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Sample records for oil spill cleanup

  1. Oil Spill Cleanup

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kauble, Christena Ann

    2011-01-01

    Several classroom activities using a model of a seashore and an oil spill demonstrate the basic properties of oil spills in oceans. Students brainstorm about how to best clean up the mess. They work in teams, and after agreeing on how they will proceed, their method is tested by measuring the amount of oil removed and by rating the cleanliness of…

  2. Oil Spill Cleanup

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    Petroleum Remediation Product (PRP) is a new way of cleaning up oil spills. It consists of thousands of microcapsules, tiny balls of beeswax with hollow centers, containing live microorganisms and nutrients to sustain them. As oil flows through the microcapsule's shell, it is consumed and digested by the microorganisms. Pressure buildup causes the PRP to explode and the enzymes, carbon dioxide and water are released into the BioBoom used in conjunction with PRP, preventing contaminated water from spreading. The system incorporates technology originally developed at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory and Marshall Space Flight Center.

  3. Oil spill cleanup using graphene.

    PubMed

    Iqbal, Muhammad Z; Abdala, Ahmed A

    2013-05-01

    In this article, we study the use of thermally reduced graphene (TRG) for oil spill cleanup. TRG was synthesized by thermal exfoliation of graphite oxide and characterized by X-ray diffusion, Raman spectroscopy, SEM, TEM, elemental analysis, and Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET) surface area measurement. Various aspects of the sorption process have been studied including the sorption capacity, the recovery of the adsorbed oil, and the recyclability of TRG. Our results shows that TRG has a higher sorption capacity than any other carbon-based sorbents, with sorption capacity as high as 131 g of oil per gram TRG. With recovery of the sorbed oil via filtration and reuse of TRG for up to six cycles, 1 g of TRG collectively removes approximately 300 g of crude oil. Moreover, the effects of TRG bulk density, pore volume, and carbon/oxygen ratio and the oil viscosity on the sorption process are also discussed.

  4. The Great Oil Spill Cleanup Contest.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hampton, Elaine

    1993-01-01

    Presents an exciting way to acquaint students with current methods to clean up oil spills. Students also have the freedom to create new clean-up methods as they think through the problem and experiment to find effective solutions. (PR)

  5. Oil spill cleanup method and apparatus

    SciTech Connect

    Mayes, F.M.

    1980-06-24

    A method for removing oil from the surface of water where an oil spill has occurred, particularly in obstructed or shallow areas, which comprises partially surrounding a hovercraft with a floating oil-collecting barrier, there being no barrier at the front of the hovercraft, moving the oil-barrier-surrounded-hovercraft into oil contaminated water, and collecting oil gathered within the barrier behind the hovercraft through a suction line which carries the oil to a storage tank aboard the hovercraft. The invention also embodies the hovercraft adapted to effect an oil spill cleanup.

  6. Nanoporous polystyrene fibers for oil spill cleanup.

    PubMed

    Lin, Jinyou; Shang, Yanwei; Ding, Bin; Yang, Jianmao; Yu, Jianyong; Al-Deyab, Salem S

    2012-02-01

    The development of oil sorbents with high sorption capacity, low cost, scalable fabrication, and high selectivity is of great significance for water environmental protection, especially for oil spillage on seawater. In this work, we report nanoporous polystyrene (PS) fibers prepared via a one-step electrospinning process used as oil sorbents for oil spill cleanup. The oleophilic-hydrophobic PS oil sorbent with highly porous structures shows a motor oil sorption capacity of 113.87 g/g, approximately 3-4 times that of natural sorbents and nonwoven polypropylene fibrous mats. Additionally, the sorbents also exhibit a relatively high sorption capacity for edible oils, such as bean oil (111.80 g/g) and sunflower seed oil (96.89 g/g). The oil sorption mechanism of the PS sorbent and the sorption kinetics were investigated. Our nanoporous material has great potential for use in wastewater treatment, oil accident remediation and environmental protection.

  7. Aquatic oil spill cleanup using natural sorbents.

    PubMed

    Paulauskienė, Tatjana; Jucikė, Indrė

    2015-10-01

    One of the most popular transportation methods of crude oil is water transport, leading to potential spills of these pollutants in the seas and oceans and water areas of ports, during their extraction, transportation, transhipment and use. The growth of the Lithuanian economy and the expansion of competitiveness were hardly imagined without the development of the Klaipeda seaport. However, the intensity of shipping and the increase in cargo loading volumes at specialised terminals are associated with a higher risk of environmental pollution. To achieve a sustainable development of the seaport, it is necessary not only to ensure the prevention of potential water pollution but also, if necessary, to use environmentally friendly technology for pollution management. The work analyses the possibilities related to the collection of oil products from the water surface using natural sorbents (peat, wool, moss and straw) and their composites.The research of absorbed amount of crude oil and diesel fuel spilled on the water surface, while using sorbents and their composites, determined that sorbents' composite straw-peat (composition percentage of straw-peat 25-75 %) absorbs the major amount of both crude oil (60 % of the spilled volume) and diesel fuel (69 % of the spilled volume) comparing to single sorbents and sorbents' composite straw-peat (composition percentage of straw-peat 50-50 %).

  8. Aquatic oil spill cleanup using natural sorbents.

    PubMed

    Paulauskienė, Tatjana; Jucikė, Indrė

    2015-10-01

    One of the most popular transportation methods of crude oil is water transport, leading to potential spills of these pollutants in the seas and oceans and water areas of ports, during their extraction, transportation, transhipment and use. The growth of the Lithuanian economy and the expansion of competitiveness were hardly imagined without the development of the Klaipeda seaport. However, the intensity of shipping and the increase in cargo loading volumes at specialised terminals are associated with a higher risk of environmental pollution. To achieve a sustainable development of the seaport, it is necessary not only to ensure the prevention of potential water pollution but also, if necessary, to use environmentally friendly technology for pollution management. The work analyses the possibilities related to the collection of oil products from the water surface using natural sorbents (peat, wool, moss and straw) and their composites.The research of absorbed amount of crude oil and diesel fuel spilled on the water surface, while using sorbents and their composites, determined that sorbents' composite straw-peat (composition percentage of straw-peat 25-75 %) absorbs the major amount of both crude oil (60 % of the spilled volume) and diesel fuel (69 % of the spilled volume) comparing to single sorbents and sorbents' composite straw-peat (composition percentage of straw-peat 50-50 %). PMID:25994272

  9. Toxicology of oil-spill cleanup agents. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Tjeerdema, R.S.; Singer, M.M.; Scelfo, G.M.; Smalheer, D.L.; Swall, L.M.

    1990-07-01

    The report describes both advanced analytical and biochemical techniques for use with surfactant-based oil spill cleanup agents. It also presents novel aquatic toxicity testing procedures, as well as the results from toxicity testing with the sensitive early life stages of diverse marine organisms. In addition, it describes the metabolic fate, including both tissue and temperature dependence, of a representative surfactant in a marine invertebrate. Finally, it delineates the in vitro effects of surfactant-based oil spill cleanup agents in both marine birds and mammals.

  10. Bacteria Provide Cleanup of Oil Spills, Wastewater

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2010-01-01

    Through Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) contracts with Marshall Space Flight Center, Micro-Bac International Inc., of Round Rock, Texas, developed a phototrophic cell for water purification in space. Inside the cell: millions of photosynthetic bacteria. Micro-Bac proceeded to commercialize the bacterial formulation it developed for the SBIR project. The formulation is now used for the remediation of wastewater systems and waste from livestock farms and food manufacturers. Strains of the SBIR-derived bacteria also feature in microbial solutions that treat environmentally damaging oil spills, such as that resulting from the catastrophic 2010 Deepwater Horizon oil rig explosion in the Gulf of Mexico.

  11. Oil Spill!

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ansberry, Karen Rohrich; Morgan, Emily

    2005-01-01

    An oil spill occurs somewhere in the world almost every day of the year, and the consequences can be devastating. In this month's column, students explore the effects of oil spills on plants, animals, and the environment and investigate oil spill clean-up methods through a simulated oil spill. The activities described in this article give students…

  12. Hydrophobic modification of polyurethane foam for oil spill cleanup.

    PubMed

    Li, Hua; Liu, Lifen; Yang, Fenglin

    2012-08-01

    To improve the oleophilic/hydrophobic properties of polyurethane (PU) foams for oil spill cleanup, PU samples were modified by grafting with oleophilic monomer Lauryl methacrylate (LMA) in solvent and/or coating with LMA microspheres through heating and curing. Modified PU cubes were characterized by field emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM) and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). The water sorption of modified PU cubes was decreased by 24-50%, while the diesel or kerosene sorption of modified PU cubes was increased by 18-27%. In water-oil system, compared with blank PU cubes, the sorption capacity of PU cubes grafted with LMA was increased by 44% for diesel and 100% for kerosene. The sorption capacity of PU cubes coated with LMA microspheres was increased by 20% for diesel and 7% for kerosene. The solvent sorption of modified PU cubes could reach 50-69 g/g. The modified PU cubes can be effectively used in oil/solvent spill cleanup. PMID:22749062

  13. Hydrophobic modification of polyurethane foam for oil spill cleanup.

    PubMed

    Li, Hua; Liu, Lifen; Yang, Fenglin

    2012-08-01

    To improve the oleophilic/hydrophobic properties of polyurethane (PU) foams for oil spill cleanup, PU samples were modified by grafting with oleophilic monomer Lauryl methacrylate (LMA) in solvent and/or coating with LMA microspheres through heating and curing. Modified PU cubes were characterized by field emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM) and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). The water sorption of modified PU cubes was decreased by 24-50%, while the diesel or kerosene sorption of modified PU cubes was increased by 18-27%. In water-oil system, compared with blank PU cubes, the sorption capacity of PU cubes grafted with LMA was increased by 44% for diesel and 100% for kerosene. The sorption capacity of PU cubes coated with LMA microspheres was increased by 20% for diesel and 7% for kerosene. The solvent sorption of modified PU cubes could reach 50-69 g/g. The modified PU cubes can be effectively used in oil/solvent spill cleanup.

  14. Material and methods for oil spill control and cleanup and extinguishing petroleum fires

    SciTech Connect

    States, J. B.

    1981-02-03

    A dispersal medium is described for cleaning of oil spills and the like and extinguishing petroleum fires. Its major quantitative part consists of a household liquid detergent and also contains eucalyptus oil, bovine urine, alfalfa and vitamin b-6. Methods of oil spill clean-up and fire extinguishing are also described.

  15. Oil sorbents with high sorption capacity, oil/water selectivity and reusability for oil spill cleanup.

    PubMed

    Wu, Daxiong; Fang, Linlin; Qin, Yanmin; Wu, Wenjuan; Mao, Changming; Zhu, Haitao

    2014-07-15

    A sorbent for oil spill cleanup was prepared through a novel strategy by treating polyurethane sponges with silica sol and gasoline successively. The oil sorption capacity, oil/water selectivity, reusability and sorption mechanism of prepared sorbent were studied. The results showed that the prepared sorbent exhibited high sorption capacity and excellent oil/water selectivity. 1g of the prepared sorbent could adsorb more than 100 g of motor oil, while it only picks up less than 0.1 g of water from an oil-water interface under both static and dynamic conditions. More than 70% of the sorption capacity remained after 15 successive sorption-squeezing cycles, which suggests an extraordinary high reusability. The prepared sorbent is a better alternative of the commercial polypropylene sorbent which are being used nowadays.

  16. Oil sorbents with high sorption capacity, oil/water selectivity and reusability for oil spill cleanup.

    PubMed

    Wu, Daxiong; Fang, Linlin; Qin, Yanmin; Wu, Wenjuan; Mao, Changming; Zhu, Haitao

    2014-07-15

    A sorbent for oil spill cleanup was prepared through a novel strategy by treating polyurethane sponges with silica sol and gasoline successively. The oil sorption capacity, oil/water selectivity, reusability and sorption mechanism of prepared sorbent were studied. The results showed that the prepared sorbent exhibited high sorption capacity and excellent oil/water selectivity. 1g of the prepared sorbent could adsorb more than 100 g of motor oil, while it only picks up less than 0.1 g of water from an oil-water interface under both static and dynamic conditions. More than 70% of the sorption capacity remained after 15 successive sorption-squeezing cycles, which suggests an extraordinary high reusability. The prepared sorbent is a better alternative of the commercial polypropylene sorbent which are being used nowadays. PMID:24856092

  17. Oil spill response in freshwater: Assessment of the impact of cleanup as a management tool

    SciTech Connect

    Vandermeulen, J.H.; Ross, C.W.

    1995-08-01

    A wide variety of cleanup methods has been used following oil spillage in freshwater environments, but in few cases has there been rigorous follow-up assessment of the possible environmental impact of these methods per se. Where impact of cleanup has been considered, it was largely in the context of effectiveness of oil removal, and rarely to determine any negative environmental impact that the cleanup itself might have. A review of a number of documented oil spill incidents in freshwater environments revealed the following. (1) Follow-up monitoring of spill cleanup has not been seen as a formal or integral part of the cleanup procedure, nor as a regular part of either federal or local governmental spill response. (2) Spill response in the freshwater environment has been guided largely by knowledge gained from marine spill response, and from other environmental fields, despite significant differences between freshwater and marine conditions. (3) Cleanup activities do cause environmental impacts, over and above the impact of the oiling. These include impacts on regrowth of shoreline vegetation, entrainment and enhanced persistence of oil into river and marsh sediments, long-term oiling of creek and river beds resulting from certain methodologies, and impacts from disposal of oiled soils. (4) The {open_quotes}no-action{close_quotes} (i.e. self-clean) option does not appear as a formal response in freshwater spill situations, although there are situations where no cleanup may be considered a valid response option (for example, lightly oiled wetlands). (5) {open_quotes}Habitat rarity{close_quotes} as a separate factor in determining spill response, has had little discussion or application. 57 refs., 2 tabs.

  18. Microstructures of superhydrophobic plant leaves - inspiration for efficient oil spill cleanup materials.

    PubMed

    Zeiger, Claudia; Rodrigues da Silva, Isabelle C; Mail, Matthias; Kavalenka, Maryna N; Barthlott, Wilhelm; Hölscher, Hendrik

    2016-08-16

    The cleanup of accidental oil spills in water is an enormous challenge; conventional oil sorbents absorb large amounts of water in addition to oil and other cleanup methods can cause secondary pollution. In contrast, fresh leaves of the aquatic ferns Salvinia are superhydrophobic and superoleophilic, and can selectively absorb oil while repelling water. These selective wetting properties are optimal for natural oil absorbent applications and bioinspired oil sorbent materials. In this paper we quantify the oil absorption capacity of four Salvinia species with different surface structures, water lettuce (Pistia stratiotes) and Lotus leaves (Nelumbo nucifera), and compare their absorption capacity to artificial oil sorbents. Interestingly, the oil absorption capacities of Salvinia molesta and Pistia stratiotes leaves are comparable to artificial oil sorbents. Therefore, these pantropical invasive plants, often considered pests, qualify as environmentally friendly materials for oil spill cleanup. Furthermore, we investigated the influence of oil density and viscosity on the oil absorption, and examine how the presence and morphology of trichomes affect the amount of oil absorbed by their surfaces. Specifically, the influence of hair length and shape is analyzed by comparing different hair types ranging from single trichomes of Salvinia cucullata to complex eggbeater-shaped trichomes of Salvinia molesta to establish a basis for improving artificial bioinspired oil absorbents.

  19. Microstructures of superhydrophobic plant leaves - inspiration for efficient oil spill cleanup materials.

    PubMed

    Zeiger, Claudia; Rodrigues da Silva, Isabelle C; Mail, Matthias; Kavalenka, Maryna N; Barthlott, Wilhelm; Hölscher, Hendrik

    2016-01-01

    The cleanup of accidental oil spills in water is an enormous challenge; conventional oil sorbents absorb large amounts of water in addition to oil and other cleanup methods can cause secondary pollution. In contrast, fresh leaves of the aquatic ferns Salvinia are superhydrophobic and superoleophilic, and can selectively absorb oil while repelling water. These selective wetting properties are optimal for natural oil absorbent applications and bioinspired oil sorbent materials. In this paper we quantify the oil absorption capacity of four Salvinia species with different surface structures, water lettuce (Pistia stratiotes) and Lotus leaves (Nelumbo nucifera), and compare their absorption capacity to artificial oil sorbents. Interestingly, the oil absorption capacities of Salvinia molesta and Pistia stratiotes leaves are comparable to artificial oil sorbents. Therefore, these pantropical invasive plants, often considered pests, qualify as environmentally friendly materials for oil spill cleanup. Furthermore, we investigated the influence of oil density and viscosity on the oil absorption, and examine how the presence and morphology of trichomes affect the amount of oil absorbed by their surfaces. Specifically, the influence of hair length and shape is analyzed by comparing different hair types ranging from single trichomes of Salvinia cucullata to complex eggbeater-shaped trichomes of Salvinia molesta to establish a basis for improving artificial bioinspired oil absorbents. PMID:27529805

  20. Evaluation of electrospun polyvinyl chloride/polystyrene fibers as sorbent materials for oil spill cleanup.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Haitao; Qiu, Shanshan; Jiang, Wei; Wu, Daxiong; Zhang, Canying

    2011-05-15

    A novel, high-capacity oil sorbent consisting of polyvinyl chloride (PVC)/polystyrene (PS) fiber was prepared by an electrospinning process. The sorption capacity, oil/water selectivity, and sorption mechanism of the PVC/PS sorbent were studied. The results showed that the sorption capacities of the PVC/PS sorbent for motor oil, peanut oil, diesel, and ethylene glycol were 146, 119, 38, and 81 g/g, respectively. It was about 5-9 times that of a commercial polypropylene (PP) sorbent. The PVC/PS sorbent also had excellent oil/water selectivity (about 1000 times) and high buoyancy in the cleanup of oil over water. The SEM analysis indicated that voids among fibers were the key for the high capacity. The electrospun PVC/PS sorbent is a better alternative to the widely used PP sorbent for oil spill cleanup.

  1. Nano-based systems for oil spills control and cleanup.

    PubMed

    Avila, Antonio F; Munhoz, Viviane C; de Oliveira, Aline M; Santos, Mayara C G; Lacerda, Glenda R B S; Gonçalves, Camila P

    2014-05-15

    This paper reports the development of superhydrophobic nanocomposite systems which are also oleophilic. As hydrophobicity is based on low energy surface and surface roughness, the electrospinning technique was selected as the manufacturing technique. N,N' dimethylformamide (DMF) was employed as the polystyrene (PS) solvent. The "Tea-bag" (T-B) nanocomposite system is based on exfoliated graphite surrounded by PS superhydrophobic membranes. The T-B systems were tested regarding its adsorption and absorption rates. To test these properties, it was employed three different water/oil emulsions, i.e., new and used motor oil, which have physical properties (viscosity and specific gravity) similar to heavy crude oil extracted in Brazil, and vacuum pump oil (which does not form oil/water emulsion). It was observed that oil adsorption rate is dependent on oil surface tension, while the absorption rate is mainly dependent on membrane/exfoliated graphite surface area. Experimental data show that oil absorption rates ranged between 2.5g/g and 40g/g, while the adsorption rate oscillated from 0.32g/g/min to 0.80g/g/min. Furthermore, T-B systems were tested as containment barriers and sorbent materials with good results including its recyclability.

  2. A Preliminary Study of Biodegradable Waste as Sorbent Material for Oil-Spill Cleanup

    PubMed Central

    Idris, J.; Eyu, G. D.; Mansor, A. M.; Ahmad, Z.; Chukwuekezie, C. S.

    2014-01-01

    Oil spill constitutes a major source of fresh and seawater pollution as a result of accidental discharge from tankers, marine engines, and underwater pipes. Therefore, the need for cost-effective and environmental friendly sorbent materials for oil spill cleanup cannot be overemphasized. The present work focuses on the preliminary study of empty palm fruit bunch fibre as a promising sorbent material. The morphology of the unmodified empty palm fruit bunch, EPFB fibre, was examined using an optical microcopy, scanning electron microcopy coupled with EDX and X-ray diffraction. The effects of oil volume, fibre weight, and time on oil absorption of EPFB fibre were evaluated with new engine oil from the model oil. The results show that EPFB fibre consists of numerous micro pores, hydrophobic, and partially crystalline and amorphous with approximately 13.5% carbon. The oil absorbency of the fibre increased with the increase in oil volume, immersion time, and fibre weight. However, sorption capacity decreased beyond 3 g in 100 mL. Additionally unmodified EPFB fibre showed optimum oil sorption efficiency of approximately 2.8 g/g within three days of immersion time. PMID:24693241

  3. A preliminary study of biodegradable waste as sorbent material for oil-spill cleanup.

    PubMed

    Idris, J; Eyu, G D; Mansor, A M; Ahmad, Z; Chukwuekezie, C S

    2014-01-01

    Oil spill constitutes a major source of fresh and seawater pollution as a result of accidental discharge from tankers, marine engines, and underwater pipes. Therefore, the need for cost-effective and environmental friendly sorbent materials for oil spill cleanup cannot be overemphasized. The present work focuses on the preliminary study of empty palm fruit bunch fibre as a promising sorbent material. The morphology of the unmodified empty palm fruit bunch, EPFB fibre, was examined using an optical microcopy, scanning electron microcopy coupled with EDX and X-ray diffraction. The effects of oil volume, fibre weight, and time on oil absorption of EPFB fibre were evaluated with new engine oil from the model oil. The results show that EPFB fibre consists of numerous micro pores, hydrophobic, and partially crystalline and amorphous with approximately 13.5% carbon. The oil absorbency of the fibre increased with the increase in oil volume, immersion time, and fibre weight. However, sorption capacity decreased beyond 3 g in 100 mL. Additionally unmodified EPFB fibre showed optimum oil sorption efficiency of approximately 2.8 g/g within three days of immersion time.

  4. A preliminary study of biodegradable waste as sorbent material for oil-spill cleanup.

    PubMed

    Idris, J; Eyu, G D; Mansor, A M; Ahmad, Z; Chukwuekezie, C S

    2014-01-01

    Oil spill constitutes a major source of fresh and seawater pollution as a result of accidental discharge from tankers, marine engines, and underwater pipes. Therefore, the need for cost-effective and environmental friendly sorbent materials for oil spill cleanup cannot be overemphasized. The present work focuses on the preliminary study of empty palm fruit bunch fibre as a promising sorbent material. The morphology of the unmodified empty palm fruit bunch, EPFB fibre, was examined using an optical microcopy, scanning electron microcopy coupled with EDX and X-ray diffraction. The effects of oil volume, fibre weight, and time on oil absorption of EPFB fibre were evaluated with new engine oil from the model oil. The results show that EPFB fibre consists of numerous micro pores, hydrophobic, and partially crystalline and amorphous with approximately 13.5% carbon. The oil absorbency of the fibre increased with the increase in oil volume, immersion time, and fibre weight. However, sorption capacity decreased beyond 3 g in 100 mL. Additionally unmodified EPFB fibre showed optimum oil sorption efficiency of approximately 2.8 g/g within three days of immersion time. PMID:24693241

  5. Mental Health Service Use by Cleanup Workers in the Aftermath of the Deepwater Horizon Oil Spill

    PubMed Central

    Lowe, Sarah R.; Kwok, Richard K.; Payne, Julianne; Engel, Lawrence S.; Galea, Sandro; Sandler, Dale P.

    2015-01-01

    High rates of mental health (MH) problems have been documented among disaster relief workers. However, few workers utilize MH services, and predictors of service use among this group remain unexplored. The purpose of this study was to explore associations between predisposing, illness-related, and enabling factors from Andersen’s behavioral model of treatment-seeking and patterns of service use among participants who completed at least one full day of cleanup work after the Deepwater Horizon oil spill and participated in home visits for the NIEHS GuLF STUDY (N = 8,931). Workers reported on MH symptoms and whether they had used counseling or medication for MH problems since the oil spill. Hierarchical logistic regression models explored associations between predictors and counseling and medication use in the full sample, and type of use (counseling only, medication only, both) among participants who used either service. Analyses were replicated for subsamples of participants with and without symptom inventory scores suggestive of probable post-disaster mental illness. Having a pre-spill MH diagnosis, pre-spill service use, more severe post-spill MH symptoms, and healthcare coverage were positively associated with counseling and medication use in the full sample. Among participants who used either service, non-Hispanic Black race, pre-spill counseling, lower depression, and not identifying a personal doctor or healthcare provider were predictive of counseling only, whereas older age, female gender and pre-spill medication were predictive of medication only. The results were generally consistent among participants with and without probable post-disaster mental illness. The results suggest variability in which factors within Andersen’s behavioral model are predictive of different patterns of service use among disaster relief workers. PMID:25697635

  6. Mental health service use by cleanup workers in the aftermath of the Deepwater Horizon oil spill.

    PubMed

    Lowe, Sarah R; Kwok, Richard K; Payne, Julianne; Engel, Lawrence S; Galea, Sandro; Sandler, Dale P

    2015-04-01

    High rates of mental health (MH) problems have been documented among disaster relief workers. However, few workers utilize MH services, and predictors of service use among this group remain unexplored. The purpose of this study was to explore associations between predisposing, illness-related, and enabling factors from Andersen's behavioral model of treatment-seeking and patterns of service use among participants who completed at least one full day of cleanup work after the Deepwater Horizon oil spill and participated in home visits for the NIEHS GuLF STUDY (N = 8931). Workers reported on MH symptoms and whether they had used counseling or medication for MH problems since the oil spill. Hierarchical logistic regression models explored associations between predictors and counseling and medication use in the full sample, and type of use (counseling only, medication only, both) among participants who used either service. Analyses were replicated for subsamples of participants with and without symptom inventory scores suggestive of probable post-disaster mental illness. Having a pre-spill MH diagnosis, pre-spill service use, more severe post-spill MH symptoms, and healthcare coverage were positively associated with counseling and medication use in the full sample. Among participants who used either service, non-Hispanic Black race, pre-spill counseling, lower depression, and not identifying a personal doctor or healthcare provider were predictive of counseling only, whereas older age, female gender and pre-spill medication were predictive of medication only. The results were generally consistent among participants with and without probable post-disaster mental illness. The results suggest variability in which factors within Andersen's behavioral model are predictive of different patterns of service use among disaster relief workers.

  7. Diving behaviour of wildlife impacted by an oil spill: A clean-up and rehabilitation success?

    PubMed

    Chilvers, B L; Morgan, K M; Finlayson, G; Sievwright, K A

    2015-11-15

    The value of rehabilitating oiled wildlife is an on-going global debate. On October 5, 2011, the cargo vessel C/V Rena grounded on Astrolabe Reef, New Zealand (NZ), spilling over 300 tonnes of heavy fuel oil. As part of the Rena oil spill response, 383 little blue penguins (LBP, Eudyptula minor) were captured, cleaned, rehabilitated and released back into a cleaned environment. This research investigates foraging behaviour changes due either to the oil spill or by the rehabilitation process by comparing the diving behaviour of rehabilitated (n=8) and non-rehabilitated (n=6) LBPs and with LBP populations throughout NZ. Stabile isotope analysis of feathers was also used to investigate diet. There were no foraging behaviour differences between rehabilitated and non-rehabilitated LBPs and the overall diving behaviour of these LBPs have similar, if not less energetic, foraging behaviour than other LBPs in NZ. This suggests the rehabilitation process and clean-up undertaken after the Rena appears effective and helps justify the rehabilitation of oiled wildlife across the world.

  8. Diving behaviour of wildlife impacted by an oil spill: A clean-up and rehabilitation success?

    PubMed

    Chilvers, B L; Morgan, K M; Finlayson, G; Sievwright, K A

    2015-11-15

    The value of rehabilitating oiled wildlife is an on-going global debate. On October 5, 2011, the cargo vessel C/V Rena grounded on Astrolabe Reef, New Zealand (NZ), spilling over 300 tonnes of heavy fuel oil. As part of the Rena oil spill response, 383 little blue penguins (LBP, Eudyptula minor) were captured, cleaned, rehabilitated and released back into a cleaned environment. This research investigates foraging behaviour changes due either to the oil spill or by the rehabilitation process by comparing the diving behaviour of rehabilitated (n=8) and non-rehabilitated (n=6) LBPs and with LBP populations throughout NZ. Stabile isotope analysis of feathers was also used to investigate diet. There were no foraging behaviour differences between rehabilitated and non-rehabilitated LBPs and the overall diving behaviour of these LBPs have similar, if not less energetic, foraging behaviour than other LBPs in NZ. This suggests the rehabilitation process and clean-up undertaken after the Rena appears effective and helps justify the rehabilitation of oiled wildlife across the world. PMID:26424224

  9. Assessment of synfuel spill cleanup options

    SciTech Connect

    Petty, S.E.; Wakamiya, W.; English, C.J.; Strand, J.A.; Mahlum, D.D.

    1982-04-01

    Existing petroleum-spill cleanup technologies are reviewed and their limitations, should they be used to mitigate the effects of synfuels spills, are discussed. The six subsections of this report address the following program goals: synfuels production estimates to the year 2000; possible sources of synfuel spills and volumes of spilled fuel to the year 2000; hazards of synfuels spills; assessment of existing spill cleanup technologies for oil spills; assessment of cleanup technologies for synfuel spills; and disposal of residue from synfuel spill cleanup operations. The first goal of the program was to obtain the most current estimates on synfuel production. These estimates were then used to determine the amount of synfuels and synfuel products likely to be spilled, by location and by method of transportation. A review of existing toxicological studies and existing spill mitigation technologies was then completed to determine the potential impacts of synthetic fuel spills on the environment. Data are presented in the four appendixes on the following subjects: synfuel production estimates; acute toxicity of synfuel; acute toxicity of alcohols.

  10. Fabrication of Hydrophilic and Hydrophobic Sites on Polypropylene Nonwoven for Oil Spill Cleanup: Two Dilemmas Affecting Oil Sorption.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Xiangyu; Wang, Feifei; Ji, Yali; Chen, Weiting; Wei, Junfu

    2016-04-01

    This article mainly deals with the following dilemmas, which affect oil sorption and sorbent preparation: (1) hydrophobization could facilitate oil sorption but has adverse impacts on emulsion sorption; (2) micropores of conventional oil sorbent do not exhibit effective emulsion sorption. To solve the above contradictions, hydrophilic and hydrophobic sites were fabricated onto polypropylene (PP) nonwoven through electron beam radiation and subsequent ring-opening reaction. Further, a similar structure without a hydrophilic site was constructed as comparison to verify the dilemmas. An oil sorption and emulsion adsorption experiment revealed that the PP nonwoven with specific hydrophilic and hydrophobic sites is more suitable for oil cleanup. The hydrophobic site preserved its hydrophobicity and sorption capacity, and the hydrophilic site on PP surface effectively increased the affinity between the hydrophilic interface of emulsion and sorbent. The overlapped and intertwined structures could provide spaces large enough to accommodate oil and emulsion. In addition, the oil and emulsion sorption behaviors were systematically analyzed. The PP nonwoven fabricated in this study may find practical application in the cleanup of oil spills and the removal of organic pollutants from water surfaces. PMID:26918267

  11. Oil Spills

    MedlinePlus

    ... is to provide scientific support to the U.S. Coast Guard officers in charge of response operations. In addition ... NOAA Responds to Oil Spills While the U.S. Coast Guard oversees all responses to oil spills and chemical ...

  12. Superhydrophobic cuprous oxide nanostructures on phosphor-copper meshes and their oil-water separation and oil spill cleanup.

    PubMed

    Kong, Ling-Hao; Chen, Xin-Hua; Yu, Lai-Gui; Wu, Zhi-Shen; Zhang, Ping-Yu

    2015-02-01

    A simple aqueous solution-immersion process was established to fabricate highly dense ordered Cu2O nanorods on commercial phosphor-copper mesh, with which the preparation was accomplished in distilled water. The present method, with the advantages of simple operation, low cost, short reaction time, and environmental friendliness, can be well adopted to fabricate desired Cu2O nanostructures on the phosphor-copper mesh under mild conditions. After surface modification with 1-dodecanethiol, the Cu2O nanostructure obtained on the phosphor-copper mesh exhibits excellent superhydrophobicity and superoleophilicity. Besides, a "mini boat" made from the as-prepared superhydrophobic phosphor-copper mesh can float freely on water surface and in situ collect oil from water surface. This demonstrates that the present approach, being facile, inexpensive, and environmentally friendly, could find promising application in oil-water separation and off shore oil spill cleanup. PMID:25590434

  13. Spinning filter separation system for oil spill clean-up operation

    SciTech Connect

    Wehrle, J.; Fischer, E.C.; Kenney, W.P.; Korczynski, J.F.; Gracik, T.D.

    1996-09-26

    According to current technology, effective clean up of oil spills from the surface of ocean water is performed by an oil sweeper vessel within which oil contaminated water is collected for transport to remotely located on-shore equipment within which oil separation and disposal is performed. The processing of large quantities of oil polluted ocean water is accordingly time consuming as well as costly. It is therefore an important object of the present invention to provide a less costly oil spill clean up system involving more rapid processing of large quantities of oil polluted ocean water. In accordance with the present invention, oil polluted ocean water is processed at an oil spill location by continuous separation during pressurized flow of the water through at least two separator devices within which successive reduction in oil concentration is effected with respect to a separated portion of the water by filtered flow through porous membrane walls to correspondingly increase the oil concentration within the other remaining portion of water being processed. The first portion of the processed water when sufficiently reduced in oil concentration is discharged for return to the oil spill location, while the remaining portion is collected until a sufficient level of oil concentration therein is achieved to permit disposal thereof by burning at the oil spill site.

  14. Heavily Oiled Salt Marsh following the Deepwater Horizon Oil Spill, Ecological Comparisons of Shoreline Cleanup Treatments and Recovery.

    PubMed

    Zengel, Scott; Bernik, Brittany M; Rutherford, Nicolle; Nixon, Zachary; Michel, Jacqueline

    2015-01-01

    The Deepwater Horizon oil spill affected hundreds of kilometers of coastal wetland shorelines, including salt marshes with persistent heavy oiling that required intensive shoreline "cleanup" treatment. Oiled marsh treatment involves a delicate balance among: removing oil, speeding the degradation of remaining oil, protecting wildlife, fostering habitat recovery, and not causing further ecological damage with treatment. To examine the effectiveness and ecological effects of treatment during the emergency response, oiling characteristics and ecological parameters were compared over two years among heavily oiled test plots subject to: manual treatment, mechanical treatment, natural recovery (no treatment, oiled control), as well as adjacent reference conditions. An additional experiment compared areas with and without vegetation planting following treatment. Negative effects of persistent heavy oiling on marsh vegetation, intertidal invertebrates, and shoreline erosion were observed. In areas without treatment, oiling conditions and negative effects for most marsh parameters did not considerably improve over two years. Both manual and mechanical treatment were effective at improving oiling conditions and vegetation characteristics, beginning the recovery process, though recovery was not complete by two years. Mechanical treatment had additional negative effects of mixing oil into the marsh soils and further accelerating erosion. Manual treatment appeared to strike the right balance between improving oiling and habitat conditions while not causing additional detrimental effects. However, even with these improvements, marsh periwinkle snails showed minimal signs of recovery through two years, suggesting that some ecosystem components may lag vegetation recovery. Planting following treatment quickened vegetation recovery and reduced shoreline erosion. Faced with comparable marsh oiling in the future, we would recommend manual treatment followed by planting. We caution

  15. Heavily Oiled Salt Marsh following the Deepwater Horizon Oil Spill, Ecological Comparisons of Shoreline Cleanup Treatments and Recovery.

    PubMed

    Zengel, Scott; Bernik, Brittany M; Rutherford, Nicolle; Nixon, Zachary; Michel, Jacqueline

    2015-01-01

    The Deepwater Horizon oil spill affected hundreds of kilometers of coastal wetland shorelines, including salt marshes with persistent heavy oiling that required intensive shoreline "cleanup" treatment. Oiled marsh treatment involves a delicate balance among: removing oil, speeding the degradation of remaining oil, protecting wildlife, fostering habitat recovery, and not causing further ecological damage with treatment. To examine the effectiveness and ecological effects of treatment during the emergency response, oiling characteristics and ecological parameters were compared over two years among heavily oiled test plots subject to: manual treatment, mechanical treatment, natural recovery (no treatment, oiled control), as well as adjacent reference conditions. An additional experiment compared areas with and without vegetation planting following treatment. Negative effects of persistent heavy oiling on marsh vegetation, intertidal invertebrates, and shoreline erosion were observed. In areas without treatment, oiling conditions and negative effects for most marsh parameters did not considerably improve over two years. Both manual and mechanical treatment were effective at improving oiling conditions and vegetation characteristics, beginning the recovery process, though recovery was not complete by two years. Mechanical treatment had additional negative effects of mixing oil into the marsh soils and further accelerating erosion. Manual treatment appeared to strike the right balance between improving oiling and habitat conditions while not causing additional detrimental effects. However, even with these improvements, marsh periwinkle snails showed minimal signs of recovery through two years, suggesting that some ecosystem components may lag vegetation recovery. Planting following treatment quickened vegetation recovery and reduced shoreline erosion. Faced with comparable marsh oiling in the future, we would recommend manual treatment followed by planting. We caution

  16. Evaluation of kapok (Ceiba pentandra (L.) Gaertn.) as a natural hollow hydrophobic-oleophilic fibrous sorbent for oil spill cleanup.

    PubMed

    Lim, Teik-Thye; Huang, Xiaofeng

    2007-01-01

    Oil sorption capacity and hydrophobic-oleophilic characteristics of an agricultural product, kapok (Ceiba pentandra), was thoroughly examined. The kapok fiber has a hollow structure with large lumen. Its performance was compared with that of a polypropylene (PP), a widely used commercial oil sorbent for oil spill cleanup. The oils investigated were diesel, hydraulic oil (AWS46), and engine oil (HD40). Reusability of the kapok after application to various oils was also evaluated. Both loose (at its natural state) and densely packed kapok assemblies were examined. Sorption capacities of the packed kapok assemblies were very much dependent on their packing densities. At 0.02gcm(-3), its oil sorption capacities were 36, 43 and 45gg(-1) for diesel, ASW46 and HD40, respectively. The values decreased to 7.9, 8.1 and 8.6gg(-1) at 0.09gcm(-3). Its sorption capacities for the three oils were significantly higher than those of PP. When the oil-saturated kapok assemblies were allowed to drain, they exhibited high oil retention ability, with less than 8% of the absorbed diesel and HD40, and 12% of the absorbed AWS46 lost even after 1h of dripping. When applied on oil-over-water baths, the kapok exhibited high selectivity for the oils over the water; almost all oils spilled could be removed with the kapok, leaving an invisible oil slick on water. After the 4th cycle of reuse, the reused kapok assembly only lost 30% of its virgin sorption capacity if packed at 0.02gcm(-3), and the loss in sorption capacity was much less at higher packing densities. The hydrophobic-oleophilic characteristics of the kapok fiber could be attributed to its waxy surface, while its large lumen contributed to its excellent oil absorbency and retention capacity.

  17. A probabilistic model estimating oil spill clean-up costs--a case study for the Gulf of Finland.

    PubMed

    Montewka, Jakub; Weckström, Mia; Kujala, Pentti

    2013-11-15

    Existing models estimating oil spill costs at sea are based on data from the past, and they usually lack a systematic approach. This make them passive, and limits their ability to forecast the effect of the changes in the oil combating fleet or location of a spill on the oil spill costs. In this paper we make an attempt towards the development of a probabilistic and systematic model estimating the costs of clean-up operations for the Gulf of Finland. For this purpose we utilize expert knowledge along with the available data and information from literature. Then, the obtained information is combined into a framework with the use of a Bayesian Belief Networks. Due to lack of data, we validate the model by comparing its results with existing models, with which we found good agreement. We anticipate that the presented model can contribute to the cost-effective oil-combating fleet optimization for the Gulf of Finland. It can also facilitate the accident consequences estimation in the framework of formal safety assessment (FSA).

  18. For oil spills, no slick solutions

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1984-12-01

    Oil spills from tankers and offshore wells are getting bigger and more numerous. Oil spill cleanup technology is hard-pressed to keep up with the problem. The use of skimming devices, sorbents and chemical agents, and microorganisms to control oil spills is described. The environmental effects of oil spills are briefly discussed.

  19. Low Drag Porous Ship with Superhydrophobic and Superoleophilic Surface for Oil Spills Cleanup.

    PubMed

    Wang, Gang; Zeng, Zhixiang; Wang, He; Zhang, Lin; Sun, Xiaodong; He, Yi; Li, Longyang; Wu, Xuedong; Ren, Tianhui; Xue, Qunji

    2015-12-01

    To efficiently remove and recycle oil spills, we construct aligned ZnO nanorod arrays on the surface of the porous stainless steel wire mesh to fabricate a porous unmanned ship (PUS) with properties of superhydrophobicity, superoleophilicity, and low drag by imitating the structure of nonwetting leg of water strider. The superhydrophobicity of the PUS is stable, which can support 16.5 cm water column with pore size of 100 μm. Water droplet can rebound without adhesion. In the process of oil/water separation, when the PUS contacts with oil, the oil is quickly pulled toward and penetrates into the PUS automatically. The superhydrophobicity and low water adhesion force of the PUS surface endow the PUS with high oil recovery capacity (above 94%) and drag-reducing property (31% at flowing velocity of 0.38m/s). In addition, the PUS has good corrosion resistance and reusability. We further investigate the wetting behavior of water and oil, oil recovery capacity, drag-reducing property, and corrosion resistance of the PUS after oil absorbed. The PUS surface changes significantly from superhydrophobic to hydrophobic after absorbing oil. However, the oil absorbed PUS possesses better drag-reducing property and corrosion resistance due to the changes of the motion state of the water droplets. PMID:26562211

  20. Low Drag Porous Ship with Superhydrophobic and Superoleophilic Surface for Oil Spills Cleanup.

    PubMed

    Wang, Gang; Zeng, Zhixiang; Wang, He; Zhang, Lin; Sun, Xiaodong; He, Yi; Li, Longyang; Wu, Xuedong; Ren, Tianhui; Xue, Qunji

    2015-12-01

    To efficiently remove and recycle oil spills, we construct aligned ZnO nanorod arrays on the surface of the porous stainless steel wire mesh to fabricate a porous unmanned ship (PUS) with properties of superhydrophobicity, superoleophilicity, and low drag by imitating the structure of nonwetting leg of water strider. The superhydrophobicity of the PUS is stable, which can support 16.5 cm water column with pore size of 100 μm. Water droplet can rebound without adhesion. In the process of oil/water separation, when the PUS contacts with oil, the oil is quickly pulled toward and penetrates into the PUS automatically. The superhydrophobicity and low water adhesion force of the PUS surface endow the PUS with high oil recovery capacity (above 94%) and drag-reducing property (31% at flowing velocity of 0.38m/s). In addition, the PUS has good corrosion resistance and reusability. We further investigate the wetting behavior of water and oil, oil recovery capacity, drag-reducing property, and corrosion resistance of the PUS after oil absorbed. The PUS surface changes significantly from superhydrophobic to hydrophobic after absorbing oil. However, the oil absorbed PUS possesses better drag-reducing property and corrosion resistance due to the changes of the motion state of the water droplets.

  1. Saudis map $450 million gulf spill cleanup

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-11-18

    This paper reports on Saudi Arabia which has earmarked about $450 million to clean up Persian Gulf beaches polluted by history's worst oil spills, created during the Persian Gulf crisis. Details of the proposed cleanup measures were outlined by Saudi environmental officials at a seminar on the environment in Dubai, OPEC News Agency reported. The seminar was sponsored by the Gulf Area Oil Companies Mutual Aid Organization, an environmental cooperative agency set up by Persian Gulf governments. Meantime, a Saudi government report has outlined early efforts designed to contain the massive oil spills that hit the Saudi coast before oil could contaminate water intakes at the huge desalination plants serving Riyadh and cooling water facilities at Al Jubail.

  2. The duration of acute health problems in people involved with the cleanup operation of the Hebei Spirit oil spill.

    PubMed

    Na, Ji Ung; Sim, Min Seob; Jo, Ik Joon; Song, Hyoung Gon

    2012-06-01

    The authors investigated the duration of health problems of people involved with cleanup efforts for the Hebei Spirit oil spill, which occurred in December 2007 in Taean County, South Korea. The study identified risk factors correlated with the continuation of symptoms. Approximately one year after the accident, 442 people who had participated in the cleanup operation were examined. Data regarding demographic information, risk factors, and the continuation and duration of any symptoms were obtained. Eye symptoms (9.7 months), headaches (8.4 months), skin symptoms (8.3 months), and neurovestibular symptoms (6.9 months) had a relatively longer duration than did back pain (1.8 months) or respiratory symptoms (2.1 months). In particular, the remission of headaches had a negative correlation with female gender (HR 0.57, 0.34-0.95, 95% CI), and remission of eye symptoms had a negative correlation with the total hours of daily participation in the cleanup operation (HR 0.24, 0.06-0.95, 95% CI).

  3. Fluorous Metal Organic Frameworks as Superhydrophobic Adsorbents for Oil Spill Cleanup and Hydrocarbons Storage

    SciTech Connect

    Yang, Chi; Mather, Qian; Wang, Xiaoping; Kaipa, Ushasree; Nesterov, Vladimir; Venero, Augustin; Omary, Mohammad A

    2011-01-01

    We demonstrate that fluorous metal-organic frameworks (FMOFs) are highly hydrophobic porous materials with a high capacity and affinity to C{sub 6}-C{sub 8} hydrocarbons of oil components. FMOF-1 exhibits reversible adsorption with a high capacity for n-hexane, cyclohexane, benzene, toluene, and p-xylene, with no detectable water adsorption even at near 100% relative humidity, drastically outperforming activated carbon and zeolite porous materials. FMOF-2, obtained from annealing FMOF-1, shows enlarged cages and channels with double toluene adsorption vs FMOF-1 based on crystal structures. The results suggest great promise for FMOFs in applications such as removal of organic pollutants from oil spills or ambient humid air, hydrocarbon storage and transportation, water purification, etc. under practical working conditions.

  4. Heavily Oiled Salt Marsh following the Deepwater Horizon Oil Spill, Ecological Comparisons of Shoreline Cleanup Treatments and Recovery

    PubMed Central

    Zengel, Scott; Bernik, Brittany M.; Rutherford, Nicolle; Nixon, Zachary; Michel, Jacqueline

    2015-01-01

    The Deepwater Horizon oil spill affected hundreds of kilometers of coastal wetland shorelines, including salt marshes with persistent heavy oiling that required intensive shoreline “cleanup” treatment. Oiled marsh treatment involves a delicate balance among: removing oil, speeding the degradation of remaining oil, protecting wildlife, fostering habitat recovery, and not causing further ecological damage with treatment. To examine the effectiveness and ecological effects of treatment during the emergency response, oiling characteristics and ecological parameters were compared over two years among heavily oiled test plots subject to: manual treatment, mechanical treatment, natural recovery (no treatment, oiled control), as well as adjacent reference conditions. An additional experiment compared areas with and without vegetation planting following treatment. Negative effects of persistent heavy oiling on marsh vegetation, intertidal invertebrates, and shoreline erosion were observed. In areas without treatment, oiling conditions and negative effects for most marsh parameters did not considerably improve over two years. Both manual and mechanical treatment were effective at improving oiling conditions and vegetation characteristics, beginning the recovery process, though recovery was not complete by two years. Mechanical treatment had additional negative effects of mixing oil into the marsh soils and further accelerating erosion. Manual treatment appeared to strike the right balance between improving oiling and habitat conditions while not causing additional detrimental effects. However, even with these improvements, marsh periwinkle snails showed minimal signs of recovery through two years, suggesting that some ecosystem components may lag vegetation recovery. Planting following treatment quickened vegetation recovery and reduced shoreline erosion. Faced with comparable marsh oiling in the future, we would recommend manual treatment followed by planting. We

  5. Potential immunotoxicological health effects following exposure to COREXIT 9500A during cleanup of the Deepwater Horizon oil spill.

    PubMed

    Anderson, Stacey E; Franko, Jennifer; Lukomska, Ewa; Meade, B J

    2011-01-01

    Workers involved in the Deepwater Horizon oil spill cleanup efforts reported acute pulmonary and dermatological adverse health effects. These studies were undertaken to assess the immunotoxicity of COREXIT 9500A, the primary dispersant used in cleanup efforts, as a potential causative agent. COREXIT 9500A and one of its active ingredients, dioctyl sodium sulfosuccinate (DSS), were evaluated using murine models for hypersensitivity and immune suppression, including the local lymph node assay (LLNA), phenotypic analysis of draining lymph node cells (DLN), mouse ear swelling test (MEST), total serum immunoglobulin E (IgE), and the plaque-forming cell (PFC) assay. Dermal exposure to COREXIT 9500A and DSS induced dose-responsive increases in dermal irritation and lymphocyte proliferation. The EC3 values for COREXIT 9500A and DSS were 0.4% and 3.9%, respectively, resulting in a classification of COREXIT 9500A as a potent sensitizer and DSS as a moderate sensitizer. A T-cell-mediated mechanism underlying the LLNA was supported by positive responses in the MEST assay for COREXIT and DSS, indicated by a significant increase in ear swelling 48 h post challenge. There were no marked alterations in total serum IgE or B220+/IgE+ lymph-node cell populations following exposure to COREXIT 9500A. Significant elevations in interferon (IFN)-γ but not interleukin (IL)-4 protein were also observed in stimulated lymph node cells. The absence of increases in IgE and IL-4 in the presence of enhanced lymphocyte proliferation, positive MEST responses, and elevations in IFN-γ suggest a T-cell-mediated mechanism. COREXIT 9500A did not induce immunosuppression in the murine model.

  6. Evaluation of the persistence of functional and biological respiratory health effects in clean-up workers 6 years after the prestige oil spill.

    PubMed

    Zock, Jan-Paul; Rodríguez-Trigo, Gema; Rodríguez-Rodríguez, Emma; Souto-Alonso, Ana; Espinosa, Ana; Pozo-Rodríguez, Francisco; Gómez, Federico P; Fuster, Carme; Castaño-Vinyals, Gemma; Antó, Josep Maria; Barberà, Joan Albert

    2014-01-01

    Fishermen who had participated in clean-up activities of the Prestige oil spill showed increased bronchial responsiveness and higher levels of respiratory biomarkers 2 years later. We aimed to evaluate the persistence of these functional and biological respiratory health effects 6 years after clean-up work. In 2008/2009 a follow-up study was done in 230 never-smoking fishermen who had been exposed to clean-up work in 2002/2003 and 87 non-exposed fishermen. Lung function and bronchial responsiveness testing and the determination of respiratory biomarkers in exhaled breath condensate were done identically as in the baseline survey in 2004/2005. Associations between participation in clean-up work and respiratory health parameters were assessed using linear and logistic regression analyses adjusting for sex and age. Information from 158 exposed (69%) and 57 non-exposed (66%) fishermen was obtained. Loss to follow-up in the non-exposed was characterised by less respiratory symptoms at baseline. During the 4-year follow-up period lung function, bronchial hyperresponsiveness and the levels of respiratory biomarkers of oxidative stress and growth factors had deteriorated notably more among non-exposed than among exposed. At follow-up, respiratory health indices were similar or better in clean-up workers than in non-exposed. No clear differences between highly exposed and moderately exposed clean-up workers were found. In conclusion, we could not detect long-term respiratory health effects in clean-up workers 6 years after the Prestige oil spill. Methodological issues that need to be considered in this type of studies include the choice of a non-exposed control group and limitation of follow-up to subgroups such as never smokers.

  7. Understanding oil spills and oil spill response

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-10-01

    The volume contains individual sections that outline what oil spills are, their potential effects on the environment, how they are cleaned up, and how various agencies prepare for spills before they happen.

  8. Fabrication of polystyrene fibers with tunable co-axial hollow tubing structure for oil spill cleanup

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Minxin; Chen, Jiafu; Chen, Bingjing; Cao, Jingjing; Hong, Min; Zhou, Chenxu; Xu, Qun

    2016-03-01

    Hollow tubing polystyrene (PS) fibers (HFs) with porous shell were successfully fabricated through co-axial electrospinning and selectively dissolving and removing polyvinyl pyrrolidone (PVP) core of the co-axial PS/PVP fibers using C2H5OH at room temperature. The size of co-axial hollow tubing structure (CHTS) and the thickness of shell can be controlled by varying the feed rate ratio of the core solution to the shell solution. The oil-sorption results show that the oil-sorption capacity increases with the increasing of the size of CHTS in the HFs, and the HFs have higher oil-sorption capacities than the porous PS fibers (PFs) without CHTS. It is noticeable that the diesel sorption capacity (66 g/g) of the HFs is approximately 1.74 times as much as that (38 g/g) of the PFs. The motor oil sorption capacity (147 g/g) of the HFs is approximately 1.55 times as much as that (95 g/g) of the PFs. It is suggested that the HFs have a better oil-sorption performance than the PFs, especially for the low viscosity oil, which is contributed to large CHTS and high porosity.

