keila Aparecida; Bezerra, Raquel Pedrosa; Porto, Tatiana Souza; de Souza-Motta, Cristina Maria; Porto, Ana Lúcia Figueiredo

    2016-12-01

    Xylanases activity (XY) from Aspergillus japonicus URM5620 produced by Solid-State Fermentation (SSF) of castor press cake (Ricinus communis) on different conditions of production and extraction by PEG/citrate aqueous two-phase system (ATPS) were investigated. XY production was influenced by substrate amount (5-10 g), initial moisture (15-35 %), pH (4.0-6.0) and temperature (25-35 °C), obtaining the maximum activity of 29,085 ± 1808 U g ds(-1) using 5.0 g of substrate with initial moisture of 15 % at 25 °C and pH 6.0, after 120 h of fermentation. The influence of PEG molar mass (1000-8000 g mol(-1)), phase concentrations (PEG 20.0-24.0 % w/w and sodium citrate 15-20 % w/w) and pH (6.0-8.0) on partition coefficient, purification factor, yield and selectivity of XY were determinate. Enzyme partitioning into the PEG rich phase was favored by M PEG 8000 (g mol(-1)), C PEG 24 % (w/w), C C 20 % (w/w) and pH 8.0, resulting in partition coefficient of 50.78, activity yield of 268 %, 7.20-fold purification factor and selectivity of 293. A. japonicus URM5620 has a potential role in the development of a bioprocess for the XY production using low-cost media. In addition, the present study proved it is feasible to extract xylanase from SSF by adopting the one step ATPS consisting of PEG/citrate.

  3. Preliminary investigation of contractile activity of Ricinus communis and Euclea divinorum extracts on isolated rabbit uterine strips.

    PubMed

    Kaluwa Kaingu, Catherine; Oduma, Jemimah Achieng; Kanui, Titus

    2012-07-13

    Ricinus communis and Euclea divinorum of the family Euphorbiaceae and Ebenaceae, respectively, are traditionally used by Traditional Birth Attendants (TBAs) in Machakos district of Kenya to induce or augment labor, manage protracted labor, post-partum hemorrhage and retained after birth. Ethno-pharmacological relevance of the study will be the provision of scientific evidence and justification for the ethnic use of both plants as oxytocic agents in the initiation of labor, treatment of prolonged labor, post-partum hemorrhage and retained placenta. The plants were harvested in the wild, identified and voucher specimens preserved. The root bark was processed to powder form, from which aqueous and ethanol extracts were obtained. Each of the extracts was separately tested on isolated uterine muscle tissue from non-pregnant and pregnant rabbits. The effect on contraction frequency (number of contractions per second) in the absence or presence of oxytocin was evaluated statistically using ANOVA. P values <0.05 were considered significant. All uteri exhibited a strong initial contraction following exposure to the aqueous and ethanol root bark extracts of both plants. After recovery, the resumed contraction frequencies varied with the plant extract and exogenous hormone. The results show that the extracts of both plants were able to stimulate uterine tissue contractility directly and to augment the tissue's response to oxytocin. The increase in uterine contractions as a percentage relative to negative controls was particularly significant in pregnant rabbit tissues in the presence of oxytocin, where increments of up to 245% were observed. Further pharmacological studies are however required to determine the active principles, possible mechanisms of action, efficacy and safety margins of the plant extracts. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Transcriptome profiling identifies ABA mediated regulatory changes towards storage filling in developing seeds of castor bean (Ricinus communis L.)

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The potential biodiesel plant castor bean (Ricinus communis) has been in the limelight for bioenergy research due to the availability of its genome which raises the bar for genome-wide studies claiming advances that impact the “genome-phenome challenge”. Here we report the application of phytohormone ABA as an exogenous factor for the improvement of storage reserve accumulation with a focus on the complex interaction of pathways associated with seed filling. Results After the application of exogenous ABA treatments, we measured an increased ABA levels in the developing seeds cultured in vitro using the ELISA technique and quantified the content of major biomolecules (including total lipids, sugars and protein) in treated seeds. Exogenous ABA (10 μM) enhanced the accumulation of soluble sugar content (6.3%) followed by deposition of total lipid content (4.9 %). To elucidate the possible ABA signal transduction pathways towards overall seed filling, we studied the differential gene expression analysis using Illumina RNA-Sequencing technology, resulting in 2568 (1507-up/1061-down regulated) differentially expressed genes were identified. These genes were involved in sugar metabolism (such as glucose-6-phosphate, fructose 1,6 bis-phosphate, glycerol-3-phosphate, pyruvate kinase), lipid biosynthesis (such as ACS, ACBP, GPAT2, GPAT3, FAD2, FAD3, SAD1 and DGAT1), storage proteins synthesis (such as SGP1, zinc finger protein, RING H2 protein, nodulin 55 and cytochrome P450), and ABA biosynthesis (such as NCED1, NCED3 and beta carotene). Further, we confirmed the validation of RNA-Sequencing data by Semi-quantitative RT-PCR analysis. Conclusions Taken together, metabolite measurements supported by genes and pathway expression results indicated in this study provide new insights to understand the ABA signaling mechanism towards seed storage filling and also contribute useful information for facilitating oilseed crop functional genomics on an aim for utilizing

  5. Histochemical specificity of beta-galactose binding lectins from Arachis hypogaea (peanut) and Ricinus communis (castor bean).

    PubMed

    Hennigar, L M; Hennigar, R A; Schulte, B A

    1987-09-01

    Previous histochemical studies have demonstrated disparities in the binding of two lectins with a nominal specificity for terminal beta-D-galactose. Biochemical studies have shown that the most complementary structure for binding peanut agglutinin (PNA) is the terminal disaccharide Gal-(beta 1----3)-GalNAc, whereas the most complementary structure for binding Ricinus communis agglutinin I (RCA I) is the terminal disaccharide Gal-(beta 1----4)-GlcNAc. However, it is not known if only these differences in affinity account for the different histochemical staining reactions observed on tissue sections. In the present study we compared the staining patterns of PNA and RCA I by inhibiting in situ the binding of each lectin conjugated to horseradish peroxidase (HRP) with increasing concentrations of unlabeled PNA or RCA I. The PNA-HRP conjugate did not stain most tissue sites suspected of containing an abundance of glycoconjugates with terminal Gal-(beta 1----4)-GlcNAc. Moreover, unlabeled PNA failed to significantly inhibit strong RCA I-HRP staining in these sites. In loci thought to contain variable amounts of glycoconjugates with terminal Gal-(beta 1----3)-GalNAc, unlabeled RCA I decreased PNA-HRP reactivity only slightly or not at all, whereas weak to strong RCA I-HRP staining was diminished or abolished by unlabeled PNA. The results suggest that PNA staining is restricted to glycoconjugates with terminal Gal-(beta 1----3)-GalNAc. RCA I apparently reacts most strongly with glycoconjugates having the terminal disaccharide Gal-(beta 1----4)-GlcNAc, but also stains sites containing a moderate to abundant amount of glycoconjugates with the terminal Gal-(beta 1----3)-GalNAc sequence.

  6. Sugar concentrations along and across the Ricinus communis L. hypocotyl measured by single cell sampling analysis.

    PubMed

    Verscht, Jutta; Tomos, Deri; Komor, Ewald

    2006-11-01

    Single cell sap sampling and analysis were used to measure the longitudinal and radial distribution of sucrose, glucose and fructose in the apical cell division zone and in the basal, elongated zone of the Ricinus hypocotyl. Sucrose and hexose increased in concentration from the apex to the base of the seedling axis. In the cell division zone low hexose and sucrose concentrations prevailed in cortex and pith, with a slightly higher hexose concentration in pith cells. The sucrose concentrations in sieve tubes and in phloem were much higher than in the cortex and pith cells. In the basal zone of the hypocotyl high levels of sucrose in phloem, cortex and pith were found, therefore radial, diffusional sucrose flow away from the phloem was considered unlikely. It is proposed that radial flow of growth-water to the hypocotyl periphery together with the down-regulation of a sucrose transporter at the phloem leads to a preferential sucrose flow to the expanding cortex. The pith cells, which do not experience flow of growth-water, are probably insufficiently supplied with sucrose from the phloem resulting eventually in cell death as the plant grows. Shortage of sucrose supply, experimentally achieved by removal of the endosperm, led to sucrose hydrolysis in the pith. The sucrose levels in the other tissues decreased less. It appears that the hydrolysis to hexose was initiated to maintain the osmotic value in the pith cell sap. It is speculated that high hexose levels in the cells are indicative of insufficient sucrose supply via the phloem and that the pith cells are confronted with that situation during early seedling development.

  7. Application of comprehensive NMR-based analysis strategy in annotation, isolation and structure elucidation of low molecular weight metabolites of Ricinus communis seeds.

    PubMed

    Vučković, Ivan; Rapinoja, Marja-Leena; Vaismaa, Matti; Vanninen, Paula; Koskela, Harri

    2016-01-01

    Powder-like extract of Ricinus communis seeds contain a toxic protein, ricin, which has a history of military, criminal and terroristic use. As the detection of ricin in this "terrorist powder" is difficult and time-consuming, related low mass metabolites have been suggested to be useful for screening as biomarkers of ricin. To apply a comprehensive NMR-based analysis strategy for annotation, isolation and structure elucidation of low molecular weight plant metabolites of Ricinus communis seeds. The seed extract was prepared with a well-known acetone extraction approach. The common metabolites were annotated from seed extract dissolved in acidic solution using (1)H NMR spectroscopy with spectrum library comparison and standard addition, whereas unconfirmed metabolites were identified using multi-step off-line HPLC-DAD-NMR approach. In addition to the common plant metabolites, two previously unreported compounds, 1,3-digalactoinositol and ricinyl-alanine, were identified with support of MS analyses. The applied comprehensive NMR-based analysis strategy provided identification of the prominent low molecular weight metabolites with high confidence. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  8. Evaluation of leishmanicidal activity and cytotoxicity of Ricinus communis and Azadirachta indica extracts from western Kenya: in vitro and in vivo assays.

    PubMed

    Jumba, Bernard N; Anjili, Christopher O; Makwali, Judith; Ingonga, Johnstone; Nyamao, Rose; Marango, Sylvia; Choge, Joseph K; Khayeka-Wandabwa, Christopher

    2015-11-05

    Despite advances to targeted leishmanicidal chemotherapy, defies around severe toxicity, recent emergence of resistant variants and absence of rational vaccine still persist. This necessitates search and/or progressive validation of accessible medicinal remedies including plant based. The study examined both in vivo and in vitro response of L. major infection to combined therapy of Ricinus communis and Azadirachta indica extracts in BALB/c mice as the mouse model. A comparative study design was applied. BALB/c mice, treated with combination therapy resulted in significantly (p < 0.05) larger reduction of lesion than those treated with monotherapies. The spleno-somatic index was found to be significantly low with combination therapy than monotherapies. Antiparasitic effect of A. indica and R. communis on amastigote with a 50 % inhibitory concentration (IC50) was of 11.5 and 16.5 µg mL(-1) respectively while combination therapy gave 9.0 µg ml(-1) compared to the standard drugs, Pentostam and amphotericin B which had an IC50 of 6.5 and 4.5 µg ml(-1) respectively. Optimal efficacy of A. indica and R. communis was 72 and 59.5 % respectively, combination therapy gave 88 %, while Pentostam and amphotericin B had 98 and 92 % respectively against amastigotes. Against promastigotes A. indica and R. Communis gave an IC50 of 10.1, 25.5 µg mL(-1) respectively, while combination, 12.2 µg mL(-1) against 4.1 and 5.0 µg ml(-1) for Pentostam and amphotericin B respectively. The optimal efficacy of the compounds against promastigotes was 78.0, 61.5 and 91.2 % (A. indica, R. communis and A. indica + R. communis respectively) against 96.5 and 98 % for Pentostam and amphotericin B respectively. The concentrations at optimal efficacy were significantly different (p < 0.05) among the test compounds. An evaluation of the IC50 values of the combination therapies clearly reveals synergistic effects. Combination therapy of A. indica and R. communis had best antileishmanial activity than

  9. Biocompatibility of Ricinus communis polymer with addition of calcium carbonate compared to titanium. Experimental study in guinea pigs.

    PubMed

    Graça, Yorgos Luiz Santos De Salles; Opolski, Ana Cristina; Barboza, Barbara Evelin Gonçalves; Erbano, Bruna Olandoski; Mazzaro, Caroline Cantalejo; Klostermann, Flávia Caroline; Sucharski, Enéas Eduardo; Kubrusly, Luiz Fernando

    2014-01-01

    The aim of the present investigation was to determine whether the difference in inflammatory tissue reaction between the Riccinus communis (castor) polymer with calcium carbonate and the titanium implant is statistically significant. Thirty-two Cavia porcellus were allocated into four groups of eight animals each. We implanted the two types of materials in the retroperitoneal space of all the animals. They were euthanized at 7, 20, 30 and 40 days after surgery, and an histological study of the samples was conducted. All implants showed characteristics of chronic inflammation regardless of the material and timepoint of evaluation. There was no statistically significant difference between Pm+CaCO3 and Ti with regard to the presence of granulation tissue, tissue congestion, histiocytes, lymphocytes, neutrophils, giant cells, and fibrosis (P> 0.05). The castor oil polymer plus calcium carbonate implant was not statistically different from the titanium implant regarding inflammatory tissue reaction.

  10. Biocompatibility of Ricinus communis polymer with addition of calcium carbonate compared to titanium. Experimental study in guinea pigs

    PubMed Central

    Graça, Yorgos Luiz Santos De Salles; Opolski, Ana Cristina; Barboza, Barbara Evelin Gonçalves; Erbano, Bruna Olandoski; Mazzaro, Caroline Cantalejo; Klostermann, Flávia Caroline; Sucharski, Enéas Eduardo; Kubrusly, Luiz Fernando

    2014-01-01

    Objective The aim of the present investigation was to determine whether the difference in inflammatory tissue reaction between the Riccinus communis (castor) polymer with calcium carbonate and the titanium implant is statistically significant. Methods Thirty-two Cavia porcellus were allocated into four groups of eight animals each. We implanted the two types of materials in the retroperitoneal space of all the animals. They were euthanized at 7, 20, 30 and 40 days after surgery, and an histological study of the samples was conducted. Results All implants showed characteristics of chronic inflammation regardless of the material and timepoint of evaluation. There was no statistically significant difference between Pm+CaCO3 and Ti with regard to the presence of granulation tissue, tissue congestion, histiocytes, lymphocytes, neutrophils, giant cells, and fibrosis (P> 0.05). Conclusion The castor oil polymer plus calcium carbonate implant was not statistically different from the titanium implant regarding inflammatory tissue reaction. PMID:25140479

  11. Growth, tolerance efficiency and phytoremediation potential of Ricinus communis (L.) and Brassica juncea (L.) in salinity and drought affected cadmium contaminated soil.

    PubMed

    Bauddh, Kuldeep; Singh, Rana P

    2012-11-01

    We have previously reported that Ricinus communis (castor) is more tolerant to soil cadmium (Cd) and more efficient for Cd phytoremediation than Brassica juncea (Indian mustard) (Bauddh and Singh, 2012). In the present study, R. communis was found more tolerant to salinity and drought in presence of Cd and removed more Cd in a given time than Indian mustard. R. communis produced 23 and twelve folds higher biomass in terms of fresh weight and dry weight, respectively than that in B. juncea during three months when grown in Cd contaminated soil in presence of 100mM NaCl salinity and ten day water withdrawal based drought at 90 day after sowing (DAS). Castor plants showed stronger self-protection ability in form of proline bioaccumulation (r(2)=0.949) than Indian mustard (r(2)=0.932), whereas a lower r(2) for malondialdehyde (MDA) and total soluble protein in R. communis (r(2)=0.914 and r(2)=0.915, respectively) than that of B. juncea (r(2)=0.947 and r(2)=0.927, respectively) indicated a greater damage to cell membrane in Indian mustard during the multiple stress conditions. Though, the amount of Cd accumulated in the roots and shoots of Indian mustard was higher as per unit biomass than that in castor, total removal of the metal from soil was much higher in castor on per plant basis in the same period in presence of the stresses. R. communis accumulated about seventeen and 1.5 fold higher Cd in their roots and shoots, respectively than that of B. juncea in 90 DAS under the multiple stresses. Salinity alone enhanced Cd uptake, whereas drought stress reduced its uptake in both the plants. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Cyclic electron flow, NPQ and photorespiration are crucial for the establishment of young plants of Ricinus communis and Jatropha curcas exposed to drought.

    PubMed

    Lima Neto, M C; Cerqueira, J V A; da Cunha, J R; Ribeiro, R V; Silveira, J A G

    2017-07-01

    Although plant physiological responses to drought have been widely studied, the interaction between photoprotection, photorespiration and antioxidant metabolism in water-stressed plants is scarcely addressed. This study aimed to evaluate the physiological adjustments preserving photosynthesis and growth in two plant species with different tolerance to drought: Jatropha curcas and Ricinus communis. We measured stress indicators, gas exchange, photochemistry of PSII and PSI, antioxidant enzymes, cyclic electron flow and photorespiration. Physiological stress indicators associated with reduction in growth confirmed R. communis as sensitive and J. curcas as tolerant to drought. Drought induced loss of photosynthesis in R. communis, whereas J. curcas maintained higher leaf gas exchange and photochemistry under drought. In addition, J. curcas showed higher dissipation of excess energy and presented higher cyclic electron flow when exposed to drought. Although none of these mechanisms have been triggered in R. communis, this species showed increases in photorespiration. R. communis displayed loss of Rubisco content while the Rubisco relative abundance did not change in J. curcas under drought. Accordingly, the in vivo maximum Rubisco carboxylation rate (Vcmax ) and the maximum photosynthetic electron transport rate driving RuBP regeneration (Jmax ) were less affected in J. curcas. Both species displayed an efficient antioxidant mechanism by increasing activities of ascorbate peroxidase (APX) and superoxide dismutase (SOD). Overall, we suggest that the modulation of different photoprotective mechanisms is crucial to mitigate the effects caused by excess energy, maintaining photosynthetic apparatus efficiency and promoting the establishment of young plants of these two species under drought. © 2017 German Botanical Society and The Royal Botanical Society of the Netherlands.

  13. Molecular species of acylglycerols incorporating radiolabeled fatty acids from castor (Ricinus communis L.) microsomal incubations.

    PubMed

    Lin, Jiann-Tsyh; Chen, Jennifer M; Liao, Lucy P; McKeon, Thomas A

    2002-08-28

    Sixty-one molecular species of triacylglycerols (TAG) and diacylglycerols produced from castor microsomal incubations incorporating six different (14)C-labeled fatty acids have been identified and quantified. The preference for incorporation into TAG was in the order ricinoleate > oleate > linoleate > linolenate > stearate > palmitate. Ricinoleate was the major fatty acid incorporated, whereas stearate, linolenate, and palmitate were incorporated at low levels. Twenty-one molecular species of acylglycerols (HPLC peaks) in castor oil have also been assigned. The levels of TAG in castor oil are RRR (triricinolein) > RR-TAG > R-TAG > no R-TAG. The levels of the molecular species within the groups of RR-TAG, RL-TAG, and LL-TAG individually are ricinoleate > linoleate > oleate > linolenate, stearate, and palmitate. The results of the labeled fatty acid incorporation are consistent with ricinoleate being preferentially driven into TAG and oleate being converted to ricinoleate in castor oil biosynthesis.

  14. Jatropha curcas and Ricinus communis differentially affect arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi diversity in soil when cultivated for biofuel production in a Guantanamo (Cuba) tropical system.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alguacil, M. M.; Torrecillas, E.; Hernández, G.; Torres, P.; Roldán, A.

    2012-04-01

    The arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) are a key, integral component of the stability, sustainability and functioning of ecosystems. In this study, we characterised the AMF biodiversity in a control soil and in a soil cultivated with Jatropha curcas or Ricinus communis, in a tropical system in Guantanamo (Cuba), in order to verify if a change of land use to biofuel plant production had any effect on the AMF communities. We also asses whether some soil properties related with the soil fertility (total N, Organic C, microbial biomass C, aggregate stability percentage, pH and electrical conductivity) were changed with the cultivation of both crop species. The AM fungal small sub-unit (SSU) rRNA genes were subjected to PCR, cloning, sequencing and phylogenetic analyses. Twenty AM fungal sequence types were identified: 19 belong to the Glomeraceae and one to the Paraglomeraceae. Two AMF sequence types related to cultured AMF species (Glo G3 for Glomus sinuosum and Glo G6 for Glomus intraradices-G. fasciculatum-G. irregulare) disappeared in the soil cultivated with J. curcas and R. communis. The soil properties (total N, Organic C and microbial biomass C) were improved by the cultivation of the two plant species. The diversity of the AMF community decreased in the soil of both crops, with respect to the control soil, and varied significantly depending on the crop species planted. Thus, R. communis soil showed higher AMF diversity than J. curcas soil. In conclusion, R. communis could be more suitable in long-term conservation and sustainable management of these tropical ecosystems.

  15. Evidence for cytochrome b5 as an electron donor in ricinoleic acid biosynthesis in microsomal preparations from developing castor bean (Ricinus communis L.).

    PubMed Central

    Smith, M A; Jonsson, L; Stymne, S; Stobart, K

    1992-01-01

    The major b-type cytochrome in microsomal membrane preparations from developing endosperm of castor bean (Ricinus communis) was cytochrome b5. Cytochrome P-450 was also present. The microsomal membranes had delta 12-hydroxylase activity and catalysed the NAD(P)H-dependent hydroxylation of oleate to yield ricinoleic acid. CO had no effect on the hydroxylase activity. Rabbit polyclonal antibodies were raised against the hydrophilic cytochrome b5 fragment purified from cauliflower (Brassica oleracea) floret microsomes. The anti-(cytochrome b5) IgG inhibited delta 12-hydroxylase, delta 12-desaturase and cytochrome c reductase activity in the microsomes. The results indicate that electrons from NAD(P)H were transferred to the site of hydroxylation via cytochrome b5 and that cytochrome P-450 was not involved. Images Fig. 1. PMID:1417766

  16. Interaction of Lens culinaris lectin, concanavalin A, Ricinus communis agglutinin and wheat germ agglutinin with the cell surface of normal and transformed rat liver cells.

    PubMed

    Roth, J; Neupert, G; Thoss, K

    1975-01-01

    The observation of BOREK et al. (1973) on nonagglutinability of transformed rat liver cells by Lens culinaris lectin and our ultrastructural findings of a greater mobility of the Lens culinaris lectin receptors on transformed rat liver cells as compared to normal rat liver cells (ROTH 1975) initiated the present agglutination experiments on liver cells with lectins. For agglutination assay the microhemadsorption technique after FURMANSKI et al. (1973) was used with exception of several tests on EDTA-detached cells. The transformed rat liver cells exhibited, in contrast to the findings of BOREK et al. (1973), a positive microhemadsorption with Lens culinaris lectin as well as with Concanavalin A, Ricinus communis lectin and wheat germ agglutinin whereas the normal rat liver cells became positive only after a brief trypsin treatment. The significance of the difference in agglutinability of rat liver cells with Lens culinaris lectin and the other lectins used is discussed with regard to the cell-cell interaction mediated by lectins.

  17. Transport of ricin and 2S albumin precursors to the storage vacuoles of Ricinus communis endosperm involves the Golgi and VSR-like receptors.

    PubMed

    Jolliffe, Nicholas A; Brown, Joanna C; Neumann, Ulla; Vicré, Maïte; Bachi, Angela; Hawes, Chris; Ceriotti, Aldo; Roberts, Lynne M; Frigerio, Lorenzo

    2004-09-01

    We have studied the transport of proricin and pro2S albumin to the protein storage vacuoles of developing castor bean (Ricinus communis L.) endosperm. Immunoelectron microscopy and cell fractionation reveal that both proteins travel through the Golgi apparatus and co-localize throughout their route to the storage vacuole. En route to the PSV, the proteins co-localize in large (>200 nm) vesicles, which are likely to represent developing storage vacuoles. We further show that the sequence-specific vacuolar sorting signals of both proricin and pro2SA bind in vitro to proteins that have high sequence similarity to members of the VSR/AtELP/BP-80 vacuolar sorting receptor family, generally associated with clathrin-mediated traffic to the lytic vacuole. The implications of these findings in relation to the current model for protein sorting to storage vacuoles are discussed.

  18. Organic acids, amino acids compositions in the root exudates and Cu-accumulation in castor (Ricinus communis L.) Under Cu stress.

    PubMed

    Huang, Guoyong; Guo, Guangguang; Yao, Shiyuan; Zhang, Na; Hu, Hongqing

    2016-01-01

    Ricinus communis L. is a hyperaccumulation plant newly discovered in an abandoned land of Cu mine in China. A hydroponic experiment was then carried out to determine the root exudates in the Cu-tolerant castor (Ricinus communis L.). Plants were grown in nutrient solution with increasing level of Cu doses (0, 100, 250, 500, and 750 μmol/L Cu) in the form of CuSO4. Cu accumulation in the roots and shoots of castor, and root exudates collected from the castor were measured. The results indicated that the castor had a high Cu accumulation capacity and the Cu concentrations in the shoots and roots of the castor treated with 750 μmol/L Cu were 177.1, 14586.7 mg/kg, respectively. Tartaric was the largest in the root exudates in terms of concentrations, which reached up to 329.13 μmol/g (dry plant) in the level of 750 μmol/L Cu. There was a significantly positive linear relationship between the Cu concentration in root and the concentration of succinic (R = 0.92, P < 0.05), tartaric (R = 0.96, P < 0.01), and citric (R = 0.89, P < 0.05). These results indicated that the difference in root exudation from castor could affect their Cu tolerance. What is more, significant is that the high tartaric and citric, the low oxalic and cysteine in the root exudation of castor contributed to toleration of high Cu concentrations.

  19. Larvicidal, adult emergence inhibition and oviposition deterrent effects of foliage extract from Ricinus communis L. against Anopheles arabiensis and Culex quinquefasciatus in Sudan.

    PubMed

    Elimam, Abdalla M; Elmalik, Khitma H; Ali, Faysal S

    2009-08-01

    Malaria and filariases are prevalent in Sudan and their control depends largely on preventive measures against mosquito vectors. The present work aimed to investigate the larvicidal, adults emergence inhibition and oviposition deterrent effects of aqueous extracts from leaves of Ricinus communis L. against the mosquitoes, Anopheles arabiensis and Culex quinquefasciatus as a biological control means. The larval mortality was observed after 24 hours. The LC50 values calculated were 403.65, 445.66 and 498.88 ppm against 2nd, 3rd and 4th instar larvae of An. arabiensis and 1091.44, 1364.58 and 1445.44 ppm against 2nd, 3rd and 4th larval instars of Cx. quinquefasciatus. 50% of adult emergence inhibition (EI50) were 374.97 and 1180.32 ppm against 3rd instar larvae of An. arabiensis and Cx. quinquefasciatus. The extract showed oviposition deterrent effect against both species. Results reveal that the crude extract of R. communis possesses remarkable larvicidal, adult emergence inhibition and oviposition deterrent properties against both the tested species and can be used as biological control means.

  20. Glycinergic-Fipronil Uptake Is Mediated by an Amino Acid Carrier System and Induces the Expression of Amino Acid Transporter Genes in Ricinus communis Seedlings.

    PubMed

    Xie, Yun; Zhao, Jun-Long; Wang, Chuan-Wei; Yu, Ai-Xin; Liu, Niu; Chen, Li; Lin, Fei; Xu, Han-Hong

    2016-05-18

    Phloem-mobile insecticides are efficient for piercing and sucking insect control. Introduction of sugar or amino acid groups to the parent compound can improve the phloem mobility of insecticides, so a glycinergic-fipronil conjugate (GlyF), 2-(3-(3-cyano-1-(2,6-dichloro-4-(trifluoromethyl)phenyl)-4-((trifluoromethyl)sulfinyl)-1H-pyrazole-5-yl)ureido) acetic acid, was designed and synthesized. Although the "Kleier model" predicted that this conjugate is not phloem mobile, GlyF can be continually detected during a 5 h collection of Ricinus communis phloem sap. Furthermore, an R. communis seedling cotyledon disk uptake experiment demonstrates that the uptake of GlyF is sensitive to pH, carbonyl cyanide m-chlorophenylhydrazone (CCCP), temperature, and p-chloromercuribenzenesulfonic acid (pCMBS) and is likely mediated by amino acid carrier system. To explore the roles of amino acid transporters (AATs) in GlyF uptake, a total of 62 AAT genes were identified from the R. communis genome in silico. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that AATs in R. communis were organized into the ATF (amino acid transporter) and APC (amino acid, polyaminem and choline transporter) superfamilies, with five subfamilies in ATF and two in APC. Furthermore, the expression profiles of 20 abundantly expressed AATs (cycle threshold (Ct) values <27) were analyzed at 1, 3, and 6 h after GlyF treatment by RT-qPCR. The results demonstrated that expression levels of four AAT genes, RcLHT6, RcANT15, RcProT2, and RcCAT2, were induced by the GlyF treatment in R. communis seedlings. On the basis of the observation that the expression profile of the four candidate genes is similar to the time course observation for GlyF foliar disk uptake, it is suggested that those four genes are possible candidates involved in the uptake of GlyF. These results contribute to a better understanding of the mechanism of GlyF uptake as well as phloem loading from a molecular biology perspective and facilitate functional

  1. Expression profiles of genes related to carbohydrate metabolism provide new insights into carbohydrate accumulation in seeds and seedlings of Ricinus communis in response to temperature.

    PubMed

    Ribeiro, Paulo R; Ligterink, Wilco; Hilhorst, Henk W M

    2015-10-01

    Ricinus communis possesses a specific metabolic signature to adjust growth and developmental processes in response to temperature: carbohydrates are accumulated at low temperatures, whereas amino acids are accumulated at elevated temperatures. Our objective was to assess tissue-specific changes in transcript levels of genes related with carbohydrate biosynthesis and catabolism in response to temperature. For that, we measured transcript levels of genes encoding enzymes involved in starch biosynthesis, starch catabolism, and gluconeogenesis in R. communis leaves, roots, and seeds grown at 20 °C and 35 °C. Transcript levels of genes involved in starch catabolism were higher in leaves grown at 20 °C than at 35 °C, but up-regulation of genes involved in starch biosynthesis seems to compensate for this and, therefore, are the likely explanation for higher levels of starch in leaves grown at 20 °C. Higher levels of soluble carbohydrates in leaves grown at 20 °C may be caused by a coordinated increase in transcript level of genes associated with starch catabolism and gluconeogenesis pathways. In roots, transcript levels of genes associated with starch catabolism and gluconeogenesis seem to be enhanced at elevated temperatures. Higher levels of starch in seeds germinated at low temperatures is associated with higher transcript levels of genes involved in starch biosynthesis. Similarly, higher transcript levels of RcPEPCK and RcFBPase are most likely causal for fructose and glucose accumulation in seeds germinated at 20 °C. This study provides important insights in the understanding of the plasticity of R. communis in response to temperature that may apply to other species as well. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  2. Inhibition of protein glycation by essential oils of branchlets and fruits of Juniperus communis subsp. hemisphaerica

    PubMed Central

    Asgary, S.; Naderi, G.A.; Shams Ardekani, M.R.; Sahebkar, A.; Airin, A.; Aslani, S.; Kasher, T.; Emami, S.A.

    2014-01-01

    Oxidative stress and protein glycation play pivotal roles in the pathophysiology of diabetes mellitus and its vascular complications. The present study aimed to investigate the anti-glycation properties of essential oils obtained from different parts of Juniperus communis subsp. hemisphaerica. The branchlets of male tree (BMT) and branchlets of female (BFT) tree, and fruits of J. communis subsp. hemisphaerica were extracted using steam distillation method. The oils were phytochemically analyzed using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Anti-glycation properties were evaluated using hemoglobin and insulin glycation assays. Overall, 18 volatile components were identified in the J. communis subsp. hemisphaerica oils, amounting to 82.1%, 100.0% and 96.4% of the BMT, BFT and fruit oils, respectively. Promising inhibitory activity was observed from all concentrations of the tested oils in the hemoglobin and insulin glycation assays. The inhibitory activities peaked to 89.9% (BFT oil; 200 μg mL-1) and 81.0% (BFT oil; 600 μg mL-1) in the hemoglobin and insulin glycation assays, respectively. The evidence from this study suggests that essential oils obtained from the fruits and branchlets of J. communis subsp. hemisphaerica possess anti-glycation properties. These activities may find implication for the prevention and treatment of diabetic complications. PMID:25657787

  3. Influence of metal resistant-plant growth-promoting bacteria on the growth of Ricinus communis in soil contaminated with heavy metals.

    PubMed

    Rajkumar, Mani; Freitas, Helena

    2008-03-01

    The metal resistant-plant growth-promoting bacterial (PGPB) strains PsM6 and PjM15 isolated from a serpentine soil were characterized as Pseudomonas sp. and Pseudomonas jessenii, respectively, on the basis of their morphological, physiological, biochemical characteristics and 16S rDNA sequences. Assessment of plant growth-promoting parameters revealed the intrinsic ability of the strains for the utilization of 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid as the sole N source, solubilization of insoluble phosphate and production of indole-3-acetic acid (IAA). Further, a pot experiment was conducted to elucidate the effects of inoculating metal resistant PGPB on the plant growth and the uptake of Ni, Cu and Zn by Ricinus communis. Inoculation of Pseudomonas sp. PsM6 or P. jessenii PjM15 increased the shoot and root biomass of R. communis grown in non-contaminated and contaminated soil. However, the maximum biomass was observed in the plants inoculated with strain PjM15. This effect can be attributed to the solubilization of phosphate and production of IAA. Inoculation of Pseudomonas sp. PsM6 and PjM15 did not greatly alter the organ metal concentrations except Zn which concentration was higher in root, stem and leaf of inoculated plants. The results of metal extraction with PGPB strains showed that PsM6 was more efficient at solubilizing Zn than PjM15, and that PjM15 was better at solubilising Ni and Cu than PsM6. Owing to its wide action spectrum, the metal resistant PGPB could serve as an effective metal sequestering and growth-promoting bioinoculant for plants in metal-stressed soil. The present study has provided a new insight into the phytoremediation of metal-contaminated soil.

  4. Cloning and characterization of a lupeol synthase involved in the synthesis of epicuticular wax crystals on stem and hypocotyl surfaces of Ricinus communis.

    PubMed

    Guhling, Ortwin; Hobl, Barbara; Yeats, Trevor; Jetter, Reinhard

    2006-04-15

    Pentacyclic triterpenoids are a large group of secondary metabolites found in many different plant species, either as glycoside conjugates or as aglycones. The latter in many cases accumulate to high amounts in the cuticular wax and hence at the surface of plant organs. In the present work, the cuticle-specific formation of triterpenoids was investigated in Ricinus communis stems, combining analytical and molecular genetic methods. Two phenotypes of castor bean could be distinguished based on the glaucous or glossy appearance of the surfaces of all stem portions including the hypocotyls, and were due to the presence or absence of thread-shaped epicuticular wax crystals, respectively. Comparative studies showed that these crystals are formed by the triperpenoid lupeol, present in high amounts on all stem surfaces. On the hypocotyl portion of stems, lupeol was found to accumulate rapidly during early development of the surface (10-15 days after emergence). Mature hypocotyls of glossy individuals were covered with 12.5 microg/cm2 of wax containing approximately 1% of lupeol, whereas the glaucous phenotype had a wax load of 51.9 microg/cm2 with 56% of lupeol. Two oxidosqualene cyclases from castor bean were cloned, functionally expressed in yeast, and characterized as a cycloartenol synthase (RcCAS) and a lupeol synthase (RcLUS). Phylogenetic analyses revealed that RcLUS is similar to two clades of known lupeol synthases, but also exhibits some similarities with beta-amyrin synthases. Both the organ-specific expression of RcLUS and the expression pattern during hypocotyl development exactly matched the accumulation of cuticular lupeol in castor bean. In contrast, RcCAS was constitutively expressed in all organs at various times. We conclude that the RcLUS enzyme is responsible for formation of the cuticular lupeol, and thus for the characteristic surface properties of R. communis stems.

  5. Transcriptomic Analysis for Different Sex Types of Ricinus communis L. during Development from Apical Buds to Inflorescences by Digital Gene Expression Profiling.

    PubMed

    Tan, Meilian; Xue, Jianfeng; Wang, Lei; Huang, Jiaxiang; Fu, Chunling; Yan, Xingchu

    2015-01-01

    The castor plant (Ricinus communis L.) is a versatile industrial oilseed crop with a diversity of sex patterns, its hybrid breeding for improving yield and high purity is still hampered by genetic instability of female and poor knowledge of sex expression mechanisms. To obtain some hints involved in sex expression and provide the basis for further insight into the molecular mechanisms of castor plant sex determination, we performed DGE analysis to investigate differences between the transcriptomes of apices and racemes derived from female (JXBM0705P) and monoecious (JXBM0705M) lines. A total of 18 DGE libraries were constructed from the apices and racemes of a wild monoecious line and its isogenic female derivative at three stages of apex development, in triplicate. Approximately 5.7 million clean tags per library were generated and mapped to the reference castor genome. Transcriptomic analysis showed that identical dynamic changes of gene expression were indicated in monoecious and female apical bud during its development from vegetation to reproduction, with more genes expressed at the raceme formation and infant raceme stages compare to the early leaf bud stage. More than 3000 of differentially expressed genes (DEGs) were detected in Ricinus apices at three developmental stages between two different sex types. A number of DEGs involved in hormone response and biosynthesis, such as auxin response and transport, transcription factors, signal transduction, histone demethylation/methylation, programmed cell death, and pollination, putatively associated with sex expression and reproduction were discovered, and the selected DEGs showed consistent expression between qRT-PCR validation and the DGE patterns. Most of those DEGs were suppressed at the early leaf stage in buds of the mutant, but then activated at the following transition stage (5-7-leaf stage) of buds in the mutant, and ultimately, the number of up-regulated DEGs was equal to that of down-regulation in the

  6. Transcriptomic Analysis for Different Sex Types of Ricinus communis L. during Development from Apical Buds to Inflorescences by Digital Gene Expression Profiling

    PubMed Central

    Tan, Meilian; Xue, Jianfeng; Wang, Lei; Huang, Jiaxiang; Fu, Chunling; Yan, Xingchu

    2016-01-01

    The castor plant (Ricinus communis L.) is a versatile industrial oilseed crop with a diversity of sex patterns, its hybrid breeding for improving yield and high purity is still hampered by genetic instability of female and poor knowledge of sex expression mechanisms. To obtain some hints involved in sex expression and provide the basis for further insight into the molecular mechanisms of castor plant sex determination, we performed DGE analysis to investigate differences between the transcriptomes of apices and racemes derived from female (JXBM0705P) and monoecious (JXBM0705M) lines. A total of 18 DGE libraries were constructed from the apices and racemes of a wild monoecious line and its isogenic female derivative at three stages of apex development, in triplicate. Approximately 5.7 million clean tags per library were generated and mapped to the reference castor genome. Transcriptomic analysis showed that identical dynamic changes of gene expression were indicated in monoecious and female apical bud during its development from vegetation to reproduction, with more genes expressed at the raceme formation and infant raceme stages compare to the early leaf bud stage. More than 3000 of differentially expressed genes (DEGs) were detected in Ricinus apices at three developmental stages between two different sex types. A number of DEGs involved in hormone response and biosynthesis, such as auxin response and transport, transcription factors, signal transduction, histone demethylation/methylation, programmed cell death, and pollination, putatively associated with sex expression and reproduction were discovered, and the selected DEGs showed consistent expression between qRT-PCR validation and the DGE patterns. Most of those DEGs were suppressed at the early leaf stage in buds of the mutant, but then activated at the following transition stage (5-7-leaf stage) of buds in the mutant, and ultimately, the number of up-regulated DEGs was equal to that of down-regulation in the

  7. Essential oils of aromatic Egyptian plants repel nymphs of the tick Ixodes ricinus (Acari: Ixodidae).

    PubMed

    El-Seedi, Hesham R; Azeem, Muhammad; Khalil, Nasr S; Sakr, Hanem H; Khalifa, Shaden A M; Awang, Khalijah; Saeed, Aamer; Farag, Mohamed A; AlAjmi, Mohamed F; Pålsson, Katinka; Borg-Karlson, Anna-Karin

    2017-09-01

    Due to the role of Ixodes ricinus (L.) (Acari: Ixodidae) in the transmission of many serious pathogens, personal protection against bites of this tick is essential. In the present study the essential oils from 11 aromatic Egyptian plants were isolated and their repellent activity against I. ricinus nymphs was evaluated Three oils (i.e. Conyza dioscoridis L., Artemisia herba-alba Asso and Calendula officinalis L.) elicited high repellent activity in vitro of 94, 84.2 and 82%, respectively. The most active essential oil (C. dioscoridis) was applied in the field at a concentration of 6.5 µg/cm(2) and elicited a significant repellent activity against I. ricinus nymphs by 61.1%. The most repellent plants C. dioscoridis, C. officinalis and A. herba-alba yielded essential oils by 0.17, 0.11 and 0.14%, respectively. These oils were further investigated using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry analysis. α-Cadinol (10.7%) and hexadecanoic acid (10.5%) were the major components of C. dioscoridis whereas in C. officinalis, α-cadinol (21.2%) and carvone (18.2%) were major components. Artemisia herba-alba contained piperitone (26.5%), ethyl cinnamate (9.5%), camphor (7.7%) and hexadecanoic acid (6.9%). Essential oils of these three plants have a potential to be used for personal protection against tick bites.

  8. Molybdenum (Mo) increases endogenous phenolics, proline and photosynthetic pigments and the phytoremediation potential of the industrially important plant Ricinus communis L. for removal of cadmium from contaminated soil.

    PubMed

    Hadi, Fazal; Ali, Nasir; Fuller, Michael Paul

    2016-10-01

    Cadmium (Cd) in agricultural soil negatively affects crops yield and compromises food safety. Remediation of polluted soil is necessary for the re-establishment of sustainable agriculture and to prevent hazards to human health and environmental pollution. Phytoremediation is a promising technology for decontamination of polluted soil. The present study investigated the effect of molybdenum (Mo) (0.5, 1.0 and 2.0 ppm) on endogenous production of total phenolics and free proline, plant biomass and photosynthetic pigments in Ricinus communis plants grown in Cd (25, 50 and 100 ppm) contaminated soils and the potential for Cd phytoextraction. Mo was applied via seed soaking, soil addition and foliar spray. Foliar sprays significantly increased plant biomass, Cd accumulation and bioconcentration. Phenolic concentrations showed significantly positive correlations with Cd accumulation in roots (R (2) = 0.793, 0.807 and 0.739) and leaves (R (2) = 0.707, 721 and 0.866). Similarly, proline was significantly positively correlated with Cd accumulation in roots (R (2) = 0.668, 0.694 and 0.673) and leaves (R (2) = 0.831, 0.964 and 0.930). Foliar application was found to be the most effective way to deliver Mo in terms of increase in plant growth, Cd accumulation and production of phenolics and proline.

  9. Molecular and biochemical identification of inositol 1,3,4,5,6-pentakisphosphate 2-kinase encoding mRNA variants in castor bean (Ricinus communis L.) seeds.

    PubMed

    Yu, Jaeju; Saiardi, Adolfo; Greenwood, John S; Bewley, J Derek

    2014-05-01

    During seed development, phytic acid (PA) associated with mineral cations is stored as phytin and mobilized following germination in support of seedling growth. Two parallel biosynthetic pathways for PA have been proposed; yet the pathway is still poorly understood in terms of its regulation and the enzymes involved. Here, the castor bean (Ricinus communis L.) gene for inositol 1,3,4,5,6-pentakisphosphate 2-kinase (RcIPK1) has been identified. This encodes the enzyme implicated in catalyzing the final reaction in PA biosynthesis, and its expression is enhanced in isolated germinated embryos by application of phosphate and myo-inositol (Ins). Even though only one copy of the RcIPK1 gene is present in the genome, numerous RNA variants are present, most likely due to alternative splicing. These are translated into six closely related protein isoforms according to in silico analysis. Functional analyses using yeast ipk1Δ revealed that only three of the mRNA variants can rescue a temperature-sensitive growth phenotype of this strain. High-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) analysis of the synthesized inositol phosphates demonstrated that the ability to complement the missing yeast IPK1 enzyme is associated with the production of enzyme activity. The three active isoforms possess unique conserved motifs important for IPK1 catalytic activity.

  10. Life history of Neoseiulus californicus (McGregor, 1954) (Acari: Phytoseiidae) fed with castor bean (Ricinus communis L.) pollen in laboratory conditions.

    PubMed

    Marafeli, P P; Reis, P R; Silveira, E C da; Souza-Pimentel, G C; de Toledo, M A

    2014-08-01

    The predatory mite, Neoseiulus californicus (McGregor, 1954) (Acari: Phytoseiidae) is one of the principal natural enemies of tetranychid mites in several countries, promoting efficient control of those mites in several food and ornamental crops. Pest attacks such as that of the spider mite, Tetranychus urticae Koch, 1836 (Acari: Tetranychidae), is one of the problems faced by farmers, especially in the greenhouse, due to the difficulty of its control with the use of chemicals because of the development of fast resistance making it hard to control it. The objective of this work was to study the life history of the predatory mite N. californicus as a contribution to its mass laboratory rearing, having castor bean plant [Ricinus communis L. (Euphorbiaceae)] pollen as food, for its subsequent use as a natural enemy of T. urticae on a cultivation of greenhouse rosebushes. The studies were carried out in the laboratory, at 25 ± 2°C of temperature, 70 ± 10% RH and a 14 hour photophase. The biological aspects and the fertility life table were appraised. Longevity of 32.9 days was verified for adult females and 40.4 days for males. The intrinsic rate of increase (rm) was 0.2 and the mean generation time (T) was 17.2 days. The population doubled every 4.1 days. The results obtained were similar to those in which the predatory mite N. californicus fed on T. urticae.

  11. The multigene family of lysophosphatidate acyltransferase (LPAT)-related enzymes in Ricinus communis: cloning and molecular characterization of two LPAT genes that are expressed in castor seeds.

    PubMed

    Arroyo-Caro, José María; Chileh, Tarik; Kazachkov, Michael; Zou, Jitao; Alonso, Diego López; García-Maroto, Federico

    2013-02-01

    The multigene family encoding proteins related to lysophosphatidyl-acyltransferases (LPATs) has been analyzed in the castor plant Ricinus communis. Among them, two genes designated RcLPAT2 and RcLPATB, encoding proteins with LPAT activity and expressed in the developing seed, have been cloned and characterized in some detail. RcLPAT2 groups with well characterized members of the so-called A-class LPATs and it shows a generalized expression pattern in the plant and along seed development. Enzymatic assays of RcLPAT2 indicate a preference for ricinoleoyl-CoA over other fatty acid thioesters when ricinoleoyl-LPA is used as the acyl acceptor, while oleoyl-CoA is the preferred substrate when oleoyl-LPA is employed. RcLPATB groups with B-class LPAT enzymes described as seed specific and selective for unusual fatty acids. However, RcLPATB exhibit a broad specificity on the acyl-CoAs, with saturated fatty acids (12:0-16:0) being the preferred substrates. RcLPATB is upregulated coinciding with seed triacylglycerol accumulation, but its expression is not restricted to the seed. These results are discussed in the light of a possible role for LPAT isoenzymes in the channelling of ricinoleic acid into castor bean triacylglycerol. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Ricinus communis agglutinin I leads to rapid down-regulation of VEGFR-2 and endothelial cell apoptosis in tumor blood vessels.

