Science.gov

Sample records for oil rig explosion

  1. Cholera on a Gulf Coast oil rig.

    PubMed

    Johnston, J M; Martin, D L; Perdue, J; McFarland, L M; Caraway, C T; Lippy, E C; Blake, P A

    1983-09-01

    A single case of severe diarrhea on a floating Texas oil rig was followed two days later by what proved to be the largest outbreak of cholera in the United States in over a century. After isolation of toxigenic Vibrio cholerae El Tor Inaba of the typical United States phage type from the index patient's stool, the ensuing investigation detected 14 additional cases of cholera and one asymptomatic infection serologically. Infection was associated with eating rice on the oil rig on a particular day (P = 0.03) when an open valve permitted the rig's drinking-water system to be contaminated by canal water containing sewage (including that from the index patient) discharged from the rig. The rice had been rinsed in the contaminated water after cooking, and before being served it had been maintained at a temperature that allows V. cholerae 01 to multiply. Toxigenic V. cholerae 01 is persisting in the United States, and large common-source outbreaks of cholera can occur if proper sanitation is not maintained.

  2. 46 CFR 162.050-19 - Oil content meter and bilge alarm test rig.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 6 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Oil content meter and bilge alarm test rig. 162.050-19... § 162.050-19 Oil content meter and bilge alarm test rig. (a) This section contains requirements for test rigs used in approval testing of oil content meters and meter. A typical test rig is described...

  3. 46 CFR 162.050-19 - Oil content meter and bilge alarm test rig.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 6 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Oil content meter and bilge alarm test rig. 162.050-19... § 162.050-19 Oil content meter and bilge alarm test rig. (a) This section contains requirements for test rigs used in approval testing of oil content meters and meter. A typical test rig is described...

  4. 46 CFR 162.050-19 - Oil content meter and bilge alarm test rig.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 6 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Oil content meter and bilge alarm test rig. 162.050-19... § 162.050-19 Oil content meter and bilge alarm test rig. (a) This section contains requirements for test rigs used in approval testing of oil content meters and meter. A typical test rig is described...

  5. 46 CFR 162.050-19 - Oil content meter and bilge alarm test rig.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 6 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Oil content meter and bilge alarm test rig. 162.050-19... § 162.050-19 Oil content meter and bilge alarm test rig. (a) This section contains requirements for test rigs used in approval testing of oil content meters and meter. A typical test rig is described...

  6. Unique sled rig plugs oil leaking wells in surf zone

    SciTech Connect

    Zylstra, L.P. )

    1994-01-10

    Several leaking oil wells drilled in the late 1800s in the surf zone in Southern California required a specially built rig and platform for proper abandonment. The abandonment operations were complicated because the beach is heavily used by the public and the condition of the wells was unknown. A mobile sled was designed to support a drilling rig safely in the rough surf zone. The surf sled vehicle has a modular design for efficient assembly on the beach with minimal disturbance of the environment. No structures had to be built on the beach or in the surf zone to access the wellheads, thereby reducing costs and environmental impact. The surf sled vehicle used special equipment to keep the drilling rig level and to prevent oil spills or contamination during the drilling and abandonment procedures. The wells were abandoned safely and in a timely manner, despite the challenges of working in such a sensitive area. This paper describes the equipment and procedures used.

  7. World Oil`s marine drilling rigs `97/`98

    SciTech Connect

    1997-12-01

    The paper lists performance data for each of 588 mobile offshore drilling units in worldwide competitive and state-owned fleets. Listings are separated into four categories, including: jackups (362); semi-submersibles (147); drillships and barges (70); and submersibles, excluding inland barges, (9). Owners and rigs are listed alphabetically, with rigs grouped by class under a typical photograph. Rig managers, if different than owners, are identified in data remarks. Addresses of owners/managers are shown in a separate table.

  8. Fire and explosion hazards of oil shale

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1989-01-01

    The US Bureau of Mines publication presents the results of investigations into the fire and explosion hazards of oil shale rocks and dust. Three areas have been examined: the explosibility and ignitability of oil shale dust clouds, the fire hazards of oil shale dust layers on hot surfaces, and the ignitability and extinguishment of oil shale rubble piles. 10 refs., 54 figs., 29 tabs.

  9. Work related diseases and injuries on an oil rig.

    PubMed

    Valentić, Damir; Stojanović, Drazen; Mićović, Vladimir; Vukelić, Mihovil

    2005-01-01

    The analysis of diseases and injuries in the workers on an American oil rig, operating in the Mediterranean Sea, was done in the period of one year, from 1 May 1996 to 1 May 1997. In total, 518 medical examinations of sick and injuried workers were conducted. At the first place in morbidity, there were injuries and poisonings (26.7% of all registered cases). Then followed musculo-skeletal (17.5%), respiratory (14.2%), gastrointestinal diseases (12.1%), mental disorders (10.3%), nervous system (9.2%), skin (6.5%), urogenital (2.9%) and circulatory system diseases (0.6%). Out of all cases, the hand and finger injuries (48.3%) were most frequent, followed by injuries of the leg (13.4%), eye (11.3%), head and neck (10.1%), arm (7.9%), foot (6.7%) and trunk (2.3%). To reduce the incidence of diseases and injuries, special attention should be paid to the workers' basic medical education, to protective measures and providing first aid at the work site. PMID:16532585

  10. Challenges associated with pre-border management of biofouling on oil rigs.

    PubMed

    Hopkins, Grant A; Forrest, Barrie M

    2010-11-01

    The potential for oil rigs to transport diverse, reef-like communities around the globe makes them high risk vectors for the inadvertent spread of non-indigenous species (NIS). This paper describes two case studies where a suite of pre-border management approaches was applied to semi-submersible drilling rigs. In the first case study, a drilling rig was defouled in-water prior to departure from New Zealand to Australia. Risk mitigation measures were successful in reducing biosecurity risks to the recipient region, but they resulted in the unintentional introduction of the non-indigenous brown mussel (Perna perna) to New Zealand when the rig was defouled in-water by divers. In the second case study, lessons learned from this high-profile incursion resulted in a more structured approach to pre-border management, and this serves as a useful template for future rig transfers. PMID:20696440

  11. A New High-Speed Oil-Free Turbine Engine Rotordynamic Simulator Test Rig

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Howard, Samuel A.

    2007-01-01

    A new test rig has been developed for simulating high-speed turbomachinery rotor systems using Oil-Free foil air bearing technology. Foil air bearings have been used in turbomachinery, primarily air cycle machines, for the past four decades to eliminate the need for oil lubrication. The goal of applying this bearing technology to other classes of turbomachinery has prompted the fabrication of this test rig. The facility gives bearing designers the capability to test potential bearing designs with shafts that simulate the rotating components of a target machine without the high cost of building "make-and-break" hardware. The data collected from this rig can be used to make design changes to the shaft and bearings in subsequent design iterations. This paper describes the new test rig and demonstrates its capabilities through the initial run with a simulated shaft system.

  12. 46 CFR 162.050-19 - Oil content meter and bilge alarm test rig.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Oil content meter and bilge alarm test rig. 162.050-19 Section 162.050-19 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) EQUIPMENT, CONSTRUCTION, AND MATERIALS: SPECIFICATIONS AND APPROVAL ENGINEERING EQUIPMENT Pollution Prevention...

  13. Explosively produced fracture of oil shale

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1981-10-01

    Explosive cratering experiments were conducted as a part of the research effort to study the explosively produced fracture of oil shale. They were designed to identify and analyze the major factors involved in the fracturing of oil shale, to provide data for the verification of the computer models, and ultimately to lead to the design of a rubble bed for in situ retorting oil shale. The rubble excavated from eight cratering experiments was separated and the volumes of rubble in each screened size category are presented. Also presented are the data from the detailed investigation of the joint/fracture attitudes (strikes and dips) within a crater interior after excavation. The data were tabulated and plotted to allow future comparisons and analyses pertinent to similar experiments. A brief discussion of the experiment site and the graphical representation of the data are included. Finally, since the homogeneity of the oil shale is an important consideration in the selection of a site for these explosive fracture experiments, cores were taken and analyzed. The identification of the geological parameters and their extent and how they delineate the overall characterization of the experiment site, including the subsurface geology, is given. It is shown how the postshot core analysis will indicate how the blast affected the rock.

  14. Procedure-Authoring Tool Improves Safety on Oil Rigs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2014-01-01

    Dark, cold, and dangerous environments are plentiful in space and on Earth. To ensure safe operations in difficult surroundings, NASA relies heavily on procedures written well ahead of time. Houston-based TRACLabs Inc. worked with Ames Research Center through the SBIR program to create an electronic procedure authoring tool, now used by NASA and companies in the oil and gas industry.

  15. Flight investigation of helicopter IFR approaches to oil rigs using airborne weather and mapping radar

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bull, J. S.; Hegarty, D. M.; Phillips, J. D.; Sturgeon, W. R.; Hunting, A. W.; Pate, D. P.

    1979-01-01

    Airborne weather and mapping radar is a near-term, economical method of providing 'self-contained' navigation information for approaches to offshore oil rigs and its use has been rapidly expanding in recent years. A joint NASA/FAA flight test investigation of helicopter IFR approaches to offshore oil rigs in the Gulf of Mexico was initiated in June 1978 and conducted under contract to Air Logistics. Approximately 120 approaches were flown in a Bell 212 helicopter by 15 operational pilots during the months of August and September 1978. The purpose of the tests was to collect data to (1) support development of advanced radar flight director concepts by NASA and (2) aid the establishment of Terminal Instrument Procedures (TERPS) criteria by the FAA. The flight test objectives were to develop airborne radar approach procedures, measure tracking errors, determine accpetable weather minimums, and determine pilot acceptability. Data obtained will contribute significantly to improved helicopter airborne radar approach capability and to the support of exploration, development, and utilization of the Nation's offshore oil supplies.

  16. Permanently Attached Single PZT Guided Wave Encoded Sensor for Flood Detection of Oil Rig Crossbeams

    SciTech Connect

    Mijarez, R.; Gaydecki, P.; Burdekin, M.

    2005-04-09

    This paper presents preliminary results of a new guided wave system for detecting flooding in the hollow crossbeam members of offshore steel oil-rigs. A sensor, permanently attached to a sub-sea structure and powered by seawater, transmits chirp-encoded signals to a monitoring real-time digital signal processing system at surface level. Experiments performed using a jointed steel pipe structure, 10mx0.5m x16mm, completely immersed in seawater showed that although attenuation was significant, the system successfully identified the signals.

  17. Injury Rates on New and Old Technology Oil and Gas Rigs Operated by the Largest United States Onshore Drilling Contractor

    PubMed Central

    Blackley, David J.; Retzer, Kyla D.; Hubler, Warren G.; Hill, Ryan D.; Laney, A. Scott

    2015-01-01

    Background Occupational fatality rates among oil and gas extraction industry and specifically among drilling contractor workers are high compared to the U.S. all-industry average. There is scant literature focused on non-fatal injuries among drilling contractors, some of which have introduced engineering controls to improve rig efficiency and reduce injury risk. Methods We compared injury rates on new and old technology rigs operated by the largest U.S. drilling contractor during 2003–2012, stratifying by job type and grouping outcomes by injury severity and body part affected. Results Six hundred seventy-one injuries were recorded over 77.4 million person-hours. The rate on new rigs was 66% of that on old rigs. Roughnecks had lower injury rates on new rigs, largely through reduced limb injury rates. New rigs had lower rates in each non-fatal injury severity category. Conclusions For this company, new technology rigs appear to provide a safer environment for roughnecks. Future studies could include data from additional companies. PMID:25164118

  18. Material response from Mach 0.3 burner rig combustion of a coal-oil mixture

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Santoro, G. J.; Calfo, F. D.; Kohl, F. J.

    1981-01-01

    Wedge shaped specimens were exposed to the combustion gases of a Mach 0.3 burner rig fueled with a mixture of 40 weight percent micron size coal particles dispersed in No. 2 fuel oil. Exposure temperature was about 900 C and the test duration was about 44 one hour cycles. The alloys tested were the nickel base superalloys, IN-100, U-700 and IN-792, and the cobalt base superalloy, Mar-M509. The deposits on the specimens were analyzed and the extent of corrosion/erosion was measured. The chemical compositions of the deposits were compared with the predictions from an equilibrium thermodynamic analysis. The experimental results were in very good agreement with the predictions.

  19. A low-cost decision support network for electrocardiograph transmission from oil rigs in the North Sea.

    PubMed

    Webster, Karyn; Fraser, Susan; Mair, Fiona; Ferguson, James

    2008-01-01

    A telemedicine service consisting of electrocardiogram (ECG) interpretation and advice on the management of chest pain offshore was offered to oil rig installations in the North Sea. A total of 14 subscribing oil rigs were supplied with thrombolytic drugs and rig paramedics were trained in their delivery. Electrocardiographs could be recorded using a standard ECG machine and then digitized using a scanner for transmission as an email attachment. Several oil companies invested in ECG equipment which allowed direct recording of the patient's ECG in electronic form for transmission by email. Uptake of the telemedicine service was very rapid. The majority of rig medics found the system very easy to use. During a 36-month study period from August 2004, 47 cases of chest pain were dealt with by telemedicine. Of these 47 cases, only six patients (13%) were airlifted to shore. The 41 remaining ECGs did not to have acute changes requiring immediate evacuation. The use of email for ECG transmission proved to be highly effective in managing chest pain offshore.

  20. NASA Satellites View Gulf Oil Spill

    NASA Video Gallery

    Two NASA satellites are capturing images of the oil spill in the Gulf of Mexico, which began April 20, 2010, with the explosion of the Deepwater Horizon oil rig. This series of images shows a space...

  1. Shock-wave dynamics during oil-filled transformer explosions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Efremov, V. P.; Ivanov, M. F.; Kiverin, A. D.; Utkin, A. V.

    2016-08-01

    This paper presents a numerical and experimental study of the shock-wave processes evolving inside a closed vessel filled with mineral oil. Obtained experimental Hugoniot data for oil are compared with the corresponding data for water. It is found that compression of mineral oil and water can be described by approximately the same Hugoniot over a wide pressure range. Such similarity allows the use of water instead of mineral oil in the transformer explosion experiments and to describe the compression processes in both liquids using similar equations of state. The Kuznetsov equation of state for water is adopted for a numerical study of mineral oil compression. The features of the evolution of shock waves within mineral oil are analyzed using two-dimensional numerical simulations. Numerical results show that different energy sources may cause different scenarios of loading on the shell. The principal point is the phase transition taking place at relatively high temperatures for the case of high-power energy sources. In this case, a vapor-gaseous bubble emerges that qualitatively changes the dynamics of compression waves and the pattern of loads induced on the shell. Taking into account the features of the process together with the concept of water-oil similarity, the present work presents a new approach for experimental modeling of transformer shell destruction using an explosion with given characteristics in a water-filled shell.

  2. Explosion Clad for Upstream Oil and Gas Equipment

    SciTech Connect

    Banker, John G.; Massarello, Jack; Pauly, Stephane

    2011-01-17

    Today's upstream oil and gas facilities frequently involve the combination of high pressures, high temperatures, and highly corrosive environments, requiring equipment that is thick wall, corrosion resistant, and cost effective. When significant concentrations of CO{sub 2} and/or H{sub 2}S and/or chlorides are present, corrosion resistant alloys (CRA) can become the material of choice for separator equipment, piping, related components, and line pipe. They can provide reliable resistance to both corrosion and hydrogen embrittlement. For these applications, the more commonly used CRA's are 316L, 317L and duplex stainless steels, alloy 825 and alloy 625, dependent upon the application and the severity of the environment. Titanium is also an exceptional choice from the technical perspective, but is less commonly used except for heat exchangers. Explosion clad offers significant savings by providing a relatively thin corrosion resistant alloy on the surface metallurgically bonded to a thick, lower cost, steel substrate for the pressure containment. Developed and industrialized in the 1960's the explosion cladding technology can be used for cladding the more commonly used nickel based and stainless steel CRA's as well as titanium. It has many years of proven experience as a reliable and highly robust clad manufacturing process. The unique cold welding characteristics of explosion cladding reduce problems of alloy sensitization and dissimilar metal incompatibility. Explosion clad materials have been used extensively in both upstream and downstream oil, gas and petrochemical facilities for well over 40 years. The explosion clad equipment has demonstrated excellent resistance to corrosion, embrittlement and disbonding. Factors critical to insure reliable clad manufacture and equipment design and fabrication are addressed.

  3. Explosion Clad for Upstream Oil and Gas Equipment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Banker, John G.; Massarello, Jack; Pauly, Stephane

    2011-01-01

    Today's upstream oil and gas facilities frequently involve the combination of high pressures, high temperatures, and highly corrosive environments, requiring equipment that is thick wall, corrosion resistant, and cost effective. When significant concentrations of CO2 and/or H2S and/or chlorides are present, corrosion resistant alloys (CRA) can become the material of choice for separator equipment, piping, related components, and line pipe. They can provide reliable resistance to both corrosion and hydrogen embrittlement. For these applications, the more commonly used CRA's are 316L, 317L and duplex stainless steels, alloy 825 and alloy 625, dependent upon the application and the severity of the environment. Titanium is also an exceptional choice from the technical perspective, but is less commonly used except for heat exchangers. Explosion clad offers significant savings by providing a relatively thin corrosion resistant alloy on the surface metallurgically bonded to a thick, lower cost, steel substrate for the pressure containment. Developed and industrialized in the 1960's the explosion cladding technology can be used for cladding the more commonly used nickel based and stainless steel CRA's as well as titanium. It has many years of proven experience as a reliable and highly robust clad manufacturing process. The unique cold welding characteristics of explosion cladding reduce problems of alloy sensitization and dissimilar metal incompatibility. Explosion clad materials have been used extensively in both upstream and downstream oil, gas and petrochemical facilities for well over 40 years. The explosion clad equipment has demonstrated excellent resistance to corrosion, embrittlement and disbonding. Factors critical to insure reliable clad manufacture and equipment design and fabrication are addressed.

  4. Seasickness in totally-enclosed motor-propelled survival craft: five offshore oil rig disasters.

    PubMed

    Landolt, J P; Light, I M; Greenen, M G; Monaco, C

    1992-02-01

    Five mobile offshore drilling unit disasters--Alexander L. Kielland, Ocean Ranger, Vinland, Ocean Odyssey, and Rowan Gorilla I--were studied to assess the degree to which seasickness occurs and endangers the lives of occupants of totally-enclosed motor-propelled survival craft (TEMPSC). Thousands of other peacetime marine incidents were reviewed and a literature search was conducted to assess the same seasickness problem. The one reported death in the Vinland abandonment appears to be the only one that could be associated, even remotely, with seasickness. It cannot be established whether or not seasickness contributed to the cause of death in the case of the Ocean Ranger victims, but it did occur in 75% or more of TEMPSC occupants in the other four rig disasters. It has occurred both in relatively calm waters of 1-m wave height and in severe seas of 15-m heights. Evacuees in an intact TEMPSC are able to survive many hours of severe seas; consequently, they should not be rescued until the weather and sea conditions improve. Moreover, practical survival training and good leadership is a principal cornerstone in the amelioration of seasickness.

  5. Seasickness in totally-enclosed motor-propelled survival craft: five offshore oil rig disasters.

    PubMed

    Landolt, J P; Light, I M; Greenen, M G; Monaco, C

    1992-02-01

    Five mobile offshore drilling unit disasters--Alexander L. Kielland, Ocean Ranger, Vinland, Ocean Odyssey, and Rowan Gorilla I--were studied to assess the degree to which seasickness occurs and endangers the lives of occupants of totally-enclosed motor-propelled survival craft (TEMPSC). Thousands of other peacetime marine incidents were reviewed and a literature search was conducted to assess the same seasickness problem. The one reported death in the Vinland abandonment appears to be the only one that could be associated, even remotely, with seasickness. It cannot be established whether or not seasickness contributed to the cause of death in the case of the Ocean Ranger victims, but it did occur in 75% or more of TEMPSC occupants in the other four rig disasters. It has occurred both in relatively calm waters of 1-m wave height and in severe seas of 15-m heights. Evacuees in an intact TEMPSC are able to survive many hours of severe seas; consequently, they should not be rescued until the weather and sea conditions improve. Moreover, practical survival training and good leadership is a principal cornerstone in the amelioration of seasickness. PMID:1546944

  6. Non-technical skills: enhancing safety in operating theatres (and drilling rigs).

    PubMed

    Flin, Rhona

    2014-03-01

    On April 20th 2010, a large Transocean drilling rig called the Deepwater Horizon was operating in the Gulf of Mexico to drill the Macondo well, for the oil company BP. The job was six weeks behind schedule and $58 million over budget and had not been without difficulty: it was a high pressure well, 2.5 miles below the seabed. At 5.45 am, the Halliburton cementing engineer sent an email to say: 'We have completed the job and it went well'. At 9.43 pm, 16 hours later, there was a release of hydrocarbons into the well bore and the drilling rig experienced a catastrophic blowout as the high pressure oil and gas escaped onto the rig and into the ocean. The resulting explosions and fire killed 11 of the crew of 126, injured many more and created an enormous oil spill across the Gulf. PMID:24720059

  7. Non-technical skills: enhancing safety in operating theatres (and drilling rigs).

    PubMed

    Flin, Rhona

    2014-03-01

    On April 20th 2010, a large Transocean drilling rig called the Deepwater Horizon was operating in the Gulf of Mexico to drill the Macondo well, for the oil company BP. The job was six weeks behind schedule and $58 million over budget and had not been without difficulty: it was a high pressure well, 2.5 miles below the seabed. At 5.45 am, the Halliburton cementing engineer sent an email to say: 'We have completed the job and it went well'. At 9.43 pm, 16 hours later, there was a release of hydrocarbons into the well bore and the drilling rig experienced a catastrophic blowout as the high pressure oil and gas escaped onto the rig and into the ocean. The resulting explosions and fire killed 11 of the crew of 126, injured many more and created an enormous oil spill across the Gulf.

  8. Assessment of gas and dust explosion hazards in oil shale mining using ANFO

    SciTech Connect

    Weiss, E.S.; Sapko, M.J.; Bazala, E.M. . Pittsburgh Research Center)

    1989-01-01

    Experimental mine testing has shown that hot combustion products generated from a detonating explosive can result in a secondary dust or gas explosion. The common blasting agent ANFO (ammonium nitrate--6 pct fuel oil) has been shown in the Bruceton experimental mine (BEM) tests to readily ignite pre-existing explosive concentrations of oil shale dust and/or methane gas when detonated unstemmed. Tests also show that these ignitions can be curtailed with the use of an inert stemming material. Current data on background methane emission studies at two western U.S. oil shale mines are also presented.

  9. Sandia's Geothermal Advanced Drill Rig Instrumentation Assists Critical Oil and Gas Drilling Operation

    SciTech Connect

    Staller, George E.; Whitlow, Gary

    1999-04-27

    On November 23, 1998, an 18,000-foot-deep wild-cat natural gas well being drilled near Bakersfield, CA blew out and caught fire. All attempts to kill this well failed, and the well continues to flow under limited control, producing large volumes of natural gas, salt water, and some oil. The oil and some of the water is being separated and trucked off site, and the remaining gas and water is being burned at the well head. A relief well is being drilled approximately one-quarter mile away in an attempt to intercept the first well. If the relief well is successful, it will be used to cement in and kill the first well. Epoch Wellsite Services, Inc., the mud-logging company for the initial well and the relief well, requested Sandia's rolling float meter (RFM) for these critical drilling operations. The RFM is being used to measure the mud outflow rate and detect kicks while drilling the relief well, which will undoubtedly encounter reservoir conditions similar to those responsible for the blow out. Based on its prior experience with the RFM, Epoch believes that it is the only instrument capable of providing the level of accuracy and response to mudflow needed to quickly detect kicks and minimize the risk of a blowout on this second critical well. In response to the urgent request from industry, Sandia and Epoch technicians installed the RFM on the relief well return line, and completed its initial calibration. The data from the RFM is displayed in real-time for the driller, the companyman, and the toolpusher via Epochs RIGWATCH Drilling Instmmentation System. The RFM has already detected several small kicks while drilling toward the annulus of the blown out well. A conventional paddle meter is located downstream of the RFM to provide redundancy and the opportunity to compare the two meters in an actual drilling operation, The relief well is nearing 14,000 feet deep, targeting an intercept of the first well near 17,600 feet. The relief well is expected to be completed in

  10. Oil in the Water, Fire in the Sky: Responding to Technological/Environmental Disasters

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lazarus, Philip J.; Sulkowski, Michael L.

    2010-01-01

    On April 20, 2010, a massive explosion killed 11 workers on the Deepwater Horizon oil rig. Survivors of this explosion recounted terrifying near-death experiences and mourned the loss of coworkers and friends who had perished. Shock and grief spread through small coastal communities composed mostly of fishers and oil workers. However, this was…

  11. 25. Photocopied 1973 from The Rig & Reel Magazine, (March, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    25. Photocopied 1973 from The Rig & Reel Magazine, (March, 1923) p. 1. TYPICAL ENDLESS-WIRE RIG IN VOLCANO. - West Oil Company Endless Wire Pumping Station, U.S. Route 50 (Volcano vicinity), Petroleum, Ritchie County, WV

  12. Hybrid Bearing Prognostic Test Rig

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dempsey, Paula J.; Certo, Joseph M.; Handschuh, Robert F.; Dimofte, Florin

    2005-01-01

    The NASA Glenn Research Center has developed a new Hybrid Bearing Prognostic Test Rig to evaluate the performance of sensors and algorithms in predicting failures of rolling element bearings for aeronautics and space applications. The failure progression of both conventional and hybrid (ceramic rolling elements, metal races) bearings can be tested from fault initiation to total failure. The effects of different lubricants on bearing life can also be evaluated. Test conditions monitored and recorded during the test include load, oil temperature, vibration, and oil debris. New diagnostic research instrumentation will also be evaluated for hybrid bearing damage detection. This paper summarizes the capabilities of this new test rig.

  13. Method for attenuating seismic shock from detonating explosive in an in situ oil shale retort

    DOEpatents

    Studebaker, Irving G.; Hefelfinger, Richard

    1980-01-01

    In situ oil shale retorts are formed in formation containing oil shale by excavating at least one void in each retort site. Explosive is placed in a remaining portion of unfragmented formation within each retort site adjacent such a void, and such explosive is detonated in a single round for explosively expanding formation within the retort site toward such a void for forming a fragmented permeable mass of formation particles containing oil shale in each retort. This produces a large explosion which generates seismic shock waves traveling outwardly from the blast site through the underground formation. Sensitive equipment which could be damaged by seismic shock traveling to it straight through unfragmented formation is shielded from such an explosion by placing such equipment in the shadow of a fragmented mass in an in situ retort formed prior to the explosion. The fragmented mass attenuates the velocity and magnitude of seismic shock waves traveling toward such sensitive equipment prior to the shock wave reaching the vicinity of such equipment.

  14. Method for explosive expansion toward horizontal free faces for forming an in situ oil shale retort

    DOEpatents

    Ricketts, Thomas E.

    1980-01-01

    Formation is excavated from within a retort site in formation containing oil shale for forming a plurality of vertically spaced apart voids extending horizontally across different levels of the retort site, leaving a separate zone of unfragmented formation between each pair of adjacent voids. Explosive is placed in each zone, and such explosive is detonated in a single round for forming an in situ retort containing a fragmented permeable mass of formation particles containing oil shale. The same amount of formation is explosively expanded upwardly and downwardly toward each void. A horizontal void excavated at a production level has a smaller horizontal cross-sectional area than a void excavated at a lower level of the retort site immediately above the production level void. Explosive in a first group of vertical blast holes is detonated for explosively expanding formation downwardly toward the lower void, and explosive in a second group of vertical blast holes is detonated in the same round for explosively expanding formation upwardly toward the lower void and downwardly toward the production level void for forming a generally T-shaped bottom of the fragmented mass.

  15. Explosively produced fracture of oil shale. Progress report, January to March 1981

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1982-01-01

    This is the first Los Alamos Oil Shale progress report in a new format, designed to continue the publication of technical papers each quarter and to report the progress made each quarter in oil shale research. This first report describes the history of the project to put the present status in perspective and outlines the program and its objectives. In subsequent reports, program achievements will be reported along with the usual technical papers. Section I covers program management, explosive characterization, dynamic rock mechanics, field verification tests, and stress wave, fluid flow, and retort stabiliy modeling. Program history, recent accomplishments, and future plans are discussed for each program element. Details are also given on how the program dovetails with that of industry, particularly with the Oil Shale Consortium. Finally, the unique operational principles and field applications of the CORRTEX system to oil shale field experiments are explained. Section II presents several technical papers. An overview of the rock fragmentation effort to enhance the permeability of oil shale using explosives summarizes the project, its rationale, and objectives. Results of explosive characterization tests show that the maximum pressure and gas drive of ANFO are greatly enhanced by the addition of aluminum. In fracture modeling, spallation is studied in terms of crack growth, and the effect of anisotropy in explosive fragmentation is calculated and compared with radiograph data from field tests. Our TRACER model is explained and fluid flow calculations for heat and mass transfer in the Occidental Oil Shale, Inc. MR-3 retort are shown to compare well with field data. Also, the status of the two-dimensional retorting model, which fully couples retort chemistry with fluid dynamics, is given.

  16. Explosively produced fracture of oil shale. Progress report, October-December 1980

    SciTech Connect

    Sinoradzki, H.M.

    1981-07-01

    A major technological limit on the in situ retorting of oil shale is the effective rubbling of the rock. Consequently, efficient and economical recovery of oil from shale is dependent directly on developing a more sophisticated blasting technology. Crucial to this technology is understanding the behavior of the explosive. Calculations of pressures and shock-front positions are developed and compared graphically to the aquarium-test experimental data for two different diameter explosive configurations for ammonium nitrate/fuel oil (ANFO). Once the explosive reaction is understood, analytical and computational methods can be developed to simulate the blasting of the rock. Such computer modeling will allow the phenomenology of blasting to be studied and will eliminate the need for many expensive field tests. The basis for using predictive modeling and its application to predict rock fracturing is explained, and comparisons of calculations to field experimental data are presented. Also discussed is the theory of effective-elastic-moduli reduction in a transversely isotropic material containing penny-shaped cracks. It is applied to the bedded crack model in which all cracks are in the horizontal (bedding) plane of the material, as they are in oil shale. The technique equates the total body strain to the sum of the straining of the material matrix and the additional strain caused by the opening and shearing of cracks. Finally, the permeability of explosively fractured oil shale is related to the statistical distribution of cracks in the rock and their instability as stress levels increase. An expression for the specific permeability of oil shale under high stresses is derived. 22 figures.

  17. Somebody better find some rigs

    SciTech Connect

    1997-08-01

    The paper discusses the outlook for the gas and oil industries of the Middle East. Field development projects abound, as the larger exporting nations pursue ambitious policies of production expansion. However, their plans may be hampered by the growing worldwide shortage of rigs. Separate evaluations are given for Saudi Arabia, Kuwait, Neutral Zone, Abu Dhabi, Iran, Iraq, Qatar, Yemen, Syria, Dubai, Turkey, Sharjah, and briefly for Bahrain, Israel, Jordan, UAE-Ajman, and UAE-Ras al-Khaimah.

  18. Fractionation of oil palm frond hemicelluloses by water or alkaline impregnation and steam explosion.

    PubMed

    Sabiha-Hanim, Saleh; Mohd Noor, Mohd Azemi; Rosma, Ahmad

    2015-01-22

    Steam explosion of oil palm frond has been carried out under different temperatures between 180 and 210°C for 4 min (severity of 2.96-3.84) after impregnation of the frond chips with water or KOH solution. The effects of impregnation and steam explosion conditions of oil palm fronds on the water soluble fraction and insoluble fraction were investigated. The maximum yield of hemicelluloses in water soluble fractions recovered was 23.49% and 25.33% for water and KOH impregnation, treated with steam explosion at temperature of 210°C (severity of 3.84) with a fractionation efficiency of 77.30% and 83.32%, respectively. Under this condition, the water insoluble fractions contained celluloses at 60.83% and 64.80% for water and KOH impregnation, respectively. The steam explosion temperature of 210°C for 4 min (logR(o) 3.84) was found to be the best condition in the extraction of hemicelluloses from OPF for both types of impregnation.

  19. Explosively produced fracture of oil shale. Progress report, October-December 1979

    SciTech Connect

    Morris, W.A.

    1981-02-01

    A Jones-Wilkins-Lee (JWL) equation of state for ammonium nitrate/fuel oil mixture (ANFO) and aluminized ANFO, somewhat different from the Becker-Kistiakowsky-Wilson (BKW) equation of state described in previous reports, is discussed. Included also are our present understanding of a steady, cylindrical detonation, a proposed computer model of a real detonation, the requirements for an equivalent equation of state to be used with the model, and the values for the equation-of-state parameters. An alternative explosive burn package has been implemented in the computer code YAQUI together with a slip-line capability at the explosive/oil shale interface. The code has been used for prediction of cratering and fragmentation experiment results on a field scale.

  20. Explosively produced fracture of oil shale. Progress report, July-September 1982

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1983-02-01

    The Los Alamos National Laboratory is conducting rock fragmentation research in oil shale to develop the blasting and fluid-flow technologies required to prepare a rubble bed for a modified in situ retort. The first section of this report summarizes the rock fragmentation program completed with the cooperation of the Oil Shale Consortium and Science Applications, Inc.; it also details the plans for a joint DOE/Sandia National Laboratories/Los Alamos program based on the results of the Consortium program. In addition, Sec. I describes the explosive engineering tests conducted to evaluate dead-pressing characteristics and to verify the reversal-plane fracture capabilities of the ANFO slurry explosive used in the Consortium program. The second section presents a paper on computer modeling and theory that relates the permeability of fractured rock to percolation theory and statistical crack mechanics.

  1. 40th annual Reed rig census

    SciTech Connect

    Fitts, R.L.; Stokes, T.A. )

    1992-10-01

    This paper reports that declines characterize the 1992 rig census-in the number of available drilling rigs, in the number of active rigs, in rig utilization rate, in the number of rig owners and in industry optimism. The number of rotary rigs available for U.S. drilling fell by 255 units (11.3%) during the past 12 months, an attrition rate almost four times greater than in 1991. But despite the high attrition, only 59.7% of remaining rigs were working during the time the census was taken. Results of the 1992 census bring emphasis to an industry trend that became apparent in early 1991. The major oil companies, and many independents, continued their exodus form the U.S., and the remaining independents, which were hurt by low natural gas prices and unfavorable tax treatment of intangible drilling costs, were not able to pick u the drilling slack. Consequently, the past year has been disastrous for many U.S. drilling contractors, and the outlook for this industry segment remains bleak.

  2. Technology trends, energy prices affect worldwide rig activity

    SciTech Connect

    Rappold, K.

    1995-09-25

    The major worldwide offshore rig markets have improved slightly this year, while the onshore markets generally lagged slightly. Offshore rig utilization rates have remained strong worldwide, with some areas reaching nearly 100%. Total worldwide offshore rig (jack ups, semisubmersible, drillships, submersibles, and barges) utilization was about 86%. Offshore drilling activity is driven primarily by oil and natural gas price expectations. Natural gas prices tend to drive North American offshore drilling activity, including the shallow waters in the Gulf of Mexico. International offshore drilling activity and deepwater projects in the Gulf of Mexico are more closely tied to oil prices. The paper discusses US rig count, directional drilling activity, jack up rig demand, semisubmersibles demand, rig replacement costs, and new construction.

  3. Four rigs refurbished for West Africa drilling

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-06-10

    In April and May 1990, Shell Petroleum Development Co. of Nigeria Ltd. awarded Noble Drilling West Africa Inc. four separate contracts to drill oil and gas wells in the inland waterways of Nigeria. The contracted rigs included a shallow water jack up, the NN-1, and three posted barges, the Gene Rosser, the Chuck Syring, and the Lewis Dugger. The jack up was built in 1978, and the three posted barges are 1980s vintage. Three of the rigs have been idle for a number of years. The Shell Nigeria contracts required major modifications to the rigs before putting them into international service. Noble replaced or refurbished all major pieces of equipment in the drilling, power, and service systems on the rigs. Rig crews serviced all other equipment. A significant amount of general service piping and electrical wiring was replaced. Each rig also required additional motor control centers to support the new drilling and mud processing equipment. Alfa-Laval waste-heat water desalination plants and new sewage treatment units were installed on all four rigs. Because of the tidal variances and high silt conditions expected in the African waterways, all engine cooling systems were converted from heat exchangers to radiators. Rotary tables were made common on all rigs at 37 1/2 in. Noble had all traveling equipment completely inspected and modified as necessary. Strict attention was paid to certification and documentation of all equipment. Safety upgrades conformed to both Shell and Noble standards. Fire and gas detection systems were installed throughout each rig. Water and foam deluge systems were installed in the wellhead areas, and new foam systems and monitors were installed on the helldecks.

  4. Effects of oil pipeline explosion on ambient particulate matter and their associated polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Yue; Cao, Lixin; Zhou, Qing; Que, Qiming

    2015-01-01

    Effects of the oil pipeline explosion on PM(2.5)-associated polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and their substituted (alkylated, nitrated, oxygenated, hydroxyl and chlorinated) derivatives are assessed near the accident scene of Qingdao, China. Compared with those in TSP-PM(2.5), gaseous phase, burn residue and unburned crude oil, eighty-nine PAHs in PM(2.5) are identified and quantified to investigate the composition, temporal and spatial distribution, and sources. The concentrations of PM(2.5)-associated parent PAHs increase approximately seven times from the non-explosion samples to the explosion samples (mean ± standard deviation: 112 ± 2 vs 764 ± 15 ng/m(3)), while some substituted products (nitro- and oxy-) increase by two orders of magnitude (3117 ± 156 pg/m(3) vs 740 ± 37 ng/m(3)). The toxicity evaluation indicates the BaP equivalent concentrations (based on the US EPA's toxicity factors) in PM(2.5) are much higher than those in the other phases, especially for a long duration after the tragic accident.

  5. Meals on Wheels? A Decade of Megafaunal Visual and Acoustic Observations from Offshore Oil & Gas Rigs and Platforms in the North and Irish Seas.

    PubMed

    Todd, Victoria Louise Georgia; Warley, Jane Clare; Todd, Ian Boyer

    2016-01-01

    A decade of visual and acoustic detections of marine megafauna around offshore Oil & Gas (O&G) installations in the North and Irish Seas are presented. Marine megafauna activity was monitored visually and acoustically by Joint Nature Conservation Committee (JNCC) qualified and experienced Marine Mammal Observers (MMO) and Passive Acoustic Monitoring (PAM) Operators respectively, with real-time towed PAM in combination with industry standard software, PAMGuard. Monitoring was performed during routine O&G industrial operations for underwater noise mitigation purposes, and to ensure adherence to regulatory guidelines. Incidental sightings by off-effort MMOs and installation crew were also reported. Visual and acoustic monitoring spanned 55 non-consecutive days between 2004 and 2014. A total of 47 marine mammal sightings were recorded by MMOs on dedicated watch, and 10 incidental sightings of marine megafauna were reported over 10 years. Species included: harbour porpoise (Phocoena phocoena), Atlantic white-sided dolphin (Lagenorhynchus acutus), white beaked dolphin (Lagenorhynchus albirostris), common dolphin (Delphinus delphis), minke whale (Balaenoptera acutorostrata), common seal (Phoca vitulina), grey seal (Halichoerus grypus) and, basking shark (Cetorhinus maximus). Passive Acoustic Monitoring was conducted on two occasions in 2014; 160 PAM hours over 12 days recorded a total of 308 individual clicks identified as harbour porpoises. These appear to be the first such acoustic detections obtained from a North Sea drilling rig whilst using a typically configured hydrophone array designed for towing in combination with real-time PAMGuard software. This study provides evidence that marine megafauna are present around mobile and stationary offshore O&G installations during routine operational activities. On this basis, Environmental Impact Assessments (EIAs) for decommissioning O&G platforms should be carried-out on a case-by-case basis, and must include provisions for

  6. Meals on Wheels? A Decade of Megafaunal Visual and Acoustic Observations from Offshore Oil & Gas Rigs and Platforms in the North and Irish Seas.

    PubMed

    Todd, Victoria Louise Georgia; Warley, Jane Clare; Todd, Ian Boyer

    2016-01-01

    A decade of visual and acoustic detections of marine megafauna around offshore Oil & Gas (O&G) installations in the North and Irish Seas are presented. Marine megafauna activity was monitored visually and acoustically by Joint Nature Conservation Committee (JNCC) qualified and experienced Marine Mammal Observers (MMO) and Passive Acoustic Monitoring (PAM) Operators respectively, with real-time towed PAM in combination with industry standard software, PAMGuard. Monitoring was performed during routine O&G industrial operations for underwater noise mitigation purposes, and to ensure adherence to regulatory guidelines. Incidental sightings by off-effort MMOs and installation crew were also reported. Visual and acoustic monitoring spanned 55 non-consecutive days between 2004 and 2014. A total of 47 marine mammal sightings were recorded by MMOs on dedicated watch, and 10 incidental sightings of marine megafauna were reported over 10 years. Species included: harbour porpoise (Phocoena phocoena), Atlantic white-sided dolphin (Lagenorhynchus acutus), white beaked dolphin (Lagenorhynchus albirostris), common dolphin (Delphinus delphis), minke whale (Balaenoptera acutorostrata), common seal (Phoca vitulina), grey seal (Halichoerus grypus) and, basking shark (Cetorhinus maximus). Passive Acoustic Monitoring was conducted on two occasions in 2014; 160 PAM hours over 12 days recorded a total of 308 individual clicks identified as harbour porpoises. These appear to be the first such acoustic detections obtained from a North Sea drilling rig whilst using a typically configured hydrophone array designed for towing in combination with real-time PAMGuard software. This study provides evidence that marine megafauna are present around mobile and stationary offshore O&G installations during routine operational activities. On this basis, Environmental Impact Assessments (EIAs) for decommissioning O&G platforms should be carried-out on a case-by-case basis, and must include provisions for

  7. Meals on Wheels? A Decade of Megafaunal Visual and Acoustic Observations from Offshore Oil & Gas Rigs and Platforms in the North and Irish Seas

    PubMed Central

    Todd, Victoria Louise Georgia; Todd, Ian Boyer

    2016-01-01

    A decade of visual and acoustic detections of marine megafauna around offshore Oil & Gas (O&G) installations in the North and Irish Seas are presented. Marine megafauna activity was monitored visually and acoustically by Joint Nature Conservation Committee (JNCC) qualified and experienced Marine Mammal Observers (MMO) and Passive Acoustic Monitoring (PAM) Operators respectively, with real-time towed PAM in combination with industry standard software, PAMGuard. Monitoring was performed during routine O&G industrial operations for underwater noise mitigation purposes, and to ensure adherence to regulatory guidelines. Incidental sightings by off-effort MMOs and installation crew were also reported. Visual and acoustic monitoring spanned 55 non-consecutive days between 2004 and 2014. A total of 47 marine mammal sightings were recorded by MMOs on dedicated watch, and 10 incidental sightings of marine megafauna were reported over 10 years. Species included: harbour porpoise (Phocoena phocoena), Atlantic white-sided dolphin (Lagenorhynchus acutus), white beaked dolphin (Lagenorhynchus albirostris), common dolphin (Delphinus delphis), minke whale (Balaenoptera acutorostrata), common seal (Phoca vitulina), grey seal (Halichoerus grypus) and, basking shark (Cetorhinus maximus). Passive Acoustic Monitoring was conducted on two occasions in 2014; 160 PAM hours over 12 days recorded a total of 308 individual clicks identified as harbour porpoises. These appear to be the first such acoustic detections obtained from a North Sea drilling rig whilst using a typically configured hydrophone array designed for towing in combination with real-time PAMGuard software. This study provides evidence that marine megafauna are present around mobile and stationary offshore O&G installations during routine operational activities. On this basis, Environmental Impact Assessments (EIAs) for decommissioning O&G platforms should be carried-out on a case-by-case basis, and must include provisions for

  8. Rig activity; 1991 is now the worst year on record

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-02-01

    This paper reports that U.S. rotary oil well drilling rig activity reached year-end levels above 1,100 rigs and averaged over 1,000 in 1990, the first increase since 1984. In 1991, however, operating rigs dropped once again, this time to an all time recorded low and once again, most forecasters erred on the high side. Rotary rigs running in 1991 averaged 862.8, a 14.4% drop below the 1990 activity level of 1007.8 rigs. The rig count, began at 1,068 in January, but fell steadily for the remainder of the year. A brief upturn at mid-year failed to hold up and the year-end increases in drilling we had come to expect since 1986 never materialized.

  9. 28. Photocopied 1973 from The Rig & Reel Magazine, (March, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    28. Photocopied 1973 from The Rig & Reel Magazine, (March, 1923) p. 2. INTERIOR OF CENTRAL POWERHOUSE AT VOLCANO - NOW DISMANTLED. - West Oil Company Endless Wire Pumping Station, U.S. Route 50 (Volcano vicinity), Petroleum, Ritchie County, WV

  10. 26. Photocopied 1973 from The Rig & Reel Magazine, (March, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    26. Photocopied 1973 from The Rig & Reel Magazine, (March, 1923) p. 1. TYPICAL WELL HOOK-UP. - West Oil Company Endless Wire Pumping Station, U.S. Route 50 (Volcano vicinity), Petroleum, Ritchie County, WV

  11. 27. Photocopied 1973 from The Rig & Reel Magazine, (March, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    27. Photocopied 1973 from The Rig & Reel Magazine, (March, 1923) p. 5. EARLIER ENDLESS-WIRE TRANSMISSION NOW IN RUINS. - West Oil Company Endless Wire Pumping Station, U.S. Route 50 (Volcano vicinity), Petroleum, Ritchie County, WV

  12. Steam explosion pretreatment of oil palm empty fruit bunches (EFB) using autocatalytic hydrolysis: A biorefinery approach.

    PubMed

    Medina, Jesus David Coral; Woiciechowski, Adenise; Zandona Filho, Arion; Nigam, Poonam Singh; Ramos, Luiz Pereira; Soccol, Carlos Ricardo

    2016-01-01

    The oil palm empty fruit bunches (EFB) are an attractive source of carbon for the production of biochemical products, therefore, the aim of this work is to analyze the effect of the steam explosion (SE) pretreatment under autocatalytic conditions on EFB using a full experimental design. Temperature and reaction time were the operational variables studied. The EFB treated at 195°C for 6 min showed an increase of 34.69% in glycan (mostly cellulose), and a reduction of 68.12% in hemicelluloses, with increased enzymatic digestibility to 33% producing 4.2 g L(-1) of glucose. Scanning electron micrographs of the steam treated EFB exhibited surface erosion and an increased fiber porosity. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy showed the solubilization of hemicellulose and modification of cellulose in treated EFB.

  13. Know your rig.

    PubMed

    Molnar, J P

    2012-11-01

    Driving an EMS rig in winter conditions requires patience and slowing down, but many times operators get in trouble because they simply exceed the operating capabilities of their rig in the given conditions. This can stem from over confidence, but it can also come from lack of training. We'd like to believe otherwise, but we're susceptible to the same perils as the ordinary driver, and having decals on the side of our truck doesn't change that. So take the time to know your rig before heading out into the wintry muck, and make sure you have enough supplies and equipment should you inadvertently find yourself part of the problem rather than the solution. Above all, know your own driving limitations and give yourself the buffer you need. Getting there slowly is better than not getting there at all.

  14. Effect of acid, steam explosion, and size reduction pretreatments on bio-oil production from sweetgum, switchgrass, and corn stover.

    PubMed

    Wang, Hui; Srinivasan, Radhakrishnan; Yu, Fei; Steele, Philip; Li, Qi; Mitchell, Brian; Samala, Aditya

    2012-05-01

    Bio-oil produced from biomass by fast pyrolysis has the potential to be a valuable substitute for fossil fuels. In a recent work on pinewood, we found that pretreatment alters the structure and chemical composition of biomass, which influence fast pyrolysis. In this study, we evaluated dilute acid, steam explosion, and size reduction pretreatments on sweetgum, switchgrass, and corn stover feedstocks. Bio-oils were produced from untreated and pretreated feedstocks in an auger reactor at 450 °C. The bio-oil's physical properties of pH, water content, acid value, density, and viscosity were measured. The chemical characteristics of the bio-oils were determined by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. The results showed that bio-oil yield and composition were influenced by the pretreatment method and feedstock type. Bio-oil yields of 52, 33, and 35 wt% were obtained from medium-sized (0.68-1.532 mm) untreated sweetgum, switchgrass, and corn stover, respectively, which were higher than the yields from other sizes. Bio-oil yields of 56, 46, and 51 wt% were obtained from 1% H(2)SO(4)-treated medium-sized sweetgum, switchgrass, and corn stover, respectively, which were higher than the yields from untreated and steam explosion treatments.

  15. Product Module Rig Test

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Holdeman, James D. (Technical Monitor); Chiappetta, Louis, Jr.; Hautman, Donald J.; Ols, John T.; Padget, Frederick C., IV; Peschke, William O. T.; Shirley, John A.; Siskind, Kenneth S.

    2004-01-01

    The low emissions potential of a Rich-Quench-Lean (RQL) combustor for use in the High Speed Civil Transport (HSCT) application was evaluated as part of Work Breakdown Structure (WBS) 1.0.2.7 of the NASA Critical Propulsion Components (CPC) Program under Contract NAS3-27235. Combustion testing was conducted in cell 1E of the Jet Burner Test Stand at United Technologies Research Center. Specifically, a Rich-Quench-Lean combustor, utilizing reduced scale quench technology implemented in a quench vane concept in a product-like configuration (Product Module Rig), demonstrated the capability of achieving an emissions index of nitrogen oxides (NOx EI) of 8.5 gm/Kg fuel at the supersonic flight condition (relative to the program goal of 5 gm/Kg fuel). Developmental parametric testing of various quench vane configurations in the more fundamental flametube, Single Module Rig Configuration, demonstrated NOx EI as low as 5.2. All configurations in both the Product Module Rig configuration and the Single Module Rig configuration demonstrated exceptional efficiencies, greater than 99.95 percent, relative to the program goal of 99.9 percent efficiency at supersonic cruise conditions. Sensitivity of emissions to quench orifice design parameters were determined during the parametric quench vane test series in support of the design of the Product Module Rig configuration. For the rectangular quench orifices investigated, an aspect ratio (length/width) of approximately 2 was found to be near optimum. An optimum for orifice spacing was found to exist at approximately 0.167 inches, resulting in 24 orifices per side of a quench vane, for the 0.435 inch quench zone channel height investigated in the Single Module Rig. Smaller quench zone channel heights appeared to be beneficial in reducing emissions. Measurements were also obtained in the Single Module Rig configuration on the sensitivity of emissions to the critical combustor parameters of fuel/air ratio, pressure drop, and residence

  16. Efficient and eco-friendly extraction of corn germ oil using aqueous ethanol solution assisted by steam explosion.

    PubMed

    Ni, Shuangshuang; Zhao, Wei; Zhang, Yiqi; Gasmalla, Mohammed A A; Yang, Ruijin

    2016-04-01

    An improved aqueous extraction method has been established for extraction of oil from corn germs. This method primarily included steam explosion pretreatment and aqueous ethanol extraction. Process variables such as steam pressure, resident time, particle size and ethanol concentration were investigated. The highest yield of 93.74 % was obtained when ground steam-exploded corn germ (1.3 MPa, 30 s, 30-35 μm particle size) was treated with 30 % (v/v) aqueous ethanol for 2 h, at 60 °C and pH 9.0. The residual oil content in water and sediment phase decreased dramatically to 4 % and 3 %, respectively. The enhancement mechanism of the process induced by steam explosion was analyzed by confocal laser scanning microscope (CLSM). The quality of extracted crude oil was also investigated. The results showed that the quality of extracted oil was superior to commercial oils. PMID:27413241

  17. Pattern of explosive reaction between uranium hexafluoride and hydrocarbon oils. Revision 1

    SciTech Connect

    Rapp, K.E.

    1986-03-21

    Examination of uranium hexafluoride release incidents occurring over the past three decades of ORGDP experience has identified only four which apparently involved an explosion of a container resulting from reaction between uranium hexafluoride and an impurity. These four incidents exhibit a certain degree of commonality. Each has involved: (1) condensed phase uranium hexafluoride, (2) a moderately elevated temperature, (3) a sufficient quantity of uranium hexafluoride for a significant partial pressure to be maintained independently above that which can be consumed by chemical reaction, and (4) an organic liquid (probably hydrocarbon oil) accidentally present in the container as a contaminant. The purpose of this investigative search was to establish some conditional pattern for these four incidents to which their violent consequences could be attributed. Fortunately, the number of such incidents is relatively small, which emphasizes even more pointedly the unfortunate fact that documentation ranges from thorough to very limited. Documented sources of information are given in the bibliography. Copies of those which are not readily available are contained in six appendices. 8 refs.

  18. Development of isothermal rigs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kaminskas, R. A.; Malone, D. J.

    1973-01-01

    The results of the Resonant Infrasonic Gauging System (RIGS) development program are reported. The RIGS is a gauging system that is capable of measuring propellant quantity under zero-G as well as under accelerated (one-G) conditions. With the exception of liquid hydrogen, it can be used to gauge virtually any propellant in liquid form including cryogenics. The gauge consists of a sensor unit which is attached to the propellant tank and electronic control unit which may be positioned separately from the sensor. The control unit receives the signals from the sensor as well as the ullage gas pressure and propellant temperature measurements, and computes the propellant quantity remaining in the tank. During the course of this program two prototype RIGS sensors were designed and constructed. The sensors were tested first in the laboratory using water as the simulated propellant and, later, using LN2 in a 100-gallon tank. The system tests proved that the gauge operates virtually as predicted by theory and yielded an accuracy better than 1%.