  9. Hydrophobic poly(alkoxysilane) organogels as sorbent material for oil spill cleanup.

    PubMed

    Ozan Aydin, Gulsah; Bulbul Sonmez, Hayal

    2015-07-15

    In this study, reusable poly(alkoxysilane) organogels with high absorption capacities were synthesized by the condensation of a cyclo aliphatic glycol (UNOXOL™) and altering the chain length of the alkyltriethoxysilanes. The structural and thermal properties of cross-linked poly(alkoxysilane) polymers were determined by FTIR, solid-state (13)C and (29)Si CPMAS NMR and TGA. The oil absorbency of poly(alkoxysilane)s was determined through oil absorption tests, absorption and desorption kinetics. Results showed that the highest oil absorbency capacities were found to be 295% for hexane, 389% for euro diesel, 428% for crude oil, 652% for gasoline, 792% for benzene, 792% for toluene, 868% for tetrahydrofuran, and 1060% for dichloromethane for the poly(alkoxysilane) gels based on UNOXOL™ and dodecyltriethoxysilane. Owing to their hydrophobic structure, the poly(alkoxysilane) organogels can selectively absorb crude oil from water. The reusability of the absorbents was quantitatively investigated, demonstrating that absorbents can be used effectively at least nine times.

  10. Hydrophobic poly(alkoxysilane) organogels as sorbent material for oil spill cleanup.

    PubMed

    Ozan Aydin, Gulsah; Bulbul Sonmez, Hayal

    2015-07-15

    In this study, reusable poly(alkoxysilane) organogels with high absorption capacities were synthesized by the condensation of a cyclo aliphatic glycol (UNOXOL™) and altering the chain length of the alkyltriethoxysilanes. The structural and thermal properties of cross-linked poly(alkoxysilane) polymers were determined by FTIR, solid-state (13)C and (29)Si CPMAS NMR and TGA. The oil absorbency of poly(alkoxysilane)s was determined through oil absorption tests, absorption and desorption kinetics. Results showed that the highest oil absorbency capacities were found to be 295% for hexane, 389% for euro diesel, 428% for crude oil, 652% for gasoline, 792% for benzene, 792% for toluene, 868% for tetrahydrofuran, and 1060% for dichloromethane for the poly(alkoxysilane) gels based on UNOXOL™ and dodecyltriethoxysilane. Owing to their hydrophobic structure, the poly(alkoxysilane) organogels can selectively absorb crude oil from water. The reusability of the absorbents was quantitatively investigated, demonstrating that absorbents can be used effectively at least nine times. PMID:26002096

  11. Oil spill response scenarios for remote arctic environments. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Schulze, R.H.; Grosskopf, W.G.; Cox, J.C.; Schultz, L.A.

    1982-03-01

    Special problems occur during oil spill cleanup in remote inland areas in cold climates. In Alaska these problems result from the harsh climate, the unusual terrain features, and the special problems of spills along swift rivers. The analysis begins with a description of the environmental conditions that occur in Alaska that affect oil spill behavior and oil spill cleanup. The study then describes four spill scenarios in remote areas giving engineering details of the mechanics of the spill movement and the cleanup effort. One scenario covers a winter blowout of a well on the north slope tundra. The next involves a Trans-Alaska Pipeline spill. The fourth scenario involves a fuel tank truck spill into a sensitive sport fishing stream. The study describes the impact of these spills on the environment. Further, it provides a numerical evaluation of the effectiveness of the spill response effort and the cost effectiveness of three incremental levels of spill response for the cleanup effort.

  12. Review of the OSHA-NIOSH Response to the Deepwater Horizon Oil Spill: Protecting the Health and Safety of Cleanup Workers

    PubMed Central

    Michaels, David; Howard, John

    2012-01-01

    Introduction: The fire and explosion of the Deepwater Horizon oil rig resulted in an enormous oil spill that threatened large distances of coastline. The overall response was led by the United States Coast Guard and involved the oil company BP, federal agencies, and state and local governments of five states. Methods: The Occupational Safety and Health Administration and the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health focused extensive resources on ensuring that BP and its contractors provided safe working conditions for thousands of workers involved in the response. Federal personnel visited worksites daily, identifying hazards and means of abatement; assessed training programs to ensure that workers were adequately trained in languages they could understand; monitored chemical exposures and determined that the proper personal protective equipment was deployed; insisted on implementation of a heat mitigation program; rostered thousands of workers; and conducted extensive outreach in communities impacted by the spill. Results: Advance planning, immediate deployment, and collaboration across agencies helped ensure that the response operations resulted in no worker fatalities, and relatively few injuries and illnesses. Conclusions: For future responses, improvements should be made in how safety and health information, as well as the process behind safety and health decisions, are communicated to the public. Citation: Michaels D, Howard J. Review of the OSHA-NIOSH Response to the Deepwater Horizon Oil Spill: Protecting the Health and Safety of Cleanup Workers. PLoS Currents Disasters. 2012 Jul 18 PMID:24678440

  13. Oil Spill Prevention, Control and Countermeasures Plan

    SciTech Connect

    Zoric, J P

    1989-02-01

    Environmental Protection Agency regulations 40 CFR Part 112, Oil Pollution Prevention,'' include requirements for a written Oil Spill Prevention, Control, and Countermeasures (SPCC) Plan. This document provides such an SPCC Plan for facilities at 100-N Area managed by Westinghouse Hanford Co. Should an oil spill occur at 100-N Area, the following actions should be followed: stop the flow of oil, contain the oil spill in order to prevent it from reaching the river, and notify Environmental Protection. Environmental Protection will assess the oil spill and determine if remedial action is necessary. If needed, an oil spill response team will deploy oil spill control and clean-up equipment at the river shoreline to remove any oil that enters the river.

  14. Oil Spills

    MedlinePlus

    ... or in the ocean). Other factors include what kind of exposure and how much exposure there was. People who clean up the spill are more at risk. Problems could include skin and eye irritation, neurologic and breathing problems, and stress. Not much is known about the long-term ...

  15. Approaches to sheltered-water oil spills

    SciTech Connect

    Jacobs, M.A.; Waldron, D.M.

    1996-10-01

    Technology has produced more effective and efficient oil removal equipment for on-water cleanup in the past five years. Much of the innovation has been to increase recovery capacity to meet the planning volumes required to government regulations. However, more than 95 percent of the spills are relatively small. Large equipment, often requiring large platforms, is not very useful and is difficult/expensive to operate on small spills. In addition, damage from spills results when oil impacts shorelines. The emphasis on spill response should address the ability of the equipment to remove oil in a nearshore environment. Clean Seas has been attempting to address this need since the Avila Pipeline spill in 1992, in which a 180 barrel spill resulted in about $18 million damage/cleanup cost.

  16. Remote oil spill sensing system (ROSSS)

    SciTech Connect

    Fornaca, S.; Agravante, H.H.; Eberhard, C.; Hauss, B.I.

    1996-10-01

    To provide tactical information during an oil spill, TRW developed Remote Oil Spill Sensing System (ROSSS). It is an integrated system of airborne sensors for rapid in-situ surveillance and a ground system that provides data analysis and display support at the spill cleanup command center. It provides knowledge of precise location of oil spill and produces timely updates, which are critical for effective spill containment and cleanup operations. It is capable of distinguishing where the bulk of spill exists, which is key to directing cleanup efforts for maximum efficiency. Using a passive microwave radiometric imager as the primary sensor, it provides data acquisition capabilities in both day and night and through haze, fog, and light ram. The high-speed air-to-ground telemetry link permits timely delivery of surveyed data from the spill site to the ground system to aid in the planning and assessment of cleanup strategies. ROSSS has been in service since November, 1992, ready to respond in any oil spill emergencies along the U.S. West Coast. 9 refs., 4 figs.

  17. A sustainable approach to controlling oil spills.

    PubMed

    Al-Majed, Abdul Aziz; Adebayo, Abdulrauf Rasheed; Hossain, M Enamul

    2012-12-30

    As a result of the huge economic and environmental destruction from oil spills, studies have been directed at improving and deploying natural sorbents which are not only the least expensive but also the safest means of spill control. This research reviews the limitations and environmental impact of existing cleanup methods. It also justifies the need for concerted research effort on oil spill control using natural and sustainable technology concepts. The article proposes future guidelines for the development of a sustainable cleanup technology. Finally, guidelines for the development of a new technology for the Middle East are proposed, which is the use of an abundant resource--date palm fibers--for such techniques.

  18. Exploring Oil Spills.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Czerniak, Charlene M.; And Others

    1996-01-01

    Presents activities in which elementary and middle school students work together to gain environmental awareness about oil spills. Involves students experiencing a simulated oil spill and attempting to clean it up. Discusses the use of children's literature after the activity in evaluation of the activity. (JRH)

  19. Introduction to coastal habitats and biological resources for oil-spill response

    SciTech Connect

    Hayes, M.O.; Hoff, R.; Michel, J.; Scholz, D.; Shigenaka, G.

    1992-04-01

    The report discusses the physical, geological, and biological considerations relevant to oil behavior and oil spill response and cleanup. The intent is to contribute to an informed and effective oil spill response in coastal waters.

  20. Effective bioremediation strategy for rapid in situ cleanup of anoxic marine sediments in mesocosm oil spill simulation

    PubMed Central

    Genovese, Maria; Crisafi, Francesca; Denaro, Renata; Cappello, Simone; Russo, Daniela; Calogero, Rosario; Santisi, Santina; Catalfamo, Maurizio; Modica, Alfonso; Smedile, Francesco; Genovese, Lucrezia; Golyshin, Peter N.; Giuliano, Laura; Yakimov, Michail M.

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of present study was the simulation of an oil spill accompanied by burial of significant amount of petroleum hydrocarbons (PHs) in coastal sediments. Approximately 1000 kg of sediments collected in Messina harbor were spiked with Bunker C furnace fuel oil (6500 ppm). The rapid consumption of oxygen by aerobic heterotrophs created highly reduced conditions in the sediments with subsequent recession of biodegradation rates. As follows, after 3 months of ageing, the anaerobic sediments did not exhibit any significant levels of biodegradation and more than 80% of added Bunker C fuel oil remained buried. Anaerobic microbial community exhibited a strong enrichment in sulfate-reducing PHs-degrading and PHs-associated Deltaproteobacteria. As an effective bioremediation strategy to clean up these contaminated sediments, we applied a Modular Slurry System (MSS) allowing the containment of sediments and their physical–chemical treatment, e.g., aeration. Aeration for 3 months has increased the removal of main PHs contaminants up to 98%. As revealed by CARD-FISH, qPCR, and 16S rRNA gene clone library analyses, addition of Bunker C fuel oil initially affected the activity of autochthonous aerobic obligate marine hydrocarbonoclastic bacteria (OMHCB), and after 1 month more than the third of microbial population was represented by Alcanivorax-, Cycloclasticus-, and Marinobacter-related organisms. In the end of the experiment, the microbial community composition has returned to a status typically observed in pristine marine ecosystems with no detectable OMHCB present. Eco-toxicological bioassay revealed that the toxicity of sediments after treatment was substantially decreased. Thus, our studies demonstrated that petroleum-contaminated anaerobic marine sediments could efficiently be cleaned through an in situ oxygenation which stimulates their self-cleaning potential due to reawakening of allochtonous aerobic OMHCB. PMID:24782850

  1. Thermoregulatory responses to layered personal protective clothing: practical implications for oil spill clean-up and remediation.

    PubMed

    Sirikul, Bovorn; Bishop, Phillip A; Nevett, Michael E

    2011-01-01

    Many jobs in toxic environments and in less than ideal surroundings, such as oil spill remediation, require the use of 2 layers of personal protective equipment (PPE) to maximize worker safety. This study was designed to assess physiological and subjective responses while working in a single-layer (SL) or double-layer (DL) ensemble during a continuous work protocol in a hot environment of 31 °C WBGT. Eleven men in a repeated-measures design performed 2 counterbalanced work-bouts at a time-weighted work rate of 300 kcal/h. All tests were terminated when a rectal temperature (Tre) of 38.7 °C was attained. Total work time was significantly (P < 0.05) shorter in DL (60.5 ± 3.9 versus 66.4 ± 4.6 min in SL), and final microenvironmental temperature (MEt) (35.6 ± 0.9 °C vs 37.1 ± 0.3 °C) and humidity (MEh) (90.0 ± 4.0% vs 95.4 ± 1.1%) were higher in DL. There were no differences for Tre, mean skin temperature, or sweat rate over time. These data have practical implications in that although the physiological strain on workers in DL was not substantially greater than in SL, worker safety, and productivity can be reduced while working in layered PPE.

  2. Offshore oil spill response practices and emerging challenges.

    PubMed

    Li, Pu; Cai, Qinhong; Lin, Weiyun; Chen, Bing; Zhang, Baiyu

    2016-09-15

    Offshore oil spills are of tremendous concern due to their potential impact on economic and ecological systems. A number of major oil spills triggered worldwide consciousness of oil spill preparedness and response. Challenges remain in diverse aspects such as oil spill monitoring, analysis, assessment, contingency planning, response, cleanup, and decision support. This article provides a comprehensive review of the current situations and impacts of offshore oil spills, as well as the policies and technologies in offshore oil spill response and countermeasures. Correspondingly, new strategies and a decision support framework are recommended for improving the capacities and effectiveness of oil spill response and countermeasures. In addition, the emerging challenges in cold and harsh environments are reviewed with recommendations due to increasing risk of oil spills in the northern regions from the expansion of the Arctic Passage.

  3. Offshore oil spill response practices and emerging challenges.

    PubMed

    Li, Pu; Cai, Qinhong; Lin, Weiyun; Chen, Bing; Zhang, Baiyu

    2016-09-15

    Offshore oil spills are of tremendous concern due to their potential impact on economic and ecological systems. A number of major oil spills triggered worldwide consciousness of oil spill preparedness and response. Challenges remain in diverse aspects such as oil spill monitoring, analysis, assessment, contingency planning, response, cleanup, and decision support. This article provides a comprehensive review of the current situations and impacts of offshore oil spills, as well as the policies and technologies in offshore oil spill response and countermeasures. Correspondingly, new strategies and a decision support framework are recommended for improving the capacities and effectiveness of oil spill response and countermeasures. In addition, the emerging challenges in cold and harsh environments are reviewed with recommendations due to increasing risk of oil spills in the northern regions from the expansion of the Arctic Passage. PMID:27393213

  4. Bioremediation of crude oil spills in marine and terrestrial environments

    SciTech Connect

    Prince, R.C.

    1995-12-31

    Bioremediation can be a safe and effective tool for dealing with crude oil spills, as demonstrated during the cleanup following the Exxon Valdez spill in Alaska. Crude oil has also been spilled on land, and bioremediation is a promising option for land spills too. Nevertheless, there are still areas where understanding of the phenomenon is rather incomplete. Research groups around the world are addressing these problems, and this symposium provides an excellent overview of some of this work.

  5. Applicable Railroad Commission rules regarding notification, cleanup, and follow up reporting of inland crude spills

    SciTech Connect

    Grossman, G.M.

    1996-08-01

    There are a myriad of regulations, both federal, state, and local dealing with spill notification cleanup, and follow up reporting. This paper describes the applicable Railroad Commission (RRC) Oil and Gas Division Rules and Regulations requiring notification, cleanup, and follow up reporting of inland crude oil spills in the state of Texas. Statewide Rule (SWR) titled {open_quotes}water protection{close_quotes} requires that {open_quotes}no person conducting activities subject to the regulation of RRC may cause or allow pollution of the surface or subsurface water in the state{close_quotes}. SWR 20 titled {open_quotes}notification of fire, breaks, leaks, or blowouts{close_quotes}, requires immediate notice of a fire, leak, spill, or break from production facilities to the appropriate district office and follow up written reporting. SWR 71 titled {open_quotes}Pipeline Tariffs{close_quotes} requires pipeline companies to give immediate notice of spills and fires to the appropriate district office along with follow up reports. SWR 91 titled {open_quotes}Cleanup of soil contaminated by a crude oil spill{close_quotes} requires notification, cleanup, and follow up reporting requirements for crude oil spills.

  6. Coast Guard's Response to Spilled Oil

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ard, R. W., Jr.

    1976-01-01

    The Coast Guard utilizes a number of monitoring detectors, sensors, and techniques to find, recover and identify oil spills. Discussed in this article are in-situ and airborne sensors, systems developed to provide clean-up capability such as air deployable anti-pollution transfer system (ADAPTS), and techniques which will determine the source of a…

  7. How Are Oil Spills Treated?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Whitmore, William

    2005-01-01

    No two oil spills are the same. Logistically, oil spills are a nightmare because they are unanticipated and uncontrolled events. Oil spills present a threat to wildlife and coastal resources, concerning everyone from local residents to state environmental agencies and the federal government. Thousands of people may be involved in a significant…

  8. Is the way an oil spill response is reported in the media important for the final perception of the clean-up?

    PubMed

    Chilvers, B L; Finlayson, G; Ashwell, D; Low, S I; Morgan, K J; Pearson, H E

    2016-03-15

    This research investigates the media coverage during the C/V Rena grounding in New Zealand (NZ), in 2011, to analyze if information reported in printed media is important for the final perception of the overall oil spill response. We took all articles available from NZ's largest circulated newspaper and the regional newspaper closest to the incident and analyzed the themes within each article; the article's tone (positive, neutral or negative); the time of the report relative to incident events and any differences between the regional and national papers. This analysis indicates that oil spills are reported and perceived as inherently negative incidents. However, along with coordinating an effective spill response, fast, factual and frequent media releases and increased effect in media liaison in areas of response with high public intrinsic value such as oiled wildlife response can significantly influence tone of media coverage and likely overall public perception.

  9. Is the way an oil spill response is reported in the media important for the final perception of the clean-up?

    PubMed

    Chilvers, B L; Finlayson, G; Ashwell, D; Low, S I; Morgan, K J; Pearson, H E

    2016-03-15

    This research investigates the media coverage during the C/V Rena grounding in New Zealand (NZ), in 2011, to analyze if information reported in printed media is important for the final perception of the overall oil spill response. We took all articles available from NZ's largest circulated newspaper and the regional newspaper closest to the incident and analyzed the themes within each article; the article's tone (positive, neutral or negative); the time of the report relative to incident events and any differences between the regional and national papers. This analysis indicates that oil spills are reported and perceived as inherently negative incidents. However, along with coordinating an effective spill response, fast, factual and frequent media releases and increased effect in media liaison in areas of response with high public intrinsic value such as oiled wildlife response can significantly influence tone of media coverage and likely overall public perception. PMID:26778498

  10. Oil spill response group aiming for full operation

    SciTech Connect

    Crow, P.

    1991-12-02

    In 15 months the first national oil spill cleanup organization plans to be in operation at sites around the U.S. coast. This paper reports that the Marine Spill Response Corp. (MSRC), financed by major oil companies, plans to begin full operation Feb. 18, 1993. It is considering starting limited operations in selected regions before then. Following the 1989 Exxon Valdez oil spill, an American Petroleum Institute task force proposed creation of a private offshore oil spill response agency. Individual oil companies then began a nonprofit firm that has evolved into MSRC. MSRC has a clearly defined role: It exists to sponsor oil spill research and to respond to catastrophic spills from offshore pipelines, platforms, rigs and tankers, carrying the oil of its sponsoring companies.

  11. Oil spill clean up

    SciTech Connect

    Claxton, L.D.; Houk, V.S.; Williams, R.; Kremer, F.

    1991-01-01

    Due to the consideration of bioremediation for oil spills, it is important to understand the ecological and human health implications of bioremediation efforts. During biodegradation, the toxicity of the polluting material may actually increase upon the conversion of non-toxic constituents to toxic species. Also, toxic compounds refractory to biological degradation may compromise the effectiveness of the treatment technique. In the study, the Salmonella mutagenicity assay showed that both the Prudhoe Bay crude oil and its weathered counterpart collected from oil-impacted water were weakly mutagenic. Results also showed that the mutagenic components were depleted at a faster rate than the overall content of organic material.

  12. Cleanup of a jet fuel spill

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fesko, Steve

    1996-11-01

    Eaton operates a corporate aircraft hanger facility in Battle Creek, Michigan. Tests showed that two underground storage tanks leaked. Investigation confirmed this release discharged several hundred gallons of Jet A kerosene into the soil and groundwater. The oil moved downward approximately 30 feet and spread laterally onto the water table. Test results showed kerosene in the adsorbed, free and dissolved states. Eaton researched and investigated three clean-up options. They included pump and treat, dig and haul and bioremediation. Jet fuel is composed of readily biodegradable hydrocarbon chains. This fact coupled with the depth to groundwater and geologic setting made bioremediation the low cost and most effective alternative. A recovery well was installed at the leading edge of the dissolved contamination. A pump moved water from this well into a nutrient addition system. Nutrients added included nitrogen, phosphorous and potassium. Additionally, air was sparged into the water. The water was discharged into an infiltration gallery installed when the underground storage tanks were removed. Water circulated between the pump and the infiltration basin in a closed loop fashion. This oxygenated, nutrient rich water actively and aggressively treated the soils between the bottom of the gallery and the top of the groundwater and the groundwater. The system began operating in August of 1993 and reduced jet fuel to below detection levels. In August of 1995 The State of Michigan issued a clean closure declaration to the site.

  13. Information to help reduce environmental impacts from freshwater oil spills

    SciTech Connect

    Fritz, D.E.; Steen, A.E.

    1995-12-31

    The American Petroleum Institute (API) has been working since 1990 to provide information to help the response community minimize the impact of spills to pared jointly with the US inland freshwater. Projects have included a manual, pre National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), to give guidance on the cleanup techniques that will minimize environmental impacts on spills in freshwater habitats. Nearing completion are a literature review and annotated bibliography of the environmental and human health effects of oil spilled in freshwater habitats. The use of chemical treating agents for freshwater spill applications is being studied with input from other industry and government groups. A project has begun, with funding from API, the Louisiana Applied Oil Spill Research and Development Program, NOAA, the Marine Spill Response Corporation (MSRC), and the US Department of Energy, to evaluate in situ burning of oil spilled in marshes.

  14. 40 CFR 761.125 - Requirements for PCB spill cleanup.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... required. (2) Disposal of cleanup debris and materials. All concentrated soils, solvents, rags, and other...) by standard commercial wipe tests. (ii) All soil within the spill area (i.e., visible traces of soil... restored to its original configuration by back-filling with clean soil (i.e., containing less than 1...

  15. 40 CFR 761.125 - Requirements for PCB spill cleanup.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... required. (2) Disposal of cleanup debris and materials. All concentrated soils, solvents, rags, and other...) by standard commercial wipe tests. (ii) All soil within the spill area (i.e., visible traces of soil... restored to its original configuration by back-filling with clean soil (i.e., containing less than 1...

  16. 40 CFR 761.125 - Requirements for PCB spill cleanup.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... required. (2) Disposal of cleanup debris and materials. All concentrated soils, solvents, rags, and other...) by standard commercial wipe tests. (ii) All soil within the spill area (i.e., visible traces of soil... restored to its original configuration by back-filling with clean soil (i.e., containing less than 1...

  17. 40 CFR 761.125 - Requirements for PCB spill cleanup.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... required. (2) Disposal of cleanup debris and materials. All concentrated soils, solvents, rags, and other...) by standard commercial wipe tests. (ii) All soil within the spill area (i.e., visible traces of soil... restored to its original configuration by back-filling with clean soil (i.e., containing less than 1...

  18. 40 CFR 761.125 - Requirements for PCB spill cleanup.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... required. (2) Disposal of cleanup debris and materials. All concentrated soils, solvents, rags, and other...) by standard commercial wipe tests. (ii) All soil within the spill area (i.e., visible traces of soil... restored to its original configuration by back-filling with clean soil (i.e., containing less than 1...

  19. Cyber Physical Intelligence for Oil Spills (CPI)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lary, D. J.

    2015-12-01

    The National Academy of Sciences estimate 1.7 to 8.8 million tons of oil are released into global waters every year. The effects of these spills include dead wildlife, oil covered marshlands and contaminated water. Deepwater horizon cost approximately $50 billion and severely challenged response capabilities. In such large spills optimizing a coordinated response is a particular challenge. This challenge can be met in a revolutionary new way by using an objectively optimized Cyber Physical Decision Making System (CPS) for rapid response products and a framework for objectively optimized decision-making in an uncertain environment. The CPS utilizes machine learning for the processing of the massive real-time streams of Big Data from comprehensive hyperspectral remote sensing acquired by a team of low-cost robotic aerial vehicles, providing a real-time aerial view and stream of hyperspectral imagery from the near UV to the thermal infrared, and a characterization of oil thickness, oil type and oil weathering. The objective decision making paradigm is modeled on the human brain and provides the optimal course trajectory for response vessels to achieve the most expeditious cleanup of oil spills using the available resources. In addition, oil spill cleanups often involve surface oil burns that can lead to air quality issues. The aerial vehicles comprehensively characterize air quality in real-time, streaming location, temperature, pressure, humidity, the abundance of 6 criterion pollutants (O3, CO, NO, NO2, SO2, and H2S) and the full size distribution of airborne particulates. This CPS can be readily applied to other systems in agriculture, water conversation, monitoring of stream quality, air quality, diagnosing risk of wild fires, etc..

  20. Crude Oil Spills and Health

    MedlinePlus

    ... of Health Journal Articles on Oil Dispersants and Invertebrates, Seawater, Plants and Environment PubMed - Biomedical journal literature ... of Health Journal Articles on Oil Spills and Invertebrates, Seawater, Plants and Environment PubMed - Biomedical journal literature ...

  1. Hopper dredges applied to the Alaska oil spill, March 1989

    SciTech Connect

    Patterson, K.H.; Redlinger, J.F.

    1992-03-01

    On March 24, 1989, the oil tanker Exxon Valdez ran aground in Prince William Sound, Alaska. This accident resulted in the largest American oil spill ever and spoiled one of the most pristine areas in North America. In April 1989, the US Army Corps of Engineers was requested to assist in the cleanup of this disastrous oil spill. Two of the Corps' minimum fleet hopper dredges, the Yaquina and the Essayons, were dispatched to assist in collecting oil. Although unmodified hopper dredges had never been used in this capacity, the Yaquina and the Essayons proved to be the most effective tools in the recovery of oil. Given proper air support, adequate containment boom, and commitment at the earliest possible time, hopper dredges can make a significant contribution to the cleanup of large oil spills.

  2. Decision support system for managing oil spill events.

    PubMed

    Keramitsoglou, Iphigenia; Cartalis, Constantinos; Kassomenos, Pavlos

    2003-08-01

    The Mediterranean environment is exposed to various hazards, including oil spills, forest fires, and floods, making the development of a decision support system (DSS) for emergency management an objective of utmost importance. The present work presents a complete DSS for managing marine pollution events caused by oil spills. The system provides all the necessary tools for early detection of oil-spills from satellite images, monitoring of their evolution, estimation of the accident consequences and provision of support to responsible Public Authorities during clean-up operations. The heart of the system is an image processing-geographic information system and other assistant individual software tools that perform oil spill evolution simulation and all other necessary numerical calculations as well as cartographic and reporting tasks related to a specific management of the oil spill event. The cartographic information is derived from the extant general maps representing detailed information concerning several regional environmental and land-cover characteristics as well as financial activities of the application area. Early notification of the authorities with up-to-date accurate information on the position and evolution of the oil spill, combined with the detailed coastal maps, is of paramount importance for emergency assessment and effective clean-up operations that would prevent environmental hazard. An application was developed for the Region of Crete, an area particularly vulnerable to oil spills due to its location, ecological characteristics, and local economic activities.

  3. Oil spills: Environmental effects. (Latest citations from the Selected Water Resources Abstracts database). Published Search

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-01-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning environmental impacts of oil spills primarily resulting from ship wrecks and oil drilling or exploration. Oil spills in temperate, tropic and arctic zones which affect fresh water, estuarine, and marine environments are included. Cleanup operations and priorities, computer modeling and simulation of oil spills, oil spill investigations, and prediction of oil slick movement in high traffic shipping lanes are among the topics discussed. Microbial degradation of oils, and toxicity studies of oils and oil dispersants affecting aquatic plant and animal life are considered. (Contains 250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

  4. Oil spills: Environmental effects. (Latest citations from the Selected Water Resources Abstracts database). Published Search

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-12-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning environmental impacts of oil spills primarily resulting from ship wrecks and oil drilling or exploration. Oil spills in temperate, tropic and arctic zones which affect fresh water, estuarine, and marine environments are included. Cleanup operations and priorities, computer modeling and simulation of oil spills, oil spill investigations, and prediction of oil slick movement in high traffic shipping lanes are among the topics discussed. Microbial degradation of oils, and toxicity studies of oils and oil dispersants affecting aquatic plant and animal life are considered. (Contains 250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

  5. 40 CFR 280.53 - Reporting and cleanup of spills and overfills.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... subpart F in the following cases: (1) Spill or overfill of petroleum that results in a release to the... 40 Protection of Environment 27 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Reporting and cleanup of spills and... cleanup of spills and overfills. (a) Owners and operators of UST systems must contain and...

  6. 40 CFR 280.53 - Reporting and cleanup of spills and overfills.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... subpart F in the following cases: (1) Spill or overfill of petroleum that results in a release to the... 40 Protection of Environment 28 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Reporting and cleanup of spills and... cleanup of spills and overfills. (a) Owners and operators of UST systems must contain and...

  7. 40 CFR 280.53 - Reporting and cleanup of spills and overfills.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... subpart F in the following cases: (1) Spill or overfill of petroleum that results in a release to the... 40 Protection of Environment 28 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Reporting and cleanup of spills and... cleanup of spills and overfills. (a) Owners and operators of UST systems must contain and...

  8. 40 CFR 280.53 - Reporting and cleanup of spills and overfills.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... subpart F in the following cases: (1) Spill or overfill of petroleum that results in a release to the... 40 Protection of Environment 26 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Reporting and cleanup of spills and... cleanup of spills and overfills. (a) Owners and operators of UST systems must contain and...

  9. 40 CFR 280.53 - Reporting and cleanup of spills and overfills.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... subpart F in the following cases: (1) Spill or overfill of petroleum that results in a release to the... 40 Protection of Environment 27 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Reporting and cleanup of spills and... cleanup of spills and overfills. (a) Owners and operators of UST systems must contain and...

  10. Environmental cleanup of oil production sites in southern Illinois

    SciTech Connect

    Vendl, K.A.; Basso, T.C.; Bengal, L.E.

    1996-12-31

    On January 2, 1988, a 4 million gallon aboveground oil storage tank collapsed in Pennsylvania, resulting in a spill of approximately 3.8 million gallons of diesel fuel. Of that amount, approximately 750,000 gallons entered the Monongahela River. On March 23, 1989, the Exxon Valdez, loaded with 1.26 million barrels (54 million gallons) of crude oil struck the rocks of Bligh Reef near Valdez, Alaska. As a result, more than 11 million gallons of crude oil was released into Prince William Sound within 5 hours of the event. The environmental damage and massive cleanup efforts were the most visible effects of these spills. However, one of the most important, but least discussed outcomes was the enactment of the Oil Pollution Act (OPA), which George Bush signed into law on August 18, 1990. The Oil Pollution Act contains many provisions; one of them is the strengthening of the national response system by providing better coordination of spill contingency planning among federal, state, and local authorities. Another provision is the increase in liability for parties responsible for costs and damages resulting from oil spills. In situations where there is no responsible party, OPA provides funding for the Oil Spill Liability Trust Fund. In this fund, there is $50 million in an emergency appropriation which can be used to contain and remove oil discharges that affect or threaten to affect the surface waters of the United States.

  11. 1993 International oil spill conference: Prevention, preparedness, response

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-01-01

    This book contains the proceedings of the 1993 International Oil Spill Conference which took place March 29 - April 1 in Tampa, Florida. It was jointly sponsored by the American Petroleum Institute, the US Coast Guard, and the US Environmental Protection Agency. Topics discussed included all aspects of spill prevention and preparedness, including planning, training, and research and development. Response issues, including fate and effects of spilled oil, cleanup, bioremediation, and in situ burning were also discussed. Legal and economic issues were also analyzed in the form of case studies.

  12. Oil spill removal techniques and equipment. (Latest citations from Fluidex). Published Search

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-12-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning equipment and techniques for the control, dispersal, cleanup, and disposal of oil spills. Topics include chemical dispersants, booms, and mechanical skimmers. The citations emphasize spill removal for harbors, estuaries, and shorelines, and examine spill impact on water birds and marine life. (Contains a minimum of 195 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

  13. Oil-spill removal techniques and equipment. (Latest citations from Fluidex data base). Published Search

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-09-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning equipment and techniques for the control, dispersal, cleanup, and disposal of oil spills. Topics include chemical dispersants, booms, and mechanical skimmers. The citations emphasize spill removal for harbors, estuaries, and shorelines, and examine spill impact on water birds and marine life. (Contains a minimum of 180 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

  14. Oil spill removal techniques and equipment. (Latest citations from Fluidex (Fluid Engineering Abstracts) database). Published Search

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-10-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning equipment and techniques for the control, dispersal, cleanup, and disposal of oil spills. Topics include chemical dispersants, booms, and mechanical skimmers. The citations emphasize spill removal for harbors, estuaries, and shorelines, and examine spill impact on water birds and marine life. (Contains a minimum of 195 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

  15. Laser-based sensors for oil spill remote sensing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brown, Carl E.; Fingas, Mervin F.; Mullin, Joseph V.

    1997-07-01

    Remote sensing is becoming an increasingly important tool for the effective direction of oil spill countermeasures. Cleanup personnel have recognized that remote sensing can increase spill cleanup efficiency. It has long been recognized that there is no one sensor which is capable of detecting oil and related petroleum products in all environments and spill scenarios. There are sensors which possess a wide field-of- view and can therefore be used to map the overall extent of the spill. These sensors, however lack the capability to positively identify oil and related products, especially along complicated beach and shoreline environments where several substrates are present. The laser-based sensors under development by the Emergencies Science Division of Environment Canada are designed to fill specific roles in oil spill response. The scanning laser environmental airborne fluorosensor (SLEAF) is being developed to detect and map oil and related petroleum products in complex marine and shoreline environments where other non-specific sensors experience difficulty. The role of the SLEAF would be to confirm or reject suspected oil contamination sites that have been targeted by the non-specific sensors. This confirmation will release response crews from the time-consuming task of physically inspecting each site, and direct crews to sites that require remediation. The laser ultrasonic remote sensing of oil thickness (LURSOT) sensor will provide an absolute measurement of oil thickness from an airborne platform. There are presently no sensors available, either airborne or in the laboratory which can provide an absolute measurement of oil thickness. This information is necessary for the effective direction of spill countermeasures such as dispersant application and in-situ burning. This paper describes the development of laser-based airborne oil spill remote sensing instrumentation at Environment Canada and identifies the anticipated benefits of the use of this technology

  16. Detection and monitoring of oil spills using hyperspectral imagery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sanchez, Glenda; Roper, William E.; Gomez, Richard B.

    2003-08-01

    Oil pollution is a very important aspect in the environmental field. Oil pollution is an important subject due to its capacity to adversely affect animals, aquatic life, vegetation and drinking water. The movement of open water oil spills can be affected by mind, waves and tides. Land based oil spills are often affected by rain and temperature. It is important to have an accurate management of the cleanup. Remote sensing and in particular hyper-spectral capabilities, are being use to identify oil spills and prevent worse problems. In addition to this capability, this technology can be used for federal and state compliance of petroleum related companies. There are several hyper-spectral sensors used in the identification of oil spills. One commonly use sensor is the Airborne Imaging Spectroradiometer for Applications (AISA). The main concern associated with the use of these sensors is the potential for false identification of oil spills. The use of AISA to identify an oil spill over the Patuxent River is an example of how this tool can assist with investigating an oil pipeline accident, and its potential to affect the surrounding environment. A scenario like this also serves as a good test of the accuracy with which spills may be identified using new airborne sensors.

  17. Extent and Degree of Shoreline Oiling: Deepwater Horizon Oil Spill, Gulf of Mexico, USA

    PubMed Central

    Michel, Jacqueline; Owens, Edward H.; Zengel, Scott; Graham, Andrew; Nixon, Zachary; Allard, Teresa; Holton, William; Reimer, P. Doug; Lamarche, Alain; White, Mark; Rutherford, Nicolle; Childs, Carl; Mauseth, Gary; Challenger, Greg; Taylor, Elliott

    2013-01-01

    The oil from the 2010 Deepwater Horizon spill in the Gulf of Mexico was documented by shoreline assessment teams as stranding on 1,773 km of shoreline. Beaches comprised 50.8%, marshes 44.9%, and other shoreline types 4.3% of the oiled shoreline. Shoreline cleanup activities were authorized on 660 km, or 73.3% of oiled beaches and up to 71 km, or 8.9% of oiled marshes and associated habitats. One year after the spill began, oil remained on 847 km; two years later, oil remained on 687 km, though at much lesser degrees of oiling. For example, shorelines characterized as heavily oiled went from a maximum of 360 km, to 22.4 km one year later, and to 6.4 km two years later. Shoreline cleanup has been conducted to meet habitat-specific cleanup endpoints and will continue until all oiled shoreline segments meet endpoints. The entire shoreline cleanup program has been managed under the Shoreline Cleanup Assessment Technique (SCAT) Program, which is a systematic, objective, and inclusive process to collect data on shoreline oiling conditions and support decision making on appropriate cleanup methods and endpoints. It was a particularly valuable and effective process during such a complex spill. PMID:23776444

  18. Extent and degree of shoreline oiling: Deepwater Horizon oil spill, Gulf of Mexico, USA.

    PubMed

    Michel, Jacqueline; Owens, Edward H; Zengel, Scott; Graham, Andrew; Nixon, Zachary; Allard, Teresa; Holton, William; Reimer, P Doug; Lamarche, Alain; White, Mark; Rutherford, Nicolle; Childs, Carl; Mauseth, Gary; Challenger, Greg; Taylor, Elliott

    2013-01-01

    The oil from the 2010 Deepwater Horizon spill in the Gulf of Mexico was documented by shoreline assessment teams as stranding on 1,773 km of shoreline. Beaches comprised 50.8%, marshes 44.9%, and other shoreline types 4.3% of the oiled shoreline. Shoreline cleanup activities were authorized on 660 km, or 73.3% of oiled beaches and up to 71 km, or 8.9% of oiled marshes and associated habitats. One year after the spill began, oil remained on 847 km; two years later, oil remained on 687 km, though at much lesser degrees of oiling. For example, shorelines characterized as heavily oiled went from a maximum of 360 km, to 22.4 km one year later, and to 6.4 km two years later. Shoreline cleanup has been conducted to meet habitat-specific cleanup endpoints and will continue until all oiled shoreline segments meet endpoints. The entire shoreline cleanup program has been managed under the Shoreline Cleanup Assessment Technique (SCAT) Program, which is a systematic, objective, and inclusive process to collect data on shoreline oiling conditions and support decision making on appropriate cleanup methods and endpoints. It was a particularly valuable and effective process during such a complex spill.

  19. Sea otter oil spill avoidance study

    SciTech Connect

    Davis, R.W.; Williams, T.M.; Awbrey, F.

    1988-04-01

    To determine whether acoustic, visual, or olfactory stimuli could be used to move sea otters out of an area in the event of an oil spill, the authors recorded the responses of sea otters to a variety of stimuli during captive studies in Alaska. These findings are similar to those of previous attempts to control the movements of sea otters and other marine mammals and birds. An alternative to herding is to capture otters in the vicinity of the spill and temporarily hold them in captivity. This approach is only practical if the number of otters in jeopardy is small (less than 60) and there is enough time to capture them. Based on the results of the study and previous attempts by the California Department of Fish and Game to herd sea otters, the authors do not think acoustic, visual, and olfactory stimuli are effective deterrents. In the absence of effective methods to keep sea otters out of an oil spill, the emphasis must remain on spill prevention, containment, and cleanup.

  20. Oil spill behaviour and modeling

    SciTech Connect

    Fingas, M.; Jokuty, P.; Fieldhouse, B.

    1996-12-31

    The behavior of oil in the environment is reviewed. This is then applied to modeling of the behavior of oil in the environment once spilled. The most important behavior of oil in terms of modeling its fate when spilled is evaporation. Significant numbers of modeling equations are available. The second most important behavior aspect of oil is the formation of water-in-oil emulsions. Natural dispersion of oil is the next most important factor. Oils which contain large fractions of small saturates will disperse naturally given high sea energies. Modeling equations for this factor are primitive. A related factor, dissolution, is not as important in terms of mass balance but is important in terms of toxicity in the environment. Laboratory work shows that the dissolution of oils can be predicted and measured, but no models incorporate dissolution as a separate term from dispersion. There are several lesser chemical and behavior aspects to oil, these include photooxidation, sinking and biodegradation.

  1. A GIS planning model for urban oil spill management.

    PubMed

    Li, J

    2001-01-01

    Oil spills in industrialized cities pose a significant threat to their urban water environment. The largest city in Canada, the city of Toronto, has an average 300-500 oil spills per year with an average total volume of about 160,000 L/year. About 45% of the spills was eventually cleaned up. Given the enormous amount of remaining oil entering into the fragile urban ecosystem, it is important to develop an effective pollution prevention and control plan for the city. A Geographic Information System (GIS) planning model has been developed to characterize oil spills and determine preventive and control measures available in the city. A database of oil spill records from 1988 to 1997 was compiled and geo-referenced. Attributes to each record such as spill volume, oil type, location, road type, sector, source, cleanup percentage, and environmental impacts were created. GIS layers of woodlots, wetlands, watercourses, Environmental Sensitive Areas, and Areas of Natural and Scientific Interest were obtained from the local Conservation Authority. By overlaying the spill characteristics with the GIS layers, evaluation of preventive and control solutions close to these environmental features was conducted. It was found that employee training and preventive maintenance should be improved as the principal cause of spills was attributed to human errors and equipment failure. Additionally, the cost of using oil separators at strategic spill locations was found to be $1.4 million. The GIS model provides an efficient planning tool for urban oil spill management. Additionally, the graphical capability of GIS allows users to integrate environmental features and spill characteristics in the management analysis. PMID:11379137

  2. Oil Spills and Spills of Hazardous Substances.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DC. Office of Water Programs.

    The stated purpose of this publication is to describe some of the more significant spill incidents and the mechanisms, both managerial and technological, to deal with them. This publication is targeted for school, general public, and other such audiences. Sections include effects of spills, prevention of spills, responding to spills, spill…

  3. Inland oil spills: Options for minimizing environmental impacts of freshwater spill response

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-09-01

    Selecting appropriate protection, response, and cleanup techniques, both before and following an oil spill, affects the ultimate environmental impact and cost resulting from a spill. The American Petroleum Institute (API) and the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) jointly developed this guide as a tool for contingency planners and field responders to identify response techniques that have minimal ecological impacts and also minimize the impact of the oil. The guide provides information on 29 response methods and classifies their relative environmental impact for combinations of four oil types and twelve freshwater environments and habitats. Spill topics of special concern in freshwater settings are also discussed, including public health, conditions under which oil might sink in freshwater, oil behavior in ice conditions, permafrost, and use of firefighting foams.

  4. Oil spill responses R D

    SciTech Connect

    Engelhardt, F.R.; Nordvik, A.B.; Giammona, C.P.; Aurand, D.V.

    1994-01-01

    The Marine Spill Response Corp. (MSRC) was created as an industry response to the Exxon Valdez oil spill. The charter of MSRC includes as one of the primary functions the implementation of a spill response R D program to enhance future oil spill response decision-making. Funding for the program is provided largely by the Marine Preservation Association as part of an annual operating grant from that industry organization to MSRC. Research and development at MSRC is considered the key element in improving the future capability of MSRC and other oil spill responders. The major focus of the R D program is to advance knowledge and the technology needed to contain, clean up, and mitigate spills of persistent petroleum products in coastal and offshore waters while minimizing damage to marine and coastal resources and human health. The R D program is solidly in place today with more than 30 projects underway supporting more than $10 million targeted for research. By the end of 1994, more than 60 contracts will have been activated, and the results of many of these projects will be published.

  5. Spreading of oil spilled under ice

    SciTech Connect

    Yapa, P.D.; Chowdhury, T. )

    1990-12-01

    A new set of equations is presented to describe the process of oil spreading under ice in clam waters. These equations consider the gravity (buoyancy)-inertia phase, the gravity (buoyancy)-viscous phase, and the termination of spreading during the buoyancy-surface-tension phase. The derivation considers both the constant discharge mode and the constant volume mode. Therefore, a complete description of the spreading phenomena from the time of initial spill to the termination of spreading is presented. Laboratory experiments were conducted using both real ice covers in a cold room and artificial ice covers. The experiments included different ice-cover roughnesses from smooth to rough, oils of different viscosities, and a variety of discharge conditions. The experimental data show close agreement with the theory. These equations can be used during cleanup or environmental impact assessment to estimate the area of an oil slick with respect to time.

  6. Oil Spills - Multiple Languages: MedlinePlus

    MedlinePlus

    ... Are Here: Home → Multiple Languages → All Health Topics → Oil Spills URL of this page: https://medlineplus.gov/languages/ ... V W XYZ List of All Topics All Oil Spills - Multiple Languages To use the sharing features on ...

  7. Bioremediation for marine oil spills

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-05-01

    The study examines the potential of bioremediation technologies to clean up marine oil spills and to minimize the damage they cause. Thus, the study evaluates a small, but highly visible, subset of the many possible applications of bioremediation technologies to environmental problems. Among the other applications for which bioremediation is being considered or is currently in use are: (1) treatment of nontoxic liquid and solid wastes; (2) treatment of toxic or hazardous wastes; (3) treatment of contaminated groundwater, and (4) grease decomposition. Although recent marine oil spills and bioremediation efforts have called attention to the potential of bioremediation as an oil spill response technology, some of the other applications, in particular the treatment of hazardous waste, appear to have greater potential. Officials at approximately 135 hazardous waste sites, for example, are now either considering, planning, or operating full-scale bioremediation systems.

  8. Chukchi Sea coastal studies: Coastal geomorphology, environmental sensitivity, and persistence of spilled oil. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Robilliard, G.A.; Harper, J.R.; Isaacs, J.; Foget, C.

    1985-03-01

    This report: Describes the physical and biological characteristics of the northern Chukchi Sea coastline, emphasizing shore characteristics that influence the effect of oil spills or that are likely to be affected by oil spills; Describes and maps the level of oil persistence along the shoreline; Describes and maps the vulnerability and sensitivity of selected coastal biological resources to spilled oil; Describes and maps the sensitivity of selected human uses of the shoreline to spilled oil; Describes the cleanup techniques and equipment available for use in arctic conditions and recommends appropriate shoreline countermeasures.

  9. Lecithins - promising oil spill cleaner

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-04-01

    A new, non-polluting method of cleaning up oil spills at sea as well as on land has been developed by researchers at the Hebrew University of Jerusalem. Their technique is based on the use of lecithins, a byproduct of producing edible oils from plants. Lecithin molecules are hydrophyllic at one end and lipophilic at their tail ends. When they come into contact with water, they organize themselves into bilayers whose heads all face the water and whose tails are all directed towards each other. These bilayers form particles called liposomes that, when spread on water fouled by oil spills, change the properties of the oil thereby stopping the spreading and breaking it down into sticky droplets that continue to float on the surface and can be easily collected. The treatment is said to be effective in both fresh and salt water and is almost temperature and pH independent. Another beneficial effect is that the physical change generated by liposomes in the spilled oil improves the ability of oil-eating bacteria in the water to remove some of the spill by bioremediation.

  10. In-Situ Burning of Spilled Oil.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allen, Alan A.

    1991-01-01

    Reviews in-situ burning with particular emphasis on how it can be applied in water-related oil spill situations. Presents and discusses the use of nomograms and development of techniques cited for safe and effective ignition and controlled burning of spilled oil. Includes representative oil spill scenarios and possible responses. (15 references)…

  11. Oil spill fates and fishery impact estimation

    SciTech Connect

    Reed, M.

    1981-01-01

    Three independent models (oil spill fates, hydrodynamic, and fishery impacts) have been formulated and developed as analytic tools for the assessment of oil spill impacts on commercially important fish species. This computer-based model system is the only quantitative oil spill-fishery impact assessment methodology currently available. Applications include several commercial fisheries on Georges Bank. 10 refs.

  12. Marine oil spill contingency planning.

    PubMed

    Qiao, Bing; Chu, Jia-cheng; Zhao, Ping; Yu, Yuan; Li, Yun

    2002-01-01

    According to the practice researching and formulating "The Oil Spill Contingency Plan of South Chinese Sea", this paper analyses and discusses the structure, functions and main contents of marine oil spill contingency planning, programs the organizing and commanding system and emergency response system, and advances the planning and researching method to coordinate comprehensively and to design practically the detailed emergency response steps until to formulate the ease operating programs for the plan implementation(PPI) and the PPI to apply high-techniques supporting emergency administrations and response.

  13. Specific sensors for special roles in oil spill remote sensing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brown, Carl E.; Fingas, Mervin F.

    1997-01-01

    Remote sensing is becoming an increasingly important tool for the effective direction of oil spill countermeasures. Cleanup personnel have recognized that remote sensing can increase spill cleanup efficiency. The general public expects that the government and/or the spiller know the location and the extent of the contamination. The Emergencies Science Division (ESD) of Environment Canada, is responsible for remote sensing during oil spill emergencies along Canada's three coastlines, extensive inland waterways, as well as over the entire land mass. In addition to providing operational remote sensing, ESD conducts research into the development of airborne oil spill remote sensors, including the Scanning Laser Environmental Airborne Fluorosensor (SLEAF) and the Laser Ultrasonic Remote SEnsing of Oil Thickness (LURSOT) sensor. It has long been recognized that there is not one sensor or 'magic bullet' which is capable of detecting oil and related petroleum products in all environments and spill scenarios. There are sensors which possess a wide filed-of-view and can therefore be used to map the overall extent of the spill. These sensors, however lack the specificity required to positively identify oil and related products. This is even more of a problem along complicated beach and shoreline environments where several substrates are present. The specific laser- based sensors under development by Environment Canada are designed to respond to special roles in oil spill response. In particular, the SLEAF is being developed to unambiguously detect and map oil and related petroleum products in complicated marine and shoreline environments where other non-specific sensors experience difficulty. The role of the SLEAF would be to confirm or reject suspected oil contamination sites that have been targeted by the non- specific sensors. This confirmation will release response crews from the time consuming task of physically inspecting each site, and direct crews to sites that

  14. Source apportionment in oil spill remediation.

    PubMed

    Muñoz, Jorge; Mudge, Stephen M; Loyola-Sepulveda, Rodrigo; Muñoz, Gonzalo; Bravo-Linares, Claudio

    2012-05-01

    A pipe rupture during unloading led to a spillage of 350-700 tonnes of Caño Limon, a light sweet crude oil, into San Vicente Bay in 2007. Initial clean-up methods removed the majority of the oil from the sandy beaches although some oil remained on the rocky shores. It was necessary for the responsible party to clean the spilled oil even though at this location there were already crude oil hydrocarbons from previous industrial activity. A biosolvent based on vegetable oil derivatives was used to solubilise the remaining oil and a statistical approach to source apportionment was used to determine the efficacy of the cleaning. Sediment and contaminated rock samples were taken prior to cleaning and again at the same locations two days after application of the biosolvent. The oil was extracted using a modified USEPA Method 3550B. The alkanes were quantified together with oil biomarkers on a GC-MS. The contribution that Caño Limon made to the total oil hydrocarbons was calculated from a Partial Least Squares (PLS) analysis using Caño Limon crude oil as the source. By the time the biosolvent was applied, there had already been some attenuation of the oil with all alkanes oil in this case and the contribution that Caño Limon made to the total oil ranged from 0% to 74%. The total hydrocarbon concentrations were lower after cleaning indicating an efficacy of 90% although the reduction in Caño Limon oil was smaller. This was sufficient to make further remediation unnecessary.