    PubMed

    You, Weon-Kyoo; Kasman, Ian; Hu-Lowe, Dana D; McDonald, Donald M

    2010-04-01

    Ricinus communis agglutinin I (RCA I), a galactose-binding lectin from castor beans, binds to endothelial cells at sites of plasma leakage, but little is known about the amount and functional consequences of binding to tumor endothelial cells. We addressed this issue by examining the effects of RCA I on blood vessels of spontaneous pancreatic islet-cell tumors in RIP-Tag2 transgenic mice. After intravenous injection, RCA I bound strongly to tumor vessels but not to normal blood vessels. At 6 minutes, RCA I fluorescence of tumor vessels was largely diffuse, but over the next hour, brightly fluorescent dots appeared as the lectin was internalized by endothelial cells. RCA I injection led to a dose- and time-dependent decrease in vascular endothelial growth factor receptor-2 (VEGFR-2) immunoreactivity in tumor endothelial cells, with 95% loss over 6 hours. By comparison, VEGFR-3, CD31, and CD105 had decreases in the range of 21% to 33%. Loss of VEGFR-2 was followed by increased activated caspase-3 in tumor vessels. Prior inhibition of VEGF signaling by AG-028262 decreased RCA I binding and internalization into tumor vessels. These findings indicate RCA I preferentially binds to and is internalized by tumor endothelial cells, which leads to VEGFR-2 down-regulation, endothelial cell apoptosis, and tumor vessel regression. Together, the results illustrate the selective impact of RCA I on VEGF signaling in tumor blood vessels.

  13. Ricinus communis Agglutinin I Leads to Rapid Down-Regulation of VEGFR-2 and Endothelial Cell Apoptosis in Tumor Blood Vessels

    PubMed Central

    You, Weon-Kyoo; Kasman, Ian; Hu-Lowe, Dana D.; McDonald, Donald M.

    2010-01-01

    Ricinus communis agglutinin I (RCA I), a galactose-binding lectin from castor beans, binds to endothelial cells at sites of plasma leakage, but little is known about the amount and functional consequences of binding to tumor endothelial cells. We addressed this issue by examining the effects of RCA I on blood vessels of spontaneous pancreatic islet-cell tumors in RIP-Tag2 transgenic mice. After intravenous injection, RCA I bound strongly to tumor vessels but not to normal blood vessels. At 6 minutes, RCA I fluorescence of tumor vessels was largely diffuse, but over the next hour, brightly fluorescent dots appeared as the lectin was internalized by endothelial cells. RCA I injection led to a dose- and time-dependent decrease in vascular endothelial growth factor receptor-2 (VEGFR-2) immunoreactivity in tumor endothelial cells, with 95% loss over 6 hours. By comparison, VEGFR-3, CD31, and CD105 had decreases in the range of 21% to 33%. Loss of VEGFR-2 was followed by increased activated caspase-3 in tumor vessels. Prior inhibition of VEGF signaling by AG-028262 decreased RCA I binding and internalization into tumor vessels. These findings indicate RCA I preferentially binds to and is internalized by tumor endothelial cells, which leads to VEGFR-2 down-regulation, endothelial cell apoptosis, and tumor vessel regression. Together, the results illustrate the selective impact of RCA I on VEGF signaling in tumor blood vessels. PMID:20185574

  14. In silico structural characteristics and α-amylase inhibitory properties of Ric c 1 and Ric c 3, allergenic 2S albumins from Ricinus communis seeds.

    PubMed

    Do Nascimento, Viviane Veiga; Castro, Helena Carla; Abreu, Paula Alvarez; Oliveira, Antônia Elenir Amâncio; Fernandez, Jorge Hernandez; Araújo, Jucélia Da Silva; Machado, Olga Lima Tavares

    2011-05-11

    The major Ricinus communis allergens are the 2S albumins, Ric c 1 and Ric c 3. These proteins contain a trypsin/α-amylase inhibitor family domain, suggesting that they have a role in insect resistance. In this study, we verified that Ric c 1 and Ric c 3 inhibited the α-amylase activity of Callosobruchus maculatus, Zabrotes subfasciatus, and Tenebrio molitor (TMA) larvae as well as mammalian α-amylase. The toxicity of 2S albumin was determined through its incorporation in C. maculatus larvae as part of an artificial diet. Bioassays revealed that 2S albumin reduced larval growth by 20%. We also analyzed the tridimensional structures of Ric c 1 and Ric c 3 by (a) constructing a comparative model of Ric c 1 based on Ric c 3 NMR structure and (b) constructing the theoretical structure of the Ric c 1-TMA and Ric c 3-TMA complexes. Our biological and theoretical results revealed that Ric c 1 and Ric c 3 are a new class of α-amylase inhibitors. They could potentially be used to help design inhibitors that would be useful in diverse fields, ranging from diabetes treatment to crop protection.

  15. Projection of forelimb nerve afferents to external cuneate nucleus of the rat as revealed by intraneural injection of a neurotoxic lectin, Ricinus communis agglutinin.

    PubMed

    Cha, S W; Tan, C K

    1996-01-01

    This study seeks to extend the observations of previous studies of projection of primary afferent fibres from the forelimb nerves and muscles to the external cuneate nucleus (ECN) of mammals using a neurotoxic lectin, Ricinus communis agglutinin (RCA) to achieve chemical ganglionectomy of the dorsal root ganglia. Following intraneural injection of RCA into the three main forelimb nerves, namely the radial, ulnar and median nerves, terminal degeneration of the primary afferent fibres in the ECN was studied under the light microscope by means of the Fink-Heimer method. The results show that the primary afferent fibres from these three nerves project to the medial part of the ECN. The field of terminal degeneration take a crescentic form. The projection from the median nerve was most dorsally located whereas that from the radial nerve was the most ventral with extensive overlaps between them. Of the three nerves, the projection from the radial nerve was the most dense. Rostrocaudally, the three nerves also show extensive overlaps. The rostrocaudal extent of maximum terminal degeneration was greatest for the radial nerve and least for the median nerve. Analysis of variance showed that these differences were statistically significant. This suggests that the radial nerve has the most extensive projection to the ECN and the median nerve the least.

  16. Serum alpha-fetoprotein subfractions identified by Ricinus communis agglutinin I in hepatic malignancies, yolk sac tumor, benign hepatic diseases, and fetal stage.

    PubMed

    Ishiguro, T; Takahashi, Y

    1989-01-01

    Using Ricinus communis agglutinin I (RCA-I) affinity crossed-line immunoelectrophoresis, alpha-fetoprotein (AFP) subfractions were studied in sera from patients with primary hepatic cancer (PHC), hepatic metastasis of gastric cancer (HMGC), yolk sac tumor (YST), acute or chronic hepatitis or hepatic cirrhosis. Fetal AFP subfractions were also examined in amniotic fluids or in culture fluids of fetal tissues. RCA-I non-reactive subfraction was commonly found in PHC, HMGC, YST, benign hepatic diseases, and fetal stage. RCA-I weakly reactive (WR) or strongly reactive (SR) subfraction was noted only in malignant diseases. RCA-I has a specific affinity to terminal galactose in oligosaccharide, and the presence of sialic acid on galactose residue(s) inhibits the affinity with RCA-I. Therefore, common AFP subfraction non-reactive with RCA-I was assumed to be galactosialyl form, while RCA-I WR and SR subfractions found only in malignancies were monogalactosyl and digalactosyl, respectively. Clinically this approach to detect the RCA-I WR or SR subfraction facilitates a differential diagnosis of AFP-producing malignancies and benign conditions.

  17. Degenerative changes of neurons in the superior cervical ganglion following an injection of Ricinus communis agglutinin-60 into the vagus nerve in hamsters.

    PubMed

    Ling, E A; Shieh, J Y; Wen, C Y; Chan, Y G; Wong, W C

    1990-02-01

    The present study describes neuronal changes in the superior cervical ganglion of hamsters following injection of Ricinus communis agglutinin-60 (RCA-60) into the ipsilateral vagus nerve in the cervical region. There were no noticeable structural changes in the ganglion 1 day after injection. Between 3 and 15 days after injection, a small number of neurons located in the caudal part of the ganglion underwent degenerative changes including disappearance of rough endoplasmic reticulum and cytoplasmic vacuolation. The structural alterations were most acute 7 days after the injection when some neurons showed signs of total vacuolation and lysis. A second phase of neuronal change occurred after longer survival periods extending from 60 to 120 days after injection. The most striking feature of such neurons was darkening of their dendrites associated with abnormally high density cytoplasm that contained mitochondria with disrupted cristae. As distinct from the early phase in which cell necrosis was observed, there was no evidence of cell death of neurons bearing darkened dendrites. Since examples of exfoliation of the affected dendrites and their phagocytosis by satellite cells were extremely rare, it is postulated that these structural alterations are probably reversible but over an extended period. The significance of the two phases of degenerative change is discussed in connection with the acute and possible chronic effects of the toxic lectin. The present study also confirms the presence of postganglionic sympathetic axons in the cervical vagus nerve.

  18. Leaf development in Ricinus communis during drought stress: dynamics of growth processes, of cellular structure and of sink-source transition.

    PubMed

    Schurr, U; Heckenberger, U; Herdel, K; Walter, A; Feil, R

    2000-09-01

    Dicot leaf growth is characterized by partly transient tip-to-base gradients of growth processes, structure and function. These gradients develop dynamically and interact with dynamically developing stress conditions like drought. In Ricinus communis plants growing under well-watered and drought conditions growth rates peaked during the late night and minimal values occurred in the late afternoon. During this diurnal course the leaf base always showed much higher rates than the leaf tip. The amplitude of this diurnal course decreased when leaves approached maturity and during drought stress without any significant alteration of the diurnal pattern and it increased during the first days after rewatering. Unique relationships between leaf size and cytological structure were observed. This provided the framework for the analysis of changes in assimilation, transpiration and dark respiration, chlorophyll, protein, carbohydrate, and amino acid concentrations, and of activities of sink-source-related enzymes at the leaf tip and base during leaf development in well-watered and drought-stressed plants. Gas exchange was dominated by physiological rather than by anatomical properties (stomatal density). Tip-to-base gradients in carbohydrate concentrations per dry weight and sink-source-related enzymes were absent, whereas significant gradients were found in amino acid concentrations per dry weight. During drought stress, growing leaves developed source function at smaller leaf size, before specific physiological adaptations to drought occurred. The relevance of the developmental status of individual leaves for the drought-stress response and of the structural changes for the biochemical composition changes is discussed.

  19. Biochemical activities of Iranian Mentha piperita L. and Myrtus communis L. essential oils.

    PubMed

    Yadegarinia, Davod; Gachkar, Latif; Rezaei, Mohammad Bagher; Taghizadeh, Massoud; Astaneh, Shakiba Alipoor; Rasooli, Iraj

    2006-06-01

    GC-MS analysis of essential oils of Iranian Mentha piperita and Myrtus communis extracted by hydrodistillation lead to identification of 26 and 32 compounds, respectively. The oils had good to excellent antimicrobial activities against Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus and Candida albicans with the oil of M. piperita being more active. The findings suggest feasibility of application of M. piperita oil in treatment of the infections caused by C. albicans and E. coli. D-values on exposure to M. piperita and Myrtus communis oils were (2.14 and 2.8min), (1.4 and 12.8min) and (4.3 and 8.6min) for E. coli, S. aureus and C. albicans , respectively. The oils were screened for their possible antioxidant activities by two complementary test systems, namely DPPH free radical scavenging and beta-carotene/linoleic acid systems. M. piperirta oil exerted greater antioxidant activity than that of M. communis. Phytochemical and phytobiological characteristics of these oils may lead to extraction and production of active compounds in single or combined forms with useful applications.

  20. Antifungal and Herbicidal Effects of Fruit Essential Oils of Four Myrtus communis Genotypes.

    PubMed

    Kordali, Saban; Usanmaz, Ayse; Cakir, Ahmet; Komaki, Amanmohammad; Ercisli, Sezai

    2016-01-01

    The chemical composition of the essential oils isolated by hydrodistillation from the fruits of four selected Myrtus communis L. genotypes from Turkey was characterized by GC-FID and GC/MS analyses. 1,8-Cineole (29.20-31.40%), linalool (15.67-19.13%), α-terpineol (8.40-18.43%), α-pinene (6.04-20.71%), and geranyl acetate (3.98-7.54%) were found to be the major constituents of the fruit essential oils of all M. communis genotypes investigated. The oils were characterized by high amounts of oxygenated monoterpenes, representing 73.02-83.83% of the total oil compositions. The results of the fungal growth inhibition assays showed that the oils inhibited the growth of 19 phytopathogenic fungi. However, their antifungal activity was generally lower than that of the commercial pesticide benomyl. The herbicidal effects of the oils on the seed germination and seedling growth of Amaranthus retroflexus L., Chenopodium album L., Cirsium arvense (L.) Scop., Lactuca serriola L., and Rumex crispus L. were also determined. The oils completely or partly inhibited the seed germinations and seedling growths of the plants. The findings of the present study suggest that the M. communis essential oils might have potential to be used as natural herbicides as well as fungicides.

  1. Antileishmanial and Cytotoxic Effects of Essential Oil and Methanolic Extract of Myrtus communis L.

    PubMed Central

    Mahmoudvand, Hossein; Ezzatkhah, Fatemeh; Sharififar, Fariba; Sharifi, Iraj; Dezaki, Ebrahim Saedi

    2015-01-01

    Plants used for traditional medicine contain a wide range of substances that can be used to treat various diseases such as infectious diseases. The present study was designed to evaluate the antileishmanial effects of the essential oil and methanolic extract of Myrtus communis against Leishmania tropica on an in vitro model. Antileishmanial effects of essential oil and methanolic extract of M. communis on promastigote forms and their cytotoxic activities against J774 cells were evaluated using MTT assay for 72 hr. In addition, their leishmanicidal activity against amastigote forms was determined in a macrophage model, for 72 hr. Findings showed that the main components of essential oil were α-pinene (24.7%), 1,8-cineole (19.6%), and linalool (12.6%). Findings demonstrated that M. communis, particularly its essential oil, significantly (P<0.05) inhibited the growth rate of promastigote and amastigote forms of L. tropica based on a dose-dependent response. The IC50 values for essential oil and methanolic extract was 8.4 and 28.9 μg/ml against promastigotes, respectively. These values were 11.6 and 40.8 μg/ml against amastigote forms, respectively. Glucantime as control drug also revealed IC50 values of 88.3 and 44.6 μg/ml for promastigotes and amastigotes of L. tropica, respectively. The in vitro assay demonstrated no significant cytotoxicity in J774 cells. However, essential oil indicated a more cytotoxic effect as compared with the methanolic extract of M. communis. The findings of the present study demonstrated that M. communis might be a natural source for production of a new leishmanicidal agent. PMID:25748705

  2. Antileishmanial and cytotoxic effects of essential oil and methanolic extract of Myrtus communis L.

    PubMed

    Mahmoudvand, Hossein; Ezzatkhah, Fatemeh; Sharififar, Fariba; Sharifi, Iraj; Dezaki, Ebrahim Saedi

    2015-02-01

    Plants used for traditional medicine contain a wide range of substances that can be used to treat various diseases such as infectious diseases. The present study was designed to evaluate the antileishmanial effects of the essential oil and methanolic extract of Myrtus communis against Leishmania tropica on an in vitro model. Antileishmanial effects of essential oil and methanolic extract of M. communis on promastigote forms and their cytotoxic activities against J774 cells were evaluated using MTT assay for 72 hr. In addition, their leishmanicidal activity against amastigote forms was determined in a macrophage model, for 72 hr. Findings showed that the main components of essential oil were α-pinene (24.7%), 1,8-cineole (19.6%), and linalool (12.6%). Findings demonstrated that M. communis, particularly its essential oil, significantly (P<0.05) inhibited the growth rate of promastigote and amastigote forms of L. tropica based on a dose-dependent response. The IC50 values for essential oil and methanolic extract was 8.4 and 28.9 μg/ml against promastigotes, respectively. These values were 11.6 and 40.8 μg/ml against amastigote forms, respectively. Glucantime as control drug also revealed IC50 values of 88.3 and 44.6 μg/ml for promastigotes and amastigotes of L. tropica, respectively. The in vitro assay demonstrated no significant cytotoxicity in J774 cells. However, essential oil indicated a more cytotoxic effect as compared with the methanolic extract of M. communis. The findings of the present study demonstrated that M. communis might be a natural source for production of a new leishmanicidal agent.

  3. MORPHOLOGIC AND MORPHOMETRIC ANALYSIS OF THE ROOT CANAL APICAL THIRD CLEANING AFTER BIOMECHANICAL PREPARATION USING 3.3% RICINUS COMMUNIS DETERGENT AND 1% NaOCL AS IRRIGATING SOLUTIONS

    PubMed Central

    Meneghin, Marcos Pozzetti; Nomelini, Sylvia Maria Bin; Sousa, Manoel D.; Marchesan, Melissa Andreia; França, Suzelei Castro; dos Santos, Heid Sueli Leme

    2006-01-01

    This study evaluated, by morphologic and morphometric analyses, the cleaning of apical third of root canals instrumented with nickel-titanium rotary files using different irrigating solutions. Twenty-seven single-rooted mandibular premolars were assigned to three groups (n=9), according to the irrigating solution used: Group I, distilled and deionized water; Group II, 1% NaOCl; and Group III, 3.3% Ricinus communis detergent. Biomechanical preparation was performed with Protaper Plusâ nickel-titanium files as follows: S1, SX and S2 at the cervical and middle thirds, and 25/02, 25/04, 25/06, 30/02, 30/04 and 30/06 to complete the instrumentation, operating at 1 mm from the root apex. Irrigation was done at each file change with 2 mL of irrigating solution, totalizing 20 mL for each tooth. After biomechanical preparation, the apical thirds were serially sectioned and histologically processed. The cross-sections were examined by an optical microscope (X40) connected to a computer. The images were captured and analyzed using a computer software and submitted to morphometric analysis with aid of a grid. The percentage of debris remaining at the apical third was calculated. Data were submitted to statistical analysis by ANOVA and Tukey test. The results showed no statistically significant difference (p>0.01) between the groups irrigated with 1% NaOCl and 3.3% Ricinus communis detergent, which presented the lowest percentage of debris at the apical third, 8.49% and 10.11%, respectively. The group irrigated with distilled and deionized water had the highest percentage of debris (15.58%) and was statistically different from the other groups (p<0.01). It may be concluded that 3.3% Ricinus communis detergent and 1% NaOCl had similar cleaning effectiveness on removal of debris from root canals. PMID:19089069

  4. Hypnotic effect of the essential oil from the leaves of Myrtus communis on mice

    PubMed Central

    Birhanie, Muluken Walle; Walle, Bizuayehu; Rebba, Kidist

    2016-01-01

    Background Myrtus communis has been suggested as a sleep aid in unconventional medicine. Moreover, previous studies have also indicated its sedative- and hypnotic-like activity. In this study, the hypnotic effect of M. communis was investigated. Methods Essential oil (EO) of M. communis (600, 800, and 1,000 mg/kg) was given orally to Swiss albino mice of both sex, and the hypnotic effect was evaluated. In addition, the EO of M. communis (500, 600, 800, and 1,000 mg/kg) was administered orally to Swiss albino mice of both sex 60 minutes prior to pentobarbital injection (50 mg/kg). Latency to sleep and sleep duration were recorded. The effect of the EO on motor coordination and muscle relaxation was evaluated using chimney and traction tests, 60 and 90 minutes after administration of the respective doses of the EO, respectively. Results There was no induction of hypnosis as the presence of the righting reflex was intact. However the EO prolonged pentobarbital-induced sleeping time and there was also 50% negative response on the chimney and traction test in a dose dependent manner. Conclusion The EO of M. communis did not produce a hypnotic effect, but it potentiated a hypnotic effect with significant central nervous system depressant activity. PMID:27574478

  5. Developing Seeds of Ricinus communis L., When Detached and Maintained in an Atmosphere of High Relative Humidity, Switch to a Germinative Mode without the Requirement for Complete Desiccation.

    PubMed

    Kermode, A R; Bewley, J D

    1989-06-01

    Immature seeds of castor bean (Ricinus communis) removed from the capsule at 25 to 40 days after pollination (25-40 DAP) and placed in an atmosphere of high relative humidity undergo limited water loss, and germinate upon subsequent return to full hydration. This switch from a developmental to a germinative/growth mode at 40 DAP is reflected in a change in the types of proteins being synthesized in the endosperm; after partial drying, developmental protein synthesis ceases and germinative/growth-related proteins are produced. The nature and timing of these protein synthetic changes elicited upon imbibition are identical to those following premature desiccation/rehydration of 30 and 40 DAP seeds and upon imbibition of the mature dry seed. Enzymes involved in postgerminative reserve mobilization (l-leucyl-beta-naphthylamidase and isocitrate lyase) are induced upon imbibition, following partial drying at 40 DAP, to levels attained in the endosperms of germinated mature, and prematurely dried/rehydrated, seeds. The changes in protein synthesis resulting from partial drying are effected at the transcriptional and post-transcriptional level. Upon return to full hydration some new (i.e. germination and growth-related) mRNAs are synthesized, while others (associated with development) present in the partially dried endosperm decline. Thus developing seeds of castor bean do not have to experience substantial (whole seed) water loss to acquire the ability to germinate and grow upon subsequent imbibition. Seed detachment from the mother plant alone is not sufficient to elicit a switch to germination and growth processes. However, the length of time of detachment from the mother plant, in combination with some water loss may interact to elicit the "switch" from development to germination.

  6. Family of Ricinus communis Monosaccharide Transporters and RcSTP1 in Promoting the Uptake of a Glucose-Fipronil Conjugate.

    PubMed

    Mao, Gen-Lin; Yan, Yin; Chen, Yan; Wang, Bing-Feng; Xu, Fei-Fei; Zhang, Zhi-Xiang; Lin, Fei; Xu, Han-Hong

    2017-08-02

    Enhancing the systemic distribution of a bioactive compound by exploiting the vascular transport system of a plant presents a means of reducing both the volume and frequency of pesticide/fungicide application. The foliar uptake of the glucose-fipronil conjugate N-[3-cyano-1-[2,6-dichloro-4-(trifluoromethyl)phenyl]-4-[(trifluoromethyl)sulfinyl]-1H-pyrazol-5-yl]-1-(β-d-glucopyranosyl)-1H-1,2,3-triazole-4-methanamine (GTF) achieved in castor bean (Ricinus communis) and its transport via the phloem are known to be mediated by monosaccharide transporter(s) [MST(s)], although neither the identity of the key MST(s) involved nor the mechanistic basis of its movement have yet to be described. On the basis of homology with Arabidopsis thaliana sugar transporters, the castor bean genome was concluded to harbor 53 genes encoding a sugar transporter, falling into the eight previously defined subfamilies INT, PMT, VGT, STP, ERD6, pGlucT, TMT, and SUT. Transcriptional profiling identified the product of RcSTP1 as a candidate for mediating GTF uptake, because this gene was induced by exposure of the plant to GTF. When RcSTP1 was transiently expressed in onion epidermis cells, the site of RcSTP1 deposition was shown to be the plasma membrane. A functional analysis based on RcSTP1 expression in Xenopus laevis oocytes demonstrated that its product has a high affinity for GTF. The long-distance root-to-shoot transport of GTF was enhanced in a transgenic soybean chimera constitutively expressing RcSTP1.

  7. Experimental evidence for diel variations of the carbon isotope composition in leaf, stem and phloem sap organic matter in Ricinus communis.

    PubMed

    Gessler, Arthur; Tcherkez, Guillaume; Peuke, Andreas D; Ghashghaie, Jaleh; Farquhar, Graham D

    2008-07-01

    Carbon isotope fractionation in metabolic processes following carboxylation of ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate (RuBP) is not as well described as the discrimination during photosynthetic CO(2) fixation. However, post-carboxylation fractionation can influence the diel variation of delta(13)C of leaf-exported organic matter and can cause inter-organ differences in delta(13)C. To obtain a more mechanistic understanding of post-carboxylation modification of the isotopic signal as governed by physiological and environmental controls, we combined the modelling approach of Tcherkez et al., which describes the isotopic fractionation in primary metabolism with the experimental determination of delta(13)C in leaf and phloem sap and root carbon pools during a full diel course. There was a strong diel variation of leaf water-soluble organic matter and phloem sap sugars with relatively (13)C depleted carbon produced and exported during the day and enriched carbon during the night. The isotopic modelling approach reproduces the experimentally determined day-night differences in delta(13)C of leaf-exported carbon in Ricinus communis. These findings support the idea that patterns of transitory starch accumulation and remobilization govern the diel rhythm of delta(13)C in organic matter exported by leaves. Integrated over the whole 24 h day, leaf-exported carbon was enriched in (13)C as compared with the primary assimilates. This may contribute to the well-known--yet poorly explained--relative (13)C depletion of autotrophic organs compared with other plant parts. We thus emphasize the need to consider post-carboxylation fractionations for studies that use delta(13)C for assessing environmental effects like water availability on ratio of mole fractions of CO(2) inside and outside the leaf (e.g. tree ring studies), or for partitioning of CO(2) fluxes at the ecosystem level.

  8. Vascularization of syngenic intracerebral RG2 and F98 rat transplantation tumors. A histochemical and morphometric study by use of ricinus communis agglutinin I.

    PubMed

    Seitz, R J; Deckert, M; Wechsler, W

    1988-01-01

    The vascularization of intracerebral transplantation tumors of the two rat glioma clones RG2 and F98 was studied in various stages of progressive tumor growth by use of biotinylated Ricinus communis agglutinin I (B-RCA I) in avidin-biotin-peroxidase complex (ABC)-histochemistry. The tumors were induced by stereotactic implantation of 1000 glioma cells into the right caudate nucleus of 26 adult CDF-rats and examined after 10, 14, 18, and 21 days following controlled intracardial perfusion of the host animals. Our histochemical results on paraffin sections demonstrate that B-RCA I selectively stains vascular endothelial cells of arteries, veins, and capillaries not only in the normal rat brain but also in the transplantation tumors. Subsequently morphometric measurements of the B-RCA I-stained sections were performed to define the tumor vascularization in quantitative terms. There was an increase in the mean tumor vessel diameters during tumor growth in both transplantation tumor types leading to values about two times above those of the normal rat striatum. On the contrary, the mean vessel density and the mean vessel surface per tumor area were markedly reduced in the late stages of both tumor types when compared to the normal striatum. The RG2 and F98 transplantation tumors differed with regard to the intercapillary distance, which was two times higher in the F98 transplantation tumors than in the RG2 tumors on day 21. In conclusion, B-RCA I is a very sensitive histochemical marker for rat vascular endothelia on paraffin sections. Moreover, this method appears to provide the possibility for qualitative and quantitative study of the development of vasculature in intracerebral transplantation systems including tumors.

  9. Infiltration of carbon-labelled monocytes into the dorsal motor nucleus following an intraneural injection of ricinus communis agglutinin-60 into the vagus nerve in rats.

    PubMed

    Ling, E A; Leong, S K

    1988-08-01

    A marked increase in the number of non-neuronal cells occurred in the neuropil of the ipsilateral dorsal motor nucleus (DMN) 6 days after an intraneural injection of Ricinus communis agglutinin-60 into the vagus nerve in the cervical region of rats. Other structural changes in the DMN were the hypertrophy and reduction in number of the neurons. In order to verify the origin of the non-neuronal cells, a single intravenous injection of carbon was administered into these rats 4 days before, simultaneously, or 4 days after, the injection of the RCA-60. Thus, in rats given carbon 4 days before the RCA-60 injection, none of the non-neuronal cells were labelled. A few labelled cells, however, were observed in rats given carbon and RCA-60 simultaneously. Labelled non-neuronal cells were most common in rats given carbon 4 days after the RCA-60 injection. They were located in the neuropil as well as in the walls of blood vessels. Some blood elements in the lumen of blood vessels in the DMN were also labelled by carbon. Histochemical study at the electron microscopical level showed that some of the non-neuronal cells present in the neuropil of DMN were stained positively for non-specific esterase. They were located in the perivascular region and in the neuropil far removed from the blood vessels. Occasional non-specific esterase-positive mononuclear cells were observed seemingly in their passage through the endothelium of blood vessels. It was concluded from this study that a small proportion of non-neuronal cells which appear in the DMN following a RCA-60 injection into the vagus nerve are derived from blood monocytes. The infiltration of these cells, which had been labelled by intravenous carbon injection, is probably elicited by the degenerating neurons destroyed by the retrograde transport of RCA-60.

  10. Localization of binding sites for concanavalin A, Ricinus communis I and Helix pomatia lectin in the Golgi apparatus of rat small intestinal absorptive cells.

    PubMed

    Pavelka, M; Ellinger, A

    1985-09-01

    Binding sites for concanvalin A (Con A), Ricinus communis I agglutinin (RCA I), and Helix pomatia lectin (HPA) were localized in the Golgi apparatus of rat small intestinal absorptive cells. A preembedment technique, a modification of the one originally used by Bernhard and Avrameas (Exp Cell Res 64:232, 1971), was employed, with horse-radish peroxidase being used for cytochemical visualization. Incubations were performed on 10 microns thick cryosections of duodenal segments that were fixed in a mixture of 4% formaldehyde and 0.5% glutaraldehyde; fixation was preceded by a 2-min rinse in 0.1 M sodium cacodylate and followed by storage in the same buffer for up to 7 days. Incubation with Con A, which binds preferably to alpha-D-mannose and alpha-D-glucose residues, caused intense reaction of the dilated cisternae of the cis Golgi side; staining was variable in intermediate and trans cisternae. RCA I, recognizing beta-D-galactose residues, could only be demonstrated in intermediate cisternae. Reaction for HPA, which indicates alpha-N-acetyl-D-galactosamine residues, stained intensely 1 to 2 cisternae of the cis Golgi side, as well as being localized in the peripheral regions of the cisternae of the intermediate compartment of the stacks. Deposits of reaction product covered the luminal surface of the cisternal membranes, but usually left the lumen itself, as well as lipid particles, devoid of reaction. The differences in Con A, RCA I, and HPA reactivity between cis, intermediate, and trans cisternae suggest compositional and structural differences of the carbohydrates in the respective compartments; they may reflect conversion processes that are known to occur in the oligosaccharide side chains of glycoconjugates at the Golgi complex level.

  11. Subcellular cadmium distribution and antioxidant enzymatic activities in the leaves of two castor (Ricinus communis L.) cultivars exhibit differences in Cd accumulation.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Hanzhi; Guo, Qingjun; Yang, Junxing; Shen, Jianxiu; Chen, Tongbin; Zhu, Guangxu; Chen, Hui; Shao, Chunyan

    2015-10-01

    The aims of this study were: (1) the study of cadmium (Cd) accumulation and toxicity in different castor cultivars (Ricinus communis L.); (2) to investigate changes in antioxidant enzymatic activities and the subcellular distribution of Cd in young and old leaves from two different castor cultivars, after exposure to two different Cd concentrations, and explore the underlying mechanism of Cd detoxification focusing on antioxidant enzymes and subcellular compartmentalization. The Cd concentration, toxicity, and subcellular distribution, as well as superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), and peroxidase (POD) activities were measured in Zibo-3 and Zibo-9 cultivars after exposure to two different concentrations of Cd (2mg/L and 5mg/L) for 10 days. This research revealed Cd accumulation characteristics in castor are root>stem>young leaf>old leaf. Castor tolerance was Cd dose exposure and the cultivars themselves dependent. Investigation of subcellular Cd partitioning showed that Cd accumulated mainly in the heat stable protein (HSP) and cellular debris fractions, followed by the Cd rich granule (MRG), heat denatured protein (HDP), and organelle fractions. With increasing Cd concentration in nutrient solution, the decreased detoxified fractions (BDM) and the increased Cd-sensitive fractions (MSF) in young leaves may indicate the increased Cd toxicity in castor cultivars. The BDM-Cd fractions or MSF-Cd in old leaves may be linked with Cd tolerance of different cultivars of castor. The antioxidant enzymes that govern Cd detoxification were not found to be active in leaves. Taken together, these results indicate Cd tolerance and toxicity in castor can be explained by subcellular partitioning.

  12. Essential oil of Myrtus communis inhibits inflammation in rats by reducing serum IL-6 and TNF-alpha.

    PubMed

    Maxia, Andrea; Frau, Maria Assunta; Falconieri, Danilo; Karchuli, Manvendra Singh; Kasture, Sanjay

    2011-10-01

    The topical antiinflammatory activity of the essential oil of Myrtus communis L. was studied using croton oil induced ear edema and myeloperoxidase (MPO) activity in mice, and cotton pellet induced granuloma, and serum tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) and interleukin-6 (IL-6) in rats. On topical application, the oil exhibited a significant decrease in the ear edema as well as MPO activity. The oil also inhibited cotton pellet-induced granuloma and serum TNF-alpha and IL-6. It can be concluded that the essential oil of Myrtus communis reduces leukocyte migration to the damaged tissue and exhibits antiinflammatory activity.

  13. Antimicrobial and antioxidative activity of extracts and essential oils of Myrtus communis L.

    PubMed

    Aleksic, Verica; Knezevic, Petar

    2014-04-01

    Since synthetic antimicrobial agents and food additives can cause a number of adverse effects, there is a growing interest from consumers in ingredients from natural sources. Medicinal plants, such as Myrtus communis L. are a source of new compounds which can be used in both the food industry and for medical purposes, primarily as antimicrobial agents. In this review, the characteristics of myrtle essential oils and extracts are summarized, with particular attention to their chemical composition, biological activities and potential applications.

  14. Ricinus communis contains and acyl-CoA synthetase that preferentially activates ricinoleate to its CoA thioester

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    As part of our effort to identify enzymes that are critical for producing large amounts of ricinoleate in castor oil, we have isolated three cDNAs encoding acyl-CoA synthetase (ACS) in the castor plant. Analysis of the cDNA sequences reveals that two of them, designated RcACS 2 and RcACS 4, contain...

  15. Quantitative changes of Ricinus communis agglutinin I and Helix pomatia lectin binding sites in the acrosome of rat spermatozoa during epididymal transit.

    PubMed

    Hermo, L; Winikoff, R; Kan, F W

    1992-09-01

    During passage through the epididymis, spermatozoa undergo a number of changes which result in their acquisition of fertility and motility. Some of the changes that occur include loss of the cytoplasmic droplet and changes in sperm morphology, metabolism and properties of the nucleus and plasma membrane. Changes have also been reported in the acrosomic system of mammalian spermatozoa during their transit through the epididymis. In the present study, the quantitative changes of the glycoconjugate content in the acrosome of rat spermatozoa were examined during their passage through the epididymis using lectin-colloidal gold cytochemistry. Various regions of the epididymis (initial segment, caput, corpus and cauda epididymidis) were fixed by perfusion with 1% or 2% glutaraldehyde buffered in sodium cacodylate (0.1 M), dehydrated in ethanol and embedded without osmication in Lowicryl K4M. Lectin-colloidal gold labeling was performed on thin sections using Ricinus communis agglutinin I (RCA I) or Helix pomatia lectin (HPL) to detect D-galactose- and N-acetyl-D-galactosamine-containing glycoconjugates, respectively. The labeling density over the acrosome of the acrosomic system was evaluated as the number of gold particles per microns 2 of profile area using a Zeiss MOP-3 image analyzer. The overall mean labeling densities over the acrosome of spermatozoa for each lectin was estimated from 4 rats and over the four distinct epididymal regions. The mean labeling density of the acrosome with RCA I and HPL showed a similar pattern along the epididymis, although RCA I revealed approximately twice as many gold particles per epididymal region. In either case, there was a significant decrease in the labeling density of the acrosome of spermatozoa between the initial segment or caput epididymidis and cauda epididymidis (p less than 0.01). A similar decrease was also noted between the initial segment and corpus epididymidis (p less than 0.01). No change was found between the

  16. Preliminary investigation of the effects of topical mixture of Lawsonia inermis L. and Ricinus communis L. leaves extract in treatment of osteoarthritis using MIA model in rats.

    PubMed

    Ziaei, Atousa; Sahranavard, Shamim; Gharagozlou, Mohammad Javad; Faizi, Mehrdad

    2016-05-03

    Many plants have been introduced in Iranian traditional medicine for treatment of different joint problems including knee pain. Topical application of the mixture of Lawsonia inermis L. leaves (Henna) with aqueous extract of Ricinus communis L. leaves have been mentioned to have significant effects on reducing knee pain. The present study was designed to evaluate the analgesic and anti-inflammatory effects of the mixture of these two herbs in male rats. We induced knee osteoarthritis as a model of chronic pain by intra-articular injection of mono sodium iodoacetate (MIA). Mechanical allodynia, hotplate latency test, spontaneous movements and gait analysis were used for the evaluation of analgesic activity. Anti-inflammatory activity was evaluated by measuring the diameter and the volume of the injected paw compared to contralateral paw. These tests were monitored at days 1, 3, 7, 14 and 21 of MIA administration. Histopathological evaluations were also used to assess the efficacy of the treatment on inflammation and lesions in knee tissue. In all tests, diclofenac topical gel was used as a positive control. The herbal extracts, their mixture, and vehicle or diclofenac gel were administered daily for 14 days by topical route. The mixture of these two extracts significantly reduced the knee joint width and volume of the injected paws and also improved foot prints in gait analysis after 3 days of MIA injection. Analysis of mechanical allodynia (after 21 days), hotplate latency test (after 10 days), spontaneous movements (after 7 days) and in positive control group (after 3 days in all tests and in mechanical allodynia after 14 days) compared to the vehicle group, showed significant effects. Topical usage of the selected formulation made significant histopathological changes on the knee of the rats. Compared to the vehicle group, the tests and diclofenac groups showed less reactions characterized by negligible edema and a few scattered inflammatory lymphoid

  17. Chemical variability of the needle oil of Juniperus communis ssp. alpina from Corsica.

    PubMed

    Ottavioli, Josephine; Gonny, Marcelle; Casanova, Joseph; Bighelli, Ange

    2009-12-01

    The composition of 109 samples of essential oil isolated from the needles of Juniperus communis ssp. alpina growing wild in Corsica was investigated by GC (in combination with retention indices), GC/MS, and 13C-NMR. Forty-four compounds accounting for 86.7-96.7% of the oil were identified. The oils consisted mainly of monoterpene hydrocarbons, in particular, limonene (9.2-53.9%), beta-phellandrene (3.7-25.2%), alpha-pinene (1.4-33.7%), and sabinene (0.1-33.6%). The 109 oil compositions were submitted to k-means partitioning and principal component analysis, which allowed the distinction of two groups within the oil samples. The composition of the major group (92% of the samples) was dominated by limonene and beta-phellandrene, while the second group contained mainly sabinene beside limonene and beta-phellandrene.

  18. Evaluation of the safety and efficacy of Lesquerella fendleri seed and oils as poultry feed additives

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Lesquerella (Lesquerella fendleri (Gray) Wats) is an oil seed plant capable of growth over a large geographic area of the southwestern U.S. The seed oil contains hydroxyfatty acids, useful in a variety of industrial products, and can replace imported castor bean oil (Ricinus communis L.). Lesquere...

  19. Oil content among the diverse castor genetic resources in the U.S. collection

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Castor (Ricinus communis L.) contains oil used for medicine, as an ingredient in shampoo, soap, hand lotion, high-speed lubricants, and as a coating material. Due to its high oil content, oil derived from castor seeds is currently proposed to be used as a feedstock for biodiesel production. The USDA...

  20. Arthropod repellency, especially tick (Ixodes ricinus), exerted by extract from Artemisia abrotanum and essential oil from flowers of Dianthus caryophyllum.

    PubMed

    Tunón, H; Thorsell, W; Mikiver, A; Malander, I

    2006-06-01

    A toluene extract of southernwood (Artemisia abrotanum) and the essential oil from flowers of carnation (Dianthus caryophyllum ) exerted pronounced a repellent effect both against ticks (nymphs of Ixodes ricinus) and yellow fever mosquitoes (Aedes aegypti). The most potent repellents found were coumarin and thujyl alcohol from A. abrotanum and phenylethanol from D. caryophyllum where coumarin and thujyl alcohol were also detected.

  1. Composition and chemical variability of leaf oil of Myrtus communis from north-eastern Algeria.

    PubMed

    Bouzabata, Amel; Boussaha, Faffani; Casanova, Joseph; Tomi, Félix

    2010-10-01

    The chemical composition of 27 oil samples of Myrtus communis isolated from leaves collected in three locations in north-eastern Algeria was investigated by GC(RI) and 13C NMR spectroscopy. Yields ranged between 0.2-1.2% (w/w). The chemical composition of the oils was largely dominated by monoterpene hydrocarbons, with alpha-pinene (40.5-64.0%), 1,8-cineole (10.9-29.1%) and limonene (6.7-8.2%) being the major compounds. In all the samples, 3,3,5,5,8,8-hexamethyl-7-oxabicyclo[4.3.0]non-1(6)-ene-2,4-dione was identified (0.8-1.5%). The composition is similar to that reported for myrtle oils from Corsica, Sardinia and Tunisia, but differed from that of Moroccan and Spanish myrtle oils.

  2. Essential oil composition of two myrtus communis L. varieties grown in North Tunisia.

    PubMed

    Aidi Wannes, Wissem; Mhamdi, Baya; Marzouk, Brahim

    2007-06-01

    Two Myrtus communis varieties (var. italica and baetica) were studied in order to investigate their essential oil yield and composition. Essential oil yield varied in leaves, fruits and stems. So, in leaves, it was 0.5% for italica and 0.3% for baetica and was higher than in fruits and stems with respectively 0.1% and 0.04% for italica and 0.07% and 0.03% for baetica. The essential oil analysis performed by GC and GC/MS showed a composition characterized by a high percentage of monoterpene hydrocarbons in leaves, largely due to alpha-pinene with 51.3% for italica and 27.7% for baetica; 1,8-cineole, the alone compound of ether class, was predominant in fruits and stems with respectively 31.6% and 34.7% for italica and 19.8% and 25.8% for baetica.

  3. Acaricidal properties of the essential oil of Melaleuca alternifolia Cheel (tea tree oil) against nymphs of Ixodes ricinus.

    PubMed

    Iori, A; Grazioli, D; Gentile, E; Marano, G; Salvatore, G

    2005-04-20

    The aim of the study was to examine the acaricidal effect of essential oil of Melaleuca alternifolia (tea tree oil, TTO) at different doses (4, 6, 8 and 10 microl) and for different exposure times (30, 60, 90 and 120 min) on nymphs of Ixodes ricinus. A dose of 8 microl TTO was lethal for more than 70% of ticks when inhaled and this effect was enhanced when the dose was increased to 10 microl (> 80%). The effect was correlated with the duration of exposure of ticks to TTO, with a significant effect being observed after 90 min exposure. The findings show that TTO has acaricidal properties and could be extremely useful in controlling ticks that are efficient vectors of pathogens.

  4. DEVELOPING A SAFE SOURCE OF CASTOR OIL

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Castor bean (Ricinus communis L.) is an important oilseed crop with significant industrial value. However, the production of castor oil is hampered by the presence of the toxin ricin and hyper-allergenic 2S albumins in its seed. We are thus investigating the possibility of developing a safe source...

  5. Chemical composition of volatiles in Sardinian myrtle (Myrtus communis L.) alcoholic extracts and essential oils.

    PubMed

    Tuberoso, Carlo I G; Barra, Andrea; Angioni, Alberto; Sarritzu, Erika; Pirisi, Filippo M

    2006-02-22

    The chemical composition of the volatile fraction of myrtle (Myrtus communis L.) alcoholic extracts and essential oils from leaves and berries collected in different places in Sardinia (Italy) was studied. A simple and rapid liquid-liquid extraction method was used to isolate volatile compounds from myrtle alcoholic extracts followed by GC and GC-MS analysis allowing the detection of 24 compounds. The volatile fraction was characterized by the terpenes fraction corresponding to that of the essential oils and by a fatty acid ethyl esters fraction. The variation during extraction of the volatile fraction in alcoholic extracts of berries and leaves was evaluated. Essential oils were obtained by hydrodistillation, and the yields were on average 0.52 +/- 0.03% (v/w dried weight) and 0.02 +/- 0.00% for leaves and berries, respectively. The essential oils were analyzed by GC and GC-MS, and a total of 27 components were detected, accounting for 90.6-98.7% of the total essential oil composition. Strong chemical variability depending on the origin of the samples was observed. The major compounds in the essential oils were alpha-pinene (30.0 and 28.5%), 1,8-cineole (28.8 and 15.3%), and limonene (17.5 and 24.1%) in leaves and berries, respectively, and were characterized by the lack of myrtenyl acetate.

  6. Selected castorbean genotypes evaluated for morphological traits, seed yield, fatty acids, and oil content

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Castorbean, Ricinus communis, contains oil used in pharmaceutics, cosmetics, soap, shampoo, and as a lubricant. Castorbean is rapidly becoming a biodiesel crop because of its high oil content which ranges between 30 and 60% depending upon extraction proceedures. Two hundred and three castorbean acce...

  7. Chemical analysis of essential oils from different parts of Ferula communis L. growing in central Italy.

    PubMed

    Maggi, Filippo; Papa, Fabrizio; Dall'Acqua, Stefano; Nicoletti, Marcello

    2016-01-01

    Ferula communis is a showy herbaceous plant typical of the Mediterranean area where it is used as a traditional medicine. The plant is a source of bioactive compounds such as daucane sesquiterpenes and prenylated coumarins. In Italy, most of phytochemical studies focused on Sardinian populations where poisonous and nonpoisonous chemotypes were found, while investigations on peninsular populations are scarce. In this work, we report the chemical characterisation of the essential oils obtained from different parts of F. communis growing in central Italy. The chemical profiles of the plant parts, as detected by GC-FID and GC-MS, were different from each other and from those reported in insular populations. Notably, α-pinene (10.5%), γ-terpinene (7.6%) and hedycariol (8.4%) were the major volatile constituents in flowers; α-pinene (55.9%), β-pinene (16.8%) and myrcene (5.9%) in fruits; β-eudesmol (12.1%), α-eudesmol (12.1%) and hedycariol (10.3%) in leaves; (E)-β-farnesene (9.5%), β-cubebene (8.2%) and (E)-caryophyllene (7.2%) in roots. The volatile profiles detected did not allow to classify the investigated central Italy population into the poisonous and nonpoisonous chemotypes previously described in Sardinia.