  19. Feasibility of observing small differences in friction mean effective pressure between different lubricating oil formations using small, single-cylinder motored engine rig

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Rohr, William F.; Nguyen, Ke; Bunting, Bruce G.; Qu, Jun

    2015-09-01

    Here, the feasibility of using a motored single-cylinder 517 cc diesel engine to observe small frictional differences between oil formulations is investigated. Friction mean effective pressure (FMEP) is measured and compared for an SAE 10W-30 and an SAE 5W-20 oil in three stages of production: base oil, commercial oil without a friction and wear reducing additive, and fully formulated commercial oil. In addition, a commercial SAE 5W-30 engine oil is investigated. Friction mean effective pressure is plotted versus oil dynamic viscosity to compare the lubricant FMEP at a given viscosity. Linear regressions and average friction mean effective pressure are usedmore » as a secondary means of comparing FMEP for the various oil formulations. Differences between the oils are observed with the base oil having higher friction at a given viscosity but a lower average FMEP due to the temperature distribution of the test and lower viscosities reached by the base oil. The commercial oil is shown to have both a higher FMEP at a given viscosity and a higher average FMEP than the commercial oil without a friction and wear reducing additive. The increase in friction for the oil without a friction and wear reduction additive indicates that the operational regime of the engine may be out of the bounds of the optimal regime for the additive or that the additive is more optimized for wear reduction. Results show that it is feasible to observe small differences in FMEP between lubricating oil formulations using a small, single-cylinder motored engine.« less

  20. Feasibility of observing small differences in friction mean effective pressure between different lubricating oil formations using small, single-cylinder motored engine rig

    SciTech Connect

    Rohr, William F.; Nguyen, Ke; Bunting, Bruce G.; Qu, Jun

    2015-09-01

    Here, the feasibility of using a motored single-cylinder 517 cc diesel engine to observe small frictional differences between oil formulations is investigated. Friction mean effective pressure (FMEP) is measured and compared for an SAE 10W-30 and an SAE 5W-20 oil in three stages of production: base oil, commercial oil without a friction and wear reducing additive, and fully formulated commercial oil. In addition, a commercial SAE 5W-30 engine oil is investigated. Friction mean effective pressure is plotted versus oil dynamic viscosity to compare the lubricant FMEP at a given viscosity. Linear regressions and average friction mean effective pressure are used as a secondary means of comparing FMEP for the various oil formulations. Differences between the oils are observed with the base oil having higher friction at a given viscosity but a lower average FMEP due to the temperature distribution of the test and lower viscosities reached by the base oil. The commercial oil is shown to have both a higher FMEP at a given viscosity and a higher average FMEP than the commercial oil without a friction and wear reducing additive. The increase in friction for the oil without a friction and wear reduction additive indicates that the operational regime of the engine may be out of the bounds of the optimal regime for the additive or that the additive is more optimized for wear reduction. Results show that it is feasible to observe small differences in FMEP between lubricating oil formulations using a small, single-cylinder motored engine.

  1. Rock Springs Site 12 hydraulic/explosive true in situ oil shale fracturing experiment

    SciTech Connect

    Parrish, R.L.; Boade, R.R.; Stevens, A.L.; Long, A. Jr.; Turner, T.F.

    1980-06-01

    The experiment plan involved the creation and characterization of three horizontal hydraulic fractures, followed by the insertion and simultaneous detonation of slurry explosive in the two lower fractures. Core analyses, wellbore logging, and airflow and /sup 85/Kr tracer tests were used for site characterization and assessment of the hydraulic and explosive fracturing. Tiltmeters, wellhead pressure and flow gages, and in-formation pressure, flow and crack-opening sensors were used to monitor hydrofracture creation and explosive insertion. Explosive detonation diagnostic data were taken with stress and time-of-arrival gages and surface and in-formation accelerometers. The post-fracturing assessments indicated that: (1) hydrofracture creation and explosive insertion and detonation were accomplished essentially as planned; (2) induced fractures were randomly distributed through the shale with no extensively fractured regions or dislocation of shale; and (3) enhancement of permeability was limited to enlargement of the explosive-filled fractures.

  2. DOE's Portal to Deepwater Horizon Oil Spill Data

    DOE Data Explorer

    On April 20, 2010, the Deepwater Horizon platform in the Gulf of Mexico exploded. The explosion and fire killed and injured workers on the oil rig, and caused major releases of oil and gas into the Gulf for several months. The Department of Energy, in keeping with the Obama Administrations ongoing commitment to transparency, provided online access to data and information related to the response to the BP oil spill. Included are schematics, pressure tests, diagnostic results, video clips, and other data. There are also links to the Restore the Gulf website, to the trajectory forecasts from NOAA, and oil spill information from the Environmental Protection Agency.

  3. Fisheries impacts of underwater explosives used to salvage oil and gas platforms in the Gulf of Mexico

    SciTech Connect

    Gitschlag, G.R.

    1997-05-01

    There are more than 4,000 oil and gas structures present in the U.S. Gulf of Mexico. Approximately 100 structure removals occur each year and 66% of these are removed with explosives. From 1993-1995 an intensive study was conducted on the fish kill resulting from the explosive removal of 6 platforms off the Louisiana coast in water depths from 14-28 m (45-92 ft). After explosives were detonated, all floating fish and a sample of the dead fish which sank to the sea floor were collected. Estimated fish mortality ranged from approximately 2,000-5,000 with a mean of 3,000 and standard deviation of 1,045. The four most abundant species impacted by underwater explosives included spadefish, blue runner, red snapper, and sheepshead. One of these species, red snapper, is important both commercially and recreationally. Estimated mortality of red snapper ranged from 0-1200 with an average per platform of 500. A large standard deviation of 414 indicated high variability in red snapper mortality between platforms. Further study is planned to increase sample size, reduce variance, and address deeper water platform removals where red snapper abundance is expected to increase.

  4. Observations of the smoke plume from the December 2005 explosions and prolonged oil fire at Buncefield oil depot, southern UK and associated atmospheric changes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mather, T. A.; Harrison, R. G.; Tsanev, V. I.; Pyle, D. M.; Karumudi, M. L.; Bennett, A. J.; Sawyer, G. M.; Highwood, E. J.

    2006-12-01

    The explosions and subsequent fire at the Buncefield oil depot in December 2005 afforded a rare opportunity to study the atmospheric consequences of a major oil fire at close range, using ground-based remote sensing instruments. The fire burned 5.6 × 107kg of refined fuel (unleaded petrol, aviation fuel and diesel) over 3 days and produced a plume of smoke that extended over much of southern England. Near-source measurements suggest that plume particles were ~50% black carbon (BC) with refractive index 1.73-0.42i, effective radius (Reff) 0.45-0.85μm and mass loading ~2000μg.m-3. About 50km downwind, particles were ~60-75% BC with refractive index between 1.80-0.52i and 1.89-0.69i, Reff ~1.0μm and mass loadings 320-780μg.m-3. Number distributions were almost all monomodal with peak at r<0.1μm. Near-source UV spectroscopy revealed elevated trace gas concentrations of SO2 (70ppb), NO2 (140ppb), HONO (20ppb), HCHO (160ppb) and CS2 (40ppb). We estimate that the Buncefield event emitted totals of ~6.3, 7.2 and 5.5Mg of SO2, HCHO and CS2 respectively; along with ~5500Mg of BC. Our measurements are consistent with others of the Buncefield plume, and with studies of the 1991 Kuwaiti oil-fire plumes; differences from the latter reflecting in part a contrast in source composition (refined fuels vs. crude oils) leading to important potential differences in atmospheric impacts. Measurements made as the plume passed overhead ~50km downwind showed a reduced solar flux reaching the surface but little effect on the atmospheric potential gradient. The wind speed data from the day of the explosion hints at a possible explosion signature.

  5. Pressure rig for repetitive casting

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vasquez, Peter (Inventor); Hutto, William R. (Inventor); Philips, Albert R. (Inventor)

    1989-01-01

    The invention is a pressure rig for repetitive casting of metal. The pressure rig performs like a piston for feeding molten metal into a mold. Pressure is applied to an expandable rubber diaphragm which expands like a balloon to force the metal into the mold. A ceramic cavity which holds molten metal is lined with blanket-type insulating material, necessitating only a relining for subsequent use and eliminating the lengthy cavity preparation inherent in previous rigs. In addition, the expandable rubber diaphragm is protected by the insulating material thereby decreasing its vulnerability to heat damage. As a result of the improved design the life expectancy of the pressure rig contemplated by the present invention is more than doubled. Moreover, the improved heat protection has allowed the casting of brass and other alloys with higher melting temperatures than possible in the conventional pressure rigs.

  6. Rig Diagnostic Tools

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Soileau, Kerry M.; Baicy, John W.

    2008-01-01

    Rig Diagnostic Tools is a suite of applications designed to allow an operator to monitor the status and health of complex networked systems using a unique interface between Java applications and UNIX scripts. The suite consists of Java applications, C scripts, Vx- Works applications, UNIX utilities, C programs, and configuration files. The UNIX scripts retrieve data from the system and write them to a certain set of files. The Java side monitors these files and presents the data in user-friendly formats for operators to use in making troubleshooting decisions. This design allows for rapid prototyping and expansion of higher-level displays without affecting the basic data-gathering applications. The suite is designed to be extensible, with the ability to add new system components in building block fashion without affecting existing system applications. This allows for monitoring of complex systems for which unplanned shutdown time comes at a prohibitive cost.

  7. Establish a Data Transmission Platform of the Rig Based on the Distributed Network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bao, Zefu; Li, Tao

    In order to control in real-time ,closed-loop feedback the information, saving the money and labor,we distribute a platform of network data. It through the establishment of the platform in the oil drilling to achieve the easiest route of each device of the rig that conveying timely. The design proposed the platform to transfer networking data by PA which allows the rig control for optimal use. Against the idea,achieving first through on-site cabling and the establishment of data transmission module in the rig monitoring system. The results of standard field application show that the platform solve the problem of rig control.

  8. Hoisting and Rigging (Formerly Hoisting and Rigging Manual)

    SciTech Connect

    1995-06-01

    This standard is intended as a reference document to be used by supervisors, line managers, safety personnel, equipment operators, and any other personnel responsible for safety of hoisting and rigging operations at DOE sites. It quotes or paraphrases the US OSHA and ANSI requirements. It also encompasses, under one cover,hoisting and rigging requirements, codes, standards, and regulations, eliminating the need to maintain extensive (and often incomplete) libraries of hoisting and rigging standards throughout DOE. The standard occasionally goes beyond the minimum general industry standards established by OSHA and ANSI, and also delineates the more stringent requirements necessary to accomplish the complex, diversified, critical, and often hazardous hoisting and rigging work found with the DOE complex.

  9. Bacteria Provide Cleanup of Oil Spills, Wastewater

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2010-01-01

    Through Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) contracts with Marshall Space Flight Center, Micro-Bac International Inc., of Round Rock, Texas, developed a phototrophic cell for water purification in space. Inside the cell: millions of photosynthetic bacteria. Micro-Bac proceeded to commercialize the bacterial formulation it developed for the SBIR project. The formulation is now used for the remediation of wastewater systems and waste from livestock farms and food manufacturers. Strains of the SBIR-derived bacteria also feature in microbial solutions that treat environmentally damaging oil spills, such as that resulting from the catastrophic 2010 Deepwater Horizon oil rig explosion in the Gulf of Mexico.

  10. Plastic surgery and burns disasters. What impact do major civilian disasters have upon medicine? Bradford City Football Club stadium fire, 1985, King's Cross Underground fire, 1987, Piper Alpha offshore oil rig disaster, 1988.

    PubMed

    Vaghela, Kalpesh R

    2009-06-01

    Major disasters involving multiple casualties are neither new nor infrequent. Such events have important implications for medicine and can provide crucial lessons for the future. However, while the medical aspects of war have received considerable attention, rather less is known about civilian disasters. To redress this imbalance, this article reviews three major British disasters of the 1980s where serious burns injury was a significant feature of the human casualty: the Bradford City Football Club fire of 1985, the King's Cross Underground fire of 1987 and the Piper Alpha oil rig disaster of 1988. Four related themes are used to examine in detail the ways in which these events impacted on medicine: plastics and reconstructive surgery, clinical psychology, disaster management and long-term structural change. Drawing on articles in specialist burns and psychiatric journals, together with the personal communications and recollections of surgeons and psychiatrists involved, it is revealed that while ground-breaking advances are a relative rarity in medicine, numerous small but significant lessons did emerge from these events, although often in subtle and highly specialised fields of medicine.

  11. High temperature seal test rig

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Addy, Harold E., Jr.

    1994-01-01

    The High Temperature Seals Test Rig Program at NASA's Lewis Research Center is a joint effort involving three separate federal government agencies. Testing has been underway at Lewis in this test rig since April, 1993. The rig was designed to run tests at temperatures to 800 F at pressures to 200 psia or at temperatures to 1300 to 1500 F at pressures to 65 psia. It was designed to run at speeds of up to 50,000 rpm which, for a 5.1 inch diameter disk, is a surface speed of about 1100 ft./sec. The rig was designed to allow easy replacement of the disks as well as the seals such that different disk materials and coatings may be tested.

  12. Advanced Subsonic Combustion Rig

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, Chi-Ming

    1998-01-01

    Researchers from the NASA Lewis Research Center have obtained the first combustion/emissions data under extreme future engine operating conditions. In Lewis' new world-class 60-atm combustor research facility--the Advanced Subsonic Combustion Rig (ASCR)--a flametube was used to conduct combustion experiments in environments as extreme as 900 psia and 3400 F. The greatest challenge for combustion researchers is the uncertainty of the effects of pressure on the formation of nitrogen oxides (NOx). Consequently, U.S. engine manufacturers are using these data to guide their future combustor designs. The flametube's metal housing has an inside diameter of 12 in. and a length of 10.5 in. The flametube can be used with a variety of different flow paths. Each flow path is lined with a high-temperature, castable refractory material (alumina) to minimize heat loss. Upstream of the flametube is the injector section, which has an inside diameter of 13 in. and a length of 0.5-in. It was designed to provide for quick changeovers. This flametube is being used to provide all U.S. engine manufacturers early assessments of advanced combustion concepts at full power conditions prior to engine production. To date, seven concepts from engine manufacturers have been evaluated and improved. This collaborated development can potentially give U.S. engine manufacturers the competitive advantage of being first in the market with advanced low-emission technologies.

  13. Shaft drilling rig

    SciTech Connect

    Wada, M.; Ajiro, S.

    1986-06-17

    A shaft drilling rig is described which consists of: a supporting structure for a drill string having a plurality of components for drilling a shaft into the earth by imparting a turning and thrust for drilling at least to a drill bit on the drill string, the drilling being down to a predetermined depth, and then a further drill string component having at least at the bottom end thereof an inner wall extending substantially in the axial direction of the component being newly added to the drill string for further drilling; means for receiving at least the bottom end of the further drill string component and for supporting it, and having a member with the outer circumference engageable with the inner wall of the further component, the receiving means supporting the further drill string component in a free standing position; means for supporting the receiving means and having a guiding device for guiding the receiving means between a position where the further drill string component is to be added to the drill string and a parking position spaced laterally of the drill string from the first mentioned position; and means for holding a lower part of the drill string which has been separated from the upper part of the drill string preparatory to adding the further drill string component so that the axis of the lower part is substantially aligned with the drilling direction.

  14. Steam explosion of oil palm residues for the production of durable pellets

    SciTech Connect

    Lam, Pak Sui; Lam, Pak Yiu; Sokhansanj, Shahab; Lim, C. Jim; Bi, Xiaotao T.; Stephen, James D.; Pribowo, Amadeus; Mabee, Warren E.

    2015-01-03

    Here we investigated the effect of steam explosion pretreatment on the physical and mechanical properties of the pellets made from empty fruit bunch (EFB) and palm kernel shell (PKS) and we compared to that of softwood Douglas fir (DF). We found that the high heating value of the empty fruit bunch was increased by 21% after steam explosion pretreatment. The pellet density of EFB and Douglas fir pellets did not change while the pellet density of PKS increased from 1.13 to 1.21 g/cm3 after steam explosion. That may be attributed to the rapid volatilization of high mass fraction extractives during high pressure steaming and lead to the shrinkage of micropores of the PKS fibers. The maximum brealdng strength of steam exploded EFB and PKS were increased by 63% and 45%, respectively. The required compaction energy for the steam exploded EFB pellet is 44.50 J/g while that of the untreated EFB pellet is 30.15 J/g. Similar to Douglas fir, the required extrusion energy for the steam exploded EFB pellet was about 6 times than that of the untreated EFB pellet. The increased extrusion energy is mainly contributed by the increase in mono-saccharides by auto-hydrolysis during steam explosion pretreatment.

  15. Steam explosion of oil palm residues for the production of durable pellets

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Lam, Pak Sui; Lam, Pak Yiu; Sokhansanj, Shahab; Lim, C. Jim; Bi, Xiaotao T.; Stephen, James D.; Pribowo, Amadeus; Mabee, Warren E.

    2015-01-03

    Here we investigated the effect of steam explosion pretreatment on the physical and mechanical properties of the pellets made from empty fruit bunch (EFB) and palm kernel shell (PKS) and we compared to that of softwood Douglas fir (DF). We found that the high heating value of the empty fruit bunch was increased by 21% after steam explosion pretreatment. The pellet density of EFB and Douglas fir pellets did not change while the pellet density of PKS increased from 1.13 to 1.21 g/cm3 after steam explosion. That may be attributed to the rapid volatilization of high mass fraction extractives duringmore » high pressure steaming and lead to the shrinkage of micropores of the PKS fibers. The maximum brealdng strength of steam exploded EFB and PKS were increased by 63% and 45%, respectively. The required compaction energy for the steam exploded EFB pellet is 44.50 J/g while that of the untreated EFB pellet is 30.15 J/g. Similar to Douglas fir, the required extrusion energy for the steam exploded EFB pellet was about 6 times than that of the untreated EFB pellet. The increased extrusion energy is mainly contributed by the increase in mono-saccharides by auto-hydrolysis during steam explosion pretreatment.« less

  16. New service rig operates with two-man crew

    SciTech Connect

    1995-07-01

    Two Bakersfield, California, entrepreneurs have developed a partially automated and remote-controlled workover rig that can complete tubing and rod jobs on relatively shallow, singles-rig type wells with a total crew of two people on the ground. The system, called Autorig, was developed by Louis Witte, president of Witte Enterprise, and James Hansen, Paragon Engineering, Bakersfield. Initial field tests in E and B Natural Resources Management Corp.`s Blackwells Corner oil field culminated two years of development work. The new system is described in this paper using photographs from a testwell demonstration.

  17. The adverse health effects of oil spills: a review of the literature and a framework for medically evaluating exposed individuals.

    PubMed

    Levy, Barry S; Nassetta, William J

    2011-01-01

    In April 2010, an explosion on an oil rig in the Gulf of Mexico killed 11 workers, injured 17 workers, and spilled an estimated 185 million gallons of crude oil into the Gulf. Adverse effects on the health of cleanup workers, fishermen, and others as well as on the ecosystem are being studied. This paper reviews published studies of the adverse health effects due to previous oil spills. Acute effects have included: respiratory, eye, and skin symptoms; headache; nausea; dizziness; and tiredness or fatigue. Chronic effects have included: psychological disorders, respiratory disorders, genotoxic effects, and endocrine abnormalities. We also present a systematic approach to evaluating individuals exposed to oil spills.

  18. Pressure rig for repetitive casting

    SciTech Connect

    Vasquez, P.; Hutto, W.R.; Philips, A.R.

    1989-09-12

    This patent describes a pressure rig for repetitive casting. It comprises: a hollow ceramic inner shell: an outer steel housing disposed around the outside of the ceramic inner shell. The housing having a pressure end at the lower end thereof and a mold end at the upper end thereof; a rubber diaphragm attached to the pressure end of the outer steel housing; a slideable transit plate located above the rubber diaphragm; a layer of blanket insulating material lining the remaining portion of the hollow ceramic inner shell, thereby defining an inner cavity wherein a casing material is located; a pressure means located at the lower end of the pressure rig for applying pressure to the lower end of the rubber diaphragm; whereby the casting material in the inner cavity is forced out of the pressure rig into a mold when pressure is applied to the lower end of the rubber diaphragm.

  19. Pressure Rig for Repetitive Casting

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vasquez, P.; Hutto, W. R.

    1986-01-01

    Equipment life increased by improved insulation. New design cuts time of preparation for casting from several days to about 1 hour. Savings due to elimination of lengthy heating and drying operations associated with preparation of ceramic mold. Quality of casting improved because moisture in cavity eliminated by use of insulating material, and more uniform pressure applied to process. Commercial blanket insulator protects components from heat, increasing life of pressure rig and enabling repeated use. Improved heat protection allows casting of brass and other alloys with higher melting temperatures in pressure rig.

  20. Use of CORRTEX to measure explosive performance and stem behavior in oil shale fragmentation tests

    SciTech Connect

    Schmitt, G.G.; Dick, R.D.

    1985-01-01

    Continuous Reflectometry for Radius vs Time Experiments (CORRTEX) was used to monitor several conditions of blasts such as the detonation velocity of the explosive column, the functioning of different types of initiators and initiation schemes, and the behavior of the stemming column confining the explosive. The CORRTEX data were also used to deduce the occurrence of dead-pressing of ANFO slurry. Measurements of propagation speeds of shock waves in the stem column with various cables allowed some conclusions concerning bridging, stem failure, and stress levels in the stem. CORRTEX used time-domain reflectometry to interrogate the two-way transit time (TWTT) of a coaxial cable. As the shock front advanced the cable was shorted or destroyed and the resultant TWTT was shorter. Interpretation of these changes as a function of time allowed the position of the shock front to be inferred also as a function of time. This paper describes in some detail the CORRTEX technique and how it was applied to in-situ measurements. Detonation velocities are provided for pelletized ANFO and TNT as well as various ANFO slurries. Observations are made on stem performance as well as shock propagation velocities in several stem materials. Cable characteristics and methods of cable selection are discussed as are techniques for instrumentation of complex blasts to provide initiation time and burn velocity. 3 references, 7 figures.

  1. Fuzzy fault tree assessment based on improved AHP for fire and explosion accidents for steel oil storage tanks.

    PubMed

    Shi, Lei; Shuai, Jian; Xu, Kui

    2014-08-15

    Fire and explosion accidents of steel oil storage tanks (FEASOST) occur occasionally during the petroleum and chemical industry production and storage processes and often have devastating impact on lives, the environment and property. To contribute towards the development of a quantitative approach for assessing the occurrence probability of FEASOST, a fault tree of FEASOST is constructed that identifies various potential causes. Traditional fault tree analysis (FTA) can achieve quantitative evaluation if the failure data of all of the basic events (BEs) are available, which is almost impossible due to the lack of detailed data, as well as other uncertainties. This paper makes an attempt to perform FTA of FEASOST by a hybrid application between an expert elicitation based improved analysis hierarchy process (AHP) and fuzzy set theory, and the occurrence possibility of FEASOST is estimated for an oil depot in China. A comparison between statistical data and calculated data using fuzzy fault tree analysis (FFTA) based on traditional and improved AHP is also made. Sensitivity and importance analysis has been performed to identify the most crucial BEs leading to FEASOST that will provide insights into how managers should focus effective mitigation.

  2. Explosive fragmentation of oil shale: Results from Colony and Anvil Points Mines, Colorado

    SciTech Connect

    Dick, R.D.; Fourney, W.L.; Young, C. III

    1992-12-31

    From 1978 through 1983, numerous oil shale fragmentation tests were conducted at the Colony and Anvil Points Mines, Colorado. These experiments were part of an investigation to determine factors required for the adequate fragmentation of oil shale and to evaluate the feasibility of using the vertical modified in situ retort (VMIS) method for recovery of kerogen from oil shale. The objective of this research was to support the design of a large volume (10{sup 4} m{sup 3}) rubble bed for in situ processing. In addition, this rubble bed was to be formed in a large single-blast event which included decked charges, time delays, and multiple boreholes. Results are described.

  3. PNNL Hoisting and Rigging Manual

    SciTech Connect

    Haynie, Todd O.; Fullmer, Michael W.

    2008-12-29

    This manual describes the safe and cost effective operation, inspection, maintenance, and repair requirements for cranes, hoists, fork trucks, slings, rigging hardware, and hoisting equipment. It is intended to be a user's guide to requirements, codes, laws, regulations, standards, and practices that apply to Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) and its subcontractors.

  4. Jackup rigs in the Chesapeake Bay

    SciTech Connect

    Janaitis, T.W.

    1981-09-01

    The criteria used for selecting a 91 x 91 m offshore site in Chesapeake Bay for constructing a jackup rig which, when completed, will be towed to the Gulf of Mexico, are described, and the successful construction of the rig at the site selected, is discussed. Plans call for 4 more rigs to be constructed at this site. (LCL)

  5. Hoisting and rigging manual: Uncontrolled document

    SciTech Connect

    1991-05-01

    This document is a draft copy of a Hoisting and Rigging Manual for the Department of Energy. The manual is divided into ten chapters. The chapter titles follow: terminology and definitions; operator training and qualification; overhead and gantry cranes; mobile cranes; forklift trucks; hoists; hooks; wire rope, slings, and rigging accessories; construction hoisting and rigging equipment requirements; references.

  6. Impact of milling, enzyme addition, and steam explosion on the solid waste biomethanation of an olive oil production plant.

    PubMed

    Donoso-Bravo, Andres; Ortega-Martinez, E; Ruiz-Filippi, G

    2016-02-01

    Anaerobic digestion is a consolidated bioprocess which can be further enhanced by incorporating an upstream pretreatment unit. The olive oil production produces a large amount of solid waste which needs to be properly managed and disposed. Three different pretreatment techniques were evaluated in regard to their impact on the anaerobic biodegradability: manual milling of olive pomace (OP), enzyme maceration, direct enzyme addition, and thermal hydrolysis of two-phase olive mill waste. The Gompertz equation was used to obtain parameters for comparison purposes. A substrate/inoculum ratio 0.5 was found to be the best to be used in anaerobic batch test with olive pomace as substrate. Mechanical pretreatment of OP by milling increases the methane production rate while keeping the maximum methane yield. The enzymatic pretreatment showed different results depending on the chosen pretreatment strategies. After the enzymatic maceration pretreatment, a methane production of 274 ml CH4 g VS added (-1) was achieved, which represents an improvement of 32 and 71 % compared to the blank and control, respectively. The direct enzyme addition pretreatment showed no improvement in both the rate and the maximum methane production. Steam explosion showed no improvement on the anaerobic degradability of two-phase olive mill waste; however, thermal hydrolysis with no rapid depressurization enhanced notoriously both the maximum rate (50 %) and methane yield (70 %).

  7. Multilateral installation from a floating rig

    SciTech Connect

    1998-07-01

    The Troll Olje gas province is approximately 100 km northwest of Bergen, Norway, in the Norwegian sector of the North Sea at a water depth of approximately 315 to 340 m. Troll Olje is part of the Troll gas field, where Norsk Hydro is responsible for developing two areas with thin oil rims. Before spudding the multilateral well described in this paper, 17 wells had been drilled and completed in the Troll Olje oil province. The multilateral-well concept was introduced in the gas province primarily to increase the drainage area for each well. When producing from two separate laterals, a lower drawdown pressure exists throughout the horizontal section. Therefore, gas coning is less likely to occur, and higher production rates can be sustained for a longer period of time. In addition, cost savings are substantial because of reduced well-construction time for each horizontal reservoir-drainage section and because of the reduced number of completion strings, subsea wellheads, and pipelines required for total field development. The full-length paper details design, development, testing, and installation of the first successful multilateral well installed from a floating rig offshore Norway. The paper gives a synopsis.

  8. Offshore safety. Hearing before the Subcommittee on Panama Canal/Outer Continental Shelf, House of Representatives, Ninety-Eighth Congress, First Session on the safety of life at sea and safety on oil and gas rigs on the Outer Continental Shelf, June 16, 1983

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1983-01-01

    Representatives of diving contractors, shippers, drilling consultants, safety inspectors, and government agencies testified at a hearing on offshore safety in connection with oil and gas rigs on the Outer Continental Shelf. The committee reviewed existing safety programs and practices, focusing on drilling operations in new areas where the environment is increasingly inhospitable. Among the issues aired at the hearing were the problem of insurance coverage and the level of compensation to workers in stressful and hazardous settings. Oil companies described their procedures for preparing equipment and employees for hurricanes and other natural and manmade problems that they will experience. Various consultants offered suggestions for improving the level of safety preparedness and engineering. Additional material submitted for the record follows the testimony of 21 witnesses.

  9. Modular designs highlight several new rigs

    SciTech Connect

    Rappold, K.

    1995-12-04

    A new platform drilling rig for offshore Trinidad and two new land rigs for the former Soviet Union feature the latest in drilling and construction technology and modular components for quick rig up/rig down. The Sundowner 801 was mock-up tested in Galveston, TX, a few weeks ago in preparation for its load-out to the Dolphin field offshore Trinidad. Two other new units, UNOC 500 DE series land rigs, were recently constructed and mock-up tested in Ekaterinburg, Russia, for upcoming exploratory work for RAO Gazprom, a large natural gas producer in Russia. These rigs are unique in that they were constructed from new components made both in the US and in Russia. The paper describes all three units.

  10. 29 CFR 1918.54 - Rigging gear.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 7 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Rigging gear. 1918.54 Section 1918.54 Labor Regulations...) SAFETY AND HEALTH REGULATIONS FOR LONGSHORING Vessel's Cargo Handling Gear § 1918.54 Rigging gear. (a... other alternate device shall be provided to allow trimming of the gear and to prevent employees...

  11. 29 CFR 1918.54 - Rigging gear.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 7 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Rigging gear. 1918.54 Section 1918.54 Labor Regulations...) SAFETY AND HEALTH REGULATIONS FOR LONGSHORING Vessel's Cargo Handling Gear § 1918.54 Rigging gear. (a... other alternate device shall be provided to allow trimming of the gear and to prevent employees...

  12. 29 CFR 1918.54 - Rigging gear.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 7 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Rigging gear. 1918.54 Section 1918.54 Labor Regulations...) SAFETY AND HEALTH REGULATIONS FOR LONGSHORING Vessel's Cargo Handling Gear § 1918.54 Rigging gear. (a... other alternate device shall be provided to allow trimming of the gear and to prevent employees...

  13. 29 CFR 1918.54 - Rigging gear.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 7 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Rigging gear. 1918.54 Section 1918.54 Labor Regulations...) SAFETY AND HEALTH REGULATIONS FOR LONGSHORING Vessel's Cargo Handling Gear § 1918.54 Rigging gear. (a... other alternate device shall be provided to allow trimming of the gear and to prevent employees...

  14. 29 CFR 1918.54 - Rigging gear.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 7 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Rigging gear. 1918.54 Section 1918.54 Labor Regulations...) SAFETY AND HEALTH REGULATIONS FOR LONGSHORING Vessel's Cargo Handling Gear § 1918.54 Rigging gear. (a... other alternate device shall be provided to allow trimming of the gear and to prevent employees...

  15. Unique rig fulfills unusual mobility requirements

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1989-10-01

    This article describes a unique rig designed by SEDCO FOREX operating in the Paris basin of France. Built to drill clusters of wells from a single pad, Rig 47 significantly reduces the time needed to move from well to well on a pad and from location to location.

  16. RIG-I Works Double Duty

    PubMed Central

    Chan, Ying Kai; Gack, Michaela U.

    2016-01-01

    The pathogen sensor RIG-I recognizes viral RNA and signals to induce an antiviral response. In this issue of Cell Host & Microbe, Weber et al. (2015), along with recent work by Sato et al. (2015), demonstrate that RIG-I directly inhibits viral replication independent of antiviral signaling. PMID:25766287

  17. Cut drydocking costs for offshore rigs

    SciTech Connect

    Albaugh, E.K.

    1985-07-01

    Heavy-lift transport vessels (HLVs) can provide an economic alternative to the conventional shipyard approach of drydocking mobile offshore rigs for regulatory body inspections and/or repairs. Contractors now can drydock rigs in areas of the world where conventional drydocks are unavailable. This article discusses pros and cons of conventional shipyard drydocking and the HLV approach.

  18. Antenna bias rigging for performance objective

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Levy, R.

    1977-01-01

    An optimum bias rigging for a paraboloidal antenna can be used to minimize the expected average mean-square half-pathlength surface deviations. Statistics of deep space planetary missions are employed to develop weighting factors for antenna elevation angles during these missions. A procedure is shown to compute the optimum rigging angle from these weights.

  19. 49 CFR 230.111 - Spring rigging.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Spring rigging. 230.111 Section 230.111... Tenders Trucks, Frames and Equalizing System § 230.111 Spring rigging. (a) Arrangement of springs and equalizers. Springs and equalizers shall be arranged to ensure the proper distribution of weight to...

  20. Rig for testing the relative wear resistance of materials

    SciTech Connect

    Berdikov, V.F.; Diulin, A.I.; Efimchuk, V.P.; Pushkarev, O.I.; Finogenov, G.P.

    1987-01-01

    The authors have developed a simple and compact rig for studying the relative wear resistance of materials subjected to mechanical abrasion and friction. The rig has an electronic control system. It was used to test the relative wear resistance of a wide range of superhard and brittle materials under mechanical abrasion against a counterbody. The counterbody was made of modified iron and the test medium was a diamond suspension in oil. The results showed that specimen wear exhibits a linear relationship with abrasion time (in the range of 0.5-20 min.) at unit pressure from 0.01 to 0.10 MPa. That a standard wear pattern exists within a wide range of parameters indicates that abrasive conditions are highly stable and makes it possible to control conditions. The rig was used to establish the relative wear resistance of several abrasives, minerals, and refractory compounds. The very large difference (15.2 times) between the most and least-resistant materials (tungsten carbide and fluoride) illustrates the sensitivity of the methodology.

  1. Column test-rig facility for column scanning studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zain, Rasif M.; Roslan, Y.

    2010-03-01

    Distillation columns are considered as one of the most critical components in oil and gas plants. The plant performance depends on the ability of these columns to function as intended. Defective columns may lead to serious consequences to the plant operation, and hence the quality of product. In order to perform any inspection techniques to distillation column for NDT practitioner, the best facility was designed when the adjustable defeats of distillation column test rig has been developed. The paper discussed the development and the function of this facility.

  2. Column test-rig facility for column scanning studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zain, Rasif M.; Roslan, Y.

    2009-12-01

    Distillation columns are considered as one of the most critical components in oil and gas plants. The plant performance depends on the ability of these columns to function as intended. Defective columns may lead to serious consequences to the plant operation, and hence the quality of product. In order to perform any inspection techniques to distillation column for NDT practitioner, the best facility was designed when the adjustable defeats of distillation column test rig has been developed. The paper discussed the development and the function of this facility.

  3. Experimental investigation of the physical properties of medium and heavy oils, their vaporization and use in explosion engines. Part I

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Heinlein, Fritz

    1926-01-01

    While little has been accomplished in obtaining an abundant supply of light oils from coal and heavy oils, progress has been made on engine design to make use of the heavier oils. Progress has been made in two different directions which are outlined in this paper: the group of engines with medium and high-pressure carburetion in the cylinder; and the group of engines with low-pressure carburetion of the heavy oils before reaching the cylinder.

  4. Explosives tester

    DOEpatents

    Haas, Jeffrey S.; Howard, Douglas E.; Eckels, Joel D.; Nunes, Peter J.

    2011-01-11

    An explosives tester that can be used anywhere as a screening tool by non-technical personnel to determine whether a surface contains explosives. First and second explosives detecting reagent holders and dispensers are provided. A heater is provided for receiving the first and second explosives detecting reagent holders and dispensers.

  5. Quartz lamp thermocycling rig for combustion liners

    SciTech Connect

    Pfeifer, G.D.

    1986-01-01

    Improved combustor liner durability is a major design objective for advanced combustors. Combinations of low cycle fatigue, creep, oxidation and crack propagation are the damage mechanisms that reduce durability. Each of these mechanisms is a consequence of cyclic thermal loading. Closely controlled rig tests can simulate these damage mechanisms. Although rig testing requires duplicating the actual thermal strain range on a full size liner, it is economically more attractive than full-engine testing. A suitable rig for controlled cyclic thermal loading of large size cylindrical test specimens is developed using a 672 KW electric quartz lamp radiant heat source. The design objectives, operational features and development shake-down test results are presented in this paper. The development discusses deals specifically with combustor liner test specimens. The rig is also suitable for high temperature testing of large advanced material specimens including composite ceramics.

  6. Jack-up rig for marine drilling

    SciTech Connect

    Mueller, S. R.

    1981-05-26

    This invention relates to a mobile drilling platform of the jack -up type equipped with a special system which allows the said drilling platform to work as a drilling derrick and alternatively as a hoisting crane rig for marine service.

  7. RIG-I in RNA virus recognition

    PubMed Central

    Kell, Alison M.; Gale, Michael

    2015-01-01

    Antiviral immunity is initiated upon host recognition of viral products via non-self molecular patterns known as pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs). Such recognition initiates signaling cascades that induce intracellular innate immune defenses and an inflammatory response that facilitates development of the acquired immune response. The retinoic acid-inducible gene I (RIG-I) and the RIG-I-like receptor (RLR) protein family are key cytoplasmic pathogen recognition receptors that are implicated in the recognition of viruses across genera and virus families, including functioning as major sensors of RNA viruses, and promoting recognition of some DNA viruses. RIG-I, the charter member of the RLR family, is activated upon binding to PAMP RNA. Activated RIG-I signals by interacting with the adapter protein MAVS leading to a signaling cascade that activates the transcription factors IRF3 and NF-κB. These actions induce the expression of antiviral gene products and the production of type I and III interferons that lead to an antiviral state in the infected cell and surrounding tissue. RIG-I signaling is essential for the control of infection by many RNA viruses. Recently, RIG-I crosstalk with other pathogen recognition receptors and components of the inflammasome has been described. In this review, we discuss the current knowledge regarding the role of RIG-I in recognition of a variety of virus families and its role in programming the adaptive immune response through cross-talk with parallel arms of the innate immune system, including how RIG-I can be leveraged for antiviral therapy. PMID:25749629

  8. Modular workover rig designed for quick moves between platforms

    SciTech Connect

    1995-08-07

    A new workover rig has a modular design for quick rig up and rig down and easy transport between offshore platforms using field supply boats and platform cranes. Pool Energy Services Co.`s new electric-powered platform workover rig recently left Houston bound for Australia`s Bass Strait, where it began offshore operations for Esso Australia Ltd. in July. This SCR (silicon controlled rectifier) rig is rated at 1,000 hp. A sister rig began operations offshore Malaysia for Esso Production Malaysia Inc. in late 1994. The offshore platforms in Bass Strait are within close proximity of each other. The rig must be able to make quick moves from one location to another. The 427-ton rig has a modular configuration, allowing it to be rigged down, transported, and reassembled in this field in about 5--7 days, depending on the weather and supply boat schedule. The paper describes the design and operation of the workover rig.

  9. Testing the Generalization Efficiency of Oil Slick Classification Algorithm Using Multiple SAR Data for Deepwater Horizon Oil Spill

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ozkan, C.; Osmanoglu, B.; Sunar, F.; Staples, G.; Kalkan, K.; Balık Sanlı, F.

    2012-07-01

    Marine oil spills due to releases of crude oil from tankers, offshore platforms, drilling rigs and wells, etc. are seriously affecting the fragile marine and coastal ecosystem and cause political and environmental concern. A catastrophic explosion and subsequent fire in the Deepwater Horizon oil platform caused the platform to burn and sink, and oil leaked continuously between April 20th and July 15th of 2010, releasing about 780,000 m3 of crude oil into the Gulf of Mexico. Today, space-borne SAR sensors are extensively used for the detection of oil spills in the marine environment, as they are independent from sun light, not affected by cloudiness, and more cost-effective than air patrolling due to covering large areas. In this study, generalization extent of an object based classification algorithm was tested for oil spill detection using multiple SAR imagery data. Among many geometrical, physical and textural features, some more distinctive ones were selected to distinguish oil and look alike objects from each others. The tested classifier was constructed from a Multilayer Perception Artificial Neural Network trained by ABC, LM and BP optimization algorithms. The training data to train the classifier were constituted from SAR data consisting of oil spill originated from Lebanon in 2007. The classifier was then applied to the Deepwater Horizon oil spill data in the Gulf of Mexico on RADARSAT-2 and ALOS PALSAR images to demonstrate the generalization efficiency of oil slick classification algorithm.

  10. {open_quote}Nintendo Rig{close_quote} lets two men do work of three on traditional servicing rig

    SciTech Connect

    Rintoul, B.

    1996-01-01

    New well servicing rig saves costs and increases safety by using a robot derrickman. The rigs is called the Nintendo Rig, taking the name from the joystick that controls the robot on the racking board 25 feet above the ground. An automated tong/slip package permanently mounted on the front of the rig handles pipe and rods on the ground.

  11. Cranes, hoists, and rigging. A safety training manual

    SciTech Connect

    Stinnett, L.

    1986-07-01

    The handling equipment discussed in this manual is the type that lifts, lowers, and locates (positions) heavy material - cranes and hoists. The crane/hoist family of equipment may be as small as a single pulley/rope system handling several pounds, or as large as a marine crane system that recently (1985) hoisted a 5005-metric ton oil drilling rig from a barge and placed it on the seabed of England's North Atlantic offshore oil field. An equivalent ''pick'' would be a 6-ft-high solid pine board, 360 ft long and 160 ft wide (the dimensions of a football field). The capacity of the cranes and hoists at Sandia National Laboratories in Albuquerque (SNLA) fits somewhere within the first 2% of the marine pick or lift described above. SNLA has several mobile cranes and more than 500 other types of cranes and hoists located in more than 100 buildings. The Department of Energy (DOE) and SNL have safety policies and directives that require the operators of heavy equipment to be trained and authorized. The Cranes, Hoists, and Rigging Safety Training Program, sponsored by the SNLA Safety Department, is an effort to fulfill those safety policy requirements. This manual will be used as a safety training aid and will be issued as a reference document for supervisors, operators, inspectors, and service personnel who use cranes or hoists during their regular duties.

  12. Stress-life relation of the rolling-contact fatigue spin rig

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Butler, Robert H; Carter, Thomas L

    1957-01-01

    The rolling-contact fatigue spin rig was used to test groups of SAE 52100 9.16-inch-diameter balls lubricated with a mineral oil at 600,000-, 675,000-, and 750,000-psi maximum Hertz stress. Cylinders of AISI M-1 vacuum and commercial melts and MV-1 (AISI M-50) were used as race specimens. Stress-life exponents produced agree closely with values accepted in industry. The type of failure obtained in the spin rig was similar to the subsurface fatigue spells found in bearings.

  13. Accidental explosions

    SciTech Connect

    Medard, L.A.

    1989-01-01

    This book presents a survey of accidental explosions, their nature and their causes. It covers the physical and chemical conditions governing accidental explosions, whether in the gas phase, or in the liquid or solid state. The theoretical background of the kinetics and thermochemistry of explosions is outlined, followed by a detailed study of the explosion and detonation properties of both gas and condensed explosives. The author surveys a wide variety of substances in daily use in industry which can give rise to accidental explosions. Their properties and hazards are spelt out in detail, the discussion drawing on a long history of sometimes catastrophic accidents. Includes case studies, tables of physical and chemical data.

  14. User's guide and history of ANFO (ammonium nitrate/fuel oil) as a nuclear weapons effect simulation explosive. Technical report

    SciTech Connect

    Petes, J.; Miller, R.; McMullan, F.

    1983-03-31

    The history of the development and use of ANFO as a nuclear-weapons blast, cratering, and ground-shock simulation source, is traced from 1966 to 1976 when the first full-scale target-testing operation was conducted on DICE THROW with a 600-ton ANFO charge. The results of the development tests, of DICE THROW, and of subsequent tests with ANFO through PRE-DIRECT COURSE in 1982, are given and analyzed in terms of explosive-charge performance. The results indicate that ANFO is a safe, economical, and reliable explosive source for effects simulation purposes. The details presented serve as a guide for utilization of ANFO for future similar and more-demanding simulation purposes.

  15. Modeling nuclear explosion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Redd, Jeremy; Panin, Alexander

    2012-10-01

    As a result of the Nuclear Test Ban Treaty, no nuclear explosion tests have been performed by the US since 1992. This appreciably limits valuable experimental data needed for improvement of existing weapons and development of new ones, as well as for use of nuclear devices in non-military applications (such as making underground oil reservoirs or compressed air energy storages). This in turn increases the value of numerical modeling of nuclear explosions and of their effects on the environment. We develop numerical codes simulating fission chain reactions in a supercritical U and Pu core and the dynamics of the subsequent expansion of generated hot plasma in order to better understand the impact of such explosions on their surroundings. The results of our simulations (of both above ground and underground explosions) of various energy yields are presented.

  16. Operations Recognition at Drill-Rigs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Esmael, B.; Fruhwirth, R.; Arnaout, A.; Thonhauser, G.

    2012-04-01

    Drilling an oil & gas well is always guided by the demand to prevent crises affecting technique, investment and security. To overcome uncertainties caused by lack of knowledge about geological formations during drilling, real-time sensor measurements are used to support the prediction and thus the prevention of such crises. The proposed method supports the extraction of knowledge from sensor data to improve productivity and performance, prevent from mistakes and resolve problems faster. Many mechanical parameters, such as hookload and block position are continuously measured during drilling oil wells. Considering the amount and complexity of the drilling data, it is a real big challenge for a human expert to discover and understand the patterns within the data. In this work machine learning techniques are applied to discover and understand the patterns occurring in such drilling data. We propose a hierarchical approach for drilling operations recognition to break the total drilling time down into a set of pre-defined operation states. This process supports the drilling engineers not only to measure the performance of the drilling process but also to identify patterns in the data that presumably indicate emerging crises. The proposed approach consists of two phases. In the first phase, five principal states describing very basic operational states at the rig will be recognized by use of the sensor data. In the second phase, those principal states will be combined to a set of drilling operational states. The principal operation states can be considered as an intermediate layer between sensor data and high level drilling operations. The five physical states used in the intermediate layer are related to drill string rotation & movement, mud circulation, the actual drilling itself and a state where the drill string is suspended from the hook. All those states are binary (yes/no) except drill string movement which has three values (up/down/static). For recognition of

  17. Powdery Emulsion Explosive: A New Excellent Industrial Explosive

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ni, Ouqi; Zhang, Kaiming; Yu, Zhengquan; Tang, Shujuan

    2012-07-01

    Powdery emulsion explosive (PEE), a new powdery industrial explosive with perfect properties, has been made using an emulsification-spray drying technique. PEE is composed of 91-92.5 wt% ammonium nitrate (AN), 4.5-6 wt% organic fuels, and 1.5-1.8 wt% water. Due to its microstructure as a water-in-oil (W/O) emulsion and low water content, it has excellent detonation performance, outstanding water resistance, reliable safety, and good application compared with other industrial explosives, such as ammonite, emulsion explosives, and ANFO.

  18. Evaluation of a peat moss plus soybean oil (PMSO) technology for reducing explosive residue transport to groundwater at military training ranges under field conditions.

    PubMed

    Fuller, Mark E; Schaefer, Charles E; Steffan, Robert J

    2009-11-01

    An evaluation of peat moss plus crude soybean oil (PMSO) for mitigation of explosive contamination of soil at military facilities was performed using large soil lysimeters under field conditions. Actual range soils were used, and two PMSO preparations with different ratios of peat moss:soybean oil (1:1, PO1; 1:2, PO2) were compared to a control lysimeter that received no PMSO. PMSO was applied as a 10 cm layer on top of the soil, and Composition B detonation residues from a 55-mm mortar round were applied at the surface of each of the lysimeters. Dissolution of the residues occurred during natural precipitation events over the course of 18 months. Hexahydro-1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5-triazine (RDX) emanating from the Composition B residues were significantly reduced by the PO2 PMSO material compared to the untreated control. Soil pore water RDX concentrations and RDX fluxes were reduced over 100-fold compared to the control plots at comparable depths. Residual RDX in the soil profile was also significantly lower in the PMSO treated plots. PO1 PMSO resulted in lower reductions in RDX transport than the PO2 PMSO. The transport of the RDX breakdown product hexahydro-1-nitroso-3,5-dinitro-1,3,5-triazine (MNX) was also greatly reduced by the PMSO materials. Results were in general agreement with a previously developed fate and transport model describing PMSO effectiveness. These results demonstrate the potential effectiveness of the inexpensive and environmentally benign PMSO technology for reducing the subsurface loading of explosives at training ranges and other military facilities.

  19. Thermally stable, plastic-bonded explosives

    DOEpatents

    Benziger, Theodore M.

    1979-01-01

    By use of an appropriate thermoplastic rubber as the binder, the thermal stability and thermal stress characteristics of plastic-bonded explosives may be greatly improved. In particular, an HMX-based explosive composition using an oil-extended styrene-ethylenebutylene-styrene block copolymer as the binder exhibits high explosive energy and thermal stability and good handling safety and physical properties.

  20. Small Hot Jet Acoustic Rig Validation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brown, Cliff; Bridges, James

    2006-01-01

    The Small Hot Jet Acoustic Rig (SHJAR), located in the Aeroacoustic Propulsion Laboratory (AAPL) at the NASA Glenn Research Center in Cleveland, Ohio, was commissioned in 2001 to test jet noise reduction concepts at low technology readiness levels (TRL 1-3) and develop advanced measurement techniques. The first series of tests on the SHJAR were designed to prove its capabilities and establish the quality of the jet noise data produced. Towards this goal, a methodology was employed dividing all noise sources into three categories: background noise, jet noise, and rig noise. Background noise was directly measured. Jet noise and rig noise were separated by using the distance and velocity scaling properties of jet noise. Effectively, any noise source that did not follow these rules of jet noise was labeled as rig noise. This method led to the identification of a high frequency noise source related to the Reynolds number. Experiments using boundary layer treatment and hot wire probes documented this noise source and its removal, allowing clean testing of low Reynolds number jets. Other tests performed characterized the amplitude and frequency of the valve noise, confirmed the location of the acoustic far field, and documented the background noise levels under several conditions. Finally, a full set of baseline data was acquired. This paper contains the methodology and test results used to verify the quality of the SHJAR rig.

  1. Insensitive explosive

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, Kien-yin; Storm, C.B.

    1991-12-31

    This invention relates to the field of chemistry and, more particularly, to explosives. This invention is the result of a contract with the Department of Energy (Contract No. W-7405-ENG-36). It is desirable to use explosives in weapons and other applications which are less sensitive than the common explosives RDX, TNT, and HMX, since there have been catastrophic explosions of munitions which use these compounds. In preliminary characterization and sensitivity testing, it has been found that 3-amino-5-nitro-1,2,4-triazole (ANTA) is a promising insensitive high explosive. This report details the safety, production, and physical properties of ANTA.

  2. Shipping lanes or offshore rigs

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-09-01

    This information was from the Los Angeles Steamship Association (LASSA) luncheon meeting. The problems of limiting access and availability of the Santa Barbara/Santa Catalina channels to commercial vessel traffic and other related uses. LASSA speaks for about 85% of the maritime industry in Southern California. The Association is actively seeking a compromise with the oil companies in keeping the Vessel Traffic Separation Scheme (VTSS) in the channels; however, the Western Oil and Gas Association (WOGA) is seeking to abolish VTSS as currently established in the channels and move the sea lanes outside the Channel Islands, and open up the entire Santa Barbara Channel to unlimited drilling sites. LASSA claims that moving the VTSS sea lanes outside of the Channel Islands would add 18 to 22 miles to the average trip from San Francisco to Los Angeles, with fuel cost etc. would make for a big loss to the merchant ship operators. LASSA has offered to support the concept of opening up the Buffer Zone that separates the Sea Lanes themselves to exploratory drilling. This two mile wide stretch of water is off limits to vessels and it would open new areas to the oil companies heretofore unaccessible to them. (DP)

  3. Rig scarcity prompts innovative drilling solution

    SciTech Connect

    Lattimore, G.M.; Gott, T.; Feagin, J.

    1997-11-01

    Unable to locate a shallow-water offshore rig for its program in Indonesia, British Gas International developed an innovative pad/ballasted barge configuration to utilize a land rig, which was available. Many non-typical problems were encountered and solved to establish the drilling location 600 m (2,000 ft) from the shore in Bintuni Bay in Irian Jaya, eastern Indonesia. The final hybrid configuration has sparked interesting debate as to whether the operation should be designated as onshore or offshore. The paper discusses the project overview, concept development, construction, and operations.

  4. Magnetic Suspension for Dynamic Spin Rig

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, Dexter

    1998-01-01

    NASA Lewis Research Center's Dynamic Spin Rig, located in Building 5, Test Cell CW-18, is used to test turbomachinery blades and components by rotating them in a vacuum chamber. A team from Lewis' Machine Dynamics Branch successfully integrated a magnetic bearing and control system into the Dynamic Spin Rig. The magnetic bearing worked very well both to support and shake the shaft. It was demonstrated that the magnetic bearing can transmit more vibrational energy into the shaft and excite some blade modes to larger amplitudes than the existing electromagnetic shakers can.

  5. Satellites View Growing Gulf Oil Spill (Update)

    NASA Video Gallery

    On April 30, 2010, the Deepwater Horizon oil rig exploded in the Gulf of Mexico, triggering the largest oil spill in U.S. history. The MODIS instrument, on board NASA's Terra and Aqua satellites, c...

  6. Experimental investigation of the physical properties of medium and heavy oils, their vaporization and use in explosion engines. Part IV

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Heinlein, Fritz

    1926-01-01

    This report presents a theoretical treatment of the vaporization process of medium and heavy oils. The results of this investigation, which were mostly obtained from the lighter components of the heavy fuels, require a 10- or 16-fold vaporization in comparison with gasoline. We must attain a still finer degree of atomization, in order to include the heavier components.

  7. Status of the Combined Cycle Engine Rig

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Saunders, Dave; Slater, John; Dippold, Vance

    2009-01-01

    Status for the past year is provided of the turbine-based Combined-Cycle Engine (CCE) Rig for the hypersonic project. As part of the first stage propulsion of a two-stage-to-orbit vehicle concept, this engine rig is designed with a common inlet that supplies flow to a turbine engine and a dual-mode ramjet / scramjet engine in an over/under configuration. At Mach 4 the inlet has variable geometry to switch the airflow from the turbine to the ramjet / scramjet engine. This process is known as inlet mode-transition. In addition to investigating inlet aspects of mode transition, the rig will allow testing of turbine and scramjet systems later in the test series. Fully closing the splitter cowl "cocoons" the turbine engine and increases airflow to the scramjet duct. The CCE Rig will be a testbed to investigate integrated propulsion system and controls technology objectives. Four phases of testing are planned to 1) characterize the dual inlet database, 2) collect inlet dynamics using system identification techniques, 3) implement an inlet control to demonstrate mode-transition scenarios and 4) demonstrate integrated inlet/turbine engine operation through mode-transition. Status of the test planning and preparation activities is summarized with background on the inlet design and small-scale testing, analytical CFD predictions and some details of the large-scale hardware. The final stages of fabrication are underway.

  8. Mixed Stream Test Rig (MISTER) Startup Report

    SciTech Connect

    Charles Park

    2011-02-01

    This report describes the work accomplished to date to design, procure, assemble, authorize, and startup the Mixed Stream Test Rig (MISTER) at the Idaho National Laboratory (INL). It describes the reasons for establishing this capability, physical configuration of the test equipment, operations methodology, initial success, and plans for completing the initial 1,000 hour test.

  9. ADVANCED HOT SECTION MATERIALS AND COATINGS TEST RIG

    SciTech Connect

    Scott Reome; Dan Davies

    2004-04-30

    The Hyperbaric Advanced Hot Section Materials & Coating Test Rig program provides design and implementation of a laboratory rig capable of simulating the hot gas path conditions of coal-gas fired industrial gas turbine engines. The principal activity during this reporting period were the evaluation of syngas combustor concepts, the evaluation of test section concepts and the selection of the preferred rig configuration.