  15. Biodeterioration of oil spills. (Latest citations from the NTIS bibliographic database). Published Search

    SciTech Connect

    1995-03-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning the biodegradation, bioremediation, and bioreclamation of oil spills. Effectiveness and regulatory issues in oil spill control on lands, on water surface, and underwater are discussed. Topics include in-situ bioremediation, dispersants, gasoline spills from underground storage tanks, beach and harbor clean-up, groundwater pollution, and soil pollution. (Contains a minimum of 79 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

  16. Biodeterioration of oil spills. (Latest citations from the NTIS bibliographic database). Published Search

    SciTech Connect

    1995-10-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning the biodegradation, bioremediation, and bioreclamation of oil spills. Effectiveness and regulatory issues in oil spill control on lands, on water surface, and underwater are discussed. Topics include in-situ bioremediation, dispersants, gasoline spills from underground storage tanks, beach and harbor clean-up, groundwater pollution, and soil pollution. (Contains 50-250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.) (Copyright NERAC, Inc. 1995)

  17. Biodeterioration of oil spills. (Latest citations from the NTIS bibliographic database). Published Search

    SciTech Connect

    1997-02-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning the biodegradation, bioremediation, and bioreclamation of oil spills. Effectiveness and regulatory issues in oil spill control on lands, on water surface, and underwater are discussed. Topics include in-situ bioremediation, dispersants, gasoline spills from underground storage tanks, beach and harbor clean-up, groundwater pollution, and soil pollution. (Contains 50-250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.) (Copyright NERAC, Inc. 1995)

  18. LITERATURE REVIEW ON THE USE OF COMMERCIAL BIOREMEDIATION AGENTS FOR CLEAN-UP OF OIL-CONTAMINATED ESTUARINE ENVIRONMENTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The objective of this document is to conduct a comprehensive review of the use of commercial bioremediation products treating oil spills in all environments, Literature assessed includes peer-reviewed articles, company reports, government reports, and reports by cleanup contracto...

  19. U. S. oil spill law to cause growing tanker problem

    SciTech Connect

    Price, R.B.

    1991-09-30

    This paper reports on tanker owners which face a growing dilemma on the issue of oil spill liability. The U.S. Oil Pollution Act, passed last year in the wake of the March 1989 Exxon Valdez oil spill, was intended to reduce risk of and damage from such accidents. However, in addition to phasing in double hulls on most tankers operating in U.S. waters, the law substantially increases shipowner's liability for spills. And the federal law does not preempt state liability laws, which in most cases amount to unlimited liability for spill cleanup. Rather than face potentially unlimited liability in the event of a spill, tanker owners worldwide are exercising a number of options to shield themselves. Some of those options could increase the potential for oil spills, industry officials warn. The act also threatens to shatter the international alliance among shippers. A report by Drewry Shipping Consultants Ltd., London, says the law could have a devastating effect on operating practices. Tanker owners and operators have voiced the most opposition to the new spill law and the shackles it places on them. Now the industry that insures tankers has spoken up about is increased liability, and it too may launch a boycott.

  20. Association between health information, use of protective devices and occurrence of acute health problems in the Prestige oil spill clean-up in Asturias and Cantabria (Spain): a cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    Carrasco, José Miguel; Lope, Virginia; Pérez-Gómez, Beatriz; Aragonés, Nuria; Suárez, Berta; López-Abente, Gonzalo; Rodríguez-Artalejo, Fernando; Pollán, Marina

    2006-01-01

    Background This paper examines the association between use of protective devices, frequency of acute health problems and health-protection information received by participants engaged in the Prestige oil spill clean-up in Asturias and Cantabria, Spain. Methods We studied 133 seamen, 135 bird cleaners, 266 volunteers and 265 paid workers selected by random sampling, stratified by type of worker and number of working days. Information was collected by telephone interview conducted in June 2003. The association of interest was summarized, using odds ratios (OR) obtained from logistic regression. Results Health-protection briefing was associated with use of protective devices and clothing. Uninformed subjects registered a significant excess risk of itchy eyes (OR:2.89; 95%CI:1.21–6.90), nausea/vomiting/dizziness (OR:2.25; 95%CI:1.17–4.32) and throat and respiratory problems (OR:2.30; 95%CI:1.15–4.61). There was a noteworthy significant excess risk of headaches (OR:3.86: 95%CI:1.74–8.54) and respiratory problems (OR:2.43; 95%CI:1.02–5.79) among uninformed paid workers. Seamen, the group most exposed to the fuel-oil, were the worst informed and registered the highest frequency of toxicological problems. Conclusion Proper health-protection briefing was associated with greater use of protective devices and lower frequency of health problems. Among seamen, however, the results indicate poorer dissemination of information and the need of specific guidelines for removing fuel-oil at sea. PMID:16390547

  1. Rapid response, flow diversion saves wildlife habitat after oil spill

    SciTech Connect

    Rankin, S.D.

    1996-01-01

    Oil spills can create operational, financial and public relations nightmares for petroleum companies. Fast, effective response in the hours following a spill can minimize the impacts and ensure that biological recovery can proceed without residual effects. Such a rapid, successful response was made to one of California`s largest inland oil spills by ARCO Pipe Line Co., its consultants, Kennedy/Jenks Consultants, and its contractors. The spill occurred about 70 miles north of Los Angeles in a pipeline designed to transport oil to Los angeles-area refineries from the San Joaquin Valley. The pipeline ruptured on April 6, 1993, spraying 6,200 barrels of blended crude oil onto the northbound lanes of a major freeway. The crude oil flowed through the freeway`s stormwater collection system and into a nearby creek. Because response to the spill was rapid and appropriate, all cleanup activities were completed and approved by the California Department of Fish and Game within 21 days of the release. In addition, a sensitive wildlife habitat recovered quickly after floating oil, oil-contaminated soil and vegetation were removed. Follow-up soil and water samples and biological surveys confirmed that plant and animal life had suffered only short-term, localized impacts.

  2. Air quality implications of the Deepwater Horizon oil spill

    PubMed Central

    Middlebrook, Ann M.; Murphy, Daniel M.; Ahmadov, Ravan; Atlas, Elliot L.; Bahreini, Roya; Blake, Donald R.; Brioude, Jerome; de Gouw, Joost A.; Fehsenfeld, Fred C.; Frost, Gregory J.; Holloway, John S.; Lack, Daniel A.; Langridge, Justin M.; Lueb, Rich A.; McKeen, Stuart A.; Meagher, James F.; Meinardi, Simone; Neuman, J. Andrew; Nowak, John B.; Parrish, David D.; Peischl, Jeff; Perring, Anne E.; Pollack, Ilana B.; Roberts, James M.; Ryerson, Thomas B.; Schwarz, Joshua P.; Spackman, J. Ryan; Warneke, Carsten; Ravishankara, A. R.

    2012-01-01

    During the Deepwater Horizon (DWH) oil spill, a wide range of gas and aerosol species were measured from an aircraft around, downwind, and away from the DWH site. Additional hydrocarbon measurements were made from ships in the vicinity. Aerosol particles of respirable sizes were on occasions a significant air quality issue for populated areas along the Gulf Coast. Yields of organic aerosol particles and emission factors for other atmospheric pollutants were derived for the sources from the spill, recovery, and cleanup efforts. Evaporation and subsequent secondary chemistry produced organic particulate matter with a mass yield of 8 ± 4% of the oil mixture reaching the water surface. Approximately 4% by mass of oil burned on the surface was emitted as soot particles. These yields can be used to estimate the effects on air quality for similar events as well as for this spill at other times without these data. Whereas emission of soot from burning surface oil was large during the episodic burns, the mass flux of secondary organic aerosol to the atmosphere was substantially larger overall. We use a regional air quality model to show that some observed enhancements in organic aerosol concentration along the Gulf Coast were likely due to the DWH spill. In the presence of evaporating hydrocarbons from the oil, NOx emissions from the recovery and cleanup operations produced ozone. PMID:22205764

  3. Exceptions to the rules of oil-spill behavior: Case studies of major oil spills of the past twenty years

    SciTech Connect

    Hayes, M.O.

    1994-11-01

    Studies of major oil spills over the past 20 yr have allowed an evolution of our understanding of how to respond to and remediate the environmental impacts from such spills. There have been a number of spills for which follow-up research has provided major turning points that allowed the development of certain rules of oil-spill behavior. For example, the spill of over 100,000 tons of crude oil by the tanker Urquiola on the coast of Spain in May 1976 demonstrated the importance of hydrodynamic energy level in natural cleanup processes. Research on the spill of over 200,000 tons of crude oil along the coast of France by the tanker Amoco Cadiz in March 1978 allowed a better understanding of the long-term effects of spilled oil on exposed tidal flats and salt marshes. The oil spilled by the tanker Exxon Valdez in Prince William Sound, Alaska, in March 1989 impacted many miles of gravel beaches, which were treated by a number of methods, including some innovative berm-relocation techniques. A thorough understanding of the coastal geomorphology and processes of the spill site was essential for the development of meaningful contingency and response plans. Research on the impacts of intertidal habitats of the coast of Saudi Arabia during the Gulf War spill of 1991 indicates that some previously held concepts on oil behavior and fate on shorelines must be revised. One of the best established rules of oil-spill behavior was that the depth of oil penetration on sand beaches and tidal flats increases with increasing sediment grain size. However, no such correlation was found on the Saudi Arabian coast, primarily due to the presence of secondary porosity (e.g., bubble sand, extensive burrows, and gypsum crystals). The oil penetrated to depths of tens of centimeters, even in fine sand, which has significantly slowed natural removal processes and weathering rates. These sediments remained heavily oiled with incipient asphalt pavements forming two years after the spill.

  4. Economic impacts of oil spills: Spill unit costs for tankers, pipelines, refineries, and offshore facilities. [Task 1, Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-10-15

    The impacts of oil spills -- ranging from the large, widely publicized Exxon Valdez tanker incident to smaller pipeline and refinery spills -- have been costly to both the oil industry and the public. For example, the estimated costs to Exxon of the Valdez tanker spill are on the order of $4 billion, including $2.8 billion (in 1993 dollars) for direct cleanup costs and $1.125 billion (in 1992 dollars) for settlement of damages claims caused by the spill. Application of contingent valuation costs and civil lawsuits pending in the State of Alaska could raise these costs appreciably. Even the costs of the much smaller 1991 oil spill at Texaco`s refinery near Anacortes, Washington led to costs of $8 to 9 million. As a result, inexpensive waming, response and remediation technologies could lower oil spin costs, helping both the oil industry, the associated marine industries, and the environment. One means for reducing the impact and costs of oil spills is to undertake research and development on key aspects of the oil spill prevention, warming, and response and remediation systems. To target these funds to their best use, it is important to have sound data on the nature and size of spills, their likely occurrence and their unit costs. This information could then allow scarce R&D dollars to be spent on areas and activities having the largest impact. This report is intended to provide the ``unit cost`` portion of this crucial information. The report examines the three key components of the US oil supply system, namely, tankers and barges; pipelines and refineries; and offshore production facilities. The specific purpose of the study was to establish the unit costs of oil spills. By manipulating this key information into a larger matrix that includes the size and frequency of occurrence of oil spills, it will be possible` to estimate the likely future impacts, costs, and sources of oil spills.

  5. 46 CFR Appendix A to Subpart B of... - Oath for Qualification of a Not-For-Profit Oil Spill Response Cooperative

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Oath for Qualification of a Not-For-Profit Oil Spill... COASTWISE QUALIFICATION Documentation of Certain Vessels for Oil Spill Cleanup Pt. 68, Subpt. B, App. A Appendix A to Subpart B of Part 68—Oath for Qualification of a Not-For-Profit Oil Spill...

  6. 46 CFR Appendix A to Subpart B of... - Oath for Qualification of a Not-For-Profit Oil Spill Response Cooperative

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Oath for Qualification of a Not-For-Profit Oil Spill... COASTWISE QUALIFICATION Documentation of Certain Vessels for Oil Spill Cleanup Pt. 68, Subpt. B, App. A Appendix A to Subpart B of Part 68—Oath for Qualification of a Not-For-Profit Oil Spill...

  7. 46 CFR Appendix B to Subpart B of... - Oath for Documentation of Vessels for Use by a Not-For-Profit Oil Spill Response Cooperative

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ...-Profit Oil Spill Response Cooperative B Appendix B to Subpart B of Part 68 Shipping COAST GUARD...: EXCEPTIONS TO COASTWISE QUALIFICATION Documentation of Certain Vessels for Oil Spill Cleanup Pt. 68, Subpt. B...-Profit Oil Spill Response Cooperative Department of Homeland Security, U.S. Coast Guard Oath...

  8. 46 CFR Appendix B to Subpart B of... - Oath for Documentation of Vessels for Use by a Not-For-Profit Oil Spill Response Cooperative

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ...-Profit Oil Spill Response Cooperative B Appendix B to Subpart B of Part 68 Shipping COAST GUARD...: EXCEPTIONS TO COASTWISE QUALIFICATION Documentation of Certain Vessels for Oil Spill Cleanup Pt. 68, Subpt. B...-Profit Oil Spill Response Cooperative Department of Homeland Security, U.S. Coast Guard Oath...

  9. 46 CFR Appendix A to Subpart B of... - Oath for Qualification of a Not-For-Profit Oil Spill Response Cooperative

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Oath for Qualification of a Not-For-Profit Oil Spill... COASTWISE QUALIFICATION Documentation of Certain Vessels for Oil Spill Cleanup Pt. 68, Subpt. B, App. A Appendix A to Subpart B of Part 68—Oath for Qualification of a Not-For-Profit Oil Spill...

  10. 46 CFR Appendix B to Subpart B of... - Oath for Documentation of Vessels for Use by a Not-For-Profit Oil Spill Response Cooperative

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ...-Profit Oil Spill Response Cooperative B Appendix B to Subpart B of Part 68 Shipping COAST GUARD...: EXCEPTIONS TO COASTWISE QUALIFICATION Documentation of Certain Vessels for Oil Spill Cleanup Pt. 68, Subpt. B...-Profit Oil Spill Response Cooperative Department of Homeland Security, U.S. Coast Guard Oath...

  11. 46 CFR Appendix A to Subpart B of... - Oath for Qualification of a Not-For-Profit Oil Spill Response Cooperative

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Oath for Qualification of a Not-For-Profit Oil Spill... COASTWISE QUALIFICATION Documentation of Certain Vessels for Oil Spill Cleanup Pt. 68, Subpt. B, App. A Appendix A to Subpart B of Part 68—Oath for Qualification of a Not-For-Profit Oil Spill...

  12. 46 CFR Appendix A to Subpart B of... - Oath for Qualification of a Not-For-Profit Oil Spill Response Cooperative

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Oath for Qualification of a Not-For-Profit Oil Spill... COASTWISE QUALIFICATION Documentation of Certain Vessels for Oil Spill Cleanup Pt. 68, Subpt. B, App. A Appendix A to Subpart B of Part 68—Oath for Qualification of a Not-For-Profit Oil Spill...

  13. 46 CFR Appendix B to Subpart B of... - Oath for Documentation of Vessels for Use by a Not-For-Profit Oil Spill Response Cooperative

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ...-Profit Oil Spill Response Cooperative B Appendix B to Subpart B of Part 68 Shipping COAST GUARD...: EXCEPTIONS TO COASTWISE QUALIFICATION Documentation of Certain Vessels for Oil Spill Cleanup Pt. 68, Subpt. B...-Profit Oil Spill Response Cooperative Department of Homeland Security, U.S. Coast Guard Oath...

  14. 46 CFR Appendix B to Subpart B of... - Oath for Documentation of Vessels for Use by a Not-For-Profit Oil Spill Response Cooperative

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ...-Profit Oil Spill Response Cooperative B Appendix B to Subpart B of Part 68 Shipping COAST GUARD...: EXCEPTIONS TO COASTWISE QUALIFICATION Documentation of Certain Vessels for Oil Spill Cleanup Pt. 68, Subpt. B...-Profit Oil Spill Response Cooperative Department of Homeland Security, U.S. Coast Guard Oath...

  15. MEDSLIK oil spill model recent developments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lardner, Robin; Zodiatis, George

    2016-04-01

    MEDSLIK oil spill model recent developments Robin Lardner and George Zodiatis Oceanography Center, University of Cyprus, 1678 Nicosia, Cyprus MEDSLIK is a well established 3D oil spill model that predicts the transport, fate and weathering of oil spills and is used by several response agencies and institutions around the Mediterranean, the Black seas and worldwide. MEDSLIK has been used operationally for real oil spill accidents and for preparedness in contingency planning within the framework of pilot projects with REMPEC-Regional Marine Pollution Emergency Response Centre for the Mediterranean Sea and EMSA-European Maritime Safety Agency. MEDSLIK has been implemented in many EU funded projects regarding oil spill predictions using the operational ocean forecasts, as for example the ECOOP, NEREIDs, RAOP-Med, EMODNET MedSea Check Point. Within the frame of MEDESS4MS project, MEDSLIK is at the heart of the MEDESS4MS multi model oil spill prediction system. The MEDSLIK oil spill model contains among other, the following features: a built-in database with 240 different oil types characteristics, assimilation of oil slick observations from in-situ or aerial, to correct the predictions, virtual deployment of oil booms and/or oil skimmers/dispersants, continuous or instantaneous oil spills from moving or drifting ships whose slicks merge can be modelled together, multiple oil spill predictions from different locations, backward simulations for tracking the source of oil spill pollution, integration with AIS data upon the availability of AIS data, sub-surface oil spills at any given water depth, coupling with SAR satellite data. The MEDSLIK can be used for operational intervention for any user-selected region in the world if the appropriate coastline, bathymetry and meteo-ocean forecast files are provided. MEDSLIK oil spill model has been extensively validated in the Mediterranean Sea, both in real oil spill incidents (i.e. during the Lebanese oil pollution crisis in

  16. Physical oceanography of oil spills

    SciTech Connect

    Murray, S.P. )

    1991-03-01

    The introduction of petroleum products and crude oil from ship accidents and damaged platforms into the ocean remains a significant problem. Weather systems of nearly all sizes and time scales may have strong effects on oil slick movement and dispersal. Thunderstorms, local weather systems, mid-latitude high- and low-pressure systems, tropical cyclones, and the trade winds and prevailing westerlies of the planetary wind system are all potentially important agents in the movement and dispersal of oil slicks. Currents driven by these wind systems are influenced by the rotation of the earth, which causes them to veer to the right of the wind in the northern hemisphere. Wind shifts or sudden decreases in wind stress induce circular or inertial oscillations whose period varies with latitude. Near the shore these effects are severely damped by the blocking action of the coast, causing the flow to run more or less parallel to the coastal boundary. All these effects will in turn exert significant control over the movement of entrained oil slicks. In the near-field region of an oil spill tidal currents can also be of considerable importance. Rotary currents, characteristic of open-shelf waters and effective dispersal agents of oil, arise from the influence of the rotation of the earth on the tidal current. Another such interaction between rotation of the earth and the tide produces Kelvin waves, which result in unusually high tidal ranges along the coast to the right of the tidal wave propagation. Both effects have been important in recent oil spills. All these oceanographic processes, reviewed in this talk, have played key roles in major spills over the last 15 years from the Torrey Canyon to the Mega-Borg.

  17. Koch sued over oil spills

    SciTech Connect

    1995-05-01

    In one of the largest cases ever brought under the Clean Water Act, the federal government has charged a major oil distributor with nearly 400 separate oil spills in six states since 1990. Koch Industries, which disputes the allegations, faces fines of up to $55 million. The U.S.Dept. of Justice filed charges April 17 on behalf of the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency and the U.S. Coast Guard after attempts to negotiate a settlement broke down. A civil suit filed in U.S. District Court for the Southern District of Texas charges Wichita, Kan.-based Koch, its subsidiaries and three pipeline companies with illegally dumping millions of gallons of oil into the waters of Kansas, Oklahoma, Texas, Louisiana, Missouri and Alabama. All the spills have been cleaned up and there is no problem with contamination at any of the spill sites, says Donald P. Smith, senior on-scene coordinator for EPa`s Dallas office.

  18. Behavior and persistence of spilled oil on shoreline

    SciTech Connect

    Michel, J. )

    1991-03-01

    Recent oil spills have re-demonstrated the range of shoreline impacts that are possible from medium to large spills in the United States, i.e., the Exxon Valdez spill which significantly contaminated over 1000 km of shoreline in Alaska and the Mega Borg, which resulted in widely scattered tar balls over a small area. Immediate and total removal of stranded oil should not always be the primary objective. Instead, shoreline cleanup strategies developed for oil spills need to consider the persistence and short- to long-term persistence of stranded oil. There are several general guidelines on the persistence of stranded oil. High-energy shorelines are rapidly and effectively cleaned by natural processes, although there are micro-environments where oil tends to persist (wave shadows, supratidal zone, rock crevices, etc.). On sand and mixed sand and gravel beaches, oil tends to be buried below clean layers of sediment, but erosional/depositional cycles will result in oil removal, usually within one year. In sheltered environments (wetlands, tidal flats) oil will persist for long periods; therefore, oil removal is frequently required, though it is usually poorly implemented. Cobble/boulder beaches, while usually very complex, present a special problem. They can be found in a range of energy settings, with years between periods of storm activity. These beaches can hold large volumes of oil; they can be a source of long-term ({gt} one year) leaching and sheening; subsurface oil is very difficult to remove by surface treatment methods; and they have poorly understood sedimentation patterns, so it is difficult to predict rates of sediment reworking. Studies of recent oil spills have shown a need for shoreline-specific technologies for these types of beaches.

  19. Air Quality Impact of the Deepwater Horizon Oil Spill (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Middlebrook, A. M.; Ahmadov, R.; Atlas, E. L.; Bahreini, R.; Blake, D. R.; Brioude, J.; Brock, C. A.; de Gouw, J. A.; Fahey, D. W.; Fehsenfeld, F. C.; Gao, R.; Holloway, J. S.; Lueb, R.; McKeen, S. A.; Meagher, J. F.; Meinardi, S.; Murphy, D. M.; Parrish, D. D.; Peischl, J.; Perring, A.; Pollack, I. B.; Ravishankara, A. R.; Roberts, J. M.; Robinson, A. L.; Ryerson, T. B.; Schwarz, J. P.; Spackman, J. R.; Warneke, C.; Watts, L.

    2010-12-01

    On April 20, 2010, an explosion led to a rupture of the wellhead underneath the Deepwater Horizon (DWH) drilling platform. In addition to impacts on marine life and coasts, the resulting oil spill and cleanup operations also affected air quality. We measured a wide range of gas and aerosol species in the air close to and downwind of the DWH site. Among all of the measured species, the most important air quality concern for populations along the Gulf coast and inland was aerosols in respirable sizes. Since the measured gas-phase hydrocarbons were distributed in a fairly narrow plume evaporating from fresh surface oil and organic aerosol was measured in a much broader plume, the secondary organic aerosol (SOA) evidently formed from unmeasured, less volatile hydrocarbons that were emitted from a wider area around the site. Older surface oil near the coasts of Mississippi, Alabama, and Florida had little effect on SOA formation. The SOA mass increased with distance downwind of the DWH site. Preliminary results indicate that at least a few percent by mass of the spilled oil is converted into SOA. From the flaring, surface recovery, and cleanup operations, initial calculations of emission ratios also indicate that a few percent by mass of oil burned on the surface was emitted as black carbon aerosols. These organic and black carbon aerosols from the DWH oil spill influence local visibility and radiation and have potential health effects. Furthermore, they likely occasionally reached populated areas at concentrations that were a significant fraction of air quality standards.

  20. Criteria for oil spill recovery: a case study of the intertidal community of Prince William Sound, Alaska, following the Exxon Valdez oil spill.

    PubMed

    Skalski, J R; Coats, D A; Fukuyama, A K

    2001-07-01

    Marine intertidal organisms in Prince William Sound were exposed to crude oil following the TN Exxon Valdez oil spill in 1989. The intertidal communities were also subjected to mechanical disturbance during invasive oil spill remediation and cleanup efforts. Using monitoring data collected from 1989 to 1997, impacts and eventual recovery were assessed at oiled but uncleaned sites and oiled and cleaned study areas. A statistical model where recovery was defined as parallelism between the time profiles at control and oiled sites was evaluated. Statistical analysis and graphical presentations of the data suggest intertidal epibiota communities recovered from the oil spill by 1992 at the oiled sites and by 1994 at the oiled and remediated sites. Empirical data from the intertidal monitoring program supports the use of tests of parallelism in evaluating recovery and the need to avoid simply the comparison of sample means from control and oiled sites. PMID:11437004

  1. Criteria for oil spill recovery: a case study of the intertidal community of Prince William Sound, Alaska, following the Exxon Valdez oil spill.

    PubMed

    Skalski, J R; Coats, D A; Fukuyama, A K

    2001-07-01

    Marine intertidal organisms in Prince William Sound were exposed to crude oil following the TN Exxon Valdez oil spill in 1989. The intertidal communities were also subjected to mechanical disturbance during invasive oil spill remediation and cleanup efforts. Using monitoring data collected from 1989 to 1997, impacts and eventual recovery were assessed at oiled but uncleaned sites and oiled and cleaned study areas. A statistical model where recovery was defined as parallelism between the time profiles at control and oiled sites was evaluated. Statistical analysis and graphical presentations of the data suggest intertidal epibiota communities recovered from the oil spill by 1992 at the oiled sites and by 1994 at the oiled and remediated sites. Empirical data from the intertidal monitoring program supports the use of tests of parallelism in evaluating recovery and the need to avoid simply the comparison of sample means from control and oiled sites.

  2. Toluene diisocyanate based phase-selective supramolecular oil gelator for effective removal of oil spills from polluted water.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yongzhen; Wang, Youshan; Yan, Xingru; Wu, Songquan; Shao, Lu; Liu, Yuyan; Guo, Zhanhu

    2016-06-01

    Due to tremendous resource wastes and great harm to ecological environment caused by the accidental oil spills, an alkyl bicarbamate supramolecular oil gelator was synthesized and applied to selectively gelate oils from oil/water mixtures. Interestingly, the oil gelator could be self-assembled in a series of organic solvents, i.e., edible oils and fuel oils to form 3D networks and then turned into thermally reversible organogels, allowing easy separation and removal of oil spills from oil/water mixtures. The possible self-assembly mode for the formation of organogels was proposed. What's more, the optimal conditions for using the oil gelator to recover oils were experimentally determined. Inspiringly, taking gasoline as the co-congealed solvent, a complete gelation of oil phase was achieved within 15 min with high oil removal rate and oil retention rate after convenient salvage and cleanup of oil gels from oil/water mixtures. The oil gelator had some advantages in solidifying oil spills on water surface, exhibiting fast oil gelation, convenient and thorough oil removal and easy recovery. This work illustrates the significant role of oil gelators in the potential cleanup of spilled oils for water purification.

  3. Toluene diisocyanate based phase-selective supramolecular oil gelator for effective removal of oil spills from polluted water.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yongzhen; Wang, Youshan; Yan, Xingru; Wu, Songquan; Shao, Lu; Liu, Yuyan; Guo, Zhanhu

    2016-06-01

    Due to tremendous resource wastes and great harm to ecological environment caused by the accidental oil spills, an alkyl bicarbamate supramolecular oil gelator was synthesized and applied to selectively gelate oils from oil/water mixtures. Interestingly, the oil gelator could be self-assembled in a series of organic solvents, i.e., edible oils and fuel oils to form 3D networks and then turned into thermally reversible organogels, allowing easy separation and removal of oil spills from oil/water mixtures. The possible self-assembly mode for the formation of organogels was proposed. What's more, the optimal conditions for using the oil gelator to recover oils were experimentally determined. Inspiringly, taking gasoline as the co-congealed solvent, a complete gelation of oil phase was achieved within 15 min with high oil removal rate and oil retention rate after convenient salvage and cleanup of oil gels from oil/water mixtures. The oil gelator had some advantages in solidifying oil spills on water surface, exhibiting fast oil gelation, convenient and thorough oil removal and easy recovery. This work illustrates the significant role of oil gelators in the potential cleanup of spilled oils for water purification. PMID:27035386

  4. Oil spill protector

    SciTech Connect

    Gwinn, C.M.

    1993-06-08

    An apparatus for limiting and containing liquid spills from leaking vessels that navigate the water ways is described, comprising: (a) a protective sheeting that is thin, flexible and waterproof which covers the vessel from side to side and underneath the vessel, and spans from the bow to the stern of the vessel, for keeping the leaking contents of the vessel from leaking into the surrounding waters; (b) a means for storing the protective sheeting when the protective sheeting is no longer needed, whereby the means for storing is attached to one side of the vessel and spans the full width of the protective sheeting from the bow to the stern of the vessel, and the means for storing is powered; (c) cables attached to the edge of the protective sheeting, at different points, for the purpose of enabling the protective sheeting to be deployed, and to assist in the support of the protective sheeting when the protective sheeting is deployed; (d) a means for pulling the protective sheeting from storage, for deployment from one side of the vessel to the other side of the vessel; (e) a stem sealing unit for sealing the protective sheeting to the stern of the vessel completely around the hull of the vessel for the prevention of the leakage of unwanted liquid into surrounding waters, whereby the stern sealing unit is attached to the hull of the vessel, near the stern and just before the propulsion screw of the vessel, and spanning down the hull and underneath the hull and up the other side of the hull of the vessel, whereby upon deployment of the protective sheeting one of the cables is used to guide the end of the protective sheeting, to be sealed, into the stern sealing unit; and (f) a bow scaling unit for sealing the protective sheeting which covers the bow of the vessel, whereby the bow sealing unit fits over the front edge of the protective sheeting from the top to the bottom, thereby preventing the leakage of unwanted liquid into the surrounding waters.

  5. An empirical analysis of IOPCF oil spill cost data.

    PubMed

    Kontovas, Christos A; Psaraftis, Harilaos N; Ventikos, Nikolaos P

    2010-09-01

    This paper reports on recent analysis of oil spill cost data assembled by the International Oil Pollution Compensation Fund (IOPCF). Regression analyses of clean-up costs and total costs have been carried out, after taking care to convert to current prices and remove outliers. In the first place, the results of this analysis have been useful in the context of the ongoing discussion within the International Maritime Organization (IMO) on environmental risk evaluation criteria. Furthermore, these results can be useful in estimating the benefit of regulations that deal with the protection of marine environment and oil pollution prevention.

  6. Chemometric techniques in oil classification from oil spill fingerprinting.

    PubMed

    Ismail, Azimah; Toriman, Mohd Ekhwan; Juahir, Hafizan; Kassim, Azlina Md; Zain, Sharifuddin Md; Ahmad, Wan Kamaruzaman Wan; Wong, Kok Fah; Retnam, Ananthy; Zali, Munirah Abdul; Mokhtar, Mazlin; Yusri, Mohd Ayub

    2016-10-15

    Extended use of GC-FID and GC-MS in oil spill fingerprinting and matching is significantly important for oil classification from the oil spill sources collected from various areas of Peninsular Malaysia and Sabah (East Malaysia). Oil spill fingerprinting from GC-FID and GC-MS coupled with chemometric techniques (discriminant analysis and principal component analysis) is used as a diagnostic tool to classify the types of oil polluting the water. Clustering and discrimination of oil spill compounds in the water from the actual site of oil spill events are divided into four groups viz. diesel, Heavy Fuel Oil (HFO), Mixture Oil containing Light Fuel Oil (MOLFO) and Waste Oil (WO) according to the similarity of their intrinsic chemical properties. Principal component analysis (PCA) demonstrates that diesel, HFO, MOLFO and WO are types of oil or oil products from complex oil mixtures with a total variance of 85.34% and are identified with various anthropogenic activities related to either intentional releasing of oil or accidental discharge of oil into the environment. Our results show that the use of chemometric techniques is significant in providing independent validation for classifying the types of spilled oil in the investigation of oil spill pollution in Malaysia. This, in consequence would result in cost and time saving in identification of the oil spill sources. PMID:27397593

  7. Chemometric techniques in oil classification from oil spill fingerprinting.

    PubMed

    Ismail, Azimah; Toriman, Mohd Ekhwan; Juahir, Hafizan; Kassim, Azlina Md; Zain, Sharifuddin Md; Ahmad, Wan Kamaruzaman Wan; Wong, Kok Fah; Retnam, Ananthy; Zali, Munirah Abdul; Mokhtar, Mazlin; Yusri, Mohd Ayub

    2016-10-15

    Extended use of GC-FID and GC-MS in oil spill fingerprinting and matching is significantly important for oil classification from the oil spill sources collected from various areas of Peninsular Malaysia and Sabah (East Malaysia). Oil spill fingerprinting from GC-FID and GC-MS coupled with chemometric techniques (discriminant analysis and principal component analysis) is used as a diagnostic tool to classify the types of oil polluting the water. Clustering and discrimination of oil spill compounds in the water from the actual site of oil spill events are divided into four groups viz. diesel, Heavy Fuel Oil (HFO), Mixture Oil containing Light Fuel Oil (MOLFO) and Waste Oil (WO) according to the similarity of their intrinsic chemical properties. Principal component analysis (PCA) demonstrates that diesel, HFO, MOLFO and WO are types of oil or oil products from complex oil mixtures with a total variance of 85.34% and are identified with various anthropogenic activities related to either intentional releasing of oil or accidental discharge of oil into the environment. Our results show that the use of chemometric techniques is significant in providing independent validation for classifying the types of spilled oil in the investigation of oil spill pollution in Malaysia. This, in consequence would result in cost and time saving in identification of the oil spill sources.

  8. Oil spills debris clean up by thermal desorption.

    PubMed

    Araruna, J T; Portes, V L O; Soares, A P L; Silva, M G; Sthel, M S; Schramm, D U; Tibana, S; Vargas, H

    2004-07-01

    Oil spills represent a significant environmental issue in Brazil. This paper presents the latest results of a comprehensive experimental programme aimed at understanding how the presence of spilled oil affects the properties of sands and at studying alternatives to remediate the affected shores. Results indicate that oil causes a slight increase in grain size and uniformity, and oiled debris presents a smaller void ratio but a larger unit weight. It was also observed that effective strength parameters for both the natural and oiled debris were the same although the undrained strength of a natural sand is much higher than that of the contaminated sand. At ambient temperature, oiled debris emits methane and ammonia, and these emissions tend to increase with rising temperatures. On the other hand, the oil and grease content from oiled debris decreases with rising temperature and prolonged exposure. Finally, in situ thermal desorption seems to be a promising method for cleaning debris from oil spills. It is simple, fast and avoids all the difficulties associated with digging up the soil for disposal or cleanup.

  9. Satellites View Growing Gulf Oil Spill (Update)

    NASA Video Gallery

    On April 30, 2010, the Deepwater Horizon oil rig exploded in the Gulf of Mexico, triggering the largest oil spill in U.S. history. The MODIS instrument, on board NASA's Terra and Aqua satellites, c...

  10. NASA Satellites View Gulf Oil Spill

    NASA Video Gallery

    Two NASA satellites are capturing images of the oil spill in the Gulf of Mexico, which began April 20, 2010, with the explosion of the Deepwater Horizon oil rig. This series of images shows a space...

  11. Oil spills, 1976-85: statistical report

    SciTech Connect

    Cotton, U.

    1986-01-01

    Oil spillage resulting from drilling and production activities on the Outer Continental Shelf (OCS) is a matter of wide public concern. This report provides a complete and accurate statistical account of all the oil spills reported relative to oil and gas operations on the OCS. The report is prepared especially with those in mind who are concerned with accident prevention utilizing the various kinds of analyses and preaccident investigation techniques. Data are presented in tables and figures showing relationships between number of spills, volume of spills, accident years, cause of spills, location of spills, type of operations, and amount of production. The statistics in the tables and graphs are derived primarily from the OCS Events File. They summarize the spills that MMS has recorded. The statistics are not an evaluation of the systems that allowed the accidents to occur.

  12. Some factors affecting the oil-spill risk to sea otters in California. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Tinney, R.T.

    1984-10-01

    Sea otters in California, with their limited range and numbers, are exposed to the threat of oil spills from a number of sources including offshore oil and gas development, transportation of crude oil and refined products, and the bunker fuel of vessels transiting the otter range. This report explores some of the direct and indirect ways otters may be affected by oil spills, including hypothermia, pneumonia, toxic effects, and destruction of preferred prey. The report also examines the possibility of mitigating the effects of oil spills through spill containment and cleanup, otter capture, cleaning and rehabilitation, and otter relocation. The report concludes with a description of the amount of shoreline affected by some major spills in various parts of the world.

  13. Chemical comparison of weathered spilled oil and Exxon/Valdez hold oil from an occupational health standpoint

    SciTech Connect

    Griest, W.H.; Ho, Chen-h.; Guerin, M.R.; Tyndall, R.L.

    1991-01-01

    On March 24, 1989, the oil tanker Exxon/Valdez ran aground on Bligh Reef located off the coast of Alaska, and 11 million gallons of Northslope Alaska crude oil were spilled into Prince William Sound. More than 11,000 workers and uncounted volunteers participated in the clean up operation. The exposure of cleanup workers to spilled oil over several months of cleanup operations suggests the need for an assessment of any unusual occupational health hazards. To address this issue, weathered spilled oil and hold oil were subjected to biodirected chemical fractionation and target chemical analyses. Potential inhalation, ingestion, and dermal contact hazards were investigated. The characterization methods of the DOE/Office of Health and Environmental Research Synthetic Fuels Program were applied to samples related to the spill to permit inter-comparability with that data base. Two oil spills were obtained for characterization. Exxon/Valdez hold oil collected directly from the hold of the tanker was provided by the National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences. Also provided was a 75-days old weathered spilled oil sampled on June 6, 1989, from a skimmer collecting oil washed off of Knight Island. Because 40 wt % of the weathered oil consisted of non-oil materials such as sand, entrapped water, and leaves, an oil fraction was prepared by suspending the oil benzene/chloroform drying with anhydrous magnesium sulfate, filtering, and removing the solvent by rotary evaporation. The tests conducted here suggest that there is no unusual human health hazard associated with the weathered Exxon/Valdez spilled oil in the context of other petroleum crude oils. Clearly, the volatile organics in the freshly spilled oil present a potential inhalation hazard, but such a threat is considerably mitigated by weathering. The polar neutral chemical class fraction increases notably during weathering, but does not appear to represent an increased genotoxic hazard. 20 refs., 1 fig., 4 tabs.

  14. Oil spill recovery: Oil booms and skimmers. (Latest citations from the US Patent Bibliographic file with exemplary claims). Published Search

    SciTech Connect

    1995-07-01

    The bibliography contains citations of selected patents concerning booms, skimmers, and skimming techniques used for oil spill recovery. Patents cover cleanup and containment systems, floating booms, collection and storage, barriers, and dispersants. Visible markings, lighters for transferring oil, and pollution monitoring systems are also included. (Contains 50-250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

  15. Exxon Valdez oil spill restoration plan

    SciTech Connect

    1994-11-01

    In 1989, the Exxon Valdez oil spill contaminated about 1,500 miles of Alaska`s coastline. It killed birds, mammals, and fish, and disrupted the ecosystem in the path of the oil. The Exxon Valdez Restoration Plan provides long-term guidance for restoring the resources and services injured by the oil spill. It contains policies for making restoration decisions and describes how restoration activities will be implemented.

  16. DISPERSANT EFFECTIVENESS ON OIL SPILLS - EMPIRICAL CORRELATIONS

    EPA Science Inventory

    When a dispersant is applied to an oil slick, its effectiveness in dispersing the spilled oil depends on various factors such as oil properties, wave mixing energy, temperature of both oil and water, and salinity of the water. Estuaries represent water with varying salinities. In...

  17. Oil recovery; Technology that tames large spills

    SciTech Connect

    Valenti, M.

    1991-05-01

    This paper reports that the threat of oil spills is growing with the increasing use of larger tankers, the expansion of offshore oil exploration, and-as was demonstrated recently in the Persian Gulf-the dangers of war and terrorism. Aware of the environmental havoc that massive spills can cause, engineers are working hard to devise effective methods of scooping oil from the water's surface and cleaning contaminated shorelines. Techniques are being developed, which combine mechanical, chemical, and biological processes to contain spills.

  18. Observations and analysis of oil spills using polarized imagery

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Israel, S. A.; Duncan, M. E.; Johnson, W. R.; Whitehead, V. S.

    1991-01-01

    On Saturday, July 28, 1990, a train of barges collided with the Greek tanker Shinoussa in Galveston Bay off Red Fish Island near Texas City, Texas. The first barge sank and the second began to leak while the third barge in the chain and the Shinoussa both escaped without damage. The NASA Flight Science Support Office sponsored a graduate student from SUNY - College of Environmental Science and Forestry and a student from Texas, to survey the damage. The purpose of these surveys was to correlate aircraft base data with orbital data obtained during the Space Shuttle Polarization Experiment and existing laboratory data to evaluate the potential for an application such as oil spill monitoring and mapping. NASA has no charter with the local response agencies to support oil spill monitoring and cleanup.

  19. Phase-selective sorbent xerogels as reclamation agents for oil spills.

    PubMed

    Lee, Phillip; Rogers, Michael A

    2013-05-01

    12-Hydroxystearic acid (12-HSA) xerogels derived from 12-HSA-acetronitrile organogels are highly effective sorbent materials capable of adsorbing apolar, spilled materials in aqueous environments. 12-HSA xerogels made from 12-HSA-acetronitrile organogels are more effective than 12-HSA xerogels made from 12-HSA-pentane organogels because of the highly branched fibrillar networks established in acetonitrile molecular gels. This difference arises because of dissimilarities in the network structure between 12-HSA in various solvents. These xerogels, being thermoreversible, allow for both the spilled oil to be reclaimed but also the gelator may be reused to engineer new xerogels for oil spill containment and cleanup.

  20. Earth Observation Services (Oil Spill Mapping)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1992-01-01

    An EOCAP project led Research Planning, Inc. to the development of advanced techniques for "environmental sensitivity" oil spill mapping. The new method incorporates satellite remote sensing and GIS technologies and was utilized to assess the damage potential of the Gulf war oil spill. EOCAP provides government co-funding to encourage private investment in, and to broaden the, use of, NASA-developed technology for analyzing information about Earth and ocean resources.

  1. MODELING DISPERSANT INTERACTIONS WITH OIL SPILLS

    EPA Science Inventory

    EPA is developing a model called the EPA Research Object-Oriented Oil Spill Model (ERO3S) and associated databases to simulate the impacts of dispersants on oil slicks. Because there are features of oil slicks that align naturally with major concepts of object-oriented programmi...

  2. Oil spill response: Countdown to readiness

    SciTech Connect

    Costello, J.D.

    1993-04-01

    In the wake of the Exxon Valdez oil spill, a task force representing America's oil industry set about studying the existing resources across the nation for responding to catastrophic oil spills. In June 1989 the task force reported that the capability did not exist in either government or industry to respond to a spill the magnitude of the one in Alaska. As a result of task force recommendations, 20 companies began the process that led to the creation of both the Marine Preservation Association (MPA) and the Marine Spill Response Corp. (MS-RC). The latter is headquartered in Washington, D.C., with 5 regional response centers around the US. Under the direction of the US Coast Guard, each of MSRC's five regions will provide a best-effort response to cleaning up spill of persistent (crude) oils that are beyond the capabilities of local spill response organizations. MSRC will work closely with both cooperatives and independent, commercial responders to maximize spill response effectiveness. The MPA and its member companies have committed more than $400 million for the acquisition of capital equipment for MSRC, an unprecedented record in American business history. MSRC is also involved in research programs concerning remote sensing, in-situ burning, dispersants, handling of recovered material, and shoreline countermeasures.

  3. Alaska's response to the Exxon Valdez oil spill

    SciTech Connect

    Kelso, D.D.; Kendziorek, M. )

    1991-01-01

    The primary lesson of the Exxon Valdez spill is that oil spill prevention and response technologies need substantial, sustained research and development. There must be adequate amounts of equipment in place in time to properly respond to an oil spill. Management systems need to be improved so they effectively use these technologies. The combination of inadequate technology, insufficient amounts of response equipment, and ineffective management of the available resources produced serious problems in the initial response. Exxon eventually deployed large amounts of equipment and personnel. By the time the long-term shoreline treatment phase began, Exxon had also improved the management of its operations. However, at that point, much of the damage had already occurred. The extent of injury to natural resource is now being assessed through scientific studies. Based on the results of these studies, the final step in the response will be restoration projects which are now in the planning stage. In light of the experience with the Exxon Valdez spill, state and federal laws have been strengthened to provide better prevention measures, response planning, and in-region cleanup capacity. As with most pollution problems, prevention - through both management and technology - should be the first line of defense.

  4. Deepwater Horizon oil spill impacts on Alabama beaches

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hayworth, J. S.; Clement, T. P.; Valentine, J. F.

    2011-12-01

    From mid June 2010 to early August 2010, the white sandy beaches along Alabama's Gulf coast were inundated with crude oil discharged from the Deepwater Horizon well. The long-term consequences of this environmental catastrophe are still unfolding. Although BP has attempted to clean up some of these beaches, there still exist many unanswered questions regarding the physical, chemical, and ecological state of the oil contaminated beach system. In this paper, we present our understanding of what is known and known to be unknown with regard to the current state of Alabama's beaches in the aftermath of the Deepwater Horizon disaster. Motivated by our observations of the evolving distribution of oil in Alabama's beaches and BP's clean-up activities, we offer our thoughts on the lessons learned from this oil spill disaster.

  5. Deepwater Horizon oil spill impacts on Alabama beaches

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hayworth, J. S.; Clement, T. P.; Valentine, J. F.

    2011-07-01

    From mid June 2010 to early August 2010, the white sandy beaches along Alabama's Gulf coast were inundated with crude oil discharged from the Deepwater Horizon well. The long-term consequences of this environmental catastrophe are still unfolding. Although BP has attempted to clean up some of these beaches, there still exist many unanswered questions regarding the physical, chemical, and ecological state of the oil contaminated beach system. In this paper, we present our understanding of what is known and known to be unknown with regard to the current state of Alabama's beaches in the aftermath of the Deepwater Horizon disaster. Motivated by our observations of the evolving distribution of oil in Alabama's beaches and BP's clean-up activities, we offer our thoughts on the lessons learned from this oil spill disaster.

  6. Oil spill impact modeling: development and validation.

    PubMed

    French-McCay, Deborah P

    2004-10-01

    A coupled oil fate and effects model has been developed for the estimation of impacts to habitats, wildlife, and aquatic organisms resulting from acute exposure to spilled oil. The physical fates model estimates the distribution of oil (as mass and concentrations) on the water surface, on shorelines, in the water column, and in the sediments, accounting for spreading, evaporation, transport, dispersion, emulsification, entrainment, dissolution, volatilization, partitioning, sedimentation, and degradation. The biological effects model estimates exposure of biota of various behavior types to floating oil and subsurface contamination, resulting percent mortality, and sublethal effects on production (somatic growth). Impacts are summarized as areas or volumes affected, percent of populations lost, and production foregone because of a spill's effects. This paper summarizes existing information and data used to develop the model, model algorithms and assumptions, validation studies, and research needs. Simulation of the Exxon Valdez oil spill is presented as a case study and validation of the model. PMID:15511105

  7. Oil spill impact modeling: development and validation.

    PubMed

    French-McCay, Deborah P

    2004-10-01

    A coupled oil fate and effects model has been developed for the estimation of impacts to habitats, wildlife, and aquatic organisms resulting from acute exposure to spilled oil. The physical fates model estimates the distribution of oil (as mass and concentrations) on the water surface, on shorelines, in the water column, and in the sediments, accounting for spreading, evaporation, transport, dispersion, emulsification, entrainment, dissolution, volatilization, partitioning, sedimentation, and degradation. The biological effects model estimates exposure of biota of various behavior types to floating oil and subsurface contamination, resulting percent mortality, and sublethal effects on production (somatic growth). Impacts are summarized as areas or volumes affected, percent of populations lost, and production foregone because of a spill's effects. This paper summarizes existing information and data used to develop the model, model algorithms and assumptions, validation studies, and research needs. Simulation of the Exxon Valdez oil spill is presented as a case study and validation of the model.

  8. Improving oiled shoreline cleanup with COREXIT 9580

    SciTech Connect

    Fiocco, R.J.; Lessard, R.R.; Canevari, G.P.

    1996-08-01

    The cleanup of oiled shorelines has generally been by mechanical, labor-intensive means. The use of a chemical shoreline cleaner to assist in water-flushing oil from the surfaces can result in more complete and more rapid cleaning. Not only is the cleaning process more efficient, but it can also be less environmentally damaging since there is potentially much less human intrusion and stress on the biological community. This paper describes research and applications of COREXIT 9580 shoreline cleaner for treatment of oiled shorelines, including four recent applications in Puerto Rico, Bermuda, Texas and Nova Scotia. Research work on shoreline vegetation, such as mangroves, has also demonstrated the potential use of this product to save and restore oiled vegetation.

  9. The Exxon Valdez oil spill: Initial environmental impact assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Maki, A.W. )

    1991-01-01

    The March 24, 1989, grounding of the Exxon Valdez on Bligh Reef in Prince William Sound, Alaska, was unprecedented in scale. So too was Exxon's response to the oil spill and the subsequent shoreline cleaning program, including the employment of more than 11,000 people, utilization of essentially the entire world supply of containment booms and skimmers, and an expenditure of more than two billion dollars. In the days immediately following the Valdez spill, Exxon mobilized a massive environmental assessment program. A large field and laboratory staff of experienced environmental professionals and internationally recognized experts was assembled that included intertidal ecologists, fishery biologists, marine and hydrocarbon chemists. This field program to measure spill impacts and recovery rates was initiated with the cooperation of state and federal agencies. Through the end of 1989, this program has resulted in well over 45,000 separate samples of water, sediment, and biota used to assess spill impacts. This paper provides initial observations and preliminary conclusions from several of the 1989 studies. These conclusions are based on factual, scientific data from studies designed to objectively measure the extent of the impacts from the spill. Data from these studies indicate that wildlife and habitats are recovering from the impacts of the spill and that commercial catches of herring and salmon in Prince William Sound are at record high levels. Ecosystem recovery from spill impacts is due to the combined efforts of the cleanup program as well as natural physical, chemical, and biological processes. From all indications this recovery process can be expected to continue.

  10. Advances in Remote Sensing for Oil Spill Disaster Management: State-of-the-Art Sensors Technology for Oil Spill Surveillance

    PubMed Central

    Jha, Maya Nand; Levy, Jason; Gao, Yang

    2008-01-01

    Reducing the risk of oil spill disasters is essential for protecting the environment and reducing economic losses. Oil spill surveillance constitutes an important component of oil spill disaster management. Advances in remote sensing technologies can help to identify parties potentially responsible for pollution and to identify minor spills before they cause widespread damage. Due to the large number of sensors currently available for oil spill surveillance, there is a need for a comprehensive overview and comparison of existing sensors. Specifically, this paper examines the characteristics and applications of different sensors. A better understanding of the strengths and weaknesses of oil spill surveillance sensors will improve the operational use of these sensors for oil spill response and contingency planning. Laser fluorosensors were found to be the best available sensor for oil spill detection since they not only detect and classify oil on all surfaces but also operate in either the day or night. For example, the Scanning Laser Environmental Airborne Fluorosensor (SLEAF) sensor was identified to be a valuable tool for oil spill surveillance. However, no single sensor was able to provide all information required for oil spill contingency planning. Hence, combinations of sensors are currently used for oil spill surveillance. Specifically, satellite sensors are used for preliminary oil spill assessment while airborne sensors are used for detailed oil spill analysis. While satellite remote sensing is not suitable for tactical oil spill planning it can provide a synoptic coverage of the affected area.

  11. Ecological Impacts during the Deepwater Horizon Oil Spill

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Deepwater Horizon (DWH) oil spill was the largest spill and response effort in United States history. Nearly 800 million L of oil was spilled in the Gulf of Mexico, and nearly 7 million L of chemical dispersants were applied in at the ocean surface and subsea1. The DWH spill ...

  12. Effects of exposure to oil spills on human health: Updated review.

    PubMed

    Laffon, Blanca; Pásaro, Eduardo; Valdiglesias, Vanessa

    2016-01-01

    Oil spills may involve health risks for people participating in the cleanup operations and coastal inhabitants, given the toxicological properties of the oil components. In spite of this, only after a few major oil spills (crude oil or fuel oil no. 6) have studies on effects of exposure to diverse aspects of human health been performed. Previously, Aguilera et al. (2010) examined all documents published to that date dealing with any type of human health outcome in populations exposed to oil spills. The aim of the present review was to compile all new information available and determine whether evidence reported supports the existence of an association between exposure and adverse human health risks. Studies were classified in three groups according to type of health outcome addressed: (i) effects on mental health, (ii) physical/physiological effects, and (iii) genotoxic, immunotoxic, and endocrine toxicity. New studies published on oil-spill-exposed populations-coastal residents in the vicinity of the spills or participants in cleanup operations-provide additional support to previous evidence on adverse health effects related to exposure regarding different parameters in all three categories considered. Some of the observed effects even indicated that several symptoms may persist for some years after exposure. Hence, (1) health protection in these individuals should be a matter of concern; and (2) health risk assessment needs to be carried out not only at the time of exposure but also for prolong periods following exposure, to enable early detection of any potential exposure-related harmful effects.

