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Sample records for oil ricinus communis

  1. Essential oil of the leaves of Ricinus communis L.: In vitro cytotoxicity and antimicrobial properties

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background The aim of the present study was to appraise the antimicrobial activity of Ricinus communis L. essential oil against different pathogenic microorganisms and the cytotoxic activity against HeLa cell lines. Methods The agar disk diffusion method was used to study the antibacterial activity of Ricinus communis L. essential oil against 12 bacterial and 4 fungi strains. The disc diameters of zone of inhibition (DD), the minimum inhibitory concentrations (MIC) and the concentration inhibiting 50% (IC50) were investigated to characterize the antimicrobial activities of this essential oil. The in vitro cytotoxicity of Ricinus communis L. essential oil was examined using a modified MTT assay; the viability and the IC50 were used to evaluate this test. Results The essential oil from the leaves of Ricinus communis L. was analyzed by GC–MS and bioassays were carried out. Five constituents of the oil were identified by GC–MS. The antimicrobial activity of the oil was investigated in order to evaluate its efficacy against twelve bacteria and four fungi species, using disc diffusion and minimum inhibitory concentration methods. The essential oil showed strong antimicrobial activity against all microorganisms tested with higher sensitivity for Bacillus subtilis, Staphylococcus aureus and Enterobacter cloacae. The cytotoxic and apoptotic effects of the essential oil on HeLa cell lines were examined by MTT assay. The cytotoxicity of the oil was quite strong with IC50 values less than 2.63 mg/ml for both cell lines. Conclusion The present study showed the potential antimicrobial and anticarcinogenic properties of the essential oil of Ricinus communis L., indicating the possibilities of its potential use in the formula of natural remedies for the topical treatment of infections. PMID:22888805

  2. Effects of Ricinus communis oil esters on salivary glands of Rhipicephalus sanguineus (Latreille, 1806) (Acari: Ixodidae).

    PubMed

    Arnosti, André; Brienza, Paula Desjardins; Furquim, Karim Christina Scopinho; Chierice, Gilberto Orivaldo; Neto, Salvador Claro; Bechara, Gervásio Henrique; Sampieri, Bruno Rodrigues; Camargo-Mathias, Maria Izabel

    2011-02-01

    This study showed the interference of esters extracted from Ricinus communis in the secretory cycle of salivary glands of Rhipicephalus sanguineus ticks, which consequently caused collateral effects on their feeding process. Ticks attached on hosts which were fed with commercial feed containing different concentrations of R. communis oil esters suffered damages such as cytoplasmic changes in their salivary glands, notably in the acinar cells, impairing the functioning of the acini and accelerating the organs degeneration as a whole. It was found that esters interfered with the activity of cellular secretion by changing the glycoprotein of salivary composition especially in acini II cells. It was also shown that the damages caused by esters in the salivary glands cells of these ectoparasites increased in higher concentrations of the product and degenerative glandular changes were more pronounced.

  3. Ricinus communis and Jatropha curcas (Euphorbiaceae) seed oil toxicity against Atta sexdens rubropilosa (Hymenoptera: Formicidae).

    PubMed

    Alonso, E C; Santos, D Y A C

    2013-04-01

    Leaf-cutting ants are the main herbivores in the New World tropics. Although the toxicity of seed oils against these ants has been poorly investigated, previous results revealed that seed oils exert considerable toxic activity against these insects. This paper analyzes the toxic action and deterrent properties of castor oil, Ricinus communis L., and physic nut oil, Jatropha curcas L., against workers of the leaf-cutting ant Atta sexdens rubropilosa reared in laboratory. Toxic effect was analyzed by feeding insects artificial diets supplemented with different oil concentrations and direct contact with the two oils. Deterrent activity was assessed by measuring the frequency of attendance to diets during the first 48 h of the ingestion bioassay. Castor oil at 10 and 30 mg/ml and physic nut oil at 5, 10, and 30 mg/ml were toxic by ingestion. In the direct contact bioassay, toxicity was observed for physic nut oil at 0.1 and 0.2 mg/ml, whereas castor oil exerted toxic effects only when the highest concentration was applied. Also, castor oil had a more pronounced deterrent effect against the leaf-cutting ant, compared with physic nut oil. Methods to apply these oils to control these insects are discussed.

  4. Potential of castor bean (Ricinus communis L.) for phytoremediation of mine tailings and oil production.

    PubMed

    Ruiz Olivares, Alejandro; Carrillo-González, Rogelio; González-Chávez, Ma del Carmen A; Soto Hernández, Ramón Marcos

    2013-01-15

    Bioenergy production combined with phytoremediation has been suggested to help in solving two critical world problems: the gradual reduction of fossil fuels and soil contamination. The aim of this research was to investigate the potential for the use of Ricinus communis L. (castor oil plant) as an energy crop and plant species to remediate metal-polluted sites. This study was performed in mine tailings containing high concentrations of Cu, Zn, Mn, Pb and Cd. Physico-chemical characterization, total, DTPA-extractable and water-soluble metals in rhizospheric tailings heap samples were carried. Metal concentrations in plant tissues and translocation factors (TFs) were also determined. The Ricinus seed-oil content was high between 41 and 64%, seeds from San Francisco site 6 had the highest oil content, while these from site 7 had the lowest. No trend between oil yield vs seed origin site was observed. Seed-oil content was negatively correlated with root concentration of Cu, Zn, Pb and Cd, but no correlation was observed with the extractable-metals. According to its shoot metal concentrations and TFs, castor bean is not a metal accumulator plant. This primary colonizing plant is well suited to cope with the local toxic conditions and can be useful for the stabilization of these residues, and for then decreasing metal bioavailability, dispersion and human health risks on these barren tailings heaps and in the surrounding area. Our work is the first report regarding combined oil production and a phytostabilization role for Ricinus plants in metal mine tailings and may give a new value to suitable metal-polluted areas.

  5. Isotope labeling-based quantitative proteomics of developing seeds of castor oil seed (Ricinus communis L.).

    PubMed

    Nogueira, Fábio C S; Palmisano, Giuseppe; Schwämmle, Veit; Soares, Emanuela L; Soares, Arlete A; Roepstorff, Peter; Domont, Gilberto B; Campos, Francisco A P

    2013-11-01

    In this study, we used a mass spectrometry-based quantification approach employing isotopic (ICPL) and isobaric (iTRAQ) labeling to investigate the pattern of protein deposition during castor oil seed (Ricinus communis L.) development, including that of proteins involved in fatty acid metabolism, seed-storage proteins (SSPs), toxins, and allergens. Additionally, we have used off-line hydrophilic interaction chromatography (HILIC) as a step of peptide fractionation preceding the reverse-phase nanoLC coupled to a LTQ Orbitrap. We were able to identify a total of 1875 proteins, and from these 1748 could be mapped to extant castor gene models, considerably expanding the number of proteins so far identified from developing castor seeds. Cluster validation and statistical analysis resulted in 975 protein trend patterns and the relative abundance of 618 proteins. The results presented in this work give important insights into certain aspects of the biology of castor oil seed development such as carbon flow, anabolism, and catabolism of fatty acid and the pattern of deposition of SSPs, toxins, and allergens such as ricin and 2S albumins. We also found, for the first time, some genes of SSP that are differentially expressed during seed development.

  6. Genotyping and Bioforensics of Ricinus communis

    SciTech Connect

    Hinckley, Aubree Christine

    2006-01-01

    The castor bean plant (Ricinus communis) is a member of the family Euphorbiaceae. In spite of its common name, the castor plant is not a true bean (i.e., leguminous plants belonging to the family, Fabaceae). Ricinus communis is native to tropical Africa, but because the plant was recognized for its production of oil with many desirable properties, it has been introduced and cultivated in warm temperate regions throughout the world (Armstrong 1999 and Brown 2005). Castor bean plants have also been valued by gardeners as an ornamental plant and, historically, as a natural rodenticide. Today, escaped plants grow like weeds throughout much of the southwestern United States, and castor seeds are even widely available to the public for order through the Internet. In this study, multiple loci of chloroplast noncoding sequence data and a few nuclear noncoding regions were examined to identify DNA polymorphisms present among representatives from a geographically diverse panel of Ricinus communis cultivated varieties. The primary objectives for this research were (1) to successfully cultivate castor plants and extract sufficient yields of high quality DNA from an assortment of castor cultivated varieties, (2) to use PCR and sequencing to screen available universal oligos against a small panel of castor cultivars, (3) to identify DNA polymorphisms within the amplified regions, and (4) to evaluate these DNA polymorphisms as appropriate candidates for assay development (see Figure 1). Additional goals were to design, test and optimize assays targeting any DNA polymorphisms that were discovered and to rapidly screen many castor cultivars to determine the amount of diversity present at that particular locus. Ultimately, the goal of this study was to construct a phylogeographic tree representing the genetic relationships present among Ricinus communis cultivars from diverse geographic regions. These research objectives were designed to test the hypothesis that cultivated varieties

  7. Castor (Ricinus communis L.)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The castor plant has been cultivated for thousands of years, providing a useful source of medicine, lamp fuel and lubricant long before petroleum came into wide use. The oil content of castor seed ranges from 45 to 60%, with most cultivars closer to 50% oil content. The presence of the hydroxy fatty...

  8. Draft genome sequence of the oilseed species Ricinus communis

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Castor bean (Ricinus communis) is an oil crop that belongs to the spurge (Euphorbiaceae) family. Its seeds are the source of castor oil, used for the production of high-quality lubricants due to its high proportion of the unusual fatty acid ricinoleic acid. Castor bean seeds also produce ricin, a hi...

  9. Generational reproductive outcomes in Wistar rats maternally exposed to Ricinus communis oil at different stages of gestation.

    PubMed

    Salami, S A; Raji, Y

    2015-10-01

    Fetal programming hypothesis presupposes that stimulus or insult acting during critical periods of uterine growth and development may permanently alter tissue structure and function. Ricinus communis oil (RCO) has been reported to possess/used as laxative, labor-inducing and estrogenic properties. Generational reproductive effects of maternal exposure to RCO was investigated in rats. A total of 25 pregnant rats randomly assigned to five equal groups were treated with distilled water (control, group 1), RCO (950 mg/kg p.o.) during gestation days (GD) 1-7, 7-14, 14-21 and 1-21, respectively. Birth weight, morphometric data, anogenital distance (AGD), pubertal age, sperm parameters, hormonal profile, organ weight and histopathology were determined in the first (F1) and second (F2) filial generations. Results showed a significant decrease (P<0.05) in birth weight/morphometric data in male pups from the GD 1-7 and 7-14 groups. AGD decreased significantly in RCO-treated F1 males. Pubertal age of F1 females decreased significantly (P<0.05) compared with controls. At postnatal day 90, F1 males from the RCO-treated group showed significant decrease in testis weight, body weight, sperm count, motility and normal morphology. Testosterone levels were significantly decreased in RCO-treated F1 males, which also showed testicular interstitial edema and epididymal hypospermia. Only pubertal indexes were altered in F2 rats. Maternal exposure to RCO at early gestation periods impaired androgen-mediated reproductive end points in the first generation of rats. RCO exhibits endocrine disrupting capabilities.

  10. Antibody interactions with Ricinus communis agglutinins studied by biolayer interferometry

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Two related agglutinins are present in the seeds of Ricinus communis (castor): ricin, a dichain ribosome-inactivating protein and Ricinus communis agglutinin-1 (RCA-1), a much less toxic hemagglutinin. Because ricin has been used for experimental cancer chemotherapy as well as for intentional poison...

  11. Cadmium tolerance and its phytoremediation by two oil yielding plants Ricinus communis (L.) and Brassica juncea (L.) from the contaminated soil.

    PubMed

    Bauddh, Kuldeep; Singh, Rana P

    2012-09-01

    The effect of increasing level of cadmium in soil was investigated on biomass production, antioxidants, Cd bioaccumulation and translocation in Ricinus communis vis-à-vis a commonly studied oil crop Brassica juncea. The plants were exposed to 25, 50, 75, 100, and 150 mg Cd/Kg soil for up to 60 days. It was found that R. communis produced higher biomass at all the contamination levels than that of B. juncea. Proline and malondialdehyde in the leaves increased with increase in Cd level in both the species, whereas soluble protein decreased. The bioaccumulation of Cd was higher in B. juncea on the basis of the per unit biomass, total metal accumulation per plant was higher in R. communis. The translocation of Cdfrom roots to shoot was also higher in B. juncea at all Cd concentrations. R. communis appeared more tolerant and capable to clean Cd contaminated soil for longer period in one sowing than B. juncea and the former can grow in wasteland soil also in which later cannot be cultivated.

  12. Regiospecific analysis of diricinoleoylacylglycerols in castor (Ricinus communis L.) oil by electrospray ionization-mass spectrometry

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    HPLC fractions of diricinoleoyl-acyl-glycerols containing one non-ricinoleoyl chain from castor oil were used to identify the regiospecific location of this non-ricinoleoyl chain on glycerol backbone using electrospray ionization-MS3 of lithium adducts. The regiospecific ions used were from the loss...

  13. Rhipicephalus sanguineus (Acari: Ixodidae) female ticks exposed to castor oil (Ricinus communis): an ultrastructural overview.

    PubMed

    Sampieri, B R; Furquim, K C S; Nunes, P H; Camargo-Mathias, M I

    2013-02-01

    Tick control has been accomplished through the use of synthetic acaricides, which has created resistant individuals, as well as contaminating the environment and nontarget organisms. Substances of plant origin, such as oils and extracts of eucalyptus and neem leaves, have been researched as an alternative to replace the synthetic acaricides. Ricinoleic acid esters from castor oil have recently been shown as a promising alternative in eliminating bacterial contamination during ethanol fermentation, by acting as an effective biocide. The same positive results have been observed when these esters are added to the food given to tick-infested rabbits. This study tested the effect of these substance on the reproductive system of Rhipicephalus sanguineus females, added to rabbit food, more specifically on oogenesis. For this, four groups were established: four control groups (CG1, CG2, CG3, and CG4) and four treatment groups (TG1, TG2, TG3, and TG4) with one rabbit in each (New Zealand White), used as hosts. After full 4 days feeding (semi-engorgement), the females were collected and had their ovaries extracted. In this study, it was observed that R. sanguineus females exposed to esters had their ovaries modified, which was demonstrated through transmission electron microscopy techniques. The addition of ricinoleic esters to the diet of tick-infested rabbits revealed how toxic such substances are for the cytoplasmic organelles of oocytes and pedicel cells. These compounds can change the morphophysiology of germ and somatic cells, consequently influencing their viability and, therefore, confirming that the ricinoleic acid esters from castor oil are a promising substance in the control of R. sanguineus. PMID:23086445

  14. Rhipicephalus sanguineus (Acari: Ixodidae) female ticks exposed to castor oil (Ricinus communis): an ultrastructural overview.

    PubMed

    Sampieri, B R; Furquim, K C S; Nunes, P H; Camargo-Mathias, M I

    2013-02-01

    Tick control has been accomplished through the use of synthetic acaricides, which has created resistant individuals, as well as contaminating the environment and nontarget organisms. Substances of plant origin, such as oils and extracts of eucalyptus and neem leaves, have been researched as an alternative to replace the synthetic acaricides. Ricinoleic acid esters from castor oil have recently been shown as a promising alternative in eliminating bacterial contamination during ethanol fermentation, by acting as an effective biocide. The same positive results have been observed when these esters are added to the food given to tick-infested rabbits. This study tested the effect of these substance on the reproductive system of Rhipicephalus sanguineus females, added to rabbit food, more specifically on oogenesis. For this, four groups were established: four control groups (CG1, CG2, CG3, and CG4) and four treatment groups (TG1, TG2, TG3, and TG4) with one rabbit in each (New Zealand White), used as hosts. After full 4 days feeding (semi-engorgement), the females were collected and had their ovaries extracted. In this study, it was observed that R. sanguineus females exposed to esters had their ovaries modified, which was demonstrated through transmission electron microscopy techniques. The addition of ricinoleic esters to the diet of tick-infested rabbits revealed how toxic such substances are for the cytoplasmic organelles of oocytes and pedicel cells. These compounds can change the morphophysiology of germ and somatic cells, consequently influencing their viability and, therefore, confirming that the ricinoleic acid esters from castor oil are a promising substance in the control of R. sanguineus.

  15. Response of broiler finishers to diets containing graded levels of processed castor oil bean (Ricinus communis L) meal.

    PubMed

    Ani, A O; Okorie, A U

    2009-04-01

    A 4-week feeding experiment was conducted to determine the effects of graded levels of dehulled and cooked castor oil bean (Ricinus communis L) meal on the performance of broiler finishers. Castor oil bean seeds were dehulled and detoxified by cooking in two stages at 100 degrees C for 50 min per cooking. Sixty 6-week-old broiler birds (Anak strain) were randomly divided into four groups of 15 birds each. The groups were fed four isocaloric (2.90 Mcal of metabolizable energy/kg) and isonitrogenous (21% crude protein) diets containing 0%, 10%, 15% and 20% dehulled and cooked castor oil bean meal (CBM) for 4 weeks. Results showed that there were significant (p < 0.05) differences among treatments in average daily feed intake, final body weight, average daily weight gain (ADWG), feed conversion ratio (FCR) and protein efficiency ratio (PER). Birds fed diets containing 0% and 10% CBM had significantly (p < 0.05) higher feed intake than birds on 15% and 20% CBM diets. The lowest feed intake was recorded at the 20% CBM inclusion level. The highest ADWG was observed in birds fed 0% CBM diet, but this was not significantly (p > 0.05) different from the ADWG of birds on 10% CBM diet. Birds fed diets containing10% and 15% levels of CBM had similar and non-significant (p > 0.05) ADWG. Birds fed 20% CBM diet had the least (p < 0.05) ADWG. Birds fed 0%, 10% and 15% CBM diets had similar FCR and this was significantly (p < 0.05) lower and better than that of birds on 20% CBM diet. The least (p < 0.05) PER was observed in birds fed 20% CBM diet. Birds fed 20% CBM diet had significantly (p < 0.05) higher packed cell volume (PCV) than birds on 10% and 15% CBM diets. Birds fed 0%, 10% and 15% CBM diets had similar (p > 0.05) PCV values. Birds fed diets containing 0%, 10% and 15% levels of CBM had similar and significantly (p < 0.05) lower heamoglobin than birds fed 20% CBM diets. There were also significant (p < 0.05) differences among treatments in dry matter (DM), nitrogen, ether

  16. Structure and stability of Ricinus communis haemagglutinin.

    PubMed Central

    Frénoy, J P; Tran, A T; Bourrillon, R

    1986-01-01

    The molecular properties of the haemagglutinin of Ricinus communis (RCA I or RCA 120) were evaluated by analytical ultracentrifugation, light-scattering, c.d. and fluorescence. The native molecule had a fairly expanded structure (f/f0 = 1.43) and dissociated into two subunits of equal size in 6 M-guanidinium chloride. This native structure was stable in alkali (up to pH 11) and resistant to thermal denaturation at neutrality. A pH-triggered change in the haemagglutinin conformation was observed and characterized by analytical ultracentrifugation, c.d. and fluorescence between pH 7 and 4.5, the range in which its affinity for galactosides decreased [Yamasaki, Absar & Funatsu (1985) Biochim, Biophys. Acta 828, 155-161]. These results are discussed in relation to those reported in the literature for other lectins and more especially ricin, for which a pH-dependent conformation transition has been observed in the same range of low pH. PMID:3827842

  17. Acetone Powder From Dormant Seeds of Ricinus communis L

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cavalcanti, Elisa D. C.; Maciel, Fábio M.; Villeneuve, Pierre; Lago, Regina C. A.; Machado, Olga L. T.; Freire, Denise M. G.

    The influence of several factors on the hydrolytic activity of lipase, present in the acetone powder from dormant castor seeds (Ricinus communis) was evaluated. The enzyme showed a marked specificity for short-chain substrates. The best reaction conditions were an acid medium, Triton X-100 as the emulsifying agent and a temperature of 30°C. The lipase activity of the acetone powder of different castor oil genotypes showed great variability and storage stability of up to 90%. The toxicology analysis of the acetone powder from genotype Nordestina BRS 149 showed a higher ricin (toxic component) content, a lower 2S albumin (allergenic compound) content, and similar allergenic potential compared with untreated seeds.

  18. Acyl-ACP thioesterases from castor (Ricinus communis L.): an enzymatic system appropriate for high rates of oil synthesis and accumulation.

    PubMed

    Sánchez-García, Alicia; Moreno-Pérez, Antonio J; Muro-Pastor, Alicia M; Salas, Joaquín J; Garcés, Rafael; Martínez-Force, Enrique

    2010-06-01

    Acyl-acyl carrier protein (ACP) thioesterases are enzymes that terminate the intraplastidial fatty acid synthesis in plants by hydrolyzing the acyl-ACP intermediates and releasing free fatty acids to be incorporated into glycerolipids. These enzymes are classified in two families, FatA and FatB, which differ in amino acid sequence and substrate specificity. In the present work, both FatA and FatB thioesterases were cloned, sequenced and characterized from castor (Ricinus communis) seeds, a crop of high interest in oleochemistry. Single copies of FatA and FatB were found in castor resulting to be closely related with those of Jatropha curcas. The corresponding mature proteins were heterologously expressed in Escherichia coli for biochemical characterization after purification, resulting in high catalytic efficiency of RcFatA on oleoyl-ACP and palmitoleoyl-ACP and high efficiencies of RcFatB for oleoyl-ACP and palmitoyl-ACP. The expression profile of these genes displayed the highest levels in expanding tissues that typically are very active in lipid biosynthesis such as developing seed endosperm and young expanding leaves. The contribution of these two enzymes to the synthesis of castor oil is discussed.

  19. Role of ethylene in the germination metabolism of ricinus communis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cristescu, Simona; Dumitras, Dan C.; Godeanu, Adriana

    1999-03-01

    A CO2 laser-based photoacoustic method has been used to monitor the ethylene (C2H4) released by castor bean (Ricinus communis) seeds during germination. The relationship between the evolution of the C2H4 germinating seeds and the respiration intensity is presented.

  20. Tissue-specific expression and post-translational modifications of plant- and bacterial-type phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase isozymes of the castor oil plant, Ricinus communis L.

    PubMed

    O'Leary, Brendan; Fedosejevs, Eric T; Hill, Allyson T; Bettridge, James; Park, Joonho; Rao, Srinath K; Leach, Craig A; Plaxton, William C

    2011-11-01

    This study employs transcript profiling together with immunoblotting and co-immunopurification to assess the tissue-specific expression, protein:protein interactions, and post-translational modifications (PTMs) of plant- and bacterial-type phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase (PEPC) isozymes (PTPC and BTPC, respectively) in the castor plant, Ricinus communis. Previous studies established that the Class-1 PEPC (PTPC homotetramer) of castor oil seeds (COS) is activated by phosphorylation at Ser-11 and inhibited by monoubiquitination at Lys-628 during endosperm development and germination, respectively. Elimination of photosynthate supply to developing COS by depodding caused the PTPC of the endosperm and cotyledon to be dephosphorylated, and then subsequently monoubiquitinated in vivo. PTPC monoubiquitination rather than phosphorylation is widespread throughout the castor plant and appears to be the predominant PTM of Class-1 PEPC that occurs in planta. The distinctive developmental patterns of PTPC phosphorylation versus monoubiquitination indicates that these two PTMs are mutually exclusive. By contrast, the BTPC: (i) is abundant in the inner integument, cotyledon, and endosperm of developing COS, but occurs at low levels in roots and cotyledons of germinated COS, (ii) shows a unique developmental pattern in leaves such that it is present in leaf buds and young expanding leaves, but undetectable in fully expanded leaves, and (iii) tightly interacts with co-expressed PTPC to form the novel and allosterically-desensitized Class-2 PEPC heteromeric complex. BTPC and thus Class-2 PEPC up-regulation appears to be a distinctive feature of rapidly growing and/or biosynthetically active tissues that require a large anaplerotic flux from phosphoenolpyruvate to replenish tricarboxylic acid cycle C-skeletons being withdrawn for anabolism.

  1. Ricinus communis intoxications in human and veterinary medicine-a summary of real cases.

    PubMed

    Worbs, Sylvia; Köhler, Kernt; Pauly, Diana; Avondet, Marc-André; Schaer, Martin; Dorner, Martin B; Dorner, Brigitte G

    2011-10-01

    Accidental and intended Ricinus communis intoxications in humans and animals have been known for centuries but the causative agent remained elusive until 1888 when Stillmark attributed the toxicity to the lectin ricin. Ricinus communis is grown worldwide on an industrial scale for the production of castor oil. As by-product in castor oil production ricin is mass produced above 1 million tons per year. On the basis of its availability, toxicity, ease of preparation and the current lack of medical countermeasures, ricin has gained attention as potential biological warfare agent. The seeds also contain the less toxic, but highly homologous Ricinus communis agglutinin and the alkaloid ricinine, and especially the latter can be used to track intoxications. After oil extraction and detoxification, the defatted press cake is used as organic fertilizer and as low-value feed. In this context there have been sporadic reports from different countries describing animal intoxications after uptake of obviously insufficiently detoxified fertilizer. Observations in Germany over several years, however, have led us to speculate that the detoxification process is not always performed thoroughly and controlled, calling for international regulations which clearly state a ricin threshold in fertilizer. In this review we summarize knowledge on intended and unintended poisoning with ricin or castor seeds both in humans and animals, with a particular emphasis on intoxications due to improperly detoxified castor bean meal and forensic analysis.

  2. Ricinus communis Intoxications in Human and Veterinary Medicine-A Summary of Real Cases

    PubMed Central

    Worbs, Sylvia; Köhler, Kernt; Pauly, Diana; Avondet, Marc-André; Schaer, Martin; Dorner, Martin B.; Dorner, Brigitte G.

    2011-01-01

    Accidental and intended Ricinus communis intoxications in humans and animals have been known for centuries but the causative agent remained elusive until 1888 when Stillmark attributed the toxicity to the lectin ricin. Ricinus communis is grown worldwide on an industrial scale for the production of castor oil. As by-product in castor oil production ricin is mass produced above 1 million tons per year. On the basis of its availability, toxicity, ease of preparation and the current lack of medical countermeasures, ricin has gained attention as potential biological warfare agent. The seeds also contain the less toxic, but highly homologous Ricinus communis agglutinin and the alkaloid ricinine, and especially the latter can be used to track intoxications. After oil extraction and detoxification, the defatted press cake is used as organic fertilizer and as low-value feed. In this context there have been sporadic reports from different countries describing animal intoxications after uptake of obviously insufficiently detoxified fertilizer. Observations in Germany over several years, however, have led us to speculate that the detoxification process is not always performed thoroughly and controlled, calling for international regulations which clearly state a ricin threshold in fertilizer. In this review we summarize knowledge on intended and unintended poisoning with ricin or castor seeds both in humans and animals, with a particular emphasis on intoxications due to improperly detoxified castor bean meal and forensic analysis. PMID:22069699

  3. Analysis of castor by ELISAs that distinguish Ricin and Ricinus communis agglutinin (RCA)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    To facilitate the analysis of castor (Ricinus communis L.) seed fractions and germplasm for ricin content, we investigated the use of enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) methods to differentiate between ricin toxin and the related Ricinus communis agglutinin (RCA). Both proteins are based on ...

  4. In vitro antimicrobial activity of an experimental dentifrice based on Ricinus communis.

    PubMed

    Leite, Vanessa Maria Fagundes; Pinheiro, Juliana Barchelli; Pisani, Marina Xavier; Watanabe, Evandro; de Souza, Raphael Freitas; Paranhos, Helena de Freitas Oliveira; Lovato-Silva, Cláudia Helena

    2014-01-01

    This study evaluated the antimicrobial activity of a Ricinus communis-based experimental dentifrice for denture hygiene against the following standard strains: Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, Streptococcus mutans, Enterococcus faecalis, Candida albicans and Candida glabrata. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) assay was performed with R. communis in pure oil at 2.5%. Only E. coli was not inhibited by R. communis, but the MIC (0.0781%) was effective against the other microorganisms. From these results it was determined the R. communis concentrations for experimental dentifrices, 1, 2, 5 and 10%, which were evaluated by the test-well diffusion in agar. The commercial dentifrices Colgate, Trihydral and Corega Brite were tested for comparative purposes. The diameter of the zones of bacterial growth inhibition produced around the wells was measured (in mm) with a rule under reflected light. Data were analyzed statistically by analysis of variance and Tukey's post-hoc test (α=0.05). Neither the commercial nor the experimental dentifrices were effective against E. coli. The experimental dentifrices containing R. communis at 2, 5 and 10% presented action against S. mutans, S. aureaus and E. faecallis. The experimental dentifrices showed no antimicrobial activity against Candida spp. and E. coli in any of the tested concentrations. Trihydral was the most effective. Comparing the experimental dentifrices, the product with 10% R. communis produced the largest zones of bacterial growth inhibition and had similar antimicrobial activity to the commercial dentifrices, except against S. aureus.

  5. [Control effects of Ricinus communis extracts on Meloidogyne incognita].

    PubMed

    Gao, Qian-Yuan; Hu, Fei-Long; Zhu, Hong-Hong; Liu, Man-Qiang; Li, Hui-Xin; Hu, Feng

    2011-11-01

    Toxicity test and pot experiment were conducted to study the nematocidal activity and control effects of Ricinus communis extracts on Meloidogyne incognita. The results showed that both the ricinine and the R. communis water extracts had high nematocidal activity. The ricinine at concentration 2 g x L(-1) and treated for 48 hours had the strongest nematocidal activity, leading to 91.5% of corrected mortality of M. incognita and with the LC50 being 0.6 g x L(-1), whereas the R. communis water extracts at concentration 100 g x L(-1) and treated for 48 hours had the strongest nematocidal activity, which led to 83.5% of corrected mortality of M. incognita, and the LC50 was 18.3 g x L(-1). With the inoculation of M. incognita treated with ricinine, R. communis water extracts, and R. communis leaf powder, respectively, on tomato seedlings, the mean number of plant root-knots was 17.6 +/- 1.7, 20.6 +/- 1.5 and 22.8 +/- 3.7, respectively, being significantly lower than the control (37.4 +/- 2.3), and the root length increased by 46.8%, 34.5% and 33.8%, and the plant height increased by 33.5%, 22.6% and 15.8%, and the fresh mass increased by 41.4%, 18.9% and 10.1%, respectively, compared with the control. All the results suggested that R. communis extracts could mitigate the harm of M. incognita, and had obvious effects on potted tomato against M. incognita.

  6. Ricinus communis treatment of denture stomatitis in institutionalised elderly.

    PubMed

    Pinelli, L A P; Montandon, A A B; Corbi, S C T; Moraes, T A; Fais, L M G

    2013-05-01

    This study compared the effectiveness of Ricinus communis (RC) with Nystatin (NYS) and Miconazole (MIC) in the treatment of institutionalised elderly with denture stomatitis (DS). They (n = 30) were randomly distributed into three groups: MIC, NYS or RC. Clinical and mycological evaluations were performed prior to the use of the antifungal (baseline) and repeated after 15 and 30 days of treatment. The sample was clinically examined for oral mucosal conditions. Standard photographs were taken of the palate, and the oral candidiasis was classified (Newton's criteria). Mycological investigation was performed by swabbing the palatal mucosa, and Candida spp. were quantified by counting the number of colony-forming units (cfu mL⁻¹). The clinical and mycological data were analysed, respectively by Wilcoxon and Student's t-test (α = 0.05). Significant improvement in the clinical appearance of DS in the MIC and RC groups was observed between the 1st and 3rd collections (MIC - P = 0.018; RC - P = 0.011) as well as between the 2nd and 3rd collections (MIC - P = 0.018; RC - P = 0.011). Neither groups showed a statistically significant reduction in cfu mL⁻¹ at any time. Although none of the treatments decreased the cfu mL⁻¹, it was concluded that Ricinus communis can improve the clinical condition of denture stomatitis in institutionalised elderly patients, showing similar results to Miconazole.

  7. Castor bean (Ricinus communis L.) as a potential environmental bioindicator.

    PubMed

    Mendes, M G; Santos Junior, C D; Dias, A C C; Bonetti, A M

    2015-10-21

    Biomonitoring of air quality using living organisms is a very interesting approach to environmental impact assessment. Organisms with a vast distribution, such as plants, are widely used for these purposes. The castor bean (Ricinus communis L.) is an oleaginous plant that can potentially be used as a bioindicator plant owing to its rapid growth and large leaves, which have a wide surface area of contact with the air and the pollutants therein. This study investigated the the bioindicator potential of the castor bean by performing several tests. We observed statistically significant differences in the concentrations of chlorophyll a and b in the leaves of plants in polluted areas compared to that in the control group plants, which were located in a pollution-free area. Leaves of plants in the former group had higher peroxidase activity and showed a greater buffering ability than those of plants in the control group. The pKa values obtained via buffering capacity tests, revealed the presence of aminoazobenzene (an industrial dye) in leaves of R. communis. Genotoxicity was evaluated through the comet assay technique and revealed that other than some differences in DNA fragmentation, there is no statistically significant difference in this parameter between places analyzed. Our data indicate that R. communis can be a highly useful biological indicator. Further, we hypothesized that the castor bean can be a potential candidate for phytoremediation owing its physiological buffering capacity when exposed to substantial pollution.

  8. Forensic applications of light-element stable isotope ratios of Ricinus communis seeds and ricin preparations.

    PubMed

    Kreuzer, Helen W; West, Jason B; Ehleringer, James R

    2013-01-01

    Seeds of the castor plant Ricinus communis are of forensic interest because they are the source of the poison ricin. We tested whether stable isotope ratios of castor seeds and ricin preparations can be used as a forensic signature. We collected over 300 castor seed samples worldwide and measured the C, N, O, and H isotope ratios of the whole seeds and oil. We prepared ricin by three different procedures, acetone extraction, salt precipitation, and affinity chromatography, and compared their isotope ratios to those of the source seeds. The N isotope ratios of the ricin samples and source seeds were virtually identical. Therefore, N isotope ratios can be used to correlate ricin prepared by any of these methods to source seeds. Further, stable isotope ratios distinguished >99% of crude and purified ricin protein samples in pairwise comparison tests. Stable isotope ratios therefore constitute a valuable forensic signature for ricin preparations.

  9. Forensic Applications of Light-Element Stable Isotope Ratios of Ricinus communis Seeds and Ricin Preparations

    SciTech Connect

    Kreuzer, Helen W.; West, Jason B.; Ehleringer, James

    2013-01-01

    Seeds of the castor plant Ricinus communis, also known as castor beans, are of forensic interest because they are the source of the poison ricin. We have tested whether stable isotope ratios of castor seeds and ricin prepared by various methods can be used as a forensic signature. We collected over 300 castor seed samples from locations around the world and measured the C, N, O, and H stable isotope ratios of the whole seeds, oil, and three types of ricin preparations. Our results demonstrate that N isotope ratios can be used to correlate ricin prepared by any of these methods to source seeds. Further, stable isotope ratios distinguished >99% of crude and purified ricin protein samples in pair-wise comparison tests. Stable isotope ratios therefore constitute a valuable forensic signature for ricin preparations.

  10. Apis mellifera pollination improves agronomic productivity of anemophilous castor bean (Ricinus communis).

    PubMed

    Rizzardo, Rômulo A G; Milfont, Marcelo O; Silva, Eva M S da; Freitas, Breno M

    2012-12-01

    Castor bean (Ricinus communis L.) is cultivated mainly for biodiesel production because of its oil-rich seeds; it is assumed to be an anemophylous species. But pollination deficit can lead to low productivity often attributed to other reasons. In this paper, we investigated pollination requirements, pollination mechanism, occurrence of pollination deficit, and the role of biotic pollinators in a large commercial plantation of castor bean. Our results show that R. communis bears a mixed breeding system favoring selfing by geitonogamy, although the wind promotes mostly outcrossing. We also found that the honey bee (Apis mellifera L.) foraging on castor bean can both transfer pollen from male to female flowers within the same raceme and boost the release of airborne pollen by male flowers. Both situations increase geitonogamy rates, raising significantly fruit set and seed yield. This is the first report of an animal foraging activity increasing seed yield in an anemophilous and geitonogamous crop and elucidates the role of biotic pollinators in castor bean reproduction.

  11. New efficient DNA extraction method to access the microbiome of Ricinus communis seeds.

    PubMed

    Santos, C D; Dias, A C C; Amaral, I M R; Bonetti, A M; Campos, T A

    2013-02-28

    Ricinus communis (castor bean) seeds are used to produce an alcohol-soluble oil that is used in more than 400 industrial processes. Despite its economic importance, there has been little research on the endophytic microbiota of castor bean seeds. This microbiota is important for plant metabolic processes and may have considerable biotechnological potential, such as production of lipases and plant growth promoter agents. We evaluated several DNA extraction methodologies in order to access the microbial diversity of castor bean through a metagenomic approach. Based on our observations, we developed a new methodology that takes advantage of the low solubility of calcium phosphates and the high affinity of these phosphates for proteins and polysaccharides. The extracted DNA quality was evaluated by PCR, using a selective primer pair for bacterial and mitochondrial 16S rDNA genes (799F and 1492R). We found this methodology quantitatively and qualitatively more efficient than the other approaches. In evaluating this new extraction methodology, we found that the difficulties of DNA extraction from castor bean seeds, such as abundant oil, polysaccharides, phenolic compounds, and plant enzymes, could be overcome. The resulting extracts had high concentration and purity, and they were obtained faster than with previous methods. The samples contained virtually all of the DNA, including the microbial DNA; this was validated by PCR analysis.

  12. [Terpenoids and sterols from Ricinus communis and their activities against diabetes].

    PubMed

    Li, Shen-Hua; Deng, Qing; Zhu, Li; Lai, Chun-Hua; Wang, Heng-Shan; Tan, Qin-Gang

    2014-02-01

    Seven terpenoids and three sterols were isolated from the methanol extracts of the aerial parts of Ricinus communis by chromatography methods and their structures were identified by spectra analysis as ficusic acid( 1), phytol(2), callyspinol(3) , lupeol(4), 30-norlupan-3beta-ol-20-one(5) , lup-20(29)-en-3beta,15alpha-diol(6) , acetylaleuritolic acid( 7), stigmast4-en-3-one(8) , stig-mast-4-en-6beta-ol-3-one(9) , and stigmast4-en-3,6-dione(10). Compounds 1-3 and 5-10 were obtained from this species for the first time and 5 and 6 showed significant inhibitive activity and good selectivity against 11beta-HSD of mouse and human in vitro. [Key words] Ricinus communis; terpenoids; sterols; 11beta-HSD

  13. Use of Energy Crop (Ricinus communis L.) for Phytoextraction of Heavy Metals Assisted with Citric Acid.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Hui; Chen, Xueping; He, Chiquan; Liang, Xia; Oh, Kokyo; Liu, Xiaoyan; Lei, Yanru

    2015-01-01

    Ricinus communis L. is a bioenergetic crop with high-biomass production and tolerance to cadmium (Cd) and lead (Pb), thus, the plant is a candidate crop for phytoremediation. Pot experiments were performed to study the effects of citric acid in enhancing phytoextraction of Cd/Pb by Ricinus communis L. Citric acid increased Cd and Pb contents in plant shoots in all treatments by about 78% and 18-45%, respectively, at the dosage of 10 mM kg(-1) soil without affecting aboveground biomass production. Addition of citric acid reduced CEC, weakened soil adsorption of heavy metals and activated Cd and Pb in soil solutions. The acid-exchangeable fraction (BCR-1) of Pb remained lower than 7% and significantly increased with citric acid amendment. Respective increases in soil evaluation index induces by 14% and 19% under the Cd1Pb50 and Cd1Pb250 treatments upon addition of citric acid resulted in soil quality improvement. Ricinus communis L. has great potential in citric acid-assisted phytoextraction for Cd and Pb remediation.

  14. An oleate 12-hydroxylase from Ricinus communis L. is a fatty acyl desaturase homolog

    SciTech Connect

    Van De Loo, F.J.; Broun, P.; Turner, S.; Somerville, C.

    1995-07-18

    Recent spectroscopic evidence implicating a binuclear iron site at the reaction center of fatty acyl desaturases suggested to us that certain fatty acyl hydroxylases may share significant amino acid sequence similarity with desaturases. To test this theory, we prepared a cDNA library from developing endosperm of the castor-oil plant (Ricinus communis L.) and obtained partial nucleotide sequences for 468 anonymous clones that were not expressed at high levels in leaves, a tissue deficient in 12-hydroxyoleic acid. This resulted in the identification of several cDNA clones encoding a polypeptide of 387 amino acids with a predicted molecular weight of 44,407 and with {approx}67% sequence homology to microsomal oleate desaturase from Arabidopsis. Expression of a full-length clone under control of the cauliflower mosaic virus 35S promoter in transgenic tobacco resulted in the accumulation of low levels of 12-hydroxyoleic acid in seeds, indicating that the clone encodes the castor oleate hydroxylase. These results suggest that fatty acyl desaturases and hydroxylases share similar reaction mechanisms and provide an example of enzyme evolution. 26 refs., 6 figs., 1 tab.

  15. Quantification of ricin, RCA and comparison of enzymatic activity in 18 Ricinus communis cultivars by isotope dilution mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Schieltz, David M; McWilliams, Lisa G; Kuklenyik, Zsuzsanna; Prezioso, Samantha M; Carter, Andrew J; Williamson, Yulanda M; McGrath, Sara C; Morse, Stephen A; Barr, John R

    2015-03-01

    The seeds of the Ricinus communis (Castor bean) plant are the source of the economically important commodity castor oil. Castor seeds also contain the proteins ricin and R. communis agglutinin (RCA), two toxic lectins that are hazardous to human health. Radial immunodiffusion (RID) and the enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) are two antibody-based methods commonly used to quantify ricin and RCA; however, antibodies currently used in these methods cannot distinguish between ricin and RCA due to the high sequence homology of the respective proteins. In this study, a technique combining antibody-based affinity capture with liquid chromatography and multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) mass spectrometry (MS) was used to quantify the amounts of ricin and RCA independently in extracts prepared from the seeds of eighteen representative cultivars of R. communis which were propagated under identical conditions. Additionally, liquid chromatography and MRM-MS was used to determine rRNA N-glycosidase activity for each cultivar and the overall activity in these cultivars was compared to a purified ricin standard. Of the cultivars studied, the average ricin content was 9.3 mg/g seed, the average RCA content was 9.9 mg/g seed, and the enzymatic activity agreed with the activity of a purified ricin reference within 35% relative activity.

  16. Effect of ricinoleic acid esters from castor oil (Ricinus communis) on the oocyte yolk components of the tick Rhipicephalus sanguineus (Latreille, 1806) (Acari: Ixodidae).

    PubMed

    Sampieri, Bruno Rodrigues; Arnosti, André; Furquim, Karim Christina Scopinho; Chierice, Gilberto Orivaldo; Bechara, Gervásio Henrique; de Carvalho, Pedro Luiz Pucci Figueiredo; Nunes, Pablo Henrique; Camargo-Mathias, Maria Izabel

    2013-01-31

    Rhipicephalus sanguineus are bloodsucking ectoparasites, whose main host is the domestic dog, thus being present in urban areas and closely located to people. Eventually, this tick species parasitize humans and can become a potential vector of infectious diseases. Methods to control this type of pest have been the focus of many research groups worldwide. The use of natural products is increasingly considered nowadays, due to the low toxicity levels to the host and low waste generation to the environment. This study tested the effect of ricinoleic acid esters from castor oil (as an potential acaricide) on the reproductive system of R. sanguineus females, more specifically on the vitellogenesis process. For this, two groups were established: the control group (CG) and the treatment group (TG) with five rabbits in each (New Zealand White), used as hosts. NaCl and ester were added to rabbits' food and offered to the hosts. After full engorgement, the females were collected and had their ovaries extracted. The ticks ovaries were submitted to histochemical techniques so the effects of esters could be observed over polysaccharides, proteins and lipids yolk. Changes in the deposition of yolk components were observed. This caused modifications on elements of polysaccharide origin and on glycoprotein compounds, interfering in the final yolk synthesis and compromising the development of the future embryo.

  17. Ultrastructural changes in the ovary cells of engorged Rhipicephalus sanguineus female ticks treated with esters of ricinoleic acid from castor oil (Ricinus communis).

    PubMed

    Sampieri, Bruno Rodrigues; Arnosti, André; Nunes, Pablo Henrique; Furquim, Karim Christina Scopinho; Chierice, Gilberto Orivaldo; Mathias, Maria Izabel Camargo

    2012-05-01

    Rhipicephalus sanguineus is a widely distributed tick species that has adapted to the urban environment, and the dog is its main host. This species is also known as a vector and reservoir of diseases caused by bacteria, protozoa, and viruses. Currently, acaricides of synthetic chemical origin have been widely and indiscriminately used, leading to the development of resistance to these products by ticks and causing damage to the environment. Thus, these issues have made it necessary to seek other forms of controlling these ectoparasites. R. sanguineus was artificially infested in host New Zealand White rabbits, which were divided into four treatment groups: control (CG1 and CG2) and treatment (TG1 and TG2) groups. TG1 and TG2 hosts were provided with feed supplemented with esters of ricinoleic acid from castor oil at a concentration of 5 g/kg of feed for 7 and 15 days. Afterward, the ovaries of the female ticks were removed for analysis by transmission electron microscopy. The results showed ultrastructural changes in the somatic and germ cells of ovaries from TG1 and TG2 females, particularly with respect to chorion deposition, a protective membrane of the oocyte, as well as in the transport process of vitellogenic materials via the hemolymph and pedicel cells. Moreover, the mitochondria were less electron-dense and had cristae that were more disorganized than the mitochondria from CG1 and CG2 individuals. Thus, this study demonstrated the action of esters on the ovaries of R. sanguineus, signaling the prospect of a way to control this ectoparasite without affecting nontarget organisms or the environment.

  18. Evaluation of medicinal plant extracts and isolated compound epicatechin from Ricinus communis against Paramphistomum cervi.

    PubMed

    Zahir, Abdul Abduz; Rahuman, Abdul Abdul; Bagavan, Asokan; Geetha, Kannappan; Kamaraj, Chinnaperumal; Elango, Gandhi

    2012-10-01

    The purpose of this study is to determine the efficacies of hexane, chloroform, ethyl acetate, acetone, and methanol leaf extracts of Euphorbia hirta L., Psidium guajava L., Ricinus communis L., Solanum trilobatum L., and Tridax procumbens L. against sheep fluke Paramphistomum cervi (Digenea: Paramphistomatidae). All plant extracts showed moderate effects after 24 h of exposure; however, the highest parasite mortality was found in the methanol extract of R. communis. In the present study, bioassay-guided fractionation of methanol extract of R. communis led to the separation and identification of epicatechin as a potential new compound (LC(50) = 31.2; LC(90) = 105.0 ppm) against P. cervi. The structures were established from infrared, ultraviolet, (1)H-nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR), (13)C-NMR, and mass spectral data which confirmed the identification of the compound epicatechin from R. communis. Results of this study showed that the methanol extract of R. communis may be considered as a potent source and epicatechin as a new natural parasitic agent.

  19. Final report on the safety assessment of Ricinus Communis (Castor) Seed Oil, Hydrogenated Castor Oil, Glyceryl Ricinoleate, Glyceryl Ricinoleate SE, Ricinoleic Acid, Potassium Ricinoleate, Sodium Ricinoleate, Zinc Ricinoleate, Cetyl Ricinoleate, Ethyl Ricinoleate, Glycol Ricinoleate, Isopropyl Ricinoleate, Methyl Ricinoleate, and Octyldodecyl Ricinoleate.

    PubMed

    2007-01-01

    The oil derived from the seed of the Ricinus communis plant and its primary constituent, Ricinoleic Acid, along with certain of its salts and esters function primarily as skin-conditioning agents, emulsion stabilizers, and surfactants in cosmetics, although other functions are described. Ricinus Communis (Castor) Seed Oil is the naming convention for castor oil used in cosmetics. It is produced by cold pressing the seeds and subsequent clarification of the oil by heat. Castor oil does not contain ricin because ricin does not partition into the oil. Castor oil and Glyceryl Ricinoleate absorb ultraviolet (UV) light, with a maximum absorbance at 270 nm. Castor oil and Hydrogenated Castor Oil reportedly were used in 769 and 202 cosmetic products, respectively, in 2002; fewer uses were reported for the other ingredients in this group. The highest reported use concentration (81%) for castor oil is associated with lipstick. Castor oil is classified by Food and Drug Administration (FDA) as generally recognized as safe and effective for use as a stimulant laxative. The Joint Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO)/World Health Organization (WHO) Expert Committee on Food Additives established an acceptable daily castor oil intake (for man) of 0 to 0.7 mg/kg body weight. Castor oil is hydrolyzed in the small intestine by pancreatic enzymes, leading to the release of glycerol and Ricinoleic Acid, although 3,6-epoxyoctanedioic acid, 3,6-epoxydecanedioic acid, and 3,6-epoxydodecanedioic acid also appear to be metabolites. Castor oil and Ricinoleic Acid can enhance the transdermal penetration of other chemicals. Although chemically similar to prostaglandin E(1), Ricinoleic Acid did not have the same physiological properties. These ingredients are not acute toxicants, and a National Toxicology Program (NTP) subchronic oral toxicity study using castor oil at concentrations up to 10% in the diet of rats was not toxic. Other subchronic studies of castor oil produced similar findings

  20. Final report on the safety assessment of Ricinus Communis (Castor) Seed Oil, Hydrogenated Castor Oil, Glyceryl Ricinoleate, Glyceryl Ricinoleate SE, Ricinoleic Acid, Potassium Ricinoleate, Sodium Ricinoleate, Zinc Ricinoleate, Cetyl Ricinoleate, Ethyl Ricinoleate, Glycol Ricinoleate, Isopropyl Ricinoleate, Methyl Ricinoleate, and Octyldodecyl Ricinoleate.

    PubMed

    2007-01-01

    The oil derived from the seed of the Ricinus communis plant and its primary constituent, Ricinoleic Acid, along with certain of its salts and esters function primarily as skin-conditioning agents, emulsion stabilizers, and surfactants in cosmetics, although other functions are described. Ricinus Communis (Castor) Seed Oil is the naming convention for castor oil used in cosmetics. It is produced by cold pressing the seeds and subsequent clarification of the oil by heat. Castor oil does not contain ricin because ricin does not partition into the oil. Castor oil and Glyceryl Ricinoleate absorb ultraviolet (UV) light, with a maximum absorbance at 270 nm. Castor oil and Hydrogenated Castor Oil reportedly were used in 769 and 202 cosmetic products, respectively, in 2002; fewer uses were reported for the other ingredients in this group. The highest reported use concentration (81%) for castor oil is associated with lipstick. Castor oil is classified by Food and Drug Administration (FDA) as generally recognized as safe and effective for use as a stimulant laxative. The Joint Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO)/World Health Organization (WHO) Expert Committee on Food Additives established an acceptable daily castor oil intake (for man) of 0 to 0.7 mg/kg body weight. Castor oil is hydrolyzed in the small intestine by pancreatic enzymes, leading to the release of glycerol and Ricinoleic Acid, although 3,6-epoxyoctanedioic acid, 3,6-epoxydecanedioic acid, and 3,6-epoxydodecanedioic acid also appear to be metabolites. Castor oil and Ricinoleic Acid can enhance the transdermal penetration of other chemicals. Although chemically similar to prostaglandin E(1), Ricinoleic Acid did not have the same physiological properties. These ingredients are not acute toxicants, and a National Toxicology Program (NTP) subchronic oral toxicity study using castor oil at concentrations up to 10% in the diet of rats was not toxic. Other subchronic studies of castor oil produced similar findings

  1. Ricinus communis-based biopolymer and epidermal growth factor regulations on bone defect repair: A rat tibia model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mendoza-Barrera, C.; Meléndez-Lira, M.; Altuzar, V.; Tomás, S. A.

    2003-01-01

    We report the effect of the addition of an epidermal growth factor to a Ricinus communis-based biopolymer in the healing of a rat tibia model. Bone repair and osteointegration after a period of three weeks were evaluated employing photoacoustic spectroscopy and x-ray diffraction. A parallel study was performed at 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, and 8 weeks with energy dispersive x-ray spectroscopy. We conclude that the use of an epidermal growth factor (group EGF) in vivo accelerates the process of bony repair in comparison with other groups, and that the employment of the Ricinus communis-based biopolymer as a bone substitute decreases bone production.

  2. New anti-inflammatory triterpene from the root of Ricinus communis.

    PubMed

    Srivastava, Pooja; Jyotshna; Gupta, Namita; Maurya, Anil Kumar; Shanker, Karuna

    2014-01-01

    Liquid-liquid partitioning of Ricinus communis root methanol extract resulted in enrichment of compounds. Purification of the n-hexane fraction led to the isolation and characterisation of two triterpenes: one known compound lupeol (1) and a new diketone pentacyclic triterpene named as erandone (urs-6-ene-3,16-dione) (2), from the plant. Their structures were determined by various spectroscopic techniques. Crude methanolic, enriched n-hexane fraction and isolates at doses 100 mg/kg p.o. exhibited significant (P < 0.001) anti-inflammatory activity in carrageenan-induced hind paw oedema model.

  3. Isolation and fractionation of the endoplasmic reticulum from castor bean (Ricinus communis) endosperm for proteomic analyses.

    PubMed

    Simon, William J; Maltman, Daniel J; Slabas, Antoni R

    2008-01-01

    This chapter describes the preparation and isolation of highly purified endoplasmic reticulum (ER) from the endosperm of developing and germinating castor bean (Ricinus communis) seeds to provide a purified organelle fraction for differential proteomic analyses. The method uses a two-step ultracentrifugation protocol first described by Coughlan (1) and uses sucrose density gradients and a sucrose flotation step to yield purified ER devoid of other contaminating endomembrane material. Using a combination of one dimensional (1D) and two dimensional (2D) gel electrophoresis the complexity and reproducibility of the protein profile of the purified organelle is evaluated prior to detailed proteomic analyses using mass spectrometry based techniques.

  4. Can adaptive modulation of traits to urban environments facilitate Ricinus communis L. invasiveness?

    PubMed

    Goyal, Neha; Pardha-Saradhi, P; Sharma, Gyan P

    2014-11-01

    This paper addresses the phenotypic variation among Ricinus communis L. populations in four urban habitat types (road verges, garbage dumps, construction debris, and natural area) in Delhi, India, by evaluating important traits such as plant height, basal circumference, seeds per plant, seed size, seed weight, specific leaf area, and reproductive index. An important biochemical marker, proline, considered as a good plant performance indicator under stress was also quantified in leaves of R. communis to evaluate its response in different habitats. Interestingly, the species showed significant variation in plant height, specific leaf area, seed size, seed weight, and leaf proline content in different habitat types. Leaf proline content was positively related to plant height, specific leaf area, and seed size while negatively related to the total number of seeds/plant. Interestingly, reproductive index, calculated as a ratio of the total number of seeds to the plant height also showed a negative relation with leaf proline content. Results indicated that R. communis exhibits adaptive modulation of growth, reproductive traits, and leaf proline content in various urban habitats which contributes to invasiveness, range expansion, and establishment of the species. The study also gives evidence of how morphological and physiological traits could directly affect invasiveness of R. communis.

  5. Can adaptive modulation of traits to urban environments facilitate Ricinus communis L. invasiveness?

    PubMed

    Goyal, Neha; Pardha-Saradhi, P; Sharma, Gyan P

    2014-11-01

    This paper addresses the phenotypic variation among Ricinus communis L. populations in four urban habitat types (road verges, garbage dumps, construction debris, and natural area) in Delhi, India, by evaluating important traits such as plant height, basal circumference, seeds per plant, seed size, seed weight, specific leaf area, and reproductive index. An important biochemical marker, proline, considered as a good plant performance indicator under stress was also quantified in leaves of R. communis to evaluate its response in different habitats. Interestingly, the species showed significant variation in plant height, specific leaf area, seed size, seed weight, and leaf proline content in different habitat types. Leaf proline content was positively related to plant height, specific leaf area, and seed size while negatively related to the total number of seeds/plant. Interestingly, reproductive index, calculated as a ratio of the total number of seeds to the plant height also showed a negative relation with leaf proline content. Results indicated that R. communis exhibits adaptive modulation of growth, reproductive traits, and leaf proline content in various urban habitats which contributes to invasiveness, range expansion, and establishment of the species. The study also gives evidence of how morphological and physiological traits could directly affect invasiveness of R. communis. PMID:25103212

  6. Fractionation of Stable Cadmium Isotopes in the Cadmium Tolerant Ricinus communis and Hyperaccumulator Solanum nigrum.

    PubMed

    Wei, Rongfei; Guo, Qingjun; Wen, Hanjie; Liu, Congqiang; Yang, Junxing; Peters, Marc; Hu, Jian; Zhu, Guangxu; Zhang, Hanzhi; Tian, Liyan; Han, Xiaokun; Ma, Jie; Zhu, Chuanwei; Wan, Yingxin

    2016-01-01

    Cadmium (Cd) isotopes provide new insights into Cd uptake, transport and storage mechanisms in plants. Therefore, the present study adopted the Cd-tolerant Ricinus communis and Cd-hyperaccumulator Solanum nigrum, which were cultured under controlled conditions in a nutrient solution with variable Cd supply, to test the isotopic fractionation of Cd during plant uptake. The Cd isotope compositions of nutrient solutions and organs of the plants were measured by multiple collector inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (MC-ICPMS). The mass balance of Cd isotope yields isotope fractionations between plant and Cd source (δ(114/110)Cdorgans-solution) of -0.70‰ to -0.22‰ in Ricinus communis and -0.51‰ to -0.33‰ in Solanum nigrum. Moreover, Cd isotope fractionation during Cd transport from stem to leaf differs between the Cd-tolerant and -hyperaccumulator species. Based on these results, the processes (diffusion, adsorption, uptake or complexation), which may induce Cd isotope fractionation in plants, have been discussed. Overall, the present study indicates potential applications of Cd isotopes for investigating plant physiology. PMID:27076359

  7. Fractionation of Stable Cadmium Isotopes in the Cadmium Tolerant Ricinus communis and Hyperaccumulator Solanum nigrum.

    PubMed

    Wei, Rongfei; Guo, Qingjun; Wen, Hanjie; Liu, Congqiang; Yang, Junxing; Peters, Marc; Hu, Jian; Zhu, Guangxu; Zhang, Hanzhi; Tian, Liyan; Han, Xiaokun; Ma, Jie; Zhu, Chuanwei; Wan, Yingxin

    2016-04-14

    Cadmium (Cd) isotopes provide new insights into Cd uptake, transport and storage mechanisms in plants. Therefore, the present study adopted the Cd-tolerant Ricinus communis and Cd-hyperaccumulator Solanum nigrum, which were cultured under controlled conditions in a nutrient solution with variable Cd supply, to test the isotopic fractionation of Cd during plant uptake. The Cd isotope compositions of nutrient solutions and organs of the plants were measured by multiple collector inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (MC-ICPMS). The mass balance of Cd isotope yields isotope fractionations between plant and Cd source (δ(114/110)Cdorgans-solution) of -0.70‰ to -0.22‰ in Ricinus communis and -0.51‰ to -0.33‰ in Solanum nigrum. Moreover, Cd isotope fractionation during Cd transport from stem to leaf differs between the Cd-tolerant and -hyperaccumulator species. Based on these results, the processes (diffusion, adsorption, uptake or complexation), which may induce Cd isotope fractionation in plants, have been discussed. Overall, the present study indicates potential applications of Cd isotopes for investigating plant physiology.

  8. Evaluation of Ricinus communis L. for the Phytoremediation of Polluted Soil with Organochlorine Pesticides.

    PubMed

    Rissato, Sandra Regina; Galhiane, Mário Sergio; Fernandes, João Roberto; Gerenutti, Marli; Gomes, Homero Marques; Ribeiro, Renata; de Almeida, Marcos Vinícius

    2015-01-01

    Phytoremediation is an attractive alternative to conventional treatments of soil due to advantages such as low cost, large application areas, and the possibility of in situ treatment. This study presents the assessment of phytoremediation processes conducted under controlled experimental conditions to evaluate the ability of Ricinus communis L., tropical plant species, to promote the degradation of 15 persistent organic pollutants (POPs), in a 66-day period. The contaminants tested were hexachlorocyclohexane (HCH), DDT, heptachlor, aldrin, and others. Measurements made in rhizosphere soil indicate that the roots of the studied species reduce the concentration of pesticides. Results obtained during this study indicated that the higher the hydrophobicity of the organic compound and its molecular interaction with soil or root matrix the greater its tendency to concentrate in root tissues and the research showed the following trend: HCHs < diclofop-methyl < chlorpyrifos < methoxychlor < heptachlor epoxide < endrin < o,p'-DDE < heptachlor < dieldrin < aldrin < o,p'-DDT < p,p'-DDT by increasing order of log K ow values. The experimental results confirm the importance of vegetation in removing pollutants, obtaining remediation from 25% to 70%, and demonstrated that Ricinus communis L. can be used for the phytoremediation of such compounds.

  9. Evaluation of Ricinus communis L. for the Phytoremediation of Polluted Soil with Organochlorine Pesticides

    PubMed Central

    Rissato, Sandra Regina; Galhiane, Mário Sergio; Fernandes, João Roberto; Gerenutti, Marli; Gomes, Homero Marques; Ribeiro, Renata; de Almeida, Marcos Vinícius

    2015-01-01

    Phytoremediation is an attractive alternative to conventional treatments of soil due to advantages such as low cost, large application areas, and the possibility of in situ treatment. This study presents the assessment of phytoremediation processes conducted under controlled experimental conditions to evaluate the ability of Ricinus communis L., tropical plant species, to promote the degradation of 15 persistent organic pollutants (POPs), in a 66-day period. The contaminants tested were hexachlorocyclohexane (HCH), DDT, heptachlor, aldrin, and others. Measurements made in rhizosphere soil indicate that the roots of the studied species reduce the concentration of pesticides. Results obtained during this study indicated that the higher the hydrophobicity of the organic compound and its molecular interaction with soil or root matrix the greater its tendency to concentrate in root tissues and the research showed the following trend: HCHs < diclofop-methyl < chlorpyrifos < methoxychlor < heptachlor epoxide < endrin < o,p′-DDE < heptachlor < dieldrin < aldrin < o,p′-DDT < p,p′-DDT by increasing order of log Kow values. The experimental results confirm the importance of vegetation in removing pollutants, obtaining remediation from 25% to 70%, and demonstrated that Ricinus communis L. can be used for the phytoremediation of such compounds. PMID:26301249

  10. Fractionation of Stable Cadmium Isotopes in the Cadmium Tolerant Ricinus communis and Hyperaccumulator Solanum nigrum

    PubMed Central

    Wei, Rongfei; Guo, Qingjun; Wen, Hanjie; Liu, Congqiang; Yang, Junxing; Peters, Marc; Hu, Jian; Zhu, Guangxu; Zhang, Hanzhi; Tian, Liyan; Han, Xiaokun; Ma, Jie; Zhu, Chuanwei; Wan, Yingxin

    2016-01-01

    Cadmium (Cd) isotopes provide new insights into Cd uptake, transport and storage mechanisms in plants. Therefore, the present study adopted the Cd-tolerant Ricinus communis and Cd-hyperaccumulator Solanum nigrum, which were cultured under controlled conditions in a nutrient solution with variable Cd supply, to test the isotopic fractionation of Cd during plant uptake. The Cd isotope compositions of nutrient solutions and organs of the plants were measured by multiple collector inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (MC-ICPMS). The mass balance of Cd isotope yields isotope fractionations between plant and Cd source (δ114/110Cdorgans-solution) of −0.70‰ to −0.22‰ in Ricinus communis and −0.51‰ to −0.33‰ in Solanum nigrum. Moreover, Cd isotope fractionation during Cd transport from stem to leaf differs between the Cd-tolerant and -hyperaccumulator species. Based on these results, the processes (diffusion, adsorption, uptake or complexation), which may induce Cd isotope fractionation in plants, have been discussed. Overall, the present study indicates potential applications of Cd isotopes for investigating plant physiology. PMID:27076359

  11. Fractionation of Stable Cadmium Isotopes in the Cadmium Tolerant Ricinus communis and Hyperaccumulator Solanum nigrum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wei, Rongfei; Guo, Qingjun; Wen, Hanjie; Liu, Congqiang; Yang, Junxing; Peters, Marc; Hu, Jian; Zhu, Guangxu; Zhang, Hanzhi; Tian, Liyan; Han, Xiaokun; Ma, Jie; Zhu, Chuanwei; Wan, Yingxin

    2016-04-01

    Cadmium (Cd) isotopes provide new insights into Cd uptake, transport and storage mechanisms in plants. Therefore, the present study adopted the Cd-tolerant Ricinus communis and Cd-hyperaccumulator Solanum nigrum, which were cultured under controlled conditions in a nutrient solution with variable Cd supply, to test the isotopic fractionation of Cd during plant uptake. The Cd isotope compositions of nutrient solutions and organs of the plants were measured by multiple collector inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (MC-ICPMS). The mass balance of Cd isotope yields isotope fractionations between plant and Cd source (δ114/110Cdorgans-solution) of ‑0.70‰ to ‑0.22‰ in Ricinus communis and ‑0.51‰ to ‑0.33‰ in Solanum nigrum. Moreover, Cd isotope fractionation during Cd transport from stem to leaf differs between the Cd-tolerant and -hyperaccumulator species. Based on these results, the processes (diffusion, adsorption, uptake or complexation), which may induce Cd isotope fractionation in plants, have been discussed. Overall, the present study indicates potential applications of Cd isotopes for investigating plant physiology.

  12. Effect of temperature on biomass allocation in seedlings of two contrasting genotypes of the oilseed crop Ricinus communis.

    PubMed

    Ribeiro, Paulo R; Zanotti, Rafael F; Deflers, Carole; Fernandez, Luzimar G; Castro, Renato D de; Ligterink, Wilco; Hilhorst, Henk W M

    2015-08-01

    Ricinus communis is becoming an important crop for oil production, and studying the physiological and biochemical aspects of seedling development may aid in the improvement of crop quality and yield. The objective of this study was to assess the effect of temperature on biomass allocation in two R. communis genotypes. Biomass allocation was assessed by measuring dry weight of roots, stems, and cotyledons of seedlings grown at three different temperatures. Root length of each seedling was measured. Biomass allocation was strongly affected by temperature. Seedlings grown at 25°C and 35°C showed greater biomass than seedlings grown at 20°C. Cotyledon and stem dry weight increased for both genotypes with increasing temperature, whereas root biomass allocation showed a genotype-dependent behavior. Genotype MPA11 showed a continuous increase in root dry weight with increasing temperature, while genotype IAC80 was not able to sustain further root growth at higher temperatures. Based on metabolite and gene expression profiles, genotype MPA11 increases its level of osmoprotectant molecules and transcripts of genes encoding for antioxidant enzymes and heat shock proteins to a higher extent than genotype IAC80. This might be causal for the ability to maintain homeostasis and support root growth at elevated temperatures in genotype MPA11.

  13. Acaricidal properties of Ricinus communis leaf extracts against organophosphate and pyrethroids resistant Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus.

    PubMed

    Ghosh, Srikanta; Tiwari, Shashi Shankar; Srivastava, Sharad; Sharma, Anil Kumar; Kumar, Sachin; Ray, D D; Rawat, A K S

    2013-02-18

    Indian cattle ticks have developed resistance to commonly used acaricides and an attempt has been made to formulate an ecofriendly herbal preparation for the control of acaricide resistant ticks. A 95% ethanolic extract of Ricinus communis was used to test the efficacy against reference acaricide resistant lines by in vitro assay. In in vitro assay, the extract significantly affects the mortality rate of ticks in dose-dependent manner ranging from 35.0 ± 5.0 to 95.0 ± 5.0% with an additional effect on reproductive physiology of ticks by inhibiting 36.4-63.1% of oviposition. The leaf extract was found effective in killing 48.0, 56.7 and 60.0% diazinon, deltamethrin and multi-acaricide resistant ticks, respectively. However, the cidal and oviposition limiting properties of the extract were separated when the extract was fractionated with hexane, chloroform, n-butanol and water. The HPTLC finger printing profile of R. communis leaf extract under λ(max.) - 254 showed presence of quercetin, gallic acid, flavone and kaempferol which seemed to have synergistic acaricidal action. In vivo experiment resulted in 59.9% efficacy on Ist challenge, however, following 2nd challenge the efficacy was reduced to 48.5%. The results indicated that the 95% ethanolic leaf extract of R. communis can be used effectively in integrated format for the control of acaricide resistant ticks.

  14. Ricinus communis L. A Value Added Crop for Remediation of Cadmium Contaminated Soil.

    PubMed

    Bauddh, Kuldeep; Singh, Kripal; Singh, Rana P

    2016-02-01

    Heavy metal pollution of soil is a global environmental problem and therefore its remediation is of paramount importance. Cadmium (Cd) is a potential toxicant to living organisms and even at very low concentrations. This study was aimed to assess the effectiveness of Ricinus communis for remediation of Cd contaminated soils. For this, growth and biomass of R. communis and Cd accumulation, translocation and partitioning in different plant parts were investigated after 8 months of plant growth in Cd contaminated soil (17.50 mg Cd kg−1 soil). Eight months old plants stabilized 51 % Cd in its roots and rest of the metal was transferred to the stem and leaves. There were no significant differences in growth, biomass and yield between control and Cd treated plants, except fresh weight of shoots. The seed yield per plant was reduced only by 5 % of Cd contaminated plants than control. The amount of Cd translocated to the castor seeds was nominal i.e. 0.007 µg Cd g−1 seeds. The bioconcentration factor reduced significantly in shoots and seeds in comparison to roots. The data indicates that R. communis is highly tolerant to Cd contamination and can be used for remediation of heavy metal polluted sites.

  15. Evaluation of automated and manual DNA purification methods for detecting Ricinus communis DNA during ricin investigations.

    PubMed

    Hutchins, Anne S; Astwood, Michael J; Saah, J Royden; Michel, Pierre A; Newton, Bruce R; Dauphin, Leslie A

    2014-03-01

    In April of 2013, letters addressed to the President of United States and other government officials were intercepted and found to be contaminated with ricin, heightening awareness about the need to evaluate laboratory methods for detecting ricin. This study evaluated commercial DNA purification methods for isolating Ricinus communis DNA as measured by real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Four commercially available DNA purification methods (two automated, MagNA Pure compact and MagNA Pure LC, and two manual, MasterPure complete DNA and RNA purification kit and QIAamp DNA blood mini kit) were evaluated. We compared their ability to purify detectable levels of R. communis DNA from four different sample types, including crude preparations of ricin that could be used for biological crimes or acts of bioterrorism. Castor beans, spiked swabs, and spiked powders were included to simulate sample types typically tested during criminal and public health investigations. Real-time PCR analysis indicated that the QIAamp kit resulted in the greatest sensitivity for ricin preparations; the MasterPure kit performed best with spiked powders. The four methods detected equivalent levels by real-time PCR when castor beans and spiked swabs were used. All four methods yielded DNA free of PCR inhibitors as determined by the use of a PCR inhibition control assay. This study demonstrated that DNA purification methods differ in their ability to purify R. communis DNA; therefore, the purification method used for a given sample type can influence the sensitivity of real-time PCR assays for R. communis.

  16. Transcriptome-Wide Identification and Characterization of MicroRNAs from Castor Bean (Ricinus communis L.)

    PubMed Central

    Li, Fei; Liu, Aizhong

    2013-01-01

    Background MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are endogenously encoded small RNAs that post-transcriptionally regulate gene expression and play essential roles in numerous developmental and physiological processes. Currently, little information on the transcriptome and tissue-specific expression of miRNAs is available in the model non-edible oilseed crop castor bean (Ricinus communis L.), one of the most important non-edible oilseed crops cultivated worldwide. Recent advances in sequencing technologies have allowed the identification of conserved and novel miRNAs in many plant species. Here, we used high-throughput sequencing technologies to identify and characterize the miRNAs in castor bean. Results Five small RNA libraries were constructed for deep sequencing from root tips, leaves, developing seeds (at the initial stage, seed1; and at the fast oil accumulation stage, seed2) and endosperms in castor bean. High-throughput sequencing generated a large number of sequence reads of small RNAs in this study. In total, 86 conserved miRNAs were identified, including 63 known and 23 newly identified. Sixteen miRNA isoform variants in length were found from the conserved miRNAs of castor bean. MiRNAs displayed diverse organ-specific expression levels among five libraries. Combined with criteria for miRNA annotation and a RT-PCR approach, 72 novel miRNAs and their potential precursors were annotated and 20 miRNAs newly identified were validated. In addition, new target candidates for miRNAs newly identified in this study were proposed. Conclusions The current study presents the first high-throughput small RNA sequencing study performed in castor bean to identify its miRNA population. It characterizes and increases the number of miRNAs and their isoforms identified in castor bean. The miRNA expression analysis provides a foundation for understanding castor bean miRNA organ-specific expression patterns. The present study offers an expanded picture of miRNAs for castor bean and other members

  17. Identification and expression analysis of castor bean (Ricinus communis) genes encoding enzymes from the triacylglycerol biosynthesis pathway.

    PubMed

    Cagliari, Alexandro; Margis-Pinheiro, Márcia; Loss, Guilherme; Mastroberti, Alexandra Antunes; de Araujo Mariath, Jorge Ernesto; Margis, Rogério

    2010-11-01

    Castor bean (Ricinus communis) oil contains ricinoleic acid-rich triacylglycerols (TAGs). As a result of its physical and chemical properties, castor oil and its derivatives are used for numerous bio-based products. In this study, we survey the Castor Bean Genome Database to report the identification of TAG biosynthesis genes. A set of 26 genes encoding six distinct classes of enzymes involved in TAGs biosynthesis were identified. In silico characterization and sequence analysis allowed the identification of plastidic isoforms of glycerol-3-phosphate acyltransferase and lysophosphatidate acyltransferase enzyme families, involved in the prokaryotic lipid biosynthesis pathway, that form a cluster apart from the cytoplasmic isoforms, involved in the eukaryotic pathway. In addition, two distinct membrane bound diacylglycerol acyltransferase enzymes were identified. Quantitative expression pattern analyses demonstrated variations in gene expressions during castor seed development. A tendency of maximum expression level at the middle of seed development was observed. Our results represent snapshots of global transcriptional activities of genes encompassing six enzyme families involved in castor bean TAG biosynthesis that are present during seed development. These genes represent potential targets for biotechnological approaches to produce nutritionally and industrially desirable oils.

  18. Synthesis, Structural Characterization, and Bioactivity of the Stable Peptide RCB-1 from Ricinus communis.

    PubMed

    Boldbaatar, Delgerbat; Gunasekera, Sunithi; El-Seedi, Hesham R; Göransson, Ulf

    2015-11-25

    The Ricinus communis biomarker peptides RCB-1 to -3 comprise homologous sequences of 19 (RCB-1) or 18 (RCB-2 and -3) amino acid residues. They all include four cysteine moieties, which form two disulfide bonds. However, neither the 3D structure nor the biological activity of any of these peptides is known. The synthesis of RCB-1, using microwave-assisted, Fmoc-based solid-phase peptide synthesis, and a method for its oxidative folding are reported. The tertiary structure of RCB-1, subsequently established using solution-state NMR, reveals a twisted loop fold with antiparallel β-sheets reinforced by the two disulfide bonds. Moreover, RCB-1 was tested for antibacterial, antifungal, and cytotoxic activity, as well as in a serum stability assay, in which it proved to be remarkably stable. PMID:26509914

  19. Time-course proteome analysis of developing extrafloral nectaries of Ricinus communis.

    PubMed

    Shah, Mohibullah; Teixeira, Fabiano M; Soares, Emanoella L; Soares, Arlete A; Carvalho, Paulo C; Domont, Gilberto B; Thornburg, Robert W; Nogueira, Fábio C S; Campos, Francisco A P

    2016-02-01

    Floral and extrafloral nectaries are unique organs that secrete energy rich chemical components, but their contribution for nectar production is largely unknown. Here, we present the first comparative proteome dataset of four developmental stages of the extrafloral nectaries from castor plant (Ricinus communis), an important biofuel crop. Respectively, from stage I-IV, we identified 626, 613, 449 and 356 proteins, respectively, summing up 882 nonredundant proteins. Surprisingly, we identified two isoforms of the potent toxin ricin, indicating that ricin expression is not limited to seeds, but it may serve a general defense purpose for the castor plant. To date, this is the most complete dataset of proteins either from floral or extrafloral nectaries, thus contributing to lay the foundations for investigations on their ecological and evolutionary importance.

  20. Synthesis, Structural Characterization, and Bioactivity of the Stable Peptide RCB-1 from Ricinus communis.

    PubMed

    Boldbaatar, Delgerbat; Gunasekera, Sunithi; El-Seedi, Hesham R; Göransson, Ulf

    2015-11-25

    The Ricinus communis biomarker peptides RCB-1 to -3 comprise homologous sequences of 19 (RCB-1) or 18 (RCB-2 and -3) amino acid residues. They all include four cysteine moieties, which form two disulfide bonds. However, neither the 3D structure nor the biological activity of any of these peptides is known. The synthesis of RCB-1, using microwave-assisted, Fmoc-based solid-phase peptide synthesis, and a method for its oxidative folding are reported. The tertiary structure of RCB-1, subsequently established using solution-state NMR, reveals a twisted loop fold with antiparallel β-sheets reinforced by the two disulfide bonds. Moreover, RCB-1 was tested for antibacterial, antifungal, and cytotoxic activity, as well as in a serum stability assay, in which it proved to be remarkably stable.

  1. Phytochemical evaluation of the wild and cultivated varieties of Eranda Mula (Roots of Ricinus communis Linn.).

    PubMed

    Doshi, Krunal A; Acharya, Rabinarayan; Shukla, V J; Kalyani, Renuka; Khanpara, Komal

    2013-04-01

    In Ayurveda, the roots of Eranda (Ricinus communis Linn.) are used in the treatment Amavata (rheumatism), Sotha (inflammation), Katisula (backache), Udararoga (disease of abdomen), Jwara (fever), etc, Due to high demand, root of the cultivated variety is mainly used in place of wild. But, a comparative phytochemical profile of both varieties is not available till date. Considering this, a preliminary study has been done to ensure basic phytochemical profile of both the varieties. Preliminary physicochemical parameters, phytochemical screening, quantitative estimation of alkaloid, high-performance thin layer chromatography (HPTLC), and heavy metal analysis were carried-out in the study. Analysis of physicochemical data reveals no significant difference in between both varieties of roots, while alkaloid was found to be more in cultivated variety (0.34%) than wild one (0.15%). Though, the analytical profiles are almost identical, except the quantity of alkaloid; inferences should be made through well designed pharmacological and clinical studies.

  2. Molecular cytogenetic analysis and genomic organization of major DNA repeats in castor bean (Ricinus communis L.).

    PubMed

    Alexandrov, O S; Karlov, G I

    2016-04-01

    This article addresses the bioinformatic, molecular genetic, and cytogenetic study of castor bean (Ricinus communis, 2n = 20), which belongs to the monotypic Ricinus genus within the Euphorbiaceae family. Because castor bean chromosomes are small, karyotypic studies are difficult. However, the use of DNA repeats has yielded new prospects for karyotypic research and genome characterization. In the present study, major DNA repeat sequences were identified, characterized and localized on mitotic metaphase and meiotic pachytene chromosomes. Analyses of the nucleotide composition, curvature models, and FISH localization of the rcsat39 repeat suggest that this repeat plays a key role in building heterochromatic arrays in castor bean. Additionally, the rcsat390 sequences were determined to be chromosome-specific repeats located in the pericentromeric region of mitotic chromosome A (pachytene chromosome 1). The localization of rcsat39, rcsat390, 45S and 5S rDNA genes allowed for the development of cytogenetic landmarks for chromosome identification. General questions linked to heterochromatin formation, DNA repeat distribution, and the evolutionary emergence of the genome are discussed. The article may be of interest to biologists studying small genome organization and short monomer DNA repeats. PMID:26589420

  3. Molecular cytogenetic analysis and genomic organization of major DNA repeats in castor bean (Ricinus communis L.).

    PubMed

    Alexandrov, O S; Karlov, G I

    2016-04-01

    This article addresses the bioinformatic, molecular genetic, and cytogenetic study of castor bean (Ricinus communis, 2n = 20), which belongs to the monotypic Ricinus genus within the Euphorbiaceae family. Because castor bean chromosomes are small, karyotypic studies are difficult. However, the use of DNA repeats has yielded new prospects for karyotypic research and genome characterization. In the present study, major DNA repeat sequences were identified, characterized and localized on mitotic metaphase and meiotic pachytene chromosomes. Analyses of the nucleotide composition, curvature models, and FISH localization of the rcsat39 repeat suggest that this repeat plays a key role in building heterochromatic arrays in castor bean. Additionally, the rcsat390 sequences were determined to be chromosome-specific repeats located in the pericentromeric region of mitotic chromosome A (pachytene chromosome 1). The localization of rcsat39, rcsat390, 45S and 5S rDNA genes allowed for the development of cytogenetic landmarks for chromosome identification. General questions linked to heterochromatin formation, DNA repeat distribution, and the evolutionary emergence of the genome are discussed. The article may be of interest to biologists studying small genome organization and short monomer DNA repeats.

  4. Expression analysis of a sucrose carrier in the germinating seedling of Ricinus communis.

    PubMed

    Bick, J A; Neelam, A; Smith, E; Nelson, S J; Hall, J L; Williams, L E

    1998-10-01

    This study describes the expression of a sucrose carrier at various developmental stages in Ricinus communis. A partial-length cDNA clone, RcSUT1, was isolated by RT-PCR from Ricinus seedling RNA. This is almost identical to a sucrose carrier cDNA, Rscr1, which has previously been isolated by library screening. However, we have observed a very different expression pattern in the seedling to that previously reported. Northern analysis, with RcSUT1 as a probe, revealed high expression of a 2 kb transcript in the cotyledons of the germinating seedling; transcript levels were similar in cotyledons harvested 3-6 days after germination. A much lower level of this transcript was detected in the root, hypocotyl and endosperm RNA of the seedling and very low levels were also present in the sink and source leaves of the mature plant. This pattern of expression was also reflected at the protein level with an antipeptide antibody raised to part of the RcSUT1 deduced amino acid sequence. Tissue print hybridisation analysis of the hypocotyl revealed that the sucrose carrier transcripts were localised to the phloem cells of the vascular bundles. A more detailed analysis of sucrose carrier gene expression in the cotyledons of the germinating seedling was carried out by in situ hybridisation; the strongest signals were observed from the lower epidermal layer and the phloem, consistent with an active loading role for these cells. An ultrastructural study of the cells in the lower epidermis showed that they have wall ingrowths which are characteristic of transfer cells. The results are discussed in relation to the physiological role of the sucrose carrier in the Ricinus seedling and to the pathways of sucrose movement from endosperm to the sieve elements in the cotyledons.

  5. Interaction Effect Between Herbivory and Plant Fertilization on Extrafloral Nectar Production and on Seed Traits: An Experimental Study With Ricinus communis (Euphorbiaceae).

    PubMed

    De Sibio, P R; Rossi, M N

    2016-08-01

    It is known that the release of volatile chemicals by many plants can attract the natural enemies of herbivorous insects. Such indirect interactions are likely when plants produce nectar from their extrafloral nectaries, and particularly when the production of extrafloral nectar (EFN) is induced by herbivory. In the present study, we conducted experiments to test whether foliar herbivory inflicted by Spodoptera frugiperda Smith (Noctuidae) increases nectar production by extrafloral nectaries on one of its host plants, Ricinus communis L. (Euphorbiaceae). Due to the current economic importance of R. communis, we also investigated whether the following seed traits-water content, dry mass, and essential oil production-are negatively affected by herbivory. Finally, we tested whether or not nectar production and seed traits are influenced by plant fertilization (plant quality). We found that nectar production was increased after herbivory, but it was not affected by the type of fertilization. Seed dry mass was higher in plants that were subjected to full fertilization, without herbivory; plants maintained in low fertilization conditions, however, had higher seed mass when subjected to herbivory. The same inverted pattern was observed for oil production. Therefore, our results suggest that EFN production in R. communis may act as an indirect defense strategy against herbivores, and that there is a trade-off between reproduction and plant growth when low-fertilized plants are subjected to herbivory.