  8. Myrtus communis essential oil: chemical composition and antimicrobial activities against food spoilage pathogens.

    PubMed

    Ben Hsouna, Anis; Hamdi, Naceur; Miladi, Ramzi; Abdelkafi, Slim

    2014-04-01

    Myrtus communis is a typical plant of the Mediterranean area, which is mainly used as animal and human food and, in folk medicine, for treating some disorders. In the present study, we evaluated in vitro antibacterial and antifungal properties of the essential oils of Myrtus communis (McEO), as well as its phytochemical composition. The GC/MS analysis of the essential oil revealed 17 compounds. Myrtenyl acetate (20.75%), 1,8-cineol (16.55%), α-pinene (15.59%), linalool (13.30%), limonene (8.94%), linalyl acetate (3.67%), geranyl acetate (2.99%), and α-terpineol (2.88%) were the major components. The antimicrobial activity of the essential oil was also investigated on several microorganisms. The inhibition zones and minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) values of bacterial strains were in the range of 16-28 mm and 0.078-2.5 mg/ml, respectively. The inhibitory activity of the McEO against Gram-positive bacteria was significantly higher than against Gram-negative. It also exhibited remarkable activity against several fungal strains. The investigation of the mode of action of the McEO by the time-kill curve against Listeria monocytogenes (food isolate) showed a drastic bactericidal effect after 5 min using a concentration of 312 μg/ml. These results evidence that the McEO possesses antimicrobial properties, and it is, therefore, a potential source for active ingredients for food and pharmaceutical industries.

  9. Variability of chemical composition and antioxidant activity of essential oils between Myrtus communis var. Leucocarpa DC and var. Melanocarpa DC.

    PubMed

    Petretto, Giacomo Luigi; Maldini, Mariateresa; Addis, Roberta; Chessa, Mario; Foddai, Marzia; Rourke, Jonathan P; Pintore, Giorgio

    2016-04-15

    Essential oils (EOs) from several individuals of Myrtus communis L. (M. communis) growing in different habitats in Sardinia have been studied. The analyses were focused on four groups of samples, namely cultivated and wild M. communis var. melanocarpa DC, characterized by red/purple berries, and cultivated and wild M. communis var. leucocarpa DC, characterized by white berries. Qualitative and quantitative analyses demonstrated different EO fingerprints among the studied samples: cultivated and wild leucocarpa variety differs mainly from the melanocarpa variety by a high amount of myrtenyl acetate (>200 mg/mL and 0.4 mg/mL in leucocarpa and melanocarpa varieties respectively). Conversely, the wild group is characterized by a higher amount, compared with the cultivated species, of linalool (about 110 mg/mL and 20 mg/mL respectively), linalyl acetate (about 24 mg/mL and about 6 mg/mL respectively) whereas EOs of the cultivated plants were rich in pinocarveol-cis compared with wild plants (about 2 mg/mL and about 0.5 mg/mL respectively). Principal component analysis applied to the chromatographic data confirm a differentiation and classification of EOs from the four groups of M. communis plants. Finally, antioxidant activity of the studied EOs shows differences between the various categories of samples.

  10. Myrtus communis L. as source of a bioactive and safe essential oil.

    PubMed

    Bouzabata, Amel; Cabral, Célia; Gonçalves, Maria José; Cruz, Maria Teresa; Bighelli, Ange; Cavaleiro, Carlos; Casanova, Joseph; Tomi, Félix; Salgueiro, Ligia

    2015-01-01

    In Algeria, Myrtus communis L. is distributed throughout the Tell Atlas and the coastal regions of Algiers and Constantine. The leaves are used in respiratory disorders, diarrhea and hemorrhoids. The aims of this work were to evaluate the antifungal and anti-inflammatory potential of well characterized essential oils (EO). Since EO can be applied by inhalation, dermal application and oral administration, we used several mammalian cell lines to assess safe bioactive doses. The chemical composition of two samples was investigated by GC-FID, GC-MS and (13)C NMR spectroscopy. Monoterpene derivatives are the main compounds: α-pinene (50.8 and 33.6%), 1,8-cineole (21.9 and 13.3%), linalool (2.7 and 14.8%), and linalyl acetate (0.5 and 9.5%). The antifungal evaluation revealed that the oils were more active against Cryptococcus neoformans (yeast) and Epidermophyton floccosum, Microsporum canis, Trichophyton rubrum (dermatophytes). The anti-inflammatory potential was evaluated using an in vitro model of lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated macrophages. Assessment of cell viability was made through the MTT assay. Both oils were able to significantly inhibit NO production, without affecting cell viability, in concentrations up to 0.64 mg/mL. These promising results, disclose bioactive concentrations of Myrtle essential oils with a safety profile suggesting a potential oral and topical application or use by inhalation. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Tandem lectin affinity chromatography monolithic columns with surface immobilised concanavalin A, wheat germ agglutinin and Ricinus communis agglutinin-I for capturing sub-glycoproteomics from breast cancer and disease-free human sera.

    PubMed

    Selvaraju, Subhashini; El Rassi, Ziad

    2012-07-01

    In this study, a liquid-phase separation platform consisting of tandem lectin affinity chromatography was introduced for the selective capturing of sub-glycoproteomics that are affected in cancers, e.g. breast cancer. The platform is comprised of three monolithic columns with surface immobilised lectins including concanavalin A (Con A), wheat germ agglutinin (WGA) and Ricinus communis agglutinin-I (RCA-I). While WGA and Con A have specificities directed towards the core portion of N-glycans on the glycoprotein surface, RCA-I specifically interacts with the non-reducing terminal moieties of the outer chain structures of N-glycans. The effects of the order in which the three lectin columns were arranged in the tandem columns format were evaluated. The most suitable order proved to be WGA → Con A → RCA-I (denoted as WCR) as far as the number of captured proteins was concerned. The WCR tandem columns allowed the capture of 113 and 112 proteins from disease-free and breast cancer sera, respectively, corresponding to 75 and 65 non-redundant proteins, respectively. Using mass spectral count ratios and Q-Q plots yielded a panel of 23 non-redundant differentially expressed proteins (i.e. a panel of 23 candidate markers), which should in principle be more representative of a pathophysiological state than a single marker candidate.

  12. The glycocalyx of the mouse uterine luminal epithelium during estrus, early pregnancy, the peri-implantation period, and delayed implantation. I. Acquisition of Ricinus communis I binding sites during pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Chávez, D J; Anderson, T L

    1985-06-01

    Mouse uteri were examined during estrus, early pregnancy, the peri-implantation period, and delayed implantation to determine whether changes in the surface coat of the luminal epithelium could be associated with receptivity of the uterus to the presence of blastocyst-stage embryos or blastocyst adhesion. By using alkaline bismuth subnitrate to label periodate-oxidized glycols within the glycocalyx we were able to measure the thickness and examine the morphology of the glycocalyx by electron microscopy. Ferritin-conjugated Ricinus communis agglutinin (RCA-I) demonstrated the presence of D-galactose at terminal, nonreducing positions within the glycocalyx. A relatively thick (0.06-0.1-micron) surface coat was present during estrus, but contained almost no RCA-I binding sites. During Day 3 of pregnancy the surface coat remained up to 0.1 micron thick and RCA-I binding sites were present. At Day 4 and during delay the glycocalyx had a fibrillar appearance, contained RCA-I binding sites, and was reduced to 0.06-0.08 micron in thickness. During Day 5 of pregnancy the thickness of the surface coat was greatly reduced, but there remained uniform lectin binding adjacent to the plasma membrane both at sites of blastocyst attachment and between implantation sites. The results indicate that the luminal epithelium of the mouse uterus acquired RCA-I binding sites during pregnancy and that the thickness of the surface coat was greatly reduced at the time of implantation.

  13. Immunolocalization of plasma-membrane H+-ATPase and tonoplast-type pyrophosphatase in the plasma membrane of the sieve element-companion cell complex in the stem of Ricinus communis L.

    PubMed

    Langhans, M; Ratajczak, R; Lützelschwab, M; Michalke, W; Wächter, R; Fischer-Schliebs, E; Ullrich, C I

    2001-05-01

    Plasma-membrane-located primary pumps were investigated in the sieve element (SE)-companion cell complex in the transport phloem of 2-week-old stems of Ricinus communis L. and, for comparison, in stems of Cucurbita pepo L. and in the secondary phloem of Agrobacterium tumefaciens-induced crown galls as a typical sink tissue. The plasma-membrane (PM) H+-ATPase and the tonoplast-type pyrophosphatase (PPase) were immunolocalized by epifluorescence and confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM) upon single or double labeling with specific monoclonal and polyclonal antibodies. Quantitative fluorescence evaluation by CLSM revealed both pumps in one membrane, the sieve-element PM. Different PM H+-ATPase antibody clones, raised against the PM H+-ATPase of Zea mays coleoptiles, induced in mouse and produced in mouse hybridoma cells, discriminated between different phloem cell types. Clones 30D5C4 and 44B8A1 labeled sieve elements and clone 46E5B11D5 labeled companion cells, indicating the existence of different phloem PM H+-ATPase isoforms. The results are discussed in terms of energization of SE transporters for retrieval of leaking sucrose, K+ and amino acids, as one of the unknown roles of ATP found in SEs. The function of the PPase could be related to phloem sucrose metabolism in support of ATP-requiring processes.

  14. Chemical Composition of Juniperus communis L. Cone Essential Oil and Its Variability among Wild Populations in Kosovo.

    PubMed

    Hajdari, Avni; Mustafa, Behxhet; Nebija, Dashnor; Miftari, Elheme; Quave, Cassandra L; Novak, Johannes

    2015-11-01

    Ripe cones of Juniperus communis L. (Cupressaceae) were collected from five wild populations in Kosovo, with the aim of investigating the chemical composition and natural variation of essential oils between and within wild populations. Ripe cones were collected, air dried, crushed, and the essential oils obtained by hydrodistillation. The essential-oil constituents were identified by GC-FID and GC/MS analyses. The yield of essential oil differed depending on the population origins and ranged from 0.4 to 3.8% (v/w, based on the dry weight). In total, 42 compounds were identified in the essential oils of all populations. The principal components of the cone-essential oils were α-pinene, followed by β-myrcene, sabinene, and D-limonene. Taking into consideration the yield and chemical composition, the essential oil originating from various collection sites in Kosovo fulfilled the minimum requirements for J. communis essential oils of the European Pharmacopoeia. Hierarchical cluster analysis (HCA) and principal component analysis (PCA) were used to determine the influence of the geographical variations on the essential-oil composition. These statistical analyses suggested that the clustering of populations was not related to their geographic location, but rather appeared to be linked to local selective forces acting on the chemotype diversity.

  15. Essential oil of Myrtus communis L. as a potential antioxidant and antimutagenic agents.

    PubMed

    Mimica-Dukić, Neda; Bugarin, Dusan; Grbović, Slavenko; Mitić-Culafić, Dragana; Vuković-Gacić, Branka; Orcić, Dejan; Jovin, Emilija; Couladis, Maria

    2010-04-15

    The present study describes DPPH (2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl) radical scavenging activity and antimutagenic properties of the essential oil of myrtle (Myrtus communis L.). Plant samples were collected from the two distant localities (southernmost and northern point) of the Montenegro coastline. Chemical profiles of the two samples were evaluated by GC-MS. In both of the samples monoterpenes were found to be the predominant compounds. Among them alpha-pinene, linalool, 1,8-cineole, and myrtenyl acetate were the major compounds. Significant differences between the samples were found in the ranges of alpha-pinene (14.7%-35.9%) and myrtenyl acetate (5.4%-21.6%). Both oils exhibited moderate DPPH scavenging activity, with IC50 values of 6.24 mg/mL and 5.99 mg/mL. The antimutagenic properties were assayed against spontaneous and t-BOOH-induced mutagenesis in Escherichia coli oxyR mutant IC202, a bacterial strain deficient in removing ROS. Reduction of the spontaneous mutagenesis in presence of myrtle EO was only slight, up to 13% at the highest concentration tested. When the oxidative mutagen was used, EO expressed higher reduction of mutagenesis, in a concentration dependent manner, with statistical significance for effect at the highest concentration tested (28%). Suppression of t-BOOH induced mutagenesis was correlated with the observed scavenging activity.

  16. Essential oil of Juniperus communis subsp. alpina (Suter) Čelak needles: chemical composition, antifungal activity and cytotoxicity.

    PubMed

    Cabral, C; Francisco, V; Cavaleiro, C; Gonçalves, M J; Cruz, M T; Sales, F; Batista, M T; Salgueiro, L

    2012-09-01

    Essential oils are known to possess antimicrobial activity against a wide spectrum of bacteria and fungi. In the present work the composition and the antifungal activity of the oils of Juniperus communis subsp. alpina (Suter) Čelak were evaluated. Moreover, the skin cytotoxicity, at concentrations showing significant antifungal activity, was also evaluated. The oils were isolated by hydrodistillation and analysed by gas chromatography and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) and minimal lethal concentration (MLC) were used to evaluate the antifungal activity of the oil against dermatophytes (Epidermophyton floccosum, Microsporum canis, M. gypseum, Trichophyton mentagrophytes, T. mentagrophytes var. interdigitale, T. rubrum, T. verrucosum), yeasts (Candida albicans, C. guillermondii, C. krusei, C. parapsilosis, C. tropicalis, Cryptococcus neoformans) and Aspergillus species (Aspergillus flavus, A. fumigatus, A. niger). Cytotoxicity was tested in HaCaT keratinocytes through the 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay. Essential oil of J. communis subsp. alpina needles was predominantly composed of monoterpene hydrocarbons (78.4%), with the main compounds being sabinene (26.2%), α-pinene (12-9%) and limonene (10.4%). Results concerning the antifungal activity demonstrated the potential of needle oil against dermatophytes, particularly for Microsporum canis and Trichophyton rubrum with MIC and MLC of 0.32 μL/mL. Furthermore, evaluation of cell viability showed no significant cytotoxicity in HaCaT keratinocytes at concentrations between 0.32 and 0.64 μL/mL. These results show that it is possible to find appropriate doses of J. communis subsp. alpina oil with both antifungal activity and a very low detrimental effect on keratinocytes.

  17. Concentrations of metals and potential metal-binding compounds and speciation of Cd, Zn and Cu in phloem and xylem saps from castor bean plants (Ricinus communis) treated with four levels of cadmium.

    PubMed

    Hazama, Kenji; Nagata, Shinji; Fujimori, Tamaki; Yanagisawa, Shuichi; Yoneyama, Tadakatsu

    2015-06-01

    We examined the concentrations of metals (Cd, Zn, Cu, Fe and Mn) and potential metal-binding compounds [nicotianamine (NA), thiol compounds and citrate] in xylem and phloem saps from 4-week-old castor bean plants (Ricinus communis) treated with 0 (control), 0.1, 1.0, and 10 μM Cd for 3 weeks. Treatment with 0.1 and 1 μM Cd produced no visible damage, while 10 μM Cd retarded growth. Cadmium concentrations in both saps were higher than those in the culture solution at 0.1 μM, similar at 1.0 μM and lower at 10 μM. Cd at 10 μM reduced Cu and Fe concentrations in both saps. NA concentrations measured by capillary electrophoresis-mass spectrometry (MS) in xylem sap (20 μM) were higher than the Cu concentrations, and those in phloem sap (150 μM) were higher than those of Zn, Fe and Cu combined. Reduced glutathione concentrations differed in xylem and phloem saps (1-2 and 30-150 μM, respectively), but oxidized glutathione concentrations were similar. Phloem sap phytochelatin 2 concentration increased from 0.8 μM in controls to 8 μM in 10 μM Cd. Free citrate was 2-4 μM in xylem sap and 70-100 μM in phloem sap. Total bound forms of Cd in phloem and xylem saps from 1 μM Cd-treated plants were 54 and 8%, respectively. Treatment of phloem sap with proteinaseK reduced high-molecular compounds while increasing fractions of low-molecular Cd-thiol complexes. Zinc-NA, Fe-NA and Cu-NA were identified in the phloem sap fraction of control plants by electrospray ionization time-of-flight MS, and the xylem sap contained Cu-NA.

  18. A metal-binding member of the late embryogenesis abundant protein family transports iron in the phloem of Ricinus communis L.

    PubMed

    Kruger, Claudia; Berkowitz, Oliver; Stephan, Udo W; Hell, Rudiger

    2002-07-12

    The transport of metal micronutrients to developing organs in a plant is mediated primarily by the sieve elements. Ligands are thought to form complexes with the free ions in order to prevent cellular damage, but no binding partners have been unequivocally identified from plants so far. This study has used the phloem-mediated transport of micronutrients during the germination of the castor bean seedling to identify an iron transport protein (ITP). It is demonstrated that essentially all (55)Fe fed to seedlings is associated with the protein fraction of phloem exudate. It is shown that ITP carries iron in vivo and binds additional iron in vitro. ITP was purified to homogeneity from minute amounts of phloem exudate using immobilized metal ion affinity chromatography. It preferentially binds to Fe(3+) but not to Fe(2+) and also complexes Cu(2+), Zn(2+), and Mn(2+) in vitro. The corresponding cDNA of ITP was cloned using internal peptide fragments. The deduced protein of 96 amino acids shows high similarity to the stress-related family of late embryogenesis abundant proteins. Its predicted characteristics and its RNA expression pattern are consistent with a function in metal ion binding. The ITP from Ricinus provides the first identified micronutrient binding partner for phloem-mediated long distance transport in plants and is the first member of the late embryogenesis abundant protein family shown to have such a function.

  19. Genetic diversity and population structure of castor (Ricinus communis L.) germplasm within the U.S. collection assessed with EST-SSR markers

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Castor is an important oilseed crop and although its oil is inedible, it has multiple industrial and pharmaceutical applications. The entire U.S. castor germplasm collection was previously screened for oil content and fatty acid composition, but its genetic diversity and population structure has not...

  20. Synergistic effect of Myrtus communis L. essential oils and conventional antibiotics against multi-drug resistant Acinetobacter baumannii wound isolates.

    PubMed

    Aleksic, Verica; Mimica-Dukic, Neda; Simin, Natasa; Nedeljkovic, Natasa Stankovic; Knezevic, Petar

    2014-10-15

    Acinetobacter baumannii is a rapidly emerging, highly resistant clinical pathogen with increasing prevalence. In recent years, the limited number of antimicrobial agents available for treatment of infections with multi-drug resistant (MDR) strains reinforced tendency for discovery of novel antimicrobial agents or treatment strategies. The aim of the study was to determine antimicrobial effectiveness of three Myrtus communis L. essential oils, both alone and in combination with conventional antibiotics, against MDR A. baumannii wound isolates. The results obtained highlighted the occurrence of good antibacterial effect of myrtle oils when administered alone. Using checkerboard method, the combinations of subinhibitory concentrations of myrtle essential oils and conventional antibiotics, i.e. polymixin B and ciprofloxacine were examined. The results proved synergism among M. communis L. essential oils and both antibiotics against MDR A. baumannii wound isolates, with a FIC index under or equal 0.50. Combination of subinhibitory concentrations of essential oils and ciprofloxacin most frequently reduced bacterial growth in synergistic manner. The similar has been shown for combination with polymyxin B; furthermore, the myrtle essential oil resulted in re-sensitization of the MDR wound isolates, i.e. MICs used in combination were below the cut off for the sensitivity to the antibiotic. Time-kill curve method confirmed efficacy of myrtle essential oil and polymyxin B combination, with complete reduction of bacterial count after 6h. The detected synergy offers an opportunity for future development of treatment strategies for potentially lethal wound infections caused by MDR A. baumannii. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  1. Evaluation of the Antimicrobial Properties of the Essential Oil of Myrtus communis L. against Clinical Strains of Mycobacterium spp.

    PubMed Central

    Zanetti, Stefania; Cannas, Sara; Molicotti, Paola; Bua, Alessandra; Cubeddu, Marina; Porcedda, Silvia; Marongiu, Bruno; Sechi, Leonardo Antonio

    2010-01-01

    Mycobacterium tuberculosis is the etiological agent of tuberculosis. The World Health Organization has estimated that 8 million of people develop active TB every year and the situation is complicated by an increase of Mycobacterium tuberculosis strains resistant to drugs used in antitubercular therapy: MDR and XDR-TB. Myrtle leaf extracts, used as an antiseptic in Sardinian traditional medicine, have strong antibacterial activity as several investigations showed. In this study we investigated the antimicrobial properties of the essential oil of Myrtus communis against clinical strains of M. tuberculosis and M. paratuberculosis. PMID:20706606

  2. Evaluation of the Antimicrobial Properties of the Essential Oil of Myrtus communis L. against Clinical Strains of Mycobacterium spp.

    PubMed

    Zanetti, Stefania; Cannas, Sara; Molicotti, Paola; Bua, Alessandra; Cubeddu, Marina; Porcedda, Silvia; Marongiu, Bruno; Sechi, Leonardo Antonio

    2010-01-01

    Mycobacterium tuberculosis is the etiological agent of tuberculosis. The World Health Organization has estimated that 8 million of people develop active TB every year and the situation is complicated by an increase of Mycobacterium tuberculosis strains resistant to drugs used in antitubercular therapy: MDR and XDR-TB. Myrtle leaf extracts, used as an antiseptic in Sardinian traditional medicine, have strong antibacterial activity as several investigations showed. In this study we investigated the antimicrobial properties of the essential oil of Myrtus communis against clinical strains of M. tuberculosis and M. paratuberculosis.

  3. In vitro synergistic efficacy of combination of amphotericin B with Myrtus communis essential oil against clinical isolates of Candida albicans.

    PubMed

    Mahboubi, M; Ghazian Bidgoli, F

    2010-08-01

    In this study, we evaluated the antifungal activity of the essential oil from Myrtus communis (myrtle) leaves against Candida albicans (eight clinical isolates and one ATCC type strains) and different species of Aspergillus sp (A. niger, A. parasiticus, six isolates of Aspergillus flavus) using broth micro dilution assay. In addition, we evaluated the synergistic effect between the essential oil and the antifungal compound amphotericin B by checkboard micro titer assay. The essential oil was obtained from myrtle leaves by hydrodistillation method and the oil was analyzed by GC and GC-MS methods. Chemical analysis of oil revealed the presence of 70 components, representing 99.23% of the total oil. 1,8-cineole (36.1%), alpha-pinene (22.5%), linalool (8.4%), bornyl acetate (5.2%), alpha-terpineol (4.4%), linalyl acetate (4.2%) and limonene (3.8%) were found to be the major components of the oil. The antifungal evaluating showed that myrtle oil exhibited good antifungal activity against fungi. Myrtle oil showed significant antifungal activity when combined with amphotericin B.

  4. Genetic diversity and population structure of castor (Ricinus communis L.) germplasm within the US collection assessed with EST-SSR markers.

    PubMed

    Wang, M L; Dzievit, M; Chen, Z; Morris, J B; Norris, J E; Barkley, N A; Tonnis, B; Pederson, G A; Yu, J

    2017-03-01

    Castor is an important oilseed crop and although its oil is inedible, it has multiple industrial and pharmaceutical applications. The entire US castor germplasm collection was previously screened for oil content and fatty acid composition, but its genetic diversity and population structure has not been determined. Based on the screening results of oil content, fatty acid composition, and country origins, 574 accessions were selected and genotyped with 22 polymorphic EST-SSR markers. The results from cluster analysis, population structure, and principal component analysis were consistent, and partitioned accessions into four subpopulations. Although there were certain levels of admixtures among groups, these clusters and subpopulations aligned with geographic origins. Both divergent and redundant accessions were identified in this study. The US castor germplasm collection encompasses a moderately high level of genetic diversity (pairwise dissimilarity coefficient = 0.53). The results obtained here will be useful for choosing accessions as parents to make crosses in breeding programs and prioritizing accessions for regeneration to improve germplasm management. A subset of 230 accessions was selected and will be planted in the field for establishing a core collection of the US castor germplasm. Further evaluation of the US castor germplasm collection is also discussed.

  5. Chemometric investigation of light-shade effects on essential oil yield and morphology of Moroccan Myrtus communis L.

    PubMed

    Fadil, Mouhcine; Farah, Abdellah; Ihssane, Bouchaib; Haloui, Taoufik; Lebrazi, Sara; Zghari, Badreddine; Rachiq, Saâd

    2016-01-01

    To investigate the effect of environmental factors such as light and shade on essential oil yield and morphological traits of Moroccan Myrtus communis, a chemometric study was conducted on 20 individuals growing under two contrasting light environments. The study of individual's parameters by principal component analysis has shown that essential oil yield, altitude, and leaves thickness were positively correlated between them and negatively correlated with plants height, leaves length and leaves width. Principal component analysis and hierarchical cluster analysis have also shown that the individuals of each sampling site were grouped separately. The one-way ANOVA test has confirmed the effect of light and shade on essential oil yield and morphological parameters by showing a statistically significant difference between them from the shaded side to the sunny one. Finally, the multiple linear model containing main, interaction and quadratic terms was chosen for the modeling of essential oil yield in terms of morphological parameters. Sun plants have a small height, small leaves length and width, but they are thicker and richer in essential oil than shade plants which have shown almost the opposite. The highlighted multiple linear model can be used to predict essential oil yield in the studied area.

  6. Antifungal, anti-biofilm and adhesion activity of the essential oil of Myrtus communis L. against Candida species.

    PubMed

    Cannas, Sara; Molicotti, Paola; Usai, Donatella; Maxia, Andrea; Zanetti, Stefania

    2014-01-01

    Candida species belong to the normal microbiota of the oral cavity, gastrointestinal tract and vagina. The increasing incidence of drug-resistant pathogens and the toxicity of the antifungal compounds have drawn the attention towards the antimicrobial activity of natural products, an inexpensive alternative. The aim of this work was to evaluate the adhesion activity, the biofilm formation and the action of the Myrtus communis L. essential oil (EO) on the biofilm formation towards three species isolated from clinical samples: Candida albicans, Candida parapsilosis and Candida tropicalis. Furthermore, we evaluated the antimycotic activity of the EO towards the three species, and the results were compared with the minimum inhibitory concentration of six antimycotics. The activity of the EO against C. albicans and C. parapsilosis was better than that obtained against C. tropicalis; moreover, the strains used in the assay were adhesive and biofilm producer, and the effect of myrtle EO on the biofilm formation yielded encouraging results.

  7. Myrtus communis berry color morphs: a comparative analysis of essential oils, fatty acids, phenolic compounds, and antioxidant activities.

    PubMed

    Messaoud, Chokri; Boussaid, Mohamed

    2011-02-01

    Extracts of mature dark blue and white berries from two Tunisian Myrtus communis morphs growing at the same site were assessed for their essential-oil and fatty-acid compositions, phenolic contents, and antioxidant activities. The GC and GC/MS analyses of the essential oils allowed the identification of 33 constituents. The oils from the dark blue fruits showed high percentages of α-pinene (11.1%), linalool (11.6%), α-terpineol (15.7%), methyl eugenol (6.2%), and geraniol (3.7%). Myrtenyl acetate (20.3%) was found to be the major compound in the oils from white berries. GC Analysis of the pericarp and seed fatty acids showed that the polyunsaturated fatty acids constituted the major fraction (54.3-78.1%). The highest percentages of linoleic acid (78.0%) and oleic acid (20.0%) were observed in the seeds and the pericarps of the white fruits, respectively. The total phenol, flavonoid, and flavonol contents and the concentration of the eight anthocyanins, identified by HPLC analysis, were significantly higher in the dark blue fruits. All extracts showed a substantial antioxidant activity, assessed by the free radical-scavenging activity and the ferric reducing power, with the dark blue fruit extracts being more effective.

  8. Assessing the Antimicrobial Effect of the Essential Oil of Myrtus communis on the Clinical Isolates of Porphyromonas gingivalis: An in vitro Study

    PubMed Central

    Hedayati, Azita; Khosropanah, Hengameh; Bazargani, Abdollah; Abed, Molud; Emami, Amir

    2013-01-01

    Background One of the major diseases affecting the oral health is periodontal disease. Various therapeutic methods have been introduced to eliminate the periodonto-pathic subgingival microflora. Among these, Porphyromonas gingivalis (P. gingivalis) has a major role in the pathogenesis of different forms of periodontal diseases. Objectives The present study investigated the antimicrobial effect of the essential oil of Myrtus communis on Porphyromonas gingivalis (P. gingivalis) as the most destructive periodontal pathogens. Materials and Methods The subjects included 27 male and 3 female patients with advanced chronic periodontitis. The mean age of the patients was 47.6 ± 2.0 years old. P. gingivalis was isolated from the samples and identified by various diagnostic tests, including Gram staining, Indol test, and fluorescent test. Minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of the essential oil against isolated P. gingivalis was determined by broth micro-dilution method. Results In this study, 0.12 - 64 μL/mL Myrtus communis essence were used for 30 P. gingivalis isolates and the MIC50 and MIC90 concentration of Myrtus communis essence against the isolates was equal to 1 and 8 μL/mL respectively. Conclusions The results showed that Myrtus communis has antimicrobial effects against P. gingivalis. Further studies are suggested to include this essence in therapeutic protocols of periodontal disease. PMID:24624208

  9. Chemical Composition and Antioxidant Properties of Juniper Berry (Juniperus communis L.) Essential Oil. Action of the Essential Oil on the Antioxidant Protection of Saccharomyces cerevisiae Model Organism

    PubMed Central

    Höferl, Martina; Stoilova, Ivanka; Schmidt, Erich; Wanner, Jürgen; Jirovetz, Leopold; Trifonova, Dora; Krastev, Lutsian; Krastanov, Albert

    2014-01-01

    The essential oil of juniper berries (Juniperus communis L., Cupressaceae) is traditionally used for medicinal and flavoring purposes. As elucidated by gas chromatography/flame ionization detector (GC/FID) and gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS methods), the juniper berry oil from Bulgaria is largely comprised of monoterpene hydrocarbons such as α-pinene (51.4%), myrcene (8.3%), sabinene (5.8%), limonene (5.1%) and β-pinene (5.0%). The antioxidant capacity of the essential oil was evaluated in vitro by 2,2-Diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) scavenging, 2,2-azino-bis-3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6 sulfonic acid (ABTS) radical cation scavenging, hydroxyl radical (ОН•) scavenging and chelating capacity, superoxide radical (•O2−) scavenging and xanthine oxidase inhibitory effects, hydrogen peroxide scavenging. The antioxidant activity of the oil attributable to electron transfer made juniper berry essential oil a strong antioxidant, whereas the antioxidant activity attributable to hydrogen atom transfer was lower. Lipid peroxidation inhibition by the essential oil in both stages, i.e., hydroperoxide formation and malondialdehyde formation, was less efficient than the inhibition by butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT). In vivo studies confirmed these effects of the oil which created the possibility of blocking the oxidation processes in yeast cells by increasing activity of the antioxidant enzymes superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), and glutathione peroxidase (GPx). PMID:26784665

  10. The Genus Myrtus L. in Algeria: Composition and Biological Aspects of Essential Oils from M. communis and M. nivellei: A Review.

    PubMed

    Bouzabata, Amel; Casanova, Joseph; Bighelli, Ange; Cavaleiro, Carlos; Salgueiro, Ligia; Tomi, Félix

    2016-06-01

    The genus Myrtus L. (Myrtaceae family) comprises two species, Myrtus communis L. (known as common myrtle) growing wild all around the Mediterranean basin and Myrtus nivellei Batt. and Trab. (known as Saharan myrtle), found in central Sahara. Only one country, Algeria, hosts both species, M. communis in the North and M. nivellei in the South. The aim of this review was to collect, summarize, and compare the main results reported relative to the essential oils isolated from aerial parts of both species: botanical aspects, habitat, traditional use, chemical composition, new compounds, antimicrobial activity, antioxidant activity, anti-inflammatory effect, and insecticidal activity. Both essential oils have potential applications in human health. © 2016 Verlag Helvetica Chimica Acta AG, Zürich.

  11. Use of the photoacoustic spectroscopy for characterization of magnetic fluid based on mamona oil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Silveira, L. B.; Webler, G. D.; Oliveira, A. C.; Garg, V. K.; Santos, J. G.; Morais, P. C.

    2010-03-01

    In this study the photoacoustic spectroscopy was used to investigate the interaction between colloidal suspended nanosized maghemite particles and molecules present in mamona oil (ricinus communis L.). Maghemite nanoparticles were used to produce a magnetic fluid sample dispersed in mamona oil (MF-Mamona oil). In the L-band region (600 to 900 nm) of the photoacoustic spectra we found the photoacustic signal of sample MF-Mamona oil enhanced with respect to the signal of the purified mamona oil. This finding is claimed to be the signature of the strong interaction between the mamona oil's molecules and the solid surface provided by the suspended nanosized maghemite particles.

  12. Chemical constituent and antimicrobial effect of essential oil from Myrtus communis leaves on microorganisms involved in persistent endodontic infection compared to two common endodontic irrigants: An in vitro study

    PubMed Central

    Nabavizadeh, Mohammadreza; Abbaszadegan, Abbas; Gholami, Ahmad; Sheikhiani, Reza; Shokouhi, Mehdi; Shams, Mahdi Sedigh; Ghasemi, Younes

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: Persistent infections of human root canals play a fundamental role in the failure of endodontic treatment. The purpose of this study is to determine the chemical composition of Myrtus communis (M. communis) essential oil and to assess its antimicrobial activity against Enterococcus faecalis, Staphylococcus aureus and Candida albicans compared to that of sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl) and chlorhexidine (CHX). Materials and Methods: Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) was used to determine the chemical composition of essential oil from M. communis leaves. A micro-dilution susceptibility assay and disk diffusion methods were utilized to evaluate the antimicrobial activity [minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and minimum lethal dose concentration] of the tested solutions against selected microorganisms. Results: GC-MS analyses revealed that M. communis contained 1, 8-Cineole (28.62%), α-Pinene (17.8%), Linalool (17.55%), and Geranylacetate (6.3%) as the major compounds and Geraniol (1.6%), α-Humulene (1.5%), eugenol (1.3%), isobutyl-isobutyrate (0.8%), and methyl chavicol (0.5%) as minor components. Chlorhexidine had the lowest MIC value among all medicaments tested. M. communis oil had less MIC values than NaOCl against both bacteria, but it had more MIC value against C. albicans. Conclusion: M. communis essential oil with the minimum inhibitory concentration in the range of 0.032-32 μg/mL was an effective antimicrobial agent against persistent endodontic microorganisms. PMID:25298646

  13. Hierarchical cluster analysis and chemical characterisation of Myrtus communis L. essential oil from Yemen region and its antimicrobial, antioxidant and anti-colorectal adenocarcinoma properties.

    PubMed

    Anwar, Sirajudheen; Crouch, Rebecca A; Awadh Ali, Nasser A; Al-Fatimi, Mohamed A; Setzer, William N; Wessjohann, Ludger

    2017-09-01

    The hydrodistilled essential oil obtained from the dried leaves of Myrtus communis, collected in Yemen, was analysed by GC-MS. Forty-one compounds were identified, representing 96.3% of the total oil. The major constituents of essential oil were oxygenated monoterpenoids (87.1%), linalool (29.1%), 1,8-cineole (18.4%), α-terpineol (10.8%), geraniol (7.3%) and linalyl acetate (7.4%). The essential oil was assessed for its antimicrobial activity using a disc diffusion assay and resulted in moderate to potent antibacterial and antifungal activities targeting mainly Bacillus subtilis, Staphylococcus aureus and Candida albicans. The oil moderately reduced the diphenylpicrylhydrazyl radical (IC50 = 4.2 μL/mL or 4.1 mg/mL). In vitro cytotoxicity evaluation against HT29 (human colonic adenocarcinoma cells) showed that the essential oil exhibited a moderate antitumor effect with IC50 of 110 ± 4 μg/mL. Hierarchical cluster analysis of M. communis has been carried out based on the chemical compositions of 99 samples reported in the literature, including Yemeni sample.

  14. Combination of GC/FID/Mass spectrometry fingerprints and multivariate calibration techniques for recognition of antimicrobial constituents of Myrtus communis L. essential oil.

    PubMed

    Ebrahimabadi, Ebrahim H; Ghoreishi, Sayed Mehdi; Masoum, Saeed; Ebrahimabadi, Abdolrasoul H

    2016-01-01

    Myrtus communis L. is an aromatic evergreen shrub and its essential oil possesses known powerful antimicrobial activity. However, the contribution of each component of the plant essential oil in observed antimicrobial ability is unclear. In this study, chemical components of the essential oil samples of the plant were identified qualitatively and quantitatively using GC/FID/Mass spectrometry system, antimicrobial activity of these samples against three microbial strains were evaluated and, these two set of data were correlated using chemometrics methods. Three chemometric methods including principal component regression (PCR), partial least squares (PLS) and orthogonal projections to latent structures (OPLS) were applied for the study. These methods showed similar results, but, OPLS was selected as preferred method due to its predictive and interpretational ability, facility, repeatability and low time-consuming. The results showed that α-pinene, 1,8 cineole, β-pinene and limonene are the highest contributors in antimicrobial properties of M. communis essential oil. Other researches have reported high antimicrobial activities for the plant essential oils rich in these compounds confirming our findings.

  15. Evaluation of Repellency Effect of Essential Oils of Satureja khuzestanica (Carvacrol), Myrtus communis (Myrtle), Lavendula officinalis and Salvia sclarea using Standard WHO Repellency Tests

    PubMed Central

    Kayedi, Mohammad Hassan; Haghdoost, Ali Akbar; Salehnia, Ali; Khamisabadi, Kiumars

    2014-01-01

    Background Using special lotions and repellent sprays on skin is one of the effective methods to prevent Arthropods biting which was verified in this study. Methods: Essential oils of four plants (Satureja khuzestanica, Salvia sclarea, Lavendula officinalis and Myrtus communis) were separately extracted by Clevenger used hydro distillation method. Then separated solutions with 10%, 20% and 40% concentrations of essential oils of plants in 99.6 % ethanol were prepared. WHO guidelines for efficacy testing of mosquito repellents for human skin were used on different concentrations of essential oils of plants, traditional repellents (DEET, 50% and 33%) as positive control, and ethanol 99.6% and naked hands as negative controls. Results: In negative control groups, the number of bits were comparable (P= 0.42) and had decreasing time trends (naked hands P= 0.011, ethanol P< 0.001). In all time points, minimum bites were observed in traditional repellents and it was significantly less than the other groups (P< 0.001). The time trend in the number of bites in the other groups was positive and showed minimum number of bites in time zero in all groups. We also found that the concentration of repellents had association with the number of bites. The maximum and minimum numbers of bites were observed with 10% and 40% concentrations respectively in all groups. Conclusion: Essential oils of Salvia sclarea, Lavendula officinalis and Myrtus communis have repellency effect, even with 10% concentration of essential oils. PMID:25629066

  16. Antioxidant activities of the essential oils and methanol extracts from myrtle (Myrtus communis var. italica L.) leaf, stem and flower.

    PubMed

    Aidi Wannes, Wissem; Mhamdi, Baya; Sriti, Jazia; Ben Jemia, Mariem; Ouchikh, Olfa; Hamdaoui, Ghaith; Kchouk, Mohamed Elyes; Marzouk, Brahim

    2010-05-01

    This study was designed to examine the chemical composition and antioxidant activity of the essential oils and methanol extracts of Myrtus communis var. italica L. leaf, stem and flower. Myrtle leaf and flower were the valuable organs for the essential oil production representing a yield of 0.61% and 0.30% (w/w), respectively. The essential oil composition of myrtle leaf and flower was characterized by high proportions of alpha-pinene, the main compound of monoterpene hydrocarbon class, with 58.05% for leaf and 17.53% for flower. Stem was rich in oxygenated monoterpenes, largely due to 1,8-cineole with 32.84%. The total phenol contents varied between different myrtle parts; leaf extract had higher total phenol content (33.67 mg GAE/g) than flower (15.70 mg GAE/g) and stem (11.11 mg GAE/g) extracts. Significant differences were also found in total tannin contents among different myrtle parts, representing 26.55 mg GAE/g in leaf, 11.95 mg GAE/g in flower, 3.33 mg GAE/g in stem. The highest contents of total flavonoids and condensed tannins were observed in stem (5.17 and 1.99 mg CE/g, respectively) and leaf (3 and 1.22 mg CE/g, respectively) extracts. The HPLC analysis indicated that the main phenolic class was hydrolysable tannins (gallotannins) in leaf (79.39%, 8.90 mg/g) and flower (60.00%, 3.50mg/g) while the stem was characterized by the predominance of flavonoid class (61.38%, 1.86 mg/g) due to the high presence of catechin (36.91%, 1.12 mg/g). Antioxidant activities of the essential oil and the methanolic extract from different myrtle parts were evaluated by using DPPH radical scavenging, beta-carotene-linoleic acid bleaching, reducing power and metal chelating activity assays. In all tests, methanolic extracts of different myrtle parts showed better antioxidant activity than essential oils.

  17. Comparative study of essential oils extracted from Algerian Myrtus communis L. leaves using microwaves and hydrodistillation.

    PubMed

    Berka-Zougali, Baya; Ferhat, Mohamed-Amine; Hassani, Aicha; Chemat, Farid; Allaf, Karim S

    2012-01-01

    Two different extraction methods were used for a comparative study of algerian myrtle leaf essential oils: solvent-free-microwave-extraction (SFME) and conventional hydrodistillation (HD). Essential oils analyzed by GC and GC-MS presented 51 components constituting 97.71 and 97.39% of the total oils, respectively. Solvent-Free-Microwave-Extract Essential oils SFME-EO were richer in oxygenated compounds. Their major compounds were 1,8-cineole, followed by α-pinene as against α-pinene, followed by 1,8-cineole for HD. Their antimicrobial activity was investigated on 12 microorganisms. The antioxidant activities were studied with the 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH(•)) radical scavenging method. Generally, both essential oils showed high antimicrobial and weak antioxidant activities. Microstructure analyses were also undertaken on the solid residue of myrtle leaves by Scanning Electronic Microscopy (SEM); it showed that the SFME-cellular structure undergoes significant modifications compared to the conventional HD residual solid. Comparison between hydrodistillation and SFME presented numerous distinctions. Several advantages with SFME were observed: faster kinetics and higher efficiency with similar yields: 0.32% dry basis, in 30 min as against 180 min for HD.

  18. Comparative Study of Essential Oils Extracted from Algerian Myrtus communis L. Leaves Using Microwaves and Hydrodistillation

    PubMed Central

    Berka-Zougali, Baya; Ferhat, Mohamed-Amine; Hassani, Aicha; Chemat, Farid; Allaf, Karim S.

    2012-01-01

    Two different extraction methods were used for a comparative study of Algerian Myrtle leaf essential oils: solvent-free-microwave-extraction (SFME) and conventional hydrodistillation (HD). Essential oils analyzed by GC and GC-MS presented 51 components constituting 97.71 and 97.39% of the total oils, respectively. Solvent-Free-Microwave-Extract Essential oils SFME-EO were richer in oxygenated compounds. Their major compounds were 1,8-cineole, followed by α-pinene as against α-pinene, followed by 1,8-cineole for HD. Their antimicrobial activity was investigated on 12 microorganisms. The antioxidant activities were studied with the 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH•) radical scavenging method. Generally, both essential oils showed high antimicrobial and weak antioxidant activities. Microstructure analyses were also undertaken on the solid residue of myrtle leaves by Scanning Electronic Microscopy (SEM); it showed that the SFME-cellular structure undergoes significant modifications compared to the conventional HD residual solid. Comparison between hydrodistillation and SFME presented numerous distinctions. Several advantages with SFME were observed: faster kinetics and higher efficiency with similar yields: 0.32% dry basis, in 30 min as against 180 min for HD. PMID:22606003

  19. [In vitro activity of Eucalyptus smithii and Juniperus communis essential oils against bacterial biofilms and efficacy perspectives of complementary inhalation therapy in chronic and recurrent upper respiratory tract infections].

    PubMed

    Camporese, Alessandro

    2013-06-01

    Staphylococcus aureus and Pseudomonas aeruginosa have a high propensity to develop biofilms that are resistant to antimicrobial agents. Eucalyptus smithii and Juniperus communis essential oils are credited with a series of traditional therapeutical properties, including mucolytic effect. As S. aureus and P. aeruginosa biofilms are known to be important factors underlying their virulence and pathogenicity, the aim of this study was to investigate whether E. smithii and J. communis essential oils can interfere with biofilm formation as well as acting on mature biofilms. Tests of two S. aureus and P. aeruginosa clinical strains and two ATCC strains (S. aureus ATCC 25923 and P. aeruginosa ATCC 27853) showed that both E. smithii and J. communis essential oils interfere with the starting phases of biofilm production, as well as with mature biofilms. The results of this study reveal new relevant perspectives for a complementary inhalatory treatment of chronic and/or recurrent upper respiratory tract infections.

  20. Metabolite profiles of essential oils and molecular markers analysis to explore the biodiversity of Ferula communis: Towards conservation of the endemic giant fennel.

    PubMed

    Rahali, Fatma Zohra; Lamine, Myriam; Gargouri, Mahmoud; Rebey, Iness Bettaieb; Hammami, Majdi; Sellami, Ibtissem Hamrouni

    2016-04-01

    Giant fennel (Ferula communis L.) is well known in folk medicine for the treatment of various organ disorders. The biological importance of members of genus Ferula prompted us to investigate the leaves of the endangered Tunisian medicinal plant F. communis L. not previously investigated. An estimate of genetic diversity and differentiation between genotypes of breeding germplasm is of key importance for its improvement. Thus, four F. communis populations were RAPD fingerprinted (63 RAPD markers generated by 7 primers) and the composition of their leaf essential oils (EO) (134 EO compounds) was characterized by GC-MS. Cluster analysis based on the leaf volatiles chemical composition of F. communis accessions defined three chemotypes according to main compounds have been distinguished: α-eudesmol/β-eudesmol/γ-terpinene; α-eudesmol/α-pinene/caryophyllene oxide and chamazulene/α-humulene chemotypes. A high genetic diversity within population and high genetic differentiation among them, based on RAPDs, were revealed (H(pop)=0.320 and GST=0.288) caused both by the habitat fragmentation, the low size of most populations and the low level of gene flow among them. The RAPD dendrogram showed separation of three groups. Populations dominated by individuals from the β-eudesmol/γ-terpinene; chemotype showed the lowest gene diversity (H=0.104), while populations with exclusively α-pinene/caryophyllene oxide chemotype showed the highest value (H=0.285). The UPGMA dendrogram and PCA analysis based on volatiles yielded higher separation among populations, indicated specific adaptation of populations to the local environments. Correlation analysis showed a non-significant association between the distance matrices based on the genetic markers (RAPD) and chemical compounds of essential oil (P>0.05) indicating no influence of genetic background on the observed chemical profiles. These results reinforce the use of both volatile compounds and RAPD markers as a starting point for

  1. Repellency Effects of Essential Oils of Myrtle (Myrtus communis), Marigold (Calendula officinalis) Compared with DEET against Anopheles stephensi on Human Volunteers

    PubMed Central

    Tavassoli, M; Shayeghi, M; Abai, MR; Vatandoost, H; Khoobdel, M; Salari, M; Ghaderi, A; Rafi, F

    2011-01-01

    Background: Malaria and leishmaniasis are two most significant parasitic diseases which are endemic in Iran. Over the past decades, interest in botanical repellents has increased as a result of safety to human. The comparative efficacy of essential oils of two native plants, myrtle (Myrtus communis) and marigold (Calendula officinalis) collected from natural habitats at southern Iran was compared with DEET as synthetic repellent against Anopheles stephensi on human subjects under laboratory condition. Methods: Essential oils from two species of native plants were obtained by Clevenger-type water distillation. The protection time of DEET, marigold and myrtle was assessed on human subject using screened cage method against An. stephensi. The effective dose of 50% essential oils of two latter species and DEET were determined by modified ASTM method. ED50 and ED90 values and related statistical parameters were calculated by probit analysis. Results: The protection time of 50% essential oils of marigold and myrtle were respectively 2.15 and 4.36 hours compared to 6.23 hours for DEET 25%. The median effective dose (ED50) of 50% essential oils was 0.1105 and 0.6034 mg/cm2 respectively in myrtle and marigold. The figure for DEET was 0.0023 mg/cm2. Conclusion: This study exhibited that the repellency of both botanical repellents was generally lower than DEET as a synthetic repellent. However the 50% essential oil of myrtle showed a moderate repellency effects compared to marigold against An. stephensi. PMID:22808414

  2. Juniperus communis Linn oil decreases oxidative stress and increases antioxidant enzymes in the heart of rats administered a diet rich in cholesterol.