  13. Effects of exposure to oil spills on human health: Updated review.

    PubMed

    Laffon, Blanca; Pásaro, Eduardo; Valdiglesias, Vanessa

    2016-01-01

    Oil spills may involve health risks for people participating in the cleanup operations and coastal inhabitants, given the toxicological properties of the oil components. In spite of this, only after a few major oil spills (crude oil or fuel oil no. 6) have studies on effects of exposure to diverse aspects of human health been performed. Previously, Aguilera et al. (2010) examined all documents published to that date dealing with any type of human health outcome in populations exposed to oil spills. The aim of the present review was to compile all new information available and determine whether evidence reported supports the existence of an association between exposure and adverse human health risks. Studies were classified in three groups according to type of health outcome addressed: (i) effects on mental health, (ii) physical/physiological effects, and (iii) genotoxic, immunotoxic, and endocrine toxicity. New studies published on oil-spill-exposed populations-coastal residents in the vicinity of the spills or participants in cleanup operations-provide additional support to previous evidence on adverse health effects related to exposure regarding different parameters in all three categories considered. Some of the observed effects even indicated that several symptoms may persist for some years after exposure. Hence, (1) health protection in these individuals should be a matter of concern; and (2) health risk assessment needs to be carried out not only at the time of exposure but also for prolong periods following exposure, to enable early detection of any potential exposure-related harmful effects. PMID:27221976

  14. Status of intertidal infaunal communities following the Exxon Valdez oil spill in Prince William Sound, Alaska.

    PubMed

    Fukuyama, Allan K; Shigenaka, Gary; Coats, Douglas A

    2014-07-15

    Intertidal infaunal communities were sampled in Prince William Sound, Alaska from 1990-2000 to evaluate impacts and recovery from the Exxon Valdez oil spill. Initial findings suggested that the spill and cleanup depressed abundances of all taxonomic groups. By 1992, abundances of major taxonomic categories at disturbed sites had either converged or paralleled populations at Unoiled sites. Abundances of littleneck clams, Leukoma (Protothaca) staminea, slowly increased at Treated sites and converged with Unoiled sites by 2000. Infaunal population differences positively correlated with fine-grained sediments at Treated sites. We believe that sediment fines removal during cleanup, and subsequent slow natural replenishment, impeded the return of the environment to pre-spill conditions. This suggests physical recovery of spill-affected beaches is an important precursor to biological recovery. PMID:24923812

  15. Status of intertidal infaunal communities following the Exxon Valdez oil spill in Prince William Sound, Alaska.

    PubMed

    Fukuyama, Allan K; Shigenaka, Gary; Coats, Douglas A

    2014-07-15

    Intertidal infaunal communities were sampled in Prince William Sound, Alaska from 1990-2000 to evaluate impacts and recovery from the Exxon Valdez oil spill. Initial findings suggested that the spill and cleanup depressed abundances of all taxonomic groups. By 1992, abundances of major taxonomic categories at disturbed sites had either converged or paralleled populations at Unoiled sites. Abundances of littleneck clams, Leukoma (Protothaca) staminea, slowly increased at Treated sites and converged with Unoiled sites by 2000. Infaunal population differences positively correlated with fine-grained sediments at Treated sites. We believe that sediment fines removal during cleanup, and subsequent slow natural replenishment, impeded the return of the environment to pre-spill conditions. This suggests physical recovery of spill-affected beaches is an important precursor to biological recovery.

  16. The adverse health effects of oil spills: a review of the literature and a framework for medically evaluating exposed individuals.

    PubMed

    Levy, Barry S; Nassetta, William J

    2011-01-01

    In April 2010, an explosion on an oil rig in the Gulf of Mexico killed 11 workers, injured 17 workers, and spilled an estimated 185 million gallons of crude oil into the Gulf. Adverse effects on the health of cleanup workers, fishermen, and others as well as on the ecosystem are being studied. This paper reviews published studies of the adverse health effects due to previous oil spills. Acute effects have included: respiratory, eye, and skin symptoms; headache; nausea; dizziness; and tiredness or fatigue. Chronic effects have included: psychological disorders, respiratory disorders, genotoxic effects, and endocrine abnormalities. We also present a systematic approach to evaluating individuals exposed to oil spills.

  17. Helping nature clean up oil spills

    SciTech Connect

    Paddock, A.

    1996-11-01

    Oil spills are nothing new. In fact, for millions of years crude oil has been seeping up to the Earth`s surface, and for all that time Mother Nature has been on the job with microbes, or bacteria, to harmlessly convert the oil to water and carbon dioxide gas. Not all bacteria are bad. True, some can make us sick, however, the good ones help us bake bread, brew beer, and even clean up oil spills by a process known as biodegradation. Oil and bacteria don`t easily get together because oil and water don`t mix and bacteria prefer to stay in water. After some oil tankers spills in the English Channel 25 years ago, major oil companies (Arco, BP, Exxon, and others) developed oil dispersant products-specialized chemicals that make oils and sea water mix. The simplest examples of similar wetting agents are soaps and detergents. Now, thanks to dispersants, the natural bacteria at sea can easily get to the oil and the normally slow biodegradation process goes rather quickly.

  18. NOAA Response to the Deepwater Horizon Oil Spill - Protecting Oceans, Coasts and Fisheries (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lubchenco, J.

    2010-12-01

    As the nation’s leading scientific resource for oil spills, NOAA has been on the scene of the Deepwater Horizon/BP oil spill from the start, providing coordinated scientific weather and biological response services to federal, state and local organizations. NOAA has mobilized experts from across the agency to help contain the spreading oil spill and protect the Gulf of Mexico’s many marine mammals, sea turtles, fish, shellfish and other endangered marine life. NOAA spill specialists advised the U.S. Coast Guard on cleanup options as well as advising all affected federal, state and local partners on sensitive marine resources at risk in this area of the Gulf of Mexico. As a major partner in the federal response to this incident, NOAA provided the necessary coastal and marine expertise required for sound, timely decision-making and helped protect the affected Gulf Coast communities and coastal marine environment and will continue to do so for ongoing restoration efforts.

  19. Development of an oil spill forecast system for offshore China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Yonggang; Wei, Zexun; An, Wei

    2016-07-01

    An oil spill forecast system for offshore China was developed based on Visual C++. The oil spill forecast system includes an ocean environmental forecast model and an oil spill model. The ocean environmental forecast model was designed to include timesaving methods, and comprised a parametrical wind wave forecast model and a sea surface current forecast model. The oil spill model was based on the "particle method" and fulfills the prediction of oil particle behavior by considering the drifting, evaporation and emulsification processes. A specific database was embedded into the oil spill forecast system, which contained fundamental information, such as the properties of oil, reserve of emergency equipment and distribution of marine petroleum platform. The oil spill forecast system was successfully applied as part of an oil spill emergency exercise, and provides an operational service in the Research and Development Center for Offshore Oil Safety and Environmental Technology.

  20. A damage assessment model of oil spill accident combining historical data and satellite remote sensing information: a case study in Penglai 19-3 oil spill accident of China.

    PubMed

    Wei, Lai; Hu, Zhuowei; Dong, Lin; Zhao, Wenji

    2015-02-15

    Oil spills are one of the major sources of marine pollution; it is important to conduct comprehensive assessment of losses that occur as a result of these events. Traditional methods are required to assess the three parts of losses including cleanup, socioeconomic losses, and environmental costs. It is relatively slow because assessment is complex and time consuming. A relatively quick method was developed to improve the efficiency of assessment, and then applied to the Penglai 19-3 accident. This paper uses an SAR image to calculate the oil spill area through Neural Network Classification, and uses historical oil-spill data to build the relationship between loss and other factors including sea-surface wind speed, and distance to the coast. A multiple regression equation was used to assess oil spill damage as a function of the independent variables. Results of this study can be used for regulating and quickly dealing with oil spill assessment.

  1. Oil Spill! Student Guide and Teacher Guide. OEAGLS Investigation 17.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fortner, Rosanne W.; Ihle, Stephanie

    Presented in this unit are three activities concerning the causes and effects of oil spills and methods used to clean up these spills in the oceans and Great Lakes. Students construct and interpret a graph showing oil pollution sources. The students create and try to clean up a small-scale oil spill in a pan, and they compare the water quality of…

  2. 77 FR 60454 - Exxon Valdez Oil Spill Public Advisory Committee

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-03

    ... Office of the Secretary Exxon Valdez Oil Spill Public Advisory Committee AGENCY: Office of the Secretary... renewal of the Exxon Valdez Oil Spill Public Advisory committee. SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: The Court Order establishing the Exxon Valdez Oil Spill Trustee Council also requires a public advisory...

  3. 78 FR 54669 - Exxon Valdez Oil Spill Public Advisory Committee

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-09-05

    ... Office of the Secretary Exxon Valdez Oil Spill Public Advisory Committee AGENCY: Office of the Secretary... announcing a public meeting of the Exxon Valdez Oil Spill Public Advisory Committee. DATES: October 3, 2013...-5011. SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: The Exxon Valdez Oil Spill Public Advisory Committee was created...

  4. Tourism and its hypersensitivity to oil spills.

    PubMed

    Cirer-Costa, Joan Carles

    2015-02-15

    The sinking of the Don Pedro merchant ship in 2007 near the island of Ibiza is a good example of the extreme sensitivity of the tourism sector to oil spills. Despite the limited scale of the spill (only some 20 tonnes), its minimal ecological impact, and the rapid deployment of personnel and equipment to contain it, the accident nonetheless caused significant economic damage to the island's tourism sector. This particular case demonstrates the importance of the beach as a factor of production in the holiday tourism sector, and the capacity of even small amounts of oil to render it unusable and cause heavy losses to holiday firms. PMID:25561004

  5. Tourism and its hypersensitivity to oil spills.

    PubMed

    Cirer-Costa, Joan Carles

    2015-02-15

    The sinking of the Don Pedro merchant ship in 2007 near the island of Ibiza is a good example of the extreme sensitivity of the tourism sector to oil spills. Despite the limited scale of the spill (only some 20 tonnes), its minimal ecological impact, and the rapid deployment of personnel and equipment to contain it, the accident nonetheless caused significant economic damage to the island's tourism sector. This particular case demonstrates the importance of the beach as a factor of production in the holiday tourism sector, and the capacity of even small amounts of oil to render it unusable and cause heavy losses to holiday firms.

  6. Oil spill dispersants: boon or bane?

    PubMed

    Prince, Roger C

    2015-06-01

    Dispersants provide a reliable large-scale response to catastrophic oil spills that can be used when the preferable option of recapturing the oil cannot be achieved. By allowing even mild wave action to disperse floating oil into tiny droplets (<70 μm) in the water column, seabirds, reptiles, and mammals are protected from lethal oiling at the surface, and microbial biodegradation is dramatically increased. Recent work has clarified how dramatic this increase is likely to be: beached oil has an environmental residence of years, whereas dispersed oil has a half-life of weeks. Oil spill response operations endorse the concept of net environmental benefit, that any environmental costs imposed by a response technique must be outweighed by the likely benefits. This critical review discusses the potential environmental debits and credits from dispersant use and concludes that, in most cases, the potential environmental costs of adding these chemicals to a polluted area are likely outweighed by the much shorter residence time, and hence integrated environmental impact, of the spilled oil in the environment.

  7. Oil spill dispersants: boon or bane?

    PubMed

    Prince, Roger C

    2015-06-01

    Dispersants provide a reliable large-scale response to catastrophic oil spills that can be used when the preferable option of recapturing the oil cannot be achieved. By allowing even mild wave action to disperse floating oil into tiny droplets (<70 μm) in the water column, seabirds, reptiles, and mammals are protected from lethal oiling at the surface, and microbial biodegradation is dramatically increased. Recent work has clarified how dramatic this increase is likely to be: beached oil has an environmental residence of years, whereas dispersed oil has a half-life of weeks. Oil spill response operations endorse the concept of net environmental benefit, that any environmental costs imposed by a response technique must be outweighed by the likely benefits. This critical review discusses the potential environmental debits and credits from dispersant use and concludes that, in most cases, the potential environmental costs of adding these chemicals to a polluted area are likely outweighed by the much shorter residence time, and hence integrated environmental impact, of the spilled oil in the environment. PMID:25938731

  8. Combating oil spill problem using plastic waste

    SciTech Connect

    Saleem, Junaid; Ning, Chao; Barford, John; McKay, Gordon

    2015-10-15

    Highlights: • Up-cycling one type of pollution i.e. plastic waste and successfully using it to combat the other type of pollution i.e. oil spill. • Synthesized oil sorbent that has extremely high oil uptake of 90 g/g after prolonged dripping of 1 h. • Synthesized porous oil sorbent film which not only facilitates in oil sorption but also increases the affinity between sorbent and oil by means of adhesion. - Abstract: Thermoplastic polymers (such as polypropylene, polyethylene, polyethylene terephthalate (PET) and high density polyethylene (HDPE)) constitute 5–15% of municipal solid waste produced across the world. A huge quantity of plastic waste is disposed of each year and is mostly either discarded in landfills or incinerated. On the other hand, the usage of synthetic polymers as oil sorbents, in particular, polyolefins, including polypropylene (PP), and polyethylene (PE) are the most commonly used oil sorbent materials mainly due to their low cost. However, they possess relatively low oil absorption capacities. In this work, we provide an innovative way to produce a value-added product such as oil-sorbent film with high practical oil uptake values in terms of g/g from waste HDPE bottles for rapid oil spill remedy.

  9. The economy of oil spills: direct and indirect costs as a function of spill size.

    PubMed

    Liu, Xin; Wirtz, Kai W

    2009-11-15

    As a rational basis for addressing both ecological and economic consequences of oil spills, a combination of simulating and estimating methods is proposed in this paper. An integration of the state-of-the-art oil spill contingency simulation system OSCAR with economic assessment method leads to realistic oil spill scenarios including their biological and economic impacts and the effort taken for combat as well as to an estimate for the total oil spill costs. In order to derive a simple function of total costs depending on few spill characteristics such as size, a number of hypothetical scenarios are simulated and evaluated for the German North Sea area. Results reveal that response costs of per unit oil spilled as well as integrated costs of oil released are simply characterized as two particular power-law functions of spill size. Such relationships can be straightforward transferred into decision making for efficient prevention and combat strategy in the study area.

  10. In Situ Burning of Oil Spills.

    PubMed

    Evans, D D; Mulholland, G W; Baum, H R; Walton, W D; McGrattan, K B

    2001-01-01

    For more than a decade NIST conducted research to understand, measure and predict the important features of burning oil on water. Results of that research have been included in nationally recognized guidelines for approval of intentional burning. NIST measurements and predictions have played a major role in establishing in situ burning as a primary oil spill response method. Data are given for pool fire burning rates, smoke yield, smoke particulate size distribution, smoke aging, and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon content of the smoke for crude and fuel oil fires with effective diameters up to 17.2 m. New user-friendly software, ALOFT, was developed to quantify the large-scale features and trajectory of wind blown smoke plumes in the atmosphere and estimate the ground level smoke particulate concentrations. Predictions using the model were tested successfully against data from large-scale tests. ALOFT software is being used by oil spill response teams to help assess the potential impact of intentional burning.

  11. i4OilSpill, an operational marine oil spill forecasting model for Bohai Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Fangjie; Yao, Fuxin; Zhao, Yang; Wang, Guansuo; Chen, Ge

    2016-10-01

    Oil spill models can effectively simulate the trajectories and fate of oil slicks, which is an essential element in contingency planning and effective response strategies prepared for oil spill accidents. However, when applied to offshore areas such as the Bohai Sea, the trajectories and fate of oil slicks would be affected by time-varying factors in a regional scale, which are assumed to be constant in most of the present models. In fact, these factors in offshore regions show much more variation over time than in the deep sea, due to offshore bathymetric and climatic characteristics. In this paper, the challenge of parameterizing these offshore factors is tackled. The remote sensing data of the region are used to analyze the modification of wind-induced drift factors, and a well-suited solution is established in parameter correction mechanism for oil spill models. The novelty of the algorithm is the self-adaptive modification mechanism of the drift factors derived from the remote sensing data for the targeted sea region, in respect to empirical constants in the present models. Considering this situation, a new regional oil spill model (i4OilSpill) for the Bohai Sea is developed, which can simulate oil transformation and fate processes by Eulerian-Lagrangian methodology. The forecasting accuracy of the proposed model is proven by the validation results in the comparison between model simulation and subsequent satellite observations on the Penglai 19-3 oil spill accident. The performance of the model parameter correction mechanism is evaluated by comparing with the real spilled oil position extracted from ASAR images.

  12. Economic impacts of the S. S. Glacier Bay oil spill: Social and economic studies. Technical report (Final)

    SciTech Connect

    Burden, P.; Isaacs, J.; Richardson, J.; Braund, S.; Witten, E.

    1990-11-01

    On July 2, 1987, an oil spill occurred in Cook Inlet when the S.S. Glacier Bay hit a submerged obstacle while enroute to Kenai Pipeline Company facilities to offload oil. The 1987 commercial fishery in Cook Inlet was barely underway when the S.S. Glacier Bay oil spill occurred, and the largest salmon return in history was moving up the inlet. The sockeye salmon run alone totaled over 12 million, providing a seasonal catch of 9.25 million salmon. The 1987 sport fishery in Cook Inlet was in mid-season at the time of the spill. The S.S. Glacier Bay oil spill represents an opportunity to study the economic impacts of an oil spill event in Alaska, particularly with regard to commercial fishing impacts and the public costs of cleanup. The report evaluates the existing information on the spill, response measures, and economic impacts, and adds discussions with individuals and groups involved in or affected by the spill to this data base. The report reviewed accounts of the oil spill and its costs; identified types and sources of data, developed protocol, and contacted groups and people for data collection and verification; and described, analyzed, and prepared reports of the economic effects of the S.S. Glacier Bay oil spill.

  13. Monitoring and Modeling the Deepwater Horizon Oil Spill: A Record-Breaking Enterprise

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schultz, Colin

    2013-05-01

    On 20 April 2010, an explosion on the Deepwater Horizon oil drilling platform killed 11 people, and the subsequent blowout of the deepwater wellhead sparked one of the most costly oil spills in history. In the days and months that followed, researchers and disaster response crews flocked to the Gulf of Mexico to study, assess, and guide cleanup operations. In the AGU monograph Monitoring and Modeling the Deepwater Horizon Oil Spill: A Record-Breaking Enterprise, editors Yonggang Liu, Amy MacFadyen, Zhen-Gang Ji, and Robert H. Weisberg pull together the results of the state-of-the-art rapid response research conducted during the Gulf oil spill. Here Eos talks to Yonggang Liu.

  14. [Study of automatic marine oil spills detection using imaging spectroscopy].

    PubMed

    Liu, De-Lian; Han, Liang; Zhang, Jian-Qi

    2013-11-01

    To reduce artificial auxiliary works in oil spills detection process, an automatic oil spill detection method based on adaptive matched filter is presented. Firstly, the characteristics of reflectance spectral signature of C-H bond in oil spill are analyzed. And an oil spill spectral signature extraction model is designed by using the spectral feature of C-H bond. It is then used to obtain the reference spectral signature for the following oil spill detection step. Secondly, the characteristics of reflectance spectral signature of sea water, clouds, and oil spill are compared. The bands which have large difference in reflectance spectral signatures of the sea water, clouds, and oil spill are selected. By using these bands, the sea water pixels are segmented. And the background parameters are then calculated. Finally, the classical adaptive matched filter from target detection algorithms is improved and introduced for oil spill detection. The proposed method is applied to the real airborne visible infrared imaging spectrometer (AVIRIS) hyperspectral image captured during the deepwater horizon oil spill in the Gulf of Mexico for oil spill detection. The results show that the proposed method has, high efficiency, does not need artificial auxiliary work, and can be used for automatic detection of marine oil spill.

  15. Shoreline oiling from the Deepwater Horizon oil spill.

    PubMed

    Nixon, Zachary; Zengel, Scott; Baker, Mary; Steinhoff, Marla; Fricano, Gail; Rouhani, Shahrokh; Michel, Jacqueline

    2016-06-15

    We build on previous work to construct a comprehensive database of shoreline oiling exposure from the Deepwater Horizon (DWH) spill by compiling field and remotely-sensed datasets to support oil exposure and injury quantification. We compiled a spatial database of shoreline segments with attributes summarizing habitat, oiling category and timeline. We present new simplified oil exposure classes for both beaches and coastal wetland habitats derived from this database integrating both intensity and persistence of oiling on the shoreline over time. We document oiling along 2113km out of 9545km of surveyed shoreline, an increase of 19% from previously published estimates and representing the largest marine oil spill in history by length of shoreline oiled. These data may be used to generate maps and calculate summary statistics to assist in quantifying and understanding the scope, extent, and spatial distribution of shoreline oil exposure as a result of the DWH incident. PMID:27098990

  16. Shoreline oiling from the Deepwater Horizon oil spill.

    PubMed

    Nixon, Zachary; Zengel, Scott; Baker, Mary; Steinhoff, Marla; Fricano, Gail; Rouhani, Shahrokh; Michel, Jacqueline

    2016-06-15

    We build on previous work to construct a comprehensive database of shoreline oiling exposure from the Deepwater Horizon (DWH) spill by compiling field and remotely-sensed datasets to support oil exposure and injury quantification. We compiled a spatial database of shoreline segments with attributes summarizing habitat, oiling category and timeline. We present new simplified oil exposure classes for both beaches and coastal wetland habitats derived from this database integrating both intensity and persistence of oiling on the shoreline over time. We document oiling along 2113km out of 9545km of surveyed shoreline, an increase of 19% from previously published estimates and representing the largest marine oil spill in history by length of shoreline oiled. These data may be used to generate maps and calculate summary statistics to assist in quantifying and understanding the scope, extent, and spatial distribution of shoreline oil exposure as a result of the DWH incident.

  17. Artic oil-spill response guide for the alaskan beaufort sea. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1988-03-01

    Contents include--Federal Response Organization; Initial Response; Elements of Response; Detection and Surveillance, Oil-Spill Trajectory Models, Oil-Spill Containment, Oil-Spill Recovery, Transfer Equipment, Recovered Oil Storage Equipment, Oil-Spill Disposal, Personnel, Logistics, Well Control, Dispersants, Mechanics of Response, Oil Spill Response Scenarios; Appendices.

  18. Review of oil spill remote sensing.

    PubMed

    Fingas, Merv; Brown, Carl

    2014-06-15

    Remote-sensing for oil spills is reviewed. The use of visible techniques is ubiquitous, however it gives only the same results as visual monitoring. Oil has no particular spectral features that would allow for identification among the many possible background interferences. Cameras are only useful to provide documentation. In daytime oil absorbs light and remits this as thermal energy at temperatures 3-8K above ambient, this is detectable by infrared (IR) cameras. Laser fluorosensors are useful instruments because of their unique capability to identify oil on backgrounds that include water, soil, weeds, ice and snow. They are the only sensor that can positively discriminate oil on most backgrounds. Radar detects oil on water by the fact that oil will dampen water-surface capillary waves under low to moderate wave/wind conditions. Radar offers the only potential for large area searches, day/night and foul weather remote sensing.

  19. PRP: The Proven Solution for Cleaning Up Oil Spills

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2006-01-01

    The basic technology behind PRP is thousands of microcapsules, tiny balls of beeswax with hollow centers. Water cannot penetrate the microcapsule s cell, but oil is absorbed right into the beeswax spheres as they float on the water s surface. This way, the contaminants, chemical compounds that originally come from crude oil such as fuels, motor oils, or petroleum hydrocarbons, are caught before they settle. PRP works well as a loose powder for cleaning up contaminants in lakes and other ecologically fragile areas. The powder can be spread over a contaminated body of water or soil, and it will absorb contaminants, contain them in isolation, and dispose of them safely. In water, it is important that PRP floats and keeps the oil on the surface, because, even if oil exposure is not immediately lethal, it can cause long-term harm if allowed to settle. Bottom-dwelling fish exposed to compounds released after oil spills may develop liver disease, in addition to reproductive and growth problems. This use of PRP is especially effective for environmental cleanup in sensitive areas like coral reefs and mangroves.

  20. Combating oil spill problem using plastic waste.

    PubMed

    Saleem, Junaid; Ning, Chao; Barford, John; McKay, Gordon

    2015-10-01

    Thermoplastic polymers (such as polypropylene, polyethylene, polyethylene terephthalate (PET) and high density polyethylene (HDPE)) constitute 5-15% of municipal solid waste produced across the world. A huge quantity of plastic waste is disposed of each year and is mostly either discarded in landfills or incinerated. On the other hand, the usage of synthetic polymers as oil sorbents, in particular, polyolefins, including polypropylene (PP), and polyethylene (PE) are the most commonly used oil sorbent materials mainly due to their low cost. However, they possess relatively low oil absorption capacities. In this work, we provide an innovative way to produce a value-added product such as oil-sorbent film with high practical oil uptake values in terms of g/g from waste HDPE bottles for rapid oil spill remedy. PMID:26105077

  1. Combating oil spill problem using plastic waste.

    PubMed

    Saleem, Junaid; Ning, Chao; Barford, John; McKay, Gordon

    2015-10-01

    Thermoplastic polymers (such as polypropylene, polyethylene, polyethylene terephthalate (PET) and high density polyethylene (HDPE)) constitute 5-15% of municipal solid waste produced across the world. A huge quantity of plastic waste is disposed of each year and is mostly either discarded in landfills or incinerated. On the other hand, the usage of synthetic polymers as oil sorbents, in particular, polyolefins, including polypropylene (PP), and polyethylene (PE) are the most commonly used oil sorbent materials mainly due to their low cost. However, they possess relatively low oil absorption capacities. In this work, we provide an innovative way to produce a value-added product such as oil-sorbent film with high practical oil uptake values in terms of g/g from waste HDPE bottles for rapid oil spill remedy.

  2. Evaluating technologies of oil spill surveillance

    SciTech Connect

    Hover, G.L.

    1993-07-01

    Surveillance and monitoring of oil in the marine environment imposes a broad spectrum of remote sensing requirements. At the US Coast Guard Research Development Center, the environmental safety branch is sponsoring oil spill remote sensing research in four areas of technology: Synthetic aperture radar (SAR), Frequency-scanning microwave radiometry (FSR), Laser fluorosensing (LFS), and Forward-looking infrared (FLIR) imagers. SAR technology uses sophisticated signal processing to overcome prior limitations, providing images of higher and more uniform spatial acuity which may enable interpreters to more-readily distinguish petroleum slicks from others. The ability to determine the distribution of oil thickness within a slick is necessary when an estimate of oil volume is desired. Scientists at MIT have formulated a new approach to radiometric oil thickness measurement that takes advantage of recent advances in electronic component technology. The initial data collected with a prototype FSR instrument have validated the FSR concept and more work is ongoing. The Coast Guard is co-funding a program to demonstrate and evaluate the capabilities of an airborne laser fluorosensor to support oil spill response operations. During a controlled test, the instrument successfully demonstrated an ability to detect oil on water, ice, and various beach surfaces. Additional testing included different oil types and allowed for weathering. Data analysis is ongoing. Recent developments in infrared imager technology have produced a wide variety of off-the-shelf, portable cameras that could potentially provide a rapid-response spill assessment capability. The R D Center has been involved in the testing of many of these sensors.

  3. Airborne mercury pollution from a large oil spill accident on the west coast of Korea.

    PubMed

    Pandey, Sudhir Kumar; Kim, Ki-Hyun; Yim, Un-Hyuk; Jung, Myung-Chae; Kang, Chang-Hee

    2009-05-15

    Atmospheric mercury pollution was recognized after a large oil spill on the west coast of Korea on 7 December 2007. In this study, the concentrations of gaseous elemental mercury (GEM: Hg(0)) in air were measured both shortly after the oil spill ( approximately 100h) and 1month after the accident near the accident site. When the Hg concentration levels were compared between two seashore sites and two parallel sites offshore, the values tend to decrease further offshore. The unusual rise in Hg concentration levels observed on the seashore area shortly after the accident (mean of 16.4+/-9.85ngm(-3)) dropped dramatically after 1month with active cleanup activities (2.99+/-1.40ngm(-3)). Because of the connection between crude oil and Hg (one of the major impurities), the unusual rise in the atmospheric Hg after the oil spill can be explained by the active evasion of Hg from the spilled crude oil. Although Hg levels determined a few days after the accident did not exceed the reference exposure limits (REL) proposed by several agencies, the early build-up of elemental mercury level due to the oil spill might have exerted certain impacts on the surrounding environments.

  4. Self-driven one-step oil removal from oil spill on water via selective-wettability steel mesh.

    PubMed

    Song, Jinlong; Huang, Shuai; Lu, Yao; Bu, Xiangwei; Mates, Joseph E; Ghosh, Aritra; Ganguly, Ranjan; Carmalt, Claire J; Parkin, Ivan P; Xu, Wenji; Megaridis, Constantine M

    2014-11-26

    Marine oil spills seriously endanger sea ecosystems and coastal environments, resulting in a loss of energy resources. Environmental and economic demands emphasize the need for new methods of effectively separating oil-water mixtures, while collecting oil content at the same time. A new surface-tension-driven, gravity-assisted, one-step, oil-water separation method is presented for sustained filtration and collection of oil from a floating spill. A benchtop prototype oil collection device uses selective-wettability (superhydrophobic and superoleophilic) stainless steel mesh that attracts the floating oil, simultaneously separating it from water and collecting it in a container, requiring no preseparation pumping or pouring. The collection efficiencies for oils with wide ranging kinematic viscosities (0.32-70.4 cSt at 40 °C) are above 94%, including motor oil and heavy mineral oil. The prototype device showed high stability and functionality over repeated use, and can be easily scaled for efficient cleanup of large oil spills on seawater. In addition, a brief consolidation of separation requirements for oil-water mixtures of various oil densities is presented to demonstrate the versatility of the material system developed herein.

  5. Persistence of spilled oil on shores and its effects on biota

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Irvine, G.V.; ,

    2000-01-01

    Over two million tonnes of oil are estimated to enter the world's oceans every year. A small percentage, but still a large volume, of this oil strands onshore, where its persistence is governed primarily by the action of physical forces. In some cases, biota influence the persistence of stranded oil or the rate of its weathering. Oil's deleterious effects on biota are frequently related to the persistence and degree of weathering of the oil, with long-lasting effects in low-energy environments such as salt marshes and coastal mangroves, or in higher-energy environments where oil is sequestered. However, an oil spill can have disproportionately large biological effects when it affects key species or processes (e.g., structurally important species, predators, prey, recruitment, or succession). In these cases, the continuing presence of oil is not always a prerequisite for continuing biological effects. There are relatively few long-term studies of the effects of oil spills; data from these suggest that oil can persist for decades in some environments or situations, and that biological effects can be equally persistent. Broad-based, integrated studies have been the most revealing in terms of the importance of direct and indirect effects, spillover effects between different parts of the environment, and continuing linkages between residual oil and biologic effects. Clean-up and treatment techniques applied to spilled or stranded oil can also have significant, long-lasting effects and need to be carefully evaluated prior to use.

  6. Sea otter oil-spill mitigation study

    SciTech Connect

    Davis, R.W.; Thomas, J.; Williams, T.M.; Kastelein, R.; Cornell, L.

    1986-05-01

    The objective of the study was to analyze the effectiveness of existing capture, transport, cleaning, and rehabilitation methods and develop new methods to reduce the impact of an accidental oil spill to California sea otters, resulting from the present conditions or from future Outer Continental Shelf (OCS) oil and gas development in State or Federal waters. In addition, the study investigated whether or not a systematic difference in thermal conductivity existed between the pelts of Alaska and California Sea otters. This was done to assure that conclusions drawn from the oiling experiments carried out at Hubbs Marine Research Institute, Tetra Tech, Inc. contributed to the overall study by preparing a literature review and report on the fate and effects of oil dispersants and chemically dispersed oil.

  7. Proceedings of the Workshop on Government Oil Spill Modeling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bishop, J. M. (Compiler)

    1980-01-01

    Oil spill model users and modelers were brought together for the purpose of fostering joint communication and increasing understanding of mutual problems. The workshop concentrated on defining user needs, presentations on ongoing modeling programs, and discussions of supporting research for these modeling efforts. Specific user recommendations include the development of an oil spill model user library which identifies and describes available models. The development of models for the long-term fate and effect of spilled oil was examined.

  8. Ecological Impacts During the Deepwater Horizon Oil Spill Response

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Deepwater Horizon (DWH) oil spill was the largest environmental disaster and response effort in U.S. history, with nearly 800 million liters of crude oil spilled. Vast areas of the Gulf of Mexico were contaminated with oil, including deep-ocean communities and over 1,600 kilo...

  9. Ecological impacts of the Deepwater Horizon oil spill

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Deepwater Horizon oil spill (DWH) was the largest environmental disaster and response effort in United States history, with nearly 800 million liters of crude oil spilled. Vast areas of the Gulf of Mexico were contaminated with oil, including deep ocean communities and over 1...

  10. 40 CFR Appendix E to Part 300 - Oil Spill Response

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 27 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Oil Spill Response E Appendix E to... PLANNING, AND COMMUNITY RIGHT-TO-KNOW PROGRAMS NATIONAL OIL AND HAZARDOUS SUBSTANCES POLLUTION CONTINGENCY PLAN Pt. 300, App. E Appendix E to Part 300—Oil Spill Response Table of Contents 1.0 Introduction....

  11. Locating spilled oil with airborne laser fluorosensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brown, Carl E.; Fingas, Mervin F.; Nelson, Robert D.; Mullin, Joseph V.

    1999-02-01

    Locating oil in marine and terrestrial environments is a daunting task. There are commercially available off the shelf (COTS) sensors with a wide field-of-view (FOV) which can be used to map the overall extent of the spill. These generic sensors, however, lack the specificity required to positively identify oil and related products. The problem is exacerbated along beach and shoreline environments where a variety of organic and inorganic substrates are present. One sensor that can detect and classify oil in these environments is the laser fluorosensor. Laser fluorosensors have been under development by several agencies around the world for the past two decades. Environment Canada has been involved with laser fluorosensor development since the early 1990s. The prototype system was known as the Laser Environmental Airborne Fluorosensor (LEAF). The LEAF has recently been modified to provide real-time oil spill detection and classification. Fluorescence spectra are collected and analyzed at the rate of 100 Hz. Geo-referenced maps showing the locations of oil contamination are produced in real-time onboard the aircraft. While the LEAF has proven to be an excellent prototype sensor and a good operational tool, it has some deficiencies when it comes to oil spill response operations. A consortium including Environment Canada and the Minerals Management Service has recently funded the development of a new fluorosensor, called the Scanning Laser Environmental Airborne Fluorosensor (SLEAF). The SLEAF was designed to detect and map oil in shoreline environments where other non-specific sensors experience difficulty. Oil tends to pile up in narrow bands along the high tide line on beaches. A nadir-looking, small footprint sensor such as the LEAF would have difficulty locating oil in this situation. The SLEAF employs a pair of conical scanning mirrors to direct the laser beam in a circular pattern below the aircraft. With a sampling rate of 400 Hz and real-time spectral analysis

  12. Endocrine and immunological parameters in individuals involved in Prestige spill cleanup tasks seven years after the exposure.

    PubMed

    Laffon, Blanca; Aguilera, Francisco; Ríos-Vázquez, Julia; García-Lestón, Julia; Fuchs, Dietmar; Valdiglesias, Vanessa; Pásaro, Eduardo

    2013-09-01

    In November 2002 the oil tanker Prestige spilled 63,000tonnes of heavy oil off the northwest coast of Spain, impacting more than 1000km of coastline. A general concern led to a huge mobilization of human and technical resources, and more than 300,000 people participated in cleanup activities, which lasted up to 10months. Some endocrine and immunological alterations were reported in Prestige oil exposed subjects for several months. Therefore, the objective of this study was to evaluate if these alterations are still present seven years after the exposure. Fifty-four individuals exposed for at least 2months were compared to 50 matched referents. Prolactin and cortisol plasma concentrations, percentages of lymphocyte subsets (CD3(+), CD4(+), CD8(+), CD19(+), and CD56(+)16(+)), plasma levels of circulating cytokines (interleukin (IL) 2, IL4, IL6, IL10, tumour necrosis factor α, and interferon γ), and serum concentrations of neopterin, tryptophan and kynurenine were determined in peripheral blood samples. Results showed significant differences in exposed individuals vs. referents only in cortisol (increase), kynurenine and %CD16(+)56(+) lymphocytes (both decrease). Time of exposure to the oil or using protective clothes did not influence the results, but effect of using protective mask was observed on neopterin, %CD8(+), CD4(+)/CD8(+) ratio and IL4. Surveillance of the exposed individuals for early detection of possible health problems related to the endocrine or immunological systems is recommended.

  13. 75 FR 21648 - MMS Information Collection Activity: 1010-0106, Oil Spill Financial Responsibility for Offshore...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-26

    ... Minerals Management Service MMS Information Collection Activity: 1010-0106, Oil Spill Financial... Part 253, Oil Spill Financial Responsibility for Offshore Facilities.'' DATES: Submit written comments... collection of information. SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: Title: 30 CFR Part 253, Oil Spill...

  14. Remote sensing for risk analysis of oil spills in the Arctic Ocean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johansson, Malin; Hassellöv, Ida-Maja; Eriksson, Leif; Lindgren, Fredrik; Berg, Anders; Carvajal, Gisela; Landquist, Hanna

    2014-05-01

    The observed decrease in sea-ice and change from multi-year ice to first-year ice in the Arctic Ocean opens up for increased maritime activities. These activities include transportation, extraction of oil and gas, fishing and tourism. The expected growth in marine shipping in the Arctic region also increases the potential threat of accidents. Within this project we aim to provide information about the potential geographical distribution of oil pollution along prospective future shipping lanes in the Arctic. Using a combination of remote sensing products and a risk analysis thought-process we develop a method that tracks a potential oil spill from release to clean-up. We use synthetic aperture radar (SAR) images to provide input data about the changes in the Arctic sea ice cover, including sea ice drift, sea-ice concentration and information on the wind patterns over open water at 10 meters height. Combining this data with information about ocean currents we make estimates on the redistribution and spread of oil pollution scenarios. Furthermore, the method includes the biogeochemical impact of the spill on the environment. Different size of oil spills and spills with different type of oil will be included and we will include ecotoxicological effects of low concentrations of oil for possible future economic assessment of the environmental impact.

  15. Review of oil spill remote sensing

    SciTech Connect

    Fingas, M.F.; Brown, C.E.

    1996-12-31

    Remote-sensors for application to oil spills are reviewed. The capability of sensors to detect oil and to discriminate oil from background targets is the most important assessment criterion. A common sensor is an infrared camera or an IR/UV system. This sensor class can detect oil under a variety of conditions, discriminate oil from some backgrounds and has the lowest cost of any sensor. The inherent weaknesses include the inability to discriminate oil on beaches, among weeds or debris and under certain lighting conditions oil is not detected. The laser fluorosensor is recommended because of its unique capability to identify oil on most backgrounds. Radar, although low in priority for purchase, offers the only potential for large area searches and foul weather remote sensing. Radar is costly and requires a dedicated aircraft. Radar is prone to many interferences. Equipment operating in the visible spectrum, such as a camera or scanner, is useful for documentation or providing a basis for the overlay of other data. It is not useful beyond this, because oil shows no spectral characteristics in the visible region.

  16. Field evaluations of marine oil spill bioremediation.

    PubMed Central

    Swannell, R P; Lee, K; McDonagh, M

    1996-01-01

    Bioremediation is defined as the act of adding or improving the availability of materials (e.g., nutrients, microorganisms, or oxygen) to contaminated environments to cause an acceleration of natural biodegradative processes. The results of field experiments and trials following actual spill incidents have been reviewed to evaluate the feasibility of this approach as a treatment for oil contamination in the marine environment. The ubiquity of oil-degrading microorganisms in the marine environment is well established, and research has demonstrated the capability of the indigenous microflora to degrade many components of petroleum shortly after exposure. Studies have identified numerous factors which affect the natural biodegradation rates of oil, such as the origin and concentration of oil, the availability of oil-degrading microorganisms, nutrient concentrations, oxygen levels, climatic conditions, and sediment characteristics. Bioremediation strategies based on the application of fertilizers have been shown to stimulate the biodegradation rates of oil in aerobic intertidal sediments such as sand and cobble. The ratio of oil loading to nitrogen concentration within the interstitial water has been identified to be the principal controlling factor influencing the success of this bioremediation strategy. However, the need for the seeding of natural environments with hydrocarbon-degrading bacteria has not been clearly demonstrated under natural environmental conditions. It is suggested that bioremediation should now take its place among the many techniques available for the treatment of oil spills, although there is still a clear need to set operational limits for its use. On the basis of the available evidence, we have proposed preliminary operational guidelines for bioremediation on shoreline environments. PMID:8801437

  17. Computational Simulation of Submarine Oil Spill with Current

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Wei; Pang, Yongjie; Li, Hongwei

    Nowadays, the oil spill models are usually based on the sea surface and few of them are for submarine oil spill. Therefore, the simulation for submarine pipeline oil spill is discussed by FLUENT in this paper to forecast the trajectory of oil. The coupling of pressure and velocity under unsteady-state condition is solved by pressure implicit with splitting of operators algorithm, and the boundary condition of nonlinear free surface is solved by volume of fluid. The simulation of oil particles motion is carried out. Furthermore, the quantity and trajectory of spilled oil under different operating pressure and current velocity are compared and analyzed. The results show that the submarine diffusion scope of spilled oil is smaller with larger operating pressure or lower current velocity.

  18. Impacts of the Deepwater Horizon Oil Spill on Salt Marsh Periwinkles (Littoraria irrorata).

    PubMed

    Zengel, Scott; Montague, Clay L; Pennings, Steven C; Powers, Sean P; Steinhoff, Marla; Fricano, Gail; Schlemme, Claire; Zhang, Mengni; Oehrig, Jacob; Nixon, Zachary; Rouhani, Shahrokh; Michel, Jacqueline

    2016-01-19

    Deepwater Horizon was the largest marine oil spill in U.S. waters, oiling large expanses of coastal wetland shorelines. We compared marsh periwinkle (Littoraria irrorata) density and shell length at salt marsh sites with heavy oiling to reference conditions ∼16 months after oiling. We also compared periwinkle density and size among oiled sites with and without shoreline cleanup treatments. Densities of periwinkles were reduced by 80-90% at the oiled marsh edge and by 50% in the oiled marsh interior (∼9 m inland) compared to reference, with greatest numerical losses of periwinkles in the marsh interior, where densities were naturally higher. Shoreline cleanup further reduced adult snail density as well as snail size. Based on the size of adult periwinkles observed coupled with age and growth information, population recovery is projected to take several years once oiling and habitat conditions in affected areas are suitable to support normal periwinkle life-history functions. Where heavily oiled marshes have experienced accelerated erosion as a result of the spill, these habitat impacts would represent additional losses of periwinkles. Losses of marsh periwinkles would likely affect other ecosystem processes and attributes, including organic matter and nutrient cycling, marsh-estuarine food chains, and multiple species that prey on periwinkles.

  19. Impacts of the Deepwater Horizon Oil Spill on Salt Marsh Periwinkles (Littoraria irrorata).

    PubMed

    Zengel, Scott; Montague, Clay L; Pennings, Steven C; Powers, Sean P; Steinhoff, Marla; Fricano, Gail; Schlemme, Claire; Zhang, Mengni; Oehrig, Jacob; Nixon, Zachary; Rouhani, Shahrokh; Michel, Jacqueline

    2016-01-19

    Deepwater Horizon was the largest marine oil spill in U.S. waters, oiling large expanses of coastal wetland shorelines. We compared marsh periwinkle (Littoraria irrorata) density and shell length at salt marsh sites with heavy oiling to reference conditions ∼16 months after oiling. We also compared periwinkle density and size among oiled sites with and without shoreline cleanup treatments. Densities of periwinkles were reduced by 80-90% at the oiled marsh edge and by 50% in the oiled marsh interior (∼9 m inland) compared to reference, with greatest numerical losses of periwinkles in the marsh interior, where densities were naturally higher. Shoreline cleanup further reduced adult snail density as well as snail size. Based on the size of adult periwinkles observed coupled with age and growth information, population recovery is projected to take several years once oiling and habitat conditions in affected areas are suitable to support normal periwinkle life-history functions. Where heavily oiled marshes have experienced accelerated erosion as a result of the spill, these habitat impacts would represent additional losses of periwinkles. Losses of marsh periwinkles would likely affect other ecosystem processes and attributes, including organic matter and nutrient cycling, marsh-estuarine food chains, and multiple species that prey on periwinkles. PMID:26713547

  20. Oil spills: Legal aspects. (Latest citations from the Selected Water Resources Abstracts database). Published Search

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-07-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning the legal aspects of oil spills. Topics include general perspectives on oil spills, EPA's response to oil spills, legal and corporate response to oil spills, public interest groups' attitudes on oil spills, and economic and political approaches to the problems caused by oil spills. Federal, state and local legislation dealing with these problems is emphasized. (Contains 250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

  1. In Situ Burning of Oil Spills

    PubMed Central

    Evans, David D.; Mulholland, George W.; Baum, Howard R.; Walton, William D.; McGrattan, Kevin B.

    2001-01-01

    For more than a decade NIST conducted research to understand, measure and predict the important features of burning oil on water. Results of that research have been included in nationally recognized guidelines for approval of intentional burning. NIST measurements and predictions have played a major role in establishing in situ burning as a primary oil spill response method. Data are given for pool fire burning rates, smoke yield, smoke particulate size distribution, smoke aging, and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon content of the smoke for crude and fuel oil fires with effective diameters up to 17.2 m. New user-friendly software, ALOFT, was developed to quantify the large-scale features and trajectory of wind blown smoke plumes in the atmosphere and estimate the ground level smoke particulate concentrations. Predictions using the model were tested successfully against data from large-scale tests. ALOFT software is being used by oil spill response teams to help assess the potential impact of intentional burning. PMID:27500022

  2. In Situ Burning of Oil Spills.

    PubMed

    Evans, D D; Mulholland, G W; Baum, H R; Walton, W D; McGrattan, K B

    2001-01-01

    For more than a decade NIST conducted research to understand, measure and predict the important features of burning oil on water. Results of that research have been included in nationally recognized guidelines for approval of intentional burning. NIST measurements and predictions have played a major role in establishing in situ burning as a primary oil spill response method. Data are given for pool fire burning rates, smoke yield, smoke particulate size distribution, smoke aging, and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon content of the smoke for crude and fuel oil fires with effective diameters up to 17.2 m. New user-friendly software, ALOFT, was developed to quantify the large-scale features and trajectory of wind blown smoke plumes in the atmosphere and estimate the ground level smoke particulate concentrations. Predictions using the model were tested successfully against data from large-scale tests. ALOFT software is being used by oil spill response teams to help assess the potential impact of intentional burning. PMID:27500022

  3. Endmember detection in marine environment with oil spill event

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andreou, Charoula; Karathanassi, Vassilia

    2011-11-01

    Oil spill events are a crucial environmental issue. Detection of oil spills is important for both oil exploration and environmental protection. In this paper, investigation of hyperspectral remote sensing is performed for the detection of oil spills and the discrimination of different oil types. Spectral signatures of different oil types are very useful, since they may serve as endmembers in unmixing and classification models. Towards this direction, an oil spectral library, resulting from spectral measurements of artificial oil spills as well as of look-alikes in marine environment was compiled. Samples of four different oil types were used; two crude oils, one marine residual fuel oil, and one light petroleum product. Lookalikes comprise sea water, river discharges, shallow water and water with algae. Spectral measurements were acquired with spectro-radiometer GER1500. Moreover, oil and look-alikes spectral signatures have been examined whether they can be served as endmembers. This was accomplished by testifying their linear independence. After that, synthetic hyperspectral images based on the relevant oil spectral library were created. Several simplex-based endmember algorithms such as sequential maximum angle convex cone (SMACC), vertex component analysis (VCA), n-finder algorithm (N-FINDR), and automatic target generation process (ATGP) were applied on the synthetic images in order to evaluate their effectiveness for detecting oil spill events occurred from different oil types. Results showed that different types of oil spills with various thicknesses can be extracted as endmembers.

  4. Floating Oil-Spill Containment Device

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, Jack A.

    2012-01-01

    Previous oil containment booms have an open top that allows natural gas to escape, and have significant oil leakage due to wave action. Also, a subsea pyramid oil trap exists, but cannot move relative to moving oil plumes from deepsea oil leaks. The solution is to have large, moveable oil traps. One version floats on the sea surface and has a flexible tarp cover and a lower weighted skirt to completely entrap the floating oil and natural gas. The device must have at least three sides with boats pulling at each apex, and sonar or other system to track the slowly moving oil plume, so that the boats can properly locate the booms. The oil trap device must also have a means for removal of the oil and the natural gas. A second design version has a flexible pyramid cover that is attached by lines to ballast on the ocean floor. This is similar to fixed, metal pyramid oil capture devices in the Santa Barbara Channel off the coast of California. The ballast lines for the improved design, however, would have winches that can move the pyramid to always be located above the oil and gas plume. A third design is a combination of the first two. It uses a submerged pyramid to trap oil, but has no anchor and uses boats to locate the trap. It has ballast weights located along the bottom of the tarp and/or at the corners of the trap. The improved floating oil-spill containment device has a large floating boom and weighted skirt surrounding the oil and gas entrapment area. The device is triangular (or more than three sides) and has a flexible tarp cover with a raised gas vent area. Boats pull on the apex of the triangles to maintain tension and to allow the device to move to optimum locations to trap oil and gas. The gas is retrieved from a higher buoyant part of the tarp, and oil is retrieved from the floating oil layer contained in the device. These devices can be operated in relatively severe weather, since waves will break over the devices without causing oil leaking. Also, natural

  5. Fluorescence characteristics of oil during the Deepwater Horizon oil spill

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coble, P. G.; Conmy, R. N.; Wood, M.; Lee, K.; Kepkay, P.; Li, Z.

    2010-12-01

    Emergency responders, agencies and researchers have tracked oil spilled during the Deepwater Horizon event using a number of techniques, including fluorescence, particle size and chemical analyses. Even though current protocols call for the use of in situ fluorometers to detect the presence of oil throughout the water column, these fluorometers have not been designed to yield information on changes in oil optical properties as it weathers and is chemically and/or physically dispersed. Multi-wavelength (Excitation Emission Matrix or multiple fixed wavelength) fluorometers and particle size analyzers are required to accurately monitor these changing properties in situ and in samples containing the oil suspended as droplets in seawater. Findings reported by the Unified Command Joint Analysis Group on fluorescence, particle size (by LISST) and chemical analysis data will be used to delineate changing oil properties and the results obtained from laboratory experiments using suspensions of Deepwater Horizon source oil will be compared to the environmental data (including information collected via ROV at the well head). The Deepwater Horizon spill was unprecedented in terms of magnitude, depth of the spill and subsurface dispersant application. The work presented here will improve current protocols by highlighting the critical fluorescence wavelengths needed to accurately track oil through marine systems.

  6. Shoreline oiling conditions in Prince William Sound following the Exxon Valdez oil spill

    SciTech Connect

    Neff, J.M.; Owens, E.H.; Stoker, S.W.; McCormick, D.M.

    1995-12-31

    Following the Exxon Valdez oil spill of March 24, 1989, in Prince William Sound, Alaska, Exxon conducted comprehensive, systematic shoreline surveys in cooperation with federal and state authorities to obtain information on the distribution and magnitude of shoreline oiling and to identify natural and cultural resources requiring special protection. Similar joint surveys were performed during the springs of 1990, 1991, and 1992 on all Prince william Sound and Gulf of Alaska shorelines that were suspected of having remnants of weathered oil and that would benefit from further cleanup. In the springs of 1990, 1991, and 1992, isolated pockets of subsurface oil were found, chiefly in small scattered zones in coarse cobble/boulder sediments in the upper intertidal or supratidal zones. In 1991, about one-third of the subdivisions in Prince William Sound with surface oil also contained some subsurface oil. The areal extent of this subsurface oil declined by nearly 70% between 1991 and 1992, from about 37,000 m{sup 2} to about 12,000 m{sup 2}. Moreover, where subsurface oil remained in 1992, it was present in lesser amounts. Rates of oil removal were greatest on coastal sections treated early in the spring and summer of 1989. Where shoreline treatment was delayed, the subsequent rate of removal of oil from the shore by natural processes was slower. 27 refs., 10 figs., 3 tabs.

  7. MICROBIAL POPULATION CHANGES DURING BIOREMEDIATION OF AN EXPERIMENTAL OIL SPILL

    EPA Science Inventory

    Three crude oil bioremediation techniques were applied in a randomized block field experiment simulating a coastal oil-spill. Four treatments (no oil control, oil alone, oil + nutrients, and oil + nutrients + an indigenous inoculum) were applied. In-situ microbial community str...