  10. Chemical dispersants used in the Gulf of Mexico oil crisis are cytotoxic and genotoxic to sperm whale skin cells.

    PubMed

    Wise, Catherine F; Wise, James T F; Wise, Sandra S; Thompson, W Douglas; Wise, John Pierce; Wise, John Pierce

    2014-07-01

    The 2010 Deepwater Horizon oil rig explosion in the Gulf of Mexico drew attention to the need for toxicological studies of chemical dispersants. We are still learning the effects these spills had on wildlife. Little is known about the toxicity of these substances in marine mammals. The objective of this study was to determine the toxicity of the two dispersants (Corexit 9500 and 9527). Corexit 9500 and 9527 were both cytotoxic to sperm whale skin fibroblasts. Corexit 9527 was less cytotoxic than 9500. S9 mediated metabolism did not alter cytotoxicity of either dispersant. Both dispersants were genotoxic to sperm whale skin fibroblasts; S9 mediated metabolism increased Corexit 9527 genotoxicity.

  11. Chemical dispersants used in the Gulf of Mexico oil crisis are cytotoxic and genotoxic to sperm whale skin cells.

    PubMed

    Wise, Catherine F; Wise, James T F; Wise, Sandra S; Thompson, W Douglas; Wise, John Pierce; Wise, John Pierce

    2014-07-01

    The 2010 Deepwater Horizon oil rig explosion in the Gulf of Mexico drew attention to the need for toxicological studies of chemical dispersants. We are still learning the effects these spills had on wildlife. Little is known about the toxicity of these substances in marine mammals. The objective of this study was to determine the toxicity of the two dispersants (Corexit 9500 and 9527). Corexit 9500 and 9527 were both cytotoxic to sperm whale skin fibroblasts. Corexit 9527 was less cytotoxic than 9500. S9 mediated metabolism did not alter cytotoxicity of either dispersant. Both dispersants were genotoxic to sperm whale skin fibroblasts; S9 mediated metabolism increased Corexit 9527 genotoxicity. PMID:24813266

  12. Design and development of a high-speed bearing test rig

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cockburn, J. A.

    1995-01-01

    The development of a high-speed test rig, to be used for compiling an experimental data base of bearing signatures for bearings with known faults, is described. This bearing test rig can be adapted to test oil-film bearings as well as rolling element bearings. This is achieved by mounting the test bearing in one of two special test housings, either of which can be mounted onto a common test shaft which can be driven up to 30,000 rpm. The test bearing housing for rolling element bearings can accommodate proximity displacement transducers, accelerometers, thermocouples, and acoustic emission sensors. The test bearing housing for the fluid-film bearings can accommodate the same instrumentation as well as Bourdon tube-type transducers for measuring oil film pressures around the bearing circumference.

  13. Explosively produced fracture of oil shale. Progress report, July-September 1981. [Field experiments; computer models; retort stability

    SciTech Connect

    1982-04-01

    The Los Alamos National Laboratory is conducting rock fragmentation research in oil shale to develop the blasting technologies and designs required to create a rubble bed for a modified in situ retort. This report outlines our first field experiments at the Anvil Points Mine in Colorado. These experiments are part of a research program, sponsored by the Laboratory through the Department of Energy and by a Consortium of oil companies. Also included are some typical numerical calculations made in support of proposed field experiments. Two papers detail our progress in computer modeling and theory. The first presents a method for eliminating hourglassing in two-dimensional finite-difference calculations of rock fracture without altering the physical results. The second discusses the significant effect of buoyancy on tracer gas flow through the retort. A paper on retort stability details a computer application of the Schmidt graphical method for calculating fine-scale temperature gradients in a retort wall. The final paper, which describes our approach to field experiments, presents the instrumentation and diagnostic techniques used in rock fragmentation experiments at Anvil Points Mine.

  14. Oscillating-flow regenerator test rig

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wood, J. G.; Gedeon, D. R.

    1994-01-01

    This report summarizes work performed in setting up and performing tests on a regenerator test rig. An earlier status report presented test results, together with heat transfer correlations, for four regenerator samples (two woven screen samples and two felt metal samples). Lessons learned from this testing led to improvements to the experimental setup, mainly instrumentation as well as to the test procedure. Given funding and time constraints for this project it was decided to complete as much testing as possible while the rig was set up and operational, and to forego final data reduction and analysis until later. Additional testing was performed on several of the previously tested samples as well an on five newly fabricated samples. The following report is a summary of the work performed at OU, with many of the final test results included in raw data form.

  15. Jet Exit Rig Six Component Force Balance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Castner, Raymond; Wolter, John; Woike, Mark; Booth, Dennis

    2012-01-01

    A new six axis air balance was delivered to the NASA Glenn Research Center. This air balance has an axial force capability of 800 pounds, primary airflow of 10 pounds per second, and a secondary airflow of 3 pounds per second. Its primary use was for the NASA Glenn Jet Exit Rig, a wind tunnel model used to test both low-speed, and high-speed nozzle concepts in a wind tunnel. This report outlines the installation of the balance in the Jet Exit Rig, and the results from an ASME calibration nozzle with an exit area of 8 square-inches. The results demonstrated the stability of the force balance for axial measurements and the repeatability of measurements better than 0.20 percent.

  16. Glenn Extreme Environments Rig (GEER) Independent Review

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jankovsky, Robert S.; Smiles, Michael D.; George, Mark A.; Ton, Mimi C.; Le, Son K.

    2015-01-01

    The Chief of the Space Science Project Office at Glenn Research Center (GRC) requested support from the NASA Engineering and Safety Center (NESC) to satisfy a request from the Science Mission Directorate (SMD) Associate Administrator and the Planetary Science Division Chief to obtain an independent review of the Glenn Extreme Environments Rig (GEER) and the operational controls in place for mitigating any hazard associated with its operation. This document contains the outcome of the NESC assessment.

  17. Vapor Explosions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berthoud, Georges

    A vapor explosion results from the rapid and intense heat transfer that may follow contact between a hot liquid and a cold, more volatile one. Because it can happen during severe-accident sequences of a nuclear power plan, that is, when a large part of the core is molten, vapor explosions have been widely studied. The different sequences of a vapor explosion are presented, including premixing, triggering, propagation, and expansion. Typical experimental results are also analyzed to understand the involved physics. Then the different physics involved in the sequences are addressed, as well as the present experimental program.

  18. Computers make rig life extension an option

    SciTech Connect

    1996-10-01

    The worldwide semisubmersible drilling rig fleet is approaching retirement. But replacement is not an attractive option even though dayrates are reaching record highs. In 1991, Schlumberger Sedco Forex managers decided that an alternative might exist if regulators and insurers could be convinced to extend rig life expectancy through restoration. Sedco Forex chose their No. 704 semisubmersible, an 18-year North Sea veteran, to test their process. The first step was to determine what required restoration, meaning fatigue life analysis of each weld on the huge vessel. If inspected, the task would be unacceptably time-consuming and of questionable accuracy. Instead a suite of computer programs modeled the stress seen by each weld, statistically estimated the sea states seen by the rig throughout its North Sea service and calibrated a beam-element model on which to run their computer simulations. The elastic stiffness of the structure and detailed stress analysis of each weld was performed with ANSYS, a commercially available finite-element analysis program. The use of computer codes to evaluate service life extension is described.

  19. An Orientation to Explosive Safety.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harris, Betty W.

    1987-01-01

    Provides an overview of various types of explosives. Classifies and describes explosives as initiating or primary explosives, low explosives, and high (secondary explosives). Discusses detonating devices, domestic explosive systems, the sensitivity of explosives, explosive reactions, and emergency responses. (TW)

  20. A New Foil Air Bearing Test Rig for Use to 700 C and 70,000 rpm

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    DellaCorte, Chris

    1997-01-01

    A new test rig has been developed for evaluating foil air bearings at high temperatures and speeds. These bearings are self acting hydrodynamic air bearings which have been successfully applied to a variety of turbomachinery operating up to 650 C. This unique test rig is capable of measuring bearing torque during start-up, shut-down and high speed operation. Load capacity and general performance characteristics, such as durability, can be measured at temperatures to 700 C and speeds to 70,000 rpm. This paper describes the new test rig and demonstrates its capabilities through the preliminary characterization of several bearings. The bearing performance data from this facility can be used to develop advanced turbomachinery incorporating high temperature oil-free air bearing technology.

  1. Innovative technology for a cost-effective land rig

    SciTech Connect

    Mehra, S.; Bryce, T.

    1996-05-01

    Sedco Forex has recently completed a new land drilling rig, currently deployed in Gabon, that integrates well construction activities with multiskilling to create cost savings across the board in drilling operations. Historically, operators have produced a comprehensive tender package specifying strictly the type and size of individual rig components and the number of personnel required to drill. In this case, the drilling contractor provides a fit-for-purpose rig, consistent with field location, well profile, operator`s priorities, and local constraints.

  2. Field Demonstraton of Existing Microhole Coiled Tubing Rig (MCTR) Technology

    SciTech Connect

    Kent Perry; Samih Batarseh; Sheriff Gowelly; Thomas Hayes

    2006-05-09

    The performance of an advanced Microhole Coiled Tubing Rig (MCTR) has been measured in the field during the drilling of 25 test wells in the Niobrara formation of Western Kansas and Eastern Colorado. The coiled tubing (CT) rig designed, built and operated by Advanced Drilling Technologies (ADT), was documented in its performance by GTI staff in the course of drilling wells ranging in depth from 500 to nearly 3,000 feet. Access to well sites in the Niobrara for documenting CT rig performance was provided by Rosewood Resources of Arlington, VA. The ADT CT rig was selected for field performance evaluation because it is one of the most advanced commercial CT rig designs that demonstrate a high degree of process integration and ease of set-up and operation. Employing an information collection protocol, data was collected from the ADT CT rig during 25 drilling events that encompassed a wide range of depths and drilling conditions in the Niobrara. Information collected included time-function data, selected parametric information indicating CT rig operational conditions, staffing levels, and field observations of the CT rig in each phase of operation, from rig up to rig down. The data obtained in this field evaluation indicates that the ADT CT rig exhibited excellent performance in the drilling and completion of more than 25 wells in the Niobrara under varied drilling depths and formation conditions. In the majority of the 25 project well drilling events, ROP values ranged between 300 and 620 feet per hour. For all but the lowest 2 wells, ROP values averaged approximately 400 feet per hour, representing an excellent drilling capability. Most wells of depths between 500 and 2,000 feet were drilled at a total functional rig time of less than 16 hours; for wells as deep at 2,500 to 3,000 feet, the total rig time for the CT unit is usually well under one day. About 40-55 percent of the functional rig time is divided evenly between drilling and casing/cementing. The balance of

  3. Tracking and Monitoring Oil Slicks Using remote Sensing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klemas, V. V.

    2011-12-01

    Tracking and Monitoring Oil Slicks Using Remote Sensing Victor Klemas, Ph.D. , College of Earth, Ocean and Environment, University of Delaware, Newark, DE 19716 Abstract Oil spills can harm marine life in the ocean, estuaries and wetlands. To limit the damage by a spill and facilitate cleanup efforts, emergency managers need information on spill location, size and extent, direction and speed of oil movement, wind, current, and wave information for predicting oil drift and dispersion. The main operational data requirements are fast turn-around time and frequent imaging to monitor the dynamics of the spill. Radar and multispectral remote sensors on satellites and aircraft meet most of these requirements by tracking the spilled oil at various resolutions, over wide areas and at frequent intervals. They also provide key inputs to drift prediction models and facilitate targeting of skimming and booming efforts. Satellite data are frequently supplemented by information provided by aircraft, ships and remotely controlled underwater robots. The Sea Princess tanker grounding off the coast of Wales and the explosion on the Deepwater Horizon rig in the Gulf of Mexico provide two representative, yet different, scenarios for evaluating the effectiveness of remote sensors during oil spill emergencies. Session NH17: Remote Sensing of Natural Hazards Session Chair: Ramesh P. Singh Sponsor: Natural Hazards (NH)

  4. International Oil and Gas Exploration and Development

    EIA Publications

    1993-01-01

    Presents country level data on oil reserves, oil production, active drilling rigs, seismic crews, wells drilled, oil reserve additions, and oil reserve to production ratios (R/P ratios) for about 85 countries, where available, from 1970 through 1991. World and regional summaries are given in both tabular and graphical form.

  5. Nanoengineered explosives

    DOEpatents

    Makowiecki, D.M.

    1996-04-09

    A complex modulated structure is described for reactive elements that have the capability of considerably more heat than organic explosives while generating a working fluid or gas. The explosive and method of fabricating same involves a plurality of very thin, stacked, multilayer structures, each composed of reactive components, such as aluminum, separated from a less reactive element, such as copper oxide, by a separator material, such as carbon. The separator material not only separates the reactive materials, but it reacts therewith when detonated to generate higher temperatures. The various layers of material, thickness of 10 to 10,000 angstroms, can be deposited by magnetron sputter deposition. The explosive detonates and combusts a high velocity generating a gas, such as CO, and high temperatures. 2 figs.

  6. Nanoengineered explosives

    DOEpatents

    Makowiecki, Daniel M.

    1996-01-01

    A complex modulated structure of reactive elements that have the capability of considerably more heat than organic explosives while generating a working fluid or gas. The explosive and method of fabricating same involves a plurality of very thin, stacked, multilayer structures, each composed of reactive components, such as aluminum, separated from a less reactive element, such as copper oxide, by a separator material, such as carbon. The separator material not only separates the reactive materials, but it reacts therewith when detonated to generate higher temperatures. The various layers of material, thickness of 10 to 10,000 angstroms, can be deposited by magnetron sputter deposition. The explosive detonates and combusts a high velocity generating a gas, such as CO, and high temperatures.

  7. Explosive laser

    DOEpatents

    Robinson, C.P.; Jensen, R.J.; Davis, W.C.; Sullivan, J.A.

    1975-09-01

    This patent relates to a laser system wherein reaction products from the detonation of a condensed explosive expand to form a gaseous medium with low translational temperature but high vibration population. Thermal pumping of the upper laser level and de-excitation of the lower laser level occur during the expansion, resulting in a population inversion. The expansion may be free or through a nozzle as in a gas-dynamic configuration. In one preferred embodiment, the explosive is such that its reaction products are CO$sub 2$ and other species that are beneficial or at least benign to CO$sub 2$ lasing. (auth)

  8. Niche explosion.

    PubMed

    Normark, Benjamin B; Johnson, Norman A

    2011-05-01

    The following syndrome of features occurs in several groups of phytophagous insects: (1) wingless females, (2) dispersal by larvae, (3) woody hosts, (4) extreme polyphagy, (5) high abundance, resulting in status as economic pests, (6) invasiveness, and (7) obligate parthenogenesis in some populations. If extreme polyphagy is defined as feeding on 20 or more families of hostplants, this syndrome is found convergently in several species of bagworm moths, tussock moths, root weevils, and 5 families of scale insects. We hypothesize that extreme polyphagy in these taxa results from "niche explosion", a positive feedback loop connecting large population size to broad host range. The niche explosion has a demographic component (sometimes called the "amplification effect" in studies of pathogens) as well as a population-genetic component, due mainly to the increased effectiveness of natural selection in larger populations. The frequent origins of parthenogenesis in extreme polyphages are, in our interpretation, a consequence of this increased effectiveness of natural selection and consequent reduced importance of sexuality. The niche explosion hypothesis makes detailed predictions about the comparative genomics and population genetics of extreme polyphages and related specialists. It has a number of potentially important implications, including an explanation for the lack of observed trade-offs between generalists and specialists, a re-interpretation of the ecological correlates of parthenogenesis, and a general expectation that Malthusian population explosions may be amplified by Darwinian effects.

  9. Explosive cord

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1972-01-01

    Device, jetcord, is metal-clad linear explosive of sufficient flexibility to allow forming into intricate shapes. Total effect is termed ''cutting'' with jetcord consistently ''cutting'' a target of greater thickness than can be penetrated. Applications include sheet metal working, pipe cutting and fire-fighting.

  10. Nuclear explosions

    SciTech Connect

    Broyles, A.A.

    1982-07-01

    A summary of the physics of a nuclear bomb explosion and its effects on human beings is presented at the level of a sophomore general physics course without calculus. It is designed to supplement a standard text for such a course and problems are included.

  11. Explosive complexes

    DOEpatents

    Huynh, My Hang V.

    2011-08-16

    Lead-free primary explosives of the formula [M.sup.II(A).sub.R(B.sup.X).sub.S](C.sup.Y).sub.T, where A is 1,5-diaminotetrazole, and syntheses thereof are described. Substantially stoichiometric equivalents of the reactants lead to high yields of pure compositions thereby avoiding dangerous purification steps.

  12. Explosive complexes

    DOEpatents

    Huynh, My Hang V.

    2009-09-22

    Lead-free primary explosives of the formula [M.sup.II(A).sub.R(B.sup.X).sub.S](C.sup.Y).sub.T, where A is 1,5-diaminotetrazole, and syntheses thereof are described. Substantially stoichiometric equivalents of the reactants lead to high yields of pure compositions thereby avoiding dangerous purification steps.

  13. A structure-based model of RIG-I activation

    PubMed Central

    Kolakofsky, Daniel; Kowalinski, Eva; Cusack, Stephen

    2012-01-01

    A series of high-resolution crystal structures of RIG-I and RIG-I:dsRNA cocrystals has recently been reported. Comparison of these structures provides considerable insight into how this innate immune pattern recognition receptor is activated upon detecting and binding a certain class of viral RNAs. PMID:23118418

  14. Advanced Hot Section Materials and Coatings Test Rig

    SciTech Connect

    Dan Davies

    2004-10-30

    The Hyperbaric Advanced Hot Section Materials & Coating Test Rig program provides design and implementation of a laboratory rig capable of simulating the hot gas path conditions of coal-gas fired industrial gas turbine engines. The principal activities during this reporting period were the continuation of test section detail design and developing specifications for auxiliary systems and facilities.

  15. 29 CFR 1926.753 - Hoisting and rigging.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...; (ii) Hooks with self-closing safety latches or their equivalent shall be used to prevent components...: (i) A multiple lift rigging assembly is used; (ii) A maximum of five members are hoisted per lift... limitations. (2) Components of the multiple lift rigging assembly shall be specifically designed and...

  16. A scaled roller test rig for high-speed vehicles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Allotta, Benedetto; Pugi, Luca; Malvezzi, Monica; Bartolini, Fabio; Cangioli, Francesco

    2010-12-01

    Scaled roller rigs are quite widespread among railway research centres, and several examples are described in the literature. Due to their low costs and ease of use compared with full-scale counterparts, these types of rigs are used for a wide range of studies concerning dynamical stability, comfort, mechatronic subsystem and wear. Furthermore, scaled roller rigs can be a powerful education tool for railway engineering students. In this paper, the design and the main features of the scaled rolled rig that will be installed in the Mechatronics and Dynamic Modeling Laboratory of the University of Florence located in Pistoia, Italy, are described. The main feature of the proposed rig will be the simulation of degraded adhesion conditions. This feature is very important for hardware-in-the loop testing of many safety relevant on-board subsystems like wheel slide protection systems, traction and stability controls, odometry and automatic train protection and control.

  17. Advanced Hot Section Materials and Coatings Test Rig

    SciTech Connect

    Dan Davis

    2006-09-30

    Phase I of the Hyperbaric Advanced Hot Section Materials & Coating Test Rig Program has been successfully completed. Florida Turbine Technologies has designed and planned the implementation of a laboratory rig capable of simulating the hot gas path conditions of coal gas fired industrial gas turbine engines. Potential uses of this rig include investigations into environmental attack of turbine materials and coatings exposed to syngas, erosion, and thermal-mechanical fatigue. The principle activities during Phase 1 of this project included providing several conceptual designs for the test section, evaluating various syngas-fueled rig combustor concepts, comparing the various test section concepts and then selecting a configuration for detail design. Conceptual definition and requirements of auxiliary systems and facilities were also prepared. Implementation planning also progressed, with schedules prepared and future project milestones defined. The results of these tasks continue to show rig feasibility, both technically and economically.

  18. Endothelial RIG-I activation impairs endothelial function

    SciTech Connect

    Asdonk, Tobias; Nickenig, Georg; Zimmer, Sebastian

    2012-03-30

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer RIG-I activation impairs endothelial function in vivo. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer RIG-I activation alters HCAEC biology in vitro. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer EPC function is affected by RIG-I stimulation in vitro. -- Abstract: Background: Endothelial dysfunction is a crucial part of the chronic inflammatory atherosclerotic process and is mediated by innate and acquired immune mechanisms. Recent studies suggest that pattern recognition receptors (PRR) specialized in immunorecognition of nucleic acids may play an important role in endothelial biology in a proatherogenic manner. Here, we analyzed the impact of endothelial retinoic acid inducible gene I (RIG-I) activation upon vascular endothelial biology. Methods and results: Wild type mice were injected intravenously with 32.5 {mu}g of the RIG-ligand 3pRNA (RNA with triphosphate at the 5 Prime end) or polyA control every other day for 7 days. In 3pRNA-treated mice, endothelium-depended vasodilation was significantly impaired, vascular oxidative stress significantly increased and circulating endothelial microparticle (EMP) numbers significantly elevated compared to controls. To gain further insight in RIG-I dependent endothelial biology, cultured human coronary endothelial cells (HCAEC) and endothelial progenitor cells (EPC) were stimulated in vitro with 3pRNA. Both cells types express RIG-I and react with receptor upregulation upon stimulation. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) formation is enhanced in both cell types, whereas apoptosis and proliferation is not significantly affected in HCAEC. Importantly, HCAEC release significant amounts of proinflammatory cytokines in response to RIG-I stimulation. Conclusion: This study shows that activation of the cytoplasmatic nucleic acid receptor RIG-I leads to endothelial dysfunction. RIG-I induced endothelial damage could therefore be an important pathway in atherogenesis.

  19. Numerical Simulation of the RTA Combustion Rig

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Davoudzadeh, Farhad; Buehrle, Robert; Liu, Nan-Suey; Winslow, Ralph

    2005-01-01

    The Revolutionary Turbine Accelerator (RTA)/Turbine Based Combined Cycle (TBCC) project is investigating turbine-based propulsion systems for access to space. NASA Glenn Research Center and GE Aircraft Engines (GEAE) planned to develop a ground demonstrator engine for validation testing. The demonstrator (RTA-1) is a variable cycle, turbofan ramjet designed to transition from an augmented turbofan to a ramjet that produces the thrust required to accelerate the vehicle from Sea Level Static (SLS) to Mach 4. The RTA-1 is designed to accommodate a large variation in bypass ratios from sea level static to Mach 4 conditions. Key components of this engine are new, such as a nickel alloy fan, advanced trapped vortex combustor, a Variable Area Bypass Injector (VABI), radial flameholders, and multiple fueling zones. A means to mitigate risks to the RTA development program was the use of extensive component rig tests and computational fluid dynamics (CFD) analysis.

  20. Explosive Joining

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1989-01-01

    Laurence J. Bement of Langley Research Center invented a technique to permit metal joining operations under hazardous or inaccessible conditions. The process, which provides a joint with double the strength of the parent metal, involves the use of very small quantities of ribbon explosive to create hermetically sealed joints. When the metal plates are slammed together by the explosion's force, joining is accomplished. The collision causes a skin deep melt and ejection of oxide films on the surfaces, allowing a linkup of electrons that produce superstrong, uniform joints. The technique can be used to join metals that otherwise would not join and offers advantages over mechanical fasteners and adhesives. With Langley assistance, Demex International Ltd. refined and commercialized the technology. Applications include plugging leaking tubes in feedwater heaters. Demex produces the small plugs, associated sleeves and detonators. The technology allows faster plugging, reduces downtime, cuts plugging costs and increases reliability.

  1. Explosive Microsphere Particle Standards for Trace Explosive Detection Instruments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Staymates, Matthew; Fletcher, Robert; Gillen, Greg

    2007-11-01

    Increases in Homeland Security measures have led to a substantial deployment of trace explosive detection systems within the United States and US embassies around the world. One such system is a walk-through portal which aerodynamically screens people for trace explosive particles. Another system is a benchtop instrument that can detect explosives from swipes used to collect explosive particles from surfaces of luggage and clothing. The National Institute of Standards and Technology is involved in a chemical metrology program to support the operational deployment and effective utilization of trace explosive and narcotic detection devices and is working to develop a measurement infrastructure to optimize, calibrate and standardize these instruments. Well characterized test materials are essential for validating the performance of these systems. Particle size, chemical composition, and detector response are particularly important. Here, we describe one method for producing monodisperse polymer microspheres encapsulating trace explosives, simulants, and narcotics using a sonicated co-flow Berkland nozzle. The nozzle creates uniform droplets that undergo an oil/water emulsion process and cure to form hardened microspheres containing the desired analyte. Issues such as particle size, particle uniformity and levels of analyte composition will be discussed.

  2. The Deepwater Horizon Oil Spill: Ecogenomics of the Deep-Sea Plume

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hazen, T. C.

    2012-12-01

    The explosion on April 20, 2010 at the BP-leased Deepwater Horizon drilling rig in the Gulf of Mexico off the coast of Louisiana, resulted in oil and gas rising to the surface and the oil coming ashore in many parts of the Gulf, it also resulted in the dispersment of an immense oil plume 4,000 feet below the surface of the water. Despite spanning more than 600 feet in the water column and extending more than 10 miles from the wellhead, the dispersed oil plume was gone within weeks after the wellhead was capped - degraded and diluted to undetectable levels. Furthermore, this degradation took place without significant oxygen depletion. Ecogenomics enabled discovery of new and unclassified species of oil-eating bacteria that apparently lives in the deep Gulf where oil seeps are common. Using 16s microarrays, functional gene arrays, clone libraries, lipid analysis and a variety of hydrocarbon and micronutrient analyses we were able to characterize the oil degraders. Metagenomic sequence data was obtained for the deep-water samples using the Illumina platform. In addition, single cells were sorted and sequenced for the some of the most dominant bacteria that were represented in the oil plume; namely uncultivated representatives of Colwellia and Oceanospirillum. In addition, we performed laboratory microcosm experiments using uncontaminated water collected from The Gulf at the depth of the oil plume to which we added oil and COREXIT. These samples were characterized by 454 pyrotag. The results provide information about the key players and processes involved in degradation of oil, with and without COREXIT, in different impacted environments in The Gulf of Mexico. We are also extending these studies to explore dozens of deep sediment samples that were also collected after the oil spill around the wellhead. This data suggests that a great potential for intrinsic bioremediation of oil plumes exists in the deep-sea and other environs in the Gulf of Mexico.

  3. Explosive simulants for testing explosive detection systems

    DOEpatents

    Kury, John W.; Anderson, Brian L.

    1999-09-28

    Explosives simulants that include non-explosive components are disclosed that facilitate testing of equipment designed to remotely detect explosives. The simulants are non-explosive, non-hazardous materials that can be safely handled without any significant precautions. The simulants imitate real explosives in terms of mass density, effective atomic number, x-ray transmission properties, and physical form, including moldable plastics and emulsions/gels.

  4. Comparison of High-Speed Operating Characteristics of Size 215 Cylindrical-Roller Bearings as Determined in Turbojet Engine and in Laboratory Test Rig

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Macks, E Fred; Nemeth, Zolton N

    1952-01-01

    A comparison of the operating characteristics of 75-millimeter-bore (size 215) cylindrical-roller one-piece inner-race-riding cage-type bearings was made by means of a laboratory test rig and a turbojet engine. Cooling correlation parameters were determined by means of dimensional analysis, and the generalized results for both the inner- and the outer-race bearing operating temperatures are computed for the laboratory test rig and the turbojet engine. A method is given that enables the designer to predict the inner- and outer-race turbine roller-bearing temperatures from single curves, regardless of variations in speed, load, oil flow, oil inlet temperature, oil inlet viscosity, oil-jet diameter, or any combination of these parameters.

  5. Explosion modelling for complex geometries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nehzat, Naser

    A literature review suggested that the combined effects of fuel reactivity, obstacle density, ignition strength, and confinement result in flame acceleration and subsequent pressure build-up during a vapour cloud explosion (VCE). Models for the prediction of propagating flames in hazardous areas, such as coal mines, oil platforms, storage and process chemical areas etc. fall into two classes. One class involves use of Computation Fluid Dynamics (CFD). This approach has been utilised by several researchers. The other approach relies upon a lumped parameter approach as developed by Baker (1983). The former approach is restricted by the appropriateness of sub-models and numerical stability requirements inherent in the computational solution. The latter approach raises significant questions regarding the validity of the simplification involved in representing the complexities of a propagating explosion. This study was conducted to investigate and improve the Computational Fluid Dynamic (CFD) code EXPLODE which has been developed by Green et al., (1993) for use on practical gas explosion hazard assessments. The code employs a numerical method for solving partial differential equations by using finite volume techniques. Verification exercises, involving comparison with analytical solutions for the classical shock-tube and with experimental (small-scale, medium and large-scale) results, demonstrate the accuracy of the code and the new combustion models but also identify differences between predictions and the experimental results. The project has resulted in a developed version of the code (EXPLODE2) with new combustion models for simulating gas explosions. Additional features of this program include the physical models necessary to simulate the combustion process using alternative combustion models, improvement to the numerical accuracy and robustness of the code, and special input for simulation of different gas explosions. The present code has the capability of

  6. 14. FACILITY IDENTIFICATION STENCILED ON ROOF BEAM, 'RIGGING LOFT' PORTION ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    14. FACILITY IDENTIFICATION STENCILED ON ROOF BEAM, 'RIGGING LOFT' PORTION OF BUILDING 4. - Chollas Heights Naval Radio Transmitting Facility, Public Works Shop, 6410 Zero Road, San Diego, San Diego County, CA

  7. Regenerative Fuel Cell Test Rig at Glenn Research Center

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chang, Bei-Jiann; Johnson, Donald W.; Garcia, Christopher P.; Jakupca, Ian J.; Scullin, Vincent J.; Bents, David J.

    2003-01-01

    The regenerative fuel cell development effort at Glenn Research Center (GRC) involves the integration of a dedicated fuel cell and electrolyzer into an energy storage system test rig. The test rig consists of a fuel cell stack, an electrolysis stack, cooling pumps, a water transfer pump, gas recirculation pumps, phase separators, storage tanks for oxygen (O2) and hydrogen (H2), heat exchangers, isolation valves, pressure regulators, interconnecting tubing, nitrogen purge provisions, and instrumentation for control and monitoring purposes. The regenerative fuel cell (RFC) thus formed is a completely closed system which is capable of autonomous cyclic operation. The test rig provides direct current (DC) load and DC power supply to simulate power consumption and solar power input. In addition, chillers are used as the heat sink to dissipate the waste heat from the electrochemical stack operation. Various vents and nitrogen (N2) sources are included in case inert purging is necessary to safe the RFC test rig.

  8. 1. STARBOARD PROFILE WITH DREDGE BASKET BEING RAISEDNOTE 'LAZYJACK' RIGGING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. STARBOARD PROFILE WITH DREDGE BASKET BEING RAISED-NOTE 'LAZYJACK' RIGGING TO GUIDE SAILS DOWN TO BOOM AND CLUB (REQUIRES LESS CREW) - KATHRYN-Two-sail Bateau "Skipjack", Dogwood Harbor, Chesapeake Bay, Tilghman, Talbot County, MD

  9. 19. DECK VIEW LOOKING FORWARD WITH MAST, RIGGING AND BOWSPRIT ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    19. DECK VIEW LOOKING FORWARD WITH MAST, RIGGING AND BOWSPRIT DETAILS - HATCH COVER REMOVED TO SHOW CENTERBOARD TRUNK - KATHRYN-Two-sail Bateau "Skipjack", Dogwood Harbor, Chesapeake Bay, Tilghman, Talbot County, MD

  10. 3. EASTERN VIEW OF HOISTING RIG FOR OXYGEN LANCES ON ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. EASTERN VIEW OF HOISTING RIG FOR OXYGEN LANCES ON THE FLUX STORAGE FLOOR OF THE FURNACE AISLE IN THE BOP SHOP. - U.S. Steel Duquesne Works, Basic Oxygen Steelmaking Plant, Along Monongahela River, Duquesne, Allegheny County, PA

  11. Marshall Space Flight Center High Speed Turbopump Bearing Test Rig

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gibson, Howard; Moore, Chip; Thom, Robert

    2000-01-01

    The Marshall Space Flight Center has a unique test rig that is used to test and develop rolling element bearings used in high-speed cryogenic turbopumps. The tester is unique in that it uses liquid hydrogen as the coolant for the bearings. This test rig can simulate speeds and loads experienced in the Space Shuttle Main Engine turbopumps. With internal modifications, the tester can be used for evaluating fluid film, hydrostatic, and foil bearing designs. At the present time, the test rig is configured to run two ball bearings or a ball and roller bearing, both with a hydrostatic bearing. The rig is being used to evaluate the lifetimes of hybrid bearings with silicon nitride rolling elements and steel races.

  12. 24. CARRIAGE DRIVE, CARRIAGE, HEAD RIG LOOKING WEST FROM INTERIOR ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    24. CARRIAGE DRIVE, CARRIAGE, HEAD RIG LOOKING WEST FROM INTERIOR OF MAIN BUILDING. NOTE CABLE DRIVE DRUM AND FLY WHEELS OF CARRIAGE DRIVE STEAM ENGINE IN FOREGROUND. - Hull-Oakes Lumber Company, 23837 Dawson Road, Monroe, Benton County, OR

  13. Characteristics of black carbon aerosol from a surface oil burn during the Deepwater Horizon oil spill

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perring, A. E.; Schwarz, J. P.; Spackman, J. R.; Bahreini, R.; de Gouw, J. A.; Gao, R. S.; Holloway, J. S.; Lack, D. A.; Langridge, J. M.; Peischl, J.; Middlebrook, A. M.; Ryerson, T. B.; Warneke, C.; Watts, L. A.; Fahey, D. W.

    2011-09-01

    Black carbon (BC) aerosol mass mixing ratio and microphysical properties were measured from the NOAA P-3 aircraft during active surface oil burning subsequent to the Deepwater Horizon oil rig explosion in April 2010. Approximately 4% of the combusted material was released into the atmosphere as BC. The total amount of BC introduced to the atmosphere of the Gulf of Mexico via surface burning of oil during the 9-week spill is estimated to be (1.35 ± 0.72) × 106 kg. The median mass diameter of BC particles observed in the burning plume was much larger than that of the non-plume Gulf background air and previously sampled from a variety of sources. The plume BC particles were internally mixed with very little non-refractory material, a feature typical of fresh emissions from fairly efficient fossil-fuel burning sources and atypical of BC in biomass burning plumes. BC dominated the total accumulation-mode aerosol in both mass and number. The BC mass-specific extinction cross-section was 10.2 ± 4.1 and 7.1 ± 2.8 m2/g at 405 and 532 nm respectively. These results help constrain the properties of BC emissions associated with DWH and other large spills.

  14. Location of potential interest for fracturing oil shale with nuclear explosives for in situ retorting, Piceance Creek Basin, Rio Blanco County, Colorado

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ege, J.R.

    1967-01-01

    Analysis of oil assays, structure sections, and isopach maps of the Parachute Creek Member of the Green River Formation indicates that numerous locations in the western part of the Piceance Creek basin could be selected with an oil shale section at least 500 feet thick that contains not less than 20 gallons per ton of shale oil, and has at least 800 feet of overburden.

  15. Multi-Axis Gimble Rig in AWT with Pilot

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1959-01-01

    Multi-Axis Space Test Inertia Facility (MASTIF) also known as the Gimbal Rig in Altitude Wind Tunnel (AWT) with pilot during Project Mercury. The Gimbal Rig was used to train astronauts how to pull the space capsule out of a potentially dangerous spin and regain control of the spacecraft. And boy, doesn't it look like fun?! The training and tests were run at the Altitude Wind Tunnel at Lewis Research Center, now John H. Glenn Research Center at Lewis Field.

  16. Rig Rover System views wellhead from every angle

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1983-09-01

    The Rig Rover System (RRS), a new type of submersible remotely operated vehicle (ROV), has been introduced by Deep Ocean Technology, Oakland, California. It is described as a sophisticated wellhead TV with remote controlled arms, or a remotely controlled vehicle that is deployed like a wellhead TV. The RRS is available in 2 models. Rig Rover was designed specifically to support offshore exploration drilling to 2000 ft. of water.

  17. Studies of the laser-induced fluorescence of explosives and explosive compositions.

    SciTech Connect

    Hargis, Philip Joseph, Jr.; Thorne, Lawrence R.; Phifer, Carol Celeste; Parmeter, John Ethan; Schmitt, Randal L.

    2006-10-01

    Continuing use of explosives by terrorists throughout the world has led to great interest in explosives detection technology, especially in technologies that have potential for standoff detection. This LDRD was undertaken in order to investigate the possible detection of explosive particulates at safe standoff distances in an attempt to identify vehicles that might contain large vehicle bombs (LVBs). The explosives investigated have included the common homogeneous or molecular explosives, 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene (TNT), pentaerythritol tetranitrate (PETN), cyclonite or hexogen (RDX), octogen (HMX), and the heterogeneous explosive, ammonium nitrate/fuel oil (ANFO), and its components. We have investigated standard excited/dispersed fluorescence, laser-excited prompt and delayed dispersed fluorescence using excitation wavelengths of 266 and 355 nm, the effects of polarization of the laser excitation light, and fluorescence imaging microscopy using 365- and 470-nm excitation. The four nitro-based, homogeneous explosives (TNT, PETN, RDX, and HMX) exhibit virtually no native fluorescence, but do exhibit quenching effects of varying magnitude when adsorbed on fluorescing surfaces. Ammonium nitrate and fuel oil mixtures fluoresce primarily due to the fuel oil, and, in some cases, due to the presence of hydrophobic coatings on ammonium nitrate prill or impurities in the ammonium nitrate itself. Pure ammonium nitrate shows no detectable fluorescence. These results are of scientific interest, but they provide little hope for the use of UV-excited fluorescence as a technique to perform safe standoff detection of adsorbed explosive particulates under real-world conditions with a useful degree of reliability.

  18. NASA DEVELOP Students Rev Up Response to Gulf Oil Spill

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, Jason B.; Childs, Lauren M.

    2010-01-01

    After the April 20th explosion aboard the Deepwater Horizon drilling rig in the Gulf of Mexico, the world witnessed one of the worst oil spill catastrophes in global history. In an effort to mitigate the disaster, the U.S. government moved quickly to establish a unified command for responding to the spill. Some of the command's most immediate needs were to track the movement of the surface oil slick, establish a baseline measurement of pre-oil coastal ecosystem conditions, and assess potential air quality and water hazards related to the spill. To help address these needs and assist the Federal response to the disaster, NASA deployed several of its airborne and satellite research sensors to collect an unprecedented amount of remotely-sensed data over the Gulf of Mexico region. Although some of these data were shared with the public via the media, much of the NASA data on the disaster was not well known to the Gulf Coast community. The need existed to inform the general public about these datasets and help improve understanding about how NASA's science research was contributing to oil spill response and recovery. With its extensive experience conducting community-oriented remote sensing projects and close ties to organizations around Gulf of Mexico, the NASA DEVELOP National Program stood in a unique position to meet this need.

  19. Explosive stimulation of a geothermal well: GEOFRAC

    SciTech Connect

    Mumma, D.M. )

    1982-07-01

    This paper describes the first known explosive stimulation successfully conducted in a geothermal well. Two tests were performed in a 2690-meter-(8826-ft.) deep Union Oil well at the Geysers field in Northern California in December 1981. The heat-resistant process, called GEOFRAC, uses a new unique, explosive HITEX 2, which is a nondetonable solid at room temperature. Upon melting at a temperature of 177[degrees]C (350[degrees]F), the HITEX 2 liquid becomes an explosive that can be safely heated to temperatures greater than 260[degrees]C (500[degrees]F). These unique properties of the explosive were exploited in the GEOFRAC process through the cooperative efforts of Physics International Company (PI), Rocket Research Company (RRC), Union oil Company (UO), and the university of California Los Alamos National Laboratories (LANL).

  20. Explosives remain preferred methods for platform abandonment

    SciTech Connect

    Pulsipher, A.; Daniel, W. IV; Kiesler, J.E.; Mackey, V. III

    1996-05-06

    Economics and safety concerns indicate that methods involving explosives remain the most practical and cost-effective means for abandoning oil and gas structures in the Gulf of Mexico. A decade has passed since 51 dead sea turtles, many endangered Kemp`s Ridleys, washed ashore on the Texas coast shortly after explosives helped remove several offshore platforms. Although no relationship between the explosions and the dead turtles was ever established, in response to widespread public concern, the US Minerals Management Service (MMS) and National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS) implemented regulations limiting the size and timing of explosive charges. Also, more importantly, they required that operators pay for observers to survey waters surrounding platforms scheduled for removal for 48 hr before any detonations. If observers spot sea turtles or marine mammals within the danger zone, the platform abandonment is delayed until the turtles leave or are removed. However, concern about the effects of explosives on marine life remains.

  1. Impact of exposure of crude oil and dispersant (COREXIT® EC 9500A) on denitrification and organic matter mineralization in a Louisiana salt marsh sediment.

    PubMed

    Shi, Rujie; Yu, Kewei

    2014-08-01

    In response to the 2010 oil spill from the explosion of the Deepwater Horizon oil rig in the Gulf of Mexico, this experiment aims to study the ecological impact of the crude oil and dispersant (COREXIT® EC 9500A) in a coastal salt marsh ecosystem. The marsh sediment was incubated under an anaerobic condition with exposure to the crude oil or/and dispersant. The experiments were conducted in two continuous phases of nitrate addition to study denitrification potential using acetylene blockage technique and organic matter mineralization potential indicated by CO2 production in the sediment. Results show that the oil slightly (with no statistical significance p>0.05) increased both the denitrification and organic matter mineralization activities, likely due to oil components serving as additional organic matter. In contrast, the dispersant significantly (p<0.05) inhibited denitrification, but stimulated organic matter mineralization activities in the sediment due to unknown mechanisms. As a consequence, redox potentials (Eh) were much lower in the dispersant treated systems. The ecological impacts from the dispersant exposure may come from two fronts. First, loss of organic matter from the coastal marsh will threaten the long-term stability of the ecosystem, and the decrease in denitrification activity will weaken the N removal efficiency. Secondly, more reducing conditions developed by the dispersant exposure will likely preserve the oil in the ecosystem for an extended period of time due to weaker oil biodegradation under anaerobic conditions. PMID:24582034

  2. Impact of exposure of crude oil and dispersant (COREXIT® EC 9500A) on denitrification and organic matter mineralization in a Louisiana salt marsh sediment.

    PubMed

    Shi, Rujie; Yu, Kewei

    2014-08-01

    In response to the 2010 oil spill from the explosion of the Deepwater Horizon oil rig in the Gulf of Mexico, this experiment aims to study the ecological impact of the crude oil and dispersant (COREXIT® EC 9500A) in a coastal salt marsh ecosystem. The marsh sediment was incubated under an anaerobic condition with exposure to the crude oil or/and dispersant. The experiments were conducted in two continuous phases of nitrate addition to study denitrification potential using acetylene blockage technique and organic matter mineralization potential indicated by CO2 production in the sediment. Results show that the oil slightly (with no statistical significance p>0.05) increased both the denitrification and organic matter mineralization activities, likely due to oil components serving as additional organic matter. In contrast, the dispersant significantly (p<0.05) inhibited denitrification, but stimulated organic matter mineralization activities in the sediment due to unknown mechanisms. As a consequence, redox potentials (Eh) were much lower in the dispersant treated systems. The ecological impacts from the dispersant exposure may come from two fronts. First, loss of organic matter from the coastal marsh will threaten the long-term stability of the ecosystem, and the decrease in denitrification activity will weaken the N removal efficiency. Secondly, more reducing conditions developed by the dispersant exposure will likely preserve the oil in the ecosystem for an extended period of time due to weaker oil biodegradation under anaerobic conditions.

  3. Viral pseudo-enzymes activate RIG-I via deamidation to evade cytokine production.

    PubMed

    He, Shanping; Zhao, Jun; Song, Shanshan; He, Xiaojing; Minassian, Arlet; Zhou, Yu; Zhang, Junjie; Brulois, Kevin; Wang, Yuqi; Cabo, Jackson; Zandi, Ebrahim; Liang, Chengyu; Jung, Jae U; Zhang, Xuewu; Feng, Pinghui

    2015-04-01

    RIG-I is a pattern recognition receptor that senses viral RNA and is crucial for host innate immune defense. Here, we describe a mechanism of RIG-I activation through amidotransferase-mediated deamidation. We show that viral homologs of phosphoribosylformylglycinamidine synthetase (PFAS), although lacking intrinsic enzyme activity, recruit cellular PFAS to deamidate and activate RIG-I. Accordingly, depletion and biochemical inhibition of PFAS impair RIG-I deamidation and concomitant activation. Purified PFAS and viral homolog thereof deamidate RIG-I in vitro. Ultimately, herpesvirus hijacks activated RIG-I to avoid antiviral cytokine production; loss of RIG-I or inhibition of RIG-I deamidation results in elevated cytokine production. Together, these findings demonstrate a surprising mechanism of RIG-I activation that is mediated by an enzyme. PMID:25752576

  4. Viral Pseudo Enzymes Activate RIG-I via Deamidation to Evade Cytokine Production

    PubMed Central

    He, Shanping; Zhao, Jun; Song, Shanshan; He, Xiaojing; Minassian, Arlet; Zhou, Yu; Zhang, Junjie; Brulois, Kevin; Wang, Yuqi; Cabo, Jackson; Zandi, Ebrahim; Liang, Chengyu; Jung, Jae U; Zhang, Xuewu; Feng, Pinghui

    2015-01-01

    SUMMARY RIG-I is a pattern recognition receptor that senses viral RNA and is crucial for host innate immune defense. Here we describe a mechanism of RIG-I activation through amidotransferase-mediated deamidation. We show that viral homologues of phosphoribosylformyglycinamide synthase (PFAS), although lacking intrinsic enzyme activity, recruit cellular PFAS to deamidate and activate RIG-I. Accordingly, depletion and biochemical inhibition of PFAS impair RIG-I deamidation and concomitant activation. Purified PFAS and viral homologue thereof deamidate RIG-I in vitro. Ultimately, herpesvirus hijacks activated RIG-I to avoid antiviral cytokine production; loss of RIG-I or inhibition of RIG-I deamidation results in elevated cytokine production. Together, these findings demonstrate a surprising mechanism of RIG-I activation that is mediated by an enzyme. PMID:25752576

  5. Chromospheric explosions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Doschek, G. A.; theory. (3) Resolved: Most chromospheric h; theory. (3) Resolved: Most chromospheric h

    1986-01-01

    Three issues relative to chromospheric explosions were debated. (1) Resolved: The blue-shifted components of x-ray spectral lines are signatures of chromospheric evaporation. It was concluded that the plasma rising with the corona is indeed the primary source of thermal plasma observed in the corona during flares. (2) Resolved: The excess line broading of UV and X-ray lines is accounted for by a convective velocity distribution in evaporation. It is concluded that the hypothesis that convective evaporation produces the observed X-ray line widths in flares is no more than a hypothesis. It is not supported by any self-consistent physical theory. (3) Resolved: Most chromospheric heating is driven by electron beams. Although it is possible to cast doubt on many lines of evidence for electron beams in the chromosphere, a balanced view that debaters on both sides of the question might agree to is that electron beams probably heat the low corona and upper chromosphere, but their direct impact on evaporating the chromosphere is energetically unimportant when compared to conduction. This represents a major departure from the thick-target flare models that were popular before the Workshop.

  6. Extrusion cast explosive

    DOEpatents

    Scribner, Kenneth J.

    1985-01-01

    Improved, multiphase, high performance, high energy, extrusion cast explosive compositions, comprising, a crystalline explosive material; an energetic liquid plasticizer; a urethane prepolymer, comprising a blend of polyvinyl formal, and polycaprolactone; a polyfunctional isocyanate; and a catalyst are disclosed. These new explosive compositions exhibit higher explosive content, a smooth detonation front, excellent stability over long periods of storage, and lower sensitivity to mechanical stimulants.

  7. Advanced jack up rig breaking U.S. construction drought

    SciTech Connect

    Kelly, P.

    1997-03-10

    A new heavy duty jack up, due in mid-1998, will be able to simultaneously drill and produce wells in harsher environments and deeper water than current jack ups in the worldwide fleet. Rowan Cos. Inc.`s Gorilla V is the only mobile offshore drilling unit (MODU) currently under construction in the US. Two more enhanced Gorilla design rigs are planned before the year 2000. The enhanced Gorilla class jack up represents the most technologically advanced jack up unit constructed to date. The rigs are structurally designed to meet year-round weather challenges in the harshest geographical environments. Rising demand for drilling rigs, coupled with a dwindling fleet, is generating supply shortages around the world, particularly at the high-specification end of the market. Even increasing the historical retirement age from 20 to 25 years, rig attrition continues at a level of about 18 rigs per year. Apart from the jack up market per se, however, Rowan`s strategy in designing and building enhanced Gorillas is to improve existing jack up drilling technology and offer the versatility to operate as a drilling unit, a mobile production unit, or both simultaneously in either open water locations or alongside existing platforms. The paper discusses the market for these heavy jack-ups, the use of one on the Cohasset project in Nova Scotia, the Gorilla V and enhanced Gorillas, geographical range of use, and MOPU economics.

  8. Structural insights into RNA recognition by RIG-I

    PubMed Central

    Luo, Dahai; Ding, Steve C.; Vela, Adriana; Kohlway, Andrew; Lindenbach, Brett D.; Pyle, Anna Marie

    2011-01-01

    Summary Intracellular RIG-I-like receptors (RLRs, including RIG-I, MDA-5, and LGP-2) recognize viral RNAs as pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs) and initiate an antiviral immune response. To understand the molecular basis of this process, we determined the crystal structure of RIG-I in complex with double-stranded RNA. The dsRNA is sheathed within a network of protein domains that include a conserved “helicase” domain (regions HEL1 and HEL2), a specialized insertion domain (HEL2i), and a C-terminal regulatory domain (CTD). A V-shaped pincer connects HEL2 and the CTD by gripping an α-helical shaft that extends from HEL1. In this way, the pincer coordinates functions of all the domains and couples RNA binding with ATP hydrolysis. RIG-I falls within the Dicer-RIG-I clade of super family 2 of helicases and this structure reveals complex interplay between motor domains, accessory mechanical domains and RNA that has implications for understanding the nanomechanical function this protein family and other ATPases more broadly. PMID:22000018

  9. Structural Insights into RNA Recognition by RIG-I

    SciTech Connect

    Luo, Dahai; Ding, Steve C.; Vela, Adriana; Kohlway, Andrew; Lindenbach, Brett D.; Pyle, Anna Marie

    2011-10-27

    Intracellular RIG-I-like receptors (RLRs, including RIG-I, MDA-5, and LGP2) recognize viral RNAs as pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs) and initiate an antiviral immune response. To understand the molecular basis of this process, we determined the crystal structure of RIG-I in complex with double-stranded RNA (dsRNA). The dsRNA is sheathed within a network of protein domains that include a conserved 'helicase' domain (regions HEL1 and HEL2), a specialized insertion domain (HEL2i), and a C-terminal regulatory domain (CTD). A V-shaped pincer connects HEL2 and the CTD by gripping an {alpha}-helical shaft that extends from HEL1. In this way, the pincer coordinates functions of all the domains and couples RNA binding with ATP hydrolysis. RIG-I falls within the Dicer-RIG-I clade of the superfamily 2 helicases, and this structure reveals complex interplay between motor domains, accessory mechanical domains, and RNA that has implications for understanding the nanomechanical function of this protein family and other ATPases more broadly.

  10. Optically detonated explosive device

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yang, L. C.; Menichelli, V. J. (Inventor)

    1974-01-01

    A technique and apparatus for optically detonating insensitive high explosives, is disclosed. An explosive device is formed by containing high explosive material in a house having a transparent window. A thin metallic film is provided on the interior surface of the window and maintained in contact with the high explosive. A laser pulse provided by a Q-switched laser is focussed on the window to vaporize the metallic film and thereby create a shock wave which detonates the high explosive. Explosive devices may be concurrently or sequentially detonated by employing a fiber optic bundle to transmit the laser pulse to each of the several individual explosive devices.

  11. Ammonium nitrate explosive systems

    DOEpatents

    Stinecipher, Mary M.; Coburn, Michael D.

    1981-01-01

    Novel explosives which comprise mixtures of ammonium nitrate and an ammonium salt of a nitroazole in desired ratios are disclosed. A preferred nitroazole is 3,5-dinitro-1,2,4-triazole. The explosive and physical properties of these explosives may readily be varied by the addition of other explosives and oxidizers. Certain of these mixtures have been found to act as ideal explosives.

  12. Conoco installs eight-pile rig on four-pile platform

    SciTech Connect

    Albaugh, E.K.

    1983-11-01

    Rig 122 recently became the largest standard self-contained drilling rig ever to be mounted on a four-pile, tender-style platform. The conversion sacrificed none of the rig's deep drilling capability, and enabled Conoco to utilize a self-contained platform drilling rig on a satellite platform in the same field. Two cantilever beams, extending some 42 ft beyond platform columns on two sides, support rig weight. Modifications to the rig include separation of pump and engine packages, a pipe-rack extension and a novel skidding system.

  13. Multilayered regulations of RIG-I in the anti-viral signaling pathway.

    PubMed

    Kim, Nari; Now, Hesung; Nguyen, Nhung T H; Yoo, Joo-Yeon

    2016-09-01

    RIG-I is a cytosolic receptor recognizing virus-specific RNA structures and initiates an antiviral signaling that induces the production of interferons and proinflammatory cytokines. Because inappropriate RIG-I signaling affects either viral clearance or immune toxicity, multiple regulations of RIG-I have been investigated since its discovery as the viral RNA detector. In this review, we describe the recent progress in research on the regulation of RIG-I activity or abundance. Specifically, we focus on the mechanism that modulates RIG-I-dependent antiviral response through post-translational modifications of or protein-protein interactions with RIG-I. PMID:27572506

  14. Energy efficient engine: High pressure turbine uncooled rig technology report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gardner, W. B.

    1979-01-01

    Results obtained from testing five performance builds (three vane cascades and two rotating rigs of the Energy Efficient Engine uncooled rig have established the uncooled aerodynamic efficiency of the high-pressure turbine at 91.1 percent. This efficiency level was attained by increasing the rim speed and annulus area (AN(2)), and by increasing the turbine reaction level. The increase in AN(2) resulted in a performance improvement of 1.15 percent. At the design point pressure ratio, the increased reaction level rig demonstrated an efficiency of 91.1 percent. The results of this program have verified the aerodynamic design assumptions established for the Energy Efficient Engine high-pressure turbine component.

  15. Contributed Review: Optical micro- and nanofiber pulling rig

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ward, J. M.; Maimaiti, A.; Le, Vu H.; Chormaic, S. Nic

    2014-11-01

    We review the method of producing adiabatic optical micro- and nanofibers using a hydrogen/oxygen flame brushing technique. The flame is scanned along the fiber, which is being simultaneously stretched by two translation stages. The tapered fiber fabrication is reproducible and yields highly adiabatic tapers with either exponential or linear profiles. Details regarding the setup of the flame brushing rig and the various parameters used are presented. Information available from the literature is compiled and further details that are necessary to have a functioning pulling rig are included. This should enable the reader to fabricate various taper profiles, while achieving adiabatic transmission of ˜99% for fundamental mode propagation. Using this rig, transmissions ranging from 85% to 95% for higher order modes in an optical nanofiber have been obtained.