    PubMed

    Gumral, Nurhan; Kumbul, Duygu Doguc; Aylak, Firdevs; Saygin, Mustafa; Savik, Emin

    2015-01-01

    It has been asserted that consumption of dietary cholesterol (Chol) raises atherosclerotic cardiovascular diseases and that Chol causes an increase in free radical production. Hypercholesterolemic diet has also been reported to cause changes in the antioxidant system. In our study, different doses of Juniperus communis Linn (JCL) oil, a tree species growing in Mediterranean and Isparta regions and having aromatic characteristics, were administered to rats; and the levels of antioxidant enzymes superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px), catalase (CAT), and thiobarbituric acid reactive substances assay (TBARS) were examined in the heart tissue of rats. In this study, 35 Wistar Albino male adult rats weighing approximately 250-300 g were used. The rats were divided into five groups of seven each. The control group was administered normal pellet chow, and the Chol group was administered pellet chow including 2% Chol, while 50 JCL, 100 JCL, and 200 JCL groups were administered 50, 100, and 200 mg/kg JCL oil dissolved in 0.5% sodium carboxy methyl cellulose, respectively, in addition to the pellet chow containing 2% Chol, by gavage. After 30 days, the experiment was terminated and the antioxidant enzyme activities were examined in the heart tissue of rats. While consumption of dietary Chol decreases the activities of SOD, GSH-Px, and CAT in heart tissue of rats (not significant), administeration of 200 mg/kg JCL oil in addition to Chol led to a significant increase in the activity of antioxidant enzymes. Administering Chol led to a significant increase in TBARS level. Administering 100 and 200 mg/kg JCL oil together with Chol prevented significantly the increase in lipid peroxides. As a result of the study, JCL oil showed oxidant-antioxidant effect in the heart tissue of rats. © The Author(s) 2012.

  3. Influence of juniper (Juniperus communis) oil on growth performance and meat quality as a natural antioxidant in quail diets.

    PubMed

    Yesilbag, D; Cengiz, S S; Cetin, I; Meral, Y; Biricik, H

    2014-01-01

    1. This study aimed to evaluate the effects of juniper oil on growth performance and meat quality in quails to determine its use as a safe and natural method to reduce overdependence on the use of antibiotic. 2. A total of 1000 1-d-old Pharaoh (Coturnix coturnix Pharaoh) quails, including both males and females, were divided into 4 groups containing 250 quails and treated as follows: (1) a control group with 0 mg volatile oil/kg diet; (2) 100 mg/kg juniper oil; (3) 150 mg/kg juniper oil and (4) 200 mg/kg juniper oil. The diets were prepared fresh for each treatment. The experiment was carried out for 42 d. 3. The results of the study showed that supplementation with juniper oil (100 and 150 mg/kg) caused a significant increase in live weight, live weight gain and carcass yields during the growing and finishing periods. Feed intake and feed conversion ratio were not significantly influenced by treatments. 4. The quails given rations containing juniper oil had reduced thiobarbituric acid levels in raw thigh meat samples at different storage times. Juniper oil was found to have significant antioxidant activity and prevented lipid oxidation in stored meat. 5. In conclusion, natural antioxidants such as a juniper oil can be used instead of synthetic antioxidants to retard lipid oxidation in animal diets to improve meat product quality and animal performance.

  4. Development of TRAP primers for Ricinus communis L.

    PubMed

    Simões, K S; Silva, S A; Machado, E L; Brasileiro, H S

    2017-04-13

    The objective of this article was to develop TRAP (target region amplification polymorphism) primers for castor bean, with the goal of making functional markers available for genetic studies about the species. To do this, oligonucleotides were designed based on ESTs, obtained from the NCBI (National Center for Biotechnology Information) databank, which code enzymes involved in metabolic routes of fatty acid synthesis, ricin synthesis, and resistance to castor bean pathogens. The forward primers were designed with the help of the Primer3 software and, for the reverse, six arbitrary primers were used. To standardize the amplification reactions, the following criteria were used to select the primers: sizes between 18 and 20 bp, guanine/cytosine (GC) in the range of 40 to 60%, and average annealing temperature between 55° and 62°C. The design quality of the primers was verified using the Net Primer application. Fifty-six primers were designed, which had an average GC percentage of 53.2%. A total of 336 combinations were obtained using the 56 fixed and 6 arbitrary primers. Based on polymerase chain reaction, 330 combinations (89%) presented good amplification patterns for the genomic DNA of castor bean. The size of the fragments amplified varied between 50 and 2072 bp. The TRAP primers designed and validated in this study are the first for castor bean and represent a significant increase in the molecular markers for this species.

  5. Effect of glyphosate on the castor plant Ricinus communis L

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The presence of a toxin in the castor seed has been a major impediment to the reintroduction of castor as a domestic crop in the US. Because dehiscent forms of castor are invasive and castor seed remains viable for years under the right conditions, there is concern that if castor were widely cultiva...

  6. Chemical Investigations of the Castor Bean Plant Ricinus communis

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-12-01

    preparation of a ricin extract using methods available in terrorist handbooks and/or the Internet. Additionally, the most efficient DNA clean up...50x2.0 mm C18 HPLC column, using gradient elution from H2O (+ 0.05% formic acid) to 7:3 MeCN:H2O (+ 0.05% formic acid) over 30 min. The order of the

  7. Castor bean (Ricinus communis) toxicosis in a sheep flock.

    PubMed

    Aslani, M R; Maleki, M; Mohri, M; Sharifi, K; Najjar-Nezhad, V; Afshari, E

    2007-03-01

    This paper describes clinical, laboratory and pathological findings of sheep, which is intoxicated with castor bean. The source of intoxication was a miscellaneous garden waste. Forty-five animals showed clinical toxicosis and 17 died. The clinical signs included weakness, salivation, profuse watery diarrhoea, dehydration, mydriasis, teeth grinding, hypothermia and recumbency. The most significant haematological and biochemical findings were a high haematocrit, high concentration of serum BUN, creatinine and phosphorus and high activity of serum CK and AST. Pathology revealed severe gastroenteritis, cardiac haemorrhage and necrosis, hepatic necrosis and acute tubular necrosis in kidneys. Treatment included symptomatic and supportive care with fluid therapy and cathartic administration.

  8. Multisystem organ failure after large volume injection of castor oil.

    PubMed

    Smith, Silas W; Graber, Nathan M; Johnson, Rudolph C; Barr, John R; Hoffman, Robert S; Nelson, Lewis S

    2009-01-01

    We report a case of multisystem organ failure after large volume subcutaneous injection of castor oil for cosmetic enhancement. An unlicensed practitioner injected 500 mL of castor oil bilaterally to the hips and buttocks of a 28-year-old male to female transsexual. Immediate local pain and erythema were followed by abdominal and chest pain, emesis, headache, hematuria, jaundice, and tinnitus. She presented to an emergency department 12 hours postinjection. Persistently hemolyzed blood samples complicated preliminary laboratory analysis. She rapidly deteriorated despite treatment and developed fever, tachycardia, hemolysis, thrombocytopenia, hepatitis, respiratory distress, and anuric renal failure. An infectious diseases evaluation was negative. After intensive supportive care, including mechanical ventilation and hemodialysis, she was discharged 11 days later, requiring dialysis for an additional 1.5 months. Castor oil absorption was inferred from recovery of the Ricinus communis biomarker, ricinine, in the patient's urine (41 ng/mL). Clinicians should anticipate multiple complications after unapproved methods of cosmetic enhancement.

  9. Essential Oil and Bioactive Compounds Variation in Myrtle (Myrtus communis L.) as Affected by Seasonal Variation and Salt Stress.

    PubMed

    Vafadar Shoshtari, Zeinab; Rahimmalek, Mehdi; Sabzalian, Mohammad Reza; Hosseini, Hossein

    2017-04-01

    The effect of different NaCl concentrations (control, 2, 4 and 6 dS/m) and three harvesting times in different seasons including spring (9 April), summer (5 July), and fall (23 September) was evaluated on essential oil (EO) yield, composition, phenolic, flavonoid content, and antioxidant activity of myrtle. Essential oil yield ranged from 0.2% in control and fall to 1.6% in moderate salinity (4 dS/m) and spring season. The main constituents obtained from gas chromatography/mass spectrometry analysis were α-pinene, 1,8-cineole, limonene, linalool, α-terpineol, and linalyl acetate in which α-pinene ranged from 11.70% in moderate and fall to 30.99% in low salinity (2 dS/m) and spring, while 1,8-cineole varied from 7.42% in high salinity (6 dS/m) and summer to 15.45% in low salinity and spring, respectively. Salt stress also resulted in an increase in total phenolic, flavonoid content, and antioxidant activity. The highest antioxidant activity based on DPPH radical scavenging activity, reducing power (FTC) and β-carotene/linoleic acid model systems was found in plants harvested in spring and summer in high stress condition. The lowest IC50 values obtained in 6 dS/m in spring (375.23 μg/ml) followed by summer (249.41 μg/ml) and fall (618.38 μg/ml). Eight major phenolic and flavonoid compounds were determined in three harvesting times using high performance liquid chromatography analysis. In overall, late harvesting time of myrtle in fall can lead to reduce the most of major EO components, while it can improve the amount of phenolic acids. © 2017 Wiley-VHCA AG, Zurich, Switzerland.

  10. Secondary metabolites and bioactivities of Myrtus communis

    PubMed Central

    Nassar, Mahmoud I.; Aboutabl, El-Sayed A.; Ahmed, Rania F.; El-Khrisy, Ezzel-Din A.; Ibrahim, Khaled M.; Sleem, Amany A.

    2010-01-01

    Background: Myrtus species are characterized by the presence of phenolic acids, flavonoids, tannins, volatile oils and fatty acids. They are remedies for variety of ailments. This study therefore investigated medicinal effects of Myrtus communis L. Methods: Bioactivity studies of Myrtus communis L. leaves were carried out on volatile oil, 7% methanol and aqueous extracts and the isolated compounds myricetin 3-O-β-glucopyranoside, myricetin 3-O-∝–rhamnopyranoside and gallic acid. Results: Determination of the median lethal dose (LD50) revealed that the volatile oil, alcoholic and aqueous extracts were practically nontoxic and highly safe as no lethality was observed. The tested materials (volatile oil, alcoholic and aqueous extracts, myricetin 3-O-β-glucopyranoside, myricetin 3-O-∝–rhamnopyranoside and gallic acid) showed significant antihyperglycemic, anti-inflammatory and antinociceptive effects as compared with control groups and reference drugs. Conclusion: Administration of extracts of M. communis leaves could be safe at the dose used in this study. PMID:21713133

  11. Chemical composition and antimicrobial effects of essential oils of Eucalyptus globulus, Myrtus communis and Satureja hortensis against Escherichia coli O157:H7 and Staphylococcus aureus in minced beef.

    PubMed

    Djenane, D; Yangüela, J; Amrouche, T; Boubrit, S; Boussad, N; Roncalés, P

    2011-12-01

    Essential oils (EOs) extracted by hydrodistillation from leaf parts of Algerian Eucalyptus globulus, Myrtus communis and Satureja hortensis were analyzed by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS). The main components of EOs obtained were γ-terpinene (94.48%), 1,8-cineole (46.98%) and carvacrol (46.10%), respectively, for E. globulus, M. communis and S. hortensis. The in vitro antimicrobial activity of the EOs was evaluated against Staphylococcus aureus CECT 4459 and Escherichia coli O157:H7 CECT 4267 using the agar diffusion technique. Results revealed that E. globulus and S. hortensis EOs had more antibacterial effects than that from M. communis. Minimal inhibitory concentrations (MIC) showed a range of 0.05-0.22% (volume by volume [v/v]). Sensitivity of gram-positive S. aureus was much higher than that of gram-negative E. coli. Plant EOs were added to minced beef (two-fold MIC value) at 0.10-0.44%, experimentally inoculated with the same pathogens at a level of 5 × 10(5) colony forming units (cfu)/g and stored at 5 ± 2 °C. Results showed that the EOs of E. globulus and S. hortensis had remarkable antibacterial properties, higher than that of M. communis, against S. aureus and E. coli. Indeed, a reduction of 5.8 log cfu/g (70.74% of reduction) was recorded after 7 days of storage for S. hortensis against E. coli. However, regarding S. aureus, both S. hortensis and E. globulus caused a highly significant (p < 0.05) decrease of microbial counts, most evident after 5 days of storage; S. aureus numbers were 3.50 and 2.50 cfu/g, respectively, corresponding to a reduction of 2.20 and 3.20 log cfu/g (38.60 and 56.14% of reduction) after 1 week of storage. Sensory evaluation revealed that the aroma of minced beef meat treated with EOs was acceptable by panelists at the levels used.

  12. Accumulation, selection and covariation of amino acids in sieve tube sap of tansy (Tanacetum vulgare) and castor bean (Ricinus communis): evidence for the function of a basic amino acid transporter and the absence of a γ-amino butyric acid transporter.

    PubMed

    Bauer, Susanne N; Nowak, Heike; Keller, Frank; Kallarackal, Jose; Hajirezaei, Mohamad-Reza; Komor, Ewald

    2014-09-01

    Sieve tube sap was obtained from Tanacetum by aphid stylectomy and from Ricinus after apical bud decapitation. The amino acids in sieve tube sap were analyzed and compared with those from leaves. Arginine and lysine accumulated in the sieve tube sap of Tanacetum more than 10-fold compared to the leaf extracts and they were, together with asparagine and serine, preferably selected into the sieve tube sap, whereas glycine, methionine/tryptophan and γ-amino butyric acid were partially or completely excluded. The two basic amino acids also showed a close covariation in sieve tube sap. The acidic amino acids also grouped together, but antagonistic to the other amino acids. The accumulation ratios between sieve tube sap and leaf extracts were smaller in Ricinus than in Tanacetum. Arginine, histidine, lysine and glutamine were enriched and preferentially loaded into the phloem, together with isoleucine and valine. In contrast, glycine and methionine/tryptophan were partially and γ-amino butyric acid almost completely excluded from sieve tube sap. The covariation analysis grouped arginine together with several neutral amino acids. The acidic amino acids were loaded under competition with neutral amino acids. It is concluded from comparison with the substrate specificities of already characterized plant amino acid transporters, that an AtCAT1-like transporter functions in phloem loading of basic amino acids, whereas a transporter like AtGAT1 is absent in phloem. Although Tanacetum and Ricinus have different minor vein architecture, their phloem loading specificities for amino acids are relatively similar.

  13. Characterization of Ricin and R. communis Agglutinin Reference Materials.

    PubMed

    Worbs, Sylvia; Skiba, Martin; Söderström, Martin; Rapinoja, Marja-Leena; Zeleny, Reinhard; Russmann, Heiko; Schimmel, Heinz; Vanninen, Paula; Fredriksson, Sten-Åke; Dorner, Brigitte G

    2015-11-26

    Ricinus communis intoxications have been known for centuries and were attributed to the toxic protein ricin. Due to its toxicity, availability, ease of preparation, and the lack of medical countermeasures, ricin attracted interest as a potential biological warfare agent. While different technologies for ricin analysis have been established, hardly any universally agreed-upon "gold standards" are available. Expert laboratories currently use differently purified in-house materials, making any comparison of accuracy and sensitivity of different methods nearly impossible. Technically challenging is the discrimination of ricin from R. communis agglutinin (RCA120), a less toxic but highly homologous protein also contained in R. communis. Here, we established both highly pure ricin and RCA120 reference materials which were extensively characterized by gel electrophoresis, liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-ESI MS/MS), and matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time of flight approaches as well as immunological and functional techniques. Purity reached >97% for ricin and >99% for RCA120. Different isoforms of ricin and RCA120 were identified unambiguously and distinguished by LC-ESI MS/MS. In terms of function, a real-time cytotoxicity assay showed that ricin is approximately 300-fold more toxic than RCA120. The highly pure ricin and RCA120 reference materials were used to conduct an international proficiency test.

  14. Characterization of Ricin and R. communis Agglutinin Reference Materials

    PubMed Central

    Worbs, Sylvia; Skiba, Martin; Söderström, Martin; Rapinoja, Marja-Leena; Zeleny, Reinhard; Russmann, Heiko; Schimmel, Heinz; Vanninen, Paula; Fredriksson, Sten-Åke; Dorner, Brigitte G.

    2015-01-01

    Ricinus communis intoxications have been known for centuries and were attributed to the toxic protein ricin. Due to its toxicity, availability, ease of preparation, and the lack of medical countermeasures, ricin attracted interest as a potential biological warfare agent. While different technologies for ricin analysis have been established, hardly any universally agreed-upon “gold standards” are available. Expert laboratories currently use differently purified in-house materials, making any comparison of accuracy and sensitivity of different methods nearly impossible. Technically challenging is the discrimination of ricin from R. communis agglutinin (RCA120), a less toxic but highly homologous protein also contained in R. communis. Here, we established both highly pure ricin and RCA120 reference materials which were extensively characterized by gel electrophoresis, liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-ESI MS/MS), and matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization–time of flight approaches as well as immunological and functional techniques. Purity reached >97% for ricin and >99% for RCA120. Different isoforms of ricin and RCA120 were identified unambiguously and distinguished by LC-ESI MS/MS. In terms of function, a real-time cytotoxicity assay showed that ricin is approximately 300-fold more toxic than RCA120. The highly pure ricin and RCA120 reference materials were used to conduct an international proficiency test. PMID:26703723

  15. Isozymes of the glycolytic enzymes in endosperm from developing castor oil seeds.

    PubMed

    Miernyk, J A; Dennis, D T

    1982-04-01

    Ion filtration chromatography on diethylaminoethyl-Sephadex A-25 has been used to separate two isozymes each of triose phosphate isomerase, glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate dehydrogenase, glycerate 3-phosphate kinase, enolase, and phosphoglycerate mutase from homogenates of developing castor oil (Ricinus communis L. cv. Baker 296) seeds. Crude plastid fractions, prepared by differential centrifugation, were enriched in one of the isozymes, whereas the cytosolic fractions were enriched in the other. These data (and data published previously) indicate that plastids from developing castor oil seeds have a complete glycolytic pathway and are capable of conversion of hexose phosphate to pyruvate for fatty acid synthesis. The enzymes of this pathway in the plastids are isozymes of the corresponding enzymes located in the cytosol.

  16. Studies with Myrtus communis L.: Anticancer properties.

    PubMed

    Ogur, Recai

    2014-01-01

    Myrtus communis (MC) L. is a well-known Mediterranean plant with important cultural significance in this region. In ancient times, MC was accepted as a symbol of immortality. Maybe due to this belief, it is used during cemetery visits in some regions. Although it is a well-known plant in cosmetics, and there is a lot of studies about its different medical properties, anticancer studies performed using its different extracts or oils are not so much, but increasing. We collected these anticancer property-related studies in this review.

  17. Nucleolar organizing chromosomes ofRicinus.

    PubMed

    Paris, H S; Shifriss, O; Jelenkovic, G

    1980-03-01

    Pachytene chromosome morphology was compared in nine races ofRicinus communis L. (2n = 20), using pollen mother cells (PMCs) and light microscopy. Of the ten bivalents, only the two possessing nucleolar organizing regions (NORs), chromosomes 2 and 7, exhibit structural variations among the races. The NORs are located in the short arms of these two chromosomes. Most of the observed structural variations affect these short arms, which are similar morphologically and consist largely of heterochromatic segments. The PMCs contain a single nucleolus and this is associated with the NOR of each of the two chromosomes at a particular frequency in each race. In eight races, a nucleolar constriction (NC) is present in either chromosome 2 or chromosome 7. In these races, the nucleolus is associated with the chromosome possessing an NC at a frequency of 100% and with the chromosome lacking an NC at a frequency ranging between 5.6 and 100%, depending upon the race. No microscopically visible NC is present in the ninth race. In this race, the nucleolus is associated with both chromosomes 2 and 7 at a frequency of 100%. The association of the nucleolus with a chromosome possessing an NC is at the NC and with a chromosome lacking an NC is at the terminal heterochromatic segment of the short arm. Several interpretations are offered to account for the variations in frequency of association between the nucleolus and each of the nucleolar organizing chromosomes. It is suggested that the two non-linked NORs have evolved through some intragenomic changes rather than polyploidy, that this species is highly intolerant to structural variations other than those occurring in or near the NORs, and that structural variations in the nucleolar organizing chromosomes are not associated with racial variations in plant phenotype.

  18. Metabolic engineering of hydroxy fatty acid production in plants: RcDGAT2 drives dramatic increases in ricinoleate levels in seed oil

    PubMed Central

    Burgal, Julie; Shockey, Jay; Lu, Chaofu; Dyer, John; Larson, Tony; Graham, Ian; Browse, John

    2010-01-01

    Summary A central goal of green chemistry is to produce industrially useful fatty acids in oilseed crops. Although genes encoding suitable fatty acid-modifying enzymes are available from many wild species, progress has been limited because the expression of these genes in transgenic plants produces low yields of the desired products. For example, Ricinus communis fatty acid hydroxylase 12 (FAH12) produces a maximum of only 17% hydroxy fatty acids (HFAs) when expressed in Arabidopsis. cDNA clones encoding R. communis enzymes for additional steps in the seed oil biosynthetic pathway were identified. Expression of these cDNAs in FAH12 transgenic plants revealed that the R. communis type-2 acyl-coenzyme A:diacylglycerol acyltransferase (RcDGAT2) could increase HFAs from 17% to nearly 30%. Detailed comparisons of seed neutral lipids from the single- and double-transgenic lines indicated that RcDGAT2 substantially modified the triacylglycerol (TAG) pool, with significant increases in most of the major TAG species observed in native castor bean oil. These data suggest that RcDGAT2 prefers acyl-coenzyme A and diacylglycerol substrates containing HFAs, and biochemical analyses of RcDGAT2 expressed in yeast cells confirmed a strong preference for HFA-containing diacylglycerol substrates. Our results demonstrate that pathway engineering approaches can be used successfully to increase the yields of industrial feedstocks in plants, and that members of the DGAT2 gene family probably play a key role in this process. PMID:18643899

  19. 21 CFR 172.510 - Natural flavoring substances and natural substances used in conjunction with flavors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... Acacia farnesiana (L.) Willd Castor oil Ricinus communis L Catechu, black Acacia catechu Willd Cedar... Acer spicatum Lam Mimosa (black wattle) flowers Acacia decurrens Willd. var. dealbata Mullein...

  20. 21 CFR 172.510 - Natural flavoring substances and natural substances used in conjunction with flavors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... Acacia farnesiana (L.) Willd Castor oil Ricinus communis L Catechu, black Acacia catechu Willd Cedar... Acer spicatum Lam Mimosa (black wattle) flowers Acacia decurrens Willd. var. dealbata Mullein...

  1. 21 CFR 172.510 - Natural flavoring substances and natural substances used in conjunction with flavors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... Acacia farnesiana (L.) Willd Castor oil Ricinus communis L Catechu, black Acacia catechu Willd Cedar... Acer spicatum Lam Mimosa (black wattle) flowers Acacia decurrens Willd. var. dealbata Mullein...

  2. Ricinosomes and endosperm transfer cell structure in programmed cell death of the nucellus during Ricinus seed development.

    PubMed

    Greenwood, John S; Helm, Michael; Gietl, Christine

    2005-02-08

    The ricinosome (precursor protease vesicle) is an organelle found exclusively in plant cells. Ricinosomes contain a 45-kDa pro-cysteine endopeptidase (CysEP) with a C-terminal KDEL endoplasmic reticulum retention signal. CysEP is a member of a unique group of papain-type cysteine peptidases found specifically in senescing and ricinosome-containing tissues. During seed development in the castor oil plant (Ricinus communis L.), the cells of the nucellus are killed as the major seed storage organ, the cellular endosperm, expands and begins to accumulate reserves. The destruction of the maternal seed tissues is a developmentally programmed cell death. Terminal deoxynucleotidyltransferase-mediated dUTP nick end labeling revealed that nuclear DNA fragmentation occurs in the nucellar cells adjacent to the expanding endosperm. These cells exhibit ultrastructural features consistent with programmed cell death, including vesiculation of the cytosol, development of irregularly shaped nuclei, vacuolar collapse, and shrinkage of the cytoplasm. Ricinosomes containing the CysEP were identified in the nucellar cells by light and electron microscopy and immunocytochemistry. Both proCysEP and mature CysEP are present in protein extracts of the nucellar tissues during seed development. Upon collapse of the nucellar cells, the content of the ricinosomes is released into the cytoplasm, where the activated CysEP digests the remaining proteinaceous cellular debris. Digestion products of the nucellar cells are presumed taken up by the outermost cells of the endosperm, which have labyrinthine ingrowths of the outer walls typical of transfer cells.

  3. Chemical variability of Algerian Myrtus communis L.

    PubMed

    Bouzabata, Amel; Castola, Vincent; Bighelli, Ange; Abed, Lahouari; Casanova, Joseph; Tomi, Félix

    2013-01-01

    The composition of 55 samples of essential oil isolated from the aerial parts of wild growing Myrtus communis L. harvested in 16 locations from East to West Algeria were investigated by GC (determination of retention indices) and (13) C-NMR analyses. The essential oils consisted mainly of monoterpenes, α-pinene (27.4-59.2%) and 1,8-cineole (6.1-34.3%) being the major components. They were also characterized by the absence of myrtenyl acetate. The compositions of the 55 oils were submitted to k-means partitioning and principal component analysis, which allowed the distinction of two groups within the oil samples, which could be subdivided into two subgroups each. Groups I (78% of the samples) and II were differentiated on the basis of the contents of α-pinene, linalool, and linalyl acetate. Subgroups IA and IB could be distinguished by their contents of α-pinene and 1,8-cineole. Subgroups IIA and IIB differed substantially in their contents of 1,8-cineole and limonene. All the samples contained 3,3,5,5,8,8-hexamethyl-7-oxabicyclo[4.3.0]non-1(6)-ene-2,4-dione (up to 4.9%).

  4. Phloem transport in Ricinus: Concentration gradients between source and sink.

    PubMed

    Milburn, J A

    1974-12-01

    Solute concentration gradients were studied in Ricinus communis L. stems using refractometry linked with cryoscopic measurements of osmotic pressure. Techniques were developed to study the local composition of sieve-tube sap, effectively isolating bark segments by ring-massage or massage-girdling. In intact plants concentration gradients in stems were found to be steep near leaves, as reported previously, and also near roots. However, when transport from these organs was prevented, the steep gradients disappeared. Apparently they are caused by sap influx from nearby organs into stems during sampling. Concentration gradients in stems proper were almost negligible under standard growing conditions. They became positive (more concentrated above) when photosynthesis was enhanced, and negative in darkness.During exudation, leaves could secrete abundant concentrated sap for long periods. Stems had a similar but more limited capacity to secrete and, to a still lesser extent, roots also. Secretion was triggered even from natural sinks by exudation from an incision. Release from turgor pressure seems responsible rather than dilution of the phloem sap, suggesting that in whole plants a sink induces secretion and pressure-flow from distant sources by regulating the pressure within sieve tubes. The rate of exudation decreased as sap concentration fell, indicating that a reduction in pressure corresponds to assimilate exhaustion.The hydraulic conductivity of bark was not high, but was greater when the bark was secreting solutes. A change in mass-flow conduction between sieve tubes and storage cells is proposed to explain these differences in water permeability.The common assumption that solute concentration gradients correspond to pressure gradients seems inapplicable to whole Ricinus plants. Solute transfer can exceed the water flux so that osmotic equilibrium may not be reached at a particular location. In intact plants, solute gradients probably reflect source and sink

  5. NTP technical report on the toxicity studies of Castor Oil (CAS No. 8001-79-4) in F344/N Rats and B6C3F1 Mice (Dosed Feed Studies).

    PubMed

    Irwin, R

    1992-03-01

    Castor oil is a natural oil derived from the seeds of the castor bean, Ricinus communis. It is comprised largely of triglycerides with a high ricinolin content. Toxicity studies with castor oil were performed by incorporating the material at concentrations as high as 10% in diets given to F344/N rats and B6C3F1 mice of both sexes for 13 weeks. Genetic toxicity studies also were performed and were negative for mutation induction in Salmonella typhimurium, for induction of sister chromatid exchanges or chromosomal aberrations in Chinese hamster ovary cells, and for induction of micronuclei in the peripheral blood erythrocytes of mice evaluated at the end of the 13-week studies. Exposure to castor oil at dietary concentrations as high as 10% in 13-week studies did not affect survival or body weight gains of rats or mice (10 per sex and dose). There were no biologically significant effects noted in hematologic analyses in rats. Mild increases in total bile acids and in serum alkaline phosphatase were noted at various times during the studies in rats receiving the higher dietary concentrations of castor oil. Liver weights were increased in male rats receiving the 10% dietary concentration and in male and female mice receiving diets containing 5% or 10% castor oil. However, there were no histopathologic lesions associated with these liver changes, nor were there any compound-related morphologic changes in any organ in rats or mice. No significant changes were noted in a screening for male reproductive endpoints, including sperm count and motility, and no changes were observed in the length of estrous cycles of rats or mice given diets containing castor oil. Thus, no significant adverse effects of castor oil administration were noted in these studies. Synonyms: Ricinus Oil, oil of Palma Christi, tangantangan oil, phorboyl, Neoloid.

  6. Synthesis of biologically active phosphonates from Lesquerella oil

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Bisphosphonates and vinyl phosphonates are two classes of compounds that have much potential, namely as pharmaceutical agents and synthetic building blocks. Previous studies have shown success in synthesizing these compounds from hydroxy fatty acids (HFAs) found in Ricinus communis, commonly known a...

  7. Trial of an experimental castor oil solution for cleaning dentures.

    PubMed

    Andrade, Ingrid Machado de; Andrade, Kelly Machado de; Pisani, Marina Xavier; Silva-Lovato, Cláudia Helena; de Souza, Raphael Freitas; Paranhos, Helena de Freitas Oliveira

    2014-01-01

    Denture hygiene is essential because denture biofilm is involved in oral infections and systemic diseases. Although there are chemical agents available on the market, none of them have ideal properties and research on such products is still necessary. The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of a castor bean (Ricinus communis)-based solution for removing denture biofilm, compared to two traditional products (sodium hypochlorite and alkaline peroxide). Fifty maxillary complete denture wearers were instructed to brush their dentures after meals and to immerse their dentures once a day in the following solutions: Saline (20 min; control), Polident alkaline peroxide (3 min), NaOCl (20 min) and 2% castor oil solution (20 min). Participants used each solution for a period of 7 consecutive days, according to a random sequence. After each period, the internal surfaces of maxillary complete dentures were stained with a disclosing solution (1% neutral red), photographed and the disclosed biofilm was quantified with the aid of specific software. The influence of treatments on results was verified by the Friedman test (α=0.05). Tested solutions presented significant difference (Fr=51.67; p<0.001). Saline and NaOCl were significantly different (median: 2.0% and 0.0%) whereas Polident and castor oil presented intermediate results (median: 1.0% and 1.5%, respectively). It can be concluded that the castor oil solution tested in this study was comparable to alkaline peroxide in terms of efficiency in denture biofilm removal.

  8. Screening the antifungal activity of essential oils against decay fungi from palmyrah leaf handicrafts.

    PubMed

    Mahilrajan, Subajini; Nandakumar, Jeyarani; Kailayalingam, Robika; Manoharan, Nilushiny Aloysius; SriVijeindran, SriThayalan

    2014-08-15

    The whitish tender leaves of Palmyrah are used for making handicrafts. The problem with these articles is discolouration with time and become more brittle due to fungal attack. This could be prevented by some protective coating. Instead of expensive and harmful chemicals we decided to test natural plant essential oils to control fungal attack. Palmyrah leaf article decay fungi were isolated from two different sites of Jaffna peninsula. In this investigation Antifungal Activity of different plant essential oils from neem (Azadirachta indica), castor (Ricinus communis), citronella (Cymbopogon sp) and camphor (Cinnamomum camphora) obtained from local market have been evaluated against isolated fungi. For screening of Antifungal activity, tests and controls were set to determine minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and Percentage of Growth Inhibition. Morphologically three different types of Palmyrah leaf decay fungi were isolated and characterized as Aspergillus niger, Aspergillus flavus and Penicillium sp. Neem and castor oils have recorded no significant (0.05 > P) antifungal activity while citronella and camphor oils showed significantly different antifungal activity compared with control. Camphor oil and Citronella oil showed 100, 58.13% of average growth inhibition for A. niger. 96.38, 51.32% for A.flavus and 84.99, 72.76% for Penicillium sp respectively. Camphor oil showed highest percentage of growth inhibition at lowest minimum inhibitory concentration compared with citronella oil. Camphor oil was found to be highly antifungal and most effective against A niger, and A. flavus, compared with Penicillium sp and gave 100 percentage of growth inhibitions at 5, 1 and 15 ml/dl minimum inhibitory concentration respectively. Significantly higher broad-spectrum of antifungal activity was observed in camphor oil than other tested oils because it showed highest percentage of growth inhibition at lowest inhibitory concentration. Therefore it could be used for the

  9. Tyrosinase inhibitory flavonoid from Juniperus communis fruits.

    PubMed

    Jegal, Jonghwan; Park, Sang-A; Chung, KiWung; Chung, Hae Young; Lee, Jaewon; Jeong, Eun Ju; Kim, Ki Hyun; Yang, Min Hye

    2016-12-01

    The fruits of Juniperus communis have been traditionally used in the treatment of skin diseases. In our preliminary experiment, the MeOH extract of J. communis effectively suppressed mushroom tyrosinase activity. Three monoflavonoids and five biflavonoids were isolated from J. communis by bioassay-guided isolation and their inhibitory effect against tyrosinase was evaluated. According to the results of all isolates, hypolaetin 7-O-β-xylopyranoside isolated from J. communis exhibited most potent effect of decreasing mushroom tyrosinase activity with an IC50 value of 45.15 μM. Further study provided direct experimental evidence for hypolaetin 7-O-β-D-xylopyranoside-attenuated tyrosinase activity in α-MSH-stimulated B16F10 murine melanoma cell. Hypolaetin 7-O-β-D-xylopyranoside from the EtOAc fraction of J. communis was also effective at suppressing α-MSH-induced melanin synthesis. This is the first report of the enzyme tyrosinase inhibition by J. communis and its constituent. Therapeutic attempts with J. communis and its active component, hypolaetin 7-O-β-D-xylopyranoside, might be useful in treating melanin pigmentary disorders.

  10. Morphophysiological and biochemical alterations in Ricinus communis L. seeds submitted to cobalt60 gamma radiation.

    PubMed

    Lopes, Amanda M; Bobrowski, Vera L; Silva, Sergio D Dos Anjos E; Deuner, Sidnei

    2017-01-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the radiosensitivity of castor bean seeds after applications of different doses of Cobalt60 gamma radiation. Seeds were pre-soaked for 24 hours in distilled water and then irradiated with 50, 100, 150, and 200 Gy, except the control. Sowing was performed in trays, which contained soil as substrate and were maintained in a greenhouse. The electrical conductivity, emergence, emergence speed index, growth parameters and activities of antioxidant enzymes (superoxide dismutase, ascorbate peroxidase, and catalase) were evaluated in the leaves and roots of castor bean seedlings. Gamma radiation did not affect the electrical conductivity of the seeds; however, at a dose of 200 Gy, the emergence and emergence speed index of the seedlings was negatively affected. An analysis of the morphophysiological parameters revealed a reduction in seedling size as the radiation dose increased. There was a significant increase in superoxide dismutase and ascorbate peroxidase activities at higher radiation doses in the leaves, but not in roots. Thus, the analysis of all the variables suggests a response pattern as to the morphophysiological and biochemical changes of castor bean seedlings due to the increase of gamma radiation, which may serve as a tool for generating greater genetic variability.

  11. Cultivar Determination of Ricinus communis via the Metabolome: a Proof of Concept Investigation

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-08-01

    applied. 5. Acknowledgments We would like to thank Alex Theo and Justin Doward for their collective efforts toward writing the Microsoft Excel...Maucourt, M.; Deborde, C.; Moing, A.; Rolin, D. J. Agric. Food Chem. 2005, 53, 6382-6389. 75. Periera, G. E.; Gaudillere, J. P.; Leeuwen , C. V.; Hilbert

  12. Structural and spectroscopic properties of the peroxodiferric intermediate of Ricinus communis soluble Δ9 desaturase.

    PubMed

    Srnec, Martin; Rokob, Tibor András; Schwartz, Jennifer K; Kwak, Yeonju; Rulíšek, Lubomír; Solomon, Edward I

    2012-03-05

    Large-scale quantum and molecular mechanical methods (QM/MM) and QM calculations were carried out on the soluble Δ(9) desaturase (Δ(9)D) to investigate various structural models of the spectroscopically defined peroxodiferric (P) intermediate. This allowed us to formulate a consistent mechanistic picture for the initial stages of the reaction mechanism of Δ(9)D, an important diferrous nonheme iron enzyme that cleaves the C-H bonds in alkane chains resulting in the highly specific insertion of double bonds. The methods (density functional theory (DFT), time-dependent DFT (TD-DFT), QM(DFT)/MM, and TD-DFT with electrostatic embedding) were benchmarked by demonstrating that the known spectroscopic effects and structural perturbation caused by substrate binding to diferrous Δ(9)D can be qualitatively reproduced. We show that structural models whose spectroscopic (absorption, circular dichroism (CD), vibrational and Mössbauer) characteristics correlate best with experimental data for the P intermediate correspond to the μ-1,2-O(2)(2-) binding mode. Coordination of Glu196 to one of the iron centers (Fe(B)) is demonstrated to be flexible, with the monodentate binding providing better agreement with spectroscopic data, and the bidentate structure being slightly favored energetically (1-10 kJ mol(-1)). Further possible structures, containing an additional proton or water molecule are also evaluated in connection with the possible activation of the P intermediate. Specifically, we suggest that protonation of the peroxide moiety, possibly preceded by water binding in the Fe(A) coordination sphere, could be responsible for the conversion of the P intermediate in Δ(9)D into a form capable of hydrogen abstraction. Finally, results are compared with recent findings on the related ribonucleotide reductase and toluene/methane monooxygenase enzymes.

  13. Enhanced accumulation of Cd in castor (Ricinus communis L) by soil-applied chelators.

    PubMed

    Chhajro, Muhammad Afzal; Rizwan, Muhammad Shahid; Guoyong, Huang; Jun, Zhu; Kubar, Kashif Ali; Hongqing, Hu

    2016-01-01

    Phytoextraction has been identified as one of the most propitious methods of phytoremediation. This pot experiment were treated with varying amounts of (ethylenediamine triacetic acid) EDTA 3-15, (Nitriloacetic acid) NTA 3-10, (Ammonium citrate) NH4 citrate 10 - 25 mmol and one mg kg(-1)Cd, filled with 5 kg soil. The addition of chelators significantly increased Cd concentration in soil and plant. The results showed that maximum Cd uptake was noted under root, shoot and leaf of castor plant tissue (2.26, 1.54, and 0.72 mg kg(-1)) under EDTA 15, NTA 10, and NH4 citrate 25 mmol treatments respectively, and in soil 1.08, 1.06 and 0.52 mg kg(-1) pot(-1) under NH4 citrate 25, NTA 10 and EDTA 15 mmol treatments respectively, as against to control (p < 0.05). Additions of chelators reduction biomass under the EDTA 15 mmol as compared to other treatments, However, Bioconcentration factor (BCF), translocation factor (TF) and remediation factor (RF) were significantly increased under EDTA 15 and NH4 citrate 25 mmol as against control. Our results demonstrated that castor plant proved satisfactory for phytoextraction on contaminated soil, and EDTA 15 and NH4 citrate 25 mmol had the affirmative effect on the Cd uptake in the artificial Cd-contaminated soil.

  14. Cloning and characterization of the calreticulin gene from Ricinus communis L.

    PubMed

    Coughlan, S J; Hastings, C; Winfrey, R

    1997-08-01

    A full-length cDNA encoding a calreticulin-like protein was isolated by immune-screening a germinating castor bean endosperm cDNA library with antisera raised to the total lumenal fraction of purified plant endoplasmic reticulum. The calcium-binding properties of the recombinant protein were characterized and shown to be essentially identical to those reported for the mammalian calreticulin. Calcium overlays and immune blot analysis confirmed the endoplasmic lumenal identity of this reticuloplasmin. Probing protein blots of endoplasmic reticulum subfractions with radio-iodinated calreticulin showed specific associations with various polypeptides including one identified as the abundant reticuloplasmin protein disulfide isomerase. Characterization of the corresponding genomic clones revealed that calreticulin is encoded by a single gene of 3 kb in castor. The full genomic sequence reveals the presence of 12 introns, 12 translated exons, and one exon containing the last three amino acids of the translated sequence and the 3'-untranslated region of the gene. Northern blot analysis of RNA isolated from various organ tissues showed a basal constitutive level of expression throughout the plant, but more abundant mRNA being detected in tissues active in secretion. This was confirmed by analysis of transgenic tobacco plants containing 1.8 kb of 5'-untranslated genomic sequence fused to the beta-glucuronidase reporter gene (GUS) showed a more localized pattern of expression. Activity being localized to the vasculature (phloem, root hairs and root tip) in vegetative tissue, and being strongly expressed in the floral organs including the developing and germinating seed.

  15. Undecylenic acid: a valuable and physiologically active renewable building block from castor oil.

    PubMed

    Van der Steen, Marijke; Stevens, Christian V

    2009-01-01

    A lot of attention is currently being paid to the transition to a biobased economy. In this movement, most efforts concentrate on the development of bioenergy applications including bioethanol, biodiesel, thermochemical conversion of biomass, and others. However, in the energy sector other nonbiomass alternatives are known, whereas no valuable alternatives are available when thinking about chemical building blocks. Therefore, it is also essential to develop new routes for the synthesis of bio-based chemicals and materials derived thereof. Such intermediates can originate either from plants or from animals. Castor oil is a non-edible oil extracted from the seeds of the castor bean plant Ricinus communis (Euphorbiaceae), which grows in tropical and subtropical areas. Globally, around one million tons of castor seeds are produced every year, the leading producing areas being India, PR China, and Brazil.2 10-Undecenoic acid or undecylenic acid is a fatty acid derived from castor oil that, owing to its bifunctional nature, has many possibilities to develop sustainable applications.

  16. Toxic and repellent activity of selected monoterpenoids (thymol, carvacrol and linalool) against the castor bean tick, Ixodes ricinus (Acari: Ixodidae).

    PubMed

    Tabari, Mohaddeseh Abouhosseini; Youssefi, Mohammad Reza; Maggi, Filippo; Benelli, Giovanni

    2017-10-15

    The castor bean tick, Ixodes ricinus, is a species of medical and veterinary importance. The use of synthetic acaricides for tick control has led to development of resistance, residues in the environment and animal products, and public health concerns. In this regard, plant essential oils and their main constituents represent an appealing alternative strategy to combat ticks. The phenols thymol and carvacrol and the alcohol linalool are monoterpenoids occurring in essential oils of several aromatic and medicinal plants, such as thyme, oregano, savory, lavender and coriander. Recent studies have shown toxicity of these monoterpenoids against selected mosquito vectors and other arthropod pests. However, information on their bioactivity on I. ricinus is not available. On this basis, here we evaluated the ovicidal, larvicidal and repellency effects of these compounds against I. ricinus. Concentrations of 0.25, 0.5, 1, 2 and 5% were sprayed on the egg masses, then hatching rates were noted. Larvicidal assays were conducted on unengorged larvae, following the larval packet technique. The repellency was determined by measuring the vertical migration behavior of ticks in laboratory conditions. Carvacrol and thymol at all concentrations tested led to a significant hatching decrease, showing an efficacy higher than permethrin, whereas linalool did not cause any significant effect. In the larvae treated with carvacrol and thymol (1, 2 and 5%), mortality rates reached 100% after 24h, showing a larvicidal efficacy higher than permethrin, whereas no effect was seen in the larval groups treated with linalool. Carvacrol and thymol at all concentrations tested showed >90% repellency on I. ricinus. Linalool was scarcely effective (50.24% repellency) only at the concentration of 5%. Overall, based on these results, the phenols carvacrol and thymol can be considered as candidate ingredients for the development of novel acaricidal formulations to control the populations of I. ricinus

  17. Physicochemical and phytochemical standardization of berries of Myrtus communis Linn

    PubMed Central

    Sumbul, Sabiha; Ahmad, M. Aftab; Asif, M.; Akhtar, Mohd; Saud, Ibne

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: Herbal medicines are gaining more and more attention all over the world due to their long historical clinical practice and less side effects. The major limitation with herbal medicines is that the lack of standardization technique. Initially, the crude drugs were identified by comparison only with the standard description available. Materials and Methods: Standardization of drugs means confirmation of its identity and determination of its quality and purity. The quality control standards of various medicinal plants, used in indigenous system of medicine, are significant nowadays in view of commercialization of formulations based on medicinal plants. The quality of herbal drugs is the sum of all factors, which contribute directly or indirectly to the safety, effectiveness, and acceptability of the product. Lack of quality control can affect the efficacy and safety of drugs that may lead to health problems in the consumers. Standardization of drugs is needed to overcome the problems of adulteration and is most developing field of research now. Therefore, there is an urgent need of standardized drugs having consistent quality. Results: The drug showed the presence of phyto-chemical constituents. Powdered drug was treated with different reagents and examined under UV light. Different reagents showed different colors of the drug at 2 wavelengths. The percentage of physiological active compounds viz. total phenolics, tannins, volatile oil, fixed oil, and alkaloids were also observed. Conclusion: Myrtus communis L. (Family: Myrtaceae) is one of the important drug being used in Unani system of medicine for various therapeutic purposes. In this study, an attempt has been made to study berries of M. communis from physico-chemical and phytochemical standardization point of view. PMID:23248567

  18. Gas chromatographic, mass spectrometric and stable carbon isotopic investigations of organic residues of plant oils and animal fats employed as illuminants in archaeological lamps from Egypt.