  8. Western European oil pipeline spills on land decline in 1992

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-02-07

    European crude oil and petroleum products pipelines in 1992 had fewer incidents of oil spills than in 1991, spilled less in total volume, and recovered a larger portion of what was spilled than in any single year in the 5-year period beginning in 1988. Only seven incidents of oil spills from pipelines or related facilities occurred in 1992, compared with 14 in 1991 and an average of 12.9/year since 1971. Five spills were from pipelines; two from pump stations. Net loss of oil into the environment was 430 cu m (2,709 bbl) or barely 0.7 ppm of the total volume transported. Gross amount of spills totaled 804 cu m (5,065 bbl), least in the period 1988--92.

  9. Statistics of extremes in oil spill risk analysis.

    PubMed

    Ji, Zhen-Gang; Johnson, Walter R; Wikel, Geoffrey L

    2014-09-01

    The Deepwater Horizon oil spill (DWH) in 2010 in the Gulf of Mexico is the largest accidental marine oil spill in the history of the petroleum industry. After DWH, key questions were asked: What is the likelihood that a similar catastrophic oil spill (with a volume over 1 million barrels) will happen again? Is DWH an extreme event or will it happen frequently in the future? The extreme value theory (EVT) has been widely used in studying rare events, including damage from hurricanes, stock market crashes, insurance claims, flooding, and earthquakes. In this paper, the EVT is applied to analyze oil spills in the U.S. outer continental shelf (OCS). Incorporating the 49 years (1964-2012) of OCS oil spill data, the EVT is capable of describing the oil spills reasonably well. The return period of a catastrophic oil spill in OCS areas is estimated to be 165 years, with a 95% confidence interval between 41 years and more than 500 years. Sensitivity tests indicate that the EVT results are relatively stable. The results of this study are very useful for oil spill risk assessment, contingency planning, and environmental impact statements on oil exploration, development, and production. PMID:25109900

  10. Statistics of extremes in oil spill risk analysis.

    PubMed

    Ji, Zhen-Gang; Johnson, Walter R; Wikel, Geoffrey L

    2014-09-01

    The Deepwater Horizon oil spill (DWH) in 2010 in the Gulf of Mexico is the largest accidental marine oil spill in the history of the petroleum industry. After DWH, key questions were asked: What is the likelihood that a similar catastrophic oil spill (with a volume over 1 million barrels) will happen again? Is DWH an extreme event or will it happen frequently in the future? The extreme value theory (EVT) has been widely used in studying rare events, including damage from hurricanes, stock market crashes, insurance claims, flooding, and earthquakes. In this paper, the EVT is applied to analyze oil spills in the U.S. outer continental shelf (OCS). Incorporating the 49 years (1964-2012) of OCS oil spill data, the EVT is capable of describing the oil spills reasonably well. The return period of a catastrophic oil spill in OCS areas is estimated to be 165 years, with a 95% confidence interval between 41 years and more than 500 years. Sensitivity tests indicate that the EVT results are relatively stable. The results of this study are very useful for oil spill risk assessment, contingency planning, and environmental impact statements on oil exploration, development, and production.

  11. Environmental roundup/company wins reimbursement for clean up of oil spill

    SciTech Connect

    Austin, J.D.

    1980-11-01

    The U.S. Court of Claims has awarded Union Petroleum Corp. almost $100,000 to reimburse the expenses it had incurred in cleaning up an oil spill caused by vandals at Union's oil terminal and distribution facility near Revere, Massachusetts on 4/5-6/75. The court ruled that Union had established all of the elements required by the Clean Water Act to recover its reasonable expenses. Among these elements were the immediate notification of the U.S. Coast Guard and a spill cleanup company upon the discovery of the spill and discharge of some of the approximately 60,000 gal of No. 6 fuel oil into the Chelsea Creek on 4/6/75; the adequate security precautions at Union's facilities, including a spill containment system and an oil separator to prevent oil from being discharged into the creek; and the responsibility of a third party for the discharge. The court also praised the voluntary action taken by Union, since the two railroad cars from which the No. 6 fuel oil had been discharged were not owned or operated by Union.

  12. IT - OSRA: applying ensemble simulations to estimate the oil spill hazard associated to operational and accidental oil spills

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sepp Neves, Antonio Augusto; Pinardi, Nadia; martins, Flavio

    2016-04-01

    Every year, 270,000 tonnes of oil are estimated to be spilled in the ocean by vessel operations (e.g. tank washing, leakage of lubricants) and the so called operational spills are typically associated with small volumes and high occurrence rate. Vessel-related accidental spills (e.g. collisions, explosions) seldom occur and usually involve high volumes of oil, accounting for about 100,000 tonnes/year. The occurrence of accidental spills and their impacts have been well documented in the available literature. On the other hand, occurrence rates of operational spills and the effects they have on the marine and coastal environments remain very uncertain due to insufficient sampling effort and methodological limitations. Trying to foresee when and where an oil spill will occur in a certain area, its characteristics and impacts is, at present, impossible. Oil spill risk assessments (OSRAs) have been employed in several parts of the globe in order to deal with such uncertainties and protect the marine environment. In the present work, we computed the oil spill risk applying ensemble oil spill simulations following an ISO-31000 compliant OSRA methodology (Sepp Neves et al. , 2015). The ensemble experiment was carried out for the Algarve coast (southern Portugal) generating a unique data set of 51,200 numerical oil spill simulations covering the main sources of uncertainties (i.e. where and when the spill will happen and oil spill model configuration). From the generated data set, the risk due to accidental and operational spills was mapped for the Algarve municipalities based on the frequency and magnitude (i.e. concentrations) of beaching events and the main sources of risk were identified. The socioeconomic and environmental dimensions of the risk were treated separately. Seasonal changes in the risk index proposed due to the variability of meteo-oceanographic variables (i.e. currents and waves) were also quantified.

  13. Fate of the oil spilled from the Exxon Valdez

    SciTech Connect

    Wolfe, D.A.; Hameedi, M.J. ); Galt, J.A.; Watabayashi, G. ); Short, J.; O'Claire, C.; Rice, S. ); Michel, J. ); Payne, J.R. ); Braddock, J. )

    1994-12-01

    Just after midnight on March 24, 1989, the 987-foot tank vessel Exxon Valdez grounded on Bligh Reef in Prince William Sound (PWS), Alaska, releasing approximately 10.8 million gallons of North Slope crude oil into the Sound. The energetic environmental conditions in PWS and the extensive cleanup activities led to wide dispersion of the Exxon Valdez oil, which simultaneously underwent biodegradation and photooxidation. Although some more refractory residuals of the petroleum (e.g., high molecular weight PAH, resins, and asphaltenes) persist, many of these constituents are not readily distinguishable from other petroleum sources and naturally occurring hydrocarbon residues. We estimate that approximately 20% of the spilled oil evaporated and underwent photolysis in the atmosphere; approximately 50% biodegraded either in-situ on beaches or in the water column; approximately 14% was recovered or disposed; < 1% remained in the water column (except as biodegradation products); approximately 2% remained on intertidal shorelines; and approximately 13% remained in subtidal sediments, mostly in the GOA and again mostly as highly weathered residuals. 60 refs., 3 figs., 2 tabs.

  14. Estimating Potential Effects of Hypothetical Oil Spills on Polar Bears

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Amstrup, Steven C.; Durner, G.M.; McDonald, T.L.; Johnson, W.R.

    2006-01-01

    Much is known about the transport and fate of oil spilled into the sea and its toxicity to exposed wildlife. Previously, however, there has been no way to quantify the probability that wildlife dispersed over the seascape would be exposed to spilled oil. Polar bears, the apical predator of the arctic, are widely dispersed near the continental shelves of the Arctic Ocean, an area also undergoing considerable hydrocarbon exploration and development. We used 15,308 satellite locations from 194 radiocollared polar bears to estimate the probability that polar bears could be exposed to hypothetical oil spills. We used a true 2 dimensional Gausian kernel density estimator, to estimate the number of bears likely to occur in each 1.00 km2 cell of a grid superimposed over near shore areas surrounding 2 oil production facilities: the existing Northstar oil production facility, and the proposed offshore site for the Liberty production facility. We estimated the standard errors of bear numbers per cell with bootstrapping. Simulated oil spill footprints for September and October, the times during which we hypothesized effects of an oil-spill would be worst, were estimated using real wind and current data collected between 1980 and 1996. We used ARC/Info software to calculate overlap (numbers of bears oiled) between simulated oil-spill footprints and polar bear grid-cell values. Numbers of bears potentially oiled by a hypothetical 5912 barrel spill (the largest spill thought probable from a pipeline breach) ranged from 0 to 27 polar bears for September open water conditions, and from 0 to 74 polar bears in October mixed ice conditions. Median numbers oiled by the 5912 barrel hypothetical spill from the Liberty simulation in September and October were 1 and 3 bears, equivalent values for the Northstar simulation were 3 and 11 bears. In October, 75% of trajectories from the 5912 barrel simulated spill at Liberty oiled 9 or fewer bears while 75% of the trajectories affected 20 or

  15. Ecological Impacts of the Deepwater Horizon Oil Spill (Bogota, Columbia)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Deepwater Horizon oil spill (DWH) was the largest environmental disaster and response effort in US History, with nearly 800 million liters spilled. Vast areas of the Gulf of Mexico were contaminated with oil, including deep ocean communities, protected species, over 1600 km o...

  16. RESIDUAL MUTAGENICITY OF THE ALASKAN OIL SPILL ORGANICS

    EPA Science Inventory

    RESIDUAL MUTAGENICITY OF THE ALASKAN OIL SPILL ORGANICS. L.D.

    The Exxon Valdez, on March 24, 1989, spilled approximately eleven million gallons of Prudhoe Bay crude oil into the waters of Prince William Sound. Approximately 300 miles of
    contaminated beach are potential...

  17. Assessment of photochemical processes in marine oil spill fingerprinting.

    PubMed

    Radović, Jagoš R; Aeppli, Christoph; Nelson, Robert K; Jimenez, Núria; Reddy, Christopher M; Bayona, Josep M; Albaigés, Joan

    2014-02-15

    Understanding weathering processes plays a critical role in oil spill forensics, which is based on the comparison of the distributions of selected compounds assumed to be recalcitrant and/or have consistent weathering transformations. Yet, these assumptions are based on limited laboratory and oil-spill studies. With access to additional sites that have been oiled by different types of oils and exposures, there is a great opportunity to expand on our knowledge about these transformations. Here, we demonstrate the effects of photooxidation on the overall composition of spilled oils caused by natural and simulated sunlight, and particularly on the often used polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and the biomarker triaromatic steranes (TAS). Both laboratory and field data from oil released from the Macondo well oil following the Deepwater Horizon disaster (2010), and heavy fuel-oil from the Prestige tanker spill (2002) have been obtained to improve the data interpretation of the typical fingerprinting methodology.

  18. USE OF CHEMICAL DISPERSANTS FOR MARINE OIL SPILLS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Chemical dispersants are one of the tools available to oil spill response personnel to control the spread of an oil slick. The manual presents information from the literature relative to dispersant effectiveness, toxicity and other environmental factors, regulatory and administra...

  19. Combustive management of oil spills

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-01-01

    Extensive experiments with in situ incineration were performed on a desert site at the University of Arizona with very striking results. The largest incinerator, 6 feet in diameter with a 30 foot chimney, developed combustion temperatures of 3000, F, and attendant soot production approximately 1000 times less than that produced by conventional in situ burning. This soot production, in fact, is approximately 30 times less than current allowable EPA standards for incinerators and internal combustion engines. Furthermore, as a consequence of the high temperature combustion, the bum rate was established at a very high 3400 gallons per hour for this particular 6 foot diameter structure. The rudimentary design studies we have carried out relative to a seagoing 8 foot diameter incinerator have predicted that a continuous burn rate of 7000 gallons per hour is realistic. This structure was taken as a basis for operational design because it is compatible with C130 flyability, and will be inexpensive enough ($120,000 per copy) to be stored at those seaside depots throughout the US coast line in which the requisite ancillary equipments (booms, service tugs, etc.) are already deployed. The LOX experiments verified our expectations with respect to combustion of debris and various highly weathered or emulsified oils. We have concluded, however, that the use of liquid oxygen in actual beach clean up is not promising because the very high temperatures associated with this combustion are almost certain to produce environmentally deleterious effects on the beach surface and its immediately sublying structures. However, the use of liquid oxygen augmentation for shore based and flyable incinerators may still play an important role in handing the problem of accumulated debris.

  20. Lumber spill in central California waters: implications for oil spills and sea otters

    SciTech Connect

    VanBlaricom, G.R.; Jameson, R.J.

    1982-03-19

    A large quantity of lumber was spilled in the ocean off central California during the winter of 1978, and it spread through most of the range of the threatened California sea otter population within 4 weeks. The movement rates of lumber were similar to those of oil slicks observed elsewhere. These observations indicate that a major oil spill could expose significant numbers of California sea otters to oil contamination.

  1. Navigation of autonomous vehicles for oil spill cleaning in dynamic and uncertain environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jin, Xin; Ray, Asok

    2014-04-01

    In the context of oil spill cleaning by autonomous vehicles in dynamic and uncertain environments, this paper presents a multi-resolution algorithm that seamlessly integrates the concepts of local navigation and global navigation based on the sensory information; the objective here is to enable adaptive decision making and online replanning of vehicle paths. The proposed algorithm provides a complete coverage of the search area for clean-up of the oil spills and does not suffer from the problem of having local minima, which is commonly encountered in potential-field-based methods. The efficacy of the algorithm is tested on a high-fidelity player/stage simulator for oil spill cleaning in a harbour, where the underlying oil weathering process is modelled as 2D random-walk particle tracking. A preliminary version of this paper was presented by X. Jin and A. Ray as 'Coverage Control of Autonomous Vehicles for Oil Spill Cleaning in Dynamic and Uncertain Environments', Proceedings of the American Control Conference, Washington, DC, June 2013, pp. 2600-2605.

  2. Panel recommendations on Oil Spill Risk Assessment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mellor, George L.

    A technical panel was convened by the Minerals Management Services (MMS) of the Department of Interior to identify deficiencies and recommend improvements in their Oil Spill Risk Analysis (OSRA) model. Members of the panel were J. M. Bane, Jr. (University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill), G. S. Janowitz (North Carolina State University, Raleigh), T. H. Lee (University of Miami, Miami, Fla.), G. L. Mellor (Princeton University, Princeton, N.J.), M. L. Spaulding (University of Rhode Island, Kingston), and F. M. Vukovich (Research Triangle Institute, Raleigh-Durham, N.C.).The present OSRA model uses climatologically derived near-surface velocity fields on which are superposed oil trajectory velocities derived from the so-called “3.5% rule”: this uses a wind series derived from a “transition probability matrix” statistical approach.

  3. Tanker spills Norwegian crude oil off Shetlands

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-01-11

    This paper reports that crude oil was spilling last week from the U.S. owned Braer tanker after the 89,000 dwt vessel ran aground on the south end of Scotland's Shetland Islands. Workers were trying to assess the extent of damage to the tanker, shoreline, and wildlife after the January 5 accident. Braer's cargo amounted to 607,000 bbl of Norwegian oil bound for Canada. Braer loaded its cargo and sailed January 3 from Den norske stats oljeselskap AS's Mongstad, Norway, terminal with crude from Gullfaks field in the Norwegian North Sea. The $11 million shipment was destined for Ultramar Canada Inc.'s 125,000 b/d refinery at St. Romuald, Que.

  4. Extent and frequency of vessel oil spills in US marine protected areas.

    PubMed

    Dalton, Tracey; Jin, Di

    2010-11-01

    Little is known about how marine protected areas (MPAs) may be vulnerable to vessel oil spills in the United States. This study investigated individual size, frequency, and total amount of vessel oil spilled in US MPAs, and how characteristics of MPAs and individual spill events influenced spills. Vessel oil spills in US waters (2002-06) and MPA boundaries were mapped. Total number and volume of oil spills inside and outside MPAs were computed. Results show that the presence of a MPA does not seem to prevent vessel oil spills or reduce the amount of oil spilled, and that a variety of MPA attributes (e.g., scale of protection, fishing restrictions, and others) and spill event characteristics (e.g., vessel type, year of spill, and others) affect oil spills inside and outside MPAs. These results can be used to develop MPA rules and marine transportation policies that reduce the vulnerability of sensitive resources to oil spills.

  5. Ecological considerations for the use of dispersants in oil spill response

    SciTech Connect

    Lindstedt-Siva, J.; Albers, P.H.; Fucik, K.W.; Maynard, N.G.

    1982-10-01

    A multidisciplinary task force with membership from government agencies, academia, and industry is developing ecologically based guidelines for dispersant use in marine and estuarine environments. The guidelines are organized by habitat type (e.g., coral reefs, rocky shores, bird habitats) and consider dispersant use to protect the habitats from impact, to mitigate impacts, and to clean the habitats after a spill. Each guideline contains a description of the habitat type covered, recommendations for dispersant use, and a background section reviewing the relevant literature. The goal is to minimize the ecological impacts of oil spills. Aesthetic, socioeconomic, and political factors are not considered, although it is recognized that these are important concerns during spill response. Use of dispersants is considered along with other appropriate countermeasures and compared with the ''no cleanup'' alternative.

  6. Oil Stop Valve : Oil Spill Containment Research and Development Project.

    SciTech Connect

    Bourn, Robert D.

    1982-07-01

    This report summarizes the research and development project conducted by the Civil Engineering Section, Division of Substation and Control Engineering, to determine the effectiveness of the oil stop valve for use in the Bonneville Power Administration's Oil Spill Containment and Countermeasure Program. The most attractive alternative to lagoons and separator tanks was found in the oil stop valve manufactured by AFL/Clark Industries of Riviera Beach, Florida. This small, direct-acting and relatively inexpensive valve requires little maintenance and can either be employed independently, using existing drain lines for effluent storage, or in conjunction with oil separator tanks and lagoon systems. The AFL/Clark valve requires no power and has only one moving part, a ballasted float having a specific gravity between that of oil and water. In water, the float rides above the throat of the discharge pipe allowing water to flow out. When oil enters the water the float begins losing its relative bouyancy and sinks until it seats itself over the throat of the outlet, closing the valve. Usually installed in a manhole within a typical storm drainage system, the valve backs spilled oil into drainways and contains it for temporary storage within the switchyard.

  7. Advancing Partnerships Towards an Integrated Approach to Oil Spill Response

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Green, D. S.; Stough, T.; Gallegos, S. C.; Leifer, I.; Murray, J. J.; Streett, D.

    2015-12-01

    Oil spills can cause enormous ecological and economic devastation, necessitating application of the best science and technology available, and remote sensing is playing a growing critical role in the detection and monitoring of oil spills, as well as facilitating validation of remote sensing oil spill products. The FOSTERRS (Federal Oil Science Team for Emergency Response Remote Sensing) interagency working group seeks to ensure that during an oil spill, remote sensing assets (satellite/aircraft/instruments) and analysis techniques are quickly, effectively, appropriately, and seamlessly available to oil spills responders. Yet significant challenges remain for addressing oils spanning a vast range of chemical properties that may be spilled from the Tropics to the Arctic, with algorithms and scientific understanding needing advances to keep up with technology. Thus, FOSTERRS promotes enabling scientific discovery to ensure robust utilization of available technology as well as identifying technologies moving up the TRL (Technology Readiness Level). A recent FOSTERRS facilitated support activity involved deployment of the AVIRIS NG (Airborne Visual Infrared Imaging Spectrometer- Next Generation) during the Santa Barbara Oil Spill to validate the potential of airborne hyperspectral imaging to real-time map beach tar coverage including surface validation data. Many developing airborne technologies have potential to transition to space-based platforms providing global readiness.

  8. The Role of Hydrology in the Persistence of the Exxon Valdez Oil Spill

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boufadel, M.; Li, H.; Sharifi, Y.

    2009-12-01

    The 1989 Exxon Valdez oil spill contaminated around 800 kilometers of shoreline in Prince William Sound, Alaska. Despite extensive cleanup efforts and nearly 20 years of natural weathering, subsurface oil residues persist in patches in some beaches. The hydrogeological mechanism causing the oil persistence was not fully understood due to the complex surface and groundwater interactions in the intertidal zone including tides, inland freshwater recharge, sediment heterogeneity, seawater density-effect and beach landforms. Based on field data and numerical simulations, we show that the persistence of oil is due to the two-layered structure (a high-permeability surface layer underlain by a low-permeability layer) in conjunction with a small freshwater recharge. The surface layer probably provided the oil a temporary storage for its slow, continuous filling of the lower layer whenever the water table dropped below the interface of the two layers due to small freshwater recharge from inland. The oil did not seem to have penetrated the lower layer at locations where the freshwater recharge was large. The persistence seems to be due to the lack of oxygen resulting from the tidal hydraulics in the two-layered beaches. This was not considered in prior studies dealing with the spill. This study has implications on locating and bioremediating spilled oil on tidal gravel beaches widely distributed around the world, especially in mid- and high-latitude regions.

  9. Effectiveness and regulatory issues in oil spill bioremediation: Experiences with the Exxon Valdez Oil Spill in Alaska. (Chapter 12). Book chapter

    SciTech Connect

    Pritchard, P.H.

    1993-01-01

    The use of bioremediation as a supplemental cleanup technology in the Exxon Valdez oil spill, in Prince William Sound, Alaska, has proven to be a good example of the problems and successes associated with the practical application in this technology. Field studies conducted by scientists from the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency have demonstrated that oil degradation by indigenous microflora on the beaches of Prince William Sound could be significantly accelerated by adding fertilizer directly to the surfaces of oil-contaminated beaches. The results from the application of an oleophilic fertilizer are presented as exemplary field and laboratory information. The fertilizer enhanced biodegradation of the oil, as measured by changes in oil composition and bulk oil weight per unit of beach material, by approximately twofold relative to untreated controls. These studies supported bioremediation as a useful cleanup alternative that was subsequently used by Exxon on a large scale. They have also generated a number of insightful lessons that have significant relevance to future oil bioremediation efforts. This chapter discusses these lessons and examines complications and difficulties in assessing the effectiveness of bioremediation in the field.

  10. Studies on marine oil spills and their ecological damage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mei, Hong; Yin, Yanjie

    2009-09-01

    The sources of marine oil spills are mainly from accidents of marine oil tankers or freighters, marine oil-drilling platforms, marine oil pipelines, marine oilfields, terrestrial pollution, oil-bearing atmosphere, and offshore oil production equipment. It is concluded upon analysis that there are two main reasons for marine oil spills: (I) The motive for huge economic benefits of oil industry owners and oil shipping agents far surpasses their sense of ecological risks. (II) Marine ecological safety has not become the main concern of national security. Oil spills are disasters because humans spare no efforts to get economic benefits from oil. The present paper draws another conclusion that marine ecological damage caused by oil spills can be roughly divided into two categories: damage to marine resource value (direct value) and damage to marine ecosystem service value (indirect value). Marine oil spills cause damage to marine biological, fishery, seawater, tourism and mineral resources to various extents, which contributes to the lower quality and value of marine resources.

  11. Mega borg oil spill: Fate and effect studies

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-09-28

    The Mega Borg, a Norwegian tanker, released an estimated 5.1 million gallons (gal) of Palanca Angola crude oil into the Gulf of Mexico during a lightering accident and subsequent fire. The collection of reports was designed to provide a comprehensive overview of the spill chronology, the fate of the oil released, and subsequent studies that were conducted to assess the impacts of the oil spill on the environment and its biota.

  12. Effectiveness of bioremediation for the Exxon Valdez oil spill

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bragg, James R.; Prince, Roger C.; Harner, E. James; Atlas, Ronald M.

    1994-03-01

    The effectiveness of bioremediation for oil spills has been difficult to establish on dynamic, heterogeneous marine shorelines. A new interpretative technique used following the 1989 Exxon Valdez spill in Alaska shows that fertilizer applications significantly increased rates of oil biodegradation. Biodegradation rates depended mainly on the concentration of nitrogen within the shoreline, the oil loading, and the extent to which natural biodegradation had already taken place. The results suggest ways to improve the effectiveness of bioremediation measures in the future.

  13. Automatic oil spill detection on quad polarimetric UAVSAR imagery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rahnemoonfar, Maryam; Dhakal, Shanti

    2016-05-01

    Oil spill on the water bodies has adverse effects on coastal and marine ecology. Oil spill contingency planning is of utmost importance in order to plan for mitigation and remediation of the oceanic oil spill. Remote sensing technologies are used for monitoring the oil spills on the ocean and coastal region. Airborne and satellite sensors such as optical, infrared, ultraviolet, radar and microwave sensors are available for remote surveillance of the ocean. Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) is used most extensively for oil-spill monitoring because of its capability to operate during day/night and cloud-cover condition. This study detects the possible oil spill regions on fully polarimetric Uninhabited Aerial Vehicle - Synthetic Aperture Radar (UAVSAR) images. The UAVSAR image is decomposed using Cloude-Pottier polarimetric decomposition technique to obtain entropy and alpha parameters. In addition, other polarimetric features such as co-polar correlation and degree of polarization are obtained for the UAVSAR images. These features are used to with fuzzy logic based classification to detect oil spill on the SAR images. The experimental results show the effectiveness of the proposed method.

  14. MODIS detects oil spills in Lake Maracaibo, Venezuela

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Chuanmin; Müller-Karger, Frank E.; Taylor, Charles (Judd); Myhre, Douglas; Murch, Brock; Odriozola, Ana L.; Godoy, Gonzalo

    Starting December 2002, the oil industry operating in and around Lake Maracaibo in Venezuela suffered a series of accidents (Figure 1). Fires, the sinking of two barges, rupture of oil pipelines, spills from floating oil storage and transfer stations, and malfunctioning of oil extraction platforms led to extensive oil spills. Local and federal Venezuelan government oil industry experts directly observed the series of spills from aircraft, helicopter, and various surface vessels. The spills were recorded in December by official photography and video of leaking infrastructure, and unofficial recordings continued in January and February 2003 (http://wwwcomlago.com.ve/fotosvideos. html).These surveys did not provide sufficient spatial or temporal coverage to assess the magnitude, area covered, or duration of the spills. Clear images of the spill were captured with NASAs Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS), however. MODIS is effectively a sophisticated digital camera launched aboard the Terra satellite in December 1999, and aboard the Aqua satellite in April 2002 [Esaias et al., 1998; http://modis.gsfc.nasa.gov]. Its medium-resolution bands (250 and 500 m resolution) are available to the public, and have great potential in coastal monitoring. This article demonstrates how MODIS can provide basic and critical assessments of oil spills.

  15. Oil spill fishery impact assessment model: Sensitivity to spill location and timing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spaulding, Malcolm L.; Reed, Mark; Anderson, Eric; Isaji, Tatsusaburo; Swanson, J. Craig; Saila, Saul B.; Lorda, Ernesto; Walker, Henry

    1985-01-01

    An oil spill fishery impact assessment model system has been applied to the Georges Bank-Gulf of Maine region to assess the sensitivity of probable impact on several key fisheries to spill location and timing. Simulations of the impact on the fishery of tanker spills (20 million gallons released over 5 days), at two separate locations for each season of the year, and blowout spills (68 million gallons released over 30 days) at one location, with monthly releases and at six other locations with seasonal spills have been studied. Atlantic cod has been employed as the principal fish species throughout the simulations. Impacts on Atlantic herring and haddock have also been investigated for selected cases. All spill sites are located on Georges Bank with the majority in the general region of OCS leasing activity. The results of these simulations suggest a complex interaction among spill location and timing, the spatial and temporal distribution of spawning, the population dynamics of the species under study, and the hydrodynamics of the area. For the species studied, spills occurring during the winter and spring have the largest impact with cod being the most heavily impacted followed by haddock and herring. In all cases, the maximum cumulative loss to the fishery of a one time spill event never exceeded 25% of the annual catch with the exact value depending on the number of ichthyoplankton impacted by the spill and the compensatory dynamics of the population.

  16. 75 FR 77880 - Proposed Collection; Comment Request; GuLF Worker Study: Gulf Long-Term Follow-Up Study for Oil...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-14

    ...: Gulf Long-Term Follow-Up Study for Oil Spill Clean-Up Workers and Volunteers SUMMARY: Under the... Study for Oil Spill Clean-Up Workers and Volunteers. Type of Information Collection Request: New. Need...- and long-term health effects associated with oil spill clean-up activities and exposures...

  17. Minimizing risks from spilled oil to ecosystem services using influence diagrams: the Deepwater Horizon spill response.

    PubMed

    Carriger, John F; Barron, Mace G

    2011-09-15

    Decision science tools can be used in evaluating response options and making inferences on risks to ecosystem services (ES) from ecological disasters. Influence diagrams (IDs) are probabilistic networks that explicitly represent the decisions related to a problem and their influence on desired or undesired outcomes. To examine how IDs might be useful in probabilistic risk management for spill response efforts, an ID was constructed to display the potential interactions between exposure events and the trade-offs between costs and ES impacts from spilled oil and response decisions in the DWH spill event. Quantitative knowledge was not formally incorporated but an ID platform for doing this was examined. Probabilities were assigned for conditional relationships in the ID and scenarios examining the impact of different response actions on components of spilled oil were investigated in hypothetical scenarios. Given the structure of the ID, potential knowledge gaps included understanding of the movement of oil, the ecological risk of different spill-related stressors to key receptors (e.g., endangered species, fisheries), and the need for stakeholder valuation of the ES benefits that could be impacted by a spill. Framing the Deepwater Horizon problem domain in an ID conceptualized important variables and relationships that could be optimally accounted for in preparing and managing responses in future spills. These features of the developed IDs may assist in better investigating the uncertainty, costs, and the trade-offs if large-scale, deep ocean spills were to occur again.

  18. DISPERSANT EFFECTIVENESS ON OIL SPILLS - IMPACT OF ENVIRONMENTAL FACTORS

    EPA Science Inventory

    When a dispersant is applied to an oil slick, its effectiveness in dispersing the spilled oil depends on various factors such as oil properties, wave mixing energy, temperature of both oil and water, and salinity of the water. Estuaries represent water with varying salinities. In...

  19. Aoutomatic Oil Spill Detection Using TerraSAR-X Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zulipiye, Kaiyoumu; Balik Sanli, Fusun

    2016-07-01

    Oil release into the ocean may affect marine ecosystems and cause environmental pollution. Thus, oil spill detection and identification becomes critical important. Characterized by synoptic view over large regions, remote sensing has been proved to be a reliable tool for oil spill detection. Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) imagery shows returned signal that clearly distinguish oil from oil-free surface under optimal wind conditions, which makes it the most frequent used remote sensing technique in oil spill detection. Algorithms of automatic oil spill detection has already been developed for different SAR sensors, including RADARSAT and ENVISAT. In this study, we want to apply automatic oil spill detection algorithms on TerraSAR-X data which is previously developed for ASAR data. The applied methodology includes two steps as segmentation and classification. First segmentation algorithms compiled by C# have been applied under a Bayesian framework adopting a multi-level logistic. After segmentation different classification methods such as feature selection, filter, and embedded selection have been applied. As a result the used classifiers for oil spill detection will be compared, and the complete processing chain will be evaluated.

  20. A tale of two recent spills--comparison of 2014 Galveston Bay and 2010 Deepwater Horizon oil spill residues.

    PubMed

    Yin, Fang; Hayworth, Joel S; Clement, T Prabhakar

    2015-01-01

    Managing oil spill residues washing onto sandy beaches is a common worldwide environmental problem. In this study, we have analyzed the first-arrival oil spill residues collected from two Gulf of Mexico (GOM) beach systems following two recent oil spills: the 2014 Galveston Bay (GB) oil spill, and the 2010 Deepwater Horizon (DWH) oil spill. This is the first study to provide field observations and chemical characterization data for the 2014 GB oil spill. Here we compare the physical and chemical characteristics of GB oil spill samples with DWH oil spill samples and present their similarities and differences. Our field observations indicate that both oil spills had similar shoreline deposition patterns; however, their physical and chemical characteristics differed considerably. We highlight these differences, discuss their implications, and interpret GB data in light of lessons learned from previously published DWH oil spill studies. These analyses are further used to assess the long-term fate of GB oil spill residues and their potential environmental impacts.

  1. A tale of two recent spills--comparison of 2014 Galveston Bay and 2010 Deepwater Horizon oil spill residues.

    PubMed

    Yin, Fang; Hayworth, Joel S; Clement, T Prabhakar

    2015-01-01

    Managing oil spill residues washing onto sandy beaches is a common worldwide environmental problem. In this study, we have analyzed the first-arrival oil spill residues collected from two Gulf of Mexico (GOM) beach systems following two recent oil spills: the 2014 Galveston Bay (GB) oil spill, and the 2010 Deepwater Horizon (DWH) oil spill. This is the first study to provide field observations and chemical characterization data for the 2014 GB oil spill. Here we compare the physical and chemical characteristics of GB oil spill samples with DWH oil spill samples and present their similarities and differences. Our field observations indicate that both oil spills had similar shoreline deposition patterns; however, their physical and chemical characteristics differed considerably. We highlight these differences, discuss their implications, and interpret GB data in light of lessons learned from previously published DWH oil spill studies. These analyses are further used to assess the long-term fate of GB oil spill residues and their potential environmental impacts. PMID:25714100

  2. Large-scale oil spill simulation using the lattice Boltzmann method, validation on the Lebanon oil spill case.

    PubMed

    Maslo, Aljaž; Panjan, Jože; Žagar, Dušan

    2014-07-15

    This paper tests the adequacy of using the lattice Boltzmann method in large-scale oil spill modelling, such as the Lebanon oil spill. Several numerical experiments were performed in order to select the most appropriate lattice and to decide between the single- and two-relaxation time models. Large-scale oil spills require simulations with short computational times. In order to speed up the computation and preserve adequate accuracy of the model, five different flux limiting interpolation techniques were compared and evaluated. The model was validated on the Lebanon oil spill with regard to the oil-slick position and concentrations in the sea, and the beaching area on the coast. Good agreement with satellite images of the slick and field data on beaching was achieved. The main advantages of the applied method are the capability of simulating very low oil concentrations and computational times that are by an order of magnitude shorter compared to similar models.

  3. Satellite Observations: Oil Spills Impact on Phytoplankton in Bohai Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Li; Tang, Danling; Wang, Sufen; Pan, Gang

    2014-11-01

    This study discussed ecological responses to the Penglai oil spills in the Bohai Sea, occurring on June 4, 2011, using MODIS Chlorophyll-a data. After time intervals of 20 days, 12 months and 14 months, phytoplankton blooms appeared at three locations in the surrounding and distant regions of the oil spills in the Bohai Sea. A bloom with high Chlorophyll-a (13.66 mg m-3) spread over an area of 800 km2 on June 18-25, 2011, about 56 km northeast from the location of the oil spills. A pronounced increase in the monthly Chlorophyll-a concentration (6.40 mg m-3) indicating phytoplankton bloom was observed in the Bohai Sea in June 2012. Phytoplankton blooms depend on the amount and composition of oil, toxicity of petroleum hydrocarbons, micro-organisms, and sea ice. The oil spills impact phytoplankton for a long duration, which impacts the marine ecosystem.

  4. Removing Spilled Oil With Liquid Nitrogen

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Snow, Daniel B.

    1991-01-01

    Technique proposed to reduce more quickly, contain, clean up, and remove petroleum products and such other pollutants as raw sewage and chemicals without damage to humans, animals, plants, or the environment. Unique and primary aspect of new technique is use of cryogenic fluid to solidify spill so it can be carried away in solid chunks. Liquid nitrogen (LN2), with boiling point at -320 degrees F (-196 degrees C), offers probably best tradeoff among extreme cold, cost, availability, and lack of impact on environment among various cryogenic fluids available. Other applications include extinguishing fires at such locations as oil derricks or platforms and at tank farms containing such petroleum products as gasoline, diesel fuel, and kerosene.

  5. The Nestucca oil spill; A Christmas story

    SciTech Connect

    Yaroch, G.N.

    1991-12-01

    It was winter cold on the Pacific Ocean on December 22, 1988, when plowing through the seas came the tug Ocean Service towing the good barge Nestucca. All was well - for a time. Then, as the two came into Grays Harbor, Washington, the monotonous yet peaceful chuga-chuga-chuga of the tug was disturbed by the sudden parting of the heavy towline and the casting adrift of the good barge Nestucca. Then, the Ocean Service was set into the Nestucca's sideshell, putting a hole in the barge's number one starboard cargo tank. And lo, there was a great darkness that appeared over the deep. A major oil spill was in the process of occurring. It was once again time to ante up and make right the offering to the Keepers of the Sorbent.

  6. CHARACTERISTICS OF SPILLED OILS, FUELS, AND PETROLEUM PRODUCTS: 3A. SIMULATION OF OIL SPILLS AND DISPERSANTS UNDER CONDITIONS OF UNCERTAINTY

    EPA Science Inventory

    At the request of the US EPA Oil Program Center, ERD is developing an oil spill model that focuses on fate and transport of oil components under various response scenarios. This model includes various simulation options, including the use of chemical dispersing agents on oil sli...

  7. H. R. 1935: Oil spill Bill. Introduced in the House of Representatives, One Hundred First Congress, First Session, April 13, 1989

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1989-01-01

    H.R. 1935 would amend the Internal Revenue Code of 1986 to disallow deductions for costs in connection with oil and hazardous substances cleanup unless the requirements of all applicable Federal laws concerning such cleanup are met. The purposes are to establish that the public should not pay for oil spills or hazardous material spills; that economic losses connected with these spills should be fully compensated; that ecological damages should be mitigated; and that revenues accruing to the Treasury from deductions due to inadequate cleanup be dedicated to the Clean Water Act Fund or to the Superfund. The bill would be effective for all discharges occurring after March 23, 1989, in taxable years ending after that date.

  8. Planning for the Human Dimensions of Oil Spills and Spill Response

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Webler, Thomas; Lord, Fabienne

    2010-04-01

    Oil spill contingency planners need an improved approach to understanding and planning for the human dimensions of oil spills. Drawing on existing literature in social impact assessment, natural hazards, human ecology, adaptive management, global change and sustainability, we develop an integrative approach to understanding and portraying the human dimensions impacts of stressors associated with oil spill events. Our approach is based on three fundamental conclusions that are drawn from this literature review. First, it is productive to acknowledge that, while stressors can produce human impacts directly, they mainly affect intermediary processes and changes to these processes produce human impacts. Second, causal chain modeling taken from hazard management literature provides a means to document how oil spill stressors change processes and produce human impacts. Third, concepts from the global change literature on vulnerability enrich causal models in ways that make more obvious how management interventions lessen hazards and mitigate associated harm. Using examples from recent spill events, we illustrate how these conclusions can be used to diagrammatically portray the human dimensions of oil spills.

  9. Planning for the human dimensions of oil spills and spill response.

    PubMed

    Webler, Thomas; Lord, Fabienne

    2010-04-01

    Oil spill contingency planners need an improved approach to understanding and planning for the human dimensions of oil spills. Drawing on existing literature in social impact assessment, natural hazards, human ecology, adaptive management, global change and sustainability, we develop an integrative approach to understanding and portraying the human dimensions impacts of stressors associated with oil spill events. Our approach is based on three fundamental conclusions that are drawn from this literature review. First, it is productive to acknowledge that, while stressors can produce human impacts directly, they mainly affect intermediary processes and changes to these processes produce human impacts. Second, causal chain modeling taken from hazard management literature provides a means to document how oil spill stressors change processes and produce human impacts. Third, concepts from the global change literature on vulnerability enrich causal models in ways that make more obvious how management interventions lessen hazards and mitigate associated harm. Using examples from recent spill events, we illustrate how these conclusions can be used to diagrammatically portray the human dimensions of oil spills.

  10. Chemical modification of hygroscopic magnesium carbonate into superhydrophobic and oleophilic sorbent suitable for removal of oil spill in water

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Patowary, Manoj; Ananthakrishnan, Rajakumar; Pathak, Khanindra

    2014-11-01

    The wettability of hygroscopic magnesium carbonate has been modified to develop a superhydrophobic and oleophilic sorbent for oil spill clean-ups via a simple chemical process using palmitic acid. The prepared material was characterized using X-ray diffraction, Fourier transform infra-red spectroscopy, and scanning electron microscopy. Wettability test infers that the sorbent has a static water contact angle of 154 ± 1°, thereby indicating its superhydrophobic character. The sorbent was capable of scavenging oil for about three times its weight, as determined from oil sorption studies, carried out using the sorbent on model oil-water mixture. Interestingly, the chemically modified sorbent has high selectivity, buoyancy, and rate of uptake of oil. Further, the reusability studies confirm the repeatable usage of the sorbent and its efficacy in oil spill remediation.

  11. Trials of bioremediation on a beach affected by the heavy oil spill of the Prestige.

    PubMed

    Fernández-Alvarez, P; Vila, J; Garrido-Fernández, J M; Grifoll, M; Lema, J M

    2006-10-11

    The objective of this study was to assess the efficiency of several bioremediation products in accelerating the in situ biodegradation of the heavy fuel oil spill of the Prestige. Trials of bioremediation were conducted in sand, rocks and granite tiles on the beach of Sorrizo (A Coruña, NW Spain) that was polluted by the spill. Neither the added microorganisms nor the nutrients significantly enhanced the degradation rate of the fuel oil in rocks, granite tiles or sand. PAH degradation up to 80% was determined in sand and tiles. In tiles the oxygen content of the residual oil increased from 1.6% up to 8% in 90 days, which could be explained by the accumulation of products coming from the partial oxidation of the hydrocarbons. Eighteen months after the spill, the rocks of the beach were still coated by a black layer of weathered fuel oil. For this reason an oleophilic product, sunflower biodiesel was tested on a rock. The application of biodiesel accelerated the gradually clean-up of the polluted surface and could also accelerate the degradation of the residual oil.

  12. Adsorption of hydrocarbons on organo-clays--implications for oil spill remediation.

    PubMed

    Carmody, Onuma; Frost, Ray; Xi, Yunfei; Kokot, Serge

    2007-01-01

    Organo-clays synthesised by the ion exchange of sodium in Wyoming Na-montmorillonite (SWy-2-MMT) with three surfactants: (a) octadecyltrimethylammonium bromide (ODTMA), formula C(21)H(46)NBr; (b) dodecyldimethylammonium bromide (DDDMA), formula C(22)H(48)BrN; and (c) di(hydrogenated tallow)dimethylammonium chloride were tested for hydrocarbon adsorption. Using diesel, hydraulic oil, and engine oil an evaluation was made of the effectiveness of the sorbent materials for a range of hydrocarbon products that are likely to be involved in land-based oil spills. It was found that the hydrocarbon sorption capacity of the organo-clays depended upon the materials and surfactants used in the organo-clay synthesis. Greater adsorption was obtained if the surfactant contained two or more hydrocarbon long chains. Extensive utilisation of chemometrics principally with the aid of MCDM methods, produced models which consistently ranked the organo-clays well above any of the competitors including commercial benchmark materials. Thus, the use of organo-clays for cleaning up oil spills is feasible due to its many desirable properties such as high hydrocarbon sorption and retention capacities, hydrophobicity. The negative effects of the use of organo-clays for oil-spill cleanup are the cost, the biodegradability, and recyclability of the organo-clays.

  13. 50 CFR 622.14 - Area closures related to the Deepwater Horizon oil spill.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... Horizon oil spill. 622.14 Section 622.14 Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION AND MANAGEMENT... spill. (a) Caribbean EEZ area closure related to Deepwater Horizon oil spill. Effective May 11, 2010... Web site: http://sero.nmfs.noaa.gov/deepwater_horizon_oil_spill.htm. (b) Gulf EEZ area closure...

  14. Oil spills abatement: factors affecting oil uptake by cellulosic fibers.

    PubMed

    Payne, Katharine C; Jackson, Colby D; Aizpurua, Carlos E; Rojas, Orlando J; Hubbe, Martin A

    2012-07-17

    Wood-derived cellulosic fibers prepared in different ways were successfully employed to absorb simulated crude oil, demonstrating their possible use as absorbents in the case of oil spills. When dry fibers were used, the highest sorption capacity (six parts of oil per unit mass of fiber) was shown by bleached softwood kraft fibers, compared to hardwood bleached kraft and softwood chemithermomechanical pulp(CTMP) fibers. Increased refining of CTMP fibers decreased their oil uptake capacity. When the fibers were soaked in water before exposure to the oil, the ability of the unmodified kraft fibers to sorb oil was markedly reduced, whereas the wet CTMP fibers were generally more effective than the wet kraft fibers. Predeposition of lignin onto the surfaces of the bleached kraft fibers improved their ability to take up oil when wet. Superior ability to sorb oil in the wet state was achieved by pretreating the kraft fibers with a hydrophobic sizing agent, alkenylsuccinic anhydride (ASA). Contact angle tests on a model cellulose surface showed that some of the sorption results onto wetted fibers could be attributed to the more hydrophobic nature of the fibers after treatment with either lignin or ASA.

  15. Assessing the social costs of oil spills: the Amoco Cadiz case study

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1983-07-01

    Approximately 30 percent of the oil spilled from the Amoco Cadiz in March 1978 came ashore on the Brittany coast. About 400 kilometers of the coast were directly affected. The remainder of the oil was dispersed at sea or evaporated. The oil had adverse effects on marine resources, such as aquacultured oysters and various species of finfish, on the tourist industry, and on the satisfaction of those who expected to or did recreate on the Brittany coast. The economic damages or losses associated with these adverse physical and biological effects, plus the costs associated with the cleanup effort which began immediately, constitute the economic costs of the oil spill. This report presents, and describes the methods used to estimate the various costs as divided into cleanup costs; losses to marine resources, such as oyster-culturing and open-seas fisheries; losses to recreationists, both tourists and residents; losses to the tourist industry; loss of the tanker and cargo; and research and legal costs.

  16. The value of offshore field experiments in oil spill technology development for Norwegian waters.

    PubMed

    Faksness, Liv-Guri; Brandvik, Per Johan; Daling, Per S; Singsaas, Ivar; Sørstrøm, Stein Erik

    2016-10-15

    The blowout on the Ekofisk field in the North Sea in 1977 initiated R&D efforts in Norway focusing on improving oil spill contingency in general and more specifically on weathering processes and modeling drift and spreading of oil spills. Since 1978, approximately 40 experimental oil spills have been performed under controlled conditions in open and ice covered waters in Norway. The importance of these experimental oil spills for understanding oil spill behavior, development of oil spill and response models, and response technologies are discussed here. The large progress within oil spill R&D in Norway since the Ekofisk blowout has been possible through a combination of laboratory testing, basin studies, and experimental oil spills. However, it is the authors' recommendation that experimental oil spills still play an important role as a final validation for the extensive R&D presently going on in Norway, e.g. deep-water releases of oil and gas.

  17. The value of offshore field experiments in oil spill technology development for Norwegian waters.

    PubMed

    Faksness, Liv-Guri; Brandvik, Per Johan; Daling, Per S; Singsaas, Ivar; Sørstrøm, Stein Erik

    2016-10-15

    The blowout on the Ekofisk field in the North Sea in 1977 initiated R&D efforts in Norway focusing on improving oil spill contingency in general and more specifically on weathering processes and modeling drift and spreading of oil spills. Since 1978, approximately 40 experimental oil spills have been performed under controlled conditions in open and ice covered waters in Norway. The importance of these experimental oil spills for understanding oil spill behavior, development of oil spill and response models, and response technologies are discussed here. The large progress within oil spill R&D in Norway since the Ekofisk blowout has been possible through a combination of laboratory testing, basin studies, and experimental oil spills. However, it is the authors' recommendation that experimental oil spills still play an important role as a final validation for the extensive R&D presently going on in Norway, e.g. deep-water releases of oil and gas. PMID:27531144

  18. The oil spill in ageing Bruch membrane

    PubMed Central

    Curcio, Christine A; Johnson, Mark; Rudolf, Martin; Huang, Jiahn-Dar

    2013-01-01

    Ageing is the largest risk factor for age-related macular degeneration (AMD), and soft drusen and basal linear deposits are lipid-rich extracellular lesions specific to AMD. Oil red O binding neutral lipid represents a major age-related deposition in the Bruch membrane (BrM) and the first identified druse component. Decades after these seminal observations, a natural history of neutral lipid deposition has been articulated and a biochemical model proposed. Results obtained with multiple biochemical, histochemical, and ultrastructural methods, and supported indirectly by epidemiology, suggest that the RPE secretes apolipoprotein B (apoB)-lipoprotein particles of unusual composition into BrM, where they accumulate with age eventually forming a lipid wall, a precursor of basal linear deposit. The authors propose that constituents of these lesions interact with reactive oxygen species to form pro-inflammatory peroxidised lipids that elicit neovascularisation. Here, the authors summarise key evidence supporting both accumulation of BrM lipoproteins leading to lesion formation and lipoprotein production by the RPE. The authors update their model with genetic associations between AMD and genes historically associated with plasma HDL metabolism, and suggest future directions for research and therapeutic strategies based on an oil-spill analogy. PMID:21890786

  19. H. R. 2223: Oil Spill Resource Restoration Act. Introduced in the House of Representatives, One Hundred First Congress, First Session, May 3, 1989

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1989-01-01

    H.R. 2223 would provide for expedited assessment of damages from major oil spills, and would amend the Internal Revenue Code of 1986 to disallow deduction of the costs for cleanup of oil or hazardous substance discharges. Upon receiving a petition for expedited preliminary damage, the administrator would immediately initiate an assessment of the damages to natural resources. Within 20 days if it is found to be a major spill, the administrator designates trustees for overseeing both Federal and state natural resources that are affected, establishes a commission of these trustees, makes a determination regarding the party responsible for the spill, and directs that party to establish a trust fund accessible to the commission in an amount determined to be adequate to pay reasonable costs incurred by the commission for a full assessment of the damages and for preparing a restoration and replacement plan. Deductions for cleanup of spills would be allowed only if it can be certified that the taxpayer made good faith efforts to comply with the Clean Water Act for oil spills or with the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act for hazardous substances spills or if it can be proved that the spill was caused by an act of God, and act of war, negligence on the part of the US government, or an act of omission of a third party. The bill would be applicable to spills occurring after March 23, 1989.

  20. Sedimentation Of Oil-MIneral Aggregates For Remediation Of Vegetable Oil Spills

    EPA Science Inventory

    A response alternative for floating vegetable oil spills based on sedimentation of negatively buoyant oil-mineral aggregrates followed by anaerobic biodegradation in the sediments is under investigation. Sedimentation of floating canola oil by interaction with montmorillonite wa...

  1. THE OHIO RIVER OIL SPILL: A CASE STUDY

    EPA Science Inventory

    The spill of diesel oil fuel from an Ashland Oil storage tank in January 1988 on the Monongahela River raised a number of technical, legislative, and administrative issues. These include as assessing long- and short-term environmental damage, evaluating regulations regarding oil ...

  2. Best available techniques (BATs) for oil spill response in the Mediterranean Sea: calm sea and presence of economic activities.

    PubMed

    Guidi, Giambattista; Sliskovic, Merica; Violante, Anna Carmela; Vukic, Luka

    2016-01-01

    An oil spill is the accidental or intentional discharge of petroleum products into the environment due to human activities. Although oil spills are actually just a little percent of the total world oil pollution problem, they represent the most visible form of it. The impact on the ecosystems can be severe as well as the impact on economic activities. Oil spill cleanup is a very difficult and expensive activity, and many techniques are available for it. In previous works, a methodology based on different kinds of criteria in order to come to the most satisfactory technique was proposed and the relative importance of each impact criterion on the basis of the Saaty's Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP) was also evaluated. After a review of the best available techniques (BATs) available for oil spill response, this work suggests criteria for BATs' selection when oil spills occur in the Mediterranean Sea under well-defined circumstances: calm sea and presence of economic activities in the affected area. A group of experts with different specializations evaluated the alternative BATs by means of AHP method taking into account their respective advantages and disadvantages.

  3. Fate and toxicity of spilled oil from the Exxon Valdez. Subtidal study number 4. Exxon Valdez oil spill, state/federal natural resource damage assessment final report

    SciTech Connect

    Wolfe, D.A.

    1996-03-01

    Three separate papers are represented in this final report; Toxicity of intertidal and subtidal sediments contaminated by the Exxon Valdez oil spill; Comparative toxicities of polar and non-polar organic fractions from sediments affected by the Exxon Valdez oil spill in Prince William Sound, Alaska; and Fate of the oil spilled from the T/V Exxon Valdez in Prince William Sound, Alaska.