  6. Interaction Effect Between Herbivory and Plant Fertilization on Extrafloral Nectar Production and on Seed Traits: An Experimental Study With Ricinus communis (Euphorbiaceae).

    PubMed

    De Sibio, P R; Rossi, M N

    2016-08-01

    It is known that the release of volatile chemicals by many plants can attract the natural enemies of herbivorous insects. Such indirect interactions are likely when plants produce nectar from their extrafloral nectaries, and particularly when the production of extrafloral nectar (EFN) is induced by herbivory. In the present study, we conducted experiments to test whether foliar herbivory inflicted by Spodoptera frugiperda Smith (Noctuidae) increases nectar production by extrafloral nectaries on one of its host plants, Ricinus communis L. (Euphorbiaceae). Due to the current economic importance of R. communis, we also investigated whether the following seed traits-water content, dry mass, and essential oil production-are negatively affected by herbivory. Finally, we tested whether or not nectar production and seed traits are influenced by plant fertilization (plant quality). We found that nectar production was increased after herbivory, but it was not affected by the type of fertilization. Seed dry mass was higher in plants that were subjected to full fertilization, without herbivory; plants maintained in low fertilization conditions, however, had higher seed mass when subjected to herbivory. The same inverted pattern was observed for oil production. Therefore, our results suggest that EFN production in R. communis may act as an indirect defense strategy against herbivores, and that there is a trade-off between reproduction and plant growth when low-fertilized plants are subjected to herbivory. PMID:27247300

  7. Genomic surveys and expression analysis of bZIP gene family in castor bean (Ricinus communis L.).

    PubMed

    Jin, Zhengwei; Xu, Wei; Liu, Aizhong

    2014-02-01

    The basic leucine zipper (bZIP) transcription factors comprise a family of transcriptional regulators present extensively in plants, involved in regulating diverse biological processes such as flower and vascular development, seed maturation, stress signaling and pathogen defense. Castor bean (Ricinus communis L. Euphorbiaceae) is one of the most important non-edible oilseed crops and its seed oil is broadly used for industrial applications. We performed a comprehensive genome-wide identification and analysis of the bZIP transcription factors that exist in the castor bean genome in this study. In total, 49 RcbZIP transcription factors were identified, characterized and categorized into 11 groups (I-XI) based on their gene structure, DNA-binding sites, conserved motifs, and phylogenetic relationships. The dimerization properties of 49 RcbZIP proteins were predicted on the basis of the characteristic features in the leucine zipper. Global expression profiles of 49 RcbZIP genes among different tissues were examined using high-throughput sequencing of digital gene expression profiles, and resulted in diverse expression patterns that may provide basic information to further reveal the function of the 49 RcbZIP genes in castor bean. The results obtained from this study would provide valuable information in understanding the molecular basis of the RcbZIP transcription factor family and their potential function in regulating the growth and development, particularly in seed filling of castor bean.

  8. Metabolite profiling of Ricinus communis germination at different temperatures provides new insights into thermo-mediated requirements for successful seedling establishment.

    PubMed

    Ribeiro, Paulo R; Willems, Leo A J; Mutimawurugo, Marie-Chantal; Fernandez, Luzimar G; de Castro, Renato D; Ligterink, Wilco; Hilhorst, Henk W M

    2015-10-01

    Ricinus communis seeds germinate to a high percentage and faster at 35 °C than at lower temperatures, but with compromised seedling establishment. However, seedlings are able to cope with high temperatures at later stages of seedling establishment if germination occurred at lower temperatures. Our objective was to assess the biochemical and molecular requirements of R. communis germination for successful seedling establishment at varying temperatures. For that, we performed metabolite profiling (GC-TOF-MS) and measured transcript levels of key genes involved in several energy-generating pathways, such as storage oil mobilization, β-oxidation and gluconeogenesis of seeds germinated at three different temperatures. We identified a thermo-sensitive window during seed germination in which high temperatures compromise seedling development, most likely by down-regulating some energy-generating pathways. Overexpression of malate synthase (MLS) and glycerol kinase (GK) genes resulted in higher starch levels in Nicotiana benthamiana leaves, which highlights the importance of these genes in energy-generating pathways for seedling establishment. Additionally, we showed that GABA, which is a stress-responsive metabolite, accumulated in response to the water content of the seeds during the initial phase of imbibition. Herewith, we provide new insights into the molecular requirements for vigorous seedling growth of R. communis under different environmental conditions.

  9. Physiological and biochemical responses of Ricinus communis seedlings to different temperatures: a metabolomics approach

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Compared with major crops, growth and development of Ricinus communis is still poorly understood. A better understanding of the biochemical and physiological aspects of germination and seedling growth is crucial for the breeding of high yielding varieties adapted to various growing environments. In this context, we analysed the effect of temperature on growth of young R. communis seedlings and we measured primary and secondary metabolites in roots and cotyledons. Three genotypes, recommended to small family farms as cash crop, were used in this study. Results Seedling biomass was strongly affected by the temperature, with the lowest total biomass observed at 20°C. The response in terms of biomass production for the genotype MPA11 was clearly different from the other two genotypes: genotype MPA11 produced heavier seedlings at all temperatures but the root biomass of this genotype decreased with increasing temperature, reaching the lowest value at 35°C. In contrast, root biomass of genotypes MPB01 and IAC80 was not affected by temperature, suggesting that the roots of these genotypes are less sensitive to changes in temperature. In addition, an increasing temperature decreased the root to shoot ratio, which suggests that biomass allocation between below- and above ground parts of the plants was strongly affected by the temperature. Carbohydrate contents were reduced in response to increasing temperature in both roots and cotyledons, whereas amino acids accumulated to higher contents. Our results show that a specific balance between amino acids, carbohydrates and organic acids in the cotyledons and roots seems to be an important trait for faster and more efficient growth of genotype MPA11. Conclusions An increase in temperature triggers the mobilization of carbohydrates to support the preferred growth of the aerial parts, at the expense of the roots. A shift in the carbon-nitrogen metabolism towards the accumulation of nitrogen-containing compounds seems

  10. Comparison of chelates for enhancing Ricinus communis L. phytoremediation of Cd and Pb contaminated soil.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Hanzhi; Guo, Qingjun; Yang, Junxing; Ma, Jie; Chen, Gang; Chen, Tongbin; Zhu, Guangxu; Wang, Jian; Zhang, Guangxin; Wang, Xin; Shao, Chunyan

    2016-11-01

    We studied chelate effects on castor bean (Ricinus communis L.) growth. These effects included Cd and Pb accumulation in plant tissues and the chemical behavior of Cd and Pb in the plant rhizosphere and non-rhizosphere. Tests were conducted in a glasshouse using the rhizobag method. Two castor bean cultivars (Zibo-3 and Zibo-9) were grown in soil contaminated with 3.53mg/kg Cd and 274mg/kg Pb. The soil was treated with citric acid (CA), ethylenediamine disuccinic acid (EDDS) or ethylenediamine tetraacetic acid (EDTA) (5mmol/kg). EDDS-treated soil produced 28.8% and 59.4% greater biomass for Zibo-3 and Zibo-9 respectively. In contrast, CA and EDTA inhibited the growth of the two cultivars. Zibo-9 had greater tolerance than Zibo-3 to chelate toxicity. Based on Cd and Pb plant uptake, EDDS could substitute for EDTA for phytoremediation of Cd in soil. EDTA was the most effective of the three chelates for Pb phytoremediation but it is less suitable for field use due to toxicology environmental persistence. Acid extractable Cd and Pb in the rhizosphere or reducible Cd and Pb in the non-rhizosphere of soil were the main influences on Cd and Pb accumulation in castor bean. PMID:27414256

  11. Phosphatidylcholine synthesis in castor bean endosperm. I. Metabolism of L-serine. [Ricinus communis

    SciTech Connect

    Kinney, A.J.; Moore, T.S. Jr.

    1987-05-01

    Endosperm halves from 3-day-old castor bean (Ricinus communis var Hale) were incubated for 30 minutes with L(/sup 14/C)serine, after which label was observed in ethanolamine, choline, phosphatidylserine, phosphatidylethanolamine, phosphatidylcholine, ethanolaminephosphate, and CDPethanolamine, but not in cholinephosphate or CDPcholine. Only later did significant amounts of isotope become incorporated into cholinephosphate and CDPcholine. The choline kinase inhibitor hemicholinium-3 prevented the incorporation of label from serine into choline-phosphate and CDPcholine, reduced the incorporation of (/sup 14/C)choline into phosphatidylcholine by 65%, but inhibited the incorporation of label into phosphatidylcholine from serine by only 15%. The inhibitor did not prevent the incorporation of labeled methyl groups from S-adenosyl-L-methionine into phosphatidyldimethylethanolamine plus phosphatidyl-choline. The amount of incorporation of label from the methyl donor was only 8% of that from choline into phosphatidylcholine. The implications of these results for the pathway and regulation of phosphatidylcholine synthesis from the water-soluble precursors are discussed.

  12. Graviresponsiveness and cap dimensions of primary and secondary roots of Ricinus communis (Euphorbiaceae).

    PubMed

    Moore, R; Pasieniuk, J

    1984-01-01

    After branching from the primary root, secondary roots of castor bean (Ricinus communis) grow laterally for 15-20 mm, after which they bend downward (i.e., become positively gravitropic). During the first 10 mm of growth, the lengths of caps of secondary roots increase from 120 +/- 26 to 220 +/- 28 micrometers. Although this increase is statistically significant (P < 0.1%), the resulting secondary roots are only minimally graviresponsive. A subsequent doubling of the lengths and widths of the root caps (i.e., to 420 +/- 34 and 450 +/- 41 micrometers, respectively) is positively correlated with the onset of gravicurvature. The graviresponsiveness and dimensions of caps of positively gravitropic secondary roots are not significantly different from those of positively gravitropic primary roots. These results indicate that (i) a statistically significant increase in the length and length : width ratio of a root cap does not necessarily result in the root becoming positively gravitropic, (ii) there may be a minimum cap length and (or) width necessary for graviresponsiveness, and (iii) the degree of graviresponsiveness exhibited by a particular root may be related to the size of its root cap.

  13. Naturally occurring and experimentally induced castor bean (Ricinus communis) poisoning in ducks

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Jensen, W.I.; Allen, J.P.

    1981-01-01

    Castor bean (Ricinus communis) poisoning accounted for the death of several thousand ducks in the Texas panhandle in the fall and winter months of 1969-1971. Signs of intoxication resembled those of botulism, except for mucoid, blood-tinged excreta. The most common lesions were severe fatty change in the liver, widely distributed internal petechial hemorrhages or ecchymoses, and catarrhal enteritis. Nearly intact castor beans were found in the stomach of one duck during field necropsy. Fragments of seed coat resembling castor bean were found in the stomachs of 10 of 14 ducks examined in the laboratory. Clinical signs and postmortem lesions observed in wild ducks were induced experimentally in mallards (Anas platyrhynchos) by force-feeding intact castor beans. Toxicity titrations were erratic, but the LD50 appeared to be between three and four seeds. The mouse toxicity test, used to detect Clostridium botulinum toxin in the blood serum of intoxicated ducks, was negative in every case. Hemagglutination and precipitin tests generally failed to detect castor bean in extracts of excreta or intestinal contents of experimentally intoxicated ducks.

  14. Comparison of chelates for enhancing Ricinus communis L. phytoremediation of Cd and Pb contaminated soil.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Hanzhi; Guo, Qingjun; Yang, Junxing; Ma, Jie; Chen, Gang; Chen, Tongbin; Zhu, Guangxu; Wang, Jian; Zhang, Guangxin; Wang, Xin; Shao, Chunyan

    2016-11-01

    We studied chelate effects on castor bean (Ricinus communis L.) growth. These effects included Cd and Pb accumulation in plant tissues and the chemical behavior of Cd and Pb in the plant rhizosphere and non-rhizosphere. Tests were conducted in a glasshouse using the rhizobag method. Two castor bean cultivars (Zibo-3 and Zibo-9) were grown in soil contaminated with 3.53mg/kg Cd and 274mg/kg Pb. The soil was treated with citric acid (CA), ethylenediamine disuccinic acid (EDDS) or ethylenediamine tetraacetic acid (EDTA) (5mmol/kg). EDDS-treated soil produced 28.8% and 59.4% greater biomass for Zibo-3 and Zibo-9 respectively. In contrast, CA and EDTA inhibited the growth of the two cultivars. Zibo-9 had greater tolerance than Zibo-3 to chelate toxicity. Based on Cd and Pb plant uptake, EDDS could substitute for EDTA for phytoremediation of Cd in soil. EDTA was the most effective of the three chelates for Pb phytoremediation but it is less suitable for field use due to toxicology environmental persistence. Acid extractable Cd and Pb in the rhizosphere or reducible Cd and Pb in the non-rhizosphere of soil were the main influences on Cd and Pb accumulation in castor bean.

  15. acetylcholinesterase inhibitory potential and insecticidal activity of an endophytic Alternaria sp. from Ricinus communis.

    PubMed

    Singh, Bahaderjeet; Thakur, Abhinay; Kaur, Sanehdeep; Chadha, B S; Kaur, Amarjeet

    2012-11-01

    Keeping in view the vast potential of endophytic fungi to produce bioactive molecules, this study aimed at isolating and screening endophytes for the production of acetylcholinesterase inhibitors. Fifty-four endophytic fungi were isolated from Ricinus communis and screened for their AChE inhibitory activity using Ellman's colorimetric assay method. Six isolates were found to possess AChE inhibitory activity with maximum inhibition of 78 % being evinced by culture Cas1 which was identified to be Alternaria sp. on the basis of molecular as well as microscopic methods. Optimization of inhibitor production was carried out using one factor at a time approach. Maximum production of inhibitor was obtained on potato dextrose broth after 10 days incubation. The IC(50) of the chloroform extract was observed to be 40 μg/ml. The extract was purified on silica gel and eluted stepwise with a gradient of chloroform/methanol. The insecticidal potential of the extract was evaluated by feeding the larvae of Spodoptera litura on diet containing varying concentrations of the extract. It was observed that with increase in the concentration of the extract, mortality of the larvae increased. The culture has the potential of being exploited in medicine as well as a biocontrol agent.

  16. ABA flow modelling in Ricinus communis exposed to salt stress and variable nutrition

    PubMed Central

    Peuke, Andreas D.

    2016-01-01

    In a series of experiments with Ricinus communis, abscisic acid (ABA) concentrations in tissues and transport saps, its de novo biosynthesis, long-distance transport, and metabolism (degradation) were affected by nutritional conditions, nitrogen (N) source, and nutrient limitation, or salt stress. In the present study these data were statistically re-evaluated, and new correlations presented that underpin the importance of this universal phytohormone. The biggest differences in ABA concentration were observed in xylem sap. N source had the strongest effect; however, nutrient limitation (particularly phosphorus limitation) and salt also had significant effects. ABA was found in greater concentration in phloem sap compared with xylem sap; however, the effect of treatment on ABA concentration in phloem was lower. In the leaves, ABA concentration was most variable compared with the other tissues. This variation was only affected by the N source. In roots, ABA was significantly decreased by nutrient limitation. Of the compartments in which ABA was quantified, xylem sap ABA concentration was most significantly correlated with leaf stomatal conductance and leaf growth. Additionally, ABA concentration in xylem was significantly correlated to that in phloem, indicating a 6-fold concentration increase from xylem to phloem. The ABA flow model showed that biosynthesis of ABA in roots affected the xylem flow of ABA. Moreover, ABA concentration in xylem affected the degradation of the phytohormone in shoots and also its export from shoots via phloem. The role of phloem transport is discussed since it stimulates ABA metabolism in roots. PMID:27440939

  17. Dehydration of model membranes induced by lectins from Ricinus communis and Viscum album.

    PubMed Central

    Pohl, P; Saparov, S M; Pohl, E E; Evtodienko, V Y; Agapov, I I; Tonevitsky, A G

    1998-01-01

    The effects of ribosome-inactivating proteins (RIPs) from Ricinus communis and from Viscum album on the water permeability, Pf, and the surface dielectric constant, epsilon, of model membranes were studied. Pf was calculated from microelectrode measurements of the ion concentration distribution in the immediate vicinity of a planar membrane, and epsilon was obtained from the fluorescence of dansyl phosphatidylethanolamine incorporated into unilamellar vesicles. Pf and epsilon of fully saturated phosphatidylcholine membranes were affected only in the presence of a lectin receptor (monosialoganglioside, GM1) in the bilayer. It is suggested that the membrane area occupied by clustered lectin-receptor complexes is markedly less permeable to water. Protein binding to the receptor was not a prelude for hydrophobic lipid-protein interactions when the membranes were formed from a mixture of natural phospholipids with a high content of unsaturated fatty acids. These membranes, characterized by a high initial water permeability, were found to interact with the RIPs unspecifically. From a decrease of both Pf and epsilon it was concluded that not only water partitioning but also protein adsorption correlates with looser packing of polyunsaturated lipids at the lipid-water interface. PMID:9826608

  18. Molecular characterization of a lysophosphatidylcholine acyltransferase gene belonging to the MBOAT family in Ricinus communis L.

    PubMed

    Arroyo-Caro, José María; Chileh, Tarik; Alonso, Diego López; García-Maroto, Federico

    2013-07-01

    Acyl-CoA:lysophosphatidylcholine acyltransferase (LPCAT, EC 2.3.1.23) catalyzes acylation of lysophosphatidylcholine (lysoPtdCho) to produce phosphatidylcholine (PtdCho), the main phospholipid in cellular membranes. This reaction is a key component of the acyl-editing process, involving recycling of the fatty acids (FA) mainly at the sn-2 position of PtdCho. Growing evidences indicate that the LPCAT reaction controls the direct entry of newly synthesized FA into PtdCho and, at least in some plant species, it has an important impact on the synthesis and composition of triacylglycerols. Here we describe the molecular characterization of the single LPCAT gene found in the genome of Ricinus communis (RcLPCAT) that is homologous to LPCAT genes of the MBOAT family previously described in Arabidopsis and Brassica. RcLPCAT is ubiquitously expressed in all organs of the castor plant. Biochemical properties have been studied by heterologous expression of RcLPCAT in the ale1 yeast mutant, defective in lysophospholipid acyltransferase activity. RcLPCAT preferentially acylates lysoPtdCho against other lysophospholipids (lysoPL) and does not discriminates the acyl chain in the acceptor, displaying a strong activity with alkyl lysoPL. Regarding the acyl-CoA donor, RcLPCAT uses monounsaturated fatty acid thioesters, such as oleoyl-CoA (18:1-CoA), as preferred donors, while it has a low activity with saturated fatty acids and shows a poor utilization of ricinoleoyl-CoA (18:1-OH-CoA). These characteristics are discussed in terms of a possible role of RcLPCAT in regulating the entry of FA into PtdCho and the exclusion from the membranes of the hydroxylated FA.

  19. In Vitro Assessment of Cytotoxicity, Antioxidant, and Anti-Inflammatory Activities of Ricinus communis (Euphorbiaceae) Leaf Extracts.

    PubMed

    Nemudzivhadi, Vhutshilo; Masoko, Peter

    2014-01-01

    Ricinus communis has been utilized traditionally as medicine to treat inflammatory related diseases including wounds, sores, and boils. The leaves of R. communis were sequentially extracted with n-hexane, dichloromethane, acetone, and methanol using serial exhaustive extraction method. Antioxidant activity of all crude extracts was quantitatively measured against 2,2'-azino-bis (3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulphonic acid) free radical molecules using ABTS(+) assay. Cytotoxic effect and anti-inflammatory activity of R. communis leaves extracts were evaluated on Human Caucasian skin fibroblast and Raw 264.7 macrophage cell lines, respectively. Methanol extract had the highest percentage free radical (ABTS(+)) scavenging activity of 95% at 2.50 mg/mL, acetone 91%, dichloromethane 62%, and hexane the least (50%). Percentage scavenging activity of ABTS(+) free radical molecules increases with increase in concentrations of the plant extracts. Hexane and dichloromethane extracts had more than 90% cell viability at 100 µg/mL after 24 and 48 hours of exposure. Methanol extract had LC50 of 784 µg/mL after 24-hour exposure, hexane had 629.3 µg/mL and dichloromethane 573.6 µg/mL, and 544.6 µg/mL was the lowest with acetone extract. The study present the first report on the scavenging activity of R. communis leaf extracts against ABTS(+) radicals and cytotoxic effects on human Caucasian skin fibroblast cell lines. PMID:25477994

  20. In Vitro Assessment of Cytotoxicity, Antioxidant, and Anti-Inflammatory Activities of Ricinus communis (Euphorbiaceae) Leaf Extracts.

    PubMed

    Nemudzivhadi, Vhutshilo; Masoko, Peter

    2014-01-01

    Ricinus communis has been utilized traditionally as medicine to treat inflammatory related diseases including wounds, sores, and boils. The leaves of R. communis were sequentially extracted with n-hexane, dichloromethane, acetone, and methanol using serial exhaustive extraction method. Antioxidant activity of all crude extracts was quantitatively measured against 2,2'-azino-bis (3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulphonic acid) free radical molecules using ABTS(+) assay. Cytotoxic effect and anti-inflammatory activity of R. communis leaves extracts were evaluated on Human Caucasian skin fibroblast and Raw 264.7 macrophage cell lines, respectively. Methanol extract had the highest percentage free radical (ABTS(+)) scavenging activity of 95% at 2.50 mg/mL, acetone 91%, dichloromethane 62%, and hexane the least (50%). Percentage scavenging activity of ABTS(+) free radical molecules increases with increase in concentrations of the plant extracts. Hexane and dichloromethane extracts had more than 90% cell viability at 100 µg/mL after 24 and 48 hours of exposure. Methanol extract had LC50 of 784 µg/mL after 24-hour exposure, hexane had 629.3 µg/mL and dichloromethane 573.6 µg/mL, and 544.6 µg/mL was the lowest with acetone extract. The study present the first report on the scavenging activity of R. communis leaf extracts against ABTS(+) radicals and cytotoxic effects on human Caucasian skin fibroblast cell lines.

  1. Heterochromatin and rDNA 5S and 45S sites as reliable cytogenetic markers for castor bean (Ricinus communis, Euphorbiaceae).

    PubMed

    Vasconcelos, Santelmo; Souza, Analice Araújo de; Gusmão, Cássia Lima Silva; Milani, Máira; Benko-Iseppon, Ana M; Brasileiro-Vidal, Ana Christina

    2010-10-01

    The increasing need for renewable energy resources has led to higher demands for biofuel, a scenario where the castor bean (Ricinus communis L.) seed oil represents a promising source of raw material. Despite that, information regarding the genome organization of R. communis is still scarce, impairing the application of modern biotechnological and breeding procedures. The present work brings the first evaluation of the mitotic chromosomes of this species, including 10 potentially interesting accessions for cultivation in semi-arid environments aiming at the biofuel production. The approach included standard staining, fluorochrome staining (CMA/DAPI), fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH) with rDNA 5S and 45S, as well as silver impregnation. All accessions were diploid with 2n=2x=20, displaying mainly metacentric chromosomes, with CMA-positive bands (GC-rich) in all pairs of the complement. After silver impregnation, one to 14 nucleoli were observed, while the FISH with rDNA 45S revealed two large sites and a variety of minor dots, and the DNAr 5S hybridized in a single pair. The observed features were discussed and compared with literature data regarding pachytene bivalents.

  2. Exploiting EST databases for the development and characterization of EST-SSR markers in castor bean (Ricinus communis L.)

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background The castor bean (Ricinus communis L.), a monotypic species in the spurge family (Euphorbiaceae, 2n = 20), is an important non-edible oilseed crop widely cultivated in tropical, sub-tropical and temperate countries for its high economic value. Because of the high level of ricinoleic acid (over 85%) in its seed oil, the castor bean seed derivatives are often used in aviation oil, lubricants, nylon, dyes, inks, soaps, adhesive and biodiesel. Due to lack of efficient molecular markers, little is known about the population genetic diversity and the genetic relationships among castor bean germplasm. Efficient and robust molecular markers are increasingly needed for breeding and improving varieties in castor bean. The advent of modern genomics has produced large amounts of publicly available DNA sequence data. In particular, expressed sequence tags (ESTs) provide valuable resources to develop gene-associated SSR markers. Results In total, 18,928 publicly available non-redundant castor bean EST sequences, representing approximately 17.03 Mb, were evaluated and 7732 SSR sites in 5,122 ESTs were identified by data mining. Castor bean exhibited considerably high frequency of EST-SSRs. We developed and characterized 118 polymorphic EST-SSR markers from 379 primer pairs flanking repeats by screening 24 castor bean samples collected from different countries. A total of 350 alleles were identified from 118 polymorphic SSR loci, ranging from 2-6 per locus (A) with an average of 2.97. The EST-SSR markers developed displayed moderate gene diversity (He) with an average of 0.41. Genetic relationships among 24 germplasms were investigated using the genotypes of 350 alleles, showing geographic pattern of genotypes across genetic diversity centers of castor bean. Conclusion Castor bean EST sequences exhibited considerably high frequency of SSR sites, and were rich resources for developing EST-SSR markers. These EST-SSR markers would be particularly useful for both genetic

  3. Toxicity of six plant extracts and two pyridone alkaloids from Ricinus communis against the malaria vector Anopheles gambiae

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The African malaria vector, Anopheles gambiae s.s., is known to feed selectively on certain plants for sugar sources. However, the adaptive significance of this behaviour especially on how the extracts of such plants impact on the fitness of this vector has not been explored. This study determined the toxicity and larvicidal activity on this vector of extracts from six selected plants found in Kenya and two compounds identified from Ricinus communis: 3-carbonitrile-4-methoxy-N-methyl-2-pyridone (ricinine), and its carboxylic acid derivative 3-carboxy-4-methoxy-N-methyl-2-pyridone, the latter compound being reported for the first time from this plant. Methods Feeding assays tested for toxic effects of extracts from the plants Artemisia afra Jacq. ex Willd, Bidens pilosa L., Parthenium hysterophorus L., Ricinus coummunis L., Senna didymobotrya Fresen. and Tithonia diversifolia Hemsl. on adult females and larvicidal activity was tested against third-instar larvae of Anopheles gambiae s.s. Mortality of larvae and adult females was monitored for three and eight days, respectively; Probit analysis was used to calculate LC50. Survival was analysed with Kaplan-Meier Model. LC-MS was used to identify the pure compounds. Results Of the six plants screened, extracts from T. diversifolia and R. communis were the most toxic against adult female mosquitoes after 7 days of feeding, with LC50 of 1.52 and 2.56 mg/mL respectively. Larvicidal activity of all the extracts increased with the exposure time with the highest mortality recorded for the extract from R. communis after 72 h of exposure (LC50 0.18 mg/mL). Mosquitoes fed on solutions of the pure compounds, 3-carboxy-4-methoxy-N-methyl-2-pyridone and ricinine survived almost as long as those fed on the R. communis extract with mean survival of 4.93 ± 0.07, 4.85 ± 0.07 and 4.50 ± 0.05 days respectively. Conclusions Overall, these findings demonstrate that extracts from the six plant species exhibit

  4. High light exposure on seed coat increases lipid accumulation in seeds of castor bean (Ricinus communis L.), a nongreen oilseed crop.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yang; Mulpuri, Sujatha; Liu, Aizhong

    2016-05-01

    Little was known on how sunlight affects the seed metabolism in nongreen seeds. Castor bean (Ricinus communis L.) is a typical nongreen oilseed crop and its seed oil is an important feedstock in industry. In this study, photosynthetic activity of seed coat tissues of castor bean in natural conditions was evaluated in comparison to shaded conditions. Our results indicate that exposure to high light enhances photosynthetic activity in seed coats and consequently increases oil accumulation. Consistent results were also reached using cultured seeds. High-throughput RNA-Seq analyses further revealed that genes involved in photosynthesis and carbon conversion in both the Calvin-Benson cycle and malate transport were differentially expressed between seeds cultured under light and dark conditions, implying several venues potentially contributing to light-enhanced lipid accumulation such as increased reducing power and CO2 refixation which underlie the overall lipid biosynthesis. This study demonstrated the effects of light exposure on oil accumulation in nongreen oilseeds and greatly expands our understanding of the physiological roles that light may play during seed development in nongreen oilseeds. Essentially, our studies suggest that potential exists to enhance castor oil yield through increasing exposure of the inflorescences to sunlight either by genetically changing the plant architecture (smart canopy) or its growing environment.

  5. In vitro effect of Aloe vera, Coriandrum sativum and Ricinus communis fractions on Leishmania infantum and on murine monocytic cells.

    PubMed

    Rondon, Fernanda C M; Bevilaqua, Claudia M L; Accioly, Marina P; Morais, Selene M; Andrade-Junior, Heitor F; Machado, Lyeghyna K A; Cardoso, Roselaine P A; Almeida, Camila A; Queiroz-Junior, Eudson M; Rodrigues, Ana Caroline M

    2011-06-10

    In South America, visceral leishmaniasis is a zoonosis caused by the protozoan species Leishmania infantum (syn. L. chagasi) and is primarily transmitted through the bite of the female Lutzomyia longipalpis. Its main reservoir in urban areas is the dog. The application of control measures recommended by health agencies have not achieved significant results in reducing the incidence of human cases, and the lack of effective drugs to treat dogs resulted in the prohibition of this course of action in Brazil. Therefore, it is necessary to search new alternatives for the treatment of canine and human visceral leishmaniasis. The objectives of this study were to evaluate the in vitro effect of fractions from Aloe vera (aloe), Coriandrum sativum (coriander), and Ricinus communis (castor) on promastigotes and amastigotes of L. infantum and to analyze the toxicity against the murine monocytic cells RAW 264.7. To determine the viability of these substances on 50% parasites (IC50), we used a tetrazolium dye (MTT) colorimetric assay (bromide 3-4.5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl-2,5-dephenyltetrazolium), and on amastigotes we performed an in situ ELISA. All fractions were effective against L. infantum promastigotes and did not differ from the positive control pentamidine (p>0.05). However, the R. communis ethyl acetate and chloroform fractions, as well as the C. sativum methanol fraction, were the most effective against amastigotes and did not differ from the positive control amphotericin B (p>0.05). The R. communis ethyl acetate fraction was the least toxic, presenting 83.5% viability of RAW 264.7 cells, which was similar to the results obtained with amphotericin B (p>0.05). Based on these results, we intend to undertake in vivo studies with R. communis ethyl acetate fractions due the high effectiveness against amastigotes and promastigotes of L. infantum and the low cytotoxicity towards murine monocytic cells.

  6. Antimicrobial activity of complete denture cleanser solutions based on sodium hypochlorite and Ricinus communis – a randomized clinical study

    PubMed Central

    SALLES, Marcela Moreira; BADARÓ, Maurício Malheiros; de ARRUDA, Carolina Noronha Ferraz; LEITE, Vanessa Maria Fagundes; da SILVA, Cláudia Helena Lovato; WATANABE, Evandro; OLIVEIRA, Viviane de Cássia; PARANHOS, Helena de Freitas Oliveira

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT To preserve oral health and to maintain the prosthetic devices, it is important not only to improve the properties of commonly known hygiene products, but also to investigate new materials with antimicrobial action. Objectives This study evaluated the antimicrobial activity of sodium hypochlorite (0.25% and 0.50%) and 10% Ricinus communis’ solutions against specific microorganisms. Material and Methods Sixty four maxillary complete denture wearers were instructed to brush their dentures three times a day and to soak them (20 min/day) in the solutions: SH1: 0.25% sodium hypochlorite; SH2: 0.5% sodium hypochlorite; RC: 10% R. communis oil; and C: 0.85% saline (control). The solutions were used for 7 days in a randomized sequence. Following each period of use, there was a 1-week washout period. Antimicrobial activity was determined by Colony Forming Units (CFU) counts of Streptococcus mutans, Candida spp., and gram-negative microorganisms. For collecting biofilm, the internal surface of maxillary dentures was brushed with saline solution, and biofilm suspension obtained. After dilutions (100 - 10-3), aliquots were seeded in Mitis salivarius, CHROMagar Candida®, and MacConkey agar for detecting S. mutans, Candida spp., or gram-negative microorganisms, respectively. After incubation, colonies were counted, and CFU/mL values were calculated. Then, transformation - log10 (CFU+1) - data were analyzed using the Friedman test (α=0.05). Results showed significant differences between the solutions (p<0.001). Results All three solutions showed antimicrobial activity against S. mutans. Against Candida spp., RC and SH1 solutions showed similar effect while SH2 showed superior activity. SH1 and SH2 solutions showed antimicrobial action against gram-negative microorganisms. The Candida species most frequently isolated was C. albicans, followed by C. tropicalis and C. glabrata. Conclusions The 0.5% sodium hypochlorite solution was the most effective and might be used to

  7. Intercropping for Management of Insect Pests of Castor, Ricinus communis, in the Semi—Arid Tropics of India

    PubMed Central

    Srinivasa Rao, M.; Venkateswarlu, B.

    2012-01-01

    Intercropping is one of the important cultural practices in pest management and is based on the principle of reducing insect pests by increasing the diversity of an ecosystem. On—farm experiments were conducted in villages of semi—arid tropical (SAT) India to identify the appropriate combination of castor (Ricinus communis L.) (Malpighiales: Euphorbiaceae) and intercropping in relation to pest incidence. The diversity created by introducing cluster bean, cowpea, black gram, or groundnut as intercrops in castor (1:2 ratio proportions) resulted in reduction of incidence of insect pests, namely semilooper (Achaea janata L.), leaf hopper (Empoasca flavescens Fabricius), and shoot and capsule borer (Conogethes punctiferalis Guenee). A buildup of natural enemies (Microplitis, coccinellids, and spiders) of the major pests of castor was also observed in these intercropping systems and resulted in the reduction of insect pests. Further, these systems were more efficient agronomically and economically, and were thus more profitable than a castor monocrop. PMID:22934569

  8. Symplastic isolation of the sieve element-companion cell complex in the phloem of Ricinus communis and Salix alba stems.

    PubMed

    van Bel, A J; Kempers, R

    1991-12-01

    The anatomical and physiological isolation of the sieve element-companion cell complex (se-cc complex) was investigated in stems of Ricinus communis L. and Salix alba L. In Ricinus, the plasmodesmatal frequencies were in the proportions 8∶1∶2∶30, in the order given, at the interfaces between sieve tube-companion cell, sieve tube-phloem parenchyma cell, companion cellphloem parenchyma cell, and phloem parenchyma cellphloem parenchyma cell. The membrane potentials of the se-cc complex and the surrounding phloem-parenchyma cells sharply contrasted: the membrane potential of the se-cc complex was about twice as negative as that of the phloem parenchyma. Lucifer Yellow CH injected into the sieve element or into the companion cell remained within the se-cc complex. Dye introduced into phloem parenchyma only moved (mostly poorly) to other phloem-parenchyma cells. The distribution of the plasmodesmatal frequencies, the differential dye-coupling and the sharp discontinuities in membrane potentials indicate that the se-cc complexes constitute symplast domains in the stem phloem. Symplastic autonomy is discussed as a basic necessity for the functioning of the se-cc complex in the stem.

  9. Ricinus communis L. stem bark extracts regulate ovarian cell functions and secretory activity and their response to Luteinising hormone.

    PubMed

    Nath, S; Kadasi, A; Grossmann, R; Sirotkin, A V; Kolesarova, A; Talukdar, A D; Choudhury, M D

    2015-01-01

    Ricinus communis L. has ethnopharmacological contraceptive reputation but its stem bark has unexplored mechanisms of action in female reproductive system. In the present study, the effect of methanolic and aqueous extracts from the stem bark of the plant was examined on basic porcine ovarian granulosa cell functions and its response to Luteinising hormone (LH)-the upstream hormonal regulator. Systemic treatment of methanolic and aqueous extracts stimulated cell proliferation (proliferating cell nuclear antigen, PCNA) and also promoted cell apoptosis (caspase-3). Aqueous extract has inverted the stimulatory effect of LH on PCNA but not on caspase-3. Methanolic extract stimulated as well as inhibited progesterone release and stimulated testosterone secretion. Whereas aqueous extract inhibited both steroid releases and suppressed the stimulatory effect of LH on progesterone release and promoted the inhibitory effect of LH on testosterone release. In conclusion, the present study unveils the mechanism of action of R. communis stem bark in in vitro condition. These suggest its possible contraceptive efficacy by exerting its regulatory role over LH and on basic ovarian cell functions and secretion activity. PMID:26311247

  10. Ricinus communis L. stem bark extracts regulate ovarian cell functions and secretory activity and their response to Luteinising hormone.

    PubMed

    Nath, S; Kadasi, A; Grossmann, R; Sirotkin, A V; Kolesarova, A; Talukdar, A D; Choudhury, M D

    2015-01-01

    Ricinus communis L. has ethnopharmacological contraceptive reputation but its stem bark has unexplored mechanisms of action in female reproductive system. In the present study, the effect of methanolic and aqueous extracts from the stem bark of the plant was examined on basic porcine ovarian granulosa cell functions and its response to Luteinising hormone (LH)-the upstream hormonal regulator. Systemic treatment of methanolic and aqueous extracts stimulated cell proliferation (proliferating cell nuclear antigen, PCNA) and also promoted cell apoptosis (caspase-3). Aqueous extract has inverted the stimulatory effect of LH on PCNA but not on caspase-3. Methanolic extract stimulated as well as inhibited progesterone release and stimulated testosterone secretion. Whereas aqueous extract inhibited both steroid releases and suppressed the stimulatory effect of LH on progesterone release and promoted the inhibitory effect of LH on testosterone release. In conclusion, the present study unveils the mechanism of action of R. communis stem bark in in vitro condition. These suggest its possible contraceptive efficacy by exerting its regulatory role over LH and on basic ovarian cell functions and secretion activity.

  11. Bis(β-lactosyl)-[60]fullerene as novel class of glycolipids useful for the detection and the decontamination of biological toxins of the Ricinus communis family.

    PubMed

    Dohi, Hirofumi; Kanazawa, Takeru; Saito, Akihiro; Sato, Keita; Uzawa, Hirotaka; Seto, Yasuo; Nishida, Yoshihiro

    2014-01-01

    Glycosyl-[60]fullerenes were first used as decontaminants against ricin, a lactose recognition proteotoxin in the Ricinus communis family. A fullerene glycoconjugate carrying two lactose units was synthesized by a [3 + 2] cycloaddition reaction between C60 and the azide group in 6-azidohexyl β-lactoside per-O-acetate. A colloidal aqueous solution with brown color was prepared from deprotected bis(lactosyl)-C60 and was found stable for more than 6 months keeping its red color. Upon mixing with an aqueous solution of Ricinus communis agglutinin (RCA120), the colloidal solution soon caused precipitations, while becoming colorless and transparent. In contrast, a solution of concanavalin A (Con A) caused no apparent change, indicating that the precipitation was caused specifically by carbohydrate-protein interactions. This notable phenomenon was quantified by means of sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE), and the results were discussed in terms of detection and decontamination of the deadly biological toxin in the Ricinus communis family.

  12. Mining whole genomes and transcriptomes of Jatropha (Jatropha curcas) and Castor bean (Ricinus communis) for NBS-LRR genes and defense response associated transcription factors.

    PubMed

    Sood, Archit; Jaiswal, Varun; Chanumolu, Sree Krishna; Malhotra, Nikhil; Pal, Tarun; Chauhan, Rajinder Singh

    2014-11-01

    Jatropha (Jatropha curcas L.) and Castor bean (Ricinus communis) are oilseed crops of family Euphorbiaceae with the potential of producing high quality biodiesel and having industrial value. Both the bioenergy plants are becoming susceptible to various biotic stresses directly affecting the oil quality and content. No report exists as of today on analysis of Nucleotide Binding Site-Leucine Rich Repeat (NBS-LRR) gene repertoire and defense response transcription factors in both the plant species. In silico analysis of whole genomes and transcriptomes identified 47 new NBS-LRR genes in both the species and 122 and 318 defense response related transcription factors in Jatropha and Castor bean, respectively. The identified NBS-LRR genes and defense response transcription factors were mapped onto the respective genomes. Common and unique NBS-LRR genes and defense related transcription factors were identified in both the plant species. All NBS-LRR genes in both the species were characterized into Toll/interleukin-1 receptor NBS-LRRs (TNLs) and coiled-coil NBS-LRRs (CNLs), position on contigs, gene clusters and motifs and domains distribution. Transcript abundance or expression values were measured for all NBS-LRR genes and defense response transcription factors, suggesting their functional role. The current study provides a repertoire of NBS-LRR genes and transcription factors which can be used in not only dissecting the molecular basis of disease resistance phenotype but also in developing disease resistant genotypes in Jatropha and Castor bean through transgenic or molecular breeding approaches.

  13. Serpentine bacteria influence metal translocation and bioconcentration of Brassica juncea and Ricinus communis grown in multi-metal polluted soils.

    PubMed

    Ma, Ying; Rajkumar, Mani; Rocha, Inês; Oliveira, Rui S; Freitas, Helena

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the effects of inoculation of rhizosphere or endophytic bacteria (Psychrobacter sp. SRS8 and Pseudomonas sp. A3R3, respectively) isolated from a serpentine environment on the plant growth and the translocation and accumulation of Ni, Zn, and Fe by Brassica juncea and Ricinus communis on a multi-metal polluted serpentine soil (SS). Field collected SS was diluted to 0, 25, 50, and 75% with pristine soil in order to obtain a range of heavy metal concentrations and used in microcosm experiments. Regardless of inoculation with bacteria, the biomass of both plant species decreased with increase of the proportion of SS. Inoculation of plants with bacteria significantly increased the plant biomass and the heavy metal accumulation compared with non-inoculated control in the presence of different proportion of SS, which was attributed to the production of plant growth promoting and/or metal mobilizing metabolites by bacteria. However, SRS8 showed a maximum increase in the biomass of the test plants grown even in the treatment of 75% SS. In turn, A3R3 showed maximum effects on the accumulation of heavy metals in both plants. Regardless of inoculation of bacteria and proportion of SS, both plant species exhibited low values of bioconcentration factor (<1) for Ni and Fe. The inoculation of both bacterial strains significantly increased the translocation factor (TF) of Ni while decreasing the TF of Zn in both plant species. Besides this contrasting effect, the TFs of all metals were <1, indicating that all studied bacteria-plant combinations are suitable for phytostabilization. This study demonstrates that the bacterial isolates A3R3 and SRS8 improved the growth of B. juncea and R. communis in SS soils and have a great potential to be used as inoculants in phytostabilization scenarios of multi-metal contaminated soils.

  14. Serpentine bacteria influence metal translocation and bioconcentration of Brassica juncea and Ricinus communis grown in multi-metal polluted soils

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Ying; Rajkumar, Mani; Rocha, Inês; Oliveira, Rui S.; Freitas, Helena

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the effects of inoculation of rhizosphere or endophytic bacteria (Psychrobacter sp. SRS8 and Pseudomonas sp. A3R3, respectively) isolated from a serpentine environment on the plant growth and the translocation and accumulation of Ni, Zn, and Fe by Brassica juncea and Ricinus communis on a multi-metal polluted serpentine soil (SS). Field collected SS was diluted to 0, 25, 50, and 75% with pristine soil in order to obtain a range of heavy metal concentrations and used in microcosm experiments. Regardless of inoculation with bacteria, the biomass of both plant species decreased with increase of the proportion of SS. Inoculation of plants with bacteria significantly increased the plant biomass and the heavy metal accumulation compared with non-inoculated control in the presence of different proportion of SS, which was attributed to the production of plant growth promoting and/or metal mobilizing metabolites by bacteria. However, SRS8 showed a maximum increase in the biomass of the test plants grown even in the treatment of 75% SS. In turn, A3R3 showed maximum effects on the accumulation of heavy metals in both plants. Regardless of inoculation of bacteria and proportion of SS, both plant species exhibited low values of bioconcentration factor (<1) for Ni and Fe. The inoculation of both bacterial strains significantly increased the translocation factor (TF) of Ni while decreasing the TF of Zn in both plant species. Besides this contrasting effect, the TFs of all metals were <1, indicating that all studied bacteria–plant combinations are suitable for phytostabilization. This study demonstrates that the bacterial isolates A3R3 and SRS8 improved the growth of B. juncea and R. communis in SS soils and have a great potential to be used as inoculants in phytostabilization scenarios of multi-metal contaminated soils. PMID:25601876

  15. Gene Structures, Evolution and Transcriptional Profiling of the WRKY Gene Family in Castor Bean (Ricinus communis L.).

    PubMed

    Zou, Zhi; Yang, Lifu; Wang, Danhua; Huang, Qixing; Mo, Yeyong; Xie, Guishui

    2016-01-01

    WRKY proteins comprise one of the largest transcription factor families in plants and form key regulators of many plant processes. This study presents the characterization of 58 WRKY genes from the castor bean (Ricinus communis L., Euphorbiaceae) genome. Compared with the automatic genome annotation, one more WRKY-encoding locus was identified and 20 out of the 57 predicted gene models were manually corrected. All RcWRKY genes were shown to contain at least one intron in their coding sequences. According to the structural features of the present WRKY domains, the identified RcWRKY genes were assigned to three previously defined groups (I-III). Although castor bean underwent no recent whole-genome duplication event like physic nut (Jatropha curcas L., Euphorbiaceae), comparative genomics analysis indicated that one gene loss, one intron loss and one recent proximal duplication occurred in the RcWRKY gene family. The expression of all 58 RcWRKY genes was supported by ESTs and/or RNA sequencing reads derived from roots, leaves, flowers, seeds and endosperms. Further global expression profiles with RNA sequencing data revealed diverse expression patterns among various tissues. Results obtained from this study not only provide valuable information for future functional analysis and utilization of the castor bean WRKY genes, but also provide a useful reference to investigate the gene family expansion and evolution in Euphorbiaceus plants.

  16. Gene Structures, Evolution and Transcriptional Profiling of the WRKY Gene Family in Castor Bean (Ricinus communis L.).

    PubMed

    Zou, Zhi; Yang, Lifu; Wang, Danhua; Huang, Qixing; Mo, Yeyong; Xie, Guishui

    2016-01-01

    WRKY proteins comprise one of the largest transcription factor families in plants and form key regulators of many plant processes. This study presents the characterization of 58 WRKY genes from the castor bean (Ricinus communis L., Euphorbiaceae) genome. Compared with the automatic genome annotation, one more WRKY-encoding locus was identified and 20 out of the 57 predicted gene models were manually corrected. All RcWRKY genes were shown to contain at least one intron in their coding sequences. According to the structural features of the present WRKY domains, the identified RcWRKY genes were assigned to three previously defined groups (I-III). Although castor bean underwent no recent whole-genome duplication event like physic nut (Jatropha curcas L., Euphorbiaceae), comparative genomics analysis indicated that one gene loss, one intron loss and one recent proximal duplication occurred in the RcWRKY gene family. The expression of all 58 RcWRKY genes was supported by ESTs and/or RNA sequencing reads derived from roots, leaves, flowers, seeds and endosperms. Further global expression profiles with RNA sequencing data revealed diverse expression patterns among various tissues. Results obtained from this study not only provide valuable information for future functional analysis and utilization of the castor bean WRKY genes, but also provide a useful reference to investigate the gene family expansion and evolution in Euphorbiaceus plants. PMID:26849139

  17. Tolerance of Ricinus communis L. to Cd and screening of high Cd accumulation varieties for remediation of Cd contaminated soils.

    PubMed

    Wu, Shanshan; Shen, Chuang; Yang, Zhongyi; Lin, Biyun; Yuan, Jiangang

    2016-11-01

    Response of castor (Ricinus communis L.) to cadmium (Cd) was assessed by a seed-suspending seedbed approach. Length of total radicle was the most sensitive indicator of Cd tolerance among the tested germination and growth characters. The ED50 value for Cd was 11.87 mg L(-1), indicating high Cd tolerance in castor. A pot experiment was conducted by growing 46 varieties of castor under CK (without Cd) and Cd1 (10 mg kg(-1) of Cd) and Cd2 (50 mg kg(-1) of Cd) treatments to investigate genotype variations in growth response and Cd accumulation of castor under different Cd exposures. Castor possessed high Cd accumulation ability; average shoot and root Cd concentrations of the 46 tested varieties were 21.83 and 185.43 mg kg(-1), and 174.99 and 1181.96 mg kg(-1) under Cd1 and Cd2, respectively. Great variation in Cd accumulation was observed among varieties, and Cd concentration of castor was genotype dependent. The correlation between biomass and Cd accumulation was significantly positive, while no significant correlation was observed between Cd concentration and Cd accumulation, which indicated that biomass performance is the dominant factor in determining Cd accumulation ability.

  18. Gene Structures, Evolution, Classification and Expression Profiles of the Aquaporin Gene Family in Castor Bean (Ricinus communis L.).

    PubMed

    Zou, Zhi; Gong, Jun; Huang, Qixing; Mo, Yeyong; Yang, Lifu; Xie, Guishui

    2015-01-01

    Aquaporins (AQPs) are a class of integral membrane proteins that facilitate the passive transport of water and other small solutes across biological membranes. Castor bean (Ricinus communis L., Euphobiaceae), an important non-edible oilseed crop, is widely cultivated for industrial, medicinal and cosmetic purposes. Its recently available genome provides an opportunity to analyze specific gene families. In this study, a total of 37 full-length AQP genes were identified from the castor bean genome, which were assigned to five subfamilies, including 10 plasma membrane intrinsic proteins (PIPs), 9 tonoplast intrinsic proteins (TIPs), 8 NOD26-like intrinsic proteins (NIPs), 6 X intrinsic proteins (XIPs) and 4 small basic intrinsic proteins (SIPs) on the basis of sequence similarities. Functional prediction based on the analysis of the aromatic/arginine (ar/R) selectivity filter, Froger's positions and specificity-determining positions (SDPs) showed a remarkable difference in substrate specificity among subfamilies. Homology analysis supported the expression of all 37 RcAQP genes in at least one of examined tissues, e.g., root, leaf, flower, seed and endosperm. Furthermore, global expression profiles with deep transcriptome sequencing data revealed diverse expression patterns among various tissues. The current study presents the first genome-wide analysis of the AQP gene family in castor bean. Results obtained from this study provide valuable information for future functional analysis and utilization.

  19. Ricinine: a pyridone alkaloid from Ricinus communis that activates the Wnt signaling pathway through casein kinase 1α.

    PubMed

    Ohishi, Kensuke; Toume, Kazufumi; Arai, Midori A; Sadhu, Samir K; Ahmed, Firoj; Mizoguchi, Takamasa; Itoh, Motoyuki; Ishibashi, Masami

    2014-09-01

    Wnt signaling plays important roles in proliferation, differentiation, development of cells, and various diseases. Activity-guided fractionation of the MeOH extract of the Ricinus communis stem led to the isolation of four compounds (1-4). The TCF/β-catenin transcription activities of 1 and 3 were 2.2 and 2.5 fold higher at 20 and 30μM, respectively. Cells treated with ricinine (1) had higher β-catenin and lower of p-β-catenin (ser 33, 37, 45, Thr 41) protein levels, whereas glycogen synthase kinase 3β (GSK3β) and casein kinase 1α (CK1α) protein levels remained unchanged. Cells treated with pyrvinium, an activator of CK1α, had lower β-catenin levels. However, the combined treatment of pyrvinium and 1 led to higher β-catenin levels than those in cells treated with pyrvinium alone, which suggested that 1 inhibited CK1α activity. Furthermore, 1 increased β-catenin protein levels in zebrafish embryos. These results indicated that 1 activated the Wnt signaling pathway by inhibiting CK1α.

  20. Phloem sugar flux and jasmonic acid-responsive cell wall invertase control extrafloral nectar secretion in Ricinus communis.

    PubMed

    Millán-Cañongo, Cynthia; Orona-Tamayo, Domancar; Heil, Martin

    2014-07-01

    Plants secrete extrafloral nectar (EFN) that attracts predators. The efficiency of the resulting anti-herbivore defense depends on the quantity and spatial distribution of EFN. Thus, according to the optimal defense hypothesis (ODH), plants should secrete EFN on the most valuable organs and when herbivore pressure is high. Ricinus communis plants secreted most EFN on the youngest (i.e., most valuable) leaves and after the simulation of herbivory via the application of jasmonic acid (JA). Here, we investigated the physiological mechanisms that might produce these seemingly adaptive spatiotemporal patterns. Cell wall invertase (CWIN; EC 3.2.1.26) was most active in the hours before peak EFN secretion, its decrease preceded the decrease in EFN secretion, and CWIN activity was inducible by JA. Thus, CWIN appears to be a central player in EFN secretion: its activation by JA is likely to cause the induction of EFN secretion after herbivory. Shading individual leaves decreased EFN secretion locally on these leaves with no effect on CWIN activity in the nectaries, which is likely to be because it decreased the content of sucrose, the substrate of CWIN, in the phloem. Our results demonstrate how the interplay of two physiological processes can cause ecologically relevant spatiotemporal patterns in a plant defense trait.

  1. Rat sperm immobilisation effects of a protein from Ricinus communis (Linn.): an in vitro comparative study with nonoxynol-9.

    PubMed

    Nithya, R S; Anuja, M M; Rajamanickam, C; Indira, M

    2012-12-01

    Previous study conducted in our department showed that 50% ethanolic extract of the root of Ricinus communis possess reversible antifertility effect and a 62-kDa protein (Rp) from this extract is responsible for the antifertility effects. In this study, we compared the spermicidal effect of this Rp with nonoxynol-9 (N-9) in vitro. The sperm immobilisation studies showed that 100 μg ml(-1) of Rp was able to immobilise the sperms completely within 30 s. Sperm revival test revealed that the spermicidal effect was irreversible. There was also a significant reduction in sperm viability and hypo-osmotic swelling in Rp and N-9 treated groups in comparison with the control. In Rp and N-9 treated groups, the number of acrosome-reacted cells was found to be high and also caused agglutination of the spermatozoa, indicating the loss of intactness of the plasma membrane, which was further supported by the significant reduction in the activity of membrane bound 5'-nucleotidase, acrosomal acrosin. In short, the protein Rp possesses spermicidal activity in vitro and its effects are similar to that of nonoxynol 9.

  2. Dynamics and control of phloem loading of indole-3-acetic acid in seedling cotyledons of Ricinus communis.

    PubMed

    Tamas, Imre A; Davies, Peter J

    2016-08-01

    During seed germination, sugars and auxin are produced from stored precursors or conjugates respectively, and transported to the seedling axis. To elucidate the mode of travel of indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) into the phloem, a solution of [(3)H]IAA, together with [(14)C]sucrose, was injected into the endosperm cavity harboring the cotyledons of germinating seedlings of Ricinus communis Phloem exudate from the cut hypocotyl was collected and the radioactivity recorded. Sucrose loading into the phloem was inhibited at higher IAA levels, and the rate of filling of the transient pool(s) was reduced by IAA. IAA was detected within 10min, with the concentration increasing over 30min and reaching a steady-state by 60min. The kinetics indicated that phloem loading of IAA involving both an active, carrier-based, and a passive, diffusion-based component, with IAA traveling along a pathway containing an intermediary pool, possibly the protoplasts of mesophyll cells. Phloem loading of IAA was altered by sucrose, K(+), and a range of non-specific and IAA-specific analogs and inhibitors in a manner that showed that IAA moves into the phloem from the extra cotyledonary solution by multiple pathways, with a carrier-mediated pathway playing a principal role.

  3. Dynamics and control of phloem loading of indole-3-acetic acid in seedling cotyledons of Ricinus communis.

    PubMed

    Tamas, Imre A; Davies, Peter J

    2016-08-01

    During seed germination, sugars and auxin are produced from stored precursors or conjugates respectively, and transported to the seedling axis. To elucidate the mode of travel of indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) into the phloem, a solution of [(3)H]IAA, together with [(14)C]sucrose, was injected into the endosperm cavity harboring the cotyledons of germinating seedlings of Ricinus communis Phloem exudate from the cut hypocotyl was collected and the radioactivity recorded. Sucrose loading into the phloem was inhibited at higher IAA levels, and the rate of filling of the transient pool(s) was reduced by IAA. IAA was detected within 10min, with the concentration increasing over 30min and reaching a steady-state by 60min. The kinetics indicated that phloem loading of IAA involving both an active, carrier-based, and a passive, diffusion-based component, with IAA traveling along a pathway containing an intermediary pool, possibly the protoplasts of mesophyll cells. Phloem loading of IAA was altered by sucrose, K(+), and a range of non-specific and IAA-specific analogs and inhibitors in a manner that showed that IAA moves into the phloem from the extra cotyledonary solution by multiple pathways, with a carrier-mediated pathway playing a principal role. PMID:27371947

  4. Ricinine: a pyridone alkaloid from Ricinus communis that activates the Wnt signaling pathway through casein kinase 1α.

    PubMed

    Ohishi, Kensuke; Toume, Kazufumi; Arai, Midori A; Sadhu, Samir K; Ahmed, Firoj; Mizoguchi, Takamasa; Itoh, Motoyuki; Ishibashi, Masami

    2014-09-01

    Wnt signaling plays important roles in proliferation, differentiation, development of cells, and various diseases. Activity-guided fractionation of the MeOH extract of the Ricinus communis stem led to the isolation of four compounds (1-4). The TCF/β-catenin transcription activities of 1 and 3 were 2.2 and 2.5 fold higher at 20 and 30μM, respectively. Cells treated with ricinine (1) had higher β-catenin and lower of p-β-catenin (ser 33, 37, 45, Thr 41) protein levels, whereas glycogen synthase kinase 3β (GSK3β) and casein kinase 1α (CK1α) protein levels remained unchanged. Cells treated with pyrvinium, an activator of CK1α, had lower β-catenin levels. However, the combined treatment of pyrvinium and 1 led to higher β-catenin levels than those in cells treated with pyrvinium alone, which suggested that 1 inhibited CK1α activity. Furthermore, 1 increased β-catenin protein levels in zebrafish embryos. These results indicated that 1 activated the Wnt signaling pathway by inhibiting CK1α. PMID:25124862

  5. Gene Structures, Evolution, Classification and Expression Profiles of the Aquaporin Gene Family in Castor Bean (Ricinus communis L.)

    PubMed Central

    Mo, Yeyong; Yang, Lifu; Xie, Guishui

    2015-01-01

    Aquaporins (AQPs) are a class of integral membrane proteins that facilitate the passive transport of water and other small solutes across biological membranes. Castor bean (Ricinus communis L., Euphobiaceae), an important non-edible oilseed crop, is widely cultivated for industrial, medicinal and cosmetic purposes. Its recently available genome provides an opportunity to analyze specific gene families. In this study, a total of 37 full-length AQP genes were identified from the castor bean genome, which were assigned to five subfamilies, including 10 plasma membrane intrinsic proteins (PIPs), 9 tonoplast intrinsic proteins (TIPs), 8 NOD26-like intrinsic proteins (NIPs), 6 X intrinsic proteins (XIPs) and 4 small basic intrinsic proteins (SIPs) on the basis of sequence similarities. Functional prediction based on the analysis of the aromatic/arginine (ar/R) selectivity filter, Froger’s positions and specificity-determining positions (SDPs) showed a remarkable difference in substrate specificity among subfamilies. Homology analysis supported the expression of all 37 RcAQP genes in at least one of examined tissues, e.g., root, leaf, flower, seed and endosperm. Furthermore, global expression profiles with deep transcriptome sequencing data revealed diverse expression patterns among various tissues. The current study presents the first genome-wide analysis of the AQP gene family in castor bean. Results obtained from this study provide valuable information for future functional analysis and utilization. PMID:26509832

  6. Rat sperm immobilisation effects of a protein from Ricinus communis (Linn.): an in vitro comparative study with nonoxynol-9.

    PubMed

    Nithya, R S; Anuja, M M; Rajamanickam, C; Indira, M

    2012-12-01

    Previous study conducted in our department showed that 50% ethanolic extract of the root of Ricinus communis possess reversible antifertility effect and a 62-kDa protein (Rp) from this extract is responsible for the antifertility effects. In this study, we compared the spermicidal effect of this Rp with nonoxynol-9 (N-9) in vitro. The sperm immobilisation studies showed that 100 μg ml(-1) of Rp was able to immobilise the sperms completely within 30 s. Sperm revival test revealed that the spermicidal effect was irreversible. There was also a significant reduction in sperm viability and hypo-osmotic swelling in Rp and N-9 treated groups in comparison with the control. In Rp and N-9 treated groups, the number of acrosome-reacted cells was found to be high and also caused agglutination of the spermatozoa, indicating the loss of intactness of the plasma membrane, which was further supported by the significant reduction in the activity of membrane bound 5'-nucleotidase, acrosomal acrosin. In short, the protein Rp possesses spermicidal activity in vitro and its effects are similar to that of nonoxynol 9. PMID:22486240

  7. Dynamics and control of phloem loading of indole-3-acetic acid in seedling cotyledons of Ricinus communis

    PubMed Central

    Tamas, Imre A.; Davies, Peter J.

    2016-01-01

    During seed germination, sugars and auxin are produced from stored precursors or conjugates respectively, and transported to the seedling axis. To elucidate the mode of travel of indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) into the phloem, a solution of [3H]IAA, together with [14C]sucrose, was injected into the endosperm cavity harboring the cotyledons of germinating seedlings of Ricinus communis. Phloem exudate from the cut hypocotyl was collected and the radioactivity recorded. Sucrose loading into the phloem was inhibited at higher IAA levels, and the rate of filling of the transient pool(s) was reduced by IAA. IAA was detected within 10min, with the concentration increasing over 30min and reaching a steady-state by 60min. The kinetics indicated that phloem loading of IAA involving both an active, carrier-based, and a passive, diffusion-based component, with IAA traveling along a pathway containing an intermediary pool, possibly the protoplasts of mesophyll cells. Phloem loading of IAA was altered by sucrose, K+, and a range of non-specific and IAA-specific analogs and inhibitors in a manner that showed that IAA moves into the phloem from the extra cotyledonary solution by multiple pathways, with a carrier-mediated pathway playing a principal role. PMID:27371947

  8. Gene Structures, Evolution and Transcriptional Profiling of the WRKY Gene Family in Castor Bean (Ricinus communis L.)

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Qixing; Mo, Yeyong; Xie, Guishui

    2016-01-01

    WRKY proteins comprise one of the largest transcription factor families in plants and form key regulators of many plant processes. This study presents the characterization of 58 WRKY genes from the castor bean (Ricinus communis L., Euphorbiaceae) genome. Compared with the automatic genome annotation, one more WRKY-encoding locus was identified and 20 out of the 57 predicted gene models were manually corrected. All RcWRKY genes were shown to contain at least one intron in their coding sequences. According to the structural features of the present WRKY domains, the identified RcWRKY genes were assigned to three previously defined groups (I–III). Although castor bean underwent no recent whole-genome duplication event like physic nut (Jatropha curcas L., Euphorbiaceae), comparative genomics analysis indicated that one gene loss, one intron loss and one recent proximal duplication occurred in the RcWRKY gene family. The expression of all 58 RcWRKY genes was supported by ESTs and/or RNA sequencing reads derived from roots, leaves, flowers, seeds and endosperms. Further global expression profiles with RNA sequencing data revealed diverse expression patterns among various tissues. Results obtained from this study not only provide valuable information for future functional analysis and utilization of the castor bean WRKY genes, but also provide a useful reference to investigate the gene family expansion and evolution in Euphorbiaceus plants. PMID:26849139

  9. Enzymes of the Glycolytic and Pentose Phosphate Pathways in Proplastids from the Developing Endosperm of Ricinus communis L.

    PubMed

    Simcox, P D; Reid, E E; Canvin, D T; Dennis, D T

    1977-06-01

    The metabolism of sucrose to long chain fatty acids in the endosperm of developing castor bean (Ricinus communis L.) seeds requires a combination of cytosolic and proplastid enzymes. The total activity and the subcellular distribution of the intermediate enzymic steps responsible for the conversion of sucrose to pyruvate have been determined. Hexose phosphate synthesis from sucrose occurs in the cytosol along with the first oxidative step in the pentose phosphate pathway, glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase. The proplastids contain the necessary complement of glycolytic enzymes to account for the in vivo rates of acetate synthesis from glucose 6-phosphate. These organelles also contain the majority of the cellular 6-phosphogluconate dehydrogenase, transketolase, and transaldolase activities.The consequence of these enzyme distributions is that glucose 6-phosphate or 6-phosphogluconate produced in the cytosol must be transported into the proplastids where conversion to pyruvate occurs. The unique segregation of the two oxidative steps in the pentose phosphate pathway may be required to meet the metabolic needs of these fat-storing seeds. Compartmentation of glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase in the cytosol and 6-phosphogluconate dehydrogenase in the proplastids is discussed in light of the NADPH requirements for fatty acid synthesis in these subcellular locations.

  10. Dissipation of excess photosynthetic energy contributes to salinity tolerance: a comparative study of salt-tolerant Ricinus communis and salt-sensitive Jatropha curcas.

    PubMed

    Lima Neto, Milton C; Lobo, Ana K M; Martins, Marcio O; Fontenele, Adilton V; Silveira, Joaquim Albenisio G

    2014-01-01

    The relationships between salt tolerance and photosynthetic mechanisms of excess energy dissipation were assessed using two species that exhibit contrasting responses to salinity, Ricinus communis (tolerant) and Jatropha curcas (sensitive). The salt tolerance of R. communis was indicated by unchanged electrolyte leakage (cellular integrity) and dry weight in leaves, whereas these parameters were greatly affected in J. curcas. The leaf Na+ content was similar in both species. Photosynthesis was intensely decreased in both species, but the reduction was more pronounced in J. curcas. In this species biochemical limitations in photosynthesis were more prominent, as indicated by increased C(i) values and decreased Rubisco activity. Salinity decreased both the V(cmax) (in vivo Rubisco activity) and J(max) (maximum electron transport rate) more significantly in J. curcas. The higher tolerance in R. communis was positively associated with higher photorespiratory activity, nitrate assimilation and higher cyclic electron flow. The high activity of these alternative electron sinks in R. communis was closely associated with a more efficient photoprotection mechanism. In conclusion, salt tolerance in R. communis, compared with J. curcas, is related to higher electron partitioning from the photosynthetic electron transport chain to alternative sinks.

  11. Phloem mobility and translocation of fluorescent conjugate containing glucose and NBD in castor bean (Ricinus communis).

    PubMed

    Lei, Zhiwei; Wang, Jie; Mao, Genlin; Wen, Yingjie; Xu, Hanhong

    2014-03-01

    Phloem mobility is an important factor for long-distance transport of systemic pesticides in plants. Our previous study revealed that a fluorescent glucose-insecticide conjugate, N-{3-cyano-1-[2,6-dichloro-4-(trifluoromethyl)phenyl]-4-iodo-1H-pyrazol-5-yl}-N-{[1-(β-D-glucopyranosyl)-1H-1,2,3-triazole-4-yl]methyl}-N-{[1-((N-(7-nitrobenz-2-oxa-1,3-diazole-4-amine))-propyl)-1H-1,2,3-triazole-4-yl]methyl}amine (IPGN), can be transported in tobacco cells. Several studies have also indicated that glucose moieties can guide the conjugates into plant cells. In this study, we investigated the phloem mobility of IPGN within castor bean seedlings. Cotyledon uptake experiment results show that IPGN could enter the phloem of the mid-veins of cotyledons. The results of further quantitative analysis show that IPGN was present in small amounts in the phloem sap despite the inconsistencies of physicochemical properties with diffusion through the plasma membrane. Its concentration in the phloem sap (about 370nM at 5h) was much lower than that in the incubation medium (100μM), which suggests that IPGN exhibited weak phloem mobility. After the leaves of Ricinus plantlets were treated with IPGN, green fluorescence could be observed in the phloem of the petioles, bud apical nodes, bud mid-veins, and mid-veins of the untreated leaves. The localization of the fluorescent conjugate at various levels of Ricinus plantlets indicates that it was translocated at a distance to sink organs via sieve tubes. The results proved that introducing a glucose group is a feasible approach to modify non-phloem-mobile pesticides and produce phloem-mobile pesticides.

  12. Diurnal changes in assimilate concentrations and fluxes in the phloem of castor bean (Ricinus communis L.) and tansy (Tanacetum vulgare L.).

    PubMed

    Kallarackal, Jose; Bauer, Susanne N; Nowak, Heike; Hajirezaei, Mohammad-Reza; Komor, Ewald

    2012-07-01

    Reports about diurnal changes of assimilates in phloem sap are controversial. We determined the diurnal changes of sucrose and amino acid concentrations and fluxes in exudates from cut aphid stylets on tansy leaves (Tanacetum vulgare), and sucrose, amino acid and K(+) concentrations and fluxes in bleeding sap of castor bean pedicel (Ricinus communis). Approximately half of the tansy sieve tubes exhibited a diurnal cycle of sucrose concentrations and fluxes in phloem sap. Data from many tansy plants indicated an increased sucrose flux in the phloem during daytime in case of low N-nutrition, not at high N-nutrition. The sucrose concentration in phloem sap of young Ricinus plants changed marginally between day and night, whereas the sucrose flux increased 1.5-fold during daytime (but not in old Ricinus plants). The amino acid concentrations and fluxes in tansy sieve tubes exhibited a similar diurnal cycle as the sucrose concentrations and fluxes, including their dependence on N-nutrition. The amino acid fluxes, but not the concentrations, in phloem sap of Ricinus were higher at daytime. The sucrose/amino acid ratio showed no diurnal cycle neither in tansy nor in Ricinus. The K(+)-concentrations in phloem sap of Ricinus, but not the K(+) fluxes, decreased slightly during daytime and the sucrose/K(+)-ratio increased. In conclusion, a diurnal cycle was observed in sucrose, amino acid and K(+) fluxes, but not necessarily in concentrations of these assimilates. Because of the large variations between different sieve tubes and different plants, the nutrient delivery to sink tissues is not homeostatic over time.

  13. 6-Phosphogluconate Dehydrogenase Isoenzymes from the Developing Endosperm of Ricinus communis L.

    PubMed

    Simcox, P D; Dennis, D T

    1978-08-01

    The cytosolic and proplastid isoenzymes of 6-phosphogluconate dehydrogenase were purified from the developing endosperm of the castor bean (Ricinis communis L.). No differences in physical or kinetic properties were found for the purified isoenzymes. Each was composed of two identical 55,000 subunits. They had identical pH optima of 7.8 to 8.0 and similar MgCl(2) stimulation for the oxidative decarboxylation of 6-phosphogluconate. The Km values for 6-phosphogluconate were 12 and 9.6 micromolar and for NADP(+) were 4.1 and 5.4 micromolar for the cytosolic and proplastid isoenzymes, respectively. Therefore, the synthesis of two distinct 6-phosphogluconate dehydrogenase isoenzymes does not appear to have any kinetic significance for the developing seed. However, changes in the proplastid contribution toward carbohydrate metabolism occur in the developing seed and may necessitate independent gene expression to allow for a unique and flexible subcellular distribution of isoenzymes during development.

  14. Discovery of an extended bundle sheath in Ricinus communis L. and its role as a temporal storage compartment for the iron chelator nicotianamine.

    PubMed

    Rutten, T; Krüger, C; Melzer, M; Stephan, U W; Hell, R

    2003-07-01

    The extended bundle sheath (EBS) is a specialized layer of cells that enhances the lateral transport of photoassimilates within the leaf. This little-known tissue is often considered to be legume-specific. We identified an EBS in cotyledons and leaves of the non-legume Ricinus communis L. By means of cytological and immunological studies and using the localization of the iron-chelator nicotianamine as an established indicator for mass transport, we confirmed its role as a transport tissue and a temporal sink. Observations on cotyledons of Ricinus seedlings further proved that the EBS carries out these tasks from a very early stage of development onwards. This is the first time that information has been obtained on the physiological role of an EBS in a non-legume. Our results support the idea of its widespread occurrence among higher plants. PMID:14520566

  15. Transcriptome profiling identifies ABA mediated regulatory changes towards storage filling in developing seeds of castor bean (Ricinus communis L.)

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The potential biodiesel plant castor bean (Ricinus communis) has been in the limelight for bioenergy research due to the availability of its genome which raises the bar for genome-wide studies claiming advances that impact the “genome-phenome challenge”. Here we report the application of phytohormone ABA as an exogenous factor for the improvement of storage reserve accumulation with a focus on the complex interaction of pathways associated with seed filling. Results After the application of exogenous ABA treatments, we measured an increased ABA levels in the developing seeds cultured in vitro using the ELISA technique and quantified the content of major biomolecules (including total lipids, sugars and protein) in treated seeds. Exogenous ABA (10 μM) enhanced the accumulation of soluble sugar content (6.3%) followed by deposition of total lipid content (4.9 %). To elucidate the possible ABA signal transduction pathways towards overall seed filling, we studied the differential gene expression analysis using Illumina RNA-Sequencing technology, resulting in 2568 (1507-up/1061-down regulated) differentially expressed genes were identified. These genes were involved in sugar metabolism (such as glucose-6-phosphate, fructose 1,6 bis-phosphate, glycerol-3-phosphate, pyruvate kinase), lipid biosynthesis (such as ACS, ACBP, GPAT2, GPAT3, FAD2, FAD3, SAD1 and DGAT1), storage proteins synthesis (such as SGP1, zinc finger protein, RING H2 protein, nodulin 55 and cytochrome P450), and ABA biosynthesis (such as NCED1, NCED3 and beta carotene). Further, we confirmed the validation of RNA-Sequencing data by Semi-quantitative RT-PCR analysis. Conclusions Taken together, metabolite measurements supported by genes and pathway expression results indicated in this study provide new insights to understand the ABA signaling mechanism towards seed storage filling and also contribute useful information for facilitating oilseed crop functional genomics on an aim for utilizing

  16. Flows of elements, ions and abscisic acid in Ricinus communis and site of nitrate reduction under potassium limitation.

    PubMed

    Peuke, Andreas D; Jeschke, W Dieter; Hartung, Wolfram

    2002-02-01

    In a pot experiment Ricinus communis plants were cultivated in quartz sand and supplied daily with a nutrient solution which contained 4 mol m(-3) nitrate as the nitrogen source and either full strength potassium (1.3 mol m(-3), control) or 8% potassium (0.1 mol m(-3), K(+)-limitation). Although the final fresh weight of the whole plant was not affected by K(+)-limitation, the root-shoot ratio was increased due to a relatively increased root growth and inhibited development of younger shoot parts. Owing to K(+)-limitation, photosynthesis was slightly decreased, while dark respiration of the shoot markedly decreased and root respiration was nearly doubled. The transport of carbon in the phloem, and to some extent in the xylem, was greater and the root was favoured in the partitioning of carbon. This was also true for nitrogen and potassium which were both taken up at lower rates, particularly potassium. In these two cases a high remobilization and recycling from the old part of the shoot was observed. By contrast, uptake of sodium was 2.4-fold higher under K(+)-limitation and this resulted in increased flows in the plants, which was discussed generally as a means for charge balance (in combination with a slight increase in uptake of magnesium and calcium). Nitrate reduction took place in the same portion in the root and shoot. This was a shift to the root compared to the control and points to an inhibition of xylem transport caused by limitation of K(+) as an easily permeating countercation. Low K(+) supply also resulted in an increased biosynthesis of ABA in the roots (265%). This caused a slightly increased deposition of ABA in the roots (193%) and a 4.6-fold higher root-to-shoot and a doubled shoot-to-root ABA signal in the xylem or phloem, respectively. The high degradation of ABA in the shoots prevented ABA accumulation there. PMID:11807128

  17. Experimental effect of feeding on Ricinus communis and Bougainvillea glabra on the development of the sand fly Phlebotomus papatasi (Diptera: Psychodidae) from Egypt.

    PubMed

    Kaldas, Rania M; El Shafey, Azza S; Shehata, Magdi G; Samy, Abdallah M; Villinski, Jeffrey T

    2014-04-01

    Plants are promising sources of agents useful for the control of vectors of human diseases including leishmaniasis. The effect of Ricinus communis (Euphorbiaceae) and Bougainvillea glabra (Nyctaginaceae), on transmission of leishmaniasis was investigated using them as diets for Phlebotomus papatasi to monitor their effect on life-history traits. P. papatasi were allowed to feed separately on both plants then offered a blood-meal. Fed-females were observed daily for egg-laying and subsequent developmental stages. P. papatasi was able to feed on B. glabra (29.41% females and 46.30% males) and R. communis (5.80% females and 10.43% males). 34.28% of females died within 24-48 hours post-feeding on R. communis, whereas, it was 16.5% in females fed on B. glabra. Overall fecundity of surviving females was reduced compared to controls, reared on standard laboratory diet; however there was no effect on the sex ratio of progeny. Female P. papatasi in the control group had significantly longer life span compared to plant-fed group. Feeding on these plants not only decreased sand fly survival rates but incurred negative effects on fecundity. Findings indicate that planting high densities of R. communis and B. glabra in sand flies-endemic areas will reduce population sizes and reduce the risk of Leishmania major infections.

  18. Biocompatibility of Ricinus communis polymer with addition of calcium carbonate compared to titanium. Experimental study in guinea pigs

    PubMed Central

    Graça, Yorgos Luiz Santos De Salles; Opolski, Ana Cristina; Barboza, Barbara Evelin Gonçalves; Erbano, Bruna Olandoski; Mazzaro, Caroline Cantalejo; Klostermann, Flávia Caroline; Sucharski, Enéas Eduardo; Kubrusly, Luiz Fernando

    2014-01-01

    Objective The aim of the present investigation was to determine whether the difference in inflammatory tissue reaction between the Riccinus communis (castor) polymer with calcium carbonate and the titanium implant is statistically significant. Methods Thirty-two Cavia porcellus were allocated into four groups of eight animals each. We implanted the two types of materials in the retroperitoneal space of all the animals. They were euthanized at 7, 20, 30 and 40 days after surgery, and an histological study of the samples was conducted. Results All implants showed characteristics of chronic inflammation regardless of the material and timepoint of evaluation. There was no statistically significant difference between Pm+CaCO3 and Ti with regard to the presence of granulation tissue, tissue congestion, histiocytes, lymphocytes, neutrophils, giant cells, and fibrosis (P> 0.05). Conclusion The castor oil polymer plus calcium carbonate implant was not statistically different from the titanium implant regarding inflammatory tissue reaction. PMID:25140479

  19. Growth, tolerance efficiency and phytoremediation potential of Ricinus communis (L.) and Brassica juncea (L.) in salinity and drought affected cadmium contaminated soil.

    PubMed

    Bauddh, Kuldeep; Singh, Rana P

    2012-11-01

    We have previously reported that Ricinus communis (castor) is more tolerant to soil cadmium (Cd) and more efficient for Cd phytoremediation than Brassica juncea (Indian mustard) (Bauddh and Singh, 2012). In the present study, R. communis was found more tolerant to salinity and drought in presence of Cd and removed more Cd in a given time than Indian mustard. R. communis produced 23 and twelve folds higher biomass in terms of fresh weight and dry weight, respectively than that in B. juncea during three months when grown in Cd contaminated soil in presence of 100mM NaCl salinity and ten day water withdrawal based drought at 90 day after sowing (DAS). Castor plants showed stronger self-protection ability in form of proline bioaccumulation (r(2)=0.949) than Indian mustard (r(2)=0.932), whereas a lower r(2) for malondialdehyde (MDA) and total soluble protein in R. communis (r(2)=0.914 and r(2)=0.915, respectively) than that of B. juncea (r(2)=0.947 and r(2)=0.927, respectively) indicated a greater damage to cell membrane in Indian mustard during the multiple stress conditions. Though, the amount of Cd accumulated in the roots and shoots of Indian mustard was higher as per unit biomass than that in castor, total removal of the metal from soil was much higher in castor on per plant basis in the same period in presence of the stresses. R. communis accumulated about seventeen and 1.5 fold higher Cd in their roots and shoots, respectively than that of B. juncea in 90 DAS under the multiple stresses. Salinity alone enhanced Cd uptake, whereas drought stress reduced its uptake in both the plants.

  20. Growth, tolerance efficiency and phytoremediation potential of Ricinus communis (L.) and Brassica juncea (L.) in salinity and drought affected cadmium contaminated soil.

    PubMed

    Bauddh, Kuldeep; Singh, Rana P

    2012-11-01

    We have previously reported that Ricinus communis (castor) is more tolerant to soil cadmium (Cd) and more efficient for Cd phytoremediation than Brassica juncea (Indian mustard) (Bauddh and Singh, 2012). In the present study, R. communis was found more tolerant to salinity and drought in presence of Cd and removed more Cd in a given time than Indian mustard. R. communis produced 23 and twelve folds higher biomass in terms of fresh weight and dry weight, respectively than that in B. juncea during three months when grown in Cd contaminated soil in presence of 100mM NaCl salinity and ten day water withdrawal based drought at 90 day after sowing (DAS). Castor plants showed stronger self-protection ability in form of proline bioaccumulation (r(2)=0.949) than Indian mustard (r(2)=0.932), whereas a lower r(2) for malondialdehyde (MDA) and total soluble protein in R. communis (r(2)=0.914 and r(2)=0.915, respectively) than that of B. juncea (r(2)=0.947 and r(2)=0.927, respectively) indicated a greater damage to cell membrane in Indian mustard during the multiple stress conditions. Though, the amount of Cd accumulated in the roots and shoots of Indian mustard was higher as per unit biomass than that in castor, total removal of the metal from soil was much higher in castor on per plant basis in the same period in presence of the stresses. R. communis accumulated about seventeen and 1.5 fold higher Cd in their roots and shoots, respectively than that of B. juncea in 90 DAS under the multiple stresses. Salinity alone enhanced Cd uptake, whereas drought stress reduced its uptake in both the plants. PMID:22959315

  1. Control of Photosynthesis and Stomatal Conductance in Ricinus communis L. (Castor Bean) by Leaf to Air Vapor Pressure Deficit.

    PubMed

    Dai, Z; Edwards, G E; Ku, M S

    1992-08-01

    Castor bean (Ricinus communis L.) has a high photosynthetic capacity under high humidity and a pronounced sensitivity of photosynthesis to high water vapor pressure deficit (VPD). The sensitivity of photosynthesis to varying VPD was analyzed by measuring CO(2) assimilation, stomatal conductance (g(s)), quantum yield of photosystem II (phi(II)), and nonphotochemical quenching of chlorophyll fluorescence (q(N)) under different VPD. Under both medium (1000) and high (1800 micromoles quanta per square meter per second) light intensities, CO(2) assimilation decreased as the VPD between the leaf and the air around the leaf increased. The g(s) initially dropped rapidly with increasing VPD and then showed a slower decrease above a VPD of 10 to 20 millibars. Over a temperature range from 20 to 40 degrees C, CO(2) assimilation and g(s) were inhibited by high VPD (20 millibars). However, the rate of transpiration increased with increasing temperature at either low or high VPD due to an increase in g(s). The relative inhibition of photosynthesis under photorespiring (atmospheric levels of CO(2) and O(2)) versus nonphotorespiring (700 microbars CO(2) and 2% O(2)) conditions was greater under high VPD (30 millibars) than under low VPD (3 millibars). Also, with increasing light intensity the relative inhibition of photosynthesis by O(2) increased under high VPD, but decreased under low VPD. The effect of high VPD on photosynthesis under various conditions could not be totally accounted for by the decrease in the intercellular CO(2) in the leaf (C(i)) where C(i) was estimated from gas exchange measurements. However, estimates of C(i) from measurements of phi(II) and q(N) suggest that the decrease in photosynthesis and increase in photorespiration under high VPD can be totally accounted for by stomatal closure and a decrease in C(i). The results also suggest that nonuniform closure of stomata may occur in well-watered plants under high VPD, causing overestimates in the calculation

  2. Jatropha curcas and Ricinus communis differentially affect arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi diversity in soil when cultivated for biofuel production in a Guantanamo (Cuba) tropical system.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alguacil, M. M.; Torrecillas, E.; Hernández, G.; Torres, P.; Roldán, A.