  16. Contributed review: optical micro- and nanofiber pulling rig.

    PubMed

    Ward, J M; Maimaiti, A; Le, Vu H; Chormaic, S Nic

    2014-11-01

    We review the method of producing adiabatic optical micro- and nanofibers using a hydrogen/oxygen flame brushing technique. The flame is scanned along the fiber, which is being simultaneously stretched by two translation stages. The tapered fiber fabrication is reproducible and yields highly adiabatic tapers with either exponential or linear profiles. Details regarding the setup of the flame brushing rig and the various parameters used are presented. Information available from the literature is compiled and further details that are necessary to have a functioning pulling rig are included. This should enable the reader to fabricate various taper profiles, while achieving adiabatic transmission of ∼99% for fundamental mode propagation. Using this rig, transmissions ranging from 85% to 95% for higher order modes in an optical nanofiber have been obtained. PMID:25430090

  17. 33 CFR 154.820 - Fire, explosion, and detonation protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Fire, explosion, and detonation protection. 154.820 Section 154.820 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) POLLUTION FACILITIES TRANSFERRING OIL OR HAZARDOUS MATERIAL IN BULK Vapor Control Systems § 154.820 Fire, explosion,...

  18. A fitted for purpose slim-hole rig

    SciTech Connect

    Sagot, A.; Dupuis, D.

    1994-12-31

    After testing new slim hole drill strings that are able to perform destructive drilling and wireline coring with positive drilling achievement and positive geological data acquisition, the construction of a purpose built rig will lead to substantial drilling cost breakthroughs and greatly reduce the environmental impact of the drilling operation.

  19. 46 CFR 162.050-17 - Separator test rig.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Separator test rig. 162.050-17 Section 162.050-17 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) EQUIPMENT, CONSTRUCTION, AND MATERIALS: SPECIFICATIONS AND APPROVAL ENGINEERING EQUIPMENT Pollution Prevention Equipment § 162.050-17 Separator test...

  20. 5'-Triphosphate RNA is the ligand for RIG-I.

    PubMed

    Hornung, Veit; Ellegast, Jana; Kim, Sarah; Brzózka, Krzysztof; Jung, Andreas; Kato, Hiroki; Poeck, Hendrik; Akira, Shizuo; Conzelmann, Karl-Klaus; Schlee, Martin; Endres, Stefan; Hartmann, Gunther

    2006-11-10

    The structural basis for the distinction of viral RNA from abundant self RNA in the cytoplasm of virally infected cells is largely unknown. We demonstrated that the 5'-triphosphate end of RNA generated by viral polymerases is responsible for retinoic acid-inducible protein I (RIG-I)-mediated detection of RNA molecules. Detection of 5'-triphosphate RNA is abrogated by capping of the 5'-triphosphate end or by nucleoside modification of RNA, both occurring during posttranscriptional RNA processing in eukaryotes. Genomic RNA prepared from a negative-strand RNA virus and RNA prepared from virus-infected cells (but not from noninfected cells) triggered a potent interferon-alpha response in a phosphatase-sensitive manner. 5'-triphosphate RNA directly binds to RIG-I. Thus, uncapped 5'-triphosphate RNA (now termed 3pRNA) present in viruses known to be recognized by RIG-I, but absent in viruses known to be detected by MDA-5 such as the picornaviruses, serves as the molecular signature for the detection of viral infection by RIG-I.

  1. 29 CFR 1926.753 - Hoisting and rigging.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... mechanism for excessive wear of components and contamination by lubricants, water or other foreign matter... for proper support, including ground settling under and around outriggers, ground water accumulation... criteria shall be met: (i) Materials being hoisted shall be rigged to prevent unintentional...

  2. 29 CFR 1926.753 - Hoisting and rigging.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... mechanism for excessive wear of components and contamination by lubricants, water or other foreign matter... for proper support, including ground settling under and around outriggers, ground water accumulation... criteria shall be met: (i) Materials being hoisted shall be rigged to prevent unintentional...

  3. Mixed Stream Test Rig Winter FY-2011 Report

    SciTech Connect

    Chalres Park; Tedd Lister; Kevin DeWall

    2011-04-01

    This report describes the data and analysis of the initial testing campaign of the Mixed Stream Test Rig (MISTER) at Idaho National Laboratory (INL). It describes the test specimen selection, physical configuration of the test equipment, operations methodology, and data and analysis of specimens exposed in two environments designed to represent those expected for high temperature steam electrolysis (HTSE).

  4. 75 FR 20372 - Certificate of Alternative Compliance for the Offshore Supply Vessel RIG RUNNER

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-19

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard Certificate of Alternative Compliance for the Offshore Supply Vessel RIG RUNNER AGENCY... Compliance was issued for the offshore supply vessel RIG RUNNER as required by 33 U.S.C. 1605(c) and 33 CFR... issued for the offshore supply vessel RIG RUNNER, O.N. 1222591. Full compliance with 72 COLREGS...

  5. Totally confined explosive welding

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bement, L. J. (Inventor)

    1978-01-01

    The undesirable by-products of explosive welding are confined and the association noise is reduced by the use of a simple enclosure into which the explosive is placed and in which the explosion occurs. An infrangible enclosure is removably attached to one of the members to be bonded at the point directly opposite the bond area. An explosive is completely confined within the enclosure at a point in close proximity to the member to be bonded and a detonating means is attached to the explosive. The balance of the enclosure, not occupied by explosive, is filled with a shaped material which directs the explosive pressure toward the bond area. A detonator adaptor controls the expansion of the enclosure by the explosive force so that the enclosure at no point experiences a discontinuity in expansion which causes rupture. The use of the technique is practical in the restricted area of a space station.

  6. Whirl Motion of a Seal Test Rig with Squeeze-Film Dampers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Proctor, Margaret P.; Gunter, Edgar J.

    2007-01-01

    This paper presents the experimental behavior and dynamic analysis of a high speed test rig with rolling element bearings mounted in squeeze film oil damper bearings. The test rotor is a double overhung configuration with rolling element ball bearings mounted in uncentered squeeze-film oil dampers. The damper design is similar to that employed with various high-speed aircraft HP gas turbines. The dynamic performance of the test rig with the originally installed dampers with an effective damper length of length 0.23-inch was unacceptable. The design speed of 40,000 RPM could not be safely achieved as nonsynchronous whirling at the overhung seal test disk and high amplitude critical speed response at the drive spline section occurred at 32,000 RPM. In addition to the self excited stability and critical speed problems, it was later seen from FFT data analysis, that a region of supersynchronous dead band whirling occurs between 10,000 to 15,000 RPM which can lead to bearing distress and wear. The system was analyzed using both linear and nonlinear techniques. The extended length damper design resulting from the analysis eliminated the rotor subsynchronous whirling, high amplitude critical speed, and the dead band whirling region allowing the system to achieve a speed of 45,000 RPM. However, nonlinear analysis shows that damper lockup could occur with high rotor unbalance at 33,000 RPM, even with the extended squeeze-film dampers. The control of damper lockup will be addressed in a future paper.

  7. Extrusion cast explosive

    DOEpatents

    Scribner, K.J.

    1985-11-26

    Disclosed is an improved, multiphase, high performance, high energy, extrusion cast explosive compositions, comprising, a crystalline explosive material; an energetic liquid plasticizer; a urethane prepolymer, comprising a blend of polyvinyl formal, and polycaprolactone; a polyfunctional isocyanate; and a catalyst. These new explosive compositions exhibit higher explosive content, a smooth detonation front, excellent stability over long periods of storage, and lower sensitivity to mechanical stimulants. 1 fig.

  8. Extrusion cast explosive

    DOEpatents

    Scribner, K.J.

    1985-01-29

    Improved, multiphase, high performance, high energy, extrusion cast explosive compositions, comprising, a crystalline explosive material; an energetic liquid plasticizer; a urethane prepolymer, comprising a blend of polyvinyl formal, and polycaprolactone; a polyfunctional isocyanate; and a catalyst are disclosed. These new explosive compositions exhibit higher explosive content, a smooth detonation front, excellent stability over long periods of storage, and lower sensitivity to mechanical stimulants. 1 fig.

  9. Inspection tester for explosives

    SciTech Connect

    Haas, Jeffrey S.; Simpson, Randall L.; Satcher, Joe H.

    2010-10-05

    An inspection tester that can be used anywhere as a primary screening tool by non-technical personnel to determine whether a surface contains explosives. It includes a body with a sample pad. First and second explosives detecting reagent holders and dispensers are operatively connected to the body and the sample pad. The first and second explosives detecting reagent holders and dispensers are positioned to deliver the explosives detecting reagents to the sample pad. A is heater operatively connected to the sample pad.

  10. Inspection tester for explosives

    DOEpatents

    Haas, Jeffrey S.; Simpson, Randall L.; Satcher, Joe H.

    2007-11-13

    An inspection tester that can be used anywhere as a primary screening tool by non-technical personnel to determine whether a surface contains explosives. It includes a body with a sample pad. First and second explosives detecting reagent holders and dispensers are operatively connected to the body and the sample pad. The first and second explosives detecting reagent holders and dispensers are positioned to deliver the explosives detecting reagents to the sample pad. A is heater operatively connected to the sample pad.

  11. Dispersants as Used in Response to the MC252-Spill Lead to Higher Mobility of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons in Oil-Contaminated Gulf of Mexico Sand

    PubMed Central

    Zuijdgeest, Alissa; Huettel, Markus

    2012-01-01

    After the explosion of the Deepwater Horizon oil rig, large volumes of crude oil were washed onto and embedded in the sandy beaches and sublittoral sands of the Northern Gulf of Mexico. Some of this oil was mechanically or chemically dispersed before reaching the shore. With a set of laboratory-column experiments we show that the addition of chemical dispersants (Corexit 9500A) increases the mobility of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in saturated permeable sediments by up to two orders of magnitude. Distribution and concentrations of PAHs, measured in the solid phase and effluent water of the columns using GC/MS, revealed that the mobility of the PAHs depended on their hydrophobicity and was species specific also in the presence of dispersant. Deepest penetration was observed for acenaphthylene and phenanthrene. Flushing of the columns with seawater after percolation of the oiled water resulted in enhanced movement by remobilization of retained PAHs. An in-situ benthic chamber experiment demonstrated that aromatic hydrocarbons are transported into permeable sublittoral sediment, emphasizing the relevance of our laboratory column experiments in natural settings. We conclude that the addition of dispersants permits crude oil components to penetrate faster and deeper into permeable saturated sands, where anaerobic conditions may slow degradation of these compounds, thus extending the persistence of potentially harmful PAHs in the marine environment. Application of dispersants in nearshore oil spills should take into account enhanced penetration depths into saturated sands as this may entail potential threats to the groundwater. PMID:23209777

  12. Dispersants as used in response to the MC252-spill lead to higher mobility of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in oil-contaminated Gulf of Mexico sand.

    PubMed

    Zuijdgeest, Alissa; Huettel, Markus

    2012-01-01

    After the explosion of the Deepwater Horizon oil rig, large volumes of crude oil were washed onto and embedded in the sandy beaches and sublittoral sands of the Northern Gulf of Mexico. Some of this oil was mechanically or chemically dispersed before reaching the shore. With a set of laboratory-column experiments we show that the addition of chemical dispersants (Corexit 9500A) increases the mobility of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in saturated permeable sediments by up to two orders of magnitude. Distribution and concentrations of PAHs, measured in the solid phase and effluent water of the columns using GC/MS, revealed that the mobility of the PAHs depended on their hydrophobicity and was species specific also in the presence of dispersant. Deepest penetration was observed for acenaphthylene and phenanthrene. Flushing of the columns with seawater after percolation of the oiled water resulted in enhanced movement by remobilization of retained PAHs. An in-situ benthic chamber experiment demonstrated that aromatic hydrocarbons are transported into permeable sublittoral sediment, emphasizing the relevance of our laboratory column experiments in natural settings. We conclude that the addition of dispersants permits crude oil components to penetrate faster and deeper into permeable saturated sands, where anaerobic conditions may slow degradation of these compounds, thus extending the persistence of potentially harmful PAHs in the marine environment. Application of dispersants in nearshore oil spills should take into account enhanced penetration depths into saturated sands as this may entail potential threats to the groundwater. PMID:23209777

  13. Comparison of High-Speed Operating Characteristics of Size 215 Cylindrical-Roller Bearings as Determined in Turbojet Engine and in Laboratory Test Rig

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Macks, E Fred; Nemeth, Zolton N

    1951-01-01

    A comparison of the operating characteristics of 75-millimeter-bore (size 215) cylindrical-roller one-piece inner-race-riding cage-type bearings was made using a laboratory test rig and a turbojet engine. Cooling correlation parameters were determined by means of dimensional analysis, and the generalized results for both the inner- and outer-race bearing operating temperatures are compared for the laboratory test rig and the turbojet engine. Inner- and outer-race cooling-correlation curves were obtained for the turbojet-engine turbine-roller bearing with the same inner- and outer-race correlation parameters and exponents as those determined for the laboratory test-rig bearing. The inner- and outer-race turbine roller-bearing temperatures may be predicted from a single curve, regardless of variations in speed, load, oil flow, oil inlet temperature, oil inlet viscosity, oil-jet diameter or any combination of these parameters. The turbojet-engine turbine-roller-bearing inner-race temperatures were 30 to 60 F greater than the outer-race-maximum temperatures, the exact values depending on the operating condition and oil viscosity; these results are in contrast to the laboratory test-rig results where the inner-race temperatures were less than the outer-race-maximum temperatures. The turbojet-engine turbine-roller bearing, maximum outer-race circumferential temperature variation was approximately 30 F for each of the oils used. The effect of oil viscosity on inner- and outer-race turbojet-engine turbine-roller-bearing temperatures was found to be significant. With the lower viscosity oil (6x10(exp -7) reyns (4.9 centistokes) at 100 F; viscosity index, 83), the inner-race temperature was approximately 30 to 35 F less than with the higher viscosity oil (53x10(exp -7) reyns (42.8 centistokes) at 100 F; viscosity index, 150); whereas the outer-race-maximum temperatures were 12 to 28 F lower with the lower viscosity oil over the DN range investigated.

  14. Explosion proofing the ``explosion proof`` vacuum cleaner

    SciTech Connect

    Jones, R.D.; Chen, K.C.; Holmes, S.W.

    1995-07-01

    Because of the low humidity environments required in the fabrication of nuclear explosives, assembly technicians can be charged to tens of kilovolts while operating, for example, compressed air, venturi-type, `explosion proof` vacuum cleaners. Nuclear explosives must be isolated from all sources of, and return paths for, AC power and from any part of the lightning protection system. This requirement precludes the use of static ground conductors to drain any charge accumulations. Accordingly, an experimental study of the basic charging mechanisms associated with vacuum operations were identified, the charge generation efficacies of various commercial cleaners were established, and a simple method for neutralizing the charge was devised.

  15. Demonstration of various rotor instabilities (exhibit of Bently Rotor Dynamics Research Corporation Laborator rigs at symposium on instability in rotaing machinery)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Muszynska, A.

    1985-01-01

    The operation of rotor rigs used to demonstrate various instability phenomena occurring in rotating machines is described. The instability phenomena demonstrated included oil whirl/whip antiswirl, rub, loose rotating parts, water-lubricated bearing instabilities, and cracked shaft. The rotor rigs were also used to show corrective measures for preventing instabilities. Vibrational response data from the rigs were taken with modern, computerized instrumentation. The rotor nonsynchronous perturbation rig demonstrated modal identification techniques for rotor/bearing systems. Computer-aided data acquisition and presentation, using the dynamic stiffness method, makes it possible to identify rotor and bearing parameters for low modes. The shaft mode demonstrator presented the amplified modal shape line of the shaft excited by inertia forces of unbalance (synchronous perturbation). The first three bending modes of the shaft can be demonstrated. The user-friendly software, Orbits, presented a simulation of rotor precessional motion that is characteristic of various instability phenomena. The data presentation demonstration used data measured on a turbine driven compressor train as an example of how computer aided data acquisition and presentation assists in identifying rotating machine malfunctions.

  16. Use of UV Sources for Detection and Identification of Explosives

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hug, William; Reid, Ray; Bhartia, Rohit; Lane, Arthur

    2009-01-01

    Measurement of Raman and native fluorescence emission using ultraviolet (UV) sources (<400 nm) on targeted materials is suitable for both sensitive detection and accurate identification of explosive materials. When the UV emission data are analyzed using a combination of Principal Component Analysis (PCA) and cluster analysis, chemicals and biological samples can be differentiated based on the geometric arrangement of molecules, the number of repeating aromatic rings, associated functional groups (nitrogen, sulfur, hydroxyl, and methyl), microbial life cycles (spores vs. vegetative cells), and the number of conjugated bonds. Explosive materials can be separated from one another as well as from a range of possible background materials, which includes microbes, car doors, motor oil, and fingerprints on car doors, etc. Many explosives are comprised of similar atomic constituents found in potential background samples such as fingerprint oils/skin, motor oil, and soil. This technique is sensitive to chemical bonds between the elements that lead to the discriminating separability between backgrounds and explosive materials.

  17. The Soviet Program for Peaceful Uses of Nuclear Explosions

    SciTech Connect

    Nordyke, M.D.

    2000-07-26

    During a period of some 23 years between 1965 and 1988, the Soviet Union's ''Program for the Utilization of Nuclear Explosions in the National Economy'' carried out 122 nuclear explosions to study and put into industrial use some 13 applications. In all, 128 explosives with yields ranging from 0.01 to 140 kt were used, with the vast majority being between 2 and 20 kt. Most peaceful applications of nuclear explosions in the Soviet PNE Program were explored in depth with a number of tests, but unfortunately little has been reported on the technical results other than general outcomes. Two applications, deep seismic sounding of the Earth's crust and upper mantle and the creation of underground cavities in salt for the storage of gas condensate, found widespread use, representing over 50% of all the explosions. Explosions to explore the technical possibilities of stimulating the production of oil and gas reservoirs accounted for an additional 17%.

  18. Burner rig corrosion of SiC at 1000 C

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jacobson, N. S.; Stearns, C. A.; Smialek, J. L.

    1986-01-01

    Sintered alpha-SiC was examined in both oxidation and hot corrosion with a burner rig at 400 kPa (4 atm) and 1000 C with a flow velocity of 94 m/s. Oxidation tests for times to 46 h produced virtually no attack, whereas tests with 4 ppm Na produced extensive corrosion in 13.5 h. Thick glassy layers composed primarily of sodium silicate formed in the salt corrosion tests. This corrosion attack caused severe pitting on the silicon carbide substrate and led to a 32 percent decrease in strength, compared to the as-received material. Parallel furnace tests of Na2SO4/air-induced attack yielded basically similar results, with slight product composition differences. The differences are explained in terms of the continuous sulfate deposition which occurs in a burner rig.

  19. Demonstration of laser speckle system on burner liner cyclic rig

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stetson, K. A.

    1986-01-01

    A demonstration test was conducted to apply speckle photogrammetry to the measurement of strains on a sample of combustor liner material in a cyclic fatigue rig. A system for recording specklegrams was assembled and shipped to the NASA Lewis Research Center, where it was set up and operated during rig tests. Data in the form of recorded specklegrams were sent back to United Technologies Research Center for processing to extract strains. Difficulties were found in the form of warping and bowing of the sample during the tests which degraded the data. Steps were taken by NASA personnel to correct this problem and further tests were run. Final data processing indicated erratic patterns of strain on the burner liner sample.

  20. Energy efficient engine sector combustor rig test program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dubiel, D. J.; Greene, W.; Sundt, C. V.; Tanrikut, S.; Zeisser, M. H.

    1981-01-01

    Under the NASA-sponsored Energy Efficient Engine program, Pratt & Whitney Aircraft has successfully completed a comprehensive combustor rig test using a 90-degree sector of an advanced two-stage combustor with a segmented liner. Initial testing utilized a combustor with a conventional louvered liner and demonstrated that the Energy Efficient Engine two-stage combustor configuration is a viable system for controlling exhaust emissions, with the capability to meet all aerothermal performance goals. Goals for both carbon monoxide and unburned hydrocarbons were surpassed and the goal for oxides of nitrogen was closely approached. In another series of tests, an advanced segmented liner configuration with a unique counter-parallel FINWALL cooling system was evaluated at engine sea level takeoff pressure and temperature levels. These tests verified the structural integrity of this liner design. Overall, the results from the program have provided a high level of confidence to proceed with the scheduled Combustor Component Rig Test Program.

  1. Drive Rig Mufflers for Model Scale Engine Acoustic Testing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stephens, David

    2010-01-01

    Testing of air breathing propulsion systems in the 9x15 foot wind tunnel at NASA Glenn Research Center depends on compressed air turbines for power. The drive rig turbines exhaust directly to the wind tunnel test section, and have been found to produce significant unwanted noise that reduces the quality of the acoustic measurements of the model being tested. In order to mitigate this acoustic contamination, a muffler can be attached downstream of the drive rig turbine. The modern engine designs currently being tested produce much less noise than traditional engines, and consequently a lower noise floor is required of the facility. An acoustic test of a muffler designed to mitigate this extraneous noise is presented, and a noise reduction of 8 dB between 700 Hz and 20 kHz was documented, significantly improving the quality of acoustic measurements in the facility.

  2. New Mix Explosives for Explosive Welding

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andreevskikh, Leonid

    2011-06-01

    Suggested and tested were some mix explosives--powder mixtures of a brisant high explosive (HE = RDX, PETN) and an inert diluent (baking soda)--for use in explosive welding. RDX and PETN were selected in view of their high throwing ability and low critical diameter. Since the decomposition of baking soda yields a huge amount of gaseous products, its presence ensures (even at a low HE percentage) a throwing speed that is sufficient for realization of explosive welding, at a reduced brisant action of charge. Mix chargers containing 30-70 wt % HE (the rest baking soda) have been tested experimentally and optimized. For study of possibility to reduce critical diameter of HE mixture, the mixture was prepared where HE crystal sizes did not exceed 10 μm. The tests, which were performed with this HE, revealed that the mixture detonated stably with the velocity D ~ 2 km/s, if the layer thickness was d = 2 mm. The above explosives afford to markedly diminish deformations within the oblique impact zone and thus to carry out explosive welding of hollow items and thin metallic foils.

  3. Offshore data base shows decline in rig accidents

    SciTech Connect

    Bertrand, A.; Escoffier, L. )

    1991-09-16

    Institut Francais du Petrole (IFP) has compiled statistical figures on offshore accidents for risk, safety, and reliability studies. IFP calls this data base Platform. It provides a body of essential data for accidents concerning both mobile and stationary offshore drilling rigs. Historical accident data bases are a basic implement for risk assessment of safety and reliability. IFP has built this data base with all available information from 950 actual listings.

  4. Lateral Stability Simulation of a Rail Truck on Roller Rig

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dukkipati, Rao V.

    The development of experimental facilities for rail vehicle testing is being complemented by analytic studies. The purpose of this effort has been to gain insight into the dynamics of rail vehicles in order to guide development of the Roller Rigs and to establish an analytic framework for the design and interpretation of tests to be conducted on Roller Rigs. The work described here represents initial efforts towards meeting these objectives. Generic linear models were developed of a freight car (with a characteristic North American three-piece truck) on tangent track. The models were developed using the generalized multi body dynamics software MEDYNA. Predictions were made of the theoretical linear model hunting (lateral stability) characteristics of the freight car, i. e., the critical speeds and frequencies, for five different configurations: (a) freight car on track, (b) the freight car's front truck on the roller stand and its rear truck on track, (c) freight car on the roller rig, (d) a single truck on track, and (e) single truck on the roller stand. These were compared with the Association of American Railroads' field test data for an 80-ton hopper car equipped with A-3 ride control trucks. Agreement was reached among all the analytical models, with all models indicating a range of hunting speeds of 2% from the highest to lowest. The largest discrepancy, approximately 6%, was indicated between the models and the field test data. Parametric study results using linear model of freight truck on the roller rig show that (a) increasing roller radius increases critical speed (b) increasing the wheel initial cone angle will decrease the hunting speed (c) increasing the roller cant increases hunting speed (d) decrowning of the wheelset on the rollers will not effect the hunting speed but induces longitudinal destabilizing horizontal forces at the contact and (e) lozenging of wheelset on the rollers induces a yaw moment and the hunting speed decreases with increasing

  5. Involvement of zebrafish RIG-I in NF-κB and IFN signaling pathways: insights into functional conservation of RIG-I in antiviral innate immunity.

    PubMed

    Nie, Li; Zhang, Ying-sheng; Dong, Wei-ren; Xiang, Li-xin; Shao, Jian-zhong

    2015-01-01

    The retinoic acid-inducible gene I (RIG-I) is a critical sensor for host recognition of RNA virus infection and initiation of antiviral signaling pathways in mammals. However, data on the occurrence and functions of this molecule in lower vertebrates are limited. In this study, we characterized an RIG-I homolog (DrRIG-I) from zebrafish. Structurally, this DrRIG-I shares a number of conserved functional domains/motifs with its mammalian counterparts, namely, caspase activation and recruitment domain, DExD/H box, a helicase domain, and a C-terminal domain. Functionally, stimulation with DrRIG-I CARD in zebrafish embryos significantly activated the NF-κB and IFN signaling pathways, leading to the expression of TNF-α, IL-8 and IFN-induced Mx, ISG15, and viperin. However, knockdown of TRIM25 (a pivotal activator for RIG-I receptors) significantly suppressed the induced activation of IFN signaling. Results suggested the functional conservation of RIG-I receptors in the NF-κB and IFN signaling pathways between teleosts and mammals, providing a perspective into the evolutionary history of RIG-I-mediated antiviral innate immunity.

  6. Yield Determination of Underground and Near Surface Explosions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pasyanos, M.

    2015-12-01

    As seismic coverage of the earth's surface continues to improve, we are faced with signals from a wide variety of explosions from various sources ranging from oil train and ordnance explosions to military and terrorist attacks, as well as underground nuclear tests. We present on a method for determining the yield of underground and near surface explosions, which should be applicable for many of these. We first review the regional envelope method that was developed for underground explosions (Pasyanos et al., 2012) and more recently modified for near surface explosions (Pasyanos and Ford, 2015). The technique models the waveform envelope templates as a product of source, propagation (geometrical spreading and attenuation), and site terms, while near surface explosions include an additional surface effect. Yields and depths are determined by comparing the observed envelopes to the templates and minimizing the misfit. We then apply the method to nuclear and chemical explosions for a range of yields, depths, and distances. We will review some results from previous work, and show new examples from ordnance explosions in Scandinavia, nuclear explosions in Eurasia, and chemical explosions in Nevada associated with the Source Physics Experiments (SPE).

  7. Goose RIG-I functions in innate immunity against Newcastle disease virus infections.

    PubMed

    Sun, Yingjie; Ding, Na; Ding, Siyu Serena; Yu, Shengqing; Meng, Chunhun; Chen, Hongjun; Qiu, Xusheng; Zhang, Shilei; Yu, Yang; Zhan, Yuan; Ding, Chan

    2013-04-01

    Mammalian retinoic acid-inducible gene I (RIG-I) is a chief antiviral gene sensing viral RNA molecules including Newcastle disease virus (NDV). In this study, goose RIG-I gene (gRIG-I) was identified. The 2805 bp-long gene encodes a gRIG-I protein that exhibits 93.8% amino acid identity to duck RIG-I. DF-1 chicken fibroblast cells transfected with full-length of gRIG-I or CARD domain of gRIG-I plasmids respond significantly to the agonist of 21-mer 5'ppp RNA, evident through enhancement of IFN-β promoter activity. Goose RIG-I transfected 293T/17 cells were then tested for the response to NDV infection, resulting in up-regulated activity of IFN-β promoter, and mRNA levels of IRF-3 and IFIT1, but decreased virus titer. Similar results were obtained in transfected DF-1 chicken fibroblast cells and goose embryo fibroblast cells in response to NDV infections Animal experiments further support a role of gRIG-I in goose innate immunity against NDV infections by showing increased gRIG-I mRNA levels and decreased virus titer in geese lung and air sac post-infection.

  8. Free radical explosive composition

    DOEpatents

    Walker, Franklin E.; Wasley, Richard J.

    1979-01-01

    An improved explosive composition is disclosed and comprises a major portion of an explosive having a detonation velocity between about 1500 and 10,000 meters per second and a minor amount of a getter additive comprising a compound or mixture of compounds capable of capturing or deactivating free radicals or ions under mechanical or electrical shock conditions and which is not an explosive. Exemplary getter additives are isocyanates, olefins and iodine.

  9. Explosives tester with heater

    SciTech Connect

    Del Eckels, Joel; Nunes, Peter J.; Simpson, Randall L.; Whipple, Richard E.; Carter, J. Chance; Reynolds, John G.

    2010-08-10

    An inspection tester system for testing for explosives. The tester includes a body and a swab unit adapted to be removeably connected to the body. At least one reagent holder and dispenser is operatively connected to the body. The reagent holder and dispenser contains an explosives detecting reagent and is positioned to deliver the explosives detecting reagent to the swab unit. A heater is operatively connected to the body and the swab unit is adapted to be operatively connected to the heater.

  10. Los Alamos explosives performance data

    SciTech Connect

    Mader, C.L.; Crane, S.L.; Johnson, J.N.

    1983-01-01

    This book provides explosives performances, as measured by plate acceleration data, aquarium data, and detonation velocity data. It includes some 800 pages of data and is for explosives scientists more than engineers. (This is a companion volume to the 1980 ''LASL Explosive Property Data'' which covered only pure explosives and well-characterized explosive formulations).

  11. Combustion of Coal/Oil/Water Slurries

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kushida, R. O.

    1982-01-01

    Proposed test setup would measure combustion performance of new fuels by rapidly heating a droplet of coal/oil/water mixture and recording resulting explosion. Such mixtures are being considered as petroleum substitutes in oil-fired furnaces.

  12. The powerstroke and camshaft of the RIG-I antiviral RNA detection machine.

    PubMed

    O'Neill, Luke A J; Bowie, Andrew G

    2011-10-14

    The innate immune sensor RIG-I responds to infection by binding to viral double-stranded RNA (dsRNA). In this issue of Cell, Kowalinski et al. (2011) and Luo et al. (2011) reveal the structure of RIG-I, and in combination with functional analyses, they show how RIG-I recognizes viral RNA to initiate signaling and a type I interferon response.

  13. Explosively pumped laser light

    DOEpatents

    Piltch, Martin S.; Michelotti, Roy A.

    1991-01-01

    A single shot laser pumped by detonation of an explosive in a shell casing. The shock wave from detonation of the explosive causes a rare gas to luminesce. The high intensity light from the gas enters a lasing medium, which thereafter outputs a pulse of laser light to disable optical sensors and personnel.

  14. Explosives simulants: Preliminary report

    SciTech Connect

    Moody, G.L.; Pruneda, C.O.; Simpson, R.L.

    1992-03-04

    Two TNT high explosives simulants have been developed. Small scale testing has shown them to be insensitive to: impact, spark, friction, temperature, and shock. The materials have been scaled to 0.5 kg quantities and samples given to the Protective Services Department for field evaluation using explosives detecting canines.

  15. Design and Development of High-Velocity Slurry Erosion Test Rig Using CFD

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grewal, H. S.; Agrawal, Anupam; Singh, H.

    2013-01-01

    Slurry erosion (SE) is commonly observed in almost all kinds of components and machineries involved in fluid (liquid) transfer and delivery. During design and development phase of these components, test rigs are usually required to evaluate their performance; however, only few detailed designs of test rigs are available for SE investigations. Among the existing designs of SE test rigs, most of them belong to rotary type. In the present study, design of a new type of SE test rig has been proposed, which is simpler in construction and working. This newly designed test rig could possibly eliminate some of the limitations (velocity-concentration interdependence and lack of acceleration distance) found in the existing set-ups. Calibration of the test rig was done for jet velocity and erodent concentration. Commissioning of the rig was undertaken by evaluating the effect of operating parameters (concentration and impingement angle) on the erosion rates of aluminum and cast iron. Results show that the rig was able to capture the traditional responses of ductile and brittle erosion behaviors being observed for these materials. Repeatability of the test rig was ensured, and the results were found to be within the acceptable error limits.

  16. Boeing 18-Inch Fan Rig Broadband Noise Test

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ganz, Ulrich W.; Joppa, Paul D.; Patten, Timothy J.; Scharpf, Daniel F.

    1998-01-01

    The purposes of the subject test were to identify and quantify the mechanisms by which fan broadband noise is produced, and to assess the validity of such theoretical models of those mechanisms as may be available. The test was conducted with the Boeing 18-inch fan rig in the Boeing Low-Speed Aeroacoustic Facility (LSAF). The rig was designed to be particularly clean and geometrically simple to facilitate theoretical modeling and to minimize sources of interfering noise. The inlet is cylindrical and is equipped with a boundary layer suction system. The fan is typical of modern high-by-pass ratio designs but is capable of operating with or without fan exit guide vanes (stators), and there is only a single flow stream. Fan loading and tip clearance are adjustable. Instrumentation included measurements of fan performance, the unsteady flow field incident on the fan and stators, and far-field and in-duct acoustic fields. The acoustic results were manipulated to estimate the noise generated by different sources. Significant fan broadband noise was found to come from the rotor self-noise as measured with clean inflow and no boundary layer. The rotor tip clearance affected rotor self-noise somewhat. The interaction of the rotor with inlet boundary layer turbulence is also a significant source, and is strongly affected by rotor tip clearance. High level noise can be generated by a high-order nonuniform rotating at a fraction of the fan speed, at least when tip clearance and loading are both large. Stator-generated noise is the loudest of the significant sources, by a small margin, at least on this rig. Stator noise is significantly affected by propagation through the fan.

  17. Non-detonable explosive simulators

    DOEpatents

    Simpson, R.L.; Pruneda, C.O.

    1994-11-01

    A simulator which is chemically equivalent to an explosive, but is not detonable. The simulator has particular use in the training of explosives detecting dogs and calibrating sensitive analytical instruments. The explosive simulants may be fabricated by different techniques, a first involves the use of standard slurry coatings to produce a material with a very high binder to explosive ratio without masking the explosive vapor, and the second involves coating inert beads with thin layers of explosive molecules. 5 figs.

  18. Non-detonable explosive simulators

    DOEpatents

    Simpson, Randall L.; Pruneda, Cesar O.

    1994-01-01

    A simulator which is chemically equivalent to an explosive, but is not detonable. The simulator has particular use in the training of explosives detecting dogs and calibrating sensitive analytical instruments. The explosive simulants may be fabricated by different techniques, a first involves the use of standard slurry coatings to produce a material with a very high binder to explosive ratio without masking the explosive vapor, and the second involves coating inert beads with thin layers of explosive molecules.

  19. Toxiological Considerations in the Gulf of Mexico Oil Spill

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Deep Water Horizon oil rig exploded on April 20, 2010, resulting in an ongoing release of light sweet petroleum crude oil and methane into Gulf of Mexico waters. The release from the deepwater wellhead 41 miles from Louisiana is at approximately 1 mile depth, and flow rates e...

  20. Behaviour of the false rig: causes and treatments.

    PubMed

    Cox, J E

    1986-03-29

    The false rig is a castrated horse which shows masculine behaviour of one sort or another. The behaviour patterns reported to the author by owners of such animals and the possible causes are discussed here. Some such horses can show all the behaviour patterns of the entire, including erection and intromission. Evidence is presented that the behaviour is not hormonally induced or hormone dependent. The thesis is put forward that the behaviour shown is part of the normal social interaction between horses and possible treatments are discussed in the light of this possibility. PMID:3705382

  1. Unique submersible pumps system used in rig deck loadout

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1984-02-01

    In one of the largest offshore skidding operations ever undertaken in the UK, a unique system of submersible pumps linked through central control stations was used to load out the deck of a new-built semisubmersible rig onto three barges. Ninety-three submersible pumps and a hydraulic track system were required to move the deck onto the 100 x 14 x 7.5-meter barges. The most critical task was to maintain the barges at a constant level as they took on the load. The problem was overcome with combined dewatering and ballasting actions, carried out simultaneously from each control center and from each barge.

  2. Rig safety depends on equipment, regulations, and personnel

    SciTech Connect

    Bates, T.R. Jr.; Tait, S. ); Mumford, G. )

    1990-03-05

    The authors discuss how improvements that can increase rig safety can be made in equipment, regulations, and stabilized personnel levels. With regard to equipment, exposure to material handling must be reduced through automation, and well-control technology must be improved by enhanced use of computers and better systems to handle gas. According to this analysis, regulations are needed that are global in scope and have had their costs-to-benefits fully and fairly assessed. Self regulation must be used effectively throughout the industry. Job security and wages should be made adequate to maintain an experienced, motivated, and safe work force.

  3. Planetary-gear-support bearing test rig design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rosenlieb, J. W.

    1985-01-01

    A test rig was designed to evaluate the performance of a spherical roller bearing with a geared outer ring operating under conditions similar to those of a planet bearing in a helicopter transmission. The configuration is an extension of the widely accepted four-square gearbox arrangement. It provides for testing of two bearings simultaneously with outer ring rotation, misalignment, diametrically opposed loading through the gear teeth, and under race lubrication. Instrumentation permits the measurement of inner and outer ring temperature, bearing drag torque, degree of misalignment, outer ring speed, cage speed, and applied load.

  4. Gunshot and Explosion Injuries

    PubMed Central

    Peleg, Kobi; Aharonson-Daniel, Limor; Stein, Michael; Michaelson, Moshe; Kluger, Yoram; Simon, Daniel; Noji, Eric K.

    2004-01-01

    Context: An increase of terror-related activities may necessitate treatment of mass casualty incidents, requiring a broadening of existing skills and knowledge of various injury mechanisms. Objective: To characterize and compare injuries from gunshot and explosion caused by terrorist acts. Methods: A retrospective cohort study of patients recorded in the Israeli National Trauma Registry (ITR), all due to terror-related injuries, between October 1, 2000, to June 30, 2002. The ITR records all casualty admissions to hospitals, in-hospital deaths, and transfers at 9 of the 23 trauma centers in Israel. All 6 level I trauma centers and 3 of the largest regional trauma centers in the country are included. The registry includes the majority of severe terror-related injuries. Injury diagnoses, severity scores, hospital resource utilization parameters, length of stay (LOS), survival, and disposition. Results: A total of 1155 terror-related injuries: 54% by explosion, 36% gunshot wounds (GSW), and 10% by other means. This paper focused on the 2 larger patient subsets: 1033 patients injured by terror-related explosion or GSW. Seventy-one percent of the patients were male, 84% in the GSW group and 63% in the explosion group. More than half (53%) of the patients were 15 to 29 years old, 59% in the GSW group and 48% in the explosion group. GSW patients suffered higher proportions of open wounds (63% versus 53%) and fractures (42% versus 31%). Multiple body-regions injured in a single patient occurred in 62% of explosion victims versus 47% in GSW patients. GSW patients had double the proportion of moderate injuries than explosion victims. Explosion victims have a larger proportion of minor injuries on one hand and critical to fatal injuries on the other. LOS was longer than 2 weeks for 20% (22% in explosion, 18% in GSW). Fifty-one percent of the patients underwent a surgical procedure, 58% in the GSW group and 46% in explosion group. Inpatient death rate was 6.3% (65 patients), 7

  5. High pressure-resistant nonincendive emulsion explosive

    DOEpatents

    Ruhe, Thomas C.; Rao, Pilaka P.

    1994-01-01

    An improved emulsion explosive composition including hollow microspheres/bulking agents having high density and high strength. The hollow microspheres/bulking agents have true particle densities of about 0.2 grams per cubic centimeter or greater and include glass, siliceous, ceramic and synthetic resin microspheres, expanded minerals, and mixtures thereof. The preferred weight percentage of hollow microspheres/bulking agents in the composition ranges from 3.0 to 10.0 A chlorinated paraffin oil, also present in the improved emulsion explosive composition, imparts a higher film strength to the oil phase in the emulsion. The emulsion is rendered nonincendive by the production of sodium chloride in situ via the decomposition of sodium nitrate, a chlorinated paraffin oil, and sodium perchlorate. The air-gap sensitivity is improved by the in situ formation of monomethylamine perchlorate from dissolved monomethylamine nitrate and sodium perchlorate. The emulsion explosive composition can withstand static pressures to 139 bars and dynamic pressure loads on the order of 567 bars.

  6. Technical and economic evaluation of selected compact drill rigs for drilling 10,000 foot geothermal production wells

    SciTech Connect

    Huttrer, G.W.

    1997-11-01

    This report summarizes the investigation and evaluation of several {open_quotes}compact{close_quotes} drill rigs which could be used for drilling geothermal production wells. Use of these smaller rigs would save money by reducing mobilization costs, fuel consumption, crew sizes, and environmental impact. Advantages and disadvantages of currently-manufactured rigs are identified, and desirable characteristics for the {open_quotes}ideal{close_quotes} compact rig are defined. The report includes a detailed cost estimate of a specific rig, and an evaluation of the cost/benefit ratio of using this rig. Industry contacts for further information are given.

  7. Optically measured explosive impulse

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Biss, Matthew M.; McNesby, Kevin L.

    2014-06-01

    An experimental technique is investigated to optically measure the explosive impulse produced by laboratory-scale spherical charges detonated in air. Explosive impulse has historically been calculated from temporal pressure measurements obtained via piezoelectric transducers. The presented technique instead combines schlieren flow visualization and high-speed digital imaging to optically measure explosive impulse. Prior to an explosive event, schlieren system calibration is performed using known light-ray refractions and resulting digital image intensities. Explosive charges are detonated in the test section of a schlieren system and imaged by a high-speed digital camera in pseudo-streak mode. Spatiotemporal schlieren intensity maps are converted using an Abel deconvolution, Rankine-Hugoniot jump equations, ideal gas law, triangular temperature decay profile, and Schardin's standard photometric technique to yield spatiotemporal pressure maps. Temporal integration of individual pixel pressure profiles over the positive pressure duration of the shock wave yields the explosive impulse generated for a given radial standoff. Calculated explosive impulses are shown to exhibit good agreement between optically derived values and pencil gage pressure transducers.

  8. Rowan Gorilla I rigged up, heads for eastern Canada

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1984-03-01

    Designed to operate in very hostile offshore environments, the first of the Rowan Gorilla class of self-elevating drilling rigs has been towed to its drilling assignment offshore Nova Scotia. About 40% larger than other jackups, these rigs can operate in 300 ft of water, drilling holes as deep as 30,000 ft. They also feature unique high-pressure and solids control systems that are expected to improve drilling procedures and efficiencies. A quantitative formation pressure evaluation program for the Hewlett-Packard HP-41 handheld calculator computes formation pressures by three independent methods - the corrected d exponent, Bourgoyne and Young, and normalized penetration rate techniques for abnormal pressure detection and computation. Based on empirically derived drilling rate equations, each of the methods can be calculated separately, without being dependent on or influenced by the results or stored data from the other two subprograms. The quantitative interpretation procedure involves establishing a normal drilling rate trend and calculating the pore pressure from the magnitude of the drilling rate trend or plotting parameter increases above the trend line. Mobil's quick, accurate program could aid drilling operators in selecting the casing point, minimizing differential sticking, maintaining the proper mud weights to avoid kicks and lost circulation, and maximizing penetration rates.

  9. Interlocking mats support drilling rig on frozen swamp

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-04-15

    This paper discusses how a company employed a unique mat system to reduce environmental impact and to support the drilling rig on its Astosch No. 1 exploratory well at Granite Point in the Trading Bay Wildlife Refuge. The site is on the west side of Cook Inlet. During winter, the travel time from Anchorage to the base camp near the Tyonek Indian village was 5 hr by ice road or 45 min by fixed wing aircraft. Eighteen miles of existing gravel roads were used from this base camp to the edge of the frozen muskeg swamp, and from there, they constructed 7 miles of ice road to the well site. They constructed a snow and ice pad with two impermeable liners and then installed Uni-Mat International Inc.'s patented interlocking mats for the final foundation. After moving in the rig, a snow berm was built around the perimeter of the location and an impermeable liner was then draped and secured over the berm.

  10. Calibration of stereo rigs based on the backward projection process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gu, Feifei; Zhao, Hong; Ma, Yueyang; Bu, Penghui; Zhao, Zixin

    2016-08-01

    High-accuracy 3D measurement based on binocular vision system is heavily dependent on the accurate calibration of two rigidly-fixed cameras. In most traditional calibration methods, stereo parameters are iteratively optimized through the forward imaging process (FIP). However, the results can only guarantee the minimal 2D pixel errors, but not the minimal 3D reconstruction errors. To address this problem, a simple method to calibrate a stereo rig based on the backward projection process (BPP) is proposed. The position of a spatial point can be determined separately from each camera by planar constraints provided by the planar pattern target. Then combined with pre-defined spatial points, intrinsic and extrinsic parameters of the stereo-rig can be optimized by minimizing the total 3D errors of both left and right cameras. An extensive performance study for the method in the presence of image noise and lens distortions is implemented. Experiments conducted on synthetic and real data demonstrate the accuracy and robustness of the proposed method.

  11. Rigged String Configurations, Bethe Ansatz Qubits, and Conservation of Parity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lulek, T.

    Bethe Ansatz solutions for the Heisenberg Hamiltonian of a one - dimensional magnetic ring of N nodes, each with the spin 1/2, within the XXX model, have been presented as some composite systems, in a spirit of quantum information theory. The constituents are single - node spin states, which organize into strings of various length, and "seas of holes". The former are responsible for dynamics, whereas the latter determine the range of riggings for strings. Another aim was to demonstrate a unification of Bethe Ansatz eigenstates by means of Galois symmetries of finite field extensions. The key observation is that the original eigenproblem is expressible in integers, and thus, for a finite fixed N, the splitting field of the characteristic polynom of the Heisenberg Hamiltonian is also finite. The Galois group of the latter field permutes, by definition, roots of this polynom, which implies permutation of eigenstates. General considerations are demonstrated on the example of heptagon (N = 7), which admits an implementation of a collection of arithmetic qubits, and also demonstrates a special case of degeneration of the spectrum of the Hamiltonian, resulting from conservation of parity, within the realm of rigged string configurations.

  12. Lithium niobate explosion monitor

    DOEpatents

    Bundy, Charles H.; Graham, Robert A.; Kuehn, Stephen F.; Precit, Richard R.; Rogers, Michael S.

    1990-01-01

    Monitoring explosive devices is accomplished with a substantially z-cut lithium niobate crystal in abutment with the explosive device. Upon impact by a shock wave from detonation of the explosive device, the crystal emits a current pulse prior to destruction of the crystal. The current pulse is detected by a current viewing transformer and recorded as a function of time in nanoseconds. In order to self-check the crystal, the crystal has a chromium film resistor deposited thereon which may be heated by a current pulse prior to detonation. This generates a charge which is detected by a charge amplifier.

  13. Lithium niobate explosion monitor

    DOEpatents

    Bundy, C.H.; Graham, R.A.; Kuehn, S.F.; Precit, R.R.; Rogers, M.S.

    1990-01-09

    Monitoring explosive devices is accomplished with a substantially z-cut lithium niobate crystal in abutment with the explosive device. Upon impact by a shock wave from detonation of the explosive device, the crystal emits a current pulse prior to destruction of the crystal. The current pulse is detected by a current viewing transformer and recorded as a function of time in nanoseconds. In order to self-check the crystal, the crystal has a chromium film resistor deposited thereon which may be heated by a current pulse prior to detonation. This generates a charge which is detected by a charge amplifier. 8 figs.

  14. Liquid explosives detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burnett, Lowell J.

    1994-03-01

    A Liquid Explosives Screening System capable of scanning unopened bottles for liquid explosives has been developed. The system can be operated to detect specific explosives directly, or to verify the labeled or bar-coded contents of the container. In this system nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) is used to interrogate the liquid. NMR produces an extremely rich data set and many parameters of the NMR response can be determined simultaneously. As a result, multiple NMR signatures may be defined for any given set of liquids, and the signature complexity then selected according to the level of threat.

  15. Method for loading explosive laterally from a borehole

    DOEpatents

    Ricketts, Thomas E.

    1981-01-01

    There is provided a method for forming an in situ oil shale retort in a subterranean formation containing oil shale. At least one void is excavated in the formation, leaving zones of unfragmented formation adjacent the void. An array of main blastholes is formed in the zone of unfragmented formation and at least one explosive charge which is shaped for forming a high velocity gas jet is placed into a main blasthole with the axis of the gas jet extending transverse to the blasthole. The shaped charge is detonated for forming an auxiliary blasthole in the unfragmented formation adjacent a side wall of the main blasthole. The auxiliary blasthole extends laterally away from the main blasthole. Explosive is placed into the main blasthole and into the auxiliary blasthole and is detonated for explosively expanding formation towards the free face for forming a fragmented permeable mass of formation particles in the in situ oil shale retort.

  16. Micro-explosion of compound drops

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Chun-Kuei; Lin, Ta-Hui

    2014-08-01

    Introducing water into spray combustion systems, by either water-in-oil emulsification or supplementary water injection, is one of the major techniques for combustion improvement and NOx reduction. Plentiful researches are available on combustion of water-in-oil emulsion fuel drops. The emulsified liquid is a heterogeneous mixture of immiscible liquids. One component forms the continuous phase and the other component forms the discrete phase. The discrete phase consists of globules of the one fluid that are suspended in the continuous phase fluid. Water-in-oil emulsions are commonly considered for combustion applications because emulsions can result in micro-explosion, thereby reducing the average drop diameter to enhance liquid vaporization, and suppressing the formation of soot and NOx. However, the water addition generally does not exceed about 20% for smooth engine operations[!, 21. The combustion characteristics and micro-explosion of emulsion drop were studied by many researchers. The micro-explosion of water in fuel emulsion drops was caused by very fast growth of superheated water vapor bubbles, its superheat limits must be lower than the boiling point temperature of the fuel. These bubbles were primarily governed by the pressure difference between the superheated vapor and the liquid, and by the inertia imparted to the liquid by the motion of the bubble surface[3 6 In this study, we used a coaxial nozzle to generation the multi-component drop. The different type of water-in-oil fuel drops called the compound drops. Unlike an emulsion drop, a compound drop consists of a water core and a fuel shell, which can originate from the phase separation of emulsion[7, 81 or a water drop colliding with a fuel drop[9, 101 Burning and micro-explosion of compound drops have been found to be distinct from those of emulsion drops[9-111 Wang et al.[9 , 101 studied the combustion characteristics of collision merged alkane-water drops. The merged drops appeared in adhesive

  17. RIG-I-Mediated Antiviral Signaling Is Inhibited in HIV-1 Infection by a Protease-Mediated Sequestration of RIG-I▿

    PubMed Central

    Solis, Mayra; Nakhaei, Peyman; Jalalirad, Mohammad; Lacoste, Judith; Douville, Renée; Arguello, Meztli; Zhao, Tiejun; Laughrea, Michael; Wainberg, Mark A.; Hiscott, John

    2011-01-01

    The rapid induction of type I interferon (IFN) is essential for establishing innate antiviral responses. During infection, cytoplasmic viral RNA is sensed by two DExD/H box RNA helicases, RIG-I and MDA5, ultimately driving IFN production. Here, we demonstrate that purified genomic RNA from HIV-1 induces a RIG-I-dependent type I IFN response. Both the dimeric and monomeric forms of HIV-1 were sensed by RIG-I, but not MDA5, with monomeric RNA, usually found in defective HIV-1 particles, acting as a better inducer of IFN than dimeric RNA. However, despite the presence of HIV-1 RNA in the de novo infection of monocyte-derived macrophages, HIV-1 replication did not lead to a substantial induction of IFN signaling. We demonstrate the existence of an evasion mechanism based on the inhibition of the RIG-I sensor through the action of the HIV-1 protease (PR). Indeed, the ectopic expression of PR resulted in the inhibition of IFN regulatory factor 3 (IRF-3) phosphorylation and decreased expression of IFN and interferon-stimulated genes. A downregulation of cytoplasmic RIG-I levels occurred in cells undergoing a single-cycle infection with wild-type provirus BH10 but not in cells transfected with a protease-deficient provirus, BH10-PR−. Cellular fractionation and confocal microscopy studies revealed that RIG-I translocated from the cytosol to an insoluble fraction during the de novo HIV-1 infection of monocyte-derived macrophages, in the presence of PR. The loss of cytoplasmic RIG-I was prevented by the lysosomal inhibitor E64, suggesting that PR targets RIG-I to the lysosomes. This study reveals a novel PR-dependent mechanism employed by HIV-1 to counteract the early IFN response to viral RNA in infected cells. PMID:21084468

  18. Review of the OSHA-NIOSH Response to the Deepwater Horizon Oil Spill: Protecting the Health and Safety of Cleanup Workers

    PubMed Central

    Michaels, David; Howard, John

    2012-01-01

    Introduction: The fire and explosion of the Deepwater Horizon oil rig resulted in an enormous oil spill that threatened large distances of coastline. The overall response was led by the United States Coast Guard and involved the oil company BP, federal agencies, and state and local governments of five states. Methods: The Occupational Safety and Health Administration and the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health focused extensive resources on ensuring that BP and its contractors provided safe working conditions for thousands of workers involved in the response. Federal personnel visited worksites daily, identifying hazards and means of abatement; assessed training programs to ensure that workers were adequately trained in languages they could understand; monitored chemical exposures and determined that the proper personal protective equipment was deployed; insisted on implementation of a heat mitigation program; rostered thousands of workers; and conducted extensive outreach in communities impacted by the spill. Results: Advance planning, immediate deployment, and collaboration across agencies helped ensure that the response operations resulted in no worker fatalities, and relatively few injuries and illnesses. Conclusions: For future responses, improvements should be made in how safety and health information, as well as the process behind safety and health decisions, are communicated to the public. Citation: Michaels D, Howard J. Review of the OSHA-NIOSH Response to the Deepwater Horizon Oil Spill: Protecting the Health and Safety of Cleanup Workers. PLoS Currents Disasters. 2012 Jul 18 PMID:24678440

  19. Idaho Explosive Detection System

    ScienceCinema

    Klinger, Jeff

    2016-07-12

    Learn how INL researchers are making the world safer by developing an explosives detection system that can inspect cargo. For more information about INL security research, visit http://www.facebook.com/idahonationallaboratory

  20. Disorder induces explosive synchronization.

    PubMed

    Skardal, Per Sebastian; Arenas, Alex

    2014-06-01

    We study explosive synchronization, a phenomenon characterized by first-order phase transitions between incoherent and synchronized states in networks of coupled oscillators. While explosive synchronization has been the subject of many recent studies, in each case strong conditions on the heterogeneity of the network, its link weights, or its initial construction are imposed to engineer a first-order phase transition. This raises the question of how robust explosive synchronization is in view of more realistic structural and dynamical properties. Here we show that explosive synchronization can be induced in mildly heterogeneous networks by the addition of quenched disorder to the oscillators' frequencies, demonstrating that it is not only robust to, but moreover promoted by, this natural mechanism. We support these findings with numerical and analytical results, presenting simulations of a real neural network as well as a self-consistency theory used to study synthetic networks.