  4. DOE's Portal to Deepwater Horizon Oil Spill Data

    DOE Data Explorer

    On April 20, 2010, the Deepwater Horizon platform in the Gulf of Mexico exploded. The explosion and fire killed and injured workers on the oil rig, and caused major releases of oil and gas into the Gulf for several months. The Department of Energy, in keeping with the Obama Administrations ongoing commitment to transparency, provided online access to data and information related to the response to the BP oil spill. Included are schematics, pressure tests, diagnostic results, video clips, and other data. There are also links to the Restore the Gulf website, to the trajectory forecasts from NOAA, and oil spill information from the Environmental Protection Agency.

  5. Guidance for use of the oil spill liability trust fund

    SciTech Connect

    1997-02-01

    This guidance document has been prepared to assist On-Scene Coordinators (OSCs) and financial management personnel in accessing and using the Oil Spill Liability Trust Fund (OSLTF) in orders to conduct oil pollution removal actions under Section 311(c) of the Clean Water Act (CWA) and Section 1012 of the Oil Pollution Act of 1990 (OPA), and fully accounting for OSLTF funds. This document details the requirments and procedures for use of the OSLTF that are described in the Memorandum of Understanding between the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency and the U.S. Coast Guard for use of the Oil Spill Liability Trust Fund (MOU).

  6. New problems and opportunities of oil spill monitoring systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barenboim, G. M.; Borisov, V. M.; Golosov, V. N.; Saveca, A. Yu.

    2015-04-01

    Emergency oil and oil products spills represent a great danger to the environment, including ecosystems, and to the population. New problems of such dangerous spills and methods of early detection are discussed in this paper. It is proposed to conduct assessment of biological hazards of such spills on the basis of data on the distribution of individual oil hydrocarbons within the column of the water body and computer predictions of their toxicity. Oil radioactivity, which is associated with uranium and thorium, is seen as the important aspect of the oil spill danger, especially in watercourses. The need for an automated monitoring system for the early detection of oil spills in water bodies is analysed. The proposed system consists of three subsystems. The first remote sensing subsystem is based on powerful fluorescent lidars; experimental results on lidar registration of oil pollution of water are reported. The second subsystem uses a network of automatic monitoring stations with contact detectors. The third subsystem is the combined sensor system based on remote and contact technologies.

  7. Environmental implications of oil spills from shipping accidents.

    PubMed

    Rogowska, Justyna; Namieśnik, Jacek

    2010-01-01

    Since ancient times, ships have sunk during storms, either as a result of collisions with other vessels or running onto rocks. However, the ever-increasing importance of crude oil in the twentieth century and the corresponding growth in the world's tanker fleet have drawn attention to the negative implications of sea transport. Disasters involving tankers like the Torrey Canyon or the Amoco Cadiz have shown how dramatic the consequences of such an accident may be. The effects of oil spills at sea depend on numerous factors, such as the physicochemical parameters of the oil, the characteristics of the environment affected, and the physical, chemical, and biological processes occurring there, such as evaporation, dissolution, dispersion, emulsification, photo-oxidation, biodegradation, and sedimentation. The combination of these processes reduces the concentrations of hydrocarbons in sediments and water and alters the chemical composition of spilled oils. In every case, oil spills pose a danger to fauna and flora and cause damage to sea and shores ecosystems. Many of the petroleum-related chemicals that are spilled are toxic, otherwise carcinogenic or can be bioaccumulated in the tissues of marine organisms. Such chemicals may then be biomagnified up the marine food chain from phytoplankton to fish, then to seals and other carnivorous sea mammals. Moreover, oil products can be accumulated and immobilized in bottom deposits for long periods of time. Oil spills are particularly dangerous when they occur in small inland seas that have intense sea traffic, e.g., the Baltic Sea.

  8. Brine Spills Associated with Unconventional Oil Development in North Dakota.

    PubMed

    Lauer, Nancy E; Harkness, Jennifer S; Vengosh, Avner

    2016-05-17

    The rapid rise of unconventional oil production during the past decade in the Bakken region of North Dakota raises concerns related to water contamination associated with the accidental release of oil and gas wastewater to the environment. Here, we characterize the major and trace element chemistry and isotopic ratios ((87)Sr/(86)Sr, δ(18)O, δ(2)H) of surface waters (n = 29) in areas impacted by oil and gas wastewater spills in the Bakken region of North Dakota. We establish geochemical and isotopic tracers that can identify Bakken brine spills in the environment. In addition to elevated concentrations of dissolved salts (Na, Cl, Br), spill waters also consisted of elevated concentrations of other contaminants (Se, V, Pb, NH4) compared to background waters, and soil and sediment in spill sites had elevated total radium activities ((228)Ra + (226)Ra) relative to background, indicating accumulation of Ra in impacted soil and sediment. We observed that inorganic contamination associated with brine spills in North Dakota is remarkably persistent, with elevated levels of contaminants observed in spills sites up to 4 years following the spill events.

  9. Brine Spills Associated with Unconventional Oil Development in North Dakota.

    PubMed

    Lauer, Nancy E; Harkness, Jennifer S; Vengosh, Avner

    2016-05-17

    The rapid rise of unconventional oil production during the past decade in the Bakken region of North Dakota raises concerns related to water contamination associated with the accidental release of oil and gas wastewater to the environment. Here, we characterize the major and trace element chemistry and isotopic ratios ((87)Sr/(86)Sr, δ(18)O, δ(2)H) of surface waters (n = 29) in areas impacted by oil and gas wastewater spills in the Bakken region of North Dakota. We establish geochemical and isotopic tracers that can identify Bakken brine spills in the environment. In addition to elevated concentrations of dissolved salts (Na, Cl, Br), spill waters also consisted of elevated concentrations of other contaminants (Se, V, Pb, NH4) compared to background waters, and soil and sediment in spill sites had elevated total radium activities ((228)Ra + (226)Ra) relative to background, indicating accumulation of Ra in impacted soil and sediment. We observed that inorganic contamination associated with brine spills in North Dakota is remarkably persistent, with elevated levels of contaminants observed in spills sites up to 4 years following the spill events. PMID:27119384

  10. Analysis and modeling of airborne BTEX concentrations from the Deepwater Horizon oil spill.

    PubMed

    Avens, Heather J; Unice, Ken M; Sahmel, Jennifer; Gross, Sherilyn A; Keenan, James J; Paustenbach, Dennis J

    2011-09-01

    Concerns have been raised about whether the Deepwater Horizon oil spill cleanup workers experienced adverse health effects from exposure to airborne benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, and xylene (BTEX) which volatilized from surfaced oil. Thus, we analyzed the nearly 20 000 BTEX measurements of breathing zone air samples of offshore cleanup workers taken during the six months following the incident (made publicly available by British Petroleum). The measurements indicate that 99% of the measurements taken prior to capping the well were 32-, 510-, 360-, and 77-fold lower than the U.S. Occupational Safety and Health Administration's Permissible Exposure Limits (PELs) for BTEX, respectively. BTEX measurements did not decrease appreciably during the three months after the well was capped. Moreover, the magnitudes of these data were similar to measurements from ships not involved in oil slick remediation, suggesting that the BTEX measurements were primarily due to engine exhaust rather than the oil slick. To supplement the data analysis, two modeling approaches were employed to estimate airborne BTEX concentrations under a variety of conditions (e.g., oil slick thickness, wind velocity). The modeling results corroborated that BTEX concentrations from the oil were well below PELs and that the oil was not the primary contributor to the measured BTEX.

  11. Process of cleaning oil spills and the like

    SciTech Connect

    Breisford, J.A.

    1993-06-01

    A process of cleaning spills of toxic or hazardous materials such as oil, antifreeze, gasoline, and the like from bodies of water, garage floors, roadways and the like, comprising spraying unbonded shredded fiberglass blowing wool composition particles onto the spill, absorbing the spill into the shredded fiberglass blowing wool composition particles, and removing the soaked shredded fiberglass blowing wool composition particles and the spill absorbed therein. An absorbent composition for absorbing spills of toxic or hazardous materials such as oil, antifreeze, gasoline, and like, comprising shredded fiberglass blowing wool particles, and means for absorbing the spill and for stiffening the co-position so that the composition fights against being compressed so that less of the absorbed spill escapes from the composition when it is being removed from the spill, said means including cork particles dispersed in with the fiberglass blowing wool particles. An absorbent sock for absorbing or containing a spill of toxic or hazardous materials such as oil, antifreeze, gasoline, and the like, comprising a hollow tube, said tube being permeable to the toxic or hazardous materials and being made of nylon or polypropylene, and unbonded, shredded fiberglass blowing wool composition particles enclosed in the tube. Apparatus for controlling an oil slick on the surface of water, comprising a craft for traversing the slick, a supply of fiberglass blowing wool composition particles stored on the craft in position for being dispersed, shredding means on the craft for shredding the fiberglass blowing wool particles to form unbonded, shredded fiberglass blowing wool particles, and dispensing means on the craft for dispensing the unbonded, shredded fiberglass blowing wool particles onto the slick.

  12. Ethnic differences in stress, coping, and depressive symptoms after the Exxon Valdez oil spill.

    PubMed

    Palinkas, L A; Russell, J; Downs, M A; Petterson, J S

    1992-05-01

    This study assessed levels of depressive symptomatology in a household probability sample of Alaskan Native (N = 188) and Euro-American (N = 371) residents of 13 communities in Alaska. Our objective was to examine ethnic differences in both the association between depressive symptomatology and exposure to the Exxon Valdez oil spill and subsequent cleanup efforts, and in the role of family support as a moderator of exposure to this technological disaster. Level of exposure was significantly associated with mean Center for Epidemiological Studies-Depression Scale scores in both Natives (p less than .05) and Euro-Americans (p less than .01). Both ethnic groups also reported significant declines in traditional relations with increasing levels of exposure (p less than .001). However, Natives had a significantly higher mean Exposure Index score than Euro-Americans and were more likely to report working on cleanup activities, damage to commercial fisheries, and effects of the spill on subsistence activities. Depressive symptomatology was associated with reported participation in cleanup activities and other forms of contact with the oil in Natives, and reported damage to commercial fisheries, use of affected areas, and residence in a community in geographic proximity to the spill in Euro-Americans. Perceived family support was not directly associated with depressive symptoms in either ethnic group, but did serve to buffer the effects of exposure on depressive symptoms in Euro-Americans. The results suggest that cultural differences play an important role in determining the psychosocial impacts of a technological disaster, particularly with respect to exposure, appraisal of an event as stressful, perceived family support as a moderator of stress, and expression of depressive symptomatology. PMID:1583472

  13. Ethnic differences in stress, coping, and depressive symptoms after the Exxon Valdez oil spill.

    PubMed

    Palinkas, L A; Russell, J; Downs, M A; Petterson, J S

    1992-05-01

    This study assessed levels of depressive symptomatology in a household probability sample of Alaskan Native (N = 188) and Euro-American (N = 371) residents of 13 communities in Alaska. Our objective was to examine ethnic differences in both the association between depressive symptomatology and exposure to the Exxon Valdez oil spill and subsequent cleanup efforts, and in the role of family support as a moderator of exposure to this technological disaster. Level of exposure was significantly associated with mean Center for Epidemiological Studies-Depression Scale scores in both Natives (p less than .05) and Euro-Americans (p less than .01). Both ethnic groups also reported significant declines in traditional relations with increasing levels of exposure (p less than .001). However, Natives had a significantly higher mean Exposure Index score than Euro-Americans and were more likely to report working on cleanup activities, damage to commercial fisheries, and effects of the spill on subsistence activities. Depressive symptomatology was associated with reported participation in cleanup activities and other forms of contact with the oil in Natives, and reported damage to commercial fisheries, use of affected areas, and residence in a community in geographic proximity to the spill in Euro-Americans. Perceived family support was not directly associated with depressive symptoms in either ethnic group, but did serve to buffer the effects of exposure on depressive symptoms in Euro-Americans. The results suggest that cultural differences play an important role in determining the psychosocial impacts of a technological disaster, particularly with respect to exposure, appraisal of an event as stressful, perceived family support as a moderator of stress, and expression of depressive symptomatology.

  14. Assessing oil spill sensitivity in unsheltered coastal environments: A case study for Lithuanian-Russian coasts, South-eastern Baltic Sea.

    PubMed

    Depellegrin, Daniel; Pereira, Paulo

    2016-01-15

    This study presents a series of oil spill indexes for the characterization of physical and biological sensitivity in unsheltered coastal environments. The case study extends over 237 km of Lithuanian-Russian coastal areas subjected to multiple oil spill threats. Results show that 180 km of shoreline have environmental sensitivity index (ESI) of score 3. Natural clean-up processes depending on (a) shoreline sinuosity, (b) orientation and (c) wave exposure are favourable on 72 km of shoreline. Vulnerability analysis from pre-existing Kravtsovskoye D6 platform oil spill scenarios indicates that 15.1 km of the Curonian Spit have high impact probability. The highest seafloor sensitivity within the 20 m isobath is at the Vistula Spit and Curonian Spit, whereas biological sensitivity is moderate over the entire study area. The paper concludes with the importance of harmonized datasets and methodologies for transboundary oil spill impact assessment.

  15. IT-OSRA: applying ensemble simulations to estimate the oil spill risk associated to operational and accidental oil spills

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sepp Neves, Antonio Augusto; Pinardi, Nadia; Martins, Flavio

    2016-08-01

    Oil Spill Risk Assessments (OSRAs) are widely employed to support decision making regarding oil spill risks. This article adapts the ISO-compliant OSRA framework developed by Sepp Neves et al. (J Environ Manag 159:158-168, 2015) to estimate risks in a complex scenario where uncertainties related to the meteo-oceanographic conditions, where and how a spill could happen exist and the risk computation methodology is not yet well established (ensemble oil spill modeling). The improved method was applied to the Algarve coast, Portugal. Over 50,000 simulations were performed in 2 ensemble experiments to estimate the risks due to operational and accidental spill scenarios associated with maritime traffic. The level of risk was found to be important for both types of scenarios, with significant seasonal variations due to the the currents and waves variability. Higher frequency variability in the meteo-oceanographic variables were also found to contribute to the level of risk. The ensemble results show that the distribution of oil concentrations found on the coast is not Gaussian, opening up new fields of research on how to deal with oil spill risks and related uncertainties.

  16. European Atlantic: the hottest oil spill hotspot worldwide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vieites, David R.; Nieto-Román, Sandra; Palanca, Antonio; Ferrer, Xavier; Vences, Miguel

    2004-11-01

    Oil spills caused by maritime transport of petroleum products are still an important source of ocean pollution, especially in main production areas and along major transport routes. We here provide a historical and geographic analysis of the major oil spills (>700 t) since 1960. Spills were recorded from several key marine ecosystems and marine biodiversity hotspots. The past four decades have been characterized by an overall decrease in the number of accidents and tonnes of oil spilled in the sea, but this trend was less distinct in the European Atlantic area. Recent black tides from the Erika and Prestige vessels provided new evidence for the high risk of accidents with serious ecological impact in this area, which according to our analysis is historically the most important oil spill hotspot worldwide. The English Channel and waters around Galicia in Spain were the areas with most accidents. Maritime transport in European Atlantic waters has been predicted to continue increasing. Together with our own results this suggests that, in addition to measures for increased traffic safety, deployment of emergency capacities in the spill hotspot areas may be crucial for a sustainable conservation of sea resources and ecosystems.

  17. European Atlantic: the hottest oil spill hotspot worldwide.

    PubMed

    Vieites, David R; Nieto-Román, Sandra; Palanca, Antonio; Ferrer, Xavier; Vences, Miguel

    2004-11-01

    Oil spills caused by maritime transport of petroleum products are still an important source of ocean pollution, especially in main production areas and along major transport routes. We here provide a historical and geographic analysis of the major oil spills (>700 t) since 1960. Spills were recorded from several key marine ecosystems and marine biodiversity hotspots. The past four decades have been characterized by an overall decrease in the number of accidents and tones of oil spilled in the sea, but this trend was less distinct in the European Atlantic area. Recent black tides from the Erika and Prestige vessels provided new evidence for the high risk of accidents with serious ecological impact in this area, which according to our analysis is historically the most important oil spill hotspot worldwide. The English Channel and waters around Galicia in Spain were the areas with most accidents. Maritime transport in European Atlantic waters has been predicted to continue increasing. Together with our own results this suggests that, in addition to measures for increased traffic safety, deployment of emergency capacities in the spill hotspot areas may be crucial for a sustainable conservation of sea resources and ecosystems. PMID:15490095

  18. Enhanced oil spill detection sensors in low-light environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Allik, Toomas H.; Ramboyong, Len; Roberts, Mark; Walters, Mark; Soyka, Thomas J.; Dixon, Roberta; Cho, Jay

    2016-05-01

    Although advances have been made in oil spill remote detection, many electro-optic sensors do not provide real-time images, do not work well under degraded visual environments, nor provide a measure of extreme oil thickness in marine environments. A joint program now exists between BSEE and NVESD that addresses these capability gaps in remote sensing of oil spills. Laboratory experiments, calibration techniques, and field tests were performed at Fort Belvoir, Virginia; Santa Barbara, California; and the Ohmsett Test Facility in Leonardo, New Jersey. Weathered crude oils were studied spectroscopically and characterized with LWIR, and low-light-level visible/NIR, and SWIR cameras. We designed and fabricated an oil emulsion thickness calibration cell for spectroscopic analysis and ground truth, field measurements. Digital night vision cameras provided real-time, wide-dynamic-range imagery, and were able to detect and recognize oil from full sun to partial moon light. The LWIR camera provided quantitative oil analysis (identification) for >1 mm thick crude oils both day and night. Two filtered, co-registered, SWIR cameras were used to determine whether oil thickness could be measured in real time. Spectroscopic results revealed that oil emulsions vary with location and weathered state and some oils (e.g., ANS and Santa Barbara seeps) do not show the spectral rich features from archived Deep Water Horizon hyperspectral data. Multi-sensor imagery collected during the 2015 USCG Airborne Oil Spill Remote Sensing and Reporting Exercise and the design of a compact, multiband imager are discussed.

  19. Oil spill contamination probability in the southeastern Levantine basin.

    PubMed

    Goldman, Ron; Biton, Eli; Brokovich, Eran; Kark, Salit; Levin, Noam

    2015-02-15

    Recent gas discoveries in the eastern Mediterranean Sea led to multiple operations with substantial economic interest, and with them there is a risk of oil spills and their potential environmental impacts. To examine the potential spatial distribution of this threat, we created seasonal maps of the probability of oil spill pollution reaching an area in the Israeli coastal and exclusive economic zones, given knowledge of its initial sources. We performed simulations of virtual oil spills using realistic atmospheric and oceanic conditions. The resulting maps show dominance of the alongshore northerly current, which causes the high probability areas to be stretched parallel to the coast, increasing contamination probability downstream of source points. The seasonal westerly wind forcing determines how wide the high probability areas are, and may also restrict these to a small coastal region near source points. Seasonal variability in probability distribution, oil state, and pollution time is also discussed.

  20. Disutility analysis of oil spills: graphs and trends.

    PubMed

    Ventikos, Nikolaos P; Sotiropoulos, Foivos S

    2014-04-15

    This paper reports the results of an analysis of oil spill cost data assembled from a worldwide pollution database that mainly includes data from the International Oil Pollution Compensation Fund. The purpose of the study is to analyze the conditions of marine pollution accidents and the factors that impact the costs of oil spills worldwide. The accidents are classified into categories based on their characteristics, and the cases are compared using charts to show how the costs are affected under all conditions. This study can be used as a helpful reference for developing a detailed statistical model that is capable of reliably and realistically estimating the total costs of oil spills. To illustrate the differences identified by this statistical analysis, the results are compared with the results of previous studies, and the findings are discussed.

  1. Community patterns of psychiatric disorders after the Exxon Valdez oil spill

    SciTech Connect

    Palinkas, L.A.; Petterson, J.S.; Russell, J.; Downs, M.A. )

    1993-10-01

    OBJECTIVE: This study examined the relationship between exposure to the Exxon Valdez oil spill and subsequent cleanup efforts and the prevalence of generalized anxiety disorder, posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), and depressive symptoms in 13 Alaska communities. METHOD: A community survey of 599 men and women was conducted approximately 1 year after the spill occurred. Questions from the National Institute of Mental Health Diagnostic Interview Schedule were used to assess symptoms of generalized anxiety disorder and PTSD. The Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression (CES-D) Scale was used to assess levels of depressive symptoms. RESULTS: The post-spill (i.e., 1-year) prevalence of generalized anxiety disorder and PTSD for the study communities with all degrees of exposure was 20.2% and 9.4%, respectively. The prevalence of respondents with CES-D Scale scores above 16 and 18 was 16.6% and 14.2%, respectively. When compared with the unexposed group, members of the high-exposure group were 3.6 times as likely to have generalized anxiety disorder, 2.9 times as likely to have PTSD, 1.8 times as likely to have a CES-D Scale score of 16 and above, and 2.1 times as likely to have a CES-D Scale score of 18 and above. Women exposed to this event were particularly vulnerable to these conditions, and Alaska Natives were particularly vulnerable to depressive symptoms after the oil spill. CONCLUSIONS: The results suggest that the oil spill's impact on the psychosocial environment was as significant as its impact on the physical environment. The Exxon Valdez experience suggests a number of implications for the mental health needs of disaster victims, particularly in primary care settings.

  2. In-situ burning - one method of effective oil spill response in the South China Sea

    SciTech Connect

    Boben, M.E.; Yanting, Yue

    1996-12-31

    Phillips Petroleum International Corporation Asia (PPICA) is the operator of the twin Xijiang Oilfields in the South China Sea. The very special characteristics of the Xijiang crude demanded that innovative means of cleanup be employed in the event of a major oil spill. The Xijiang crude has a very high wax content and high pour point. The crude must be heated to flow. In the event of a major oil spill, clean up would require non-traditional means of response. During the laboratory analysis it was discovered that if a specific thickness of crude could be contained on the surface of the water that it could be ignited and burned. The potential effectiveness of the burn was ascertained to be 95-98%. A decision was made in 1992 during the design engineering phase to utilize in-situ burning as the primary means of response in the event of a major oil spill. During April 1995 the first ever demonstration of in-situ burning was conducted in Shekou, Sheizhen, People`s Republic of China by Phillips Petroleum International Corporation Asia. This exercise clearly demonstrated the effectiveness of in-situ burning on the Xijiang crude.

  3. Effects of the Oil Spill on Alaskan Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oldaker, Lawrence Lee

    Oil-industry-produced revenues, help finance Alaskan state and local governmental services including education. Capital losses incurred by the Exxon Corporation and by commerical fisheries as a consequence of the Exxon Valdez oil spill caused an economic recession, the result being diminished financing for a number of governmental programs and…

  4. A new paradigm in oil spill modeling for decision making?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boufadel, Michel C.; Geng, Xiaolong

    2014-08-01

    Contingency plans for large oil spills rely on conducting numerical simulations that would predict the probable transport and fate of oil. Oil spill models vary in complexity from ones that assume a straight-line trajectory of oil on the water surface without any change in oil properties to fully three-dimensional models that account to all processes affecting the fate of oil. The model proposed by Bourgault et al (2014 Environ. Res. Lett. 9 054001) is intermediate in complexity in a sense that it accounts for the temporal variation of surface currents, but does not consider the transformation of oil. We believe that such an approach has a great merit as a screening tool for decision making.

  5. Assessment of Jessica oil spill impacts on intertidal invertebrate communities.

    PubMed

    Gelin, Agnès; Gravez, Vincent; Edgar, Graham J

    2003-11-01

    The impact of the Jessica oil-spill on intertidal macroinvertebrate communities was studied using a reference-impact design at three tidal levels at sites where oil deposits had been reported by a shoreline assessment team, and adjacent reference sites. Faunal relationships between the various sites did not show any clear pattern related to oil exposure at the time of sampling (4-11 months post-spill). Similarly, no significant differences associated with oiling were detected for total animal density nor species richness data, nor for the abundances of common taxa. We note that post-hoc studies such as this are limited by a failure to recognise different levels of oiling impacts at different sites (oiling-site interactions). Baseline information is critical if subtle effects of oiling are to be distinguished.

  6. Response to heavy, non-floating oil spilled in a Great Lakes river environment: a multiple-lines-of-evidence approach for submerged oil assessment and recovery

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dollhopf, Ralph H.; Fitzpatrick, Faith A.; Kimble, Jeffrey W.; Capone, Daniel M.; Graan, Thomas P.; Zelt, Ronald B.; Johnson, Rex

    2014-01-01

    The Enbridge Line 6B pipeline release of diluted bitumen into the Kalamazoo River downstream of Marshall, MI in July 2010 is one of the largest freshwater oil spills in North American history. The unprecedented scale of impact and massive quantity of oil released required the development and implementation of new approaches for detection and recovery. At the onset of cleanup, conventional recovery techniques were employed for the initially floating oil and were successful. However, volatilization of the lighter diluent, along with mixing of the oil with sediment during flooded, turbulent river conditions caused the oil to sink and collect in natural deposition areas in the river. For more than three years after the spill, recovery of submerged oil has remained the predominant operational focus of the response. The recovery complexities for submerged oil mixed with sediment in depositional areas and long-term oil sheening along approximately 38 miles of the Kalamazoo River led to the development of a multiple-lines-of-evidence approach comprising six major components: geomorphic mapping, field assessments of submerged oil (poling), systematic tracking and mapping of oil sheen, hydrodynamic and sediment transport modeling, forensic oil chemistry, and net environmental benefit analysis. The Federal On-Scene Coordinator (FOSC) considered this information in determining the appropriate course of action for each impacted segment of the river. New sources of heavy crude oils like diluted bitumen and increasing transportation of those oils require changes in the way emergency personnel respond to oil spills in the Great Lakes and other freshwater ecosystems. Strategies to recover heavy oils must consider that the oils may suspend or sink in the water column, mix with fine-grained sediment, and accumulate in depositional areas. Early understanding of the potential fate and behavior of diluted bitumen spills when combined with timely, strong conventional recovery methods can

  7. Polarimetric synthetic aperture radar utilized to track oil spills

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Migliaccio, Maurizio; Nunziata, Ferdinando; Brown, Carl E.; Holt, Benjamin; Li, Xiaofeng; Pichel, William; Shimada, Masanobu

    2012-04-01

    The continued demand for crude oil and related petroleum products along with the resulting upward spiral of the market price of oil have forced oil exploration and production companies to seek out new reserves farther offshore and in deeper waters. The United States is among the top five nations globally in terms of estimated offshore oil reserves and petroleum production. Yet deepwater drilling to extract these reserves is a major engineering challenge for oil companies. Moreover, such drilling activity also comes with a significant environmental risk, and the extremely high pressures associated with deepwater oil wells mean that the mitigation of accidental releases from a deepwater spill is truly a challenging endeavor.

  8. Evaluation of nonwoven polypropylene oil sorbents in marine oil-spill recovery.

    PubMed

    Wei, Q F; Mather, R R; Fotheringham, A F; Yang, R D

    2003-06-01

    Mechanical recovery of oil by oil sorbents is one of the most important countermeasures in marine oil-spill response. Polypropylene is the ideal material for marine oil-spill recovery due to its low density, low water uptake and excellent physical and chemical resistance. Different forms of polypropylene nonwoven sorbents were evaluated in this study in terms of initial oil-sorption capacities and oil-retention properties. The investigation revealed that the fibre diameter, sorbent porosity and oil property are the most important factors in the oil-sorption performance of polypropylene nonwoven sorbents.

  9. Review on the effects of exposure to spilled oils on human health.

    PubMed

    Aguilera, Francisco; Méndez, Josefina; Pásaro, Eduardo; Laffon, Blanca

    2010-05-01

    Harmful effects of oil spills on diverse flora and fauna species have been extensively studied. Nevertheless, only a few studies have been compiled in the literature dealing with the repercussions of oil exposure on human health; most of them have focused on acute effects and psychological symptoms. The objective of this work was to gather all these studies and to analyze the possible consequences of this kind of complex exposure in the different aspects of human health. Studies found on this topic were related to the disasters of the Exxon Valdez, Braer, Sea Empress, Nakhodka, Erika, Prestige and Tasman Spirit oil tankers. The majority of them were cross-sectional; many did not include control groups. Acute effects were evaluated taking into account vegetative-nervous symptoms, skin and mucous irritations, and also psychological effects. Genotoxic damage and endocrine alterations were assessed only in individuals exposed to oil from Prestige. The results of the reviewed articles clearly support the need for biomonitoring human populations exposed to spilled oils, especially those individuals involved in the cleanup, in order to evaluate not only the possible immediate consequences for their health but also the medium- and long-term effects, and the effectiveness of the protective devices used. PMID:20499335

  10. Review on the effects of exposure to spilled oils on human health.

    PubMed

    Aguilera, Francisco; Méndez, Josefina; Pásaro, Eduardo; Laffon, Blanca

    2010-05-01

    Harmful effects of oil spills on diverse flora and fauna species have been extensively studied. Nevertheless, only a few studies have been compiled in the literature dealing with the repercussions of oil exposure on human health; most of them have focused on acute effects and psychological symptoms. The objective of this work was to gather all these studies and to analyze the possible consequences of this kind of complex exposure in the different aspects of human health. Studies found on this topic were related to the disasters of the Exxon Valdez, Braer, Sea Empress, Nakhodka, Erika, Prestige and Tasman Spirit oil tankers. The majority of them were cross-sectional; many did not include control groups. Acute effects were evaluated taking into account vegetative-nervous symptoms, skin and mucous irritations, and also psychological effects. Genotoxic damage and endocrine alterations were assessed only in individuals exposed to oil from Prestige. The results of the reviewed articles clearly support the need for biomonitoring human populations exposed to spilled oils, especially those individuals involved in the cleanup, in order to evaluate not only the possible immediate consequences for their health but also the medium- and long-term effects, and the effectiveness of the protective devices used.

  11. Combinative hypergraph learning on oil spill training dataset

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wei, Binghui; Cheng, Ming; Wang, Cheng; Li, Jonathan

    2016-03-01

    Detecting oil spill from open sea based on Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) image is a very important work. One of key issues is to distinguish oil spill from "look-alike". There are many existing methods to tackle this issue including supervised and semi-supervised learning. Recent years have witnessed a surge of interest in hypergraph-based transductive classification. This paper proposes combinative hypergraph learning (CHL) to distinguish oil spill from "look-alike". CHL captures the similarity between two samples in the same category by adding sparse hypergraph learning to conventional hypergraph learning. Experimental results have demonstrated the effectiveness of CHL in comparison to the state-of-the-art methods and showed that our proposed method is promising.

  12. Oil spill response capabilities in the United States

    SciTech Connect

    Westermeyer, W.E. )

    1991-02-01

    The Exxon Valdez incident has been a catalyst for the US to reexamine its technology and policies for fighting oil spills. Many organizations are now at work on the problems highlighted by this sill, including federal and state agencies and the oil industry. It is hoped that the attention generated by the Exxon Valdez will result in fewer spills and a greatly improved capability to fight the ones that will still occur. Cleaning up a discharge of millions of gallons of oil at sea under even moderate environmental conditions is an extraordinary problem. Current national capabilities to respond effectively to such an accident are marginal at best. Response technologies must and will improve, but in addition and perhaps more importantly, many improvements can be made in the way the country has organized itself to fight major spills. Nonetheless, prevention is still the best medicine.

  13. Efficient tools for marine operational forecast and oil spill tracking.

    PubMed

    Marta-Almeida, Martinho; Ruiz-Villarreal, Manuel; Pereira, Janini; Otero, Pablo; Cirano, Mauro; Zhang, Xiaoqian; Hetland, Robert D

    2013-06-15

    Ocean forecasting and oil spill modelling and tracking are complex activities requiring specialised institutions. In this work we present a lighter solution based on the Operational Ocean Forecast Python Engine (OOFε) and the oil spill model General NOAA Operational Modelling Environment (GNOME). These two are robust relocatable and simple to implement and maintain. Implementations of the operational engine in three different regions with distinct oceanic systems, using the ocean model Regional Ocean Modelling System (ROMS), are described, namely the Galician region, the southeastern Brazilian waters and the Texas-Louisiana shelf. GNOME was able to simulate the fate of the Prestige oil spill (Galicia) and compared well with observations of the Krimsk accident (Texas). Scenarios of hypothetical spills in Campos Basin (Brazil) are illustrated, evidencing the sensitiveness to the dynamical system. OOFε and GNOME are proved to be valuable, efficient and low cost tools and can be seen as an intermediate stage towards more complex operational implementations of ocean forecasting and oil spill modelling strategies. PMID:23643409

  14. Oil spill problems and sustainable response strategies through new technologies.

    PubMed

    Ivshina, Irena B; Kuyukina, Maria S; Krivoruchko, Anastasiya V; Elkin, Andrey A; Makarov, Sergey O; Cunningham, Colin J; Peshkur, Tatyana A; Atlas, Ronald M; Philp, James C

    2015-07-01

    Crude oil and petroleum products are widespread water and soil pollutants resulting from marine and terrestrial spillages. International statistics of oil spill sizes for all incidents indicate that the majority of oil spills are small (less than 7 tonnes). The major accidents that happen in the oil industry contribute only a small fraction of the total oil which enters the environment. However, the nature of accidental releases is that they highly pollute small areas and have the potential to devastate the biota locally. There are several routes by which oil can get back to humans from accidental spills, e.g. through accumulation in fish and shellfish, through consumption of contaminated groundwater. Although advances have been made in the prevention of accidents, this does not apply in all countries, and by the random nature of oil spill events, total prevention is not feasible. Therefore, considerable world-wide effort has gone into strategies for minimising accidental spills and the design of new remedial technologies. This paper summarizes new knowledge as well as research and technology gaps essential for developing appropriate decision-making tools in actual spill scenarios. Since oil exploration is being driven into deeper waters and more remote, fragile environments, the risk of future accidents becomes much higher. The innovative safety and accident prevention approaches summarized in this paper are currently important for a range of stakeholders, including the oil industry, the scientific community and the public. Ultimately an integrated approach to prevention and remediation that accelerates an early warning protocol in the event of a spill would get the most appropriate technology selected and implemented as early as possible - the first few hours after a spill are crucial to the outcome of the remedial effort. A particular focus is made on bioremediation as environmentally harmless, cost-effective and relatively inexpensive technology. Greater

  15. A multifrequency evaluation of active and passive microwave sensors for oil spill detection and assessment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fenner, R. G.; Reid, S. C.; Solie, C. H.

    1980-01-01

    An evaluation is given of how active and passive microwave sensors can best be used in oil spill detection and assessment. Radar backscatter curves taken over oil spills are presented and their effect on synthetic aperture radar (SAR) imagery are discussed. Plots of microwave radiometric brightness variations over oil spills are presented and discussed. Recommendations as to how to select the best combination of frequency, viewing angle, and sensor type for evaluation of various aspects of oil spills are also discussed.

  16. Arctic Oil Spill Mapping and Response Using Unmanned Aerial Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cunningham, K. W.

    2011-12-01

    The University of Alaska Fairbanks works extensively with unmanned aerial systems and various sensor payloads used in mapping. Recent projects with Royal Dutch Shell and British Petroleum have demonstrated that unmanned aerial systems, including fixed and rotary winged platforms, can provide quick response to oil spill mapping in a variety of flight conditions, including those not well suited for manned aerial systems. We describe this collaborative research between the University and oil companies exploring and developing oil resources in Alaska and the Arctic.

  17. Oil spill studies: A review of ecological effects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Teal, John M.; Howarth, Robert W.

    1984-01-01

    We reviewed seven particularly well known and/or studied oil spills that have occurred since the National Academy of Sciences 1975 report, “Petroleum in the Marine Environment” or that occurred prior to that report but about which significant new information has since been acquired. The spills studied were from the barge Florida, and tankers Arrow, Argo Merchant, Amoco Cadiz, and Tsesis and blowouts from the Bravo and Ixtoc I platforms. These “best” studies yield only limited insight into effects because they lack controls and have a high degree of natural variability. The Tsesis, Florida, and Amoco Cadiz cases are exceptional since they occurred in areas of ongoing research programs and had nearby areas suitable for controls. Oil spills have produced measurable effects on ecosystems that have not been readily predictable from laboratory studies on isolated organisms. However, ecosystemlevel interactions are poorly understood even without the complications resulting from effects of pollution. These generalizations emerge: oil regularly reaches sediments after a spill; oil in anoxic sediments is persistent; oil regularly contaminates Zooplankton and benthic invertebrates; fish are also contaminated, but to a lesser extent; oil contamination decreases the abundance and diversity of benthic communities.

  18. Movement of spilled oil as predicted by estuarine nontidal drift

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Conomos, T.J.

    1975-01-01

    Information on water movement obtained from bimonthly releases of surface and seabed drifters in the San Francisco Bay and adjacent Pacific Ocean is used to understand major processes controlling dispersal of oil after a spill of 3,200 m3 of Bunker C in the bay in January 1971. River-induced nontidal estuarine circulation was the dominant factor controlling net movement of the oil spilled at the entrance of the bay system, reinforcing ebbing tidal currents and causing the seaward movement of floating oil, which followed paths taken by surface drifters released 3 weeks before the spill. In contrast, some oil formed globules which sank to the near-bottom waters, had the same relative buoyancy as seabed drifters, and moved similarly, beaching in eastern San Pablo Bay after being transported landward in the near-bottom waters. No oil or surface drifters floated into the south bay because surface waters were drifting seaward, away from the south bay. Notable seasonally modulated phenomena which must be considered in predicting surface and near-bottom oil drifts of future spills include a summer (low-river discharge period) diminution of the estuarine circulation mechanism in the north and central bayadjacent ocean region and a seasonal reversal in two-layer drift in the south bay.

  19. Perceived resilience: Examining impacts of the deepwater horizon oil spill one-year post-spill.

    PubMed

    Shenesey, Jessica W; Langhinrichsen-Rohling, Jennifer

    2015-05-01

    Scant research has focused on resilient responding to disasters such as oil spills a year or more after the event. One year after the BP Deepwater Horizon oil spill, this study assessed perceived resilience, relations between resiliency and psychological symptoms, and the degree to which self-reported resiliency was associated with reduced psychological symptoms after accounting for differences in economic impact sustained by Gulf Coast residents. Participants were 812 adults (64% women, mean age 50) of 2 Alabama coastal communities. Participants were administered a telephone survey 1-year post-spill assessing self-perceptions of impact factors (e.g., economic and social), resilience, coping, and depressive and PTSD symptoms. Most participants perceived themselves as resilient (n = 739). As expected, lower perceived resilience was associated with greater ongoing depressive and PTSD symptoms. Spill-related economic impact predicted greater depressive and PTSD symptoms; however, perceived resilience predicted significant variance in psychological symptoms after taking into account spill-related economic impact. Improving individuals' sense of resiliency may help mitigate psychosocial and mental health effects over time. PMID:25961118

  20. Perceived resilience: Examining impacts of the deepwater horizon oil spill one-year post-spill.

    PubMed

    Shenesey, Jessica W; Langhinrichsen-Rohling, Jennifer

    2015-05-01

    Scant research has focused on resilient responding to disasters such as oil spills a year or more after the event. One year after the BP Deepwater Horizon oil spill, this study assessed perceived resilience, relations between resiliency and psychological symptoms, and the degree to which self-reported resiliency was associated with reduced psychological symptoms after accounting for differences in economic impact sustained by Gulf Coast residents. Participants were 812 adults (64% women, mean age 50) of 2 Alabama coastal communities. Participants were administered a telephone survey 1-year post-spill assessing self-perceptions of impact factors (e.g., economic and social), resilience, coping, and depressive and PTSD symptoms. Most participants perceived themselves as resilient (n = 739). As expected, lower perceived resilience was associated with greater ongoing depressive and PTSD symptoms. Spill-related economic impact predicted greater depressive and PTSD symptoms; however, perceived resilience predicted significant variance in psychological symptoms after taking into account spill-related economic impact. Improving individuals' sense of resiliency may help mitigate psychosocial and mental health effects over time.

  1. 78 FR 25472 - Information Collection: Oil Spill Financial Responsibility for Offshore Facilities; Proposed...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-01

    ... Bureau of Ocean Energy Management Information Collection: Oil Spill Financial Responsibility for Offshore... requirements for 30 CFR 553, Oil Spill Financial Responsibility for Offshore Facilities. DATES: Submit written... CFR Part 553, Oil Spill Financial Responsibility for Offshore Facilities. Forms: BOEM-1016, 1017,...

  2. Introduction of oil spill monitoring and response support system using satellite remote sensing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Tae-Ho; Yang, Chan-Su

    2012-06-01

    In the case of oil spill accident at sea, cause the bad effect onto the around sea area such as ocean pollution, property loss etc. Quick making response strategies must be need to prevent additional damage and that is possible by developing system with offered integrated information, such as accident position, oil spill area, oil spill trajectories and combating resources. This paper presents the GIS system for visualization of oil spill monitoring and predicting movement. The purpose of this system is to easily understand of integrated oil spill information by plot on a program base on electronic navigation chart. Oil spill analysis tool is offer input data such as outline coordinates of detected oil spill, the information about the source satellite image and any possible sources in satellite image. This system is designed to plot oil spill on specific time and predicting oil spill trajectories with currents and winds. Each data is extracted by computer modeling using MATLAB. Oil spill movement must be superimposed both 100% of the current strength and 3% of the wind speed. The system will be developed and planned to monitor and forecast oil spilled area. At the same time, it will be planned to predict a projected path of oil spill by collecting environmental information.

  3. 75 FR 9426 - Delaware River and Bay Oil Spill Advisory Committee; Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-02

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard Delaware River and Bay Oil Spill Advisory Committee; Meeting AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION: Notice of meeting. SUMMARY: The Delaware River and Bay Oil Spill Advisory Committee (DRBOSAC) will meet in Philadelphia, PA to discuss various issues to improve oil spill prevention and...

  4. 33 CFR Appendix D to Part 154 - Training Elements for Oil Spill Response Plans

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Training Elements for Oil Spill... Appendix D to Part 154—Training Elements for Oil Spill Response Plans 1. General 1.1The portion of the plan... contracted oil spill removal organizations and the procedures to notify the activate such organizations....

  5. 75 FR 18524 - Delaware River and Bay Oil Spill Advisory Committee; Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-12

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard Delaware River and Bay Oil Spill Advisory Committee; Meeting AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION: Notice of meeting. SUMMARY: The Delaware River and Bay Oil Spill Advisory Committee (DRBOSAC) will meet in Philadelphia, PA to discuss and approve DRBOSAC's report on oil spill prevention...

  6. 30 CFR 254.46 - Whom do I notify if an oil spill occurs?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Whom do I notify if an oil spill occurs? 254.46... INTERIOR OFFSHORE OIL-SPILL RESPONSE REQUIREMENTS FOR FACILITIES LOCATED SEAWARD OF THE COAST LINE Related Requirements for Outer Continental Shelf Facilities § 254.46 Whom do I notify if an oil spill occurs? (a)...

  7. 30 CFR 254.46 - Whom do I notify if an oil spill occurs?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Whom do I notify if an oil spill occurs? 254.46... INTERIOR OFFSHORE OIL-SPILL RESPONSE REQUIREMENTS FOR FACILITIES LOCATED SEAWARD OF THE COAST LINE Related Requirements for Outer Continental Shelf Facilities § 254.46 Whom do I notify if an oil spill occurs? (a)...

  8. 33 CFR Appendix D to Part 154 - Training Elements for Oil Spill Response Plans

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Training Elements for Oil Spill... Appendix D to Part 154—Training Elements for Oil Spill Response Plans 1. General 1.1The portion of the plan... contracted oil spill removal organizations and the procedures to notify the activate such organizations....

  9. 75 FR 54354 - BOEMRE Information Collection Activity: 1010-0106, Oil Spill Financial Responsibility for...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-07

    ..., Oil Spill Financial Responsibility for Offshore Facilities, Extension of a Collection; Submitted for... paperwork requirements in the regulations under 30 CFR part 253, ``Oil Spill Financial Responsibility for... CFR 253, Oil Spill Financial Responsibility for Offshore Facilities. Forms: MMS-1016, MMS-1017,...

  10. 30 CFR 254.46 - Whom do I notify if an oil spill occurs?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Whom do I notify if an oil spill occurs? 254.46... INTERIOR OFFSHORE OIL-SPILL RESPONSE REQUIREMENTS FOR FACILITIES LOCATED SEAWARD OF THE COAST LINE Related Requirements for Outer Continental Shelf Facilities § 254.46 Whom do I notify if an oil spill occurs? (a)...

  11. 30 CFR 254.46 - Whom do I notify if an oil spill occurs?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Whom do I notify if an oil spill occurs? 254.46..., DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR OFFSHORE OIL-SPILL RESPONSE REQUIREMENTS FOR FACILITIES LOCATED SEAWARD OF THE... oil spill occurs? (a) You must immediately notify the National Response Center (1-800-424-8802) if...

  12. 77 FR 33479 - Information Collection Activities: Oil-Spill Response Requirements for Facilities Located Seaward...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-06

    ... Bureau of Safety and Environmental Enforcement Information Collection Activities: Oil-Spill Response... requirements in the regulations under Part 254, ``Oil-Spill Response Requirements for Facilities Located... 254, Oil-Spill Response Requirements for Facilities Located Seaward of the Coast Line. OMB...

  13. 33 CFR Appendix D to Part 154 - Training Elements for Oil Spill Response Plans

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Training Elements for Oil Spill... Appendix D to Part 154—Training Elements for Oil Spill Response Plans 1. General 1.1The portion of the plan... contracted oil spill removal organizations and the procedures to notify the activate such organizations....

  14. 30 CFR 254.46 - Whom do I notify if an oil spill occurs?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Whom do I notify if an oil spill occurs? 254.46... Outer Continental Shelf Facilities § 254.46 Whom do I notify if an oil spill occurs? (a) You must immediately notify the National Response Center (1-800-424-8802) if you observe: (1) An oil spill from...

  15. 75 FR 65309 - National Commission on the BP Deepwater Horizon Oil Spill and Offshore Drilling

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-22

    ... National Commission on the BP Deepwater Horizon Oil Spill and Offshore Drilling AGENCY: Department of... meeting of the National Commission on the BP Deepwater Horizon Oil Spill and Offshore Drilling (the..., and mitigate the impact of, any oil spills associated with offshore drilling in the future....

  16. 75 FR 47584 - National Commission on the BP Deepwater Horizon Oil Spill and Offshore Drilling

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-06

    ... National Commission on the BP Deepwater Horizon Oil Spill and Offshore Drilling AGENCY: Department of... meeting for the National Commission on the BP Deepwater Horizon Oil Spill and Offshore Drilling (the..., and mitigate the impact of, any oil spills associated with offshore drilling in the future....

  17. 75 FR 61771 - Exxon Valdez Oil Spill Trustee Council; Renewal of the Public Advisory Committee

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-06

    ... Office of the Secretary Exxon Valdez Oil Spill Trustee Council; Renewal of the Public Advisory Committee...), following the recommendation and approval of the Exxon Valdez Oil Spill Trustee Council, and in consultation... the Exxon Valdez Oil Spill Public Advisory Committee. SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: The Court...

  18. 75 FR 14622 - Exxon Valdez Oil Spill Trustee Council; Notice of Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-26

    ... Office of the Secretary Exxon Valdez Oil Spill Trustee Council; Notice of Meeting AGENCY: Office of the..., Office of the Secretary is announcing a public meeting of the Exxon Valdez Oil Spill Public Advisory Committee. DATES: April 19, 2010, at 10 a.m. ADDRESSES: Exxon Valdez Oil Spill Trustee Council Office,...

  19. 76 FR 15332 - Exxon Valdez Oil Spill Trustee Council; Notice of Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-21

    ... Office of the Secretary Exxon Valdez Oil Spill Trustee Council; Notice of Meeting AGENCY: Office of the..., Office of the Secretary is announcing a public meeting of the Exxon Valdez Oil Spill Public Advisory Committee. DATES: April 13, 2011, at 10 a.m. ADDRESSES: Exxon Valdez Oil Spill Trustee Council Office,...

  20. 76 FR 37141 - Exxon Valdez Oil Spill Trustee Council; Notice of Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-24

    ... Office of the Secretary Exxon Valdez Oil Spill Trustee Council; Notice of Meeting AGENCY: Department of... Interior, Office of the Secretary is announcing a public meeting of the Exxon Valdez Oil Spill Public Advisory Committee. DATES: July 26, 2011, at 10 a.m. ADDRESSES: Exxon Valdez Oil Spill Trustee...

  1. Oil spill remediation by using the remediation agent JE1058BS that contains a biosurfactant produced by Gordonia sp. strain JE-1058.

    PubMed

    Saeki, Hisashi; Sasaki, Masaru; Komatsu, Koei; Miura, Akira; Matsuda, Hitoshi

    2009-01-01

    A remediation agent containing a biosurfactant was prepared by spray drying the sterilized culture broth of Gordonia sp. strain JE-1058, and the agent was designated as JE1058BS. On subjection to the baffled flask test developed by the United States Environmental Protection Agency, JE1058BS showed a strong potential to be applied as an oil spill dispersant even in the absence of a solvent. It also proved to be an effective bioremediation agent for the remediation of oil spills at sea. The addition of JE1058BS to seawater stimulated the degradation of weathered crude oil (ANS 521) via the activity of the indigenous marine bacteria. Its addition also stimulated the removal of crude oil from the surface of contaminated sea sand. These results indicate that biosurfactant-containing JE1058BS has a strong potential to be applied as a remediation agent for the clean-up of oil spills at sea and on shorelines.

  2. The detection and prediction for oil spill on the sea based on the infrared images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Xu; Liu, Lei; Huang, Wei

    2016-07-01

    Detection for oil pollution is an important part of the marine environment protection in maritime security. In order to realize all-weather, rapid and accurate oil spill area detection, infrared images of oil spill on the sea is processed on account of infrared thermal imaging's visual capacity in darkness and frog. The detection for oil spill is realized and the location as well as the area of oil spill is calculated. The prediction integrated model of oil spill spreading is established and the prediction simulation for oil spill area is realized by changing the oil varieties, environmental factors and time, etc. The results show that this simulation is accurate, fast, intuitive and simple. It has certain significance for realizing the early warning of oil spill area detection automatically, intelligently and quickly.

  3. A conceptual framework for understanding the mental health impacts of oil spills: lessons from the Exxon Valdez oil spill.

    PubMed

    Palinkas, Lawrence A

    2012-01-01

    This paper introduces a conceptual framework for understanding and responding to the currently unfolding social and psychological impacts of the Deepwater Horizon oil spill. Drawing from the concept of corrosive communities and its relationship to theories of conservation of resources, cognitive activation, and risk and resilience, the conceptual model identifies three levels or tiers of impacts: biopsychosocial impacts that are direct consequences of the contamination of the physical environment; interpersonal impacts that are direct consequences of the biopsychosocial impacts; and intrapersonal or psychological impacts that are consequences of both the biopsychosocial and the interpersonal impacts. The model is then evaluated in light of research conducted in the aftermath of the Exxon Valdez oil spill as well as studies of other manmade disasters, and offers a set of testable hypotheses that predict likely impacts of the Deepwater Horizon oil spill. The conceptual framework may be used to identify strategies to develop community resilience and target specific services to prevent and mitigate these adverse effects.

  4. Exxon Valdez oil spill. State/federal natural resource damage assessment. Assessment of injury to harbor seals in Prince William Sound, Alaska, and adjacent areas following the Exxon Valdez oil spill. Marine mammal study number 5. Restoration study number 73. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    1994-05-01

    The goal of the project was to determine whether the Exxon Valdez oil spill (EVOS) had a measurable impact on harbor seals, Phocavitulina richardsi, in Prince William Sound (PWS) and adjacent areas. During the EVOS, harbor seals were exposed to oil both in the water and on land. The study was designed to investigate and quantify, as possible, the effects of oil and the disturbance associated with cleanup on distribution, abundance, and health of harbor seals in the affected area.

  5. Oil spill remote sensors: Review, trends and new developments

    SciTech Connect

    Fingas, M.F.; Brown, C.E.

    1997-06-01

    Remote-sensors for application to oil spills are assessed, and new developments and trends highlighted. The most common sensor used at this time, is an infrared camera or an IR/UV system. This sensor class can detect oil under a variety of conditions, discriminate oil from some backgrounds and has the lowest cost of any sensor. The inherent weaknesses include the inability to discriminate oil on beaches, among weeds or debris and under certain lighting conditions, oil is not detected. Furthermore, water-in-oil emulsions are sometimes not detected in the infrared. New technology has made IR technology very cheap and practical, so despite its limitations, it will be a very important tool in the future. The laser fluorosensor is an instrument of the future because of its unique capability to identify oil on backgrounds that include water, soil, ice and snow. It is the only sensor that can positively discriminate oil on most backgrounds. Radar offers the only potential for large area searches and foul weather remote sensing. Radar is costly, requires a dedicated aircraft, and is prone to many interferences. False targets can be as high as 95%. Equipment operating in the visible spectrum, such as cameras and scanners, is useful for documentation or providing a basis for the overlay of other data. It is not useful beyond this because oil shows no spectral characteristics in the visible region. Less use will be made of visible equipment in future years. The use of satellite imagery is reviewed. Optical sensors offer only marginal capability to the oil spill worker. Radar satellite imagery may provide useful overviews on known spills and very large spills. One important new trend will be the use of radar satellite for wide-area searching.