    2012-04-01

    The arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) are a key, integral component of the stability, sustainability and functioning of ecosystems. In this study, we characterised the AMF biodiversity in a control soil and in a soil cultivated with Jatropha curcas or Ricinus communis, in a tropical system in Guantanamo (Cuba), in order to verify if a change of land use to biofuel plant production had any effect on the AMF communities. We also asses whether some soil properties related with the soil fertility (total N, Organic C, microbial biomass C, aggregate stability percentage, pH and electrical conductivity) were changed with the cultivation of both crop species. The AM fungal small sub-unit (SSU) rRNA genes were subjected to PCR, cloning, sequencing and phylogenetic analyses. Twenty AM fungal sequence types were identified: 19 belong to the Glomeraceae and one to the Paraglomeraceae. Two AMF sequence types related to cultured AMF species (Glo G3 for Glomus sinuosum and Glo G6 for Glomus intraradices-G. fasciculatum-G. irregulare) disappeared in the soil cultivated with J. curcas and R. communis. The soil properties (total N, Organic C and microbial biomass C) were improved by the cultivation of the two plant species. The diversity of the AMF community decreased in the soil of both crops, with respect to the control soil, and varied significantly depending on the crop species planted. Thus, R. communis soil showed higher AMF diversity than J. curcas soil. In conclusion, R. communis could be more suitable in long-term conservation and sustainable management of these tropical ecosystems.

  3. Organic acids, amino acids compositions in the root exudates and Cu-accumulation in castor (Ricinus communis L.) Under Cu stress.

    PubMed

    Huang, Guoyong; Guo, Guangguang; Yao, Shiyuan; Zhang, Na; Hu, Hongqing

    2016-01-01

    Ricinus communis L. is a hyperaccumulation plant newly discovered in an abandoned land of Cu mine in China. A hydroponic experiment was then carried out to determine the root exudates in the Cu-tolerant castor (Ricinus communis L.). Plants were grown in nutrient solution with increasing level of Cu doses (0, 100, 250, 500, and 750 μmol/L Cu) in the form of CuSO4. Cu accumulation in the roots and shoots of castor, and root exudates collected from the castor were measured. The results indicated that the castor had a high Cu accumulation capacity and the Cu concentrations in the shoots and roots of the castor treated with 750 μmol/L Cu were 177.1, 14586.7 mg/kg, respectively. Tartaric was the largest in the root exudates in terms of concentrations, which reached up to 329.13 μmol/g (dry plant) in the level of 750 μmol/L Cu. There was a significantly positive linear relationship between the Cu concentration in root and the concentration of succinic (R = 0.92, P < 0.05), tartaric (R = 0.96, P < 0.01), and citric (R = 0.89, P < 0.05). These results indicated that the difference in root exudation from castor could affect their Cu tolerance. What is more, significant is that the high tartaric and citric, the low oxalic and cysteine in the root exudation of castor contributed to toleration of high Cu concentrations.

  4. Organic acids, amino acids compositions in the root exudates and Cu-accumulation in castor (Ricinus communis L.) Under Cu stress.

    PubMed

    Huang, Guoyong; Guo, Guangguang; Yao, Shiyuan; Zhang, Na; Hu, Hongqing

    2016-01-01

    Ricinus communis L. is a hyperaccumulation plant newly discovered in an abandoned land of Cu mine in China. A hydroponic experiment was then carried out to determine the root exudates in the Cu-tolerant castor (Ricinus communis L.). Plants were grown in nutrient solution with increasing level of Cu doses (0, 100, 250, 500, and 750 μmol/L Cu) in the form of CuSO4. Cu accumulation in the roots and shoots of castor, and root exudates collected from the castor were measured. The results indicated that the castor had a high Cu accumulation capacity and the Cu concentrations in the shoots and roots of the castor treated with 750 μmol/L Cu were 177.1, 14586.7 mg/kg, respectively. Tartaric was the largest in the root exudates in terms of concentrations, which reached up to 329.13 μmol/g (dry plant) in the level of 750 μmol/L Cu. There was a significantly positive linear relationship between the Cu concentration in root and the concentration of succinic (R = 0.92, P < 0.05), tartaric (R = 0.96, P < 0.01), and citric (R = 0.89, P < 0.05). These results indicated that the difference in root exudation from castor could affect their Cu tolerance. What is more, significant is that the high tartaric and citric, the low oxalic and cysteine in the root exudation of castor contributed to toleration of high Cu concentrations. PMID:26220483

  5. Glycinergic-Fipronil Uptake Is Mediated by an Amino Acid Carrier System and Induces the Expression of Amino Acid Transporter Genes in Ricinus communis Seedlings.

    PubMed

    Xie, Yun; Zhao, Jun-Long; Wang, Chuan-Wei; Yu, Ai-Xin; Liu, Niu; Chen, Li; Lin, Fei; Xu, Han-Hong

    2016-05-18

    Phloem-mobile insecticides are efficient for piercing and sucking insect control. Introduction of sugar or amino acid groups to the parent compound can improve the phloem mobility of insecticides, so a glycinergic-fipronil conjugate (GlyF), 2-(3-(3-cyano-1-(2,6-dichloro-4-(trifluoromethyl)phenyl)-4-((trifluoromethyl)sulfinyl)-1H-pyrazole-5-yl)ureido) acetic acid, was designed and synthesized. Although the "Kleier model" predicted that this conjugate is not phloem mobile, GlyF can be continually detected during a 5 h collection of Ricinus communis phloem sap. Furthermore, an R. communis seedling cotyledon disk uptake experiment demonstrates that the uptake of GlyF is sensitive to pH, carbonyl cyanide m-chlorophenylhydrazone (CCCP), temperature, and p-chloromercuribenzenesulfonic acid (pCMBS) and is likely mediated by amino acid carrier system. To explore the roles of amino acid transporters (AATs) in GlyF uptake, a total of 62 AAT genes were identified from the R. communis genome in silico. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that AATs in R. communis were organized into the ATF (amino acid transporter) and APC (amino acid, polyaminem and choline transporter) superfamilies, with five subfamilies in ATF and two in APC. Furthermore, the expression profiles of 20 abundantly expressed AATs (cycle threshold (Ct) values <27) were analyzed at 1, 3, and 6 h after GlyF treatment by RT-qPCR. The results demonstrated that expression levels of four AAT genes, RcLHT6, RcANT15, RcProT2, and RcCAT2, were induced by the GlyF treatment in R. communis seedlings. On the basis of the observation that the expression profile of the four candidate genes is similar to the time course observation for GlyF foliar disk uptake, it is suggested that those four genes are possible candidates involved in the uptake of GlyF. These results contribute to a better understanding of the mechanism of GlyF uptake as well as phloem loading from a molecular biology perspective and facilitate functional

  6. Expression profiles of genes related to carbohydrate metabolism provide new insights into carbohydrate accumulation in seeds and seedlings of Ricinus communis in response to temperature.

    PubMed

    Ribeiro, Paulo R; Ligterink, Wilco; Hilhorst, Henk W M

    2015-10-01

    Ricinus communis possesses a specific metabolic signature to adjust growth and developmental processes in response to temperature: carbohydrates are accumulated at low temperatures, whereas amino acids are accumulated at elevated temperatures. Our objective was to assess tissue-specific changes in transcript levels of genes related with carbohydrate biosynthesis and catabolism in response to temperature. For that, we measured transcript levels of genes encoding enzymes involved in starch biosynthesis, starch catabolism, and gluconeogenesis in R. communis leaves, roots, and seeds grown at 20 °C and 35 °C. Transcript levels of genes involved in starch catabolism were higher in leaves grown at 20 °C than at 35 °C, but up-regulation of genes involved in starch biosynthesis seems to compensate for this and, therefore, are the likely explanation for higher levels of starch in leaves grown at 20 °C. Higher levels of soluble carbohydrates in leaves grown at 20 °C may be caused by a coordinated increase in transcript level of genes associated with starch catabolism and gluconeogenesis pathways. In roots, transcript levels of genes associated with starch catabolism and gluconeogenesis seem to be enhanced at elevated temperatures. Higher levels of starch in seeds germinated at low temperatures is associated with higher transcript levels of genes involved in starch biosynthesis. Similarly, higher transcript levels of RcPEPCK and RcFBPase are most likely causal for fructose and glucose accumulation in seeds germinated at 20 °C. This study provides important insights in the understanding of the plasticity of R. communis in response to temperature that may apply to other species as well.

  7. Transcriptomic Analysis for Different Sex Types of Ricinus communis L. during Development from Apical Buds to Inflorescences by Digital Gene Expression Profiling.

    PubMed

    Tan, Meilian; Xue, Jianfeng; Wang, Lei; Huang, Jiaxiang; Fu, Chunling; Yan, Xingchu

    2015-01-01

    The castor plant (Ricinus communis L.) is a versatile industrial oilseed crop with a diversity of sex patterns, its hybrid breeding for improving yield and high purity is still hampered by genetic instability of female and poor knowledge of sex expression mechanisms. To obtain some hints involved in sex expression and provide the basis for further insight into the molecular mechanisms of castor plant sex determination, we performed DGE analysis to investigate differences between the transcriptomes of apices and racemes derived from female (JXBM0705P) and monoecious (JXBM0705M) lines. A total of 18 DGE libraries were constructed from the apices and racemes of a wild monoecious line and its isogenic female derivative at three stages of apex development, in triplicate. Approximately 5.7 million clean tags per library were generated and mapped to the reference castor genome. Transcriptomic analysis showed that identical dynamic changes of gene expression were indicated in monoecious and female apical bud during its development from vegetation to reproduction, with more genes expressed at the raceme formation and infant raceme stages compare to the early leaf bud stage. More than 3000 of differentially expressed genes (DEGs) were detected in Ricinus apices at three developmental stages between two different sex types. A number of DEGs involved in hormone response and biosynthesis, such as auxin response and transport, transcription factors, signal transduction, histone demethylation/methylation, programmed cell death, and pollination, putatively associated with sex expression and reproduction were discovered, and the selected DEGs showed consistent expression between qRT-PCR validation and the DGE patterns. Most of those DEGs were suppressed at the early leaf stage in buds of the mutant, but then activated at the following transition stage (5-7-leaf stage) of buds in the mutant, and ultimately, the number of up-regulated DEGs was equal to that of down-regulation in the

  8. Transcriptomic Analysis for Different Sex Types of Ricinus communis L. during Development from Apical Buds to Inflorescences by Digital Gene Expression Profiling

    PubMed Central

    Tan, Meilian; Xue, Jianfeng; Wang, Lei; Huang, Jiaxiang; Fu, Chunling; Yan, Xingchu

    2016-01-01

    The castor plant (Ricinus communis L.) is a versatile industrial oilseed crop with a diversity of sex patterns, its hybrid breeding for improving yield and high purity is still hampered by genetic instability of female and poor knowledge of sex expression mechanisms. To obtain some hints involved in sex expression and provide the basis for further insight into the molecular mechanisms of castor plant sex determination, we performed DGE analysis to investigate differences between the transcriptomes of apices and racemes derived from female (JXBM0705P) and monoecious (JXBM0705M) lines. A total of 18 DGE libraries were constructed from the apices and racemes of a wild monoecious line and its isogenic female derivative at three stages of apex development, in triplicate. Approximately 5.7 million clean tags per library were generated and mapped to the reference castor genome. Transcriptomic analysis showed that identical dynamic changes of gene expression were indicated in monoecious and female apical bud during its development from vegetation to reproduction, with more genes expressed at the raceme formation and infant raceme stages compare to the early leaf bud stage. More than 3000 of differentially expressed genes (DEGs) were detected in Ricinus apices at three developmental stages between two different sex types. A number of DEGs involved in hormone response and biosynthesis, such as auxin response and transport, transcription factors, signal transduction, histone demethylation/methylation, programmed cell death, and pollination, putatively associated with sex expression and reproduction were discovered, and the selected DEGs showed consistent expression between qRT-PCR validation and the DGE patterns. Most of those DEGs were suppressed at the early leaf stage in buds of the mutant, but then activated at the following transition stage (5-7-leaf stage) of buds in the mutant, and ultimately, the number of up-regulated DEGs was equal to that of down-regulation in the

  9. Ricinus communis agglutinin I leads to rapid down-regulation of VEGFR-2 and endothelial cell apoptosis in tumor blood vessels.

    PubMed

    You, Weon-Kyoo; Kasman, Ian; Hu-Lowe, Dana D; McDonald, Donald M

    2010-04-01

    Ricinus communis agglutinin I (RCA I), a galactose-binding lectin from castor beans, binds to endothelial cells at sites of plasma leakage, but little is known about the amount and functional consequences of binding to tumor endothelial cells. We addressed this issue by examining the effects of RCA I on blood vessels of spontaneous pancreatic islet-cell tumors in RIP-Tag2 transgenic mice. After intravenous injection, RCA I bound strongly to tumor vessels but not to normal blood vessels. At 6 minutes, RCA I fluorescence of tumor vessels was largely diffuse, but over the next hour, brightly fluorescent dots appeared as the lectin was internalized by endothelial cells. RCA I injection led to a dose- and time-dependent decrease in vascular endothelial growth factor receptor-2 (VEGFR-2) immunoreactivity in tumor endothelial cells, with 95% loss over 6 hours. By comparison, VEGFR-3, CD31, and CD105 had decreases in the range of 21% to 33%. Loss of VEGFR-2 was followed by increased activated caspase-3 in tumor vessels. Prior inhibition of VEGF signaling by AG-028262 decreased RCA I binding and internalization into tumor vessels. These findings indicate RCA I preferentially binds to and is internalized by tumor endothelial cells, which leads to VEGFR-2 down-regulation, endothelial cell apoptosis, and tumor vessel regression. Together, the results illustrate the selective impact of RCA I on VEGF signaling in tumor blood vessels.

  10. In silico structural characteristics and α-amylase inhibitory properties of Ric c 1 and Ric c 3, allergenic 2S albumins from Ricinus communis seeds.

    PubMed

    Do Nascimento, Viviane Veiga; Castro, Helena Carla; Abreu, Paula Alvarez; Oliveira, Antônia Elenir Amâncio; Fernandez, Jorge Hernandez; Araújo, Jucélia Da Silva; Machado, Olga Lima Tavares

    2011-05-11

    The major Ricinus communis allergens are the 2S albumins, Ric c 1 and Ric c 3. These proteins contain a trypsin/α-amylase inhibitor family domain, suggesting that they have a role in insect resistance. In this study, we verified that Ric c 1 and Ric c 3 inhibited the α-amylase activity of Callosobruchus maculatus, Zabrotes subfasciatus, and Tenebrio molitor (TMA) larvae as well as mammalian α-amylase. The toxicity of 2S albumin was determined through its incorporation in C. maculatus larvae as part of an artificial diet. Bioassays revealed that 2S albumin reduced larval growth by 20%. We also analyzed the tridimensional structures of Ric c 1 and Ric c 3 by (a) constructing a comparative model of Ric c 1 based on Ric c 3 NMR structure and (b) constructing the theoretical structure of the Ric c 1-TMA and Ric c 3-TMA complexes. Our biological and theoretical results revealed that Ric c 1 and Ric c 3 are a new class of α-amylase inhibitors. They could potentially be used to help design inhibitors that would be useful in diverse fields, ranging from diabetes treatment to crop protection.

  11. Phytoextraction of metals and rhizoremediation of PAHs in co-contaminated soil by co-planting of Sedum alfredii with ryegrass (Lolium perenne) or castor (Ricinus communis).

    PubMed

    Wang, Kai; Huang, Huagang; Zhu, Zhiqiang; Li, Tingqiang; He, Zhenli; Yang, Xiaoe; Alva, Ashok

    2013-01-01

    A pot experiment was conducted to investigate the potential for phytoextraction of heavy metals and rhizoremediation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in co-contaminated soil by co-planting a cadmium/zinc (Cd/Zn) hyperaccumulator and lead (Pb) accumulator Sedum alfredii with ryegrass (Lolium perenne) or castor (Ricinus communis). Co-planting with castor decreased the shoot biomass of S. alfredii as compared to that in monoculture. Cadmium concentration in S. alfredii shoot significantly decreased when grown with ryegrass or castor as compared to that in monoculture. However, no reduction of Zn or Pb concentration in S. alfredii shoot was detected in co-planting treatments. Total removal of either Cd, Zn, or Pb by plants was similar across S. alfredii monoculture or co-planting with ryegrass or castor, except enhanced Pb removal in S. alfredii and ryegrass co-planting treatment. Co-planting of S. alfredii with ryegrass or castor significantly enhanced the pyrene and anthracene dissipation as compared to that in the bare soil or S. alfredii monoculture. This appears to be due to the increased soil microbial population and activities in both co-planting treatments. Co-planting of S. alfredii with ryegrass or castor provides a promising strategy to mitigate both metal and PAH contaminants from co-contaminated soils.

  12. The multigene family of lysophosphatidate acyltransferase (LPAT)-related enzymes in Ricinus communis: cloning and molecular characterization of two LPAT genes that are expressed in castor seeds.

    PubMed

    Arroyo-Caro, José María; Chileh, Tarik; Kazachkov, Michael; Zou, Jitao; Alonso, Diego López; García-Maroto, Federico

    2013-02-01

    The multigene family encoding proteins related to lysophosphatidyl-acyltransferases (LPATs) has been analyzed in the castor plant Ricinus communis. Among them, two genes designated RcLPAT2 and RcLPATB, encoding proteins with LPAT activity and expressed in the developing seed, have been cloned and characterized in some detail. RcLPAT2 groups with well characterized members of the so-called A-class LPATs and it shows a generalized expression pattern in the plant and along seed development. Enzymatic assays of RcLPAT2 indicate a preference for ricinoleoyl-CoA over other fatty acid thioesters when ricinoleoyl-LPA is used as the acyl acceptor, while oleoyl-CoA is the preferred substrate when oleoyl-LPA is employed. RcLPATB groups with B-class LPAT enzymes described as seed specific and selective for unusual fatty acids. However, RcLPATB exhibit a broad specificity on the acyl-CoAs, with saturated fatty acids (12:0-16:0) being the preferred substrates. RcLPATB is upregulated coinciding with seed triacylglycerol accumulation, but its expression is not restricted to the seed. These results are discussed in the light of a possible role for LPAT isoenzymes in the channelling of ricinoleic acid into castor bean triacylglycerol.

  13. Life history of Neoseiulus californicus (McGregor, 1954) (Acari: Phytoseiidae) fed with castor bean (Ricinus communis L.) pollen in laboratory conditions.

    PubMed

    Marafeli, P P; Reis, P R; Silveira, E C da; Souza-Pimentel, G C; de Toledo, M A

    2014-08-01

    The predatory mite, Neoseiulus californicus (McGregor, 1954) (Acari: Phytoseiidae) is one of the principal natural enemies of tetranychid mites in several countries, promoting efficient control of those mites in several food and ornamental crops. Pest attacks such as that of the spider mite, Tetranychus urticae Koch, 1836 (Acari: Tetranychidae), is one of the problems faced by farmers, especially in the greenhouse, due to the difficulty of its control with the use of chemicals because of the development of fast resistance making it hard to control it. The objective of this work was to study the life history of the predatory mite N. californicus as a contribution to its mass laboratory rearing, having castor bean plant [Ricinus communis L. (Euphorbiaceae)] pollen as food, for its subsequent use as a natural enemy of T. urticae on a cultivation of greenhouse rosebushes. The studies were carried out in the laboratory, at 25 ± 2°C of temperature, 70 ± 10% RH and a 14 hour photophase. The biological aspects and the fertility life table were appraised. Longevity of 32.9 days was verified for adult females and 40.4 days for males. The intrinsic rate of increase (rm) was 0.2 and the mean generation time (T) was 17.2 days. The population doubled every 4.1 days. The results obtained were similar to those in which the predatory mite N. californicus fed on T. urticae.

  14. Molecular and biochemical identification of inositol 1,3,4,5,6-pentakisphosphate 2-kinase encoding mRNA variants in castor bean (Ricinus communis L.) seeds.

    PubMed

    Yu, Jaeju; Saiardi, Adolfo; Greenwood, John S; Bewley, J Derek

    2014-05-01

    During seed development, phytic acid (PA) associated with mineral cations is stored as phytin and mobilized following germination in support of seedling growth. Two parallel biosynthetic pathways for PA have been proposed; yet the pathway is still poorly understood in terms of its regulation and the enzymes involved. Here, the castor bean (Ricinus communis L.) gene for inositol 1,3,4,5,6-pentakisphosphate 2-kinase (RcIPK1) has been identified. This encodes the enzyme implicated in catalyzing the final reaction in PA biosynthesis, and its expression is enhanced in isolated germinated embryos by application of phosphate and myo-inositol (Ins). Even though only one copy of the RcIPK1 gene is present in the genome, numerous RNA variants are present, most likely due to alternative splicing. These are translated into six closely related protein isoforms according to in silico analysis. Functional analyses using yeast ipk1Δ revealed that only three of the mRNA variants can rescue a temperature-sensitive growth phenotype of this strain. High-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) analysis of the synthesized inositol phosphates demonstrated that the ability to complement the missing yeast IPK1 enzyme is associated with the production of enzyme activity. The three active isoforms possess unique conserved motifs important for IPK1 catalytic activity.

  15. Molecular and biochemical identification of inositol 1,3,4,5,6-pentakisphosphate 2-kinase encoding mRNA variants in castor bean (Ricinus communis L.) seeds.

    PubMed

    Yu, Jaeju; Saiardi, Adolfo; Greenwood, John S; Bewley, J Derek

    2014-05-01

    During seed development, phytic acid (PA) associated with mineral cations is stored as phytin and mobilized following germination in support of seedling growth. Two parallel biosynthetic pathways for PA have been proposed; yet the pathway is still poorly understood in terms of its regulation and the enzymes involved. Here, the castor bean (Ricinus communis L.) gene for inositol 1,3,4,5,6-pentakisphosphate 2-kinase (RcIPK1) has been identified. This encodes the enzyme implicated in catalyzing the final reaction in PA biosynthesis, and its expression is enhanced in isolated germinated embryos by application of phosphate and myo-inositol (Ins). Even though only one copy of the RcIPK1 gene is present in the genome, numerous RNA variants are present, most likely due to alternative splicing. These are translated into six closely related protein isoforms according to in silico analysis. Functional analyses using yeast ipk1Δ revealed that only three of the mRNA variants can rescue a temperature-sensitive growth phenotype of this strain. High-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) analysis of the synthesized inositol phosphates demonstrated that the ability to complement the missing yeast IPK1 enzyme is associated with the production of enzyme activity. The three active isoforms possess unique conserved motifs important for IPK1 catalytic activity. PMID:24463774

  16. Differential proteomic analysis of the endoplasmic reticulum from developing and germinating seeds of castor (Ricinus communis) identifies seed protein precursors as significant components of the endoplasmic reticulum.

    PubMed

    Maltman, Daniel J; Gadd, Stephen M; Simon, William J; Slabas, Antoni R

    2007-05-01

    The endoplasmic reticulum is a major compartment of storage protein and lipid biosynthesis. Maximal synthesis of these storage compounds occurs during seed development with breakdown occurring during germination. In this study, we have isolated four independent preparations of ER from both developing and germinating seeds of castor bean (Ricinus communis) and used 2-D DIGE, and a combination of PMF and MS/MS sequencing, to quantify and identify differences in protein complement at both stages. Ninety protein spots in the developing seeds are up-regulated and 19 individual proteins were identified, the majority of these are intermediates of seed storage synthesis and protein folding. The detection of these transitory storage proteins in the ER is discussed in terms of protein trafficking and processing. In germinating seed ER 15 spots are elevated, 5 of which were identified, amongst them was malate synthetase which is a component of the glyoxysome which is believed to originate from the ER. Notably no proteins involved in complex lipid biosynthesis were identified in the urea soluble ER fraction indicating that they are probably all integral membrane proteins.

  17. Subcellular cadmium distribution and antioxidant enzymatic activities in the leaves of two castor (Ricinus communis L.) cultivars exhibit differences in Cd accumulation.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Hanzhi; Guo, Qingjun; Yang, Junxing; Shen, Jianxiu; Chen, Tongbin; Zhu, Guangxu; Chen, Hui; Shao, Chunyan

    2015-10-01

    The aims of this study were: (1) the study of cadmium (Cd) accumulation and toxicity in different castor cultivars (Ricinus communis L.); (2) to investigate changes in antioxidant enzymatic activities and the subcellular distribution of Cd in young and old leaves from two different castor cultivars, after exposure to two different Cd concentrations, and explore the underlying mechanism of Cd detoxification focusing on antioxidant enzymes and subcellular compartmentalization. The Cd concentration, toxicity, and subcellular distribution, as well as superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), and peroxidase (POD) activities were measured in Zibo-3 and Zibo-9 cultivars after exposure to two different concentrations of Cd (2mg/L and 5mg/L) for 10 days. This research revealed Cd accumulation characteristics in castor are root>stem>young leaf>old leaf. Castor tolerance was Cd dose exposure and the cultivars themselves dependent. Investigation of subcellular Cd partitioning showed that Cd accumulated mainly in the heat stable protein (HSP) and cellular debris fractions, followed by the Cd rich granule (MRG), heat denatured protein (HDP), and organelle fractions. With increasing Cd concentration in nutrient solution, the decreased detoxified fractions (BDM) and the increased Cd-sensitive fractions (MSF) in young leaves may indicate the increased Cd toxicity in castor cultivars. The BDM-Cd fractions or MSF-Cd in old leaves may be linked with Cd tolerance of different cultivars of castor. The antioxidant enzymes that govern Cd detoxification were not found to be active in leaves. Taken together, these results indicate Cd tolerance and toxicity in castor can be explained by subcellular partitioning.

  18. Antileishmanial and Cytotoxic Effects of Essential Oil and Methanolic Extract of Myrtus communis L.

    PubMed Central

    Mahmoudvand, Hossein; Ezzatkhah, Fatemeh; Sharififar, Fariba; Sharifi, Iraj; Dezaki, Ebrahim Saedi

    2015-01-01

    Plants used for traditional medicine contain a wide range of substances that can be used to treat various diseases such as infectious diseases. The present study was designed to evaluate the antileishmanial effects of the essential oil and methanolic extract of Myrtus communis against Leishmania tropica on an in vitro model. Antileishmanial effects of essential oil and methanolic extract of M. communis on promastigote forms and their cytotoxic activities against J774 cells were evaluated using MTT assay for 72 hr. In addition, their leishmanicidal activity against amastigote forms was determined in a macrophage model, for 72 hr. Findings showed that the main components of essential oil were α-pinene (24.7%), 1,8-cineole (19.6%), and linalool (12.6%). Findings demonstrated that M. communis, particularly its essential oil, significantly (P<0.05) inhibited the growth rate of promastigote and amastigote forms of L. tropica based on a dose-dependent response. The IC50 values for essential oil and methanolic extract was 8.4 and 28.9 μg/ml against promastigotes, respectively. These values were 11.6 and 40.8 μg/ml against amastigote forms, respectively. Glucantime as control drug also revealed IC50 values of 88.3 and 44.6 μg/ml for promastigotes and amastigotes of L. tropica, respectively. The in vitro assay demonstrated no significant cytotoxicity in J774 cells. However, essential oil indicated a more cytotoxic effect as compared with the methanolic extract of M. communis. The findings of the present study demonstrated that M. communis might be a natural source for production of a new leishmanicidal agent. PMID:25748705

  19. Antifungal and Herbicidal Effects of Fruit Essential Oils of Four Myrtus communis Genotypes.

    PubMed

    Kordali, Saban; Usanmaz, Ayse; Cakir, Ahmet; Komaki, Amanmohammad; Ercisli, Sezai

    2016-01-01

    The chemical composition of the essential oils isolated by hydrodistillation from the fruits of four selected Myrtus communis L. genotypes from Turkey was characterized by GC-FID and GC/MS analyses. 1,8-Cineole (29.20-31.40%), linalool (15.67-19.13%), α-terpineol (8.40-18.43%), α-pinene (6.04-20.71%), and geranyl acetate (3.98-7.54%) were found to be the major constituents of the fruit essential oils of all M. communis genotypes investigated. The oils were characterized by high amounts of oxygenated monoterpenes, representing 73.02-83.83% of the total oil compositions. The results of the fungal growth inhibition assays showed that the oils inhibited the growth of 19 phytopathogenic fungi. However, their antifungal activity was generally lower than that of the commercial pesticide benomyl. The herbicidal effects of the oils on the seed germination and seedling growth of Amaranthus retroflexus L., Chenopodium album L., Cirsium arvense (L.) Scop., Lactuca serriola L., and Rumex crispus L. were also determined. The oils completely or partly inhibited the seed germinations and seedling growths of the plants. The findings of the present study suggest that the M. communis essential oils might have potential to be used as natural herbicides as well as fungicides.

  20. Biochemical activities of Iranian Mentha piperita L. and Myrtus communis L. essential oils.

    PubMed

    Yadegarinia, Davod; Gachkar, Latif; Rezaei, Mohammad Bagher; Taghizadeh, Massoud; Astaneh, Shakiba Alipoor; Rasooli, Iraj

    2006-06-01

    GC-MS analysis of essential oils of Iranian Mentha piperita and Myrtus communis extracted by hydrodistillation lead to identification of 26 and 32 compounds, respectively. The oils had good to excellent antimicrobial activities against Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus and Candida albicans with the oil of M. piperita being more active. The findings suggest feasibility of application of M. piperita oil in treatment of the infections caused by C. albicans and E. coli. D-values on exposure to M. piperita and Myrtus communis oils were (2.14 and 2.8min), (1.4 and 12.8min) and (4.3 and 8.6min) for E. coli, S. aureus and C. albicans , respectively. The oils were screened for their possible antioxidant activities by two complementary test systems, namely DPPH free radical scavenging and beta-carotene/linoleic acid systems. M. piperirta oil exerted greater antioxidant activity than that of M. communis. Phytochemical and phytobiological characteristics of these oils may lead to extraction and production of active compounds in single or combined forms with useful applications.

  1. Antifungal and Herbicidal Effects of Fruit Essential Oils of Four Myrtus communis Genotypes.

    PubMed

    Kordali, Saban; Usanmaz, Ayse; Cakir, Ahmet; Komaki, Amanmohammad; Ercisli, Sezai

    2016-01-01

    The chemical composition of the essential oils isolated by hydrodistillation from the fruits of four selected Myrtus communis L. genotypes from Turkey was characterized by GC-FID and GC/MS analyses. 1,8-Cineole (29.20-31.40%), linalool (15.67-19.13%), α-terpineol (8.40-18.43%), α-pinene (6.04-20.71%), and geranyl acetate (3.98-7.54%) were found to be the major constituents of the fruit essential oils of all M. communis genotypes investigated. The oils were characterized by high amounts of oxygenated monoterpenes, representing 73.02-83.83% of the total oil compositions. The results of the fungal growth inhibition assays showed that the oils inhibited the growth of 19 phytopathogenic fungi. However, their antifungal activity was generally lower than that of the commercial pesticide benomyl. The herbicidal effects of the oils on the seed germination and seedling growth of Amaranthus retroflexus L., Chenopodium album L., Cirsium arvense (L.) Scop., Lactuca serriola L., and Rumex crispus L. were also determined. The oils completely or partly inhibited the seed germinations and seedling growths of the plants. The findings of the present study suggest that the M. communis essential oils might have potential to be used as natural herbicides as well as fungicides. PMID:26765354

  2. Hypnotic effect of the essential oil from the leaves of Myrtus communis on mice

    PubMed Central

    Birhanie, Muluken Walle; Walle, Bizuayehu; Rebba, Kidist

    2016-01-01

    Background Myrtus communis has been suggested as a sleep aid in unconventional medicine. Moreover, previous studies have also indicated its sedative- and hypnotic-like activity. In this study, the hypnotic effect of M. communis was investigated. Methods Essential oil (EO) of M. communis (600, 800, and 1,000 mg/kg) was given orally to Swiss albino mice of both sex, and the hypnotic effect was evaluated. In addition, the EO of M. communis (500, 600, 800, and 1,000 mg/kg) was administered orally to Swiss albino mice of both sex 60 minutes prior to pentobarbital injection (50 mg/kg). Latency to sleep and sleep duration were recorded. The effect of the EO on motor coordination and muscle relaxation was evaluated using chimney and traction tests, 60 and 90 minutes after administration of the respective doses of the EO, respectively. Results There was no induction of hypnosis as the presence of the righting reflex was intact. However the EO prolonged pentobarbital-induced sleeping time and there was also 50% negative response on the chimney and traction test in a dose dependent manner. Conclusion The EO of M. communis did not produce a hypnotic effect, but it potentiated a hypnotic effect with significant central nervous system depressant activity. PMID:27574478

  3. Chemical variability of the needle oil of Juniperus communis ssp. alpina from Corsica.

    PubMed

    Ottavioli, Josephine; Gonny, Marcelle; Casanova, Joseph; Bighelli, Ange

    2009-12-01

    The composition of 109 samples of essential oil isolated from the needles of Juniperus communis ssp. alpina growing wild in Corsica was investigated by GC (in combination with retention indices), GC/MS, and 13C-NMR. Forty-four compounds accounting for 86.7-96.7% of the oil were identified. The oils consisted mainly of monoterpene hydrocarbons, in particular, limonene (9.2-53.9%), beta-phellandrene (3.7-25.2%), alpha-pinene (1.4-33.7%), and sabinene (0.1-33.6%). The 109 oil compositions were submitted to k-means partitioning and principal component analysis, which allowed the distinction of two groups within the oil samples. The composition of the major group (92% of the samples) was dominated by limonene and beta-phellandrene, while the second group contained mainly sabinene beside limonene and beta-phellandrene.

  4. Arthropod repellency, especially tick (Ixodes ricinus), exerted by extract from Artemisia abrotanum and essential oil from flowers of Dianthus caryophyllum.

    PubMed

    Tunón, H; Thorsell, W; Mikiver, A; Malander, I

    2006-06-01

    A toluene extract of southernwood (Artemisia abrotanum) and the essential oil from flowers of carnation (Dianthus caryophyllum ) exerted pronounced a repellent effect both against ticks (nymphs of Ixodes ricinus) and yellow fever mosquitoes (Aedes aegypti). The most potent repellents found were coumarin and thujyl alcohol from A. abrotanum and phenylethanol from D. caryophyllum where coumarin and thujyl alcohol were also detected. PMID:16624501

  5. Evaluation of the safety and efficacy of Lesquerella fendleri seed and oils as poultry feed additives

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Lesquerella (Lesquerella fendleri (Gray) Wats) is an oil seed plant capable of growth over a large geographic area of the southwestern U.S. The seed oil contains hydroxyfatty acids, useful in a variety of industrial products, and can replace imported castor bean oil (Ricinus communis L.). Lesquere...

  6. Oil content among the diverse castor genetic resources in the U.S. collection

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Castor (Ricinus communis L.) contains oil used for medicine, as an ingredient in shampoo, soap, hand lotion, high-speed lubricants, and as a coating material. Due to its high oil content, oil derived from castor seeds is currently proposed to be used as a feedstock for biodiesel production. The USDA...

  7. Chemical analysis of essential oils from different parts of Ferula communis L. growing in central Italy.

    PubMed

    Maggi, Filippo; Papa, Fabrizio; Dall'Acqua, Stefano; Nicoletti, Marcello

    2016-01-01

    Ferula communis is a showy herbaceous plant typical of the Mediterranean area where it is used as a traditional medicine. The plant is a source of bioactive compounds such as daucane sesquiterpenes and prenylated coumarins. In Italy, most of phytochemical studies focused on Sardinian populations where poisonous and nonpoisonous chemotypes were found, while investigations on peninsular populations are scarce. In this work, we report the chemical characterisation of the essential oils obtained from different parts of F. communis growing in central Italy. The chemical profiles of the plant parts, as detected by GC-FID and GC-MS, were different from each other and from those reported in insular populations. Notably, α-pinene (10.5%), γ-terpinene (7.6%) and hedycariol (8.4%) were the major volatile constituents in flowers; α-pinene (55.9%), β-pinene (16.8%) and myrcene (5.9%) in fruits; β-eudesmol (12.1%), α-eudesmol (12.1%) and hedycariol (10.3%) in leaves; (E)-β-farnesene (9.5%), β-cubebene (8.2%) and (E)-caryophyllene (7.2%) in roots. The volatile profiles detected did not allow to classify the investigated central Italy population into the poisonous and nonpoisonous chemotypes previously described in Sardinia.

  8. Myrtus communis essential oil: chemical composition and antimicrobial activities against food spoilage pathogens.

    PubMed

    Ben Hsouna, Anis; Hamdi, Naceur; Miladi, Ramzi; Abdelkafi, Slim

    2014-04-01

    Myrtus communis is a typical plant of the Mediterranean area, which is mainly used as animal and human food and, in folk medicine, for treating some disorders. In the present study, we evaluated in vitro antibacterial and antifungal properties of the essential oils of Myrtus communis (McEO), as well as its phytochemical composition. The GC/MS analysis of the essential oil revealed 17 compounds. Myrtenyl acetate (20.75%), 1,8-cineol (16.55%), α-pinene (15.59%), linalool (13.30%), limonene (8.94%), linalyl acetate (3.67%), geranyl acetate (2.99%), and α-terpineol (2.88%) were the major components. The antimicrobial activity of the essential oil was also investigated on several microorganisms. The inhibition zones and minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) values of bacterial strains were in the range of 16-28 mm and 0.078-2.5 mg/ml, respectively. The inhibitory activity of the McEO against Gram-positive bacteria was significantly higher than against Gram-negative. It also exhibited remarkable activity against several fungal strains. The investigation of the mode of action of the McEO by the time-kill curve against Listeria monocytogenes (food isolate) showed a drastic bactericidal effect after 5 min using a concentration of 312 μg/ml. These results evidence that the McEO possesses antimicrobial properties, and it is, therefore, a potential source for active ingredients for food and pharmaceutical industries. PMID:24706627

  9. Variability of chemical composition and antioxidant activity of essential oils between Myrtus communis var. Leucocarpa DC and var. Melanocarpa DC.

    PubMed

    Petretto, Giacomo Luigi; Maldini, Mariateresa; Addis, Roberta; Chessa, Mario; Foddai, Marzia; Rourke, Jonathan P; Pintore, Giorgio

    2016-04-15

    Essential oils (EOs) from several individuals of Myrtus communis L. (M. communis) growing in different habitats in Sardinia have been studied. The analyses were focused on four groups of samples, namely cultivated and wild M. communis var. melanocarpa DC, characterized by red/purple berries, and cultivated and wild M. communis var. leucocarpa DC, characterized by white berries. Qualitative and quantitative analyses demonstrated different EO fingerprints among the studied samples: cultivated and wild leucocarpa variety differs mainly from the melanocarpa variety by a high amount of myrtenyl acetate (>200 mg/mL and 0.4 mg/mL in leucocarpa and melanocarpa varieties respectively). Conversely, the wild group is characterized by a higher amount, compared with the cultivated species, of linalool (about 110 mg/mL and 20 mg/mL respectively), linalyl acetate (about 24 mg/mL and about 6 mg/mL respectively) whereas EOs of the cultivated plants were rich in pinocarveol-cis compared with wild plants (about 2 mg/mL and about 0.5 mg/mL respectively). Principal component analysis applied to the chromatographic data confirm a differentiation and classification of EOs from the four groups of M. communis plants. Finally, antioxidant activity of the studied EOs shows differences between the various categories of samples. PMID:26616932

  10. Selected castorbean genotypes evaluated for morphological traits, seed yield, fatty acids, and oil content

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Castorbean, Ricinus communis, contains oil used in pharmaceutics, cosmetics, soap, shampoo, and as a lubricant. Castorbean is rapidly becoming a biodiesel crop because of its high oil content which ranges between 30 and 60% depending upon extraction proceedures. Two hundred and three castorbean acce...

  11. Myrtus communis L. as source of a bioactive and safe essential oil.

    PubMed

    Bouzabata, Amel; Cabral, Célia; Gonçalves, Maria José; Cruz, Maria Teresa; Bighelli, Ange; Cavaleiro, Carlos; Casanova, Joseph; Tomi, Félix; Salgueiro, Ligia

    2015-01-01

    In Algeria, Myrtus communis L. is distributed throughout the Tell Atlas and the coastal regions of Algiers and Constantine. The leaves are used in respiratory disorders, diarrhea and hemorrhoids. The aims of this work were to evaluate the antifungal and anti-inflammatory potential of well characterized essential oils (EO). Since EO can be applied by inhalation, dermal application and oral administration, we used several mammalian cell lines to assess safe bioactive doses. The chemical composition of two samples was investigated by GC-FID, GC-MS and (13)C NMR spectroscopy. Monoterpene derivatives are the main compounds: α-pinene (50.8 and 33.6%), 1,8-cineole (21.9 and 13.3%), linalool (2.7 and 14.8%), and linalyl acetate (0.5 and 9.5%). The antifungal evaluation revealed that the oils were more active against Cryptococcus neoformans (yeast) and Epidermophyton floccosum, Microsporum canis, Trichophyton rubrum (dermatophytes). The anti-inflammatory potential was evaluated using an in vitro model of lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated macrophages. Assessment of cell viability was made through the MTT assay. Both oils were able to significantly inhibit NO production, without affecting cell viability, in concentrations up to 0.64 mg/mL. These promising results, disclose bioactive concentrations of Myrtle essential oils with a safety profile suggesting a potential oral and topical application or use by inhalation. PMID:25446467

  12. Myrtus communis L. as source of a bioactive and safe essential oil.

    PubMed

    Bouzabata, Amel; Cabral, Célia; Gonçalves, Maria José; Cruz, Maria Teresa; Bighelli, Ange; Cavaleiro, Carlos; Casanova, Joseph; Tomi, Félix; Salgueiro, Ligia

    2015-01-01

    In Algeria, Myrtus communis L. is distributed throughout the Tell Atlas and the coastal regions of Algiers and Constantine. The leaves are used in respiratory disorders, diarrhea and hemorrhoids. The aims of this work were to evaluate the antifungal and anti-inflammatory potential of well characterized essential oils (EO). Since EO can be applied by inhalation, dermal application and oral administration, we used several mammalian cell lines to assess safe bioactive doses. The chemical composition of two samples was investigated by GC-FID, GC-MS and (13)C NMR spectroscopy. Monoterpene derivatives are the main compounds: α-pinene (50.8 and 33.6%), 1,8-cineole (21.9 and 13.3%), linalool (2.7 and 14.8%), and linalyl acetate (0.5 and 9.5%). The antifungal evaluation revealed that the oils were more active against Cryptococcus neoformans (yeast) and Epidermophyton floccosum, Microsporum canis, Trichophyton rubrum (dermatophytes). The anti-inflammatory potential was evaluated using an in vitro model of lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated macrophages. Assessment of cell viability was made through the MTT assay. Both oils were able to significantly inhibit NO production, without affecting cell viability, in concentrations up to 0.64 mg/mL. These promising results, disclose bioactive concentrations of Myrtle essential oils with a safety profile suggesting a potential oral and topical application or use by inhalation.

  13. Chemical Composition of Juniperus communis L. Cone Essential Oil and Its Variability among Wild Populations in Kosovo.

    PubMed

    Hajdari, Avni; Mustafa, Behxhet; Nebija, Dashnor; Miftari, Elheme; Quave, Cassandra L; Novak, Johannes

    2015-11-01

    Ripe cones of Juniperus communis L. (Cupressaceae) were collected from five wild populations in Kosovo, with the aim of investigating the chemical composition and natural variation of essential oils between and within wild populations. Ripe cones were collected, air dried, crushed, and the essential oils obtained by hydrodistillation. The essential-oil constituents were identified by GC-FID and GC/MS analyses. The yield of essential oil differed depending on the population origins and ranged from 0.4 to 3.8% (v/w, based on the dry weight). In total, 42 compounds were identified in the essential oils of all populations. The principal components of the cone-essential oils were α-pinene, followed by β-myrcene, sabinene, and D-limonene. Taking into consideration the yield and chemical composition, the essential oil originating from various collection sites in Kosovo fulfilled the minimum requirements for J. communis essential oils of the European Pharmacopoeia. Hierarchical cluster analysis (HCA) and principal component analysis (PCA) were used to determine the influence of the geographical variations on the essential-oil composition. These statistical analyses suggested that the clustering of populations was not related to their geographic location, but rather appeared to be linked to local selective forces acting on the chemotype diversity.

  14. Chemical Composition of Juniperus communis L. Cone Essential Oil and Its Variability among Wild Populations in Kosovo.

    PubMed

    Hajdari, Avni; Mustafa, Behxhet; Nebija, Dashnor; Miftari, Elheme; Quave, Cassandra L; Novak, Johannes

    2015-11-01

    Ripe cones of Juniperus communis L. (Cupressaceae) were collected from five wild populations in Kosovo, with the aim of investigating the chemical composition and natural variation of essential oils between and within wild populations. Ripe cones were collected, air dried, crushed, and the essential oils obtained by hydrodistillation. The essential-oil constituents were identified by GC-FID and GC/MS analyses. The yield of essential oil differed depending on the population origins and ranged from 0.4 to 3.8% (v/w, based on the dry weight). In total, 42 compounds were identified in the essential oils of all populations. The principal components of the cone-essential oils were α-pinene, followed by β-myrcene, sabinene, and D-limonene. Taking into consideration the yield and chemical composition, the essential oil originating from various collection sites in Kosovo fulfilled the minimum requirements for J. communis essential oils of the European Pharmacopoeia. Hierarchical cluster analysis (HCA) and principal component analysis (PCA) were used to determine the influence of the geographical variations on the essential-oil composition. These statistical analyses suggested that the clustering of populations was not related to their geographic location, but rather appeared to be linked to local selective forces acting on the chemotype diversity. PMID:26567948

  15. Concentrations of metals and potential metal-binding compounds and speciation of Cd, Zn and Cu in phloem and xylem saps from castor bean plants (Ricinus communis) treated with four levels of cadmium.

    PubMed

    Hazama, Kenji; Nagata, Shinji; Fujimori, Tamaki; Yanagisawa, Shuichi; Yoneyama, Tadakatsu

    2015-06-01

    We examined the concentrations of metals (Cd, Zn, Cu, Fe and Mn) and potential metal-binding compounds [nicotianamine (NA), thiol compounds and citrate] in xylem and phloem saps from 4-week-old castor bean plants (Ricinus communis) treated with 0 (control), 0.1, 1.0, and 10 μM Cd for 3 weeks. Treatment with 0.1 and 1 μM Cd produced no visible damage, while 10 μM Cd retarded growth. Cadmium concentrations in both saps were higher than those in the culture solution at 0.1 μM, similar at 1.0 μM and lower at 10 μM. Cd at 10 μM reduced Cu and Fe concentrations in both saps. NA concentrations measured by capillary electrophoresis-mass spectrometry (MS) in xylem sap (20 μM) were higher than the Cu concentrations, and those in phloem sap (150 μM) were higher than those of Zn, Fe and Cu combined. Reduced glutathione concentrations differed in xylem and phloem saps (1-2 and 30-150 μM, respectively), but oxidized glutathione concentrations were similar. Phloem sap phytochelatin 2 concentration increased from 0.8 μM in controls to 8 μM in 10 μM Cd. Free citrate was 2-4 μM in xylem sap and 70-100 μM in phloem sap. Total bound forms of Cd in phloem and xylem saps from 1 μM Cd-treated plants were 54 and 8%, respectively. Treatment of phloem sap with proteinaseK reduced high-molecular compounds while increasing fractions of low-molecular Cd-thiol complexes. Zinc-NA, Fe-NA and Cu-NA were identified in the phloem sap fraction of control plants by electrospray ionization time-of-flight MS, and the xylem sap contained Cu-NA.

  16. Concentrations of metals and potential metal-binding compounds and speciation of Cd, Zn and Cu in phloem and xylem saps from castor bean plants (Ricinus communis) treated with four levels of cadmium.

    PubMed

    Hazama, Kenji; Nagata, Shinji; Fujimori, Tamaki; Yanagisawa, Shuichi; Yoneyama, Tadakatsu

    2015-06-01

    We examined the concentrations of metals (Cd, Zn, Cu, Fe and Mn) and potential metal-binding compounds [nicotianamine (NA), thiol compounds and citrate] in xylem and phloem saps from 4-week-old castor bean plants (Ricinus communis) treated with 0 (control), 0.1, 1.0, and 10 μM Cd for 3 weeks. Treatment with 0.1 and 1 μM Cd produced no visible damage, while 10 μM Cd retarded growth. Cadmium concentrations in both saps were higher than those in the culture solution at 0.1 μM, similar at 1.0 μM and lower at 10 μM. Cd at 10 μM reduced Cu and Fe concentrations in both saps. NA concentrations measured by capillary electrophoresis-mass spectrometry (MS) in xylem sap (20 μM) were higher than the Cu concentrations, and those in phloem sap (150 μM) were higher than those of Zn, Fe and Cu combined. Reduced glutathione concentrations differed in xylem and phloem saps (1-2 and 30-150 μM, respectively), but oxidized glutathione concentrations were similar. Phloem sap phytochelatin 2 concentration increased from 0.8 μM in controls to 8 μM in 10 μM Cd. Free citrate was 2-4 μM in xylem sap and 70-100 μM in phloem sap. Total bound forms of Cd in phloem and xylem saps from 1 μM Cd-treated plants were 54 and 8%, respectively. Treatment of phloem sap with proteinaseK reduced high-molecular compounds while increasing fractions of low-molecular Cd-thiol complexes. Zinc-NA, Fe-NA and Cu-NA were identified in the phloem sap fraction of control plants by electrospray ionization time-of-flight MS, and the xylem sap contained Cu-NA. PMID:25403762

  17. Essential oil of Juniperus communis subsp. alpina (Suter) Čelak needles: chemical composition, antifungal activity and cytotoxicity.

    PubMed

    Cabral, C; Francisco, V; Cavaleiro, C; Gonçalves, M J; Cruz, M T; Sales, F; Batista, M T; Salgueiro, L

    2012-09-01

    Essential oils are known to possess antimicrobial activity against a wide spectrum of bacteria and fungi. In the present work the composition and the antifungal activity of the oils of Juniperus communis subsp. alpina (Suter) Čelak were evaluated. Moreover, the skin cytotoxicity, at concentrations showing significant antifungal activity, was also evaluated. The oils were isolated by hydrodistillation and analysed by gas chromatography and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) and minimal lethal concentration (MLC) were used to evaluate the antifungal activity of the oil against dermatophytes (Epidermophyton floccosum, Microsporum canis, M. gypseum, Trichophyton mentagrophytes, T. mentagrophytes var. interdigitale, T. rubrum, T. verrucosum), yeasts (Candida albicans, C. guillermondii, C. krusei, C. parapsilosis, C. tropicalis, Cryptococcus neoformans) and Aspergillus species (Aspergillus flavus, A. fumigatus, A. niger). Cytotoxicity was tested in HaCaT keratinocytes through the 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay. Essential oil of J. communis subsp. alpina needles was predominantly composed of monoterpene hydrocarbons (78.4%), with the main compounds being sabinene (26.2%), α-pinene (12-9%) and limonene (10.4%). Results concerning the antifungal activity demonstrated the potential of needle oil against dermatophytes, particularly for Microsporum canis and Trichophyton rubrum with MIC and MLC of 0.32 μL/mL. Furthermore, evaluation of cell viability showed no significant cytotoxicity in HaCaT keratinocytes at concentrations between 0.32 and 0.64 μL/mL. These results show that it is possible to find appropriate doses of J. communis subsp. alpina oil with both antifungal activity and a very low detrimental effect on keratinocytes.

  18. Essential oil of Juniperus communis subsp. alpina (Suter) Čelak needles: chemical composition, antifungal activity and cytotoxicity.

    PubMed

    Cabral, C; Francisco, V; Cavaleiro, C; Gonçalves, M J; Cruz, M T; Sales, F; Batista, M T; Salgueiro, L

    2012-09-01

    Essential oils are known to possess antimicrobial activity against a wide spectrum of bacteria and fungi. In the present work the composition and the antifungal activity of the oils of Juniperus communis subsp. alpina (Suter) Čelak were evaluated. Moreover, the skin cytotoxicity, at concentrations showing significant antifungal activity, was also evaluated. The oils were isolated by hydrodistillation and analysed by gas chromatography and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) and minimal lethal concentration (MLC) were used to evaluate the antifungal activity of the oil against dermatophytes (Epidermophyton floccosum, Microsporum canis, M. gypseum, Trichophyton mentagrophytes, T. mentagrophytes var. interdigitale, T. rubrum, T. verrucosum), yeasts (Candida albicans, C. guillermondii, C. krusei, C. parapsilosis, C. tropicalis, Cryptococcus neoformans) and Aspergillus species (Aspergillus flavus, A. fumigatus, A. niger). Cytotoxicity was tested in HaCaT keratinocytes through the 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay. Essential oil of J. communis subsp. alpina needles was predominantly composed of monoterpene hydrocarbons (78.4%), with the main compounds being sabinene (26.2%), α-pinene (12-9%) and limonene (10.4%). Results concerning the antifungal activity demonstrated the potential of needle oil against dermatophytes, particularly for Microsporum canis and Trichophyton rubrum with MIC and MLC of 0.32 μL/mL. Furthermore, evaluation of cell viability showed no significant cytotoxicity in HaCaT keratinocytes at concentrations between 0.32 and 0.64 μL/mL. These results show that it is possible to find appropriate doses of J. communis subsp. alpina oil with both antifungal activity and a very low detrimental effect on keratinocytes. PMID:22294341

  19. Synergistic effect of Myrtus communis L. essential oils and conventional antibiotics against multi-drug resistant Acinetobacter baumannii wound isolates.

    PubMed

    Aleksic, Verica; Mimica-Dukic, Neda; Simin, Natasa; Nedeljkovic, Natasa Stankovic; Knezevic, Petar

    2014-10-15

    Acinetobacter baumannii is a rapidly emerging, highly resistant clinical pathogen with increasing prevalence. In recent years, the limited number of antimicrobial agents available for treatment of infections with multi-drug resistant (MDR) strains reinforced tendency for discovery of novel antimicrobial agents or treatment strategies. The aim of the study was to determine antimicrobial effectiveness of three Myrtus communis L. essential oils, both alone and in combination with conventional antibiotics, against MDR A. baumannii wound isolates. The results obtained highlighted the occurrence of good antibacterial effect of myrtle oils when administered alone. Using checkerboard method, the combinations of subinhibitory concentrations of myrtle essential oils and conventional antibiotics, i.e. polymixin B and ciprofloxacine were examined. The results proved synergism among M. communis L. essential oils and both antibiotics against MDR A. baumannii wound isolates, with a FIC index under or equal 0.50. Combination of subinhibitory concentrations of essential oils and ciprofloxacin most frequently reduced bacterial growth in synergistic manner. The similar has been shown for combination with polymyxin B; furthermore, the myrtle essential oil resulted in re-sensitization of the MDR wound isolates, i.e. MICs used in combination were below the cut off for the sensitivity to the antibiotic. Time-kill curve method confirmed efficacy of myrtle essential oil and polymyxin B combination, with complete reduction of bacterial count after 6h. The detected synergy offers an opportunity for future development of treatment strategies for potentially lethal wound infections caused by MDR A. baumannii.

  20. Evaluation of the Antimicrobial Properties of the Essential Oil of Myrtus communis L. against Clinical Strains of Mycobacterium spp.

    PubMed Central

    Zanetti, Stefania; Cannas, Sara; Molicotti, Paola; Bua, Alessandra; Cubeddu, Marina; Porcedda, Silvia; Marongiu, Bruno; Sechi, Leonardo Antonio

    2010-01-01

    Mycobacterium tuberculosis is the etiological agent of tuberculosis. The World Health Organization has estimated that 8 million of people develop active TB every year and the situation is complicated by an increase of Mycobacterium tuberculosis strains resistant to drugs used in antitubercular therapy: MDR and XDR-TB. Myrtle leaf extracts, used as an antiseptic in Sardinian traditional medicine, have strong antibacterial activity as several investigations showed. In this study we investigated the antimicrobial properties of the essential oil of Myrtus communis against clinical strains of M. tuberculosis and M. paratuberculosis. PMID:20706606

  1. The Genus Myrtus L. in Algeria: Composition and Biological Aspects of Essential Oils from M. communis and M. nivellei: A Review.

    PubMed

    Bouzabata, Amel; Casanova, Joseph; Bighelli, Ange; Cavaleiro, Carlos; Salgueiro, Ligia; Tomi, Félix

    2016-06-01

    The genus Myrtus L. (Myrtaceae family) comprises two species, Myrtus communis L. (known as common myrtle) growing wild all around the Mediterranean basin and Myrtus nivellei Batt. and Trab. (known as Saharan myrtle), found in central Sahara. Only one country, Algeria, hosts both species, M. communis in the North and M. nivellei in the South. The aim of this review was to collect, summarize, and compare the main results reported relative to the essential oils isolated from aerial parts of both species: botanical aspects, habitat, traditional use, chemical composition, new compounds, antimicrobial activity, antioxidant activity, anti-inflammatory effect, and insecticidal activity. Both essential oils have potential applications in human health.

  2. The Genus Myrtus L. in Algeria: Composition and Biological Aspects of Essential Oils from M. communis and M. nivellei: A Review.

    PubMed

    Bouzabata, Amel; Casanova, Joseph; Bighelli, Ange; Cavaleiro, Carlos; Salgueiro, Ligia; Tomi, Félix

    2016-06-01

    The genus Myrtus L. (Myrtaceae family) comprises two species, Myrtus communis L. (known as common myrtle) growing wild all around the Mediterranean basin and Myrtus nivellei Batt. and Trab. (known as Saharan myrtle), found in central Sahara. Only one country, Algeria, hosts both species, M. communis in the North and M. nivellei in the South. The aim of this review was to collect, summarize, and compare the main results reported relative to the essential oils isolated from aerial parts of both species: botanical aspects, habitat, traditional use, chemical composition, new compounds, antimicrobial activity, antioxidant activity, anti-inflammatory effect, and insecticidal activity. Both essential oils have potential applications in human health. PMID:27159587

  3. Assessing the Antimicrobial Effect of the Essential Oil of Myrtus communis on the Clinical Isolates of Porphyromonas gingivalis: An in vitro Study

    PubMed Central

    Hedayati, Azita; Khosropanah, Hengameh; Bazargani, Abdollah; Abed, Molud; Emami, Amir

    2013-01-01

    Background One of the major diseases affecting the oral health is periodontal disease. Various therapeutic methods have been introduced to eliminate the periodonto-pathic subgingival microflora. Among these, Porphyromonas gingivalis (P. gingivalis) has a major role in the pathogenesis of different forms of periodontal diseases. Objectives The present study investigated the antimicrobial effect of the essential oil of Myrtus communis on Porphyromonas gingivalis (P. gingivalis) as the most destructive periodontal pathogens. Materials and Methods The subjects included 27 male and 3 female patients with advanced chronic periodontitis. The mean age of the patients was 47.6 ± 2.0 years old. P. gingivalis was isolated from the samples and identified by various diagnostic tests, including Gram staining, Indol test, and fluorescent test. Minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of the essential oil against isolated P. gingivalis was determined by broth micro-dilution method. Results In this study, 0.12 - 64 μL/mL Myrtus communis essence were used for 30 P. gingivalis isolates and the MIC50 and MIC90 concentration of Myrtus communis essence against the isolates was equal to 1 and 8 μL/mL respectively. Conclusions The results showed that Myrtus communis has antimicrobial effects against P. gingivalis. Further studies are suggested to include this essence in therapeutic protocols of periodontal disease. PMID:24624208

  4. Repellency of oils of lemon eucalyptus, geranium, and lavender and the mosquito repellent MyggA natural to Ixodes ricinus (Acari: Ixodidae) in the laboratory and field.

    PubMed

    Jaenson, Thomas G T; Garboui, Samira; Palsson, Katinka

    2006-07-01

    MyggA Natural (Bioglan, Lund, Sweden) is a commercially available repellent against blood-feeding arthropods. It contains 30% of lemon-scented eucalyptus, Corymbia citriodora (Hook.) K. D. Hill & L. A. S. Johnson (Myrtaceae), oil with a minimum of 50% p-menthane-3,8-diol. MyggA Natural also contains small amounts of the essential oils of lavender, Lavandula angustifolia Mill. (Lamiaceae), and geranium, Pelargonium graveolens L'Her. (Geraniaceae). In laboratory bioassays, MyggA Natural and C. citriodora oil exhibited 100% repellency against host-seeking nymphs of Ixodes ricinus (L.) (Acari: Ixodidae). Lavender oil and geranium oil, when diluted to 1% in 1,2-propanediol, had weak repellent activities on I. ricinus nymphs, but when diluted to 30% in 1,2-propanediol had 100% repellencies. 1,2-Propanediol (100%) had no significant repellent activity in comparison with that of the control. In field tests in tick-infested areas in central Sweden, tick repellency of MyggA Natural and C. citriodora oil was tested by the blanket-dragging technique for 4 d during a 6-d period. The repellencies (74 and 85%, respectively) on day 1 are similar (89%) to that of blankets treated in a similar manner with 19% diethyl-methyl-benzamide, based on previous work. Repellencies declined significantly from day 1 to day 6 (74 to 45% for MyggA Natural; 85 to 42% for C. citriodora oil). PMID:16892632

  5. Chemical Composition and Antioxidant Properties of Juniper Berry (Juniperus communis L.) Essential Oil. Action of the Essential Oil on the Antioxidant Protection of Saccharomyces cerevisiae Model Organism

    PubMed Central

    Höferl, Martina; Stoilova, Ivanka; Schmidt, Erich; Wanner, Jürgen; Jirovetz, Leopold; Trifonova, Dora; Krastev, Lutsian; Krastanov, Albert

    2014-01-01

    The essential oil of juniper berries (Juniperus communis L., Cupressaceae) is traditionally used for medicinal and flavoring purposes. As elucidated by gas chromatography/flame ionization detector (GC/FID) and gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS methods), the juniper berry oil from Bulgaria is largely comprised of monoterpene hydrocarbons such as α-pinene (51.4%), myrcene (8.3%), sabinene (5.8%), limonene (5.1%) and β-pinene (5.0%). The antioxidant capacity of the essential oil was evaluated in vitro by 2,2-Diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) scavenging, 2,2-azino-bis-3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6 sulfonic acid (ABTS) radical cation scavenging, hydroxyl radical (ОН•) scavenging and chelating capacity, superoxide radical (•O2−) scavenging and xanthine oxidase inhibitory effects, hydrogen peroxide scavenging. The antioxidant activity of the oil attributable to electron transfer made juniper berry essential oil a strong antioxidant, whereas the antioxidant activity attributable to hydrogen atom transfer was lower. Lipid peroxidation inhibition by the essential oil in both stages, i.e., hydroperoxide formation and malondialdehyde formation, was less efficient than the inhibition by butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT). In vivo studies confirmed these effects of the oil which created the possibility of blocking the oxidation processes in yeast cells by increasing activity of the antioxidant enzymes superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), and glutathione peroxidase (GPx). PMID:26784665

  6. Chemical Composition and Antioxidant Properties of Juniper Berry (Juniperus communis L.) Essential Oil. Action of the Essential Oil on the Antioxidant Protection of Saccharomyces cerevisiae Model Organism.

    PubMed

    Höferl, Martina; Stoilova, Ivanka; Schmidt, Erich; Wanner, Jürgen; Jirovetz, Leopold; Trifonova, Dora; Krastev, Lutsian; Krastanov, Albert

    2014-01-01

    The essential oil of juniper berries (Juniperus communis L., Cupressaceae) is traditionally used for medicinal and flavoring purposes. As elucidated by gas chromatography/flame ionization detector (GC/FID) and gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS methods), the juniper berry oil from Bulgaria is largely comprised of monoterpene hydrocarbons such as α-pinene (51.4%), myrcene (8.3%), sabinene (5.8%), limonene (5.1%) and β-pinene (5.0%). The antioxidant capacity of the essential oil was evaluated in vitro by 2,2-Diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) scavenging, 2,2-azino-bis-3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6 sulfonic acid (ABTS) radical cation scavenging, hydroxyl radical (ОН(•)) scavenging and chelating capacity, superoxide radical ((•)O₂(-)) scavenging and xanthine oxidase inhibitory effects, hydrogen peroxide scavenging. The antioxidant activity of the oil attributable to electron transfer made juniper berry essential oil a strong antioxidant, whereas the antioxidant activity attributable to hydrogen atom transfer was lower. Lipid peroxidation inhibition by the essential oil in both stages, i.e., hydroperoxide formation and malondialdehyde formation, was less efficient than the inhibition by butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT). In vivo studies confirmed these effects of the oil which created the possibility of blocking the oxidation processes in yeast cells by increasing activity of the antioxidant enzymes superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), and glutathione peroxidase (GPx). PMID:26784665

  7. Chemical constituent and antimicrobial effect of essential oil from Myrtus communis leaves on microorganisms involved in persistent endodontic infection compared to two common endodontic irrigants: An in vitro study

    PubMed Central

    Nabavizadeh, Mohammadreza; Abbaszadegan, Abbas; Gholami, Ahmad; Sheikhiani, Reza; Shokouhi, Mehdi; Shams, Mahdi Sedigh; Ghasemi, Younes

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: Persistent infections of human root canals play a fundamental role in the failure of endodontic treatment. The purpose of this study is to determine the chemical composition of Myrtus communis (M. communis) essential oil and to assess its antimicrobial activity against Enterococcus faecalis, Staphylococcus aureus and Candida albicans compared to that of sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl) and chlorhexidine (CHX). Materials and Methods: Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) was used to determine the chemical composition of essential oil from M. communis leaves. A micro-dilution susceptibility assay and disk diffusion methods were utilized to evaluate the antimicrobial activity [minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and minimum lethal dose concentration] of the tested solutions against selected microorganisms. Results: GC-MS analyses revealed that M. communis contained 1, 8-Cineole (28.62%), α-Pinene (17.8%), Linalool (17.55%), and Geranylacetate (6.3%) as the major compounds and Geraniol (1.6%), α-Humulene (1.5%), eugenol (1.3%), isobutyl-isobutyrate (0.8%), and methyl chavicol (0.5%) as minor components. Chlorhexidine had the lowest MIC value among all medicaments tested. M. communis oil had less MIC values than NaOCl against both bacteria, but it had more MIC value against C. albicans. Conclusion: M. communis essential oil with the minimum inhibitory concentration in the range of 0.032-32 μg/mL was an effective antimicrobial agent against persistent endodontic microorganisms. PMID:25298646

  8. Use of the photoacoustic spectroscopy for characterization of magnetic fluid based on mamona oil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Silveira, L. B.; Webler, G. D.; Oliveira, A. C.; Garg, V. K.; Santos, J. G.; Morais, P. C.

    2010-03-01

    In this study the photoacoustic spectroscopy was used to investigate the interaction between colloidal suspended nanosized maghemite particles and molecules present in mamona oil (ricinus communis L.). Maghemite nanoparticles were used to produce a magnetic fluid sample dispersed in mamona oil (MF-Mamona oil). In the L-band region (600 to 900 nm) of the photoacoustic spectra we found the photoacustic signal of sample MF-Mamona oil enhanced with respect to the signal of the purified mamona oil. This finding is claimed to be the signature of the strong interaction between the mamona oil's molecules and the solid surface provided by the suspended nanosized maghemite particles.

  9. Combination of GC/FID/Mass spectrometry fingerprints and multivariate calibration techniques for recognition of antimicrobial constituents of Myrtus communis L. essential oil.

    PubMed

    Ebrahimabadi, Ebrahim H; Ghoreishi, Sayed Mehdi; Masoum, Saeed; Ebrahimabadi, Abdolrasoul H

    2016-01-01

    Myrtus communis L. is an aromatic evergreen shrub and its essential oil possesses known powerful antimicrobial activity. However, the contribution of each component of the plant essential oil in observed antimicrobial ability is unclear. In this study, chemical components of the essential oil samples of the plant were identified qualitatively and quantitatively using GC/FID/Mass spectrometry system, antimicrobial activity of these samples against three microbial strains were evaluated and, these two set of data were correlated using chemometrics methods. Three chemometric methods including principal component regression (PCR), partial least squares (PLS) and orthogonal projections to latent structures (OPLS) were applied for the study. These methods showed similar results, but, OPLS was selected as preferred method due to its predictive and interpretational ability, facility, repeatability and low time-consuming. The results showed that α-pinene, 1,8 cineole, β-pinene and limonene are the highest contributors in antimicrobial properties of M. communis essential oil. Other researches have reported high antimicrobial activities for the plant essential oils rich in these compounds confirming our findings.

  10. Evaluation of Repellency Effect of Essential Oils of Satureja khuzestanica (Carvacrol), Myrtus communis (Myrtle), Lavendula officinalis and Salvia sclarea using Standard WHO Repellency Tests

    PubMed Central

    Kayedi, Mohammad Hassan; Haghdoost, Ali Akbar; Salehnia, Ali; Khamisabadi, Kiumars

    2014-01-01

    Background Using special lotions and repellent sprays on skin is one of the effective methods to prevent Arthropods biting which was verified in this study. Methods: Essential oils of four plants (Satureja khuzestanica, Salvia sclarea, Lavendula officinalis and Myrtus communis) were separately extracted by Clevenger used hydro distillation method. Then separated solutions with 10%, 20% and 40% concentrations of essential oils of plants in 99.6 % ethanol were prepared. WHO guidelines for efficacy testing of mosquito repellents for human skin were used on different concentrations of essential oils of plants, traditional repellents (DEET, 50% and 33%) as positive control, and ethanol 99.6% and naked hands as negative controls. Results: In negative control groups, the number of bits were comparable (P= 0.42) and had decreasing time trends (naked hands P= 0.011, ethanol P< 0.001). In all time points, minimum bites were observed in traditional repellents and it was significantly less than the other groups (P< 0.001). The time trend in the number of bites in the other groups was positive and showed minimum number of bites in time zero in all groups. We also found that the concentration of repellents had association with the number of bites. The maximum and minimum numbers of bites were observed with 10% and 40% concentrations respectively in all groups. Conclusion: Essential oils of Salvia sclarea, Lavendula officinalis and Myrtus communis have repellency effect, even with 10% concentration of essential oils. PMID:25629066

  11. Combination of GC/FID/Mass spectrometry fingerprints and multivariate calibration techniques for recognition of antimicrobial constituents of Myrtus communis L. essential oil.

    PubMed

    Ebrahimabadi, Ebrahim H; Ghoreishi, Sayed Mehdi; Masoum, Saeed; Ebrahimabadi, Abdolrasoul H

    2016-01-01

    Myrtus communis L. is an aromatic evergreen shrub and its essential oil possesses known powerful antimicrobial activity. However, the contribution of each component of the plant essential oil in observed antimicrobial ability is unclear. In this study, chemical components of the essential oil samples of the plant were identified qualitatively and quantitatively using GC/FID/Mass spectrometry system, antimicrobial activity of these samples against three microbial strains were evaluated and, these two set of data were correlated using chemometrics methods. Three chemometric methods including principal component regression (PCR), partial least squares (PLS) and orthogonal projections to latent structures (OPLS) were applied for the study. These methods showed similar results, but, OPLS was selected as preferred method due to its predictive and interpretational ability, facility, repeatability and low time-consuming. The results showed that α-pinene, 1,8 cineole, β-pinene and limonene are the highest contributors in antimicrobial properties of M. communis essential oil. Other researches have reported high antimicrobial activities for the plant essential oils rich in these compounds confirming our findings. PMID:26625337

  12. Comparative Study of Essential Oils Extracted from Algerian Myrtus communis L. Leaves Using Microwaves and Hydrodistillation

    PubMed Central

    Berka-Zougali, Baya; Ferhat, Mohamed-Amine; Hassani, Aicha; Chemat, Farid; Allaf, Karim S.

    2012-01-01

    Two different extraction methods were used for a comparative study of Algerian Myrtle leaf essential oils: solvent-free-microwave-extraction (SFME) and conventional hydrodistillation (HD). Essential oils analyzed by GC and GC-MS presented 51 components constituting 97.71 and 97.39% of the total oils, respectively. Solvent-Free-Microwave-Extract Essential oils SFME-EO were richer in oxygenated compounds. Their major compounds were 1,8-cineole, followed by α-pinene as against α-pinene, followed by 1,8-cineole for HD. Their antimicrobial activity was investigated on 12 microorganisms. The antioxidant activities were studied with the 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH•) radical scavenging method. Generally, both essential oils showed high antimicrobial and weak antioxidant activities. Microstructure analyses were also undertaken on the solid residue of myrtle leaves by Scanning Electronic Microscopy (SEM); it showed that the SFME-cellular structure undergoes significant modifications compared to the conventional HD residual solid. Comparison between hydrodistillation and SFME presented numerous distinctions. Several advantages with SFME were observed: faster kinetics and higher efficiency with similar yields: 0.32% dry basis, in 30 min as against 180 min for HD. PMID:22606003

  13. Comparative study of essential oils extracted from Algerian Myrtus communis L. leaves using microwaves and hydrodistillation.

    PubMed

    Berka-Zougali, Baya; Ferhat, Mohamed-Amine; Hassani, Aicha; Chemat, Farid; Allaf, Karim S

    2012-01-01

    Two different extraction methods were used for a comparative study of algerian myrtle leaf essential oils: solvent-free-microwave-extraction (SFME) and conventional hydrodistillation (HD). Essential oils analyzed by GC and GC-MS presented 51 components constituting 97.71 and 97.39% of the total oils, respectively. Solvent-Free-Microwave-Extract Essential oils SFME-EO were richer in oxygenated compounds. Their major compounds were 1,8-cineole, followed by α-pinene as against α-pinene, followed by 1,8-cineole for HD. Their antimicrobial activity was investigated on 12 microorganisms. The antioxidant activities were studied with the 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH(•)) radical scavenging method. Generally, both essential oils showed high antimicrobial and weak antioxidant activities. Microstructure analyses were also undertaken on the solid residue of myrtle leaves by Scanning Electronic Microscopy (SEM); it showed that the SFME-cellular structure undergoes significant modifications compared to the conventional HD residual solid. Comparison between hydrodistillation and SFME presented numerous distinctions. Several advantages with SFME were observed: faster kinetics and higher efficiency with similar yields: 0.32% dry basis, in 30 min as against 180 min for HD.

  14. [In vitro activity of Eucalyptus smithii and Juniperus communis essential oils against bacterial biofilms and efficacy perspectives of complementary inhalation therapy in chronic and recurrent upper respiratory tract infections].

    PubMed

    Camporese, Alessandro

    2013-06-01

    Staphylococcus aureus and Pseudomonas aeruginosa have a high propensity to develop biofilms that are resistant to antimicrobial agents. Eucalyptus smithii and Juniperus communis essential oils are credited with a series of traditional therapeutical properties, including mucolytic effect. As S. aureus and P. aeruginosa biofilms are known to be important factors underlying their virulence and pathogenicity, the aim of this study was to investigate whether E. smithii and J. communis essential oils can interfere with biofilm formation as well as acting on mature biofilms. Tests of two S. aureus and P. aeruginosa clinical strains and two ATCC strains (S. aureus ATCC 25923 and P. aeruginosa ATCC 27853) showed that both E. smithii and J. communis essential oils interfere with the starting phases of biofilm production, as well as with mature biofilms. The results of this study reveal new relevant perspectives for a complementary inhalatory treatment of chronic and/or recurrent upper respiratory tract infections.

  15. Metabolite profiles of essential oils and molecular markers analysis to explore the biodiversity of Ferula communis: Towards conservation of the endemic giant fennel.

    PubMed

    Rahali, Fatma Zohra; Lamine, Myriam; Gargouri, Mahmoud; Rebey, Iness Bettaieb; Hammami, Majdi; Sellami, Ibtissem Hamrouni

    2016-04-01

    Giant fennel (Ferula communis L.) is well known in folk medicine for the treatment of various organ disorders. The biological importance of members of genus Ferula prompted us to investigate the leaves of the endangered Tunisian medicinal plant F. communis L. not previously investigated. An estimate of genetic diversity and differentiation between genotypes of breeding germplasm is of key importance for its improvement. Thus, four F. communis populations were RAPD fingerprinted (63 RAPD markers generated by 7 primers) and the composition of their leaf essential oils (EO) (134 EO compounds) was characterized by GC-MS. Cluster analysis based on the leaf volatiles chemical composition of F. communis accessions defined three chemotypes according to main compounds have been distinguished: α-eudesmol/β-eudesmol/γ-terpinene; α-eudesmol/α-pinene/caryophyllene oxide and chamazulene/α-humulene chemotypes. A high genetic diversity within population and high genetic differentiation among them, based on RAPDs, were revealed (H(pop)=0.320 and GST=0.288) caused both by the habitat fragmentation, the low size of most populations and the low level of gene flow among them. The RAPD dendrogram showed separation of three groups. Populations dominated by individuals from the β-eudesmol/γ-terpinene; chemotype showed the lowest gene diversity (H=0.104), while populations with exclusively α-pinene/caryophyllene oxide chemotype showed the highest value (H=0.285). The UPGMA dendrogram and PCA analysis based on volatiles yielded higher separation among populations, indicated specific adaptation of populations to the local environments. Correlation analysis showed a non-significant association between the distance matrices based on the genetic markers (RAPD) and chemical compounds of essential oil (P>0.05) indicating no influence of genetic background on the observed chemical profiles. These results reinforce the use of both volatile compounds and RAPD markers as a starting point for

  16. Metabolite profiles of essential oils and molecular markers analysis to explore the biodiversity of Ferula communis: Towards conservation of the endemic giant fennel.

    PubMed

    Rahali, Fatma Zohra; Lamine, Myriam; Gargouri, Mahmoud; Rebey, Iness Bettaieb; Hammami, Majdi; Sellami, Ibtissem Hamrouni

    2016-04-01

    Giant fennel (Ferula communis L.) is well known in folk medicine for the treatment of various organ disorders. The biological importance of members of genus Ferula prompted us to investigate the leaves of the endangered Tunisian medicinal plant F. communis L. not previously investigated. An estimate of genetic diversity and differentiation between genotypes of breeding germplasm is of key importance for its improvement. Thus, four F. communis populations were RAPD fingerprinted (63 RAPD markers generated by 7 primers) and the composition of their leaf essential oils (EO) (134 EO compounds) was characterized by GC-MS. Cluster analysis based on the leaf volatiles chemical composition of F. communis accessions defined three chemotypes according to main compounds have been distinguished: α-eudesmol/β-eudesmol/γ-terpinene; α-eudesmol/α-pinene/caryophyllene oxide and chamazulene/α-humulene chemotypes. A high genetic diversity within population and high genetic differentiation among them, based on RAPDs, were revealed (H(pop)=0.320 and GST=0.288) caused both by the habitat fragmentation, the low size of most populations and the low level of gene flow among them. The RAPD dendrogram showed separation of three groups. Populations dominated by individuals from the β-eudesmol/γ-terpinene; chemotype showed the lowest gene diversity (H=0.104), while populations with exclusively α-pinene/caryophyllene oxide chemotype showed the highest value (H=0.285). The UPGMA dendrogram and PCA analysis based on volatiles yielded higher separation among populations, indicated specific adaptation of populations to the local environments. Correlation analysis showed a non-significant association between the distance matrices based on the genetic markers (RAPD) and chemical compounds of essential oil (P>0.05) indicating no influence of genetic background on the observed chemical profiles. These results reinforce the use of both volatile compounds and RAPD markers as a starting point for

  17. Acaricidal effects of Corymbia citriodora oil containing para-menthane-3,8-diol against nymphs of Ixodes ricinus (Acari: Ixodidae).

    PubMed

    Elmhalli, Fawzeia H; Pålsson, Katinka; Orberg, Jan; Jaenson, Thomas G T

    2009-07-01

    The toxicity of para-menthane-3,8-diol (PMD), the main arthropod-repellent compound in the oil of the lemon eucalyptus, Corymbia citriodora, was evaluated against nymphs of Ixodes ricinus using five methods (A-E) of a contact toxicity bioassay. Mortality rates were estimated by recording numbers of dead nymphs at 30 min intervals during the first 5 h after the start of exposure and at longer intervals thereafter. The mortality rate increased with increasing concentration of PMD and duration of exposure with a distinct effect after 3.5 h. From the results obtained by methods A, C and E, the LC(50) range was 0.035-0.037 mg PMD/cm(2) and the LC(95) range was 0.095-0.097 mg PMD/cm(2) at 4 h of exposure; the LT(50) range was 2.1-2.8 h and the LT(95) range was 3.9-4.2 h at 0.1 mg PMD/cm(2). To determine the duration of toxic activity of PMD, different concentrations (0.002, 0.01, 0.1 mg PMD/cm(2)) were tested and mortality was recorded at each concentration after 1 h; thereafter new ticks were tested. This test revealed that the lethal activity of PMD remained for 24 h but appeared absent after 48 h. The overall results show that PMD is toxic to nymphs of I. ricinus and may be useful for tick control. PMID:19169833

  18. Repellency Effects of Essential Oils of Myrtle (Myrtus communis), Marigold (Calendula officinalis) Compared with DEET against Anopheles stephensi on Human Volunteers

    PubMed Central

    Tavassoli, M; Shayeghi, M; Abai, MR; Vatandoost, H; Khoobdel, M; Salari, M; Ghaderi, A; Rafi, F

    2011-01-01

    Background: Malaria and leishmaniasis are two most significant parasitic diseases which are endemic in Iran. Over the past decades, interest in botanical repellents has increased as a result of safety to human. The comparative efficacy of essential oils of two native plants, myrtle (Myrtus communis) and marigold (Calendula officinalis) collected from natural habitats at southern Iran was compared with DEET as synthetic repellent against Anopheles stephensi on human subjects under laboratory condition. Methods: Essential oils from two species of native plants were obtained by Clevenger-type water distillation. The protection time of DEET, marigold and myrtle was assessed on human subject using screened cage method against An. stephensi. The effective dose of 50% essential oils of two latter species and DEET were determined by modified ASTM method. ED50 and ED90 values and related statistical parameters were calculated by probit analysis. Results: The protection time of 50% essential oils of marigold and myrtle were respectively 2.15 and 4.36 hours compared to 6.23 hours for DEET 25%. The median effective dose (ED50) of 50% essential oils was 0.1105 and 0.6034 mg/cm2 respectively in myrtle and marigold. The figure for DEET was 0.0023 mg/cm2. Conclusion: This study exhibited that the repellency of both botanical repellents was generally lower than DEET as a synthetic repellent. However the 50% essential oil of myrtle showed a moderate repellency effects compared to marigold against An. stephensi. PMID:22808414

  19. Juniperus communis Linn oil decreases oxidative stress and increases antioxidant enzymes in the heart of rats administered a diet rich in cholesterol.

    PubMed

    Gumral, Nurhan; Kumbul, Duygu Doguc; Aylak, Firdevs; Saygin, Mustafa; Savik, Emin

    2015-01-01

    It has been asserted that consumption of dietary cholesterol (Chol) raises atherosclerotic cardiovascular diseases and that Chol causes an increase in free radical production. Hypercholesterolemic diet has also been reported to cause changes in the antioxidant system. In our study, different doses of Juniperus communis Linn (JCL) oil, a tree species growing in Mediterranean and Isparta regions and having aromatic characteristics, were administered to rats; and the levels of antioxidant enzymes superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px), catalase (CAT), and thiobarbituric acid reactive substances assay (TBARS) were examined in the heart tissue of rats. In this study, 35 Wistar Albino male adult rats weighing approximately 250-300 g were used. The rats were divided into five groups of seven each. The control group was administered normal pellet chow, and the Chol group was administered pellet chow including 2% Chol, while 50 JCL, 100 JCL, and 200 JCL groups were administered 50, 100, and 200 mg/kg JCL oil dissolved in 0.5% sodium carboxy methyl cellulose, respectively, in addition to the pellet chow containing 2% Chol, by gavage. After 30 days, the experiment was terminated and the antioxidant enzyme activities were examined in the heart tissue of rats. While consumption of dietary Chol decreases the activities of SOD, GSH-Px, and CAT in heart tissue of rats (not significant), administeration of 200 mg/kg JCL oil in addition to Chol led to a significant increase in the activity of antioxidant enzymes. Administering Chol led to a significant increase in TBARS level. Administering 100 and 200 mg/kg JCL oil together with Chol prevented significantly the increase in lipid peroxides. As a result of the study, JCL oil showed oxidant-antioxidant effect in the heart tissue of rats.

  20. Effect of glyphosate on the castor plant Ricinus communis L

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The presence of a toxin in the castor seed has been a major impediment to the reintroduction of castor as a domestic crop in the US. Because dehiscent forms of castor are invasive and castor seed remains viable for years under the right conditions, there is concern that if castor were widely cultiva...

  1. Accumulation, selection and covariation of amino acids in sieve tube sap of tansy (Tanacetum vulgare) and castor bean (Ricinus communis): evidence for the function of a basic amino acid transporter and the absence of a γ-amino butyric acid transporter.