    PubMed

    Copley, M S; Bland, H A; Rose, P; Horton, M; Evershed, R P

    2005-06-01

    Man's use of illuminants in lamps or as torches to extend the working day and range of environments accessible to him would have been a major technological advance in human civilisation. The most obvious evidence for this in the archaeological record comes from pottery and stone vessels showing sooting due to the use of a wick in conjunction with a lipid-based fuel or illuminant. A wide range of potential fuels would have been exploited depending upon availability and burning requirements. Reported herein are the results of chemical investigations of a number of lamps recovered from excavations of the site of Qasr Ibrim, Egypt. Gas chromatographic, mass spectrometric and stable carbon isotopic analyses of both free (solvent extractable) and 'bound'(released from solvent extracted pottery by base treatment) lipids have revealed a wide range of saturated fatty acids, hydroxy fatty acids and alpha, omega-dicarboxylic acids. Examination of the distributions of compounds and comparisons with the fatty acid compositions of modern plant oils have allowed a range of fats and oils to be recognised. Specific illuminants identified include Brassicaceae (Cruciferae) seed oil (most likely radish oil, Raphanus sativus), castor oil (from Ricinus communis), animal fat, with less diagnostic distributions and delta(13)C values being consistent with low stearic acid plant oils, such as linseed (Linum usitatissimum) or sesame (Sesamum indicum) oils. The identifications of the various oils and fats are supported by parallel investigations of illuminant residues produced by burning various oils in replica pottery lamps. The findings are entirely consistent with the classical writers including Strabo, Pliny and Theophrastrus.

  19. A phloem-enriched cDNA library from Ricinus: insights into phloem function.

    PubMed

    Doering-Saad, C; Newbury, H J; Couldridge, C E; Bale, J S; Pritchard, J

    2006-01-01

    The aim of this study was to identify genes that are expressed in the phloem. Increased knowledge of phloem regulation will contribute to our understanding of its many roles, from transport of solutes to information about interactions with pathogens. A cDNA library constructed from phloem-enriched sap exuding from cut Ricinus communis (L.) hypocotyls was sequenced. To assess contamination from other tissues, two libraries were constructed: one using the first 15 min of exudation and the other from sap collected after 120 min of exudation had elapsed. Of 1012 clones sequenced, 158 unique transcripts were identified. The presence of marker molecules such as profilin, the low occurrence of chloroplast-related mRNAs, and the sieve element localization of constituent mRNA using in situ hybridization were consistent with a phloem origin of the sap. Functional analysis of the cDNAs revealed classifications including ribosomal function, interaction with the environment, transport, DNA/RNA binding, and protein turnover. An analysis of the closest Arabidopsis thaliana (L.) homologue for each clone indicated that genes involved in cell localization, protein synthesis, tissue localization, organ localization, organ differentiation, and cell fate were represented at twice the level occurring in the whole Arabidopsis genome. The transcripts found in this phloem-enriched library are discussed in the context of phloem function and the relationship between the companion cell and sieve element.

  20. Castor oil polymer induces bone formation with high matrix metalloproteinase-2 expression.

    PubMed

    Saran, Wallace Rocha; Chierice, Gilberto Orivaldo; da Silva, Raquel Assed Bezerra; de Queiroz, Alexandra Mussolino; Paula-Silva, Francisco Wanderley Garcia; da Silva, Léa Assed Bezerra

    2014-02-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the modulation of matrix metalloproteinase-2 (MMP-2) and -9 (MMP-9) expression in newly formed bone tissue at the interface between implants derived from castor oil (Ricinus communis) polymer and the tibia medullary canal. Forty-four rabbits were assigned to either Group 1 (n = 12; control) or Group 2 (n = 30), which had the tibial medullary canals reamed bilaterally and filled with polymer. CT scans showed no space between the material surface and the bone at the implant/bone marrow interface, and the density of the tissues at this interface was similar to the density measured of other regions of the bone. At 90 days postimplantation, the interface with the polymer presented a thick layer of newly formed bone tissue rich in osteocytes. This tissue exhibited ongoing maturation at 120 and 150 days postimplantation. Overall, bone remodeling process was accompanied by positive modulation of MMP-2 and low MMP-9 expression. Differently, in control group, the internal surface close to the medullary canal was lined by osteoblasts, followed by a bone tissue zone with few lacunae filled with osteocytes. Maturation of the tissue of the medullary internal surface occurred in the inner region, with the bone being nonlamellar.

  1. 21 CFR 172.510 - Natural flavoring substances and natural substances used in conjunction with flavors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... Acacia farnesiana (L.) Willd Castor oil Ricinus communis L Catechu, black Acacia catechu Willd Cedar... Acer spicatum Lam Mimosa (black wattle) flowers Acacia decurrens Willd. var. dealbata Mullein flowers...

  2. Phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase activity and concentration in the endosperm of developing and germinating castor oil seeds.

    PubMed

    Sangwan, R S; Singh, N; Plaxton, W C

    1992-06-01

    Monospecific polyclonal antibodies against maize leaf phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase (PEPC, EC 4.1.1.31) were utilized to examine the subunit composition and developmental profile of endosperm PEPC in developing and germinating castor oil seeds (Ricinus communis L. cv Baker 296). PEPC from developing endosperm consists of a single type of 100-kilodalton subunit, whereas the enzyme from 2- to 5-day germinated endosperm appears to contain equal proportions of immunologically related 103- and 108-kilodalton subunits. The maximal activity of PEPC in developing endosperms (2.67 micromoles oxaloacetate produced per minute per gram fresh weight) is approximately 20-fold and threefold greater than that of fully mature (dry seed) and germinating endosperms, respectively. The most significant increase in the activity and concentration of endosperm PEPC occurs during the middle cotyledon to full cotyledon stage of seed development; this period coincides with the most active phase of storage oil accumulation by ripening castor oil seeds. The data are compatible with the recent proposal (RG Smith, DA Gauthier, DT Dennis, DH Turpin [1992] Plant Physiol 1233-1238) that PEPC plays a fundamental role in vivo in the cytosolic production of an important substrate (malate) for fatty acid biosynthesis by developing castor oil seed leucoplasts. Immediately following seed imbibition, PEPC activity and concentration increase in parallel, with the greatest levels attained by the third day of germination. It is suggested that during this early phase of seed germination PEPC has a critical function to build up cellular dicarboxylic acid pools required to initiate significant activities of both the tricarboxylic acid and glyoxylate cycles.

  3. Babesia species in questing Ixodes ricinus, Sweden.

    PubMed

    Karlsson, Maria E; Andersson, Martin O

    2016-02-01

    Babesiosis is an emerging tick-transmitted zoonosis in large parts of the world. In Sweden, the occurrence and diversity of Babesia species is largely unknown. In order to estimate the exposure to Babesia from infected ticks, we collected questing Ixodes ricinus from several sites across southern Sweden during two consecutive field seasons and investigated the occurrence of Babesia species. We report for the first time the occurrence of the zoonotic species Babesia venatorum in Swedish ticks, with a prevalence of 1%. We also detected B. microti (prevalence 3.2%) and B. divergens (prevalence 0.2%). The incidence of Babesia in questing ticks is substantially lower than that of several other tick-borne diseases in Sweden. Nevertheless, babesiosis should not be neglected as a possible diagnosis following tick bites in humans and animals in Sweden.

  4. Performance and Emission Characteristics of a Compression Ignition Engine Operating on Blends of Castor Oil Biodiesel-Diesel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kanwar, Roopesh; Sharma, Pushpendra Kumar; Singh, Aditya Narayan; Agrawal, Yadvendra Kumar

    2016-06-01

    Diesel vehicles are the nerves and veins of transportation, particularly in developing countries. With the rapid rate of modernization, increasing demand of fuel is inevitable. The exponential increase in fuel prices and the scarcity of its supply from the environment have promoted interest in the development of alternative sources of fuel. In this work, genus Ricinus communis L. was studied in order to delimit their potential as a raw material for biodiesel production. Further, castor oil, ethyl ester were prepared by transesterification using potassium hydroxide (KOH) as a catalyst and tested on a four-stroke, single-cylinder compression ignition engine. The test was carried out at a constant speed of 3000 rpm at different loads. The results represent a substantial decrease in carbon monoxide (CO) emission with an increasing biodiesel percentage. The reduction of CO in B05, B10, B15 and B20 averaged 11.75, 22.02, 24.23 and 28.79 %, respectively, compared to mineral diesel. The emission results of the comparative test indicated that CO, oxygen (O2) and smoke density emissions are found to be lower when the engine is filled with B05, B10, B15 and B20 as compared to mineral diesel, while carbon dioxide (CO2) and nitrogen oxide (NOx) with B05, B10, B15 and B20 are found to increase marginally. Brake thermal efficiency and brake specific fuel consumption decrease and increase respectively in biodiesel with different blends in comparison of mineral diesel.

  5. Performance and Emission Characteristics of a Compression Ignition Engine Operating on Blends of Castor Oil Biodiesel-Diesel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kanwar, Roopesh; Sharma, Pushpendra Kumar; Singh, Aditya Narayan; Agrawal, Yadvendra Kumar

    2017-04-01

    Diesel vehicles are the nerves and veins of transportation, particularly in developing countries. With the rapid rate of modernization, increasing demand of fuel is inevitable. The exponential increase in fuel prices and the scarcity of its supply from the environment have promoted interest in the development of alternative sources of fuel. In this work, genus Ricinus communis L. was studied in order to delimit their potential as a raw material for biodiesel production. Further, castor oil, ethyl ester were prepared by transesterification using potassium hydroxide (KOH) as a catalyst and tested on a four-stroke, single-cylinder compression ignition engine. The test was carried out at a constant speed of 3000 rpm at different loads. The results represent a substantial decrease in carbon monoxide (CO) emission with an increasing biodiesel percentage. The reduction of CO in B05, B10, B15 and B20 averaged 11.75, 22.02, 24.23 and 28.79 %, respectively, compared to mineral diesel. The emission results of the comparative test indicated that CO, oxygen (O2) and smoke density emissions are found to be lower when the engine is filled with B05, B10, B15 and B20 as compared to mineral diesel, while carbon dioxide (CO2) and nitrogen oxide (NOx) with B05, B10, B15 and B20 are found to increase marginally. Brake thermal efficiency and brake specific fuel consumption decrease and increase respectively in biodiesel with different blends in comparison of mineral diesel.

  6. [Ixodes ricinus, transmitted diseases and reservoirs].

    PubMed

    Rizzoli, A; Rosà, R; Mantelli, B; Pecchioli, E; Hauffe, H; Tagliapietra, V; Beninati, T; Neteler, M; Genchi, C

    2004-06-01

    The tick Ixodes ricinus has been recorded in most Italian regions especially in thermo-mesophilous woods and shrubby habitats where the relative humidity allow the tick to complete its 3 year developmental cycle, as predicted for the European climatic ranges. This tick acts both as vector and reservoir for a series of wildlife zoonotic pathogens, especially the agents of Lyme diseases, Tick borne encephalitis and Human Granulocytic Ehrlichiosis, which are emerging in most of Europe. To assess the spatial distribution of these pathogens and the infection risk for humans and animals within the territory of the Province of Trento, we carried out a long term study using a combination of eco-epidemiological surveys and mathematical modelling. An extensive tick collection with a GIS based habitat suitability analysis allowed us to identify the areas where tick occurs at various density. To identify the areas with higher infection risk, we estimated the values of R0 for Borrelia burgdorferi s.l., TBE virus and Anaplasma phagocytophila under different ecological conditions. We assessed the infection prevalence in the vector and in the wildlife reservoir species that play a central role in the persistence of these infections, ie the small mammals A. flavicollis and C. glareolus. We also considered the double effect of roe deer (Capreolus capreolus) which act as reservoir for A. phagocytophila but is an incompetent host for B. burgdorferi and TBE virus, thus reducing the infection prevalence in ticks of these last two pathogens. Infection prevalence with B. burgdorferi and A. phagocytophila in the vector was assessed by PCR screening 1212 I. ricinus nymphs collected by dragging in six main study areas during 2002. The mean infection prevalence recorded was 1.32% for B. burgdorferi s.l. and 9.84% for A. phagocytophila. Infection prevalence in nymphs with TBE virus, as assessed in a previous study was 0.03%. Infection prevalence in rodents was assessed by screening (with ELISA

  7. [Systematics and genegeography of Juniperus communis inferred from isoenzyme data].

    PubMed

    Khantemirova, E V; Berkutenko, A N; Semerikov, V L

    2012-09-01

    Using isoenzyme analysis, 35 populations of Juniperus communis L. from various parts of the Russian species range and by one population from Sweden and Alaska were studied. The total sample size was 1200 plants. As a result, the existence ofJ. communis var. oblonga in North Caucasus and J. communis var. depressa in North America was confirmed, but genetic differences between J. communis var. communis and J. communis var. saxatilis were not detected in the main part of the Russian species range (European part of Russia, Ural, Siberia). These populations proved to be genetically uniform with the same predominant allelic frequencies, which may evidence recent settling of this species from one of Central or East European refugium. J. communis var. saxatilis from northeastern Russia inhabiting the region behind Verkhoyansk mountain and Russian Far East showed considerable differentiation in frequencies of alleles at three loci and geographical subdivision. These populations also exhibit high intrapopulation variation. This can be connected with the refugium in this territory. The origin of this group is probably connected with migrations from Central Asia (Tibet) in the direction to northeastern Russia along mountains connecting Central and North Asia. It is also assumed that migrations of this species previously proceeded across the Beringian land bridge.

  8. Chemical Composition and Larvicidal Activity of Greek Myrtle Essential Oils against Culex pipiens biotype molestus.

    PubMed

    Koutsaviti, Aikaterini; Lignou, Irene; Bazos, Ioannis; Koliopoulos, George; Michaelakis, Antonios; Giatropoulos, Athanassios; Tzakou, Olga

    2015-10-01

    Fresh leaves of Myrtus communis collected from different localities in Greece, were subjected to hydrodistillation and the oils obtained were analyzed by GC-FID and GC-MS. The analyses showed mainly quantitative differences, with the monoterpenes myrtenyl acetate, α-pinene, 1,8-cineole, and linalool, along with limonene, dominating the majority of the analyzed Myrtle oils. The evaluation of the larvicidal activity of the samples against Culex pipiens biotype molestus mosquito showed that all tested samples exhibited moderate to weak toxicity, with cultivated M. communis subsp. communis oil being the most active.

  9. Experimental evidence against transmission of Hepatozoon canis by Ixodes ricinus.

    PubMed

    Giannelli, Alessio; Ramos, Rafael Antonio Nascimento; Dantas-Torres, Filipe; Mencke, Norbert; Baneth, Gad; Otranto, Domenico

    2013-09-01

    Hepatozoon canis is among the most widespread tick-borne protozoa infecting domestic and wild carnivores. Its distribution is related to the occurrence of its major vector, the brown dog tick Rhipicephalus sanguineus. However, the role of Ixodes ricinus as a vector of H. canis has been hypothesized. In the present study, the development of H. canis was investigated in I. ricinus and R. sanguineus nymphs collected from a naturally infested dog. All I. ricinus ticks examined (n=133) were negative by cytological examination at days 20, 30, and 90 post collection, although H. canis DNA was detected in one nymph at day 20 and in 2 nymphs at day 30 post collection. On the other hand, H. canis sporogony was documented by cytology, and H. canis DNA was detected by PCR in R. sanguineus at day 30 post collection. These results indicate that H. canis sporogony does not occur in I. ricinus, but in R. sanguineus, suggesting that I. ricinus does not act as a vector of H. canis.

  10. A review of nutritional and toxicological implications of castor bean (Ricinus communis L.) meal in animal feeding systems.

    PubMed

    Akande, T O; Odunsi, A A; Akinfala, E O

    2016-04-01

    The nutrient-rich defatted castor meal has been tested as a potential source of protein in diets of many livestock species but has limitation due to challenges of toxins. This review was conducted to compile the relevant research information on advances in the use of raw and differently processed castor seed meal in animal feed. In this article, distribution and uses of castor and its products were identified. Research findings on the nutrients profile, principal toxins, various detoxification strategies, nutritional value and toxicity on common livestock species were compiled and reviewed. The defatted seed meal had crude protein range of 32-48%, gross energy of about 3200 kcal/kg. Ricin content was 9.3 mg/g seed, and the average RCA content was 9.9 mg/g. The meal had high activity of lectin, which produced agglutination at about 4.70 mg/ml minimum assays. Reports of detoxification strategies showed varying degrees of success but high pH, moist heating and microbial techniques appeared to exert greater effect on deactivating ricin. Detoxification strategy for the allergen component is inconclusive. Tannins and the phenolic contents were present at trace level and did not constitute notable threat. It was concluded that castor seed holds great potential as feedstuff when upgraded but such upgrading must be safe, cost-effective and labour efficient for commercial acceptability.

  11. Toxicity of six plant extracts and two pyridine alkaloids from Ricinus communis against the malaria vector Anopheles gambiae

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The African malaria vector, Anopheles gambiae s.s., is known to feed selectively on certain plants for sugar sources. However, the adaptive significance of this behavior especially on how the extracts of such plants impact on the fitness of this vector has not been explored. This study determined th...

  12. Review of the traditional uses, phytochemistry, pharmacology and toxicology of giant fennel (Ferula communis L. subsp. communis)

    PubMed Central

    Akaberi, Maryam; Iranshahy, Milad; Iranshahi, Mehrdad

    2015-01-01

    Ferula communis L., subsp. communis, namely giant fennel, has extensively been used in traditional medicine for a wide range of ailments. Fresh plant materials, crude extracts and isolated components of F. communis showed a wide spectrum of in vitro and in vivo pharmacological properties including antidiabetic, antimicrobial, antiproliferative, and cytotoxic activities. The present paper, reviews the traditional uses, botany, phytochemistry, pharmacology and toxicology of F. communis in order to reveal its therapeutic potential and future research opportunities. A bibliographic literature search was conducted in different scientific databases and search engines including Scopus, Cochrane Library, Embase, Google Scholar, Pubmed, SciFinder, and Web of science. Phytochemical studies have led to the isolation of different compounds such as sesquiterpenes from F. communis. This plant has two different chemotypes, the poisonous and non-poisonous chemotypes. Each chemotype is endowed with various constituents and different activities. The poisonous chemotype exhibits anticoagulant and cytotoxic activities with sesquiterpene coumarins as major constituents, while the non-poisonous one exhibits estrogenic and cytotoxic effects with daucane sesquiterpene esters as the main compounds. In addition, although various pharmacological properties have been reported for F. communis, anti-microbial activities of the plant have been investigated in most studies. Studies revealed that F. communis exhibits different biological activities, and contains various bioactive compounds. Although, antibacterial and cytotoxic activities are the two main pharmacological effects of this plant, further studies should focus on the mechanisms underlying these actions, as well as on those biological activities that have been reported traditionally. PMID:26949491

  13. Review of the traditional uses, phytochemistry, pharmacology and toxicology of giant fennel (Ferula communis L. subsp. communis).

    PubMed

    Akaberi, Maryam; Iranshahy, Milad; Iranshahi, Mehrdad

    2015-11-01

    Ferula communis L., subsp. communis, namely giant fennel, has extensively been used in traditional medicine for a wide range of ailments. Fresh plant materials, crude extracts and isolated components of F. communis showed a wide spectrum of in vitro and in vivo pharmacological properties including antidiabetic, antimicrobial, antiproliferative, and cytotoxic activities. The present paper, reviews the traditional uses, botany, phytochemistry, pharmacology and toxicology of F. communis in order to reveal its therapeutic potential and future research opportunities. A bibliographic literature search was conducted in different scientific databases and search engines including Scopus, Cochrane Library, Embase, Google Scholar, Pubmed, SciFinder, and Web of science. Phytochemical studies have led to the isolation of different compounds such as sesquiterpenes from F. communis. This plant has two different chemotypes, the poisonous and non-poisonous chemotypes. Each chemotype is endowed with various constituents and different activities. The poisonous chemotype exhibits anticoagulant and cytotoxic activities with sesquiterpene coumarins as major constituents, while the non-poisonous one exhibits estrogenic and cytotoxic effects with daucane sesquiterpene esters as the main compounds. In addition, although various pharmacological properties have been reported for F. communis, anti-microbial activities of the plant have been investigated in most studies. Studies revealed that F. communis exhibits different biological activities, and contains various bioactive compounds. Although, antibacterial and cytotoxic activities are the two main pharmacological effects of this plant, further studies should focus on the mechanisms underlying these actions, as well as on those biological activities that have been reported traditionally.

  14. Programmed cell death in Ricinus and Arabidopsis: the function of KDEL cysteine peptidases in development.

    PubMed

    Hierl, Georg; Vothknecht, Ute; Gietl, Christine

    2012-05-01

    Programmed cell death (PCD) in plants is a prerequisite for development as well as seed and fruit production. It also plays a significant role in pathogen defense. A unique group of papain-type cysteine endopeptidases, characterized by a C-terminal endoplasmic reticulum (ER) retention signal (KDEL CysEP), is involved in plant PCD. Genes for these endopeptidases have been sequenced and analyzed from 25 angiosperms and gymnosperms. They have no structural relationship to caspases involved in mammalian PCD and homologs to this group of plant cysteine endopeptidases have not been found in mammals or yeast. In castor beans (Ricinus communis), the CysEP is synthesized as pre-pro-enzyme. The pro-enzyme is transported to the cytosol of cells undergoing PCD in ER-derived vesicles called ricinosomes. These vesicles release the mature CysEP in the final stages of organelle disintegration triggered by acidification of the cytoplasm resulting from the disruption of the vacuole. Mature CysEP digests the hydroxyproline (Hyp)-rich proteins (extensins) that form the basic scaffold of the plant cell wall. The KDEL CysEPs accept a wide variety of amino acids at the active site, including the glycosylated Hyp residues of the extensins. In Arabidopsis, three KDEL CysEPs (AtCEP1, AtCEP2 and AtCEP3) are expressed in tissues undergoing PCD. In transgenic Arabidopsis plants expressing β-glucuronidase under the control of the promoters for these three genes, cell- and tissue-specific activities were mapped during seedling, flower and seed development. KDEL CysEPs participate in the collapse of tissues in the final stage of PCD and in tissue re-modeling such as lateral root formation.

  15. Exotic Rickettsiae in Ixodes ricinus: fact or artifact?

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Several pathogenic Rickettsia species can be transmitted via Ixodes ricinus ticks to humans and animals. Surveys of I. ricinus for the presence of Rickettsiae using part of its 16S rRNA gene yield a plethora of new and different Rickettsia sequences. Interpreting these data is sometimes difficult and presenting these findings as new or potentially pathogenic Rickettsiae should be done with caution: a recent report suggested presence of a known human pathogen, R. australis, in questing I. ricinus ticks in Europe. A refined analysis of these results revealed that R. helvetica was most likely to be misinterpreted as R. australis. Evidence in the literature is accumulating that rickettsial DNA sequences found in tick lysates can also be derived from other sources than viable, pathogenic Rickettsiae. For example, from endosymbionts, environmental contamination or even horizontal gene transfer. PMID:20569494

  16. Essential Oils May Lead α-Synuclein towards Toxic Fibrils Formation

    PubMed Central

    Morshedi, Dina; Nasouti, Mahour

    2016-01-01

    α-Synuclein (α-Syn) fibrillation links with Parkinson's disease (PD) and several related syndromes. It is believed that exposure to the factors which promote fibrillation may induce and progress such neurodegenerative diseases (NDs). Herein, the effects of some wildly used essential oils including Myrtus communis (M. communis) on α-Syn fibrillation were examined. M. communis particularly increased α-Syn fibrillation in a concentration dependent manner. Given that applications of M. communis are very extensive in Asian societies, especially Zoroastrians, this study was extended towards its role on α-Syn fibrillation/cytotoxicity. By using a unilamellar vesicle, it was shown that the aggregated species with tendency to perturb membrane were increased in the presence of M. communis. In this regard, the cytotoxicity of α-Syn on SH-SH5Y cells was also increased significantly. Inappropriately, the effects of fibrillation inhibitors, baicalein and cuminaldehyde, were modulated in the presence of M. communis. However, major components of M. communis did not induce fibrillation and also the effect of M. communis was limited on other fibrinogenic proteins. Assuming that essential oils have the ability to pass through the blood brain barrier (BBB) along with the popular attention on aromatherapy for the incurable ND, these findings suggest an implementation of fibrillation tests for essential oils. PMID:27313947

  17. Antidiarrhoeal, antimicrobial and antioxidant effects of myrtle berries (Myrtus communis L.) seeds extract.

    PubMed

    Jabri, Mohamed-Amine; Rtibi, Kais; Ben-Said, Amira; Aouadhi, Chedia; Hosni, Karim; Sakly, Mohsen; Sebai, Hichem

    2016-02-01

    The present study was carried out to determine the antidiarrheal effects of myrtle (Myrtus communis L.) berries seeds aqueous extract (MBSAE) from Tunisia as well as the involvement of its antimicrobial and antioxidant properties in such protection. Adult male wistar rats were used and divided into six groups of ten each: control, Castor oil, Castor oil + Loperamide and Castor oil + various doses of MBSAE. Animals were per orally (p.o.) pre-treated with MBSAE for one hour and intoxicated by castor oil acute oral administration. Our results demonstrated that the MBSAE is rich in total and condensed tannins and exhibited a broad spectrum of antibacterial activity. In vivo, we found that MBSAE administration induced a significant dose-dependent protection against diarrhoea and intestinal fluid accumulation. Castor oil-induced intestinal hypersecretion was accompanied by an oxidative stress status in the intestine. More importantly, we showed that acute diarrhoea was accompanied by an increase in intestinal mucosa hydrogen peroxide (H2 O2 ), calcium and free iron levels while MBSAE pre-treatment reversed all castor oil-induced intracellular mediators disturbances. We suggest that MBSAE had a potent protective effects against castor oil-induced acute diarrhoea due in part to its antioxidant and antimicrobial properties. © 2015 Royal Pharmaceutical Society.

  18. Redescriptions and new host records of chewing lice of the genus Ricinus (Phthiraptera: Ricinidae) from the Neotropical Region.

    PubMed

    Valan, Miroslav; Sychra, Oldrich; Literak, Ivan

    2016-08-19

    Two species of the chewing louse genus Ricinus are redescribed and illustrated: Ricinus dalgleishi Nelson, 1972 from Helmitheros vermivorum (Gmelin, 1789), a new host-louse association, and Ricinus tanagraephilus Eichler, 1956 from Euphonia laniirostris d'Orbigny & Lafresnaye, 1837. Also, new host-louse associations are recorded for Ricinus vireoensis Nelson, 1972 from Vireo pallens Salvin, 1863, and for females of an unidentified species of Ricinus sp. from Corythopis delalandi (Lesson, 1831), which are described and illustrated.

  19. A histological study of scala communis with radiological implications.

    PubMed

    Makary, Chadi; Shin, Jennifer; Caruso, Paul; Curtin, Hugh; Merchant, Saumil

    2010-01-01

    Scala communis or interscalar septum (IS) defect is a developmental abnormality of the inner ear characterized by a dehiscence in the partition separating the turns of the cochlea. The goals of the present study were to (1) study this anomaly and describe its characteristics compared to control ears using a histological analysis of temporal bones, (2) discuss radiological implications regarding its diagnosis, and (3) describe its embryological derivation. Out of 1775 temporal bones assessed, 22 specimens were found to have scala communis in cochleae containing all 3 turns (basal, middle and apical). These 22 ears were studied in detail by qualitative and quantitative methods using light microscopy. Scala communis occurred as an isolated inner ear anomaly, or in association with other congenital cochlear and/or vestibular anomalies. The defect occurred most often between the middle and apical turns of the cochlea. Compared to control ears, scala communis ears were found to have a smaller modiolar area (p < 0.0001) and flattening of the interscalar ridge (point of attachment of the IS to the inner lumen of the cochlea; p < 0.0001). Scala communis was compatible with normal hearing. Flattening of the interscalar ridge has the potential to improve the diagnosis of scala communis in patients using CT scanning. The anomaly may result from a mesodermal defect such as excessive resorption of mesenchyme during the formation of the scalae, an error in the formation of bone, or both. Copyright © 2010 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  20. Computational identification and phylogenetic analysis of the oil-body structural proteins, oleosin and caleosin, in castor bean and flax.

    PubMed

    Hyun, Tae Kyung; Kumar, Dhinesh; Cho, Young-Yeol; Hyun, Hae-Nam; Kim, Ju-Sung

    2013-02-25

    Oil bodies (OBs) are the intracellular particles derived from oilseeds. These OBs store lipids as a carbon resource, and have been exploited for a variety of industrial applications including biofuels. Oleosin and caleosin are the common OB structural proteins which are enabling biotechnological enhancement of oil content and OB-based pharmaceutical formations via stabilizing OBs. Although the draft whole genome sequence information for Ricinus communis L. (castor bean) and Linum usitatissimum L. (flax), important oil seed plants, is available in public database, OB-structural proteins in these plants are poorly indentified. Therefore, in this study, we performed a comprehensive bioinformatic analysis including analysis of the genome sequence, conserved domains and phylogenetic relationships to identify OB structural proteins in castor bean and flax genomes. Using comprehensive analysis, we have identified 6 and 15 OB-structural proteins from castor bean and flax, respectively. A complete overview of this gene family in castor bean and flax is presented, including the gene structures, phylogeny and conserved motifs, resulting in the presence of central hydrophobic regions with proline knot motif, providing an evolutionary proof that this central hydrophobic region had evolved from duplications in the primitive eukaryotes. In addition, expression analysis of L-oleosin and caleosin genes using quantitative real-time PCR demonstrated that seed contained their maximum expression, except that RcCLO-1 expressed maximum in cotyledon. Thus, our comparative genomics analysis of oleosin and caleosin genes and their putatively encoded proteins in two non-model plant species provides insights into the prospective usage of gene resources for improving OB-stability.

  1. The hydraulic architecture of Juniperus communis L. ssp. communis: shrubs and trees compared.

    PubMed

    Beikircher, Barbara; Mayr, Stefan

    2008-11-01

    Juniperus communis ssp. communis can grow like a shrub or it can develop a tree-like habit. In this study, the hydraulic architecture of these contrasting growth forms was compared. We analysed the hydraulic efficiency (leaf-specific conductivity, k(l); specific conductivity, k(s); Huber value, HV) and the vulnerability to cavitation (the water potential corresponding to a 50% loss of conductivity, Psi(50)), as well as anatomical parameters [mean tracheid diameter, d; mean hydraulic diameter, d(h); cell wall reinforcement (t/b)(h)(2)] of shrub shoots, tree stems and tree branches. Shrub shoots were similar to tree branches (especially to lower branches) in growth form and conductivity (k(l) = 1.93 +/- 0.11 m(2) s(-1) MPa(-1) 10(-7), k(s) = 5.71 +/- 0.19 m(2) s(-1) MPa(-1) 10(-4)), but were similar to tree stems in their vulnerability to cavitation (Psi(50) = -5.81 +/- 0.08 MPa). Tree stems showed extraordinarily high k(l) and k(s) values, and HV increased from the base up. Stem xylem was more vulnerable to cavitation than branch xylem, where Psi(50) increased from lower (Psi(50) = -6.44 +/- 0.19 MPa) to upper branches (Psi(50) = -5.98 +/- 0.13 MPa). Conduit diameters were correlated with k(l) and k(s). Data indicate that differences in hydraulic architecture correspond to changes in growth form. In some aspects, the xylem hydraulics of tree-like Juniperus communis differs from that of other coniferous tree species.

  2. Prevention of infectious tick-borne diseases in humans: Comparative studies of the repellency of different dodecanoic acid-formulations against Ixodes ricinus ticks (Acari: Ixodidae)

    PubMed Central

    Schwantes, Ulrich; Dautel, Hans; Jung, Gerd

    2008-01-01

    Background Ticks of the species Ixodes ricinus are the main vectors of Lyme Borreliosis and Tick-borne Encephalitis – two rapidly emerging diseases in Europe. Repellents provide a practical means of protection against tick bites and can therefore minimize the transmission of tick-borne diseases. We developed and tested seven different dodecanoic acid (DDA)-formulations for their efficacy in repelling host-seeking nymphs of I. ricinus by laboratory screening. The ultimately selected formulation was then used for comparative investigations of commercially available tick repellents in humans. Methods Laboratory screening tests were performed using the Moving-object (MO) bioassay. All test formulations contained 10% of the naturally occurring active substance DDA and differed only in terms of the quantitative and qualitative composition of inactive ingredients and fragrances. The test procedure used in the human bioassays is a modification of an assay described by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency and recommended for regulatory affairs. Repellency was computed using the equation: R = 100 - NR/N × 100, where NR is the number of non-repelled ticks, and N is the respective number of control ticks. All investigations were conducted in a controlled laboratory environment offering standardized test conditions. Results All test formulations strongly repelled nymphs of I. ricinus (100-81% protection) as shown by the MO-bioassay. The majority of ticks dropped off the treated surface of the heated rotating drum that served as the attractant (1 mg/cm2 repellent applied). The 10% DDA-based formulation, that produced the best results in laboratory screening, was as effective as the coconut oil-based reference product. The mean protection time of both preparations was generally similar and averaged 8 hours. Repellency investigations in humans showed that the most effective 10% DDA-based formulation (~1.67 mg/cm2 applied) strongly avoided the attachment of I. ricinus nymphs

  3. Prevention of infectious tick-borne diseases in humans: Comparative studies of the repellency of different dodecanoic acid-formulations against Ixodes ricinus ticks (Acari: Ixodidae).

    PubMed

    Schwantes, Ulrich; Dautel, Hans; Jung, Gerd

    2008-04-08

    Ticks of the species Ixodes ricinus are the main vectors of Lyme Borreliosis and Tick-borne Encephalitis - two rapidly emerging diseases in Europe. Repellents provide a practical means of protection against tick bites and can therefore minimize the transmission of tick-borne diseases. We developed and tested seven different dodecanoic acid (DDA)-formulations for their efficacy in repelling host-seeking nymphs of I. ricinus by laboratory screening. The ultimately selected formulation was then used for comparative investigations of commercially available tick repellents in humans. Laboratory screening tests were performed using the Moving-object (MO) bioassay. All test formulations contained 10% of the naturally occurring active substance DDA and differed only in terms of the quantitative and qualitative composition of inactive ingredients and fragrances. The test procedure used in the human bioassays is a modification of an assay described by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency and recommended for regulatory affairs. Repellency was computed using the equation: R = 100 - NR/N x 100, where NR is the number of non-repelled ticks, and N is the respective number of control ticks. All investigations were conducted in a controlled laboratory environment offering standardized test conditions. All test formulations strongly repelled nymphs of I. ricinus (100-81% protection) as shown by the MO-bioassay. The majority of ticks dropped off the treated surface of the heated rotating drum that served as the attractant (1 mg/cm2 repellent applied). The 10% DDA-based formulation, that produced the best results in laboratory screening, was as effective as the coconut oil-based reference product. The mean protection time of both preparations was generally similar and averaged 8 hours.Repellency investigations in humans showed that the most effective 10% DDA-based formulation (~1.67 mg/cm2 applied) strongly avoided the attachment of I. ricinus nymphs and adults for at least 6

  4. Castor

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Castor (Ricinus communis L.) has the potential to become the premier oil crop for industrial oil production across the glove and is an ideal candidate for production of high value, industrial oil because of the very high oil content (48-60%) of the seed, the extremely high levels of potential oil pr...

  5. Anti-genotoxic and free-radical scavenging activities of extracts from (Tunisian) Myrtus communis.

    PubMed

    Hayder, N; Abdelwahed, A; Kilani, S; Ammar, R Ben; Mahmoud, A; Ghedira, K; Chekir-Ghedira, L

    2004-11-14

    The effect of extracts from leaves of Myrtus communis on the SOS reponse induced by Aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) and Nifuroxazide was investigated in a bacterial assay system, i.e. the SOS chromotest with Escherichia coli PQ37. Aqueous extract, the total flavonoids oligomer fraction (TOF), hexane, chloroform, ethyl acetate and methanol extracts and essential oil obtained from M. communis significantly decreased the SOS response induced by AFB1 (10 microg/assay) and Nifuroxazide (20 microg/assay). Ethyl acetate and methanol extracts showed the strongest inhibition of the induction of the SOS response by the indirectly genotoxic AFB1. The methanol and aqueous extracts exhibited the highest level of protection towards the SOS-induced response by the directly genotoxic Nifuroxazide. In addition to anti-genotoxic activity, the aqueous extract, the TOF, and the ethyl acetate and methanol extracts showed an important free-radical scavenging activity towards the 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical. These results suggest the future utilization of these extracts as additives in chemoprevention studies.

  6. Final report on the safety assessment of Juniperus communis Extract, Juniperus oxycedrus Extract, Juniperus oxycedrus Tar, Juniperus phoenicea extract, and Juniperus virginiana Extract.

    PubMed

    2001-01-01

    The common juniper is a tree that grows in Europe, Asia, and North America. The ripe fruit of Juniperus communis and Juniperus oxycedrus is alcohol extracted to produce Juniperus Communis Extract and Juniperus Oxycedrus Extract, respectively. Juniperus Oxycedrus Tar is the volatile oil from the wood of J. oxycedrus. Juniperus Phoenicea Extract comes from the gum of Juniperus phoenicea, and Juniperus Virginiana Extract is extracted from the wood of Juniperus virginiana. Although Juniperus Oxycedrus Tar is produced as a by-product of distillation, no information was available on the manufacturing process for any of the Extracts. Oils derived from these varieties of juniper are used solely as fragrance ingredients; they are commonly produced using steam distillation of the source material, but it is not known if that procedure is used to produce extracts. One report does state that the chemical composition of Juniper Communis Oil and Juniperus Communis Extract is similar, each containing a wide variety of terpenoids and aromatic compounds, with the occasional aliphatic alcohols and aldehydes, and, more rarely, alkanes. The principle component of Juniperus Oxycedrus Tar is cadinene, a sesquiterpene, but cresol and guaiacol are also found. No data were available, however, indicating the extent to which there would be variations in composition that may occur as a result of extraction differences or any other factor such as plant growth conditions. Information on the composition of the other ingredients was not available. All of the Extracts function as biological additives in cosmetic formulations, and Juniperus Oxycedrus Tar is used as a hair-conditioning agent and a fragrance component. Most of the available safety test data are from studies using oils derived from the various varieties of juniper. Because of the expected similarity in composition to the extract, these data were considered. Acute studies using animals show little toxicity of the oil or tar. The oils

  7. A Phytopharmacological Review on a Medicinal Plant: Juniperus communis

    PubMed Central

    Bais, Souravh; Gill, Naresh Singh; Rana, Nitan; Shandil, Shandeep

    2014-01-01

    Juniperus communis is a shrub or small evergreen tree, native to Europe, South Asia, and North America, and belongs to family Cupressaceae. It has been widely used as herbal medicine from ancient time. Traditionally the plant is being potentially used as antidiarrhoeal, anti-inflammatory, astringent, and antiseptic and in the treatment of various abdominal disorders. The main chemical constituents, which were reported in J. communis L. are α-pinene, β-pinene, apigenin, sabinene, β-sitosterol, campesterol, limonene, cupressuflavone, and many others. This review includes the last 20 years journals and various books update on this plant, representing its pharmacological activity and health benefits against various diseases. PMID:27419205

  8. Molecular Identification of Borrelia miyamotoi in Ixodes ricinus from Portugal.

    PubMed

    Nunes, Mónica; Parreira, Ricardo; Lopes, Nádia; Maia, Carla; Carreira, Teresa; Sousa, Carmelita; Faria, Sofia; Campino, Lenea; Vieira, M Luísa

    2015-08-01

    Borrelia miyamotoi, a relapsing fever spirochete, has been found recently in Ixodes ricinus ticks; however, little is known about its spatial distribution and potential local impact on human health. A total of 640 ticks (447 nymphs and 193 adults) collected throughout Portugal were analyzed using two nested PCR protocols, one targeting the flagellin gene and the other the internal transcribed space region between the 5S and the 23S rRNA. As a result, B. miyamotoi was detected, for the first time, in one guesting I. ricinus nymph collected in the Lisboa district. In addition, a prevalence of 11% (71/640) for B. burgdorferi sensu lato was obtained. Even though no human relapsing fever cases due to infection by B. miyamotoi have been reported yet in Portugal, surveillance must be improved to provide better insight into the prevalence and distribution of this spirochete in ticks.

  9. Anaplasma phagocytophilum in questing Ixodes ricinus ticks from Romania.

    PubMed

    Matei, Ioana Adriana; Kalmár, Zsuzsa; Magdaş, Cristian; Magdaş, Virginia; Toriay, Hortenzia; Dumitrache, Mirabela Oana; Ionică, Angela Monica; D'Amico, Gianluca; Sándor, Attila D; Mărcuţan, Daniel Ioan; Domşa, Cristian; Gherman, Călin Mircea; Mihalca, Andrei Daniel

    2015-04-01

    Granulocytic anaplasmosis is a common vector-borne disease of humans and animals with natural transmission cycle that involves tick vectors, among which Ixodes ricinus is the most important. The present paper reports the prevalence and geographical distribution of A. phagocytophilum in 10,438 questing Ixodes ricinus ticks collected at 113 locations from 40 counties of Romania. The unfed ticks were examined for the presence of A. phagocytophilum by PCR targeting a portion of ankA gene. The overall prevalence of infection was 3.42%, with local prevalences ranging between 0.29% and 22.45%, with an average prevalence of 5.39% in the infected localities. The infection with A. phagocytophilum was detected in 72 out of 113 localities and in 34 out of 40 counties. The highest prevalence was recorded in females followed by males and nymphs. The results and the distribution model have shown a large distribution of A. phagocytophilum, covering Romania's entire territory. This study is the first large scale survey of the presence of A. phagocytophilum in questing I. ricinus ticks from Romania.

  10. Characterizing the virome of Ixodes ricinus ticks from northern Europe.

    PubMed

    Pettersson, John H-O; Shi, Mang; Bohlin, Jon; Eldholm, Vegard; Brynildsrud, Ola B; Paulsen, Katrine Mørk; Andreassen, Åshild; Holmes, Edward C

    2017-09-07

    RNA viruses are abundant infectious agents and present in all domains of life. Arthropods, including ticks, are well known as vectors of many viruses of concern for human and animal health. Despite their obvious importance, the extent and structure of viral diversity in ticks is still poorly understood, particularly in Europe. Using a bulk RNA-sequencing approach that captures the complete transcriptome, we analysed the virome of the most common tick in Europe - Ixodes ricinus. In total, RNA sequencing was performed on six libraries consisting of 33 I. ricinus nymphs and adults sampled in Norway. Despite the small number of animals surveyed, our virus identification pipeline revealed nine diverse and novel viral species, phylogenetically positioned within four different viral groups - bunyaviruses, luteoviruses, mononegavirales and partitiviruses - and sometimes characterized by extensive genetic diversity including a potentially novel genus of bunyaviruses. This work sheds new light on the virus diversity in I. ricinus, expands our knowledge of potential host/vector-associations and tick-transmitted viruses within several viral groups, and pushes the latitudinal limit where it is likely to find tick-associated viruses. Notably, our phylogenetic analysis revealed the presence of tick-specific virus clades that span multiple continents, highlighting the role of ticks as important virus reservoirs.

  11. Antibacterial activity of the essential oils of myrtle leaves against Erysipelothrix rhusiopathiae

    PubMed Central

    Pirbalouti, Abdollah Ghasemi; Mirbagheri, Hamed; Hamedi, Behzad; Rahimi, Ebrahim

    2014-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the antibacterial activity of the essential oil of Myrtus communis (M. communis) L. against Erysipelothrix rhusiopathiae (E. rhusiopathiae) in vitro. Methods Wild populations of M. communis collected from Khuzestan and Lorestan provinces, Southwest Iran, were examined for antibacterial activity and chemical variability in leaves. The in vitro antibacterial activity against E. rhusiopathiae was performed by agar disc diffusion and micro-dilution assays. Results The essential oils of M. communis have strong antibacterial against E. rhusiopathiae in both assays. The results showed that the major components of the oil were α-pinene (22.3%-55.2%), 1,8-cineole (8.7%-43.8%) and linalool (6.4%-14.5%). The inhibition zones and MIC values for bacteria which were sensitive to the essential oils of M. communis were in the range of 14.7-27.0 mm and 0.031-0.25 mg/mL, respectively. Conclusions This study demonstrates that products with valuable antibacterial activity can be produced from leaves of M. communis against E. rhusiopathiae. PMID:25183140

  12. Photobioreactor cultivation and catalytic pyrolysis of the microalga Desmodesmus communis (Chlorophyceae) for hydrocarbons production by HZSM-5 zeolite cracking.

    PubMed

    Conti, Roberto; Pezzolesi, Laura; Pistocchi, Rossella; Torri, Cristian; Massoli, Patrizio; Fabbri, Daniele

    2016-12-01

    The study evaluated the growth of Desmodesmus communis on column photobioreactor and its thermochemical treatment by catalytic pyrolysis using HZSM-5 zeolite. D. communis showed good results in terms of growth (0.05gL(-1)d(-1)). Analytical pyrolysis of original algae and derived bio-oil mixed with zeolite was used as a screening method in order to gather information on the cracking process. Preparative pyrolysis on bench scale reactor was performed on algae biomass over a zeolite bed at 1:10 ratio (wt/wt). Py-GC-MS of biomass/catalyst mixture showed that the denitrogenation/deoxygenation increased with increasing zeolite load from 1:5 to 1:20 ratio and became significant at 1:10 ratio. The composition observed by analytical pyrolysis was featured by the predominance of alkylated monoaromatic hydrocarbons. The scaling-up to bench scale confirmed the results obtained with analytical pyrolysis in terms of monoaromatic hydrocarbons. However, low yield of catalytic oil (8% by weight) was observed. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Regulatory Phosphorylation of Bacterial-Type PEP Carboxylase by the Ca(2+)-Dependent Protein Kinase RcCDPK1 in Developing Castor Oil Seeds.