  6. The Galeta Oil Spill. II. Unexpected Persistence of Oil Trapped in Mangrove Sediments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burns, K. A.; Garrity, S. D.; Jorissen, D.; MacPherson, J.; Stoelting, M.; Tierney, J.; Yelle-Simmons, L.

    1994-04-01

    Sediment chemistry studies, undertaken as part of the long-term assessment of the Bahı´a las Minas (Panamá) oil spill, showed the unexpected persistence of the full range of aromatic hydrocarbon residues of the spilled crude oil in anoxic muds of coastal mangroves. Mangrove muds served as long-term reservoirs for chronic contamination of contiguous coastal communities for over 5 years. One result of the repeated history of oil pollution incidents along this coast was an increased proportion of dead mangrove ( Rhizophora mangle) roots in sediment cores which was related to contaminant loading and was detectable for at least 20 years after major oil spills. We suggest that this is the minimum time-scale that is to be expected for the loss of toxicity of oil trapped in muddy coastal habitats impacted by catastrophic oil spills.

  7. Oil spill recovery: Oil booms and skimmers. (Latest citations from the US Patent bibliographic file with exemplary claims). Published Search

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-02-01

    The bibliography contains citations of selected patents concerning booms, skimmers and skimming techniques used for oil spill recovery. Patents covering oil absorbent materials, dispersants, floating booms, methods and equipment for oil spill containment and collection, marine barriers, cryogenic beach cleaners, microbial materials, and ultrasonic oil removal are included. Citations concerning oil/water separation for non-oil spill recovery applications are examined in a separate bibliography. (Contains a minimum of 177 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

  8. Pollution risk assessment of oil spill accidents in Garorim Bay of Korea.

    PubMed

    Lee, Moonjin; Jung, Jung-Yeul

    2015-11-15

    This study presents a model to assess the oil spill risk in Garorim Bay in Korea, where large-scale oil spill accidents frequently occur. The oil spill risk assessment is carried out by using two factors: 1) The impact probability of the oil spill, and 2) the first impact time of the oil that has been spilt. The risk assessment is conducted for environmentally sensitive areas, such as the coastline and aquaculture farms in the Garorim Bay area. Finally, Garorim Bay is divided into six subareas, and the risks of each subarea are compared with one another to identify the subarea that is most vulnerable to an oil spill accident. These results represent an objective and comprehensive oil spill risk level for a specific region. The prediction of the oil spill spread is based on real-time sea conditions and can be improved by integrating our results, especially when sea conditions are rapidly changing.

  9. Dealing with pollution from conflict: Analysis of discourses around the 2006 Lebanon oil spill.

    PubMed

    Takshe, Aseel A; Huby, Meg; Frantzi, Sofia; Lovett, Jon C

    2010-01-01

    In July 2006 a war between Lebanon and Israel resulted in severe environmental damage in Lebanon from Israeli bombing raids. An attack on the Lebanese Jiyyeh Power Plant released 15,000 tons of heavy fuel oil into the Mediterranean Sea. Remarkably, a clean-up operation was effected despite a continued state of war and lack of capacity in the Lebanese government. Civil society environmentalists played a key role in dealing with the pollution and complying with pollution-control legislation. In this study we use Q-methodology to analyse discourses on the effectiveness of pollution legislation during times of conflict using the Jiyyeh oil spill as an example. We interviewed 35 people from eight different stakeholder groups involved in environmental issues. Five distinct discourses were generated covering compensation schemes, need for new legislation, role of stakeholders during wartime and strengthening government ministries.

  10. Dealing with pollution from conflict: Analysis of discourses around the 2006 Lebanon oil spill.

    PubMed

    Takshe, Aseel A; Huby, Meg; Frantzi, Sofia; Lovett, Jon C

    2010-01-01

    In July 2006 a war between Lebanon and Israel resulted in severe environmental damage in Lebanon from Israeli bombing raids. An attack on the Lebanese Jiyyeh Power Plant released 15,000 tons of heavy fuel oil into the Mediterranean Sea. Remarkably, a clean-up operation was effected despite a continued state of war and lack of capacity in the Lebanese government. Civil society environmentalists played a key role in dealing with the pollution and complying with pollution-control legislation. In this study we use Q-methodology to analyse discourses on the effectiveness of pollution legislation during times of conflict using the Jiyyeh oil spill as an example. We interviewed 35 people from eight different stakeholder groups involved in environmental issues. Five distinct discourses were generated covering compensation schemes, need for new legislation, role of stakeholders during wartime and strengthening government ministries. PMID:20018427

  11. Concentrations in human blood of petroleum hydrocarbons associated with the BP/Deepwater Horizon oil spill, Gulf of Mexico.

    PubMed

    Sammarco, Paul W; Kolian, Stephan R; Warby, Richard A F; Bouldin, Jennifer L; Subra, Wilma A; Porter, Scott A

    2016-04-01

    During/after the BP/Deepwater Horizon oil spill, cleanup workers, fisherpersons, SCUBA divers, and coastal residents were exposed to crude oil and dispersants. These people experienced acute physiological and behavioral symptoms and consulted a physician. They were diagnosed with petroleum hydrocarbon poisoning and had blood analyses analyzed for volatile organic compounds; samples were drawn 5-19 months after the spill had been capped. We examined the petroleum hydrocarbon concentrations in the blood. The aromatic compounds m,p-xylene, toluene, ethylbenzene, benzene, o-xylene, and styrene, and the alkanes hexane, 3-methylpentane, 2-methylpentane, and iso-octane were detected. Concentrations of the first four aromatics were not significantly different from US National Health and Nutritional Examination Survey/US National Institute of Standards and Technology 95th percentiles, indicating high concentrations of contaminants. The other two aromatics and the alkanes yielded equivocal results or significantly low concentrations. The data suggest that single-ring aromatic compounds are more persistent in the blood than alkanes and may be responsible for the observed symptoms. People should avoid exposure to crude oil through avoidance of the affected region, or utilizing hazardous materials suits if involved in cleanup, or wearing hazardous waste operations and emergency response suits if SCUBA diving. Concentrations of alkanes and PAHs in the blood of coastal residents and workers should be monitored through time well after the spill has been controlled.

  12. Concentrations in human blood of petroleum hydrocarbons associated with the BP/Deepwater Horizon oil spill, Gulf of Mexico.

    PubMed

    Sammarco, Paul W; Kolian, Stephan R; Warby, Richard A F; Bouldin, Jennifer L; Subra, Wilma A; Porter, Scott A

    2016-04-01

    During/after the BP/Deepwater Horizon oil spill, cleanup workers, fisherpersons, SCUBA divers, and coastal residents were exposed to crude oil and dispersants. These people experienced acute physiological and behavioral symptoms and consulted a physician. They were diagnosed with petroleum hydrocarbon poisoning and had blood analyses analyzed for volatile organic compounds; samples were drawn 5-19 months after the spill had been capped. We examined the petroleum hydrocarbon concentrations in the blood. The aromatic compounds m,p-xylene, toluene, ethylbenzene, benzene, o-xylene, and styrene, and the alkanes hexane, 3-methylpentane, 2-methylpentane, and iso-octane were detected. Concentrations of the first four aromatics were not significantly different from US National Health and Nutritional Examination Survey/US National Institute of Standards and Technology 95th percentiles, indicating high concentrations of contaminants. The other two aromatics and the alkanes yielded equivocal results or significantly low concentrations. The data suggest that single-ring aromatic compounds are more persistent in the blood than alkanes and may be responsible for the observed symptoms. People should avoid exposure to crude oil through avoidance of the affected region, or utilizing hazardous materials suits if involved in cleanup, or wearing hazardous waste operations and emergency response suits if SCUBA diving. Concentrations of alkanes and PAHs in the blood of coastal residents and workers should be monitored through time well after the spill has been controlled. PMID:25998020

  13. Effects of the Gulf Oil Spill in Escambia County, Florida

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Killingsworth, Kelcey Ray

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess the impact of the British Petroleum Gulf Oil Spill on resource change, psychological stress, and resilience for business owners, residents, and workers in Escambia County, Florida. This study was based on Hobfoll's (1988, 1989) Conservation of Resources theory. All business owners, residents, and…

  14. OIL SPILL BIOREMEDIATION ON COASTAL SHORELINES: A CRITIQUE

    EPA Science Inventory

    The purpose of this chapter is not to provide an extensive review of the literature on oil spill bioremediation. For that, the reader is referred to Swannell et al. (1996), who have conducted the most exhaustive review I have yet to come across. Other reviews are also av...

  15. Oil spills prediction in the Bonifacio strait area, western Mediterranean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cucco, A.; Ribotti, A.; Olita, A.; Fazioli, L.; Sorgente, B.; Sinerchia, M.; Satta, A.; Perilli, A.; Borghini, M.; Schroeder, K.; Sorgente, R.

    2012-02-01

    An innovative forecasting system of the coastal marine circulation has been implemented in the Bonifacio Strait area, between Corsica and Sardinia, using a numerical approach to facilitate the rapid planning and coordination of remedial actions to oil spill emergencies at sea by local authorities. Downscaling and nesting techniques from regional to coastal scale and a 3-D hydrodynamic numerical model, coupled with a wind wave model, are the core of the integrated Bonifacio Strait system. Such a system is capable to predict the sea state and the dispersion of hydrocarbon spills in the area, providing the forecasts on oil spills through an easy-to-use graphical user interface. Scenarios and risk maps have been created to identify the most risky areas to oil pollution in relation to vessels traffic. The backward investigation technique has been exploited to trace the most probable area from which pollution was generated. The system has been operationally verified in January 2011 when an oil spill occurred in the area. Finally output data are daily released providing forecasting services to end-users through the web.

  16. A STRATEGY FOR PROTECTING CIRCULATING SEAWATER SYSTEMS FROM OIL SPILLS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The double grounding of the freighter New Carissa, and resultant oil spills, on the central Oregon coast in spring of 1999 caused great concern regarding possible petroleum hydrocarbon (PHC) contamination of Coos Bay, Alsea Bay, and Yaquina Bay estuaries. Among these concerns wa...

  17. Persistence of spilled oil along the Beaufort Sea coast

    SciTech Connect

    Nummedal, D.

    1980-04-01

    The research project for which this is the final report was initiated in 1977 with the following three major objectives: Assess the retention potential for spilled oil within the coastal environments of Alaska's Beaufort Sea; Characterize the morphology and sediments of the Beaufort coast; Determine, as precisely as possible, the annual longshore sediment transport rate.

  18. NASA DEVELOP Students Rev Up Response to Gulf Oil Spill

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, Jason B.; Childs, Lauren M.

    2010-01-01

    After the April 20th explosion aboard the Deepwater Horizon drilling rig in the Gulf of Mexico, the world witnessed one of the worst oil spill catastrophes in global history. In an effort to mitigate the disaster, the U.S. government moved quickly to establish a unified command for responding to the spill. Some of the command's most immediate needs were to track the movement of the surface oil slick, establish a baseline measurement of pre-oil coastal ecosystem conditions, and assess potential air quality and water hazards related to the spill. To help address these needs and assist the Federal response to the disaster, NASA deployed several of its airborne and satellite research sensors to collect an unprecedented amount of remotely-sensed data over the Gulf of Mexico region. Although some of these data were shared with the public via the media, much of the NASA data on the disaster was not well known to the Gulf Coast community. The need existed to inform the general public about these datasets and help improve understanding about how NASA's science research was contributing to oil spill response and recovery. With its extensive experience conducting community-oriented remote sensing projects and close ties to organizations around Gulf of Mexico, the NASA DEVELOP National Program stood in a unique position to meet this need.

  19. An evaluation of oil spill responses for offshore oil production projects in Newfoundland and Labrador, Canada: Implications for seabird conservation.

    PubMed

    Fraser, Gail S; Racine, Vincent

    2016-06-15

    Seabirds are vulnerable to oil pollution, particularly in cold-water regions. We investigated the response of small spills (<7.95m(3)) at offshore production platforms in Newfoundland, a region recognized for seabird diversity and abundance. In three environmental assessments for oil production operations Environment Canada requested monitoring and mitigation of small spills potentially impacting seabird populations; suggestions supported by two independent reviews. An industry spill response plan states that operators would collect systematic observations on spills and deploy countermeasures where possible. Operators' spill reports were obtained under an Access to Information request. There were 220 daytime spills with sheens (out of 381 spills; 1997-2010). Of these, six reported time to oil dispersion and eleven the presence or absence of seabirds. Industry self-reporting has not permitted an evaluation of the impact of chronic oil spills on seabirds. We recommend that independent observers be placed on platforms to systematically collect data on spills and seabirds.

  20. An evaluation of oil spill responses for offshore oil production projects in Newfoundland and Labrador, Canada: Implications for seabird conservation.

    PubMed

    Fraser, Gail S; Racine, Vincent

    2016-06-15

    Seabirds are vulnerable to oil pollution, particularly in cold-water regions. We investigated the response of small spills (<7.95m(3)) at offshore production platforms in Newfoundland, a region recognized for seabird diversity and abundance. In three environmental assessments for oil production operations Environment Canada requested monitoring and mitigation of small spills potentially impacting seabird populations; suggestions supported by two independent reviews. An industry spill response plan states that operators would collect systematic observations on spills and deploy countermeasures where possible. Operators' spill reports were obtained under an Access to Information request. There were 220 daytime spills with sheens (out of 381 spills; 1997-2010). Of these, six reported time to oil dispersion and eleven the presence or absence of seabirds. Industry self-reporting has not permitted an evaluation of the impact of chronic oil spills on seabirds. We recommend that independent observers be placed on platforms to systematically collect data on spills and seabirds. PMID:27131965

  1. Assessment of treated vs untreated oil spills. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Wilson, M.P.

    1981-02-01

    The results of a series of studies conducted to determine the practicability and feasibility of using dispersants to mitigate the impact of an oil spill on the environment are described. The method of approach is holistic in that it combines the physical, chemical, microbial and macro-fauna response to a spill treated with dispersants and compares this with spills that are left untreated. The program integrates mathematical, laboratory, meso-scale (three 20 foot high by three feet in diameter tanks, in-situ experiments and analyses to determine if the use of dispersants is an effective oil spill control agent. In summary, it appears viable to use dispersants as determined on a case by case basis. The case for using dispersants has to be based on whether or not their use will mitigate the environmental impact of the spill. In the case of an open ocean spill that is being driven into a rich inter-tidal community, the use of dispersants could greatly reduce the environmental impact. Even in the highly productive George's Bank area at the height of the cod spawning season, the impact of the use of dispersants is well within the limits of natural variability when the threshold toxicity level is assumed to be as low as 100 ppB, a level which is often found in the open ocean. Thus, it appears that dispersants can and should be used when it is evident that their use will mitigate the impacts of the spill. Their use in areas where there is poor circulation and therefore little possibility of rapid dilution is more questionable and should be a subject of future studies.

  2. Oil spills and AI: How to manage resources through simulation

    SciTech Connect

    Giribone, P.; Bruzzone, A.G.; Caddeo, S.

    1995-12-31

    Today, in the Mediterranean theater of the Upper Tyrrhenian, the ecological risk involving oil installations is still quite high. This is due to the fact that valuable environmental and tourist areas exist together with large industrial and port structures; in particular, recent events have demonstrated the danger involving oil spills along the Ligurian coastline. This study proposes an approach to plan the operations that should be performed when accidents occur, based on the use of AI techniques.

  3. The management in response to marine oil spill from ships in China: A systematic review.

    PubMed

    Xiong, Shangao; Long, Hualou; Tang, Guoping; Wan, Jun; Li, Hongyuan

    2015-07-15

    Historical trends about marine ship-source oil spill incidents from 1990 to 2010 in China were analyzed, and it provided an overview of the status quo of China's management in response to marine oil spill from ships. The Chinese government has issued a series of laws on marine environmental protection since 1982, and promulgated many regulations to prevent and tackle ship-source oil spill. At present, the oil spill emergency response system established in China has five levels: the national level, sea level, provincial level, port level, and ship level. China has demonstrated its ability to control and remove small-scale oil spill from ships in port area and near-shore coastal waters, and also paid attention to related research and development projects. Although China has made significant progress in managing shipping oil spill, challenges still exist, including strengthening oil spill emergency cooperation, enhancing China's response capability, and improving relevant research and development projects.

  4. The management in response to marine oil spill from ships in China: A systematic review.

    PubMed

    Xiong, Shangao; Long, Hualou; Tang, Guoping; Wan, Jun; Li, Hongyuan

    2015-07-15

    Historical trends about marine ship-source oil spill incidents from 1990 to 2010 in China were analyzed, and it provided an overview of the status quo of China's management in response to marine oil spill from ships. The Chinese government has issued a series of laws on marine environmental protection since 1982, and promulgated many regulations to prevent and tackle ship-source oil spill. At present, the oil spill emergency response system established in China has five levels: the national level, sea level, provincial level, port level, and ship level. China has demonstrated its ability to control and remove small-scale oil spill from ships in port area and near-shore coastal waters, and also paid attention to related research and development projects. Although China has made significant progress in managing shipping oil spill, challenges still exist, including strengthening oil spill emergency cooperation, enhancing China's response capability, and improving relevant research and development projects. PMID:26003384

  5. Risk assessment and national measure plan for oil and HNS spill accidents near Korea.

    PubMed

    Lee, Moonjin; Jung, Jung-Yeul

    2013-08-15

    Many oil and HNS spill accidents occur in the waters surrounding the Korean Peninsula because Korea is one of the biggest trading partners in the world. In this study, we analyzed the oil and HNS spill accidents that occurred between 1994 and 2005 and created risk matrices to assess these accidents. The worst scenarios of future oil and HNS spill accidents were established, and the maximum spill amounts were estimated using historic accident data and a correlation from IPIECA. The maximum spill amounts are estimated to be between 77,000 and 10,000 tons of oil and HNS, respectively. One third of the spill materials should be removed using recovery equipment within three days of the spill event, according to the national measure plan. The capability of recovery equipment to remove spill materials can be estimated, and the equipment should then be prepared to mitigate the harmful effects of future oil and HNS accidents on humans and marine ecosystems.

  6. Three dimensional simulation of transport and fate of oil spill under wave induced circulation.

    PubMed

    Liu, Tianyi; Peter Sheng, Y

    2014-03-15

    An oil spill model is developed and coupled to a current-wave model to simulate oil spill transport in aquatic environments where waves are present. The oil spill model incorporates physical-chemical processes of oil spill, and simulates oil slick transport by a circulation-driven Lagrangian Parcel model. Using the coupled oil spill model and the current-wave model CH3D-SWAN, a laboratory observed wave induced circulation and oil slick evolution are successfully simulated, while different current-wave coupling schemes generate different flow patterns and oil slick evolution. The modeling system is also shown to simulate Langmuir circulation and resulting oil slicks. Hypothetical scenarios of oil spill near Virginia coast during Hurricane Isabel and Irene are simulated using the oil spill model and the CH3D-Storm Surge Modeling System to assess the role of storm waves during oil spill. The spill area is significantly larger when storm waves are considered, implying waves significantly increase oil spill dispersion.

  7. Fingerprint and weathering characteristics of stranded oils after the Hebei Spirit oil spill.

    PubMed

    Yim, Un Hyuk; Ha, Sung Yong; An, Joon Geon; Won, Jong Ho; Han, Gi Myung; Hong, Sang Hee; Kim, Moonkoo; Jung, Jee-Hyun; Shim, Won Joon

    2011-12-15

    After the Hebei Spirit oil spill in December 2007, mixtures of three types of Middle East crude oil were stranded along 375 km of coastline in Western Korea. Stranded oils were monitored for their identity and weathering status in 19 stations in three provinces. The results obtained using a weathering model indicated that evaporation would be a dominant weathering process immediately after the spill and the sequential changes of chemical composition in the field verified this prediction positively. In the early stages of weathering, the half-life of spilled oil was calculated to be 2.6 months. Tiered fingerprinting approaches identified background contamination and confirmed the identity of the stranded oils with the spill source. Double ratios using alkylated phenanthrenes and dibenzothiophenes in samples after the spill clearly reveal the impact of weathering on oil. However, to derive defensible fingerprinting for source identification and allocation, recalcitrant biomarkers are extremely useful. Weathering status of the stranded oils was evaluated using composition profiles of saturated hydrocarbons, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and various weathering indices. Most samples collected 8 months after the spill were categorized in either the advanced or extreme weathering states. Gradual increase in toxic components in the residual oil through weathering emphasizes the need for adaptive ecotoxicological approaches. PMID:21996619

  8. Fingerprint and weathering characteristics of stranded oils after the Hebei Spirit oil spill.

    PubMed

    Yim, Un Hyuk; Ha, Sung Yong; An, Joon Geon; Won, Jong Ho; Han, Gi Myung; Hong, Sang Hee; Kim, Moonkoo; Jung, Jee-Hyun; Shim, Won Joon

    2011-12-15

    After the Hebei Spirit oil spill in December 2007, mixtures of three types of Middle East crude oil were stranded along 375 km of coastline in Western Korea. Stranded oils were monitored for their identity and weathering status in 19 stations in three provinces. The results obtained using a weathering model indicated that evaporation would be a dominant weathering process immediately after the spill and the sequential changes of chemical composition in the field verified this prediction positively. In the early stages of weathering, the half-life of spilled oil was calculated to be 2.6 months. Tiered fingerprinting approaches identified background contamination and confirmed the identity of the stranded oils with the spill source. Double ratios using alkylated phenanthrenes and dibenzothiophenes in samples after the spill clearly reveal the impact of weathering on oil. However, to derive defensible fingerprinting for source identification and allocation, recalcitrant biomarkers are extremely useful. Weathering status of the stranded oils was evaluated using composition profiles of saturated hydrocarbons, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and various weathering indices. Most samples collected 8 months after the spill were categorized in either the advanced or extreme weathering states. Gradual increase in toxic components in the residual oil through weathering emphasizes the need for adaptive ecotoxicological approaches.

  9. The 2010 Deepwater Horizon oil spill: the trauma signature of an ecological disaster.

    PubMed

    Shultz, James M; Walsh, Lauren; Garfin, Dana Rose; Wilson, Fiona E; Neria, Yuval

    2015-01-01

    The 2010 Deepwater Horizon “British Petroleum (BP)” oil spill was a mega-disaster characterized as the petroleum industry’s largest-volume marine oil spill in history. Following a “wellhead blowout” that destroyed the drilling platform, 4.9 million barrels of petroleum flowed into the Gulf of Mexico over 87 days and the spill expanded to cover 68,000 square miles of sea surface. However, despite the expansive scope of the event, systematic surveys of affected coastal populations found only modest effects on mental health and substance abuse. An established trauma signature (TSIG) methodology was used to examine the psychological consequences in relation to exposure to the unique constellation of hazards associated with the spill. A hazard profile, a matrix of psychological stressors, and a “trauma signature” summary for the affected Gulf Coast population--in terms of exposure to hazard, loss, and change--were created specifically for this human-generated ecological disaster. Psychological risk characteristics of this event included: human causation featuring corporate culpability, large spill volume, protracted duration, coastal contamination from petroleum products, severe ecological damage, disruption of Gulf Coast industries and tourism, and extensive media coverage. The multiple impact effect was notable due to prior exposure of the region to Hurricane Katrina. These stressors were counterbalanced by the relative absence of other prominent risks for distress and psychopathology. Coastal residents did not experience significant onshore spill-related mortality or severe injury, shortages of survival needs, disruption of vital services (health care, schools, utilities, communications, and transportation), loss of homes, population displacement, destruction of the built environment, or loss of social supports. Initial acute economic losses were partially offset by large-sum BP payments for cleanup and recovery of the coastal economy. Not only did Gulf

  10. The 2010 Deepwater Horizon oil spill: the trauma signature of an ecological disaster.

    PubMed

    Shultz, James M; Walsh, Lauren; Garfin, Dana Rose; Wilson, Fiona E; Neria, Yuval

    2015-01-01

    The 2010 Deepwater Horizon “British Petroleum (BP)” oil spill was a mega-disaster characterized as the petroleum industry’s largest-volume marine oil spill in history. Following a “wellhead blowout” that destroyed the drilling platform, 4.9 million barrels of petroleum flowed into the Gulf of Mexico over 87 days and the spill expanded to cover 68,000 square miles of sea surface. However, despite the expansive scope of the event, systematic surveys of affected coastal populations found only modest effects on mental health and substance abuse. An established trauma signature (TSIG) methodology was used to examine the psychological consequences in relation to exposure to the unique constellation of hazards associated with the spill. A hazard profile, a matrix of psychological stressors, and a “trauma signature” summary for the affected Gulf Coast population--in terms of exposure to hazard, loss, and change--were created specifically for this human-generated ecological disaster. Psychological risk characteristics of this event included: human causation featuring corporate culpability, large spill volume, protracted duration, coastal contamination from petroleum products, severe ecological damage, disruption of Gulf Coast industries and tourism, and extensive media coverage. The multiple impact effect was notable due to prior exposure of the region to Hurricane Katrina. These stressors were counterbalanced by the relative absence of other prominent risks for distress and psychopathology. Coastal residents did not experience significant onshore spill-related mortality or severe injury, shortages of survival needs, disruption of vital services (health care, schools, utilities, communications, and transportation), loss of homes, population displacement, destruction of the built environment, or loss of social supports. Initial acute economic losses were partially offset by large-sum BP payments for cleanup and recovery of the coastal economy. Not only did Gulf

  11. Measuring marine oil spill extent by Markov Random Fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moctezuma, Miguel; Parmiggiani, Flavio; Lopez Lopez, Ludwin

    2014-10-01

    The Deepwater Horizon oil spill of the Gulf of Mexico in the spring of 2010 was the largest accidental marine oil spill in the history of the petroleum industry. An immediate request, after the accident, was to detect the oil slick and to measure its extent: SAR images were the obvious tool to be employed for the task. This paper presents a processing scheme based on Markov Random Fields (MRF) theory. MRF theory describes the global information by probability terms involving local neighborhood representations of the SAR backscatter data. The random degradation introduced by speckle noise is dealt with a pre-processing stage which applies a nonlinear diffusion filter. Spatial context attributes are structured by the Bayes equation derived from a Maximum-A-Posteriori (MAP) estimation. The probability terms define an objective function of a MRF model whose goal is to detect contours and fine structures. The markovian segmentation problem is solved with a numerical optimization method. The scheme was applied to an Envisat/ASAR image over the Gulf of Mexico of May 9, 2010, when the oil spill was already fully developed. The final result was obtained with 51 recursion cycles, where, at each step, the segmentation consists of a 3-class label field (open sea and two oil slick thicknesses). Both the MRF model and the parameters of the stochastic optimization procedure will be provided, together with the area measurement of the two kinds of oil slick.

  12. Biggest oil spill tackled in gulf amid war, soft market

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-02-04

    Industry is scrambling to cope with history's biggest oil spill against the backdrop of a Persian Gulf war and a softening oil market. U.S. and Saudi Arabian officials accused Iraq of unleashing an oil spill of about 11 million bbl into the Persian Gulf off Kuwait last week by releasing crude from the giant Sea Island tanker loading terminal at Mina al Ahmadi. Smart bombs delivered by U.S. aircraft hit two onshore tank farm manifold stations, cutting off the terminal's source of oil flow Jan. 26. A small volume of oil was still leaking from 13 mile feeder pipelines to the terminal at presstime. Press reports quoted U.S. military and Saudi officials as estimating the slick at 35 miles long and 10 miles wide but breaking up in some areas late last week. Meantime, Iraq reportedly opened the valves at its Mina al Bakr marine terminal at Fao to spill crude into the northern gulf. BBC reported significant volumes of crude in the water off Fao 24 hr after the terminal valves were opened. Mina al Bakr is a considerably smaller terminal than Sea Island, suggesting that the resulting flow of oil would be smaller than that at Sea Island.

  13. Mid-Term Probabilistic Forecast of Oil Spill Trajectories

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Castanedo, S.; Abascal, A. J.; Cardenas, M.; Medina, R.; Guanche, Y.; Mendez, F. J.; Camus, P.

    2012-12-01

    There is increasing concern about the threat posed by oil spills to the coastal environment. This is reflected in the promulgation of various national and international standards among which are those that require companies whose activities involves oil spill risk, to have oil pollution emergency plans or similar arrangements for responding promptly and effectively to oil pollution incidents. Operational oceanography systems (OOS) that provide decision makers with oil spill trajectory forecasting, have demonstrated their usefulness in recent accidents (Castanedo et al., 2006). In recent years, many national and regional OOS have been setup focusing on short-term oil spill forecast (up to 5 days). However, recent accidental marine oil spills (Prestige in Spain, Deep Horizon in Gulf of Mexico) have revealed the importance of having larger prediction horizons (up to 15 days) in regional-scale areas. In this work, we have developed a methodology to provide probabilistic oil spill forecast based on numerical modelling and statistical methods. The main components of this approach are: (1) Use of high resolution long-term (1948-2009) historical hourly data bases of wind, wind-induced currents and astronomical tide currents obtained using state-of-the-art numerical models; (2) classification of representative wind field patterns (n=100) using clustering techniques based on PCA and K-means algorithms (Camus et al., 2011); (3) determination of the cluster occurrence probability and the stochastic matrix (matrix of transition of probability or Markov matrix), p_ij, (probability of moving from a cluster "i" to a cluster "j" in one time step); (4) Initial state for mid-term simulations is obtained from available wind forecast using nearest-neighbors analog method; (5) 15-days Stochastic Markov Chain simulations (m=1000) are launched; (6) Corresponding oil spill trajectories are carried out by TESEO Lagrangian transport model (Abascal et al., 2009); (7) probability maps are

  14. 75 FR 29397 - National Commission on the BP Deepwater Horizon Oil Spill and Offshore Drilling

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-26

    ... Spill and Offshore Drilling By the authority vested in me as President by the Constitution and the laws... established the National Commission on the BP Deepwater Horizon Oil Spill and Offshore Drilling (the... options for guarding against, and mitigating the impact of, oil spills associated with offshore...

  15. Oil spills in the Caribbean: a matter of time

    SciTech Connect

    Greene, M.P.

    1981-09-01

    Hurricanes increase the risk of oil spills in the Caribbean region, a situation which the United Nations and affected islands recognize as requiring cooperative efforts to prevent and control. As shipping activity increases in the Caribbean, the threat is intensified by the small size and poverty of the area's islands, which depend heavily on tourist and fishing industries. The annual 250 million tons of crude oil shipped to or through the Caribbean can be expected to average 21 spills of 1000 tons within 50 miles of land and pose serious ecological and economic threats. A contingency plan based on cooperation and shared resources to deal with spills would not be expensive because the liability laws and compensation rights are clearly defined. The technologies available to combat oil spills range from biological agents to sweeping equipment. Response can be prompt, but the political and economic aspects are more delicate. A regional plan formulated by the islands and countries involved still needs to have formal intergovernmental agreements signed. (DCK)

  16. Gulf of Mexico Air Quality: CALIPSO Support for Gulf of Mexico Air Quality Relating to the Deepwater Horizon Oil Spill

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nguyen, Myngoc T.; Lapointe, Stephen; Jennings, Brittney; Zoumplis, Angela

    2011-01-01

    On April 20, 2010, an oil platform belonging to BP exploded and leaked a huge volume of oil into the Gulf of Mexico. In an effort to control the spread of the oil, BP applied dispersants such as Corexit and conducted in-situ burnings of the oil. This catastrophe created a complex chain of events that affected not only the fragile water and land ecosystems, but the humans who breathe the air every day. Thousands of people were exposed to fumes associated with oil vapors from the spill, burning of the oil, and the toxic mixture of dispersants. While aiding in clean-up efforts, local fishermen were directly exposure to fumes when working on the Gulf. A notable amount of Gulf Coast residents were also exposed to the oil fumes as seasonal southeasterly winds blew vapors toward land. The Volatile Organic Compounds (VOC) found in oil vapors include: benzene, toluene, ethyl benzene, xylene, naphthalene, hydrogen sulfide and particulate matter (PM). Increases in water temperature and sunlight due to the summer season allow for these VOCs and PM to evaporate into the air more rapidly. Aside from the VOCs found in oil vapors, the dispersant being used to break up the oil is highly toxic and is thought to be even more toxic than the oil itself (EPA website, 2010). To protect human health, the environment, and to make informed policy decisions relevant to the spill, the EPA Region 6 has continuously monitored the affected areas carefully for levels of pollutants in the outdoor air that are associated with petroleum products and the burning of oil along the coast. In an effort to prevent, prepare for, and respond to future oil spills that occur in and around inland waters of the United States, the EPA has been working with local, state, and federal response partners. Air quality measurements were collected by the EPA at five active monitoring systems stationed along the coast.

  17. Environmental effects of the Deepwater Horizon oil spill: A review.

    PubMed

    Beyer, Jonny; Trannum, Hilde C; Bakke, Torgeir; Hodson, Peter V; Collier, Tracy K

    2016-09-15

    The Deepwater Horizon oil spill constituted an ecosystem-level injury in the northern Gulf of Mexico. Much oil spread at 1100-1300m depth, contaminating and affecting deepwater habitats. Factors such as oil-biodegradation, ocean currents and response measures (dispersants, burning) reduced coastal oiling. Still, >2100km of shoreline and many coastal habitats were affected. Research demonstrates that oiling caused a wide range of biological effects, although worst-case impact scenarios did not materialize. Biomarkers in individual organisms were more informative about oiling stress than population and community indices. Salt marshes and seabird populations were hard hit, but were also quite resilient to oiling effects. Monitoring demonstrated little contamination of seafood. Certain impacts are still understudied, such as effects on seagrass communities. Concerns of long-term impacts remain for large fish species, deep-sea corals, sea turtles and cetaceans. These species and their habitats should continue to receive attention (monitoring and research) for years to come.

  18. Thresholds in marsh resilience to the Deepwater Horizon oil spill

    PubMed Central

    Silliman, Brian R.; Dixon, Philip M.; Wobus, Cameron; He, Qiang; Daleo, Pedro; Hughes, Brent B.; Rissing, Matthew; Willis, Jonathan M.; Hester, Mark W.

    2016-01-01

    Ecosystem boundary retreat due to human-induced pressure is a generally observed phenomenon. However, studies that document thresholds beyond which internal resistance mechanisms are overwhelmed are uncommon. Following the Deepwater Horizon (DWH) oil spill, field studies from a few sites suggested that oiling of salt marshes could lead to a biogeomorphic feedback where plant death resulted in increased marsh erosion. We tested for spatial generality of and thresholds in this effect across 103 salt marsh sites spanning ~430 kilometers of shoreline in coastal Louisiana, Alabama, and Mississippi, using data collected as part of the natural resource damage assessment (NRDA). Our analyses revealed a threshold for oil impacts on marsh edge erosion, with higher erosion rates occurring for ~1–2 years after the spill at sites with the highest amounts of plant stem oiling (90–100%). These results provide compelling evidence showing large-scale ecosystem loss following the Deepwater Horizon oil spill. More broadly, these findings provide rare empirical evidence identifying a geomorphologic threshold in the resistance of an ecosystem to increasing intensity of human-induced disturbance. PMID:27679956

  19. Immediate ecotoxicological effects of short-lived oil spills on marine biota

    PubMed Central

    Brussaard, Corina P. D.; Peperzak, Louis; Beggah, Siham; Wick, Lukas Y.; Wuerz, Birgit; Weber, Jan; Samuel Arey, J.; van der Burg, Bart; Jonas, Arjen; Huisman, Johannes; van der Meer, Jan Roelof

    2016-01-01

    Marine environments are frequently exposed to oil spills as a result of transportation, oil drilling or fuel usage. Whereas large oil spills and their effects have been widely documented, more common and recurrent small spills typically escape attention. To fill this important gap in the assessment of oil-spill effects, we performed two independent supervised full sea releases of 5 m3 of crude oil, complemented by on-board mesocosm studies and sampling of accidentally encountered slicks. Using rapid on-board biological assays, we detect high bioavailability and toxicity of dissolved and dispersed oil within 24 h after the spills, occurring fairly deep (8 m) below the slicks. Selective decline of marine plankton is observed, equally relevant for early stages of larger spills. Our results demonstrate that, contrary to common thinking, even small spills have immediate adverse biological effects and their recurrent nature is likely to affect marine ecosystem functioning. PMID:27041738

  20. Immediate ecotoxicological effects of short-lived oil spills on marine biota.

    PubMed

    Brussaard, Corina P D; Peperzak, Louis; Beggah, Siham; Wick, Lukas Y; Wuerz, Birgit; Weber, Jan; Samuel Arey, J; van der Burg, Bart; Jonas, Arjen; Huisman, Johannes; van der Meer, Jan Roelof

    2016-04-04

    Marine environments are frequently exposed to oil spills as a result of transportation, oil drilling or fuel usage. Whereas large oil spills and their effects have been widely documented, more common and recurrent small spills typically escape attention. To fill this important gap in the assessment of oil-spill effects, we performed two independent supervised full sea releases of 5 m(3) of crude oil, complemented by on-board mesocosm studies and sampling of accidentally encountered slicks. Using rapid on-board biological assays, we detect high bioavailability and toxicity of dissolved and dispersed oil within 24 h after the spills, occurring fairly deep (8 m) below the slicks. Selective decline of marine plankton is observed, equally relevant for early stages of larger spills. Our results demonstrate that, contrary to common thinking, even small spills have immediate adverse biological effects and their recurrent nature is likely to affect marine ecosystem functioning.

  1. Immediate ecotoxicological effects of short-lived oil spills on marine biota.

    PubMed

    Brussaard, Corina P D; Peperzak, Louis; Beggah, Siham; Wick, Lukas Y; Wuerz, Birgit; Weber, Jan; Samuel Arey, J; van der Burg, Bart; Jonas, Arjen; Huisman, Johannes; van der Meer, Jan Roelof

    2016-01-01

    Marine environments are frequently exposed to oil spills as a result of transportation, oil drilling or fuel usage. Whereas large oil spills and their effects have been widely documented, more common and recurrent small spills typically escape attention. To fill this important gap in the assessment of oil-spill effects, we performed two independent supervised full sea releases of 5 m(3) of crude oil, complemented by on-board mesocosm studies and sampling of accidentally encountered slicks. Using rapid on-board biological assays, we detect high bioavailability and toxicity of dissolved and dispersed oil within 24 h after the spills, occurring fairly deep (8 m) below the slicks. Selective decline of marine plankton is observed, equally relevant for early stages of larger spills. Our results demonstrate that, contrary to common thinking, even small spills have immediate adverse biological effects and their recurrent nature is likely to affect marine ecosystem functioning. PMID:27041738

  2. Oil Spill Map for Indian Sea Region based on Bhuvan- Geographic Information System using Satellite Images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vijaya kumar, L. J.; Kishore, J. K.; Kesava Rao, P.; Annadurai, M.; Dutt, C. B. S.; Hanumantha Rao, K.; Sasamal, S. K.; Arulraj, M.; Prasad, A. V. V.; Kumari, E. V. S. Sita; Satyanarayana, S. N.; Shenoy, H. P.

    2014-11-01

    Oil spills in the ocean are a serious marine disaster that needs regular monitoring for environmental risk assessment and mitigation. Recent use of Polarimetric SAR imagery in near real time oil spill detection systems is associated with attempts towards automatic and unambiguous oil spill detection based on decomposition methods. Such systems integrate remote sensing technology, geo information, communication system, hardware and software systems to provide key information for analysis and decision making. Geographic information systems (GIS) like BHUVAN can significantly contribute to oil spill management based on Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) images. India has long coast line from Gujarat to Bengal and hundreds of ports. The increase in shipping also increases the risk of oil spills in our maritime zone. The availability of RISAT-1 SAR images enhances the scope to monitor oil spills and develop GIS on Bhuvan which can be accessed by all the users, such as ships, coast guard, environmentalists etc., The GIS enables realization of oil spill maps based on integration of the geographical, remote sensing, oil & gas production/infrastructure data and slick signatures detected by SAR. SAR and GIS technologies can significantly improve the realization of oil spill footprint distribution maps. Preliminary assessment shows that the Bhuvan promises to be an ideal solution to understand spatial, temporal occurrence of oil spills in the marine atlas of India. The oil spill maps on Bhuvan based GIS facility will help the ONGC and Coast Guard organization.

  3. Laboratory studies of oil spill bioremediation; toward understanding field behavior

    SciTech Connect

    Prince, R.C.; Hinton, S.M.; Elmendorf, D.L.; Lute, J.R.; Grossman, M.J.; Robbins, W.K.; Hsu, Chang S.; Richard, B.E.; Haith, C.E.; Senius, J.D.; Minak-Bernero, V.; Chianelli, R.R.; Bragg, J.R.; Douglas, G.S.

    1993-12-31

    Oil spill remediation aims to enhance the natural process of microbial hydrocarbon biodegradation. The microbial foundations have been studied throughout this century, but the focus of most of this work has been on the degradation of well defined compounds by well defined microbial species. This paper addresses laboratory studies on crude oil biodegradation by microbial consortia obtained from oiled beaches in Prince William Sound, Alaska following the spill from the Exxon Valdez. It demonstrates that oil degradation is indeed likely to be nitrogen-limited in Prince William Sound, the different molecular classes in crude oil that are subjected to biodegradation, the identification of conserved species in the oil that can be used for assessing biodegradation and bioremediation in the field, the effectiveness of fertilizers in stimulating sub-surface biodegradation, the role of the olephilic fertilizer Inipol EAP22, and the identification of the oil-degrading microorganisms in Prince William Sound. Together, these laboratory studies provided guidance and important insights into the microbial phenomena underlying the successful bioremediation of the oiled shorelines.

  4. Ecological impacts of the Deepwater Horizon oil spill: implications for immunotoxicity

    EPA Science Inventory

    Summary of major Federal and multi-stake holder research efforts in response to the DWH spill, including laboratory oil dispersant testing, estimation of oil release rates and oil fate calculations, subsea monitoring, and post-spill assessments. Impacts from shoreline oiling, wil...

  5. Biodegradability Of Lingering Crude Oil 19 Years After The Exxon Valdez Oil Spill

    EPA Science Inventory

    In 2001 and 2003, geospatial surveys of lingering oil were conducted in Prince William Sound (PWS) resulting in a prediction of significant acreage being contaminated with substantial subsurface oil from the 1989 Exxon Valdez oil spill (EVOS). In 2007, other researchers d...

  6. Hydrophobic high surface area zeolites derived from fly ash for oil spill remediation.

    PubMed

    Sakthivel, Tamilselvan; Reid, David L; Goldstein, Ian; Hench, Larry; Seal, Sudipta

    2013-06-01

    Fly ash, a coal combustion byproduct with a predominantly aluminosilicate composition, is modified to develop an inexpensive sorbent for oil spill remediation. The as-produced fly ash is a hydrophilic material with poor sorption capacity. A simple two-step chemical modification process is designed to improve the oil sorption capacity. First, the fly ash was transformed to a zeolitic material via an alkali treatment, which increased the specific surface area up to 404 m(2) g(-1). Then, the material was surface functionalized to form a hydrophobic material with high contact angle up to 147° that floats on the surface of an oil-water mixture. The reported oil sorption capacities of X-type zeolite sorbent with different surface functionalization (propyl-, octyl-, octadecyl-trimethoxysilane and esterification) were estimated to 1.10, 1.02, 0.86, and 1.15 g g(-1), respectively. Oil sorption was about five times higher than the as-received fly ash (0.19 g g(-1)) and also had high buoyancy critical for economic cleanup of oil over water.

  7. Oil spills - increasing US dependence on oil imports heightens risks to environment

    SciTech Connect

    1992-01-17

    Calamitous oil spills in recent years have focused attention on the devastation the world`s leading energy source can wreak on the environment. In Alaska, the 1989 grounding of the supertanker Exxon Valdez in Prince William Sound caused the worst U.S. oil spill ever and promoted Congress to pass stringent oil-pollution legislation. In the Persian Gulf, {open_quotes}eco-terroism{close_quotes} committed by Iraqi forces during the gulf war left hundreds of wells burning and oil free-flowing out of Kuwait`s refineries and oil-shipping terminals. With the United States and much of the global community increasingly dependent on petroleum moved by supertankers, oil spills will continue to threaten the environment for the foreseeable future.

  8. Oil spill disasters detection and monitoring by optical satellite data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Livia Grimaldi, Caterina Sara; Coviello, Irina; Lacava, Teodosio; Pergola, Nicola; Tramutoli, Valerio

    2010-05-01

    Marine oil spill disasters may be related to natural hazards, when storms and hurricanes cause the sinking of tankers carrying crude or refined oil, as well as to human action, as illegal discharges, assessment errors (failures or collisions) or acts of warfare. Their consequence has a devastating effects on the marine and coastal environment. In order to reduce the environmental impact of such kind of hazard, giving to local authorities necessary information of pollution entity and evolution, timely detection and continuously updated information are fundamental. Satellite remote sensing can give a significant contribution in such a direction. Nowadays, SAR (Synthetic Aperture Radar) technology has been recognized as the most efficient for oil spill detection and description, thanks to the high spatial resolution and all-time/weather capability of the present operational sensors. Anyway, the actual SARs revisiting time does not allow a rapid detection and near real-time monitoring of these phenomena at global scale. The COSMO-Skymed Italian dual-mission (expected in the 2010) will overcome this limitation improving the temporal resolution until 12 hours by a SAR constellation of four satellites, but several open questions regarding costs and global delivery policy of such data, might prevent their use in an operational context. Passive optical sensors, on board meteorological satellites, thanks to their high temporal resolution (from a few hours to 15 minutes, depending on the characteristics of the platform/sensor), may represent, at this moment, a suitable SAR alternative/complement for oil spill detection and monitoring. Up to now, some techniques have been proposed for mapping known oil spill discharges monitoring using optical satellite data, on the other hand, reliable satellite methods for an automatic and timely detection of oil spill are still currently missing. Existing methods, in fact, can localize the presence of an oil spill only after an alert and

  9. Shoreline ecology program for Prince William Sound, Alaska, following the Exxon Valdez oil spill. Part 2: Chemistry and toxicology

    SciTech Connect

    Boehm, P.D.; Page, D.S.; Gilfillan, E.S.; Stubblefield, W.A.; Harner, E.J.

    1995-12-31

    This paper describes chemical and toxicological results of a comprehensive shoreline ecology program that was designed to assess recovery in Prince William Sound following the Exxon Valdez oil spill of March 24, 1989. The program is an application of the sediment quality triad approach, combining chemical, toxicological, and biological measurements. The study was designed so that results could be extrapolated to the entire spill zone in the sound and projected forward in time. It combined one-time sampling of 64 randomly chosen study sites representing four major habitats and four oiling levels (including unoiled reference sites), with periodic sampling at 12 subjectively chosen fixed sites. Sediment samples--or when conditions required, filter-wipes from rock surfaces--were collected in each of three intertidal zones and from subtidal stations up to 30-m deep. Oil removal was generally quite rapid: by 1991 the concentration of oil spilled from the Exxon Valdez had been dramatically reduced on the majority of shorelines by both natural processes and cleanup efforts. Acute sediment toxicity from oil (as measured by standard toxicity tests) was virtually absent by 1990--91, except at a small number of isolated locations. The petroleum residues had degraded below the threshold of acute toxic effects. Measurable polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) levels are, in general, well below those conservatively associated with adverse effects, and biological recovery has been considerably more rapid than the removal of the last chemical remnants. 55 refs., 15 figs., 4 tabs.

  10. Abundance quantification by independent component analysis of hyperspectral imagery for oil spill coverage calculation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Han, Zhongzhi; Wan, Jianhua; Zhang, Jie; Zhang, Hande

    2016-08-01

    The estimation of oil spill coverage is an important part of monitoring of oil spills at sea. The spatial resolution of images collected by airborne hyper-spectral remote sensing limits both the detection of oil spills and the accuracy of estimates of their size. We consider at-sea oil spills with zonal distribution in this paper and improve the traditional independent component analysis algorithm. For each independent component we added two constraint conditions: non-negativity and constant sum. We use priority weighting by higher-order statistics, and then the spectral angle match method to overcome the order nondeterminacy. By these steps, endmembers can be extracted and abundance quantified simultaneously. To examine the coverage of a real oil spill and correct our estimate, a simulation experiment and a real experiment were designed using the algorithm described above. The result indicated that, for the simulation data, the abundance estimation error is 2.52% and minimum root mean square error of the reconstructed image is 0.030 6. We estimated the oil spill rate and area based on eight hyper-spectral remote sensing images collected by an airborne survey of Shandong Changdao in 2011. The total oil spill area was 0.224 km2, and the oil spill rate was 22.89%. The method we demonstrate in this paper can be used for the automatic monitoring of oil spill coverage rates. It also allows the accurate estimation of the oil spill area.

  11. Rational application of chemicals in response to oil spills may reduce environmental damage.

    PubMed

    Tamis, Jacqueline E; Jongbloed, Ruud H; Karman, Chris C; Koops, Wierd; Murk, Albertinka J

    2012-04-01

    Oil spills, for example those due to tanker collisions and groundings or platform accidents, can have huge adverse impacts on marine systems. The impact of an oil spill at sea depends on a number of factors, such as spill volume, type of oil spilled, weather conditions, and proximity to environmentally, economically, or socially sensitive areas. Oil spilled at sea threatens marine organisms, whole ecosystems, and economic resources in the immediate vicinity, such as fisheries, aquaculture, recreation, and tourism. Adequate response to any oil spill to minimize damage is therefore of great importance. The common response to an oil spill is to remove all visible oil from the water surface, either mechanically or by using chemicals to disperse the oil into the water column to biodegrade. This is not always the most suitable response to an oil spill, as the chemical application itself may also have adverse effects, or no response may be needed. In this article we discuss advantages and disadvantages of using chemical treatments to reduce the impact of an oil spill in relation to the conditions of the spill. The main characteristics of chemical treatment agents are discussed and presented within the context of a basic decision support scheme.

  12. Consensus oriented fuzzified decision support for oil spill contingency management.

    PubMed

    Liu, Xin; Wirtz, Kai W

    2006-06-30

    Studies on multi-group multi-criteria decision-making problems for oil spill contingency management are in their infancy. This paper presents a second-order fuzzy comprehensive evaluation (FCE) model to resolve decision-making problems in the area of contingency management after environmental disasters such as oil spills. To assess the performance of different oil combat strategies, second-order FCE allows for the utilization of lexical information, the consideration of ecological and socio-economic criteria and the involvement of a variety of stakeholders. On the other hand, the new approach can be validated by using internal and external checks, which refer to sensitivity tests regarding its internal setups and comparisons with other methods, respectively. Through a case study, the Pallas oil spill in the German Bight in 1998, it is demonstrated that this approach can help decision makers who search for an optimal strategy in multi-thread contingency problems and has a wider application potential in the field of integrated coastal zone management.

  13. Risk acceptance criterion for tanker oil spill risk reduction measures.

    PubMed

    Psarros, George; Skjong, Rolf; Vanem, Erik

    2011-01-01

    This paper is aimed at investigating whether there is ample support for the view that the acceptance criterion for evaluating measures for prevention of oil spills from tankers should be based on cost-effectiveness considerations. One such criterion can be reflected by the Cost of Averting a Tonne of oil Spilt (CATS) whereas its target value is updated by elaborating the inherent uncertainties of oil spill costs and establishing a value for the criterion's assurance factor. To this end, a value of $80,000/t is proposed as a sensible CATS criterion and the proposed value for the assurance factor F=1.5 is supported by the retrieved Protection and Indemnity (P&I) Clubs' Annual Reports. It is envisaged that this criterion would allow the conversion of direct and indirect costs into a non-market value for the optimal allocation of resources between the various parties investing in shipping. A review of previous cost estimation models on oil spills is presented and a probability distribution (log-normal) is fitted on the available oil spill cost data, where it should be made abundantly clear that the mean value of the distribution is used for deriving the updated CATS criterion value. However, the difference between the initial and the updated CATS criterion in the percentiles of the distribution is small. It is found through the current analysis that results are partly lower than the predicted values from the published estimation models. The costs are also found to depend on the type of accident, which is in agreement with the results of previous studies. Other proposals on acceptance criteria are reviewed and it is asserted that the CATS criterion can be considered as the best candidate. Evidence is provided that the CATS approach is practical and meaningful by including examples of successful applications in actual risk assessments. Finally, it is suggested that the criterion may be refined subject to more readily available cost data and experience gained from future

  14. Scaling and diffusion of oil spills in the Ocean Surface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tarquis, A. M.; Platonov, A.; Grau, J.; Sekula, E.