    PubMed

    Bauer, Susanne N; Nowak, Heike; Keller, Frank; Kallarackal, Jose; Hajirezaei, Mohamad-Reza; Komor, Ewald

    2014-09-01

    Sieve tube sap was obtained from Tanacetum by aphid stylectomy and from Ricinus after apical bud decapitation. The amino acids in sieve tube sap were analyzed and compared with those from leaves. Arginine and lysine accumulated in the sieve tube sap of Tanacetum more than 10-fold compared to the leaf extracts and they were, together with asparagine and serine, preferably selected into the sieve tube sap, whereas glycine, methionine/tryptophan and γ-amino butyric acid were partially or completely excluded. The two basic amino acids also showed a close covariation in sieve tube sap. The acidic amino acids also grouped together, but antagonistic to the other amino acids. The accumulation ratios between sieve tube sap and leaf extracts were smaller in Ricinus than in Tanacetum. Arginine, histidine, lysine and glutamine were enriched and preferentially loaded into the phloem, together with isoleucine and valine. In contrast, glycine and methionine/tryptophan were partially and γ-amino butyric acid almost completely excluded from sieve tube sap. The covariation analysis grouped arginine together with several neutral amino acids. The acidic amino acids were loaded under competition with neutral amino acids. It is concluded from comparison with the substrate specificities of already characterized plant amino acid transporters, that an AtCAT1-like transporter functions in phloem loading of basic amino acids, whereas a transporter like AtGAT1 is absent in phloem. Although Tanacetum and Ricinus have different minor vein architecture, their phloem loading specificities for amino acids are relatively similar.

  2. Multisystem organ failure after large volume injection of castor oil.

    PubMed

    Smith, Silas W; Graber, Nathan M; Johnson, Rudolph C; Barr, John R; Hoffman, Robert S; Nelson, Lewis S

    2009-01-01

    We report a case of multisystem organ failure after large volume subcutaneous injection of castor oil for cosmetic enhancement. An unlicensed practitioner injected 500 mL of castor oil bilaterally to the hips and buttocks of a 28-year-old male to female transsexual. Immediate local pain and erythema were followed by abdominal and chest pain, emesis, headache, hematuria, jaundice, and tinnitus. She presented to an emergency department 12 hours postinjection. Persistently hemolyzed blood samples complicated preliminary laboratory analysis. She rapidly deteriorated despite treatment and developed fever, tachycardia, hemolysis, thrombocytopenia, hepatitis, respiratory distress, and anuric renal failure. An infectious diseases evaluation was negative. After intensive supportive care, including mechanical ventilation and hemodialysis, she was discharged 11 days later, requiring dialysis for an additional 1.5 months. Castor oil absorption was inferred from recovery of the Ricinus communis biomarker, ricinine, in the patient's urine (41 ng/mL). Clinicians should anticipate multiple complications after unapproved methods of cosmetic enhancement.

  3. Characterization of Ricin and R. communis Agglutinin Reference Materials.

    PubMed

    Worbs, Sylvia; Skiba, Martin; Söderström, Martin; Rapinoja, Marja-Leena; Zeleny, Reinhard; Russmann, Heiko; Schimmel, Heinz; Vanninen, Paula; Fredriksson, Sten-Åke; Dorner, Brigitte G

    2015-11-26

    Ricinus communis intoxications have been known for centuries and were attributed to the toxic protein ricin. Due to its toxicity, availability, ease of preparation, and the lack of medical countermeasures, ricin attracted interest as a potential biological warfare agent. While different technologies for ricin analysis have been established, hardly any universally agreed-upon "gold standards" are available. Expert laboratories currently use differently purified in-house materials, making any comparison of accuracy and sensitivity of different methods nearly impossible. Technically challenging is the discrimination of ricin from R. communis agglutinin (RCA120), a less toxic but highly homologous protein also contained in R. communis. Here, we established both highly pure ricin and RCA120 reference materials which were extensively characterized by gel electrophoresis, liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-ESI MS/MS), and matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time of flight approaches as well as immunological and functional techniques. Purity reached >97% for ricin and >99% for RCA120. Different isoforms of ricin and RCA120 were identified unambiguously and distinguished by LC-ESI MS/MS. In terms of function, a real-time cytotoxicity assay showed that ricin is approximately 300-fold more toxic than RCA120. The highly pure ricin and RCA120 reference materials were used to conduct an international proficiency test.

  4. Characterization of Ricin and R. communis Agglutinin Reference Materials.

    PubMed

    Worbs, Sylvia; Skiba, Martin; Söderström, Martin; Rapinoja, Marja-Leena; Zeleny, Reinhard; Russmann, Heiko; Schimmel, Heinz; Vanninen, Paula; Fredriksson, Sten-Åke; Dorner, Brigitte G

    2015-12-01

    Ricinus communis intoxications have been known for centuries and were attributed to the toxic protein ricin. Due to its toxicity, availability, ease of preparation, and the lack of medical countermeasures, ricin attracted interest as a potential biological warfare agent. While different technologies for ricin analysis have been established, hardly any universally agreed-upon "gold standards" are available. Expert laboratories currently use differently purified in-house materials, making any comparison of accuracy and sensitivity of different methods nearly impossible. Technically challenging is the discrimination of ricin from R. communis agglutinin (RCA120), a less toxic but highly homologous protein also contained in R. communis. Here, we established both highly pure ricin and RCA120 reference materials which were extensively characterized by gel electrophoresis, liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-ESI MS/MS), and matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time of flight approaches as well as immunological and functional techniques. Purity reached >97% for ricin and >99% for RCA120. Different isoforms of ricin and RCA120 were identified unambiguously and distinguished by LC-ESI MS/MS. In terms of function, a real-time cytotoxicity assay showed that ricin is approximately 300-fold more toxic than RCA120. The highly pure ricin and RCA120 reference materials were used to conduct an international proficiency test. PMID:26703723

  5. Characterization of Ricin and R. communis Agglutinin Reference Materials

    PubMed Central

    Worbs, Sylvia; Skiba, Martin; Söderström, Martin; Rapinoja, Marja-Leena; Zeleny, Reinhard; Russmann, Heiko; Schimmel, Heinz; Vanninen, Paula; Fredriksson, Sten-Åke; Dorner, Brigitte G.

    2015-01-01

    Ricinus communis intoxications have been known for centuries and were attributed to the toxic protein ricin. Due to its toxicity, availability, ease of preparation, and the lack of medical countermeasures, ricin attracted interest as a potential biological warfare agent. While different technologies for ricin analysis have been established, hardly any universally agreed-upon “gold standards” are available. Expert laboratories currently use differently purified in-house materials, making any comparison of accuracy and sensitivity of different methods nearly impossible. Technically challenging is the discrimination of ricin from R. communis agglutinin (RCA120), a less toxic but highly homologous protein also contained in R. communis. Here, we established both highly pure ricin and RCA120 reference materials which were extensively characterized by gel electrophoresis, liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-ESI MS/MS), and matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization–time of flight approaches as well as immunological and functional techniques. Purity reached >97% for ricin and >99% for RCA120. Different isoforms of ricin and RCA120 were identified unambiguously and distinguished by LC-ESI MS/MS. In terms of function, a real-time cytotoxicity assay showed that ricin is approximately 300-fold more toxic than RCA120. The highly pure ricin and RCA120 reference materials were used to conduct an international proficiency test. PMID:26703723

  6. Studies with Myrtus communis L.: Anticancer properties.

    PubMed

    Ogur, Recai

    2014-01-01

    Myrtus communis (MC) L. is a well-known Mediterranean plant with important cultural significance in this region. In ancient times, MC was accepted as a symbol of immortality. Maybe due to this belief, it is used during cemetery visits in some regions. Although it is a well-known plant in cosmetics, and there is a lot of studies about its different medical properties, anticancer studies performed using its different extracts or oils are not so much, but increasing. We collected these anticancer property-related studies in this review. PMID:26401362

  7. Metabolic engineering of hydroxy fatty acid production in plants: RcDGAT2 drives dramatic increases in ricinoleate levels in seed oil

    PubMed Central

    Burgal, Julie; Shockey, Jay; Lu, Chaofu; Dyer, John; Larson, Tony; Graham, Ian; Browse, John

    2010-01-01

    Summary A central goal of green chemistry is to produce industrially useful fatty acids in oilseed crops. Although genes encoding suitable fatty acid-modifying enzymes are available from many wild species, progress has been limited because the expression of these genes in transgenic plants produces low yields of the desired products. For example, Ricinus communis fatty acid hydroxylase 12 (FAH12) produces a maximum of only 17% hydroxy fatty acids (HFAs) when expressed in Arabidopsis. cDNA clones encoding R. communis enzymes for additional steps in the seed oil biosynthetic pathway were identified. Expression of these cDNAs in FAH12 transgenic plants revealed that the R. communis type-2 acyl-coenzyme A:diacylglycerol acyltransferase (RcDGAT2) could increase HFAs from 17% to nearly 30%. Detailed comparisons of seed neutral lipids from the single- and double-transgenic lines indicated that RcDGAT2 substantially modified the triacylglycerol (TAG) pool, with significant increases in most of the major TAG species observed in native castor bean oil. These data suggest that RcDGAT2 prefers acyl-coenzyme A and diacylglycerol substrates containing HFAs, and biochemical analyses of RcDGAT2 expressed in yeast cells confirmed a strong preference for HFA-containing diacylglycerol substrates. Our results demonstrate that pathway engineering approaches can be used successfully to increase the yields of industrial feedstocks in plants, and that members of the DGAT2 gene family probably play a key role in this process. PMID:18643899

  8. New prenylflavonoids from Artocarpus communis.

    PubMed

    Chan, Sheng-Ching; Ko, Horng-Huey; Lin, Chun-Nan

    2003-03-01

    Five new prenylflavonoids, artocommunols CA (1), CB (2), CC (3), CD (4), and CE (5), were isolated from the cortex of the roots of Artocarpus communis, along with the known compound cyclomorusin. The structures of 1-5 were determined by spectral methods.

  9. Chemical variability of Algerian Myrtus communis L.

    PubMed

    Bouzabata, Amel; Castola, Vincent; Bighelli, Ange; Abed, Lahouari; Casanova, Joseph; Tomi, Félix

    2013-01-01

    The composition of 55 samples of essential oil isolated from the aerial parts of wild growing Myrtus communis L. harvested in 16 locations from East to West Algeria were investigated by GC (determination of retention indices) and (13) C-NMR analyses. The essential oils consisted mainly of monoterpenes, α-pinene (27.4-59.2%) and 1,8-cineole (6.1-34.3%) being the major components. They were also characterized by the absence of myrtenyl acetate. The compositions of the 55 oils were submitted to k-means partitioning and principal component analysis, which allowed the distinction of two groups within the oil samples, which could be subdivided into two subgroups each. Groups I (78% of the samples) and II were differentiated on the basis of the contents of α-pinene, linalool, and linalyl acetate. Subgroups IA and IB could be distinguished by their contents of α-pinene and 1,8-cineole. Subgroups IIA and IIB differed substantially in their contents of 1,8-cineole and limonene. All the samples contained 3,3,5,5,8,8-hexamethyl-7-oxabicyclo[4.3.0]non-1(6)-ene-2,4-dione (up to 4.9%).

  10. Isoenzymes of the Glycolytic and Pentose Phosphate Pathways in Proplastids from the Developing Endosperm of Ricinis communis L.

    PubMed

    Simcox, P D; Dennis, D T

    1978-06-01

    Two isoenzymes each of hexose-P isomerase, aldolase and 6-P-gluconate dehydrogenase have been found in the endosperm of developing castor beans (Ricinus communis L.). One isoenzyme for each activity is present in the proplastid fraction. Only one form of glucose-6-P dehydrogenase was found. It is suggested that the partition of an enzyme activity between cytosol and plastid is regulated by the synthesis of isoenzymes which are subcellular site specific. In addition, this report describes the use of diethylaminoethyl-Sephadex A-25 sievorptive chromatography for the preparation of plant enzymes.

  11. Synthesis of biologically active phosphonates from Lesquerella oil

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Bisphosphonates and vinyl phosphonates are two classes of compounds that have much potential, namely as pharmaceutical agents and synthetic building blocks. Previous studies have shown success in synthesizing these compounds from hydroxy fatty acids (HFAs) found in Ricinus communis, commonly known a...

  12. NTP technical report on the toxicity studies of Castor Oil (CAS No. 8001-79-4) in F344/N Rats and B6C3F1 Mice (Dosed Feed Studies).

    PubMed

    Irwin, R

    1992-03-01

    Castor oil is a natural oil derived from the seeds of the castor bean, Ricinus communis. It is comprised largely of triglycerides with a high ricinolin content. Toxicity studies with castor oil were performed by incorporating the material at concentrations as high as 10% in diets given to F344/N rats and B6C3F1 mice of both sexes for 13 weeks. Genetic toxicity studies also were performed and were negative for mutation induction in Salmonella typhimurium, for induction of sister chromatid exchanges or chromosomal aberrations in Chinese hamster ovary cells, and for induction of micronuclei in the peripheral blood erythrocytes of mice evaluated at the end of the 13-week studies. Exposure to castor oil at dietary concentrations as high as 10% in 13-week studies did not affect survival or body weight gains of rats or mice (10 per sex and dose). There were no biologically significant effects noted in hematologic analyses in rats. Mild increases in total bile acids and in serum alkaline phosphatase were noted at various times during the studies in rats receiving the higher dietary concentrations of castor oil. Liver weights were increased in male rats receiving the 10% dietary concentration and in male and female mice receiving diets containing 5% or 10% castor oil. However, there were no histopathologic lesions associated with these liver changes, nor were there any compound-related morphologic changes in any organ in rats or mice. No significant changes were noted in a screening for male reproductive endpoints, including sperm count and motility, and no changes were observed in the length of estrous cycles of rats or mice given diets containing castor oil. Thus, no significant adverse effects of castor oil administration were noted in these studies. Synonyms: Ricinus Oil, oil of Palma Christi, tangantangan oil, phorboyl, Neoloid.

  13. Antiplatelet prenylflavonoids from Artocarpus communis.

    PubMed

    Weng, Jing-Ru; Chan, Sheng-Ching; Lu, Yi-Huang; Lin, Hsien-Cheng; Ko, Horng-Huey; Lin, Chun-Nan

    2006-04-01

    Four flavonoids, dihydroartomunoxanthone (1), artomunoisoxanthone (2), cyclocomunomethonol (3) and artomunoflavanone (4), together with three known compounds, artochamins B (5), D and artocommunol CC (6) were isolated from the cortex of the roots of Artocarpus communis. The structures of 1-4 were determined by spectroscopic methods. The antiplatelet effects of the flavonoids, 1-3, 5 and 6 on human platelet-rich plasma (PRP) were evaluated. Of the compounds tested in human PRP, compounds 1, 5 and 6 showed significant inhibition of secondary aggregation induced by adrenaline. It is concluded that the antiplatelet effect of 1, 5 and 6 is mainly owing to an inhibitory effect on thromboxane formation.

  14. Production of Highly Sialylated Recombinant Glycoproteins Using Ricinus communis Agglutinin-I-Resistant CHO Glycosylation Mutants.

    PubMed

    Goh, John S Y; Chan, Kah Fai; Song, Zhiwei

    2015-01-01

    The degree of sialylation of therapeutic glycoproteins affects its circulatory half-life and efficacy because incompletely sialylated glycoproteins are cleared from circulation by asialoglycoprotein receptors present in the liver cells. Mammalian expression systems, often employed in the production of these glycoprotein drugs, produce heterogeneously sialylated products. Here, we describe how to produce highly sialylated glycoproteins using a Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cell glycosylation mutant called CHO-gmt4 with human erythropoietin (EPO) as a model glycoprotein. The protocol describes how to isolate and characterize the CHO glycosylation mutants and how to assess the sialylation of the recombinant protein using isoelectric focusing (IEF). It further describes how to inactivate the dihydrofolate reductase (DHFR) gene in these cells using zinc finger nuclease (ZFN) technology to enable gene amplification and the generation of stable cell lines producing highly sialylated EPO.

  15. Enhanced accumulation of Cd in castor (Ricinus communis L) by soil-applied chelators.

    PubMed

    Chhajro, Muhammad Afzal; Rizwan, Muhammad Shahid; Guoyong, Huang; Jun, Zhu; Kubar, Kashif Ali; Hongqing, Hu

    2016-01-01

    Phytoextraction has been identified as one of the most propitious methods of phytoremediation. This pot experiment were treated with varying amounts of (ethylenediamine triacetic acid) EDTA 3-15, (Nitriloacetic acid) NTA 3-10, (Ammonium citrate) NH4 citrate 10 - 25 mmol and one mg kg(-1)Cd, filled with 5 kg soil. The addition of chelators significantly increased Cd concentration in soil and plant. The results showed that maximum Cd uptake was noted under root, shoot and leaf of castor plant tissue (2.26, 1.54, and 0.72 mg kg(-1)) under EDTA 15, NTA 10, and NH4 citrate 25 mmol treatments respectively, and in soil 1.08, 1.06 and 0.52 mg kg(-1) pot(-1) under NH4 citrate 25, NTA 10 and EDTA 15 mmol treatments respectively, as against to control (p < 0.05). Additions of chelators reduction biomass under the EDTA 15 mmol as compared to other treatments, However, Bioconcentration factor (BCF), translocation factor (TF) and remediation factor (RF) were significantly increased under EDTA 15 and NH4 citrate 25 mmol as against control. Our results demonstrated that castor plant proved satisfactory for phytoextraction on contaminated soil, and EDTA 15 and NH4 citrate 25 mmol had the affirmative effect on the Cd uptake in the artificial Cd-contaminated soil.

  16. Proteomic analysis of the endoplasmic reticulum from developing and germinating seed of castor (Ricinus communis).

    PubMed

    Maltman, Daniel J; Simon, William J; Wheeler, Colin H; Dunn, Michael J; Wait, Robin; Slabas, Antoni R

    2002-02-01

    Endoplasmic reticulum (ER) has been prepared and analysed from germinating and developing castor bean endosperm. A combination of one- and two-dimensional (1-D and 2-D) gel electrophoresis was used to study the complexity of sample and protein differences between the two stages. The ER of the developing oilseed is central to the synthesis, sorting and storage of protein and lipid reserves while the germinating seed is concerned with their degradation. Sample complexity has been reduced by separation of ER proteins into lumenal, peripheral membrane and integral membrane subfractions. Membrane proteins pose specific problems in aggregation and binding to passive surfaces. We have overcome this by collection of membranes at density gradient interfaces and by silanization of plastic ware. Several major components have been identified from 1-D gels by N-terminal sequencing and matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization (MALDI) peptide mass fingerprints. These include protein disulphide isomerase (PDI), calreticulin and developing-ER-specific oleate-12-hydroxylase involved in the biosynthesis of ricinoleic acid. In excess of 300 spots are detectable in each developmental fraction by high sensitivity 2-D gels. This is the first 2-D electrophoretic analysis of plant ER. These gels reveal significant differences between germinating and developing ER. Preparative loading 2-D gels of germinating ER have been run and 14 selected spots characterized by quadrupole time of flight tandem mass spectrometry (Q-TOF MS/MS). Ten of these proteins were assigned function on the basis of identity with existing castor database entries, or by homology with other species. Two proteins, aspartate proteinase precursor and N-carbamyl-L-aminohydrolase-like protein, appear to be absent from developing profiles. Most of the proteins identified are concerned with roles in protein processing and storage, and lipid metabolism which occur in the ER. Data from three of the assigned spots included unidentified peptides indicating the presence of more than one protein in these spots following 2-D electrophoresis. More extensive analysis will have to await developments in genomics but the basic separation technologies to simplify sample identity for a plant ER preparation have been established.

  17. Precursors of ricin and Ricinus communis agglutinin. Glycosylation and processing during synthesis and intracellular transport.

    PubMed

    Lord, J M

    1985-01-15

    During synthesis in vivo the castor bean lectin precursors initially appear in the endoplasmic reticulum as a group of core glycosylated polypeptides of relative molecular mass 64 000-68 000. Pretreatment of intact castor bean endosperm tissue with tunicamycin partially inhibits the cotranslational core glycosylation step and results in the accumulation of a single sized unglycosylated precursor polypeptide of relative molecular mass 59 000. The glycosylated precursors in the endoplasmic reticulum were enzymically converted to the 59 000-Mr form by incubation with endoglucosaminidase H. Intracellular transport of the glycosylated lectin precursors from the endoplasmic reticulum to a denser vesicle fraction was accompanied by modifications to the oligosaccharide moieties which conferred resistance to the action of endoglucosaminidase H. The post-translational addition of fucose to the carbohydrate chain was identified as one of the oligosaccharide modification steps. Fucose addition was catalysed by a glycosyltransferase associated with a smooth-surfaced membrane fraction which was distinct from the endoplasmic reticulum and which was tentatively identified as the Golgi apparatus. Glycosylation was not essential for intracellular transport of the lectin precursors: unglycosylated precursor synthesized in the presence of tunicamycin gave rise to unglycosylated lectin subunits in the protein bodies. PMID:3967664

  18. Natural Transmission of Zoonotic Babesia spp. by Ixodes ricinus Ticks

    PubMed Central

    Becker, Claire A.M.; Bouju-Albert, Agnès; Jouglin, Maggy; Chauvin, Alain

    2009-01-01

    To determine characteristics of natural transmission of Babesia sp. EU1 and B. divergens by adult Ixodes ricinus ticks, we examined tick salivary gland contents. We found that I. ricinus is a competent vector for EU1 and that their sporozoites directly invade erythrocytes. We conclude that EU1 is naturally transmitted by I. ricinus. PMID:19193284

  19. Trial of an experimental castor oil solution for cleaning dentures.

    PubMed

    Andrade, Ingrid Machado de; Andrade, Kelly Machado de; Pisani, Marina Xavier; Silva-Lovato, Cláudia Helena; de Souza, Raphael Freitas; Paranhos, Helena de Freitas Oliveira

    2014-01-01

    Denture hygiene is essential because denture biofilm is involved in oral infections and systemic diseases. Although there are chemical agents available on the market, none of them have ideal properties and research on such products is still necessary. The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of a castor bean (Ricinus communis)-based solution for removing denture biofilm, compared to two traditional products (sodium hypochlorite and alkaline peroxide). Fifty maxillary complete denture wearers were instructed to brush their dentures after meals and to immerse their dentures once a day in the following solutions: Saline (20 min; control), Polident alkaline peroxide (3 min), NaOCl (20 min) and 2% castor oil solution (20 min). Participants used each solution for a period of 7 consecutive days, according to a random sequence. After each period, the internal surfaces of maxillary complete dentures were stained with a disclosing solution (1% neutral red), photographed and the disclosed biofilm was quantified with the aid of specific software. The influence of treatments on results was verified by the Friedman test (α=0.05). Tested solutions presented significant difference (Fr=51.67; p<0.001). Saline and NaOCl were significantly different (median: 2.0% and 0.0%) whereas Polident and castor oil presented intermediate results (median: 1.0% and 1.5%, respectively). It can be concluded that the castor oil solution tested in this study was comparable to alkaline peroxide in terms of efficiency in denture biofilm removal.

  20. Repelling properties of some plant materials on the tick Ixodes ricinus L.

    PubMed

    Thorsell, W; Mikiver, A; Tunón, H

    2006-01-01

    The repellent effects on nymphal stages of Ixodes ricinus L. of some plant materials have been studied in the laboratory. The plant material consisted of an ethanolic extract from Achillea millefolium L., and volatile oils of birch and/or pine tar, citronella, cloves, eucalyptus, geranium, lavender, lily of the valley and peppermint. The most pronounced effects were observed for the oils of citronella, cloves and lily of the valley. They possessed repelling activities of the same magnitude as the reference repellent DEET (N,N-diethyl-m-toluamide). Some major constituents of these oils, e.g. citronellol and geraniol (oil of citronella and lily of the valley) and eugenol (oil of cloves) showed pronounced repelling effects. This was also the case for phenethyl alcohol, a minor component in the oil from lily of the valley. PMID:16360943

  1. Undecylenic acid: a valuable and physiologically active renewable building block from castor oil.

    PubMed

    Van der Steen, Marijke; Stevens, Christian V

    2009-01-01

    A lot of attention is currently being paid to the transition to a biobased economy. In this movement, most efforts concentrate on the development of bioenergy applications including bioethanol, biodiesel, thermochemical conversion of biomass, and others. However, in the energy sector other nonbiomass alternatives are known, whereas no valuable alternatives are available when thinking about chemical building blocks. Therefore, it is also essential to develop new routes for the synthesis of bio-based chemicals and materials derived thereof. Such intermediates can originate either from plants or from animals. Castor oil is a non-edible oil extracted from the seeds of the castor bean plant Ricinus communis (Euphorbiaceae), which grows in tropical and subtropical areas. Globally, around one million tons of castor seeds are produced every year, the leading producing areas being India, PR China, and Brazil.2 10-Undecenoic acid or undecylenic acid is a fatty acid derived from castor oil that, owing to its bifunctional nature, has many possibilities to develop sustainable applications.

  2. Babesia species in questing Ixodes ricinus, Sweden.

    PubMed

    Karlsson, Maria E; Andersson, Martin O

    2016-02-01

    Babesiosis is an emerging tick-transmitted zoonosis in large parts of the world. In Sweden, the occurrence and diversity of Babesia species is largely unknown. In order to estimate the exposure to Babesia from infected ticks, we collected questing Ixodes ricinus from several sites across southern Sweden during two consecutive field seasons and investigated the occurrence of Babesia species. We report for the first time the occurrence of the zoonotic species Babesia venatorum in Swedish ticks, with a prevalence of 1%. We also detected B. microti (prevalence 3.2%) and B. divergens (prevalence 0.2%). The incidence of Babesia in questing ticks is substantially lower than that of several other tick-borne diseases in Sweden. Nevertheless, babesiosis should not be neglected as a possible diagnosis following tick bites in humans and animals in Sweden.

  3. [Systematics and genegeography of Juniperus communis inferred from isoenzyme data].

    PubMed

    Khantemirova, E V; Berkutenko, A N; Semerikov, V L

    2012-09-01

    Using isoenzyme analysis, 35 populations of Juniperus communis L. from various parts of the Russian species range and by one population from Sweden and Alaska were studied. The total sample size was 1200 plants. As a result, the existence ofJ. communis var. oblonga in North Caucasus and J. communis var. depressa in North America was confirmed, but genetic differences between J. communis var. communis and J. communis var. saxatilis were not detected in the main part of the Russian species range (European part of Russia, Ural, Siberia). These populations proved to be genetically uniform with the same predominant allelic frequencies, which may evidence recent settling of this species from one of Central or East European refugium. J. communis var. saxatilis from northeastern Russia inhabiting the region behind Verkhoyansk mountain and Russian Far East showed considerable differentiation in frequencies of alleles at three loci and geographical subdivision. These populations also exhibit high intrapopulation variation. This can be connected with the refugium in this territory. The origin of this group is probably connected with migrations from Central Asia (Tibet) in the direction to northeastern Russia along mountains connecting Central and North Asia. It is also assumed that migrations of this species previously proceeded across the Beringian land bridge.

  4. [Systematics and genegeography of Juniperus communis inferred from isoenzyme data].

    PubMed

    Khantemirova, E V; Berkutenko, A N; Semerikov, V L

    2012-09-01

    Using isoenzyme analysis, 35 populations of Juniperus communis L. from various parts of the Russian species range and by one population from Sweden and Alaska were studied. The total sample size was 1200 plants. As a result, the existence ofJ. communis var. oblonga in North Caucasus and J. communis var. depressa in North America was confirmed, but genetic differences between J. communis var. communis and J. communis var. saxatilis were not detected in the main part of the Russian species range (European part of Russia, Ural, Siberia). These populations proved to be genetically uniform with the same predominant allelic frequencies, which may evidence recent settling of this species from one of Central or East European refugium. J. communis var. saxatilis from northeastern Russia inhabiting the region behind Verkhoyansk mountain and Russian Far East showed considerable differentiation in frequencies of alleles at three loci and geographical subdivision. These populations also exhibit high intrapopulation variation. This can be connected with the refugium in this territory. The origin of this group is probably connected with migrations from Central Asia (Tibet) in the direction to northeastern Russia along mountains connecting Central and North Asia. It is also assumed that migrations of this species previously proceeded across the Beringian land bridge. PMID:23113335

  5. A review of nutritional and toxicological implications of castor bean (Ricinus communis L.) meal in animal feeding systems.

    PubMed

    Akande, T O; Odunsi, A A; Akinfala, E O

    2016-04-01

    The nutrient-rich defatted castor meal has been tested as a potential source of protein in diets of many livestock species but has limitation due to challenges of toxins. This review was conducted to compile the relevant research information on advances in the use of raw and differently processed castor seed meal in animal feed. In this article, distribution and uses of castor and its products were identified. Research findings on the nutrients profile, principal toxins, various detoxification strategies, nutritional value and toxicity on common livestock species were compiled and reviewed. The defatted seed meal had crude protein range of 32-48%, gross energy of about 3200 kcal/kg. Ricin content was 9.3 mg/g seed, and the average RCA content was 9.9 mg/g. The meal had high activity of lectin, which produced agglutination at about 4.70 mg/ml minimum assays. Reports of detoxification strategies showed varying degrees of success but high pH, moist heating and microbial techniques appeared to exert greater effect on deactivating ricin. Detoxification strategy for the allergen component is inconclusive. Tannins and the phenolic contents were present at trace level and did not constitute notable threat. It was concluded that castor seed holds great potential as feedstuff when upgraded but such upgrading must be safe, cost-effective and labour efficient for commercial acceptability.

  6. Toxicity of six plant extracts and two pyridine alkaloids from Ricinus communis against the malaria vector Anopheles gambiae

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The African malaria vector, Anopheles gambiae s.s., is known to feed selectively on certain plants for sugar sources. However, the adaptive significance of this behavior especially on how the extracts of such plants impact on the fitness of this vector has not been explored. This study determined th...

  7. Review of the traditional uses, phytochemistry, pharmacology and toxicology of giant fennel (Ferula communis L. subsp. communis)

    PubMed Central

    Akaberi, Maryam; Iranshahy, Milad; Iranshahi, Mehrdad

    2015-01-01

    Ferula communis L., subsp. communis, namely giant fennel, has extensively been used in traditional medicine for a wide range of ailments. Fresh plant materials, crude extracts and isolated components of F. communis showed a wide spectrum of in vitro and in vivo pharmacological properties including antidiabetic, antimicrobial, antiproliferative, and cytotoxic activities. The present paper, reviews the traditional uses, botany, phytochemistry, pharmacology and toxicology of F. communis in order to reveal its therapeutic potential and future research opportunities. A bibliographic literature search was conducted in different scientific databases and search engines including Scopus, Cochrane Library, Embase, Google Scholar, Pubmed, SciFinder, and Web of science. Phytochemical studies have led to the isolation of different compounds such as sesquiterpenes from F. communis. This plant has two different chemotypes, the poisonous and non-poisonous chemotypes. Each chemotype is endowed with various constituents and different activities. The poisonous chemotype exhibits anticoagulant and cytotoxic activities with sesquiterpene coumarins as major constituents, while the non-poisonous one exhibits estrogenic and cytotoxic effects with daucane sesquiterpene esters as the main compounds. In addition, although various pharmacological properties have been reported for F. communis, anti-microbial activities of the plant have been investigated in most studies. Studies revealed that F. communis exhibits different biological activities, and contains various bioactive compounds. Although, antibacterial and cytotoxic activities are the two main pharmacological effects of this plant, further studies should focus on the mechanisms underlying these actions, as well as on those biological activities that have been reported traditionally. PMID:26949491

  8. Review of the traditional uses, phytochemistry, pharmacology and toxicology of giant fennel (Ferula communis L. subsp. communis).

    PubMed

    Akaberi, Maryam; Iranshahy, Milad; Iranshahi, Mehrdad

    2015-11-01

    Ferula communis L., subsp. communis, namely giant fennel, has extensively been used in traditional medicine for a wide range of ailments. Fresh plant materials, crude extracts and isolated components of F. communis showed a wide spectrum of in vitro and in vivo pharmacological properties including antidiabetic, antimicrobial, antiproliferative, and cytotoxic activities. The present paper, reviews the traditional uses, botany, phytochemistry, pharmacology and toxicology of F. communis in order to reveal its therapeutic potential and future research opportunities. A bibliographic literature search was conducted in different scientific databases and search engines including Scopus, Cochrane Library, Embase, Google Scholar, Pubmed, SciFinder, and Web of science. Phytochemical studies have led to the isolation of different compounds such as sesquiterpenes from F. communis. This plant has two different chemotypes, the poisonous and non-poisonous chemotypes. Each chemotype is endowed with various constituents and different activities. The poisonous chemotype exhibits anticoagulant and cytotoxic activities with sesquiterpene coumarins as major constituents, while the non-poisonous one exhibits estrogenic and cytotoxic effects with daucane sesquiterpene esters as the main compounds. In addition, although various pharmacological properties have been reported for F. communis, anti-microbial activities of the plant have been investigated in most studies. Studies revealed that F. communis exhibits different biological activities, and contains various bioactive compounds. Although, antibacterial and cytotoxic activities are the two main pharmacological effects of this plant, further studies should focus on the mechanisms underlying these actions, as well as on those biological activities that have been reported traditionally.

  9. Review of the traditional uses, phytochemistry, pharmacology and toxicology of giant fennel (Ferula communis L. subsp. communis).

    PubMed

    Akaberi, Maryam; Iranshahy, Milad; Iranshahi, Mehrdad

    2015-11-01

    Ferula communis L., subsp. communis, namely giant fennel, has extensively been used in traditional medicine for a wide range of ailments. Fresh plant materials, crude extracts and isolated components of F. communis showed a wide spectrum of in vitro and in vivo pharmacological properties including antidiabetic, antimicrobial, antiproliferative, and cytotoxic activities. The present paper, reviews the traditional uses, botany, phytochemistry, pharmacology and toxicology of F. communis in order to reveal its therapeutic potential and future research opportunities. A bibliographic literature search was conducted in different scientific databases and search engines including Scopus, Cochrane Library, Embase, Google Scholar, Pubmed, SciFinder, and Web of science. Phytochemical studies have led to the isolation of different compounds such as sesquiterpenes from F. communis. This plant has two different chemotypes, the poisonous and non-poisonous chemotypes. Each chemotype is endowed with various constituents and different activities. The poisonous chemotype exhibits anticoagulant and cytotoxic activities with sesquiterpene coumarins as major constituents, while the non-poisonous one exhibits estrogenic and cytotoxic effects with daucane sesquiterpene esters as the main compounds. In addition, although various pharmacological properties have been reported for F. communis, anti-microbial activities of the plant have been investigated in most studies. Studies revealed that F. communis exhibits different biological activities, and contains various bioactive compounds. Although, antibacterial and cytotoxic activities are the two main pharmacological effects of this plant, further studies should focus on the mechanisms underlying these actions, as well as on those biological activities that have been reported traditionally. PMID:26949491

  10. Castor oil polymer induces bone formation with high matrix metalloproteinase-2 expression.

    PubMed

    Saran, Wallace Rocha; Chierice, Gilberto Orivaldo; da Silva, Raquel Assed Bezerra; de Queiroz, Alexandra Mussolino; Paula-Silva, Francisco Wanderley Garcia; da Silva, Léa Assed Bezerra

    2014-02-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the modulation of matrix metalloproteinase-2 (MMP-2) and -9 (MMP-9) expression in newly formed bone tissue at the interface between implants derived from castor oil (Ricinus communis) polymer and the tibia medullary canal. Forty-four rabbits were assigned to either Group 1 (n = 12; control) or Group 2 (n = 30), which had the tibial medullary canals reamed bilaterally and filled with polymer. CT scans showed no space between the material surface and the bone at the implant/bone marrow interface, and the density of the tissues at this interface was similar to the density measured of other regions of the bone. At 90 days postimplantation, the interface with the polymer presented a thick layer of newly formed bone tissue rich in osteocytes. This tissue exhibited ongoing maturation at 120 and 150 days postimplantation. Overall, bone remodeling process was accompanied by positive modulation of MMP-2 and low MMP-9 expression. Differently, in control group, the internal surface close to the medullary canal was lined by osteoblasts, followed by a bone tissue zone with few lacunae filled with osteocytes. Maturation of the tissue of the medullary internal surface occurred in the inner region, with the bone being nonlamellar.

  11. [Ixodes ricinus, transmitted diseases and reservoirs].

    PubMed

    Rizzoli, A; Rosà, R; Mantelli, B; Pecchioli, E; Hauffe, H; Tagliapietra, V; Beninati, T; Neteler, M; Genchi, C

    2004-06-01

    The tick Ixodes ricinus has been recorded in most Italian regions especially in thermo-mesophilous woods and shrubby habitats where the relative humidity allow the tick to complete its 3 year developmental cycle, as predicted for the European climatic ranges. This tick acts both as vector and reservoir for a series of wildlife zoonotic pathogens, especially the agents of Lyme diseases, Tick borne encephalitis and Human Granulocytic Ehrlichiosis, which are emerging in most of Europe. To assess the spatial distribution of these pathogens and the infection risk for humans and animals within the territory of the Province of Trento, we carried out a long term study using a combination of eco-epidemiological surveys and mathematical modelling. An extensive tick collection with a GIS based habitat suitability analysis allowed us to identify the areas where tick occurs at various density. To identify the areas with higher infection risk, we estimated the values of R0 for Borrelia burgdorferi s.l., TBE virus and Anaplasma phagocytophila under different ecological conditions. We assessed the infection prevalence in the vector and in the wildlife reservoir species that play a central role in the persistence of these infections, ie the small mammals A. flavicollis and C. glareolus. We also considered the double effect of roe deer (Capreolus capreolus) which act as reservoir for A. phagocytophila but is an incompetent host for B. burgdorferi and TBE virus, thus reducing the infection prevalence in ticks of these last two pathogens. Infection prevalence with B. burgdorferi and A. phagocytophila in the vector was assessed by PCR screening 1212 I. ricinus nymphs collected by dragging in six main study areas during 2002. The mean infection prevalence recorded was 1.32% for B. burgdorferi s.l. and 9.84% for A. phagocytophila. Infection prevalence in nymphs with TBE virus, as assessed in a previous study was 0.03%. Infection prevalence in rodents was assessed by screening (with ELISA

  12. Ixodes ricinus spirochete and European erythema chronicum migrans disease.

    PubMed Central

    Ackermann, R.; Kabatzki, J.; Boisten, H. P.; Steere, A. C.; Grodzicki, R. L.; Hartung, S.; Runne, U.

    1984-01-01

    From three endemic locations of erythema chronicum migrans disease in North Rhine-Westphalia, Germany, we recovered 19 isolates of a spirochete from Ixodes ricinus ticks. The infection rate in adult ticks was 16 percent. The isolated spirochete is immunologically related to the Ixodes dammini spirochete, Borrelia duttoni, and Treponema pallidum. Using indirect immunofluorescence, the sera of 90 patients with erythema chronicum migrans disease showed antibody titers against the isolated spirochete, which correlated with the clinical course. Similarly, antibodies were demonstrated in the sera of 21 patients with acrodermatitis chronica atrophicans. These results suggest an etiologic role for the Ixodes ricinus spriochete in European erythema chronicum migrans disease. Images FIG. 3 PMID:6393609

  13. Redescriptions and new host records of chewing lice of the genus Ricinus (Phthiraptera: Ricinidae) from the Neotropical Region.

    PubMed

    Valan, Miroslav; Sychra, Oldrich; Literak, Ivan

    2016-08-19

    Two species of the chewing louse genus Ricinus are redescribed and illustrated: Ricinus dalgleishi Nelson, 1972 from Helmitheros vermivorum (Gmelin, 1789), a new host-louse association, and Ricinus tanagraephilus Eichler, 1956 from Euphonia laniirostris d'Orbigny & Lafresnaye, 1837. Also, new host-louse associations are recorded for Ricinus vireoensis Nelson, 1972 from Vireo pallens Salvin, 1863, and for females of an unidentified species of Ricinus sp. from Corythopis delalandi (Lesson, 1831), which are described and illustrated.

  14. Redescriptions and new host records of chewing lice of the genus Ricinus (Phthiraptera: Ricinidae) from the Neotropical Region.

    PubMed

    Valan, Miroslav; Sychra, Oldrich; Literak, Ivan

    2016-01-01

    Two species of the chewing louse genus Ricinus are redescribed and illustrated: Ricinus dalgleishi Nelson, 1972 from Helmitheros vermivorum (Gmelin, 1789), a new host-louse association, and Ricinus tanagraephilus Eichler, 1956 from Euphonia laniirostris d'Orbigny & Lafresnaye, 1837. Also, new host-louse associations are recorded for Ricinus vireoensis Nelson, 1972 from Vireo pallens Salvin, 1863, and for females of an unidentified species of Ricinus sp. from Corythopis delalandi (Lesson, 1831), which are described and illustrated. PMID:27615833

  15. Performance and Emission Characteristics of a Compression Ignition Engine Operating on Blends of Castor Oil Biodiesel-Diesel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kanwar, Roopesh; Sharma, Pushpendra Kumar; Singh, Aditya Narayan; Agrawal, Yadvendra Kumar

    2016-06-01

    Diesel vehicles are the nerves and veins of transportation, particularly in developing countries. With the rapid rate of modernization, increasing demand of fuel is inevitable. The exponential increase in fuel prices and the scarcity of its supply from the environment have promoted interest in the development of alternative sources of fuel. In this work, genus Ricinus communis L. was studied in order to delimit their potential as a raw material for biodiesel production. Further, castor oil, ethyl ester were prepared by transesterification using potassium hydroxide (KOH) as a catalyst and tested on a four-stroke, single-cylinder compression ignition engine. The test was carried out at a constant speed of 3000 rpm at different loads. The results represent a substantial decrease in carbon monoxide (CO) emission with an increasing biodiesel percentage. The reduction of CO in B05, B10, B15 and B20 averaged 11.75, 22.02, 24.23 and 28.79 %, respectively, compared to mineral diesel. The emission results of the comparative test indicated that CO, oxygen (O2) and smoke density emissions are found to be lower when the engine is filled with B05, B10, B15 and B20 as compared to mineral diesel, while carbon dioxide (CO2) and nitrogen oxide (NOx) with B05, B10, B15 and B20 are found to increase marginally. Brake thermal efficiency and brake specific fuel consumption decrease and increase respectively in biodiesel with different blends in comparison of mineral diesel.

  16. Chemical Composition and Larvicidal Activity of Greek Myrtle Essential Oils against Culex pipiens biotype molestus.

    PubMed

    Koutsaviti, Aikaterini; Lignou, Irene; Bazos, Ioannis; Koliopoulos, George; Michaelakis, Antonios; Giatropoulos, Athanassios; Tzakou, Olga

    2015-10-01

    Fresh leaves of Myrtus communis collected from different localities in Greece, were subjected to hydrodistillation and the oils obtained were analyzed by GC-FID and GC-MS. The analyses showed mainly quantitative differences, with the monoterpenes myrtenyl acetate, α-pinene, 1,8-cineole, and linalool, along with limonene, dominating the majority of the analyzed Myrtle oils. The evaluation of the larvicidal activity of the samples against Culex pipiens biotype molestus mosquito showed that all tested samples exhibited moderate to weak toxicity, with cultivated M. communis subsp. communis oil being the most active. PMID:26669120

  17. Anti-genotoxic and free-radical scavenging activities of extracts from (Tunisian) Myrtus communis.

    PubMed

    Hayder, N; Abdelwahed, A; Kilani, S; Ammar, R Ben; Mahmoud, A; Ghedira, K; Chekir-Ghedira, L

    2004-11-14

    The effect of extracts from leaves of Myrtus communis on the SOS reponse induced by Aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) and Nifuroxazide was investigated in a bacterial assay system, i.e. the SOS chromotest with Escherichia coli PQ37. Aqueous extract, the total flavonoids oligomer fraction (TOF), hexane, chloroform, ethyl acetate and methanol extracts and essential oil obtained from M. communis significantly decreased the SOS response induced by AFB1 (10 microg/assay) and Nifuroxazide (20 microg/assay). Ethyl acetate and methanol extracts showed the strongest inhibition of the induction of the SOS response by the indirectly genotoxic AFB1. The methanol and aqueous extracts exhibited the highest level of protection towards the SOS-induced response by the directly genotoxic Nifuroxazide. In addition to anti-genotoxic activity, the aqueous extract, the TOF, and the ethyl acetate and methanol extracts showed an important free-radical scavenging activity towards the 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical. These results suggest the future utilization of these extracts as additives in chemoprevention studies. PMID:15474415

  18. Essential Oils May Lead α-Synuclein towards Toxic Fibrils Formation

    PubMed Central

    Morshedi, Dina; Nasouti, Mahour

    2016-01-01

    α-Synuclein (α-Syn) fibrillation links with Parkinson's disease (PD) and several related syndromes. It is believed that exposure to the factors which promote fibrillation may induce and progress such neurodegenerative diseases (NDs). Herein, the effects of some wildly used essential oils including Myrtus communis (M. communis) on α-Syn fibrillation were examined. M. communis particularly increased α-Syn fibrillation in a concentration dependent manner. Given that applications of M. communis are very extensive in Asian societies, especially Zoroastrians, this study was extended towards its role on α-Syn fibrillation/cytotoxicity. By using a unilamellar vesicle, it was shown that the aggregated species with tendency to perturb membrane were increased in the presence of M. communis. In this regard, the cytotoxicity of α-Syn on SH-SH5Y cells was also increased significantly. Inappropriately, the effects of fibrillation inhibitors, baicalein and cuminaldehyde, were modulated in the presence of M. communis. However, major components of M. communis did not induce fibrillation and also the effect of M. communis was limited on other fibrinogenic proteins. Assuming that essential oils have the ability to pass through the blood brain barrier (BBB) along with the popular attention on aromatherapy for the incurable ND, these findings suggest an implementation of fibrillation tests for essential oils. PMID:27313947

  19. Essential Oils May Lead α-Synuclein towards Toxic Fibrils Formation.

    PubMed

    Morshedi, Dina; Nasouti, Mahour

    2016-01-01

    α-Synuclein (α-Syn) fibrillation links with Parkinson's disease (PD) and several related syndromes. It is believed that exposure to the factors which promote fibrillation may induce and progress such neurodegenerative diseases (NDs). Herein, the effects of some wildly used essential oils including Myrtus communis (M. communis) on α-Syn fibrillation were examined. M. communis particularly increased α-Syn fibrillation in a concentration dependent manner. Given that applications of M. communis are very extensive in Asian societies, especially Zoroastrians, this study was extended towards its role on α-Syn fibrillation/cytotoxicity. By using a unilamellar vesicle, it was shown that the aggregated species with tendency to perturb membrane were increased in the presence of M. communis. In this regard, the cytotoxicity of α-Syn on SH-SH5Y cells was also increased significantly. Inappropriately, the effects of fibrillation inhibitors, baicalein and cuminaldehyde, were modulated in the presence of M. communis. However, major components of M. communis did not induce fibrillation and also the effect of M. communis was limited on other fibrinogenic proteins. Assuming that essential oils have the ability to pass through the blood brain barrier (BBB) along with the popular attention on aromatherapy for the incurable ND, these findings suggest an implementation of fibrillation tests for essential oils. PMID:27313947

  20. A Phytopharmacological Review on a Medicinal Plant: Juniperus communis

    PubMed Central

    Bais, Souravh; Gill, Naresh Singh; Rana, Nitan; Shandil, Shandeep

    2014-01-01

    Juniperus communis is a shrub or small evergreen tree, native to Europe, South Asia, and North America, and belongs to family Cupressaceae. It has been widely used as herbal medicine from ancient time. Traditionally the plant is being potentially used as antidiarrhoeal, anti-inflammatory, astringent, and antiseptic and in the treatment of various abdominal disorders. The main chemical constituents, which were reported in J. communis L. are α-pinene, β-pinene, apigenin, sabinene, β-sitosterol, campesterol, limonene, cupressuflavone, and many others. This review includes the last 20 years journals and various books update on this plant, representing its pharmacological activity and health benefits against various diseases. PMID:27419205

  1. Computational identification and phylogenetic analysis of the oil-body structural proteins, oleosin and caleosin, in castor bean and flax.

    PubMed

    Hyun, Tae Kyung; Kumar, Dhinesh; Cho, Young-Yeol; Hyun, Hae-Nam; Kim, Ju-Sung

    2013-02-25

    Oil bodies (OBs) are the intracellular particles derived from oilseeds. These OBs store lipids as a carbon resource, and have been exploited for a variety of industrial applications including biofuels. Oleosin and caleosin are the common OB structural proteins which are enabling biotechnological enhancement of oil content and OB-based pharmaceutical formations via stabilizing OBs. Although the draft whole genome sequence information for Ricinus communis L. (castor bean) and Linum usitatissimum L. (flax), important oil seed plants, is available in public database, OB-structural proteins in these plants are poorly indentified. Therefore, in this study, we performed a comprehensive bioinformatic analysis including analysis of the genome sequence, conserved domains and phylogenetic relationships to identify OB structural proteins in castor bean and flax genomes. Using comprehensive analysis, we have identified 6 and 15 OB-structural proteins from castor bean and flax, respectively. A complete overview of this gene family in castor bean and flax is presented, including the gene structures, phylogeny and conserved motifs, resulting in the presence of central hydrophobic regions with proline knot motif, providing an evolutionary proof that this central hydrophobic region had evolved from duplications in the primitive eukaryotes. In addition, expression analysis of L-oleosin and caleosin genes using quantitative real-time PCR demonstrated that seed contained their maximum expression, except that RcCLO-1 expressed maximum in cotyledon. Thus, our comparative genomics analysis of oleosin and caleosin genes and their putatively encoded proteins in two non-model plant species provides insights into the prospective usage of gene resources for improving OB-stability.

  2. Functional insights into recombinant TROSPA protein from Ixodes ricinus.

    PubMed

    Figlerowicz, Marek; Urbanowicz, Anna; Lewandowski, Dominik; Jodynis-Liebert, Jadwiga; Sadowski, Czeslaw

    2013-01-01

    Lyme disease (also called borreliosis) is a prevalent chronic disease transmitted by ticks and caused by Borrelia burgdorferi s. l. spirochete. At least one tick protein, namely TROSPA from I. scapularis, commonly occurring in the USA, was shown to be required for colonization of the vector by bacteria. Located in the tick gut, TROSPA interacts with the spirochete outer surface protein A (OspA) and initiates the tick colonization. Ixodes ricinus is a primary vector involved in B. burgdorferi s. l. transmission in most European countries. In this study, we characterized the capacities of recombinant TROSPA protein from I. ricinus to interact with OspA from different Borrelia species and to induce an immune response in animals. We also showed that the N-terminal part of TROSPA (a putative transmembrane domain) is not involved in the interaction with OspA and that reduction of the total negative charge on the TROSPA protein impaired TROSPA-OspA binding. In general, the data presented in this paper indicate that recombinant TROSPA protein retains the capacity to form a complex with OspA and induces a significant level of IgG in orally immunized rats. Thus, I. ricinus TROSPA may be considered a good candidate component for an animal vaccine against Borrelia. PMID:24204685

  3. Anaplasma phagocytophilum in questing Ixodes ricinus ticks from Romania.

    PubMed

    Matei, Ioana Adriana; Kalmár, Zsuzsa; Magdaş, Cristian; Magdaş, Virginia; Toriay, Hortenzia; Dumitrache, Mirabela Oana; Ionică, Angela Monica; D'Amico, Gianluca; Sándor, Attila D; Mărcuţan, Daniel Ioan; Domşa, Cristian; Gherman, Călin Mircea; Mihalca, Andrei Daniel

    2015-04-01

    Granulocytic anaplasmosis is a common vector-borne disease of humans and animals with natural transmission cycle that involves tick vectors, among which Ixodes ricinus is the most important. The present paper reports the prevalence and geographical distribution of A. phagocytophilum in 10,438 questing Ixodes ricinus ticks collected at 113 locations from 40 counties of Romania. The unfed ticks were examined for the presence of A. phagocytophilum by PCR targeting a portion of ankA gene. The overall prevalence of infection was 3.42%, with local prevalences ranging between 0.29% and 22.45%, with an average prevalence of 5.39% in the infected localities. The infection with A. phagocytophilum was detected in 72 out of 113 localities and in 34 out of 40 counties. The highest prevalence was recorded in females followed by males and nymphs. The results and the distribution model have shown a large distribution of A. phagocytophilum, covering Romania's entire territory. This study is the first large scale survey of the presence of A. phagocytophilum in questing I. ricinus ticks from Romania.

  4. Enantiomeric and non-enantiomeric monoterpenes of Juniperus communis L. and Juniperus oxycedrus needles and berries determined by HS-SPME and enantioselective GC/MS.

    PubMed

    Foudil-Cherif, Yazid; Yassaa, Noureddine

    2012-12-01

    For the first time, enantiomeric and non-enantiomeric distribution of monoterpenes in the headspace of Juniperus communis L. and Juniperus oxycedrus needles and berries has been determined using HS-SPME combined with enantioselective GC/MS. The essential oils from needles and berries of both Juniperus species obtained by hydrodistillation were also performed. HS-SPME has shown good potential to reproduce the same results as the commonly used hydrodistillation extraction technique. While needles and berries of J. communis showed high contents of sabinene, α-pinene and β-myrcene with 19-30%, 12-24% and 9-20%, respectively, J. oxycedrus was strongly dominated by α-pinene with 85-92% in both needles and berries. Large variations in chiral distribution of monoterpenes within the same plant species and between the two junipers were observed. Interestingly, similar enantiomeric preferences of monoterpenes were obtained between needles and berries of the two junipers.

  5. [Anticoagulant activity of coumarins from Ferula communis L].

    PubMed

    Lamnaouer, D

    1999-01-01

    Ferula communis is an ombelliferous plant of the Mediterranean regions. It is represented in Morocco by two varieties: brevifolia and genuina. The later is very rich in a soap or resinous gum. This product, collected from the roots, is largely used in traditional medicine. It is know as fessoukh in Morocco and other Arab countries. This plant is also well known for its toxicity and its anticoagulant activity. In the present review, are discussed: (1) the ethnobotany of the plant, especially medicinal uses of fessoukh in traditional medicine as well as alimentary use of young stems as legumes; (2) clinical and biochemical data of intoxication by this plant, which are dominated by haemorrhage as a consequence of blood coagulation disturbance; (3) 4-hydroxycoumarins isolated from Ferula communis L. and their anticoagulant activity; (4) the role of vitamin K1 in the treatment of poisoning by this plant.

  6. Antihepatoma activity of Artocarpus communis is higher in fractions with high artocarpin content.

    PubMed

    Tzeng, Cheng-Wei; Yen, Feng-Lin; Lin, Liang-Tzung; Lee, Chiang-Wen; Yen, Ming-Hong; Tzeng, Wen-Sheng; Lin, Chun-Ching

    2014-01-01

    Extracts from natural plants have been used in traditional medicine for many centuries worldwide. Artocarpus communis is one such plant that has been used to treat liver cirrhosis, hypertension, and diabetes. To our knowledge, this study is the first to investigate the antihepatoma activity of A. communis toward HepG2 and PLC/PRF/5 cells and the first to explore the relationship between antihepatoma activity and the active compound artocarpin content in different fractions of A. communis. A. communis methanol extract and fractions induced dose-dependent reduction of tumor cell viability. DNA laddering analysis revealed that A. communis extract and fractions did not induce apoptosis in HepG2 and PLC/PRF/5 cells. Instead, acridine orange staining revealed that A. communis triggered autophagic cell death in a dose-dependent manner. The antihepatoma activity of A. communis is attributable to artocarpin. The fractions with the highest artocarpin content were also the fractions with the highest antihepatoma activity in the following order: dichloromethane fraction > methanol extract > ethyl acetate fraction > n-butanol fraction > n-hexane fraction. Taken together, A. communis showed antihepatoma activity through autophagic cell death. The effect was related to artocarpin content. Artocarpin could be considered an indicator of the anticancer potential of A. communis extract.

  7. Antihepatoma activity of Artocarpus communis is higher in fractions with high artocarpin content.

    PubMed

    Tzeng, Cheng-Wei; Yen, Feng-Lin; Lin, Liang-Tzung; Lee, Chiang-Wen; Yen, Ming-Hong; Tzeng, Wen-Sheng; Lin, Chun-Ching

    2014-01-01

    Extracts from natural plants have been used in traditional medicine for many centuries worldwide. Artocarpus communis is one such plant that has been used to treat liver cirrhosis, hypertension, and diabetes. To our knowledge, this study is the first to investigate the antihepatoma activity of A. communis toward HepG2 and PLC/PRF/5 cells and the first to explore the relationship between antihepatoma activity and the active compound artocarpin content in different fractions of A. communis. A. communis methanol extract and fractions induced dose-dependent reduction of tumor cell viability. DNA laddering analysis revealed that A. communis extract and fractions did not induce apoptosis in HepG2 and PLC/PRF/5 cells. Instead, acridine orange staining revealed that A. communis triggered autophagic cell death in a dose-dependent manner. The antihepatoma activity of A. communis is attributable to artocarpin. The fractions with the highest artocarpin content were also the fractions with the highest antihepatoma activity in the following order: dichloromethane fraction > methanol extract > ethyl acetate fraction > n-butanol fraction > n-hexane fraction. Taken together, A. communis showed antihepatoma activity through autophagic cell death. The effect was related to artocarpin content. Artocarpin could be considered an indicator of the anticancer potential of A. communis extract. PMID:25133268

  8. Deep Sequencing Analysis of the Ixodes ricinus Haemocytome

    PubMed Central

    Franta, Zdeněk; Pedra, Joao H. F.; Ribeiro, José M. C.

    2015-01-01

    Background Ixodes ricinus is the main tick vector of the microbes that cause Lyme disease and tick-borne encephalitis in Europe. Pathogens transmitted by ticks have to overcome innate immunity barriers present in tick tissues, including midgut, salivary glands epithelia and the hemocoel. Molecularly, invertebrate immunity is initiated when pathogen recognition molecules trigger serum or cellular signalling cascades leading to the production of antimicrobials, pathogen opsonization and phagocytosis. We presently aimed at identifying hemocyte transcripts from semi-engorged female I. ricinus ticks by mass sequencing a hemocyte cDNA library and annotating immune-related transcripts based on their hemocyte abundance as well as their ubiquitous distribution. Methodology/principal findings De novo assembly of 926,596 pyrosequence reads plus 49,328,982 Illumina reads (148 nt length) from a hemocyte library, together with over 189 million Illumina reads from salivary gland and midgut libraries, generated 15,716 extracted coding sequences (CDS); these are displayed in an annotated hyperlinked spreadsheet format. Read mapping allowed the identification and annotation of tissue-enriched transcripts. A total of 327 transcripts were found significantly over expressed in the hemocyte libraries, including those coding for scavenger receptors, antimicrobial peptides, pathogen recognition proteins, proteases and protease inhibitors. Vitellogenin and lipid metabolism transcription enrichment suggests fat body components. We additionally annotated ubiquitously distributed transcripts associated with immune function, including immune-associated signal transduction proteins and transcription factors, including the STAT transcription factor. Conclusions/significance This is the first systems biology approach to describe the genes expressed in the haemocytes of this neglected disease vector. A total of 2,860 coding sequences were deposited to GenBank, increasing to 27,547 the number so

  9. [Ixodes ricinus. Health risks and approaches in prevention].

    PubMed

    Voigt, Thomas F

    2006-05-01

    Ticks belong to the parasitical mites. There are more than 1000 different species worldwide which do need blood of warm-blooded organisms for their own development. As ticks are well known to be vectors of several pathogens which could cause insidious infectious diseases, they are important in human and veterinarian medicine as well. It is not possible to control ticks in nature. Therefore the first step should be an effective prevention. In case of a bite the tick must be removed as soon as possible. Although Ixodes ricinus is more or less responsible for all health risks caused by ticks in Germany, further species like Rhipicephalus sanguineus, Dermacentor marginatus and Argas reflexus must not be forgotten, as these ticks have appeared more frequently in the recent past and they can be vectors of several diseases as well. This paper describes first and foremost the biological behaviour and development of Ixodes ricinus and the medical importance of this tick in human and veterinarian medicine.

  10. Factors Driving the Abundance of Ixodes ricinus Ticks and the Prevalence of Zoonotic I. ricinus-Borne Pathogens in Natural Foci

    PubMed Central

    Fernández-de-Mera, Isabel G.; Acevedo, Pelayo; Gortázar, Christian; de la Fuente, José

    2012-01-01

    Environmental factors may drive tick ecology and therefore tick-borne pathogen (TBP) epidemiology, which determines the risk to animals and humans of becoming infected by TBPs. For this reason, the aim of this study was to analyze the influence of environmental factors on the abundance of immature-stage Ixodes ricinus ticks and on the prevalence of two zoonotic I. ricinus-borne pathogens in natural foci of endemicity. I. ricinus abundance was measured at nine sites in the northern Iberian Peninsula by dragging the vegetation with a cotton flannelette, and ungulate abundance was measured by means of dung counts. In addition to ungulate abundance, data on variables related to spatial location, climate, and soil were gathered from the study sites. I. ricinus adults, nymphs, and larvae were collected from the vegetation, and a representative subsample of I. ricinus nymphs from each study site was analyzed by PCR for the detection of Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato and Anaplasma phagocytophilum DNA. Mean prevalences of these pathogens were 4.0% ± 1.8% and 20.5% ± 3.7%, respectively. Statistical analyses confirmed the influence of spatial factors, climate, and ungulate abundance on I. ricinus larva abundance, while nymph abundance was related only to climate. Interestingly, cattle abundance rather than deer abundance was the main driver of B. burgdorferi sensu lato and A. phagocytophilum prevalence in I. ricinus nymphs in the study sites, where both domestic and wild ungulates coexist. The increasing abundance of cattle seems to increase the risk of other hosts becoming infected by A. phagocytophilum, while reducing the risk of being infected by B. burgdorferi sensu lato. Controlling ticks in cattle in areas where they coexist with wild ungulates would be more effective for TBP control than reducing ungulate abundance. PMID:22286986

  11. Infection of Ixodes ricinus (Acari: Ixodidae) by Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato in North Africa

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Zhioua, E.; Bouattour, A.; Hu, C.M.; Gharbi, M.; Aeschliman, A.; Ginsberg, H.S.; Gern, L.

    1999-01-01

    Free-living adult Ixodes ricinus L. were collected in Amdoun, situated in the Kroumiry mountains in northwestern Tunisia (North Africa). Using direct fluorescence antibody assay, the infection rate of field-collected I. ricinus by Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato was 30.5% (n = 72). No difference in infection rate was observed between male and female ticks. Spirochetes that had been isolated from I. ricinus from Ain Drahim (Kroumiry Mountains) in 1988 were identified as Borrelia lusitaniae (formerly genospecies PotiB2). This is the first identification of a genospecies of Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato from the continent of Africa.

  12. Anaplasma spp. in wild mammals and Ixodes ricinus from the north of Spain.

    PubMed

    Portillo, Aránzazu; Pérez-Martínez, Laura; Santibáñez, Sonia; Santibáñez, Paula; Palomar, Ana M; Oteo, José A

    2011-01-01

    Our objectives were to investigate the presence of Anaplasma spp. infection in red deer, wild boars, and Ixodes ricinus removed from deer surveyed in La Rioja, as well as to analyze the presence of Anaplasma spp. in I. ricinus from different Spanish regions--ours included. A total of 21 deer and 13 wild boar blood samples as well as 295 I. ricinus removed from deer, vegetation, or asymptomatic people were tested by polymerase chain reaction targeting Anaplasma spp. 16S rRNA gene and groESL heat shock operon. Twelve deer blood samples were found to be infected with Anaplasma centrale (n = 7) or Anaplasma phagocytophilum (n = 5). No wild boar blood samples gave positive polymerase chain reaction results. Further, A. phagocytophilum was detected in 12 out of 89 I. ricinus removed from deer and in 18 out of 168 I. ricinus collected over vegetation in the North of Spain. Anaplasma spp. was not detected in any of the 38 I. ricinus removed from people. Nucleotide sequences for 16S rRNA gene showed substancial heterogeneity. The etiological agent of human anaplasmosis was found in two deer blood samples, an adult tick from deer, and a nymph from vegetation. The 16S rRNA sequences for 12 out of 35 samples matched the sequence of the Ap-variant 1 strain previously described in the United States, and the remaining 19 positive samples (deer blood and I. ricinus) showed variations with unknown significance. Although the groEL DNA sequences varied among analyzed strains, the deduced amino acid sequences did not change for any of them. This study suggests that deer population from La Rioja harbors strains of A. phagocytophilum similar to that pathogen for humans and other of unknown pathogenicity. Further, it seems that the Ap-variant 1 is circulating among I. ricinus ticks from the North of Spain more frequently than the A. phagocytophilum strain associated to human anaplasmosis. PMID:20528172

  13. Risk indicators for the tick Ixodes ricinus and Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato in Sweden.

    PubMed

    Jaenson, T G T; Eisen, L; Comstedt, P; Mejlon, H A; Lindgren, E; Bergström, S; Olsen, B

    2009-09-01

    The distributional area of the tick Ixodes ricinus (L.), the primary European vector to humans of Lyme borreliosis spirochaetes (Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato) and tick-borne encephalitis virus, appears to be increasing in Sweden. It is therefore important to determine which environmental factors are most useful to assess risk of human exposure to this tick and its associated pathogens. The geographical distribution of I. ricinus in Sweden was analysed with respect to vegetation zones and climate. The northern limit of I. ricinus and B. burgdorferi s.l. in Sweden corresponds roughly to the northern limit of the southern boreal vegetation zone, and is characterized climatically by snow cover for a mean duration of 150 days and a vegetation period averaging 170 days. The zoogeographical distribution of I. ricinus in Sweden can be classified as southerly-central, with the centre of the distribution south of the Limes Norrlandicus. Ixodes ricinus nymphs from 13 localities in different parts of Sweden were examined for the presence of B. burgdorferi s.l. and found to be infected with Borrelia afzelii and Borrelia garinii. Tick sampling localities were characterized on the basis of the density of Borrelia-infected I. ricinus nymphs, presence of specific mammals, dominant vegetation and climate. Densities of I. ricinus nymphs and Borrelia-infected nymphs were significantly correlated, and nymphal density can thus serve as a general indicator of risk for exposure to Lyme borreliosis spirochaetes. Analysis of data from this and other studies suggests that high densities of Borrelia-infected nymphs typically occur in coastal, broadleaf vegetation and in mixed deciduous/spruce vegetation in southern Sweden. Ixodes ricinus populations consistently infected with B. burgdorferi s.l. can occur in: (a) biotopes with shrews, rodents, hares and birds; (b) biotopes with shrews, rodents, hares, deer and birds, and (c) island locations where the varying hare (Lepus timidus) is the

  14. Phytoextraction of metals and rhizoremediation of PAHs in co-contaminated soil by co-planting of Sedum alfredii with ryegrass (Lolium perenne) or castor (Ricinus communis)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Main challenge of phytoremediation of co-contaminated soils is developing strategies for efficient and simultaneous removal of multiple pollutants. A pot experiment was conducted to investigate the potential for phytoextraction of heavy metals and rhizoremediaiton of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons...

  15. Syntheses of all the possible monomethyl ethers and several deoxyhalo analogues of methyl beta-lactoside as ligands for the Ricinus communis lectins.

    PubMed

    Fernández, P; Jiménez-Barbero, J; Martín-Lomas, M

    1994-02-17

    The synthesis of all the possible monomethyl ethers of methyl beta-lactoside (1) has been performed from 1 in a straightforward way, making use of the different reactivity of the hydroxyl groups in alkylation and stannylation reactions. In addition, the deoxyfluoro derivatives of 1 at positions, 6,3',4',epi-4', and 6' have been prepared by reaction of the appropriate substrates with diethylaminosulfur trifluoride or tetrabutylammonium fluoride. Finally, the 6-deoxyiodo and 6'-bromodeoxy analogues of 1 have also been prepared. PMID:8180997

  16. Identification of reference genes for quantitative RT-PCR analysis of microRNAs and mRNAs in castor bean (Ricinus communis L.) under drought stress.

    PubMed

    Cassol, Daniela; Cruz, Fernanda P; Espindola, Kauê; Mangeon, Amanda; Müller, Caroline; Loureiro, Marcelo Ehlers; Corrêa, Régis L; Sachetto-Martins, Gilberto

    2016-09-01

    Quantitative real-time PCR (RT-qPCR) is one of the most powerful and sensitive techniques to the study of gene expression. Several factors influence RT-qPCR performance though, including the stability of the reference genes used for data normalization. While the selection of appropriate reference genes is crucial for accurate and reliable gene expression analysis, no suitable reference genes have been previously identified in castor bean under drought stress. In this study, the expression stability of eleven mRNAs, thirteen microRNAs (miRNAs) and one small nuclear RNA were analyzed in roots and leaves across different levels of water deficit. Three different algorithms were employed to analyze the RT-qPCR data, and the resulting outputs were merged using a non-weighted unsupervised rank aggregation method. Our analysis indicated that the Elongation factor 1-beta (EF1B), Protein phosphatase 2A (PP2A) and ADP-ribosylation factor (ADP) ranked as the best candidates across diverse samples submitted to different levels of drought conditions. EF1B and Glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH), and EF1B and SKP1/ASK-interacting protein 16 (SKIP16) were found as the most suitable reference genes for expression analysis in roots and leaves, respectively. In addition, miRNAs miR168, miR160 and miR397 were selected as optimal reference genes across all tissues and treatments. miR168 and miR156 were recommended as reference for roots, while miR168 and miR160 were recommended for leaves. Together, our results constitute the first attempt to identify and validate the most suitable reference genes for accurate normalization of gene expression in castor bean under drought stress. PMID:27156134

  17. Experimental evidence for diel δ15N-patterns in different tissues, xylem and phloem saps of castor bean (Ricinus communis L.).

    PubMed

    Peuke, A D; Gessler, A; Tcherkez, G

    2013-12-01

    Nitrogen isotope signatures in plants might give insights in the metabolism and allocation of nitrogen. To obtain a deeper understanding of the modifications of the nitrogen isotope signatures, we determined δ(15)N in transport saps and in different fractions of leaves, axes and roots during a diel course along the plant axis. The most significant diel variations were observed in xylem and phloem saps where δ(15)N was significantly higher during the day compared with during the night. However in xylem saps, this was observed only in the canopy, but not at the hypocotyl positions. In the canopy, δ(15)N was correlated fairly well between phloem and xylem saps. These variations in δ(15)N in transport saps can be attributed to nitrate reduction in leaves during the photoperiod as well as to (15)N-enriched glutamine acting as transport form of N. δ(15)N of the water soluble fraction of roots and leaves partially affected δ(15)N of phloem and xylems saps. δ(15)N patterns are likely the result of a complex set of interactions and N-fluxes between plant organs. Furthermore, the natural nitrogen isotope abundance in plant tissue is not constant during the diel course - a fact that needs to be taken into account when sampling for isotopic studies.

  18. Identification of reference genes for quantitative RT-PCR analysis of microRNAs and mRNAs in castor bean (Ricinus communis L.) under drought stress.

    PubMed

    Cassol, Daniela; Cruz, Fernanda P; Espindola, Kauê; Mangeon, Amanda; Müller, Caroline; Loureiro, Marcelo Ehlers; Corrêa, Régis L; Sachetto-Martins, Gilberto

    2016-09-01

    Quantitative real-time PCR (RT-qPCR) is one of the most powerful and sensitive techniques to the study of gene expression. Several factors influence RT-qPCR performance though, including the stability of the reference genes used for data normalization. While the selection of appropriate reference genes is crucial for accurate and reliable gene expression analysis, no suitable reference genes have been previously identified in castor bean under drought stress. In this study, the expression stability of eleven mRNAs, thirteen microRNAs (miRNAs) and one small nuclear RNA were analyzed in roots and leaves across different levels of water deficit. Three different algorithms were employed to analyze the RT-qPCR data, and the resulting outputs were merged using a non-weighted unsupervised rank aggregation method. Our analysis indicated that the Elongation factor 1-beta (EF1B), Protein phosphatase 2A (PP2A) and ADP-ribosylation factor (ADP) ranked as the best candidates across diverse samples submitted to different levels of drought conditions. EF1B and Glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH), and EF1B and SKP1/ASK-interacting protein 16 (SKIP16) were found as the most suitable reference genes for expression analysis in roots and leaves, respectively. In addition, miRNAs miR168, miR160 and miR397 were selected as optimal reference genes across all tissues and treatments. miR168 and miR156 were recommended as reference for roots, while miR168 and miR160 were recommended for leaves. Together, our results constitute the first attempt to identify and validate the most suitable reference genes for accurate normalization of gene expression in castor bean under drought stress.

  19. The reactive surface of Castor leaf [Ricinus communis L.] powder as a green adsorbent for the removal of heavy metals from natural river water

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martins, Amanda E.; Pereira, Milene S.; Jorgetto, Alexandre O.; Martines, Marco A. U.; Silva, Rafael I. V.; Saeki, Margarida J.; Castro, Gustavo R.

    2013-07-01

    In this study, a green adsorbent was successfully applied to remove toxic metals from aqueous solutions. Dried minced castor leaves were fractionated into 63-μm particles to perform characterization and extraction experiments. Absorption bands in FTIR (Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy) spectra at 1544, 1232 and 1350 cm-1 were assigned to nitrogen-containing groups. Elemental analysis showed high nitrogen and sulfur content: 5.76 and 1.93%, respectively. The adsorption kinetics for Cd(II) and Pb(II) followed a pseudo-second-order model, and no difference between the experimental and calculated Nf values (0.094 and 0.05 mmol g-1 for Cd(II) and Pb(II), respectively) was observed. The Ns values calculated using the modified Langmuir equation, 0.340 and 0.327 mmol g-1 for Cd(II) and Pb(II), respectively, were superior to the results obtained for several materials in the literature. The method proposed in this study was applied to pre-concentrate (45-fold enrichment factor) and used to measure Cd(II) and Pb(II) in freshwater samples from the Paraná River. The method was validated through a comparative analysis with a standard reference material (1643e).

  20. Seeds' physicochemical traits and mucilage protection against aluminum effect during germination and root elongation as important factors in a biofuel seed crop (Ricinus communis).

    PubMed

    Silva, Giovanni Eustáquio Alves; Ramos, Flávia Toledo; de Faria, Ana Paula; França, Marcel Giovanni Costa

    2014-10-01

    We determined the length, volume, dry biomass, and density in seeds of five castor bean cultivars and verified notable physicochemical trait differences. Seeds were then subjected to different toxic aluminum (Al) concentrations to evaluate germination, relative root elongation, and the role of root apices' rhizosphere mucilage layer. Seeds' physicochemical traits were associated with Al toxicity responses, and the absence of Al in cotyledons near to the embryo was revealed by Al-hematoxylin staining, indicating that Al did not induce significant germination reduction rates between cultivars. However, in the more sensitive cultivar, Al was found around the embryo, contributing to subsequent growth inhibition. After this, to investigate the role of mucilage in Al tolerance, an assay was conducted using NH4Cl to remove root mucilage before or after exposure to different Al concentrations. Sequentially, the roots were stained with hematoxylin and a quantitative analysis of staining intensity was obtained. These results revealed the significant contribution of the mucilage layer to Al toxicity responses in castor bean seedlings. Root growth elongation under Al toxicity confirmed the role of the mucilage layer, which jointly indicated the differential Al tolerance between cultivars and an efficient Al-exclusion mechanism in the tolerant cultivar.

  1. A computational perspective of molecular interactions through virtual screening, pharmacokinetic and dynamic prediction on ribosome toxin A chain and inhibitors of Ricinus communis

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, R. Barani; Suresh, M. Xavier

    2012-01-01

    Background: Ricin is considered to be one of the most deadly toxins and gained its favor as a bioweapon that has a serious social and biological impact, due to its widespread nature and abundant availability. The hazardous effects of this toxin in human being are seen in almost all parts of the organ system. The severe consequences of the toxin necessitate the need for developing potential inhibitors that can effectively block its interaction with the host system. Materials and Methods: In order to identify potential inhibitors that can effectively block ricin, we employed various computational approaches. In this work, we computationally screened and analyzed 66 analogs and further tested their ADME/T profiles. From the kinetic and toxicity studies we selected six analogs that possessed appropriate pharmacokinetic and dynamic property. We have also performed a computational docking of these analogs with the target. Results: On the basis of the dock scores and hydrogen bond interactions we have identified analog 64 to be the best interacting molecule. Molecule 64 seems to have stable interaction with the residues Tyr80, Arg180, and Val81. The pharmacophore feature that describes the key functional features of a molecule was also studied and presented. Conclusion: The pharmacophore features of the drugs provided suggests the key functional groups that can aid in the design and synthesis of more potential inhibitors. PMID:22224054

  2. Syntheses of all the possible monomethyl ethers and several deoxyhalo analogues of methyl beta-lactoside as ligands for the Ricinus communis lectins.

    PubMed

    Fernández, P; Jiménez-Barbero, J; Martín-Lomas, M

    1994-02-17

    The synthesis of all the possible monomethyl ethers of methyl beta-lactoside (1) has been performed from 1 in a straightforward way, making use of the different reactivity of the hydroxyl groups in alkylation and stannylation reactions. In addition, the deoxyfluoro derivatives of 1 at positions, 6,3',4',epi-4', and 6' have been prepared by reaction of the appropriate substrates with diethylaminosulfur trifluoride or tetrabutylammonium fluoride. Finally, the 6-deoxyiodo and 6'-bromodeoxy analogues of 1 have also been prepared.

  3. Ixodes ricinus and Its Endosymbiont Midichloria mitochondrii: A Comparative Proteomic Analysis of Salivary Glands and Ovaries

    PubMed Central

    Di Venere, Monica; Fumagalli, Marco; Cafiso, Alessandra; De Marco, Leone; Epis, Sara; Plantard, Olivier; Bardoni, Anna; Salvini, Roberta; Viglio, Simona; Bazzocchi, Chiara; Iadarola, Paolo; Sassera, Davide

    2015-01-01

    Hard ticks are hematophagous arthropods that act as vectors of numerous pathogenic microorganisms of high relevance in human and veterinary medicine. Ixodes ricinus is one of the most important tick species in Europe, due to its role of vector of pathogenic bacteria such as Borrelia burgdorferi and Anaplasma phagocytophilum, of viruses such as tick borne encephalitis virus and of protozoans as Babesia spp. In addition to these pathogens, I. ricinus harbors a symbiotic bacterium, Midichloria mitochondrii. This is the dominant bacteria associated to I. ricinus, but its biological role is not yet understood. Most M. mitochondrii symbionts are localized in the tick ovaries, and they are transmitted to the progeny. M. mitochondrii bacteria have however also been detected in the salivary glands and saliva of I. ricinus, as well as in the blood of vertebrate hosts of the tick, prompting the hypothesis of an infectious role of this bacterium. To investigate, from a proteomic point of view, the tick I. ricinus and its symbiont, we generated the protein profile of the ovary tissue (OT) and of salivary glands (SG) of adult females of this tick species. To compare the OT and SG profiles, 2-DE profiling followed by LC-MS/MS protein identification were performed. We detected 21 spots showing significant differences in the relative abundance between the OT and SG, ten of which showed 4- to 18-fold increase/decrease in density. This work allowed to establish a method to characterize the proteome of I. ricinus, and to detect multiple proteins that exhibit a differential expression profile in OT and SG. Additionally, we were able to use an immunoproteomic approach to detect a protein from the symbiont. Finally, the method here developed will pave the way for future studies on the proteomics of I. ricinus, with the goals of better understanding the biology of this vector and of its symbiont M. mitochondrii. PMID:26398775

  4. Ixodes ricinus and Its Endosymbiont Midichloria mitochondrii: A Comparative Proteomic Analysis of Salivary Glands and Ovaries.

    PubMed

    Di Venere, Monica; Fumagalli, Marco; Cafiso, Alessandra; De Marco, Leone; Epis, Sara; Plantard, Olivier; Bardoni, Anna; Salvini, Roberta; Viglio, Simona; Bazzocchi, Chiara; Iadarola, Paolo; Sassera, Davide

    2015-01-01

    Hard ticks are hematophagous arthropods that act as vectors of numerous pathogenic microorganisms of high relevance in human and veterinary medicine. Ixodes ricinus is one of the most important tick species in Europe, due to its role of vector of pathogenic bacteria such as Borrelia burgdorferi and Anaplasma phagocytophilum, of viruses such as tick borne encephalitis virus and of protozoans as Babesia spp. In addition to these pathogens, I. ricinus harbors a symbiotic bacterium, Midichloria mitochondrii. This is the dominant bacteria associated to I. ricinus, but its biological role is not yet understood. Most M. mitochondrii symbionts are localized in the tick ovaries, and they are transmitted to the progeny. M. mitochondrii bacteria have however also been detected in the salivary glands and saliva of I. ricinus, as well as in the blood of vertebrate hosts of the tick, prompting the hypothesis of an infectious role of this bacterium. To investigate, from a proteomic point of view, the tick I. ricinus and its symbiont, we generated the protein profile of the ovary tissue (OT) and of salivary glands (SG) of adult females of this tick species. To compare the OT and SG profiles, 2-DE profiling followed by LC-MS/MS protein identification were performed. We detected 21 spots showing significant differences in the relative abundance between the OT and SG, ten of which showed 4- to 18-fold increase/decrease in density. This work allowed to establish a method to characterize the proteome of I. ricinus, and to detect multiple proteins that exhibit a differential expression profile in OT and SG. Additionally, we were able to use an immunoproteomic approach to detect a protein from the symbiont. Finally, the method here developed will pave the way for future studies on the proteomics of I. ricinus, with the goals of better understanding the biology of this vector and of its symbiont M. mitochondrii.

  5. Hedgehog inhibitors from Artocarpus communis and Hyptis suaveolens.

    PubMed

    Arai, Midori A; Uchida, Kyoko; Sadhu, Samir K; Ahmed, Firoj; Koyano, Takashi; Kowithayakorn, Thaworn; Ishibashi, Masami

    2015-08-01

    The hedgehog (Hh) signaling pathway plays crucial roles in cell maintenance and proliferation during embryonic development. Naturally occurring Hh inhibitors were isolated from Artocarpus communis and Hyptis suaveolens using our previously constructed cell-based assay system. Bioactivity guided fractionation led to the isolation of 15 compounds, including seven new compounds (4, 5, 6, 7, and 9-11). The isolated compounds showed cytotoxicity against a cancer cell line (PANC1) in which Hh signaling was abnormally activated. Several compounds (12-14; GLI1 transcriptional inhibition IC50=7.6, 4.7, and 4.0 μM, respectively) inhibited Hh related protein (BCL2) expression. Moreover, compounds 1, 12, and 13 disrupted GLI1 and DNA complex formation.

  6. Hedgehog inhibitors from Artocarpus communis and Hyptis suaveolens.

    PubMed

    Arai, Midori A; Uchida, Kyoko; Sadhu, Samir K; Ahmed, Firoj; Koyano, Takashi; Kowithayakorn, Thaworn; Ishibashi, Masami

    2015-08-01

    The hedgehog (Hh) signaling pathway plays crucial roles in cell maintenance and proliferation during embryonic development. Naturally occurring Hh inhibitors were isolated from Artocarpus communis and Hyptis suaveolens using our previously constructed cell-based assay system. Bioactivity guided fractionation led to the isolation of 15 compounds, including seven new compounds (4, 5, 6, 7, and 9-11). The isolated compounds showed cytotoxicity against a cancer cell line (PANC1) in which Hh signaling was abnormally activated. Several compounds (12-14; GLI1 transcriptional inhibition IC50=7.6, 4.7, and 4.0 μM, respectively) inhibited Hh related protein (BCL2) expression. Moreover, compounds 1, 12, and 13 disrupted GLI1 and DNA complex formation. PMID:26178912

  7. A review on the challenges for increassed production of castor

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The oil produced by castor (Ricinus communis) is an important raw material for chemical industry for its unique properties such as the only commercial source of a hydroxilated fatty acid that composes around 90% of the oil. This crop has a remarkable potential for increasing importance as a raw mate...