    PubMed

    Ying, Sheng; Hill, Allyson T; Pyc, Michal; Anderson, Erin M; Snedden, Wayne A; Mullen, Robert T; She, Yi-Min; Plaxton, William C

    2017-06-01

    Phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase (PEPC) is a tightly controlled cytosolic enzyme situated at a crucial branch point of central plant metabolism. In developing castor oil seeds (Ricinus communis) a novel, allosterically desensitized 910-kD Class-2 PEPC hetero-octameric complex, arises from a tight interaction between 107-kD plant-type PEPC and 118-kD bacterial-type (BTPC) subunits. The native Ca(2+)-dependent protein kinase (CDPK) responsible for in vivo inhibitory phosphorylation of Class-2 PEPC's BTPC subunit's at Ser-451 was highly purified from COS and identified as RcCDPK1 (XP_002526815) by mass spectrometry. Heterologously expressed RcCDPK1 catalyzed Ca(2+)-dependent, inhibitory phosphorylation of BTPC at Ser-451 while exhibiting: (i) a pair of Ca(2+) binding sites with identical dissociation constants of 5.03 μM, (ii) a Ca(2+)-dependent electrophoretic mobility shift, and (iii) a marked Ca(2+)-independent hydrophobicity. Pull-down experiments established the Ca(2+)-dependent interaction of N-terminal GST-tagged RcCDPK1 with BTPC. RcCDPK1-Cherry localized to the cytosol and nucleus of tobacco bright yellow-2 cells, but colocalized with mitochondrial-surface associated BTPC-enhanced yellow fluorescent protein when both fusion proteins were coexpressed. Deletion analyses demonstrated that although its N-terminal variable domain plays an essential role in optimizing Ca(2+)-dependent RcCDPK1 autophosphorylation and BTPC transphosphorylation activity, it is not critical for in vitro or in vivo target recognition. Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) CPK4 and soybean (Glycine max) CDPKβ are RcCDPK1 orthologs that effectively phosphorylated castor BTPC at Ser-451. Overall, the results highlight a potential link between cytosolic Ca(2+) signaling and the posttranslational control of respiratory CO2 refixation and anaplerotic photosynthate partitioning in support of storage oil and protein biosynthesis in developing COS. © 2017 American Society of Plant Biologists. All

  14. Regulatory Phosphorylation of Bacterial-Type PEP Carboxylase by the Ca2+-Dependent Protein Kinase RcCDPK1 in Developing Castor Oil Seeds1[OPEN

    PubMed Central

    Hill, Allyson T.; Anderson, Erin M.; She, Yi-Min

    2017-01-01

    Phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase (PEPC) is a tightly controlled cytosolic enzyme situated at a crucial branch point of central plant metabolism. In developing castor oil seeds (Ricinus communis) a novel, allosterically desensitized 910-kD Class-2 PEPC hetero-octameric complex, arises from a tight interaction between 107-kD plant-type PEPC and 118-kD bacterial-type (BTPC) subunits. The native Ca2+-dependent protein kinase (CDPK) responsible for in vivo inhibitory phosphorylation of Class-2 PEPC’s BTPC subunit’s at Ser-451 was highly purified from COS and identified as RcCDPK1 (XP_002526815) by mass spectrometry. Heterologously expressed RcCDPK1 catalyzed Ca2+-dependent, inhibitory phosphorylation of BTPC at Ser-451 while exhibiting: (i) a pair of Ca2+ binding sites with identical dissociation constants of 5.03 μM, (ii) a Ca2+-dependent electrophoretic mobility shift, and (iii) a marked Ca2+-independent hydrophobicity. Pull-down experiments established the Ca2+-dependent interaction of N-terminal GST-tagged RcCDPK1 with BTPC. RcCDPK1-Cherry localized to the cytosol and nucleus of tobacco bright yellow-2 cells, but colocalized with mitochondrial-surface associated BTPC-enhanced yellow fluorescent protein when both fusion proteins were coexpressed. Deletion analyses demonstrated that although its N-terminal variable domain plays an essential role in optimizing Ca2+-dependent RcCDPK1 autophosphorylation and BTPC transphosphorylation activity, it is not critical for in vitro or in vivo target recognition. Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) CPK4 and soybean (Glycine max) CDPKβ are RcCDPK1 orthologs that effectively phosphorylated castor BTPC at Ser-451. Overall, the results highlight a potential link between cytosolic Ca2+ signaling and the posttranslational control of respiratory CO2 refixation and anaplerotic photosynthate partitioning in support of storage oil and protein biosynthesis in developing COS. PMID:28363991

  15. Antihepatoma activity of Artocarpus communis is higher in fractions with high artocarpin content.

    PubMed

    Tzeng, Cheng-Wei; Yen, Feng-Lin; Lin, Liang-Tzung; Lee, Chiang-Wen; Yen, Ming-Hong; Tzeng, Wen-Sheng; Lin, Chun-Ching

    2014-01-01

    Extracts from natural plants have been used in traditional medicine for many centuries worldwide. Artocarpus communis is one such plant that has been used to treat liver cirrhosis, hypertension, and diabetes. To our knowledge, this study is the first to investigate the antihepatoma activity of A. communis toward HepG2 and PLC/PRF/5 cells and the first to explore the relationship between antihepatoma activity and the active compound artocarpin content in different fractions of A. communis. A. communis methanol extract and fractions induced dose-dependent reduction of tumor cell viability. DNA laddering analysis revealed that A. communis extract and fractions did not induce apoptosis in HepG2 and PLC/PRF/5 cells. Instead, acridine orange staining revealed that A. communis triggered autophagic cell death in a dose-dependent manner. The antihepatoma activity of A. communis is attributable to artocarpin. The fractions with the highest artocarpin content were also the fractions with the highest antihepatoma activity in the following order: dichloromethane fraction > methanol extract > ethyl acetate fraction > n-butanol fraction > n-hexane fraction. Taken together, A. communis showed antihepatoma activity through autophagic cell death. The effect was related to artocarpin content. Artocarpin could be considered an indicator of the anticancer potential of A. communis extract.

  16. Antihepatoma Activity of Artocarpus communis Is Higher in Fractions with High Artocarpin Content

    PubMed Central

    Tzeng, Cheng-Wei; Yen, Feng-Lin; Lee, Chiang-Wen; Yen, Ming-Hong; Tzeng, Wen-Sheng; Lin, Chun-Ching

    2014-01-01

    Extracts from natural plants have been used in traditional medicine for many centuries worldwide. Artocarpus communis is one such plant that has been used to treat liver cirrhosis, hypertension, and diabetes. To our knowledge, this study is the first to investigate the antihepatoma activity of A. communis toward HepG2 and PLC/PRF/5 cells and the first to explore the relationship between antihepatoma activity and the active compound artocarpin content in different fractions of A. communis. A. communis methanol extract and fractions induced dose-dependent reduction of tumor cell viability. DNA laddering analysis revealed that A. communis extract and fractions did not induce apoptosis in HepG2 and PLC/PRF/5 cells. Instead, acridine orange staining revealed that A. communis triggered autophagic cell death in a dose-dependent manner. The antihepatoma activity of A. communis is attributable to artocarpin. The fractions with the highest artocarpin content were also the fractions with the highest antihepatoma activity in the following order: dichloromethane fraction > methanol extract > ethyl acetate fraction > n-butanol fraction > n-hexane fraction. Taken together, A. communis showed antihepatoma activity through autophagic cell death. The effect was related to artocarpin content. Artocarpin could be considered an indicator of the anticancer potential of A. communis extract. PMID:25133268

  17. Comparative analysis of flavonoid profile, antioxidant and antimicrobial activity of the berries of Juniperus communis L. var. communis and Juniperus communis L. var. saxatilis Pall. from Turkey.

    PubMed

    Miceli, Natalizia; Trovato, Ada; Dugo, Paola; Cacciola, Francesco; Donato, Paola; Marino, Andreana; Bellinghieri, Valentina; La Barbera, Tommaso M; Güvenç, Ayşegül; Taviano, Maria F

    2009-08-12

    The present study was designed to define and compare the flavonoid composition and the biological potential of berries methanol extracts of Juniperus communis L. var. communis (Jcc) and Juniperus communis L. var. saxatilis. Pall. (Jcs) from Turkey. Total polyphenols (Folin-Ciocalteau method) were 3-fold higher in Jcc (59.17 +/- 1.65 mg GAE/g extract) than in Jcs (17.64 +/- 0.09 mg GAE/g extract). Flavonoid and biflavonoid content, evaluated by HPLC-DAD-ESI-MS analysis, was higher in Jcc (25947 +/- 0.86 and 4346 +/- 3.95 microg/g extract) than in Jcs (5387 +/- 34.88 and 1944 +/- 26.88 microg/g extract). The HPLC analysis of Jcc allowed the separation of 16 flavonoids; hypolaetin-7-pentoside and quercetin-hexoside are the main compounds. Moreover, gossypetin-hexoside-pentoside and gossypetin-hexoside were identified for the first time in Jcc berries. In Jcs eight flavonoids were identified: quercetin-hexoside and isoscutellarein-8-O-hexoside are the most abundant compounds. The in vitro antioxidant activity was determined using different methods; Jcc was found to be more active than Jcs in the DPPH test (IC(50) of 0.63 +/- 0.09 mg/mL and 1.84 +/- 0.10 mg/mL) in reducing power assay (12.82 +/- 0.10 ASE/mL and 64.14 +/- 1.20 ASE/mL), and in TBA assay (IC(50) of 4.44 +/- 0.70 microg/mL and 120.07 +/- 3.60 microg/mL). By contrast, Jcs exhibited more elevated Fe(2+) chelating ability than Jcc. The extracts were also studied for their antimicrobial potential, displaying antimicrobial capacity only against Gram-positive bacteria.

  18. Factors Driving the Abundance of Ixodes ricinus Ticks and the Prevalence of Zoonotic I. ricinus-Borne Pathogens in Natural Foci

    PubMed Central

    Fernández-de-Mera, Isabel G.; Acevedo, Pelayo; Gortázar, Christian; de la Fuente, José

    2012-01-01

    Environmental factors may drive tick ecology and therefore tick-borne pathogen (TBP) epidemiology, which determines the risk to animals and humans of becoming infected by TBPs. For this reason, the aim of this study was to analyze the influence of environmental factors on the abundance of immature-stage Ixodes ricinus ticks and on the prevalence of two zoonotic I. ricinus-borne pathogens in natural foci of endemicity. I. ricinus abundance was measured at nine sites in the northern Iberian Peninsula by dragging the vegetation with a cotton flannelette, and ungulate abundance was measured by means of dung counts. In addition to ungulate abundance, data on variables related to spatial location, climate, and soil were gathered from the study sites. I. ricinus adults, nymphs, and larvae were collected from the vegetation, and a representative subsample of I. ricinus nymphs from each study site was analyzed by PCR for the detection of Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato and Anaplasma phagocytophilum DNA. Mean prevalences of these pathogens were 4.0% ± 1.8% and 20.5% ± 3.7%, respectively. Statistical analyses confirmed the influence of spatial factors, climate, and ungulate abundance on I. ricinus larva abundance, while nymph abundance was related only to climate. Interestingly, cattle abundance rather than deer abundance was the main driver of B. burgdorferi sensu lato and A. phagocytophilum prevalence in I. ricinus nymphs in the study sites, where both domestic and wild ungulates coexist. The increasing abundance of cattle seems to increase the risk of other hosts becoming infected by A. phagocytophilum, while reducing the risk of being infected by B. burgdorferi sensu lato. Controlling ticks in cattle in areas where they coexist with wild ungulates would be more effective for TBP control than reducing ungulate abundance. PMID:22286986

  19. Anaplasma phagocytophilum in questing Ixodes ricinus ticks in southwestern Finland.

    PubMed

    Sormunen, Jani J; Penttinen, Ritva; Klemola, Tero; Vesterinen, Eero J; Hänninen, Jari

    2016-12-01

    Anaplasma phagocytophilum is the causative agent of an emerging tick-borne disease, human granulocytic anaplasmosis. While the bacterium has been reported from questing ticks in neighboring Sweden, Norway and Russia, the few surveys regarding questing ticks in Finland have thus far been negative. In the current study, the prevalence of A. phagocytophilum in Ixodes ricinus populations was evaluated in several study localities around southwestern Finland during 2013-2014. Some of these populations were previously screened and found negative for A. phagocytophilum in 2000. A total of 3158 I. ricinus collected by blanket dragging were screened for Anaplasma spp. using qPCR. Anaplasma were detected in 9.2% of adult ticks (n = 87) and 3.1% of nymphs (n = 979). All larval samples were negative for infection. All Anaplasma-positive samples were identified as A. phagocytophilum by sequencing. This is, to the best of our knowledge, the first report of the pathogen from questing ticks in Finland. Furthermore, the pathogen was detected from several localities found negative during the previous screening 13 years earlier.

  20. Infection of Ixodes ricinus (Acari: Ixodidae) by Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato in North Africa

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Zhioua, E.; Bouattour, A.; Hu, C.M.; Gharbi, M.; Aeschliman, A.; Ginsberg, H.S.; Gern, L.

    1999-01-01

    Free-living adult Ixodes ricinus L. were collected in Amdoun, situated in the Kroumiry mountains in northwestern Tunisia (North Africa). Using direct fluorescence antibody assay, the infection rate of field-collected I. ricinus by Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato was 30.5% (n = 72). No difference in infection rate was observed between male and female ticks. Spirochetes that had been isolated from I. ricinus from Ain Drahim (Kroumiry Mountains) in 1988 were identified as Borrelia lusitaniae (formerly genospecies PotiB2). This is the first identification of a genospecies of Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato from the continent of Africa.

  1. Biocompatibility of Ricinus comunnis polymer compared to titanium implant used in artificial hearts. Experimental study in guinea pigs.

    PubMed

    Kubrusly, Luiz Fernando; Graça, Yorgos Luiz Santos de Salles; Sucharski, Enéas Eduardo; Sobral, Ana Cristina Lira; Olandoski, Marcia; Kubrusly, Fernando Bermudez

    2012-01-01

    The aim of the present investigation is to determine if the tissue reaction to the Riccinus communis (mamona) polymer has significant statistical difference compared to the tissue reaction provoked by the titanium implant. Thirty two Cavia porcellus were divided into four groups containing eight animals each one. We implanted the two types of materials in the retroperitoneal space of all the animals. They were sacrificed at 7, 20, 30 and 40 days after surgery and the samples were submitted to histological study. The quantitative analysis did not show difference between the tissue reaction of the two materials (P>0.05). The analysis of the qualitative variable also did not show difference between the tissue reaction of the materials (P>0.05). Macroscopic and microscopic results showed that the castor oil polymer implant has no significant statistical difference compared to the titanium implant tissue reaction.

  2. Characterization of myrtle seed (Myrtus communis var. baetica) as a source of lipids, phenolics, and antioxidant activities.

    PubMed

    Wannes, Wissem Aidi; Marzouk, Brahim

    2016-04-01

    This study aimed to characterize the chemical composition and antioxidant activity of the oil and the methanolic extract of Myrtus communis var. baetica seed. The oil yield of myrtle seed was 8.90%, with the amount of neutral lipid, especially triacylglycerol, being the highest, followed by phospholipids and glycolipids. Total lipids and all lipid classes were rich in linoleic acid. The content of total phenols, flavonoids, tannins, and proanthocyanidins of the methanolic extract and the oil from myrtle seed was determined using spectrophotometric methods. Antioxidant activities of the oil and the methanolic extract from myrtle seed were evaluated using 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl radical scavenging, β-carotene-linoleic acid bleaching, and reducing power and metal chelating activity assays. In all tests, the methanolic extract of myrtle seed showed better antioxidant activity than oil. This investigation could suggest the use of myrtle seed in food, industrial, and biomedical applications for its potential metabolites and antioxidant abilities. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  3. Ixodes ticks belonging to the Ixodes ricinus complex encode a family of anticomplement proteins.

    PubMed

    Daix, V; Schroeder, H; Praet, N; Georgin, J-P; Chiappino, I; Gillet, L; de Fays, K; Decrem, Y; Leboulle, G; Godfroid, E; Bollen, A; Pastoret, P-P; Gern, L; Sharp, P M; Vanderplasschen, A

    2007-04-01

    The alternative pathway of complement is an important innate defence against pathogens including ticks. This component of the immune system has selected for pathogens that have evolved countermeasures. Recently, a salivary protein able to inhibit the alternative pathway was cloned from the American tick Ixodes scapularis (Valenzuela et al., 2000; J. Biol. Chem. 275, 18717-18723). Here, we isolated two different sequences, similar to Isac, from the transcriptome of I. ricinus salivary glands. Expression of these sequences revealed that they both encode secreted proteins able to inhibit the complement alternative pathway. These proteins, called I. ricinus anticomplement (IRAC) protein I and II, are coexpressed constitutively in I. ricinus salivary glands and are upregulated during blood feeding. Also, we demonstrated that they are the products of different genes and not of alleles of the same locus. Finally, phylogenetic analyses demonstrate that ticks belonging to the Ixodes ricinus complex encode a family of relatively small anticomplement molecules undergoing diversification by positive Darwinian selection.

  4. Anaplasma spp. in wild mammals and Ixodes ricinus from the north of Spain.

    PubMed

    Portillo, Aránzazu; Pérez-Martínez, Laura; Santibáñez, Sonia; Santibáñez, Paula; Palomar, Ana M; Oteo, José A

    2011-01-01

    Our objectives were to investigate the presence of Anaplasma spp. infection in red deer, wild boars, and Ixodes ricinus removed from deer surveyed in La Rioja, as well as to analyze the presence of Anaplasma spp. in I. ricinus from different Spanish regions--ours included. A total of 21 deer and 13 wild boar blood samples as well as 295 I. ricinus removed from deer, vegetation, or asymptomatic people were tested by polymerase chain reaction targeting Anaplasma spp. 16S rRNA gene and groESL heat shock operon. Twelve deer blood samples were found to be infected with Anaplasma centrale (n = 7) or Anaplasma phagocytophilum (n = 5). No wild boar blood samples gave positive polymerase chain reaction results. Further, A. phagocytophilum was detected in 12 out of 89 I. ricinus removed from deer and in 18 out of 168 I. ricinus collected over vegetation in the North of Spain. Anaplasma spp. was not detected in any of the 38 I. ricinus removed from people. Nucleotide sequences for 16S rRNA gene showed substancial heterogeneity. The etiological agent of human anaplasmosis was found in two deer blood samples, an adult tick from deer, and a nymph from vegetation. The 16S rRNA sequences for 12 out of 35 samples matched the sequence of the Ap-variant 1 strain previously described in the United States, and the remaining 19 positive samples (deer blood and I. ricinus) showed variations with unknown significance. Although the groEL DNA sequences varied among analyzed strains, the deduced amino acid sequences did not change for any of them. This study suggests that deer population from La Rioja harbors strains of A. phagocytophilum similar to that pathogen for humans and other of unknown pathogenicity. Further, it seems that the Ap-variant 1 is circulating among I. ricinus ticks from the North of Spain more frequently than the A. phagocytophilum strain associated to human anaplasmosis.

  5. Vaccination against Bm86 Homologues in Rabbits Does Not Impair Ixodes ricinus Feeding or Oviposition

    PubMed Central

    Coumou, Jeroen; Wagemakers, Alex; Trentelman, Jos J.; Nijhof, Ard M.; Hovius, Joppe W.

    2015-01-01

    Human tick-borne diseases that are transmitted by Ixodes ricinus, such as Lyme borreliosis and tick borne encephalitis, are on the rise in Europe. Diminishing I. ricinus populations in nature can reduce tick exposure to humans, and one way to do so is by developing an anti-vector vaccine against tick antigens. Currently, there is only one anti-vector vaccine available against ticks, which is a veterinary vaccine based on the tick antigen Bm86 in the gut of Rhipicephalus microplus. Bm86 vaccine formulations cause a reduction in the number of Rhipicephalus microplus ticks that successfully feed, i.e. lower engorgement weights and a decrease in the number of oviposited eggs. Furthermore, Bm86 vaccines reduce transmission of bovine Babesia spp. Previously two conserved Bm86 homologues in I. ricinus ticks, designated as Ir86-1 and Ir86-2, were described. Here we investigated the effect of a vaccine against recombinant Ir86-1, Ir86-2 or a combination of both on Ixodes ricinus feeding. Recombinant Ixodes ricinus Bm86 homologues were expressed in a Drosophila expression system and rabbits were immunized with rIr86-1, rIr86-2, a combination of both or ovalbumin as a control. Each animal was infested with 50 female adults and 50 male adults Ixodes ricinus and tick mortality, engorgement weights and egg mass were analyzed. Although serum IgG titers against rIr86 proteins were elicited, no effect was found on tick feeding between the rIr86 vaccinated animals and ovalbumin vaccinated animals. We conclude that vaccination against Bm86 homologues in Ixodes ricinus is not an effective approach to control Ixodes ricinus populations, despite the clear effects of Bm86 vaccination against Rhipicephalus microplus. PMID:25919587

  6. Seasonal infestation of birds with immature stages of Ixodes ricinus and Ixodes arboricola.

    PubMed

    Kocianová, Elena; Rusňáková Tarageľová, Veronika; Haruštiaková, Danka; Špitalská, Eva

    2017-03-01

    This study assessed the parasitization of cavity-nesting birds and ground-nesting/foraging birds with larvae and nymphs of two Ixodes species, Ixodes ricinus and Ixodes arboricola. Totals of 679 (52.3%) I. ricinus and 619 (47.7%) I. arboricola ticks were collected from 15 species of passerine birds which were caught during the nesting and non-nesting periods of 2003-2006, in the south-eastern part of the Czech Republic, the Drahanská Vrchovina Uplands. In the non-nesting period from October to March, 6.8% (101/1492) of birds were infested with ticks, mainly with I. arboricola larvae. In the non-nesting period, the average intensity of infestation by I. arboricola and I. ricinus was 8.5 and 1.5 individuals per infested bird, respectively. In the nesting period from April to June, 21.6% (50/232) of birds were infested by both tick species but mainly with I. ricinus nymphs. The average intensity of infestation by I. ricinus and I. arboricola was 13.3 and 10.8 individuals per infested bird, respectively. Altogether, 23.2% of the infested birds were parasitized by both immature life stages of one or both tick species. From an enzootic perspective, co-feeding and co-infestation of I. ricinus and I. arboricola subadults on passerine birds might happen and may be important for the dissemination of tick-borne agents.

  7. Babesia Species Occurring in Austrian Ixodes ricinus Ticks▿

    PubMed Central

    Blaschitz, Marion; Narodoslavsky-Gföller, Melanie; Kanzler, Michaela; Stanek, Gerold; Walochnik, Julia

    2008-01-01

    Babesiosis is a tick-transmitted disease of veterinary and medical importance. The first Austrian case of human babesiosis was recently recorded. In the current study, ticks at all life cycle stages (instars), including 853 Ixodes ricinus and 11 Haemaphysalis concinna ticks, from sampling sites throughout Austria were examined for the presence of Babesia spp. by using 18S rRNA gene PCR and sequencing, and the overall mean infection rate was 51.04%. The infection rates for sampling sites were highly variable, ranging from 0% to almost 100%. Different instars and different sexes were infected almost equally. Babesia isolates occurring in Austrian ticks were identified as Babesia divergens, Babesia divergens-like, and Babesia sp. strain DD by sequencing a fragment of the heat shock protein 70 gene and internal transcribed spacer regions 1 and 2. To our knowledge, this is the first investigation of Babesia spp. in Austrian ticks. PMID:18539787

  8. Coimmunopurification of phosphorylated bacterial- and plant-type phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylases with the plastidial pyruvate dehydrogenase complex from developing castor oil seeds.

    PubMed

    Uhrig, R Glen; O'Leary, Brendan; Spang, H Elizabeth; MacDonald, Justin A; She, Yi-Min; Plaxton, William C

    2008-03-01

    The phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase (PEPC) interactome of developing castor oil seed (COS; Ricinus communis) endosperm was assessed using coimmunopurification (co-IP) followed by proteomic analysis. Earlier studies suggested that immunologically unrelated 107-kD plant-type PEPCs (p107/PTPC) and 118-kD bacterial-type PEPCs (p118/BTPC) are subunits of an unusual 910-kD hetero-octameric class 2 PEPC complex of developing COS. The current results confirm that a tight physical interaction occurs between p118 and p107 because p118 quantitatively coimmunopurified with p107 following elution of COS extracts through an anti-p107-IgG immunoaffinity column. No PEPC activity or immunoreactive PEPC polypeptides were detected in the corresponding flow-through fractions. Although BTPCs lack the N-terminal phosphorylation motif characteristic of PTPCs, Pro-Q Diamond phosphoprotein staining, immunoblotting with phospho-serine (Ser)/threonine Akt substrate IgG, and phosphate-affinity PAGE established that coimmunopurified p118 was multiphosphorylated at unique Ser and/or threonine residues. Tandem mass spectrometric analysis of an endoproteinase Lys-C p118 peptide digest demonstrated that Ser-425 is subject to in vivo proline-directed phosphorylation. The co-IP of p118 with p107 did not appear to be influenced by their phosphorylation status. Because p118 phosphorylation was unchanged 48 h following elimination of photosynthate supply due to COS depodding, the signaling mechanisms responsible for photosynthate-dependent p107 phosphorylation differ from those controlling p118's in vivo phosphorylation. A 110-kD PTPC coimmunopurified with p118 and p107 when depodded COS was used. The plastidial pyruvate dehydrogenase complex (PDC(pl)) was identified as a novel PEPC interactor. Thus, a putative metabolon involving PEPC and PDC(pl) could function to channel carbon from phosphoenolpyruvate to acetyl-coenzyme A and/or to recycle CO(2) from PDC(pl) to PEPC.

  9. Spatiotemporal dynamics of emerging pathogens in questing Ixodes ricinus

    PubMed Central

    Coipan, Elena Claudia; Jahfari, Setareh; Fonville, Manoj; Maassen, Catharina B.; van der Giessen, Joke; Takken, Willem; Takumi, Katsuhisa; Sprong, Hein

    2013-01-01

    Ixodes ricinus transmits Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato, the etiological agent of Lyme disease. Previous studies have also detected Rickettsia helvetica, Anaplasma phagocytophilum, Neoehrlichia mikurensis, and several Babesia species in questing ticks in The Netherlands. In this study, we assessed the acarological risk of exposure to several tick-borne pathogens (TBPs), in The Netherlands. Questing ticks were collected monthly between 2006 and 2010 at 21 sites and between 2000 and 2009 at one other site. Nymphs and adults were analysed individually for the presence of TBPs using an array-approach. Collated data of this and previous studies were used to generate, for each pathogen, a presence/absence map and to further analyse their spatiotemporal variation. R. helvetica (31.1%) and B. burgdorferi sensu lato (11.8%) had the highest overall prevalence and were detected in all areas. N. mikurensis (5.6%), A. phagocytophilum (0.8%), and Babesia spp. (1.7%) were detected in most, but not all areas. The prevalences of pathogens varied among the study areas from 0 to 64%, while the density of questing ticks varied from 1 to 179/100 m2. Overall, 37% of the ticks were infected with at least one pathogen and 6.3% with more than one pathogen. One-third of the Borrelia-positive ticks were infected with at least one other pathogen. Coinfection of B. afzelii with N. mikurensis and with Babesia spp. occurred significantly more often than single infections, indicating the existence of mutual reservoir hosts. Alternatively, coinfection of R. helvetica with either B. afzelii or N. mikurensis occurred significantly less frequent. The diversity of TBPs detected in I. ricinus in this study and the frequency of their coinfections with B. burgdorferi s.l., underline the need to consider them when evaluating the risks of infection and subsequently the risk of disease following a tick bite. PMID:23908971

  10. Polyphenolic compounds isolated from the leaves of Myrtus communis.

    PubMed

    Yoshimura, Morio; Amakura, Yoshiaki; Tokuhara, Mie; Yoshida, Takashi

    2008-07-01

    Four hydrolyzable tannins [oenothein B (1), eugeniflorin D(2) (2), and tellimagrandins I (3) and II (4)], two related polyphenolic compounds [gallic acid (5) and quinic acid 3,5-di-O-gallate (6)], and four myricetin glycosides [myricetins 3-O-beta-D-xyloside (7), 3-O-beta-D-galactoside (8), 3-O-beta-D-galactoside 6''-O-gallate (9), and 3-O-alpha-L-rhamnoside (10)] were isolated from the leaves of Myrtus communis. Antioxidant activities of the isolated compounds were evaluated by 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging assay.

  11. Cytotoxic phloroglucinols from the leaves of Myrtus communis.

    PubMed

    Cottiglia, Filippo; Casu, Laura; Leonti, Marco; Caboni, Pierluigi; Floris, Costantino; Busonera, Bernardetta; Farci, Pamela; Ouhtit, Aicha; Sanna, Giuseppina

    2012-02-24

    Bioactivity-guided fractionation of a dichloromethane extract of the leaves of Myrtus communis led to the isolation of phloroglucinol derivatives. The structures of the new myrtucommulones J, K, and L (1-3) and the previously known myrtucommulone A (4) were elucidated on the basis of extensive 1D and 2D NMR experiments as well as high-resolutionmass spectrometry. Myrtucommulone J was obtained as a tautomeric pair (1/1a). The compounds were tested in vitro for their cytotoxic and antibacterial activities.

  12. A review on the challenges for increassed production of castor

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The oil produced by castor (Ricinus communis) is an important raw material for chemical industry for its unique properties such as the only commercial source of a hydroxilated fatty acid that composes around 90% of the oil. This crop has a remarkable potential for increasing importance as a raw mate...

  13. Myrtus communis L. infusions: the effect of infusion time on phytochemical composition, antioxidant, and antimicrobial activities.

    PubMed

    Messaoud, Chokri; Laabidi, Abdelmonoem; Boussaid, Mohamed

    2012-09-01

    In traditional medicine, myrtle (Myrtus communis L.) is frequently consumed as an infusion and decoction. In this study, we investigate the phenolic and volatile compositions and antioxidant and antibacterial activities of leaf infusions prepared during 3 different times. The total phenolics contents (146.74 to 179.55 mg GAE/g DM) varied significantly between infusions. Eleven phenolic compounds were identified by reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography. Phenolic acids (7.64 to 14.28 μmol/g DM) and flavonol glycosides (7.05 to 12.11 μmol/g DM) were the major phenolic fractions of infusions. Significant quantitative variation in 6 phenolic components was observed between infusions. Sixteen volatile components were identified by gas chromatography (GC) and GC mass spectrometry analyses. The main constituents were 1,8-cineole (42.58% to 51.39%), α-terpineol (9.45% to 9.72%), methyl eugenol (6.69% to 7.11%), and linalool (5.91% to 6.06%). Quantitative variations of the volatile components of the analyzed oils in relation to the infusion time were observed. The antioxidant properties of infusions, assayed through DPPH (2,2- diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl) method, β-carotene bleaching test, chelating effect on ferrous ions, and ferric reducing power method, were considerable and varied according to the infusion time. Myrtle infusions exhibited a substantial antimicrobial activity against 6 tested bacteria.

  14. A castor oil-containing dental luting agent: effects of cyclic loading and storage time on flexural strength.

    PubMed

    Derceli, Juliana Dos Reis; Fais, Laiza Maria Grassi; Pinelli, Lígia Antunes Pereira

    2014-01-01

    Favorable results in the use of castor oil polyurethane (COP) as pulp capping, membrane material, sealer, mouthwash and in bone repair, associated with the fact that Ricinus communis is not derived from petroleum and it is abundant in Brazil, encourage researches in the development of luting agents. Objectives This study compared the flexural strength (FS) of a castor oil-containing dental luting agent with a weight percentage of 10% (wt%) of calcium carbonate (COP10) with RelyX ARC (RX) after mechanical cycling (MC) and distilled water storage. Material and Methods Sixty-four specimens (25x2x2 mm) were fabricated and divided into two groups, COP10 and RX (control). Each group was divided into 4 subgroups (n=8) according to the storage time, 24 hours (24 h) or 60 days (60 d), and the performance (MC+FS) or not (only FS) of the mechanical cycling test. The FS (10 kN; 0.5 mm/min) and MC tests (10,000 cycles, 5 Hz, 0.5 mm/min) were carried out using an MTS-810 machine. The data were analyzed using ANOVA (α=0.05). Results The obtained FS (MPa) values were: COP10 24h- 19.04±2.41; COP10 60d- 17.92±3.54; RX 24h- 75.19±3.43; RX 60d- 88.77±6.89. All the RX specimens submitted to MC fractured, while the values for COP10 after MC were as follows: COP10 24h- 17.90±1.87 and COP10 60d- 18.60±1.60. Conclusions A castor oil-containing dental luting agent with a weight percentage of 10% (wt%) of calcium carbonate is resistant to mechanical cycling without decreases in flexural strength. However, mean COP10 showed only about 25% of the RelyX ARC mean flexural strength.

  15. Cloning, characterization, and expression analysis of acyl-acyl carrier protein (ACP)-thioesterase B from seeds of Chinese Spicehush (Lindera communis).

    PubMed

    Dong, Shubin; Huang, Jiacong; Li, Yannan; Zhang, Jing; Lin, Shanzhi; Zhang, Zhixiang

    2014-05-25

    Acyl-acyl carrier protein (ACP) thioesterases (TE EC 3.1.2.14) are fatty acid biosynthesis key enzymes that determine fatty acid carbon chain length in most plant tissues. A full-length cDNA corresponding to one of the fatty acyl-ACP thioesterase (Fat) genes, designated LcFatB, was isolated from developing Lindera communis seeds using PCR and RACE with degenerate primers based on conserved sequences of multiple TE gene sequences obtained from GenBank. The 1788 bp cDNA had an open reading frame (ORF) of 1260 bp encoding a protein of 419 amino acids. The deduced amino acid sequence showed 61-73% identity to proteins in the FatB class of plant thioesterases. Real-time quantitative PCR analysis revealed that LcFatB was expressed in all tissues of L. communis, with the highest expression in the developing seeds 75days after flowering. Recombinant pET-MLcFatB was constructed using the pET-30 a vector and transformed into Escherichia coli BL21(DE3)△FadE, a strain that deleted the acyl-CoA dehydrogenase (FadE). SDS-PAGE analysis of proteins isolated from pET-MLcFatB E. coli cells after induction with IPTG revealed a protein band at ~40.5kDa, corresponding to the predicted size of LcFatB mature protein. The decanoic acid and lauric acid contents of the pET-MLcFatB transformant were increased significantly. These findings suggest that an LcFatB gene from a non-traditional oil-seed tree could be used to function as a saturated acyl-ACP thioesterase and could potentially be used to modify the fatty acid composition of seed oil from L. communis or other species through transgenic approaches.

  16. A computational perspective of molecular interactions through virtual screening, pharmacokinetic and dynamic prediction on ribosome toxin A chain and inhibitors of Ricinus communis

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, R. Barani; Suresh, M. Xavier

    2012-01-01

    Background: Ricin is considered to be one of the most deadly toxins and gained its favor as a bioweapon that has a serious social and biological impact, due to its widespread nature and abundant availability. The hazardous effects of this toxin in human being are seen in almost all parts of the organ system. The severe consequences of the toxin necessitate the need for developing potential inhibitors that can effectively block its interaction with the host system. Materials and Methods: In order to identify potential inhibitors that can effectively block ricin, we employed various computational approaches. In this work, we computationally screened and analyzed 66 analogs and further tested their ADME/T profiles. From the kinetic and toxicity studies we selected six analogs that possessed appropriate pharmacokinetic and dynamic property. We have also performed a computational docking of these analogs with the target. Results: On the basis of the dock scores and hydrogen bond interactions we have identified analog 64 to be the best interacting molecule. Molecule 64 seems to have stable interaction with the residues Tyr80, Arg180, and Val81. The pharmacophore feature that describes the key functional features of a molecule was also studied and presented. Conclusion: The pharmacophore features of the drugs provided suggests the key functional groups that can aid in the design and synthesis of more potential inhibitors. PMID:22224054

  17. Establishment of the U.S. castor (Ricinus communis L.) core collection using seed chemical composition analysis and genotyping with EST-SSR markers

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Natural genetic variation exists in the plant germplasm collections. Normally the germplasm collection for a specific species encompasses many accessions. Due to its large number of accessions, the entire collection is hard to handle and can’t be easily utilized. To facilitate the end-users (such as...

  18. Identification of reference genes for quantitative RT-PCR analysis of microRNAs and mRNAs in castor bean (Ricinus communis L.) under drought stress.

    PubMed

    Cassol, Daniela; Cruz, Fernanda P; Espindola, Kauê; Mangeon, Amanda; Müller, Caroline; Loureiro, Marcelo Ehlers; Corrêa, Régis L; Sachetto-Martins, Gilberto

    2016-09-01

    Quantitative real-time PCR (RT-qPCR) is one of the most powerful and sensitive techniques to the study of gene expression. Several factors influence RT-qPCR performance though, including the stability of the reference genes used for data normalization. While the selection of appropriate reference genes is crucial for accurate and reliable gene expression analysis, no suitable reference genes have been previously identified in castor bean under drought stress. In this study, the expression stability of eleven mRNAs, thirteen microRNAs (miRNAs) and one small nuclear RNA were analyzed in roots and leaves across different levels of water deficit. Three different algorithms were employed to analyze the RT-qPCR data, and the resulting outputs were merged using a non-weighted unsupervised rank aggregation method. Our analysis indicated that the Elongation factor 1-beta (EF1B), Protein phosphatase 2A (PP2A) and ADP-ribosylation factor (ADP) ranked as the best candidates across diverse samples submitted to different levels of drought conditions. EF1B and Glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH), and EF1B and SKP1/ASK-interacting protein 16 (SKIP16) were found as the most suitable reference genes for expression analysis in roots and leaves, respectively. In addition, miRNAs miR168, miR160 and miR397 were selected as optimal reference genes across all tissues and treatments. miR168 and miR156 were recommended as reference for roots, while miR168 and miR160 were recommended for leaves. Together, our results constitute the first attempt to identify and validate the most suitable reference genes for accurate normalization of gene expression in castor bean under drought stress. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS.

  19. The reactive surface of Castor leaf [Ricinus communis L.] powder as a green adsorbent for the removal of heavy metals from natural river water

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martins, Amanda E.; Pereira, Milene S.; Jorgetto, Alexandre O.; Martines, Marco A. U.; Silva, Rafael I. V.; Saeki, Margarida J.; Castro, Gustavo R.

    2013-07-01

    In this study, a green adsorbent was successfully applied to remove toxic metals from aqueous solutions. Dried minced castor leaves were fractionated into 63-μm particles to perform characterization and extraction experiments. Absorption bands in FTIR (Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy) spectra at 1544, 1232 and 1350 cm-1 were assigned to nitrogen-containing groups. Elemental analysis showed high nitrogen and sulfur content: 5.76 and 1.93%, respectively. The adsorption kinetics for Cd(II) and Pb(II) followed a pseudo-second-order model, and no difference between the experimental and calculated Nf values (0.094 and 0.05 mmol g-1 for Cd(II) and Pb(II), respectively) was observed. The Ns values calculated using the modified Langmuir equation, 0.340 and 0.327 mmol g-1 for Cd(II) and Pb(II), respectively, were superior to the results obtained for several materials in the literature. The method proposed in this study was applied to pre-concentrate (45-fold enrichment factor) and used to measure Cd(II) and Pb(II) in freshwater samples from the Paraná River. The method was validated through a comparative analysis with a standard reference material (1643e).

  20. Phytoextraction of metals and rhizoremediation of PAHs in co-contaminated soil by co-planting of Sedum alfredii with ryegrass (Lolium perenne) or castor (Ricinus communis)

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Main challenge of phytoremediation of co-contaminated soils is developing strategies for efficient and simultaneous removal of multiple pollutants. A pot experiment was conducted to investigate the potential for phytoextraction of heavy metals and rhizoremediaiton of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons...

  1. Syntheses of all the possible monomethyl ethers and several deoxyhalo analogues of methyl beta-lactoside as ligands for the Ricinus communis lectins.

    PubMed

    Fernández, P; Jiménez-Barbero, J; Martín-Lomas, M

    1994-02-17

    The synthesis of all the possible monomethyl ethers of methyl beta-lactoside (1) has been performed from 1 in a straightforward way, making use of the different reactivity of the hydroxyl groups in alkylation and stannylation reactions. In addition, the deoxyfluoro derivatives of 1 at positions, 6,3',4',epi-4', and 6' have been prepared by reaction of the appropriate substrates with diethylaminosulfur trifluoride or tetrabutylammonium fluoride. Finally, the 6-deoxyiodo and 6'-bromodeoxy analogues of 1 have also been prepared.

  2. Stable genetic transformation of castor (Ricinus communis L.) via Agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated gene transfer using embryo axes from mature seeds.

    PubMed

    Sujatha, M; Sailaja, M

    2005-03-01

    A protocol for the transformation of castor embryo axes using the pCAMBIA vector 1304 in disarmed Agrobacterium tumefaciens strain EHA105 is presented. Co-cultivated explants were initially subjected to expansion and proliferation on MS medium with 0.5 mg l(-1) TDZ followed by three cycles of selection on medium with 0.5 mg l(-1) BA and increasing concentrations of hygromycin (20-40-60 mg l(-1)). Selected shoot clusters were transferred to medium with 0.5 mg l(-1) BA for proliferation and 0.2 mg l(-1) BA for shoot elongation. Elongated shoots were rooted on half-strength MS medium with 2.0 mg l(-1) NAA. The presence and stable integration of the hpt gene was confirmed through PCR, RT-PCR, PCR-Southern blot, sequence analysis, Southern blot analysis and PCR analysis of progeny. Southern blot analysis of the primary transformants showed single copy integration and progeny analysis revealed monogenic inheritance of the introduced gene. This paper reports the first successful attempt at producing transgenic castor.

  3. Mapping IgE-binding epitopes of Ric c 1 and Ric c 3, allergens from Ricinus communis, by mast cell degranulation assay.

    PubMed

    Felix, S P; Mayerhoffer, R O; Damatta, R A; Verícimo, M A; Nascimento, V V; Machado, O L T

    2008-04-01

    Ric c 1 and Ric c 3 are the major castor bean allergens. In order to identify continuous IgE-epitopes in Ric c 1 and Ric c 3, pools of sera from rats immunized with a pool of 2S albumin from these seeds, Ric c 1 and Ric c 3 overlapping synthetic peptides, were used to screen for IgE-binding epitopes. The allergenic properties were monitored by mast cell degranulation assays, histamine quantification and human-IgE binding. Large and small chains isolated from these proteins present allergenic properties. Four continuous epitopes were identified in Ric c 3 and two in Ric c 1. This knowledge may allow the induction of protective antibody responses to antagonize the IgE recognition.

  4. Ultrastructural changes of the nodose ganglion cells following an intraneural injection of Ricinus communis agglutinin-60 into the vagus nerve in hamsters.

    PubMed

    Ling, E A; Wen, C Y; Shieh, J Y; Yick, T Y; Wong, W C

    1991-12-01

    Virtually all the ganglion cells in the nodose ganglion in hamsters underwent rapid degeneration following an intraneural injection of RCA-60 into the vagus nerve in the cervical region. The earliest signs of neuronal degeneration were evident in animals which survived 5 days after the ricin application. A remarkable feature was the appearance of a variable number of granular dense bodies measuring 1-4 microns in diameter in the cytoplasm. They were composed of closely stacked cisternae which were continuous at the periphery with those of the rough endoplasmic reticulum. Associated with the membranous cisternae were large accumulations of glycogen. With longer survival time, these glycogen-membrane complexes appeared to disintegrate. Numerous vacuoles and neurofilaments accumulated in their vicinity. Satellite cells were activated between the 7th and 10th postoperative days. These penetrated deeply into the degenerating neurons dividing them into numerous fragments by their extensive cytoplasmic prolongations. The cytoplasmic fragments of the RCA-poisoned neurons eventually became necrotic and disintegrated in the satellite cells, suggesting a rapid mode of neuronophagia. The biosynthesis of acetylcholinesterase was inhibited by the ricin injected as shown by the drastic reduction of the enzyme activity in the rough endoplasmic reticulum and nuclear envelope. Some isolated ganglion cells apparently survived the RCA injection as shown by their occurrence in long surviving animals (30-90 days). A few of them displayed an enhanced density of their cytoplasm and neurites. It is postulated that this was induced by the RCA released from the RCA-poisoned neurons.

  5. Stable genetic transformation of castor (Ricinus communis L.) via particle gun-mediated gene transfer using embryo axes from mature seeds.

    PubMed

    Sailaja, M; Tarakeswari, M; Sujatha, M

    2008-09-01

    The first successful attempt to produce stably transformed castor plants through direct gene transfer using particle gun (BioRad) is described. Decotyledonated embryos from mature seeds were germinated and the embryonic axis was induced to proliferate on Murashige and Skoog (MS) medium supplemented with 0.5 mg l(-1) thidiazuron (TDZ) and subjected to bombardment after 5-7 days of pre-incubation. The physical parameters for transient transformation were optimized using the UidA gene encoding beta-glucuronidase (GUS) as the reporter gene and with hygromycin-phosphotransferase (hptII) gene as selectable marker. Statistical analysis revealed that helium pressure, target distance, osmoticum, microcarrier type and size, DNA quantity, explant type and number of bombardments had significant influence on transformation efficiency, while the effect of genotype was non-significant. Of the different variables evaluated, embryonic axes from mature seeds, a target distance of 6.0 cm, helium pressure of 1,100 psi, 0.6 microm gold microcarriers, single time bombardment and with both pre- and post-osmoticum were found ideal. Selection of putative transformants was done on MS medium supplemented with 0.5 mg l(-1) BA and hygromycin (20, 40 and 60 mg l(-1)) for 3 cycles. The stable integration of the incorporated gene into castor genome was confirmed with PCR and Southern analysis of T0 and T1 plants. Transformation frequency in terms of plants grown to maturity and showing the presence of the introduced genes was 1.4%. The present results demonstrate the possibility of transformation of embryonic meristematic tissues of castor through particle delivery system.

  6. Experimental evidence for diel δ15N-patterns in different tissues, xylem and phloem saps of castor bean (Ricinus communis L.).

    PubMed

    Peuke, A D; Gessler, A; Tcherkez, G

    2013-12-01

    Nitrogen isotope signatures in plants might give insights in the metabolism and allocation of nitrogen. To obtain a deeper understanding of the modifications of the nitrogen isotope signatures, we determined δ(15)N in transport saps and in different fractions of leaves, axes and roots during a diel course along the plant axis. The most significant diel variations were observed in xylem and phloem saps where δ(15)N was significantly higher during the day compared with during the night. However in xylem saps, this was observed only in the canopy, but not at the hypocotyl positions. In the canopy, δ(15)N was correlated fairly well between phloem and xylem saps. These variations in δ(15)N in transport saps can be attributed to nitrate reduction in leaves during the photoperiod as well as to (15)N-enriched glutamine acting as transport form of N. δ(15)N of the water soluble fraction of roots and leaves partially affected δ(15)N of phloem and xylems saps. δ(15)N patterns are likely the result of a complex set of interactions and N-fluxes between plant organs. Furthermore, the natural nitrogen isotope abundance in plant tissue is not constant during the diel course - a fact that needs to be taken into account when sampling for isotopic studies. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  7. Development of EST-SSR markers in castor bean (Ricinus communis L.) and their utilization for genetic purity testing of hybrids.