  1. Idaho Explosive Detection System

    SciTech Connect

    Klinger, Jeff

    2011-01-01

    Learn how INL researchers are making the world safer by developing an explosives detection system that can inspect cargo. For more information about INL security research, visit http://www.facebook.com/idahonationallaboratory

  2. Idaho Explosives Detection System

    SciTech Connect

    Edward L. Reber; J. Keith Jewell; Larry G. Blackwood; Andrew J. Edwards; Kenneth W. Rohde; Edward H. Seabury

    2004-10-01

    The Idaho Explosives Detection System (IEDS) was developed at the Idaho National Laboratory (INL) to respond to threats imposed by delivery trucks carrying explosives into military bases. A full-scale prototype system has been built and is currently undergoing testing. The system consists of two racks, one on each side of a subject vehicle. Each rack includes a neutron generator and an array of NaI detectors. The two neutron generators are pulsed and synchronized. A laptop computer controls the entire system. The control software is easily operable by minimally trained staff. The system was developed to detect explosives in a medium size truck within a 5-minute measurement time. System performance was successfully demonstrated with explosives at the INL in June 2004 and at Andrews Air Force Base in July 2004.

  3. Parametric Explosion Spectral Model

    SciTech Connect

    Ford, S R; Walter, W R

    2012-01-19

    Small underground nuclear explosions need to be confidently detected, identified, and characterized in regions of the world where they have never before occurred. We develop a parametric model of the nuclear explosion seismic source spectrum derived from regional phases that is compatible with earthquake-based geometrical spreading and attenuation. Earthquake spectra are fit with a generalized version of the Brune spectrum, which is a three-parameter model that describes the long-period level, corner-frequency, and spectral slope at high-frequencies. Explosion spectra can be fit with similar spectral models whose parameters are then correlated with near-source geology and containment conditions. We observe a correlation of high gas-porosity (low-strength) with increased spectral slope. The relationship between the parametric equations and the geologic and containment conditions will assist in our physical understanding of the nuclear explosion source.

  4. Saturn's Hot Plasma Explosions

    NASA Video Gallery

    This animation based on data obtained by NASA's Cassini Spacecraft shows how the "explosions" of hot plasma on the night side (orange and white) periodically inflate Saturn's magnetic field (white ...

  5. Polymeric binder for explosives

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bissell, E. R.

    1972-01-01

    Chemical reaction for producing a polymer which can be mixed with explosives to produce a rigid material is discussed. Physical and chemical properties of polymers are described and chemical structure of the polymer is illustrated.

  6. Explosion suppression system

    DOEpatents

    Sapko, Michael J.; Cortese, Robert A.

    1992-01-01

    An explosion suppression system and triggering apparatus therefor are provided for quenching gas and dust explosions. An electrically actuated suppression mechanism which dispenses an extinguishing agent into the path ahead of the propagating flame is actuated by a triggering device which is light powered. This triggering device is located upstream of the propagating flame and converts light from the flame to an electrical actuation signal. A pressure arming device electrically connects the triggering device to the suppression device only when the explosion is sensed by a further characteristic thereof beside the flame such as the pioneer pressure wave. The light powered triggering device includes a solar panel which is disposed in the path of the explosion and oriented between horizontally downward and vertical. Testing mechanisms are also preferably provided to test the operation of the solar panel and detonator as well as the pressure arming mechanism.

  7. RIG-I Signaling Is Critical for Efficient Polyfunctional T Cell Responses during Influenza Virus Infection

    PubMed Central

    Kandasamy, Matheswaran; Suryawanshi, Amol; Tundup, Smanla; Perez, Jasmine T.; Schmolke, Mirco; Manicassamy, Santhakumar; Manicassamy, Balaji

    2016-01-01

    Retinoic acid inducible gene-I (RIG-I) is an innate RNA sensor that recognizes the influenza A virus (IAV) RNA genome and activates antiviral host responses. Here, we demonstrate that RIG-I signaling plays a crucial role in restricting IAV tropism and regulating host immune responses. Mice deficient in the RIG-I-MAVS pathway show defects in migratory dendritic cell (DC) activation, viral antigen presentation, and priming of CD8+ and CD4+ T cell responses during IAV infection. These defects result in decreased frequency of polyfunctional effector T cells and lowered protection against heterologous IAV challenge. In addition, our data show that RIG-I activation is essential for protecting epithelial cells and hematopoietic cells from IAV infection. These diverse effects of RIG-I signaling are likely imparted by the actions of type I interferon (IFN), as addition of exogenous type I IFN is sufficient to overcome the defects in antigen presentation by RIG-I deficient BMDC. Moreover, the in vivo T cell defects in RIG-I deficient mice can be overcome by the activation of MDA5 –MAVS via poly I:C treatment. Taken together, these findings demonstrate that RIG-I signaling through MAVS is critical for determining the quality of polyfunctional T cell responses against IAV and for providing protection against subsequent infection from heterologous or novel pandemic IAV strains. PMID:27438481

  8. Evolutionary conservation of the insulinoma gene rig and its possible function

    SciTech Connect

    Inoue, C.; Shiga, K.; Takasawa, S.; Kitagawa, M.; Yamamoto, H.; Okamoto, H.

    1987-10-01

    The authors have identified a gene, rig (rat insulinoma gene), that is activated in chemically induced rat insulinomas but not in normal pancreatic islets or in regenerating islets. In the present study, they have found that the insulinoma gene was activated in a BK virus-induced hamster insulinoma cell line and in a spontaneously occurring human insulinoma. From the hamster and human insulinoma cDNA libraries, rig homologues were isolated, and their nucleotide sequences were determined. In the same manner as the rat gene, both hamster and human homologues contained one open reading frame of 435 nucleotides, differing by 32- and 41-base substitutions, respectively. All the base substitutions were same-sense mutations. Accordingly, the deduced 145-amino acid sequence remained invariant in hamster, human, and rat insulinomas, suggesting that rig has evolved under extraordinarily strong selective constraints. Computerized structure analysis indicated that rig-encoded protein is a possible DNA-binding protein. The antisense oligodeoxyribonucleotide complementary to hamster rig mRNA was synthesized and injected into the hamster insulinoma cells. The antisense rig oligodeoxyribouncleotide inhibited DNA synthesis in the insulinoma cells, whereas the sense rig oligodeoxyribonucleotide or antisense insulin oligodeoxyribonucleotide had no inhibitory effect. These results strongly suggest that the activation of rig is both common and potentially significant in the oncogenic growth of pancreatic B cells of islets of Langerhans.

  9. 16 CFR Figure 1 to Part 1512 - Bicycle Front Fork Cantilever Bending Test Rig

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Bicycle Front Fork Cantilever Bending Test Rig 1 Figure 1 to Part 1512 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION FEDERAL HAZARDOUS... Fork Cantilever Bending Test Rig EC03OC91.070...

  10. 16 CFR Figure 1 to Part 1512 - Bicycle Front Fork Cantilever Bending Test Rig

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Bicycle Front Fork Cantilever Bending Test Rig 1 Figure 1 to Part 1512 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION FEDERAL HAZARDOUS... Fork Cantilever Bending Test Rig EC03OC91.070...

  11. 16 CFR Figure 1 to Part 1512 - Bicycle Front Fork Cantilever Bending Test Rig

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Bicycle Front Fork Cantilever Bending Test Rig 1 Figure 1 to Part 1512 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION FEDERAL HAZARDOUS... Fork Cantilever Bending Test Rig EC03OC91.070...

  12. 16 CFR Figure 1 to Part 1512 - Bicycle Front Fork Cantilever Bending Test Rig

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Bicycle Front Fork Cantilever Bending Test Rig 1 Figure 1 to Part 1512 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION FEDERAL HAZARDOUS... Fork Cantilever Bending Test Rig EC03OC91.070...

  13. 16 CFR Figure 1 to Part 1512 - Bicycle Front Fork Cantilever Bending Test Rig

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Bicycle Front Fork Cantilever Bending Test Rig 1 Figure 1 to Part 1512 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION FEDERAL HAZARDOUS... Fork Cantilever Bending Test Rig EC03OC91.070...

  14. A Universal Rig for Supporting Large Hammer Drills: Reduced Injury Risk and Improved Productivity

    PubMed Central

    Rempel, David; Barr, Alan

    2015-01-01

    Drilling holes into concrete with heavy hammer and rock drills is one of the most physically demanding tasks performed in commercial construction and poses risks for musculoskeletal disorders, noise induced hearing loss, hand arm vibration syndrome and silicosis. The aim of this study was to (1) use a participatory process to develop a rig to support pneumatic rock drills or large electric hammer drills in order to reduce the health risks and (2) evaluate the usability of the rig. Seven prototype rigs for supporting large hammer drills were developed and modified with feedback from commercial contractors and construction workers. The final design was evaluated by laborers and electricians (N=29) who performed their usual concrete drilling with the usual method and the new rig. Subjective regional fatigue was significantly less in the neck, shoulders, hands and arms, and lower back) when using the universal rig compared to the usual manual method. Usability ratings for the rig were significantly better than the usual method on stability, control, drilling, accuracy, and vibration. Drilling time was reduced by approximately 50% with the rig. Commercial construction contractors, laborers and electricians who use large hammer drills for drilling many holes should consider using such a rig to prevent musculoskeletal disorders, fatigue, and silicosis. PMID:26005290

  15. Syndecan-4 negatively regulates antiviral signalling by mediating RIG-I deubiquitination via CYLD

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Wei; Zhang, Jing; Lin, Haiyan; Li, Zexing; Sun, Xiaofeng; Xin, Di; Yang, Meng; Sun, Liwei; Li, Lin; Wang, Hongmei; Chen, Dahua; Sun, Qinmiao

    2016-01-01

    Retinoic acid-inducible gene I (RIG-I) plays important roles in pathogen recognition and antiviral signalling transduction. Here we show that syndecan-4 (SDC4) is a RIG-I-interacting partner identified in a yeast two-hybrid screen. We find that SDC4 negatively regulates the RIG-I-mediated antiviral signalling in a feedback-loop control manner. The genetic evidence obtained by using knockout mice further emphasizes this biological role of SDC4 in antiviral signalling. Mechanistically, we show that SDC4 interacts with both RIG-I and deubiquitinase CYLD via its carboxyl-terminal intracellular region. SDC4 likely promotes redistribution of RIG-I and CYLD in a perinuclear pattern post viral infection, and thus enhances the RIG-I–CYLD interaction and potentiates the K63-linked deubiquitination of RIG-I. Collectively, our findings uncover a mechanism by which SDC4 antagonizes the activation of RIG-I in a CYLD-mediated deubiquitination-dependent process, thereby balancing antiviral signalling to avoid deleterious effects on host cells. PMID:27279133

  16. Design and Analysis of Tooth Impact Test Rig for Spur Gear

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghazali, Wafiuddin Bin Md; Aziz, Ismail Ali Bin Abdul; Daing Idris, Daing Mohamad Nafiz Bin; Ismail, Nurazima Binti; Sofian, Azizul Helmi Bin

    2016-02-01

    This paper is about the design and analysis of a prototype of tooth impact test rig for spur gear. The test rig was fabricated and analysis was conducted to study its’ limitation and capabilities. The design of the rig is analysed to ensure that there will be no problem occurring during the test and reliable data can be obtained. From the result of the analysis, the maximum amount of load that can be applied, the factor of safety of the machine, the stresses on the test rig parts were determined. This is important in the design consideration of the test rig. The materials used for the fabrication of the test rig were also discussed and analysed. MSC Nastran Patran software was used to analyse the model, which was designed by using SolidWorks 2014 software. Based from the results, there were limitations found from the initial design and the test rig design needs to be improved in order for the test rig to operate properly.

  17. Negative regulation of RIG-I-mediated antiviral signaling by TRK-fused gene (TFG) protein

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, Na-Rae; Shin, Han-Bo; Kim, Hye-In; Choi, Myung-Soo; Inn, Kyung-Soo

    2013-07-19

    Highlights: •TRK-fused gene product (TFG) interacts with TRIM25 upon viral infection. •TFG negatively regulates RIG-I mediated antiviral signaling. •TFG depletion leads to enhanced viral replication. •TFG act downstream of MAVS. -- Abstract: RIG-I (retinoic acid inducible gene I)-mediated antiviral signaling serves as the first line of defense against viral infection. Upon detection of viral RNA, RIG-I undergoes TRIM25 (tripartite motif protein 25)-mediated K63-linked ubiquitination, leading to type I interferon (IFN) production. In this study, we demonstrate that TRK-fused gene (TFG) protein, previously identified as a TRIM25-interacting protein, binds TRIM25 upon virus infection and negatively regulates RIG-I-mediated type-I IFN signaling. RIG-I-mediated IFN production and nuclear factor (NF)-κB signaling pathways were upregulated by the suppression of TFG expression. Furthermore, vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV) replication was significantly inhibited by small inhibitory hairpin RNA (shRNA)-mediated knockdown of TFG, supporting the suppressive role of TFG in RIG-I-mediated antiviral signaling. Interestingly, suppression of TFG expression increased not only RIG-I-mediated signaling but also MAVS (mitochondrial antiviral signaling protein)-induced signaling, suggesting that TFG plays a pivotal role in negative regulation of RNA-sensing, RIG-I-like receptor (RLR) family signaling pathways.

  18. Syndecan-4 negatively regulates antiviral signalling by mediating RIG-I deubiquitination via CYLD.

    PubMed

    Lin, Wei; Zhang, Jing; Lin, Haiyan; Li, Zexing; Sun, Xiaofeng; Xin, Di; Yang, Meng; Sun, Liwei; Li, Lin; Wang, Hongmei; Chen, Dahua; Sun, Qinmiao

    2016-01-01

    Retinoic acid-inducible gene I (RIG-I) plays important roles in pathogen recognition and antiviral signalling transduction. Here we show that syndecan-4 (SDC4) is a RIG-I-interacting partner identified in a yeast two-hybrid screen. We find that SDC4 negatively regulates the RIG-I-mediated antiviral signalling in a feedback-loop control manner. The genetic evidence obtained by using knockout mice further emphasizes this biological role of SDC4 in antiviral signalling. Mechanistically, we show that SDC4 interacts with both RIG-I and deubiquitinase CYLD via its carboxyl-terminal intracellular region. SDC4 likely promotes redistribution of RIG-I and CYLD in a perinuclear pattern post viral infection, and thus enhances the RIG-I-CYLD interaction and potentiates the K63-linked deubiquitination of RIG-I. Collectively, our findings uncover a mechanism by which SDC4 antagonizes the activation of RIG-I in a CYLD-mediated deubiquitination-dependent process, thereby balancing antiviral signalling to avoid deleterious effects on host cells. PMID:27279133

  19. 77 FR 23117 - Rigging Equipment for Material Handling Construction Standard; Correction and Technical Amendment

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-18

    ... sling standard for construction titled ``Rigging Equipment for Material Handling'' by removing the rated... AND HEALTH REGULATIONS FOR CONSTRUCTION Subpart H--Materials Handling, Storage, Use, and Disposal 0 1... Occupational Safety and Health Administration 29 CFR Part 1926 Rigging Equipment for Material...

  20. Improving airport explosives detection

    SciTech Connect

    Krause, C.

    1990-01-01

    ORNL has developed the technology to detect hidden explosives in luggage using X ray and neutron detection devices. The Federal Aviation Administration has ordered the airlines to buy and install Thermal Neutron Analysis (TNA) units. The combined pulsed-neutron and X-ray interrogation inspection (CPNX) system developed at ORNL uses less radioactive materials as well as being more sensitive to weapons, electronic devices and plastic explosives.

  1. Modeling of interior explosions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zakharova, Y. V.; Fedorova, N. N.; Fedorov, A. V.

    2016-10-01

    The results of numerical simulation of an interior explosion are presented. The main purpose of the work is an investigation of shock-wave structure caused by explosion and estimation of pressure level on building walls. The numerical simulation was carried out by means of ANSYS AUTODYN software at normal atmospheric conditions with different mass of charge and internal geometry of room. The effect of mass charge and presence of vent area were shown. The calculation results are compared with published experimental data.

  2. Hepatitis B virus inhibits intrinsic RIG-I and RIG-G immune signaling via inducing miR146a

    PubMed Central

    Hou, Zhaohua; Zhang, Jian; Han, Qiuju; Su, Chenhe; Qu, Jing; Xu, Dongqing; Zhang, Cai; Tian, Zhigang

    2016-01-01

    Previous studies showed that hepatitis B virus (HBV), as a latency invader, attenuated host anti-viral immune responses. miRNAs were shown to be involved in HBV infection and HBV-related diseases, however, the precise role of miRNAs in HBV-mediated immunosuppression remains unclear. Here, we observed that down-regulated RIG-I like receptors might be one critical mechanism of HBV-induced suppression of type I IFN transcription in both HBV+ hepatoma cell lines and liver cancer tissues. Then, miR146a was demonstrated to negatively regulate the expression of RIG-I-like receptors by directly targeting both RIG-I and RIG-G. Further investigation showed that antagonizing miR146a by anti-sense inhibitors or sponge approach accelerated HBV clearance and reduced HBV load both in vitro and in a HBV-carrying mouse model. Therefore, our findings indicated that HBV-induced miR146a attenuates cell-intrinsic anti-viral innate immunity through targeting RIG-I and RIG-G, and silencing miR146a might be an effective target to reverse HBV-induced immune suppression. PMID:27210312

  3. Nanosecond resolution of .E, .H and .I in aircraft lightning test rigs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burrows, B. J. C.

    1983-06-01

    Many designs of test rig have emerged in recent years incorporating hardwired connections and design incorporating series open arcs at each end of the aircraft. Important characteristics of the test rigs are not specified, but these characteristics control the generation of large (and usually HF) transients through the fast coupling processes. Both lumped element and distributed element representation of these test rigs and the capacitor banks driving them are given, and the effects of parameter and geometry variations are highlighted. It is shown that quantitative analysis of fast transients (dot-D, dot-B) requires much closer specification of the test rig performance including switch closure time, capacitor bank and connecting line inductance, and the transmission line impedance of the test rig. Tests on the Fly-by-Wire Jaguar at Warton near Preston in England showed the need for developing a quantitative relationship between HF transients and the fast coupling processes.

  4. Nuclear explosive safety study process

    SciTech Connect

    1997-01-01

    Nuclear explosives by their design and intended use require collocation of high explosives and fissile material. The design agencies are responsible for designing safety into the nuclear explosive and processes involving the nuclear explosive. The methodology for ensuring safety consists of independent review processes that include the national laboratories, Operations Offices, Headquarters, and responsible Area Offices and operating contractors with expertise in nuclear explosive safety. A NES Study is an evaluation of the adequacy of positive measures to minimize the possibility of an inadvertent or deliberate unauthorized nuclear detonation, high explosive detonation or deflagration, fire, or fissile material dispersal from the pit. The Nuclear Explosive Safety Study Group (NESSG) evaluates nuclear explosive operations against the Nuclear Explosive Safety Standards specified in DOE O 452.2 using systematic evaluation techniques. These Safety Standards must be satisfied for nuclear explosive operations.

  5. Effect of Velocity of Detonation of Explosives on Seismic Radiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stroujkova, A. F.; Leidig, M.; Bonner, J. L.

    2014-12-01

    We studied seismic body wave generation from four fully contained explosions of approximately the same yields (68 kg of TNT equivalent) conducted in anisotropic granite in Barre, VT. The explosions were detonated using three types of explosives with different velocities of detonation (VOD): Black Powder (BP), Ammonium Nitrate Fuel Oil/Emulsion (ANFO), and Composition B (COMP B). The main objective of the experiment was to study differences in seismic wave generation among different types of explosives, and to determine the mechanism responsible for these differences. The explosives with slow burn rate (BP) produced lower P-wave amplitude and lower corner frequency, which resulted in lower seismic efficiency (0.35%) in comparison with high burn rate explosives (2.2% for ANFO and 3% for COMP B). The seismic efficiency estimates for ANFO and COMP B agree with previous studies for nuclear explosions in granite. The body wave radiation pattern is consistent with an isotropic explosion with an added azimuthal component caused by vertical tensile fractures oriented along pre-existing micro-fracturing in the granite, although the complexities in the P- and S-wave radiation patterns suggest that more than one fracture orientation could be responsible for their generation. High S/P amplitude ratios and low P-wave amplitudes suggest that a significant fraction of the BP source mechanism can be explained by opening of the tensile fractures as a result of the slow energy release.

  6. Deposition and material response from Mach 0.3 burner rig combustion of SRC 2 fuels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Santoro, G. J.; Kohl, F. J.; Stearns, C. A.; Fryburg, G. C.; Johnson, J. R.

    1980-01-01

    Collectors at 1173K (900 C) were exposed to the combustion products of a Mach 0.3 burner rig fueled with various industrial turbine liquid fuels from solvent refined coals. Four fuels were employed: a naphtha, a light oil, a wash solvent and a mid-heavy distillate blend. The response of four superalloys (IN-100, U 700, IN 792 and M-509) to exposure to the combustion gases from the SRC-2 naphtha and resultant deposits was also determined. The SRC-2 fuel analysis and insights obtained during the combustion experience are discussed. Particular problems encountered were fuel instability and reactions of the fuel with hardware components. The major metallic elements which contributed to the deposits were copper, iron, chromium, calcium, aluminum, nickel, silicon, titanium, zinc, and sodium. The deposits were found to be mainly metal oxides. An equilibrium thermodynamic analysis was employed to predict the chemical composition of the deposits. The agreement between the predicted and observed compounds was excellent. No hot corrosion was observed. This was expected because the deposits contained very little sodium or potassium and consisted mainly of the unreactive oxides. However, the amounts of deposits formed indicated that fouling is a potential problem with the use of these fuels.

  7. Explosive fragmentation of liquids in spherical geometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Milne, A.; Longbottom, A.; Frost, D. L.; Loiseau, J.; Goroshin, S.; Petel, O.

    2016-07-01

    Rapid acceleration of a spherical shell of liquid following central detonation of a high explosive causes the liquid to form fine jets that are similar in appearance to the particle jets that are formed during explosive dispersal of a packed layer of solid particles. Of particular interest is determining the dependence of the scale of the jet-like structures on the physical parameters of the system, including the fluid properties (e.g., density, viscosity, and surface tension) and the ratio of the mass of the liquid to that of the explosive. The present paper presents computational results from a multi-material hydrocode describing the dynamics of the explosive dispersal process. The computations are used to track the overall features of the early stages of dispersal of the liquid layer, including the wave dynamics, and motion of the spall and accretion layers. The results are compared with new experimental results of spherical charges surrounded by a variety of different fluids, including water, glycerol, ethanol, and vegetable oil, which together encompass a significant range of fluid properties. The results show that the number of jet structures is not sensitive to the fluid properties, but primarily dependent on the mass ratio. Above a certain mass ratio of liquid fill-to-explosive burster (F / B), the number of jets is approximately constant and consistent with an empirical model based on the maximum thickness of the accretion layer. For small values of F / B, the number of liquid jets is reduced, in contrast with explosive powder dispersal, where small F / B yields a larger number of particle jets. A hypothetical explanation of these features based on the nucleation of cavitation is explored numerically.

  8. Non-detonable and non-explosive explosive simulators

    DOEpatents

    Simpson, Randall L.; Pruneda, Cesar O.

    1997-01-01

    A simulator which is chemically equivalent to an explosive, but is not detonable or explodable. The simulator is a combination of an explosive material with an inert material, either in a matrix or as a coating, where the explosive has a high surface ratio but small volume ratio. The simulator has particular use in the training of explosives detecting dogs, calibrating analytical instruments which are sensitive to either vapor or elemental composition, or other applications where the hazards associated with explosives is undesirable but where chemical and/or elemental equivalence is required. The explosive simulants may be fabricated by different techniques. A first method involves the use of standard slurry coatings to produce a material with a very high binder to explosive ratio without masking the explosive vapor, and a second method involves coating inert substrates with thin layers of explosive.

  9. Non-detonable and non-explosive explosive simulators

    DOEpatents

    Simpson, R.L.; Pruneda, C.O.

    1997-07-15

    A simulator which is chemically equivalent to an explosive, but is not detonable or explodable is disclosed. The simulator is a combination of an explosive material with an inert material, either in a matrix or as a coating, where the explosive has a high surface ratio but small volume ratio. The simulator has particular use in the training of explosives detecting dogs, calibrating analytical instruments which are sensitive to either vapor or elemental composition, or other applications where the hazards associated with explosives is undesirable but where chemical and/or elemental equivalence is required. The explosive simulants may be fabricated by different techniques. A first method involves the use of standard slurry coatings to produce a material with a very high binder to explosive ratio without masking the explosive vapor, and a second method involves coating inert substrates with thin layers of explosive. 11 figs.

  10. Test Results From a High Power Linear Alternator Test Rig

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Birchenough, Arthur G.; Hervol, David S.; Gardner, Brent G.

    2010-01-01

    Stirling cycle power conversion is an enabling technology that provides high thermodynamic efficiency but also presents unique challenges with regard to electrical power generation, management, and distribution. The High Power Linear Alternator Test Rig (HPLATR) located at the NASA Glenn Research Center (GRC) in Cleveland, Ohio is a demonstration test bed that simulates electrical power generation from a Stirling engine driven alternator. It implements the high power electronics necessary to provide a well regulated DC user load bus. These power electronics use a novel design solution that includes active rectification and power factor control, active ripple suppression, along with a unique building block approach that permits the use of high voltage or high current alternator designs. This report describes the HPLATR, the test program, and the operational results.

  11. Test Results from a High Power Linear Alternator Test Rig

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Birchenough, Arthur G.; Hervol, David S.; Gardner, Brent G.

    2010-01-01

    Stirling cycle power conversion is an enabling technology that provides high thermodynamic efficiency but also presents unique challenges with regard to electrical power generation, management, and distribution. The High Power Linear Alternator Test Rig (HPLATR) located at the NASA Glenn Research Center (GRC) in Cleveland, OH is a demonstration test bed that simulates electrical power generation from a Stirling engine driven alternator. It implements the high power electronics necessary to provide a well regulated DC user load bus. These power electronics use a novel design solution that includes active rectification and power factor control, active ripple suppression, along with a unique building block approach that permits the use of high voltage or high current alternator designs. This presentation describes the HPLATR, the test program, and the operational results.

  12. Slim-hole system uses special rig, drill string

    SciTech Connect

    Dupuis, D.; Fanuel, P.

    1993-07-01

    This paper reviews the new Euroslim drilling system which allows deep penetration of small diameter exploration and production wells. The Euroslim approach is an optimized conventional rotary drilling technique that allows continuous coring of the zone of interest. The initial project set the requirements of power transmission and hydraulic optimization to drill 4 3/4 inch holes to 3,500 meters with a single drill pipe size. A second drill string has now been designed to reach 4,000 meters with hole sizes ranging from 3 inches to 3 11/32 inches. This paper reviews the specifications of the drill pipe, core barrels, drill rig, stabilizers, drill bits, and deviation tools. A cost benefit analysis is also provided comparing the slim-bore drilling to conventional drilling.

  13. V/STOL model fan stage rig design report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cheatham, J. G.; Creason, T. L.

    1983-01-01

    A model single-stage fan with variable inlet guide vanes (VIGV) was designed to demonstrate efficient point operation while providing flow and pressure ratio modulation capability required for a V/STOL propulsion system. The fan stage incorporates a split-flap VIGV with an independently actuated ID flap to permit independent modulation of fan and core engine airstreams, a flow splitter integrally designed into the blade and vanes to completely segregate fan and core airstreams in order to maximize core stream supercharging for V/STOL operation, and an EGV with a variable leading edge fan flap for rig performance optimization. The stage was designed for a maximum flow size of 37.4 kg/s (82.3 lb/s) for compatibility with LeRC test facility requirements. Design values at maximum flow for blade tip velocity and stage pressure ratio are 472 m/s (1550 ft/s) and 1.68, respectively.

  14. Deposition stress effects on thermal barrier coating burner rig life

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Watson, J. W.; Levine, S. R.

    1984-01-01

    A study of the effect of plasma spray processing parameters on the life of a two layer thermal barrier coating was conducted. The ceramic layer was plasma sprayed at plasma arc currents of 900 and 600 amps onto uncooled tubes, cooled tubes, and solid bars of Waspalloy in a lathe with 1 or 8 passes of the plasma gun. These processing changes affected the residual stress state of the coating. When the specimens were tested in a Mach 0.3 cyclic burner rig at 1130 deg C, a wide range of coating lives resulted. Processing factors which reduced the residual stress state in the coating, such as reduced plasma temperature and increased heat dissipation, significantly increased coating life.

  15. Burner rig alkali salt corrosion of several high temperature alloys

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Deadmore, D. L.; Lowell, C. E.

    1977-01-01

    The hot corrosion of five alloys was studied in cyclic tests in a Mach 0.3 burner rig into whose combustion chamber various aqueous salt solutions were injected. Three nickel-based alloys, a cobalt-base alloy, and an iron-base alloy were studied at temperatures of 700, 800, 900, and 1000 C with various salt concentrations and compositions. The relative resistance of the alloys to hot corrosion attack was found to vary with temperature and both concentration and composition of the injected salt solution. Results indicate that the corrosion of these alloys is a function of both the presence of salt condensed as a liquid on the surface and of the composition of the gas phases present.

  16. Advances in measuring techniques for turbine cooling test rigs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pollack, F. G.

    1972-01-01

    Surface temperature distribution measurements for turbine vanes and blades were obtained by measuring the infrared energy emitted by the airfoil. The IR distribution can be related to temperature distribution by suitable calibration methods and the data presented in the form of isotherm maps. Both IR photographic and real time electro-optical methods are being investigated. The methods can be adapted to rotating as well as stationary targets, and both methods can utilize computer processing. Pressure measurements on rotating components are made with a rotating system incorporating 10 miniature transducers. A mercury wetted slip ring assembly was used to supply excitation power and as a signal transfer device. The system was successfully tested up to speeds of 9000 rpm and is now being adapted to measure rotating blade airflow quantities in a spin rig and a research engine.

  17. Dynamic Investigation Test-rig on hAptics (DITA)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cannella, F.; Scalise, L.; Olivieri, E.; Memeo, M.; Caldwell, D. G.

    2013-09-01

    Research on tactile sensitivity has been conducted since the last century and many devices have been proposed to study in detail this sense through experimental tests. The sense of touch is essential in every-day life of human beings, but it can also play a fundamental role for the assessment of some neurological disabilities and pathologies. In fact, the level of tactile perception can provide information on the health state of the nervous system. In this paper, authors propose the design and development of a novel test apparatus, named DITA (Dynamic Investigation Test-rig on hAptics), aiming to provide the measurement of the tactile sensitivity trough the determination of the Just Noticeable Difference (JND) curve of a subject. The paper reports the solution adopted for the system design and the results obtained on the set of experiments carried out on volunteers.

  18. 49 CFR 172.522 - EXPLOSIVES 1.1, EXPLOSIVES 1.2 and EXPLOSIVES 1.3 placards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false EXPLOSIVES 1.1, EXPLOSIVES 1.2 and EXPLOSIVES 1.3... INFORMATION, TRAINING REQUIREMENTS, AND SECURITY PLANS Placarding § 172.522 EXPLOSIVES 1.1, EXPLOSIVES 1.2 and EXPLOSIVES 1.3 placards. (a) Except for size and color, the EXPLOSIVES 1.1, EXPLOSIVES 1.2 and EXPLOSIVES...

  19. 49 CFR 172.522 - EXPLOSIVES 1.1, EXPLOSIVES 1.2 and EXPLOSIVES 1.3 placards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false EXPLOSIVES 1.1, EXPLOSIVES 1.2 and EXPLOSIVES 1.3... INFORMATION, TRAINING REQUIREMENTS, AND SECURITY PLANS Placarding § 172.522 EXPLOSIVES 1.1, EXPLOSIVES 1.2 and EXPLOSIVES 1.3 placards. (a) Except for size and color, the EXPLOSIVES 1.1, EXPLOSIVES 1.2 and EXPLOSIVES...

  20. 49 CFR 172.522 - EXPLOSIVES 1.1, EXPLOSIVES 1.2 and EXPLOSIVES 1.3 placards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false EXPLOSIVES 1.1, EXPLOSIVES 1.2 and EXPLOSIVES 1.3... INFORMATION, TRAINING REQUIREMENTS, AND SECURITY PLANS Placarding § 172.522 EXPLOSIVES 1.1, EXPLOSIVES 1.2 and EXPLOSIVES 1.3 placards. (a) Except for size and color, the EXPLOSIVES 1.1, EXPLOSIVES 1.2 and EXPLOSIVES...

  1. 49 CFR 172.522 - EXPLOSIVES 1.1, EXPLOSIVES 1.2 and EXPLOSIVES 1.3 placards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false EXPLOSIVES 1.1, EXPLOSIVES 1.2 and EXPLOSIVES 1.3... INFORMATION, TRAINING REQUIREMENTS, AND SECURITY PLANS Placarding § 172.522 EXPLOSIVES 1.1, EXPLOSIVES 1.2 and EXPLOSIVES 1.3 placards. (a) Except for size and color, the EXPLOSIVES 1.1, EXPLOSIVES 1.2 and EXPLOSIVES...

  2. Influenza A Virus Panhandle Structure Is Directly Involved in RIG-I Activation and Interferon Induction

    PubMed Central

    Liu, GuanQun; Park, Hong-Su; Pyo, Hyun-Mi; Liu, Qiang

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Retinoic acid-inducible gene I (RIG-I) is an important innate immune sensor that recognizes viral RNA in the cytoplasm. Its nonself recognition largely depends on the unique RNA structures imposed by viral RNA. The panhandle structure residing in the influenza A virus (IAV) genome, whose primary function is to serve as the viral promoter for transcription and replication, has been proposed to be a RIG-I agonist. However, this has never been proved experimentally. Here, we employed multiple approaches to determine if the IAV panhandle structure is directly involved in RIG-I activation and type I interferon (IFN) induction. First, in porcine alveolar macrophages, we demonstrated that the viral genomic coding region is dispensable for RIG-I-dependent IFN induction. Second, using in vitro-synthesized hairpin RNA, we showed that the IAV panhandle structure could directly bind to RIG-I and stimulate IFN production. Furthermore, we investigated the contributions of the wobble base pairs, mismatch, and unpaired nucleotides within the wild-type panhandle structure to RIG-I activation. Elimination of these destabilizing elements within the panhandle structure promoted RIG-I activation and IFN induction. Given the function of the panhandle structure as the viral promoter, we further monitored the promoter activity of these panhandle variants and found that viral replication was moderately affected, whereas viral transcription was impaired dramatically. In all, our results indicate that the IAV panhandle promoter region adopts a nucleotide composition that is optimal for balanced viral RNA synthesis and suboptimal for RIG-I activation. IMPORTANCE The IAV genomic panhandle structure has been proposed to be an RIG-I agonist due to its partial complementarity; however, this has not been experimentally confirmed. Here, we provide direct evidence that the IAV panhandle structure is competent in, and sufficient for, RIG-I activation and IFN induction. By constructing

  3. PS300 Tribomaterials Evaluated at 6500C by Bushing Test Rig

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Striebing, Donald R.; DellaCorte, Christopher

    2004-01-01

    A new facility has been developed to test the tribological behavior (friction and wear) of PS300 solid lubricant bushings at high temperatures. PS300 is a commercially available solid lubricant invented at the NASA Glenn Research Center. It can be prepared as a plasma spray coating or as a free-standing powder metallurgy component, designated PM300. PS300 and PM300 composites are designed to lubricate sliding components at temperatures above the capability of today's best oils, greases, and solid lubricants. One of the primary applications being pursued for PM300 is the development of bushings for use in high-temperature machinery. Examples include inlet guide vane bushings for gas turbines and conveyors, and bearings for industrial furnaces and ovens. Encouraging preliminary field trials indicate that PS300 and PM300 lubricant materials have been commercialized successfully in several industrial applications. However, the lack of laboratory performance data has hindered further commercialization especially for new applications that differ significantly from the established experience base. The purpose of the newly developed bushing test rig will be to determine the performance characteristics of PM300, and other materials, under conditions closely matching intended applications. The data will be used to determine engineering friction and wear rates and to estimate the life expectancy of bushings for new applications. In the new rig, the bushing is loaded against a rotating shaft inside a furnace enclosure (see the preceding photograph). Loads can vary from 5 to 200 N, speeds from 1 to 400 rpm, and temperatures from 25 to 800 C. Furnace temperature, bushing temperature, shaft speed, and torque are monitored during the test, and wear of both the bushing and the shaft is measured after testing is completed. Initially, PM300 bushings will be evaluated and compared with lower temperature, traditional bushing materials like graphite and porous bronze. The baseline PM304

  4. Explosively separable casing

    SciTech Connect

    Jacobson, A.K.; Kychnovsky, R.E.; Visbeck, C.N.

    1985-02-19

    An explosively separable casing including a cylindrical afterbody and a circular cover for one end of the afterbody is disclosed. The afterbody has a cylindrical tongue extending longitudinally from one end which is matingly received in a corresponding groove in the cover. The groove is sized to provide a pocket between the end of the tongue and the remainder of the groove so that an explosive can be located therein. A seal is also provided between the tongue and the groove for sealing the pocket from the atmosphere. A frangible holding device is utilized to hold the cover to the afterbody. When the explosive is ignited, the increase in pressure in the pocket causes the cover to be accelerated away from the afterbody. Preferably, the inner wall of the afterbody is in the same plane as the inner wall of the tongue to provide a maximum space for storage in the afterbody and the side wall of the cover is thicker than the side wall of the afterbody so as to provide a sufficiently strong surrounding portion for the pocket in which the explosion takes place. The detonator for the explosive is also located on the cover and is carried away with the cover during separation. The seal is preferably located at the longitudinal end of the tongue and has a chevron cross section.

  5. Detection of Explosive Materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trogler, William

    2008-03-01

    High explosives present a challenge for detection methods because of their range of physical properties, which range from volatile liquids to nonvolatile solids. They share the common feature of possessing both oxidizing and reducing chemical properties within a single molecule or an intimate chemical mixture. Our research group has been focused on the synthesis of new luminescent polymers, which undergo electron transfer quenching by a variety of organic high explosives, such as TNT, RDX, and PETN. The application to imaging trace explosive particle residues will be described. Density functional calculations show an excellent correlation between the sensor response and the lowest unoccupied molecular orbital of the explosive analyte. For volatile high explosives, such as organic peroxides (e.g. TATP), vapor sensors based on chemically sensitive transistors containing different metal phthalocyanines have been explored. The mechanism of current response in these films has been shown to be a result of surface Lewis acid-base chemistry or redox catalysis at the metal centers. The link between surface chemistry and electronic resonse has led to a simple peroxide specific vapor sensor array.

  6. Explosively separable casing

    DOEpatents

    Jacobson, A.K.; Rychnovsky, R.E.; Visbeck, C.N.

    An explosively separable casing including a cylindrical afterbody and a circular cover for one end of the afterbody is disclosed. The afterbody has a cylindrical tongue extending longitudinally from one end which is matingly received in a corresponding groove in the cover. The groove is sized to provide a picket between the end of the tongue and the remainder of the groove so that an explosive can be located therein. A seal is also provided between the tongue and the groove for sealing the pocket from the atmosphere. A frangible holding device is utilized to hold the cover to the afterbody. When the explosive is ignited, the increase in pressure in the pocket causes the cover to be accelerated away from the afterbody. Preferably, the inner wall of the afterbody is in the same plane as the inner wall of the tongue to provide a maximum space for storage in the afterbody and the side wall of the cover is thicker than the side wall of the afterbody so as to provide a sufficiently strong surrounding portion for the pocket in which the explosion takes place. The detonator for the explosive is also located on the cover and is carried away with the cover during separation. The seal is preferably located at the longitudinal end of the tongue and has a chevron cross section.

  7. Explosively separable casing

    DOEpatents

    Jacobson, Albin K.; Rychnovsky, Raymond E.; Visbeck, Cornelius N.

    1985-01-01

    An explosively separable casing including a cylindrical afterbody and a circular cover for one end of the afterbody is disclosed. The afterbody has a cylindrical tongue extending longitudinally from one end which is matingly received in a corresponding groove in the cover. The groove is sized to provide a pocket between the end of the tongue and the remainder of the groove so that an explosive can be located therein. A seal is also provided between the tongue and the groove for sealing the pocket from the atmosphere. A frangible holding device is utilized to hold the cover to the afterbody. When the explosive is ignited, the increase in pressure in the pocket causes the cover to be accelerated away from the afterbody. Preferably, the inner wall of the afterbody is in the same plane as the inner wall of the tongue to provide a maximum space for storage in the afterbody and the side wall of the cover is thicker than the side wall of the afterbody so as to provide a sufficiently strong surrounding portion for the pocket in which the explosion takes place. The detonator for the explosive is also located on the cover and is carried away with the cover during separation. The seal is preferably located at the longitudinal end of the tongue and has a chevron cross section.

  8. Explosion containment device

    DOEpatents

    Benedick, William B.; Daniel, Charles J.

    1977-01-01

    The disclosure relates to an explosives storage container for absorbing and containing the blast, fragments and detonation products from a possible detonation of a contained explosive. The container comprises a layer of distended material having sufficient thickness to convert a portion of the kinetic energy of the explosion into thermal energy therein. A continuous wall of steel sufficiently thick to absorb most of the remaining kinetic energy by stretching and expanding, thereby reducing the momentum of detonation products and high velocity fragments, surrounds the layer of distended material. A crushable layer surrounds the continuous steel wall and accommodates the stretching and expanding thereof, transmitting a moderate load to the outer enclosure. These layers reduce the forces of the explosion and the momentum of the products thereof to zero. The outer enclosure comprises a continuous pressure wall enclosing all of the layers. In one embodiment, detonation of the contained explosive causes the outer enclosure to expand which indicates to a visual observer that a detonation has occurred.

  9. Occupational exposure to airborne contaminants during offshore oil drilling.

    PubMed

    Kirkhus, Niels E; Thomassen, Yngvar; Ulvestad, Bente; Woldbæk, Torill; Ellingsen, Dag G

    2015-07-01

    The aim was to study exposure to airborne contaminants in oil drillers during ordinary work. Personal samples were collected among 65 drill floor workers on four stationary and six moveable rigs in the Norwegian offshore sector. Air concentrations of drilling mud were determined based on measurements of the non-volatile mud components Ca and Fe. The median air concentration of mud was 140 μg m(-3). Median air concentrations of oil mist (180 μg m(-3)), oil vapour (14 mg m(-3)) and organic carbon (46 μg m(-3)) were also measured. All contaminants were detected in all work areas (drill floor, shaker area, mud pits, pump room, other areas). The highest air concentrations were measured in the shaker area, but the differences in air concentrations between working areas were moderate. Oil mist and oil vapour concentrations were statistically higher on moveable rigs than on stationary rigs, but after adjusting for differences in mud temperature the differences between rig types were no longer of statistical significance. Statistically significant positive associations were found between mud temperature and the concentrations of oil mist (Spearman's R = 0.46) and oil vapour (0.39), and between viscosity of base oil and oil mist concentrations. Use of pressure washers was associated with higher air concentrations of mud. A series of 18 parallel stationary samples showed a high and statistically significant association between concentrations of organic carbon and oil mist (r = 0.98). This study shows that workers are exposed to airborne non-volatilized mud components. Air concentrations of volatile mud components like oil mist and oil vapour were low, but were present in all the studied working areas.

  10. Occupational exposure to airborne contaminants during offshore oil drilling.

    PubMed

    Kirkhus, Niels E; Thomassen, Yngvar; Ulvestad, Bente; Woldbæk, Torill; Ellingsen, Dag G

    2015-07-01

    The aim was to study exposure to airborne contaminants in oil drillers during ordinary work. Personal samples were collected among 65 drill floor workers on four stationary and six moveable rigs in the Norwegian offshore sector. Air concentrations of drilling mud were determined based on measurements of the non-volatile mud components Ca and Fe. The median air concentration of mud was 140 μg m(-3). Median air concentrations of oil mist (180 μg m(-3)), oil vapour (14 mg m(-3)) and organic carbon (46 μg m(-3)) were also measured. All contaminants were detected in all work areas (drill floor, shaker area, mud pits, pump room, other areas). The highest air concentrations were measured in the shaker area, but the differences in air concentrations between working areas were moderate. Oil mist and oil vapour concentrations were statistically higher on moveable rigs than on stationary rigs, but after adjusting for differences in mud temperature the differences between rig types were no longer of statistical significance. Statistically significant positive associations were found between mud temperature and the concentrations of oil mist (Spearman's R = 0.46) and oil vapour (0.39), and between viscosity of base oil and oil mist concentrations. Use of pressure washers was associated with higher air concentrations of mud. A series of 18 parallel stationary samples showed a high and statistically significant association between concentrations of organic carbon and oil mist (r = 0.98). This study shows that workers are exposed to airborne non-volatilized mud components. Air concentrations of volatile mud components like oil mist and oil vapour were low, but were present in all the studied working areas. PMID:26020723

  11. Duck RIG-I CARD Domain Induces the Chicken IFN-β by Activating NF-κB.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yang; Huang, Zhengyang; Wang, Bin; Yu, Qinming; Liu, Ran; Xu, Qi; Chang, Guobin; Ding, Jiatong; Chen, Guohong

    2015-01-01

    Retinoic acid-inducible gene I- (RIG-I-) like receptors (RLRs) have recently been identified as cytoplasmic sensors for viral RNA. RIG-I, a member of RLRs family, plays an important role in innate immunity. Although previous investigations have proved that RIG-I is absent in chickens, it remains largely unknown whether the chicken can respond to RIG-I ligand. In this study, the eukaryotic expression vectors encoding duRIG-I full length (duck RIG-I, containing all domains), duRIG-I N-terminal (containing the two caspase activation and recruitment domain, CARDs), and duRIG-I C-terminal (containing helicase and regulatory domains) labeled with 6∗His tags were constructed successfully and detected by western blotting. Luciferase reporter assay and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) detected the duRIG-I significantly activated NF-κB and induced the expression of IFN-β when polyinosinic-polycytidylic acid (poly[I:C], synthetic double-stranded RNA) challenges chicken embryonic fibroblasts cells (DF1 cells), while the duRIG-I was inactive in the absence of poly[I:C]. Further analysis revealed that the CARDs (duRIG-I-N) induced IFN-β production regardless of the presence of poly[I:C], while the CARD-lacking duRIG-I (duRIG-I-C) was not capable of activating downstream signals. These results indicate that duRIG-I CARD domain plays an important role in the induction of IFN-β and provide a basis for further studying the function of RIG-I in avian innate immunity.

  12. Duck RIG-I CARD Domain Induces the Chicken IFN-β by Activating NF-κB

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Yang; Huang, Zhengyang; Wang, Bin; Yu, Qinming; Liu, Ran; Xu, Qi; Chang, Guobin; Ding, Jiatong; Chen, Guohong

    2015-01-01

    Retinoic acid-inducible gene I- (RIG-I-) like receptors (RLRs) have recently been identified as cytoplasmic sensors for viral RNA. RIG-I, a member of RLRs family, plays an important role in innate immunity. Although previous investigations have proved that RIG-I is absent in chickens, it remains largely unknown whether the chicken can respond to RIG-I ligand. In this study, the eukaryotic expression vectors encoding duRIG-I full length (duck RIG-I, containing all domains), duRIG-I N-terminal (containing the two caspase activation and recruitment domain, CARDs), and duRIG-I C-terminal (containing helicase and regulatory domains) labeled with 6∗His tags were constructed successfully and detected by western blotting. Luciferase reporter assay and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) detected the duRIG-I significantly activated NF-κB and induced the expression of IFN-β when polyinosinic-polycytidylic acid (poly[I:C], synthetic double-stranded RNA) challenges chicken embryonic fibroblasts cells (DF1 cells), while the duRIG-I was inactive in the absence of poly[I:C]. Further analysis revealed that the CARDs (duRIG-I-N) induced IFN-β production regardless of the presence of poly[I:C], while the CARD-lacking duRIG-I (duRIG-I-C) was not capable of activating downstream signals. These results indicate that duRIG-I CARD domain plays an important role in the induction of IFN-β and provide a basis for further studying the function of RIG-I in avian innate immunity. PMID:25918711

  13. USP21 negatively regulates antiviral response by acting as a RIG-I deubiquitinase

    PubMed Central

    Fan, Yihui; Mao, Renfang; Yu, Yang; Liu, Shangfeng; Shi, Zhongcheng; Cheng, Jin; Zhang, Huiyuan; An, Lei; Zhao, Yanling; Xu, Xin; Chen, Zhenghu; Kogiso, Mari; Zhang, Dekai; Zhang, Hong; Zhang, Pumin; Jung, Jae U.; Li, Xiaonan

    2014-01-01

    Lys63-linked polyubiquitination of RIG-I is essential in antiviral immune defense, yet the molecular mechanism that negatively regulates this critical step is poorly understood. Here, we report that USP21 acts as a novel negative regulator in antiviral responses through its ability to bind to and deubiquitinate RIG-I. Overexpression of USP21 inhibited RNA virus–induced RIG-I polyubiquitination and RIG-I–mediated interferon (IFN) signaling, whereas deletion of USP21 resulted in elevated RIG-I polyubiquitination, IRF3 phosphorylation, IFN-α/β production, and antiviral responses in MEFs in response to RNA virus infection. USP21 also restricted antiviral responses in peritoneal macrophages (PMs) and bone marrow–derived dendritic cells (BMDCs). USP21-deficient mice spontaneously developed splenomegaly and were more resistant to VSV infection with elevated production of IFNs. Chimeric mice with USP21-deficient hematopoietic cells developed virus-induced splenomegaly and were more resistant to VSV infection. Functional comparison of three deubiquitinases (USP21, A20, and CYLD) demonstrated that USP21 acts as a bona fide RIG-I deubiquitinase to down-regulate antiviral response independent of the A20 ubiquitin-editing complex. Our studies identify a previously unrecognized role for USP21 in the negative regulation of antiviral response through deubiquitinating RIG-I. PMID:24493797

  14. Nuclear Explosives in Peacetime, A Scientists' Institute for Public Information Workbook.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brodine, Virginia, Ed.; Bradford, Albert, Ed.

    Discussed are the commercial uses of nuclear explosives as well as the testing of nuclear weapons. Case histories of the use of nuclear explosives to stimulate oil and natural gas production are examined, and problems associated with nuclear blasting are discussed with special reference to canal construction. Effects of nuclear weapons testing are…

  15. Novel high explosive compositions

    DOEpatents

    Perry, D.D.; Fein, M.M.; Schoenfelder, C.W.

    1968-04-16

    This is a technique of preparing explosive compositions by the in-situ reaction of polynitroaliphatic compounds with one or more carboranes or carborane derivatives. One or more polynitroaliphatic reactants are combined with one or more carborane reactants in a suitable container and mixed to a homogeneous reaction mixture using a stream of inert gas or conventional mixing means. Ordinarily the container is a fissure, crack, or crevice in which the explosive is to be implanted. The ratio of reactants will determine not only the stoichiometry of the system, but will effect the quality and quantity of combustion products, the explosive force obtained as well as the impact sensitivity. The test values can shift with even relatively slight changes or modifications in the reaction conditions. Eighteen illustrative examples accompany the disclosure. (46 claims)

  16. Destruction of peroxide explosives.

    PubMed

    Oxley, Jimmie C; Smith, James L; Huang, Jiaorong; Luo, Wei

    2009-09-01

    Chemicals containing multiple peroxide functionalities, such as triacetone triperoxide (TATP), diacetone diperoxide (DADP), or hexamethylene triperoxide diamine (HMTD), can be explosive. They are impractical and are not used by legitimate military groups because they are shock and heat sensitive compared to military explosives. They are attractive to terrorists because synthesis is straightforward, requiring only a few easily obtained ingredients. Physical removal of these synthesis products is highly hazardous. This paper discusses methods to degrade peroxide explosives chemically, at room temperature. A number of mixtures containing metals (e.g., zinc, copper) and metal salts (e.g., zinc sulfate, copper chloride) were found effective, some capable of destroying TATP solutions in a few hours. Strong acids proved useful against solid peroxide materials; however, on a 1 g scale, addition of concentrated sulfuric acid caused TATP to detonate. Thus, this technique should only be used to destroy small-laboratory quantities. PMID:19737243

  17. Continuous steam explosion

    SciTech Connect

    Taylor, J.D.; Yu, E.K.C.

    1995-02-01

    StakeTech has focused on developing steam explosion on a commercial basis. The company essentially a biomass conversion company dealing with cellulosic biomass such as wood, crop residues and, more recently, wastepaper and municipal solid waste (MSW). They are faced with a tremendous opportunity to develop uses for the 50% of biomass that is currently wasted. The StakeTech steam explosion process is able to break the bonds using only high-pressure steam with no chemical additives. The continuous StakeTech System now has been installed in five countries and has proved effective in processing a wide variety of raw materials including wood chips, straw, sugarcane bagasse, and waste paper. End-use applications range from specialty chemicals to large-volume agricultural products. The increase of development activities in steam explosion should lead to expanded end-use applications, and acceptance of the technology by industry should accelerate in the years to come.

  18. Antiviral immunity via RIG-I-mediated recognition of RNA bearing 5′-diphosphates

    PubMed Central

    Deddouche, Safia; Pruijssers, Andrea J.; Zillinger, Thomas; Goldeck, Marion; Schuberth, Christine; Van der Veen, Annemarthe G.; Fujimura, Tsutomu; Rehwinkel, Jan; Iskarpatyoti, Jason A.; Barchet, Winfried; Ludwig, Janos; Dermody, Terence S.; Hartmann, Gunther; Reis e Sousa, Caetano

    2014-01-01

    SUMMARY Mammalian cells possess mechanisms to detect and defend themselves from invading viruses. In the cytosol, the RIG-I-like receptors (RLRs), RIG-I (retinoic acid-inducible gene I; encoded by DDX58) and MDA5 (melanoma differentiation-associated gene 5; encoded by IFIH1) sense atypical RNAs associated with virus infection1,2. Detection triggers a signalling cascade via the adaptor MAVS that culminates in the production of type I interferons (IFN-α/β; hereafter IFN), key antiviral cytokines. RIG-I and MDA5 are activated by distinct viral RNA structures and much evidence indicates that RIG-I responds to RNAs bearing a triphosphate (ppp) moiety in conjunction with a blunt-ended, base-paired region at the 5′-end (reviewed in 1-3). Here we show that RIG-I also mediates antiviral responses to RNAs bearing 5′-diphosphates (5′pp). Genomes from mammalian reoviruses with 5′pp termini, 5′pp-RNA isolated from yeast L-A virus, and base-paired 5′pp-RNAs made by in vitro transcription or chemical synthesis, all bind to RIG-I and serve as RIG-I agonists. Furthermore, a RIG-I-dependent response to 5′pp-RNA is essential for controlling reovirus infection in cultured cells and in mice. Thus, the minimal determinant for RIG-I recognition is a base-paired RNA with 5′pp. Such RNAs are found in some viruses but not uninfected cells, indicating that recognition of 5′pp-RNA, like that of 5′ppp-RNA, acts as a powerful means of self/non-self discrimination by the innate immune system. PMID:25119032

  19. A real explosion: the requirement of steam explosion pretreatment.

    PubMed

    Yu, Zhengdao; Zhang, Bailiang; Yu, Fuqiang; Xu, Guizhuan; Song, Andong

    2012-10-01

    The severity factor is a common term used in steam explosion (SE) pretreatment that describes the combined effects of the temperature and duration of the pretreatment. However, it ignores the duration of the explosion process. This paper describes a new parameter, the explosion power density (EPD), which is independent of the severity factor. Furthermore, we present the adoption of a 5m(3) SE model for a catapult explosion mode, which completes the explosion within 0.0875 s. The explosion duration ratio of this model to a conventional model of the same volume is 1:123. The comparison between the two modes revealed a qualitative change by explosion speed, demonstrating that this real explosion satisfied the two requirements of consistency, and suggested a guiding mechanism for the design of SE devices.