  8. Shrub clearing adversely affects the abundance of Ixodes ricinus ticks.

    PubMed

    Tack, Wesley; Madder, Maxime; Baeten, Lander; Vanhellemont, Margot; Verheyen, Kris

    2013-07-01

    In order to get a better understanding of the importance of vertical forest structure as a component of Ixodes ricinus tick habitat, an experiment was set up in a coniferous forest on sandy soils in northern Belgium. Ticks were sampled in six control and six treatment plots on various sampling occasions in 2008-2010. In the course of the study period, a moderate thinning was carried out in all plots and shrub clearing was performed in the treatment plots. Thinning had no effect on tick abundance, while shrub clearing had an adverse affect on the abundance of all three life stages (larva, nymph, adult) up to 2 years post-clearing. Our findings are especially relevant in the light of the ongoing efforts to improve vertical forest structure in Belgium and many other parts of Europe, which might create suitable habitats for ticks and change the epidemiology of tick-borne diseases. Also, our results indicate that shrub clearing could be applied as a tick control measure in recreational areas where there is a high degree of human-tick contact.

  9. A castor oil-containing dental luting agent: effects of cyclic loading and storage time on flexural strength

    PubMed Central

    DERCELI, Juliana dos Reis; FAIS, Laiza Maria Grassi; PINELLI, Lígia Antunes Pereira

    2014-01-01

    Favorable results in the use of castor oil polyurethane (COP) as pulp capping, membrane material, sealer, mouthwash and in bone repair, associated with the fact that Ricinus communis is not derived from petroleum and it is abundant in Brazil, encourage researches in the development of luting agents. Objectives This study compared the flexural strength (FS) of a castor oil-containing dental luting agent with a weight percentage of 10% (wt%) of calcium carbonate (COP10) with RelyX ARC (RX) after mechanical cycling (MC) and distilled water storage. Material and Methods Sixty-four specimens (25x2x2 mm) were fabricated and divided into two groups, COP10 and RX (control). Each group was divided into 4 subgroups (n=8) according to the storage time, 24 hours (24 h) or 60 days (60 d), and the performance (MC+FS) or not (only FS) of the mechanical cycling test. The FS (10 kN; 0.5 mm/min) and MC tests (10,000 cycles, 5 Hz, 0.5 mm/min) were carried out using an MTS-810 machine. The data were analyzed using ANOVA (α=0.05). Results The obtained FS (MPa) values were: COP10 24h- 19.04±2.41; COP10 60d- 17.92±3.54; RX 24h- 75.19±3.43; RX 60d- 88.77±6.89. All the RX specimens submitted to MC fractured, while the values for COP10 after MC were as follows: COP10 24h- 17.90±1.87 and COP10 60d- 18.60±1.60. Conclusions A castor oil-containing dental luting agent with a weight percentage of 10% (wt%) of calcium carbonate is resistant to mechanical cycling without decreases in flexural strength. However, mean COP10 showed only about 25% of the RelyX ARC mean flexural strength. PMID:25591018

  10. A castor oil-containing dental luting agent: effects of cyclic loading and storage time on flexural strength.

    PubMed

    Derceli, Juliana Dos Reis; Fais, Laiza Maria Grassi; Pinelli, Lígia Antunes Pereira

    2014-01-01

    Favorable results in the use of castor oil polyurethane (COP) as pulp capping, membrane material, sealer, mouthwash and in bone repair, associated with the fact that Ricinus communis is not derived from petroleum and it is abundant in Brazil, encourage researches in the development of luting agents. Objectives This study compared the flexural strength (FS) of a castor oil-containing dental luting agent with a weight percentage of 10% (wt%) of calcium carbonate (COP10) with RelyX ARC (RX) after mechanical cycling (MC) and distilled water storage. Material and Methods Sixty-four specimens (25x2x2 mm) were fabricated and divided into two groups, COP10 and RX (control). Each group was divided into 4 subgroups (n=8) according to the storage time, 24 hours (24 h) or 60 days (60 d), and the performance (MC+FS) or not (only FS) of the mechanical cycling test. The FS (10 kN; 0.5 mm/min) and MC tests (10,000 cycles, 5 Hz, 0.5 mm/min) were carried out using an MTS-810 machine. The data were analyzed using ANOVA (α=0.05). Results The obtained FS (MPa) values were: COP10 24h- 19.04±2.41; COP10 60d- 17.92±3.54; RX 24h- 75.19±3.43; RX 60d- 88.77±6.89. All the RX specimens submitted to MC fractured, while the values for COP10 after MC were as follows: COP10 24h- 17.90±1.87 and COP10 60d- 18.60±1.60. Conclusions A castor oil-containing dental luting agent with a weight percentage of 10% (wt%) of calcium carbonate is resistant to mechanical cycling without decreases in flexural strength. However, mean COP10 showed only about 25% of the RelyX ARC mean flexural strength.

  11. A castor oil-containing dental luting agent: effects of cyclic loading and storage time on flexural strength.

    PubMed

    Derceli, Juliana Dos Reis; Fais, Laiza Maria Grassi; Pinelli, Lígia Antunes Pereira

    2014-01-01

    Favorable results in the use of castor oil polyurethane (COP) as pulp capping, membrane material, sealer, mouthwash and in bone repair, associated with the fact that Ricinus communis is not derived from petroleum and it is abundant in Brazil, encourage researches in the development of luting agents. Objectives This study compared the flexural strength (FS) of a castor oil-containing dental luting agent with a weight percentage of 10% (wt%) of calcium carbonate (COP10) with RelyX ARC (RX) after mechanical cycling (MC) and distilled water storage. Material and Methods Sixty-four specimens (25x2x2 mm) were fabricated and divided into two groups, COP10 and RX (control). Each group was divided into 4 subgroups (n=8) according to the storage time, 24 hours (24 h) or 60 days (60 d), and the performance (MC+FS) or not (only FS) of the mechanical cycling test. The FS (10 kN; 0.5 mm/min) and MC tests (10,000 cycles, 5 Hz, 0.5 mm/min) were carried out using an MTS-810 machine. The data were analyzed using ANOVA (α=0.05). Results The obtained FS (MPa) values were: COP10 24h- 19.04±2.41; COP10 60d- 17.92±3.54; RX 24h- 75.19±3.43; RX 60d- 88.77±6.89. All the RX specimens submitted to MC fractured, while the values for COP10 after MC were as follows: COP10 24h- 17.90±1.87 and COP10 60d- 18.60±1.60. Conclusions A castor oil-containing dental luting agent with a weight percentage of 10% (wt%) of calcium carbonate is resistant to mechanical cycling without decreases in flexural strength. However, mean COP10 showed only about 25% of the RelyX ARC mean flexural strength. PMID:25591018

  12. Ectopic overexpression of castor bean LEAFY COTYLEDON2 (LEC2) in Arabidopsis triggers the expression of genes that encode regulators of seed maturation and oil body proteins in vegetative tissues.

    PubMed

    Kim, Hyun Uk; Jung, Su-Jin; Lee, Kyeong-Ryeol; Kim, Eun Ha; Lee, Sang-Min; Roh, Kyung Hee; Kim, Jong-Bum

    2013-01-01

    The LEAFY COTYLEDON2 (LEC2) gene plays critically important regulatory roles during both early and late embryonic development. Here, we report the identification of the LEC2 gene from the castor bean plant (Ricinus communis), and characterize the effects of its overexpression on gene regulation and lipid metabolism in transgenic Arabidopsis plants. LEC2 exists as a single-copy gene in castor bean, is expressed predominantly in embryos, and encodes a protein with a conserved B3 domain, but different N- and C-terminal domains to those found in LEC2 from Arabidopsis. Ectopic overexpression of LEC2 from castor bean under the control of the cauliflower mosaic virus (CaMV) 35S promoter in Arabidopsis plants induces the accumulation of transcripts that encodes five major transcription factors (the LEAFY COTYLEDON1 (LEC1), LEAFY COTYLEDON1-LIKE (L1L), FUSCA3 (FUS3), and ABSCISIC ACID INSENSITIVE 3 (ABI3) transcripts for seed maturation, and WRINKELED1 (WRI1) transcripts for fatty acid biosynthesis), as well as OLEOSIN transcripts for the formation of oil bodies in vegetative tissues. Transgenic Arabidopsis plants that express the LEC2 gene from castor bean show a range of dose-dependent morphological phenotypes and effects on the expression of LEC2-regulated genes during seedling establishment and vegetative growth. Expression of castor bean LEC2 in Arabidopsis increased the expression of fatty acid elongase 1 (FAE1) and induced the accumulation of triacylglycerols, especially those containing the seed-specific fatty acid, eicosenoic acid (20:1(Δ11)), in vegetative tissues.

  13. Ectopic overexpression of castor bean LEAFY COTYLEDON2 (LEC2) in Arabidopsis triggers the expression of genes that encode regulators of seed maturation and oil body proteins in vegetative tissues☆

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Hyun Uk; Jung, Su-Jin; Lee, Kyeong-Ryeol; Kim, Eun Ha; Lee, Sang-Min; Roh, Kyung Hee; Kim, Jong-Bum

    2013-01-01

    The LEAFY COTYLEDON2 (LEC2) gene plays critically important regulatory roles during both early and late embryonic development. Here, we report the identification of the LEC2 gene from the castor bean plant (Ricinus communis), and characterize the effects of its overexpression on gene regulation and lipid metabolism in transgenic Arabidopsis plants. LEC2 exists as a single-copy gene in castor bean, is expressed predominantly in embryos, and encodes a protein with a conserved B3 domain, but different N- and C-terminal domains to those found in LEC2 from Arabidopsis. Ectopic overexpression of LEC2 from castor bean under the control of the cauliflower mosaic virus (CaMV) 35S promoter in Arabidopsis plants induces the accumulation of transcripts that encodes five major transcription factors (the LEAFY COTYLEDON1 (LEC1), LEAFY COTYLEDON1-LIKE (L1L), FUSCA3 (FUS3), and ABSCISIC ACID INSENSITIVE 3 (ABI3) transcripts for seed maturation, and WRINKELED1 (WRI1) transcripts for fatty acid biosynthesis), as well as OLEOSIN transcripts for the formation of oil bodies in vegetative tissues. Transgenic Arabidopsis plants that express the LEC2 gene from castor bean show a range of dose-dependent morphological phenotypes and effects on the expression of LEC2-regulated genes during seedling establishment and vegetative growth. Expression of castor bean LEC2 in Arabidopsis increased the expression of fatty acid elongase 1 (FAE1) and induced the accumulation of triacylglycerols, especially those containing the seed-specific fatty acid, eicosenoic acid (20:1Δ11), in vegetative tissues. PMID:24363987

  14. Calcium effects on stomatal movement in Commelina communis L

    SciTech Connect

    Schwartz, A.; Ilan, N.; Grantz, D.A. )

    1988-07-01

    Stomatal movements depends on both ion influx and efflux: attainment of steady state apertures reflects modulation of either or both processes. The role of Ca{sup 2+} in those two processes was investigated in isolated epidermal strips of Commelina communis, using the Ca{sup 2+} chelator EGTA to reduce apoplastic (Ca{sup 2+}). The results suggest that a certain concentration of Ca{sup 2+} is an absolute requirement for salt efflux and stomatal closure. EGTA (2 millimolar) increased KCl-dependent stomatal opening in darkness and completely inhibited the dark-induced closure of initially open stomata. Closure was inhibited even in a KCl-free medium. Thus, maintenance of stomata in the open state does not necessarily depend on continued K{sup +} influx but on the inhibition of salt efflux. Opening in the dark was stimulated by IAA in a concentration-dependent manner, up to 15.4 micrometer without reaching saturation, while the response to EGTA leveled off at 9.2 micrometer. IAA did not inhibit stomatal closure to the extent it stimulated opening. The response to IAA is thus consistent with a primary stimulation of opening, while EGTA can be considered a specific inhibitor of stomatal closing since it inhibits closure to a much larger degree than it stimulates opening. CO{sub 2} causes concentration-dependent reduction in the steady state stomatal aperture. EGTA completely reversed CO{sub 2}-induced closing of open stomata but only partially prevented the inhibition of opening.

  15. ToF-SIMS PCA analysis of Myrtus communis L.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Piras, F. M.; Dettori, M. F.; Magnani, A.

    2009-06-01

    Nowadays there is a growing interest of researchers for the application of sophisticated analytical techniques in conjunction with statistical data analysis methods to the characterization of natural products to assure their authenticity and quality, and for the possibility of direct analysis of food to obtain maximum information. In this work, time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectrometry (ToF-SIMS) in conjunction with principal components analysis (PCA) are applied to study the chemical composition and variability of Sardinian myrtle ( Myrtus communis L.) through the analysis of both berries alcoholic extracts and berries epicarp. ToF-SIMS spectra of berries epicarp show that the epicuticular waxes consist mainly of carboxylic acids with chain length ranging from C20 to C30, or identical species formed from fragmentation of long-chain esters. PCA of ToF-SIMS data from myrtle berries epicarp distinguishes two groups characterized by a different surface concentration of triacontanoic acid. Variability in antocyanins, flavonols, α-tocopherol, and myrtucommulone contents is showed by ToF-SIMS PCA analysis of myrtle berries alcoholic extracts.

  16. In vitro propagation of ornamental myrtus (Myrtus communis).

    PubMed

    Ruffoni, Barbara; Mascarello, Carlo; Savona, Marco

    2010-01-01

    The Myrtle (Myrtus communis L.) is an evergreen shrub typical of the Mediterranean area; it is an interesting plant with multipurpose use. The ornamental use takes into account the production of green cut branches for indoor decoration and production of pot plants for gardening. In this species, there is a great variability in the natural germplasm around the Mediterranean coasts for type and size of fruit, plant architecture, leaf size and internode length. Selected genotypes have been successfully sterilized and cultured in vitro. The shoots were multiplied on MS (16) salts and vitamins, with 0.5 mg/L BA and 0.2 mg/L IAA. Clones showed variation of multiplication rate and rooting percentage. IAA or IBA at 0.5 mg/L increased the rooting percentage and noticed differences in root number and length. The sucrose concentration can affect rooting, such as light intensity during the in vitro rooting phase can modulate biomass production and chlorophyll content. The combination of these factors enhanced the frequency rate of acclimatization.

  17. Antiinflammatory flavonoids from Artocarpus heterophyllus and Artocarpus communis.

    PubMed

    Wei, Bai-Luh; Weng, Jing-Ru; Chiu, Pao-Hui; Hung, Chi-Feng; Wang, Jih-Pyang; Lin, Chun-Nan

    2005-05-18

    The antiinflammatory activities of the isolated flavonoids, including cycloartomunin (1), cyclomorusin (2), dihydrocycloartomunin (3), dihydroisocycloartomunin (4), cudraflavone A (5), cyclocommunin (6), and artomunoxanthone (7), and cycloheterohyllin (8), artonins A (9) and B (10), artocarpanone (11), artocarpanone A (12), and heteroflavanones A (13), B (14), and C (15) from Artocarpus communis and A. heterophyllus, were assessed in vitro by determining their inhibitory effects on the chemical mediators released from mast cells, neutrophils, and macrophages. Compound 4 significantly inhibited the release of beta-glucuronidase and histamine from rat peritoneal mast cells stimulated with P-methoxy-N-methylphenethylamine (compound 48/80). Compound 11 significantly inhibited the release of lysozyme from rat neutrophils stimulated with formyl-Met-Leu-Phe (fMLP). Compounds 8, 10, and 11 significantly inhibited superoxide anion formation in fMLP-stimulated rat neutrophils while compounds 2, 3, 5, and 6 evoked the stimulation of superoxide anion generation. Compound 11 exhibited significant inhibitory effect on NO production and iNOS protein expression in RAW 264.7 cells. The potent inhibitory effect of compound 11 on NO production in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-activated macrophages, probably through the suppression of iNOS protein expression.

  18. Artocarpus communis Induces Autophagic Instead of Apoptotic Cell Death in Human Hepatocellular Carcinoma Cells.

    PubMed

    Tzeng, Cheng-Wei; Tzeng, Wen-Sheng; Lin, Liang-Tzung; Lee, Chiang-Wen; Yen, Ming-Hong; Yen, Feng-Lin; Lin, Chun-Ching

    2015-01-01

    For centuries, natural plant extracts have played an important role in traditional medicine for curing and preventing diseases. Studies have revealed that Artocarpus communis possess various bioactivities, such as anti-inflammation, anti-oxidant, and anticancer activities. A. communis offers economic value as a source of edible fruit, yields timber, and is widely used in folk medicines. However, little is known about its molecular mechanisms of anticancer activity. Here, we demonstrate the antiproliferative activity of A. communis methanol extract (AM) and its dichloromethane fraction (AD) in two human hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) cell lines, HepG2 and PLC/PRF/5. Colony assay showed the long-term inhibitory effect of both extracts on cell growth. DNA laddering and immunoblotting analyses revealed that both extracts did not induce apoptosis in the hepatoma cell lines. AM and AD-treated cells demonstrated different cell cycle distribution compared to UV-treated cells, which presented apoptotic cell death with high sub-G1 ratio. Instead, acridine orange staining revealed that AM and AD triggered autophagosome accumulation. Immunoblotting showed a significant expression of autophagy-related proteins, which indicated the autophagic cell death (ACD) of hepatoma cell lines. This study therefore demonstrates that A. communis AM and its dichloromethane fraction can induce ACD in HCC cells and elucidates the potential of A. communis extracts for development as anti tumor therapeutic agents that utilize autophagy as mechanism in mediating cancer cell death.

  19. Artocarpus communis Induces Autophagic Instead of Apoptotic Cell Death in Human Hepatocellular Carcinoma Cells.

    PubMed

    Tzeng, Cheng-Wei; Tzeng, Wen-Sheng; Lin, Liang-Tzung; Lee, Chiang-Wen; Yen, Ming-Hong; Yen, Feng-Lin; Lin, Chun-Ching

    2015-01-01

    For centuries, natural plant extracts have played an important role in traditional medicine for curing and preventing diseases. Studies have revealed that Artocarpus communis possess various bioactivities, such as anti-inflammation, anti-oxidant, and anticancer activities. A. communis offers economic value as a source of edible fruit, yields timber, and is widely used in folk medicines. However, little is known about its molecular mechanisms of anticancer activity. Here, we demonstrate the antiproliferative activity of A. communis methanol extract (AM) and its dichloromethane fraction (AD) in two human hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) cell lines, HepG2 and PLC/PRF/5. Colony assay showed the long-term inhibitory effect of both extracts on cell growth. DNA laddering and immunoblotting analyses revealed that both extracts did not induce apoptosis in the hepatoma cell lines. AM and AD-treated cells demonstrated different cell cycle distribution compared to UV-treated cells, which presented apoptotic cell death with high sub-G1 ratio. Instead, acridine orange staining revealed that AM and AD triggered autophagosome accumulation. Immunoblotting showed a significant expression of autophagy-related proteins, which indicated the autophagic cell death (ACD) of hepatoma cell lines. This study therefore demonstrates that A. communis AM and its dichloromethane fraction can induce ACD in HCC cells and elucidates the potential of A. communis extracts for development as anti tumor therapeutic agents that utilize autophagy as mechanism in mediating cancer cell death. PMID:25967668

  20. Detection of Rickettsia helvetica in Ixodes ricinus ticks collected from Pyrenean chamois in France.

    PubMed

    Davoust, Bernard; Socolovschi, Cristina; Revelli, Paul; Gibert, Philippe; Marié, Jean-Lou; Raoult, Didier; Parola, Philippe

    2012-12-01

    Seventy-one Ixodes ricinus ticks collected from Pyrenean chamois (Rupicapra pyrenaica) in the French Pyrenees were tested by real-time polymerase chain reaction to detect the presence of Rickettsia and Bartonella. Four ticks (6%) were positive for R. helvetica. The chamois carries infected ticks, and this enables the dissemination throughout the environment with this bacterium, a potential human pathogen.

  1. Loss of Lyme disease spirochetes from Ixodes ricinus ticks feeding on European blackbirds.

    PubMed

    Matuschka, F R; Spielman, A

    1992-03-01

    To determine whether blackbirds (Turdus merula), the most abundant and most abundantly tick-infested ecotonal bird of Central Europe, may contribute to the transmission of the Lyme disease spirochete (Borrelia burgdorferi), we compared the infectivity to ticks of naturally as well as experimentally infected blackbirds and rodents. European blackbirds experience intense exposure to Ixodes ricinus ticks and to the pathogens that they transmit. In nature, subadult I. ricinus ticks found feeding on these birds generally contain no spirochetes, although infection is universal in those found on black-striped mice (Apodemus agrarius). Those found on yellow-necked mice (A. flavicollis) are less frequently infected. Ticks lose infection in the course of feeding on blackbirds and fail to infect them. Subadult I. ricinus ticks readily feed on blackbirds, black-striped mice, and jirds (Meriones unguiculatus), but engorge less fully on the bird than on the rodents. Although birds may burden human health by establishing new infestations of I. ricinus ticks, our observations indicate that particular birds may benefit health by locally diminishing transmission of the Lyme disease spirochete.

  2. Substrate prediction of Ixodes ricinus salivary lipocalins differentially expressed during Borrelia afzelii infection

    PubMed Central

    Valdés, James J.; Cabezas-Cruz, Alejandro; Sima, Radek; Butterill, Philip T.; Růžek, Daniel; Nuttall, Patricia A.

    2016-01-01

    Evolution has provided ticks with an arsenal of bioactive saliva molecules that counteract host defense mechanisms. This salivary pharmacopoeia enables blood-feeding while enabling pathogen transmission. High-throughput sequencing of tick salivary glands has thus become a major focus, revealing large expansion within protein encoding gene families. Among these are lipocalins, ubiquitous barrel-shaped proteins that sequester small, typically hydrophobic molecules. This study was initiated by mining the Ixodes ricinus salivary gland transcriptome for specific, uncharacterized lipocalins: three were identified. Differential expression of these I. ricinus lipocalins during feeding at distinct developmental stages and in response to Borrelia afzelii infection suggests a role in transmission of this Lyme disease spirochete. A phylogenetic analysis using 803 sequences places the three I. ricinus lipocalins with tick lipocalins that sequester monoamines, leukotrienes and fatty acids. Both structural analysis and biophysical simulations generated robust predictions showing these I. ricinus lipocalins have the potential to bind monoamines similar to other tick species previously reported. The multidisciplinary approach employed in this study characterized unique lipocalins that play a role in tick blood-feeding and transmission of the most important tick-borne pathogen in North America and Eurasia. PMID:27584086

  3. Substrate prediction of Ixodes ricinus salivary lipocalins differentially expressed during Borrelia afzelii infection.

    PubMed

    Valdés, James J; Cabezas-Cruz, Alejandro; Sima, Radek; Butterill, Philip T; Růžek, Daniel; Nuttall, Patricia A

    2016-01-01

    Evolution has provided ticks with an arsenal of bioactive saliva molecules that counteract host defense mechanisms. This salivary pharmacopoeia enables blood-feeding while enabling pathogen transmission. High-throughput sequencing of tick salivary glands has thus become a major focus, revealing large expansion within protein encoding gene families. Among these are lipocalins, ubiquitous barrel-shaped proteins that sequester small, typically hydrophobic molecules. This study was initiated by mining the Ixodes ricinus salivary gland transcriptome for specific, uncharacterized lipocalins: three were identified. Differential expression of these I. ricinus lipocalins during feeding at distinct developmental stages and in response to Borrelia afzelii infection suggests a role in transmission of this Lyme disease spirochete. A phylogenetic analysis using 803 sequences places the three I. ricinus lipocalins with tick lipocalins that sequester monoamines, leukotrienes and fatty acids. Both structural analysis and biophysical simulations generated robust predictions showing these I. ricinus lipocalins have the potential to bind monoamines similar to other tick species previously reported. The multidisciplinary approach employed in this study characterized unique lipocalins that play a role in tick blood-feeding and transmission of the most important tick-borne pathogen in North America and Eurasia. PMID:27584086

  4. Activity studies of sesquiterpene oxides and sulfides from the plant Hyptis suaveolens (Lamiaceae) and its repellency on Ixodes ricinus (Acari: Ixodidae).

    PubMed

    Ashitani, T; Garboui, S S; Schubert, F; Vongsombath, C; Liblikas, I; Pålsson, K; Borg-Karlson, A-K

    2015-12-01

    Hyptis suaveolens (Lamiaceae), a plant traditionally used as a mosquito repellent, has been investigated for repellent properties against nymphs of the tick Ixodes ricinus. Essential oils and volatile compounds of fresh and dried leaves, from plants originating from Laos and Guinea-Bissau, were identified by GC-MS and tested in a tick repellency bioassay. All the essential oils were strongly repellent against the ticks, even though the main volatile constituents differed in their proportions of potentially tick repellent chemicals. (+)/(-)-sabinene were present in high amounts in all preparations, and dominated the emission from dry and fresh leaves together with 1,8-cineol and α-phellandrene. 1,8-Cineol and sabinene were major compounds in the essential oils from H. suaveolens from Laos. Main compounds in H. suaveolens from Guinea-Bissau were (-)-sabinene, limonene and terpinolene. Among the sesquiterpene hydrocarbons identified, α-humulene exhibited strong tick repellency (96.8 %). Structure activity studies of oxidation or sulfidation products of germacrene D, α-humulene and β-caryophyllene, showed increased tick repellent activity: of mint sulfide (59.4 %), humulene-6,7-oxide (94.5 %) and caryophyllene-6,7-oxide (96.9 %). The substitution of oxygen with sulfur slightly lowered the repellency. The effects of the constituents in the oils can then be regarded as a trade off between the subsequently lower volatility of the sesquiterpene derivatives compared to the monoterpenes and may thus increase their potential usefulness as tick repellents. PMID:26385208

  5. Pollination Drop in Juniperus communis: Response to Deposited Material

    PubMed Central

    Mugnaini, Serena; Nepi, Massimo; Guarnieri, Massimo; Piotto, Beti; Pacini, Ettore

    2007-01-01

    Background and Aims The pollination drop is a liquid secretion produced by the ovule and exposed outside the micropyle. In many gymnosperms, pollen lands on the surface of the pollination drop, rehydrates and enters the ovule as the drop retracts. The objective of this work was to study the formation of the pollination drop in Juniperus communis, its carbohydrate composition and the response to deposition of conspecific pollen, foreign pollen and other particulate material, in an attempt to clarify the mechanism of pollination drop retraction. Method Branches with female cones close to pollination drop secretion were collected. On the first day of pollination drop exposure, an eyelash mounted on a wooden stick with paraffin was used to collect pollen or silica gel particles, which were then deposited by contact with the drop. Volume changes in pollination drops were measured by using a stereomicroscope with a micrometer eyepiece 3 h after deposition. The volume of non-pollinated control drops was also recorded. On the first day of secretion, drops were also collected for sugar analysis by high-performance liquid chromatography. Key Results The pollination drop persisted for about 12 d if not pollinated, and formed again after removal for up to four consecutive days. After pollination with viable conspecific pollen, the drop retracted quickly and did not form again. Partial withdrawal occurred after deposition of other biological and non-biological material. Fructose was the dominant sugar; glucose was also present but at a much lower percentage. Conclusions Sugar analysis confirmed the general trend of fructose dominance in gymnosperm pollination drops. Complete pollination drop withdrawal appears to be triggered by a biochemical mechanism resulting from interaction between pollen and drop constituents. The results of particle deposition suggest the existence of a non-specific, particle-size-dependent mechanism that induces partial pollination drop withdrawal

  6. Toxin content of commercial castor cultivars

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The castor plant Ricinus communis L. is the source of castor oil which has numerous uses and is a key chemical feedstock for an array of products from polymers to cosmetics. Although castor was once widely grown throughout the world, the presence of the toxic protein ricin has deterred the re-introd...

  7. 21 CFR 172.510 - Natural flavoring substances and natural substances used in conjunction with flavors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... Acacia farnesiana (L.) Willd Castor oil Ricinus communis L Catechu, black Acacia catechu Willd Cedar... Do. Costus root Saussurea lappa Clarke Cubeb Piper cubeba L. f Currant, black, buds and leaves Ribes... Guarana Paullinia cupana HBK Haw, black, bark Viburnum prunifolium L Hemlock needles and twigs...

  8. 21 CFR 172.510 - Natural flavoring substances and natural substances used in conjunction with flavors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... Acacia farnesiana (L.) Willd Castor oil Ricinus communis L Catechu, black Acacia catechu Willd Cedar... Do. Costus root Saussurea lappa Clarke Cubeb Piper cubeba L. f Currant, black, buds and leaves Ribes... Guarana Paullinia cupana HBK Haw, black, bark Viburnum prunifolium L Hemlock needles and twigs...

  9. 21 CFR 172.510 - Natural flavoring substances and natural substances used in conjunction with flavors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... Castor oil Ricinus communis L Catechu, black Acacia catechu Willd Cedar, white (aborvitae), leaves and... Clarke Cubeb Piper cubeba L. f Currant, black, buds and leaves Ribes nigrum L Damiana leaves Turnera... officinale L., G. santum L., Bulnesia sarmienti Lor Guarana Paullinia cupana HBK Haw, black, bark...

  10. 21 CFR 172.510 - Natural flavoring substances and natural substances used in conjunction with flavors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... Acacia farnesiana (L.) Willd Castor oil Ricinus communis L Catechu, black Acacia catechu Willd Cedar... Do. Costus root Saussurea lappa Clarke Cubeb Piper cubeba L. f Currant, black, buds and leaves Ribes... Guarana Paullinia cupana HBK Haw, black, bark Viburnum prunifolium L Hemlock needles and twigs...

  11. 21 CFR 172.510 - Natural flavoring substances and natural substances used in conjunction with flavors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... Acacia farnesiana (L.) Willd Castor oil Ricinus communis L Catechu, black Acacia catechu Willd Cedar... Do. Costus root Saussurea lappa Clarke Cubeb Piper cubeba L. f Currant, black, buds and leaves Ribes... Guarana Paullinia cupana HBK Haw, black, bark Viburnum prunifolium L Hemlock needles and twigs...

  12. Kinetic and regulatory properties of cytosolic pyruvate kinase from germinating castor oil seeds.

    PubMed

    Podestá, F E; Plaxton, W C

    1991-10-15

    The kinetic and regulatory properties of cytosolic pyruvate kinase (PKc) isolated from endosperm of germinating castor oil seeds (Ricinus communis L.) have been studied. Optimal efficiency in substrate utilization (in terms of Vmax/Km for phosphoenolpyruvate or ADP) occurred between pH 6.7 and 7.4. Enzyme activity was absolutely dependent on the presence of a bivalent and a univalent metal cation, with Mg2+ and K+ fulfilling this requirement. Mg2+ binding showed positive and negative co-operativity at pH 6.5 (h = 1.6) and pH 7.2 (h = 0.69) respectively. Hyperbolic saturation kinetics were observed with phosphoenolpyruvate (PEP) and K+, whereas ADP acted as a mixed-type inhibitor over 1 mM. Glycerol (10%, v/v) increased the S0.5(ADP) 2.3-fold and altered the pattern of nucleotide binding from hyperbolic (h = 1.0) to sigmoidal (h = 1.79) without modifying PEP saturation kinetics. No activators were identified. ATP, AMP, isocitrate, 2-oxoglutarate, malate, 2-phosphoglycerate, 2,3-bisphosphoglycerate, 3-phosphoglycerate, glycerol 3-phosphate and phosphoglycolate were the most effective inhibitors. These metabolites yielded additive inhibition when tested in pairs. ATP and 3-phosphoglycerate were mixed-type inhibitors with respect to PEP, whereas competitive inhibition was observed for other inhibitors. Inhibition by malate, 2-oxoglutarate, phosphorylated triose sugars or phosphoglycolate was far more pronounced at pH 7.2 than at pH 6.5. Although 32P-labelling studies revealed that extensive phosphorylation in vivo of soluble endosperm proteins occurred between days 3 and 5 of seed germination, no alteration in the 32P-labelling pattern of 5-day-germinated endosperm was observed after 30 min of anaerobiosis. Moreover, no evidence was obtained that PKc was a phosphoprotein in aerobic or anoxic endosperms. It is proposed that endosperm PKc activity of germinating castor seeds is enhanced after anaerobiosis through concerted decreases in ATP levels, cytosolic pH and

  13. Chewing lice of genus Ricinus (Phthiraptera, Ricinidae) deposited at the Zoological Institute of the Russian Academy of Sciences, Saint Petersburg, Russia, with description of a new species

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    We revised a collection of chewing lice deposited at the Zoological Institute of the Russian Academy of Sciences, Saint Petersburg, Russia. We studied 60 slides with 107 specimens of 10 species of the genus Ricinus (De Geer, 1778). The collection includes lectotype specimens of Ricinus ivanovi Blagoveshtchensky, 1951 and of Ricinus tugarinovi Blagoveshtchensky, 1951. We registered Ricinus elongatus Olfers, 1816 ex Turdus ruficollis, R. ivanovi ex Leucosticte tephrocotis and Ricinus serratus (Durrant, 1906) ex Calandrella acutirostris and Calandrella cheleensis which were not included in Price’s world checklist. New records for Russia are R. elongatus ex Turdus ruficollis; Ricinus fringillae De Geer, 1778 ex Emberiza aureola, Emberiza leucocephalos, Emberiza rustica, Passer montanus and Prunella modularis; Ricinus rubeculae De Geer, 1778 ex Erithacus rubecula and Luscinia svecica; Ricinus serratus (Durrant, 1906) ex Alauda arvensis. New records for Kyrgyzstan are R. fringillae ex E. leucocephalos and ex Fringilla coelebs. A new record for Tajikistan is R. serratus ex Calandrella acutirostris. The new species Ricinus vaderi Valan n. sp. is described with Calandra lark, Melanocorypha calandra; from Azerbaijan, as a type host. PMID:26902646

  14. Chewing lice of genus Ricinus (Phthiraptera, Ricinidae) deposited at the Zoological Institute of the Russian Academy of Sciences, Saint Petersburg, Russia, with description of a new species.

    PubMed

    Valan, Miroslav; Sychra, Oldrich; Literak, Ivan

    2016-01-01

    We revised a collection of chewing lice deposited at the Zoological Institute of the Russian Academy of Sciences, Saint Petersburg, Russia. We studied 60 slides with 107 specimens of 10 species of the genus Ricinus (De Geer, 1778). The collection includes lectotype specimens of Ricinus ivanovi Blagoveshtchensky, 1951 and of Ricinus tugarinovi Blagoveshtchensky, 1951. We registered Ricinus elongatus Olfers, 1816 ex Turdus ruficollis, R. ivanovi ex Leucosticte tephrocotis and Ricinus serratus (Durrant, 1906) ex Calandrella acutirostris and Calandrella cheleensis which were not included in Price's world checklist. New records for Russia are R. elongatus ex Turdus ruficollis; Ricinus fringillae De Geer, 1778 ex Emberiza aureola, Emberiza leucocephalos, Emberiza rustica, Passer montanus and Prunella modularis; Ricinus rubeculae De Geer, 1778 ex Erithacus rubecula and Luscinia svecica; Ricinus serratus (Durrant, 1906) ex Alauda arvensis. New records for Kyrgyzstan are R. fringillae ex E. leucocephalos and ex Fringilla coelebs. A new record for Tajikistan is R. serratus ex Calandrella acutirostris. The new species Ricinus vaderi Valan n. sp. is described with Calandra lark, Melanocorypha calandra; from Azerbaijan, as a type host.

  15. [Environmental Effect of Substrate Amelioration on Lake: Effects on Phragmites communis Growth and Photosynthetic Fluorescence Characteristics].

    PubMed

    Yu, Ju-hua; Zhong, Ji-cheng; Fan, Cheng-xin; Huang, Wei; Shang, Jing-ge; Gu, Xiao-zhi

    2015-12-01

    Growth of rooted aquatic macrophytes was affected by the nature and composition of lake bottom sediments. Obviously, it has been recognized as an important ecological restoration measure by improving lake substrate and then reestablishing and restoring aquatic macrophytes in order to get rid of the environmental problem of lake. This study simulated five covering thickness to give an insight into the influence of substrate amelioration on Phragmites communis growth and photosynthetic fluorescence characteristics. The results showed that the total biomass, plant height, leaf length and leaf width of Phragmites communis under capping 5 cm were much more significant than those of capping 18 cm (P < 0.01), at the 120 d, the underground: shoot biomass ratio and fine root: underground biomass ratio were also much higher than those of other treatments (P < 0.05), which indicated that capping 18 cm treatment would significantly inhibit the growth of Phragmites communis , but the growth of control group Phragmites communis was slightly constrained by eutrophicated sediment. In addition, as the capping thickness growing, the underground: shoot biomass ratio of the plant would be reduced dramatically, in order to acquire much more nutrients from sediment for plant growing, the underground biomass of Phragmites communis would be preferentially developed, especially, the biomass of fine root. However, Photosystem II (PS II) photochemical efficiency (Fv/Fm), quantum yield (Yield), photochemical quenching (qP), non-photochemical quenching (qN) of Phragmites communis under different treatments had no significant differences (P > 0.05), furthermore, with much greater capping thickness, the photosynthesis structure of PS II would be much easier destroyed, and PS II would be protected by increasing heat dissipating and reducing leaf photosynthetic area and leaf light-captured pigment contents. In terms of the influence of sediment amelioration by soil exchange on the growth and

  16. [Environmental Effect of Substrate Amelioration on Lake: Effects on Phragmites communis Growth and Photosynthetic Fluorescence Characteristics].

    PubMed

    Yu, Ju-hua; Zhong, Ji-cheng; Fan, Cheng-xin; Huang, Wei; Shang, Jing-ge; Gu, Xiao-zhi

    2015-12-01

    Growth of rooted aquatic macrophytes was affected by the nature and composition of lake bottom sediments. Obviously, it has been recognized as an important ecological restoration measure by improving lake substrate and then reestablishing and restoring aquatic macrophytes in order to get rid of the environmental problem of lake. This study simulated five covering thickness to give an insight into the influence of substrate amelioration on Phragmites communis growth and photosynthetic fluorescence characteristics. The results showed that the total biomass, plant height, leaf length and leaf width of Phragmites communis under capping 5 cm were much more significant than those of capping 18 cm (P < 0.01), at the 120 d, the underground: shoot biomass ratio and fine root: underground biomass ratio were also much higher than those of other treatments (P < 0.05), which indicated that capping 18 cm treatment would significantly inhibit the growth of Phragmites communis , but the growth of control group Phragmites communis was slightly constrained by eutrophicated sediment. In addition, as the capping thickness growing, the underground: shoot biomass ratio of the plant would be reduced dramatically, in order to acquire much more nutrients from sediment for plant growing, the underground biomass of Phragmites communis would be preferentially developed, especially, the biomass of fine root. However, Photosystem II (PS II) photochemical efficiency (Fv/Fm), quantum yield (Yield), photochemical quenching (qP), non-photochemical quenching (qN) of Phragmites communis under different treatments had no significant differences (P > 0.05), furthermore, with much greater capping thickness, the photosynthesis structure of PS II would be much easier destroyed, and PS II would be protected by increasing heat dissipating and reducing leaf photosynthetic area and leaf light-captured pigment contents. In terms of the influence of sediment amelioration by soil exchange on the growth and

  17. De novo Ixodes ricinus salivary gland transcriptome analysis using two next-generation sequencing methodologies

    PubMed Central

    Schwarz, Alexandra; von Reumont, Björn M.; Erhart, Jan; Chagas, Andrezza C.; Ribeiro, José M. C.; Kotsyfakis, Michalis

    2013-01-01

    Tick salivary gland (SG) proteins possess powerful pharmacologic properties that facilitate tick feeding and pathogen transmission. For the first time, SG transcriptomes of Ixodes ricinus, an important disease vector for humans and animals, were analyzed using next-generation sequencing. SGs were collected from different tick life stages fed on various animal species, including cofeeding of nymphs and adults on the same host. Four cDNA samples were sequenced, discriminating tick SG transcriptomes of early- and late-feeding nymphs or adults. In total, 441,381,454 pyrosequencing reads and 67,703,183 Illumina reads were assembled into 272,220 contigs, of which 34,560 extensively annotated coding sequences are disclosed; 8686 coding sequences were submitted to GenBank. Overall, 13% of contigs were classified as secreted proteins that showed significant differences in the transcript representation among the 4 SG samples, including high numbers of sample-specific transcripts. Detailed phylogenetic reconstructions of two relatively abundant SG-secreted protein families demonstrated how this study improves our understanding of the molecular evolution of hematophagy in arthropods. Our data significantly increase the available genomic information for I. ricinus and form a solid basis for future tick genome/transcriptome assemblies and the functional analysis of effectors that mediate the feeding physiology and parasite-vector interaction of I. ricinus.—Schwarz, A., von Reumont, B.M., Erhart, J., Chagas, A.C., Ribeiro, J.M.C., Kotsyfakis, M. De novo Ixodes ricinus salivary gland transcriptome analysis using two next-generation sequencing methodologies. PMID:23964076

  18. Seasonal activity and tick-borne pathogen infection rates of Ixodes ricinus ticks in Hungary.

    PubMed

    Egyed, László; Elő, Péter; Sréter-Lancz, Zsuzsanna; Széll, Zoltán; Balogh, Zsuzsanna; Sréter, Tamás

    2012-04-01

    Ixodes ricinus is the most important tick species in Europe as it is most widely distributed and transmits the majority of tick-borne zoonotic pathogens. As limited data are available for Hungary, the aim of the present study was to investigate the seasonal timing of questing by I. ricinus and the infection rate of this tick species with all major tick-borne zoonotic pathogens. Monthly collections of I. ricinus were carried out over 3 consecutive years by dragging a blanket in 6 biotopes representing different areas of Hungary. Altogether, 1800 nymphs (300 per collection point) were screened as pooled samples (each of 5 specimens) by PCR-based methods for tick-borne pathogens. I. ricinus larvae, nymphs, and adults had bimodal activity patterns with a major peak in the spring. As newly moulted ticks of all stages are thought to emerge in the autumn of each year, it appears that most newly emerged ticks delayed their questing until the following spring. The minimum prevalence of Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato was 2.5%. Borr. afzelii, Borr. burgdorferi sensu stricto, Borr. garinii, Borr. lusitaniae, and Borr. valaisiana were identified by hybridization. The minimum infection rate with spotted fever group rickettsiae was 1.9%. Rickettsia helvetica was identified in all biotopes. The minimum prevalence of Anaplasma phagocytophilum, Babesia divergens and Bab. microti was low (0.3-0.5%). Bartonella spp.-, Francisella tularensis-, and TBE virus-specific amplification products were not detected. Relative to the results of comparable studies carried out in the Carpathian Basin, the prevalence of tick-borne pathogens was low in Hungary. This might be attributed to the climatic difference between the lowland areas of Hungary and submountain areas of the surrounding countries involved in the studies.

  19. Detection of Bartonella spp. in Ixodes ricinus ticks and Bartonella seroprevalence in human populations.

    PubMed

    Müller, Andreas; Reiter, Michael; Schötta, Anna Margarita; Stockinger, Hannes; Stanek, Gerold

    2016-07-01

    Ticks are vectors for many bacterial, protozoan and viral pathogens and are potential vectors for Bartonella species. Hunters and foresters, therefore, may be regarded as high-risk groups for Bartonella infections. The aims of this study were (i) to identify Bartonella species in questing Ixodes ricinus ticks collected in all provinces of Austria, and (ii) to determine the prevalence of antibodies to Bartonella species in hunters and blood donors in eastern Austria. A total of 515 larval, nymphal and adult I. ricinus, collected throughout Austria in 2005, were selected from the tick library at the Institute for Hygiene and Applied Immunology of the Medical University of Vienna and screened in a specific real-time PCR that targeted a region of the ssrA gene of Bartonella species. The overall Bartonella infection rate was 2.1% (11/515) and the highest rate, 7.5% (4/53), was found in ticks from Vienna. This finding was confirmed by screening a further 60 I. ricinus collected from Vienna in 2013: of these, 6.7% (4/60) were positive for Bartonella spp. The rate of infection was always higher in adult ticks. Sequence analysis in the Bartonella-positive ticks identified several species, including B. henselae, B. doshiae and B. grahamii. To our knowledge this is the first time that these species have been identified in I. ricinus in Austria. Prevalence of IgG antibodies against B. henselae and B. quintana was determined in serum samples from hunters (100) and blood donors (100): in hunters 23% were positive for B. quintana and in 2 samples (2%), antibodies to both B. quintana and B. henselae were detected; in blood donors 22% were positive for B. quintana, 1% for B. henselae and 5% for both. These results indicate that exposure to ticks does not constitutes a relevant risk for Bartonella infection.

  20. Antibiotic treatment of the hard tick Ixodes ricinus: Influence on Midichloria mitochondrii load following blood meal.

    PubMed

    Ninio, Camille; Plantard, Olivier; Serra, Valentina; Pollera, Claudia; Ferrari, Nicola; Cafiso, Alessandra; Sassera, Davide; Bazzocchi, Chiara

    2015-07-01

    Midichloria mitochondrii is the most prevalent symbiont of the hard tick Ixodes ricinus, present in 100% of eggs and adult females of wild ticks. This bacterium is intracellular, and is the only known symbiont able to invade the mitochondria of the host cells. However, the role that M. mitochondrii plays in the host metabolism has yet to be elucidated. Multiple lines of evidence indicate the possibility of transmission of this bacterium to the vertebrate host during the tick blood meal. In order to investigate the role of M. mitochondrii in the biology of the tick host, we performed an antibiotic treatment on Ixodes ricinus individuals, with the aim of reducing/eliminating the symbiont, and to potentially observe the dynamic of bacterial infection in the tick host. We microinjected engorged adult females of I. ricinus with tetracycline, and we allowed the resulting larvae to feed on gerbils treated with the same antibiotic. The amount of M. mitochondrii was evaluated at different stages of the experiment using molecular techniques. In addition we evaluated the presence/absence of the symbiont DNA in the blood of gerbils used for the larval feeding. The performed treatments did not allow to eliminate the symbiont population from the host tick, however it allowed to reduce the multiplication that occurs after the larval blood meal. These results open the way for future experiments, using different antibiotic molecules, different administration methods and antibiotic administration on subsequent tick stages, to fulfill the goal of eliminating M. mitochondrii from the host I. ricinus, a major step in our understanding of the impact of this bacterium on ticks.

  1. Biological control of Ixodes ricinus larvae and nymphs with Metarhizium anisopliae blastospores.

    PubMed

    Wassermann, Marion; Selzer, Philipp; Steidle, Johannes L M; Mackenstedt, Ute

    2016-07-01

    The entomopathogenic fungus Metarhizium anisopliae is used as a biological pest control agent against various arthropod species, including ticks. However, the efficacy depends on tick species, tick stage and fungus strain. We studied the effect of M. anisopliae on engorged larvae and nymphs of Ixodes ricinus, the most abundant tick species in Europe, under laboratory and semi-field conditions. A significant reduction of engorged larvae and nymphs could be shown under laboratory as well as under semi-field conditions. Only 3.5% of the larvae treated in the lab and only 18.5% kept under semi-field conditions were able to develop into nymphs compared to the recovered nymphs of the control groups, which were regarded as 100%. Only 7.1% of nymphs were recovered as adult ticks after fungal treatment under semi-field conditions compared to the control (100%). The efficacy of blastospores of M. anisopliae against engorged larvae and nymphs of I. ricinus under semi-field conditions was demonstrated in this study, showing their high potential as a biological control agent of ticks. Further studies will have to investigate the effect of this agent against other stages of I. ricinus as well as other tick species before its value as a biological control agent against ticks can be fully assessed.

  2. Low prevalence of Borrelia bavariensis in Ixodes ricinus ticks in southeastern Austria.

    PubMed

    Glatz, Martin; Muellegger, Robert R; Hizo-Teufel, Cecilia; Fingerle, Volker

    2014-10-01

    Borrelia bavariensis was recently described as a distinct genospecies among the B. burgdorferi sensu lato complex. The prevalence of B. bavariensis in Austria, a highly endemic area for tick-transmitted pathogens, is scarcely characterized. To investigate the prevalence of B. bavariensis in Ixodes ricinus ticks we reevaluated the results of a study conducted in 518 ticks from southeastern Austria collected in 2002 and 2003. The presence of B. burgdorferi s.l.-specific DNA in ticks was analyzed by a PCR for the outer surface protein A (ospA) gene. Borrelia species were differentiated by restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) analysis, and samples positive for B. bavariensis were further analyzed by multilocus sequence analysis. Two of 133 (1.5%) B. burgdorferi s.l.-positive I. ricinus ticks were infected with B. bavariensis. Both specimens were coinfected with the OspA serotype 5 of B. garinii. Borrelia bavariensis is present; however, seem to be rare in I. ricinus ticks in southeastern Austria.

  3. Prevalence of Borrelia burgdorferi and granulocytic and monocytic ehrlichiae in Ixodes ricinus ticks from southern Germany.

    PubMed

    Baumgarten, B U; Röllinghoff, M; Bogdan, C

    1999-11-01

    A total of 287 adult Ixodes ricinus ticks, collected in two regions of southern Germany (Frankonia and Baden-Württemberg) where Borrelia burgdorferi infections are known to be endemic, were examined for the presence of 16S ribosomal DNA specific for the Ehrlichia phagocytophila genogroup, E. chaffeensis, E. canis, and B. burgdorferi by nested PCR. Totals of 2.2% (6 of 275) and 21.8% (65 of 275) of the ticks were positive for the E. phagocytophila genogroup and B. burgdorferi, respectively. Two ticks (0.7%) were coinfected with both bacteria. Of 12 engorged I. ricinus ticks collected from two deer, 8 (67%) were positive for the E. phagocytophila genogroup and one (8%) was positive for B. burgdorferi. There was no evidence of infection with E. canis or E. chaffeensis in the investigated tick population. The nucleotide sequences of the 546-bp Ehrlichia PCR products differed at one or two positions from the original sequence of the human granulocytic ehrlichiosis (HGE) agent (S.-M. Chen, J. S. Dumler, J. S. Bakken, and D. H. Walker, J. Clin. Microbiol. 32:589-595, 1994). Three groups of sequence variants were detected; two of these were known to occur in other areas in Europe or the United States, whereas one has not been reported before. Thus, in the German I. ricinus tick population closely related granulocytic ehrlichiae are prevalent, which might represent variants of E. phagocytophila or the HGE agent. PMID:10523532

  4. Arsenophonus nasoniae and Rickettsiae Infection of Ixodes ricinus Due to Parasitic Wasp Ixodiphagus hookeri.

    PubMed

    Bohacsova, Monika; Mediannikov, Oleg; Kazimirova, Maria; Raoult, Didier; Sekeyova, Zuzana

    2016-01-01

    Arsenophonus nasoniae, a male-killing endosymbiont of chalcid wasps, was recently detected in several hard tick species. Following the hypothesis that its presence in ticks may not be linked to the direct occurrence of bacteria in tick's organs, we identified A. nasoniae in wasps emerging from parasitised nymphs. We confirmed that 28.1% of Ixodiphagus hookeri wasps parasitizing Ixodes ricinus ticks were infected by A. nasoniae. Moreover, in examined I. ricinus nymphs, A. nasoniae was detected only in those, which were parasitized by the wasp. However, in part of the adult wasps as well as in some ticks that contained wasp's DNA, we did not confirm A. nasoniae. We also found, that in spite of reported male-killing, some newly emerged adult wasp males were also infected by A. nasoniae. Additionally, we amplified the DNA of Rickettsia helvetica and Rickettsia monacensis (known to be Ixodes ricinus-associated bacteria) in adult parasitoid wasps. This may be related either with the digested bacterial DNA in wasp body lumen or with a role of wasps in circulation of rickettsiae among tick vectors. PMID:26901622

  5. Repellent efficacy of DEET, Icaridin, and EBAAP against Ixodes ricinus and Ixodes scapularis nymphs (Acari, Ixodidae).

    PubMed

    Büchel, Kerstin; Bendin, Juliane; Gharbi, Amina; Rahlenbeck, Sibylle; Dautel, Hans

    2015-06-01

    Repellent efficacy of 10% EBAAP (3-[N-butyl-N-acetyl]-aminopropionic acid, ethyl ester) and 10% Icaridin ((2-(2-hydroxyethyl)-1-piperidinecarboxylic acid 1-methylpropyl ester)) were evaluated against 20% DEET (N,N-diethyl-3-methylbenzamide) in human subject trials against ticks. Responses of host-seeking nymphs of the European castor bean tick (Ixodes ricinus L.; Acari: Ixodidae) and the North American blacklegged tick (I. scapularis Say; Acari: Ixodidae) were compared. Tests were carried out according to the US-EPA standard protocol with ethanolic solutions of the active ingredients of repellents being applied to the forearm of 10 volunteers. The upward movement of ticks was monitored until repellent failure taking up to 12.5 h. Application of 20% DEET resulted in median complete protection times (CPT; Kaplan-Meier median) between 4 and 4.5 h, while 10% EBAAP yielded CPTs of 3.5-4h. No significant differences were found between the efficacies of two repellents nor between the two species tested. The median of the CPT of a 10% Icaridin solution was 5h in nymphs of I. scapularis, but 8h in those of I. ricinus (P<0.01). Based on these studies, EBAAP and Icaridin are efficacious alternatives to DEET in their repellent activity against nymphs of the two Ixodes ticks with Icaridin demonstrating particularly promising results against I. ricinus. Future research should investigate whether similar results occur when adult Ixodes ticks or other tick species are tested. PMID:25936273

  6. Vector Competence of the Tick Ixodes ricinus for Transmission of Bartonella birtlesii

    PubMed Central

    Reis, Caroline; Cote, Martine; Le Rhun, Danielle; Lecuelle, Benoit; Levin, Michael L.; Vayssier-Taussat, Muriel; Bonnet, Sarah I.

    2011-01-01

    Bartonella spp. are facultative intracellular vector-borne bacteria associated with several emerging diseases in humans and animals all over the world. The potential for involvement of ticks in transmission of Bartonella spp. has been heartily debated for many years. However, most of the data supporting bartonellae transmission by ticks come from molecular and serological epidemiological surveys in humans and animals providing only indirect evidences without a direct proof of tick vector competence for transmission of bartonellae. We used a murine model to assess the vector competence of Ixodes ricinus for Bartonella birtlesii. Larval and nymphal I. ricinus were fed on a B. birtlesii-infected mouse. The nymphs successfully transmitted B. birtlesii to naïve mice as bacteria were recovered from both the mouse blood and liver at seven and 16 days after tick bites. The female adults successfully emitted the bacteria into uninfected blood after three or more days of tick attachment, when fed via membrane feeding system. Histochemical staining showed the presence of bacteria in salivary glands and muscle tissues of partially engorged adult ticks, which had molted from the infected nymphs. These results confirm the vector competence of I. ricinus for B. birtlesii and represent the first in vivo demonstration of a Bartonella sp. transmission by ticks. Consequently, bartonelloses should be now included in the differential diagnosis for patients exposed to tick bites. PMID:21655306

  7. Spotted fever group rickettsiae identified in Dermacentor marginatus and Ixodes ricinus ticks in Algeria.

    PubMed

    Kernif, Tahar; Messaoudene, Dalila; Ouahioune, Soraya; Parola, Philippe; Raoult, Didier; Bitam, Idir

    2012-12-01

    Our study was carried out using Ixodes ricinus ticks collected from cattle from Tizi-Ouzou and Dermacentor marginatus ticks collected from the vegetation of the Blida region, a tourist site, both regions situated in northern Algeria. The results of real-time quantitative PCR (qPCR) specific for a partial sequence of the citrate synthase gene (gltA) indicate that Rickettsia spp. were present in 11/23 (48%) and 4/9 (44%) of the examined ticks from Tizi-Ouzou and Blida, respectively. The sequences of Rickettsia helvetica and Ri. monacensis were found in I. ricinus ticks using gltA primers. In addition, Ri. slovaca was detected based on the sequences of the gltA and the outer membrane protein (OmpA) genes in D. marginatus ticks. DNA sequencing to identify the species revealed for the first time the presence of Ri. helvetica in I. ricinus ticks and Ri. slovaca in D. marginatus ticks from Algeria and confirmed the presence of Ri. monacensis.

  8. Arsenophonus nasoniae and Rickettsiae Infection of Ixodes ricinus Due to Parasitic Wasp Ixodiphagus hookeri

    PubMed Central

    Bohacsova, Monika; Mediannikov, Oleg; Kazimirova, Maria; Raoult, Didier; Sekeyova, Zuzana

    2016-01-01

    Arsenophonus nasoniae, a male-killing endosymbiont of chalcid wasps, was recently detected in several hard tick species. Following the hypothesis that its presence in ticks may not be linked to the direct occurrence of bacteria in tick's organs, we identified A. nasoniae in wasps emerging from parasitised nymphs. We confirmed that 28.1% of Ixodiphagus hookeri wasps parasitizing Ixodes ricinus ticks were infected by A. nasoniae. Moreover, in examined I. ricinus nymphs, A. nasoniae was detected only in those, which were parasitized by the wasp. However, in part of the adult wasps as well as in some ticks that contained wasp's DNA, we did not confirm A. nasoniae. We also found, that in spite of reported male-killing, some newly emerged adult wasp males were also infected by A. nasoniae. Additionally, we amplified the DNA of Rickettsia helvetica and Rickettsia monacensis (known to be Ixodes ricinus-associated bacteria) in adult parasitoid wasps. This may be related either with the digested bacterial DNA in wasp body lumen or with a role of wasps in circulation of rickettsiae among tick vectors. PMID:26901622

  9. Distribution of the common tick, Ixodes ricinus (Acari: Ixodidae), in different vegetation types in southern Sweden.

    PubMed

    Lindström, Anders; Jaenson, Thomas G T

    2003-07-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate whether differences in Ixodes ricinus (L.) nymphal relative density exist among different vegetation types in southern Sweden. Nymphal I. ricinus were sampled in southeastern Scania in southern Sweden during June-August 1997. A total of 110-180 25-m2 samples were taken by blanket-dragging from each of nine different vegetation types. There was a highly significant difference in nymphal abundance between the open areas as one group and the forested areas as another group (P < 0.0001). Vegetation types that differed significantly in median nymphal abundance from all other vegetation types were pine forest (16 nymphs/100 m2) and beech forest (40 nymphs/100 m2). No significant differences in median nymphal density were revealed among mixed deciduous forest, alder forest, oak forest, and hazel forest (28-32 nymphs/100 m2), or among dry meadow, meadow, and heath (0 nymphs/100 m2). Forestation of open areas is likely to lead to increased I. ricinus abundance and disease risk.

  10. Isolation and characterization of polyphenol oxidase from Sardinian poisonous and non-poisonous chemotypes of Ferula communis (L.).

    PubMed

    Zucca, Paolo; Sanjust, Enrico; Loi, Martina; Sollai, Francesca; Ballero, Mauro; Pintus, Manuela; Rescigno, Antonio

    2013-06-01

    Ferula communis (L.), a plant belonging to Apiaceae, is widely present in Sardinia, Italy. Currently, interest in F. communis focuses on the presence of two chemotypes in the wild. One chemotype is poisonous to animals, whereas the other chemotype is non-poisonous. Polyphenol oxidase (PPO) has been extracted and partially purified from the two chemotypes of F. communis. The biochemical characterization of the enzymes showed significant differences. In particular, while the two PPOs were not able to use 6- and 7-hydroxycoumarin as substrates, they showed distinct specificity for 6,7- and 7,8-dihydroxycoumarin. Significant differences in the enzyme behavior towards common PPO inhibitors were also observed. In addition, activation energy and activation energy for denaturation were determined, showing significant differences between FP-PPO and FNP-PPO, particularly for denaturation kinetics. The possible roles of the two PPOs in determining differences in composition and toxicity of the two F. communis chemotypes are also discussed.

  11. Sympatric occurrence of Ixodes ricinus, Dermacentor reticulatus and Haemaphysalis concinna ticks and Rickettsia and Babesia species in Slovakia.

    PubMed

    Svehlová, Andrea; Berthová, Lenka; Sallay, Balázs; Boldiš, Vojtech; Sparagano, Olivier A E; Spitalská, Eva

    2014-09-01

    Vojka nad Dunajom in the south-west of the Slovak Republic is a locality with sympatric occurrence of 3 species of ticks. This study investigated the spatial distribution of Dermacentor reticulatus, Ixodes ricinus, and Haemaphysalis concinna ticks in this area and determined the prevalence of Babesia and Rickettsia species in questing adults of these tick species considered as potential risk for humans and animals. Ticks were collected by blanket dragging over the vegetation from September 2011 to October 2012. All ticks were subjected to DNA extraction and individually assayed with PCR-based methods targeting the gltA, sca4, 23S rRNA genes of Rickettsia spp. and the 18S rRNA gene of Babesia spp. D. reticulatus was the dominant species occurring in this area (67.7%, n=600), followed by I. ricinus (31.8%, n=282) and H. concinna (0.5%, n=4) ticks. Rickettsial infection was determined in 10.8% (n=65) and 11.7% (n=33) of D. reticulatus and I. ricinus ticks, respectively. Babesia spp. infection was confirmed in 1.8% (n=11) of D. reticulatus and 0.4% (n=1) of I. ricinus ticks. DNA of 6 different pathogenic tick-borne species, Rickettsia helvetica, Rickettsia monacensis, Rickettsia slovaca, Rickettsia raoultii, Babesia canis, and Babesia venatorum were identified in this locality with sympatric occurrence of I. ricinus, D. reticulatus, and H. concinna ticks.

  12. Copurification of cytosolic fructose-1,6-bisphosphatase and cytosolic aldolase from endosperm of germinating castor oil seeds.

    PubMed

    Moorhead, G B; Hodgson, R J; Plaxton, W C

    1994-08-01

    The cytosolic isozymes of fructose-1,6-bisphosphatase (FBPasec) and aldolase (ALDc) from germinating castor oil seed endosperm (COS) (Ricinus communis L.; cv Hale) were purified to homogeneity and final specific activities 49 and 2.8 (mumol product produced/min)/mg protein, respectively. Nondenaturing polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis of the final FBPasec preparation resolved a single protein-staining band which comigrated with FBPase activity. Two protein-staining bands of 41 and 39 kDa that occurred in an approximate 1:1 ratio were observed following sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis of the final FBPasec preparation. Rabbit anti-(FBPasec) immune serum immunoprecipitated the activities of FBPasec, but not that of the plastidic isozyme of FBPase from germinated COS. Immunoblot analysis utilizing affinity purified anti-(COS FBPasec) immunoglobulin G established that the 39-kDa subunit of FBP-asec did not arise via proteolytic cleavage of the 41-kDa subunit during tissue extraction and enzyme purification. However, FBPasec was susceptible to degradation by endogenous protease(s) during incubation of an acidic (pH 5.9) clarified COS extract at 25 degrees C. This proteolysis caused the production of a 32-kDa antigenic polypeptide and resulted in FBPase inactivation. Gel filtration indicated that purified FBPasec exists in at least 8 different oligomeric forms ranging in size from > 2 million to < 34 kDa. The majority of FBPasec, however, eluted as a 143-kDa heterotetramer. Sodium dodecyl sulfate gel electrophoresis of the final ALDc preparation yielded a single 40-kDa protein-staining polypeptide that cross-reacted with anti-(carrot ALDc) IgG. FBPasec copurified with ALDc through polyethylene glycol fractionation, Q-Sepharose, and phosphocellulose chromatographies, and the intensity of the fluorescence emission spectrum of ALDc was greatly reduced in the presence of COS FBPasec, but not rabbit muscle FBPase. These findings suggest that these

  13. Development and characterization of microsatellite loci for the pseudometallophyte Commelina communis (Commelinaceae)1

    PubMed Central

    Li, Jiao-Kun; Song, Yun-Peng; Xu, Hui; Zhu, Jian-Yu; Tang, Lu-Lu

    2015-01-01

    • Premise of the study: Microsatellite primers were developed for the pseudometallophyte Commelina communis (Commelinaceae), an important pioneer plant for phytoremediation of copper-contaminated soil. Two wild populations collected from metalliferous and nonmetalliferous sites were used to assess the polymorphism at each locus. • Methods and Results: Based on the Fast Isolation by AFLP of Sequences COntaining repeats (FIASCO) method, a total of 34 pairs of simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers were designed. When 40 specimens from two populations were screened, 12 microsatellite loci were found to be highly polymorphic. The number of alleles per locus ranged from one to 11 and the observed and expected heterozygosity per locus ranged from 0.000 to 1.000 and from 0.195 to 0.941, respectively. • Conclusions: These markers will be useful for examining genetic diversity, population structure, and gene flow in populations of C. communis under different edaphic conditions and guiding sustainable management plans for phytoremediation. PMID:25699218

  14. Zinc tolerance and zinc removal ability of living and dried biomass of Desmodesmus communis.

    PubMed

    Novák, Zoltán; Jánószky, Mihály; B-Béres, Viktória; Nagy, Sándor Alex; Bácsi, István

    2014-12-01

    Effects of zinc on growth, cell morphology, oxidative stress, and zinc removal ability of the common phytoplankton species Desmodesmus communis were investigated at a concentration range of 0.25-160 mg L(-1) zinc. Cell densities and chlorophyll content decreased in treated cultures, changes in coenobia morphology and elevated lipid peroxidation levels appeared above 2.5 mg L(-1) zinc. The most effective zinc removal was observed at 5 mg L(-1) zinc concentration, while maximal amount of removed zinc appeared in 15 mg L(-1) zinc treated culture. Removed zinc is mainly bound on the cell surface. Dead biomass adsorbed more zinc than living biomass relative to unit of dry mass, but living biomass was more effective, relative to initial zinc content. This study comprehensively examines the zinc tolerance and removal ability of D. communis and demonstrates, in comparison with published literature, that these characteristics of different isolates of the same species can vary within a wide range. PMID:25193446

  15. Extracting extensor digitorum communis activation patterns using high-density surface electromyography

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Xiaogang; Suresh, Nina L.; Xue, Cindy; Rymer, William Z.

    2015-01-01

    The extensor digitorum communis muscle plays an important role in hand dexterity during object manipulations. This multi-tendinous muscle is believed to be controlled through separate motoneuron pools, thereby forming different compartments that control individual digits. However, due to the complex anatomical variations across individuals and the flexibility of neural control strategies, the spatial activation patterns of the extensor digitorum communis compartments during individual finger extension have not been fully tracked under different task conditions. The objective of this study was to quantify the global spatial activation patterns of the extensor digitorum communis using high-density (7 × 9) surface electromyogram (EMG) recordings. The muscle activation map (based on the root mean square of the EMG) was constructed when subjects performed individual four finger extensions at the metacarpophalangeal joint, at different effort levels and under different finger constraints (static and dynamic). Our results revealed distinct activation patterns during individual finger extensions, especially between index and middle finger extensions, although the activation between ring and little finger extensions showed strong covariance. The activation map was relatively consistent at different muscle contraction levels and for different finger constraint conditions. We also found that distinct activation patterns were more discernible in the proximal–distal direction than in the radial–ulnar direction. The global spatial activation map utilizing surface grid EMG of the extensor digitorum communis muscle provides information for localizing individual compartments of the extensor muscle during finger extensions. This is of potential value for identifying more selective control input for assistive devices. Such information can also provide a basis for understanding hand impairment in individuals with neural disorders. PMID:26500558

  16. Initial period of sexual maturity determines the greater growth rate of male over female in the dioecious tree Juniperus communis subsp. communis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iszkuło, Grzegorz; Boratyński, Adam

    2011-03-01

    Dioecious species are a very interesting object of study because of predicted differences between male and female individuals. Most dioecious species have a higher reproductive effort in female individuals in comparison with males. The object of this study was common juniper ( Juniperus communis subsp. communis), dioecious shrubs or small trees. This study examined differences in radial growth rate between male and female individuals and the effect of climatic factors on tree-ring width in this species. Wood samples were taken from 30 trees (15 females and 15 males) and subjected to the standard procedure of dendrochronological dating. Females had lower growth rates than males after the age of 17 years. The greatest differences between genders in growth rate were observed between 17 and 25 years. After 26 years, male tree-rings were still wider, but the differences were much smaller. The differentiation of tree-ring width between males and females probably started when the female trees reached sexual maturity and started to produce seed cones. Differences between sexes in tree-ring width were noticed also in their reaction to climatic conditions. When compared to males, female individuals tended to be more sensitive to low temperature and low precipitation. This sensitivity of dioecious species could be one reason for their greater susceptibility to extinction in times of progressive climatic changes.

  17. Blood feeding on large grazers affects the transmission of Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato by Ixodes ricinus.

    PubMed

    Pacilly, F C A; Benning, M E; Jacobs, F; Leidekker, J; Sprong, H; Van Wieren, S E; Takken, W

    2014-10-01

    The presence of Ixodes ricinus and their associated Borrelia infections on large grazers was investigated. Carcases of freshly shot red deer, mouflon and wild boar were examined for the presence of any stage of I. ricinus. Questing ticks were collected from locations where red deer and wild boar are known to occur. Presence of Borrelia burgdorferi s.l. DNA was examined in a fraction of the collected ticks. Larvae, nymphs and adult ticks were found on the three large grazers. Red deer had the highest tick burden, with many of the nymphs and adult females attached for engorgement. Most larvae had not attached. The mean number of ticks on the animals varied from 13 to 67. Ticks were highly aggregated amongst the animals: some animals had no ticks, while others had high numbers. Larvae and nymphs were mostly found on the ears, while adult ticks were attached to the axillae. The Borrelia infection rate of questing nymphs was 8.5%. Unengorged wandering nymphs on deer had a Borrelia infection rate of 12.5%, while only 0.9% of feeding nymphs carried a Borrelia infection. The infection rate of unengorged adult male ticks was 4.5%, and that of feeding female ticks was 0.7%. The data suggest that ticks feeding on red deer and wild boar lose their Borrelia infections. The implications of the results are discussed with respect to Borrelia epidemiology and maintenance of a Borrelia reservoir as well as the role of reproductive hosts for Ixodes ricinus. PMID:25113977

  18. Prevalence of five pathogenic agents in questing Ixodes ricinus ticks from western France.

    PubMed

    Cotté, Violaine; Bonnet, Sarah; Cote, Martine; Vayssier-Taussat, Muriel

    2010-10-01

    In Europe, Ixodes ricinus ticks are vectors of many emerging pathogens, including Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato (sl), Anaplasma phagocytophilum, spotted fever group Rickettsia sp., Babesia sp., and very likely Bartonella sp. In this study, we looked for the presence of DNA of these microorganisms in 572 ticks from two forests in the west of France. DNA extraction and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) amplification were performed on individual nymphal, male, and female I. ricinus ticks. Amplification from 1 tick among the 572 samples (0.2%) resulted in PCR products with Bartonella-specific primers. Sequence analysis of the amplified fragment did not lead to species identification. Two ticks (0.3%) carried A. phagocytophilum-specific DNA. Eight ticks (1.4%) were positive with spotted fever group Rickettsia-specific primers, and all PCR fragments were related to Rickettsia helvetica. Thirty-five ticks (6.1%) were positive with B. burgdorferi sl-specific primers; the sequences were all related to Borrelia garinii or Borrelia afzelii, except one that was related to Borrelia carolinensis, a newly described species never reported in Europe so far. Thirty-five ticks (6.1%) carried Babesia sp. DNA. Female adults were more infected by B. burgdorferi sl than male adults. The prevalence of B. burgdorferi sl and Babesia sp. was significantly different between the two forests, with a higher prevalence of B. burgdorferi sl in ticks from the forest of Princé and a higher prevalence of Babesia sp. in ticks from the forest of Gâvre. To our knowledge, this is the first study that has detected all five pathogens in questing I. ricinus in the west of France and the first report of B. carolinensis DNA in ticks in Europe.

  19. Distribution, abundance, and habitat preferences of Ixodes ricinus (Acari: Ixodidae) in northern Spain.

    PubMed

    Estrada-Peña, A

    2001-05-01

    Ixodes ricinus (L.) was collected by standard dragging in 2,082 different sites in 18 broad vegetation categories in northern Spain to explore the influence of vegetation on its abundance. Of these, 785 sites were surveyed in 1995, 636 in 1996, and 661 in 1997. The impact of habitat features on differences in tick numbers is addressed. The tick was present in low numbers in areas of old, heterogeneous coniferous forests. Ticks appeared to prefer sites that had substantial secondary plant growth such as river canopies, heterogeneous Pinus uncinata forests, mixed forests, and deciduous heterogeneous woods. Highest tick abundance was recorded for sites that contained Quercus spp., as well as for mixed old forests that had many ecotones. I. ricinus was absent in open habitats, homogeneous young coniferous forests, and open hillsides. These differences were attributed to greater shrub cover and litter depth, which created more favorable microclimatic conditions for tick survival. The abundance of I. ricinus nymphs was not homogeneous in sites within the same habitat category and vegetation physiognomy at these sites did not appear to cause differences in tick abundance. Analysis of variance (ANOVA) indicated that variation in tick abundance could be explained by the exposure of the sampled site, at least for some zones within deciduous forest categories. However, this factor did not explain the variation observed in other habitats. Temperature and vegetation (normalized derived vegetation index) features were recorded daily by remotely sensed imagery throughout the study period and the data were used to obtain long-term mean and maximum values of the physical parameters considered. Multiple regression analysis performed between these long-term abiotic factors and nymphal abundance in positive sites showed high relationship (R2 coefficients) for every habitat category and explained >50% of the variation in tick abundance.

  20. Geography Plays a More Important Role than Soil Composition on Structuring Genetic Variation of Pseudometallophyte Commelina communis

    PubMed Central

    Li, Jiaokun; Xu, Hui; Song, Yunpeng; Tang, Lulu; Gong, Yanbing; Yu, Runlan; Shen, Li; Wu, Xueling; Liu, Yuandong; Zeng, Weimin

    2016-01-01

    Pseudometallophytes are excellent models to study microevolution and local adaptation to soil pollution, as they can grow both on metalliferous and contrasting non-metalliferous soils. Although, there has been accumulating evidence for the effects of edaphic conditions and geographical isolation on the genetic structure of pesudometallophytes, it is still a difficult problem in evolutionary biology to assess their relative importance. In this study, we investigated the spatial patterns of genetic variability, population differentiation and genetic groups in pseudometallophyte Commelina communis with 12 microsatellite loci. Eight metallicolous and six non-metallicolous populations of C. communis were sampled from cupriferous sites and surrounding non-contaminated areas in China. Neither significant reduction in genetic diversity nor apparent founder and bottleneck effects were observed in metallicolous populations of C. communis. Based on Bayesian and Neighbor-Joining clustering analyses and a principal coordinates analysis, all sampled populations were found to be mainly separated into three genetic groups, corresponding well to their geographical locations rather than edaphic origins. Moreover, a significant and strong correlation between population genetic divergence and geographical distance were detected by Mantel test (r = 0.33; P < 0.05) and multiple matrix regression with randomization (MMRR; βD = 0.57, P < 0.01). However, the effect of copper concentration on genetic patterns of C. communis was not significant (MMRR; βE = -0.17, P = 0.12). Our study clearly demonstrated that the extreme edaphic conditions in metalliferous areas had limited effects on the genetic variability in C. communis. Geographic distance played a more important role in affecting the genetic structure of C. communis than soil composition did. In C. communis, the geographically disjunctive populations on metalliferous soils had multiple origins and evolved independently from nearby non

  1. Geography Plays a More Important Role than Soil Composition on Structuring Genetic Variation of Pseudometallophyte Commelina communis.

    PubMed

    Li, Jiaokun; Xu, Hui; Song, Yunpeng; Tang, Lulu; Gong, Yanbing; Yu, Runlan; Shen, Li; Wu, Xueling; Liu, Yuandong; Zeng, Weimin

    2016-01-01

    Pseudometallophytes are excellent models to study microevolution and local adaptation to soil pollution, as they can grow both on metalliferous and contrasting non-metalliferous soils. Although, there has been accumulating evidence for the effects of edaphic conditions and geographical isolation on the genetic structure of pesudometallophytes, it is still a difficult problem in evolutionary biology to assess their relative importance. In this study, we investigated the spatial patterns of genetic variability, population differentiation and genetic groups in pseudometallophyte Commelina communis with 12 microsatellite loci. Eight metallicolous and six non-metallicolous populations of C. communis were sampled from cupriferous sites and surrounding non-contaminated areas in China. Neither significant reduction in genetic diversity nor apparent founder and bottleneck effects were observed in metallicolous populations of C. communis. Based on Bayesian and Neighbor-Joining clustering analyses and a principal coordinates analysis, all sampled populations were found to be mainly separated into three genetic groups, corresponding well to their geographical locations rather than edaphic origins. Moreover, a significant and strong correlation between population genetic divergence and geographical distance were detected by Mantel test (r = 0.33; P < 0.05) and multiple matrix regression with randomization (MMRR; βD = 0.57, P < 0.01). However, the effect of copper concentration on genetic patterns of C. communis was not significant (MMRR; βE = -0.17, P = 0.12). Our study clearly demonstrated that the extreme edaphic conditions in metalliferous areas had limited effects on the genetic variability in C. communis. Geographic distance played a more important role in affecting the genetic structure of C. communis than soil composition did. In C. communis, the geographically disjunctive populations on metalliferous soils had multiple origins and evolved independently from nearby non

  2. Range expansion of Ixodes ricinus to higher altitude, and co-infestation of small rodents with Dermacentor marginatus in the Northern Apennines, Italy.

    PubMed

    Martello, Elisa; Mannelli, Alessandro; Ragagli, Charlotte; Ambrogi, Cecilia; Selmi, Marco; Ceballos, Leonardo A; Tomassone, Laura

    2014-10-01

    Immature ticks (Ixodes ricinus and Dermacentor marginatus) were collected from small rodents (Apodemus spp. and Myodes glareolus), in the Northern Apennines, Italy, at an altitude up to 1650 m above sea level (a.s.l.), from 2009 through 2012. While D. marginatus had been found at the same location in studies carried out in 1994, I. ricinus was very rare or absent. Prevalence (95% confidence interval) of infestation by I. ricinus larvae on Apodemus spp. was 54.4% (47.5, 61.2), and it was greater than prevalence of D. marginatus larvae on the same hosts (23.3%, 17.8, 29.5). The mean (standard deviation) numbers of I. ricinus and D. marginatus larvae per individual Apodemus spp. were similar: 2.3 (4.1) and 2.1 (9.8), respectively. The monthly infestation pattern of the two tick species on Apodemus spp. were different. I. ricinus larvae were more frequent in June and September, than in July-August. I. ricinus nymphs were generally rare, and were most frequently found in July. The prevalence of D. marginatus larvae peaked in July-August, whereas nymphs were mostly active in August-September. Increasing population densities of roe deer (Capreolus capreolus), and increasing temperatures, in the last decades, in the Apennine area might have contributed to the observed range expansion of I. ricinus. PMID:25139531

  3. Prevalence and Diversity among Anaplasma phagocytophilum Strains Originating from Ixodes ricinus Ticks from Northwest Norway.

    PubMed

    Tveten, Ann-Kristin

    2014-01-01

    The tick-borne pathogen Anaplasma phagocytophilum causes great concern for livestock farmers. Tick-borne fever is a widespread disease in Norway, and antibodies have been produced amongst sheep, roe deer, red deer, and moose. The main vector Ixodes ricinus is found along the Norwegian coastline as far north as the Arctic Circle. A total number of 1804 I. ricinus ticks were collected and the prevalence of the pathogen was determined by species-specific qPCR. The overall infection rate varied from 2.83% to 3.32%, but there were no significant differences (p = 0.01) in the overall infection rate in 2010, 2011, or 2012. A multilocus sequencing analysis was performed to further characterise the isolates. The genotyping of 27 strains resulted in classification into 19 different sequences types (ST), none of which was found in the MLST database. The nucleotide diversity was for every locus <0.01, and the number of SNPs was between 1 and 2.8 per 100 bp. The majority of SNPs were synonymous. A goeBURST analysis demonstrated that the strains from northwest Norway cluster together with other Norwegian strains in the MLST database and the strains that are included in this study constitute clonal complexes (CC) 9, 10, and 11 in addition to the singleton. PMID:25215241

  4. Ixodes ricinus (Ixodidae), an occasional phoront on necrophagous and coprophagous beetles in Europe.

    PubMed

    Saloña-Bordas, Marta I; Bahillo de la Puebla, Pablo; Díaz Martín, Beatriz; Sumner, Jason; Perotti, M Alejandra

    2015-02-01

    For ticks, phoretic behaviour using insects associated with vertebrates might offer an alternative strategy to host-seeking. Here we report for the first time the presence of immature stages of the most widespread tick species in Western Europe, Ixodes ricinus (Acari: Ixodidae), on three beetle species belonging to families Silphidae and Geotrupidae (Coleoptera). Specimens were collected while performing fieldwork surveys on insect diversity during the peak of tick's questing behaviour, in July and August of 2009 and 2010. The collections took place in two Natural Parks, the Aiako Harria, Guipúzcoa in Northern Spain and Wellington Country Park, Berkshire, in England. The silphid beetle Nicrophorus vespilloides and the geotrupid Trypocopris pyrenaeus were collected from pig-carcasses and both carried nymphs of I. ricinus; the geotrupid Anoplotrupes stercorosus was carrying a tick larva while feeding on red deer dung. These findings revealed an unnoticed but common relation of ticks not only with decomposed animals but also with insect scavengers. We discuss the rationale of this phenomenon. PMID:25491290

  5. Prevalence of pathogenic bacteria in Ixodes ricinus ticks in Central Bohemia.

    PubMed

    Klubal, Radek; Kopecky, Jan; Nesvorna, Marta; Sparagano, Olivier A E; Thomayerova, Jana; Hubert, Jan

    2016-01-01

    Bacteria associated with the tick Ixodes ricinus were assessed in specimens unattached or attached to the skin of cats, dogs and humans, collected in the Czech Republic. The bacteria were detected by PCR in 97 of 142 pooled samples including 204 ticks, i.e. 1-7 ticks per sample, collected at the same time from one host. A fragment of the bacterial 16S rRNA gene was amplified, cloned and sequenced from 32 randomly selected samples. The most frequent sequences were those related to Candidatus Midichloria midichlori (71% of cloned sequences), followed by Diplorickettsia (13%), Spiroplasma (3%), Rickettsia (3%), Pasteurella (3%), Morganella (3%), Pseudomonas (2%), Bacillus (1%), Methylobacterium (1%) and Phyllobacterium (1%). The phylogenetic analysis of Spiroplasma 16S rRNA gene sequences showed two groups related to Spiroplasma eriocheiris and Spiroplasma melliferum, respectively. Using group-specific primers, the following potentially pathogenic bacteria were detected: Borellia (in 20% of the 142 samples), Rickettsia (12%), Spiroplasma (5%), Diplorickettsia (5%) and Anaplasma (2%). In total, 68% of I. ricinus samples (97/142) contained detectable bacteria and 13% contained two or more putative pathogenic groups. The prevalence of tick-borne bacteria was similar to the observations in other European countries. PMID:26612395

  6. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy of DNA from Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato and Ixodes ricinus ticks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muntean, Cristina M.; Stefan, Razvan; Bindea, Maria; Cozma, Vasile

    2013-06-01

    In this work we present a method for detection of motile and immotile Borrelia burgdorferi genomic DNA, in relation with infectious and noninfectious spirochetes. An FT-IR study of DNA isolated from B. burgdorferi sensu lato strains and from positive and negative Ixodes ricinus ticks, respectively, is reported. Motile bacterial cells from the species B. burgdorferi sensu stricto, Borrelia garinii and Borrelia afzelii were of interest. Also, FT-IR absorbance spectra of DNA from immotile spirochetes of B. burgdorferi sensu stricto, in the absence and presence of different antibiotics (doxycycline, erythromycin, gentamicin, penicillin V or phenoxymethylpenicillin, tetracycline, respectively) were investigated. FT-IR spectra, providing a high molecular structural information, have been analyzed in the wavenumber range 400-1800 cm-1. FT-IR signatures, spectroscopic band assignments and structural interpretations of these DNAs are reported. Spectral differences between FT-IR absorbances of DNAs from motile bacterial cells and immotile spirochetes, respectively, have been found. Particularly, alterations of the sugar-phosphate B-form chain in the case of DNA from Borrelia immotile cells, as compared with DNA from B. burgdorferi sensu lato motile cells have been observed. Based on this work, specific B. burgdorferi sensu lato and I. ricinus DNA-ligand interactions, respectively, might be further investigated using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy.