    PubMed

    Pranavi, B; Sitaram, G; Yamini, K N; Dinesh Kumar, V

    2011-08-01

    Expressed sequence tag (EST) databases offer opportunity for the rapid development of simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers in crops. Sequence assembly and clustering of 57 895 ESTs of castor bean resulted in the identification of 10 960 unigenes (6459 singletons and 4501 contigs) having 7429 SSRs. On an average, the unigenes contained 1 SSR for every 1.23 kb of unigene sequence. The identified SSRs mostly consisted of dinucleotide (62.4%) and trinucleotide (33.5%) repeats. The AG class was the most common among the dinucleotide motifs (68.9%), whereas the AAG class (25.9%) was predominant among the trinucleotide motifs. A total of 611 primer pairs were designed for the SSRs, having repeat length more than or equal to 20 nucleotides, of which a set of 130 markers were tested and 92 of these yielding robust amplicons were analyzed for their utility in genetic purity assessment of castor bean hybrids. Nine markers were able to detect polymorphism between the parental lines of nine commercial castor bean hybrids (DCH-32, DCH-177, DCH-519, GCH-2, GCH-4, GCH-5, GCH-6, GCH-7, and RHC-1), and their utility in genetic purity testing was demonstrated. These novel EST-SSR markers would be a valuable addition to the growing molecular marker resources that could be used in genetic improvement programmes of castor bean.

  8. Seeds' physicochemical traits and mucilage protection against aluminum effect during germination and root elongation as important factors in a biofuel seed crop (Ricinus communis).

    PubMed

    Silva, Giovanni Eustáquio Alves; Ramos, Flávia Toledo; de Faria, Ana Paula; França, Marcel Giovanni Costa

    2014-10-01

    We determined the length, volume, dry biomass, and density in seeds of five castor bean cultivars and verified notable physicochemical trait differences. Seeds were then subjected to different toxic aluminum (Al) concentrations to evaluate germination, relative root elongation, and the role of root apices' rhizosphere mucilage layer. Seeds' physicochemical traits were associated with Al toxicity responses, and the absence of Al in cotyledons near to the embryo was revealed by Al-hematoxylin staining, indicating that Al did not induce significant germination reduction rates between cultivars. However, in the more sensitive cultivar, Al was found around the embryo, contributing to subsequent growth inhibition. After this, to investigate the role of mucilage in Al tolerance, an assay was conducted using NH4Cl to remove root mucilage before or after exposure to different Al concentrations. Sequentially, the roots were stained with hematoxylin and a quantitative analysis of staining intensity was obtained. These results revealed the significant contribution of the mucilage layer to Al toxicity responses in castor bean seedlings. Root growth elongation under Al toxicity confirmed the role of the mucilage layer, which jointly indicated the differential Al tolerance between cultivars and an efficient Al-exclusion mechanism in the tolerant cultivar.

  9. Morphological differentiation of Ixodes persulcatus and I. ricinus hybrid larvae in experiment and under natural conditions.

    PubMed

    Bugmyrin, Sergey V; Belova, Oxana A; Ieshko, Eugeniy P; Bespyatova, Liubov A; Karganova, Galina G

    2015-03-01

    The objective of the study was detection of hybrid larvae in Ixodes persulcatus and Ixodes ricinus cohabitation sites. To this end, the following three tasks were solved: interspecies crossing of ticks, evaluation of typical morphological signs of the hybrid larvae, and analysis of collected specimens from sites of sympatry. Under experimental conditions, hybrid larvae of I. persulcatus (female) and I. ricinus (male) were obtained that differed from the parental species by the size of setae on the scutum and alloscutum. Discriminant analysis yielded 87.5% classification accuracy for the priory set groups of I. persulcatus, I. ricinus, and hybrids. Of 88 hybrid larvae, 13 (15%) were classified as I. persulcatus and 4 (5%) as I. ricinus. We measured larvae of Ixodes ticks (n=141) collected from small mammals in 1950-1970 in Karelia in cohabitation sites of these species that were previously classified as I. persulcatus or I. ricinus. According to the results of discriminant analysis, 31 larvae (22%) were classified as hybrids with probability p≥0.52; for 10 larvae (7%), the probability of placement to the hybrid group was >0.95.

  10. The role of deer as vehicles to move ticks, Ixodes ricinus, between contrasting habitats.

    PubMed

    Ruiz-Fons, Francisco; Gilbert, Lucy

    2010-08-01

    In Europe the most important hosts maintaining Ixodes ricinus tick populations are deer. Therefore, excluding deer by fencing or culling are potential tick management tools. Here we test the hypothesis that deer act as vehicles for moving ticks between two distinct habitats: forest and open heather moorland. We utilised an ideal "natural experiment" whereby forests were either fenced or unfenced to prevent or allow deer to move between habitats. We aimed to test the hypothesis that deer cause a net movement of ticks from high tick density areas, i.e. forests, to low tick density areas, i.e. open moorland. We recorded I. ricinus and host abundance in 10 unfenced and seven fenced forests and their respective surrounding heather moorland. We found that fenced forests had fewer deer and fewer I. ricinus nymphs than unfenced forests. However, we found no evidence that fencing forests reduced I. ricinus abundance on adjacent heather moorland. Thus there was insufficient evidence for our hypothesis that deer cause a net movement of ticks from forest onto adjacent moorland. However, we found that deer abundance generally correlates with I. ricinus abundance. We conclude that fencing can be used as a tool to reduce ticks and disease risk in forests, but that fencing forests is unlikely to reduce ticks or disease risk on adjacent moorland. Instead, reducing deer numbers could be a potential tool to reduce tick abundance with implications for disease mitigation.

  11. Behavioural responses of Ixodes ricinus nymphs to carbon dioxide and rodent odour.

    PubMed

    VAN Duijvendijk, G; Gort, G; Sprong, H; Takken, W

    2017-06-01

    Many haematophagous ectoparasites use carbon dioxide (CO2 ) and host odour to detect and locate their hosts. The tick Ixodes ricinus (Linnaeus) (Ixodida: Ixodidae) walks only small distances and quests in vegetation until it encounters a host. The differential effects of CO2 and host odour on the host-finding behaviour of I. ricinus have, however, never been clarified and hence represent the subject of this study. The effects of CO2 and odour from bank voles on the activation and attraction of I. ricinus nymphs were analysed in a Y-tube olfactometer. Carbon dioxide evoked a response in the absence and presence of host odour, but did not attract nymphs. Host odour, however, did not evoke a response but did attract nymphs in the absence and presence of CO2 . The current results show that CO2 is an activator, but not an attractant, and that host odour is an attractant, but not an activator, of I. ricinus nymphs, and provide ecological insights into the host-finding behaviour of I. ricinus. © 2016 The Royal Entomological Society.

  12. Ectopic overexpression of castor bean LEAFY COTYLEDON2 (LEC2) in Arabidopsis triggers the expression of genes that encode regulators of seed maturation and oil body proteins in vegetative tissues☆

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Hyun Uk; Jung, Su-Jin; Lee, Kyeong-Ryeol; Kim, Eun Ha; Lee, Sang-Min; Roh, Kyung Hee; Kim, Jong-Bum

    2013-01-01

    The LEAFY COTYLEDON2 (LEC2) gene plays critically important regulatory roles during both early and late embryonic development. Here, we report the identification of the LEC2 gene from the castor bean plant (Ricinus communis), and characterize the effects of its overexpression on gene regulation and lipid metabolism in transgenic Arabidopsis plants. LEC2 exists as a single-copy gene in castor bean, is expressed predominantly in embryos, and encodes a protein with a conserved B3 domain, but different N- and C-terminal domains to those found in LEC2 from Arabidopsis. Ectopic overexpression of LEC2 from castor bean under the control of the cauliflower mosaic virus (CaMV) 35S promoter in Arabidopsis plants induces the accumulation of transcripts that encodes five major transcription factors (the LEAFY COTYLEDON1 (LEC1), LEAFY COTYLEDON1-LIKE (L1L), FUSCA3 (FUS3), and ABSCISIC ACID INSENSITIVE 3 (ABI3) transcripts for seed maturation, and WRINKELED1 (WRI1) transcripts for fatty acid biosynthesis), as well as OLEOSIN transcripts for the formation of oil bodies in vegetative tissues. Transgenic Arabidopsis plants that express the LEC2 gene from castor bean show a range of dose-dependent morphological phenotypes and effects on the expression of LEC2-regulated genes during seedling establishment and vegetative growth. Expression of castor bean LEC2 in Arabidopsis increased the expression of fatty acid elongase 1 (FAE1) and induced the accumulation of triacylglycerols, especially those containing the seed-specific fatty acid, eicosenoic acid (20:1Δ11), in vegetative tissues. PMID:24363987

  13. Ectopic overexpression of castor bean LEAFY COTYLEDON2 (LEC2) in Arabidopsis triggers the expression of genes that encode regulators of seed maturation and oil body proteins in vegetative tissues.

    PubMed

    Kim, Hyun Uk; Jung, Su-Jin; Lee, Kyeong-Ryeol; Kim, Eun Ha; Lee, Sang-Min; Roh, Kyung Hee; Kim, Jong-Bum

    2013-01-01

    The LEAFY COTYLEDON2 (LEC2) gene plays critically important regulatory roles during both early and late embryonic development. Here, we report the identification of the LEC2 gene from the castor bean plant (Ricinus communis), and characterize the effects of its overexpression on gene regulation and lipid metabolism in transgenic Arabidopsis plants. LEC2 exists as a single-copy gene in castor bean, is expressed predominantly in embryos, and encodes a protein with a conserved B3 domain, but different N- and C-terminal domains to those found in LEC2 from Arabidopsis. Ectopic overexpression of LEC2 from castor bean under the control of the cauliflower mosaic virus (CaMV) 35S promoter in Arabidopsis plants induces the accumulation of transcripts that encodes five major transcription factors (the LEAFY COTYLEDON1 (LEC1), LEAFY COTYLEDON1-LIKE (L1L), FUSCA3 (FUS3), and ABSCISIC ACID INSENSITIVE 3 (ABI3) transcripts for seed maturation, and WRINKELED1 (WRI1) transcripts for fatty acid biosynthesis), as well as OLEOSIN transcripts for the formation of oil bodies in vegetative tissues. Transgenic Arabidopsis plants that express the LEC2 gene from castor bean show a range of dose-dependent morphological phenotypes and effects on the expression of LEC2-regulated genes during seedling establishment and vegetative growth. Expression of castor bean LEC2 in Arabidopsis increased the expression of fatty acid elongase 1 (FAE1) and induced the accumulation of triacylglycerols, especially those containing the seed-specific fatty acid, eicosenoic acid (20:1(Δ11)), in vegetative tissues.

  14. Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato-infected Ixodes ricinus collected from vegetation near the Arctic Circle.

    PubMed

    Hvidsten, Dag; Stordal, Frode; Lager, Malin; Rognerud, Bjørg; Kristiansen, Bjørn-Erik; Matussek, Andreas; Gray, Jeremy; Stuen, Snorre

    2015-09-01

    This is the first study to determine the density of questing Ixodes ricinus in northern Norway. It was performed at two sites in Brønnøy, which has been known for its tick permissive habitats for decades and is one of the northernmost habitats with an abundant I. ricinus population in the world. From April to November 2011, all stages of host-seeking I. ricinus were collected from the two sites. The overall prevalence of nymphs infected with Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato was 21% and that of adult ticks 46%. The rates of the genospecies Borrelia afzelii, Borrelia garinii, and Borrelia valaisiana were similar to findings in most other studies in Scandinavia, with B. afzelii by far the most prevalent at 76%. The high Borrelia-infection prevalence in ticks from Brønnøy may explain the high incidence rate of reported Lyme borreliosis in the municipality.

  15. Borrelia miyamotoi in host-seeking Ixodes ricinus ticks in England.

    PubMed

    Hansford, K M; Fonville, M; Jahfari, S; Sprong, H; Medlock, J M

    2015-04-01

    This paper reports the first detection of Borrelia miyamotoi in UK Ixodes ricinus ticks. It also reports on the presence and infection rates of I. ricinus for a number of other tick-borne pathogens of public health importance. Ticks from seven regions in southern England were screened for B. miyamotoi, Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato (s.l.), Anaplasma phagocytophilum and Neoehrlichia mikurensis using qPCR. A total of 954 I. ricinus ticks were tested, 40 were positive for B. burgdorferi s.l., 22 positive for A. phagocytophilum and three positive for B. miyamotoi, with no N. mikurensis detected. The three positive B. miyamotoi ticks came from three geographically distinct areas, suggesting a widespread distribution, and from two separate years, suggesting some degree of endemicity. Understanding the prevalence of Borrelia and other tick-borne pathogens in ticks is crucial for locating high-risk areas of disease transmission.

  16. Occurrence of Ixodiphagus hookeri (Hymenoptera: Encyrtidae) in Ixodes ricinus (Acari: Ixodidae) in southern Italy.

    PubMed

    Ramos, Rafael Antonio Nascimento; Campbell, Bronwyn Evelyn; Whittle, Alice; Lia, Riccardo Paolo; Montarsi, Fabrizio; Parisi, Antonio; Dantas-Torres, Filipe; Wall, Richard; Otranto, Domenico

    2015-04-01

    Natural enemies of ticks include the parasitoid wasp Ixodiphagus hookeri (Hymenoptera: Encyrtidae). The aim of this preliminary study was to investigate the occurrence of I. hookeri DNA in a community of ticks (Ixodes ricinus, Dermacentor marginatus, Hyalomma marginatum, Haemaphysalis inermis and Rhipicephalus turanicus). From May 2010 to March 2012, ticks were collected monthly by dragging and flagging, identified, and 481 adults and 305 nymphs screened molecularly for infection with I. hookeri. Of the samples tested (n=786), 3.1% (n=25) were positive for I. hookeri DNA, 7.2% (n=22) in nymphs and 0.6% (n=3) in adults. I. hookeri DNA was only detected in I. ricinus. This study shows that I. hookeri infests I. ricinus in southern Italy, with nymphs being the main developmental stage affected by this wasp.

  17. Hedgehog inhibitors from Artocarpus communis and Hyptis suaveolens.

    PubMed

    Arai, Midori A; Uchida, Kyoko; Sadhu, Samir K; Ahmed, Firoj; Koyano, Takashi; Kowithayakorn, Thaworn; Ishibashi, Masami

    2015-08-01

    The hedgehog (Hh) signaling pathway plays crucial roles in cell maintenance and proliferation during embryonic development. Naturally occurring Hh inhibitors were isolated from Artocarpus communis and Hyptis suaveolens using our previously constructed cell-based assay system. Bioactivity guided fractionation led to the isolation of 15 compounds, including seven new compounds (4, 5, 6, 7, and 9-11). The isolated compounds showed cytotoxicity against a cancer cell line (PANC1) in which Hh signaling was abnormally activated. Several compounds (12-14; GLI1 transcriptional inhibition IC50=7.6, 4.7, and 4.0 μM, respectively) inhibited Hh related protein (BCL2) expression. Moreover, compounds 1, 12, and 13 disrupted GLI1 and DNA complex formation. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Antioxidant activity of oligomeric acylphloroglucinols from Myrtus communis L.

    PubMed

    Rosa, Antonella; Deiana, Monica; Casu, Viviana; Corona, Giulia; Appendino, Giovanni; Bianchi, Federica; Ballero, Mauro; Dessì, M Assunta

    2003-09-01

    The use of myrtle (Myrtus communis L.) as a culinary spice and as a flavoring agent for alcoholic beverages is widespread in the Mediterranean area, and especially in Sardinia. Myrtle contains unique oligomeric non-prenylated acylphloroglucinols, whose antioxidant activity was investigated in various systems. Both semimyrtucommulone (1) and myrtucommulone A (2) showed powerful antioxidant properties, protecting linoleic acid against free radical attack in simple in vitro systems, inhibiting its autoxidation and its FeCl3- and EDTA-mediated oxidation. While both compounds lacked pro-oxidant activity, semimyrtucommulone was more powerful than myrtucommulone A, and was further evaluated in rat liver homogenates for activity against lipid peroxidation induced by ferric-nitrilotriacetate, and in cell cultures for cytotoxicity and the inhibition of TBH- or FeCl3-induced oxidation. The results of these studies established semimyrtucommulone as a novel dietary antioxidant lead.

  19. Competitive interactions between a native spider (Frontinella communis, Araneae: Linyphiidae) and an invasive spider (Linyphia triangularis, Araneae: Linyphiidae)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bednarski, Julie V.; Ginsberg, Howard S.; Jakob, Elizabeth M.

    2010-01-01

    There are numerous reports of spiders that have become established outside of their native ranges, but few studies examine their impact on native spiders. We examined the effect of the European hammock spider Linyphia triangularis (Araneae, Linyphiidae) on the native bowl-and-doily spider Frontinella communis (Araneae, Linyphiidae) in Acadia National Park, Maine, USA. First, we added L. triangularis to established plots of F. communis. Significantly more F. communis abandoned their webs when L. triangularis were added compared to control plots. Second, we tested whether F. communis were deterred from building webs in areas where L. triangularis was established. Significantly fewer F. communis built webs on plots with L. triangularis than on control plots. In both experiments, L. triangularis sometimes took over webs of F. communis or incorporated F. communis webs into their own webs, but F. communisnever took over or incorporated L. triangularis webs. Competition between L. triangularis and F. communis for both webs and web sites may contribute to the decline of F. communis.

  20. Substrate prediction of Ixodes ricinus salivary lipocalins differentially expressed during Borrelia afzelii infection

    PubMed Central

    Valdés, James J.; Cabezas-Cruz, Alejandro; Sima, Radek; Butterill, Philip T.; Růžek, Daniel; Nuttall, Patricia A.

    2016-01-01

    Evolution has provided ticks with an arsenal of bioactive saliva molecules that counteract host defense mechanisms. This salivary pharmacopoeia enables blood-feeding while enabling pathogen transmission. High-throughput sequencing of tick salivary glands has thus become a major focus, revealing large expansion within protein encoding gene families. Among these are lipocalins, ubiquitous barrel-shaped proteins that sequester small, typically hydrophobic molecules. This study was initiated by mining the Ixodes ricinus salivary gland transcriptome for specific, uncharacterized lipocalins: three were identified. Differential expression of these I. ricinus lipocalins during feeding at distinct developmental stages and in response to Borrelia afzelii infection suggests a role in transmission of this Lyme disease spirochete. A phylogenetic analysis using 803 sequences places the three I. ricinus lipocalins with tick lipocalins that sequester monoamines, leukotrienes and fatty acids. Both structural analysis and biophysical simulations generated robust predictions showing these I. ricinus lipocalins have the potential to bind monoamines similar to other tick species previously reported. The multidisciplinary approach employed in this study characterized unique lipocalins that play a role in tick blood-feeding and transmission of the most important tick-borne pathogen in North America and Eurasia. PMID:27584086

  1. Ixodes ricinus and Borrelia prevalence at the Arctic Circle in Norway.

    PubMed

    Hvidsten, Dag; Stuen, Snorre; Jenkins, Andrew; Dienus, Olaf; Olsen, Renate S; Kristiansen, Bjørn-Erik; Mehl, Reidar; Matussek, Andreas

    2014-03-01

    The distribution limit of Ixodes ricinus ticks in northwestern Europe (Brønnøy, Norway, 1° south of the Arctic Circle), has been known since the 1930s. To reconfirm this finding and extend studies in the areas adjacent to the Arctic Circle (66°33' N), ticks were collected from dogs and cats in 8 districts in northern Norway from 64°56' N to 68°48' N. We detected 549 I. ricinus, 244 (44%) of them in Brønnøy district, and 305 (range 6-87 ticks) in 7 districts in the northern part of the study area. The prevalence of Borrelia in these ticks was determined by real-time PCR. In the Brønnøy district (65°28' N, 12°12' E), 29% of the I. ricinus were Borrelia spp.-positive, and the species B. afzelii was nearly twice as prevalent as B. garinii and/or B. valaisiana. In the study area north of Brønnøy district, only 12 (4%) of the collected ticks contained Borrelia spp. In conclusion, tick occurrence and Borrelia prevalence are high in the Brønnøy district. In contrast, I. ricinus occurrence and Borrelia prevalence are low further north across the Arctic Circle in Norway.

  2. Substrate prediction of Ixodes ricinus salivary lipocalins differentially expressed during Borrelia afzelii infection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Valdés, James J.; Cabezas-Cruz, Alejandro; Sima, Radek; Butterill, Philip T.; Růžek, Daniel; Nuttall, Patricia A.

    2016-09-01

    Evolution has provided ticks with an arsenal of bioactive saliva molecules that counteract host defense mechanisms. This salivary pharmacopoeia enables blood-feeding while enabling pathogen transmission. High-throughput sequencing of tick salivary glands has thus become a major focus, revealing large expansion within protein encoding gene families. Among these are lipocalins, ubiquitous barrel-shaped proteins that sequester small, typically hydrophobic molecules. This study was initiated by mining the Ixodes ricinus salivary gland transcriptome for specific, uncharacterized lipocalins: three were identified. Differential expression of these I. ricinus lipocalins during feeding at distinct developmental stages and in response to Borrelia afzelii infection suggests a role in transmission of this Lyme disease spirochete. A phylogenetic analysis using 803 sequences places the three I. ricinus lipocalins with tick lipocalins that sequester monoamines, leukotrienes and fatty acids. Both structural analysis and biophysical simulations generated robust predictions showing these I. ricinus lipocalins have the potential to bind monoamines similar to other tick species previously reported. The multidisciplinary approach employed in this study characterized unique lipocalins that play a role in tick blood-feeding and transmission of the most important tick-borne pathogen in North America and Eurasia.

  3. Lack of Bartonella sp. in 167 Ixodes ricinus ticks collected in central Sweden.

    PubMed

    La Scola, Bernard; Holmberg, Martin; Raoult, Didier

    2004-01-01

    Sudden death in Swedish orienteers was demonstrated to be significantly associated with antibodies to Bartonella sp. To test if these antibodies could be related with tick exposure, we searched Bartonella sp. in Ixodes ricinus ticks using specific PCR amplification and culture. No Bartonella sp. was detected in 167 ticks tested.

  4. Loss of Lyme disease spirochetes from Ixodes ricinus ticks feeding on European blackbirds.

    PubMed

    Matuschka, F R; Spielman, A

    1992-03-01

    To determine whether blackbirds (Turdus merula), the most abundant and most abundantly tick-infested ecotonal bird of Central Europe, may contribute to the transmission of the Lyme disease spirochete (Borrelia burgdorferi), we compared the infectivity to ticks of naturally as well as experimentally infected blackbirds and rodents. European blackbirds experience intense exposure to Ixodes ricinus ticks and to the pathogens that they transmit. In nature, subadult I. ricinus ticks found feeding on these birds generally contain no spirochetes, although infection is universal in those found on black-striped mice (Apodemus agrarius). Those found on yellow-necked mice (A. flavicollis) are less frequently infected. Ticks lose infection in the course of feeding on blackbirds and fail to infect them. Subadult I. ricinus ticks readily feed on blackbirds, black-striped mice, and jirds (Meriones unguiculatus), but engorge less fully on the bird than on the rodents. Although birds may burden human health by establishing new infestations of I. ricinus ticks, our observations indicate that particular birds may benefit health by locally diminishing transmission of the Lyme disease spirochete.

  5. Toxin content of commercial castor cultivars

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The castor plant Ricinus communis L. is the source of castor oil which has numerous uses and is a key chemical feedstock for an array of products from polymers to cosmetics. Although castor was once widely grown throughout the world, the presence of the toxic protein ricin has deterred the re-introd...

  6. 21 CFR 172.510 - Natural flavoring substances and natural substances used in conjunction with flavors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... Eberm Safrole free Cascara sagrada Rhamnus purshiana DC Cassie flowers Acacia farnesiana (L.) Willd Castor oil Ricinus communis L Catechu, black Acacia catechu Willd Cedar, white (aborvitae), leaves and...) flowers Acacia decurrens Willd. var. dealbata Mullein flowers Verbascum phlomoides L. or V....

  7. Tick vectors of Cercopithifilaria bainae in dogs: Rhipicephalus sanguineus sensu lato versus Ixodes ricinus.

    PubMed

    Ramos, Rafael Antonio Nascimento; Giannelli, Alessio; Brianti, Emanuele; Annoscia, Giada; Cantacessi, Cinzia; Dantas-Torres, Filipe; Otranto, Domenico

    2013-08-01

    Recently, dermal microfilariae of a Cercopithifilaria species (Spirurida, Onchocercidae), namely Cercopithifilaria bainae , were detected in dogs from several geographical areas of the Mediterranean basin. Evidence from both laboratory and field studies support the role of the brown dog tick, Rhipicephalus sanguineus sensu lato, as an intermediate host of this nematode. In the present study, we investigated the competence of Ixodes ricinus nymphs as vectors of C. bainae. On November 2012, fully engorged nymphs of I. ricinus (n = 174) and R. sanguineus s.l. (n = 10) were collected from a dog infected by C. bainae. The presence of C. bainae in I. ricinus was assessed by both microscopic dissection of specimens and detection of nematode DNA (PCR), at days 3, 10, 20 and 30 (T1-T4) post-collection; due to the small number of specimens available, R. sanguineus s.l. were examined using the same methods at T4 only. No developing larva of C. bainae was detected in I. ricinus specimens at different time points (T1-T4), even if four of these specimens were PCR-positive at T1. Seven out of ten R. sanguineus s.l. were positive for C. bainae third-stage larvae (L3) at both microscopical and molecular analysis at T4. This study indicates that C. bainae does not develop in I. ricinus nymphs, which preclude the role of this tick as an intermediate host of this parasite. Data presented herein provide new insights into the biology of this filarioid species and will lead to a better understanding of the role of different tick species as vectors of nematodes.

  8. Enantiomeric and non-enantiomeric monoterpenes of Juniperus communis L. and Juniperus oxycedrus needles and berries determined by HS-SPME and enantioselective GC/MS.

    PubMed

    Foudil-Cherif, Yazid; Yassaa, Noureddine

    2012-12-01

    For the first time, enantiomeric and non-enantiomeric distribution of monoterpenes in the headspace of Juniperus communis L. and Juniperus oxycedrus needles and berries has been determined using HS-SPME combined with enantioselective GC/MS. The essential oils from needles and berries of both Juniperus species obtained by hydrodistillation were also performed. HS-SPME has shown good potential to reproduce the same results as the commonly used hydrodistillation extraction technique. While needles and berries of J. communis showed high contents of sabinene, α-pinene and β-myrcene with 19-30%, 12-24% and 9-20%, respectively, J. oxycedrus was strongly dominated by α-pinene with 85-92% in both needles and berries. Large variations in chiral distribution of monoterpenes within the same plant species and between the two junipers were observed. Interestingly, similar enantiomeric preferences of monoterpenes were obtained between needles and berries of the two junipers. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Artocarpus communis Induces Autophagic Instead of Apoptotic Cell Death in Human Hepatocellular Carcinoma Cells.

    PubMed

    Tzeng, Cheng-Wei; Tzeng, Wen-Sheng; Lin, Liang-Tzung; Lee, Chiang-Wen; Yen, Ming-Hong; Yen, Feng-Lin; Lin, Chun-Ching

    2015-01-01

    For centuries, natural plant extracts have played an important role in traditional medicine for curing and preventing diseases. Studies have revealed that Artocarpus communis possess various bioactivities, such as anti-inflammation, anti-oxidant, and anticancer activities. A. communis offers economic value as a source of edible fruit, yields timber, and is widely used in folk medicines. However, little is known about its molecular mechanisms of anticancer activity. Here, we demonstrate the antiproliferative activity of A. communis methanol extract (AM) and its dichloromethane fraction (AD) in two human hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) cell lines, HepG2 and PLC/PRF/5. Colony assay showed the long-term inhibitory effect of both extracts on cell growth. DNA laddering and immunoblotting analyses revealed that both extracts did not induce apoptosis in the hepatoma cell lines. AM and AD-treated cells demonstrated different cell cycle distribution compared to UV-treated cells, which presented apoptotic cell death with high sub-G1 ratio. Instead, acridine orange staining revealed that AM and AD triggered autophagosome accumulation. Immunoblotting showed a significant expression of autophagy-related proteins, which indicated the autophagic cell death (ACD) of hepatoma cell lines. This study therefore demonstrates that A. communis AM and its dichloromethane fraction can induce ACD in HCC cells and elucidates the potential of A. communis extracts for development as anti tumor therapeutic agents that utilize autophagy as mechanism in mediating cancer cell death.

  10. In vitro propagation of ornamental myrtus (Myrtus communis).

    PubMed

    Ruffoni, Barbara; Mascarello, Carlo; Savona, Marco

    2010-01-01

    The Myrtle (Myrtus communis L.) is an evergreen shrub typical of the Mediterranean area; it is an interesting plant with multipurpose use. The ornamental use takes into account the production of green cut branches for indoor decoration and production of pot plants for gardening. In this species, there is a great variability in the natural germplasm around the Mediterranean coasts for type and size of fruit, plant architecture, leaf size and internode length. Selected genotypes have been successfully sterilized and cultured in vitro. The shoots were multiplied on MS (16) salts and vitamins, with 0.5 mg/L BA and 0.2 mg/L IAA. Clones showed variation of multiplication rate and rooting percentage. IAA or IBA at 0.5 mg/L increased the rooting percentage and noticed differences in root number and length. The sucrose concentration can affect rooting, such as light intensity during the in vitro rooting phase can modulate biomass production and chlorophyll content. The combination of these factors enhanced the frequency rate of acclimatization.

  11. ToF-SIMS PCA analysis of Myrtus communis L.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Piras, F. M.; Dettori, M. F.; Magnani, A.

    2009-06-01

    Nowadays there is a growing interest of researchers for the application of sophisticated analytical techniques in conjunction with statistical data analysis methods to the characterization of natural products to assure their authenticity and quality, and for the possibility of direct analysis of food to obtain maximum information. In this work, time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectrometry (ToF-SIMS) in conjunction with principal components analysis (PCA) are applied to study the chemical composition and variability of Sardinian myrtle ( Myrtus communis L.) through the analysis of both berries alcoholic extracts and berries epicarp. ToF-SIMS spectra of berries epicarp show that the epicuticular waxes consist mainly of carboxylic acids with chain length ranging from C20 to C30, or identical species formed from fragmentation of long-chain esters. PCA of ToF-SIMS data from myrtle berries epicarp distinguishes two groups characterized by a different surface concentration of triacontanoic acid. Variability in antocyanins, flavonols, α-tocopherol, and myrtucommulone contents is showed by ToF-SIMS PCA analysis of myrtle berries alcoholic extracts.

  12. Phytotoxicity of chlorinated benzenes to Typha angustifolia and Phragmites communis.

    PubMed

    Ma, Xingmao; Havelka, Megan M

    2009-02-01

    Healthy growth of plants is a prerequisite for successful application of phytoremediation technologies. Typha angustifolia and Phragmites communis are common wetland plants and have shown potential for phytoremediation of hexachlorobenzene (HCB). However, the lack of phytotoxicity data impedes their application in field sites. This study investigated the phytotoxicity of HCB, and its two metabolites: 1,3,5-trichlorobenzene (1,3,5-TCB) and 1,4-dichlorobenzene (1,4-DCB) to Typha and the phytotoxicity of 1,3,5-TCB to Phragmites. The phytotoxicity of 1,3,5-TCB is species-dependent, with Typha demonstrating significantly higher tolerance than Phragmites. The concentration of 1,3,5-TCB causing zero growth of Phragmites was determined to be 1575 mg TCB/kg dry sediment. The concentration has to be doubled to completely inhibit the growth of Typha. Adverse effects of chlorinated benzenes in sediments on Typha increased with decreasing chlorine atoms. The concentrations causing zero growth of Typha are 5765 mg HCB/kg dry soil, 3157 mg 1,3,5-TCB/kg dry soil, and 1325 mg 1,4-DCB/kg dry soil. The higher toxicity of 1,4-DCB than 1,3,5-TCB and HCB in sediment was ascribed to its higher availability and easiness to be taken up by plants. The conclusion was supported by both growth rate calculations and plant height measurements. (c) 2008 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Environ Toxicol, 2009.

  13. Calcium effects on stomatal movement in Commelina communis L

    SciTech Connect

    Schwartz, A.; Ilan, N.; Grantz, D.A. )

    1988-07-01

    Stomatal movements depends on both ion influx and efflux: attainment of steady state apertures reflects modulation of either or both processes. The role of Ca{sup 2+} in those two processes was investigated in isolated epidermal strips of Commelina communis, using the Ca{sup 2+} chelator EGTA to reduce apoplastic (Ca{sup 2+}). The results suggest that a certain concentration of Ca{sup 2+} is an absolute requirement for salt efflux and stomatal closure. EGTA (2 millimolar) increased KCl-dependent stomatal opening in darkness and completely inhibited the dark-induced closure of initially open stomata. Closure was inhibited even in a KCl-free medium. Thus, maintenance of stomata in the open state does not necessarily depend on continued K{sup +} influx but on the inhibition of salt efflux. Opening in the dark was stimulated by IAA in a concentration-dependent manner, up to 15.4 micrometer without reaching saturation, while the response to EGTA leveled off at 9.2 micrometer. IAA did not inhibit stomatal closure to the extent it stimulated opening. The response to IAA is thus consistent with a primary stimulation of opening, while EGTA can be considered a specific inhibitor of stomatal closing since it inhibits closure to a much larger degree than it stimulates opening. CO{sub 2} causes concentration-dependent reduction in the steady state stomatal aperture. EGTA completely reversed CO{sub 2}-induced closing of open stomata but only partially prevented the inhibition of opening.

  14. Ixodes ricinus immunogenic saliva protein, homologue to Amblyomma americanum AV422: Determining its potential for use in tick bite confirmation.

    PubMed

    Mihaljica, Darko; Marković, Dragana; Radulović, Željko; Mulenga, Albert; Ćakić, Sanja; Sukara, Ratko; Samardžić, Jelena; Tomanović, Snežana

    2017-03-01

    Tick bites often go unnoticed, so specific reliable tests are needed to confirm them for prompt diagnosis and treatment of tick-borne diseases. One of the promising candidates for developing such a test is AV422, a tick saliva protein that has been conserved across tick genera. In this study, we demonstrate the potential of the AV422 homologue from Ixodes ricinus to be used for tick bite detection for both Prostriata and Metastriata. We expressed recombinant (r) I. ricinus (Ir) AV422 in E. coli and subjected it to Western blot analysis using rat antibodies to saliva proteins of both I. ricinus (Prostriata) and Dermacentor reticulatus (Metastriata) larvae. Our data demonstrate that rIrAV422 specifically bound to antibodies from sera of rats used for both I. ricinus and D. reticulatus larvae feeding, but not to antibodies from control serum, emphasizing its specificity since tick bites were the sole cause of sera reactivity.

  15. Biochemical compositional and technological characterizations of black and white myrtle ( Myrtus communis L.) fruits.

    PubMed

    Hacıseferoğulları, Haydar; Ozcan, Mehmet Musa; Arslan, Derya; Unver, Ahmet

    2012-02-01

    Biochemical and technological properties were determined in developing Myrtus communis L. fruits (myrtle) from Mersin to investigate potential uses. Completely ripe black and white fruits contained ash, crude protein, crude oil, water- and alcohol soluble extracts, tartaric, malic and citric acids, and minerals including Ca, K, P, Mg and Na. Proximate compounds (%) for black and white fruits were: 7.47 and 6.36 protein, 3.487 and 3.453 oil, 3.02 and 2.30 ash, 24.28 and 26.09 dry matter, respectively. Fruits were found to be rich in some minerals such as Ca (6719.88 mg/kg and 4676.14 mg/kg), K (22647.78 mg/kg and 18339.84 mg/kg), Mg (2145.19 mg/kg and 1408.88 mg/kg), Na (3336.16 mg/kg and 2976.59 mg/kg) and P (4336.07 mg/kg and 3927.4 mg/kg). Also, physical properties such as length (14.94 mm and 13.64 mm), mass (0.94 g and 0.94 g), geometric mean diameter (12.73 mm and 12.31 mm), sphericity (0.85 and 0.90), diameter (11.76 and 11.70), projected area (1.48 cm(2) and 1.65 cm(2)), kernel density (757.47 kg/m(3)and 752.09 kg/m(3)), porosity (41.41% and 39.05%), bulk density (426.50 kg/m(3) and 431.05 kg/m(3)), terminal velocity (8.42 m/s and 8.49 m/s), volume (1.32 mm(3) and 1.35 mm(3)), repture strenth (1.77 N and 2.06 N), static (0.26-0.33 and 0.20-0.28) and dynamic coefficient (0.22-0.29 and 0.17-0.24) of friction of black myrtle and white myrtle fruits species were measured at 75.72% and 73.91% moisture content levels, respectively. These results show that both myrtle fruits may be useful for the evaluation of dietary information in important food crops.

  16. Comparative population dynamics of a generalist (Ixodes ricinus) and specialist tick (I. hexagonus) species from European hedgehogs.

    PubMed

    Pfäffle, M; Petney, T; Skuballa, J; Taraschewski, H

    2011-06-01

    Although the population dynamics of the tick Ixodes ricinus are relatively well studied, those of other Western European tick species are largely unknown. Moreover, there is very little information related to the interactions between I. ricinus and other ticks. Such knowledge, however, is of special interest in respect to the epidemiology of tick-borne pathogens such as Borrelia spp. We compared the dynamics of the generalist I. ricinus with the nest-dwelling hedgehog specialist, I. hexagonus. Both species were collected from hedgehogs from a naturally infested experimental population between 2006 and 2008. Ticks were collected once a month from March to October from each hedgehog counted and the life history stage and species determined. All hedgehogs harboured both tick species. Nymphs, females and males of I. ricinus showed clear bimodal seasonal distributions with peaks in spring and autumn, while larvae peaked only in summer. The density of I. hexagonus life stages was low during the whole investigation period and seasonal fluctuations of population density were much weaker compared to I. ricinus. Nymphs and larvae showed comparatively little change in population size and no consistent period of peak density. Females showed a single peak in summer and males were found only occasionally on hedgehogs. We suggest density-dependent mechanisms regulating the population density of the specialist I. hexagonus but not of the generalist I. ricinus.

  17. Environmental drivers of Ixodes ricinus abundance in forest fragments of rural European landscapes.

    PubMed

    Ehrmann, Steffen; Liira, Jaan; Gärtner, Stefanie; Hansen, Karin; Brunet, Jörg; Cousins, Sara A O; Deconchat, Marc; Decocq, Guillaume; De Frenne, Pieter; De Smedt, Pallieter; Diekmann, Martin; Gallet-Moron, Emilie; Kolb, Annette; Lenoir, Jonathan; Lindgren, Jessica; Naaf, Tobias; Paal, Taavi; Valdés, Alicia; Verheyen, Kris; Wulf, Monika; Scherer-Lorenzen, Michael

    2017-09-06

    The castor bean tick (Ixodes ricinus) transmits infectious diseases such as Lyme borreliosis, which constitutes an important ecosystem disservice. Despite many local studies, a comprehensive understanding of the key drivers of tick abundance at the continental scale is still lacking. We analyze a large set of environmental factors as potential drivers of I. ricinus abundance. Our multi-scale study was carried out in deciduous forest fragments dispersed within two contrasting rural landscapes of eight regions, along a macroclimatic gradient stretching from southern France to central Sweden and Estonia. We surveyed the abundance of I. ricinus, plant community composition, forest structure and soil properties and compiled data on landscape structure, macroclimate and habitat properties. We used linear mixed models to analyze patterns and derived the relative importance of the significant drivers. Many drivers had, on their own, either a moderate or small explanatory value for the abundance of I. ricinus, but combined they explained a substantial part of variation. This emphasizes the complex ecology of I. ricinus and the relevance of environmental factors for tick abundance. Macroclimate only explained a small fraction of variation, while properties of macro- and microhabitat, which buffer macroclimate, had a considerable impact on tick abundance. The amount of forest and the composition of the surrounding rural landscape were additionally important drivers of tick abundance. Functional (dispersules) and structural (density of tree and shrub layers) properties of the habitat patch played an important role. Various diversity metrics had only a small relative importance. Ontogenetic tick stages showed pronounced differences in their response. The abundance of nymphs and adults is explained by the preceding stage with a positive relationship, indicating a cumulative effect of drivers. Our findings suggest that the ecosystem disservices of tick-borne diseases, via the

  18. Chewing lice of genus Ricinus (Phthiraptera, Ricinidae) deposited at the Zoological Institute of the Russian Academy of Sciences, Saint Petersburg, Russia, with description of a new species.

    PubMed

    Valan, Miroslav; Sychra, Oldrich; Literak, Ivan

    2016-01-01

    We revised a collection of chewing lice deposited at the Zoological Institute of the Russian Academy of Sciences, Saint Petersburg, Russia. We studied 60 slides with 107 specimens of 10 species of the genus Ricinus (De Geer, 1778). The collection includes lectotype specimens of Ricinus ivanovi Blagoveshtchensky, 1951 and of Ricinus tugarinovi Blagoveshtchensky, 1951. We registered Ricinus elongatus Olfers, 1816 ex Turdus ruficollis, R. ivanovi ex Leucosticte tephrocotis and Ricinus serratus (Durrant, 1906) ex Calandrella acutirostris and Calandrella cheleensis which were not included in Price's world checklist. New records for Russia are R. elongatus ex Turdus ruficollis; Ricinus fringillae De Geer, 1778 ex Emberiza aureola, Emberiza leucocephalos, Emberiza rustica, Passer montanus and Prunella modularis; Ricinus rubeculae De Geer, 1778 ex Erithacus rubecula and Luscinia svecica; Ricinus serratus (Durrant, 1906) ex Alauda arvensis. New records for Kyrgyzstan are R. fringillae ex E. leucocephalos and ex Fringilla coelebs. A new record for Tajikistan is R. serratus ex Calandrella acutirostris. The new species Ricinus vaderi Valan n. sp. is described with Calandra lark, Melanocorypha calandra; from Azerbaijan, as a type host.

  19. Chewing lice of genus Ricinus (Phthiraptera, Ricinidae) deposited at the Zoological Institute of the Russian Academy of Sciences, Saint Petersburg, Russia, with description of a new species

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    We revised a collection of chewing lice deposited at the Zoological Institute of the Russian Academy of Sciences, Saint Petersburg, Russia. We studied 60 slides with 107 specimens of 10 species of the genus Ricinus (De Geer, 1778). The collection includes lectotype specimens of Ricinus ivanovi Blagoveshtchensky, 1951 and of Ricinus tugarinovi Blagoveshtchensky, 1951. We registered Ricinus elongatus Olfers, 1816 ex Turdus ruficollis, R. ivanovi ex Leucosticte tephrocotis and Ricinus serratus (Durrant, 1906) ex Calandrella acutirostris and Calandrella cheleensis which were not included in Price’s world checklist. New records for Russia are R. elongatus ex Turdus ruficollis; Ricinus fringillae De Geer, 1778 ex Emberiza aureola, Emberiza leucocephalos, Emberiza rustica, Passer montanus and Prunella modularis; Ricinus rubeculae De Geer, 1778 ex Erithacus rubecula and Luscinia svecica; Ricinus serratus (Durrant, 1906) ex Alauda arvensis. New records for Kyrgyzstan are R. fringillae ex E. leucocephalos and ex Fringilla coelebs. A new record for Tajikistan is R. serratus ex Calandrella acutirostris. The new species Ricinus vaderi Valan n. sp. is described with Calandra lark, Melanocorypha calandra; from Azerbaijan, as a type host. PMID:26902646

  20. Leucoplast Pyruvate Kinase from Developing Castor Oil Seeds : Characterization of the Enzyme's Degradation by a Cysteine Endopeptidase.

    PubMed

    Plaxton, W C

    1991-12-01

    Leucoplast pyruvate kinase (PK(p); EC 2.7.1.40) from endosperm of developing castor oil seeds (Ricinus communis L. cv Baker 296) appears to be highly susceptible to limited degradation by a cysteine endopeptidase during the purification of the enzyme or incubation of clarified homogenates at 4 degrees C. Purified castor seed PK(p) was previously reported to consist of immunologically related 57.5 and 44 kilodalton subunits (Plaxton WC, Dennis DT, Knowles VL [1990] Plant Physiol 94: 1528-1534). By contrast, immunoreactive polypeptides of about 63.5 and 54 kilodaltons were observed when a western blot of an extract prepared under denaturing conditions was probed with affinity purified rabbit anti-(castor seed PK(p)) immunoglobulin G. Proteolytic activity against PK(p) was estimated by the disappearance of the 63.5 and 54 kilodalton subunits and the concomitant appearance of lower molecular mass immunoreactive degradation products during the incubation of clarified homogenates at 4 degrees C. The presence of 2 millimolar dithiothreitol accelerated the degradation of PK(p). The conservation of the 63.5 and 54 kilodalton subunits was observed after extraction of the enzyme in the presence of 1 millimolar p-hydroxymecuribenzoate, or 1 millimolar Nalpha-p-tosyl-l-lysine chloromethyl ketone, or 10 millimolar iodoacetate. These results reveal that a cysteine endopeptidase was responsible for the in vitro proteolysis of PK(p). This endopeptidase is present throughout all stages of endosperm development. Its PK(p)-degrading activity, however, appears to be most pronounced in preparations from older endosperm. When lysates of purified leucoplasts were incubated at 4 degrees C for up to 21 hours, no degradation of PK(p) was observed; this indicated an extra-leucoplastic localization for the cysteine endopeptidase. Although the in vivo subunit structure of PK(p) remains uniform throughout all stages of endosperm development, the large decrease in PK activity that accompanies

  1. Survival dynamics of tick-borne encephalitis virus in Ixodes ricinus ticks.

    PubMed

    Slovák, Mirko; Kazimírová, Mária; Siebenstichová, Marta; Ustaníková, Katarína; Klempa, Boris; Gritsun, Tamara; Gould, Ernest A; Nuttall, Patricia A

    2014-10-01

    Biotic factors contributing to the survival of tick-borne viruses in nature are poorly understood. Using tick-borne encephalitis virus (TBEV) and its principal European vector, Ixodes ricinus, we examined the relative roles of salivary gland infection, co-feeding transmission, and moulting in virus survival. Virus titres in the salivary glands increased after blood-feeding in a time- and dose-dependent manner. This was observed in ticks infected by inoculation but not in ticks infected by the natural route of co-feeding. Amplification of infection prevalence occurred via co-feeding. However, when larvae or nymphs subsequently moulted, the infection prevalence dramatically declined although this was not observed when ticks were infected by inoculation. Trans-stadial survival is a hitherto overlooked parameter that may contribute to the low incidence of TBEV infection in field-collected I. ricinus ticks.