  20. Effect of anisotropy in explosive fragmentation

    SciTech Connect

    Dienes, J.K.

    1981-01-01

    The behavior of rocks at large deformations is characterized, including the effects of crack growth when unstable, the effects of anisotropy, the distinction between open and closed cracks, the influence of crack intersections, the role of pore pressure, and a calculation of permeability. The theory is quite general, and is intended for use in a computer program rather than as a vehicle for obtaining analytic results. When a spherical explosive charge is embedded in oil shale it produces an aspirin-shaped cavity at late times as a result of the bedded structure of the rock. In this paper a calculation of the cavity produced by a spherical explosive is compared with a radiograph, showing remarkable agreement between the two. The shape of the cavity is explained by the behavior of cracks lying in the bedding planes.

  1. Brontides: natural explosive noises.

    PubMed

    Gold, T; Soter, S

    1979-04-27

    Episodes of explosive noises of natural origin, or brontides, have been well documented, often in association with seismic activity and in a few cases as precursors to major earthquakes. Ground-to-air acoustic transmission from shallow earthquakes can account for many of these episodes, but not for all, and other causes, such as the sudden eruption of gas from high-pressure sources in the ground may at times have been responsible. Confusion with distant thunder or artillery at times of anomalous sound propagation complicates the analysis, and more recently the greatly increased frequency of artificial explosive noises and sonic booms has tended to mask the recognition of natural brontides. PMID:17757998

  2. High-nitrogen explosives

    SciTech Connect

    Naud, D.; Hiskey, M. A.; Kramer, J. F.; Bishop, R. L.; Harry, H. H.; Son, S. F.; Sullivan, G. K.

    2002-01-01

    The syntheses and characterization of various tetrazine and furazan compounds offer a different approach to explosives development. Traditional explosives - such as TNT or RDX - rely on the oxidation of the carbon and hydrogen atoms by the oxygen carrying nitro group to produce the explosive energy. High-nitrogen compounds rely instead on large positive heats of formation for that energy. Some of these high-nitrogen compounds have been shown to be less sensitive to initiation (e.g. by impact) when compared to traditional nitro-containing explosives of similar performances. Using the precursor, 3,6-bis-(3,5-dimethylpyrazol-1-yl)-s-tetrazine (BDT), several useful energetic compounds based on the s-tetrazine system have been synthesized and studied. The compound, 3,3{prime}-azobis(6-amino-s-tetrazine) or DAAT, detonates as a half inch rate stick despite having no oxygen in the molecule. Using perfluoroacetic acid, DAAT can be oxidized to give mixtures of N-oxide isomers (DAAT03.5) with an average oxygen content of about 3.5. This energetic mixture burns at extremely high rates and with low dependency on pressure. Another tetrazine compound of interest is 3,6-diguanidino-s-tetrazine(DGT) and its dinitrate and diperchlorate salts. DGT is easily synthesized by reacting BDT with guanidine in methanol. Using Caro's acid, DGT can be further oxidized to give 3,6-diguanidino-s-tetrazine-1,4-di-N-oxide (DGT-DO). Like DGT, the di-N-oxide can react with nitric acid or perchloric acid to give the dinitrate and the diperchlorate salts. The compounds, 4,4{prime}-diamino-3,3{prime}-azoxyfurazan (DAAF) and 4,4{prime}-diamino-3,3{prime}-azofurazan (DAAzF), may have important future roles in insensitive explosive applications. Neither DAAF nor DAAzF can be initiated by laboratory impact drop tests, yet both have in some aspects better explosive performances than 1,3,5-triamino-2,4,6-trinitrobenzene TATB - the standard of insensitive high explosives. The thermal stability of DAAzF is

  3. Microcantilever detector for explosives

    DOEpatents

    Thundat, Thomas G.

    1999-01-01

    Methods and apparatus for detecting the presence of explosives by analyzing a vapor sample from the suspect vicinity utilize at least one microcantilever. Explosive gas molecules which have been adsorbed onto the microcantilever are subsequently heated to cause combustion. Heat, along with momentum transfer from combustion, causes bending and a transient resonance response of the microcantilever which may be detected by a laser diode which is focused on the microcantilever and a photodetector which detects deflection of the reflected laser beam caused by heat-induced deflection and resonance response of the microcantilever.

  4. Microcantilever detector for explosives

    DOEpatents

    Thundat, T.G.

    1999-06-29

    Methods and apparatus for detecting the presence of explosives by analyzing a vapor sample from the suspect vicinity utilize at least one microcantilever. Explosive gas molecules which have been adsorbed onto the microcantilever are subsequently heated to cause combustion. Heat, along with momentum transfer from combustion, causes bending and a transient resonance response of the microcantilever which may be detected by a laser diode which is focused on the microcantilever and a photodetector which detects deflection of the reflected laser beam caused by heat-induced deflection and resonance response of the microcantilever. 2 figs.

  5. Pigeon RIG-I Function in Innate Immunity against H9N2 IAV and IBDV

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Wenping; Shao, Qiang; Zang, Yunlong; Guo, Qiang; Zhang, Yongchao; Li, Zandong

    2015-01-01

    Retinoic acid-inducible gene I (RIG-I), a cytosolic pattern recognition receptor (PRR), can sense various RNA viruses, including the avian influenza virus (AIV) and infectious bursal disease virus (IBDV), and trigger the innate immune response. Previous studies have shown that mammalian RIG-I (human and mice) and waterfowl RIG-I (ducks and geese) are essential for type I interferon (IFN) synthesis during AIV infection. Like ducks, pigeons are also susceptible to infection but are ineffective propagators and disseminators of AIVs, i.e., “dead end” hosts for AIVs and even highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI). Consequently, we sought to identify pigeon RIG-I and investigate its roles in the detection of A/Chicken/Shandong/ZB/2007 (H9N2) (ZB07), Gansu/Tianshui (IBDV TS) and Beijing/CJ/1980 (IBDV CJ-801) strains in chicken DF-1 fibroblasts or human 293T cells. Pigeon mRNA encoding the putative pigeon RIG-I analogs was identified. The exogenous expression of enhanced green fluorescence protein (EGFP)-tagged pigeon RIG-I and caspase activation and recruitment domains (CARDs), strongly induced antiviral gene (IFN-β, Mx, and PKR) mRNA synthesis, decreased viral gene (M gene and VP2) mRNA expression, and reduced the viral titers of ZB07 and IBDV TS/CJ-801 virus strains in chicken DF-1 cells, but not in 293T cells. We also compared the antiviral abilities of RIG-I proteins from waterfowl (duck and goose) and pigeon. Our data indicated that waterfowl RIG-I are more effective in the induction of antiviral genes and the repression of ZB07 and IBDV TS/CJ-801 strain replication than pigeon RIG-I. Furthermore, chicken melanoma differentiation associated gene 5(MDA5)/ mitochondrial antiviral signaling (MAVS) silencing combined with RIG-I transfection suggested that pigeon RIG-I can restore the antiviral response in MDA5-silenced DF-1 cells but not in MAVS-silenced DF-1 cells. In conclusion, these results demonstrated that pigeon RIG-I and CARDs have a strong antiviral

  6. Pigeon RIG-I Function in Innate Immunity against H9N2 IAV and IBDV.

    PubMed

    Xu, Wenping; Shao, Qiang; Zang, Yunlong; Guo, Qiang; Zhang, Yongchao; Li, Zandong

    2015-07-22

    Retinoic acid-inducible gene I (RIG-I), a cytosolic pattern recognition receptor (PRR), can sense various RNA viruses, including the avian influenza virus (AIV) and infectious bursal disease virus (IBDV), and trigger the innate immune response. Previous studies have shown that mammalian RIG-I (human and mice) and waterfowl RIG-I (ducks and geese) are essential for type I interferon (IFN) synthesis during AIV infection. Like ducks, pigeons are also susceptible to infection but are ineffective propagators and disseminators of AIVs, i.e., "dead end" hosts for AIVs and even highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI). Consequently, we sought to identify pigeon RIG-I and investigate its roles in the detection of A/Chicken/Shandong/ZB/2007 (H9N2) (ZB07), Gansu/Tianshui (IBDV TS) and Beijing/CJ/1980 (IBDV CJ-801) strains in chicken DF-1 fibroblasts or human 293T cells. Pigeon mRNA encoding the putative pigeon RIG-I analogs was identified. The exogenous expression of enhanced green fluorescence protein (EGFP)-tagged pigeon RIG-I and caspase activation and recruitment domains (CARDs), strongly induced antiviral gene (IFN-β, Mx, and PKR) mRNA synthesis, decreased viral gene (M gene and VP2) mRNA expression, and reduced the viral titers of ZB07 and IBDV TS/CJ-801 virus strains in chicken DF-1 cells, but not in 293T cells. We also compared the antiviral abilities of RIG-I proteins from waterfowl (duck and goose) and pigeon. Our data indicated that waterfowl RIG-I are more effective in the induction of antiviral genes and the repression of ZB07 and IBDV TS/CJ-801 strain replication than pigeon RIG-I. Furthermore, chicken melanoma differentiation associated gene 5(MDA5)/ mitochondrial antiviral signaling (MAVS) silencing combined with RIG-I transfection suggested that pigeon RIG-I can restore the antiviral response in MDA5-silenced DF-1 cells but not in MAVS-silenced DF-1 cells. In conclusion, these results demonstrated that pigeon RIG-I and CARDs have a strong antiviral ability

  7. 78 FR 64246 - Commerce in Explosives; List of Explosives Materials

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-10-28

    ... supersedes the List of Explosives Materials dated September 20, 2012 (Docket No. ATF 47N, 77 FR 58410... hydrocarbons. Explosive organic nitrate mixtures. Explosive powders. F Flash powder. ] Fulminate of mercury. Fulminate of silver. Fulminating gold. Fulminating mercury. Fulminating platinum. Fulminating silver....

  8. Confined explosive joining of tubes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bement, L. J.

    1979-01-01

    Technique uses explosive ribbon to join and seal tubes hermetically while totally confining explosive products, such as smoke, light, and sound. Only click is audible. Process yields joints of the same strengths as parent metal.

  9. Negative Role of RIG-I Serine 8 Phosphorylation in the Regulatin of Interferon-beta Production

    SciTech Connect

    E Nistal-Villan; M Gack; G Martinez-Delgado; N Maharaj; K Inn; H Yang; R Wang; A Aggarwal; J Jung; A Garcia-Sastre

    2011-12-31

    RIG-I (retinoic acid-inducible gene I) and TRIM25 (tripartite motif protein 25) have emerged as key regulatory factors to induce interferon (IFN)-mediated innate immune responses to limit viral replication. Upon recognition of viral RNA, TRIM25 E3 ligase binds the first caspase recruitment domain (CARD) of RIG-I and subsequently induces lysine 172 ubiquitination of the second CARD of RIG-I, which is essential for the interaction with downstream MAVS/IPS-1/CARDIF/VISA and, thereby, IFN-beta mRNA production. Although ubiquitination has emerged as a major factor involved in RIG-I activation, the potential contribution of other post-translational modifications, such as phosphorylation, to the regulation of RIG-I activity has not been addressed. Here, we report the identification of serine 8 phosphorylation at the first CARD of RIG-I as a negative regulatory mechanism of RIG-I-mediated IFN-beta production. Immunoblot analysis with a phosphospecific antibody showed that RIG-I serine 8 phosphorylation steady-state levels were decreased upon stimulation of cells with IFN-beta or virus infection. Substitution of serine 8 in the CARD RIG-I functional domain with phosphomimetic aspartate or glutamate results in decreased TRIM25 binding, RIG-I ubiquitination, MAVS binding, and downstream signaling. Finally, sequence comparison reveals that only primate species carry serine 8, whereas other animal species carry an asparagine, indicating that serine 8 phosphorylation may represent a primate-specific regulation of RIG-I activation. Collectively, these data suggest that the phosphorylation of RIG-I serine 8 operates as a negative switch of RIG-I activation by suppressing TRIM25 interaction, further underscoring the importance of RIG-I and TRIM25 connection in type I IFN signal transduction.

  10. The combustion of explosives

    SciTech Connect

    Son, S. F.

    2001-01-01

    The safe use of energetic materials has been scientifically studied for over 100 years. Even with this long history of scientific inquiry, the level of understanding of the important deflagration phenomena in accidental initiations of high explosives remains inadequate to predict the response to possible thermal and mechanical (impact) scenarios. The! search also continues for more well behaved explosives and propellants that perform well, yet are insensitive. Once ignition occurs in an explosive, the question then becomes what the resulting violence will be. The classical view is that simple wave propagation proceeds from the ignition point. Recently, several experiments have elucidated the importance of reactive cracks involved in reaction violence in both thermally ignited experiments and impacted explosives, in contrast to classical assumptions, This work presents a viiw of reaction violence, in both thermal and mechanical insults, that argues for the importance of reactive cracks, rather than simple wave propagation processes. Recent work in this area will be reviewed and presented. Initial results involving novel energetic materials will also be discussed.

  11. The First Nova Explosions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    José, Jordi; García-Berro, Enrique; Hernanz, Margarita; Gil-Pons, Pilar

    2007-06-01

    Classical novae are stellar explosions with an energy release that is only overcome by supernovae and γ-ray bursts. Theoretical and observational evidence suggests that these cataclysmic events are major sources of the Galactic 15N, 17O, and 13C, and contribute to the abundances of 7Li, and 26Al, with a likely nucleosynthetic endpoint around Ca. However, there are reasons to believe that these nuclear signatures have changed during the overall Galactic history. In this Letter, the first that addresses the nature of nova explosions in the most primitive, low-metallicity binaries, we show that primordial novae eject more massive envelopes and display a larger nuclear activity than classical novae, leading to a new type of explosion, halfway between a supernova and a nova. The ejected shells from the most violent, massive primordial novae yield large excesses of Ti and a likely nucleosynthetic endpoint around Cu-Zn, signatures never before associated with a nova-like explosion. We conclude that the chemical abundance pattern of the nova ejecta is strongly modified at low metallicities and suggest that primordial novae are a possible birthplace of a rare variety of presolar grains whose origin remains uncertain.

  12. The Combustion of Explosives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Son, S. F.

    2002-07-01

    The safe use of energetic materials has been scientifically studied for over 100 years. Even with this long history of scientific inquiry, the level of understanding of the important deflagration phenomena in accidental initiations of high explosives remains inadequate to predict the response to possible thermal and mechanical (impact) scenarios. The search also continues for improved explosives and propellants that perform well, yet are insensitive. Currently, the most significant uncertainties are in the processes immediately following ignition. Once ignition occurs in an explosive, the question then becomes what the resulting violence will be. The classical view is that simple wave propagation proceeds from the ignition point. Recently, several experiments have elucidated the importance of reactive cracks involved in reaction violence in both thermally ignited experiments and impacted explosives, in contrast to classical assumptions. This paper presents a view of reaction violence, in both thermal and mechanical insults, that argues for the importance of reactive cracks, rather than simple wave propagation processes. Recent work in this area will be reviewed and presented. Initial results involving novel energetic materials will also be discussed. Novel materials may yield insight into the mechanisms involved with rapid deflagration processes.

  13. 75 FR 5545 - Explosives

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-02-03

    ... its Explosives and Blasting Agents Standard at 29 CFR 1910.109 (36 FR 10553-10562). OSHA based the... revisions to the standard (37 FR 6577, 57 FR 6356, and 63 FR 33450). On July 29, 2002, the Institute of... revision (72 FR 18792). On July 17, 2007, however, OSHA closed the comment period, stating that it...

  14. Portable raman explosives detection

    SciTech Connect

    Moore, David Steven; Scharff, Robert J

    2008-01-01

    Recent advances in portable Raman instruments have dramatically increased their application to emergency response and forensics, as well as homeland defense. This paper reviews the relevant attributes and disadvantages of portable Raman spectroscopy, both essentially and instrumentally, to the task of explosives detection in the field.

  15. Managing the data explosion

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hooper, Richard P.; Aulenbach, Brent T.

    1993-01-01

    The 'data explosion' brought on by electronic sensors and automatic samplers can strain the capabilities of existing water-quality data-management systems just when they're needed most to process the information. The U.S. Geological Survey has responded to the problem by setting up an innovative system that allows rapid data analysis.

  16. Big Explosives Experimental Facility - BEEF

    SciTech Connect

    2014-10-31

    The Big Explosives Experimental Facility or BEEF is a ten acre fenced high explosive testing facility that provides data to support stockpile stewardship and other national security programs. At BEEF conventional high explosives experiments are safely conducted providing sophisticated diagnostics such as high speed optics and x-ray radiography.

  17. New explosive seam welding concepts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bement, L. J.

    1973-01-01

    Recently developed techniques provide totally-confined linear explosive seam welding and produce scarf joint with linear explosive seam welding. Linear ribbon explosives are utilized in making narrow, continuous, airtight joints in variety of aluminum alloys, titanium, copper, brass, and stainless steel.

  18. Big Explosives Experimental Facility - BEEF

    ScienceCinema

    None

    2016-07-12

    The Big Explosives Experimental Facility or BEEF is a ten acre fenced high explosive testing facility that provides data to support stockpile stewardship and other national security programs. At BEEF conventional high explosives experiments are safely conducted providing sophisticated diagnostics such as high speed optics and x-ray radiography.

  19. Hand held explosives detection system

    DOEpatents

    Conrad, Frank J.

    1992-01-01

    The present invention is directed to a sensitive hand-held explosives detection device capable of detecting the presence of extremely low quantities of high explosives molecules, and which is applicable to sampling vapors from personnel, baggage, cargo, etc., as part of an explosives detection system.

  20. NASA Lewis Research Center lean-, rich-burn materials test burner rig

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stearns, C. A.; Robinson, R. C.

    1994-01-01

    The lean-, rich-burn materials test burner rig at NASA LeRC is used to evaluate the high temperature environmental durability of aerospace materials. The rig burns jet fuel and pressurized air, and sample materials can be subjected to both lean-burn and rich-burn environments. As part of NASA's Enabling Propulsion Materials (EPM) program, an existing rig was adapted to simulate the rich-burn quick-quench lean-burn (RQL) combustor concept which is being considered for the HSCT (high speed civil transport) aircraft. RQL materials requirements exceed that of current superalloys, thus ceramic matrix composites (CMC's) emerged as the leading candidate materials. The performance of these materials in the quasi reducing environment of the rich-burn section of the RQL is of fundamental importance to materials development. This rig was developed to conduct such studies, and its operation and capabilities are described.

  1. Intra-abdominal recurrence of colorectal cancer detected by radioimmunoguided surgery (RIGS system)

    SciTech Connect

    Sardi, A.; Workman, M.; Mojzisik, C.; Hinkle, G.; Nieroda, C.; Martin, E.W. Jr.

    1989-01-01

    Since 1986, 32 patients with metastatic colorectal cancer have undergone second-look radioimmunoguided surgery (RIGS system). The primary tumor was located in the right and transverse colon in 11 patients, left and sigmoid colon in 16, and rectum in five. The carcinoembryonic antigen level was elevated in 30 patients (94%); all patients underwent a computed tomographic scan of the abdomen and pelvis. The overall sensitivity of the computed tomographic scan was 41% (abdomen other than liver, 27%; liver, 58%; and pelvis, 22%). The RIGS system identified recurrent tumor in 81% of the patients. The most common site of metastasis was the liver (41%), independent of the primary location. Local/regional recurrences alone accounted for 40% of all recurrences. In six patients (18%), recurrent tumor was found only with the RIGS system. The RIGS system is more dependable in localizing clinically obscure metastases than other methods, and carcinoembryonic antigen testing remains the most accurate preoperative method to indicate suspected recurrences.

  2. RIG-I-mediated antiviral responses to single-stranded RNA bearing 5'-phosphates.

    PubMed

    Pichlmair, Andreas; Schulz, Oliver; Tan, Choon Ping; Näslund, Tanja I; Liljeström, Peter; Weber, Friedemann; Reis e Sousa, Caetano

    2006-11-10

    Double-stranded RNA (dsRNA) produced during viral replication is believed to be the critical trigger for activation of antiviral immunity mediated by the RNA helicase enzymes retinoic acid-inducible gene I (RIG-I) and melanoma differentiation-associated gene 5 (MDA5). We showed that influenza A virus infection does not generate dsRNA and that RIG-I is activated by viral genomic single-stranded RNA (ssRNA) bearing 5'-phosphates. This is blocked by the influenza protein nonstructured protein 1 (NS1), which is found in a complex with RIG-I in infected cells. These results identify RIG-I as a ssRNA sensor and potential target of viral immune evasion and suggest that its ability to sense 5'-phosphorylated RNA evolved in the innate immune system as a means of discriminating between self and nonself.

  3. Strategies to simulate wheel-rail adhesion in degraded conditions using a roller-rig

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bosso, N.; Gugliotta, A.; Zampieri, N.

    2015-05-01

    Railway vehicles adopt mechatronic devices to maximize the traction/braking effort. These systems often use complex algorithms that require long experimental validation tests on track. The possibility to perform the same tests on a roller-rig gives the opportunity to simplify the validation activity, under safe conditions, and to reduce the costs. The main challenge is to be able to reproduce the same adhesion conditions on a roller-rig with respect to the track, especially in degraded conditions. First, the paper shows experiments performed to reproduce degraded adhesion on a conventional roller-rig for a single wheelset. Then, an innovative roller-rig is proposed in order to reproduce the effect of the passage of several wheelsets on the track.

  4. Trace Analysis of Surfactants in Corexit Oil Dispersant Formulations and Seawater

    PubMed Central

    Place, Benjamin J.; Perkins, Matt J.; Sinclair, Ewan; Barsamian, Adam L.; Blakemore, Paul R.; Field, Jennifer A.

    2014-01-01

    After the April 2010 explosion on the Deepwater Horizon oil rig, and subsequent release of millions of barrels of oil, two Corexit oil dispersant formulations were used in unprecedented quantities both on the surface and sub-surface of the Gulf of Mexico. Although the dispersant formulations contain four classes of surfactants, current studies to date focus on the anionic surfactant, bis-(2-ethylhexyl) sulfosuccinate (DOSS). Factors affecting the integrity of environmental and laboratory samples for Corexit analysis have not been systematically investigated. For this reason, a quantitative analytical method was developed for the detection of all four classes of surfactants, as well as the hydrolysis products of DOSS, the enantiomeric mixture of α- and β-ethylhexyl sulfosuccinate (α-/β-EHSS). The analytical method was then used to evaluate which practices for sample collection, storage, and analysis resulted in high quality data. Large volume, direct injection of seawater followed by liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) minimized analytical artifacts, analysis time, and both chemical and solid waste. Concentrations of DOSS in the seawater samples ranged from 71 – 13,000 ng/L, while the nonionic surfactants including Span 80, Tween 80, Tween 85 were detected infrequently (26% of samples) at concentrations from 840 – 9100 ng/L. The enantiomers α-/β-EHSS were detected in seawater, at concentrations from 200 – 1,900 ng/L, and in both Corexit dispersant formulations, indicating α-/β-EHSS were applied to the oil spill and may be not unambiguous indicator of DOSS degradation. Best practices are provided to ensure sample integrity and data quality for environmental monitoring studies and laboratory that require the detection and quantification of Corexit-based surfactants in seawater. PMID:27594772

  5. Activation of Duck RIG-I by TRIM25 Is Independent of Anchored Ubiquitin

    PubMed Central

    Miranzo-Navarro, Domingo; Magor, Katharine E.

    2014-01-01

    Retinoic acid inducible gene I (RIG-I) is a viral RNA sensor crucial in defense against several viruses including measles, influenza A and hepatitis C. RIG-I activates type-I interferon signalling through the adaptor for mitochondrial antiviral signaling (MAVS). The E3 ubiquitin ligase, tripartite motif containing protein 25 (TRIM25), activates human RIG-I through generation of anchored K63-linked polyubiquitin chains attached to lysine 172, or alternatively, through the generation of unanchored K63-linked polyubiquitin chains that interact non-covalently with RIG-I CARD domains. Previously, we identified RIG-I of ducks, of interest because ducks are the host and natural reservoir of influenza viruses, and showed it initiates innate immune signaling leading to production of interferon-beta (IFN-β). We noted that K172 is not conserved in RIG-I of ducks and other avian species, or mouse. Because K172 is important for both mechanisms of activation of human RIG-I, we investigated whether duck RIG-I was activated by TRIM25, and if other residues were the sites for attachment of ubiquitin. Here we show duck RIG-I CARD domains are ubiquitinated for activation, and ubiquitination depends on interaction with TRIM25, as a splice variant that cannot interact with TRIM25 is not ubiquitinated, and cannot be activated. We expressed GST-fusion proteins of duck CARD domains and characterized TRIM25 modifications of CARD domains by mass spectrometry. We identified two sites that are ubiquitinated in duck CARD domains, K167 and K193, and detected K63 linked polyubiquitin chains. Site directed mutagenesis of each site alone, does not alter the ubiquitination profile of the duck CARD domains. However, mutation of both sites resulted in loss of all attached ubiquitin and polyubiquitin chains. Remarkably, the double mutant duck RIG-I CARD still interacts with TRIM25, and can still be activated. Our results demonstrate that anchored ubiquitin chains are not necessary for TRIM25

  6. Solids control for the man on the rig. Part 1

    SciTech Connect

    Williams, M.P.; Hoberock, L.L.

    1982-10-01

    This paper emphasizes the economic impact of good solids removal practices and provides the driller with a practical guide to evaluating and troubleshooting solids removal equipment. Any improvement in drilling practices which promotes increased penetration rate (less rig time) and reduced drilling fluid consumption will significantly affect drilling cost. The paper offers shale shaker selection hints such as the fact that the relative capacities of various screens are roughly proportional to the conductances of the screens; and that, all other things being equal, the layered 70-mesh screen should provide about 3x the capacity of the square 80 x 80 mesh screen. It reveals that several new shale shakers with important design and screen innovations have become available which provide significantly increased capacity for the same median cut over conventional units. A table is presented which gives fluid-only capacity for various screens. One shaker capable of conveying solids while operating at positive deck angles of +3 degrees is being actively marketed in the US after performing in the North Sea. Shaker equipment should be specified in type and number, such that at least 80 x 80 market-grade screening can be accomplished over all significant depth intervals while mudded up. The paper explains that the advantages of increased solids removal at the shaker will outweigh the incremental cost of the additional shaker capacity.

  7. Thermal barrier coatings: Burner rig hot corrosion test results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hodge, P. E.; Stecura, S.; Gedwill, M. A.; Zaplatynsky, I.; Levine, S. R.

    1978-01-01

    A Mach 0.3 burner rig test program was conducted to examine the sensitivity of thermal barrier coatings to Na and V contaminated combustion gases simulating potential utility gas turbine environments. Coating life of the standard ZrO2-12Y2O3/Ni-16.2Cr-5.6Al-0.6Y NASA thermal barrier coating system which was developed for aircraft gas turbines was significantly reduced in such environments. Two thermal barrier coating systems, Ca2SiO4/Ni-16.2Cr-5.6Al-0.6Y and ZrO2-8Y2O3/Ni-16.4Cr-5.1Al-0.15Y and a less insulative cermet coating system, 50 volume percent MgO-50 volume percent Ni-19.6Cr-17.1Al-0.97Y/Ni-16.2Cr-5.6Al-0.6Y, were identified as having much improved corrosion resistance compared to the standard coating.

  8. Comparison of an Inductance In-Line Oil Debris Sensor and Magnetic Plug Oil Debris Sensor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dempsey, Paula J.; Tuck, Roger; Showalter, Stephen

    2012-01-01

    The objective of this research was to compare the performance of an inductance in-line oil debris sensor and magnetic plug oil debris sensor when detecting transmission component health in the same system under the same operating conditions. Both sensors were installed in series in the NASA Glenn Spiral Bevel Gear Fatigue Rig during tests performed on 5 gear sets (pinion/gear) when different levels of damage occurred on the gear teeth. Results of this analysis found both the inductance in-line oil debris sensor and magnetic plug oil debris sensor have benefits and limitations when detecting gearbox component damage.

  9. Offshore oil & gas: Deep waters dominate in 1997

    SciTech Connect

    Pagano, S.S.

    1997-01-01

    Deep water exploration and field development dominate the energy market as 1997 begins. All indicators point that a turnaround in the oil and gas industry is in full swing. Strong market fundamentals are in place: the worldwide offshore mobile rig fleet is approaching full utilization of marketed rigs, which has tightened the supply/demand balance and boosted day rates for all types of drilling units. The exploration and production niche is in its healthiest shape in more than 15 years with a growth spurt in progress. The excess rig supply has disappeared and some market observers believe the present supply of deep water rigs needs to triple just to meet demand in the Gulf of Mexico market alone. There is evidence that some energy companies are delaying drilling programs because suitable rigs simply are not available. Floating rigs generally are working longer-term contracts with some units under contract until late in the decade. Analysts forecast a heated market over the next 12 to 18 months. Gas prices are expected to remain strong through 1997 and crude prices should hold steady.

  10. Explosive performance measurements on large, multiple-hole arrays and large masses of conventional explosive

    SciTech Connect

    McKown, T.O.; Eilers, D.D.; Williams, P.E.

    1995-12-31

    The COntinuous Reflectometry for Radius vs. Time EXperiment (CORRTEX) system was developed by the Los Alamos National Laboratory for determining the energy released in a nuclear explosion by measuring the position of its shock front as a function of time. The CORRTEX system, fielding techniques, and the methods and software for data reduction and analysis were developed over a 15 year period with hundreds of measurements made on nuclear tests and high explosive experiments. CORRTEX is a compact, portable, fast-sampling, microprocessor-controlled system, based on time domain reflectometry, requiring only a 24 volt power source and a sensing element. Only the sensing element (a length of 50 ohm coaxial cable) is expended during the detonation. In 1979, the CORRTEX system was shown to be ideally suited for chemical explosive performance measurements. Its utility for diagnosing chemical explosives was further demonstrated with successful measurements on large multiple-hole chemical shots in rock quarries and strip mines. Accurate timing of the detonation of sequenced or ripple fired arrays, as well as data characterizing the initiation, explosive performance and detonation anomalies are obtained. This information can serve as the basis for empirical or modeled improvements to blasting operations. A summary of the special CORRTEX features and well developed analysis techniques together with the experiment designs, data, and conclusions regarding the measurements and explosive performance from several array detonations and the Chemical Kiloton Experiment, 2.9 million pounds of an ammonium nitrate-fuel oil (ANFO) and emulsion blend conducted on the Nevada Test Site in 1993, are presented.

  11. Explosive performance measurements on large, multiple-hole arrays and large masses of conventional explosive

    SciTech Connect

    McKown, T.O.; Eilers, D.D.; Williams, P.E.

    1994-11-01

    The COntinuous Reflectometry for Radius vs. Time EXperiment (CORRTEX) system was developed by the Los Alamos National Laboratory for determining the energy released in a nuclear explosion by measuring the position of its shock front as a function of time. The CORRTEX system, fielding techniques, and the methods and software for data reduction and analysis were developed over a 15 year period with hundreds of measurements made on nuclear tests and high explosive experiments. CORRTEX is a compact, portable, fast-sampling, microprocessor-controlled system, based on time domain reflectometry, requiring only a 24 volt power source and a sensing element. Only the sensing element (a length of 50 ohm coaxial cable) is expended during the detonation. In 1979, the CORRTEX system was shown to be ideally suited for chemical explosive performance measurements. Its utility for diagnosing chemical explosives was further demonstrated with successful measurements on large multiple-hole chemical shots in rock quarries and strip mines. Accurate timing of the detonation of sequenced or ripple fired arrays, as well as data characterizing the initiation, explosive performance and detonation anomalies are obtained. This information can serve as the basis for empirical or modeled improvements to blasting operations. A summary of the special CORRTEX features and well developed analysis techniques together with the experiment designs, data, and conclusions regarding the measurements and explosive performance from several array detonations and the Chemical Kiloton Experiment, 2.9 million pounds of an ammonium nitrate-fuel oil (ANFO) and emulsion blend conducted on the Nevada Test Site in 1993, are presented.

  12. RNAs Containing Modified Nucleotides Fail To Trigger RIG-I Conformational Changes for Innate Immune Signaling

    PubMed Central

    Durbin, Ann Fiegen; Wang, Chen; Marcotrigiano, Joseph

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Invading pathogen nucleic acids are recognized and bound by cytoplasmic (retinoic acid-inducible gene I [RIG-I]-like) and membrane-bound (Toll-like) pattern recognition receptors to activate innate immune signaling. Modified nucleotides, when present in RNA molecules, diminish the magnitude of these signaling responses. However, mechanisms explaining the blunted signaling have not been elucidated. In this study, we used several independent biological assays, including inhibition of virus replication, RIG-I:RNA binding assays, and limited trypsin digestion of RIG-I:RNA complexes, to begin to understand how RNAs containing modified nucleotides avoid or suppress innate immune signaling. The experiments were based on a model innate immune activating RNA molecule, the polyU/UC RNA domain of hepatitis C virus, which was transcribed in vitro with canonical nucleotides or with one of eight modified nucleotides. The approach revealed signature assay responses associated with individual modified nucleotides or classes of modified nucleotides. For example, while both N-6-methyladenosine (m6A) and pseudouridine nucleotides correlate with diminished signaling, RNA containing m6A modifications bound RIG-I poorly, while RNA containing pseudouridine bound RIG-I with high affinity but failed to trigger the canonical RIG-I conformational changes associated with robust signaling. These data advance understanding of RNA-mediated innate immune signaling, with additional relevance for applying nucleotide modifications to RNA therapeutics. PMID:27651356

  13. Influence of the Deep Water Horizon Oil Spill on Atmospheric Hydrocarbon Levels over the Gulf of Mexico

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blake, N. J.; Barletta, B.; Meinardi, S.; Leifer, I.; Rowland, F. S.; Blake, D. R.

    2010-12-01

    The waters of the Gulf of Mexico recently were impacted negatively by the large oil spill that occurred after an explosion at the BP Deep Water Horizon rig on April 20, 2010. In response to this disaster, and out of concern for the multitude of chemical pollutants being emitted, we collected 96 air samples in the Gulf region aboard the 65 ft vessel “R/V Eugenie” during 20-23 May, 2010. Sample analysis was by high sensitivity gas chromatographic analysis with special attention to the presence of possible toxic components. Analysis of each canister included straight-chain saturated hydrocarbons from C1 (methane) to C12 (dodecane), aromatic hydrocarbons such as benzene and toluene, as well as higher molecular weight species. High levels of C5-C12 alkanes and cyclo-alkanes, typical of crude oil, were observed in the atmosphere downwind of the spill location. However, the most soluble components, especially methane and benzene, were largely absent from the near-surface atmosphere implying dissolution in the deep sea, where they could impact negatively oxygen levels.

  14. A Hierarchical Mechanism of RIG-I Ubiquitination Provides Sensitivity, Robustness and Synergy in Antiviral Immune Responses

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Xiaoqiang; Xian, Huifang; Tian, Shuo; Sun, Tingzhe; Qin, Yunfei; Zhang, Shoutao; Cui, Jun

    2016-01-01

    RIG-I is an essential receptor in the initiation of the type I interferon (IFN) signaling pathway upon viral infection. Although K63-linked ubiquitination plays an important role in RIG-I activation, the optimal modulation of conjugated and unanchored ubiquitination of RIG-I as well as its functional implications remains unclear. In this study, we determined that, in contrast to the RIG-I CARD domain, full-length RIG-I must undergo K63-linked ubiquitination at multiple sites to reach full activity. A systems biology approach was designed based on experiments using full-length RIG-I. Model selection for 7 candidate mechanisms of RIG-I ubiquitination inferred a hierarchical architecture of the RIG-I ubiquitination mode, which was then experimentally validated. Compared with other mechanisms, the selected hierarchical mechanism exhibited superior sensitivity and robustness in RIG-I-induced type I IFN activation. Furthermore, our model analysis and experimental data revealed that TRIM4 and TRIM25 exhibited dose-dependent synergism. These results demonstrated that the hierarchical mechanism of multi-site/type ubiquitination of RIG-I provides an efficient, robust and optimal synergistic regulatory module in antiviral immune responses. PMID:27387525

  15. Explosion depths for phreatomagmatic eruptions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Valentine, Greg A.; Graettinger, Alison H.; Sonder, Ingo

    2014-05-01

    Subsurface phreatomagmatic explosions can result from the interaction of ascending magma with groundwater. Experiments over a wide range of energies show that for a given energy there is a depth below which an explosion will be contained within the subsurface (not erupt), and there is a corresponding shallower depth that will optimize ejecta dispersal. We combine these relationships with constraints on the energies of phreatomagmatic explosions at maar-diatreme volcanoes and show that most eruptions are likely sourced by explosions in the uppermost ~200 m, and even shallower ones (<100 m) are likely to dominate deposition onto tephra rings. Most explosions below ~200 m will not erupt but contribute to formation of, and to the vertical mixing of materials within, a diatreme (vent structure), with only rare very high energy explosions between ~200 and 500 m erupting. Similar constraints likely apply at other volcanoes that experience phreatomagmatic explosions.

  16. Explosive bulk charge

    DOEpatents

    Miller, Jacob Lee

    2015-04-21

    An explosive bulk charge, including: a first contact surface configured to be selectively disposed substantially adjacent to a structure or material; a second end surface configured to selectively receive a detonator; and a curvilinear side surface joining the first contact surface and the second end surface. The first contact surface, the second end surface, and the curvilinear side surface form a bi-truncated hemispherical structure. The first contact surface, the second end surface, and the curvilinear side surface are formed from an explosive material. Optionally, the first contact surface and the second end surface each have a substantially circular shape. Optionally, the first contact surface and the second end surface consist of planar structures that are aligned substantially parallel or slightly tilted with respect to one another. The curvilinear side surface has one of a smooth curved geometry, an elliptical geometry, and a parabolic geometry.

  17. Application program of CRUST-1 10km continental scientific drilling rig in SK-2 scientific drilling well

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Youhong; Gao, Ke; Yu, Ping; Liu, Baochang; Guo, Wei; Ma, Yinlong; Yang, Yang

    2014-05-01

    SK-2 Well is located in DaQing city,where is site of the largest oil field in China,Heilongjiang province, north-east of China.The objective of SK-2 well is to obtain full cores of cretaceous formation in Song Liao basin,and to build the time tunnel of Cretaceous greenhouse climate change,and to clarify the causes,processes and results of the formations of DaQing oil field. This will ensure to achieve our ultimate goals,to test the CRUST-1 drilling rig and improve China's deep scientific drilling technology,to form the scientific drilling technology,method and system with independent intellectual property rights,and to provide technical knowledge and information for China's ten kilometers super-deep scientific drilling technical resources.SK-2 Well is at 6400 meter depth, where the drilling inclination is 90 degree and the continuous coring length is 3535 meter that from 2865 to 6400 meter,the recovery rate of the core is greater or equal to 95 percent with 100 millimeters core diameter and 3.9 degree per 100 meter geothermal gradient.The CRUST-1 rig is designated with special drilling equipment for continental scientific drilling combined to the oil drilling equipment ability with advanced geological drilling technology which is highly automatic and intelligent. CRUST-1 drilling ability is 10000 meter with the maximum hook load 700 tons, the total power is 4610 Kilowatt.CRUST-1 will be integrated with a complete set of automation equipment,including big torque hydraulic top drive,high accuracy automatic drilling rod feeding system, suspended automatic drill string discharge device,hydraulic intelligent iron roughneck,and hydraulic automatic catwalk to fully meet the drilling process requirements of SK-2.Designed with advanced drilling technique for 260 degree in the bottom of SK-2 well and hard rock,including the drilling tools of high temperature hydraulic hammer,high temperature resistance and high strength aluminum drill pipe,high temperature preparation of mud

  18. High explosive compound

    DOEpatents

    Crawford, Theodore C.

    1976-01-01

    1. A low detonation velocity explosive consisting essentially of a particulate mixture of ortho-boric acid and trinitrotoluene, said mixture containing from about 25 percent to about 65 percent by weight of ortho-boric acid, said ortho-boric acid comprised of from 60 percent to 90 percent of spherical particles having a mean particle size of about 275 microns and 10 percent to 40 percent of spherical particles having a particle size less than about 44 microns.

  19. Structural basis of RNA recognition and activation by innate immune receptor RIG-I

    SciTech Connect

    Jiang, Fuguo; Ramanathan, Anand; Miller, Matthew T.; Tang, Guo-Qing; Gale, Jr., Michael; Patel, Smita S.; Marcotrigiano, Joseph

    2012-05-29

    Retinoic-acid-inducible gene-I (RIG-I; also known as DDX58) is a cytoplasmic pathogen recognition receptor that recognizes pathogen-associated molecular pattern (PAMP) motifs to differentiate between viral and cellular RNAs. RIG-I is activated by blunt-ended double-stranded (ds)RNA with or without a 5'-triphosphate (ppp), by single-stranded RNA marked by a 5'-ppp and by polyuridine sequences. Upon binding to such PAMP motifs, RIG-I initiates a signalling cascade that induces innate immune defences and inflammatory cytokines to establish an antiviral state. The RIG-I pathway is highly regulated and aberrant signalling leads to apoptosis, altered cell differentiation, inflammation, autoimmune diseases and cancer. The helicase and repressor domains (RD) of RIG-I recognize dsRNA and 5'-ppp RNA to activate the two amino-terminal caspase recruitment domains (CARDs) for signalling. Here, to understand the synergy between the helicase and the RD for RNA binding, and the contribution of ATP hydrolysis to RIG-I activation, we determined the structure of human RIG-I helicase-RD in complex with dsRNA and an ATP analogue. The helicase-RD organizes into a ring around dsRNA, capping one end, while contacting both strands using previously uncharacterized motifs to recognize dsRNA. Small-angle X-ray scattering, limited proteolysis and differential scanning fluorimetry indicate that RIG-I is in an extended and flexible conformation that compacts upon binding RNA. These results provide a detailed view of the role of helicase in dsRNA recognition, the synergy between the RD and the helicase for RNA binding and the organization of full-length RIG-I bound to dsRNA, and provide evidence of a conformational change upon RNA binding. The RIG-I helicase-RD structure is consistent with dsRNA translocation without unwinding and cooperative binding to RNA. The structure yields unprecedented insight into innate immunity and has a broader impact on other areas of biology, including RNA

  20. Dust cluster explosion

    SciTech Connect

    Saxena, Vikrant; Avinash, K.; Sen, A.

    2012-09-15

    A model for the dust cluster explosion where micron/sub-micron sized particles are accelerated at the expense of plasma thermal energy, in the afterglow phase of a complex plasma discharge is proposed. The model is tested by molecular dynamics simulations of dust particles in a confining potential. The nature of the explosion (caused by switching off the discharge) and the concomitant dust acceleration is found to depend critically on the pressure of the background neutral gas. At low gas pressure, the explosion is due to unshielded Coulomb repulsion between dust particles and yields maximum acceleration, while in the high pressure regime it is due to shielded Yukawa repulsion and yields much feebler acceleration. These results are in agreement with experimental findings. Our simulations also confirm a recently proposed electrostatic (ES) isothermal scaling relation, P{sub E}{proportional_to}V{sub d}{sup -2} (where P{sub E} is the ES pressure of the dust particles and V{sub d} is the confining volume).

  1. Explosives signatures and analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fountain, Augustus Way, III; Oyler, Jonathan M.; Ostazeski, Stanley A.

    2008-04-01

    The challenge of sampling explosive materials for various high threat military and civilian operational scenarios requires the community to identify and exploit other chemical compounds within the mixtures that may be available to support stand-off detection techniques. While limited surface and vapor phase characterization of IEDs exist, they are insufficient to guide the future development and evaluation of field deployable explosives detection (proximity and standoff) capabilities. ECBC has conducted a limited investigation of three artillery ammunition types to determine what chemical vapors, if any, are available for sensing; the relative composition of the vapors which includes the more volatile compounds in munitions, i.e., plastersizers and binders; and the sensitivity needed detect these vapors at stand-off. Also in partnership with MIT-Lincoln Laboratory, we performed a background measurement campaign at the National Training Center to determine the baseline ambient amounts and variability of nitrates and nitro-ester compounds as vapors, particulates, and on surfaces; as well as other chemical compounds related to non-energetic explosive additives. Environmental persistence studies in contexts relevant to counter-IED sensing operations, such as surface residues, are still necessary.

  2. Successive explosions in Mumbai the economic center of India.

    PubMed

    Krishnamurthy, R; Daundkar, B B; Malve, M K

    2006-01-01

    Terrorist activities in India are increasing day by day with sophistication in modus operandi. Mumbai the economic center of India was attacked by a series of bomb blasts at twelve different places within a span of an hour on 12th March 1993. The main explosive used was RDX [Krishnamurthy R, Malve MK, Shinde BM. J Indian Acad Forensic Sci 1996;35(1& 2):46-61.]. After about 10 years, terrorist activity of late has again erupted taking a toll on innocent lives, with the use of explosives causing death and destruction. On 2.12.02 a public bus at Ghatkopar was blown up by an improvised explosive device (IED) with two casualties. On 27.1.03 the public vegetable market at Vileparle was targeted causing heavy damage and panic among common people. On 13.3.03 a fully packed local train compartment at Mulund railway station was blown up by an improved explosive device and the casualties ranged up to 10. In most of the explosions the explosives used were RDX, NC-NG, etc. The blasts that occurred at the Zaveri bazaar and the gateway of India on 25/8/03 showed the presence of big craters at the blast site and on analysis the presence of RDX and petroleum oil. PMID:17055401

  3. Comparisons of Rig and Engine Dynamic Events in the Compressor of an Axi-Centrifugal Turboshaft Engine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Owen, A. Karl; Mattern, Duane L.; Le, Dzu K.

    1996-01-01

    Steady state and dynamic data were acquired in a T55-L-712 compressor rig. In addition, a T55-L-12 engine was instrumented and similar data were acquired. Rig and engine stall/surge data were analyzed using modal techniques. This paper compares rig and engine preliminary results for the ground idle (approximately 60% of design speed) point. The results of these analyses indicate both rig and engine dynamic event are preceded by indications of traveling wave energy in front of the compressor face. For both rig and engine, the traveling wave energy contains broad band energy with some prominent narrow peaks and, while the events are similar in many ways, some noticeable differences exist between the results of the analyses of rig data and engine data.

  4. Curved detonation fronts in solid explosives: Collisions and boundary interactions

    SciTech Connect

    Bdzil, J.B.; Aslam, T.D.; Stewart, D.S.

    1995-09-01

    Detonation Shock Dynamics (DSD) can be used to model the effects that shock curvature, {kappa}, has oil detonation speed, D{sub n}({kappa}). At the edges of the explosive, D{sub n}({kappa}) is supplemented with boundary conditions. By direct numerical simulation (DNS). The authors study how the reaction zone interacts with the edge. DSD theory has been integrated with the level-set method of Osher and Sethian and the Los Alamos DNS code Mesa to create a powerful tool for simulating complex explosive containing systems.

  5. Cancer therapies activate RIG-I-like receptor pathway through endogenous non-coding RNAs.

    PubMed

    Ranoa, Diana Rose E; Parekh, Akash D; Pitroda, Sean P; Huang, Xiaona; Darga, Thomas; Wong, Anthony C; Huang, Lei; Andrade, Jorge; Staley, Jonathan P; Satoh, Takashi; Akira, Shizuo; Weichselbaum, Ralph R; Khodarev, Nikolai N

    2016-05-01

    Emerging evidence indicates that ionizing radiation (IR) and chemotherapy activate Type I interferon (IFN) signaling in tumor and host cells. However, the mechanism of induction is poorly understood. We identified a novel radioprotective role for the DEXH box RNA helicase LGP2 (DHX58) through its suppression of IR-induced cytotoxic IFN-beta [1]. LGP2 inhibits activation of the RIG-I-like receptor (RLR) pathway upon binding of viral RNA to the cytoplasmic sensors RIG-I (DDX58) and MDA5 (IFIH1) and subsequent IFN signaling via the mitochondrial adaptor protein MAVS (IPS1). Here we show that MAVS is necessary for IFN-beta induction and interferon-stimulated gene expression in the response to IR. Suppression of MAVS conferred radioresistance in normal and cancer cells. Germline deletion of RIG-I, but not MDA5, protected mice from death following total body irradiation, while deletion of LGP2 accelerated the death of irradiated animals. In human tumors depletion of RIG-I conferred resistance to IR and different classes of chemotherapy drugs. Mechanistically, IR stimulated the binding of cytoplasmic RIG-I with small endogenous non-coding RNAs (sncRNAs), which triggered IFN-beta activity. We demonstrate that the small nuclear RNAs U1 and U2 translocate to the cytoplasm after IR treatment, thus stimulating the formation of RIG-I: RNA complexes and initiating downstream signaling events. Taken together, these findings suggest that the physiologic responses to radio-/chemo-therapy converge on an antiviral program in recruitment of the RLR pathway by a sncRNA-dependent activation of RIG-I which commences cytotoxic IFN signaling. Importantly, activation of interferon genes by radiation or chemotherapy is associated with a favorable outcome in patients undergoing treatment for cancer. To our knowledge, this is the first demonstration of a cell-intrinsic response to clinically relevant genotoxic treatments mediated by an RNA-dependent mechanism.

  6. Nucleotide Sequences and Modifications That Determine RIG-I/RNA Binding and Signaling Activities ▿

    PubMed Central

    Uzri, Dina; Gehrke, Lee

    2009-01-01

    Cytoplasmic viral RNAs with 5′ triphosphates (5′ppp) are detected by the RNA helicase RIG-I, initiating downstream signaling and alpha/beta interferon (IFN-α/β) expression that establish an antiviral state. We demonstrate here that the hepatitis C virus (HCV) 3′ untranslated region (UTR) RNA has greater activity as an immune stimulator than several flavivirus UTR RNAs. We confirmed that the HCV 3′-UTR poly(U/UC) region is the determinant for robust activation of RIG-I-mediated innate immune signaling and that its antisense sequence, poly(AG/A), is an equivalent RIG-I activator. The poly(U/UC) region of the fulminant HCV JFH-1 strain was a relatively weak activator, while the antisense JFH-1 strain poly(AG/A) RNA was very potent. Poly(U/UC) activity does not require primary nucleotide sequence adjacency to the 5′ppp, suggesting that RIG-I recognizes two independent RNA domains. Whereas poly(U) 50-nt or poly(A) 50-nt sequences were minimally active, inserting a single C or G nucleotide, respectively, into these RNAs increased IFN-β expression. Poly(U/UC) RNAs transcribed in vitro using modified uridine 2′ fluoro or pseudouridine ribonucleotides lacked signaling activity while functioning as competitive inhibitors of RIG-I binding and IFN-β expression. Nucleotide base and ribose modifications that convert activator RNAs into competitive inhibitors of RIG-I signaling may be useful as modulators of RIG-I-mediated innate immune responses and as tools to dissect the RNA binding and conformational events associated with signaling. PMID:19224987

  7. A method for testing railway wheel sets on a full-scale roller rig

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Binbin; Bruni, Stefano

    2015-09-01

    Full-scale roller rigs for tests on a single axle enable the investigation of several dynamics and durability problems related with the design and operation of the railway rolling stock. In order to exploit the best potential of this test equipment, appropriate test procedures need to be defined, particularly in terms of actuators' references, to make sure that meaningful wheel -rail contact conditions can be reproduced. The aim of this paper is to propose a new methodology to define the forces to be generated by the actuators in the rig in order to best reproduce the behaviour of a wheel set and especially the wheel -rail contact forces in a running condition of interest as obtained either from multi-body system (MBS) simulation or from on-track measurements. The method is supported by the use of a mathematical model of the roller rig and uses an iterative correction scheme, comparing the time histories of the contact force components from the roller rig test as predicted by the mathematical model to a set of target contact force time histories. Two methods are introduced, the first one considering a standard arrangement of the roller rig, the second one assuming that a differential gear is introduced in the rig, allowing different rolling speeds of the two rollers. Results are presented showing that the deviation of the roller rig test results from the considered targets can be kept within low tolerances (1% approximately) as far as the vertical and lateral contact forces on both wheels are concerned. For the longitudinal forces, larger deviations are obtained except in the case where a differential gear is introduced.

  8. RIG-I Mediates an Antiviral Response to Crimean-Congo Hemorrhagic Fever Virus

    PubMed Central

    Spengler, Jessica R.; Patel, Jenish R.; Chakrabarti, Ayan K.; Zivcec, Marko; García-Sastre, Adolfo; Spiropoulou, Christina F.

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT In the cytoplasm, the retinoic acid-inducible gene I (RIG-I) senses the RNA genomes of several RNA viruses. RIG-I binds to viral RNA, eliciting an antiviral response via the cellular adaptor MAVS. Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever virus (CCHFV), a negative-sense RNA virus with a 5′-monophosphorylated genome, is a highly pathogenic zoonotic agent with significant public health implications. We found that, during CCHFV infection, RIG-I mediated a type I interferon (IFN) response via MAVS. Interfering with RIG-I signaling reduced IFN production and IFN-stimulated gene expression and increased viral replication. Immunostimulatory RNA was isolated from CCHFV-infected cells and from virion preparations, and RIG-I coimmunoprecipitation of infected cell lysates isolated immunostimulatory CCHFV RNA. This report serves as the first description of a pattern recognition receptor for CCHFV and highlights a critical signaling pathway in the antiviral response to CCHFV. IMPORTANCE CCHFV is a tick-borne virus with a significant public health impact. In order for cells to respond to virus infection, they must recognize the virus as foreign and initiate antiviral signaling. To date, the receptors involved in immune recognition of CCHFV are not known. Here, we investigate and identify RIG-I as a receptor involved in initiating an antiviral response to CCHFV. This receptor initially was not expected to play a role in CCHFV recognition because of characteristics of the viral genome. These findings are important in understanding the antiviral response to CCHFV and support continued investigation into the spectrum of potential viruses recognized by RIG-I. PMID:26223644

  9. Cancer therapies activate RIG-I-like receptor pathway through endogenous non-coding RNAs

    PubMed Central

    Ranoa, Diana Rose E.; Parekh, Akash D.; Pitroda, Sean P.; Huang, Xiaona; Darga, Thomas; Wong, Anthony C.; Huang, Lei; Andrade, Jorge; Staley, Jonathan P.; Satoh, Takashi; Akira, Shizuo

    2016-01-01

    Emerging evidence indicates that ionizing radiation (IR) and chemotherapy activate Type I interferon (IFN) signaling in tumor and host cells. However, the mechanism of induction is poorly understood. We identified a novel radioprotective role for the DEXH box RNA helicase LGP2 (DHX58) through its suppression of IR-induced cytotoxic IFN-beta [1]. LGP2 inhibits activation of the RIG-I-like receptor (RLR) pathway upon binding of viral RNA to the cytoplasmic sensors RIG-I (DDX58) and MDA5 (IFIH1) and subsequent IFN signaling via the mitochondrial adaptor protein MAVS (IPS1). Here we show that MAVS is necessary for IFN-beta induction and interferon-stimulated gene expression in the response to IR. Suppression of MAVS conferred radioresistance in normal and cancer cells. Germline deletion of RIG-I, but not MDA5, protected mice from death following total body irradiation, while deletion of LGP2 accelerated the death of irradiated animals. In human tumors depletion of RIG-I conferred resistance to IR and different classes of chemotherapy drugs. Mechanistically, IR stimulated the binding of cytoplasmic RIG-I with small endogenous non-coding RNAs (sncRNAs), which triggered IFN-beta activity. We demonstrate that the small nuclear RNAs U1 and U2 translocate to the cytoplasm after IR treatment, thus stimulating the formation of RIG-I: RNA complexes and initiating downstream signaling events. Taken together, these findings suggest that the physiologic responses to radio-/chemo-therapy converge on an antiviral program in recruitment of the RLR pathway by a sncRNA-dependent activation of RIG-I which commences cytotoxic IFN signaling. Importantly, activation of interferon genes by radiation or chemotherapy is associated with a favorable outcome in patients undergoing treatment for cancer. To our knowledge, this is the first demonstration of a cell-intrinsic response to clinically relevant genotoxic treatments mediated by an RNA-dependent mechanism. PMID:27034163

  10. Explosion Heat and Metal Acceleration Ability of High Explosives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Makhov, M. N.