  7. Ixodes ricinus (Ixodidae), an occasional phoront on necrophagous and coprophagous beetles in Europe.

    PubMed

    Saloña-Bordas, Marta I; Bahillo de la Puebla, Pablo; Díaz Martín, Beatriz; Sumner, Jason; Perotti, M Alejandra

    2015-02-01

    For ticks, phoretic behaviour using insects associated with vertebrates might offer an alternative strategy to host-seeking. Here we report for the first time the presence of immature stages of the most widespread tick species in Western Europe, Ixodes ricinus (Acari: Ixodidae), on three beetle species belonging to families Silphidae and Geotrupidae (Coleoptera). Specimens were collected while performing fieldwork surveys on insect diversity during the peak of tick's questing behaviour, in July and August of 2009 and 2010. The collections took place in two Natural Parks, the Aiako Harria, Guipúzcoa in Northern Spain and Wellington Country Park, Berkshire, in England. The silphid beetle Nicrophorus vespilloides and the geotrupid Trypocopris pyrenaeus were collected from pig-carcasses and both carried nymphs of I. ricinus; the geotrupid Anoplotrupes stercorosus was carrying a tick larva while feeding on red deer dung. These findings revealed an unnoticed but common relation of ticks not only with decomposed animals but also with insect scavengers. We discuss the rationale of this phenomenon.

  8. Variability and Action Mechanism of a Family of Anticomplement Proteins in Ixodes ricinus

    PubMed Central

    Lahaye, Kathia; Gensale, François; Denis, Valérie; Charloteaux, Benoît; Decrem, Yves; Prévôt, Pierre-Paul; Brossard, Michel; Vanhamme, Luc; Godfroid, Edmond

    2008-01-01

    Background Ticks are blood feeding arachnids that characteristically take a long blood meal. They must therefore counteract host defence mechanisms such as hemostasis, inflammation and the immune response. This is achieved by expressing batteries of salivary proteins coded by multigene families. Methodology/Principal Findings We report the in-depth analysis of a tick multigene family and describe five new anticomplement proteins in Ixodes ricinus. Compared to previously described Ixodes anticomplement proteins, these segregated into a new phylogenetic group or subfamily. These proteins have a novel action mechanism as they specifically bind to properdin, leading to the inhibition of C3 convertase and the alternative complement pathway. An excess of non-synonymous over synonymous changes indicated that coding sequences had undergone diversifying selection. Diversification was not associated with structural, biochemical or functional diversity, adaptation to host species or stage specificity but rather to differences in antigenicity. Conclusions/Significance Anticomplement proteins from I. ricinus are the first inhibitors that specifically target a positive regulator of complement, properdin. They may provide new tools for the investigation of role of properdin in physiological and pathophysiological mechanisms. They may also be useful in disorders affecting the alternative complement pathway. Looking for and detecting the different selection pressures involved will help in understanding the evolution of multigene families and hematophagy in arthropods. PMID:18167559

  9. 'Candidatus Midichloria mitochondrii', an endosymbiont of the tick Ixodes ricinus with a unique intramitochondrial lifestyle.

    PubMed

    Sassera, Davide; Beninati, Tiziana; Bandi, Claudio; Bouman, Edwin A P; Sacchi, Luciano; Fabbi, Massimo; Lo, Nathan

    2006-11-01

    An intracellular bacterium with the unique ability to enter mitochondria exists in the European vector of Lyme disease, the hard tick Ixodes ricinus. Previous phylogenetic analyses based on 16S rRNA gene sequences suggested that the bacterium formed a divergent lineage within the Rickettsiales (Alphaproteobacteria). Here, we present additional phylogenetic evidence, based on the gyrB gene sequence, that confirms the phylogenetic position of the bacterium. Based on these data, as well as electron microscopy (EM), in situ hybridization and other observations, we propose the name 'Candidatus Midichloria mitochondrii' for this bacterium. The symbiont appears to be ubiquitous in females of I. ricinus across the tick's distribution, while lower prevalence is observed in males (44%). Based on EM and in situ hybridization studies, the presence of 'Candidatus M. mitochondrii' in females appears to be restricted to ovarian cells. The bacterium was found to be localized both in the cytoplasm and in the intermembrane space of the mitochondria of ovarian cells. 'Candidatus M. mitochondrii' is the first bacterium to be identified that resides within animal mitochondria. PMID:17082386

  10. Histomorphological evaluation of Compound bone of Granulated Ricinus in bone regeneration in rabbits

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pavan Mateus, Christiano; Orivaldo Chierice, Gilberto; Okamoto, Tetuo

    2011-09-01

    Histological evaluation is an effective method in the behavioral description of the qualitative and quantitative implanted materials. The research validated the performance of Compound bone of Granulated Ricinus on bone regeneration with the histomorphological analysis results. Were selected 30 rabbits, females, divided into 3 groups of 10 animals (G1, G2, G3) with a postoperative time of 45, 70 and 120 days respectively. Each animal is undergone 2 bone lesions in the ilium, one implemented in the material: Compound bone of Granulated Ricinus and the other for control. After the euthanasia, the iliac bone was removed, identified and subjected to histological procedure. The evaluation histological, histomorphological results were interpreted and described by quantitative and qualitative analysis based facts verified in the three experimental groups evaluating the rate of absorption of the material in the tissue regeneration, based on the neo-bone formation. The histomorphologic results classified as a material biocompatible and biologically active. Action in regeneration by bone resorption occurs slowly and gradually. Knowing the time and rate of absorption and neo-formation bone biomaterial, which can be determined in the bone segment applicable in the clinical surgical area.

  11. Prevalence of pathogenic bacteria in Ixodes ricinus ticks in Central Bohemia.

    PubMed

    Klubal, Radek; Kopecky, Jan; Nesvorna, Marta; Sparagano, Olivier A E; Thomayerova, Jana; Hubert, Jan

    2016-01-01

    Bacteria associated with the tick Ixodes ricinus were assessed in specimens unattached or attached to the skin of cats, dogs and humans, collected in the Czech Republic. The bacteria were detected by PCR in 97 of 142 pooled samples including 204 ticks, i.e. 1-7 ticks per sample, collected at the same time from one host. A fragment of the bacterial 16S rRNA gene was amplified, cloned and sequenced from 32 randomly selected samples. The most frequent sequences were those related to Candidatus Midichloria midichlori (71% of cloned sequences), followed by Diplorickettsia (13%), Spiroplasma (3%), Rickettsia (3%), Pasteurella (3%), Morganella (3%), Pseudomonas (2%), Bacillus (1%), Methylobacterium (1%) and Phyllobacterium (1%). The phylogenetic analysis of Spiroplasma 16S rRNA gene sequences showed two groups related to Spiroplasma eriocheiris and Spiroplasma melliferum, respectively. Using group-specific primers, the following potentially pathogenic bacteria were detected: Borellia (in 20% of the 142 samples), Rickettsia (12%), Spiroplasma (5%), Diplorickettsia (5%) and Anaplasma (2%). In total, 68% of I. ricinus samples (97/142) contained detectable bacteria and 13% contained two or more putative pathogenic groups. The prevalence of tick-borne bacteria was similar to the observations in other European countries.

  12. Seroprevalence of seven pathogens transmitted by the Ixodes ricinus tick in forestry workers in France.

    PubMed

    Rigaud, E; Jaulhac, B; Garcia-Bonnet, N; Hunfeld, K-P; Féménia, F; Huet, D; Goulvestre, C; Vaillant, V; Deffontaines, G; Abadia-Benoist, G

    2016-08-01

    In order to assess the level of occupational exposure to the main pathogens transmitted by the Ixodes ricinus tick, a seroprevalence study was performed on serum samples collected in 2003 from 2975 forestry workers of northeastern France. The global seroprevalence estimated for the seven pathogens studied was 14.1% (419/2975) for Borrelia burgdorferi sl, 5.7% (164/2908) for Francisella tularensis, 2.3% (68/2941) for tick-borne encephalitis virus, 1.7% (50/2908) for Anaplasma phagocytophilum and 1.7% (48/2908) for Bartonella henselae. The seroprevalences of Babesia divergens and Babesia microti studied in a subgroup of participants seropositive for at least one of these latter pathogens were 0.1% (1/810) and 2.5% (20/810), respectively. Borrelia burgdorferi sl seroprevalence was significantly higher in Alsace and Lorraine and F. tularensis seroprevalence was significantly higher in Champagne-Ardenne and Franche-Comté. The results of this survey also suggest low rates of transmission of Bartonella henselae and F. tularensis by ticks and a different west/east distribution of Babesia species in France. The frequency and potential severity of these diseases justify continued promotion of methods of prevention of I. ricinus bites.

  13. Time of repletion of subadult Ixodes ricinus ticks feeding on diverse hosts.

    PubMed

    Matuschka, F R; Richter, D; Fischer, P; Spielman, A

    1990-01-01

    For a comparison of the times of day at which the subadult stages of Ixodes ricinus detach from nocturnal vs diurnal hosts, these ticks were placed on a variety of indigenous and experimental animals. The time of detachment appears to depend more on properties of the host than on the periodicity of tick behavior. Ticks on rodents, regardless of host periodicity, tended to detach late in the afternoon; those on the hedgehog detached around midnight, and those on lizards and birds, during the morning. Ticks on carnivores (dog, cat) detached throughout the daylight hours. The ability of these parasites to survive to the next developmental stage and, ultimately, to come into contact with another suitable host may be influenced by the identity of the host and, hence, by the circumstances of detachment. Subadult I. ricinus probably concentrate in the host's nest when feeding on mammals but are scattered over the ground when feeding on lizard or avian hosts, an aspect of engorgement behavior that may profoundly affect the capacity of this tick as a vector of agents of Lyme disease and other infections.

  14. Autochthonous and migratory birds as a dispersion source for Ixodes ricinus in southern Italy.

    PubMed

    Falchi, Alessandro; Dantas-Torres, Filipe; Lorusso, Vincenzo; Malia, Egidio; Lia, Riccardo Paolo; Otranto, Domenico

    2012-10-01

    The present study was carried out in a protected wooded area, which is part of the Parco Regionale Gallipoli Cognato Piccole Dolomiti Lucane, one of the most important ecological reserves in southern Italy. From April 2010 to April 2011, 212 birds, comprising 22 species from 12 families, were captured and examined for ticks. A total of 75 (35.4 %) birds were found infested by ticks, with 451 ticks being collected. All ticks were identified as Ixodes ricinus, of which 241 (53.4 %) were larvae and 210 nymphs (46.6 %). The highest intensity of infestation was found in April 2010, when 117 ticks were retrieved on 25 birds. No ticks were found on birds (n = 5) netted in December 2010. High infestation rates were recorded on blackbirds (Turdus merula) (90 %; 29 birds examined) and on mistle thrushes (Turdus viscivorus) (100 %; 2 birds examined). The highest intensity of infestation by larvae was found on wrens (5.6 larvae/bird) and by nymphs on mistle thrushes (11.5 nymphs/bird). Temperature and number of hours of light showed to influence the activity of larvae and nymphs. These data support the notion that birds may be responsible for the heterogeneous distribution of I. ricinus in Europe, thus playing a role in the epidemiology of certain tick-borne pathogens. PMID:22610454

  15. Rickettsiaceae and Anaplasmataceae infections in Ixodes ricinus ticks from urban and natural forested areas of Poland

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Ixodes ricinus is a major vector for a range of microbial pathogens and the most prevalent and widely distributed tick species on the European continent, occurring in both natural and urban habitats. Nevertheless, little is known about the relative density of ticks in these two ecologically distinct habitats and the diversity of tick-borne pathogens that they carry. Methods We compared densities of questing I. ricinus nymphs and adults in urban and natural habitats in Central and Northeastern Poland, assessed the prevalence and rate of co-infection with A. phagocytophilum, Rickettsia, Ehrlichia and ‘Ca. Neoehrlichia spp.’ in ticks, and compared the diversity of tick-borne pathogens using molecular assays (PCR). Results Of the 1325 adults and nymphs, 6.2% were infected with at least one pathogen, with 4.4%, 1.7% and less than 0.5% being positive for the DNA of Rickettsia spp., A. phagocytophilum, Ehrlichia spp. and Ca. N. mikurensis, respectively. Although tick abundance was higher in natural habitats, the prevalence of the majority of pathogens was higher in urban forested areas. Conclusion We conclude that: (i) zoonotic genetic variants of A. phagocytophilum are widely distributed in the Polish tick population, (ii) although the diversity of tick borne pathogens was higher in natural habitats, zoonotic species/strains were detected only in urban forests, (iii) and we provide the first description of Ca. N. mikurensis infections in ticks in Poland. PMID:24661311

  16. Contrasting patterns of genetic divergence in two sympatric pseudo-metallophytes: Rumex acetosa L. and Commelina communis L.

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Patterns of genetic divergence between populations of facultative metallophytes have been investigated extensively. However, most previous investigations have focused on a single plant species making it unclear if genetic divergence shows common patterns or, conversely, is species-specific. The herbs Rumex acetosa L. and Commelina communis L. are two pseudo-metallophytes thriving in both normal and cupriferous soils along the middle and lower reaches of the Yangtze River in China. Their non-metallicolous and metallicolous populations are often sympatric thus providing an ideal opportunity for comparative estimation of genetic structures and divergence under the selective pressure derived from copper toxicity. Results In the present study, patterns of genetic divergence of R. acetosa and C. communis , including metal tolerance, genetic structure and genetic relationships between populations, were investigated and compared using hydroponic experiments, AFLP, ISSR and chloroplast genetic markers. Our results show a significant reduction in genetic diversity in metallicolous populations of C. communis but not in R. acetosa . Moreover, genetic differentiation is less in R. acetosa than in C. communis , the latter species also shows a clustering of its metallicolous populations. Conclusions We propose that the genetic divergences apparent in R. acetosa and C. communis , and the contrasting responses of the two species to copper contamination, might be attributed to the differences in their intrinsic physiological and ecological properties. No simple and generalised conclusions on genetic divergence in pseudo-metallophytes can thus be drawn. PMID:22694601

  17. Antifungal activity of essential oils from Iranian plants against fluconazole-resistant and fluconazole-susceptible Candida albicans

    PubMed Central

    Sharifzadeh, Aghil; Shokri, Hojjatollah

    2016-01-01

    Objective: The purpose of this study was to assay the antifungal activity of selected essential oils obtained from plants against both fluconazole (FLU)-resistant and FLU-susceptible C. albicans strains isolated from HIV positive patients with oropharyngeal candidiasis (OPC). Materials and Methods: The essential oils were obtained by hydrodistillation method from Myrtus communis (My. communis), Zingiber officinale roscoe (Z. officinale roscoe), Matricaria chamomilla (Ma. chamomilla), Trachyspermum ammi (T. ammi) and Origanum vulgare (O. vulgare). The susceptibility test was based on the M27-A2 methodology. The chemical compositions of the essential oils were obtained by gas chromatography- mass spectroscopy (GC-MS). Results: In GC-MS analysis, thymol (63.40%), linalool (42%), α-pinene (27.87%), α-pinene (22.10%), and zingiberene (31.79%) were found to be the major components of T. ammi, O. vulgare, My. communis, Ma. chamomilla and Z. officinale roscoe, respectively. The results showed that essential oils have different levels of antifungal activity. O. vulgare and T. ammi essential oils were found to be the most efficient (P<0.05). The main finding was that the susceptibilities of FLU-resistant C. albicans to essential oils were higher than those of the FLU-susceptible yeasts. Conclusion: Results of this study indicated that the oils from medicinal plants could be used as potential anti FLU-resistant C. albicans agents. PMID:27222835

  18. Mechanical tools for the removal of Ixodes ricinus female ticks--differences of instruments and pulling or twisting?

    PubMed

    Duscher, G G; Peschke, R; Tichy, A

    2012-10-01

    The fast and safe removal of ticks is of medical and veterinary importance since many tick-borne pathogens require time to be transmitted. In the past, many tools and applications were used to remove ticks from the skin of humans and pets. Choking the ticks by blocking their respiratory system with chemicals cannot be recommended due to the low respiratory rate of ticks. Mechanical devices to remove ticks are usually recommended; however, they vary with regard to their mechanism of seizing and holding the tick and in the way of extraction (pulling or twisting). In this study, five commercial tick removal devices with different mechanisms were tested on pets according to their practicability, injury of the mouthparts, and the idiosoma of female Ixodes ricinus ticks. Therefore, 22 veterinarians and four pet owners removed 596 ticks from various animals by using the different devices and filled in a questionnaire for each case. The tick species and instars were determined, and for the female I. ricinus ticks (n = 527) the condition of the mouthparts as well as the idiosoma was evaluated. Twisting of the female I. ricinus ticks reduced the force required for extraction, the adverse reaction of the animal and the time needed for removal. The device with a "V"-shaped slot which allows a grabbing of the mouthparts delivered the best results according to the condition of the mouthparts and the intactness of the female I. ricinus tick's body. Therefore, grabbing the mouthparts and twisting can be recommended for removal of I. ricinus females from pets. PMID:22733005

  19. Geranyl flavonoid derivatives from the fresh leaves of Artocarpus communis and their anti-inflammatory activity.

    PubMed

    Hsu, Chin-Lin; Chang, Fang-Rong; Tseng, Pei-Yu; Chen, Yi-Fen; El-Shazly, Mohamed; Du, Ying-Chi; Fang, Song-Chwan

    2012-06-01

    Breadfruit (Artocarpus communis) is a widely distributed crop in tropical and subtropical regions of the world. It is used in Southeast Asia and India to treat several inflammatory disorders. The aim of this study was to investigate the presence of anti-inflammatory flavonoids in A. communis leaves. Three new geranyl flavonoids, arcommunol C (1), arcommunol D (3), and 5'-geranyl-3,4,2',4'-tetrahydroxychalcone (5), together with four known compounds, prostratol (2), arcommunol E (4), 3'-geranyl-3,4,2',4'-tetrahydroxydihydrochalcone (6), and 3'-geranyl-3,4,2',4'-tetrahydroxychalcone (7), were isolated from the leaves of A. communis. Compound 4 was isolated for the first time from natural sources. The anti-inflammatory activity of the isolated compounds (1-7) was evaluated by determining their inhibitory activity on the production of proinflammatory mediators in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-activated RAW 264.7 murine macrophage cells. Compounds 2, 3, and 4 suppressed the LPS-induced production of nitric oxide (NO) in RAW 264.7 cells with IC50 values of 8.13 ± 0.17, 18.45 ± 2.15, and 22.74 ± 1.74 µM, respectively. Furthermore, 2 decreased lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-mediated induction of protein expressions of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) in RAW 264.7 cells. It was also found that 2 suppressed LPS-induced phosphorylation of JNK and p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) signaling.

  20. [Antioxidant properties of essential oils].

    PubMed

    Misharina, T A; Terenina, M B; Krikunova, N I

    2009-01-01

    By the method of capillary gas-liquid chromatography we studied antioxidant properties and stability during the storage of hexane solutions of 14 individual essential oils from black and white pepper (Piper nigrum L.), cardamom (Elettaria cardamomum L.), nutmeg (Myristica fragrans Houtt.), mace (Myristica fragrans Houtt), juniperberry (Juniperus communis L.), seed of fennel (Foeniculum vulgare Mill., var. dulce Thelling), caraway (Carvum carvi L.), dry leaves of cinnamon (Cinnamomum zeylanicum Bl.), marjoram (Origanum majorana L.), laurel (Laurus nobilis L.), ginger (Zingiber officinale L.), garlic (Allium sativum L.), and clove bud (Caryophyllus aromaticus L.). We assessed the antioxidant properties by the oxidation of aliphatic aldehyde (trans-2-hexenal) into the according carbon acid. We established that essential oils of garlic, clove bud, ginger and leaves of cinnamon have the maximal efficiency of inhibition of hexenal oxidation (80-93%), while black pepper oil has the minimal (49%). Antioxidant properties of essential oils with a high content of substituted phenols depended poorly on its concentration in model systems. We studied the changes in essential oils content during the storage of its hexane solutions for 40 days in the light and out of the light and compared it with the stability of essential oils stored for a year out of the light. PMID:20067158

  1. [Antioxidant properties of essential oils].

    PubMed

    Misharina, T A; Terenina, M B; Krikunova, N I

    2009-01-01

    By the method of capillary gas-liquid chromatography we studied antioxidant properties and stability during the storage of hexane solutions of 14 individual essential oils from black and white pepper (Piper nigrum L.), cardamom (Elettaria cardamomum L.), nutmeg (Myristica fragrans Houtt.), mace (Myristica fragrans Houtt), juniperberry (Juniperus communis L.), seed of fennel (Foeniculum vulgare Mill., var. dulce Thelling), caraway (Carvum carvi L.), dry leaves of cinnamon (Cinnamomum zeylanicum Bl.), marjoram (Origanum majorana L.), laurel (Laurus nobilis L.), ginger (Zingiber officinale L.), garlic (Allium sativum L.), and clove bud (Caryophyllus aromaticus L.). We assessed the antioxidant properties by the oxidation of aliphatic aldehyde (trans-2-hexenal) into the according carbon acid. We established that essential oils of garlic, clove bud, ginger and leaves of cinnamon have the maximal efficiency of inhibition of hexenal oxidation (80-93%), while black pepper oil has the minimal (49%). Antioxidant properties of essential oils with a high content of substituted phenols depended poorly on its concentration in model systems. We studied the changes in essential oils content during the storage of its hexane solutions for 40 days in the light and out of the light and compared it with the stability of essential oils stored for a year out of the light.

  2. An antimycobacterial cyclodepsipeptide from the entomopathogenic fungus Ophiocordyceps communis BCC 16475.

    PubMed

    Haritakun, Rachada; Sappan, Malipan; Suvannakad, Rapheephat; Tasanathai, Kanoksri; Isaka, Masahiko

    2010-01-01

    A novel cyclodepsipeptide, cordycommunin (1), and two dihydroisocoumarins (2 and 3) were isolated from the insect pathogenic fungus Ophiocordyceps communis BCC 16475. The absolute configurations of the amino acid residues of 1 were addressed by application of Marfey's method. Cordycommunin (1) showed growth inhibition of Mycobacterium tuberculosis H37Ra with an MIC value of 15 microM. This compound also exhibited weak cytotoxicity to KB cells with an IC50 of 45 microM, while it was inactive against BC, NCI-H187, and Vero cell lines at a concentration of 88 microM (50 microg/mL). PMID:20028029

  3. Meroterpenoids with New Skeletons from Myrtus communis and Structure Revision of Myrtucommulone K.

    PubMed

    Liu, Chao; Ang, Song; Huang, Xiao-Jun; Tian, Hai-Yan; Deng, Yuan-Yuan; Zhang, Dong-Mei; Wang, Ying; Ye, Wen-Cai; Wang, Lei

    2016-08-19

    Five sesquiterpene-based meroterpenoids with three kinds of new skeletons [1, 2, 3, (+)-4, and (-)-4] were isolated from the leaves of Myrtus communis. Compound 1 featured a new carbon skeleton with an unprecedented octahydrospiro[bicyclo[7.2.0]undecane-2,2'-chromene] tetracyclic ring system, which possessed two preferred conformations detected by variable-temperature NMR spectroscopy experiments. In addition, the structure of reported myrtucommulone K was revised to be compound 3. The plausible biosynthetic pathways of these meroterpenoids and their cytotoxicities are discussed. PMID:27471772

  4. Hyperglycaemic effect of Artocarpus communis Forst (Moraceae) root bark aqueous extract in Wistar rats.

    PubMed

    Adewole, S O; Ojewole, J O

    2007-01-01

    Decoctions and infusions of Artocarpus communis (Forst) (family: Moraceae) root bark are traditionally used among the Yoruba-speaking people of western Nigeria as folk remedies for the management, control and treatment of an array of human diseases, including type 2 diabetes mellitus. Although numerous bioactive prenylflavonoids have been isolated from the roots, stem bark and leaves of A communis, to the best of our knowledge, the effects of the plant's root bark extract on animal models of diabetes mellitus have hitherto not been reported in the biomedical literature. In our pilot study, we observed that A communis root bark aqueous extract (ACE) raised blood glucose concentrations in rats. In view of this finding, the present study was undertaken to investigate the glycaemic effect of ACE in comparison with that of streptozotocin (STZ) in Wistar rats. Four groups (A, B, C and D) of Wistar rats, each group consisting of 10 rats, were used in this study. Group A rats received distilled water in quantities equivalent to the volume of ACE administered. Diabetes mellitus was induced in the animals in groups B and C by intraperitoneal (ip) injections of STZ (75 mg/kg body weight). The rats in group C were additionally treated with ACE (50 mg/kg body weight ip) from the third to the tenth day following STZ treatment. Group D rats received ACE (12.5-100 mg/kg body weight ip) only. The effects of ACE were compared with those of STZ on blood glucose concentrations, serum and pancreatic insulin levels, hepatic hexokinase (HXK) and glucokinase (GCK) activities, and hepatic glycogen contents in the experimental animal paradigm used. The rats in treated groups B, C and D exhibited pronounced polyuria, hypo-insulinaemia and hyperglycaemia. Group D rats developed significant hyperglycaemia (p < 0.05) immediately after ACE administration, whereas groups B and C rats became hyperglycaemic 24 to 72 hours post STZ and STZ + ACE treatments, when compared with the control group A

  5. HPLC-DAD-MS identification of bioactive secondary metabolites from Ferula communis roots.

    PubMed

    Arnoldi, Lolita; Ballero, Mauro; Fuzzati, Nicola; Maxia, Andrea; Mercalli, Enrico; Pagni, Luca

    2004-06-01

    A simple HPLC method was developed to distinguish between 'poisonous' and 'non-poisonous' chemotypes of Ferula communis. The method was performed on a C8 reverse phase analytical column using a binary eluent (aqueous TFA 0.01%-TFA 0.01% in acetonitrile) under gradient condition. The two chemotypes showed different fingerprints. The identification of five coumarins and eleven daucane derivatives by HPLC-diode array detection (HPLC-DAD) and HPLC-MS is described. A coumarin, not yet described, was detected.

  6. Hyperglycaemic effect of Artocarpus communis Forst (Moraceae) root bark aqueous extract in Wistar rats.

    PubMed

    Adewole, S O; Ojewole, J O

    2007-01-01

    Decoctions and infusions of Artocarpus communis (Forst) (family: Moraceae) root bark are traditionally used among the Yoruba-speaking people of western Nigeria as folk remedies for the management, control and treatment of an array of human diseases, including type 2 diabetes mellitus. Although numerous bioactive prenylflavonoids have been isolated from the roots, stem bark and leaves of A communis, to the best of our knowledge, the effects of the plant's root bark extract on animal models of diabetes mellitus have hitherto not been reported in the biomedical literature. In our pilot study, we observed that A communis root bark aqueous extract (ACE) raised blood glucose concentrations in rats. In view of this finding, the present study was undertaken to investigate the glycaemic effect of ACE in comparison with that of streptozotocin (STZ) in Wistar rats. Four groups (A, B, C and D) of Wistar rats, each group consisting of 10 rats, were used in this study. Group A rats received distilled water in quantities equivalent to the volume of ACE administered. Diabetes mellitus was induced in the animals in groups B and C by intraperitoneal (ip) injections of STZ (75 mg/kg body weight). The rats in group C were additionally treated with ACE (50 mg/kg body weight ip) from the third to the tenth day following STZ treatment. Group D rats received ACE (12.5-100 mg/kg body weight ip) only. The effects of ACE were compared with those of STZ on blood glucose concentrations, serum and pancreatic insulin levels, hepatic hexokinase (HXK) and glucokinase (GCK) activities, and hepatic glycogen contents in the experimental animal paradigm used. The rats in treated groups B, C and D exhibited pronounced polyuria, hypo-insulinaemia and hyperglycaemia. Group D rats developed significant hyperglycaemia (p < 0.05) immediately after ACE administration, whereas groups B and C rats became hyperglycaemic 24 to 72 hours post STZ and STZ + ACE treatments, when compared with the control group A

  7. HPLC-DAD-MS identification of bioactive secondary metabolites from Ferula communis roots.

    PubMed

    Arnoldi, Lolita; Ballero, Mauro; Fuzzati, Nicola; Maxia, Andrea; Mercalli, Enrico; Pagni, Luca

    2004-06-01

    A simple HPLC method was developed to distinguish between 'poisonous' and 'non-poisonous' chemotypes of Ferula communis. The method was performed on a C8 reverse phase analytical column using a binary eluent (aqueous TFA 0.01%-TFA 0.01% in acetonitrile) under gradient condition. The two chemotypes showed different fingerprints. The identification of five coumarins and eleven daucane derivatives by HPLC-diode array detection (HPLC-DAD) and HPLC-MS is described. A coumarin, not yet described, was detected. PMID:15158993

  8. Nitrosomonas communis strain YNSRA, an ammonia-oxidizing bacterium, isolated from the reed rhizoplane in an aquaponics plant.

    PubMed

    Tokuyama, Tatsuaki; Mine, Atsusi; Kamiyama, Kaoru; Yabe, Ryuichi; Satoh, Kazuo; Matsumoto, Hirotoshi; Takahashi, Reiji; Itonaga, Koji

    2004-01-01

    An ammonia-oxidizing bacterium (strain YNSRA) was isolated from the rhizoplane of the reed (Phragmites communis) used in an aquaponics plant which is a wastewater treatment plant. Strain YNSRA was identified as Nitrosomonas communis by taxonomic studies. The hydroxylamine-cytochrome c reductase (HCR) of strain YNSRA was found to have a higher activity (25.60 u/mg) than that of Nitrosomonas europaea ATCC25978T (8.94 u/mg). Ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase (RubisCO) activity was detected at very low levels in strain YNSRA, whereas strain ATCC25978T had definite activity.

  9. Nitrosomonas communis strain YNSRA, an ammonia-oxidizing bacterium, isolated from the reed rhizoplane in an aquaponics plant.

    PubMed

    Tokuyama, Tatsuaki; Mine, Atsusi; Kamiyama, Kaoru; Yabe, Ryuichi; Satoh, Kazuo; Matsumoto, Hirotoshi; Takahashi, Reiji; Itonaga, Koji

    2004-01-01

    An ammonia-oxidizing bacterium (strain YNSRA) was isolated from the rhizoplane of the reed (Phragmites communis) used in an aquaponics plant which is a wastewater treatment plant. Strain YNSRA was identified as Nitrosomonas communis by taxonomic studies. The hydroxylamine-cytochrome c reductase (HCR) of strain YNSRA was found to have a higher activity (25.60 u/mg) than that of Nitrosomonas europaea ATCC25978T (8.94 u/mg). Ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase (RubisCO) activity was detected at very low levels in strain YNSRA, whereas strain ATCC25978T had definite activity. PMID:16233712

  10. Distribution of the Ixodes ricinus-like ticks of eastern North America.

    PubMed Central

    Rich, S M; Caporale, D A; Telford, S R; Kocher, T D; Hartl, D L; Spielman, A

    1995-01-01

    We analyzed the geographic distribution of the Ixodes ricinus-like ticks in eastern North America by comparing the mitochondrial 16S rDNA sequences of specimens sampled directly from the field during the 1990s. Two distinct lineages are evident. The southern clade includes ticks from the southeastern and middle-eastern regions of the United States. The range of the northern clade, which appears to have been restricted to the northeastern region until the mid-1900s, now extends throughout the northeastern and middle-eastern regions. These phyletic units correspond to northern and southern taxa that have previously been assigned specific status as Ixodes dammini and Ixodes scapularis, respectively. The expanding range of I. dammini appears to drive the present outbreaks of zoonotic disease in eastern North America that include Lyme disease and human babesiosis. Images Fig. 2 PMID:7603983

  11. Effect of vanadate on proton-sucrose cotransport in Ricinus cotyledons

    SciTech Connect

    Vreugdenhil, D.; Spanswick, R.M.

    1987-07-01

    The effects of orthovanadate on the uptake of sucrose by Ricinus cotyledons and on sucrose-coupled proton influx were measured in order to gain insight into the relationship to the plasma membrane proton pump. Vanadate had no effect on short-term sucrose uptake. In long-term experiments (> 30 min) sucrose uptake was progressively inhibited, but only at high external sucrose concentrations. Vanadate did not affect proton efflux pumping in the absence of sucrose and neither did it change the initial rate of sucrose-coupled proton influx. However, it enhanced the maximal level of sucrose-induced alkalization of the medium at all sucrose concentrations tested. This is interpreted as an inhibiting effect of vanadate on the proton pump that recycles protons during sucrose-proton cotransport. The sensitivity towards vanadate indicates that this proton pump is an ATPase. A second proton-translocating system, that is insensitive to vanadate, is postulated to function in the absence of sucrose.

  12. Polymorphism of Beauveria bassiana (Deuteromycota: Hyphomycetes) strains isolated from Ixodes ricinus (Acari: Ixodidae) in Moldova.

    PubMed

    Mitina, G V; Tokarev, Y S; Movila, A A; Yli-Mattila, T

    2011-03-01

    Polymorphism of 10 Beauveria bassiana strains, isolated from Ixodes ricinus in Moldova, was evaluated using traditional (morphological and cultural properties) and molecular (RAPD patterns and ITS sequences) methods. The isolates differed greatly in morphological and cultural features, such as color, consistence, and growth rate. Four RAPD-PCR markers were used to evaluate genetic diversity of the strains. Phylogenetic neighbor-joining analysis of RAPD patterns divided strains into 3 major clades. The ITS sequences of 8 strains were identical to those of known B. bassiana strains. Two subsets (1 and 2) different by one nucleotide change were found in the ITS1 region. One strain of subset 1 was different from known B. bassiana strains by possessing 2 point mutations in the ITS region. RAPD-based clustering correlated to ITS sequence and colony morphology-based grouping of the strains.

  13. Dominance of Dermacentor reticulatus over Ixodes ricinus (Ixodidae) on livestock, companion animals and wild ruminants in eastern and central Poland.

    PubMed

    Mierzejewska, Ewa J; Welc-Faleciak, Renata; Karbowiak, Grzegorz; Kowalec, Maciej; Behnke, Jerzy M; Bajer, Anna

    2015-05-01

    The most common tick species parasitizing animals in Poland are Ixodes ricinus and Dermacentor reticulatus. These tick species differ in their distribution, habitats, seasonal activity and host specificity. Ixodes ricinus is the most prevalent and widely distributed, whereas the range of D. reticulatus is limited to eastern and central parts of the country with several new foci in the middle-west and the west. However, as in many central European countries, the range of D. reticulatus is expanding, and some authors have correlated this expansion with an increasing number of available hosts. The aim of the present study was to determine the tick fauna on domestic and livestock animals in two areas endemic for I. ricinus and D. reticulatus and to compare the risk of infestation with different tick species in open and forest areas. Over a 14 month period, 732 ticks were collected from five host species including domestic animals (dogs and cats), livestock (cows and horses) and wildlife (European bison) in two areas, central and NE Poland, endemic for D. reticulatus. Three tick species were recorded: D. reticulatus (623 individuals; 85.1% of all collected ticks), I. ricinus (106 individuals; 14.5%) and three females of Ixodes hexagonus (0.4%) from a dog. Dermacentor reticulatus was the dominant tick species found on four host species and constituted 86, 81, 97 and 100% of all ticks from dogs, horses, cows and bison, respectively, and was collected from animals throughout the year, including during the winter. The common tick, I. ricinus, was the dominant tick collected from cats (94%). Fully-engorged, ready-for-reproduction females of D. reticulatus were collected from all host species. In May 2012, questing ticks were collected by dragging in forest or open habitats. The density of adult marsh ticks in open areas was around 2 ticks/100 m(2) in the majority of locations, with a maximum of 9.5 ticks/100 m(2). The density of adult I. ricinus was much lower in its typical

  14. Diversity of viruses in Ixodes ricinus, and characterization of a neurotropic strain of Eyach virus.

    PubMed

    Moutailler, S; Popovici, I; Devillers, E; Vayssier-Taussat, M; Eloit, M

    2016-05-01

    Ticks transmit more pathogens-including bacteria, parasites and viruses-than any other arthropod vector. Although the epidemiological status of many tick-borne bacteria is very well characterized, tick-borne viruses are still relatively under-studied. Recently, several novel tick-borne viruses have been isolated from human febrile illnesses following tick bites, indicating the existence of other potential new and unknown tick-borne viruses. We used high-throughput sequencing to analyse the virome of Ixodes ricinus, the main vector of tick-borne pathogens in Europe. The majority of collected viral sequences were assigned to two potentially novel Nairovirus and Phlebovirus viruses, with prevalence rates ranging from 3.95% to 23.88% in adults and estimated to be between 0.14% and 72.16% in nymphs. These viruses could not be isolated from the brains of inoculated immunocompromised mice, perhaps indicating that they are unable to infect vertebrates. Within the I. ricinus virome, we also identified contigs with >90% identity to the known Eyach virus. Initially isolated in the 1980s, this virus was indirectly associated with human disease, but had never been extensively studied. Eyach virus prevalence varied between 0.07% and 5.26% in ticks from the French Ardennes and Alsace regions. Eyach virus was successfully isolated following intracerebral inoculation of immunocompromised mice with Eyach virus-positive tick extracts. This virus was also able to multiply and persist in the blood of immunocompetent mice inoculated by intraperitoneal injection, and caused brain infections in three of nine juveniles, without any obvious deleterious effects.

  15. Driving forces for changes in geographical distribution of Ixodes ricinus ticks in Europe.

    PubMed

    Medlock, Jolyon M; Hansford, Kayleigh M; Bormane, Antra; Derdakova, Marketa; Estrada-Peña, Agustín; George, Jean-Claude; Golovljova, Irina; Jaenson, Thomas G T; Jensen, Jens-Kjeld; Jensen, Per M; Kazimirova, Maria; Oteo, José A; Papa, Anna; Pfister, Kurt; Plantard, Olivier; Randolph, Sarah E; Rizzoli, Annapaola; Santos-Silva, Maria Margarida; Sprong, Hein; Vial, Laurence; Hendrickx, Guy; Zeller, Herve; Van Bortel, Wim

    2013-01-01

    Many factors are involved in determining the latitudinal and altitudinal spread of the important tick vector Ixodes ricinus (Acari: Ixodidae) in Europe, as well as in changes in the distribution within its prior endemic zones. This paper builds on published literature and unpublished expert opinion from the VBORNET network with the aim of reviewing the evidence for these changes in Europe and discusses the many climatic, ecological, landscape and anthropogenic drivers. These can be divided into those directly related to climatic change, contributing to an expansion in the tick's geographic range at extremes of altitude in central Europe, and at extremes of latitude in Scandinavia; those related to changes in the distribution of tick hosts, particularly roe deer and other cervids; other ecological changes such as habitat connectivity and changes in land management; and finally, anthropogenically induced changes. These factors are strongly interlinked and often not well quantified. Although a change in climate plays an important role in certain geographic regions, for much of Europe it is non-climatic factors that are becoming increasingly important. How we manage habitats on a landscape scale, and the changes in the distribution and abundance of tick hosts are important considerations during our assessment and management of the public health risks associated with ticks and tick-borne disease issues in 21(st) century Europe. Better understanding and mapping of the spread of I. ricinus (and changes in its abundance) is, however, essential to assess the risk of the spread of infections transmitted by this vector species. Enhanced tick surveillance with harmonized approaches for comparison of data enabling the follow-up of trends at EU level will improve the messages on risk related to tick-borne diseases to policy makers, other stake holders and to the general public. PMID:23281838

  16. Diversity of viruses in Ixodes ricinus, and characterization of a neurotropic strain of Eyach virus

    PubMed Central

    Moutailler, S.; Popovici, I.; Devillers, E.; Vayssier-Taussat, M.; Eloit, M.

    2016-01-01

    Ticks transmit more pathogens—including bacteria, parasites and viruses—than any other arthropod vector. Although the epidemiological status of many tick-borne bacteria is very well characterized, tick-borne viruses are still relatively under-studied. Recently, several novel tick-borne viruses have been isolated from human febrile illnesses following tick bites, indicating the existence of other potential new and unknown tick-borne viruses. We used high-throughput sequencing to analyse the virome of Ixodes ricinus, the main vector of tick-borne pathogens in Europe. The majority of collected viral sequences were assigned to two potentially novel Nairovirus and Phlebovirus viruses, with prevalence rates ranging from 3.95% to 23.88% in adults and estimated to be between 0.14% and 72.16% in nymphs. These viruses could not be isolated from the brains of inoculated immunocompromised mice, perhaps indicating that they are unable to infect vertebrates. Within the I. ricinus virome, we also identified contigs with >90% identity to the known Eyach virus. Initially isolated in the 1980s, this virus was indirectly associated with human disease, but had never been extensively studied. Eyach virus prevalence varied between 0.07% and 5.26% in ticks from the French Ardennes and Alsace regions. Eyach virus was successfully isolated following intracerebral inoculation of immunocompromised mice with Eyach virus-positive tick extracts. This virus was also able to multiply and persist in the blood of immunocompetent mice inoculated by intraperitoneal injection, and caused brain infections in three of nine juveniles, without any obvious deleterious effects. PMID:27158509

  17. IrFC - An Ixodes ricinus injury-responsive molecule related to Limulus Factor C.

    PubMed

    Urbanová, Veronika; Hartmann, David; Grunclová, Lenka; Šíma, Radek; Flemming, Tina; Hajdušek, Ondřej; Kopáček, Petr

    2014-10-01

    Limulus Clotting Factor C is a multi-domain serine protease that triggers horseshoe crab hemolymph clotting in the presence of trace amounts of bacterial lipopolysaccharides. Here we describe and functionally characterize an homologous molecule, designated as IrFC, from the hard tick Ixodes ricinus. Tick Factor C consists of an N-terminal cysteine-rich domain, four complement control protein (sushi) modules, an LCCL domain, a truncated C-lectin domain and a C-terminal trypsin-type domain. Developmental expression profiling by quantitative real-time PCR revealed that the irfc mRNA is expressed in all stages including eggs. In tissues dissected from adult I. ricinus females, the irfc mRNA is present mainly in tick hemocytes and accordingly, indirect immunofluorescence microscopy localized IrFC intracellularly, in tick hemocytes. Irfc mRNA levels were markedly increased upon injection of sterile saline, or different microbes, demonstrating that the irfc gene transcription occurs in response to injury. This indicates a possible role of IrFC in hemolymph clotting and/or wound healing, although these defense mechanisms have not been yet definitely demonstrated in ticks. RNAi silencing of irfc expression resulted in a significant reduction in phagocytic activity of tick hemocytes against the Gram-negative bacteria Chryseobacterium indologenes and Escherichia coli, but not against the yeast, Candida albicans. This result suggests that IrFC plays a role in the tick primordial complement system and as such possibly mediates transmission of tick-borne pathogens. PMID:24924263

  18. Driving forces for changes in geographical distribution of Ixodes ricinus ticks in Europe

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Many factors are involved in determining the latitudinal and altitudinal spread of the important tick vector Ixodes ricinus (Acari: Ixodidae) in Europe, as well as in changes in the distribution within its prior endemic zones. This paper builds on published literature and unpublished expert opinion from the VBORNET network with the aim of reviewing the evidence for these changes in Europe and discusses the many climatic, ecological, landscape and anthropogenic drivers. These can be divided into those directly related to climatic change, contributing to an expansion in the tick’s geographic range at extremes of altitude in central Europe, and at extremes of latitude in Scandinavia; those related to changes in the distribution of tick hosts, particularly roe deer and other cervids; other ecological changes such as habitat connectivity and changes in land management; and finally, anthropogenically induced changes. These factors are strongly interlinked and often not well quantified. Although a change in climate plays an important role in certain geographic regions, for much of Europe it is non-climatic factors that are becoming increasingly important. How we manage habitats on a landscape scale, and the changes in the distribution and abundance of tick hosts are important considerations during our assessment and management of the public health risks associated with ticks and tick-borne disease issues in 21st century Europe. Better understanding and mapping of the spread of I. ricinus (and changes in its abundance) is, however, essential to assess the risk of the spread of infections transmitted by this vector species. Enhanced tick surveillance with harmonized approaches for comparison of data enabling the follow-up of trends at EU level will improve the messages on risk related to tick-borne diseases to policy makers, other stake holders and to the general public. PMID:23281838

  19. Biogeographic variation of foliar n-alkanes of Juniperus communis var. saxatilis Pallas from the Balkans.

    PubMed

    Rajčević, Nemanja; Janaćković, Pedja; Dodoš, Tanja; Tešević, Vele; Marin, Petar D

    2014-12-01

    The composition of the epicuticular n-alkanes isolated from the leaves of ten populations of Juniperus communis L. var. saxatilis Pallas from central (continental) and western (coastal) areas of the Balkan Peninsula was characterized by GC-FID and GC/MS analyses. In the leaf waxes, 14 n-alkane homologues with chain-lengths ranging from C22 to C35 were identified. All samples were dominated by n-tritriacontane (C33 ), but differences in two other dominant n-alkanes allowed separating the coastal from the continental populations. Several statistical methods (ANOVA, principal component, discriminant, and cluster analyses as well as the Mantel test) were deployed to analyze the diversity and variability of the epicuticular-leaf-n-alkane patterns of the ten natural populations of J. communis var. saxatilis and their relation to different geographic and bioclimatic parameters. Cluster analysis showed a high correlation of the leaf-n-alkane patterns with the geographical distribution of the investigated samples, differentiating the coastal from the continental populations of this taxon. Several bioclimatic parameters related to aridity were highly correlated with this differentiation.

  20. De novo synthesis of amino acids by the ruminal anaerobic fungi, Piromyces communis and Neocallimastix frontalis.

    PubMed

    Atasoglu, Cengiz; Wallace, R John

    2002-07-01

    Anaerobic fungi are an important component of the cellulolytic ruminal microflora. Ammonia alone as N source supports growth, but amino acid mixtures are stimulatory. In order to evaluate the extent of de novo synthesis of individual amino acids in Piromyces communis and Neocallimastix frontalis, isotope enrichment in amino acids was determined during growth on (15)NH(4)Cl in different media. Most cell N (0.78 and 0.63 for P. communis and N. frontalis, respectively) and amino acid N (0.73 and 0.59) continued to be formed de novo from ammonia when 1 g l(-1) trypticase was added to the medium; this concentration approximates the peak concentration of peptides in the rumen after feeding. Higher peptide/amino acid concentrations decreased de novo synthesis. Lysine was exceptional, in that its synthesis decreased much more than other amino acids when Trypticase or amino acids were added to the medium, suggesting that lysine synthesis might limit fungal growth in the rumen.

  1. Antimicrobial activities of the methanol extract and compounds from Artocarpus communis (Moraceae)

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Artocarpus communis is used traditionally in Cameroon to treat several ailments, including infectious and associated diseases. This work was therefore designed to investigate the antimicrobial activities of the methanol extract (ACB) and compounds isolated from the bark of this plant, namely peruvianursenyl acetate C (1), α-amyrenol or viminalol (2), artonin E (4) and 2-[(3,5-dihydroxy)-(Z)-4-(3-methylbut-1-enyl)phenyl]benzofuran-6-ol (5). Methods The liquid microdilution assay was used in the determination of the minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) and the minimal microbicidal concentration (MMC), against seven bacterial and one fungal species. Results The MIC results indicated that ACB as well as compounds 4 and 5 were able to prevent the growth of all tested microbial species. All other compounds showed selective activities. The lowest MIC value of 64 μg/ml for the crude extract was recorded on Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 25922 and Escherichia coli ATCC 8739. The corresponding value of 32 μg/ml was recorded with compounds 4 and 5 on Pseudomonas aeruginosa PA01 and compound 5 on E. coli ATCC 8739, their inhibition effect on P. aeruginosa PA01 being more than that of chloramphenicol used as reference antibiotic. Conclusion The overall results of this study provided supportive data for the use of A. communis as well as some of its constituents for the treatment of infections associated with the studied microorganisms. PMID:21612612

  2. [Ecological characteristics and distribution of the mosquito Aedes communis (De Geer, 1776) in the Northwestern part of European Russia].

    PubMed

    Medvedev, S G; Aĭbulatiov, S V; Paniukova, E V

    2010-01-01

    According to recent data, Aedes communis is a polytopic species inhabiting both zonal and intrazonal biotopes. It has a wide Holarctic nemoral-tundra-steppe range, which can be characterized as European-Asiatic-North-American. In the North-West of the European part of Russia, A. communis occurs in early spring and summer, being a monocyclic species. It is distributed everywhere, both in zones of tundra and forest-tundra and in all taiga subzones. Aedes communis is a psychrophilic species, but attacks of its females were recorded under the temperatures from 2.5 to 28 degrees C. The species occurs in biotopes of different types, but in the taiga zone it is distributed mainly in swampy coniferous forests and, particularly, in fir-woods where its quantity is steadily high, amounting to 70% and more of the mosquito females collections. When fir-woods are cut down, A. communis develops in the reservoirs situated in the small-leaved forests forming in taiga after deforestation.

  3. A transcriptome approach towards understanding the development of ripening capacity in European pears (Pyrus communis L. cv Bartlett)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The capacity of European pear fruit (Pyrus communis L.) to ripen after harvest develops during the final stages of growth on the tree. The objective of this study was to characterize changes in ‘Bartlett’ pear fruit physico-chemical properties and transcription profiles during fruit maturation leadi...

  4. Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato infection in larval Ixodes ricinus (Acari: Ixodidae) feeding on blackbirds in northwestern Italy.

    PubMed

    Mannelli, Alessandro; Nebbia, Patrizia; Tramuta, Clara; Grego, Elena; Tomassone, Laura; Ainardi, Romina; Venturini, Lucia; De Meneghi, Daniele; Meneguz, Pier Giuseppe

    2005-03-01

    Birds belonging to 59 species (n = 1,206) were live captured in Piemonte, northwestern Italy, in 2001. Ixodes ricinus (L.) larvae were collected from 59 birds belonging to nine species, and nymphs were recovered on 79 birds belonging to 10 species. Eurasian blackbirds, Turdus merula L., had significantly higher levels of infestation by ticks than other passerine species. Larval I. ricinus of blackbirds peaked in summer, when prevalence was 39% (95% confidence interval 24.2-55.5) and mean number of ticks per host was 3.3 (1.6-7.2), whereas nymphs peaked in spring, when prevalence was 72.2% (54.8-85.8) and mean number of ticks per host was 6.9 (4.4-10.7). Immature I. ricinus were coincidentally aggregated on blackbirds, with 15 blackbirds feeding 67.4% of nymphs and 40.3% of larvae, and coinfestation by both stages was relatively high in summer: Kappa = 0.64 (0.40-0.88). Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato was identified by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) in 58.3% (35.9-78.5) of larvae with engorgement ratio > or = 3 that were collected from blackbirds. Larvae that were collected from other passerine species gave negative PCR results. Sixteen of 21 PCR-positive samples belonged to B. garinii (76.2%), and five (23.8%) were Borrelia valaisiana. Results of this study suggest that blackbirds play an important role as hosts for immature I. ricinus and as reservoir of Borrelia garinii in northwestern Italy.

  5. Synanthropic birds influence the distribution of Borrelia species: analysis of Ixodes ricinus ticks feeding on passerine birds.

    PubMed

    Dubska, Lenka; Literak, Ivan; Kocianova, Elena; Taragelova, Veronika; Sverakova, Veronika; Sychra, Oldrich; Hromadko, Miloslav

    2011-02-01

    Ixodes ricinus ticks collected from 835 birds and from vegetation in the Czech Republic were analyzed. Host-seeking ticks (n = 427) were infected predominantly by Borrelia afzelii (25%). Ticks (n = 1,012) from songbirds (Passeriformes) were infected commonly by Borrelia garinii (12.1%) and Borrelia valaisiana (13.4%). Juveniles of synanthropic birds, Eurasian blackbirds (Turdus merula) and song thrushes (Turdus philomelos), were major reservoir hosts of B. garinii. PMID:21148704

  6. Detection of tick-borne encephalitis virus in I. ricinus ticks collected from autumn migratory birds in Latvia.

    PubMed

    Kazarina, Alisa; Japiņa, Kristīne; Keišs, Oskars; Salmane, Ineta; Bandere, Dace; Capligina, Valentina; Ranka, Renāte

    2015-03-01

    Birds have a potential of spreading ticks via bird migration routes. In this study, we screened 170 ticks removed during autumn 2010 from 55 birds belonging to 10 species for the presence of tick-borne encephalitis virus (TBEV). In total, TBEV RNA was detected in 14% of I. ricinus tick samples obtained from different birds species. The results of this study indicate the possible role of migrating birds in the dispersal of TBEV-infected ticks along the southward migration route.

  7. Effect of acetate formation pathway and long chain fatty acid CoA-ligase on the free fatty acid production in E. coli expressing acy-ACP thioesterase from Ricinus communis.

    PubMed

    Li, Mai; Zhang, Xiujun; Agrawal, Arpita; San, Ka-Yiu

    2012-07-01

    Microbial biosynthesis of fatty acid like chemicals from renewable carbon sources has attracted significant attention in recent years. Free fatty acids can be used as precursors for the production of fuels or chemicals. Wild type E. coli strains produce fatty acids mainly for the biosynthesis of lipids and cell membranes and do not accumulate free fatty acids as intermediates in lipid biosynthesis. However, free fatty acids can be produced by breaking the fatty acid elongation through the overexpression of an acyl-ACP thioesterase. Since acetyl-CoA might be an important factor for fatty acid synthesis (acetate formation pathways are the main competitive pathways in consuming acetyl-CoA or pyruvate, a precursor of acetyl-CoA), and the long chain fatty acid CoA-ligase (FadD) plays a pivotal role in the transport and activation of exogenous fatty acids prior to their subsequent degradation, we examined the composition and the secretion of the free fatty acids in four different strains including the wild type MG1655, a mutant strain with inactivation of the fatty acid beta-oxidation pathway (fadD mutant (ML103)), and mutant strains with inactivation of the two major acetate production pathways (an ack-pta (acetate kinase/phosphotransacetylase), poxB (pyruvate oxidase) double mutant (ML112)) and a fadD, ack-pta, poxB triple mutant (ML115). The engineered E. coli cells expressing acyl-ACP thioesterase with glucose yield is higher than 40% of theoretical yield. Compared to MG1655(pXZ18) and ML103(pXZ18), acetate forming pathway deletion strains such as ML112(pXZ18) and ML115(pXZ18) produced similar quantity of total free fatty acids, which indicated that acetyl-CoA availability does not appear to be limiting factor for fatty acid production in these strains. However, these strains did show significant differences in the composition of free fatty acids. Different from MG1655(pXZ18) and ML103(pXZ18), acetate formation pathway deletion strains such as ML112(pXZ18) and ML115(pXZ18) produced similar level of C14, C16:1 and C16 free fatty acids, and the free fatty acid compositions of both strains did not change significantly with time. In addition, the strains bearing the fadD mutation showed significant differences in the quantities of free fatty acids found in the broth. Finally, we examined two potential screening methods for selecting and isolating high free fatty acids producing cells.

  8. Detection of Anaplasma phagocytophilum genotypes that are potentially virulent for human in wild ruminants and Ixodes ricinus in Central Italy.

    PubMed

    Di Domenico, M; Pascucci, I; Curini, V; Cocco, A; Dall'Acqua, F; Pompilii, C; Cammà, C

    2016-07-01

    Human granulocytic anaplasmosis (HGA) is an emerging tick-borne zoonosis worldwide. As is the case for many tick-borne diseases, the epidemiological cycle is associated to the environmental conditions, including the presence of wild vertebrate reservoir hosts, vectors, climate and vegetation. In this study a total number of 87 spleen samples of wild ruminants carcasses from Central Italy, and 77 Ixodes ricinus collected from the same dead animals were screened for Anaplasma phagocytophilum by using Real Time PCR. A. phagocytophilum DNA was detected in 75%, 66.7% and 54.2% of the spleen samples from red deer (Cervus elaphus), Apennine chamois (Rupicapra pyrenaica ornata) and roe deer (Capreolus capreolus) respectively, whereas it was detected in the 31.2% of I. ricinus. A total of 27 positive samples were characterized by sequencing a portion of the groEL gene. Two A. phagocytophilum lineages could clearly be delineated from the phylogenetic tree. Four sequences from red deer, 2 from I. ricinus and 1 from Apennine chamois clustered into lineage I together with those previously described as virulent genotypes related to HGA. The presence of A. phagocytophilum DNA in the Apennine chamois represents the first report for this Italian endemic subspecies. PMID:27020736

  9. Comparison of tick-borne microorganism communities in Ixodes spp. of the Ixodes ricinus species complex at distinct geographical regions.

    PubMed

    Movila, Alexandru; Dubinina, Helen V; Sitnicova, Natalia; Bespyatova, Liubov; Uspenskaia, Inga; Efremova, Galina; Toderas, Ion; Alekseev, Andrey N

    2014-05-01

    Characterizing the tick-borne microorganism communities of Ixodes ricinus (sheep tick) and Ixodes persulcatus (taiga tick) from the I. ricinus species complex in distinct geographical regions of Eastern Europe and European Russia, we demonstrated differences between the two ticks. Taiga ticks were more frequently mono- and co-infected than sheep ticks: 24.4 % (45/184 tested ticks) versus 17.5 % (52/297) and 4.3 % (8/184) versus 3.4 % (10/297), respectively. Ginsberg co-infection index values were significant at the various sites. Diversity of the tick-borne microorganism communities was estimated by the Shannon index, reaching values of 1.71 ± 0.46 and 1.20 ± 0.15 at the sheep-tick and the taiga-tick harbored sites, respectively. Richness of the tick-borne microorganism community in the sheep tick collection sites was about twice the value of the taiga tick collection sites. Future investigations are warranted to further characterize the peculiarities of the tick-borne microorganism communities among the ticks of the Ixodes ricinus complex.

  10. Isolation and propagation of a Spiroplasma sp. from Slovakian Ixodes ricinus ticks in Ixodes spp. cell lines

    PubMed Central

    Bell-Sakyi, Lesley; Palomar, Ana M.; Kazimirova, Maria

    2015-01-01

    Ixodes spp. ticks are known to occasionally harbour spiroplasmas – helical mycoplasmas in the class Mollicutes; a previous study in Slovakia reported an overall prevalence of Spiroplasma ixodetis of 3% in Ixodes ricinus. In the present study, extracts of unfed adult I. ricinus ticks collected from vegetation in south-western Slovakia were added to a panel of cell lines derived from I. ricinus and Ixodes scapularis embryos. The cultures were monitored by preparation and examination of Giemsa-stained cytocentrifuge smears at intervals over the subsequent 16–18 months. Spiroplasma-like microorganisms were detected in cultures of both tick species after 2–3 months and subcultured onto fresh, uninfected cells of the appropriate cell line up to seven times. Molecular analysis using PCR assays targeting fragments of the 16S rRNA, ITS and rpoB genes confirmed the identity of the microorganisms as a Spiroplasma sp., with between 98.9% and 99.5% similarity to S. ixodetis. The sequences of the spiroplasmas isolated from three different pools of ticks collected on two different occasions were identical for all three genes tested. PMID:26003954

  11. Tissue- and time-dependent transcription in Ixodes ricinus salivary glands and midguts when blood feeding on the vertebrate host

    PubMed Central

    Kotsyfakis, Michalis; Schwarz, Alexandra; Erhart, Jan; Ribeiro, José M. C.

    2015-01-01

    Ixodes ricinus is a tick that transmits the pathogens of Lyme and several arboviral diseases. Pathogens invade the tick midgut, disseminate through the hemolymph, and are transmitted to the vertebrate host via the salivary glands; subverting these processes could be used to interrupt pathogen transfer. Here, we use massive de novo sequencing to characterize the transcriptional dynamics of the salivary and midgut tissues of nymphal and adult I. ricinus at various time points after attachment on the vertebrate host. Members of a number of gene families show stage- and time-specific expression. We hypothesize that gene expression switching may be under epigenetic control and, in support of this, identify 34 candidate proteins that modify histones. I. ricinus-secreted proteins are encoded by genes that have a non-synonymous to synonymous mutation rate even greater than immune-related genes. Midgut transcriptome (mialome) analysis reveals several enzymes associated with protein, carbohydrate, and lipid digestion, transporters and channels that might be associated with nutrient uptake, and immune-related transcripts including antimicrobial peptides. This publicly available dataset supports the identification of protein and gene targets for biochemical and physiological studies that exploit the transmission lifecycle of this disease vector for preventative and therapeutic purposes. PMID:25765539

  12. Gradients of turgor, osmotic pressure, and water potential in the cortex of the hypocotyl of growing ricinus seedlings : effects of the supply of water from the xylem and of solutes from the Phloem.

    PubMed

    Meshcheryakov, A; Steudle, E; Komor, E

    1992-03-01

    To evaluate the possible role of solute transport during extension growth, water and solute relations of cortex cells of the growing hypocotyl of 5-day-old castor bean seedlings (Ricinus communis L.) were determined using the cell pressure probe. Because the osmotic pressure of individual cells (pi(i)) was also determined, the water potential (psi) could be evaluated as well at the cell level. In the rapidly growing part of the hypocotyl of well-watered plants, turgor increased from 0.37 megapascal in the outer to 1.04 megapascal in the inner cortex. Thus, there were steep gradients of turgor of up to 0.7 megapascal (7 bar) over a distance of only 470 micrometer. In the more basal and rather mature region, gradients were less pronounced. Because cell turgor approximately pi(i) and psi approximately 0 across the cortex, there were also no gradients of psi across the tissue. Gradients of cell turgor and pi(i) increased when the endosperm was removed from the cotyledons, allowing for a better water supply. They were reduced by increasing the osmotic pressure of the root medium or by cutting off the cotyledons or the entire hook. If the root was excised to interrupt the main source for water, effects became more pronounced. Gradients completely disappeared and turgor fell to 0.3 megapascal in all layers within 1.5 hours. When excised hypocotyls were infiltrated with 0.5 millimolar CaCl(2) solution under pressure via the cut surface, gradients in turgor could be restored or even increased. When turgor was measured in individual cortical cells while pressurizing the xylem, rapid responses were recorded and changes of turgor exceeded that of applied pressure. Gradients could also be reestablished in excised hypocotyls by abrading the cuticle, allowing for a water supply from the wet environment. The steep gradients of turgor and osmotic pressure suggest a considerable supply of osmotic solutes from the phloem to the growing tissue. On the basis of a new theoretical

  13. Occurrence of Babesia spp., Rickettsia spp. and Bartonella spp. in Ixodes ricinus in Bavarian public parks, Germany

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Only limited information is available about the occurrence of ticks and tick-borne pathogens in public parks, which are areas strongly influenced by human beings. For this reason, Ixodes ricinus were collected in public parks of different Bavarian cities in a 2-year survey (2009 and 2010) and screened for DNA of Babesia spp., Rickettsia spp. and Bartonella spp. by PCR. Species identification was performed by sequence analysis and alignment with existing sequences in GenBank. Additionally, coinfections with Anaplasma phagocytophilum were investigated. Results The following prevalences were detected: Babesia spp.: 0.4% (n = 17, including one pool of two larvae) in 2009 and 0.5 to 0.7% (n = 11, including one pool of five larvae) in 2010; Rickettsia spp.: 6.4 to 7.7% (n = 285, including 16 pools of 76 larvae) in 2009. DNA of Bartonella spp. in I. ricinus in Bavarian public parks could not be identified. Sequence analysis revealed the following species: Babesia sp. EU1 (n = 25), B. divergens (n = 1), B. divergens/capreoli (n = 1), B. gibsoni-like (n = 1), R. helvetica (n = 272), R. monacensis IrR/Munich (n = 12) and unspecified R. monacensis (n = 1). The majority of coinfections were R. helvetica with A. phagocytophilum (n = 27), but coinfections between Babesia spp. and A. phagocytophilum, or Babesia spp. and R. helvetica were also detected. Conclusions I. ricinus ticks in urban areas of Germany harbor several tick-borne pathogens and coinfections were also observed. Public parks are of particularly great interest regarding the epidemiology of tick-borne pathogens, because of differences in both the prevalence of pathogens in ticks as well as a varying species arrangement when compared to woodland areas. The record of DNA of a Babesia gibsoni-like pathogen detected in I. ricinus suggests that I. ricinus may harbor and transmit more Babesia spp. than previously known. Because of their high recreational value for human beings, urban green areas are likely to

  14. Sodium Copper Chlorophyllin Immobilization onto Hippospongia communis Marine Demosponge Skeleton and Its Antibacterial Activity

    PubMed Central

    Norman, Małgorzata; Bartczak, Przemysław; Zdarta, Jakub; Tomala, Wiktor; Żurańska, Barbara; Dobrowolska, Anna; Piasecki, Adam; Czaczyk, Katarzyna; Ehrlich, Hermann; Jesionowski, Teofil

    2016-01-01

    In this study, Hippospongia communis marine demosponge skeleton was used as an adsorbent for sodium copper chlorophyllin (SCC). Obtained results indicate the high sorption capacity of this biomaterial with respect to SCC. Batch experiments were performed under different conditions and kinetic and isotherms properties were investigated. Acidic pH and the addition of sodium chloride increased SCC adsorption. The experimental data were well described by a pseudo-second order kinetic model. Equilibrium adsorption isotherms were determined and the experimental data were analyzed using both Langmuir and Freundlich isotherms. The effectiveness of the process was confirmed by 13C Cross Polarization Magic Angle Spinning Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (13C CP/MAS NMR), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS) and thermogravimetric analysis (TG). This novel SCC-sponge-based functional hybrid material was found to exhibit antimicrobial activity against the gram-positive bacterium Staphylococcus aureus. PMID:27690001

  15. Identification of cytotoxic compound from Artocarpus communis leaves against P-388 cells.

    PubMed

    Lotulung, Puspa D N; Fajriah, Sofa; Hanafi, Muhammad; Filaila, Euis

    2008-11-01

    In the course of continuing research for finding bioactive compounds from Indonesian plants, the leaves of Artocarpus communis was extracted by ethanol. This extract partitioned with n-hexane-water (1:4) and then water extract was partitioned with dichloromethane. Dichloromethane extract was purified by column chromatography techniques on silica gel to afford yellow crystal (F-1). Based on LC-MS, 1H-NMR and 13C-NMR (1D and 2D) spectra and compared with previous spectral data, it was identified as prenylated flavonoid, 1-(2,4-dihydroxyphenyl)-3-[8-hydroxy-2-methyl-2-(4-methyl-3-pentenyl)-2H-1-benzopyran-5-yl] 1-propanone. This compound showed significant cytotoxicity against murine P-388 leukemia cells.

  16. The draft genome sequence of European pear (Pyrus communis L. 'Bartlett').

    PubMed

    Chagné, David; Crowhurst, Ross N; Pindo, Massimo; Thrimawithana, Amali; Deng, Cecilia; Ireland, Hilary; Fiers, Mark; Dzierzon, Helge; Cestaro, Alessandro; Fontana, Paolo; Bianco, Luca; Lu, Ashley; Storey, Roy; Knäbel, Mareike; Saeed, Munazza; Montanari, Sara; Kim, Yoon Kyeong; Nicolini, Daniela; Larger, Simone; Stefani, Erika; Allan, Andrew C; Bowen, Judith; Harvey, Isaac; Johnston, Jason; Malnoy, Mickael; Troggio, Michela; Perchepied, Laure; Sawyer, Greg; Wiedow, Claudia; Won, Kyungho; Viola, Roberto; Hellens, Roger P; Brewer, Lester; Bus, Vincent G M; Schaffer, Robert J; Gardiner, Susan E; Velasco, Riccardo

    2014-01-01

    We present a draft assembly of the genome of European pear (Pyrus communis) 'Bartlett'. Our assembly was developed employing second generation sequencing technology (Roche 454), from single-end, 2 kb, and 7 kb insert paired-end reads using Newbler (version 2.7). It contains 142,083 scaffolds greater than 499 bases (maximum scaffold length of 1.2 Mb) and covers a total of 577.3 Mb, representing most of the expected 600 Mb Pyrus genome. A total of 829,823 putative single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) were detected using re-sequencing of 'Louise Bonne de Jersey' and 'Old Home'. A total of 2,279 genetically mapped SNP markers anchor 171 Mb of the assembled genome. Ab initio gene prediction combined with prediction based on homology searching detected 43,419 putative gene models. Of these, 1219 proteins (556 clusters) are unique to European pear compared to 12 other sequenced plant genomes. Analysis of the expansin gene family provided an example of the quality of the gene prediction and an insight into the relationships among one class of cell wall related genes that control fruit softening in both European pear and apple (Malus × domestica). The 'Bartlett' genome assembly v1.0 (http://www.rosaceae.org/species/pyrus/pyrus_communis/genome_v1.0) is an invaluable tool for identifying the genetic control of key horticultural traits in pear and will enable the wide application of marker-assisted and genomic selection that will enhance the speed and efficiency of pear cultivar development.

  17. Changes in the geographical distribution and abundance of the tick Ixodes ricinus during the past 30 years in Sweden

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Ixodes ricinus is the main vector in Europe of human-pathogenic Lyme borreliosis (LB) spirochaetes, the tick-borne encephalitis virus (TBEV) and other pathogens of humans and domesticated mammals. The results of a previous 1994 questionnaire, directed at people living in Central and North Sweden (Svealand and Norrland) and aiming to gather information about tick exposure for humans and domestic animals, suggested that Ixodes ricinus ticks had become more widespread in Central Sweden and the southern part of North Sweden from the early 1980s to the early 1990s. To investigate whether the expansion of the tick's northern geographical range and the increasing abundance of ticks in Sweden were still occurring, in 2009 we performed a follow-up survey 16 years after the initial study. Methods A questionnaire similar to the one used in the 1994 study was published in Swedish magazines aimed at dog owners, home owners, and hunters. The questionnaire was published together with a popular science article about the tick's biology and role as a pathogen vector in Sweden. The magazines were selected to get information from people familiar with ticks and who spend time in areas where ticks might be present. Results Analyses of data from both surveys revealed that during the near 30-year period from the early 1980s to 2008, I. ricinus has expanded its distribution range northwards. In the early 1990s ticks were found in new areas along the northern coastline of the Baltic Sea, while in the 2009 study, ticks were reported for the first time from many locations in North Sweden. This included locations as far north as 66°N and places in the interior part of North Sweden. During this 16-year period the tick's range in Sweden was estimated to have increased by 9.9%. Most of the range expansion occurred in North Sweden (north of 60°N) where the tick's coverage area doubled from 12.5% in the early 1990s to 26.8% in 2008. Moreover, according to the respondents, the abundance

  18. Large animal hepatotoxic and nephrotoxic plants.

    PubMed

    Oladosu, L A; Case, A A

    1979-10-01

    The hepatotoxic and nephrotoxic plants of large domestic animals have been reviewed. The most important ones are those widely distributed as weeds over pastures, negelcted forests and grasslands, those used as ornamentals, the nitrate concentrating forage crops, and the cyanophoric plants. Crotolaria spp, the ragwort (Senecia jacobaea), the lantana spp. and heliotopum are common hepatoxic plants. Amaranthus retroflexus, Datura stramonium, Solanum rostratum, and the castor oil plant (Ricinus communis) are nephrotoxic plants.

  19. Identification of host blood-meal sources and Borrelia in field-collected Ixodes ricinus ticks in north-western Poland.

    PubMed

    Wodecka, Beata; Skotarczak, Bogumila

    2016-01-01

    Forest animals play fundamental roles in the maintenance of Ixodes ricinus and Borrelia species in the forest biotope. To identify the forest vertebrate species that are host for I. ricinus and for the recognition of the reservoirs of Borrelia species, the blood-meal of 325 I. ricinus ticks collected at two forest sites in north-western Poland were analysed. Nested PCR was used to detect polymorphisms in a fragment of the mitochondrial 12S rRNA gene for the identification of the hosts species. The products were digested with the restriction enzymes, a combination that allows the identification of 60 vertebrate species, comprising 17 bird, 4 reptile and 39 mammalian species. Host DNA was detected in 244 (75%) I. ricinus individuals, with the species being detected and classified for 210 (86%) samples. The restriction patterns resulted in the identification of 14 vertebrate species, including 2 species of birds, lizard, badger, rabbit, deer; most of the samples contained DNA from wild boar (Sus scrofa), red fox (Vulpes vulpes), red deer (Cervus elaphus) and roe deer (Capreolus capreolus). Identification of Borrelia species was based on the flaB gene using nested PCR coupled to RFLP. This method allows the identification of all Borrelia species transmitted by I. ricinus in Europe, including B. miyamotoi and 3 genetic variants of B. garinii. In the studied isolates, 2 species belonging to B. burgdorferi sensu lato were identified--B. garinii and B. afzelii, and B. miyamotoi, which are related to relapsing fever borreliae. PMID:27007518

  20. Efficacy of a novel topical combination of fipronil, (S)-methoprene, eprinomectin, and praziquantel, against the ticks, Ixodes ricinus and Ixodes scapularis, on cats.

    PubMed

    Tielemans, E; Prullage, J; Knaus, M; Visser, M; Manavella, C; Chester, S T; Young, David; Everett, William R; Rosentel, J

    2014-04-28

    Five controlled, blinded and randomized studies were conducted to examine the efficacy of a single topical application of a combination of fipronil, (S)-methoprene, eprinomectin, and praziquantel (BROADLINE(®), Merial) against induced infestations with Ixodes ticks on cats. Three studies investigated the efficacy against Ixodes ricinus and two against Ixodes scapularis. In each study, purpose-bred cats were assigned at random to an untreated group or to a treated group. For the studies using I. ricinus, cats were infested with 50 female ticks and a similar number of males 2 days before treatment application, and weekly afterwards on between four and six occasions. For the studies using I. scapularis, cats were infested with a total of 50 ticks (approximately 25 females and 25 males) according to the same schedule as for I. ricinus. Tick counts for the evaluation of efficacy were performed 48 h after treatment and 48 h after the subsequent weekly infestations. Weekly attachment rates to untreated cats of at least 29% for I. ricinus and at least 30% for I. scapularis demonstrated consistently that the ticks were vigorous and that the attachment rates were adequate for efficacy evaluation. In the I. ricinus studies, an efficacy of at least 93% was demonstrated for up to 37 days after the treatment. In the I. scapularis studies, the efficacy level was at least 95% 30 days after the treatment. The product was well tolerated and caused no adverse reaction. PMID:24703079

  1. Chlamydia-Like Organisms (CLOs) in Finnish Ixodes ricinus Ticks and Human Skin

    PubMed Central

    Hokynar, Kati; Sormunen, Jani J.; Vesterinen, Eero J.; Partio, Esa K.; Lilley, Thomas; Timonen, Veera; Panelius, Jaana; Ranki, Annamari; Puolakkainen, Mirja

    2016-01-01

    Ticks carry several human pathogenic microbes including Borreliae and Flavivirus causing tick-born encephalitis. Ticks can also carry DNA of Chlamydia-like organisms (CLOs). The purpose of this study was to investigate the occurrence of CLOs in ticks and skin biopsies taken from individuals with suspected tick bite. DNA from CLOs was detected by pan-Chlamydiales-PCR in 40% of adult ticks from southwestern Finland. The estimated minimal infection rate for nymphs and larvae (studied in pools) was 6% and 2%, respectively. For the first time, we show CLO DNA also in human skin as 68% of all skin biopsies studied contained CLO DNA as determined through pan-Chlamydiales-PCR. Sequence analyses based on the 16S rRNA gene fragment indicated that the sequences detected in ticks were heterogeneous, representing various CLO families; whereas the majority of the sequences from human skin remained “unclassified Chlamydiales” and might represent a new family-level lineage. CLO sequences detected in four skin biopsies were most closely related to “uncultured Chlamydial bacterium clones from Ixodes ricinus ticks” and two of them were very similar to CLO sequences from Finnish ticks. These results suggest that CLO DNA is present in human skin; ticks carry CLOs and could potentially transmit CLOs to humans.

  2. Molecular detection of tick-borne pathogens in Ixodes ricinus from Moldova collected in 1960.

    PubMed

    Movila, Alexandru; Toderas, Ion; Uspenskaia, Inga; Conovalov, Jurii

    2013-06-01

    This study is the first report about the prevalence of tick-borne pathogens, as well as their (co-)infection rates, in the museum-archived I. ricinus female ticks collected in Moldova in 1960. A total of 16.7% (21/126) ticks was mono-infected. Borrelia burgdorferi sensu stricto was revealed as the most abundant species (4.8%) followed by B. garinii (1.6%), B. afzelii (0.8%), B. valaisiana (0.8%), and B. lusitaniae (0.8%). DNA of Rickettsia helvetica (2.4%), R. monacensis (2.4%), Anaplasma phagocytophilum (2.4%), 'Candidatus Neoehrlichia mikurensis' (0.8%), and Babesia microti (0.8%) were also detected, indicating the occurrence of these emerging tick-borne microorganisms in Moldova since 1960 at least. In this study, we detected a co-infection (0.8%; 1/126 tested ticks) between B. microti and R. helvetica. Additional investigations are warranted to further characterize a historical snapshot of the distribution of tick-borne pathogens in Europe.

  3. From Chemistry to Behavior. Molecular Structure and Bioactivity of Repellents against Ixodes ricinus Ticks

    PubMed Central

    Fabbro, Simone Del; Nazzi, Francesco

    2013-01-01

    Tick-borne zoonoses are considered as emerging diseases. Tick repellents represent an effective tool for reducing the risk of tick bite and pathogens transmission. Previous work demonstrated the repellent activity of the phenylpropanoid eugenol against Ixodes ricinus; here we investigate the relationship between molecular structure and repellency in a group of substances related to that compound. We report the biological activity of 18 compounds varying for the presence/number of several moieties, including hydroxyl and methoxy groups and carbon side-chain. Each compound was tested at different doses with a bioassay designed to measure repellency against individual tick nymphs. Both vapor pressure and chemical features of the tested compounds appeared to be related to repellency. In particular, the hydroxyl and methoxy groups as well as the side-chain on the benzene ring seem to play a role. These results are discussed in light of available data on chemical perception in ticks. In the course of the study new repellent compounds were identified; the biological activity of some of them (at least as effective as the “gold standard” repellent DEET) appears to be very promising from a practical point of view. PMID:23805329

  4. Chlamydia-Like Organisms (CLOs) in Finnish Ixodes ricinus Ticks and Human Skin

    PubMed Central

    Hokynar, Kati; Sormunen, Jani J.; Vesterinen, Eero J.; Partio, Esa K.; Lilley, Thomas; Timonen, Veera; Panelius, Jaana; Ranki, Annamari; Puolakkainen, Mirja

    2016-01-01

    Ticks carry several human pathogenic microbes including Borreliae and Flavivirus causing tick-born encephalitis. Ticks can also carry DNA of Chlamydia-like organisms (CLOs). The purpose of this study was to investigate the occurrence of CLOs in ticks and skin biopsies taken from individuals with suspected tick bite. DNA from CLOs was detected by pan-Chlamydiales-PCR in 40% of adult ticks from southwestern Finland. The estimated minimal infection rate for nymphs and larvae (studied in pools) was 6% and 2%, respectively. For the first time, we show CLO DNA also in human skin as 68% of all skin biopsies studied contained CLO DNA as determined through pan-Chlamydiales-PCR. Sequence analyses based on the 16S rRNA gene fragment indicated that the sequences detected in ticks were heterogeneous, representing various CLO families; whereas the majority of the sequences from human skin remained “unclassified Chlamydiales” and might represent a new family-level lineage. CLO sequences detected in four skin biopsies were most closely related to “uncultured Chlamydial bacterium clones from Ixodes ricinus ticks” and two of them were very similar to CLO sequences from Finnish ticks. These results suggest that CLO DNA is present in human skin; ticks carry CLOs and could potentially transmit CLOs to humans. PMID:27681922

  5. Chlamydia-Like Organisms (CLOs) in Finnish Ixodes ricinus Ticks and Human Skin.

    PubMed

    Hokynar, Kati; Sormunen, Jani J; Vesterinen, Eero J; Partio, Esa K; Lilley, Thomas; Timonen, Veera; Panelius, Jaana; Ranki, Annamari; Puolakkainen, Mirja

    2016-01-01

    Ticks carry several human pathogenic microbes including Borreliae and Flavivirus causing tick-born encephalitis. Ticks can also carry DNA of Chlamydia-like organisms (CLOs). The purpose of this study was to investigate the occurrence of CLOs in ticks and skin biopsies taken from individuals with suspected tick bite. DNA from CLOs was detected by pan-Chlamydiales-PCR in 40% of adult ticks from southwestern Finland. The estimated minimal infection rate for nymphs and larvae (studied in pools) was 6% and 2%, respectively. For the first time, we show CLO DNA also in human skin as 68% of all skin biopsies studied contained CLO DNA as determined through pan-Chlamydiales-PCR. Sequence analyses based on the 16S rRNA gene fragment indicated that the sequences detected in ticks were heterogeneous, representing various CLO families; whereas the majority of the sequences from human skin remained "unclassified Chlamydiales" and might represent a new family-level lineage. CLO sequences detected in four skin biopsies were most closely related to "uncultured Chlamydial bacterium clones from Ixodes ricinus ticks" and two of them were very similar to CLO sequences from Finnish ticks. These results suggest that CLO DNA is present in human skin; ticks carry CLOs and could potentially transmit CLOs to humans. PMID:27681922

  6. The abundance of Ixodes ricinus ticks depends on tree species composition and shrub cover.

    PubMed

    Tack, W; Madder, M; Baeten, L; De Frenne, P; Verheyen, K

    2012-09-01

    The mainstream forestry policy in many European countries is to convert coniferous plantations into (semi-natural) deciduous woodlands. However, woodlands are the main habitat for Ixodes ricinus ticks. Therefore, assessing to what extent tick abundance and infection with Borrelia spirochetes are affected by forest composition and structure is a prerequisite for effective prevention of Lyme borreliosis. We selected a total of 25 pine and oak stands, both with and without an abundant shrub layer, in northern Belgium and estimated tick abundance between April and October 2008-2010. Additionally, the presence of deer beds was used as an indicator of relative deer habitat use. Borrelia infections in questing nymphs were determined by polymerase chain reactions. The abundance of larvae, nymphs, and adults was higher in oak stands compared to pine stands and increased with increasing shrub cover, most likely due to differences in habitat use by the ticks' main hosts. Whereas tick abundance was markedly higher in structure-rich oak stands compared to homogeneous pine stands, the Borrelia infection rates in nymphs did not differ significantly. Our results indicate that conversion towards structure-rich deciduous forests might create more suitable tick habitats, but we were unable to detect an effect on the infection rate.

  7. How ticks get under your skin: insertion mechanics of the feeding apparatus of Ixodes ricinus ticks.

    PubMed

    Richter, Dania; Matuschka, Franz-Rainer; Spielman, Andrew; Mahadevan, L

    2013-12-22

    The tick Ixodes ricinus uses its mouthparts to penetrate the skin of its host and to remain attached for about a week, during which time Lyme disease spirochaetes may pass from the tick to the host. To understand how the tick achieves both tasks, penetration and attachment, with the same set of implements, we recorded the insertion events by cinematography, interpreted the mouthparts' function by scanning electron microscopy and identified their points of articulation by confocal microscopy. Our structural dynamic observations suggest that the process of insertion and attachment occurs via a ratchet-like mechanism with two distinct stages. Initially, the two telescoping chelicerae pierce the skin and, by moving alternately, generate a toehold. Subsequently, a breaststroke-like motion, effected by simultaneous flexure and retraction of both chelicerae, pulls in the barbed hypostome. This combination of a flexible, dynamic mechanical ratchet and a static holdfast thus allows the tick to solve the problem of how to penetrate skin and also remain stuck for long periods of time. PMID:24174106

  8. How ticks get under your skin: insertion mechanics of the feeding apparatus of Ixodes ricinus ticks

    PubMed Central

    Richter, Dania; Matuschka, Franz-Rainer; Spielman, Andrew; Mahadevan, L.

    2013-01-01

    The tick Ixodes ricinus uses its mouthparts to penetrate the skin of its host and to remain attached for about a week, during which time Lyme disease spirochaetes may pass from the tick to the host. To understand how the tick achieves both tasks, penetration and attachment, with the same set of implements, we recorded the insertion events by cinematography, interpreted the mouthparts’ function by scanning electron microscopy and identified their points of articulation by confocal microscopy. Our structural dynamic observations suggest that the process of insertion and attachment occurs via a ratchet-like mechanism with two distinct stages. Initially, the two telescoping chelicerae pierce the skin and, by moving alternately, generate a toehold. Subsequently, a breaststroke-like motion, effected by simultaneous flexure and retraction of both chelicerae, pulls in the barbed hypostome. This combination of a flexible, dynamic mechanical ratchet and a static holdfast thus allows the tick to solve the problem of how to penetrate skin and also remain stuck for long periods of time. PMID:24174106

  9. Effects of emulsified octadecanic acids on gas production and cellulolysis by the rumen anaerobic fungus, Piromyces communis M014.