  2. Evidence of the Human Granulocytic Ehrlichiosis Agent in Ixodes ricinus Ticks in Switzerland

    PubMed Central

    Pusterla, Nicola; Leutenegger, Christian M.; Huder, Jon B.; Weber, Rainer; Braun, Ueli; Lutz, Hans

    1999-01-01

    A total of 1,667 Ixodes ricinus ticks were collected from five regions in Switzerland where there have been sporadic occurrences of granulocytic ehrlichiosis in dogs and horses. The ticks were examined for rickettsiae of the Ehrlichia phagocytophila group via nested PCR. Twenty-one ticks (1.3%) were positive; 3 (0.5%) were nymphs, 6 (1.3%) were adult males, and 12 (1.9%) were adult females. The number of positive ticks varied with the stage of development and with the geographical origin. Nucleotide sequencing of the isolated PCR products identified these products as part of the 16S rRNA gene of Ehrlichia. In addition, these products had 100% homology with the agent of human granulocytic ehrlichiosis. The occurrence of this agent in I. ricinus in Switzerland presents a potential danger of transmission of granulocytic ehrlichiosis to dogs, horses, and humans. PMID:10203481

  3. Seasonal activity and tick-borne pathogen infection rates of Ixodes ricinus ticks in Hungary.

    PubMed

    Egyed, László; Elő, Péter; Sréter-Lancz, Zsuzsanna; Széll, Zoltán; Balogh, Zsuzsanna; Sréter, Tamás

    2012-04-01

    Ixodes ricinus is the most important tick species in Europe as it is most widely distributed and transmits the majority of tick-borne zoonotic pathogens. As limited data are available for Hungary, the aim of the present study was to investigate the seasonal timing of questing by I. ricinus and the infection rate of this tick species with all major tick-borne zoonotic pathogens. Monthly collections of I. ricinus were carried out over 3 consecutive years by dragging a blanket in 6 biotopes representing different areas of Hungary. Altogether, 1800 nymphs (300 per collection point) were screened as pooled samples (each of 5 specimens) by PCR-based methods for tick-borne pathogens. I. ricinus larvae, nymphs, and adults had bimodal activity patterns with a major peak in the spring. As newly moulted ticks of all stages are thought to emerge in the autumn of each year, it appears that most newly emerged ticks delayed their questing until the following spring. The minimum prevalence of Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato was 2.5%. Borr. afzelii, Borr. burgdorferi sensu stricto, Borr. garinii, Borr. lusitaniae, and Borr. valaisiana were identified by hybridization. The minimum infection rate with spotted fever group rickettsiae was 1.9%. Rickettsia helvetica was identified in all biotopes. The minimum prevalence of Anaplasma phagocytophilum, Babesia divergens and Bab. microti was low (0.3-0.5%). Bartonella spp.-, Francisella tularensis-, and TBE virus-specific amplification products were not detected. Relative to the results of comparable studies carried out in the Carpathian Basin, the prevalence of tick-borne pathogens was low in Hungary. This might be attributed to the climatic difference between the lowland areas of Hungary and submountain areas of the surrounding countries involved in the studies.

  4. Arsenophonus nasoniae and Rickettsiae Infection of Ixodes ricinus Due to Parasitic Wasp Ixodiphagus hookeri

    PubMed Central

    Bohacsova, Monika; Mediannikov, Oleg; Kazimirova, Maria; Raoult, Didier; Sekeyova, Zuzana

    2016-01-01

    Arsenophonus nasoniae, a male-killing endosymbiont of chalcid wasps, was recently detected in several hard tick species. Following the hypothesis that its presence in ticks may not be linked to the direct occurrence of bacteria in tick's organs, we identified A. nasoniae in wasps emerging from parasitised nymphs. We confirmed that 28.1% of Ixodiphagus hookeri wasps parasitizing Ixodes ricinus ticks were infected by A. nasoniae. Moreover, in examined I. ricinus nymphs, A. nasoniae was detected only in those, which were parasitized by the wasp. However, in part of the adult wasps as well as in some ticks that contained wasp's DNA, we did not confirm A. nasoniae. We also found, that in spite of reported male-killing, some newly emerged adult wasp males were also infected by A. nasoniae. Additionally, we amplified the DNA of Rickettsia helvetica and Rickettsia monacensis (known to be Ixodes ricinus-associated bacteria) in adult parasitoid wasps. This may be related either with the digested bacterial DNA in wasp body lumen or with a role of wasps in circulation of rickettsiae among tick vectors. PMID:26901622

  5. Diversity of Ixodes ricinus tick-associated bacterial communities from different forests.

    PubMed

    van Overbeek, Leo; Gassner, Fedor; van der Plas, Carin Lombaers; Kastelein, Pieter; Nunes-da Rocha, Ulisses; Takken, Willem

    2008-10-01

    Nymphal Ixodes ricinus ticks (n=180) were collected from three different areas in the Netherlands to investigate the effect of forest composition on tick-associated microbial communities. Sampled habitats differed in thickness of leaf litter and humus layers and vegetation associations and were located near Amsterdam (Beech-Oak), Ede (Birch-Oak) and Veldhoven (Birch-Oak). Analysis of nine 16S rRNA gene clone libraries made from individual ticks showed nearest matches with presumed pathogens Candidatus Neoehrlichia mikurensis and Rickettsia australis and arthropod endosymbionts Wolbachia pipientis and Candidatus Midichloria mitochondrii. Total bacterial species diversity (Shannon index) and Borrelia species infections were determined in I. ricinus by, respectively, PCR-denaturing gradient gel-electrophoresis and PCR-reverse line blot with probes specific for Borrelia burgdorferi sensu stricto, Borrelia afzelii, Borrelia garinii, Borrelia valaisiana, Borrelia lusitaniae and Borrelia ruski. Bacterial diversity differed significantly per area and was lowest in Ede. In contrast, Borrelia species-infected ticks were more abundant in Ede, Candidatus Neoehrlichia mikurensis-infected ticks in Ede and Veldhoven, and R. australis-infected ticks in Amsterdam. Borrelia afzelii was the most common Borrelia species found in all three areas. Bacterial tick diversity was influenced by local differences in forest structure, which is proposed to modulate animal populations that are commonly parasitized by I. ricinus.

  6. Low prevalence of Borrelia bavariensis in Ixodes ricinus ticks in southeastern Austria.

    PubMed

    Glatz, Martin; Muellegger, Robert R; Hizo-Teufel, Cecilia; Fingerle, Volker

    2014-10-01

    Borrelia bavariensis was recently described as a distinct genospecies among the B. burgdorferi sensu lato complex. The prevalence of B. bavariensis in Austria, a highly endemic area for tick-transmitted pathogens, is scarcely characterized. To investigate the prevalence of B. bavariensis in Ixodes ricinus ticks we reevaluated the results of a study conducted in 518 ticks from southeastern Austria collected in 2002 and 2003. The presence of B. burgdorferi s.l.-specific DNA in ticks was analyzed by a PCR for the outer surface protein A (ospA) gene. Borrelia species were differentiated by restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) analysis, and samples positive for B. bavariensis were further analyzed by multilocus sequence analysis. Two of 133 (1.5%) B. burgdorferi s.l.-positive I. ricinus ticks were infected with B. bavariensis. Both specimens were coinfected with the OspA serotype 5 of B. garinii. Borrelia bavariensis is present; however, seem to be rare in I. ricinus ticks in southeastern Austria.

  7. Biological control of Ixodes ricinus larvae and nymphs with Metarhizium anisopliae blastospores.

    PubMed

    Wassermann, Marion; Selzer, Philipp; Steidle, Johannes L M; Mackenstedt, Ute

    2016-07-01

    The entomopathogenic fungus Metarhizium anisopliae is used as a biological pest control agent against various arthropod species, including ticks. However, the efficacy depends on tick species, tick stage and fungus strain. We studied the effect of M. anisopliae on engorged larvae and nymphs of Ixodes ricinus, the most abundant tick species in Europe, under laboratory and semi-field conditions. A significant reduction of engorged larvae and nymphs could be shown under laboratory as well as under semi-field conditions. Only 3.5% of the larvae treated in the lab and only 18.5% kept under semi-field conditions were able to develop into nymphs compared to the recovered nymphs of the control groups, which were regarded as 100%. Only 7.1% of nymphs were recovered as adult ticks after fungal treatment under semi-field conditions compared to the control (100%). The efficacy of blastospores of M. anisopliae against engorged larvae and nymphs of I. ricinus under semi-field conditions was demonstrated in this study, showing their high potential as a biological control agent of ticks. Further studies will have to investigate the effect of this agent against other stages of I. ricinus as well as other tick species before its value as a biological control agent against ticks can be fully assessed. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  8. Arsenophonus nasoniae and Rickettsiae Infection of Ixodes ricinus Due to Parasitic Wasp Ixodiphagus hookeri.

    PubMed

    Bohacsova, Monika; Mediannikov, Oleg; Kazimirova, Maria; Raoult, Didier; Sekeyova, Zuzana

    2016-01-01

    Arsenophonus nasoniae, a male-killing endosymbiont of chalcid wasps, was recently detected in several hard tick species. Following the hypothesis that its presence in ticks may not be linked to the direct occurrence of bacteria in tick's organs, we identified A. nasoniae in wasps emerging from parasitised nymphs. We confirmed that 28.1% of Ixodiphagus hookeri wasps parasitizing Ixodes ricinus ticks were infected by A. nasoniae. Moreover, in examined I. ricinus nymphs, A. nasoniae was detected only in those, which were parasitized by the wasp. However, in part of the adult wasps as well as in some ticks that contained wasp's DNA, we did not confirm A. nasoniae. We also found, that in spite of reported male-killing, some newly emerged adult wasp males were also infected by A. nasoniae. Additionally, we amplified the DNA of Rickettsia helvetica and Rickettsia monacensis (known to be Ixodes ricinus-associated bacteria) in adult parasitoid wasps. This may be related either with the digested bacterial DNA in wasp body lumen or with a role of wasps in circulation of rickettsiae among tick vectors.

  9. [Environmental Effect of Substrate Amelioration on Lake: Effects on Phragmites communis Growth and Photosynthetic Fluorescence Characteristics].

    PubMed

    Yu, Ju-hua; Zhong, Ji-cheng; Fan, Cheng-xin; Huang, Wei; Shang, Jing-ge; Gu, Xiao-zhi

    2015-12-01

    Growth of rooted aquatic macrophytes was affected by the nature and composition of lake bottom sediments. Obviously, it has been recognized as an important ecological restoration measure by improving lake substrate and then reestablishing and restoring aquatic macrophytes in order to get rid of the environmental problem of lake. This study simulated five covering thickness to give an insight into the influence of substrate amelioration on Phragmites communis growth and photosynthetic fluorescence characteristics. The results showed that the total biomass, plant height, leaf length and leaf width of Phragmites communis under capping 5 cm were much more significant than those of capping 18 cm (P < 0.01), at the 120 d, the underground: shoot biomass ratio and fine root: underground biomass ratio were also much higher than those of other treatments (P < 0.05), which indicated that capping 18 cm treatment would significantly inhibit the growth of Phragmites communis , but the growth of control group Phragmites communis was slightly constrained by eutrophicated sediment. In addition, as the capping thickness growing, the underground: shoot biomass ratio of the plant would be reduced dramatically, in order to acquire much more nutrients from sediment for plant growing, the underground biomass of Phragmites communis would be preferentially developed, especially, the biomass of fine root. However, Photosystem II (PS II) photochemical efficiency (Fv/Fm), quantum yield (Yield), photochemical quenching (qP), non-photochemical quenching (qN) of Phragmites communis under different treatments had no significant differences (P > 0.05), furthermore, with much greater capping thickness, the photosynthesis structure of PS II would be much easier destroyed, and PS II would be protected by increasing heat dissipating and reducing leaf photosynthetic area and leaf light-captured pigment contents. In terms of the influence of sediment amelioration by soil exchange on the growth and

  10. [Antioxidant properties of essential oils].

    PubMed

    Misharina, T A; Terenina, M B; Krikunova, N I

    2009-01-01

    By the method of capillary gas-liquid chromatography we studied antioxidant properties and stability during the storage of hexane solutions of 14 individual essential oils from black and white pepper (Piper nigrum L.), cardamom (Elettaria cardamomum L.), nutmeg (Myristica fragrans Houtt.), mace (Myristica fragrans Houtt), juniperberry (Juniperus communis L.), seed of fennel (Foeniculum vulgare Mill., var. dulce Thelling), caraway (Carvum carvi L.), dry leaves of cinnamon (Cinnamomum zeylanicum Bl.), marjoram (Origanum majorana L.), laurel (Laurus nobilis L.), ginger (Zingiber officinale L.), garlic (Allium sativum L.), and clove bud (Caryophyllus aromaticus L.). We assessed the antioxidant properties by the oxidation of aliphatic aldehyde (trans-2-hexenal) into the according carbon acid. We established that essential oils of garlic, clove bud, ginger and leaves of cinnamon have the maximal efficiency of inhibition of hexenal oxidation (80-93%), while black pepper oil has the minimal (49%). Antioxidant properties of essential oils with a high content of substituted phenols depended poorly on its concentration in model systems. We studied the changes in essential oils content during the storage of its hexane solutions for 40 days in the light and out of the light and compared it with the stability of essential oils stored for a year out of the light.

  11. Antifungal activity of essential oils from Iranian plants against fluconazole-resistant and fluconazole-susceptible Candida albicans

    PubMed Central

    Sharifzadeh, Aghil; Shokri, Hojjatollah

    2016-01-01

    Objective: The purpose of this study was to assay the antifungal activity of selected essential oils obtained from plants against both fluconazole (FLU)-resistant and FLU-susceptible C. albicans strains isolated from HIV positive patients with oropharyngeal candidiasis (OPC). Materials and Methods: The essential oils were obtained by hydrodistillation method from Myrtus communis (My. communis), Zingiber officinale roscoe (Z. officinale roscoe), Matricaria chamomilla (Ma. chamomilla), Trachyspermum ammi (T. ammi) and Origanum vulgare (O. vulgare). The susceptibility test was based on the M27-A2 methodology. The chemical compositions of the essential oils were obtained by gas chromatography- mass spectroscopy (GC-MS). Results: In GC-MS analysis, thymol (63.40%), linalool (42%), α-pinene (27.87%), α-pinene (22.10%), and zingiberene (31.79%) were found to be the major components of T. ammi, O. vulgare, My. communis, Ma. chamomilla and Z. officinale roscoe, respectively. The results showed that essential oils have different levels of antifungal activity. O. vulgare and T. ammi essential oils were found to be the most efficient (P<0.05). The main finding was that the susceptibilities of FLU-resistant C. albicans to essential oils were higher than those of the FLU-susceptible yeasts. Conclusion: Results of this study indicated that the oils from medicinal plants could be used as potential anti FLU-resistant C. albicans agents. PMID:27222835

  12. The calcium-dependent protein kinase RcCDPK2 phosphorylates sucrose synthase at Ser11 in developing castor oil seeds.

    PubMed

    Fedosejevs, Eric T; Gerdis, Suzanne A; Ying, Sheng; Pyc, Michal; Anderson, Erin M; Snedden, Wayne A; Mullen, Robert T; She, Yi-Min; Plaxton, William C

    2016-10-15

    Imported sucrose is cleaved by sucrose synthase (SUS) as a critical initial reaction in the biosynthesis of storage end-products by developing seeds. Although SUS is phosphorylated at a conserved seryl residue by an apparent CDPK (Ca(2+)-dependent protein kinase) in diverse plant tissues, the functions and mechanistic details of this process remain obscure. Thus, the native CDPK that phosphorylates RcSUS1 (Ricinus communis SUS1) at Ser(11) in developing COS (castor oil seeds) was highly purified and identified as RcCDPK2 by MS/MS. Purified RcSUS1-K (-kinase) and heterologously expressed RcCDPK2 catalyzed Ca(2+)-dependent Ser(11) phosphorylation of RcSUS1 and its corresponding dephosphopeptide, while exhibiting a high affinity for free Ca(2+) ions [K0.5(Ca(2+)) < 0.4 µM]. RcSUS1-K activity, RcCDPK2 expression, and RcSUS1 Ser(11) phosphorylation peaked during early COS development and then declined in parallel. The elimination of sucrose import via fruit excision triggered RcSUS1 dephosphorylation but did not alter RcSUS1-K activity, suggesting a link between sucrose signaling and posttranslational RcCDPK2 control. Both RcCDPK2-mCherry and RcSUS1-EYFP co-localized throughout the cytosol when transiently co-expressed in tobacco suspension cells, although RcCDPK2-mCherry was also partially localized to the nucleus. Subcellular fractionation revealed that ∼20% of RcSUS1-K activity associates with microsomal membranes in developing COS, as does RcSUS1. In contrast with RcCDPK1, which catalyzes inhibitory phosphorylation of COS bacterial-type phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase at Ser(451), RcCDPK2 exhibited broad substrate specificity, a wide pH-activity profile centered at pH 8.5, and insensitivity to metabolite effectors or thiol redox status. Our combined results indicate a possible link between cytosolic Ca(2+)-signaling and the control of photosynthate partitioning during COS development.

  13. Composition and antimicrobial properties of Sardinian Juniperus essential oils against foodborne pathogens and spoilage microorganisms.

    PubMed

    Cosentino, Sofia; Barra, Andrea; Pisano, Barbara; Cabizza, Maddalena; Pirisi, Filippo Maria; Palmas, Francesca

    2003-07-01

    In this work, the chemical compositions and antimicrobial properties of Juniperus essential oils and of their main components were determined. Five berry essential oils obtained from different species of Juniperus growing wild in Sardinia were analyzed. The components of the essential oils were identified by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) analysis. The antimicrobial activities of the oils and their components against food spoilage and pathogenic microorganisms were determined by a broth microdilution method. The GC-MS analysis showed a certain variability in the concentrations of the main constituents of the oils. Alpha-pinene was largely predominant in the oils of the species J. phoenicea subsp. turbinata and J. oxycedrus. Alpha-pinene and myrcene constituted the bulk (67.56%) of the essential oil of J. communis. Significant quantitative differences were observed for myrcene, delta-3-carene, and D-germacrene. The results of the antimicrobial assay show that the oils of J. communis and J. oxycedrus failed to inhibit any of the microorganisms at the highest concentrations tested (MLC > or = 900 microg/ml), while the oils extracted from J. turbinata specimens were active against fungi, particularly against a strain of Aspergillus flavus (an aflatoxin B1 producer). Of the single compounds tested, delta-3-carene was found to possess the broadest spectrum of activity and appeared to contribute significantly to the antifungal activity observed for J. turbinata oils. This activity may be helpful in the prevention of aflatoxin contamination for many foods.

  14. Antioxidant and Hepatoprotective Potential of Phenol-Rich Fraction of Juniperus communis Linn. Leaves

    PubMed Central

    Ved, Akash; Gupta, Amresh; Rawat, Ajay Kumar Singh

    2017-01-01

    Background: Juniperus communis Linn. is an important plant in India traditional system of medicine which is widely used by different tribes in many countries. Objective: In the present study, the antioxidant, cytotoxic and hepatoprotective activities of Juniperus communis leaves were investigated against various models. Materials and Methods: ethanolic extract (70% v/v) of J. communis leaves was successively extracted using hexane and ethyl acetate to prepare various fractions. Total phenol content was resolute by the Folin-Ciocalteau's process. The antioxidant properties of the different fractions/extract of leaves of J. communis were examined by 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging activity and Fe2+ chelating ability. Cytotoxic activity was examined by cell viability assay on HepG2 cells. Hepatoprotective activity of ethyl acetate fraction (EAF) evaluated against PCM-Paracetamol-induced hepatic damage in Wistar albino rats. Results: Total phenol content was found maximum 315.33 mg/GAE/g in EAF. Significant scavenging activity were found for EAF (IC50 = 177 μg/ml) as compared to standard BHT (IC50 = 138 μg/ml), while EAF showed good Fe2+ chelating ability having an IC50 value of 261 mg/ML compared to standard ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (7.7 mg/mL). It was found that EAF treated group shows remarkable decrease in serum Aspartate aminotransferase, serum Alanine aminotransferase, total bilirubin, direct bilirubin, and alkaline phosphatase level in treatment group as compared to the hepatotoxic group. Conclusion: EAF of J. communis leaves is found to be potent antioxidant and hepatoprotective without any cytotoxicity and it can also be included in nutraceuticals with notable benefits for mankind or animal health. SUMMARY Phenol-rich fraction (PRF) and other fractions/extract of Juniperus communis leaves were screened for antioxidant, cytotoxic, and hepatoprotective activity.Significant antioxidant and hepatoprotective activity without any

  15. Prevalence of tick-borne encephalitis virus in Ixodes ricinus ticks in northern Europe with particular reference to Southern Sweden

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background In northern Europe, the tick-borne encephalitis virus (TBEV) of the European subtype is usually transmitted to humans by the common tick Ixodes ricinus. The aims of the present study are (i) to obtain up-to-date information on the TBEV prevalence in host-seeking I. ricinus in southern and central Sweden; (ii) to compile and review all relevant published records on the prevalence of TBEV in ticks in northern Europe; and (iii) to analyse and try to explain how the TBE virus can be maintained in natural foci despite an apparently low TBEV infection prevalence in the vector population. Methods To estimate the mean minimum infection rate (MIR) of TBEV in I. ricinus in northern Europe (i.e. Denmark, Norway, Sweden and Finland) we reviewed all published TBEV prevalence data for host-seeking I. ricinus collected during 1958–2011. Moreover, we collected 2,074 nymphs and 906 adults of I. ricinus from 29 localities in Sweden during 2008. These ticks were screened for TBEV by RT-PCR. Results The MIR for TBEV in nymphal and adult I. ricinus was 0.28% for northern Europe and 0.23% for southern Sweden. The infection prevalence of TBEV was significantly lower in nymphs (0.10%) than in adult ticks (0.55%). At a well-known TBEV-endemic locality, Torö island south-east of Stockholm, the TBEV prevalence (MIR) was 0.51% in nymphs and 4.48% in adults of I. ricinus. Conclusions If the ratio of nymphs to adult ticks in the TBEV-analysed sample differs from that in the I. ricinus population in the field, the MIR obtained will not necessarily reflect the TBEV prevalence in the field. The relatively low TBEV prevalence in the potential vector population recorded in most studies may partly be due to: (i) inclusion of uninfected ticks from the ‘uninfected areas’ surrounding the TBEV endemic foci; (ii) inclusion of an unrepresentative, too large proportion of immature ticks, compared to adult ticks, in the analysed tick pools; and (iii) shortcomings in the laboratory

  16. Genome scaffolding and annotation for the pathogen vector Ixodes ricinus by ultra-long single molecule sequencing.

    PubMed

    Cramaro, Wibke J; Hunewald, Oliver E; Bell-Sakyi, Lesley; Muller, Claude P

    2017-02-08

    Global warming and other ecological changes have facilitated the expansion of Ixodes ricinus tick populations. Ixodes ricinus is the most important carrier of vector-borne pathogens in Europe, transmitting viruses, protozoa and bacteria, in particular Borrelia burgdorferi (sensu lato), the causative agent of Lyme borreliosis, the most prevalent vector-borne disease in humans in the Northern hemisphere. To faster control this disease vector, a better understanding of the I. ricinus tick is necessary. To facilitate such studies, we recently published the first reference genome of this highly prevalent pathogen vector. Here, we further extend these studies by scaffolding and annotating the first reference genome by using ultra-long sequencing reads from third generation single molecule sequencing. In addition, we present the first genome size estimation for I. ricinus ticks and the embryo-derived cell line IRE/CTVM19. 235,953 contigs were integrated into 204,904 scaffolds, extending the currently known genome lengths by more than 30% from 393 to 516 Mb and the N50 contig value by 87% from 1643 bp to a N50 scaffold value of 3067 bp. In addition, 25,263 sequences were annotated by comparison to the tick's North American relative Ixodes scapularis. After (conserved) hypothetical proteins, zinc finger proteins, secreted proteins and P450 coding proteins were the most prevalent protein categories annotated. Interestingly, more than 50% of the amino acid sequences matching the homology threshold had 95-100% identity to the corresponding I. scapularis gene models. The sequence information was complemented by the first genome size estimation for this species. Flow cytometry-based genome size analysis revealed a haploid genome size of 2.65Gb for I. ricinus ticks and 3.80 Gb for the cell line. We present a first draft sequence map of the I. ricinus genome based on a PacBio-Illumina assembly. The I. ricinus genome was shown to be 26% (500 Mb) larger than the genome of its

  17. Infections and Coinfections of Questing Ixodes ricinus Ticks by Emerging Zoonotic Pathogens in Western Switzerland

    PubMed Central

    Lommano, Elena; Bertaiola, Luce; Dupasquier, Christèle

    2012-01-01

    In Europe, Ixodes ricinus is the vector of many pathogens of medical and veterinary relevance, among them Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato and tick-borne encephalitis virus, which have been the subject of numerous investigations. Less is known about the occurrence of emerging tick-borne pathogens like Rickettsia spp., Babesia spp., “Candidatus Neoehrlichia mikurensis,” and Anaplasma phagocytophilum in questing ticks. In this study, questing nymph and adult I. ricinus ticks were collected at 11 sites located in Western Switzerland. A total of 1,476 ticks were analyzed individually for the simultaneous presence of B. burgdorferi sensu lato, Rickettsia spp., Babesia spp., “Candidatus Neoehrlichia mikurensis,” and A. phagocytophilum. B. burgdorferi sensu lato, Rickettsia spp., and “Candidatus Neoehrlichia mikurensis” were detected in ticks at all sites with global prevalences of 22.5%, 10.2%, and 6.4%, respectively. Babesia- and A. phagocytophilum-infected ticks showed a more restricted geographic distribution, and their prevalences were lower (1.9% and 1.5%, respectively). Species rarely reported in Switzerland, like Borrelia spielmanii, Borrelia lusitaniae, and Rickettsia monacensis, were identified. Infections with more than one pathogenic species, involving mostly Borrelia spp. and Rickettsia helvetica, were detected in 19.6% of infected ticks. Globally, 34.2% of ticks were infected with at least one pathogen. The diversity of tick-borne pathogens detected in I. ricinus in this study and the frequency of coinfections underline the need to take them seriously into consideration when evaluating the risks of infection following a tick bite. PMID:22522688

  18. IgG subclasses of specific antibodies in Ixodes ricinus-borne borreliosis.

    PubMed Central

    Olsson, I; Hammarström, L; Smith, C I; Hovmark, A; Asbrink, E

    1987-01-01

    Ixodes ricinus-borne borreliosis may run a protracted course. In this study we investigated the different IgG subclasses of antibodies to borreliae at different stages of the disease. In addition to the dominant subclass IgG1 and IgG3 response was found in most cases. This antibody subclass pattern with contributions of IgG2 often persists into the late stage of the disease and may last for decades. The IgG subclass response elicited by this spirochaetosis does not conform to the expected IgG4 restricted response after chronic antigenic stimulation. PMID:3665187

  19. Detection of Babesia EU1 in Ixodes ricinus ticks in northern Italy.

    PubMed

    Cassini, Rudi; Bonoli, Cristina; Montarsi, Fabrizio; Tessarin, Cinzia; Marcer, Federica; Galuppi, Roberta

    2010-07-15

    Babesia EU1, a potentially important emerging zoonotic pathogen, already detected in ticks and wild ruminants of different European Countries, was found in three pools of Ixodes ricinus nymphs in three different sites located in a single District of north-eastern Italy. Totally 356 ticks (60 pools) were collected from the environment during a surveillance activity in the year 2006. Babesia EU1 estimated individual tick prevalence in the area is 0.85%. The finding that also in northern Italy the tick population is carrying Babesia EU1 suggests a wide geographical spreading of this zoonotic pathogen in Europe. Copyright (c) 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Review of pharmacological effects of Myrtus communis L. and its active constituents.

    PubMed

    Alipour, Ghazal; Dashti, Saeedeh; Hosseinzadeh, Hossein

    2014-08-01

    Myrtle (Myrtus communis L., Myrtaceae) is a medicinal herb used worldwide in traditional medicine. A large number of components have been isolated from this herb. Polyphenols, myrtucommulone (MC), semimyrtucommulone (S-MC), 1,8-cineole, α-pinene, myrtenyl acetate, limonene, linalool and α-terpinolene are among the compounds considered to be the main biologically active components. Various parts of this herb such as its berries, leaves and fruits have been used extensively as a folk medicine for several centuries. The herb is used traditionally for the treatment of disorders such as diarrhea, peptic ulcer, hemorrhoid, inflammation, pulmonary and skin diseases, although clinical and experimental studies suggest that it possesses a broader spectrum of pharmacological and therapeutic effects such as antioxidative, anticancer, anti-diabetic, antiviral, antibacterial, antifungal, hepatoprotective and neuroprotective activity. The present review attempts to give an overview on the phytochemical, pharmacological, toxicological and clinical studies of total extracts and the most relevant active ingredients of M. communis.

  1. Anti-biofilm properties of Satureja hortensis L. essential oil against periodontal pathogens.

    PubMed

    Gursoy, Ulvi Kahraman; Gursoy, Mervi; Gursoy, Orhan Vedat; Cakmakci, Lutfu; Könönen, Eija; Uitto, Veli-Jukka

    2009-08-01

    Essential oils of several plants are widely used in ethnomedicine for their antimicrobial and anti-inflammatory properties. However, very limited data exist on their use in connection to periodontal diseases. The aim of the present study was to investigate the bacterial growth inhibiting and anti-biofilm effects of Satureja hortensis L. (summer savory), Salvia fruticosa M. (sage), Lavandula stoechas L. (lavender), Myrtus communis L., and Juniperus communis L. (juniper) essential oils. Chemical compositions of the essential oils were analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry, minimum inhibitor concentrations (MICs) with the agar dilution method, and anti-biofilm effects by the microplate biofilm assay. The toxicity of each essential oil was tested on cultured keratinocytes. Of the 5 essential oils, S. hortensis L. essential oil had the strongest growth inhibition effect. Subinhibitory dose of S. hortensis L. essential oil had anti-biofilm effects only against Prevotella nigrescens. Essential oils did not inhibit keratinocyte viability at the concentrations of 1 and 5 microl/ml, however at the concentration of 5 microl/ml epithelial cells detached from the culture well bottom. The present findings suggest that S. hortensis L. essential oil inhibits the growth of periodontal bacteria in the concentration that is safe on keratinocytes, however, in the subinhibitory concentration its anti-biofilm effect is limited.

  2. Extracting extensor digitorum communis activation patterns using high-density surface electromyography

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Xiaogang; Suresh, Nina L.; Xue, Cindy; Rymer, William Z.

    2015-01-01

    The extensor digitorum communis muscle plays an important role in hand dexterity during object manipulations. This multi-tendinous muscle is believed to be controlled through separate motoneuron pools, thereby forming different compartments that control individual digits. However, due to the complex anatomical variations across individuals and the flexibility of neural control strategies, the spatial activation patterns of the extensor digitorum communis compartments during individual finger extension have not been fully tracked under different task conditions. The objective of this study was to quantify the global spatial activation patterns of the extensor digitorum communis using high-density (7 × 9) surface electromyogram (EMG) recordings. The muscle activation map (based on the root mean square of the EMG) was constructed when subjects performed individual four finger extensions at the metacarpophalangeal joint, at different effort levels and under different finger constraints (static and dynamic). Our results revealed distinct activation patterns during individual finger extensions, especially between index and middle finger extensions, although the activation between ring and little finger extensions showed strong covariance. The activation map was relatively consistent at different muscle contraction levels and for different finger constraint conditions. We also found that distinct activation patterns were more discernible in the proximal–distal direction than in the radial–ulnar direction. The global spatial activation map utilizing surface grid EMG of the extensor digitorum communis muscle provides information for localizing individual compartments of the extensor muscle during finger extensions. This is of potential value for identifying more selective control input for assistive devices. Such information can also provide a basis for understanding hand impairment in individuals with neural disorders. PMID:26500558

  3. Evaluation of Myrtus communis Linn. berries (common myrtle) in experimental ulcer models in rats.

    PubMed

    Sumbul, Sabiha; Ahmad, Mohd Aftab; Asif, Mohd; Saud, Ibne; Akhtar, Mohd

    2010-11-01

    The present study was conducted to investigate the protective effect of the dried berries of Myrtus communis L. in gastric ulcer against ethanol, indomethacin and pyloric ligation induced models in Wistar rats. Two doses of aqueous extracts of M. communis (AE( 1) and AE(2)) at the dose 105 and 175 mg/kg, respectively, and methanolic extracts (ME(1) and ME(2)) at the dose of 93 and 154 mg/kg, respectively, were administered orally to animals prior to the exposure of ulcerogens. The parameters taken to assess anti-ulcer activity were ulcer index, gastric juice volume, gastric pH, total acidity, gastric wall mucus and histopathological studies. Oral administration of AE(1) and AE(2) significantly reduced the ulcer index in all models of ulcers. Low dose of aqueous extract and high dose of methanolic extract of M. communis exhibited more significant effect in comparison to omeprazole (standard drug) in ethanol-induced ulcer model. Both the doses of aqueous and methanolic extracts also reduced the gastric juice volume, total acidity and increased the gastric pH and gastric wall mucus content in all the models of ulcers used in the present study. Histopathological examinations of gastric tissues of rats treated with the aqueous and methanolic extracts in indomethacin-induced ulcer exhibited significant ulcer-protective effect at both the dose levels.

  4. Phomalactone optimization and production of entomopathogenic fungi by Ophiocordyceps communis BCC 1842 and BCC 2763.

    PubMed

    Prathumpai, W; Kocharin, K

    2016-01-01

    Phomalactone, an antibacterial, insecticidal, and herbicidal compound, was produced by insect pathogenic fungi, Ophiocordyceps communis BCC 1842 and BCC 2763, in bioreactors using different carbon and nitrogen sources. Glucose and fructose were preferable for growth and phomalactone production. The highest specific growth rate (μ) of 0.012 hr(-1), the highest biomass yield (Ysx) of 0.38 g DW g(-1) sugar, the highest volumetric sugar consumption rate (qs) of 0.036 g (L hr)(-1), the maximum phomalactone concentration ([Formula: see text]) of 93.30 mg L(-1) at 127 hr, and the highest volumetric production rate of phomalactone (qp) of 0.46 ± 0.12 mg (L d)(-1) were obtained on glucose and sodium nitrate as the sole carbon and nitrogen sources, respectively, by O. communis BCC 1842. In contrast, O. communis BCC 2763 gave lower phomalactone production. This mass phomalactone production is useful for the biological synthesis of a precursor for more broad-range potent analogs such as antitumor, antifungal, and others and for its further biological studies.

  5. Initial period of sexual maturity determines the greater growth rate of male over female in the dioecious tree Juniperus communis subsp. communis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iszkuło, Grzegorz; Boratyński, Adam

    2011-03-01

    Dioecious species are a very interesting object of study because of predicted differences between male and female individuals. Most dioecious species have a higher reproductive effort in female individuals in comparison with males. The object of this study was common juniper ( Juniperus communis subsp. communis), dioecious shrubs or small trees. This study examined differences in radial growth rate between male and female individuals and the effect of climatic factors on tree-ring width in this species. Wood samples were taken from 30 trees (15 females and 15 males) and subjected to the standard procedure of dendrochronological dating. Females had lower growth rates than males after the age of 17 years. The greatest differences between genders in growth rate were observed between 17 and 25 years. After 26 years, male tree-rings were still wider, but the differences were much smaller. The differentiation of tree-ring width between males and females probably started when the female trees reached sexual maturity and started to produce seed cones. Differences between sexes in tree-ring width were noticed also in their reaction to climatic conditions. When compared to males, female individuals tended to be more sensitive to low temperature and low precipitation. This sensitivity of dioecious species could be one reason for their greater susceptibility to extinction in times of progressive climatic changes.

  6. Geography Plays a More Important Role than Soil Composition on Structuring Genetic Variation of Pseudometallophyte Commelina communis

    PubMed Central

    Li, Jiaokun; Xu, Hui; Song, Yunpeng; Tang, Lulu; Gong, Yanbing; Yu, Runlan; Shen, Li; Wu, Xueling; Liu, Yuandong; Zeng, Weimin

    2016-01-01

    Pseudometallophytes are excellent models to study microevolution and local adaptation to soil pollution, as they can grow both on metalliferous and contrasting non-metalliferous soils. Although, there has been accumulating evidence for the effects of edaphic conditions and geographical isolation on the genetic structure of pesudometallophytes, it is still a difficult problem in evolutionary biology to assess their relative importance. In this study, we investigated the spatial patterns of genetic variability, population differentiation and genetic groups in pseudometallophyte Commelina communis with 12 microsatellite loci. Eight metallicolous and six non-metallicolous populations of C. communis were sampled from cupriferous sites and surrounding non-contaminated areas in China. Neither significant reduction in genetic diversity nor apparent founder and bottleneck effects were observed in metallicolous populations of C. communis. Based on Bayesian and Neighbor-Joining clustering analyses and a principal coordinates analysis, all sampled populations were found to be mainly separated into three genetic groups, corresponding well to their geographical locations rather than edaphic origins. Moreover, a significant and strong correlation between population genetic divergence and geographical distance were detected by Mantel test (r = 0.33; P < 0.05) and multiple matrix regression with randomization (MMRR; βD = 0.57, P < 0.01). However, the effect of copper concentration on genetic patterns of C. communis was not significant (MMRR; βE = -0.17, P = 0.12). Our study clearly demonstrated that the extreme edaphic conditions in metalliferous areas had limited effects on the genetic variability in C. communis. Geographic distance played a more important role in affecting the genetic structure of C. communis than soil composition did. In C. communis, the geographically disjunctive populations on metalliferous soils had multiple origins and evolved independently from nearby non

  7. Geography Plays a More Important Role than Soil Composition on Structuring Genetic Variation of Pseudometallophyte Commelina communis.

    PubMed

    Li, Jiaokun; Xu, Hui; Song, Yunpeng; Tang, Lulu; Gong, Yanbing; Yu, Runlan; Shen, Li; Wu, Xueling; Liu, Yuandong; Zeng, Weimin

    2016-01-01

    Pseudometallophytes are excellent models to study microevolution and local adaptation to soil pollution, as they can grow both on metalliferous and contrasting non-metalliferous soils. Although, there has been accumulating evidence for the effects of edaphic conditions and geographical isolation on the genetic structure of pesudometallophytes, it is still a difficult problem in evolutionary biology to assess their relative importance. In this study, we investigated the spatial patterns of genetic variability, population differentiation and genetic groups in pseudometallophyte Commelina communis with 12 microsatellite loci. Eight metallicolous and six non-metallicolous populations of C. communis were sampled from cupriferous sites and surrounding non-contaminated areas in China. Neither significant reduction in genetic diversity nor apparent founder and bottleneck effects were observed in metallicolous populations of C. communis. Based on Bayesian and Neighbor-Joining clustering analyses and a principal coordinates analysis, all sampled populations were found to be mainly separated into three genetic groups, corresponding well to their geographical locations rather than edaphic origins. Moreover, a significant and strong correlation between population genetic divergence and geographical distance were detected by Mantel test (r = 0.33; P < 0.05) and multiple matrix regression with randomization (MMRR; βD = 0.57, P < 0.01). However, the effect of copper concentration on genetic patterns of C. communis was not significant (MMRR; βE = -0.17, P = 0.12). Our study clearly demonstrated that the extreme edaphic conditions in metalliferous areas had limited effects on the genetic variability in C. communis. Geographic distance played a more important role in affecting the genetic structure of C. communis than soil composition did. In C. communis, the geographically disjunctive populations on metalliferous soils had multiple origins and evolved independently from nearby non

  8. Seroprevalence of seven pathogens transmitted by the Ixodes ricinus tick in forestry workers in France.

    PubMed

    Rigaud, E; Jaulhac, B; Garcia-Bonnet, N; Hunfeld, K-P; Féménia, F; Huet, D; Goulvestre, C; Vaillant, V; Deffontaines, G; Abadia-Benoist, G

    2016-08-01

    In order to assess the level of occupational exposure to the main pathogens transmitted by the Ixodes ricinus tick, a seroprevalence study was performed on serum samples collected in 2003 from 2975 forestry workers of northeastern France. The global seroprevalence estimated for the seven pathogens studied was 14.1% (419/2975) for Borrelia burgdorferi sl, 5.7% (164/2908) for Francisella tularensis, 2.3% (68/2941) for tick-borne encephalitis virus, 1.7% (50/2908) for Anaplasma phagocytophilum and 1.7% (48/2908) for Bartonella henselae. The seroprevalences of Babesia divergens and Babesia microti studied in a subgroup of participants seropositive for at least one of these latter pathogens were 0.1% (1/810) and 2.5% (20/810), respectively. Borrelia burgdorferi sl seroprevalence was significantly higher in Alsace and Lorraine and F. tularensis seroprevalence was significantly higher in Champagne-Ardenne and Franche-Comté. The results of this survey also suggest low rates of transmission of Bartonella henselae and F. tularensis by ticks and a different west/east distribution of Babesia species in France. The frequency and potential severity of these diseases justify continued promotion of methods of prevention of I. ricinus bites.

  9. Genetic Diversity of Salp15 in the Ixodes ricinus Complex (Acari: Ixodidae)

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Xin; Huang, Yong; Niu, Si-bo; Jiang, Bao-Gui; Jia, Na; van der Geest, Leo; Ni, Xue-bing; Sun, Yi; Cao, Wu-Chun

    2014-01-01

    Salp15, a 15-kDa tick salivary gland protein, is both essential for ticks to successfully obtain host blood and also facilitates transmission of Lyme borreliosis. To determine whether the Salp15 gene is expressed in Ixodes persulcatus and Ixodes sinensis, principle vectors of Lyme borreliosis in China, we studied transcriptions of this gene in semi-engorged larvae, nymph and adults of these two species. A total of eight Salp15 homologues, five in I. persulcatus and three in I. sinensis, were identified by reverse transcriptase–polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). Interestingly, the intra-species similarity of Salp15 is approximately equal to its interspecies similarity and more than one Salp15 protein is expressed in a certain tick developmental stage. Comparison of DNA and proteins with other available tick Salp15 homologues suggests that the Salp15 superfamily is genetically conserved and diverse in the Ixodes ricinus complex. These findings indicate that Salp15 proteins in the I. ricinus complex may play an essential role in interacting with the host immune system and transmission of Borrelia genospecies. PMID:24714063

  10. Multi-criteria Decision Analysis to Model Ixodes ricinus Habitat Suitability.

    PubMed

    Rousseau, Raphaël; McGrath, Guy; McMahon, Barry J; Vanwambeke, Sophie O

    2017-06-19

    Tick-borne diseases present a major threat to both human and livestock health throughout Europe. The risk of infection is directly related to the presence of its vector. Thereby it is important to know their distribution, which is strongly associated with environmental factors: the presence and availability of a suitable habitat, of a suitable climate and of hosts. The present study models the habitat suitability for Ixodes ricinus in Ireland, where data on tick distribution are scarce. Tick habitat suitability was estimated at a coarse scale (10 km) with a multi-criteria decision analysis (MCDA) method according to four different scenarios (depending on the variables used and on the weights granted to each of them). The western part of Ireland and the Wicklow mountains in the East were estimated to be the most suitable areas for I. ricinus in the island. There was a good level of agreement between results from the MCDA and recorded tick presence. The different scenarios did not affect the spatial outputs substantially. The current study suggests that tick habitat suitability can be mapped accurately at a coarse scale in a data-scarce context using knowledge-based methods. It can serve as a guideline for future countrywide sampling that would help to determine local risk of tick presence and refining knowledge on tick habitat suitability in Ireland.

  11. Transport of Babesia venatorum-infected Ixodes ricinus to Norway by northward migrating passerine birds

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Bovine babesiosis is regarded as a limited health problem for Norwegian cows, and the incidence has decreased markedly since the 1930s. Rare cases of babesiosis in splenectomised humans from infection with Babesia divergens and B.venatorum have been described. The objective of this study was to determine whether birds can introduce Babesia-infected ticks. There are between 30 and 85 million passerine birds that migrate to Norway every spring. Methods Passerine birds were examined for ticks at four bird observatories along the southern Norwegian coast during the spring migrations of 2003, 2004 and 2005. The presence of Babesia was detected in the nymphs of Ixodes ricinus by real-time PCR. Positive samples were confirmed using PCR, cloning and phylogenetic analyses. Results Of 512 ticks examined, real-time PCR revealed five to be positive (1.0%). Of these, four generated products that indicated the presence of Babesia spp.; each of these were confirmed to be from Babesia venatorum (EU1). Two of the four B. venatorum-positive ticks were caught from birds having an eastern migratory route (P< 0.001). Conclusions Birds transport millions of ticks across the North Sea, the Skagerrak and the Kattegat every year. Thus, even with the low prevalence of Babesia-infected ticks, a substantial number of infected ticks will be transported into Norway each year. Therefore, there is a continuous risk for introduction of new Babesia spp. into areas where I. ricinus can survive. PMID:21699719

  12. RNA-seq analyses of the midgut from blood- and serum-fed Ixodes ricinus ticks

    PubMed Central

    Perner, Jan; Provazník, Jan; Schrenková, Jana; Urbanová, Veronika; Ribeiro, José M. C.; Kopáček, Petr

    2016-01-01

    Adult females of the genus Ixodes imbibe blood meals exceeding about 100 times their own weight within 7‒9 days. During this period, ticks internalise components of host blood by endocytic digest cells that line the tick midgut epithelium. Using RNA-seq, we aimed to characterise the midgut transcriptome composition in adult Ixodes ricinus females during early and late phase of engorgement. To address specific adaptations to the haemoglobin-rich diet, we compared the midgut transcriptomes of genetically homogenous female siblings fed either bovine blood or haemoglobin-depleted serum. We noted that tick gut transcriptomes are subject to substantial temporal-dependent expression changes between day 3 and day 8 of feeding. In contrast, the number of transcripts significantly affected by the presence or absence of host red blood cells was low. Transcripts relevant to the processes associated with blood-meal digestion were analysed and involvement of selected encoded proteins in the tick midgut physiology discussed. A total of 7215 novel sequences from I. ricinus were deposited in public databases as an additional outcome of this study. Our results broaden the current knowledge of tick digestive system and may lead to the discovery of potential molecular targets for efficient tick control. PMID:27824139

  13. Rickettsiaceae and Anaplasmataceae infections in Ixodes ricinus ticks from urban and natural forested areas of Poland

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Ixodes ricinus is a major vector for a range of microbial pathogens and the most prevalent and widely distributed tick species on the European continent, occurring in both natural and urban habitats. Nevertheless, little is known about the relative density of ticks in these two ecologically distinct habitats and the diversity of tick-borne pathogens that they carry. Methods We compared densities of questing I. ricinus nymphs and adults in urban and natural habitats in Central and Northeastern Poland, assessed the prevalence and rate of co-infection with A. phagocytophilum, Rickettsia, Ehrlichia and ‘Ca. Neoehrlichia spp.’ in ticks, and compared the diversity of tick-borne pathogens using molecular assays (PCR). Results Of the 1325 adults and nymphs, 6.2% were infected with at least one pathogen, with 4.4%, 1.7% and less than 0.5% being positive for the DNA of Rickettsia spp., A. phagocytophilum, Ehrlichia spp. and Ca. N. mikurensis, respectively. Although tick abundance was higher in natural habitats, the prevalence of the majority of pathogens was higher in urban forested areas. Conclusion We conclude that: (i) zoonotic genetic variants of A. phagocytophilum are widely distributed in the Polish tick population, (ii) although the diversity of tick borne pathogens was higher in natural habitats, zoonotic species/strains were detected only in urban forests, (iii) and we provide the first description of Ca. N. mikurensis infections in ticks in Poland. PMID:24661311

  14. Histomorphological evaluation of Compound bone of Granulated Ricinus in bone regeneration in rabbits