    2004-07-01

    Investigations of explosion heats of TNT and HMX show that in tests of unconfined charges the explosion products undergo intense secondary heating when approaching the wall of calorimetric bomb cavity. This secondary heating causes "re-freezing" the explosion products in conditions of low pressure. An inert metal casing whose mass is more than four times greater than that of explosive charge prevents the secondary heating of products to the "re-freezing" temperature and rules out a change in their composition. Filling of calorimetric bomb cavity before explosion with an inert gas produces an effect similar to that of charge casing. The value of explosion heat, measured under conditions that preclude "re-freezing" of explosion products can serve as a measure of the energy content of high explosive. With the use of this parameter a simple method for predicting explosive performance in Cylinder Test has been developed. The method is based on the assumption that the coefficient of conversion of the chemical energy to the kinetic energy depends on the volumetric mole number of gaseous products.

  11. Dependence of RIG-I Nucleic Acid-Binding and ATP Hydrolysis on Activation of Type I Interferon Response.

    PubMed

    Baek, Yu Mi; Yoon, Soojin; Hwang, Yeo Eun; Kim, Dong-Eun

    2016-08-01

    Exogenous nucleic acids induce an innate immune response in mammalian host cells through activation of the retinoic acid-inducible gene I (RIG-I). We evaluated RIG-I protein for RNA binding and ATPase stimulation with RNA ligands to investigate the correlation with the extent of immune response through RIG-I activation in cells. RIG-I protein favored blunt-ended, double-stranded RNA (dsRNA) ligands over sticky-ended dsRNA. Moreover, the presence of the 5'-triphosphate (5'-ppp) moiety in dsRNA further enhanced binding affinity to RIG-I. Two structural motifs in RNA, blunt ends in dsRNA and 5'-ppp, stimulated the ATP hydrolysis activity of RIG-I. These structural motifs also strongly induced IFN expression as an innate immune response in cells. Therefore, we suggest that IFN induction through RIG-I activation is mainly determined by structural motifs in dsRNA that increase its affinity for RIG-I protein and stimulate ATPase activity in RIG-I. PMID:27574504

  12. Dependence of RIG-I Nucleic Acid-Binding and ATP Hydrolysis on Activation of Type I Interferon Response

    PubMed Central

    Baek, Yu Mi; Yoon, Soojin; Hwang, Yeo Eun

    2016-01-01

    Exogenous nucleic acids induce an innate immune response in mammalian host cells through activation of the retinoic acid-inducible gene I (RIG-I). We evaluated RIG-I protein for RNA binding and ATPase stimulation with RNA ligands to investigate the correlation with the extent of immune response through RIG-I activation in cells. RIG-I protein favored blunt-ended, double-stranded RNA (dsRNA) ligands over sticky-ended dsRNA. Moreover, the presence of the 5'-triphosphate (5'-ppp) moiety in dsRNA further enhanced binding affinity to RIG-I. Two structural motifs in RNA, blunt ends in dsRNA and 5'-ppp, stimulated the ATP hydrolysis activity of RIG-I. These structural motifs also strongly induced IFN expression as an innate immune response in cells. Therefore, we suggest that IFN induction through RIG-I activation is mainly determined by structural motifs in dsRNA that increase its affinity for RIG-I protein and stimulate ATPase activity in RIG-I. PMID:27574504

  13. South Texas: where mesquite and estuaries challenge drilling rigs

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1983-01-01

    The development of oil and gas drilling in South Texas has been a difficult process because of the unyielding resistance of the brush country. Hydrocarbons have been associated with South Texas for as long as there have been recorded accounts of the region. A brief history of exploration and development of the Texas Gulf Coast is presented.

  14. Comparative analysis of viral RNA signatures on different RIG-I-like receptors

    PubMed Central

    Sanchez David, Raul Y; Combredet, Chantal; Sismeiro, Odile; Dillies, Marie-Agnès; Jagla, Bernd; Coppée, Jean-Yves; Mura, Marie; Guerbois Galla, Mathilde; Despres, Philippe; Tangy, Frédéric; Komarova, Anastassia V

    2016-01-01

    The RIG-I-like receptors (RLRs) play a major role in sensing RNA virus infection to initiate and modulate antiviral immunity. They interact with particular viral RNAs, most of them being still unknown. To decipher the viral RNA signature on RLRs during viral infection, we tagged RLRs (RIG-I, MDA5, LGP2) and applied tagged protein affinity purification followed by next-generation sequencing (NGS) of associated RNA molecules. Two viruses with negative- and positive-sense RNA genome were used: measles (MV) and chikungunya (CHIKV). NGS analysis revealed that distinct regions of MV genome were specifically recognized by distinct RLRs: RIG-I recognized defective interfering genomes, whereas MDA5 and LGP2 specifically bound MV nucleoprotein-coding region. During CHIKV infection, RIG-I associated specifically to the 3’ untranslated region of viral genome. This study provides the first comparative view of the viral RNA ligands for RIG-I, MDA5 and LGP2 in the presence of infection. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.11275.001 PMID:27011352

  15. RIG-I inhibits pancreatic β cell proliferation through competitive binding of activated Src

    PubMed Central

    Pan, Yi; Li, GuangMing; Zhong, HengGao; Chen, MeiJuan; Chen, TingTing; Gao, LiLi; Wu, HuiWen; Guo, Jun

    2016-01-01

    Nutrition is a necessary condition for cell proliferation, including pancreatic β cells; however, over-nutrition, and the resulting obesity and glucolipotoxicity, is a risk factor for the development of Type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM), and causes inhibition of pancreatic β-cells proliferation and their loss of compensation for insulin resistance. Here, we showed that Retinoic acid (RA)-inducible gene I (RIG-I) responds to nutrient signals and induces loss of β cell mass through G1 cell cycle arrest. Risk factors for type 2 diabetes (e.g., glucolipotoxicity, TNF-α and LPS) activate Src in pancreatic β cells. Elevated RIG-I modulated the interaction of activated Src and STAT3 by competitive binding to STAT3. Elevated RIG-I downregulated the transcription of SKP2, and increased the stability and abundance of P27 protein in a STAT3-dependent manner, which was associated with inhibition of β cell growth elicited by Src. These results supported a role for RIG-I in β cell mass loss under conditions of metabolic surplus and suggested that RIG-I-induced blocking of Src/STAT3 signalling might be involved in G1 phase cycle arrest through the Skp2/P27 pathway in pancreatic β cells. PMID:27349479

  16. Leader-Containing Uncapped Viral Transcript Activates RIG-I in Antiviral Stress Granules

    PubMed Central

    Oh, Seong-Wook; Onomoto, Koji; Wakimoto, Mai; Onoguchi, Kazuhide; Ishidate, Fumiyoshi; Fujiwara, Takahiro; Yoneyama, Mitsutoshi; Kato, Hiroki; Fujita, Takashi

    2016-01-01

    RIG-I triggers antiviral responses by recognizing viral RNA (vRNA) in the cytoplasm. However, the spatio-temporal dynamics of vRNA sensing and signal transduction remain elusive. We investigated the time course of events in cells infected with Newcastle disease virus (NDV), a non-segmented negative-strand RNA virus. RIG-I was recruited to viral replication complexes (vRC) and triggered minimal primary type I interferon (IFN) production. RIG-I subsequently localized to antiviral stress granules (avSG) induced after vRC formation. The inhibition of avSG attenuated secondary IFN production, suggesting avSG as a platform for efficient vRNA detection. avSG selectively captured positive-strand vRNA, and poly(A)+ RNA induced IFN production. Further investigations suggested that uncapped vRNA derived from read-through transcription was sensed by RIG-I in avSG. These results highlight how viral infections stimulate host stress responses, thereby selectively recruiting uncapped vRNA to avSG, in which RIG-I and other components cooperate in an efficient antiviral program. PMID:26862753

  17. The impact of radioimmunoguided surgery (RIGS) on surgical decision-making in colorectal cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Nieroda, C.A.; Mojzisik, C.; Sardi, A.; Ferrara, P.; Hinkle, G.; Thurston, M.O.; Martin, E.W. Jr. )

    1989-11-01

    Radioimmunoguided surgery (RIGS system) was performed in ten patients with rectal or low sigmoid colon carcinoma with the use of a hand-held gamma detector (Neoprobe 1000) intraoperatively and externally after injection of radiolabeled (125I) monoclonal antibody to detect pelvic and metastatic tumor. Fifteen procedures, including six exploratory laparotomies, four transperineal explorations, two transsacral explorations, one transvaginal biopsy, one brachytherapy, and one transanal polypectomy, were performed. Two patients had previous low anterior resection, seven abdominoperineal resection, and one a rectal polypectomy. Five patients had previous pelvic radiation therapy. Reoperation was indicated by elevated CEA levels in seven patients (70 percent), persistent pelvic pain in six (60 percent), and a suspicious radiologic study in seven (70 percent). RIGS system localized tumors verified by histopatholoy in all ten patients (100 percent); one patient with a positive CT scan and probe findings lacked histopathologic confirmation on frozen section, but had a tumor confirmed on permanent histology. Five major abdominal operations were avoided; in five patients major modifications were made in the surgical procedure based on probe findings. Six received chemotherapy or radiation therapy based on findings of the RIGS system. In six patients with negative or equivocal CT scans, the RIGS system localized histopathologically confirmed tumor. Major abdominal procedures can be avoided, the surgical approach modified, and other modes of therapy instituted earlier with the use of the RIGS system.

  18. Comparative analysis of viral RNA signatures on different RIG-I-like receptors.

    PubMed

    Sanchez David, Raul Y; Combredet, Chantal; Sismeiro, Odile; Dillies, Marie-Agnès; Jagla, Bernd; Coppée, Jean-Yves; Mura, Marie; Guerbois Galla, Mathilde; Despres, Philippe; Tangy, Frédéric; Komarova, Anastassia V

    2016-01-01

    The RIG-I-like receptors (RLRs) play a major role in sensing RNA virus infection to initiate and modulate antiviral immunity. They interact with particular viral RNAs, most of them being still unknown. To decipher the viral RNA signature on RLRs during viral infection, we tagged RLRs (RIG-I, MDA5, LGP2) and applied tagged protein affinity purification followed by next-generation sequencing (NGS) of associated RNA molecules. Two viruses with negative- and positive-sense RNA genome were used: measles (MV) and chikungunya (CHIKV). NGS analysis revealed that distinct regions of MV genome were specifically recognized by distinct RLRs: RIG-I recognized defective interfering genomes, whereas MDA5 and LGP2 specifically bound MV nucleoprotein-coding region. During CHIKV infection, RIG-I associated specifically to the 3' untranslated region of viral genome. This study provides the first comparative view of the viral RNA ligands for RIG-I, MDA5 and LGP2 in the presence of infection. PMID:27011352

  19. ATP-dependent effector-like functions of RIG-I like receptors

    PubMed Central

    Peisley, Alys; Hoffmann, Hans-Heinrich; Gilmore, Rachel H.; Schmidt, Tobias; Schmidt-Burgk, Jonathan; Hornung, Veit; Rice, Charles M.; Hur, Sun

    2015-01-01

    Summary The vertebrate antiviral innate immune system is often considered to consist of two distinct groups of proteins: pattern recognition receptors (PRRs) that detect viral infection and induce the interferon (IFN) signaling, and effectors that directly act against viral replication. Accordingly, previous studies on PRRs, such as RIG-I and MDA5, have primarily focused on their functions in viral double-stranded RNA (dsRNA) detection and consequent antiviral signaling. We here report that both RIG-I and MDA5 efficiently displace viral proteins pre-bound to dsRNA in a manner dependent on their ATP hydrolysis, and that this activity assists a dsRNA-dependent antiviral effector protein, PKR, and allows RIG-I to promote MDA5 signaling. Furthermore, truncated RIG-I/MDA5 lacking the signaling domain, and hence the IFN stimulatory activity, displace viral proteins and suppress replication of certain viruses in an ATP-dependent manner. Thus, this study reveals novel “effector-like” functions of RIG-I and MDA5 that challenge the conventional view of PRRs. PMID:25891073

  20. Natural gas in Lake Erie: a reconnaissance survey of discharges from an offshore drilling rig

    SciTech Connect

    Ferrante, J.G.; Dettmann, E.H.; Parker, J.I.

    1980-10-01

    Field studies were conducted May 28-June 1, 1979, to determine the chemical composition and physical behavior of discharges from an offshore gas drilling rig in the central basin of Lake Erie. The drilling operation was observed for four days, from rig jackup to the circulation of mud through the borehole after drilling had been completed. Resuspension studies using nephelometry, supplemented with chemical analyses, indicated little resuspension of lake bottom materials or release of metals to the water column during rig jack-up. Portions of the turbidity plumes generated during drilling were buoyant. Three surface turbidity plumes were mapped with nephelometry to a point at which particulate concentrations reached background levels in the Lake. Detectable plumes were approx. 400 to 1500 m in length and had maximum widths < 230 m. A chemical survey conducted in the plume during early gas shows indicated that discharged inorganic chemical species were rapidly diluted to background concentrations and that methane and ethane concentrations were substantially reduced within 330 m of the rig. There was no evidence of carbon tetrachloride extractable hydrocarbons (CTEH) above background concentrations during this chemical plume survey. However, a pair of water samples taken within 100 m of the rig approximately 3 hours after drilling of the target zone was completed had CTEH concentrations that were a factor of 2.4 above background.

  1. Validation of the Small Hot Jet Acoustic Rig for Jet Noise Research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bridges, James; Brown, Clifford A.

    2005-01-01

    The development and acoustic validation of the Small Hot Jet Aeroacoustic Rig (SHJAR) is documented. Originally conceived to support fundamental research in jet noise, the rig has been designed and developed using the best practices of the industry. While validating the rig for acoustic work, a method of characterizing all extraneous rig noise was developed. With this in hand, the researcher can know when the jet data being measured is being contaminated and design the experiment around this limitation. Also considered is the question of uncertainty, where it is shown that there is a fundamental uncertainty of 0.5dB or so to the best experiments, confirmed by repeatability studies. One area not generally accounted for in the uncertainty analysis is the variation which can result from differences in initial condition of the nozzle shear layer. This initial condition was modified and the differences in both flow and sound were documented. The bottom line is that extreme caution must be applied when working on small jet rigs, but that highly accurate results can be made independent of scale.

  2. Design and Checkout of a High Speed Research Nozzle Evaluation Rig

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Castner, Raymond S.; Wolter, John D.

    1997-01-01

    The High Flow Jet Exit Rig (HFJER) was designed to provide simulated mixed flow turbojet engine exhaust for one- seventh scale models of advanced High Speed Research test nozzles. The new rig was designed to be used at NASA Lewis Research Center in the Nozzle Acoustic Test Rig and the 8x6 Supersonic Wind Tunnel. Capabilities were also designed to collect nozzle thrust measurement, aerodynamic measurements, and acoustic measurements when installed at the Nozzle Acoustic Test Rig. Simulated engine exhaust can be supplied from a high pressure air source at 33 pounds of air per second at 530 degrees Rankine and nozzle pressure ratios of 4.0. In addition, a combustion unit was designed from a J-58 aircraft engine burner to provide 20 pounds of air per second at 2000 degrees Rankine, also at nozzle pressure ratios of 4.0. These airflow capacities were designed to test High Speed Research nozzles with exhaust areas from eighteen square inches to twenty-two square inches. Nozzle inlet flow measurement is available through pressure and temperature sensors installed in the rig. Research instrumentation on High Speed Research nozzles is available with a maximum of 200 individual pressure and 100 individual temperature measurements. Checkout testing was performed in May 1997 with a 22 square inch ASME long radius flow nozzle. Checkout test results will be summarized and compared to the stated design goals.

  3. Hydrogen Fuel Capability Added to Combustor Flametube Rig

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Frankenfield, Bruce J.

    2003-01-01

    Facility capabilities have been expanded at Test Cell 23, Research Combustor Lab (RCL23) at the NASA Glenn Research Center, with a new gaseous hydrogen fuel system. The purpose of this facility is to test a variety of fuel nozzle and flameholder hardware configurations for use in aircraft combustors. Previously, this facility only had jet fuel available to perform these various combustor flametube tests. The new hydrogen fuel system will support the testing and development of aircraft combustors with zero carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions. Research information generated from this test rig includes combustor emissions and performance data via gas sampling probes and emissions measuring equipment. The new gaseous hydrogen system is being supplied from a 70 000-standard-ft3 tube trailer at flow rates up to 0.05 lb/s (maximum). The hydrogen supply pressure is regulated, and the flow is controlled with a -in. remotely operated globe valve. Both a calibrated subsonic venturi and a coriolis mass flowmeter are used to measure flow. Safety concerns required the placement of all hydrogen connections within purge boxes, each of which contains a small nitrogen flow that is vented past a hydrogen detector. If any hydrogen leaks occur, the hydrogen detectors alert the operators and automatically safe the facility. Facility upgrades and modifications were also performed on other fluids systems, including the nitrogen gas, cooling water, and air systems. RCL23 can provide nonvitiated heated air to the research combustor, up to 350 psig at 1200 F and 3.0 lb/s. Significant modernization of the facility control systems and the data acquisition systems was completed. A flexible control architecture was installed that allows quick changes of research configurations. The labor-intensive hardware interface has been removed and changed to a software-based system. In addition, the operation of this facility has been greatly enhanced with new software programming and graphic operator interface

  4. Open-pit explosives

    SciTech Connect

    Dannenberg, J.

    1982-07-01

    This paper explains how mine operators are taking a closer look at the power of explosives and how primary breakage affects other open-pit mining costs. Slurries have overcome most of the disadvantages attributed to them in their early years and may replace Anfo. Effective blasting is the key to an efficient, low-cost mining operation. Reviews are presented on research in crater studies, computer-aided design, the expanding gas theory, and high-speed motion picture cameras that show the importance of shock energy in fracturing the rock interfaces throughout the burden. The paper concludes with MSHA-approved courses in blasting offered throughout the US.

  5. Explosive scabbling of structural materials

    DOEpatents

    Bickes, Jr., Robert W.; Bonzon, Lloyd L.

    2002-01-01

    A new approach to scabbling of surfaces of structural materials is disclosed. A layer of mildly energetic explosive composition is applied to the surface to be scabbled. The explosive composition is then detonated, rubbleizing the surface. Explosive compositions used must sustain a detonation front along the surface to which it is applied and conform closely to the surface being scabbled. Suitable explosive compositions exist which are stable under handling, easy to apply, easy to transport, have limited toxicity, and can be reliably detonated using conventional techniques.

  6. Zirconium hydride containing explosive composition

    DOEpatents

    Walker, Franklin E.; Wasley, Richard J.

    1981-01-01

    An improved explosive composition is disclosed and comprises a major portion of an explosive having a detonation velocity between about 1500 and 10,000 meters per second and a minor amount of a donor additive comprising a non-explosive compound or mixture of non-explosive compounds which when subjected to an energy fluence of 1000 calories/cm.sup.2 or less is capable of releasing free radicals each having a molecular weight between 1 and 120. Exemplary donor additives are dibasic acids, polyamines and metal hydrides.

  7. Low voltage nonprimary explosive detonator

    DOEpatents

    Dinegar, Robert H.; Kirkham, John

    1982-01-01

    A low voltage, electrically actuated, nonprimary explosive detonator is disclosed wherein said detonation is achieved by means of an explosive train in which a deflagration-to-detonation transition is made to occur. The explosive train is confined within a cylindrical body and positioned adjacent to low voltage ignition means have electrical leads extending outwardly from the cylindrical confining body. Application of a low voltage current to the electrical leads ignites a self-sustained deflagration in a donor portion of the explosive train which then is made to undergo a transition to detonation further down the train.

  8. Controlled by Distant Explosions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2007-03-01

    VLT Automatically Takes Detailed Spectra of Gamma-Ray Burst Afterglows Only Minutes After Discovery A time-series of high-resolution spectra in the optical and ultraviolet has twice been obtained just a few minutes after the detection of a gamma-ray bust explosion in a distant galaxy. The international team of astronomers responsible for these observations derived new conclusive evidence about the nature of the surroundings of these powerful explosions linked to the death of massive stars. At 11:08 pm on 17 April 2006, an alarm rang in the Control Room of ESO's Very Large Telescope on Paranal, Chile. Fortunately, it did not announce any catastrophe on the mountain, nor with one of the world's largest telescopes. Instead, it signalled the doom of a massive star, 9.3 billion light-years away, whose final scream of agony - a powerful burst of gamma rays - had been recorded by the Swift satellite only two minutes earlier. The alarm was triggered by the activation of the VLT Rapid Response Mode, a novel system that allows for robotic observations without any human intervention, except for the alignment of the spectrograph slit. ESO PR Photo 17a/07 ESO PR Photo 17a/07 Triggered by an Explosion Starting less than 10 minutes after the Swift detection, a series of spectra of increasing integration times (3, 5, 10, 20, 40 and 80 minutes) were taken with the Ultraviolet and Visual Echelle Spectrograph (UVES), mounted on Kueyen, the second Unit Telescope of the VLT. "With the Rapid Response Mode, the VLT is directly controlled by a distant explosion," said ESO astronomer Paul Vreeswijk, who requested the observations and is lead-author of the paper reporting the results. "All I really had to do, once I was informed of the gamma-ray burst detection, was to phone the staff astronomers at the Paranal Observatory, Stefano Bagnulo and Stan Stefl, to check that everything was fine." The first spectrum of this time series was the quickest ever taken of a gamma-ray burst afterglow

  9. Marine riser protector for use on offshore oil drilling rigs in icy waters

    SciTech Connect

    Yashima, N.

    1985-03-19

    An apparatus for protecting a marine riser extending downwardly from a platform of an offshore station above a sea level toward a sea bottom. A tubular protector is removably mounted on the underside of the platform in surrounding relation to the marine riser in the vicinity of the sea level. According to another embodiment, a tubular protector has an upper portion in the shape of a truncated cone for contact with ice floes and a lower portion shaped as a grid-like truncated cone flaring downwardly for diverting ice floes away from the tubular protector.

  10. Low gas prices and rig count cut business for makers of oil country tubular goods

    SciTech Connect

    1995-09-01

    After years of scavenging used drill pipe and trying everything they could think of to make existing pipe last, contractors in the petroleum industry are buying more new pipe. Although supplies of tubular goods are growing tighter, the supply and demand curves haven`t met. However, while the market for drill pipe may be increasing, the market for other tubular goods is decreasing.

  11. NASA Spinoff Article: Automated Procedures To Improve Safety on Oil Rigs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Garud, Sumedha

    2013-01-01

    On May 11th, 2013, two astronauts emerged from the interior of the International Space Station (ISS) and worked their way toward the far end of spacecraft. Over the next 51/2 hours, the two replaced an ammonia pump that had developed a significant leak a few days before. On the ISS, ammonia serves the vital role of cooling components-in this case, one of the station's eight solar arrays. Throughout the extravehicular activity (EVA), the astronauts stayed in constant contact with mission control: every movement, every action strictly followed a carefully planned set of procedures to maximize crew safety and the chances of success. Though the leak had come as a surprise, NASA was prepared to handle it swiftly thanks in part to the thousands of procedures that have been written to cover every aspect of the ISS's operations. The ISS is not unique in this regard: Every NASA mission requires well-written procedures-or detailed lists of step-by-step instructions-that cover how to operate equipment in any scenario, from normal operations to the challenges created by malfunctioning hardware or software. Astronauts and mission control train and drill extensively in procedures to ensure they know what the proper procedures are and when they should be used. These procedures used to be exclusively written on paper, but over the past decade, NASA has transitioned to digital formats. Electronic-based documentation simplifies storage and use, allowing astronauts and flight controllers to find instructions more quickly and display them through a variety of media. Electronic procedures are also a crucial step toward automation: once instructions are digital, procedure display software can be designed to assist in authoring, reviewing, and even executing them.

  12. Hello oil rig: The role of simulacra images in producing future reality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ibrahim, Abdallah

    This project is the first approach to address the problem of the image through a discussion between science, philosophy, art history, art theory, and fine arts based on one body of specific art work designed especially to explain the role of the image in producing future reality models. This study is a continuation of the dialogue between important philosophers and thinkers about the image and its place in the contemporary scene. The technical fossil medium used in painting this project crosses the boundary between scientific research with its data sheets to art theory and fine arts with their aesthetic rhetoric thus bringing many disciplines together. Seven images were created to discuss the problem. The artwork and the academic research are both interacting in this paper in a multidiscipline discussion to uncover the role of the images in creating a new reality and in forging the hyperreal culture.

  13. Explosive blast neurotrauma.

    PubMed

    Ling, Geoffrey; Bandak, Faris; Armonda, Rocco; Grant, Gerald; Ecklund, James

    2009-06-01

    Explosive blast traumatic brain injury (TBI) is one of the more serious wounds suffered by United States service members injured in the current conflicts in Iraq and Afghanistan. Some military medical treatments for blast TBI that have been introduced successfully in the war theater include decompressive craniectomy, cerebral angiography, transcranial Doppler, hypertonic resuscitation fluids, among others. Stateside neurosurgery, neuro-critical care, and rehabilitation for these patients have similarly progressed. With experience, military physicians have been able to clinically describe blast TBI across the entire severity spectrum. One important clinical finding is that a significant number of severe blast TBI victims develop pseudoaneurysms and vasospasm, which can lead to delayed decompensation. Another is that mild blast TBI shares clinical features with post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Observations suggest that the mechanism by which explosive blast injures the central nervous system may be more complex than initially assumed. Rigorous study at the basic science and clinical levels, including detailed biomechanical analysis, is needed to improve understanding of this disease. A comprehensive epidemiological study is also warranted to determine the prevalence of this disease and the factors that contribute most to the risk of developing it. Sadly, this military-specific disease has significant potential to become a civilian one as well.

  14. Laser machining of explosives

    SciTech Connect

    Perry, Michael D.; Stuart, Brent C.; Banks, Paul S.; Myers, Booth R.; Sefcik, Joseph A.

    2000-01-01

    The invention consists of a method for machining (cutting, drilling, sculpting) of explosives (e.g., TNT, TATB, PETN, RDX, etc.). By using pulses of a duration in the range of 5 femtoseconds to 50 picoseconds, extremely precise and rapid machining can be achieved with essentially no heat or shock affected zone. In this method, material is removed by a nonthermal mechanism. A combination of multiphoton and collisional ionization creates a critical density plasma in a time scale much shorter than electron kinetic energy is transferred to the lattice. The resulting plasma is far from thermal equilibrium. The material is in essence converted from its initial solid-state directly into a fully ionized plasma on a time scale too short for thermal equilibrium to be established with the lattice. As a result, there is negligible heat conduction beyond the region removed resulting in negligible thermal stress or shock to the material beyond a few microns from the laser machined surface. Hydrodynamic expansion of the plasma eliminates the need for any ancillary techniques to remove material and produces extremely high quality machined surfaces. There is no detonation or deflagration of the explosive in the process and the material which is removed is rendered inert.

  15. Tenderizing Meat with Explosives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gustavson, Paul K.; Lee, Richard J.; Chambers, George P.; Solomon, Morse B.; Berry, Brad W.

    2001-06-01

    Investigators at the Food Technology and Safety Laboratory have had success tenderizing meat by explosively shock loading samples submerged in water. This technique, referred to as the Hydrodynamic Pressure (HDP) Process, is being developed to improve the efficiency and reproducibility of the beef tenderization processing over conventional aging techniques. Once optimized, the process should overcome variability in tenderization currently plaguing the beef industry. Additional benefits include marketing lower quality grades of meat, which have not been commercially viable due to a low propensity to tenderization. The simplest and most successful arrangement of these tests has meat samples (50 to 75 mm thick) placed on a steel plate at the bottom of a plastic water vessel. Reported here are tests which were instrumented by Indian Head investigators. Carbon-composite resistor-gauges were used to quantify the shock profile delivered to the surface of the meat. PVDF and resistor gauges (used later in lieu of PVDF) provided data on the pressure-time history at the meat/steel interface. Resulting changes in tenderization were correlated with increasing shock duration, which were provided by various explosives.

  16. Method for forming an in situ oil shale retort with horizontal free faces

    DOEpatents

    Ricketts, Thomas E.; Fernandes, Robert J.

    1983-01-01

    A method for forming a fragmented permeable mass of formation particles in an in situ oil shale retort is provided. A horizontally extending void is excavated in unfragmented formation containing oil shale and a zone of unfragmented formation is left adjacent the void. An array of explosive charges is formed in the zone of unfragmented formation. The array of explosive charges comprises rows of central explosive charges surrounded by a band of outer explosive charges which are adjacent side boundaries of the retort being formed. The powder factor of each outer explosive charge is made about equal to the powder factor of each central explosive charge. The explosive charges are detonated for explosively expanding the zone of unfragmented formation toward the void for forming the fragmented permeable mass of formation particles having a reasonably uniformly distributed void fraction in the in situ oil shale retort.

  17. Mach 0.3 Burner Rig Facility at the NASA Glenn Materials Research Laboratory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fox, Dennis S.; Miller, Robert A.; Zhu, Dongming; Perez, Michael; Cuy, Michael D.; Robinson, R. Craig

    2011-01-01

    This Technical Memorandum presents the current capabilities of the state-of-the-art Mach 0.3 Burner Rig Facility. It is used for materials research including oxidation, corrosion, erosion and impact. Consisting of seven computer controlled jet-fueled combustors in individual test cells, these relatively small rigs burn just 2 to 3 gal of jet fuel per hour. The rigs are used as an efficient means of subjecting potential aircraft engine/airframe advanced materials to the high temperatures, high velocities and thermal cycling closely approximating actual operating environments. Materials of various geometries and compositions can be evaluated at temperatures from 700 to 2400 F. Tests are conducted not only on bare superalloys and ceramics, but also to study the behavior and durability of protective coatings applied to those materials.

  18. Characterization of Ceramic Matrix Composite Fasteners Exposed in a Combustion Liner Rig Test

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Verrilli, Michael J.; Brewer, David; Gray, Hugh R. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    Combustion tests on SiC/SiC CMC (Ceramic Matrix Composite) components were performed in an aircraft combustion environment using the Rich-burn, Quick-quench, Lean-burn (RQL) sector rig. SiC/SiC fasteners were used to attach several of these components to the metallic rig structure. The effect of combustion exposure on the fastener material was characterized via microstructural examination. Fasteners were also destructively tested, after combustion exposure, and the failure loads of fasteners exposed in the sector rig were compared to those of as-manufactured fasteners. Combustion exposure reduced the fastener failure load by 50% relative to the as-manufactured fasteners for exposure times ranging from 50 to 260 hours. The fasteners exposed in the combustion environment demonstrated failure loads that varied with failure mode. Fasteners that had the highest average failure load, failed in the same manner as the unexposed fasteners.

  19. Developmental test report, assessment of XT-70E percussion drill rig operation in tank farms

    SciTech Connect

    Dougherty, L.F., Westinghouse Hanford

    1996-09-10

    The following report documents the testing of the XT-70E percussion drill rig for use in the 241-SX Tank Farm. The test is necessary to support evaluation of the safety and authorization level of the proposed activity of installing up to three new drywells in the 241- SX Tank Farm. The proposed activity plans to install drywells by percussion drilling 7 inch O.D./6 inch I.D. pipe in close proximity of underground storage tanks and associated equipment. The load transmitted from the drill rig`s percussion hammer through the ground to the tank structure and equipment is not known and therefore testing is required to ensure the activity is safe and authorized.

  20. Effects of explosive explosion shockwave pretreatment on sludge dewaterability.

    PubMed

    Chen, Dayong; Yang, Jun

    2012-09-01

    The potential benefits and mechanism of explosive explosion shockwave pretreatment on sludge dewatering treatments were investigated in this study. Water content of sludge cake after centrifugation was used to evaluate sludge dewaterability. Particle size, viscosity, turbidity, and micrograph were determined to explain the observed changes in the pretreatment process. The results indicated that the optimal pretreatment condition, generating the lowest water content of sludge cake, was 25 g explosive and 96.7% original sludge water content. This condition resulted in the reduced particle size and viscosity as well as increased turbidity. Particle size and viscosity significantly contributed to enhance sludge dewaterability. Micrograph investigation indicated that explosive explosion shockwave pretreatment could rupture sludge flocs, release physically bound water, and extracellular substances into the solution, consequently enhancing sludge dewaterability.

  1. Change in the length of the middle section of the Chandeleur Islands oil berm, November 17, 2010, through September 6, 2011

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Plant, N.G.; Guy, K.K.

    2013-01-01

    On April 20, 2010, an explosion on the Deepwater Horizon oil rig drilling at the Macondo Prospect site in the Gulf of Mexico resulted in a marine oil spill that continued to flow through July 15, 2010. One of the affected areas was the Breton National Wildlife Refuge, which consists of a chain of low-lying islands, including Breton Island and the Chandeleur Islands, and their surrounding waters. The island chain is located approximately 115-150 kilometers north-northwest of the spill site. A sand berm was constructed seaward of, and on, the island chain. Construction began at the northern end of the Chandeleur Islands in June 2010 and ended in April 2011. The berm consisted of three distinct sections based on where the berm was placed relative to the islands. The northern section of the berm was built in open water on a submerged portion of the Chandeleur Islands platform. The middle section was built approximately 70-90 meters seaward of the Chandeleur Islands. The southern section was built on the islands' beaches. Repeated Landsat and SPOT satellite imagery and airborne lidar were used to observe the disintegration of the berm over time. The methods used to analyze the remotely sensed data and the resulting, derived data for the middle section are described in this report.

  2. Change in the length of the southern section of the Chandeleur Islands oil berm, January 13, 2011, through September 3, 2012

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Plant, Nathaniel G.; Guy, Kristy K.

    2014-01-01

    On April 20, 2010, an explosion on the Deepwater Horizon oil rig drilling at the Macondo Prospect site in the Gulf of Mexico resulted in a marine oil spill that continued to flow through July 15, 2010. One of the affected areas was the Breton National Wildlife Refuge, which consists of a chain of low-lying islands, including Breton Island and the Chandeleur Islands, and their surrounding waters. The island chain is located approximately 115–150 kilometers (km) north-northwest of the spill site. A sand berm was constructed seaward of, and on, the island chain. Construction began at the northern end of Chandeleur Islands in June 2010 and ended in April 2011 after 14 km of berm had been constructed. The berm consisted of three distinct sections based on where the berm was placed relative to the islands. The northern section of the berm was built in open water on a submerged portion of the Chandeleur Islands platform. The middle section was built approximately 70–90 meters (m) seaward of the Chandeleur Islands. The southern section was built on the islands’ beaches. Repeated Landsat and SPOT satellite imagery and airborne light detection and ranging (lidar) were used to observe the disintegration of the berm over time. The methods used to analyze the remotely sensed data and the resulting, derived data for the southern section are reported.

  3. Change in the length of the northern section of the Chandeleur Islands oil berm, September 5, 2010, through September 3, 2012

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Plant, N.G.; Guy, K.K.

    2013-01-01

    On April 20, 2010, an explosion on the Deepwater Horizon oil rig drilling at the Macondo Prospect site in the Gulf of Mexico resulted in a marine oil spill that continued to flow through July 15, 2010. One of the affected areas was the Breton National Wildlife Refuge, which consists of a chain of low-lying islands, including Breton Island and the Chandeleur Islands, and their surrounding waters. The island chain is located approximately 115–150 kilometers north-northwest of the spill site. A sand berm was constructed seaward of, and on, the island chain. Construction began at the northern end of the Chandeleur Islands in June 2010 and ended in April 2011. The berm consisted of three distinct sections based on where the berm was placed relative to the islands. The northern section of the berm was built in open water on a submerged portion of the Chandeleur Islands platform. The middle section was built approximately 70–90 meters seaward of the Chandeleur Islands. The southern section was built on the islands’ beaches. Repeated Landsat and SPOT satellite imagery and airborne lidar were used to observe the disintegration of the berm over time. The methods used to analyze the remotely sensed data and the resulting, derived data for the northern section are described in this report.

  4. 76 FR 64974 - Commerce in Explosives; List of Explosive Materials (2011R-18T)

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-19

    ... Explosive Materials dated November 17, 2010 (Docket No. ATF 42N, 75 FR 70291). Notice of List of Explosive.... Picrate of potassium explosive mixtures. Picratol. Picric acid (manufactured as an explosive). Picryl... gels. Potassium chlorate and lead sulfocyanate explosive. Potassium nitrate explosive...

  5. The autoinhibitory CARD2-Hel2i Interface of RIG-I governs RNA selection

    PubMed Central

    Ramanathan, Anand; Devarkar, Swapnil C.; Jiang, Fuguo; Miller, Matthew T.; Khan, Abdul G.; Marcotrigiano, Joseph; Patel, Smita S.

    2016-01-01

    RIG-I (Retinoic Acid Inducible Gene-I) is a cytosolic innate immune receptor that detects atypical features in viral RNAs as foreign to initiate a Type I interferon signaling response. RIG-I is present in an autoinhibited state in the cytoplasm and activated by blunt-ended double-stranded (ds)RNAs carrying a 5′ triphosphate (ppp) moiety. These features found in many pathogenic RNAs are absent in cellular RNAs due to post-transcriptional modifications of RNA ends. Although RIG-I is structurally well characterized, the mechanistic basis for RIG-I's remarkable ability to discriminate between cellular and pathogenic RNAs is not completely understood. We show that RIG-I's selectivity for blunt-ended 5′-ppp dsRNAs is ≈3000 times higher than non-blunt ended dsRNAs commonly found in cellular RNAs. Discrimination occurs at multiple stages and signaling RNAs have high affinity and ATPase turnover rate and thus a high katpase/Kd. We show that RIG-I uses its autoinhibitory CARD2-Hel2i (second CARD-helicase insertion domain) interface as a barrier to select against non-blunt ended dsRNAs. Accordingly, deletion of CARDs or point mutations in the CARD2-Hel2i interface decreases the selectivity from ≈3000 to 150 and 750, respectively. We propose that the CARD2-Hel2i interface is a ‘gate’ that prevents cellular RNAs from generating productive complexes that can signal. PMID:26612866

  6. BP, Corporate R&D, and the University

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lea, Russ

    2010-01-01

    April 20, 2010, and the days following, provided the world with graphic images of a burning oil rig, a perception that the oil industry and state and federal governments were helpless, and a pervasive sense of the devastation wrought on coastal residents by the rig explosion and the oil spill. The residents of the Gulf Coast soon realized that…

  7. 75 FR 47825 - Emergency Exemption; Issuance of Emergency Permit to Rehabilitate Sea Turtles Affected by the...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-09

    ... oil spill occurred as a result of the Deepwater Horizon drilling rig explosion in the Gulf of Mexico...: On April 20, 2010, a massive, oil spill occurred as a result of the Deepwater Horizon drilling...

  8. Experimental verification of vapor deposition model in Mach 0.3 burner rigs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gokoglu, S. A.

    1984-01-01

    A comprehensive theoretical framework of deposition from combustion gases was developed covering the spectrum of various mass delivery mechanisms including vapor, thermophoretically enhanced small particle, and inertially impacting large particle deposition. Rational yet simple correlations were provided to facilitate engineering surface arrival rate predictions. Experimental verification of the deposition theory was validated using burner rigs. Toward this end, a Mach 0.3 burner rig apparatus was designed to measure deposition rates from salt-seeded combustion gases on an internally cooled cylindrical collector.

  9. RIG-I ligand enhances the immunogenicity of recombinant H7HA protein.

    PubMed

    Cao, Weiping; Liepkalns, Justine S; Kamal, Ram P; Reber, Adrian J; Kim, Jin Hyang; Hofstetter, Amelia R; Amoah, Samuel; Stevens, James; Ranjan, Priya; Gangappa, Shivaprakash; York, Ian A; Sambhara, Suryaprakash

    2016-01-01

    Avian H7N9 influenza virus infection with fatal outcomes continues to pose a pandemic threat and highly immunogenic vaccines are urgently needed. In this report we show that baculovirus-derived recombinant H7 hemagglutinin protein, when delivered with RIG-I ligand, induced enhanced antibody and T cell responses and conferred protection against lethal challenge with a homologous H7N9 virus. These findings indicate the potential utility of RIG-I ligands as vaccine adjuvants to increase the immunogenicity of recombinant H7 hemagglutinin.

  10. Test rig and particulate deposit and cleaning evaluation processes using the same

    DOEpatents

    Schroder, Mark Stewart; Woodmansee, Donald Ernest; Beadie, Douglas Frank

    2002-01-01

    A rig and test program for determining the amount, if any, of contamination that will collect in the passages of a fluid flow system, such as a power plant fluid delivery system to equipment assemblies or sub-assemblies, and for establishing methods and processes for removing contamination therefrom. In the presently proposed embodiment, the rig and test programs are adapted in particular to utilize a high-pressure, high-volume water flush to remove contamination from substantially the entire fluid delivery system, both the quantity of contamination and as disposed or deposited within the system.

  11. Lidar Detection of Explosives Traces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bobrovnikov, Sergei M.; Gorlov, Evgeny V.; Zharkov, Victor I.; Panchenko, Yury N.

    2016-06-01

    The possibility of remote detection of traces of explosives using laser fragmentation/laser-induced fluorescence (LF/LIF) is studied. Experimental data on the remote visualization of traces of trinitrotoluene (TNT), hexogen (RDX), trotyl-hexogen (Comp B), octogen (HMX), and tetryl with a scanning lidar detector of traces of nitrogen-containing explosives at a distance of 5 m are presented.

  12. Nonterrorist suicidal deaths involving explosives.

    PubMed

    Shields, Lisa B E; Hunsaker, Donna M; Hunsaker, John C; Humbert, Karl A

    2003-06-01

    Suicidal deaths involving explosives unconnected to terrorism are rare. The investigation of deaths from explosive devices requires a multidisciplinary collaborative effort, as demonstrated in this study. Reported are 2 cases of nonterrorist suicidal explosive-related deaths with massive craniocerebral destruction. The first case involves a 20-year-old man who was discovered in the basement apartment of his father's home seconds after an explosion. At the scene investigators recovered illegal improvised power-technique explosive devices, specifically M-100s, together with the victim's handwritten suicide note. The victim exhibited extensive craniofacial injuries, which medicolegal officials attributed to the decedent's intentionally placing one of these devices in his mouth. The second case involves a 46-year-old man who was found by his wife at his home. In the victim's facial wound, investigators recovered portions of a detonator blasting cap attached to electrical lead wires extending to his right hand. A suicide note was discovered at the scene. The appropriate collection of physical evidence at the scene of the explosion and a detailed examination of the victim's history is as important as documentation of injury patterns and recovery of trace evidence at autopsy. A basic understanding of the variety of explosive devices is also necessary. This investigatory approach greatly enhances the medicolegal death investigator's ability to reconstruct the fatal event as a means of separating accidental and homicidal explosive-related deaths from this uncommon form of suicide.

  13. Method of rubblization for in-situ oil shale processing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yang, Lien C. (Inventor)

    1985-01-01

    A method that produces a uniformly rubblized oil shale bed of desirable porosity for underground, in-situ heat extraction of oil. Rubblization is the generation of rubble of various sized fragments. The method uses explosive loadings lying at different levels in adjacent holes and detonation of the explosives at different levels in sequence to achieve the fracturing and the subsequent expansion of the fractured oil shale into excavated rooms both above and below the hole pattern.

  14. The Scaled Thermal Explosion Experiment

    SciTech Connect

    Wardell, J F; Maienschein, J L

    2002-07-05

    We have developed the Scaled Thermal Explosion Experiment (STEX) to provide a database of reaction violence from thermal explosion for explosives of interest. Such data are needed to develop, calibrate, and validate predictive capability for thermal explosions using simulation computer codes. A cylinder of explosive 25, 50 or 100 mm in diameter, is confined in a steel cylinder with heavy end caps, and heated under controlled conditions until reaction. Reaction violence is quantified through non-contact micropower impulse radar measurements of the cylinder wall velocity and by strain gauge data at reaction onset. Here we describe the test concept, design and diagnostic recording, and report results with HMX- and RDX-based energetic materials.

  15. Trace Explosive Detection Using Nanosensors

    SciTech Connect

    Senesac, Larry R; Thundat, Thomas George

    2008-01-01

    Selective and sensitive detection of explosives is very important in countering terrorist threats. Detecting trace explosives has become a very complex and expensive endeavor because of a number of factors, such as the wide variety of materials that can be used as explosives, the lack of easily detectable signatures, the vast number of avenues by which these weapons can be deployed, and the lack of inexpensive sensors with high sensitivity and selectivity. High sensitivity and selectivity, combined with the ability to lower the deployment cost of sensors using mass production, is essential in winning the war on explosives-based terrorism. Nanosensors have the potential to satisfy all the requirements for an effective platform for the trace detection of explosives.

  16. Loss of RIG-I leads to a functional replacement with MDA5 in the Chinese tree shrew.

    PubMed

    Xu, Ling; Yu, Dandan; Fan, Yu; Peng, Li; Wu, Yong; Yao, Yong-Gang

    2016-09-27

    The function of the RIG-I-like receptors (RLRs; including RIG-I, MDA5, and LGP2) as key cytoplasmic sensors of viral pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs) has been subjected to numerous pathogenic challenges and has undergone a dynamic evolution. We found evolutionary evidence that RIG-I was lost in the Chinese tree shrew lineage. Along with the loss of RIG-I, both MDA5 (tMDA5) and LGP2 (tLGP2) have undergone strong positive selection in the tree shrew. tMDA5 or tMDA5/tLGP2 could sense Sendai virus (an RNA virus posed as a RIG-I agonist) for inducing type I IFN, although conventional RIG-I and MDA5 were thought to recognize distinct RNA structures and viruses. tMDA5 interacted with adaptor tMITA (STINGTMEM173/ERIS), which was reported to bind only with RIG-I. The positively selected sites in tMDA5 endowed the substitute function for the lost RIG-I. These findings provided insights into the adaptation and functional diversity of innate antiviral activity in vertebrates. PMID:27621475

  17. Mixing in explosions

    SciTech Connect

    Kuhl, A.L.

    1993-12-01

    Explosions always contain embedded turbulent mixing regions, for example: boundary layers, shear layers, wall jets, and unstable interfaces. Described here is one particular example of the latter, namely, the turbulent mixing occurring in the fireball of an HE-driven blast wave. The evolution of the turbulent mixing was studied via two-dimensional numerical simulations of the convective mixing processes on an adaptive mesh. Vorticity was generated on the fireball interface by baroclinic effects. The interface was unstable, and rapidly evolved into a turbulent mixing layer. Four phases of mixing were observed: (1) a strong blast wave phase; (2) and implosion phase; (3) a reshocking phase; and (4) an asymptotic mixing phase. The flowfield was azimuthally averaged to evaluate the mean and r.m.s. fluctuation profiles across the mixing layer. The vorticity decayed due to a cascade process. This caused the corresponding enstrophy parameter to increase linearly with time -- in agreement with homogeneous turbulence calculations of G.K. Batchelor.

  18. Explosion proof battery

    SciTech Connect

    Brooks, A. S.

    1985-07-16

    Apparatus for eliminating the possibility of propagation of gas ignition from the outside to the interior of wet cell batteries such as those used in autos, boats, tractors and the like. The invention in its simplest form is characterized by a set of chambers attached to or incorporated with the structure of a wet cell battery to form a single compact explosion proof battery assembly. The chambers contain non flammable liquid through which gases traveling to and from the interior of the battery pass and thereby create a barrier to the propagation of ignition from the outside of the battery to the interior of the battery. Supporting inventive means are provided to make the apparatus fully functional and practical. Such supporting means include an injection fill means, a liquid level indicator and a pressure release tube for conducting gases safely away from the apparatus.

  19. Nucleosynthesis in stellar explosions

    SciTech Connect

    Woosley, S.E.; Axelrod, T.S.; Weaver, T.A.

    1983-01-01

    The final evolution and explosion of stars from 10 M/sub solar/ to 10/sup 6/ M/sub solar/ are reviewed with emphasis on factors affecting the expected nucleosynthesis. We order our paper in a sequence of decreasing mass. If, as many suspect, the stellar birth function was peaked towards larger masses at earlier times (see e.g., Silk 1977; but also see Palla, Salpeter, and Stahler 1983), this sequence of masses might also be regarded as a temporal sequence. At each stage of Galactic chemical evolution stars form from the ashes of preceding generations which typically had greater mass. A wide variety of Type I supernova models, most based upon accreting white dwarf stars, are also explored using the expected light curves, spectra, and nucleosynthesis as diagnostics. No clearly favored Type I model emerges that is capable of simultaneously satisfying all three constraints.

  20. Watersheds and Explosive percolation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Herrmann, Hans J.; Araujo, Nuno A. M.

    The recent work by Achlioptas, D'Souza, and Spencer opened up the possibility of obtaining a discontinuous (explosive) percolation transition by changing the stochastic rule of bond occupation. Despite the active research on this subject, several questions still remain open about the leading mechanism and the properties of the system. We review the largest cluster and the Gaussian models recently introduced. We show that, to obtain a discontinuous transition it is solely necessary to control the size of the largest cluster, suppressing the growth of a cluster di_ering significantly, in size, from the average one. As expected for a discontinuous transition, a Gaussian cluster-size distribution and compact clusters are obtained. The surface of the clusters is fractal, with the same fractal dimension of the watershed line.

  1. Assessing nuclear explosions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, Joseph V.

    The all-Union session on the Geophysical and Geochemical Consequences of Nuclear Explosions at the 1983 AGU Fall Meeting attracted a large audience, and many were unable to find a seat or standing room. The speakers and questioners emphasized the complexity of the processes and the need to extend the computer models. In particular, the global-circulation models presented byscientists from the National Center for Atmospheric Research showed that smoke/dust clouds should cause major changes in the weather systems with great contrast between the temperature perturbations over oceanic, coastal, and continental regions. Important developments in the models and conclusions can be expected over the next few years as AGU members from many disciplines contribute their skills.

  2. Direct imaging of explosives.

    PubMed

    Knapp, E A; Moler, R B; Saunders, A W; Trower, W P

    2000-01-01

    Any technique that can detect nitrogen concentrations can screen for concealed explosives. However, such a technique would have to be insensitive to metal, both encasing and incidental. If images of the nitrogen concentrations could be captured, then, since form follows function, a robust screening technology could be developed. However these images would have to be sensitive to the surface densities at or below that of the nitrogen contained in buried anti-personnel mines or of the SEMTEX that brought down Pan Am 103, approximately 200 g. Although the ability to image in three-dimensions would somewhat reduce false positives, capturing collateral images of carbon and oxygen would virtually assure that nitrogenous non-explosive material like fertilizer, Melmac dinnerware, and salami could be eliminated. We are developing such an instrument, the Nitrogen Camera, which has met experimentally these criteria with the exception of providing oxygen images, which awaits the availability of a sufficiently energetic light source. Our Nitrogen Camera technique uses an electron accelerator to produce photonuclear reactions whose unique decays it registers. Clearly if our Nitrogen Camera is made mobile, it could be effective in detecting buried mines, either in an active battlefield situation or in the clearing of abandoned military munitions. Combat operations require that a swathe the width of an armored vehicle, 5 miles deep, be screened in an hour, which is within our camera's scanning speed. Detecting abandoned munitions is technically easier as it is free from the onerous speed requirement. We describe here our Nitrogen Camera and show its 180 pixel intensity images of elemental nitrogen in a 200 g mine simulant and in a 125 g stick of SEMTEX. We also report on our progress in creating a lorry transportable 70 MeV electron racetrack microtron, the principal enabling technology that will allow our Nitrogen Camera to be deployed in the field.

  3. Equations of State and High-Pressure Phases of Explosives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peiris, Suhithi M.; Gump, Jared C.

    Energetic materials, being the collective name for explosives, propellants, pyrotechnics, and other flash-bang materials, span a wide range of composite chemical formulations. Most militarily used energetics are solids composed of particles of the pure energetic material held together by a binder. Commonly used binders include various oils, waxes, and polymers or plasticizers, and the composite is melt cast, cured, or pressed to achieve the necessary mechanical properties (gels, putties, sheets, solid blocks, etc.) of the final energetic material. Mining, demolition, and other industries use liquid energetics that are similarly composed of an actual energetic material or oxidizer together with a fuel, that is to be mixed and poured for detonation. Pure energetic materials that are commonly used are nitroglycerine, ammonium nitrate, ammonium or sodium perchlorate, trinitrotoluene (TNT), HMX, RDX, and TATB. All of them are molecular materials or molecular ions that when initiated or insulted undergoes rapid decomposition with excessive liberation of heat resulting in the formation of stable final products. When the final products are gases, and they are rapidly produced, the sudden pressure increase creates a shock wave. When decomposition is so rapid that the reaction moves through the explosive faster than the speed of sound in the unreacted explosive, the material is said to detonate. Typically, energetic materials that undergo detonation are known as high explosives (HEs) and energetic materials that burn rapidly or deflagrate are known as low explosives and/or propellants.

  4. Dense Seismic Recordings of Two Surface-Detonated Chemical Explosions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koper, K. D.; Hale, J. M.; Burlacu, R.; Goddard, K. J.; Trow, A.; Linville, L. M.; Stein, J. R.; Drobeck, D.; Leidig, M.