    PubMed

    Kim, Chang-H; Lee, Shin J; Ha, Jong K; Kim, Wan Y; Lee, Sung S

    2008-02-01

    Responses of the rumen anaerobic fungus, Piromyces communis M014, to octadecanic long-chain fatty acids (LCFAs) were evaluated by measuring total and hydrogen gas productions, filter paper (FP) cellulose degradation and polysaccharidase enzyme activities. Octadecanic acids (stearic acid, C(18:0); oleic acid, C(18:1); linoleic acid, C(18:2) and linolenic acid, C(18:3)) were emulsified by ultrasonication under anaerobic conditions, and added to the medium at the level of 0.001%. When P. communis M014 was grown in culture with stearic and oleic acids, the cumulative gas production, FP cellulose digestion and enzyme activities were significantly (p<0.05) increased in the early incubation times relative to those for the control. However, the addition of linolenic acid inhibited all of the investigated parameters, including cellulose degradation, enzyme activities and gas production, up to 168h incubation. These results indicated that stearic and oleic acids tended to have stimulatory effects on fungal cellulolysis, whereas linolenic acid caused a significant (p<0.05) inhibitory effect on cellulolysis by the rumen fungus. The fungus, P. communis M014, can biohydrogenate C(18) unsaturated fatty acids to escape from their toxic effects. Therefore, in this study, the results indicated that the more highly the added C(18) LCFA to the fungal culture was unsaturated, the higher the inhibition of gas production and cellulase enzyme activity was.

  10. Effect of copper tolerant Elsholtzia splendens on bacterial community associated with Commelina communis on a copper mine spoil.

    PubMed

    Yang, Ruyi; Guo, Fuyu; Li, Jing; Su, Nannan; Shao, Zongyuan; Zan, Shuting

    2016-08-01

    Facilitation, or positive plant-plant interaction, has received increasing concern from ecologists over the last two decades. Facilitation may occur through direct mitigation of severe environments or indirect mediation by a third participant from the same or different trophic levels. The copper (Cu) tolerant species Elsholtzia splendens facilitates the establishment and growth of co-occurring Commelina communis through indirect enrichment of microbial activity. However, whether and how E. splendens impacts the microbial community that is associated with C. communis is less known. We characterized the soil bacterial community in the rhizosphere of C. communis in the absence and presence of E. splendens using PCR-DGGE (polymerase chain reaction-denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis) and sequencing. The result showed that the richness of the bacterial community increased, but diversity and evenness remained similar, in the presence of E. splendens. Chloroflexi, Acidobacteria and Proteobacteria were the most dominant bacteria. The relative abundance of dominant and minor bacterial groups showed distinctly different responses to E. splendens. Principal component analysis and redundancy analysis indicated that variation of the bacterial community was determined by multiple factors and might be driven by the tested soil parameters collectively, or alternatively changed through plant root exudates or other microorganisms. Our results enhance the understanding of how the bacterial community associated with a beneficiary plant responds to a benefactor plant and suggests that the changes of bacterial community composition may have far-reaching influence on plant-soil feedback and the aboveground plant community in the long run. PMID:27521948

  11. Distribution of Ixodes ricinus L., 1758 and Ixodes persulcatus Shulze, 1930 (Parasitoformes, Ixodidae) in Russia and adjacent countries in view of observable climate changes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yasyukevich, V. V.; Kazakova, E. V.; Popov, I. O.; Semenov, S. M.

    2009-08-01

    Possible changes in the area inhabited by the ticks Ixodes ricinus and Ixodes persulcatus, the main transmitters of tick-borne encephalitis and Lyme disease in Russia, caused by temperature changes in 1976-2005 compared to 1946-1975 are discussed. It is shown that these changes could result in some areal expansion of these species. In the European part of Russia, I. ricinus expanded its areal boundaries to the east 100-300 km. I. persulcatus expanded its areal in the Asian part of Russia. Its boundary moved to the north and northeast 100-300 km. Areal expansion both of species has not been observed.

  12. Chemical composition and antibacterial activity of selected essential oils and some of their main compounds.

    PubMed

    Wanner, Juergen; Schmidt, Erich; Bail, Stefanie; Jirovetz, Leopold; Buchbauer, Gerhard; Gochev, Velizar; Girova, Tanya; Atanasova, Teodora; Stoyanova, Albena

    2010-09-01

    The chemical composition of essential oils of cabreuva (Myrocarpus fastigiatus Allemao, Fabaceae) from Brazil, cedarwood (Juniperus ashei, Cupressaceae) from Texas, Juniper berries (Juniperus communis L., Cupressaceae) and myrrh (Commiphora myrrha (Nees) Engl., Burseraceae) were analyzed using GC/FID and GC/MS. The antimicrobial activity of these essential oils and some of their main compounds were tested against eleven different strains of Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria by using agar diffusion and agar serial dilution methods. Animal and plant pathogens, food poisoning and spoilage bacteria were selected. The volatile oils exhibited considerable inhibitory effects against all tested organisms, except Pseudomonas, using both test methods. Higher activity was observed against Gram-positive strains in comparison with Gram-negative bacteria. Cabreuva oil from Brazil showed similar results, but in comparison with the other oils tested, only when higher concentrations of oil were used. PMID:20922991

  13. Chemical composition and antibacterial activity of selected essential oils and some of their main compounds.

    PubMed

    Wanner, Juergen; Schmidt, Erich; Bail, Stefanie; Jirovetz, Leopold; Buchbauer, Gerhard; Gochev, Velizar; Girova, Tanya; Atanasova, Teodora; Stoyanova, Albena

    2010-09-01

    The chemical composition of essential oils of cabreuva (Myrocarpus fastigiatus Allemao, Fabaceae) from Brazil, cedarwood (Juniperus ashei, Cupressaceae) from Texas, Juniper berries (Juniperus communis L., Cupressaceae) and myrrh (Commiphora myrrha (Nees) Engl., Burseraceae) were analyzed using GC/FID and GC/MS. The antimicrobial activity of these essential oils and some of their main compounds were tested against eleven different strains of Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria by using agar diffusion and agar serial dilution methods. Animal and plant pathogens, food poisoning and spoilage bacteria were selected. The volatile oils exhibited considerable inhibitory effects against all tested organisms, except Pseudomonas, using both test methods. Higher activity was observed against Gram-positive strains in comparison with Gram-negative bacteria. Cabreuva oil from Brazil showed similar results, but in comparison with the other oils tested, only when higher concentrations of oil were used.

  14. Molecular detection and phylogenetic analysis of Hepatozoon spp. in questing Ixodes ricinus ticks and rodents from Slovakia and Czech Republic.

    PubMed

    Hamšíková, Zuzana; Silaghi, Cornelia; Rudolf, Ivo; Venclíková, Kristýna; Mahríková, Lenka; Slovák, Mirko; Mendel, Jan; Blažejová, Hana; Berthová, Lenka; Kocianová, Elena; Hubálek, Zdeněk; Schnittger, Leonhard; Kazimírová, Mária

    2016-10-01

    By amplification and sequencing of 18S rRNA gene fragments, Hepatozoon spp. DNA was detected in 0.08 % (4/5057) and 0.04 % (1/2473) of questing Ixodes ricinus ticks from Slovakia and Czech Republic, respectively. Hepatozoon spp. DNA was also detected in spleen and/or lungs of 4.45 % (27/606) of rodents from Slovakia. Prevalence of infection was significantly higher in Myodes glareolus (11.45 %) than in Apodemus spp. (0.28 %) (P < 0.001). Sequencing of 18S rRNA Hepatozoon spp. gene amplicons from I. ricinus showed 100 % identity with Hepatozoon canis isolates from red foxes or dogs in Europe. Phylogenetic analysis showed that at least two H. canis 18S rRNA genotypes exist in Slovakia of which one was identified also in the Czech Republic. The finding of H. canis in questing I. ricinus suggests the geographical spread of the parasite and a potential role of other ticks as its vectors in areas where Rhipicephalus sanguineus is not endemic. Sequencing of 18S rRNA gene amplicons from M. glareolus revealed the presence of two closely related genetic variants, Hepatozoon sp. SK1 and Hepatozoon sp. SK2, showing 99-100 % identity with isolates from M. glareolus from other European countries. Phylogenetic analysis demonstrates that 18S rRNA variants SK1 and SK2 correspond to previously described genotypes UR1 and UR2 of H. erhardovae, respectively. The isolate from Apodemus flavicollis (Hepatozoon sp. SK3b) was 99 % identical with isolates from reptiles in Africa and Asia. Further studies are necessary to identify the taxonomic status of Hepatozoon spp. parasitizing rodents in Europe and the host-parasite interactions in natural foci.

  15. Molecular detection and phylogenetic analysis of Hepatozoon spp. in questing Ixodes ricinus ticks and rodents from Slovakia and Czech Republic.

    PubMed

    Hamšíková, Zuzana; Silaghi, Cornelia; Rudolf, Ivo; Venclíková, Kristýna; Mahríková, Lenka; Slovák, Mirko; Mendel, Jan; Blažejová, Hana; Berthová, Lenka; Kocianová, Elena; Hubálek, Zdeněk; Schnittger, Leonhard; Kazimírová, Mária

    2016-10-01

    By amplification and sequencing of 18S rRNA gene fragments, Hepatozoon spp. DNA was detected in 0.08 % (4/5057) and 0.04 % (1/2473) of questing Ixodes ricinus ticks from Slovakia and Czech Republic, respectively. Hepatozoon spp. DNA was also detected in spleen and/or lungs of 4.45 % (27/606) of rodents from Slovakia. Prevalence of infection was significantly higher in Myodes glareolus (11.45 %) than in Apodemus spp. (0.28 %) (P < 0.001). Sequencing of 18S rRNA Hepatozoon spp. gene amplicons from I. ricinus showed 100 % identity with Hepatozoon canis isolates from red foxes or dogs in Europe. Phylogenetic analysis showed that at least two H. canis 18S rRNA genotypes exist in Slovakia of which one was identified also in the Czech Republic. The finding of H. canis in questing I. ricinus suggests the geographical spread of the parasite and a potential role of other ticks as its vectors in areas where Rhipicephalus sanguineus is not endemic. Sequencing of 18S rRNA gene amplicons from M. glareolus revealed the presence of two closely related genetic variants, Hepatozoon sp. SK1 and Hepatozoon sp. SK2, showing 99-100 % identity with isolates from M. glareolus from other European countries. Phylogenetic analysis demonstrates that 18S rRNA variants SK1 and SK2 correspond to previously described genotypes UR1 and UR2 of H. erhardovae, respectively. The isolate from Apodemus flavicollis (Hepatozoon sp. SK3b) was 99 % identical with isolates from reptiles in Africa and Asia. Further studies are necessary to identify the taxonomic status of Hepatozoon spp. parasitizing rodents in Europe and the host-parasite interactions in natural foci. PMID:27245074

  16. Occurrence of Borrelia burgdorferi Sensu Lato in Ixodes ricinus Ticks with First Identification of Borrelia miyamotoi in Vojvodina, Serbia.

    PubMed

    Potkonjak, Aleksandar; Kleinerman, Gabriela; Gutiérrez, Ricardo; Savić, Sara; Vračar, Vuk; Nachum-Biala, Yaarit; Jurišić, Aleksandar; Rojas, Alicia; Petrović, Aleksandra; Ivanović, Ivana; Harrus, Shimon; Baneth, Gad

    2016-10-01

    Lyme borreliosis is the most common tick-borne infectious disease in Eurasia. Borrelia miyamotoi is the only known relapsing fever Borrelia group spirochete transmitted by Ixodes species. The aim of this study was to investigate the presence of Lyme Borrelia spp. and relapsing fever Borrelia spp. in Ixodes ricinus ticks collected from dogs and the vegetation from different parts of Vojvodina, Serbia. A total of 71 Ixodes ricinus ticks were collected and screened for the presence of Lyme Borrelia spp. group and relapsing fever Borrelia spp. by real-time PCR for the Borrelia flagellin B (flaB) gene followed by DNA sequencing of PCR products. Species identification was verified by PCR of the outer surface protein A (ospA) gene for Lyme Disease Borrelia spp. and by PCR of the glycerophosphodiester phosphodiesterase (glpQ) gene for relapsing fever Borrelia spp. Lyme Borrelia spp. were found in 15/71 (21.13%) of the ticks evaluated and included B. luisitaniae (11.3%), B. afzelii (7%), B. valaisiana (1.4%), and B. garinii (1.4%). Borrelia miyamotoi, from the relapsing fever Borrelia complex, was found, for the first time in Serbia, in one (1.4%) nymph collected from the environment. Co-infections between Borrelia species in ticks were not detected. These results suggest that the dominance of species within B. burgdorferi s.l. complex in I. ricinus ticks may vary over time and in different geographic regions. Further systematic studies of Borrelia species in vectors and reservoir hosts are needed to understand eco-epidemiology of these zoonotic infections and how to prevent human infection in the best way.

  17. Occurrence of Borrelia burgdorferi Sensu Lato in Ixodes ricinus Ticks with First Identification of Borrelia miyamotoi in Vojvodina, Serbia.

    PubMed

    Potkonjak, Aleksandar; Kleinerman, Gabriela; Gutiérrez, Ricardo; Savić, Sara; Vračar, Vuk; Nachum-Biala, Yaarit; Jurišić, Aleksandar; Rojas, Alicia; Petrović, Aleksandra; Ivanović, Ivana; Harrus, Shimon; Baneth, Gad

    2016-10-01

    Lyme borreliosis is the most common tick-borne infectious disease in Eurasia. Borrelia miyamotoi is the only known relapsing fever Borrelia group spirochete transmitted by Ixodes species. The aim of this study was to investigate the presence of Lyme Borrelia spp. and relapsing fever Borrelia spp. in Ixodes ricinus ticks collected from dogs and the vegetation from different parts of Vojvodina, Serbia. A total of 71 Ixodes ricinus ticks were collected and screened for the presence of Lyme Borrelia spp. group and relapsing fever Borrelia spp. by real-time PCR for the Borrelia flagellin B (flaB) gene followed by DNA sequencing of PCR products. Species identification was verified by PCR of the outer surface protein A (ospA) gene for Lyme Disease Borrelia spp. and by PCR of the glycerophosphodiester phosphodiesterase (glpQ) gene for relapsing fever Borrelia spp. Lyme Borrelia spp. were found in 15/71 (21.13%) of the ticks evaluated and included B. luisitaniae (11.3%), B. afzelii (7%), B. valaisiana (1.4%), and B. garinii (1.4%). Borrelia miyamotoi, from the relapsing fever Borrelia complex, was found, for the first time in Serbia, in one (1.4%) nymph collected from the environment. Co-infections between Borrelia species in ticks were not detected. These results suggest that the dominance of species within B. burgdorferi s.l. complex in I. ricinus ticks may vary over time and in different geographic regions. Further systematic studies of Borrelia species in vectors and reservoir hosts are needed to understand eco-epidemiology of these zoonotic infections and how to prevent human infection in the best way. PMID:27574731

  18. Prevalence of Tick-Borne Pathogens in Ixodes ricinus and Dermacentor reticulatus Ticks from Different Geographical Locations in Belarus

    PubMed Central

    Reye, Anna L.; Stegniy, Valentina; Mishaeva, Nina P.; Velhin, Sviataslau; Hübschen, Judith M.; Ignatyev, George; Muller, Claude P.

    2013-01-01

    Worldwide, ticks are important vectors of human and animal pathogens. Besides Lyme Borreliosis, a variety of other bacterial and protozoal tick-borne infections are of medical interest in Europe. In this study, 553 questing and feeding Ixodes ricinus (n = 327) and Dermacentor reticulatus ticks (n = 226) were analysed by PCR for Borrelia, Rickettsia, Anaplasma, Coxiella, Francisella and Babesia species. Overall, the pathogen prevalence in ticks was 30.6% for I. ricinus and 45.6% for D. reticulatus. The majority of infections were caused by members of the spotted-fever group rickettsiae (24.4%), 9.4% of ticks were positive for Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato, with Borrelia afzelii being the most frequently detected species (40.4%). Pathogens with low prevalence rates in ticks were Anaplasma phagocytophilum (2.2%), Coxiella burnetii (0.9%), Francisella tularensis subspecies (0.7%), Bartonella henselae (0.7%), Babesia microti (0.5%) and Babesia venatorum (0.4%). On a regional level, hotspots of pathogens were identified for A. phagocytophilum (12.5–17.2%), F. tularensis ssp. (5.5%) and C. burnetii (9.1%), suggesting established zoonotic cycles of these pathogens at least at these sites. Our survey revealed a high burden of tick-borne pathogens in questing and feeding I. ricinus and D. reticulatus ticks collected in different regions in Belarus, indicating a potential risk for humans and animals. Identified hotspots of infected ticks should be included in future surveillance studies, especially when F. tularensis ssp. and C. burnetii are involved. PMID:23349900

  19. Prevalence of tick-borne pathogens in Ixodes ricinus and Dermacentor reticulatus ticks from different geographical locations in Belarus.

    PubMed

    Reye, Anna L; Stegniy, Valentina; Mishaeva, Nina P; Velhin, Sviataslau; Hübschen, Judith M; Ignatyev, George; Muller, Claude P

    2013-01-01

    Worldwide, ticks are important vectors of human and animal pathogens. Besides Lyme Borreliosis, a variety of other bacterial and protozoal tick-borne infections are of medical interest in Europe. In this study, 553 questing and feeding Ixodes ricinus (n = 327) and Dermacentor reticulatus ticks (n = 226) were analysed by PCR for Borrelia, Rickettsia, Anaplasma, Coxiella, Francisella and Babesia species. Overall, the pathogen prevalence in ticks was 30.6% for I. ricinus and 45.6% for D. reticulatus. The majority of infections were caused by members of the spotted-fever group rickettsiae (24.4%), 9.4% of ticks were positive for Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato, with Borrelia afzelii being the most frequently detected species (40.4%). Pathogens with low prevalence rates in ticks were Anaplasma phagocytophilum (2.2%), Coxiella burnetii (0.9%), Francisella tularensis subspecies (0.7%), Bartonella henselae (0.7%), Babesia microti (0.5%) and Babesia venatorum (0.4%). On a regional level, hotspots of pathogens were identified for A. phagocytophilum (12.5-17.2%), F. tularensis ssp. (5.5%) and C. burnetii (9.1%), suggesting established zoonotic cycles of these pathogens at least at these sites. Our survey revealed a high burden of tick-borne pathogens in questing and feeding I. ricinus and D. reticulatus ticks collected in different regions in Belarus, indicating a potential risk for humans and animals. Identified hotspots of infected ticks should be included in future surveillance studies, especially when F. tularensis ssp. and C. burnetii are involved.

  20. Comparison of the Effects of Myrtus Communis L, Berberis Vulgaris and Metronidazole Vaginal Gel alone for the Treatment of Bacterial Vaginosis

    PubMed Central

    Masoudi, Mansoureh; Rafieian-Kopaei, Mahmoud

    2016-01-01

    Introduction There is a growing tendency towards herbal medicines for treatment of vaginitis. Antibacterial and antifungal effects of Myrtus communis L and Berberis vulgaris have been demonstrated invitro and invivo. Aim This study aimed to compare the therapeutic effects of the vaginal gel of Berberis vulgaris 5% (in metronidazole base) and Myrtus communis L 2% (in metronidazole base) with only metronidazole vaginal gel 0.75% on bacterial vaginosis. Materials and Methods This study was a randomized clinical trial research on 120 married women aged 18-40 years affected by bacterial vaginosis attended for treatment to gynaecology clinic of Hajar Hospital (Shahrekord, Iran). They were randomly divided into three groups of 40 participants. Diagnostic criteria were Amsel’s criteria. Myrtus communis L, Berberis vulgaris vaginal gel or metronidazole vaginal gel for five-night usage were prescribed to each group, and after 7 days therapeutic effects were assessed. Data analysis was performed using ANOVA and Chi-square tests. Results A statistically significant difference was observed with regard to treatment response among the study groups (p<0.001), with Myrtus communis L and Berberis vulgaris groups having a better response than metronidazole gel alone. Moreover, there was no significant difference between Myrtus communis L and Berberis vulgaris groups (p= 0.18). The patients in groups of Myrtus communis L or Berberis vulgaris in metronidazole base did not experience any relapse, but in metronidazole group, 30% of patients experienced relapse during three weeks follow up. Conclusion Findings of the study showed that treatment with a combination of Myrtus communis L or Berberis vulgaris in metronidazole base improve the efficacy of bacterial vaginosis therapy. PMID:27134945

  1. Ixodes ricinus infestation in free-ranging cervids in Norway--a study based upon ear examinations of hunted animals.

    PubMed

    Handeland, Kjell; Qviller, Lars; Vikøren, Turid; Viljugrein, Hildegunn; Lillehaug, Atle; Davidson, Rebecca K

    2013-07-01

    Prevalence, abundance and instar composition of Ixodes ricinus as found on one ear collected from 1019 moose (Alces alces), red deer (Cervus elaphus) and roe deer (Capreolus capreolus), shot during hunting (August-December) 2001-2003, are reported. The animals originated from 15 coastal municipalities (CM), seven municipalities bordering to coastal municipalities (BCM) and four inland municipalities (IM), in Norway, between latitudes 58-66° N. I. ricinus occurred endemically in all CM and BCM up to 63°30' N, whereas it was non-endemic further north and in the IM. This geographical distribution of the tick along the coast of southern Norway was largely in accordance with that reported as far back as the 1940s. Our results therefore did not indicate any large scale northwards expansion of I. ricinus in Norway during the 60 year-period between the two studies. However, the prevalence of infestation and tick abundance were significantly higher in CM as compared to BCM. The prevalence and abundance by month were highest during August and September, gradually decreasing towards December. The considerable prevalence of ticks in November, as well as findings in December, would seem to indicate a prolonged tick season as compared with the studies carried out 60 years ago. A total of 8920 ticks were isolated from 439 of the 603 animals examined in endemic municipalities, and the maximum number of ticks found on one single ear was 204. Attached adult ticks were primarily found among the long hairs at base of the ear, whereas nymphs and larvae were seen all over the outer surface of the pinna, for larvae especially at the edge and tip of the ear. Nymphs were the dominant instar, constituting 74% of the total tick count. The proportion of larvae and adult ticks was 13% and 12%. A significantly higher proportion of adult ticks and lower proportion of immature stages were found in moose, as compared to red deer and roe deer. The same apparently size-associated preference of

  2. Ixodes ricinus infestation in free-ranging cervids in Norway--a study based upon ear examinations of hunted animals.

    PubMed

    Handeland, Kjell; Qviller, Lars; Vikøren, Turid; Viljugrein, Hildegunn; Lillehaug, Atle; Davidson, Rebecca K

    2013-07-01

    Prevalence, abundance and instar composition of Ixodes ricinus as found on one ear collected from 1019 moose (Alces alces), red deer (Cervus elaphus) and roe deer (Capreolus capreolus), shot during hunting (August-December) 2001-2003, are reported. The animals originated from 15 coastal municipalities (CM), seven municipalities bordering to coastal municipalities (BCM) and four inland municipalities (IM), in Norway, between latitudes 58-66° N. I. ricinus occurred endemically in all CM and BCM up to 63°30' N, whereas it was non-endemic further north and in the IM. This geographical distribution of the tick along the coast of southern Norway was largely in accordance with that reported as far back as the 1940s. Our results therefore did not indicate any large scale northwards expansion of I. ricinus in Norway during the 60 year-period between the two studies. However, the prevalence of infestation and tick abundance were significantly higher in CM as compared to BCM. The prevalence and abundance by month were highest during August and September, gradually decreasing towards December. The considerable prevalence of ticks in November, as well as findings in December, would seem to indicate a prolonged tick season as compared with the studies carried out 60 years ago. A total of 8920 ticks were isolated from 439 of the 603 animals examined in endemic municipalities, and the maximum number of ticks found on one single ear was 204. Attached adult ticks were primarily found among the long hairs at base of the ear, whereas nymphs and larvae were seen all over the outer surface of the pinna, for larvae especially at the edge and tip of the ear. Nymphs were the dominant instar, constituting 74% of the total tick count. The proportion of larvae and adult ticks was 13% and 12%. A significantly higher proportion of adult ticks and lower proportion of immature stages were found in moose, as compared to red deer and roe deer. The same apparently size-associated preference of

  3. Increased temperatures negatively affect Juniperus communis seeds: evidence from transplant experiments along a latitudinal gradient.

    PubMed

    Gruwez, R; De Frenne, P; Vander Mijnsbrugge, K; Vangansbeke, P; Verheyen, K

    2016-05-01

    With a distribution range that covers most of the Northern hemisphere, common juniper (Juniperus communis) has one of the largest ranges of all vascular plant species. In several regions in Europe, however, populations are decreasing in size and number due to failing recruitment. One of the main causes for this failure is low seed viability. Observational evidence suggests that this is partly induced by climate warming, but our mechanistic understanding of this effect remains incomplete. Here, we experimentally assess the influence of temperature on two key developmental phases during sexual reproduction, i.e. gametogenesis and fertilisation (seed phase two, SP2) and embryo development (seed phase three, SP3). Along a latitudinal gradient from southern France to central Sweden, we installed a transplant experiment with shrubs originating from Belgium, a region with unusually low juniper seed viability. Seeds of both seed phases were sampled during three consecutive years, and seed viability assessed. Warming temperatures negatively affected the seed viability of both SP2 and SP3 seeds along the latitudinal gradient. Interestingly, the effect on embryo development (SP3) only occurred in the third year, i.e. when the gametogenesis and fertilisation also took place in warmer conditions. We found strong indications that this negative influence mostly acts via disrupting growth of the pollen tube, the development of the female gametophyte and fertilisation (SP2). This, in turn, can lead to failing embryo development, for example, due to nutritional problems. Our results confirm that climate warming can negatively affect seed viability of juniper.

  4. Critical phases in the seed development of common juniper (Juniperus communis).

    PubMed

    Gruwez, R; Leroux, O; De Frenne, P; Tack, W; Viane, R; Verheyen, K

    2013-01-01

    Common juniper (Juniperus communis L.) populations in northwest European lowlands are currently declining in size and number. An important cause of this decline is a lack of natural regeneration. Low seed viability seems to be one of the main bottlenecks in this process. Previous research revealed a negative relation between seed viability and both temperature and nitrogen deposition. Additionally, the seeds of common juniper have a variable ripening time, which possibly influences seed viability. However, the underlying mechanisms remain unresolved. In order to elucidate this puzzle, it is important to understand in which phases of seed production the main defects are situated, together with the influence of ripening time. In this study, we compared seed viability of populations with and without successful recruitment. We examined three seed phases: (i) gamete development; (ii) fertilisation and early-embryo development; and (iii) late-embryo development. After the first two phases, we found no difference in the percentage viable seeds between populations with or without recruitment. After late-embryo development, populations without recruitment showed a significantly lower percentage of viable seeds. These results suggest that late-embryo development is a bottleneck in seed development. However, the complex interaction between seed viability and ripening time suggest that the causes should be in the second seed phase, as the accelerated development of male and female gametophytes may disturb the male-female synchrony for successful mating.

  5. Deoxypodophyllotoxin isolated from Juniperus communis induces apoptosis in breast cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Benzina, Sami; Harquail, Jason; Jean, Stephanie; Beauregard, Annie-Pier; Colquhoun, Caitlyn D; Carroll, Madison; Bos, Allyson; Gray, Christopher A; Robichaud, Gilles A

    2015-01-01

    The study of anticancer properties from natural products has regained popularity as natural molecules provide a high diversity of chemical structures with specific biological and medicinal activity. Based on a documented library of the most common medicinal plants used by the indigenous people of North America, we screened and isolated compounds with anti-breast cancer properties from Juniperus communis (common Juniper). Using bioassay-guided fractionation of a crude plant extract, we identified the diterpene isocupressic acid and the aryltetralin lignan deoxypodophyllotoxin (DPT) as potent inducers of caspase-dependent programmed cell death (apoptosis) in malignant MB231 breast cancer cells. Further elucidation revealed that DPT, in contrast to isocupressic acid, also concomitantly inhibited cell survival pathways mediated by the MAPK/ERK and NFκB signaling pathways within hours of treatment. Our findings emphasize the potential and importance of natural product screening for new chemical entities with novel anticancer activities. Natural products research complemented with the wealth of information available through the ethnobotanical and ethnopharmacological knowledge of the indigenous peoples of North America can provide new candidate entities with desirable bioactivities to develop new cancer therapies.

  6. Prenylated flavonoids and resveratrol derivatives isolated from Artocarpus communis with the ability to overcome TRAIL resistance.

    PubMed

    Toume, Kazufumi; Habu, Tadashi; Arai, Midori A; Koyano, Takashi; Kowithayakorn, Thaworn; Ishibashi, Masami

    2015-01-23

    In a screening program on natural products that can abrogate tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL) resistance, four new prenylated flavonoid and resveratrol derivatives (1-4) were isolated from Artocarpus communis, together with eight known prenylflavonoids (5-12). The structures of 1-4 were elucidated spectroscopically. Pannokin D [corrected] (1) (2 μM) and artonin E (5) (3 μM) potently exhibited the ability to overcome TRAIL resistance. Artonin E (5) induced caspase-dependent apoptosis in combination with TRAIL, increased caspase 3/7 activity, and enhanced the protein levels of p53 and DR5. Moreover, this substance decreased cell viability in combination with TRAIL and enhanced the protein levels of DR5, and these effects were mediated by increases in the production of ROS (reactive oxygen species). Thus, artonin E (5) was found to induce extrinsic apoptotic cell death by the ROS- and p53-mediated up-regulation of DR5 expression in AGS cells.

  7. NaCl-induced physiological and biochemical adaptative mechanisms in the ornamental Myrtus communis L. plants.

    PubMed

    Acosta-Motos, José Ramón; Diaz-Vivancos, Pedro; Álvarez, Sara; Fernández-García, Nieves; Sánchez-Blanco, María Jesús; Hernández, José Antonio

    2015-07-01

    Physiological and biochemical changes in Myrtus communis L. plants after being subjected to different solutions of NaCl (44, and 88 mM) for up to 30 days (Phase I) and after recovery from the salinity period (Phase II) were studied. Myrtle plants showed salinity tolerance by displaying a series of adaptative mechanisms to cope with salt-stress, including controlled ion homeostasis, the increase in root/shoot ratio, the reduction of water potentials and stomatal conductance to limit water loss. In addition, they displayed different strategies to protect the photosynthetic machinery, including limiting toxic ion accumulation in leaves, increase in chlorophyll content, and changes in chlorophyll fluorescence parameters, leaf anatomy and increases in catalase activity. Anatomical modifications in leaves, including a decrease in spongy parenchyma and increased intercellular spaces, allow CO2 diffusion in a situation of reduced stomatal aperture. In spite of all these changes, salinity produced oxidative stress in myrtle plants as monitored by increases in oxidative stress parameter values. The post-recovery period is perceived as a new stress situation, as observed through effects on plant growth and alterations in non-photochemical quenching parameters and lipid peroxidation values.

  8. Vanadate inhibition of stomatal opening in epidermal peels of Commelina communis

    SciTech Connect

    Schwartz, A.; Illan, N. ); Assmann, S.M. )

    1990-05-01

    There are conflicting reports on the effectiveness of the plasmamembrane H{sup +} ATPase inhibitor, vanadate, in inhibiting stomatal opening. We have observed that vanadate inhibited light-stimulated stomatal opening in epidermal peels of Commelina communis only at KCl concentrations lower than 50 mM. When KCl was replaced with n-methylglucamine chloride, vanadate was still ineffective at high salt concentrations. However, in the absence of Cl{sup {minus}}, when KOH was buffered with V{sub 2}O{sub 5}, vanadate inhibition of stomatal opening occurred even at high salt concentrations (K{sup +} = 70 mM). An inhibitor of anion uptake, anthracene-9-carboxylic acid (200 {mu}M), partially prevented vanadate inhibition of stomatal opening; other inhibitors (DIDS, SITS, Zn{sup 2+}) were ineffective. These results suggest that inhibition of stomatal opening by vanadate requires its entry into guard cells through an anion uptake system. Decreasing vanadate inhibition at high Cl{sup {minus}}/vanadate ratios may result from competition between vanadate and Cl{sup {minus}} for a common uptake mechanism.

  9. Chemical composition and antioxidant capacity of different anatomical parts of pear (Pyrus communis L.).

    PubMed

    Kolniak-Ostek, Joanna

    2016-07-15

    Sugar, organic acid, triterpenoid and phenolic composition as well as antioxidant capacity of different anatomical parts of pear were studied. Fruits and leaves of 'Radana' pear (Pyrus communis L.) were used. The results showed great quantitative differences in the composition of the pear pulp, peel, leaves and seeds. Fructose was the major sugar in pulp, seeds and peel (227.46, 45.36 and 67.49 g/kg dry mass [DM], respectively), while sorbitol was predominant in leaves (40.66 g/kg DM). Malic acid was the major organic acid, followed by citric and shikimic acids. The highest concentration of triterpenoids (3460.5 μg/g DM) was determined in pear peel, and ursolic acid was predominant. Leaves were characterized by the highest amount of phenolics (5326.7 mg/100 g DM) and the highest DPPH and FRAP values (2027.9 and 3539.6 μmol TE/100 g DM, respectively). Pear leaves and seeds may be selected as potential sources of phytochemicals.

  10. Proteomic characterization of Phragmites communis in ecotypes of swamp and desert dune.

    PubMed

    Cui, Suxia; Hu, Jia; Yang, Bin; Shi, Lu; Huang, Fang; Tsai, Sau-Na; Ngai, Sai-Ming; He, Yikun; Zhang, Jianhua

    2009-08-01

    Phragmites communis Trin. (common reed) is a recognized model plant for studying its adaptation to contrasting and harsh environments. To understand the inherent molecular basis for its remarkable resistance to combined stresses, we performed a comprehensive proteomic analysis of the leaf proteins from two ecotypes, i.e. swamp and desert dune, naturally growing in the desert region of northwestern China. First, a proteome reference map of Phragmites was established based on the swamp ecotype. Proteins were resolved by 2-D/SDS-PAGE and identified by MALDI-TOF/TOF MS. In total, 177 spots were identified corresponding to 51 proteins. The major proteins identified are proteins involved in photosynthesis, glutathione and ascorbic acid metabolism as well as protein synthesis and quality control. Second, the 2-DE profiles of the two ecotypes were compared quantitatively via DIGE analysis. Compared with swamp ecotype, 51 proteins spots are higher-expressed and 58 protein spots are lower-expressed by twofold or more in desert dune ecotype. Major differences were found for the proteins involved in light reaction of photosynthesis, protein biosynthesis and quality control and antioxidative reactions. The physiological significance of such differences is discussed in the context of a flow of complex events in relation to plant adaptation to combined environmental stresses.

  11. Prenylated flavonoids and resveratrol derivatives isolated from Artocarpus communis with the ability to overcome TRAIL resistance.

    PubMed

    Toume, Kazufumi; Habu, Tadashi; Arai, Midori A; Koyano, Takashi; Kowithayakorn, Thaworn; Ishibashi, Masami

    2015-01-23

    In a screening program on natural products that can abrogate tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL) resistance, four new prenylated flavonoid and resveratrol derivatives (1-4) were isolated from Artocarpus communis, together with eight known prenylflavonoids (5-12). The structures of 1-4 were elucidated spectroscopically. Pannokin D [corrected] (1) (2 μM) and artonin E (5) (3 μM) potently exhibited the ability to overcome TRAIL resistance. Artonin E (5) induced caspase-dependent apoptosis in combination with TRAIL, increased caspase 3/7 activity, and enhanced the protein levels of p53 and DR5. Moreover, this substance decreased cell viability in combination with TRAIL and enhanced the protein levels of DR5, and these effects were mediated by increases in the production of ROS (reactive oxygen species). Thus, artonin E (5) was found to induce extrinsic apoptotic cell death by the ROS- and p53-mediated up-regulation of DR5 expression in AGS cells. PMID:25537111

  12. Critical phases in the seed development of common juniper (Juniperus communis).

    PubMed

    Gruwez, R; Leroux, O; De Frenne, P; Tack, W; Viane, R; Verheyen, K

    2013-01-01

    Common juniper (Juniperus communis L.) populations in northwest European lowlands are currently declining in size and number. An important cause of this decline is a lack of natural regeneration. Low seed viability seems to be one of the main bottlenecks in this process. Previous research revealed a negative relation between seed viability and both temperature and nitrogen deposition. Additionally, the seeds of common juniper have a variable ripening time, which possibly influences seed viability. However, the underlying mechanisms remain unresolved. In order to elucidate this puzzle, it is important to understand in which phases of seed production the main defects are situated, together with the influence of ripening time. In this study, we compared seed viability of populations with and without successful recruitment. We examined three seed phases: (i) gamete development; (ii) fertilisation and early-embryo development; and (iii) late-embryo development. After the first two phases, we found no difference in the percentage viable seeds between populations with or without recruitment. After late-embryo development, populations without recruitment showed a significantly lower percentage of viable seeds. These results suggest that late-embryo development is a bottleneck in seed development. However, the complex interaction between seed viability and ripening time suggest that the causes should be in the second seed phase, as the accelerated development of male and female gametophytes may disturb the male-female synchrony for successful mating. PMID:22672421

  13. Targeted and untargeted mass spectrometric approaches in discrimination between Myrtus communis cultivars from Sardinia region.

    PubMed

    Sarais, G; D'Urso, G; Lai, C; Pirisi, F M; Pizza, C; Montoro, P

    2016-09-01

    In the present study, the discrimination of phytochemical content of Myrtus communis berries from different geographical origin and cultivars was explored by Liquid Chromatography-Electrospray Ionization-Fourier Transform-Mass Spectrometry (LC-ESI-FT-MS) metabolic profiling and quantitative analysis. Experiments were carried on myrtle plants grown in an experimental area of Sardinia region, obtained by the germination of seeds taken from berries collected in each part of the region. A preliminary untargeted approach on fruit's extracts was realized by collecting LC-ESI-FT-(Orbitrap)-MS data obtained by operating in negative ion mode and performing principal component analysis with the result of differentiation of samples. In a second step, targeted analysis with a reduced number of variables was realized. A data matrix was obtained by the data fusion of positive and negative ionization LC-ESI-MS results, by using as variables the peak areas of each known compounds. By the observation of principal component analysis, results found that anthocyanins, and mainly derivatives of cyanidin, are the principal marker compounds responsive for the discrimination of samples based on the geographical origin of the seeds. Based on this finding, finally, an LC-diode array detector method was developed, validated and applied for the quantitative analysis of berries' extracts based on 11 commercial standard compounds corresponding to the identified markers. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. PMID:27416492

  14. NaCl-induced physiological and biochemical adaptative mechanisms in the ornamental Myrtus communis L. plants.

    PubMed

    Acosta-Motos, José Ramón; Diaz-Vivancos, Pedro; Álvarez, Sara; Fernández-García, Nieves; Sánchez-Blanco, María Jesús; Hernández, José Antonio

    2015-07-01

    Physiological and biochemical changes in Myrtus communis L. plants after being subjected to different solutions of NaCl (44, and 88 mM) for up to 30 days (Phase I) and after recovery from the salinity period (Phase II) were studied. Myrtle plants showed salinity tolerance by displaying a series of adaptative mechanisms to cope with salt-stress, including controlled ion homeostasis, the increase in root/shoot ratio, the reduction of water potentials and stomatal conductance to limit water loss. In addition, they displayed different strategies to protect the photosynthetic machinery, including limiting toxic ion accumulation in leaves, increase in chlorophyll content, and changes in chlorophyll fluorescence parameters, leaf anatomy and increases in catalase activity. Anatomical modifications in leaves, including a decrease in spongy parenchyma and increased intercellular spaces, allow CO2 diffusion in a situation of reduced stomatal aperture. In spite of all these changes, salinity produced oxidative stress in myrtle plants as monitored by increases in oxidative stress parameter values. The post-recovery period is perceived as a new stress situation, as observed through effects on plant growth and alterations in non-photochemical quenching parameters and lipid peroxidation values. PMID:26074356

  15. Asynchronous development of stigmatic receptivity in the pear (Pyrus communis; Rosaceae) flower.

    PubMed

    Sanzol, Javier; Rallo, Pilar; Herrero, María

    2003-01-01

    While stigma anatomy is well documented for a good number of species, little information is available on the acquisition and cessation of stigmatic receptivity. The aim of this work is to characterize the development of stigma receptivity, from anthesis to stigma degeneration, in the pentacarpellar pear (Pyrus communis) flower. Stigma development and stigmatic receptivity were monitored over two consecutive years, as the capacity of the stigmas to offer support for pollen germination and pollen tube growth. In an experiment where hand pollinations were delayed for specified times after anthesis, three different stigmatic developmental stages could be observed: (1) immature stigmas, which allow pollen adhesion but not hydration; (2) receptive stigmas, which allow proper pollen hydration and germination; and (3) degenerated stigmas, in which pollen hydrates and germinates properly, but pollen tube growth is impaired soon after germination. This developmental characterization showed that stigmas in different developmental stages coexist within a flower and that the acquisition and cessation of stigmatic receptivity by each carpel occur in a sequential manner. In this way, while the duration of stigmatic receptivity for each carpel is rather short, the flower has an expanded receptive period. This asynchronous period of receptivity for the different stigmas of a single flower is discussed as a strategy that could serve to maximize pollination resources under unreliable pollination conditions.

  16. Erwinia uzenensis sp. nov., a novel pathogen that affects European pear trees (Pyrus communis L.).

    PubMed

    Matsuura, Takayuki; Mizuno, Akifumi; Tsukamoto, Takanori; Shimizu, Yoshiaki; Saito, Norihiko; Sato, Shigeyoshi; Kikuchi, Shigemi; Uzuki, Tsuneyasu; Azegami, Koji; Sawada, Hiroyuki

    2012-08-01

    Bacteria were isolated from black lesions on shoots of European pear trees (Pyrus communis L.) in an orchard in Japan. Previous characterization of this novel pathogen by phenotypic and genotypic methods suggested that it should belong to the genus Erwinia but might not correspond to either Erwinia amylovora or Erwinia pyrifoliae. Here, phylogenetic analyses of the 16S rRNA gene, gyrB, and rpoD gene sequences indicated that it could not be assigned to any recognized species of the genus Erwinia. DNA-DNA hybridization confirmed that the bacterial strains represented a novel species. The DNA G+C contents, the fatty acid profile and phenotypic characteristics resembled those previously reported for members of the genus Erwinia. On the basis of these and previous results, the pathogen represents a novel species of the genus Erwinia, for which the name Erwinia uzenensis sp. nov. (type strain: YPPS 951(T) = LMG 25843(T) = NCPPB 4475(T)) is proposed.

  17. Linalool Affects the Antimicrobial Efficacy of Essential Oils.

    PubMed

    Herman, Anna; Tambor, Krzysztof; Herman, Andrzej

    2016-02-01

    The high concentrations of essential oils are generally required to receive microbial purity of the products (cosmetics, medicine). On the other hand, their application due to the high concentration of essential oils may be limited by changes in organoleptic and textural quality of the products, as well as they cause irritation and allergies in users. Addition of linalool to essential oil may significantly enhance its antimicrobial effectiveness and reduce their concentrations in products, taking advantage of their synergistic and additive effects. The aim of the study was to compare antimicrobial activity of essential oil alone and in combination with linalool. The antimicrobial activity of the essential oil of Thymus vulgaris, Juniperus communis, Pelargonium graveolens, Citrus bergamia, Citrus grandis, Lavandula angustifolia, Cinnamomum zeylanicum, Melaleuca alternifolia, Syzygium aromaticum, linalool and their combination was investigated against bacteria and fungi using the disc diffusion method. The addition of linalool to S. aromaticum oil in a synergistic manner enhanced its antimicrobial efficacy against P. aeruginosa and A. brasiliensis. Moreover, the additive interaction between this oil and linalool was observed against S. aureus, E. coli and C. albicans. It was also found that linalool in an additive manner increased the antimicrobial effectiveness of T. vulgaris oil against P. aeruginosa. The antimicrobial properties of mixture of essential oils with their active constituents may be used for creating new strategies to maintain microbiological purity of products.

  18. Linalool Affects the Antimicrobial Efficacy of Essential Oils.

    PubMed

    Herman, Anna; Tambor, Krzysztof; Herman, Andrzej

    2016-02-01

    The high concentrations of essential oils are generally required to receive microbial purity of the products (cosmetics, medicine). On the other hand, their application due to the high concentration of essential oils may be limited by changes in organoleptic and textural quality of the products, as well as they cause irritation and allergies in users. Addition of linalool to essential oil may significantly enhance its antimicrobial effectiveness and reduce their concentrations in products, taking advantage of their synergistic and additive effects. The aim of the study was to compare antimicrobial activity of essential oil alone and in combination with linalool. The antimicrobial activity of the essential oil of Thymus vulgaris, Juniperus communis, Pelargonium graveolens, Citrus bergamia, Citrus grandis, Lavandula angustifolia, Cinnamomum zeylanicum, Melaleuca alternifolia, Syzygium aromaticum, linalool and their combination was investigated against bacteria and fungi using the disc diffusion method. The addition of linalool to S. aromaticum oil in a synergistic manner enhanced its antimicrobial efficacy against P. aeruginosa and A. brasiliensis. Moreover, the additive interaction between this oil and linalool was observed against S. aureus, E. coli and C. albicans. It was also found that linalool in an additive manner increased the antimicrobial effectiveness of T. vulgaris oil against P. aeruginosa. The antimicrobial properties of mixture of essential oils with their active constituents may be used for creating new strategies to maintain microbiological purity of products. PMID:26553262

  19. Heligmosomoides polygyrus reduces infestation of Ixodes ricinus in free-living yellow-necked mice, Apodemus flavicollis.

    PubMed

    Ferrari, N; Cattadori, I M; Rizzoli, A; Hudson, P J

    2009-03-01

    Free-living animals are usually inhabited by a community of parasitic species that can interact with each other and alter both host susceptibility and parasite transmission. In this study we tested the prediction that an increase in the gastrointestinal nematode Heligmosomoides polygyrus would increase the infestation of the tick Ixodes ricinus, in free-living yellow-necked mice, Apodemus flavicollis. An extensive cross-sectional trapping survey identified a negative relationship between H. polygyrus and I. ricinus counter to the prediction. An experimental reduction of the nematode infection through anthelmintic treatment resulted in an increase in tick infestation, suggesting that this negative association was one of cause and effect. Host characteristics (breeding condition and age) and habitat variables also contributed to affect tick infestation. While these results were counter to the prediction, they still support the hypothesis that interactions between parasite species can shape parasite community dynamics in natural systems. Laboratory models may act differently from natural populations and the mechanism generating the negative association is discussed. PMID:19154651

  20. Neutrophil extracellular traps entrap and kill Borrelia burgdorferi sensu stricto spirochetes and are not affected by Ixodes ricinus tick saliva.

    PubMed

    Menten-Dedoyart, Catherine; Faccinetto, Céline; Golovchenko, Maryna; Dupiereux, Ingrid; Van Lerberghe, Pierre-Bernard; Dubois, Sophie; Desmet, Christophe; Elmoualij, Benaissa; Baron, Frédéric; Rudenko, Nataliia; Oury, Cécile; Heinen, Ernst; Couvreur, Bernard

    2012-12-01

    Lyme disease is caused by spirochetes of the Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato complex. They are transmitted mainly by Ixodes ricinus ticks. After a few hours of infestation, neutrophils massively infiltrate the bite site. They can kill Borrelia via phagocytosis, oxidative burst, and hydrolytic enzymes. However, factors in tick saliva promote propagation of the bacteria in the host even in the presence of a large number of neutrophils. The neutrophil extracellular trap (NET) consists in the extrusion of the neutrophil's own DNA, forming traps that can retain and kill bacteria. The production of reactive oxygen species is apparently associated with the onset of NETs (NETosis). In this article, we describe NET formation at the tick bite site in vivo in mice. We show that Borrelia burgdorferi sensu stricto spirochetes become trapped and killed by NETs in humans and that the bacteria do not seem to release significant nucleases to evade this process. Saliva from I. ricinus did not affect NET formation by human neutrophils or its stability. However, it greatly decreased neutrophil reactive oxygen species production, suggesting that a strong decrease of hydrogen peroxide does not affect NET formation. Finally, round bodies trapped in NETs were observed, some of them staining as live bacteria. This observation could help contribute to a better understanding of the early steps of Borrelia invasion and erythema migrans formation after tick bite. PMID:23109724

  1. Control of Ixodes ricinus and Dermacentor reticulatus tick infestations in rabbits vaccinated with the Q38 Subolesin/Akirin chimera.

    PubMed

    Contreras, Marinela; de la Fuente, José

    2016-06-01

    Diseases transmitted by ticks greatly impact human and animal health and their control is important for the eradication of tick-borne diseases. Vaccination is an environmentally friendly alternative for tick control. Recent results have suggested that Subolesin/Akirin (SUB/AKR) are good candidate antigens for the control of arthropod vector infestations. Here, we describe the effect of vaccination with the Q38 chimera containing SUB/AKR conserved protective epitopes on Ixodes ricinus and Dermacentor reticulatus tick larval mortality, feeding and molting. We demonstrated that Q38 vaccination had an efficacy of 99.9% and 46.4% on the control of I. ricinus and D. reticulatus larvae by considering the cumulative effect on reducing tick survival and molting. The effect of the Q38 vaccine on larval feeding and molting is essential to reduce tick infestations and supports that Q38 might be a candidate universal antigen for the control of multiple tick species that can infest the same host.

  2. The role of rodents in the ecology of Ixodes ricinus and associated pathogens in Central and Eastern Europe.

    PubMed

    Mihalca, Andrei D; Sándor, Attila D

    2013-01-01

    Rodents comprise more species than any other mammal order. Most rodents are considered keystone species in their ecological communities, hence the survival of many other species in the ecosystem depend on them. From medical point of view, this is particularly important for rodent-dependent pathogens. In the particular case of tick-borne diseases, rodents are important as hosts for vector ticks and as reservoir hosts (Lyme borreliosis, human granulocytic anaplasmosis, Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever, Tick-borne relapsing fevers, tick-borne rickettsioses, babesiosis). Community and population ecology of rodents was shown to be correlated with disease ecology in the case of many tick-borne diseases. In Eastern Europe, several adult hard-tick species use rodents as their principal hosts: Ixodes apronophorus, I. crenulatus, I. laguri, I. redikorzevi, I. trianguliceps. However, the majority of ticks feeding on rodents are immature stages of ticks which as adults are parasitic on larger mammals. Larvae and nymphs of Ixodes ricinus, the most abundant and medically important tick from Europe, are commonly found on rodents. This is particularly important, as many rodents are synanthropic and, together with other micromammals and birds are often the only available natural hosts for ticks in urban environments. This work reviews the correlated ecology of rodents and I. ricinus.

  3. Host and pathogen DNA identification in blood meals of nymphal Ixodes ricinus ticks from forest parks and rural forests of Poland.

    PubMed

    Wodecka, Beata; Rymaszewska, Anna; Skotarczak, Bogumila

    2014-04-01

    DNA analysis of blood meals from unfed nymphal Ixodes ricinus allows for the identification of tick host and tick-borne pathogens in the host species. The recognition of host species for tick larvae and the reservoirs of Borrelia, Rickettsia and Anaplasma species were simultaneously carried out by analysis of the blood meals of 880 questing nymphal I. ricinus ticks collected in forest parks of Szczecin city and rural forests in northwestern Poland that are endemic areas for Lyme borreliosis. The results obtained from the study indicate that I. ricinus larvae feed not only on small or medium animals but also on large animals and they (i.e. roe deer, red deer and wild boars) were the most prevalent in all study areas as the essential hosts for larvae of I. ricinus. The composition of medium and small vertebrates (carnivores, rodents, birds and lizards) provided a more diverse picture depending on study site. The reservoir species that contain the most pathogens are the European roe deer Capreolus capreolus, in which two species of Rickettsia and two species of Borrelia were identified, and Sus scrofa, in which one Rickettsia and three Borrelia species were identified. Rickettsia helvetica was the most common pathogen detected, and other included species were the B. burgdorferi s.l. group and B. miyamotoi related to relapsing fever group. Our results confirmed a general association of B. garinii with birds but also suggested that such associations may be less common in the transmission cycle in natural habitats than what was thought previously.

  4. Woodland biodiversity management as a tool for reducing human exposure to Ixodes ricinus ticks: a preliminary study in an english woodland.

    PubMed

    Medlock, J M; Shuttleworth, H; Copley, V; Hansford, K M; Leach, S

    2012-12-01

    This paper presents preliminary findings towards developing a UK-specific approach to reducing public exposure to woodland questing Ixodes ricinus tick populations by harnessing existing biodiversity-enhancing woodland ride (i.e., linear non-wooded herbaceous habitat either side of track within woodland) management strategies. This preliminary study in an English woodland firstly assesses whether ecological and environmental factors determine presence and density of questing Ixodes ricinus along woodland rides. Secondly, it sets these findings in the context of woodland ride management guidelines in England in order to understand what impact ride management strategies might have on numbers of questing ticks and tick survival. Nymph and adult I. ricinus presence and abundance were modelled in relation to relevant microclimate and ecological parameter variables. Predictor variables for increased questing nymph abundance included ride orientation, mat depth, occurrence of bracken/bramble and animal tracks, ride/path width, and sward height. Ticks thrive in the ecotonal habitat of a woodland ride, therefore we urge woodland managers to consider the impact of their ride management on ticks and human exposure to ticks. Possible recommendations for mitigating questing I. ricinus in line with biodiversity management guidelines rides are discussed in this paper and include seasonal mowing regimes, management of mulch/mat, and bracken/bramble management through use of scalloped ride edges. PMID:23181853

  5. Tissue-Specific Signatures in the Transcriptional Response to Anaplasma phagocytophilum Infection of Ixodes scapularis and Ixodes ricinus Tick Cell Lines.

    PubMed

    Alberdi, Pilar; Mansfield, Karen L; Manzano-Román, Raúl; Cook, Charlotte; Ayllón, Nieves; Villar, Margarita; Johnson, Nicholas; Fooks, Anthony R; de la Fuente, José

    2016-01-01

    Anaplasma phagocytophilum are transmitted by Ixodes spp. ticks and have become one of the most common and relevant tick-borne pathogens due to their impact on human and animal health. Recent results have increased our understanding of the molecular interactions between Ixodes scapularis and A. phagocytophilum through the demonstration of tissue-specific molecular pathways that ensure pathogen infection, development and transmission by ticks. However, little is known about the Ixodes ricinus genes and proteins involved in the response to A. phagocytophilum infection. The tick species I. scapularis and I. ricinus are evolutionarily closely related and therefore similar responses are expected in A. phagocytophilum-infected cells. However, differences may exist between I. scapularis ISE6 and I. ricinus IRE/CTVM20 tick cells associated with tissue-specific signatures of these cell lines. To address this hypothesis, the transcriptional response to A. phagocytophilum infection was characterized by RNA sequencing and compared between I. scapularis ISE6 and I. ricinus IRE/CTVM20 tick cell lines. The transcriptional response to infection of I. scapularis ISE6 cells resembled that of tick hemocytes while the response in I. ricinus IRE/CTVM20 cells was more closely related to that reported previously in infected tick midguts. The inhibition of cell apoptosis by A. phagocytophilum appears to be a key adaptation mechanism to facilitate infection of both vertebrate and tick cells and was used to investigate further the tissue-specific response of tick cell lines to pathogen infection. The results supported a role for the intrinsic pathway in the inhibition of cell apoptosis by A. phagocytophilum infection of I. scapularis ISE6 cells. In contrast, the results in I. ricinus IRE/CTVM20 cells were similar to those obtained in tick midguts and suggested a role for the JAK/STAT pathway in the inhibition of apoptosis in tick cells infected with A. phagocytophilum. Nevertheless, tick

  6. Tissue-Specific Signatures in the Transcriptional Response to Anaplasma phagocytophilum Infection of Ixodes scapularis and Ixodes ricinus Tick Cell Lines

    PubMed Central

    Alberdi, Pilar; Mansfield, Karen L.; Manzano-Román, Raúl; Cook, Charlotte; Ayllón, Nieves; Villar, Margarita; Johnson, Nicholas; Fooks, Anthony R.; de la Fuente, José

    2016-01-01

    Anaplasma phagocytophilum are transmitted by Ixodes spp. ticks and have become one of the most common and relevant tick-borne pathogens due to their impact on human and animal health. Recent results have increased our understanding of the molecular interactions between Ixodes scapularis and A. phagocytophilum through the demonstration of tissue-specific molecular pathways that ensure pathogen infection, development and transmission by ticks. However, little is known about the Ixodes ricinus genes and proteins involved in the response to A. phagocytophilum infection. The tick species I. scapularis and I. ricinus are evolutionarily closely related and therefore similar responses are expected in A. phagocytophilum-infected cells. However, differences may exist between I. scapularis ISE6 and I. ricinus IRE/CTVM20 tick cells associated with tissue-specific signatures of these cell lines. To address this hypothesis, the transcriptional response to A. phagocytophilum infection was characterized by RNA sequencing and compared between I. scapularis ISE6 and I. ricinus IRE/CTVM20 tick cell lines. The transcriptional response to infection of I. scapularis ISE6 cells resembled that of tick hemocytes while the response in I. ricinus IRE/CTVM20 cells was more closely related to that reported previously in infected tick midguts. The inhibition of cell apoptosis by A. phagocytophilum appears to be a key adaptation mechanism to facilitate infection of both vertebrate and tick cells and was used to investigate further the tissue-specific response of tick cell lines to pathogen infection. The results supported a role for the intrinsic pathway in the inhibition of cell apoptosis by A. phagocytophilum infection of I. scapularis ISE6 cells. In contrast, the results in I. ricinus IRE/CTVM20 cells were similar to those obtained in tick midguts and suggested a role for the JAK/STAT pathway in the inhibition of apoptosis in tick cells infected with A. phagocytophilum. Nevertheless, tick

  7. Investigations on the mode and dynamics of transmission and infectivity of Borrelia burgdorferi sensu stricto and Borrelia afzelii in Ixodes ricinus ticks.

    PubMed

    Crippa, Mara; Rais, Olivier; Gern, Lise

    2002-01-01

    Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato (sl), the agent of Lyme disease, is transmitted to the host during the blood meal of Ixodes ticks. In most unfed ticks, spirochetes are present in the midgut and migrate during blood feeding to the salivary glands, from which they are transmitted to the host via saliva. In the present study, the efficiency of Ixodes ricinus ticks to transmit B. afzelii and B. burgdorferi sensu stricto (ss) and their infectivity for mice were examined in relation to the duration of the blood meal. In addition, we investigated whether these two Borrelia species can penetrate intact skin. Three modes of infection of mice were studied: tick-bite infection, inoculation of tick homogenates, and transcutaneous infection by topical application of tick homogenates on mouse skin. Transmission of B. burgdorferi sl from I. ricinus nymphs to mouse increased with duration of tick attachment. B. afzelii-infected ticks start to transmit infection earlier (< or = 48 h) than B. burgdorferi ss-infected ticks. As previously shown for B. burgdorferi ss in Ixodes scapularis, B. burgdorferi ss and B. afzelii in unfed I. ricinus were noninfectious for mice when tick homogenates were inoculated. However, the inoculation of homogenates of ticks fed for 24 h readily produced infection in mice. Therefore, B. burgdorferi ss and B. afzelii spirochetes are potentially infectious in the tick before natural transmission can occur. None of the mice (n = 33) became infected by transcutaneous transmission when tick homogenates were applied on mouse skin, showing that B. burgdorferi ss and B. afzelii are unable to penetrate intact skin, in contrast to relapsing fever spirochetes. This study also shows that B. afzelii is transmitted by I. ricinus to the host earlier than B. burgdorferi ss and that I. ricinus seems to be a more efficient vector of B. afzelii than B. burgdorferi ss.

  8. World oil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sweeney, J. L.

    1982-06-01

    Results obtained through the application of 10 prominent world oil or world energy models to 12 scenarios are reported. These scenarios were designed to bound the range of likely future world oil market outcomes. Conclusions relate to oil market trends, impacts of policies on oil prices, security of oil supplies, impacts of policies on oil security problems, use of the oil import premium in policymaking, the transition to oil substitutes, and the state of the art of world oil modeling.

  9. Cytotoxic effects of new geranyl chalcone derivatives isolated from the leaves of Artocarpus communis in SW 872 human liposarcoma cells.

    PubMed

    Fang, Song-Chwan; Hsu, Chin-Lin; Yu, Yu-Shen; Yen, Gow-Chin

    2008-10-01

    Breadfruit (Artocarpus communis Moraceae) is cultivated in tropical and subtropical regions as a traditional starch crop and also has potential medicinal properties. The aim of this work was to study the in vitro anticancer activity of compounds isolated from the leaves of Artocarpus communis. Three new geranyl chalcone derivatives including isolespeol (1), 5'-geranyl-2',4',4-trihydroxychalcone (2), and 3,4,2',4'-tetrahydroxy-3'-geranyldihydrochalcone (3), together with two known compounds lespeol (4) and xanthoangelol (5), were isolated from the leaves of Artocarpus communis. The structures of 1- 5 were elucidated by spectroscopy and through comparison with data reported in the literature. The effects of geranyl chalcone derivatives (1- 5) on the viability of human cancer cells (including SW 872, HT-29, COLO 205, Hep3B, PLC5, Huh7, and HepG2 cells) were investigated. The results indicate that isolespeol (1) showed the highest inhibitory activity with an IC 50 value of 3.8 muM in SW 872 human liposarcoma cells. Treatment of SW 872 human liposarcoma cells with isolespeol (1) caused the loss of mitochondrial membrane potential (DeltaPsim). Western blotting revealed that isolespeol (1) stimulated increased protein expression of Fas, FasL, and p53. The expression ratios of pro- and antiapoptotic Bcl-2 family members were also changed by isolespeol (1) treatment to subsequently induce the activation of caspase-9 and caspase-3, which was followed by cleavage of poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP). These results demonstrate that isolespeol (1) induces apoptosis in SW 872 cells through Fas- and mitochondria-mediated pathways.

  10. Increased temperatures negatively affect Juniperus communis seeds: evidence from transplant experiments along a latitudinal gradient.

    PubMed

    Gruwez, R; De Frenne, P; Vander Mijnsbrugge, K; Vangansbeke, P; Verheyen, K

    2016-05-01

    With a distribution range that covers most of the Northern hemisphere, common juniper (Juniperus communis) has one of the largest ranges of all vascular plant species. In several regions in Europe, however, populations are decreasing in size and number due to failing recruitment. One of the main causes for this failure is low seed viability. Observational evidence suggests that this is partly induced by climate warming, but our mechanistic understanding of this effect remains incomplete. Here, we experimentally assess the influence of temperature on two key developmental phases during sexual reproduction, i.e. gametogenesis and fertilisation (seed phase two, SP2) and embryo development (seed phase three, SP3). Along a latitudinal gradient from southern France to central Sweden, we installed a transplant experiment with shrubs originating from Belgium, a region with unusually low juniper seed viability. Seeds of both seed phases were sampled during three consecutive years, and seed viability assessed. Warming temperatures negatively affected the seed viability of both SP2 and SP3 seeds along the latitudinal gradient. Interestingly, the effect on embryo development (SP3) only occurred in the third year, i.e. when the gametogenesis and fertilisation also took place in warmer conditions. We found strong indications that this negative influence mostly acts via disrupting growth of the pollen tube, the development of the female gametophyte and fertilisation (SP2). This, in turn, can lead to failing embryo development, for example, due to nutritional problems. Our results confirm that climate warming can negatively affect seed viability of juniper. PMID:26465806

  11. Optimization of microwave-assisted extraction of polyphenols from Myrtus communis L. leaves.

    PubMed

    Dahmoune, Farid; Nayak, Balunkeswar; Moussi, Kamal; Remini, Hocine; Madani, Khodir

    2015-01-01

    Phytochemicals, such as phenolic compounds, are of great interest due to their health-benefitting antioxidant properties and possible protection against inflammation, cardiovascular diseases and certain types of cancer. Maximum retention of these phytochemicals during extraction requires optimised process parameter conditions. A microwave-assisted extraction (MAE) method was investigated for extraction of total phenolics from Myrtus communis leaves. The total phenolic capacity (TPC) of leaf extracts at optimised MAE conditions was compared with ultrasound-assisted extraction (UAE) and conventional solvent extraction (CSE). The influence of extraction parameters including ethanol concentration, microwave power, irradiation time and solvent-to-solid ratio on the extraction of TPC was modeled by using a second-order regression equation. The optimal MAE conditions were 42% ethanol concentration, 500 W microwave power, 62 s irradiation time and 32 mL/g solvent to material ratio. Ethanol concentration and liquid-to-solid ratio were the significant parameters for the extraction process (p<0.01). Under the MAE optimised conditions, the recovery of TPC was 162.49 ± 16.95 mg gallic acidequivalent/gdry weight(DW), approximating the predicted content (166.13 mg GAE/g DW). When bioactive phytochemicals extracted from Myrtus leaves using MAE compared with UAE and CSE, it was also observed that tannins (32.65 ± 0.01 mg/g), total flavonoids (5.02 ± 0.05 mg QE/g) and antioxidant activities (38.20 ± 1.08 μg GAE/mL) in MAE extracts were higher than the other two extracts. These findings further illustrate that extraction of bioactive phytochemicals from plant materials using MAE method consumes less extraction solvent and saves time.

  12. [Response of phenophase to meteorological conditions and flowering forecast model on Amygdalus communis in Shache County, Xinjiang, China].

    PubMed

    Xu, Xiang-ming; Gu, Pin-qiang; Chen, Cong-min; Li, Zhong-xia; Fei, Lei

    2016-02-01

    Based on the phenophase data of Amygdalus communis and homochronous meteorological observation data at agrometeorological experimental station of Shache County during 2008-2013, the change characteristics of phenological period of A. communis and the effects of temperature and sunshine duration on them were analyzed. The results showed that before flowering, positive correlations existed among the first day of phenological phases, and after flowering, the correlations among the first day of phenological phases were mostly less. A significant positive correlation was observed between earlier bud flower swelling and the days of dormant period. and growth period, and a significant negative correlation existed between later bud flower swelling and the days of dormant period and growth period. Before fruit maturation, there was negative correlation between temperature and the interval days of phenological period, and after fruit maturation, the correlations were mostly positive. But the correlation between sunshine duration and the interval days of phenological period was positive before and after fruit maturation. The interval days from fruit maturation to the beginning date of leaf colour change had evident response to the average maximum temperature, and the interval days from the emergence of inflorescence to the ending data of flowering, and from the beginning date of leaf colour change to the ending date of leaf fall, had obvious response to sunshine duration. When the dormant period exceeded 30 days and the average daily temperature met the rang from -3.0 to -7.5 °C, A. communis would get into the flower swelling period after another 17-28 d. There were one-to-one correspondences between flower swelling, the beginning date of flowering, the beginning date of leaf colour change, the ending date of leaf fall, and the first pentad average temperature greater than or equal to 4 °C and pentad average maximum temperature greater than or equal to 12 °C, pentad

  13. [Response of phenophase to meteorological conditions and flowering forecast model on Amygdalus communis in Shache County, Xinjiang, China].

    PubMed

    Xu, Xiang-ming; Gu, Pin-qiang; Chen, Cong-min; Li, Zhong-xia; Fei, Lei

    2016-02-01

    Based on the phenophase data of Amygdalus communis and homochronous meteorological observation data at agrometeorological experimental station of Shache County during 2008-2013, the change characteristics of phenological period of A. communis and the effects of temperature and sunshine duration on them were analyzed. The results showed that before flowering, positive correlations existed among the first day of phenological phases, and after flowering, the correlations among the first day of phenological phases were mostly less. A significant positive correlation was observed between earlier bud flower swelling and the days of dormant period. and growth period, and a significant negative correlation existed between later bud flower swelling and the days of dormant period and growth period. Before fruit maturation, there was negative correlation between temperature and the interval days of phenological period, and after fruit maturation, the correlations were mostly positive. But the correlation between sunshine duration and the interval days of phenological period was positive before and after fruit maturation. The interval days from fruit maturation to the beginning date of leaf colour change had evident response to the average maximum temperature, and the interval days from the emergence of inflorescence to the ending data of flowering, and from the beginning date of leaf colour change to the ending date of leaf fall, had obvious response to sunshine duration. When the dormant period exceeded 30 days and the average daily temperature met the rang from -3.0 to -7.5 °C, A. communis would get into the flower swelling period after another 17-28 d. There were one-to-one correspondences between flower swelling, the beginning date of flowering, the beginning date of leaf colour change, the ending date of leaf fall, and the first pentad average temperature greater than or equal to 4 °C and pentad average maximum temperature greater than or equal to 12 °C, pentad

  14. H+-PPase AVP1 is necessary for phloem development in Arabidopsis

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The presence of a plasma membrane (PM) localized type I H+-PPase in sieve elements of Ricinus communis was documented years ago. Unfortunately, the physiological and developmental relevance of these findings remained obscure due to the lack of genetic and molecular reagents to study Ricinus communis...

  15. Corn oil

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Corn oil is a popular vegetable oil in the US and in many other countries. Because of its pleasant nutty flavor, its good stability, and its popularity for making margarines, corn oil has long been considered a premium vegetable oil. Among all of the vegetable oils, corn oil ranks tenth in terms of ...

  16. The effect of sodium chloride salinity on the growth, water status and ion content of Phragmites communis trin.

    PubMed

    Gorai, Mustapha; Vadel, Ahmedou M; Neffati, Mohamed; Khemira, Habib

    2007-07-01

    The present study deal with the physiological behavior of Phragmites communis under salt stress. The effects of salinity on growth, dry weight partitioning, water status and ion content were studied on seedlings of P. communis fed with nutrient solutions containing 0 to 600 mM NaCl. The plants grew best when irrigated with distilled water; biomass production and Relative Growth Rate (RGR) decreased with increasing salinity. Nevertheless, plants were able to produce and allocate dried matter to all their organs even at the highest salt level (600 mM NaCl). The leaves showed the lowest growth activity. Increasing salinity was accompanied by a decrease in seedling water content; aerial parts were more dehydrated than roots. Examination of the K+/Na+ selectivity revealed that salt tolerance of reed plants may be due to its capacity to limit Na+ transport and to enhance K+ transport into aerial parts resulting in a high K/Na ratio. Our results suggest an exclusive behavior towards Na+ as shown by the decreasing Na+ gradients from leaves to roots. It is concluded that Na+ exclusion mechanism appeared to be operative and contributes to salt tolerance of Phragmites.

  17. The phenolic content and its involvement in the graft incompatibility process of various pear rootstocks (Pyrus communis L.).

    PubMed

    Hudina, Metka; Orazem, Primoz; Jakopic, Jerneja; Stampar, Franci

    2014-03-01

    This study investigates the influence of various rootstocks for pear on the phytochemical composition in the phloem above and below the graft union and the role of phenols in pear graft incompatibility. Assays of phloem with cambium from 4-year-old 'Conference', 'Abate Fetel' and 'Williams' pear trees grafted on different rootstocks: Quince MA, Quince BA 29, Fox 11, Farold 40 (Daygon), seedling Pyrus communis L. and own rooted (P. communis L.) were analyzed with HPLC-MS. The most abundant phenolic compound in phloem above and below the graft union was arbutin, followed by procyanidin B1 and chlorogenic acid. In 'Conference' and 'Abate Fetel', higher arbutin content levels were measured above the graft union, while in the incompatible scion of 'Williams' on quince MA higher arbutin content levels were measured below the graft union. In all three observed cultivars (in 'Conference' the difference was not significant) grafted on Fox 11 rootstock, the highest content of arbutin was measured below the graft union. The results indicate that not only catechin and procyanidin B1, but also arbutin and several flavonols could be involved in graft incompatibility. All cultivars grafted on quince rootstocks had higher levels of epicatechin and procyanidin B2 below the graft union, even though some differences were not significant. It seems that those phenols do not affect pear incompatibility. A severe incompatibility between Fox 11 rootstock and 'Williams' was detected.

  18. Effect of Artocarpus communis Extract on UVB Irradiation-Induced Oxidative Stress and Inflammation in Hairless Mice.

    PubMed

    Lee, Chiang-Wen; Ko, Horng-Huey; Chai, Chee-Yin; Chen, Wan-Tzu; Lin, Chun-Ching; Yen, Feng-Lin

    2013-01-01

    Administration of antioxidants and anti-inflammatory agents is an effective strategy for preventing ultraviolet (UV) irradiation-induced skin damage. Artocarpus communis possesses several pharmacological activities, such as antioxidant, anticancer and anti-inflammation. However, the photoprotective activity of methanol extract of A. communis heartwood (ACM) in ultraviolet irradiation-induced skin damage has not yet been investigated. The present study was performed using ultraviolet absorption, histopathological observation, antioxidant and anti-inflammation assays to elucidate the mechanism of the photoprotective activity of ACM. Our results indicated that ACM displayed a UVA and UVB absorption effect and then effectively decreased scaly skin, epidermis thickness and sunburn cells during ultraviolet irradiation in hairless mice. ACM not only decreased ultraviolet irradiation-mediated oxidative stress, including lowering the overproduction of reactive oxygen species and lipid peroxidation (p < 0.05), but also reduced the levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines, including tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) and interleukin 1β. Additionally, ACM can decrease the synthesis of cytosolic phospholipase A2, cyclooxygenase, inducible nitric oxide synthase and vascular cell adhesion molecular-1 via inhibiting TNF-α-independent pathways (p < 0.05) in UVB-mediated inflammation and formation of sunburn cells. Consequently, we concluded that ACM extract has a photoprotective effect against UVB-induced oxidative stress and inflammation due to its sunscreen property, and its topical formulations may be developed as therapeutic and/or cosmetic products in further studies.

  19. Calcium fluxes across the plasma membrane of Commelina communis L. assayed in a cell-free system

    SciTech Connect

    Siebers, B.; Graef, P.; Weiler, E.W. )

    1990-07-01

    The inside-out fraction of plasma membrane-rich vesicles prepared from leaves of Commelina communis L. by aqueous two-phase partitioning was loaded with {sup 45}Ca{sup 2+} through the action of the plasma membrane Ca{sup 2+}-ATPase. Results suggest the presence of a Ca{sup 2+} channel in the plasma membrane of C. communis. The channel is obtained in a Ca{sup 2+}-inactivated state after preparation and Ca{sup 2+}-loading of the vesicles. The inactivation is removed by TFP (trifluoperazine) or W-7 (N-(6-aminohexyl)-5-chloro-1-naphthalenesulfonamide), presumably due to the Ca{sup 2+}-mobilizing effect of these compounds. The activated Ca{sup 2+} channel is La{sup 3+} sensitive and, in the cell, would allow for passage of Ca{sup 2+} into the cell. The possibility that TFP or W-7 act independent of CM, or through CM tightly associated with the plasma membrane, is discussed.

  20. IrAE – an asparaginyl endopeptidase (legumain) in the gut of the hard tick Ixodes ricinus

    PubMed Central

    Sojka, Daniel; Hajdušek, Ondřej; Dvořák, Jan; Sajid, Mohammed; Franta, Zdeněk; Schneider, Eric L.; Craik, Charles S.; Vancová, Marie; Burešová, Veronika; Bogyo, Matthew; Sexton, Kelly B.; McKerrow, James H.; Caffrey, Conor R.; Kopáček, Petr

    2008-01-01

    Ticks are ectoparasitic blood-feeders and important vectors for pathogens including arboviruses, rickettsiae, spirochetes and protozoa. As obligate blood-feeders, one possible strategy to retard disease transmission is disruption of the parasite’s ability to digest host proteins. However, the constituent peptidases in the parasite gut and their potential interplay in the digestion of the blood meal are poorly understood. We have characterized a novel asparaginyl endopeptidase (legumain) from the hard tick Ixodes ricinus (termed IrAE), which is the first such characterization of a clan CD family C13 cysteine peptidase (protease) in arthropods. By RT-PCR of different tissues, IrAE mRNA was only expressed in the tick gut. Indirect immunofluorescence and electron microscopy localized IrAE in the digestive vesicles of gut cells and within the peritrophic matrix. IrAE was functionally expressed in Pichia pastoris and reacted with a specific peptidyl fluorogenic substrate, and acyloxymethyl ketone and aza-asparagine Michael acceptor inhibitors. IrAE activity was unstable at pH ≥ 6.0 and was shown to have a strict specificity for asparagine at P1 using a positional scanning synthetic combinatorial library. The enzyme hydrolyzed protein substrates with a pH optimum of 4.5, consistent with the pH of gut cell digestive vesicles. Thus, IrAE cleaved the major protein of the blood meal, hemoglobin, to a predominant peptide of 4 kDa. Also, IrAE trans-processed and activated the zymogen form of Schistosoma mansoni cathepsin B1 – an enzyme contributing to hemoglobin digestion in the gut of that bloodfluke. The possible functions of IrAE in the gut digestive processes of I. ricinus are compared with those suggested for other hematophagous parasites. PMID:17336985

  1. Detection of Wolbachia in the Tick Ixodes ricinus is Due to the Presence of the Hymenoptera Endoparasitoid Ixodiphagus hookeri

    PubMed Central

    Plantard, Olivier; Bouju-Albert, Agnès; Malard, Marie-Astrid; Hermouet, Axelle; Capron, Gilles; Verheyden, Hélène

    2012-01-01

    The identification of micro-organisms carried by ticks is an important issue for human and animal health. In addition to their role as pathogen vectors, ticks are also the hosts for symbiotic bacteria whose impact on tick biology is poorly known. Among these, the bacterium Wolbachia pipientis has already been reported associated with Ixodes ricinus and other tick species. However, the origins of Wolbachia in ticks and their consequences on tick biology (known to be very diverse in invertebrates, ranging from nutritional symbionts in nematodes to reproductive manipulators in insects) are unknown. Here we report that the endoparasitoid wasp Ixodiphagus hookeri (Hymenoptera, Chalcidoidea, Encyrtidae) – strictly associated with ticks for their development - is infested at almost 100% prevalence by a W. pipientis strain belonging to a Wolbachia supergroup that has already been reported as associated with other hymenopteran parasitoids. In a natural population of I. ricinus that suffers high parasitism rates due to I. hookeri, we used specific PCR primers for both hymenopteran and W. pipientis gene fragments to show that all unfed tick nymphs parasitized by I. hookeri also harbored Wolbachia, while unparasitized ticks were Wolbachia-free. We demonstrated experimentally that unfed nymphs obtained from larvae exposed to I. hookeri while gorging on their vertebrate host also harbor Wolbachia. We hypothesize that previous studies that have reported W. pipientis in ticks are due to the cryptic presence of the endoparasitoid wasp I. hookeri. This association has remained hidden until now because parasitoids within ticks cannot be detected until engorgement of the nymphs brings the wasp eggs out of diapause. Finally, we discuss the consequences of this finding for our understanding of the tick microbiome, and their possible role in horizontal gene transfer among pathogenic and symbiotic bacteria. PMID:22292021

  2. Antifungal Effect of Essential Oils against Fusarium Keratitis Isolates.

    PubMed

    Homa, Mónika; Fekete, Ildikó Pálma; Böszörményi, Andrea; Singh, Yendrembam Randhir Babu; Selvam, Kanesan Panneer; Shobana, Coimbatore Subramanian; Manikandan, Palanisamy; Kredics, László; Vágvölgyi, Csaba; Galgóczy, László

    2015-09-01

    The present study was carried out to investigate the antifungal effects of Cinnamomum zeylanicum, Citrus limon, Juniperus communis, Eucalyptus citriodora, Gaultheria procumbens, Melaleuca alternifolia, Origanum majorana, Salvia sclarea, and Thymus vulgaris essential oils against Fusarium species, the most common etiologic agents of filamentous fungal keratitis in South India. C. zeylanicum essential oil showed strong anti-Fusarium activity, whereas all the other tested essential oils proved to be less effective. The main component of C. zeylanicum essential oil, trans-cinnamaldehyde, was also tested and showed a similar effect as the oil. The in vitro interaction between trans-cinnamaldehyde and natamycin, the first-line therapeutic agent of Fusarium keratitis, was also investigated; an enhanced fungal growth inhibition was observed when these agents were applied in combination. Light and fluorescent microscopic observations revealed that C. zeylanicum essential oil/trans-cinnamaldehyde reduces the cellular metabolism and inhibits the conidia germination. Furthermore, necrotic events were significantly more frequent in the presence of these two compounds. According to our results, C. zeylanicum essential oil/trans-cinnamaldehyde provides a promising basis to develop a novel strategy for the treatment of Fusarium keratitis. PMID:26227503

  3. Antifungal Effect of Essential Oils against Fusarium Keratitis Isolates.

    PubMed

    Homa, Mónika; Fekete, Ildikó Pálma; Böszörményi, Andrea; Singh, Yendrembam Randhir Babu; Selvam, Kanesan Panneer; Shobana, Coimbatore Subramanian; Manikandan, Palanisamy; Kredics, László; Vágvölgyi, Csaba; Galgóczy, László

    2015-09-01

    The present study was carried out to investigate the antifungal effects of Cinnamomum zeylanicum, Citrus limon, Juniperus communis, Eucalyptus citriodora, Gaultheria procumbens, Melaleuca alternifolia, Origanum majorana, Salvia sclarea, and Thymus vulgaris essential oils against Fusarium species, the most common etiologic agents of filamentous fungal keratitis in South India. C. zeylanicum essential oil showed strong anti-Fusarium activity, whereas all the other tested essential oils proved to be less effective. The main component of C. zeylanicum essential oil, trans-cinnamaldehyde, was also tested and showed a similar effect as the oil. The in vitro interaction between trans-cinnamaldehyde and natamycin, the first-line therapeutic agent of Fusarium keratitis, was also investigated; an enhanced fungal growth inhibition was observed when these agents were applied in combination. Light and fluorescent microscopic observations revealed that C. zeylanicum essential oil/trans-cinnamaldehyde reduces the cellular metabolism and inhibits the conidia germination. Furthermore, necrotic events were significantly more frequent in the presence of these two compounds. According to our results, C. zeylanicum essential oil/trans-cinnamaldehyde provides a promising basis to develop a novel strategy for the treatment of Fusarium keratitis.

  4. Extracts of Artocarpus communis decrease α-melanocyte stimulating hormone-induced melanogenesis through activation of ERK and JNK signaling pathways.

    PubMed

    Fu, Yi-Tzu; Lee, Chiang-Wen; Ko, Horng-Huey; Yen, Feng-Lin

    2014-01-01

    Artocarpus communis is an agricultural plant that is also used in folk medicine to prevent skin diseases, including acne and dermatitis. Extracts of A. communis have been used to effectively inhibit melanogenesis; however, the antimelanogenesis mechanism of these extracts has not yet been investigated. The present study utilized a cell-free tyrosinase assay as well as α-melanocyte stimulating hormone- (-MSH-) induced tyrosinase assay conducted in B16F10 cells, performed a cytotoxicity assay, and determined cellular melanin content to examine the effects of a methanolic extract of A. communis (ACM) and various organic partition fractions of A. communis on melanogenesis. In addition, we performed western blot analysis to elucidate the mechanism of their antimelanogenesis effect. Our results indicated that, except for the n-hexane extract, ACM and the various partition extracts at noncytotoxic concentrations effectively decreased melanin content and tyrosinase activity by downregulating microphthalmia-associated transcription factor (MITF) and phosphorylated cAMP response element-binding protein (p-CREB). Moreover, ACM and the partition fractions activated phosphorylation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) and c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) to inhibit the synthesis of MITF and finally to decrease melanin production. In conclusion, we suggest that noncytotoxic concentrations of ACM and the various partition fractions may be useful as references for developing skin-lighting agents for use in medicines or cosmetics.

  5. In vitro colchicine-induced polyploid plantlet production and regeneration from leaf explants of the diploid pear (Pyrus communis L.) cultivar, 'Fertility'

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Polyploid plantlets, including triploid, tetraploid and other polyploids, were induced from in vitro leaves of a European pear (Pyrus communis L.) cultivar 'Fertility' by a colchicine treatment. In vitro leaves were incubated in 0.4% colchicine solution for 24, 48 or 72 h, and transferred to an adv...

  6. Extracts of Artocarpus communis decrease α-melanocyte stimulating hormone-induced melanogenesis through activation of ERK and JNK signaling pathways.

    PubMed

    Fu, Yi-Tzu; Lee, Chiang-Wen; Ko, Horng-Huey; Yen, Feng-Lin

    2014-01-01

    Artocarpus communis is an agricultural plant that is also used in folk medicine to prevent skin diseases, including acne and dermatitis. Extracts of A. communis have been used to effectively inhibit melanogenesis; however, the antimelanogenesis mechanism of these extracts has not yet been investigated. The present study utilized a cell-free tyrosinase assay as well as α-melanocyte stimulating hormone- (-MSH-) induced tyrosinase assay conducted in B16F10 cells, performed a cytotoxicity assay, and determined cellular melanin content to examine the effects of a methanolic extract of A. communis (ACM) and various organic partition fractions of A. communis on melanogenesis. In addition, we performed western blot analysis to elucidate the mechanism of their antimelanogenesis effect. Our results indicated that, except for the n-hexane extract, ACM and the various partition extracts at noncytotoxic concentrations effectively decreased melanin content and tyrosinase activity by downregulating microphthalmia-associated transcription factor (MITF) and phosphorylated cAMP response element-binding protein (p-CREB). Moreover, ACM and the partition fractions activated phosphorylation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) and c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) to inhibit the synthesis of MITF and finally to decrease melanin production. In conclusion, we suggest that noncytotoxic concentrations of ACM and the various partition fractions may be useful as references for developing skin-lighting agents for use in medicines or cosmetics. PMID:24737988

  7. Comparative inhibitory effect of prenylated coumarins, ferulenol and ferprenin, contained in the 'poisonous chemotype' of Ferula communis on mammal liver microsomal VKORC1 activity.

    PubMed

    Louvet, Marie-Sophie; Gault, Gilbert; Lefebvre, Sébastien; Popowycz, Florence; Boulven, Manon; Besse, Stéphane; Benoit, Etienne; Lattard, Virginie; Grancher, Denis

    2015-10-01

    Two distinguishable chemotypes of Ferula communis have been described: the 'nonpoisonous' chemotype, containing as main constituents the daucane esters; and the 'poisonous' chemotype containing prenylated coumarins, such as ferulenol and ferprenin. Ferulenol and ferprenin are 4-oxygenated molecules such as dicoumarol and warfarin, the first developed antivitamin K molecules. Antivitamin K molecules specifically inhibit VKORC1, an enzyme essential for recycling vitamin K. This latest is involved in the activation of clotting factors II, VII, IX, X. The inhibiting effect of ferulenol on VKORC1 was shown in rat, but not for species exposed to F. communis while in vivo studies suggest differences between animal susceptibility to ferulenol. The inhibiting effect of ferprenin on VKORC1 was never demonstrated. The aim of this study was to compare the inhibiting effect of both compounds on VKORC1 of different species exposed to F. communis. Vitamin K epoxide activity was evaluated for each species from liver microsomes and inhibiting effect of ferulenol and ferprenin was characterized. Ferulenol and ferprenin were shown to be able to inhibit VKORC1 from all analyzed species. Nevertheless, susceptibility to ferulenol and ferprenin presented differences between species, suggesting a different susceptibility to 'poisonous' chemotypes of F. communis.

  8. [Some demographic datas from Ixodes ricinus Linné: vector of a virus strain of central european encephalitis in Alsace (author's transl)].

    PubMed

    Chatelain, J; Ardoin, P

    1977-10-30

    This work shows the montly variation in the density and stage composition of the population of the tick Ixodes Ricinus in the Rhine forest. Some factors influencing this variation are analysed. These include the locality of egg-laying and of down localisation and the main climatic variables. We also try to link these ecological data with the strains of Central European Encephalitis virus isolated from this arthropod.

  9. Prevalence of infection with Rickettsia helvetica in Ixodes ricinus ticks feeding on non-rickettsiemic rodent hosts in sylvatic habitats of west-central Poland.

    PubMed

    Biernat, Beata; Stańczak, Joanna; Michalik, Jerzy; Sikora, Bożena; Wierzbicka, Anna

    2016-02-01

    Ixodes ricinus is the most prevalent and widely distributed tick species in European countries and plays a principal role in transmission of a wide range of microbial pathogens. It is also a main vector and reservoir of Rickettsia spp. of the spotted fever group with the infection level ranging in Poland from 1.3% to 11.4%. Nevertheless, little research has been conducted so far to identify reservoir hosts for these pathogens. A survey was undertaken to investigate the presence of Rickettsia spp. in wild small rodents and detached I. ricinus. Rodents, Apodemus flavicollis mice and Myodes glareolus voles were captured in typically sylvatic habitats of west-central Poland. Blood samples and collected ticks were analyzed by conventional, semi-nested and nested PCRs. Rickettsial species were determined by sequence analysis of obtained fragments of gltA and 16S rRNA genes. A total of 2339 immature I. ricinus (mostly larvae) were collected from 158 animals. Proportion of hosts carrying ticks was 84%, being higher for A. flavicollis than for M. glareolus. Rickettsia helvetica, the only species identified, was detected in 8% of 12 nymphs and in at least 10.7% (MIR) of 804 larvae investigated. Prevalence of infected ticks on both rodent species was comparable (10.8 vs. 9%). None of blood samples tested was positive for Rickettsia spp. The results showed that in sylvatic habitats the level of infestation with larval I. ricinus was higher in A. flavicollis mice in comparison with M. glareolus voles. They show that R. helvetica frequently occurred in ticks feeding on rodents. Positive immature ticks were collected from non-rickettsiemic hosts what might suggest a vertical route of their infection (transovarial and/or transstadial) or a very short-lasting rickettsiemia in rodents. A natural vertebrate reservoir host for R. helvetica remains to be determined.

  10. Prevalence of infection with Rickettsia helvetica in Ixodes ricinus ticks feeding on non-rickettsiemic rodent hosts in sylvatic habitats of west-central Poland.

    PubMed

    Biernat, Beata; Stańczak, Joanna; Michalik, Jerzy; Sikora, Bożena; Wierzbicka, Anna

    2016-02-01

    Ixodes ricinus is the most prevalent and widely distributed tick species in European countries and plays a principal role in transmission of a wide range of microbial pathogens. It is also a main vector and reservoir of Rickettsia spp. of the spotted fever group with the infection level ranging in Poland from 1.3% to 11.4%. Nevertheless, little research has been conducted so far to identify reservoir hosts for these pathogens. A survey was undertaken to investigate the presence of Rickettsia spp. in wild small rodents and detached I. ricinus. Rodents, Apodemus flavicollis mice and Myodes glareolus voles were captured in typically sylvatic habitats of west-central Poland. Blood samples and collected ticks were analyzed by conventional, semi-nested and nested PCRs. Rickettsial species were determined by sequence analysis of obtained fragments of gltA and 16S rRNA genes. A total of 2339 immature I. ricinus (mostly larvae) were collected from 158 animals. Proportion of hosts carrying ticks was 84%, being higher for A. flavicollis than for M. glareolus. Rickettsia helvetica, the only species identified, was detected in 8% of 12 nymphs and in at least 10.7% (MIR) of 804 larvae investigated. Prevalence of infected ticks on both rodent species was comparable (10.8 vs. 9%). None of blood samples tested was positive for Rickettsia spp. The results showed that in sylvatic habitats the level of infestation with larval I. ricinus was higher in A. flavicollis mice in comparison with M. glareolus voles. They show that R. helvetica frequently occurred in ticks feeding on rodents. Positive immature ticks were collected from non-rickettsiemic hosts what might suggest a vertical route of their infection (transovarial and/or transstadial) or a very short-lasting rickettsiemia in rodents. A natural vertebrate reservoir host for R. helvetica remains to be determined. PMID:26515058

  11. Molecular evidence of Anaplasma phagocytophilum and Babesia microti co-infections in Ixodes ricinus ticks in central-eastern region of Poland.

    PubMed

    Sytykiewicz, Hubert; Karbowiak, Grzegorz; Hapunik, Joanna; Szpechciński, Adam; Supergan-Marwicz, Marta; Goławska, Sylwia; Sprawka, Iwona; Czerniewicz, Paweł

    2012-01-01

    The aim of the study was to elucidate the distribution of Anaplasma phagocytophilum and Babesia microti co-infection in Ixodes ricinus populations within the central-eastern region of Poland. The prevalence of analysed tick-borne human pathogens in single and polymicrobial infections in I. ricinus ticks were analysed using the conventional and nested PCR techniques. A total number of 1,123 questing tick individuals (291 females, 267 males and 565 nymphs) were collected at different ecosystems (municipal parks, suburban forests, and woodlands). In the presented study, 95 samples of ticks (8.5%) were infected with A.phagocytophilum, 3.1% (n=35) with B. microti, whereas the co-existence status of these human pathogens was detected in 1.8% (n=20) of all tested samples. It has been demonstrated that the prevalence of co-infection status was the highest among females of I. ricinus (11 samples, 3.8%), whereas the lowest within tested nymphs (5 samples, 0.9%). Ticks collected at city parks in Warsaw and suburban areas of this town characterized the highest prevalence of co-infections (3.3 and 4.8%, respectively). Furthermore, it was established that co-infection rates of ticks inhabiting woodlands within Kampinos National Park and Nadbużański Landscape Park were similar and reached the levels of 1.4% (n=5) and 1.1% (n=4), respectively.

  12. Old health risks in new places? An ecological niche model for I. ricinus tick distribution in Europe under a changing climate.

    PubMed

    Boeckmann, Melanie; Joyner, T Andrew

    2014-11-01

    Climate change will likely have impacts on disease vector distribution. Posing a significant health threat in the 21st century, risk of tick-borne diseases may increase with higher annual mean temperatures and changes in precipitation. We modeled the current and future potential distribution of the Ixodes ricinus tick species in Europe. The Genetic Algorithm for Rule-set Prediction (GARP) was utilized to predict potential distributions of I. ricinus based on current (1990-2010 averages) and future (2040-2060 averages) environmental variables. A ten model best subset was created out of a possible 200 models based on omission and commission criteria. Our results show that under the A2 climate change scenario the potential habitat range for the I. ricinus tick in Europe will expand into higher elevations and latitudes (e.g., Scandinavia, the Baltics, and Belarus), while contracting in other areas (e.g., Alps, Pyrenees, interior Italy, and northwestern Poland). Overall, a potential habitat expansion of 3.8% in all of Europe is possible. Our results may be used to inform climate change adaptation efforts in Europe.

  13. Environmental determinants of Ixodes ricinus ticks and the incidence of Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato, the agent of Lyme borreliosis, in Scotland.

    PubMed

    James, M C; Bowman, A S; Forbes, K J; Lewis, F; McLeod, J E; Gilbert, L

    2013-02-01

    Lyme borreliosis (LB) is the most common arthropod-borne disease of humans in the Northern hemisphere. In Europe, the causative agent, Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato complex, is principally vectored by Ixodes ricinus ticks. The aim of this study was to identify environmental factors influencing questing I. ricinus nymph abundance and B. burgdorferi s.l. infection in questing nymphs using a large-scale survey across Scotland. Ticks, host dung and vegetation were surveyed at 25 woodland sites, and climatic variables from a Geographical Information System (GIS) were extracted for each site. A total of 2397 10 m2 transect surveys were conducted and 13 250 I. ricinus nymphs counted. Questing nymphs were assayed for B. burgdorferi s.l. and the average infection prevalence was 5·6% (range 0·8-13·9%). More questing nymphs and higher incidence of B. burgdorferi s.l. infection were found in areas with higher deer abundance and in mixed/deciduous compared to coniferous forests, as well as weaker correlations with season, altitude, rainfall and ground vegetation. No correlation was found between nymph abundance and infection prevalence within the ranges encountered. An understanding of the environmental conditions associated with tick abundance and pathogen prevalence may be used to reduce risk of exposure and to predict future pathogen prevalence and distributions under environmental changes.

  14. Assessment of the prophylactic speed of kill of Frontline Tri-Act® against ticks (Ixodes ricinus and Rhipicephalus sanguineus) on dogs

    PubMed Central

    Beugnet, Frédéric; Halos, Lénaïg; Liebenberg, Julian; Fourie, Josephus

    2016-01-01

    The objective of the study was to assess the speed of kill of a single topical treatment with a combination of fipronil and permethrin (Frontline Tri-Act®/Frontect®) against experimental infestations of Ixodes ricinus and Rhipicephalus sanguineus ticks on dogs. In this parallel group designed, randomised, single centre, controlled efficacy study, 16 healthy adult dogs were allocated to two groups: 8 dogs were treated with the topical combination on Day 0 and the other 8 dogs served as untreated controls. Each dog was exposed in a crate to 100 I. ricinus (50 females, 50 males) and 50 R. sanguineus (25 males, 25 females) on Days 2, 7, 14, 21 and 28. Ticks were counted in situ at 6 and 12 h after exposure and removed at 24 h after exposure. Frontline Tri-Act® was effective (≥90%) against both R. sanguineus and I. ricinus tick infestations at 6, 12 and 24 h after exposure, from 2 to 28 days after treatment. This is the first time that a topical ectoparasiticide has demonstrated a preventive killing effect against these two tick species in 6 h for a full month. PMID:26795064

  15. Effects of elevated CO sub 2 concentrations on glycolysis in intact Bartlett pear fruit. [Pyrus communis L

    SciTech Connect

    Kerbel, E.L.; Kader, A.A.; Romani, R.J. )

    1988-04-01

    Mature intact Bartlett pear fruit (Pyrus communis L.) were stored under a continuous flow of air or air + 10% CO{sub 2} for 4 days at 20{degree}C. Fruit kept under elevated CO{sub 2} concentrations exhibited reduced respiration (O{sub 2} consumption) and ethylene evolution rates, and remained firmer and greener than fruit stored in air. Protein content, fructose 1,6-bisphosphate levels, and ATP:phosphofructokinase and PPi:phosphofructokinase activities declined, while levels of fructose 6-phosphate and fructose 2,6-bisphosphate increased in fruit exposed to air + 10% CO{sub 2}. These results are discussed in light of a possible inhibitory effect of CO{sub 2} at the site of action of both phosphofructokinases in the glycolytic pathway, which could account, at least in part, for the observed reduction in respiration.

  16. Prenylated flavonoids from the heartwood of Artocarpus communis with inhibitory activity on lipopolysaccharide-induced nitric oxide production.

    PubMed

    Han, Ah-Reum; Kang, You-Jin; Windono, Tri; Lee, Sang Kook; Seo, Eun-Kyoung

    2006-04-01

    A new prenylated chalcone, 3' ',3' '-dimethylpyrano[3',4']2,4,2'-trihydroxychalcone (1), was isolated from the heartwood of Artocarpus communis. Two flavonoid derivatives, (-)-cycloartocarpin (9) and (-)-cudraflavone A (10), were isolated as new isomers. In addition, eight known flavonoids, isobacachalcone (2), morachalcone A (3), gemichalcones B (4) and C (5), artocarpin (6), cudraflavone C (7), licoflavone C (8), and (2S)-euchrenone a(7) (11), were isolated and identified from this plant for the first time. Compounds 1-4, 6, and 11 exhibited potent inhibitory activity on nitric oxide production in RAW264.7 LPS-activated mouse macrophage cells with IC(50) values of 18.8, 6.4, 16.4, 9.3, 18.7, and 12.3 microM, respectively. The structure of compound 1 was elucidated by spectroscopic data analysis, including 1D and 2D NMR experiments.

  17. Methodological caveats in the environmental modelling and projections of climate niche for ticks, with examples for Ixodes ricinus (Ixodidae).

    PubMed

    Estrada-Peña, A; Estrada-Sánchez, A; Estrada-Sánchez, D

    2015-02-28

    Interest is increasing in inferring the climate niche of health-threatening arthropods and projecting such inferences onto a territory. This approach is intended to predict the range of tick distribution and to elucidate tick responses to climate scenarios, using so-called correlative models. However, some methodological gaps might prevent achieving an adequate background for hypothesis testing. We explore, describe, and illustrate these procedural inaccuracies with examples focused on the tick Ixodes ricinus and examine how these factors might affect modelling outcomes. Our aim was to develop a backdrop of rules for developing reliable models for these parasites. The use of partial sets of tick occurrences might produce unreliable associations with climate because the algorithms cannot capture the complete niche with which the tick is associated. Reliability measures of the model cannot detect these inaccuracies, and undesirable estimations of the niche will prevail in the chain of further calculations. The use of inadequate environmental variables (covariates) may lead to inflation of the results of the model through two statistical processes, autocorrelation and colinearity. We demonstrate the high colinearity existing in climate products derived from interpolation of climate recording stations. Our explicit advice is to focus on the training of climate models with satellite-derived information of climate, from which colinearity of the time series has been removed through a harmonic regression. We also emphasize the high uncertainty if inference about the climate niche is expanded into different time slices, like projected climate scenarios.

  18. Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato and co-infections with Anaplasma phagocytophilum and Rickettsia spp. in Ixodes ricinus in Hamburg, Germany.

    PubMed

    May, K; Jordan, D; Fingerle, V; Strube, C

    2015-12-01

    To obtain initial data on Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato (Spirochaetales: Spirochaetaceae) in Ixodes ricinus (Ixodida: Ixodidae) ticks in Hamburg, Germany, 1400 questing ticks were collected by flagging at 10 different public recreation areas in 2011 and analysed using probe-based quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction. The overall rate of infection with B. burgdorferi s.l. was 34.1%; 30.0% of adults were infected (36.7% of females and 26.0% of males), as were 34.5% of nymphs. Significant differences in tick infection rates were observed between the spring and summer/autumn months, as well as among sampling locations. Borrelia genospecies identification by reverse line blotting was successful in 43.6% of positive tick samples. The most frequent genospecies was Borrelia garinii/Borrelia bavariensis, followed by Borrelia afzelii, Borrelia valaisiana, B. burgdorferi sensu stricto, Borrelia spielmanii, Borrelia bissettii and Borrelia lusitaniae. Based on previously published data, co-infection of Borrelia and Rickettsiales spp. was determined in 25.8% of ticks. Overall, 22.9% of ticks were co-infected with Rickettsia spp. (Rickettsiales: Rickettsiaceae), 1.7% with Anaplasma phagocytophilum (Rickettsiales: Anaplasmataceae), and 1.2% with both pathogens. Study results show a high prevalence of Borrelia-positive ticks in recreation areas in the northern German city of Hamburg and the potential health risk to humans in these areas should not be underestimated.

  19. Francisella tularensis: No Evidence for Transovarial Transmission in the Tularemia Tick Vectors Dermacentor reticulatus and Ixodes ricinus

    PubMed Central

    Genchi, Marco; Prati, Paola; Vicari, Nadia; Manfredini, Andrea; Sacchi, Luciano; Clementi, Emanuela; Bandi, Claudio; Epis, Sara; Fabbi, Massimo

    2015-01-01

    Background Tularemia is a zoonosis caused by the Francisella tularensis, a highly infectious Gram-negative coccobacillus. Due to easy dissemination, multiple routes of infection, high environmental contamination and morbidity and mortality rates, Francisella is considered a potential bioterrorism threat and classified as a category A select agent by the CDC. Tick bites are among the most prevalent modes of transmission, and ticks have been indicated as a possible reservoir, although their reservoir competence has yet to be defined. Tick-borne transmission of F. tularensis was recognized in 1923, and transstadial transmission has been demonstrated in several tick species. Studies on transovarial transmission, however, have reported conflicting results. Objective The aim of this study was to evaluate the role of ticks as reservoirs for Francisella, assessing the transovarial transmission of F. tularensis subsp. holarctica in ticks, using experimentally-infected females of Dermacentor reticulatus and Ixodes ricinus. Results Transmission electron microscopy and fluorescence in situ hybridization showed F. tularensis within oocytes. However, cultures and bioassays of eggs and larvae were negative; in addition, microscopy techniques revealed bacterial degeneration/death in the oocytes. Conclusions These results suggest that bacterial death might occur in oocytes, preventing the transovarial transmission of Francisella. We can speculate that Francisella does not have a defined reservoir, but that rather various biological niches (e.g. ticks, rodents), that allow the bacterium to persist in the environment. Our results, suggesting that ticks are not competent for the bacterium vertical transmission, are congruent with this view. PMID:26244842

  20. 'Candidatus Rickettsia mendelii', a novel basal group rickettsia detected in Ixodes ricinus ticks in the Czech Republic.

    PubMed

    Hajduskova, Eva; Literak, Ivan; Papousek, Ivo; Costa, Francisco B; Novakova, Marketa; Labruna, Marcelo B; Zdrazilova-Dubska, Lenka

    2016-04-01

    A novel rickettsial sequence in the citrate synthase gltA gene indicating a novel Rickettsia species has been detected in 7 out of 4524 Ixodes ricinus ticks examined within several surveys performed in the Czech Republic from 2005 to 2009. This new Candidatus Rickettsia sp. sequence has been found in 2 nymphs feeding on wild birds (Luscinia megarhynchos and Erithacus rubecula), in a male tick from vegetation, and 4 ticks feeding on a dog (3 males, 1 female tick). Portions of the ompA, ompB, sca4, and htrA genes were not amplifiable in these samples. A maximum likelihood tree of rickettsiae based on comparisons of partial amino acid sequences of citrate synthase and nucleotide sequences of 16S rDNA genes and phylogenetic analysis revealed a basal position of the novel species in the proximity of R. bellii and R. canadensis. The novel species has been named 'Candidatus Rickettsia mendelii' after the founder of genetics, Gregor Mendel.

  1. Geographical distribution and prevalence of Borrelia burgdorferi genospecies in questing Ixodes ricinus from Romania: a countrywide study.

    PubMed

    Kalmár, Zsuzsa; Mihalca, Andrei D; Dumitrache, Mirabela O; Gherman, Călin M; Magdaş, Cristian; Mircean, Viorica; Oltean, Miruna; Domşa, Cristian; Matei, Ioana A; Mărcuţan, Daniel I; Sándor, Attila D; D'Amico, Gianluca; Paştiu, Anamaria; Györke, Adriana; Gavrea, Raluca; Marosi, Béla; Ionică, Angela; Burkhardt, Etelka; Toriay, Hortenzia; Cozma, Vasile

    2013-09-01

    The paper reports the prevalence and geographical distribution of Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato (s.l.) and its genospecies in 12,221 questing Ixodes ricinus ticks collected at 183 locations from all the 41 counties of Romania. The unfed ticks were examined for the presence of B. burgdorferi s.l. by PCR targeting the intergenic spacer 5S-23S. Reverse line blot hybridization (RLB) and restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) analysis were performed for identification of B. burgdorferi genospecies. The overall prevalence of infection was 1.4%, with an average local prevalence between 0.75% and 18.8%. B. burgdorferi s.l. was found in ticks of 55 of the 183 localities. The overall prevalence B. burgdorferi s.l. in ticks in the infected localities was 3.8%. The total infection prevalence was higher in female ticks than in other developmental stages. Three Borrelia genospecies were detected. The most widely distributed genospecies was B. afzelii, followed by B. garinii and B. burgdorferi sensu stricto (s.s.). The study is the first countrywide study and the first report of B. burgdorferi s.s. in Romania. The distribution maps show that higher prevalences were recorded in hilly areas, but Lyme borreliosis spirochetes were also present in forested lowlands, albeit with a lower prevalence.

  2. Ixodes ricinus as a vector of Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato, Anaplasma phagocytophilum and Babesia microti in urban and suburban forests.

    PubMed

    Stańczak, Joanna; Gabre, Refaat Mohammed; Kruminis-Łozowska, Wiesława; Racewicz, Maria; Kubica-Biernat, Beata

    2004-01-01

    In the suburban and urban forests in the cities of Gdansk, Sopot and Gdynia (northern Poland), Ixodes ricinus ticks should be considered as the vector of pathogenic microorganisms that may cause significant diseases in wild and domestic animals and humans. These microorganisms include etiologic agents of Lyme disease, human anaplasmosis (HA) and babesiosis: Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato, Anaplasma phagocytophilum and Babesia microti, respectively. DNA extracts from 701 ticks collected in 15 localities were examined by PCR for the simultaneous detection of these 3 pathogens. Overall, 14 % were infected with A. phagocytophilum followed by 12.4 % with B. burgdorferi s.l. and 2.3 % with B. microti. In total, the percentage of infected females (32.9 %) was 2.4 times higher than in males (13.7 %) and 3.2 times higher than in nymphs (10.3 %). Among adult ticks (n = 303), 8.3 % were dually infected with A. phagocytophilum and B. burgdorferi s.l., 2.0 % with the agent of human anaplasmosis and B. microti and 0.3 % with borreliae and B. microti.

  3. 'Candidatus Rickettsia mendelii', a novel basal group rickettsia detected in Ixodes ricinus ticks in the Czech Republic.

    PubMed

    Hajduskova, Eva; Literak, Ivan; Papousek, Ivo; Costa, Francisco B; Novakova, Marketa; Labruna, Marcelo B; Zdrazilova-Dubska, Lenka

    2016-04-01

    A novel rickettsial sequence in the citrate synthase gltA gene indicating a novel Rickettsia species has been detected in 7 out of 4524 Ixodes ricinus ticks examined within several surveys performed in the Czech Republic from 2005 to 2009. This new Candidatus Rickettsia sp. sequence has been found in 2 nymphs feeding on wild birds (Luscinia megarhynchos and Erithacus rubecula), in a male tick from vegetation, and 4 ticks feeding on a dog (3 males, 1 female tick). Portions of the ompA, ompB, sca4, and htrA genes were not amplifiable in these samples. A maximum likelihood tree of rickettsiae based on comparisons of partial amino acid sequences of citrate synthase and nucleotide sequences of 16S rDNA genes and phylogenetic analysis revealed a basal position of the novel species in the proximity of R. bellii and R. canadensis. The novel species has been named 'Candidatus Rickettsia mendelii' after the founder of genetics, Gregor Mendel. PMID:26873811

  4. Oil Spill!

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ansberry, Karen Rohrich; Morgan, Emily

    2005-01-01

    An oil spill occurs somewhere in the world almost every day of the year, and the consequences can be devastating. In this month's column, students explore the effects of oil spills on plants, animals, and the environment and investigate oil spill clean-up methods through a simulated oil spill. The activities described in this article give students…

  5. Growth and nitrogen removal capacity of Desmodesmus communis and of a natural microalgae consortium in a batch culture system in view of urban wastewater treatment: part I.

    PubMed

    Samorì, Giulia; Samorì, Chiara; Guerrini, Franca; Pistocchi, Rossella

    2013-02-01

    The microalgal biomass applications strongly depend on cell composition and the production of low cost products such as biofuels appears to be economically convenient only in conjunction with wastewater treatment. As a preliminary study, in view of the development of a wastewater treatment pilot plant for nutrient removal and algal biomass production, a biological wastewater system was carried out on a laboratory scale growing a newly isolated freshwater algal strain, Desmodesmus communis, and a natural consortium of microalgae in effluents generated by a local wastewater reclamation facility. Batch cultures were operated by using D. communis under different growth conditions to better understand the effects of CO₂, nutrient concentration and light intensity on the biomass productivity and biochemical composition. The results were compared with those obtained using a natural algal consortium. D. communis showed a great vitality in the wastewater effluents with a biomass productivity of 0.138-0.227 g L⁻¹ d⁻¹ in the primary effluent enriched with CO₂, higher biomass productivity compared with the one achieved by the algal consortium (0.078 g L⁻¹ d⁻¹). D. communis cultures reached also a better nutrient removal efficiency compared with the algal consortium culture, with almost 100% for ammonia and phosphorous at any N/P ratio characterizing the wastewater nutrient composition. Biomass composition was richer in polysaccharides and total fatty acids as the ammonia concentration in the water decreased. In view of a future application of this algal biomass, due to the low total fatty acids content of 1.4-9.3 wt% and the high C/N ratio of 7.6-39.3, anaerobic digestion appeared to be the most appropriate biofuel conversion process. PMID:23211134

  6. Anti-inflammatory effect of the 5,7,4'-trihydroxy-6-geranylflavanone isolated from the fruit of Artocarpus communis in S100B-induced human monocytes.

    PubMed

    Lin, Jer-An; Fang, Song-Chwan; Wu, Chi-Hao; Huang, Shang-Ming; Yen, Gow-Chin

    2011-01-12

    The fruit of Artocarpus communis Moraceae, a traditional starch crop, is a rich source of phytochemicals, such as flavonoids and their derivatives. The aim of this study was to investigate whether 5,7,4'-trihydroxy-6-geranylflavanone (AC-GF), a geranyl flavonoid derivative isolated from the fruits of A. communis, could decrease the activation of inflammatory mediators induced by S100B (ligand of receptor for advanced glycation end products, RAGE) in THP-1 monocytes. According to the results, low levels of AC-GF (≤2.5 μM) showed a great inhibitory effect on gene expression of RAGE and down-regulated both TNF-α and IL-1β secretion and gene expression (p < 0.05). AC-GF also decreased reactive oxygen species (ROS) production in response to S100B (p < 0.05). Additionally, Western blotting revealed that AC-GF could effectively attenuate RAGE-dependent signaling, including expression of protein kinase C (PKC) and p47phox, phosphorylation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) and p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK), and particularly NF-κB activation (p < 0.05). In conclusion, this is the first report that AC-GF possesses great antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties in vitro. This finding may contribute to increased implication and utilization of the fruit of A. communis Moraceae in functional foods.

  7. Enhancing degradation of total petroleum hydrocarbons and uptake of heavy metals in a wetland microcosm planted with Phragmites communis by humic acids addition.

    PubMed

    Sung, Kijune; Kim, Ki Seob; Park, Soyoung

    2013-01-01

    The effects of humic acid (HA) on heavy-metal uptake by plants and degradation of total petroleum hydrocarbons (TPHs) in a wetland microcosm planted with Phragmites communis were evaluated by comparing waterlogged soils and water-drained upland soils. Experiments were conducted on soils artificially contaminated with heavy metals (Pb, Cu, Cd, Ni) and diesel fuel. HA showed a positive influence on biomass increase for all conditions, but more for belowground than aboveground biomass, and lower in contaminated than uncontaminated soil. The bioavailability and leachability factor (BLF) for all heavy metals except Ni increased with HA addition in both the control and the P. communis planted microcosms, suggesting that more heavy metals could be potentially phytoavailable for plant uptake. Microbial activities were not affected by both heavy metals and TPH contamination, and HA effects on stimulating microbial activities were much greater in the contaminated soil than under uncontaminated conditions. HA addition enhanced the degradation of TPH and n-alkane in waterlogged conditions. The results show that HA can increase the remedial performance in P. communis dominated wetlands simultaneously contaminated with heavy metals and petroleum hydrocarbons and thus prevent contamination of groundwater or other adjacent ecosystems.

  8. Insecticidal Activity of the Essential Oils from Different Plants Against Three Stored-Product Insects

    PubMed Central

    Ayvaz, Abdurrahman; Sagdic, Osman; Karaborklu, Salih; Ozturk, Ismet

    2010-01-01

    This study was conducted to determine the insecticidal activity of essential oils from oregano, Origanum onites L. (Lamiales: Lamiaceae), savory, Satureja thymbra L. (Lamiales: Lamiaceae), and myrtle, Myrtus communis L. (Rosales: Myrtaceae) against three stored-product insects. Essential oils from three species of plants were obtained by Clevenger-type water distillation. The major compounds in these essential oils were identified using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry and their insecticidal activity was tested against adults of the Mediterranean flour moth Ephestia kuehniella Zeller (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae), the Indian meal moth Plodia interpunctella Hübner (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae) and the bean weevil Acanthoscelides obtectus Say (Coleoptera: Bruchidae). While the major compound found in oregano and savory was carvacrol, the main constituent of the myrtle was linalool. Among the tested insects, A. obtectus was the most tolerant species against the essential oils. However, the insecticidal activity of the myrtle oil was more pronounced than other oils tested against A. obtectus adults. The essential oils of oregano and savory were highly effective against P. interpunctella and E. kuehniella, with 100% mortality obtained after 24 h at 9 and 25 µl/l air for P. interpunctella and E. kuehniella, respectively. LC50 and LC99 values of each essential oil were estimated for each insect species. PMID:20578885

  9. Insecticidal activity of the essential oils from different plants against three stored-product insects.

    PubMed

    Ayvaz, Abdurrahman; Sagdic, Osman; Karaborklu, Salih; Ozturk, Ismet

    2010-01-01

    This study was conducted to determine the insecticidal activity of essential oils from oregano, Origanum onites L. (Lamiales: Lamiaceae), savory, Satureja thymbra L. (Lamiales: Lamiaceae), and myrtle, Myrtus communis L. (Rosales: Myrtaceae) against three stored-product insects. Essential oils from three species of plants were obtained by Clevenger-type water distillation. The major compounds in these essential oils were identified using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry and their insecticidal activity was tested against adults of the Mediterranean flour moth Ephestia kuehniella Zeller (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae), the Indian meal moth Plodia interpunctella Hübner (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae) and the bean weevil Acanthoscelides obtectus Say (Coleoptera: Bruchidae). While the major compound found in oregano and savory was carvacrol, the main constituent of the myrtle was linalool. Among the tested insects, A. obtectus was the most tolerant species against the essential oils. However, the insecticidal activity of the myrtle oil was more pronounced than other oils tested against A. obtectus adults. The essential oils of oregano and savory were highly effective against P. interpunctella and E. kuehniella, with 100% mortality obtained after 24 h at 9 and 25 microl/l air for P. interpunctella and E. kuehniella, respectively. LC(50) and LC(99) values of each essential oil were estimated for each insect species. PMID:20578885

  10. Prevalence of Borrelia burgdorferi in Ixodes ricinus ticks collected from moose (Alces alces) and roe deer (Capreolus capreolus) in southern Norway.

    PubMed

    Kjelland, Vivian; Ytrehus, Bjørnar; Stuen, Snorre; Skarpaas, Tone; Slettan, Audun

    2011-06-01

    As part of a larger survey, ears from 18 roe deer (Capreolus capreolus) and 52 moose (Alces alces) shot in the 2 southernmost counties in Norway were collected and examined for Ixodes ricinus ticks. Seventy-two adult ticks, 595 nymphs, and 267 larvae from the roe deer, and 182 adult ticks, 433 nymphs, and 70 larvae from the moose were investigated for infection with Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato (s.l.). The results showed the presence of B. burgdorferi s.l. DNA in 2.9% of the nymphs collected from roe deer and in 4.4% of the nymphs and 6.0% of the adults collected from moose. The spirochetes were not detected in adult ticks from roe deer, or in larvae feeding on roe deer or moose. In comparison, the mean infection prevalences in questing I. ricinus collected from the same geographical area were 0.5% infection in larvae, 24.5% in nymphs, and 26.9% in adults. The most prevalent B. burgdorferi genospecies identified in ticks collected from roe deer was B. afzelii (76.5%), followed by B. garinii (17.6%), and B. burgdorferi sensu stricto (5.9%). Only B. afzelii (76.7%) and B. garinii (23.3%) were detected in ticks collected from moose. The present study indicates a lower prevalence of B. burgdorferi infection in I. ricinus ticks feeding on roe deer and moose compared to questing ticks. This is the first study to report B. burgdorferi s.l. prevalence in ticks removed from cervids in Norway.

  11. Evaluation of the speed of kill of sarolaner (Simparica™) against induced infestations of three species of ticks (Amblyomma maculatum, Ixodes scapularis, Ixodes ricinus) on dogs.

    PubMed

    Six, Robert H; Geurden, Thomas; Carter, Lori; Everett, William R; McLoughlin, A; Mahabir, Sean P; Myers, Melanie R; Slootmans, Nathalie

    2016-05-30

    The rapid speed of kill of sarolaner (Simparica™, Zoetis), a novel isoxazoline compound, was demonstrated against three tick species known to infest dogs in Europe or the United States. Efficacy was measured against an existing infestation and against subsequent weekly re-infestations for 35 days after treatment. Dogs were randomly allocated to treatment with a single oral dose of either placebo or sarolaner (2mg/kg) based on pre-treatment host-suitability tick counts. Dogs were infested with approximately 50 unfed adult Ixodes scapularis, Ixodes ricinus or Amblyomma maculatum ticks on Days-2, 7, 14, 21, 28 and 35. Tick counts were conducted at 4 (I. scapularis only), 8, 12 and 24h after treatment on Day 0 and after each subsequent re-infestation. No treatment-related adverse reactions occurred during any of these studies. Dogs in the placebo-treated groups maintained adequate tick infestations (recovery of 20-70% of applied ticks) throughout the duration of the studies. Following treatment, live tick counts were significantly reduced relative to placebo at the 8h post treatment counts indicating that sarolaner started killing existing infestations of ticks rapidly after treatment. Efficacy was 90.1% against I. ricinus, 98.8% against I. scapularis, and 99.2% against A. maculatum within 12h, and 100% efficacy was achieved at 24h after treatment against all three tick species. This speed of kill was maintained throughout the month with ≥95.7%, ≥98.7% and ≥89.6% efficacy against I. scapularis, I. ricinus, and A. maculatum, respectively, at 24h after re-infestation at least through Day 28. PMID:26928659

  12. Borrelia burgdorferi s.l. in Ixodes ricinus (Acari: Ixodidae) ticks collected from vegetation and small rodents in recreational areas of the city of Poznań.

    PubMed

    Michalik, Jerzy; Hofman, Teresa; Buczek, Alicja; Skoracki, Maciej; Sikora, Bozena

    2003-09-01

    During 1998-1999, Ixodes ricinus (L.) populations were investigated in three different biotopes (deciduous, mixed, coniferous forest) situated in popular recreational areas in Poznań, Poland. In total, 1,123 questing ticks (1,002 nymphs, 69 males, 52 females) were collected by flagging vegetation. Additionally, in 1998 between May and September small rodents were trapped and inspected for feeding ticks. Altogether, 213 rodents of three species: Apodemus agrarius Pall., A. flavicollis Melchior, Clethrionomys glareolus Schreber were captured. Of 323 engorged ticks, 304 were larvae and 19 nymphs. All ticks collected from vegetation, as well as from rodents were examined for the presence of Borrelia burgdorferi Johnson, Schmid, Hyde, Steigenwalt & Brenner s.l. spirochetes by indirect immunofluorescence assay (IFA) using PAB 1B29. The seasonal pattern of activity of questing I. ricinus was always bimodal (May/June and August/September). The most abundant tick population occurred in the deciduous forest. The total infection rate in questing ticks was 16.2%. Differences in mean infection prevalence of host-seeking ticks between three biotopes each year were not significant. On average more larvae parasitized on the genus of Apodemus than on C. glareolus. 17.8% of larvae and 31.6% of nymphs fed on rodents harbored spirochetes. The three rodent species contributed to a different degree in to transmission of the pathogen to subadult stages. Approximately 27% of larvae infested on A. agrarius, 22% on C. glareolus, and only 4.2% on A. flavicollis contained spirochetes. The results suggest that the prevalence of A. agrarius and C. glareolus in disturbed urban forests used for leisure activities seems to be crucial for the maintenance of B. burgdorferi s.l. in I. ricinus populations.

  13. Efficacy of deltamethrin (Butox® 7.5 pour on) against nymphs and adults of ticks (Ixodes ricinus, Rhipicephalus sanguineus) in treated hair of cattle and sheep.

    PubMed

    Mehlhorn, Heinz; Schumacher, Bärbel; Jatzlau, Antje; Abdel-Ghaffar, Fathy; Al-Rasheid, Khaled A S; Klimpel, Sven; Pohle, Herbert

    2011-04-01

    Ticks are known to be able to transmit a broad spectrum of agents of diseases in cattle or sheep. Therefore, measurements are needed to keep ticks away from the body of any ruminant belonging to the agricultural life stock. The present study dealt with investigations to measure the efficacy of the insecticide deltamethrin (Butox® 7.5 pour on) against specimens of two important species (Ixodes ricinus and Rhipicephalus sanguineus). Four sheep and four young cattle were treated lege arte along the vertebral column with 10 ml Butox® (deltamethrin) per sheep or 30 ml Butox® per cattle. Day 7, 14, 21, and 28 after the treatment, hair was shaved off from the head, ears, the back, belly, and the feet being collected in separate, suitable plastic bags, and transported to the institute, where these hair were brought into close contact with either adult and/or nymph stages of I. ricinus and R. sanguineus. As results, strong, acaricidal effects were seen, which varied according to the parasite species, the origin of the hair (e.g., head, leg, etc.) and according to the period after the treatment. In sheep, the acaricidal effect was noted for the whole period of 28 days along the whole body with respect to adults and nymphs of I. ricinus, while the acaricidal effects of deltamethrin were reduced for R. sanguineus stages beginning at day 21 after treatment. In cattle, the full acaricidal effect was seen for 21 days in I. ricinus stages and for 14 days in R. sanguineus, while the acaricidal efficacy became reduced after these periods of full action-beginning at the hair taken from the legs. Only R. sanguineus adults did not show any reaction on day 28 after treatment. Besides these acaricidal effects, repellent effects were also noted. Full repellency for both species was seen during the first 14 days in sheep and cattle against Ixodes and Rhipicephalus, while the repellency was later reduced, especially in contact with hair from the legs. As conclusion, deltamethrin, besides

  14. Efficacy of deltamethrin (Butox® 7.5 pour on) against nymphs and adults of ticks (Ixodes ricinus, Rhipicephalus sanguineus) in treated hair of cattle and sheep.

    PubMed

    Mehlhorn, Heinz; Schumacher, Bärbel; Jatzlau, Antje; Abdel-Ghaffar, Fathy; Al-Rasheid, Khaled A S; Klimpel, Sven; Pohle, Herbert

    2011-04-01

    Ticks are known to be able to transmit a broad spectrum of agents of diseases in cattle or sheep. Therefore, measurements are needed to keep ticks away from the body of any ruminant belonging to the agricultural life stock. The present study dealt with investigations to measure the efficacy of the insecticide deltamethrin (Butox® 7.5 pour on) against specimens of two important species (Ixodes ricinus and Rhipicephalus sanguineus). Four sheep and four young cattle were treated lege arte along the vertebral column with 10 ml Butox® (deltamethrin) per sheep or 30 ml Butox® per cattle. Day 7, 14, 21, and 28 after the treatment, hair was shaved off from the head, ears, the back, belly, and the feet being collected in separate, suitable plastic bags, and transported to the institute, where these hair were brought into close contact with either adult and/or nymph stages of I. ricinus and R. sanguineus. As results, strong, acaricidal effects were seen, which varied according to the parasite species, the origin of the hair (e.g., head, leg, etc.) and according to the period after the treatment. In sheep, the acaricidal effect was noted for the whole period of 28 days along the whole body with respect to adults and nymphs of I. ricinus, while the acaricidal effects of deltamethrin were reduced for R. sanguineus stages beginning at day 21 after treatment. In cattle, the full acaricidal effect was seen for 21 days in I. ricinus stages and for 14 days in R. sanguineus, while the acaricidal efficacy became reduced after these periods of full action-beginning at the hair taken from the legs. Only R. sanguineus adults did not show any reaction on day 28 after treatment. Besides these acaricidal effects, repellent effects were also noted. Full repellency for both species was seen during the first 14 days in sheep and cattle against Ixodes and Rhipicephalus, while the repellency was later reduced, especially in contact with hair from the legs. As conclusion, deltamethrin, besides

  15. Abundance of Ixodes ricinus and prevalence of Borrelia burgdorferi s.l. in the nature reserve Siebengebirge, Germany, in comparison to three former studies from 1978 onwards

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background During the last decades, population densities of Ixodes ricinus and prevalences of Borrelia burgdorferi s.l. have increased in different regions in Europe. In the present study, we determined tick abundance and the prevalence of different Borrelia genospecies in ticks from three sites in the Siebengebirge, Germany, which were already examined in the years 1987, 1989, 2001 and 2003. Data from all investigations were compared. Methods In 2007 and 2008, host-seeking I. ricinus were collected by monthly blanket dragging at three distinct vegetation sites in the Siebengebirge, a nature reserve and a well visited local recreation area near Bonn, Germany. In both years, 702 ticks were tested for B. burgdorferi s.l. DNA by nested PCR, and 249 tick samples positive for Borrelia were further genotyped by reverse line blotting. Results A total of 1046 and 1591 I. ricinus were collected in 2007 and 2008, respectively. In comparison to previous studies at these sites, the densities at all sites increased from 1987/89 and/or from 2003 until 2008. Tick densities and Borrelia prevalences in 2007 and 2008, respectively, were not correlated for all sites and both years. Overall, Borrelia prevalence of all ticks decreased significantly from 2007 (19.5%) to 2008 (16.5%), thus reaching the same level as in 2001 two times higher than in 1987/89 (7.6%). Since 2001, single infections with a Borrelia genospecies predominated in all collections, but the number of multiple infections increased, and in 2007, for the first time, triple Borrelia infections occurred. Prevalences of Borrelia genospecies differed considerably between the three sites, but B. garinii or B. afzelii were always the most dominant genospecies. B. lusitaniae was detected for the first time in the Siebengebirge, also in co-infections with B. garinii or B. valaisiana. Conclusions Over the last two centuries tick densities have changed in the Siebengebirge at sites that remained unchanged by human activity since

  16. Valorization of essential oils from Moroccan aromatic plants.

    PubMed

    Santana, Omar; Fe Andrés, Maria; Sanz, Jesús; Errahmani, Naima; Abdeslam, Lamiri; González-Coloma, Azucena

    2014-08-01

    The chemical composition and biological activity of cultivated and wild medicinal and aromatic plants from Morocco (Artemisia herba-alba, Lippia citriodora, Mentha pulegium, M. spicata, Myrtus communis, Rosmarinus officinalis, and Thymus satureioides) are described. The essential oils (EOs) of these species have been analyzed by GC-MS. The antifeedant, nematicidal and phytotoxic activities of the EOs were tested on insect pests (Spodoptera littoralis, Myzus persicae and Rhopalosiphum padi), root-knot nematodes (Meloydogine javanica) and plants (Lactuca sativa, Lolium perenne and Lycopersicum esculentum). EOs from A. herba-alba, M. pulegium and R. officinalis were strong antifeedants against S. littoralis, M. persicae and R. padi. EOs from L. citriodora, M. spicata and T. satureioides showed high nematicidal activity. These biological effects are explained by the activity of the major EO components and/or synergistic effects. PMID:25233584

  17. Circumstantial evidence for an increase in the total number and activity of borrelia-infected ixodes ricinus in the Netherlands

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Between 1994 and 2009, a threefold increase has been observed in consultations of general practitioners for tick bites and Lyme disease in The Netherlands. The objective of this study was to determine whether an increase in the number of questing ticks infected with B. burgdorferi sensu lato is a potential cause of the rise in Lyme disease incidence. Methods Historic data on land usage, temperature and wildlife populations were collected and analyzed together with data from two longitudinal field studies on density of questing ticks. Effective population sizes of Borrelia burgdorferi s.l. were calculated. Results Long-term trend analyses indicated that the length of the annual tick questing season increased as well as the surface area of tick-suitable habitats in The Netherlands. The overall abundances of feeding and reproductive hosts also increased. Mathematical analysis of the data from the field studies demonstrated an increase in mean densities/activities of questing ticks, particularly of larvae between 2006 and 2009. No increase in infection rate of ticks with Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato was found. Population genetic analysis of the collected Borrelia species points to an increase in B. afzelii and B. garinii populations. Conclusions Together, these findings indicate an increase in the total number of Borrelia-infected ticks, providing circumstantial evidence for an increase in the risk of acquiring a bite of a tick infected with B. burgdorferi s.l. Due to the high spatiotemporal variation of tick densities/activities, long-term longitudinal studies on population dynamics of I. ricinus are necessary to observe significant trends. PMID:23244453

  18. Correlation of Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato prevalence in questing Ixodes ricinus ticks with specific abiotic traits in the western palearctic.

    PubMed

    Estrada-Peña, Agustín; Ortega, Carmelo; Sánchez, Nely; Desimone, Lorenzo; Sudre, Bertrand; Suk, Jonathan E; Semenza, Jan C

    2011-06-01

    This meta-analysis of reports examining ticks throughout the Western Palearctic region indicates a distinct geographic pattern for Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato prevalence in questing nymphal Ixodes ricinus ticks. The greatest prevalence was reported between the 5°E and 25°E longitudes based on an analysis of 123 collection points with 37,940 nymphal tick specimens (87.43% of total nymphs; 56.35% of total ticks in the set of reports over the target area). Climatic traits, such as temperature and vegetation stress, and their seasonality correlated with Borrelia prevalence in questing ticks. The greatest prevalence was associated with mild winter, high summer, and low seasonal amplitude of temperatures within the range of the tick vector, higher vegetation indices in the May-June period, and well-connected vegetation patches below a threshold at which rates suddenly drop. Classification of the target territory using a qualitative risk index derived from the abiotic variables produced an indicator of the probability of finding infected ticks in the Western Palearctic region. No specific temporal trends were detected in the reported prevalence. The ranges of the different B. burgdorferi sensu lato genospecies showed a pattern of high biodiversity between 4°W and 20°E, partially overlapping the area of highest prevalence in ticks. Borrelia afzelii and Borrelia garinii are the dominant species in central Europe (east of ∼25°E), but B. garinii may appear alone at southern latitudes and Borrelia lusitaniae is the main indicator species for meridional territories. PMID:21498767

  19. Anaplasma phagocytophilum and Rickettsia spp. infections in hard ticks (Ixodes ricinus) in the city of Hanover (Germany): revisited.

    PubMed

    Tappe, Julia; Strube, Christina

    2013-09-01

    The present study aimed to determine the prevalence of Rickettsiales (A. phagocytophilum and Rickettsia spp.) in 2100 I. ricinus ticks collected at 10 different sampling sites every month during the tick season 2010 in the city of Hanover, northern Germany. At the same time, the results served as a fifth-year-follow-up study to monitor whether changes or stagnation of tick infection rates - possibly due to climate change--were obvious or not. To detect infections with A. phagocytophilum and/or Rickettsia spp., tick samples were analysed by quantitative real-time PCR. Differentiation of Rickettsia species was accomplished using real-time pyrosequencing technology. Overall, 4.5% (94/2100) of the collected ticks were tested positive for A. phagocytophilum and 26.2% (551/2100) were positive for Rickettsia spp. infections. Species differentiation of Rickettsia-positive ticks via real-time pyrosequencing was possible in 48.6% (268/551) of samples, which were all identified as R. helvetica. Coinfections with both pathogens were found in 1.0% (20/2100) of ticks. Statistically significant seasonal fluctuations between sampling months as well as local differences between sampling sites were detected for Rickettsia spp. infection rates. For A. phagocytophilum infections, only significant seasonal variations were found. When comparing infection rates of Hanoverian ticks in 2010 to those in 2005, infection rates of A. phagocytophilum-infected nymphs increased statistically significant (P=0.008, power: 0.762) from 2.3% in 2005 (Schicht et al., 2011) to 4.5% in 2010. Rickettsia spp. infections in female ticks decreased significantly (P=0.049, power: 0.491) from 41.8% in 2005 (Schicht et al., 2012) to 32.4% in 2010. Comparison of the remaining tick stages showed no statistically significant differences.

  20. Lavender oil

    MedlinePlus

    ... an oil made from the flowers of lavender plants. Lavender poisoning occurs when someone swallows lavender oil. ... Graeme KA. Toxic plant ingestions. In: Auerbach PS, ed. Wilderness Medicine . ... PA: Elsevier Mosby; 2012:chap 64. Maypole J, Woolf, ...

  1. Oil Spills

    MedlinePlus

    ... is to provide scientific support to the U.S. Coast Guard officers in charge of response operations. In addition ... NOAA Responds to Oil Spills While the U.S. Coast Guard oversees all responses to oil spills and chemical ...

  2. Expression of Biphenyl Synthase Genes and Formation of Phytoalexin Compounds in Three Fire Blight-Infected Pyrus communis Cultivars.

    PubMed

    Chizzali, Cornelia; Swiddan, Asya K; Abdelaziz, Sahar; Gaid, Mariam; Richter, Klaus; Fischer, Thilo C; Liu, Benye; Beerhues, Ludger

    2016-01-01

    Pear (Pyrus communis) is an economically important fruit crop. Drops in yield and even losses of whole plantations are caused by diseases, most importantly fire blight which is triggered by the bacterial pathogen Erwinia amylovora. In response to the infection, biphenyls and dibenzofurans are formed as phytoalexins, biosynthesis of which is initiated by biphenyl synthase (BIS). Two PcBIS transcripts were cloned from fire blight-infected leaves and the encoded enzymes were characterized regarding substrate specificities and kinetic parameters. Expression of PcBIS1 and PcBIS2 was studied in three pear cultivars after inoculation with E. amylovora. Both PcBIS1 and PcBIS2 were expressed in 'Harrow Sweet', while only PcBIS2 transcripts were detected in 'Alexander Lucas' and 'Conference'. Expression of the PcBIS genes was observed in both leaves and the transition zone of the stem; however, biphenyls and dibenzofurans were only detected in stems. The maximum phytoalexin level (~110 μg/g dry weight) was observed in the transition zone of 'Harrow Sweet', whereas the concentrations were ten times lower in 'Conference' and not even detectable in 'Alexander Lucas'. In 'Harrow Sweet', the accumulation of the maximum phytoalexin level correlated with the halt of migration of the transition zone, whereby the residual part of the shoot survived. In contrast, the transition zones of 'Alexander Lucas' and 'Conference' advanced down to the rootstock, resulting in necrosis of the entire shoots. PMID:27410389

  3. Comprehensive thin-layer chromatography mass spectrometry of flavanols from Juniperus communis L. and Punica granatum L.

    PubMed

    Smrke, Samo; Vovk, Irena

    2013-05-10

    The coupling of thin-layer chromatography with mass spectrometry (TLC-MS) for the analysis of monomeric flavanols and proanthocyanidins in samples presented as complex matrices has been studied. The elution conditions for TLC-MS were optimised and full scans were compared with selected reaction monitoring for the MS detection of compounds. The performance of silica gel and cellulose plates with different developing solvents in TLC-MS was assessed. Cellulose plates provided superior sensitivity while ionisation suppression was encountered with silica plates. The use of a HILIC guard column beyond the elution head was found to facilitate detection of monomer compounds on silica plates. A new comprehensive TLC×MS procedure for screening flavanols in the entire chromatogram was developed as an alternative to the use of 4-dimethylaminocinnamaldehyde to determine the locations of compounds on the plate. This new procedure was applied to detect flavanols in the peel of Punica granatum L. fruits and in seeds of Juniperus communis L., in which flavanols and proanthocyanidin dimers and trimers were detected for the first time.

  4. Genetic variation and structure in the Mediterranean shrubs Myrtus communis and Pistacia lentiscus in different landscape contexts.

    PubMed

    Nora, S; Albaladejo, R G; Aparicio, A

    2015-03-01

    Studies concerning different habitat configurations can provide insights into the complex interactions between species' life-history traits and the environment and can help to predict patterns in population genetics. In this study, we compared patterns of genetic variation in two Mediterranean shrub species (Myrtus communis and Pistacia lentiscus) that co-occur in populations within three contrasting landscape contexts: continuous, fragmented-connected and fragmented-isolated populations. Analysing variation at microsatellites loci, our results revealed weak responses to the landscape contexts. We rather found a population-specific response in both study species. However, despite both study species sharing similar levels of genetic diversity, Myrtus displayed higher levels of homozygosity and genetic differentiation among populations, stronger patterns of within-population spatial genetic structure, lower values of mutation-scaled effective population size and stronger evidence for recent genetic bottlenecks than Pistacia. This result highlights the influence of past events (e.g. historical connectivity, fluctuations in population size) and local factors (e.g. microhabitat availability for recruitment, habitat quality, plant density, native fauna) and that the landscape configuration per se (i.e. fragment size and/or isolation) might not completely determine the species' genetic patterns. PMID:25262762

  5. A Novel Adhesion Index for Verifying the Extent of Adhesion for the Extensor Digitorum Communis in Patients with Metacarpal Fractures.

    PubMed

    Lai, Ting-Yu; Chen, Hsiao-I; Shih, Cho-Chiang; Kuo, Li-Chieh; Hsu, Hsiu-Yun; Huang, Chih-Chung

    2016-01-01

    This study aims to determine if the relative displacement between the extensor digitorum communis (EDC) tendon and its surrounding tissues can be used as an adhesion index (AI) for assessing adhesion in metacarpal fractures by comparing two clinical measures, namely single-digit-force and extensor lag (i.e., the difference between passive extension and full active extension). The Fisher-Tippett block-matching method and a Kalman-filter algorithm were used to determine the relative displacements in 39 healthy subjects and 8 patients with metacarpal fractures. A goniometer was used to measure the extensor lag, and a force sensor was used to measure the single-digit-force. Measurements were obtained twice for each patient to evaluate the performance of the AI in assessing the progress of rehabilitation. The Pearson correlation coefficient was calculated to quantify the various correlations between the AI, extensor lag, and single-digit-force. The results showed strong correlations between the AI and the extensor lag, the AI and the single-digit-force, and the extensor lag and the single-digit-force (r = 0.718, -0.849, and -0.741; P = 0.002, P < 0.001, and P = 0.001, respectively). The AI in the patients gradually decreased after continuous rehabilitation, but remained higher than that of healthy participants. PMID:27492808

  6. Host Suitability of Eight Prunus spp. and One Pyrus communis Rootstocks to Pratylenchus vulnus, P. neglectus, and P. thornei

    PubMed Central

    Pinochet, J.; Verdejo-Lucas, S.; Marull, J.

    1991-01-01

    The effects of Pratylenchus vulnus on rootstocks of eight commonly used Prunus spp. and one Pyrus communis were evaluated under greenhouse conditions during a 15-month period. In a first experiment, two almonds (Moncayo and Garrigues), one peach (GF-305), and two peach-almond hybrids (GF-677 and Adafuel) inoculated with 2,000 nematodes per plant proved to be good hosts of P. vulnus. Highest (P < 0.05) numbers of nematodes per gram of fresh root weight were recovered from Adafuel and GF-677. Root weights were higher in uninoculated compared to inoculated plants of all rootstocks, whereas top weights of uninoculated Garrigues, GF-305, and GF-677 differed (P < 0.05) from those of inoculated plants. In a second experiment, three plum (Marianna 2624, Myrobalan 605, and San Julian 655-2) and one pear (OHF-333) rootstocks were also found to be good hosts of P. vulnus, although significantly fewer nematodes were recovered from Myrohalan 605 roots than from the other three materials. Inoculated OHF-333 and San Julian 655-2 differed (P < 0.05) in root weights over uninoculated plants. Only inoculated San Julian 655-2 showed differences in top weights over uninoculated treatments. Rootstocks were poor or non-hosts for P. neglectus and P. thornei. PMID:19283165

  7. Investigation of sedative and hypnotic effects of Amygdalus communis L. extract: behavioral assessments and EEG studies on rat.

    PubMed

    Abdollahnejad, Fatemeh; Mosaddegh, Mahmoud; Kamalinejad, Mohammad; Mirnajafi-Zadeh, Javad; Najafi, Forough; Faizi, Mehrdad

    2016-04-01

    Amygdalus communis L. (almond) has been traditionally used as a natural medicine in the treatment of various diseases. The present research studied the sedative and hypnotic effects of the aqueous fraction of seeds of almond in rats. In order to investigate these effects, a combination of behavioral methods (open field test and loss of righting reflex test) as well as quantitative and analytic methods (EEG and EMG) were applied. The results of the open field test showed that a dose of 400 mg/kg of the almond extract significantly inhibited the locomotion activity of rats compared to normal. The results also illustrated that the almond extract affected pentobarbital-induced sleep through increasing the number of fallings asleep and prolongation of sleeping time. Analysis of EEG recordings of the animals which had received the same dose of the almond extract as the open field test demonstrated marked changes in the animals' sleep architecture. Significant prolongation of total sleeping time as well as significant increase in NREM sleep were the main observed changes compared to the normal condition. These results suggest that the aqueous extract of almond has significant sedative and hypnotic effects, which may support its therapeutic use for insomnia. PMID:26711831

  8. Mapping of an anthocyanin-regulating MYB transcription factor and its expression in red and green pear, Pyrus communis.

    PubMed

    Pierantoni, Luca; Dondini, Luca; De Franceschi, Paolo; Musacchi, Stefano; Winkel, Brenda S J; Sansavini, Silviero

    2010-12-01

    'Max Red Bartlett' is a red bud mutation of the yellow pear (Pyrus communis L.) cultivar 'Williams' (known as 'Bartlett' in North America). Anthocyanins are the most important pigments for red colour in fruits. Synthesis of anthocyanins is mediated by a number of well-characterized enzymes that include chalcone synthase (CHS), flavanone-3-hydroxylase (F3H), dihydroflavonol-4-reductase (DFR), anthocyanidin synthase (ANS), and UDP-glucose:flavonoid-3-O-glucosyltransferase (UFGT). Expression of the genes encoding these five enzymes was examined in pear fruit skin in order to elucidate the molecular mechanism for red coloration. In addition, the gene PcMYB10, encoding an R2R3 MYB transcription factor involved in anthocyanin biosynthetic pathway regulation, was isolated from both 'Williams' and 'Max Red Bartlett'. Analysis of the deduced amino acid sequence suggests that this gene is an ortholog of anthocyanin regulators known in other plant species. Its expression level was significantly higher in 'Max Red Bartlett' (red pear) compared with the original yellow variety 'Williams'. Although the map position of PcMYB10 corresponds to that of MdMYBa and MdMYB10, which control pigmentation of apple fruit skin, PcMYB10 is not directly responsible for red versus yellow colour in the two pear varieties, as the mutation underlying this difference maps to a different region of the pear genome.

  9. Global changes in DNA methylation in seeds and seedlings of Pyrus communis after seed desiccation and storage.

    PubMed

    Michalak, Marcin; Barciszewska, Mirosława Z; Barciszewski, Jan; Plitta, Beata P; Chmielarz, Paweł

    2013-01-01

    The effects of storage and deep desiccation on structural changes of DNA in orthodox seeds are poorly characterized. In this study we analyzed the 5-methylcytosine (m(5)C) global content of DNA isolated from seeds of common pear (Pyrus communis L.) that had been subjected to extreme desiccation, and the seedlings derived from these seeds. Germination and seedling emergence tests were applied to determine seed viability after their desiccation. In parallel, analysis of the global content of m(5)C in dried seeds and DNA of seedlings obtained from such seeds was performed with a 2D TLC method. Desiccation of fresh seeds to 5.3% moisture content (mc) resulted in a slight reduction of DNA methylation, whereas severe desiccation down to 2-3% mc increased DNA methylation. Strong desiccation of seeds resulted in the subsequent generation of seedlings of shorter height. A 1-year period of seed storage induced a significant increase in the level of DNA methylation in seeds. It is possible that alterations in the m(5)C content of DNA in strongly desiccated pear seeds reflect a reaction of desiccation-tolerant (orthodox) seeds to severe desiccation. Epigenetic changes were observed not only in severely desiccated seeds but also in 3-month old seedlings obtained from these seeds. With regard to seed storage practices, epigenetic assessment could be used by gene banks for early detection of structural changes in the DNA of stored seeds.

  10. A Novel Adhesion Index for Verifying the Extent of Adhesion for the Extensor Digitorum Communis in Patients with Metacarpal Fractures

    PubMed Central

    Lai, Ting-Yu; Chen, Hsiao-I; Shih, Cho-Chiang; Kuo, Li-Chieh; Hsu, Hsiu-Yun; Huang, Chih-Chung

    2016-01-01

    This study aims to determine if the relative displacement between the extensor digitorum communis (EDC) tendon and its surrounding tissues can be used as an adhesion index (AI) for assessing adhesion in metacarpal fractures by comparing two clinical measures, namely single-digit-force and extensor lag (i.e., the difference between passive extension and full active extension). The Fisher–Tippett block-matching method and a Kalman-filter algorithm were used to determine the relative displacements in 39 healthy subjects and 8 patients with metacarpal fractures. A goniometer was used to measure the extensor lag, and a force sensor was used to measure the single-digit-force. Measurements were obtained twice for each patient to evaluate the performance of the AI in assessing the progress of rehabilitation. The Pearson correlation coefficient was calculated to quantify the various correlations between the AI, extensor lag, and single-digit-force. The results showed strong correlations between the AI and the extensor lag, the AI and the single-digit-force, and the extensor lag and the single-digit-force (r = 0.718, −0.849, and −0.741; P = 0.002, P < 0.001, and P = 0.001, respectively). The AI in the patients gradually decreased after continuous rehabilitation, but remained higher than that of healthy participants. PMID:27492808

  11. A new 5-lipoxygenase selective inhibitor derived from Artocarpus communis strongly inhibits arachidonic acid-induced ear edema.

    PubMed

    Koshihara, Y; Fujimoto, Y; Inoue, H

    1988-06-01

    Natural compounds isolated from the Indonesian plant, Artocarpus communis, inhibit 5-lipoxygenase of cultured mastocytoma cells. One of five compounds, AC-5-1, strongly inhibits 5-lipoxygenase with a half-inhibition dose of 5 +/- 0.12 X 10(-8) M. However, prostaglandin synthesizing activity is not inhibited until 10(-5) M. AC-5-1 is a highly selective inhibitor for 5-lipoxygenase. The AC-5-1 at 10(-5) M inhibits 96% of leukotriene C4 synthesis of mouse peritoneal cells facilitated by calcium-ionophore. Arachidonic acid-induced ear edema of mice, an in vivo inflammatory model, involving leukotriene induction, is strongly inhibited by AC-5-1 in a dose-dependent manner. The inhibition is the strongest of any inhibitors of 5-lipoxygenase reported previously. Since the natural compound AC-5-1 can selectively inhibit 5-lipoxygenase and affect in vivo inflammation, it will be interesting to investigate the role of leukotrienes on inflammation and other physiological processes.

  12. Composition of phenolic compounds in a Portuguese pear (Pyrus communis L. var. S. Bartolomeu) and changes after sun-drying.

    PubMed

    Ferreira, Dulcineia; Guyot, Sylvain; Marnet, Nathalie; Delgadillo, Ivonne; Renard, Catherine M G C; Coimbra, Manuel A

    2002-07-31

    The composition of phenolic compounds of a Portuguese pear cultivar (Pyrus communis L. var. S. Bartolomeu) was determined by HPLC after thioacidolysis. The average concentration of phenolic compounds in pear harvested at commercial maturity stage was 3.7 g per kg of fresh pulp. Procyanidins were the predominant phenolics (96%), with a mean degree of polymerization (mDP) of 13-44; hydroxycinnamic acids (2%), arbutin (0.8%), and catechins (0.7%) were also present. The most abundant monomer in the procyanidin structures was (-)-epicatechin (99%), which was found as extension and terminal units; (+)-catechin (1%) was found only as a terminal unit. Sun-drying of these pears caused a decrease of 64% (on a dry pulp basis) in the total amount of native phenolic compounds. Hydroxycinnamic acids and procyanidins showed the largest decrease; the B2 procyanidin was not found at all in the sun-dried pear. Less affected were arbutin and catechins. In the sun-dried pear, the procyanidins with high mDP became unextractable in the solvents used.

  13. Global Changes in DNA Methylation in Seeds and Seedlings of Pyrus communis after Seed Desiccation and Storage

    PubMed Central

    Michalak, Marcin; Barciszewska, Mirosława Z.; Barciszewski, Jan; Plitta, Beata P.; Chmielarz, Paweł

    2013-01-01

    The effects of storage and deep desiccation on structural changes of DNA in orthodox seeds are poorly characterized. In this study we analyzed the 5-methylcytosine (m5C) global content of DNA isolated from seeds of common pear (Pyrus communis L.) that had been subjected to extreme desiccation, and the seedlings derived from these seeds. Germination and seedling emergence tests were applied to determine seed viability after their desiccation. In parallel, analysis of the global content of m5C in dried seeds and DNA of seedlings obtained from such seeds was performed with a 2D TLC method. Desiccation of fresh seeds to 5.3% moisture content (mc) resulted in a slight reduction of DNA methylation, whereas severe desiccation down to 2–3% mc increased DNA methylation. Strong desiccation of seeds resulted in the subsequent generation of seedlings of shorter height. A 1-year period of seed storage induced a significant increase in the level of DNA methylation in seeds. It is possible that alterations in the m5C content of DNA in strongly desiccated pear seeds reflect a reaction of desiccation-tolerant (orthodox) seeds to severe desiccation. Epigenetic changes were observed not only in severely desiccated seeds but also in 3-month old seedlings obtained from these seeds. With regard to seed storage practices, epigenetic assessment could be used by gene banks for early detection of structural changes in the DNA of stored seeds. PMID:23940629

  14. SG oils

    SciTech Connect

    Chamberlin, W.

    1988-01-01

    Automobile manufacturers worldwide have targeted improved vehicle quality as a major goal. Engine oil quality is one component in the quest for an improved quality image. Engine design changes have imposed increased stresses on engine oils. API SG oils will provide a margin of protection to the engine against sludge and varnish deposit formation and valve train wear.

  15. Prevalence of granulocytic Ehrlichia and Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato in Ixodes ricinus ticks collected from Southwestern Finland and from Vormsi Island in Estonia.

    PubMed

    Mäkinen, Johanna; Vuorinen, Ilppo; Oksi, Jarmo; Peltomaa, Miikka; He, Qiushui; Marjamäki, Merja; Viljanen, Matti K

    2003-02-01

    Altogether, 343 adult and 111 nymphal Ixodes ricinus ticks collected from parks in Turku and suburban and rural islands of the Turku archipelago, Finland, and 100 adult I. ricinus ticks collected from Vormsi Island, Estonia, were included in this study. Using the polymerase chain reaction the ticks were examined for 16S rDNA of the Ehrlichia phagocytophila genogroup and for Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato recA and flagellin genes. None of the Finnish ticks was found to be infected with E. phagocytophila, whereas 3% of the Estonian ticks were positive for this organism. The rate of Finnish ticks infected with B. burgdorferi sensu lato varied from 0% to 11.6% (mean 5%; 9% for adult and 4% for nymphal ticks). The corresponding rate for Estonian ticks was 15%. Borrelia afzelii was the most common genospecies in both Finnish (2.6%) and Estonian (12%) ticks. B. burgdorferi sensu stricto was detected in 2.0% of the Finnish ticks, but in none of the Estonian ticks. These results suggest that the E. phagocytophila genogroup is very rare in Finnish ticks, although the ticks were collected from an area endemic for Lyme borreliosis. In Estonia, E. phagocytophila is found in ticks and may cause disease.

  16. Evaluation of microbial communities and symbionts in Ixodes ricinus and ungulate hosts (Cervus elaphus and Ovis aries) from shared habitats on the west coast of Norway.

    PubMed

    Granquist, Erik G; Kristiansson, Malin; Lindgren, Per-Eric; Matussek, Andreas; Nødtvedt, Ane; Okstad, Wenche; Stuen, Snorre

    2014-10-01

    Recent reports suggest a potential for transmission of a newly discovered rickettsial endosymbiont, Midichloria mitochondrii, to animals and humans from feeding ticks (Ixodes ricinus). Using molecular methods; I. ricinus, sheep and red deer in Anaplasma phagocytophilum-endemic areas of Norway, were examined to see if they were infected by M. mitochondrii or related organisms like Wolbachia pipientis and Rickettsia spp. A total of 532 ticks collected from pastures, 76 blood samples from grazing lambs and 12 organ samples from hunted deer, were analyzed during the study. All larval pools, 60.4% pooled nymphs and 35.1% of adult ticks were positive for M. mitochondrii. There was a significant difference between geographical areas in the prevalence of M. mitochondrii infection among nymphs. A total of 2.2% pooled nymphs and 5.3% adult ticks were positive for A. phagocytophilum. Eleven percent of pooled nymphs were positive for Borrelia spp, 2.2% of pooled nymphs and 3.5% of adult ticks were positive for Rickettsia spp. and none of the ticks were positive for W. pipientis. The prevalence of A. phagocytophilum infection was 54% and 75% in grazing lambs and deer, respectively. No animals were positive for Borrelia spp., M. mitochondrii, Rickettsia spp. or W. pipientis. The reported findings suggest that M. mitochondrii is widespread in tick populations at different geographical sites, and may appear in co-infection with A. phagocytophilum, Borrelia spp. and Rickettsia spp. in ticks. PMID:25132534

  17. Rickettsia helvetica and R. monacensis infections in immature Ixodes ricinus ticks derived from sylvatic passerine birds in west-central Poland.

    PubMed

    Biernat, Beata; Stańczak, Joanna; Michalik, Jerzy; Sikora, Bożena; Cieniuch, Stella

    2016-09-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the importance of forest passerine birds in spreading ixodid ticks infected with rickettsiae of spotted fever group (SFG) in sylvatic habitats in western Poland. In total, 834 immature Ixodes ricinus ticks were found on 64 birds of 11 species which were captured during the tick-questing season between May and September of 2006. Ground-foraging passerines hosted most of the ticks compared with arboreal species, and therefore, only the former group was included into a detailed analysis. Significant predominance of larvae over nymphs was observed (581 vs. 253, respectively). Blackbirds and song thrushes hosted 82 % (n = 681) of the ticks collected from all infested passerines. The overall prevalence range of SF rickettsiae (including Rickettsia helvetica and Rickettsia monacensis) in bird-derived ticks was 10.5-26.9 %, exceeding that in questing ticks, and in ticks feeding on rodents and deer reported earlier from the same study area. This high prevalence of infection in immature I. ricinus ticks feeding on passerine birds strongly implies that they are involved in the enzootic maintenance of spotted fever group rickettsiae in the tick vector populations occurring in sylvatic habitats. PMID:27164834

  18. Contact toxicity and residual activity of different permethrin-based fabric impregnation methods for Aedes aegypti (Diptera: Culicidae), Ixodes ricinus (Acari: Ixodidae), and Lepisma saccharina (Thysanura: Lepismatidae).

    PubMed

    Faulde, Michael K; Uedelhoven, Waltraud M; Robbins, Richard G

    2003-11-01

    The effectiveness and residual activities of permethrin-impregnated military battle dress uniforms were evaluated by comparing a new company-manufactured ready-to-use polymer-coating method with two "dipping methods" that are currently used to treat uniforms. Residual permethrin amounts and remaining contact toxicities on treated fabrics before and after up to 100 launderings were tested against Aedes aegypti (L.), Ixodes ricinus (L.), and Lepisma saccharina (L.). The residual amount of permethrin was considerably higher with the polymer-coating method: 280 mg a.i./m2 after 100 launderings, compared with 16 and 11 mg a.i./m2, respectively, obtained when using the two dipping methods. Hard ticks were most susceptible to the new polymer-coating method, resulting in prelaundering 100% knockdown times of 7.0 +/- 0.9 min, whereas equivalent times for the dipping methods were 7.9 +/- 0.35 min and 8.0 +/- 0.54 min, respectively. After 100 launderings, 100% knockdown of I. ricinus nymphs was reached at 15.2 +/- 1.04 min using the polymer-coating method, compared with 178.8 +/- 24.7 min and 231 +/- 53.6 min, respectively, using the dipping methods. Similar results were obtained for Ae. aegypti and L. saccharina, indicating that the polymer-coating method is more effective and efficient when compared with the dipping methods.

  19. Observations on changes in abundance of questing Ixodes ricinus, castor bean tick, over a 35-year period in the eastern part of its range (Russia, Tula region).

    PubMed

    Korotkov, Yu; Kozlova, T; Kozlovskaya, L

    2015-06-01

    Ixodes ricinus (Acari: Ixodidae) L. transmit a wide variety of pathogens to vertebrates including viruses, bacteria and protozoa. Understanding of the epidemiology of tick-borne infections requires basic knowledge of the regional and local factors influencing tick population dynamics. The present study describes the results of monitoring of a questing I. ricinus population, conducted over 35 years (1977-2011) in the eastern, poorly studied part of its range (Russia, Tula region). We have found that the multiannual average abundance of ticks is small and varies depending on the biotope and degree of urban transformation. Tick abundance for the first 14 years of observations (1977-1990) was at the lower limit of the sensitivity of our methods throughout the study area (0.1-0.9 specimens per 1-km transect). In the following 21 years (1991-2011), a manifold increase in abundance was observed, which reached 18.1 ± 1.8 individuals per 1-km transect in moist floodplain terraces, and 4.8 ± 0.9 in xerophylic hill woods. Long-term growth of tick abundance occurred in spite of a relatively constant abundance of small mammals and only minor fluctuations in the abundance of large wild animals. Climate and anthropogenic changes appear to be the main contributors to increased abundance of the tick.

  20. Peppermint oil.

    PubMed

    Kligler, Benjamin; Chaudhary, Sapna

    2007-04-01

    Peppermint leaf and peppermint oil have a long history of use for digestive disorders. Recent evidence suggests that enteric-coated peppermint oil may be effective in relieving some of the symptoms of irritable bowel syndrome. A combination product including peppermint oil and caraway oil seems to be moderately effective in the treatment of non-ulcer dyspepsia. Topical application of peppermint oil may be effective in the treatment of tension headache. Because of its relaxing effects on smooth muscle, peppermint oil given via enema has been modestly effective for relief of colonic spasm in patients undergoing barium enemas. Peppermint oil is well tolerated at the commonly recommended dosage, but it may cause significant adverse effects at higher dosages. PMID:17427617

  1. Properties and limits of some essential oils: chemical characterisation, antimicrobial activity, interaction with antibiotics and cytotoxicity.

    PubMed

    Scazzocchio, Francesca; Garzoli, Stefania; Conti, Cinzia; Leone, Claudia; Renaioli, Clio; Pepi, Federico; Angiolella, Letizia

    2016-09-01

    Because of the emergence of multi-drug resistance bacteria and fungi, alternatives to conventional antimicrobial therapy are needed. This study aims to evaluate in vitro the antimicrobial activity of: Mirtus communis, Coriandrum sativum, Pelargonium capitatum, Cuminum cyminum, Ocimum basilicum, Citrus aurantium amara, Cymbopogon. winterianus, Cymbopogon martini, Salvia sclarea, Melaleuca alternifolia and Mentha suaveolens essential oils on bacteria and fungi, in relation to their chemical composition. The potential interaction of M. alternifolia (TTO), C. sativum (CDO) and M. suaveolens (EOMS) essential oils when used in combination with gentamicin and fluconazole has been evaluated. The results obtained showed a synergic effect on some bacteria and fungi, with FICI values ≤5. The cytotoxicity of TTO, CDO and EOMS was investigated towards HeLa cells. Only EOMS did not result cytotoxic at the active concentrations on micro-organisms. Further studies are necessary to obtain optimal ratios and dosing regimens for higher therapeutic efficacy and to decrease toxicological profiles. PMID:26395247

  2. Venezuelan oil

    SciTech Connect

    Martinez, A.R. )

    1989-01-01

    Oil reserves have been known to exist in Venezuela since early historical records, however, it was not until the 20th century that the extensive search for new reserves began. The 1950's marked the height of oil exploration when 200 new oil fields were discovered, as well as over 60{percent} of proven reserves. Venezuela now produces one tone in seven of crude oil consumption and the country's abundant reserves such as the Bolivar Coastal field in the West of the country and the Orinoco Belt field in the East, will ensure it's continuing importance as an oil producer well into the 21st century. This book charts the historical development of Venezuela oil and provides a chronology of all the significant events which have shaped the oil industry of today. It covers all the technical, legal, economic and political factors which have contributed to the evolution of the industry and also gives information on current oil resources and production. Those events significant to the development of the industry, those which were influential in shaping future policy and those which precipitated further action are included. The book provides a source of reference to oil companies, oil economists and petroleum geologists.

  3. Prevalence of Rickettsiales (Anaplasma phagocytophilum and Rickettsia spp.) in hard ticks (Ixodes ricinus) in the city of Hamburg, Germany.

    PubMed

    May, Kathrin; Strube, Christina

    2014-06-01

    To narrow the gap of missing knowledge on Rickettsia spp. and Anaplasma phagocytophilum infections in ticks in northwestern Germany and, at the same time, to provide first prevalence data on these pathogens in the city of Hamburg, a total of 1,400 questing Ixodes ricinus ticks were collected at ten different public green areas from April until October 2011. Ticks were examined using probe-based quantitative real-time PCR. A percentage of 3.6% (51/1,400) ticks were tested positive for A. phagocytophilum infections divided into 2.1% (3/141) adults [1.7% (1/60) females and 2.5% (2/81) males] and 3.8% (48/1,259) nymphs. The percentage of infected ticks per sampling site varied statistically significantly from 0.7% (1/140) to 12.1% (17/140), whereas between sampling months, no statistically significant differences were observed (2.0-6.5%, 4-13/140). The overall Rickettsia spp. infection rate was 52.5% (735/1,400). In adult ticks, Rickettsia spp. infection rate was 56% (79/141) divided into 61.7% (37/60) infected females and 51.9% (42/81) infected males. Nymphs showed an infection rate of 52.1% (656/1,259). In contrast to A. phagocytophilum infections, no statistically significant differences in Rickettsia spp. infection rates among sampling sites (44.3-63.6%, 62-89/140) were observed, whereas seasonal variations were obvious: the percentage of Rickettsia-positive ticks was significantly lower in April (36.5%, 73/200) and May (29.5%, 59/200) compared to the summer and fall months (55.0-64.5%, 110-129/200). Rickettsia species differentiation via real-time pyrosequencing revealed Rickettsia helvetica as the only occurring species. Co-infections with both Rickettsia spp. and A. phagocytophilum were detected in 2.0% (28/1,400) of the ticks. The present study revealed that in the city of Hamburg, the tick infection rate with A. phagocytophilum is comparable with other German data, whereas the Rickettsia spp. infection rate of 52.5% is by far the highest prevalence detected in

  4. Used oil as a fuel oil alternative

    SciTech Connect

    Karaosmanoglu, F.; Beker, U.G.

    1996-09-01

    In this study, the possibility of using used frying oil as a fuel oil alternative has been investigated. The fuel oil analysis tests applied to the reference fuel oil, used frying oil and its blends with fuel oil, were done according to standard test methods. The experimental results indicated that used frying oil and its blends with fuel oil can be proposed as a possible substitute for fuel oil.

  5. Dimethoate Induced Behavioural Changes in Juveniles of Cyprinus carpio var. communis under Temperate Conditions of Kashmir, India.

    PubMed

    Qayoom, Imtiyaz; Shah, Feroz A; Mukhtar, Malik; Balkhi, Masood H; Bhat, Farooz A; Bhat, Bilal A

    2016-01-01

    The present study was designed to investigate acute toxicity of dimethoate on juvenile Cyprinus carpio var. communis. Fishes weighing 10 ± 2 gms were selected and mortality data was statistically evaluated by Finney's Probit Method. The 96-hour LC50 value for Cyprinus carpio was found as 1.1 ppm in static bioassay system. Mean values of physicochemical parameters of aquarium waters determined during bioassay depicted slight variation indicating that the mortality in aquarium fishes occurred due to pesticide exposure and not suffocation. Lab. temperature ranged from 12 to 13°C; water temperature ranged from 11 to 12°C; dissolved oxygen ranged from 3.90 to 4.56 mg/L; pH ranged from 6.90 to 7.05; total dissolved solids ranged from 2.66 to 3.0 × 10(3) mg/L, while CO2 remained at a constant value of 2.0 mg/L. The fishes elicited various behavioural responses such as uncoordinated movements, convulsions, excessive mucus secretion, and imbalanced swimming which ended in a collapse to the bottom of the aquarium. Prior to death, the clinical signs like scale erosion, pale body colour, and hemorrhagic patches over the body were noticed which became more vivid up to the termination of experiments. Results of the study indicate potential toxicity of dimethoate in fingerlings of common carp for which the natural waterbodies must be continuously monitored to reduce its impact across food chains. PMID:27563689

  6. Dimethoate Induced Behavioural Changes in Juveniles of Cyprinus carpio var. communis under Temperate Conditions of Kashmir, India.

    PubMed

    Qayoom, Imtiyaz; Shah, Feroz A; Mukhtar, Malik; Balkhi, Masood H; Bhat, Farooz A; Bhat, Bilal A

    2016-01-01

    The present study was designed to investigate acute toxicity of dimethoate on juvenile Cyprinus carpio var. communis. Fishes weighing 10 ± 2 gms were selected and mortality data was statistically evaluated by Finney's Probit Method. The 96-hour LC