    2015-12-01

    In the summer of 2015 two controlled chemical explosions were carried out near Dugway, Utah. The 2 June 2015 explosion consisted of 30,000 lbs of ammonium nitrate fuel oil (ANFO) and the 22 July 2015 explosion consisted of 60,000 lbs of ANFO. The explosion centroids were 1-2 m above the Earth's surface and both created significant craters in the soft desert alluvium. To better understand the seismic source associated with surface explosions, we deployed an array of wireless, three-component, short-period (5 Hz corner frequency) seismometers for several days around each shot. For the first explosion, 46 receivers were deployed in a "lollipop" geometry that had a sparse ring at a radius of 1 km, and a dense stem with 100 m spacing for distances of 0.5-4.5 km. For the second explosion, 48 receivers were deployed similarly, but with a dense ring spaced in azimuthal increments of 10 degrees at a distance of 1 km, and a sparse stem (~500 m spacing) that extended to a distance of nearly 6 km. A rich variety of phases were recorded including direct P waves, refracted and reflected P waves, nearly monochromatic air-coupled Rayleigh waves, normally dispersed fundamental mode Rayleigh waves (Rg), primary airblast arrivals, some secondary airblast arrivals, and possibly tertiary airblast arrivals. There is also evidence of converted S waves on the radial components and possibly direct S energy on the radial and transverse components, although the transverse energy does not always possess a simple, coherent move-out with distance, implying that it might have a scattering origin. To aid in the phase identification, especially of the apparent SH and Love energy, we are currently performing tau-p, f-k, and particle motion analysis.

  5. On the violence of thermal explosion in solid explosives

    SciTech Connect

    Chidester, S.K.; Tarver, C.M.; Green, L.G.; Urtiew, P.A.

    1997-07-01

    Heavily confined cylinders of octahydro-1,3,5,7-tetranitro-1,3,5,7-tetrazocine (HMX) and triaminotrinitrobenzene (TATB) were heated at rates varying from 2 C/min to 3.3 C/h. Fourteen of the cylinders were hollow, and inner metallic liners with small heaters attached were used to produce uniform temperatures just prior to explosion. A complex thermocouple pattern was used to measure the temperature history throughout the charge and to determine the approximate location where the runaway exothermic reaction first occurred. The violence of the resulting explosion was measured using velocity pin arrays placed inside and outside of the metal confinement cylinders, flash x-rays, overpressure gauges, and fragment collection techniques. Five cylinders were intentionally detonated for violence comparisons. The measured temperature histories, times to explosion, and the locations of first reaction agreed closely with those calculated by a two-dimensional heat transfer code using multistep chemical decomposition models. The acceleration of the confining metal cylinders by the explosion process was accurately simulated using a two-dimensional pressure dependent deflagration reactive flow hydrodynamic mode. The most violent HMX thermal explosions gradually accelerated their outer cases to velocities approaching those of intentional detonations approximately 120 {micro}m after the onset of explosion. The measured inner cylinder collapse velocities from thermal explosions were considerably lower than those produced by detonations. In contrast to the HMX thermal reactions, no violent thermal explosions were produced by the TATB-based explosive LX-17. A heavily confined, slowly heated LX-17 test produced sufficient pressure to cause a 0.1 cm bend in a 2 cm thick steel plate.

  6. Optical detection of explosives: spectral signatures for the explosive bouquet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Osborn, Tabetha; Kaimal, Sindhu; Causey, Jason; Burns, William; Reeve, Scott

    2009-05-01

    Research with canines suggests that sniffer dogs alert not on the odor from a pure explosive, but rather on a set of far more volatile species present in an explosive as impurities. Following the explosive trained canine example, we have begun examining the vapor signatures for many of these volatile impurities utilizing high resolution spectroscopic techniques in several molecular fingerprint regions. Here we will describe some of these high resolution measurements and discuss strategies for selecting useful spectral signature regions for individual molecular markers of interest.

  7. Wear Characterization of Carbon Nanotubes Reinforced Acetal Spur, Helical, Bevel and Worm Gears Using a TS Universal Test Rig

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yousef, Samy; Osman, T. A.; Abdalla, Abdelrahman H.; Zohdy, Gamal A.

    2015-12-01

    Although the applications of nanotechnologies are increasing, there remains a significant barrier between nanotechnology and machine element applications. This work aims to remove this barrier by blending carbon nanotubes (CNT) with common types of acetal polymer gears (spur, helical, bevel and worm). This was done by using adhesive oil (paraffin) during injection molding to synthesize a flange and short bars containing 0.02% CNT by weight. The flanges and short bars were machined using hobbing and milling machines to produce nanocomposite polymer gears. Some defects that surfaced in previous work, such as the appearance of bubbles and unmelted pellets during the injection process, were avoided to produce an excellent dispersion of CNT in the acetal. The wear resistances of the gears were measured by using a TS universal test rig using constant parameters for all of the gears that were fabricated. The tests were run at a speed of 1420 rpm and a torque of 4 Nm. The results showed that the wear resistances of the CNT/acetal gears were increased due to the addition of CNT, especially the helical, bevel and worm gears.

  8. Telemedicine via satellite to support offshore oil platforms.

    PubMed

    Mair, Fiona; Fraser, Susan; Ferguson, James; Webster, Karyn

    2008-01-01

    On any one day, approximately 15,000-28,000 oil industry personnel are employed in the North Sea oil and gas industry. First aid in this remote environment is provided by non-medical staff on the rigs. Remote specialist advice via videoconferencing should improve the quality of offshore health care and reduce avoidable medical evacuations. Satellite communications and videoconferencing equipment was installed on the 'Alwyn North' oil platform, with medical advice provided via a call centre in Milan. Over a nine-month period, trial telemedicine links were conducted approximately twice per week. The three onshore physicians were very satisfied on each occasion with communications and diagnostic data image quality, including the ultrasound screening carried out by the rig provider. Remote specialist advice via videoconferencing should reduce unnecessary and/or untimely patient evacuation to hospital or onshore for medical assessment.

  9. Lofting of dust by very large explosions

    SciTech Connect

    Mason, A.S.; Finnegan, D.L.; Hagan, R.C.; Raymond, R. Jr.; Cocks, G.G.; Zoller, W.H.; Peach, C.L.

    1987-08-01

    One of the goals of the Minor Scale test was to determine the quantity, form, and composition of dust lofted by a large detonation of a conventional high explosive at ground level. The explosive charge was 4427 tonnes of ammonium nitrate-fuel oil (ANFO), whose blast effect is approximately equal to that of an 8 kT nuclear device. The experimental techniques used to determine the amount of dust were (1) use of elements in soil as natural tracers, (2) inclusion of tracer elements in the ANFO charge and the immediate surroundings, (3) airborne collection of the lofted dust on filter media, and (4) analysis of the samples for both tracers and dust. The tracer content of the sample can then relate the dust collected to the total amount lofted and to the location of its origin within the experimental setup. Indium, in the oxide form, was placed within the explosive charge, and tantalum as very fine dust, was placed near the soil surface immediately adjacent to the charge container. The amounts of the tracers and of dust collected by each filter were measured by instrumental neutron activation analysis. A research aircraft equipped with well-characterized high-volume filter samplers was flown through the dust cloud at 10 levels between the top at 4.6 km and the bottom at 1.7 km above ground level. The cloud dust density was distinctly biomodal; its maxima were at 4.1 and 2.9 km. The majority of the indium was associated with the dust in the upper part of the cloud, and the majority of the tantalum was in the lower part. The estimate of the total dust lofted by use of the naturally occurring tracers was 3.0 x 10/sup 9/ g. Samples are being studied by scanning electron microscopy to determine their particle size and composition distributions as functions of location within the cloud.

  10. Shock desensitizing of solid explosives

    SciTech Connect

    Davis, William C

    2010-01-01

    Solid explosive can be desensitized by a shockwave too weak to initiate it promptly, and desensitized explosive does not react although its chemical composition is almost unchanged. A strong second shock does not cause reaction until it overtakes the first shock. The first shock, if it is strong enough, accelerates very slowly at first, and then more rapidly as detonation approaches. These facts suggest that there are two competing reactions. One is the usual explosive goes to products with the release of energy, and the other is explosive goes to dead explosive with no chemical change and no energy release. The first reaction rate is very sensitive to the local state, and the second is only weakly so. At low pressure very little energy is released and the change to dead explosive dominates. At high pressure, quite the other way, most of the explosive goes to products. Numerous experiments in both the initiation and the full detonation regimes are discussed and compared in support of these ideas.

  11. Shock desensitizing of solid explosive

    SciTech Connect

    Davis, William C

    2010-01-01

    Solid explosive can be desensitized by a shock wave too weak to initiate it promptly, and desensitized explosive does not react although its chemical composition is almost unchanged. A strong second shock does not cause reaction until it overtakes the first shock. The first shock, if it is strong enough, accelerates very slowly at first, and then more rapidly as detonation approaches. These facts suggest that there are two competing reactions. One is the usual explosive goes to products with the release of energy, and the other is explosive goes to dead explosive with no chemical change and no energy release. The first reaction rate is very sensitive to the local state, and the second is only weakly so. At low pressure very little energy is released and the change to dead explosive dominates. At high pressure, quite the other way, most of the explosive goes to products. Numerous experiments in both the initiation and the full detonation regimes are discussed and compared in testing these ideas.

  12. Detection of explosives in soils

    DOEpatents

    Chambers, William B.; Rodacy, Philip J.; Phelan, James M.; Woodfin, Ronald L.

    2002-01-01

    An apparatus and method for detecting explosive-indicating compounds in subsurface soil. The apparatus has a probe with an adsorbent material on some portion of its surface that can be placed into soil beneath the ground surface, where the adsorbent material can adsorb at least one explosive-indicating compound. The apparatus additional has the capability to desorb the explosive-indicating compound through heating or solvent extraction. A diagnostic instrument attached to the probe detects the desorbed explosive-indicating compound. In the method for detecting explosive-indicating compounds in soil, the sampling probe with an adsorbent material on at least some portion of a surface of the sampling probe is inserted into the soil to contact the adsorbent material with the soil. The explosive-indicating compounds are then desorbed and transferred as either a liquid or gas sample to a diagnostic tool for analysis. The resulting gas or liquid sample is analyzed using at least one diagnostic tool selected from the group consisting of an ion-mobility spectrometer, a gas chromatograph, a high performance liquid chromatograph, a capillary electrophoresis chromatograph, a mass spectrometer, a Fourier-transform infrared spectrometer and a Raman spectrometer to detect the presence of explosive-indicating compounds.

  13. ECSIT bridges RIG-I-like receptors to VISA in signaling events of innate antiviral responses.

    PubMed

    Lei, Cao-Qi; Zhang, Yu; Li, Mi; Jiang, Li-Qun; Zhong, Bo; Kim, Yong Ho; Shu, Hong-Bing

    2015-01-01

    Upon binding to RNA structures from invading viruses, RIG-I and MDA5 are recruited to mitochondria to interact with VISA and initiate antiviral type I interferon (IFN) responses. How this process is mediated is less understood. In this report, we demonstrate that ECSIT is an essential scaffolding protein that mediates the association of VISA and RIG-I or MDA5. Overexpression of ECSIT potentiated virus-triggered activation of IFN-regulatory factor 3 (IRF3) and expression of IFNB1, whereas knockdown of ECSIT impaired viral infection-induced activation of IRF3 and expression of IFNB1 as well as cellular antiviral responses. Mechanistically, ECSIT was associated with VISA on mitochondria and important for bridging RIG-I and MDA5 to VISA. Our findings suggest that ECSIT mediates virus-triggered type I IFN induction by bridging RIG-I and MDA5 to the VISA complex, and provide new insights into the molecular events of innate antiviral immune responses.

  14. Turbine Air-Flow Test Rig CFD Results for Test Matrix

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilson, Josh

    2003-01-01

    This paper presents the Turbine Air-Flow Test (TAFT) rig computational fluid dynamics (CFD) results for test matrix. The topics include: 1) TAFT Background; 2) Design Point CFD; 3) TAFT Test Plan and Test Matrix; and 4) CFD of Test Points. This paper is in viewgraph form.

  15. Design and Implementation of a Characterization Test Rig for Evaluating High Bandwidth Liquid Fuel Flow Modulators

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Saus, Joseph R.; Chang, Clarence T.; DeLaat, John C.; Vrnak, Daniel R.

    2010-01-01

    A test rig was designed and developed at the NASA Glenn Research Center (GRC) for the purpose of characterizing high bandwidth liquid fuel flow modulator candidates to determine their suitability for combustion instability control research. The test rig is capable of testing flow modulators at up to 600 psia supply pressure and flows of up to 2 gpm. The rig is designed to provide a quiescent flow into the test section in order to isolate the dynamic flow modulations produced by the test article. Both the fuel injector orifice downstream of the test article and the combustor are emulated. The effect of fuel delivery line lengths on modulator dynamic performance can be observed and modified to replicate actual fuel delivery systems. For simplicity, water is currently used as the working fluid, although future plans are to use jet fuel. The rig is instrumented for dynamic pressures and flows and a high-speed data system is used for dynamic data acquisition. Preliminary results have been obtained for one candidate flow modulator.

  16. A Built for Purpose Micro-Hole Coiled Tubing Rig (MCTR)

    SciTech Connect

    Bart Patton

    2007-09-30

    This report will serve as the final report on the work performed from the contract period October 2005 thru April 2007. The project 'A Built for Purpose Microhole Coiled Tubing Rig (MCTR)' purpose was to upgrade an existing state-of-the-art Coiled Tubing Drilling Rig to a Microhole Coiled Tubing Rig (MCTR) capable of meeting the specifications and tasks of the Department of Energy. The individual tasks outlined to meet the Department of Energy's specifications are: (1) Concept and development of lubricator and tool deployment system; (2) Concept and development of process control and data acquisition; (3) Concept and development of safety and efficiency improvements; and (4) Final unit integration and testing. The end result of the MCTR upgrade has produced a unit capable of meeting the following requirements: (1) Capable of handling 1-inch through 2-3/8-inch coiled tubing (Currently dressed for 2-3/8-inch coiled tubing and capable of running up to 3-1/2-inch coiled tubing); (2) Capable of drilling and casing surface, intermediate, production and liner hole intervals; (3) Capable of drilling with coiled tubing and has all controls and installation piping for a top drive; (4) Rig is capable of running 7-5/8-inch range 2 casing; and (5) Capable of drilling 5,000 ft true vertical depth (TVD) and 6,000 ft true measured depth (TMD).

  17. Complete genome sequence of the Campylobacter ureolyticus clinical isolate RIGS 9880

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The emerging pathogen Campylobacter ureolyticus has been isolated from human and animal genital infections, human periodontal infections, domestic and food animals, and from cases of human gastroenteritis. We report the whole-genome sequence of the human clinical isolate RIGS 9880, which is the firs...

  18. Experimental verification of vapor deposition rate theory in high velocity burner rigs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gokoglu, Suleyman A.; Santoro, Gilbert J.

    1985-01-01

    The main objective has been the experimental verification of the corrosive vapor deposition theory in high-temperature, high-velocity environments. Towards this end a Mach 0.3 burner-rig appartus was built to measure deposition rates from salt-seeded (mostly Na salts) combustion gases on the internally cooled cylindrical collector. Deposition experiments are underway.

  19. Mechanical Design of a Performance Test Rig for the Turbine Air-Flow Task (TAFT)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Xenofos, George; Forbes, John; Farrow, John; Williams, Robert; Tyler, Tom; Sargent, Scott; Moharos, Jozsef

    2003-01-01

    To support development of the Boeing-Rocketdyne RS84 rocket engine, a fill-flow, reaction turbine geometry was integrated into the NASA-MSFC turbine air-flow test facility. A mechanical design was generated which minimized the amount of new hardware while incorporating all test and instrUmentation requirements. This paper provides details of the mechanical design for this Turbine Air-Flow Task (TAFT) test rig. The mechanical design process utilized for this task included the following basic stages: Conceptual Design. Preliminary Design. Detailed Design. Baseline of Design (including Configuration Control and Drawing Revision). Fabrication. Assembly. During the design process, many lessons were learned that should benefit future test rig design projects. Of primary importance are well-defined requirements early in the design process, a thorough detailed design package, and effective communication with both the customer and the fabrication contractors. The test rig provided steady and unsteady pressure data necessary to validate the computational fluid dynamics (CFD) code. The rig also helped characterize the turbine blade loading conditions. Test and CFD analysis results are to be presented in another JANNAF paper.

  20. Development of a turbojet engine gearbox test rig for prognostics and health management

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rezaei, Aida; Dadouche, Azzedine

    2012-11-01

    Aircraft engine gearboxes represent one of the many critical systems/elements that require special attention for longer and safer operation. Reactive maintenance strategies are unsuitable as they usually imply higher repair costs when compared to condition based maintenance. This paper discusses the main prognostics and health management (PHM) approaches, describes a newly designed gearbox experimental facility and analyses preliminary data for gear prognosis. The test rig is designed to provide full capabilities of performing controlled experiments suitable for developing a reliable diagnostic and prognostic system. The rig is based on the accessory gearbox of the GE J85 turbojet engine, which has been slightly modified and reconfigured to replicate real operating conditions such as speeds and loads. Defect to failure tests (DTFT) have been run to evaluate the performance of the rig as well as to assess prognostic metrics extracted from sensors installed on the gearbox casing (vibration and acoustic). The paper also details the main components of the rig and describes the various challenges encountered. Successful DTFT results were obtained during an idle engine performance test and prognostic metrics associated with the sensor suite were evaluated and discussed.

  1. 5. MOTOR/WINCH DRUM ASSEMBLY FOR OXYGEN LANCE HOISTING RIG ON ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    5. MOTOR/WINCH DRUM ASSEMBLY FOR OXYGEN LANCE HOISTING RIG ON THE WEIGHING FLOOR OF THE FURNACE AISLE IN THE BOP SHOP LOOKING SOUTHEAST. - U.S. Steel Duquesne Works, Basic Oxygen Steelmaking Plant, Along Monongahela River, Duquesne, Allegheny County, PA

  2. Airframe Assembly, Rigging and Inspection (Course Outline), Aviation Mechanics 2 (Air Frame): 9065.02.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dade County Public Schools, Miami, FL.

    This document presents an outline for 135-hour course designed to familiarize the student with the manipulative skills and knowledge concerning airframe assembly, rigging, and inspection techniques in accordance with Federal Aviation Agency regulations. The aviation maintenance technician must be able to demonstrate a knowledge of assembly methods…

  3. Explosive signatures: Pre & post blast

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bernier, Evan Thomas

    Manuscripts 1 and 2 of this dissertation both involve the pre-blast detection of trace explosive material. The first manuscript explores the analysis of human hair as an indicator of exposure to explosives. Field analysis of hair for trace explosives is quick and non-invasive, and could prove to be a powerful linkage to physical evidence in the form of bulk explosive material. Individuals tested were involved in studies which required handling or close proximity to bulk high explosives such as TNT, PETN, and RDX. The second manuscript reports the results of research in the design and application of canine training aids for non-traditional, peroxide-based explosives. Organic peroxides such as triacetonetriperoxide (TATP) and hexamethylenetriperoxidediamine (HMTD) can be synthesized relatively easily with store-bought ingredients and have become popular improvised explosives with many terrorist groups. Due to the hazards of handling such sensitive compounds, this research established methods for preparing training aids which contained safe quantities of TATP and HMTD for use in imprinting canines with their characteristic odor. Manuscripts 3 and 4 of this dissertation focus on research conducted to characterize pipe bombs during and after an explosion (post-blast). Pipe bombs represent a large percentage of domestic devices encountered by law enforcement. The current project has involved the preparation and controlled explosion of over 90 pipe bombs of different configurations in order to obtain data on fragmentation patterns, fragment velocity, blast overpressure, and fragmentation distance. Physical data recorded from the collected fragments, such as mass, size, and thickness, was correlated with the relative power of the initial device. Manuscript 4 explores the microstructural analysis of select pipe bomb fragments. Shock-loading of the pipe steel led to plastic deformation and work hardening in the steel grain structure as evidenced by optical microscopy and

  4. Fire and explosion hazards to flora and fauna from explosives.

    PubMed

    Merrifield, R

    2000-06-30

    Deliberate or accidental initiation of explosives can produce a range of potentially damaging fire and explosion effects. Quantification of the consequences of such effects upon the surroundings, particularly on people and structures, has always been of paramount importance. Information on the effects on flora and fauna, however, is limited, with probably the weakest area lying with fragmentation of buildings and their effects on different small mammals. Information has been used here to gain an appreciation of the likely magnitude of the potential fire and explosion effects on flora and fauna. This is based on a number of broad assumptions and a variety of data sources including World War II bomb damage, experiments performed with animals 30-40 years ago, and more recent field trials on building break-up under explosive loading. PMID:10794911

  5. Noise From Shallow Underwater Explosions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Soloway, Alexander G.

    Naval activities such as ordnance disposal, demolition and requisite training, can involve detonation of small explosive charges in shallow water that have the potential to harm nearby marine life. Measurements of the underwater sound generated by sub-surface explosions were collected as part of a naval training exercise. In this thesis the noise levels from these explosions will be investigated using peak pressure, sound exposure level and energy spectral density. Measurements of very-low frequency Scholte interface waves will also be presented and used to investigate elastic parameters in the sediment.

  6. Light metal explosives and propellants

    DOEpatents

    Wood, Lowell L.; Ishikawa, Muriel Y.; Nuckolls, John H.; Pagoria, Phillip F.; Viecelli, James A.

    2005-04-05

    Disclosed herein are light metal explosives, pyrotechnics and propellants (LME&Ps) comprising a light metal component such as Li, B, Be or their hydrides or intermetallic compounds and alloys containing them and an oxidizer component containing a classic explosive, such as CL-20, or a non-explosive oxidizer, such as lithium perchlorate, or combinations thereof. LME&P formulations may have light metal particles and oxidizer particles ranging in size from 0.01 .mu.m to 1000 .mu.m.

  7. Donor free radical explosive composition

    DOEpatents

    Walker, Franklin E. [15 Way Points Rd., Danville, CA 94526; Wasley, Richard J. [4290 Colgate Way, Livermore, CA 94550

    1980-04-01

    An improved explosive composition is disclosed and comprises a major portion of an explosive having a detonation velocity between about 1500 and 10,000 meters per second and a minor amount of a donor additive comprising an organic compound or mixture of organic compounds capable of releasing low molecular weight free radicals or ions under mechanical or electrical shock conditions and which is not an explosive, or an inorganic compound or mixture of inorganic compounds capable of releasing low molecular weight free radicals or ions under mechanical or electrical shock conditions and selected from ammonium or alkali metal persulfates.

  8. Optimizing Geothermal Drilling: Oil and Gas Technology Transfer

    SciTech Connect

    Denninger, Kate; Eustes, Alfred; Visser, Charles; Baker, Walt; Bolton, Dan; Bell, Jason; Bell, Sean; Jacobs, Amelia; Nagandran, Uneshddarann; Tilley, Mitch; Quick, Ralph

    2015-09-02

    There is a significant amount of financial risk associated with geothermal drilling. This study of drilling operations seeks opportunities to improve upon current practices and technologies. The scope of this study included analyzing 21 geothermal wells and 21 oil and gas wells. The goal was to determine a 'Perfect Well' using historical data to compare the best oil and gas well to the best geothermal well. Unfortunately, limitations encountered in the study included missing data (bit records, mud information, etc.) and poor data collection practices An online software database was used to format drilling data to IADC coded daily drilling reports and generate figures for analysis. Six major issues have been found in geothermal drilling operations. These problems include lost circulation, rig/ equipment selection, cementing, penetration rate, drilling program, and time management. As a result of these issues, geothermal drilling averaged 56.4 days longer than drilling comparable oil and gas wells in the wells in this study. Roughly $13.9 million was spent on non-productive time in the 21 geothermal wells, compared with only $1.3 million in the oil and gas wells, assuming a cost of $50,000 per day. Comparable events such as drilling the same sized hole, tripping in/out, cementing, and running the same size casing took substantially less time in the oil and gas wells. Geothermal wells were drilled using older and/or less advanced technology to depths less than 10,000 feet, while oil and gas wells reached 12,500 feet faster with purpose built rigs. A new approach is now underway that will optimize drilling programs throughout the drilling industry using Mechanical Specific Energy (MSE) as a tool to realize efficient drilling processes. Potential improvements for current geothermal operations are: the use of electronic records, real time services, and official glossary terms to describe rig operations, and advanced drilling rigs/technology.

  9. Modeling of oil mist and oil vapor concentration in the shale shaker area on offshore drilling installations.

    PubMed

    Bråtveit, Magne; Steinsvåg, Kjersti; Lie, Stein Atle; Moen, Bente E

    2009-11-01

    The objective of this study was to develop regression models to predict concentrations of oil mist and oil vapor in the workplace atmosphere in the shale shaker area of offshore drilling installations. Collection of monitoring reports of oil mist and oil vapor in the mud handling areas of offshore drilling installations was done during visits to eight oil companies and five drilling contractors. A questionnaire was sent to the rig owners requesting information about technical design of the shaker area. Linear mixed-effects models were developed using concentration of oil mist or oil vapor measured by stationary sampling as dependent variables, drilling installation as random effect, and potential determinants related to process technical parameters and technical design of the shale shaker area as fixed effects. The dataset comprised stationary measurements of oil mist (n = 464) and oil vapor (n = 462) from the period 1998 to 2004. The arithmetic mean concentrations of oil mist and oil vapor were 3.89 mg/m(3) and 39.7 mg/m(3), respectively. The air concentration models including significant determinants such as viscosity of base oil, mud temperature, well section, type of rig, localization of shaker, mechanical air supply, air grids in outer wall, air curtain in front of shakers, and season explained 35% and 17% of the total variance in oil vapor and oil mist, respectively. The developed models could be used to indicate what impact differences in technical design and changes in process parameters have on air concentrations of oil mist and oil vapor. Thus, the models will be helpful in planning control measures to reduce the potential for occupational exposure.

  10. Modeling of oil mist and oil vapor concentration in the shale shaker area on offshore drilling installations.

    PubMed

    Bråtveit, Magne; Steinsvåg, Kjersti; Lie, Stein Atle; Moen, Bente E

    2009-11-01

    The objective of this study was to develop regression models to predict concentrations of oil mist and oil vapor in the workplace atmosphere in the shale shaker area of offshore drilling installations. Collection of monitoring reports of oil mist and oil vapor in the mud handling areas of offshore drilling installations was done during visits to eight oil companies and five drilling contractors. A questionnaire was sent to the rig owners requesting information about technical design of the shaker area. Linear mixed-effects models were developed using concentration of oil mist or oil vapor measured by stationary sampling as dependent variables, drilling installation as random effect, and potential determinants related to process technical parameters and technical design of the shale shaker area as fixed effects. The dataset comprised stationary measurements of oil mist (n = 464) and oil vapor (n = 462) from the period 1998 to 2004. The arithmetic mean concentrations of oil mist and oil vapor were 3.89 mg/m(3) and 39.7 mg/m(3), respectively. The air concentration models including significant determinants such as viscosity of base oil, mud temperature, well section, type of rig, localization of shaker, mechanical air supply, air grids in outer wall, air curtain in front of shakers, and season explained 35% and 17% of the total variance in oil vapor and oil mist, respectively. The developed models could be used to indicate what impact differences in technical design and changes in process parameters have on air concentrations of oil mist and oil vapor. Thus, the models will be helpful in planning control measures to reduce the potential for occupational exposure. PMID:19750406

  11. RIG-I Enhanced Interferon Independent Apoptosis upon Junin Virus Infection

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Cheng; Smith, Jennifer K.; Poussard, Allison L.; Tian, Bing; Brasier, Allan R.; Peters, Clarence J.; Tseng, Chien-Te Kent; de la Torre, Juan C.; Paessler, Slobodan

    2014-01-01

    Junin virus (JUNV) is the etiological agent of Argentine hemorrhagic fever (AHF), a human disease with a high case-fatality rate. It is widely accepted that arenaviral infections, including JUNV infections, are generally non-cytopathic. In contrast, here we demonstrated apoptosis induction in human lung epithelial carcinoma (A549), human hepatocarcinoma and Vero cells upon infection with the attenuated Candid#1 strain of, JUNV as determined by phosphatidylserine (PS) translocation, Caspase 3 (CASP3) activation, Poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP) cleavage and/or chromosomal DNA fragmentation. Moreover, as determined by DNA fragmentation, we found that the pathogenic Romero strain of JUNV was less cytopathic than Candid#1 in human hepatocarcinoma and Vero, but more apoptotic in A549 and Vero E6 cells. Additionally, we found that JUNV-induced apoptosis was enhanced by RIG-I signaling. Consistent with the previously reported role of RIG-I like helicase (RLH) signaling in initiating programmed cell death, we showed that cell death or DNA fragmentation of Candid#1-infected A549 cells was decreased upon siRNA or shRNA silencing of components of RIG-I pathway in spite of increased virus production. Similarly, we observed decreased DNA fragmentation in JUNV-infected human hepatocarcinoma cells deficient for RIG-I when compared with that of RIG-I-competent cells. In addition, DNA fragmentation detected upon Candid#1 infection of type I interferon (IFN)-deficient Vero cells suggested a type I IFN-independent mechanism of apoptosis induction in response to JUNV. Our work demonstrated for the first time apoptosis induction in various cells of mammalian origin in response to JUNV infection and partial mechanism of this cell death. PMID:24918927

  12. Explosive actuated valves

    DOEpatents

    Cobb, Jr., Lawrence L.

    1983-01-01

    1. A device of the character described comprising the combination of a generally tubular housing having an end portion forming a chamber to receive the sensitive portion of an explosive squib, a plunger within said housing having an end portion exposed to said chamber, squib retaining means for engaging said housing and a said squib to releasably maintain the squib in close proximity to said plunger end portion including a retaining ring of fusible material spaced outwardly from and encircling at least part of a said squib and part of its sensitive portion for reception of heat from an external source prior to appreciable reception thereof by the sensitive portion of the squib, an annular compression spring bearing at one end against said housing for urging at least a portion of the squib retaining means and a said squib away from said housing and from said plunger end portion upon subjection of the fusible material to heat sufficient to melt at least a portion thereof, and guide means for said spring to maintain even expansion thereof as a said squib is being urged away from said housing.

  13. Explosive actuated valve

    DOEpatents

    Byrne, Kenneth G.

    1983-01-01

    1. A device of the character described comprising the combination of a housing having an elongate bore and including a shoulder extending inwardly into said bore, a single elongate movable plunger disposed in said bore including an outwardly extending flange adjacent one end thereof overlying said shoulder, normally open conduit means having an inlet and an outlet perpendicularly piercing said housing intermediate said shoulder and said flange and including an intermediate portion intersecting and normally openly communicating with said bore at said shoulder, normally closed conduit means piercing said housing and intersecting said bore at a location spaced from said normally open conduit means, said elongate plunger including a shearing edge adjacent the other end thereof normally disposed intermediate both of said conduit means and overlying a portion of said normally closed conduit means, a deformable member carried by said plunger intermediate said flange and said shoulder and normally spaced from and overlying the intermediate portion of said normally open conduit means, and means on the housing communicating with the bore to retain an explosive actuator for moving said plunger to force the deformable member against the shoulder and extrude a portion of the deformable member out of said bore into portions of the normally open conduit means for plugging the same and to effect the opening of said normally closed conduit means by the plunger shearing edge substantially concomitantly with the plugging of the normally open conduit means.

  14. Explosive Contagion in Networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gómez-Gardeñes, J.; Lotero, L.; Taraskin, S. N.; Pérez-Reche, F. J.

    2016-01-01

    The spread of social phenomena such as behaviors, ideas or products is an ubiquitous but remarkably complex phenomenon. A successful avenue to study the spread of social phenomena relies on epidemic models by establishing analogies between the transmission of social phenomena and infectious diseases. Such models typically assume simple social interactions restricted to pairs of individuals; effects of the context are often neglected. Here we show that local synergistic effects associated with acquaintances of pairs of individuals can have striking consequences on the spread of social phenomena at large scales. The most interesting predictions are found for a scenario in which the contagion ability of a spreader decreases with the number of ignorant individuals surrounding the target ignorant. This mechanism mimics ubiquitous situations in which the willingness of individuals to adopt a new product depends not only on the intrinsic value of the product but also on whether his acquaintances will adopt this product or not. In these situations, we show that the typically smooth (second order) transitions towards large social contagion become explosive (first order). The proposed synergistic mechanisms therefore explain why ideas, rumours or products can suddenly and sometimes unexpectedly catch on.

  15. Explosive Contagion in Networks

    PubMed Central

    Gómez-Gardeñes, J.; Lotero, L.; Taraskin, S. N.; Pérez-Reche, F. J.

    2016-01-01

    The spread of social phenomena such as behaviors, ideas or products is an ubiquitous but remarkably complex phenomenon. A successful avenue to study the spread of social phenomena relies on epidemic models by establishing analogies between the transmission of social phenomena and infectious diseases. Such models typically assume simple social interactions restricted to pairs of individuals; effects of the context are often neglected. Here we show that local synergistic effects associated with acquaintances of pairs of individuals can have striking consequences on the spread of social phenomena at large scales. The most interesting predictions are found for a scenario in which the contagion ability of a spreader decreases with the number of ignorant individuals surrounding the target ignorant. This mechanism mimics ubiquitous situations in which the willingness of individuals to adopt a new product depends not only on the intrinsic value of the product but also on whether his acquaintances will adopt this product or not. In these situations, we show that the typically smooth (second order) transitions towards large social contagion become explosive (first order). The proposed synergistic mechanisms therefore explain why ideas, rumours or products can suddenly and sometimes unexpectedly catch on. PMID:26819191

  16. Furball Explosive Breakout Test

    SciTech Connect

    Carroll, Joshua David

    2015-08-05

    For more than 30 years the Onionskin test has been the primary way to study the surface breakout of a detonation wave. Currently the Onionskin test allows for only a small, one dimensional, slice of the explosive in question to be observed. Asymmetrical features are not observable with the Onionskin test and its one dimensional view. As a result, in 2011, preliminary designs for the Hairball and Furball were developed then tested. The Hairball used shorting pins connected to an oscilloscope to determine the arrival time at 24 discrete points. This limited number of data points, caused by the limited number of oscilloscope channels, ultimately led to the Hairball’s demise. Following this, the Furball was developed to increase the number of data points collected. Instead of shorting pins the Furball uses fiber optics imaged by a streak camera to determine the detonation wave arrival time for each point. The original design was able to capture the detonation wave’s arrival time at 205 discrete points with the ability to increase the number of data points if necessary.

  17. Explosive Contagion in Networks.

    PubMed

    Gómez-Gardeñes, J; Lotero, L; Taraskin, S N; Pérez-Reche, F J

    2016-01-01

    The spread of social phenomena such as behaviors, ideas or products is an ubiquitous but remarkably complex phenomenon. A successful avenue to study the spread of social phenomena relies on epidemic models by establishing analogies between the transmission of social phenomena and infectious diseases. Such models typically assume simple social interactions restricted to pairs of individuals; effects of the context are often neglected. Here we show that local synergistic effects associated with acquaintances of pairs of individuals can have striking consequences on the spread of social phenomena at large scales. The most interesting predictions are found for a scenario in which the contagion ability of a spreader decreases with the number of ignorant individuals surrounding the target ignorant. This mechanism mimics ubiquitous situations in which the willingness of individuals to adopt a new product depends not only on the intrinsic value of the product but also on whether his acquaintances will adopt this product or not. In these situations, we show that the typically smooth (second order) transitions towards large social contagion become explosive (first order). The proposed synergistic mechanisms therefore explain why ideas, rumours or products can suddenly and sometimes unexpectedly catch on. PMID:26819191

  18. The Cambrian explosion.

    PubMed

    Briggs, Derek E G

    2015-10-01

    The sudden appearance of fossils that marks the so-called 'Cambrian explosion' has intrigued and exercised biologists since Darwin's time. In On the Origin of Species, Darwin made it clear that he believed that ancestral forms 'lived long before' their first fossil representatives. While he considered such an invisible record necessary to explain the level of complexity already seen in the fossils of early trilobites, Darwin was at a loss to explain why there were no corresponding fossils of these earlier forms. In chapter 9 of the Origin, entitled 'On the imperfection of the geological record', he emphasized the 'poorness of our palaeontological collections' and stated categorically that 'no organism wholly soft can be preserved'. Fortunately much has been discovered in the last 150 years, not least multiple examples of Cambrian and Precambrian soft-bodied fossils. We now know that the sudden appearance of fossils in the Cambrian (541-485 million years ago) is real and not an artefact of an imperfect fossil record: rapid diversification of animals coincided with the evolution of biomineralized shells. And although fossils in earlier rocks are rare, they are not absent: their rarity reflects the low diversity of life at this time, as well as the low preservation potential of Precambrian organisms (see Primer by Butterfield, in this issue). PMID:26439348

  19. The challenge of improvised explosives

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Maienschein, Jon L.

    2012-06-14

    Energetic materials have been developed for decades, and indeed centuries, with a common set of goals in mind. Performance (as a detonating explosive, a propellant, or a pyrotechnic) has always been key, equally important have been the attributes of safety, stability, and reproducibility. Research and development with those goals has led to the set of energetic materials commonly used today. In the past few decades, the adoption and use of improvised explosives in attacks by terrorists or third-world parties has led to many questions about these materials, e.g., how they may be made, what threat they pose to the intendedmore » target, how to handle them safely, and how to detect them. The unfortunate advent of improvised explosives has opened the door for research into these materials, and there are active programs in many countries. I will discuss issues and opportunities facing research into improvised explosives.« less

  20. Explosive plane-wave lens

    DOEpatents

    Marsh, S.P.

    1988-03-08

    An explosive plane-wave air lens which enables a spherical wave form to be converted to a planar wave without the need to specially machine or shape explosive materials is described. A disc-shaped impactor having a greater thickness at its center than around its periphery is used to convert the spherical wave into a plane wave. When the wave reaches the impactor, the center of the impactor moves first because the spherical wave reaches the center of the impactor first. The wave strikes the impactor later in time as one moves radially along the impactor. Because the impactor is thinner as one moves radially outward, the velocity of the impactor is greater at the periphery than at the center. An acceptor explosive is positioned so that the impactor strikes the acceptor simultaneously. Consequently, a plane detonation wave is propagated through the acceptor explosive. 4 figs.

  1. Explosive plane-wave lens

    DOEpatents

    Marsh, Stanley P.

    1988-01-01

    An explosive plane-wave air lens which enables a spherical wave form to be converted to a planar wave without the need to specially machine or shape explosive materials is described. A disc-shaped impactor having a greater thickness at its center than around its periphery is used to convert the spherical wave into a plane wave. When the wave reaches the impactor, the center of the impactor moves first because the spherical wave reaches the center of the impactor first. The wave strikes the impactor later in time as one moves radially along the impactor. Because the impactor is thinner as one moves radially outward, the velocity of the impactor is greater at the periphery than at the center. An acceptor explosive is positioned so that the impactor strikes the acceptor simultaneously. Consequently, a plane detonation wave is propagated through the acceptor explosive.

  2. Explosive plane-wave lens

    DOEpatents

    Marsh, S.P.

    1987-03-12

    An explosive plane-wave air lens which enables a spherical wave form to be converted to a planar wave without the need to specially machine or shape explosive materials is described. A disc-shaped impactor having a greater thickness at its center than around its periphery is used to convert the spherical wave into a plane wave. When the wave reaches the impactor, the center of the impactor moves first because the spherical wave reaches the center of the impactor first. The wave strikes the impactor later in time as one moves radially along the impactor. Because the impactor is thinner as one moves radially outward, the velocity of the impactor is greater at the periphery than at the center. An acceptor explosive is positioned so that the impactor strikes the acceptor simultaneously. Consequently, a plane detonation wave is propagated through the acceptor explosive. 3 figs., 3 tabs.

  3. Explosives characterization in terahertz range

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maestrojuán, I.; Palacios, I.; Etayo, D.; Iriarte, J. C.; Teniente, J.; Ederra, I.; Gonzalo, R.

    2011-11-01

    A Thz spectral characterization of the behaviour of different explosives is presented in this paper. This characterization will be done in the frequency range from 20 GHz to 4 THz using a Teraview Spectra 3000. This system has a capacity of measuring from 20 GHz to 4 THz fed by a laser source. With the Teraview Spectra 3000 equipment will be possible to calculate the refractive index, the absorbance and other important parameters of the explosive samples. With this study it will be possible to characterize some of the most common used explosives, i.e., gun explosive, gunpowder mine, pent, TNT, RDX, etc, and it will allow to determine their electromagnetic peculiarities in order to design a future imaging system that allow detecting them in security and defense sectors.

  4. Explosive Spot Joining of Metals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bement, Laurence J. (Inventor); Perry, Ronnie B. (Inventor)

    1997-01-01

    The invention is an apparatus and method for wire splicing using an explosive joining process. The apparatus consists of a prebend, U-shaped strap of metal that slides over prepositioned wires. A standoff means separates the wires from the strap before joining. An adhesive means holds two ribbon explosives in position centered over the U-shaped strap. A detonating means connects to the ribbon explosives. The process involves spreading strands of each wire to be joined into a flat plane. The process then requires alternating each strand in alignment to form a mesh-like arrangement with an overlapped area. The strap slides over the strands of the wires. and the standoff means is positioned between the two surfaces. The detonating means then initiates the ribbon explosives that drive the strap to accomplish a high velocity. angular collision between the mating surfaces. This collision creates surface melts and collision bonding resulting in electron-sharing linkups.

  5. The challenge of improvised explosives

    SciTech Connect

    Maienschein, Jon L.

    2012-06-14

    Energetic materials have been developed for decades, and indeed centuries, with a common set of goals in mind. Performance (as a detonating explosive, a propellant, or a pyrotechnic) has always been key, equally important have been the attributes of safety, stability, and reproducibility. Research and development with those goals has led to the set of energetic materials commonly used today. In the past few decades, the adoption and use of improvised explosives in attacks by terrorists or third-world parties has led to many questions about these materials, e.g., how they may be made, what threat they pose to the intended target, how to handle them safely, and how to detect them. The unfortunate advent of improvised explosives has opened the door for research into these materials, and there are active programs in many countries. I will discuss issues and opportunities facing research into improvised explosives.

  6. 30 CFR 77.1301 - Explosives; magazines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Explosives; magazines. 77.1301 Section 77.1301... MANDATORY SAFETY STANDARDS, SURFACE COAL MINES AND SURFACE WORK AREAS OF UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Explosives and Blasting § 77.1301 Explosives; magazines. (a) Detonators and explosives other than blasting...

  7. 14 CFR 420.63 - Explosive siting.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Explosive siting. 420.63 Section 420.63... TRANSPORTATION LICENSING LICENSE TO OPERATE A LAUNCH SITE Responsibilities of a Licensee § 420.63 Explosive... configuration of the launch site follows its explosive site plan, and the licensee's explosive site...

  8. 36 CFR 1002.38 - Explosives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Explosives. 1002.38 Section... RECREATION § 1002.38 Explosives. (a) Using, possessing, storing, or transporting explosives, blasting agents or explosive materials is prohibited, except pursuant to the terms and conditions of a permit....

  9. 32 CFR 1903.9 - Explosives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Explosives. 1903.9 Section 1903.9 National... INSTALLATIONS § 1903.9 Explosives. (a) Using, possessing, storing, or transporting explosives, blasting agents, ammunition or explosive materials is prohibited on any Agency installation, except as authorized by...

  10. 36 CFR 1002.38 - Explosives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Explosives. 1002.38 Section... RECREATION § 1002.38 Explosives. (a) Using, possessing, storing, or transporting explosives, blasting agents or explosive materials is prohibited, except pursuant to the terms and conditions of a permit....

  11. 36 CFR 1002.38 - Explosives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2013-07-01 2012-07-01 true Explosives. 1002.38 Section... RECREATION § 1002.38 Explosives. (a) Using, possessing, storing, or transporting explosives, blasting agents or explosive materials is prohibited, except pursuant to the terms and conditions of a permit....

  12. 32 CFR 1903.9 - Explosives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Explosives. 1903.9 Section 1903.9 National... INSTALLATIONS § 1903.9 Explosives. (a) Using, possessing, storing, or transporting explosives, blasting agents, ammunition or explosive materials is prohibited on any Agency installation, except as authorized by...

  13. 32 CFR 1903.9 - Explosives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Explosives. 1903.9 Section 1903.9 National... INSTALLATIONS § 1903.9 Explosives. (a) Using, possessing, storing, or transporting explosives, blasting agents, ammunition or explosive materials is prohibited on any Agency installation, except as authorized by...

  14. 32 CFR 234.9 - Explosives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Explosives. 234.9 Section 234.9 National Defense... PENTAGON RESERVATION § 234.9 Explosives. (a) Using, possessing, storing, or transporting explosives, blasting agents or explosive materials is prohibited, except pursuant to the terms and conditions of...

  15. 30 CFR 77.1301 - Explosives; magazines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Explosives; magazines. 77.1301 Section 77.1301... MANDATORY SAFETY STANDARDS, SURFACE COAL MINES AND SURFACE WORK AREAS OF UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Explosives and Blasting § 77.1301 Explosives; magazines. (a) Detonators and explosives other than blasting...

  16. 32 CFR 234.9 - Explosives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Explosives. 234.9 Section 234.9 National Defense... PENTAGON RESERVATION § 234.9 Explosives. (a) Using, possessing, storing, or transporting explosives, blasting agents or explosive materials is prohibited, except pursuant to the terms and conditions of...

  17. 36 CFR 2.38 - Explosives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Explosives. 2.38 Section 2.38... PROTECTION, PUBLIC USE AND RECREATION § 2.38 Explosives. (a) Using, possessing, storing, or transporting explosives, blasting agents or explosive materials is prohibited, except pursuant to the terms and...

  18. 30 CFR 77.1301 - Explosives; magazines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Explosives; magazines. 77.1301 Section 77.1301... MANDATORY SAFETY STANDARDS, SURFACE COAL MINES AND SURFACE WORK AREAS OF UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Explosives and Blasting § 77.1301 Explosives; magazines. (a) Detonators and explosives other than blasting...

  19. 14 CFR 420.63 - Explosive siting.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Explosive siting. 420.63 Section 420.63... TRANSPORTATION LICENSING LICENSE TO OPERATE A LAUNCH SITE Responsibilities of a Licensee § 420.63 Explosive... configuration of the launch site follows its explosive site plan, and the licensee's explosive site...

  20. 32 CFR 234.9 - Explosives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Explosives. 234.9 Section 234.9 National Defense... PENTAGON RESERVATION § 234.9 Explosives. (a) Using, possessing, storing, or transporting explosives, blasting agents or explosive materials is prohibited, except pursuant to the terms and conditions of...

  1. 36 CFR 2.38 - Explosives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Explosives. 2.38 Section 2.38... PROTECTION, PUBLIC USE AND RECREATION § 2.38 Explosives. (a) Using, possessing, storing, or transporting explosives, blasting agents or explosive materials is prohibited, except pursuant to the terms and...

  2. 36 CFR 1002.38 - Explosives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Explosives. 1002.38 Section... RECREATION § 1002.38 Explosives. (a) Using, possessing, storing, or transporting explosives, blasting agents or explosive materials is prohibited, except pursuant to the terms and conditions of a permit....

  3. 32 CFR 234.9 - Explosives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Explosives. 234.9 Section 234.9 National Defense... PENTAGON RESERVATION § 234.9 Explosives. (a) Using, possessing, storing, or transporting explosives, blasting agents or explosive materials is prohibited, except pursuant to the terms and conditions of...

  4. 36 CFR 1002.38 - Explosives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Explosives. 1002.38 Section... RECREATION § 1002.38 Explosives. (a) Using, possessing, storing, or transporting explosives, blasting agents or explosive materials is prohibited, except pursuant to the terms and conditions of a permit....

  5. 36 CFR 2.38 - Explosives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Explosives. 2.38 Section 2.38... PROTECTION, PUBLIC USE AND RECREATION § 2.38 Explosives. (a) Using, possessing, storing, or transporting explosives, blasting agents or explosive materials is prohibited, except pursuant to the terms and...

  6. 30 CFR 77.1301 - Explosives; magazines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Explosives; magazines. 77.1301 Section 77.1301... MANDATORY SAFETY STANDARDS, SURFACE COAL MINES AND SURFACE WORK AREAS OF UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Explosives and Blasting § 77.1301 Explosives; magazines. (a) Detonators and explosives other than blasting...

  7. 32 CFR 1903.9 - Explosives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Explosives. 1903.9 Section 1903.9 National... INSTALLATIONS § 1903.9 Explosives. (a) Using, possessing, storing, or transporting explosives, blasting agents, ammunition or explosive materials is prohibited on any Agency installation, except as authorized by...

  8. 30 CFR 77.1301 - Explosives; magazines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Explosives; magazines. 77.1301 Section 77.1301... MANDATORY SAFETY STANDARDS, SURFACE COAL MINES AND SURFACE WORK AREAS OF UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Explosives and Blasting § 77.1301 Explosives; magazines. (a) Detonators and explosives other than blasting...

  9. 32 CFR 234.9 - Explosives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Explosives. 234.9 Section 234.9 National Defense... PENTAGON RESERVATION § 234.9 Explosives. (a) Using, possessing, storing, or transporting explosives, blasting agents or explosive materials is prohibited, except pursuant to the terms and conditions of...

  10. 32 CFR 1903.9 - Explosives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Explosives. 1903.9 Section 1903.9 National... INSTALLATIONS § 1903.9 Explosives. (a) Using, possessing, storing, or transporting explosives, blasting agents, ammunition or explosive materials is prohibited on any Agency installation, except as authorized by...

  11. 36 CFR 2.38 - Explosives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Explosives. 2.38 Section 2.38... PROTECTION, PUBLIC USE AND RECREATION § 2.38 Explosives. (a) Using, possessing, storing, or transporting explosives, blasting agents or explosive materials is prohibited, except pursuant to the terms and...

  12. 36 CFR 2.38 - Explosives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Explosives. 2.38 Section 2.38... PROTECTION, PUBLIC USE AND RECREATION § 2.38 Explosives. (a) Using, possessing, storing, or transporting explosives, blasting agents or explosive materials is prohibited, except pursuant to the terms and...

  13. Shock Response of Several Plastic Bonded Explosives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sutherland, G. T.; Ashwell, K. D.; O'Connor, J. H.; Baker, R. N.; Lemar, E. R.

    1995-08-01

    Multiple in situ manganin gauge experiments were performed on explosive compositions IRX-1, IRX-3A, PBXN-111 (PBXW-115), and PBXN-110 (PBXW-113). For most explosives, stress-time profiles show substantial reaction. These profiles are compared to those measured in other explosives and plans are discussed for future reactive rate modeling involving these explosives.

  14. Shock Response of Several Plastic Bonded Explosives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sutherland, G. T.; Ashwell, K. D.; O'Connor, J. H.; Baker, R. N.; Lemar, E. R.

    1996-05-01

    Multiple in situ manganin gauge experiments were performed on explosive compositions IRX-1, IRX-3A, PBXN-111 (PBXW-115), and PBXN-110 (PBXW-113). For most explosives, stress-time profiles show substantial reaction. These profiles are compared to those measured in other explosives and plans are discussed for future reactive rate modeling involving these explosives.

  15. 30 CFR 7.306 - Explosion tests.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Explosion tests. 7.306 Section 7.306 Mineral... MINING PRODUCTS TESTING BY APPLICANT OR THIRD PARTY Electric Motor Assemblies § 7.306 Explosion tests. (a) The following shall be used for conducting an explosion test: (1) An explosion test chamber...

  16. 30 CFR 7.306 - Explosion tests.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Explosion tests. 7.306 Section 7.306 Mineral... MINING PRODUCTS TESTING BY APPLICANT OR THIRD PARTY Electric Motor Assemblies § 7.306 Explosion tests. (a) The following shall be used for conducting an explosion test: (1) An explosion test chamber...

  17. 30 CFR 7.306 - Explosion tests.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Explosion tests. 7.306 Section 7.306 Mineral... MINING PRODUCTS TESTING BY APPLICANT OR THIRD PARTY Electric Motor Assemblies § 7.306 Explosion tests. (a) The following shall be used for conducting an explosion test: (1) An explosion test chamber...

  18. System for analysis of explosives

    DOEpatents

    Haas, Jeffrey S.

    2010-06-29

    A system for analysis of explosives. Samples are spotted on a thin layer chromatography plate. Multi-component explosives standards are spotted on the thin layer chromatography plate. The thin layer chromatography plate is dipped in a solvent mixture and chromatography is allowed to proceed. The thin layer chromatography plate is dipped in reagent 1. The thin layer chromatography plate is heated. The thin layer chromatography plate is dipped in reagent 2.

  19. The Structural Basis of 5′ Triphosphate Double-stranded RNA Recognition by RIG-I C-terminal Domain

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Cheng; Xu, Hengyu; Ranjith-Kumar, C. T.; Brooks, Monica T.; Hou, Tim Y.; Hu, Fuqu; Herr, Andrew B.; Strong, Roland K.; Kao, C. Cheng; Li, Pingwei

    2010-01-01

    SUMMARY RIG-I is a cytosolic sensor of viral RNA that plays crucial roles in the induction of type I interferons. The C-terminal domain (CTD) of RIG-I is responsible for the recognition of viral RNA with 5′ triphosphate (5′ ppp). However, the mechanism of viral RNA recognition by RIG-I is still not fully understood. Here we show that RIG-I CTD binds 5′ ppp dsRNA or ssRNA, as well as blunt-ended dsRNA, and exhibits the highest affinity for 5′ ppp dsRNA. Crystal structures of RIG-I CTD bound to 5′ ppp dsRNA with GC- and AU- rich sequences revealed that RIG-I recognizes the termini of the dsRNA and interacts with the 5′ triphosphate through extensive electrostatic interactions. Mutagenesis and RNA binding studies demonstrated that similar binding surfaces are involved in the recognition of different forms of RNA. Mutations of key residues at the RNA binding surface affected RIG-I signaling in cells. PMID:20637642

  20. Z proteins of New World arenaviruses bind RIG-I and interfere with type I interferon induction.

    PubMed

    Fan, Lina; Briese, Thomas; Lipkin, W Ian

    2010-02-01

    The retinoic acid-inducible gene I product (RIG-I) is a cellular sensor of RNA virus infection that regulates the cellular beta interferon (IFN-beta) response. The nucleoproteins (NP) of arenaviruses are reported to antagonize the IFN response by inhibiting interferon regulatory factor 3 (IRF-3). Here, we demonstrate that the Z proteins of four New World (NW) arenaviruses, Guanarito virus (GTOV), Junin virus (JUNV), Machupo virus (MAVC), and Sabia virus (SABV), bind to RIG-I, resulting in downregulation of the IFN-beta response. We show that expression of the four NW arenavirus Z proteins inhibits IFN-beta mRNA induction in A549 cells in response to RNA bearing 5' phosphates (5'pppRNA). NW arenavirus Z proteins interact with RIG-I in coimmunoprecipitation studies and colocalize with RIG-I. Furthermore, expression of Z proteins interferes with the interaction between RIG-I and MAVS. Z expression also impedes the nuclear factor kappa light chain enhancer of activated B cells (NF-kappaB) and IRF-3 activation. Our results indicate that NW arenavirus Z proteins, but not Z protein of the Old World (OW) arenavirus lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus (LCMV) or Lassa virus, bind to RIG-I and inhibit downstream activation of the RIG-I signaling pathway, preventing the transcriptional induction of IFN-beta.