    2010-05-01

    The region of the Gulf of Lions at the northwestern Mediterranean Sea has been studied within a ten-year period from December 1996 until November 2006. More than 1000 synthetic aperture radar (SAR) images, which have been acquired by the Second European Remote Sensing Satellite (ERS 1/2) as well as from ENVISAT. We present statistical results of the structure of several features revealed by SAR such as oil spills and tensioactive slicks dynamic. We compare oil splils obtained from the projects Clean Seas,ENVA4/CT/0334, RC2003/005700, ESP2005/07551 and ESA/AO/IP2240. Since natural (caused by plankton, fish, etc.) slicks as well as man-made oil slicks dampen the small-scale surface waves, which are responsible for the radar backscattering from the ocean surface, both types of effects may be confused and give look/alike false oil spill detections. The early SAR images were processed at a resolution of 1 pixel=200m and were provided by the RApid Information Dissemination System (RAIDS) SAR processing facility in West Freugh, UK. Recent ENVISAT images directly from ESA allow a higher resolution of 1 pixel = 26 m, improving the detected turbulent scaling range. The occurrence of marine oil pollution as well as several dynamic features near Barcelona (frames 8-10, 19, 20; 200 SAR images)is itself a random multi-scale process. The use of different multifractal techniques, both using limits to the smallest and largest available scales, show that the scaling laws are very complex and depend strongly on intermittency of the assumed turbulent cascade, the shapes of the multifractal spectra functions are seen to deviate from an homogeneous multifractal and depend both on the initial conditions of the spill or slick, and on the transit time that the spill has been subjected to the local turbulence.

  15. Fate of oil hydrocarbons in fish and shrimp after major oil spills in the Arabian Gulf

    SciTech Connect

    Fayad, N.M.; El-Mubarak, A.H.; Edora, R.L.

    1996-03-01

    Pollution of the marine environment with crude oil represents one of the most serious environmental problems that confront Saudi Arabia and other Gulf states. Oil pollution in the Arabian Gulf environment may affect the inhabitants through (1) human health hazard resulting from the consumption of contaminated sea food, (2) loss of food due to alteration of species productivity or elimination of some species, and (3) deterioration of recreation areas. Moreover, the problem of oil spill may be more severe in this part of the world. This is mainly because the source of drinking water in various Gulf states depends largely on sea water from which desalinated water is produced. Contamination of sea water with crude oil may adversely affect the quality of desalinated water and may badly damage desalination plants. During the last twelve years, the Arabian Gulf has been affected by two major oil spills. The first spill occurred on February 4, 1983 during the Iraq-Iran War, and the second major oil spill occured during the 1991 Gulf War. There is limited information about the level of oil hydrocarbons in edible fish, but two studies were carried out after both spills. This paper summarized the results of both studies carried out to assess the extent of contamination of various fish species of commercial value from the Arabian Gulf with oil hydrocarbons.

  16. Oil spill fingerprinting - the practical benefits for the operator

    SciTech Connect

    Sinclair, J.W.; Grigson, S.J.W.

    1996-11-01

    The oil company operates North Sea Oil Production Platforms which have several subsea developments connected by subsea pipelines. A specialist research institute was contracted by the company to obtain reference crude oil fingerprints for each subsea oil pipeline and store this information in a specially constructed computer database and fingerprint matching system. Both crews from the platform`s stand-by vessels were then trained in the correct procedures for sampling small slicks at sea, with laboratory validation of samples collected during the training exercise. Subsequently, during two incidents of leaking subsea pipelines, oil spill samples were taken by stand-by vessel crews. Analysis of the samples onshore, followed by computer comparison of their fingerprints to those of the reference oils in the database, allowed early identification of the leaking pipeline prior to confirmation by ROV inspection. Oil spill fingerprinting proved a highly cost effective tool, ensuring optimum use of expensive DSV/ROV mobilization and use. It also permitted pipelines not implicated in the leak to be rapidly put back into operation.

  17. Support mechanisms for oil spill accident response in costal lagoon areas (Ria de Aveiro, Portugal)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oliveira, Eduardo R.; Silveira, Bruno; Alves, Fátima L.

    2014-10-01

    Oil spill accidents can be caused by several risk factors associated to maritime transport and port activities, which cannot always be predicted or controlled. Therefore, it is essential to support prevention and contingency plans, whose effectiveness is crucial to produce adequate responses and minimize resulting impacts. Ria de Aveiro (Portugal) is a wide coastal lagoon, within a densely populated area, representing a concentration of important biodiversity resources and several economic activities. This paper presents alternative methodologies to support the optimization of civil protection assets in the occurrence of oil spill events and the results of their application on a section area of the Aveiro Lagoon, using an established geographic information system database containing crucial data. The presented methodologies are based on the Environmental Sensitivity Index developed by the North American National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (USA) and the Global Vulnerability Index which were applied on the Bay of Biscay (Spain). However, during the development of this work, neither of these methodologies was considered to entirely assess the study area in its full extent, which led to the need to adapt and define a bespoke approach. The introduced changes include extra categories in shoreline classification, an adapted physical vulnerability index for coastal lagoons, differentiated aspects for highly protected status areas, qualitative assessment of socioeconomic features and an access and operability index created to support emergency operation response. The resulting maps are the subject of analysis, in which considerations regarding control and cleanup methods are introduced, together with guidelines for further integration in local risk management strategies.

  18. Is the cutting of oil contaminated marshes an efficient clean-up technique in a subtropical estuary?

    PubMed

    Wolinski, André L T O; Lana, Paulo C; Sandrini-Neto, Leonardo

    2011-06-01

    Cutting and removal of oil-impacted marsh plants are still used worldwide as a clean-up and recovery technique. To experimentally test the efficacy of cutting and removing marsh plants under subtropical conditions, we simulated an oil spill (Bunker MF-180) in Spartina alterniflora marshes and compared the responses of plant height, biomass, density of culms and number of flowering plants in high and low energy areas in Paranaguá Bay (S Brazil) for about 9 months. Cutting and removal were inefficient in promoting or accelerating the recovery of the impacted areas. Cut or uncut impacted marshes fully recovered within 6 months, both in low and high energy areas. Plant cutting should be practiced only when there is an effective risk of contamination of groundwater near urban areas, when obvious aesthetical issues are involved in areas of touristic interest or when there are real short-term conservation risks to threatened species.

  19. Oil biodegradation and bioremediation: a tale of the two worst spills in U.S. history.

    PubMed

    Atlas, Ronald M; Hazen, Terry C

    2011-08-15

    The devastating environmental impacts of the Exxon Valdez spill in 1989 and its media notoriety made it a frequent comparison to the BP Deepwater Horizon spill in the popular press in 2010, even though the nature of the two spills and the environments impacted were vastly different. Fortunately, unlike higher organisms that are adversely impacted by oil spills, microorganisms are able to consume petroleum hydrocarbons. These oil degrading indigenous microorganisms played a significant role in reducing the overall environmental impact of both the Exxon Valdez and BP Deepwater Horizon oil spills. PMID:21699212

  20. Oil biodegradation and bioremediation: a tale of the two worst spills in U.S. history.

    PubMed

    Atlas, Ronald M; Hazen, Terry C

    2011-08-15

    The devastating environmental impacts of the Exxon Valdez spill in 1989 and its media notoriety made it a frequent comparison to the BP Deepwater Horizon spill in the popular press in 2010, even though the nature of the two spills and the environments impacted were vastly different. Fortunately, unlike higher organisms that are adversely impacted by oil spills, microorganisms are able to consume petroleum hydrocarbons. These oil degrading indigenous microorganisms played a significant role in reducing the overall environmental impact of both the Exxon Valdez and BP Deepwater Horizon oil spills.

  1. Oil Biodegradation and Bioremediation: A Tale of the Two Worst Spills in U.S. History

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    The devastating environmental impacts of the Exxon Valdez spill in 1989 and its media notoriety made it a frequent comparison to the BP Deepwater Horizon spill in the popular press in 2010, even though the nature of the two spills and the environments impacted were vastly different. Fortunately, unlike higher organisms that are adversely impacted by oil spills, microorganisms are able to consume petroleum hydrocarbons. These oil degrading indigenous microorganisms played a significant role in reducing the overall environmental impact of both the Exxon Valdez and BP Deepwater Horizon oil spills. PMID:21699212

  2. An application of a vulnerability index to oil spill modeling in the Gulf of Mexico

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    LaBelle, R.P.; Rainey, Gail; Lanfear, K.J.

    1982-01-01

    An analysis was made of the relative impact to the shoreline of the Gulf of Mexico from proposed Federal Outer Continental Shelf oil and gas leasing activity. An oil spill trajectory model was coupled with a land segment vulnerability characterization to predict the risks to the shoreline. Such a technique allows spatial and temporal variability in oil spill sensitivity to be represented and combined with the likelihood of oil spill contact to specific coastal segments in the study area. Predicted relative impact was greatest along the coastlines of Louisiana, Mississippi, and Alabama. Useful information is provided for environmental impact analysis, as well as oil spill response planning.

  3. Academic effects of the Prestige oil spill disaster.

    PubMed

    Pérez-Pereira, Miguel; Tinajero, Carolina; Rodriguez, María Soledad; Peralbo, Manuel; Sabucedo, Jose Manuel

    2012-11-01

    The effect of a large scale oil spill disaster on the academic achievement and classroom behavior of children and adolescents who lived on the Galician coast (Spain) is studied from an ecological perspective. 430 participants divided into three age groups of 5, 10, and 15 years of age, were studied. The participants came from three areas differently affected by the disaster. Dependent variables were academic achievement and classroom behavior of the participants after the Prestige disaster. Degree of exposure and other protective or risk factors were investigated as well. Repeated measures ANOVA to assess the main effects of the oil spill and hierarchical regression analyses to assess the contribution of the protective/vulnerability factors were performed. The results indicate that the effects of the disaster were relatively scarce. Some protective factors accounted for a certain degree of variance of different schoolroom behaviors. These results point to the intervention of protective factors in the adaptation to the disaster.

  4. NASA Earth Observations Track the Gulf Oil Spill

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, Jason B.; Childs, Lauren

    2010-01-01

    The NASA Applied Sciences Program created the Gulf of Mexico Initiative (GOMI) in 2007 "to enhance the region s ability to recover from the devastating hurricanes of 2005 and to address its coastal management issues going into the future." The GOMI utilizes NASA Earth science assets to address regional priorities defined by the Gulf of Mexico Alliance, a partnership formed by the states of Alabama, Florida, Louisiana, Mississippi, and Texas, along with 13 federal agencies and 4 regional organizations to promote regional collaboration and enhance the ecological and economic health of the Gulf of Mexico. NASA's GOMI is managed by the Applied Science and Technology Project Office at Stennis Space Center and has awarded over $18 million in Gulf of Mexico research since 2008. After the Deepwater Horizon oil spill, GOMI personnel assisted members of the Gulf of Mexico Alliance with obtaining NASA remote sensing data for use in their oil spill response efforts.

  5. Treatment of oil spill water by ozonation and sand filtration.

    PubMed

    Hong, P K Andy; Xiao, Ting

    2013-04-01

    Increasing volumes of crude oil being produced and transported throughout the world in recent decades have resulted in increased risks of spill and high-profile spill incidents of significant environmental and ecological impacts over extended periods of time. While immediate in situ and ex situ responses have been implemented, none are available for onsite treatment of contaminated water for immediate release of the treated water. We demonstrate here a potential treatment scheme involving ozonation and sand filtration intended for immediate treatment and discharge of the impacted water. Waters of tap, Utah Lake, and Great Salt Lake sources were spiked with crude oil of the Great Natural Butte of Utah at 2.5% and 0.025% oil (v/v) and tested for treatment. The results showed near complete removal (100%) of both Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD) and oil and grease (O&G) from initially 20000 and 11000 mg L(-1), respectively, via flotation pretreatment, ozonation in pressure cycles, and sand filtration. At lower oil level of 0.025%, complete removal of COD and O&G from waters were achieved without floatation. The treated waters showed reduction of turbidity to <1 from 4000 NTU and high Biochemical Oxygen Demand/COD ratio of 0.3-0.5 that reflected highly biodegradable residual organics. The results showed synergistic oil removal when two well practiced methods, namely ozonation and sand filtration that either alone seems ineffective, are combined sequentially. It indicates a potential on-site treatment response for oil spill incidents where the collection and transport of a large amount of contaminated water may be avoided.

  6. Investigating Montara platform oil spill accident by implementing RST-OIL approach.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Satriano, Valeria; Ciancia, Emanuele; Coviello, Irina; Di Polito, Carmine; Lacava, Teodosio; Pergola, Nicola; Tramutoli, Valerio

    2016-04-01

    Oil Spills represent one of the most harmful events to marine ecosystems and their timely detection is crucial for their mitigation and management. The potential of satellite data for their detection and monitoring has been largely investigated. Traditional satellite techniques usually identify oil spill presence applying a fixed threshold scheme only after the occurrence of an event, which make them not well suited for their prompt identification. The Robust Satellite Technique (RST) approach, in its oil spill detection version (RST-OIL), being based on the comparison of the latest satellite acquisition with its historical value, previously identified, allows the automatic and near real-time detection of events. Such a technique has been already successfully applied on data from different sources (AVHRR-Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer and MODIS-Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer) showing excellent performance in detecting oil spills both during day- and night-time conditions, with an high level of sensitivity (detection also of low intensity events) and reliability (no false alarm on scene). In this paper, RST-OIL has been implemented on MODIS thermal infrared data for the analysis of the Montara Platform (Timor Sea - Australia) oil spill disaster occurred in August 2009. Preliminary achievements are presented and discussed in this paper.

  7. Pumping through porous hydrophobic/oleophilic materials: an alternative technology for oil spill remediation.

    PubMed

    Ge, Jin; Ye, Yin-Dong; Yao, Hong-Bin; Zhu, Xi; Wang, Xu; Wu, Liang; Wang, Jin-Long; Ding, Hang; Yong, Ni; He, Ling-Hui; Yu, Shu-Hong

    2014-04-01

    Recently, porous hydrophobic/oleophilic materials (PHOMs) have been shown to be the most promising candidates for cleaning up oil spills; however, due to their limited absorption capacity, a large quantity of PHOMs would be consumed in oil spill remediation, causing serious economic problems. In addition, the complicated and time-consuming process of oil recovery from these sorbents is also an obstacle to their practical application. To solve the above problems, we apply external pumping on PHOMs to realize the continuous collection of oil spills in situ from the water surface with high speed and efficiency. Based on this novel design, oil/water separation and oil collection can be simultaneously achieved in the remediation of oil spills, and the oil sorption capacity is no longer limited to the volume and weight of the sorption material. This novel external pumping technique may bring PHOMs a step closer to practical application in oil spill remediation.

  8. Exxon Valdez oil spill restoration plan. Final environmental impact statement

    SciTech Connect

    1994-09-01

    The purpose of the proposed action analyzed in this final environmental impact statement (FEIS) is to restore, insofar as possible, the injured natural resources and thereby the services they provide that were affected by the Exxon Valdex oil spill (EVOS). The purpose of this document is to analyze the effects of proposed uses of the remaining funds (approximately $620 million as of February 1994, after final reimbursements) in accomplishing the mission of the Trustee Council.

  9. Exxon Valdez oil spill: Fate and effects in Alaskan waters

    SciTech Connect

    Wells, P.G.; Butler, J.N.; Hughes, J.S.

    1995-12-31

    This conference was held in Atlanta, Georgia on April 26--28, 1993. The purpose of the conference was to provide a multidisciplinary forum for exchange of state-of-the-art information on the transport and environmental effects, effects on fisheries and wildlife and remediation of the Exxon Valdez oil spill. Individual papers have been processed separately for inclusion in the appropriate data bases.

  10. Regime shift in sandy beach microbial communities following Deepwater Horizon oil spill remediation efforts.

    PubMed

    Engel, Annette Summers; Gupta, Axita A

    2014-01-01

    Sandy beaches support a wide variety of underappreciated biodiversity that is critical to coastal ecosystems. Prior to the 2010 Deepwater Horizon oil spill, the diversity and function of supratidal beach sediment microbial communities along Gulf of Mexico coastlines were not well understood. As such, it was unclear if microbial community compositional changes would occur following exposure to beached oil, if indigenous communities could biodegrade oil, or how cleanup efforts, such as sand washing and sediment redistribution, would impact microbial ecosystem resiliency. Transects perpendicular to the shoreline were sampled from public beaches on Grand Isle, Louisiana, and Dauphin Island, Alabama, over one year. Prior to oil coming onshore, elevated levels of bacteria associated with fecal contamination were detected (e.g., Enterobacteriales and Campylobacterales). Over time, significant shifts within major phyla were identified (e.g., Proteobacteria, Firmicutes, Actinobacteria) and fecal indicator groups were replaced by taxa affiliated with open-ocean and marine systems (e.g., Oceanospirillales, Rhodospirillales, and Rhodobacterales). These new bacterial groups included putative hydrocarbon degraders, similar to those identified near the oil plume offshore. Shifts in the microbial community composition strongly correlated to more poorly sorted sediment and grain size distributional changes. Natural oceanographic processes could not account for the disrupted sediment, especially from the backshore well above the maximum high-tide levels recorded at these sites. Sand washing and tilling occurred on both open beaches from August through at least December 2010, which were mechanisms that could replace fecal indicator groups with open-ocean groups. Consequently, remediation efforts meant to return beaches to pre-spill compositions caused a regime shift that may have added potential ecosystem function, like hydrocarbon degradation, to the sediment. Future research will

  11. Regime Shift in Sandy Beach Microbial Communities following Deepwater Horizon Oil Spill Remediation Efforts

    PubMed Central

    Engel, Annette Summers; Gupta, Axita A.

    2014-01-01

    Sandy beaches support a wide variety of underappreciated biodiversity that is critical to coastal ecosystems. Prior to the 2010 Deepwater Horizon oil spill, the diversity and function of supratidal beach sediment microbial communities along Gulf of Mexico coastlines were not well understood. As such, it was unclear if microbial community compositional changes would occur following exposure to beached oil, if indigenous communities could biodegrade oil, or how cleanup efforts, such as sand washing and sediment redistribution, would impact microbial ecosystem resiliency. Transects perpendicular to the shoreline were sampled from public beaches on Grand Isle, Louisiana, and Dauphin Island, Alabama, over one year. Prior to oil coming onshore, elevated levels of bacteria associated with fecal contamination were detected (e.g., Enterobacteriales and Campylobacterales). Over time, significant shifts within major phyla were identified (e.g., Proteobacteria, Firmicutes, Actinobacteria) and fecal indicator groups were replaced by taxa affiliated with open-ocean and marine systems (e.g., Oceanospirillales, Rhodospirillales, and Rhodobacterales). These new bacterial groups included putative hydrocarbon degraders, similar to those identified near the oil plume offshore. Shifts in the microbial community composition strongly correlated to more poorly sorted sediment and grain size distributional changes. Natural oceanographic processes could not account for the disrupted sediment, especially from the backshore well above the maximum high-tide levels recorded at these sites. Sand washing and tilling occurred on both open beaches from August through at least December 2010, which were mechanisms that could replace fecal indicator groups with open-ocean groups. Consequently, remediation efforts meant to return beaches to pre-spill compositions caused a regime shift that may have added potential ecosystem function, like hydrocarbon degradation, to the sediment. Future research will

  12. Integration of multi-technology on oil spill emergency preparedness.

    PubMed

    Liao, Zhenliang; Hannam, Phillip M; Xia, Xiaowei; Zhao, Tingting

    2012-10-01

    This paper focuses on the integration of technologies including Case-Based Reasoning (CBR), Genetic Algorithm (GA) and Artificial Neural Network (ANN) for establishing emergency preparedness for oil spill accidents. In CBR, the Frame method is used to define case representation, and the HEOM (Heterogeneous Euclidean-Overlap Metric) is improved to define the similarity of case properties. In GA, we introduce an Improved Genetic Algorithm (IGA) that achieves case adaptation, in which technologies include the Multi-Parameter Cascade Code method, the Small Section method for generation of an initial population, the Multi-Factor Integrated Fitness Function, and Niche technology for genetic operations including selection, crossover, and mutation. In ANN, a modified back-propagation algorithm is employed to train the algorithm to quickly improve system preparedness. Through the analysis of 32 fabricated oil spill cases, an oil spill emergency preparedness system based on the integration of CBR, GA and ANN is introduced. In particular, the development of ANN is presented and analyzed. The paper also discusses the efficacy of our integration approach.

  13. Environmental Conditions in northern Gulf of Mexico Estuaries: before and after the BP Oil Spill

    EPA Science Inventory

    This presentation provides a summary of ecological condition and sediment chemistry data for northern Gulf of Mexico estuaries that were exposed to oil and oil-related contaminants from the BP Oil Spill.

  14. Effect of the Exxon Valdez oil spill on intertidal fish: A field study

    SciTech Connect

    Barber, W.E.; McDonald, L.L.; Erickson, W.P.

    1995-07-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the impact of the March 1989 Exxon Valdez oil spill and subsequent cleanup activities on density, biomass, and species diversity of intertidal fishes in Prince William Sound, Alaska. Intertidal fish were sampled in a quasi-experimental, matched-pairs (oiled-cleaned versus reference sites) design stratified by three habitat types with random selection of oiled-cleaned (O-C) sites. Site pairs were sampled twice in 1990 and in 1991. Of 21 fish taxa, 5 made up 98% and 1 made up 74% of total abundance. There were no significant differences in species diversity between reference and O-C sites. Density, however, was significantly greater at reference sites for all habitats combined for both visits in 1990. In contrast, density in 1991 was about equal at reference and O-C sites. Total biomass for all habitats combined was greater at reference than O-C sites during both visits in 1990, but differences were not statistically significant. In 1991, however, the total biomass at reference and O-C sites was about equal. Forward stepwise multiple logistic regression models indicated that presence of oil was a significant predictor of reduced density at mid-intertidal levels in 1990 but not in 1991. From the general pattern of lower density and biomass on O-C sites in 1990 followed by no significant differences in 1991 and corroborating evidence of multiple-regression modeling, we conclude that the presence of oil and subsequent cleanup activities had a negative impact on intertidal fishes in 1990 and that there was evidence that recovery was underway in 1991. 50 refs., 6 figs., 6 tabs.

  15. Study of Oil spill in Norwegian area using Decomposition Techniques on RISAT-1 Hybrid Polarimetric Data.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jayasri, P. V.; Usha Sundari, H. S. V.; Kumari, E. V. S. Sita; Prasad, A. V. V.

    2014-11-01

    Over past few years Synthetic Aperture Radar(SAR) has received a considerable attention for monitoring and detection of oil spill due to its unique capabilities to provide wide-area surveillance and day and night measurements, almost independently from atmospheric conditions. The critical part of the oil spill detection is to distinguish oil spills from other natural phenomena. Stokes vector analysis of the image data is studied to estimate the polarized circular and linear components of the backscatter signal which essentially utilize the degree of polarization(m) and relative phase (δ) of the target. In a controlled oil spill experiment conducted at Norwegian bay during 17th to 22nd June 2014, RISAT-1 hybrid polarimetry images were utilized to study the characteristics of oil spill in the sea. The preliminary results obtained by using polarimetric decomposition technique on hybrid polarimetric data to decipher the polarimetric characteristics of oil spills from natural waters are discussed in the paper.

  16. Marine oil spill risk mapping for accidental pollution and its application in a coastal city.

    PubMed

    Lan, Dongdong; Liang, Bin; Bao, Chenguang; Ma, Minghui; Xu, Yan; Yu, Chunyan

    2015-07-15

    Accidental marine oil spill pollution can result in severe environmental, ecological, economic and other consequences. This paper discussed the model of Marine Oil Spill Risk Mapping (MOSRM), which was constructed as follows: (1) proposing a marine oil spill risk system based on the typical marine oil spill pollution accidents and prevailing risk theories; (2) identifying suitable indexes that are supported by quantitative sub-indexes; (3) constructing the risk measuring models according to the actual interactions between the factors in the risk system; and (4) assessing marine oil spill risk on coastal city scale with GIS to map the overall risk. The case study of accidental marine oil spill pollution in the coastal area of Dalian, China was used to demonstrate the effectiveness of the model. The coastal areas of Dalian were divided into three zones with risk degrees of high, medium, and low. And detailed countermeasures were proposed for specific risk zones.

  17. Microcosm evaluation of autochthonous bioaugmentation to combat marine oil spills.

    PubMed

    Nikolopoulou, Maria; Eickenbusch, P; Pasadakis, Nikos; Venieri, Danae; Kalogerakis, Nicolas

    2013-09-25

    Oil spills can be disastrous to any ecosystem. Bioremediation through bioaugmentation (addition of oil-degrading bacteria) and biostimulation (addition of nutrients N&P) options can be a promising strategy for combating oil spills following first response actions. However, bioaugmentation is one of the most controversial issues of bioremediation since nutrient addition alone has a greater effect on oil biodegradation than the addition of microbial products that are highly dependent on environmental conditions. There is increasing evidence that the best way to overcome the above barriers is to use microorganisms from the polluted area, an approach proposed as autochthonous bioaugmentation (ABA) and defined as the bioaugmentation technology that uses exclusively microorganisms indigenous to the sites (soil, sand, and water) to be decontaminated. In this study, we examined the effectiveness of an ABA strategy for the successful remediation of polluted marine environments. A consortium was enriched from seawater samples taken from Elefsina Gulf near the Hellenic Petroleum Refinery, a site exposed to chronic crude oil pollution. Pre-adapted consortium was tested alone or in combination with inorganic nutrients in the presence (or not) of biosurfactants (rhamnolipids) in 30-day experiments. Treatment with fertilizers in the presence of biosurfactants exhibited the highest alkane and PAH degradation and showed highest growth over a period of almost 15 days. Considering the above, the use of biostimulation additives in combination with naturally pre-adapted hydrocarbon degrading consortia has proved to be a very effective treatment and it is a promising strategy in the future especially when combined with lipophilic fertilizers instead of inorganic nutrients. Such an approach becomes more pertinent when the oil spill approaches near the shoreline and immediate hydrocarbon degradation is needed.

  18. Vegetable oil spills on salt marsh sediments; comparison between sunflower and linseed oils.

    PubMed

    Pereira, M Glória; Mudge, Stephen M; Latchford, John

    2003-09-01

    The effects of a simulated spill of sunflower oil in salt marsh sediments were compared with an experiment with linseed oil. Sunflower and linseed oil penetrated the sediments at the same rates but different adsorption of the oils onto sediment particles resulted in the establishment of anaerobic conditions at shallower depths in sediments contaminated with linseed oil than with sunflower oil. The total lipid content of sunflower oil contaminated sediments remained almost stable for 6 months, whilst only 40% of linseed oil remained in the sediment after 2 months. Numbers of culturable heterotrophic bacteria and aerobic oil degrading bacteria in muddy sediment increased rapidly in response to the presence of the oils but bacterial numbers in sandy sediments increased more slowly for sunflower oil. Changes in fatty acid composition indicate similar degradation pathways for both oils but sunflower oil degraded more slowly than linseed oil and thus has the potential for longer lasting effects in marine environments.

  19. Recent improvements in optimizing use of dispersants as a cost-effective oil spill countermeasure technique

    SciTech Connect

    Daling, P.S.; Indrebo, G.

    1996-12-31

    Several oil spill incidents during recent years have demonstrated that the physico-chemical properties of spilled oil and the effectiveness of available combat methods are, in addition to the prevailing environmental and weather conditions, key factors that determine the consequences of an oil spill. Pre-spill analyses of the feasibility and effectiveness of different response strategies, such as mechanical recovery and dispersants, for actual oils under various environmental conditions should therefore be an essential part of any oil spill contingency planning to optimize the overall {open_quotes}Net Environmental Benefit{close_quotes} of a combat operation. During the four-year research program ESCOST ({open_quotes}ESSO-SINTEF Coastal Oil Spill Treatment Program{close_quotes}), significant improvements have been made in oil spill combat methods and in tools for use in contingency planning and decision-making during oil spill operations. This paper will present an overview of the main findings obtained with respect to oil weathering and oil spill dispersant treatment.

  20. Monitoring of Olympic National Park Beaches to determine fate and effects of spilled bunker C fuel oil

    SciTech Connect

    Strand, J.A.; Cullinan, V.I.; Crecelius, E.A.; Fortman, T.J.; Citterman, R.J.; Fleischmann, M.L.

    1990-10-01

    On December 23, 1988, the barge Nestucca was accidentally struck by its tow, a Souse Brothers Towing Company tug, releasing approximately 230,000 gallons of Bunker C fuel oil and fouling beaches from Grays Harbor north to Vancouver Island. Affected beaches in Washington included a 40-mile-long strip that has been recently added to Olympic National Park. The purpose of the monitoring program documented in this report was to determine the fate of spilled Bunker C fuel oil on selected Washington coastal beaches. We sought to determine (1) how much oil remained in intertidal and shallow subtidal habitats following clean-up and weathering, (2) to what extent intertidal and/or shallow subtidal biotic assemblages have been contaminated, and (3) how rapidly the oil has left the ecosystem. 45 refs., 18 figs., 8 tabs.

  1. Fingerprint and weathering characteristics of crude oils after Dalian oil spill, China.

    PubMed

    Wang, Chuanyuan; Chen, Bing; Zhang, Baiyu; He, Shijie; Zhao, Mingming

    2013-06-15

    In an attempt to analyze the chemical characterization of oil residues and examine the suitability of chemical fingerprinting methods in oil spill investigations, multiple parameters sensitive to both sources and degree of weathering were used to characterize oil residues from "7-16" Dalian oil spill, China. Oil residues collected 90 days to 120 days after the spill showed a weathering pattern where significant amounts of light to middle molecular weight normal alkanes were depleted with pristane and phytane as dominant peaks. Diagnostic ratios developed from n-alkane and selected isoprenoids (e.g. Pr/Ph, n-C17/Pr, n-C18/Ph, carbon preference index, LMW/HMW-alkanes ratio), all display obvious changes over weathering time, indicating that these ratios are not valid for oil source identification. Furthermore, the biomarker ratios of hopanes and steranes with relative standard deviations (RSDs) of 0.88-4.08% were useful for source identification even for severely weathered oil residues. In addition, RSD of δ(13)C values of individual n-alkanes in oil residue varied from 0.07% to 0.20%, which suggest that stable carbon isotope profile of n-alkanes can also be a useful tool for tracing the source of an oil spill.

  2. Utilizing Google Earth to Teach Students about Global Oil Spill Disasters

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guertin, Laura; Neville, Sara

    2011-01-01

    The United States is currently experiencing its worst man-made environmental disaster, the BP Deepwater Horizon oil leak. The Gulf of Mexico oil spill is severe in its impact, but it is only one of several global oil spill disasters in history. Students can utilize the technology of Google Earth to explore the spatial and temporal distribution of…

  3. Assessing the impact of oil spills on a commercial fishery. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1982-11-01

    An oil spill fishery impact assessment system composed of fishery, hydrodynamic, ichthyoplankton transport and fates submodels has been applied to assess the probable impact of oil spills on several key fisheries in the Georges Bank - Gulf of Maine region. The model system addresses direct impacts of oil on the commercial fishery through hydrocarbon induced egg and larval mortality.

  4. In-depth analysis of accidental oil spills from tankers in the context of global spill trends from all sources.

    PubMed

    Burgherr, Peter

    2007-02-01

    This study gives a global overview of accidental oil spills from all sources (> or =700t) for the period 1970-2004, followed by a detailed examination of trends in accidental tanker spills. The present analysis of the number and volume of tanker spills includes temporal and spatial spill trends, aspects of spill size distribution as well as trends of key factors (i.e., flag state, hull type, tanker age, accident cause and sensitivity of location). Results show that the total number and volume of tanker spills have significantly decreased since the 1970s, which is in contrast to increases in maritime transport of oil and to popular perceptions following recent catastrophic events. However, many spills still occur in ecologically sensitive locations because the major maritime transport routes often cross the boundaries of the Large Marine Ecosystems, but the substantially lower total spill volume is an important contribution to potentially reduce overall ecosystem impacts. In summary, the improvements achieved in the past decades have been the result of a set of initiatives and regulations implemented by governments, international organizations and the shipping industry.

  5. A conceptual framework for understanding the mental health impacts of oil spills: lessons from the Exxon Valdez oil spill.

    PubMed

    Palinkas, Lawrence A

    2012-01-01

    This paper introduces a conceptual framework for understanding and responding to the currently unfolding social and psychological impacts of the Deepwater Horizon oil spill. Drawing from the concept of corrosive communities and its relationship to theories of conservation of resources, cognitive activation, and risk and resilience, the conceptual model identifies three levels or tiers of impacts: biopsychosocial impacts that are direct consequences of the contamination of the physical environment; interpersonal impacts that are direct consequences of the biopsychosocial impacts; and intrapersonal or psychological impacts that are consequences of both the biopsychosocial and the interpersonal impacts. The model is then evaluated in light of research conducted in the aftermath of the Exxon Valdez oil spill as well as studies of other manmade disasters, and offers a set of testable hypotheses that predict likely impacts of the Deepwater Horizon oil spill. The conceptual framework may be used to identify strategies to develop community resilience and target specific services to prevent and mitigate these adverse effects. PMID:22913496

  6. Major oil spill response coordination in the combat of spills in Bahrain waters

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, D.J.S.; James, J.D.

    1985-01-01

    On Aug. 25, 1980, without warning, a large oil slick invaded the north and west coasts of Bahrain. This serious incident was designated a national emergency, and a special high-level government committee was established immediately to handle the response procedure. This paper describes how the committee functioned with the private sector and the problems encountered and overcome. The lessons learned have stimulated interest in the proposed use of computers to aid combat operations as both a technical tool and an information service. In addition, this experience can guide those responsible for controlling response operations for future major oil spills in coastal areas. With proper planning, a highly satisfactory cooperative organization can be established between goverment and the private sector to respond effectively, economically, and with minimum environmental damage to a major oil spill affecting coastal waters and shorelines. Part of this planning is to collate and record the major available response equipment and material packages, thereby increasing the necessary state of readiness.

  7. Oil, seabirds, and science: The effects of the Exxon Valdez oil spill

    SciTech Connect

    Wiens, J.A.

    1996-09-01

    When an environmental accident creates a potential conflict between science and environmental advocacy, science may suffer. When the supertanker Exxon Valdez ran aground on Bligh Reef in Prince William Sound, Alaska, on the morning of 24 March 1989, it aroused widespread concern about possible environmental concern about possible environmental devastation. Within hours, some 41 million liters of crude oil were released into the marine ecosystem, making this spill the largest in US history. Eventually, oil was found more than 900 km from the spill site, and roughly 2100 km of shoreline were contaminated with oil (Neff et al. 1995). 46 refs., 8 figs.

  8. Development and application of oil-spill risk assessment model for offshore pipeline

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, Yan; Wang, Jia; Wei, Wenpu; Yang, Yong; An, Wei

    2014-06-01

    To the potential oil-spill risk caused by offshore pipeline more attention has been paid after the Dalian oil spill incident from oil-pipeline explosion. Since then an issue about how to prevent and control the sudden oil-spill from the offshore pipeline has been raised. In this paper, we proposed an optimized model to analyze the main causes (probability) of spill and the consequence with the fuzzy comprehensive assessment model. Considering the complicated assessment process for oil-spill, the assessment factor system involving the spill probability and consequence was established based on the operative manual and statistic leakage/damage data of offshore pipeline in order to estimate the integrated spill risk score automatically. The evaluated factors of spill probability could be grouped into five aspects: corrosion, fatigue, national damage, third party, and operational fault; the consequence evaluated factors of spill included hazard of oil and impact-controlling capability. With some modifications based on experts' opinions, each of the evaluated factors in our work was developed with a relative weight and evaluation criterion. A test example for an offshore pipeline in the Bohai waters was described to show how the model can be used for an actual case in more detail. By using the oil-spill risk assessment model, it is easy to determine the risk level associated with the ongoing activity and management level and hence to take the risk mitigation action immediately.

  9. Evaluation of restoration alternatives for natural resources injured by oil spills, first edition, October 1991

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-01-01

    This book builds upon previous work in the field of oil spill impact assessment and habitat restoration to assess the technical feasibility and practicability of proactive restoration following oil spills and presents an approach for evaluating tradeoffs between natural recovery and active restoration. The scenarios developed to represent a broad spectrum of possible oil spills were based on selected case studies. The report concludes that in general, available restoration techniques are not very effective for enhancing natural recovery and may in certain cases cause more severe impacts than the oil spill alone.

  10. Oil spill vulnerability, coastal morphology, and sedimentation of outer Kenai Peninsula and Montague Island. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Hayes, M.O.

    1980-04-01

    The report discusses the results of an extensive study of the geomorphology, sedimentology, and oil-spill vulnerability of the outer Kenai Peninsula and Montague Island shorelines. Major emphasis is placed on the application of an Oil Spill Vulnerability Index (O.S.V.I.). Large segments of the shoreline are high risk environments with respect to oil-spill residence time. Nearly 60% of the study area falls into O.S.V.I. classes 6-10, which indicates any oil spilled would have residence times from one to more than ten years.

  11. Dispersion of Spilled Heavy Oil by Impinging Waterjet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iwasaki, Akinori; Kato, Hiroharu

    The purpose of this study is to search for a new method of dispersing spilled heavy oil, which has a detrimental effect on the natural environment and marine ecosystem. A method ejecting a waterjet vertically downward to heavy oil on the water surface was studied, particularly focusing on the effect of the guide nozzle shape. The waterjet comprised heavy oil and minute air bubbles, and passed through the hole of the guide nozzle. Thirteen guide nozzle shapes were tested and compared. The dispersion efficiency of a tapered hole was the best among the 13 nozzles. The flow in the hole of the guide nozzles was recorded by a high-speed video camera. The occurrence of two flows, regular and counter flows, was observed in the taper guide nozzle. It seemed that the counter flows generated the shearing force between the waterjet and the heavy oil layer. It is considered that the shearing force determines the surplus efficiency of disperse.

  12. Effects of an oil spill in a harbor assessed using biomarkers of exposure in eelpout.

    PubMed

    Sturve, Joachim; Balk, Lennart; Liewenborg, Birgitta; Adolfsson-Erici, Margaretha; Förlin, Lars; Carney Almroth, Bethanie

    2014-12-01

    Oil spills occur commonly, and chemical compounds originating from oil spills are widespread in the aquatic environment. In order to monitor effects of a bunker oil spill on the aquatic environment, biomarker responses were measured in eelpout (Zoarces viviparus) sampled along a gradient in Göteborg harbor where the oil spill occurred and at a reference site, 2 weeks after the oil spill. Eelpout were also exposed to the bunker oil in a laboratory study to validate field data. The results show that eelpout from the Göteborg harbor are influenced by contaminants, especially polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), also during "normal" conditions. The bunker oil spill strongly enhanced the biomarker responses. Results show elevated ethoxyresorufin-O-deethylase (EROD) activities in all exposed sites, but, closest to the oil spill, the EROD activity was partly inhibited, possibly by PAHs. Elevated DNA adduct levels were also observed after the bunker oil spill. Chemical analyses of bile revealed high concentrations of PAH metabolites in the eelpout exposed to the oil, and the same PAH metabolite profile was evident both in eelpout sampled in the harbor and in the eelpout exposed to the bunker oil in the laboratory study.

  13. Towards a common oil spill risk assessment framework – Adapting ISO 31000 and addressing uncertainties.

    PubMed

    Sepp Neves, Antonio Augusto; Pinardi, Nadia; Martins, Flavio; Janeiro, Joao; Samaras, Achilleas; Zodiatis, George; De Dominicis, Michela

    2015-08-15

    Oil spills are a transnational problem, and establishing a common standard methodology for Oil Spill Risk Assessments (OSRAs) is thus paramount in order to protect marine environments and coastal communities. In this study we firstly identified the strengths and weaknesses of the OSRAs carried out in various parts of the globe. We then searched for a generic and recognized standard, i.e. ISO 31000, in order to design a method to perform OSRAs in a scientific and standard way. The new framework was tested for the Lebanon oil spill that occurred in 2006 employing ensemble oil spill modeling to quantify the risks and uncertainties due to unknown spill characteristics. The application of the framework generated valuable visual instruments for the transparent communication of the risks, replacing the use of risk tolerance levels, and thus highlighting the priority areas to protect in case of an oil spill.

  14. Effects of an oil spill on benthic community production and respiration on subtropical intertidal sandflats.

    PubMed

    Lee, Li-Hua; Lin, Hsing-Juh

    2013-08-15

    This study determined effects of an oil spill on subtropical benthic community production and respiration by monitoring CO2 fluxes in benthic chambers on intertidal sandflats during emersion before and after an accidental spill. The oil spill decreased sediment chlorophyll a concentrations, altered benthic macrofaunal community, and affected ecological functioning by suppressing or even stopping microalgal production, increasing bacterial respiration, and causing a shift from an autotrophic system to a heterotrophic system. Effects of the oil spill on the macrofauna were more severe than on benthic microalgae, and affected sedentary infauna more than motile epifauna. Despite the oil spill's impact on the benthic community and carbon metabolism, the affected area appeared to return to normal in about 23 days. Our results suggest that the prompt response of benthic metabolism to exposure to petroleum hydrocarbons can serve as a useful indicator of the impact of an oil spill.

  15. Oil-spill contingency planning: National status. A report to the President. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-10-01

    The report examines the Nation's oil spill preparedness and response system in the wake of the Exxon Valdez disaster. It describes the nationwide oil spill response system, including the Federal Government's National Response System; the status of Federal, state, local and industry contingency planning; the adequacy of exercises testing oil spill plans; the effectiveness of oil spill contingency plans; and the development, response, and shortfall assessment of worst-case scenarios. The document also addresses key environmental and health concerns, including the potential for contamination of the food chain, the emotional and social stress that accompany significant spills, and strategies for mitigating these hazards. An extensive set of appendices summarizes regional response team contingency plans. The report emphasizes that prevention activities remain the best protection against oil spills, regardless of the effectiveness of response capabilities.

  16. Trajectory of an oil spill off Goa, eastern Arabian Sea: field observations and simulations.

    PubMed

    Vethamony, P; Sudheesh, K; Babu, M T; Jayakumar, S; Manimurali, R; Saran, A K; Sharma, L H; Rajan, B; Srivastava, M

    2007-07-01

    An oil spill occurred off Goa, west coast of India, on 23 March 2005 due to collision of two vessels. In general, fair weather with weak winds prevails along the west coast of India during March. In that case, the spill would have moved slowly and reached the coast. However, in 2005 when this event occurred, relatively stronger winds prevailed, and these winds forced the spill to move away from the coast. The spill trajectory was dominated by winds rather than currents. The MIKE21 Spill Analysis model was used to simulate the spill trajectory. The observed spill trajectory and the slick area were in agreement with the model simulations. The present study illustrates the importance of having pre-validated trajectories of spill scenarios for selecting eco-sensitive regions for preparedness and planning suitable response strategies whenever spill episodes occur.

  17. Oil pollution abatement: onshore, offshore, on the high seas

    SciTech Connect

    Shaheen, E.I.; Al- Rashid, N.

    1984-08-01

    Overview of typical sources of oil pollution is presented in this study. Arabian Gulf oil spills and other major oil spill accidents; persistent oils on seawater, their properties and physical changes; sorbents, dispersion with detergents, treating agents in typical processes, booms, skimming, recovery of oil; and the clean-up of oil contaminated beaches are considered.

  18. Natural resource injury assessment of a crude oil spill

    SciTech Connect

    Fischel, M.; Mancini, E.R.

    1995-12-31

    In January 1994, a 6.7 magnitude earthquake in southern California ruptured a pipeline releasing approximately 4,200 barrels of blended San Joaquin Valley crude oil. A smaller volume entered the Santa Clara River and flowed 25 km downstream to an emergency containment dam. Ruptured water mains and chlorinated discharges from a damaged sewage treatment plant also affected water quality in the river. Quantitative injury assessment studies were initiated within days of the spill and included water/sediment chemistry, benthic macroinvertebrate community analyses and aquatic toxicity tests. Water quality values for TPH, BTEX, and chlorine ranged from nondetectable to 78 mg/l (TPH), nondetectable to 5.4 {micro}g/l (total BTEX constituents) and nondetectable to 600 {micro}g/l (residual chlorine) within 72 hours of the spill. Ammonia concentrations ranged from nondetectable to 12.1 mg/l within 10 days of the spill. Hydrocarbon concentrations in sediments ranged from nondetectable to 3,900 mg/kg within 8 to 12 weeks post-spill. Both the density and diversity of benthic macroinvertebrates were reduced immediately after the spill but were not significantly different from reference areas four months later. River water collected from numerous locations within 72 hrs of the earthquake was transferred to the laboratory for static renewal acute toxicity tests using rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) and threespine stickleback (Gasterosteus aculeatus). TPH concentrations in test containers ranged from nondetectable to 23 mg/l, BTEX constituents were nondetectable, and chlorine, measured at 600 {micro}g/l in one sample, was titrated with sodium thiosulfate prior to testing. No acute toxicity was observed in either species.

  19. Gas Chromatography/Atmospheric Pressure Chemical Ionization Tandem Mass Spectrometry for Fingerprinting the Macondo Oil Spill.

    PubMed

    Lobodin, Vladislav V; Maksimova, Ekaterina V; Rodgers, Ryan P

    2016-07-01

    We report the first application of a new mass spectrometry technique (gas chromatography combined to atmospheric pressure chemical ionization tandem mass spectrometry, GC/APCI-MS/MS) for fingerprinting a crude oil and environmental samples from the largest accidental marine oil spill in history (the Macondo oil spill, the Gulf of Mexico, 2010). The fingerprinting of the oil spill is based on a trace analysis of petroleum biomarkers (steranes, diasteranes, and pentacyclic triterpanes) naturally occurring in crude oil. GC/APCI enables soft ionization of petroleum compounds that form abundant molecular ions without (or little) fragmentation. The ability to operate the instrument simultaneously in several tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS) modes (e.g., full scan, product ion scan, reaction monitoring) significantly improves structural information content and sensitivity of analysis. For fingerprinting the oil spill, we constructed diagrams and conducted correlation studies that measure the similarity between environmental samples and enable us to differentiate the Macondo oil spill from other sources.

  20. Overview of studies to determine injury caused by the Exxon Valdez Oil Spill to marine mammals

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Loughlin, T.R.; Ballachey, Brenda E.; Wright, B.A.; Rice, S.D.; Spies, R.B.; Wolfe, D.A.; Wright, B.A.

    1996-01-01

    Marine mammal damage assessment studies after the Exxon Valdez oil spill concentrated on sea otters, harbor seals, Steller sea lions, killer whales, and humpback whales. Sea otter and harbor seals were the most affected marine mammal; it was estimated that several thousand otters and several hundred harbor seals died within months of the spill. Steller sea lion, harbor seal, and sea otter numbers were monitored using aerial surveys. Studies of humpback whales and killer whales used photoidentification techniques to determine changes in abundance, distribution, mortality, and natality. Tissues from animals found dead in spill and control areas were analyzed for hydrocarbon levels. Sea otters, sea lions and harbor seals had elevated hydrocarbon levels, but only sea otters and harbor seals showed population declines associated with the spill. Humpback whales were not severely affected by the Exxon Valdez oil spill. Killer whale numbers in the resident AB pod declined after the spill. Coincidental evidence supports the oil spill as the causative agent.

  1. Satellite observations and modeling of oil spill trajectories in the Bohai Sea.

    PubMed

    Xu, Qing; Li, Xiaofeng; Wei, Yongliang; Tang, Zeyan; Cheng, Yongcun; Pichel, William G

    2013-06-15

    On June 4 and 17, 2011, separate oil spill accidents occurred at two oil platforms in the Bohai Sea, China. The oil spills were subsequently observed on different types of satellite images including SAR (Synthetic Aperture Radar), Chinese HJ-1-B CCD and NASA MODIS. To illustrate the fate of the oil spills, we performed two numerical simulations to simulate the trajectories of the oil spills with the GNOME (General NOAA Operational Modeling Environment) model. For the first time, we drive the GNOME with currents obtained from an operational ocean model (NCOM, Navy Coastal Ocean Model) and surface winds from operational scatterometer measurements (ASCAT, the Advanced Scatterometer). Both data sets are freely and openly available. The initial oil spill location inputs to the model are based on the detected oil spill locations from the SAR images acquired on June 11 and 14. Three oil slicks are tracked simultaneously and our results show good agreement between model simulations and subsequent satellite observations in the semi-enclosed shallow sea. Moreover, GNOME simulation shows that the number of 'splots', which denotes the extent of spilled oil, is a vital factor for GNOME running stability when the number is less than 500. Therefore, oil spill area information obtained from satellite sensors, especially SAR, is an important factor for setting up the initial model conditions. PMID:23618498

  2. Satellite observations and modeling of oil spill trajectories in the Bohai Sea.

    PubMed

    Xu, Qing; Li, Xiaofeng; Wei, Yongliang; Tang, Zeyan; Cheng, Yongcun; Pichel, William G

    2013-06-15

    On June 4 and 17, 2011, separate oil spill accidents occurred at two oil platforms in the Bohai Sea, China. The oil spills were subsequently observed on different types of satellite images including SAR (Synthetic Aperture Radar), Chinese HJ-1-B CCD and NASA MODIS. To illustrate the fate of the oil spills, we performed two numerical simulations to simulate the trajectories of the oil spills with the GNOME (General NOAA Operational Modeling Environment) model. For the first time, we drive the GNOME with currents obtained from an operational ocean model (NCOM, Navy Coastal Ocean Model) and surface winds from operational scatterometer measurements (ASCAT, the Advanced Scatterometer). Both data sets are freely and openly available. The initial oil spill location inputs to the model are based on the detected oil spill locations from the SAR images acquired on June 11 and 14. Three oil slicks are tracked simultaneously and our results show good agreement between model simulations and subsequent satellite observations in the semi-enclosed shallow sea. Moreover, GNOME simulation shows that the number of 'splots', which denotes the extent of spilled oil, is a vital factor for GNOME running stability when the number is less than 500. Therefore, oil spill area information obtained from satellite sensors, especially SAR, is an important factor for setting up the initial model conditions.

  3. Initial Results from the UAVSAR Deepwater Horizon Oil Spill Campaign

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jones, C. E.; Minchew, B. M.; Holt, B.; Hensley, S.

    2010-12-01

    In June 2010, the UAVSAR platform was deployed to the Gulf of Mexico in response to the Deepwater Horizon oil spill in order to collect fully-polarimetric L-band radar data over the open water and along Gulf coastlines. The data from the 2-day campaign is now being used to study the extent and impact of the oil spill, both in the open water and within the coastal ecosystems. The UAVSAR campaign was initiated with three primary goals: (1) Develop and validate algorithms for improved discrimination of oil slicks on water and identification of oil properties from radar backscatter; (2) study the use of radar for determining the extent of oil penetration into sensitive coastal ecological zones, in particular, to map the spread of oil from the coastline into coastal wetlands; and (3) study the use of radar in identifying and monitoring the recovery of vegetation affected by oil. In addition, we intend for the information from this study to inform and enable use of high-resolution radar imagery in future emergency response efforts. A second flight in October 2010 is planned to repeat the collection of marshland and coastal data for the impact and recovery studies. The first deployment occurred while oil was still leaking from the Deepwater Horizon spill site. UAVSAR data was collected over the ocean along 22-km wide swaths covering the rig site and the area around it. Additional data was collected over the gulf extending ocean data extending east from the rig site to an area south of Pensacola, Florida; over the Franklin Eddy in the east-central Gulf of Mexico, and directly east of the Florida Keys. The processed data has a resolution of 7 m x 7 m. We are now using this data to study oil identification and characterization using polarimetric decomposition techniques. The UAVSAR instrument has a noise floor (noise-equivalent σ0) of ~-50 dB, at least 20 dB below that of most radars imaging the oil spill. The radiometric sensitivity of the instrument is allowing us to

  4. Evaluation and cleanup of a lead monoxide spill in Greenwood, Louisiana

    SciTech Connect

    Redetzki, H.M.; Kearney, T.E.; Ratard, R.C.

    1984-01-01

    On April 25, 1983, 1780 lbs of lead monoxide were dumped from a truck on a 1.5 mile stretch of highway. Cooperation between local and state police, health agencies and the Poison Control Center in Shreveport resulted in the evacuation of 120 residents, rapid cleanup by flushing and sweeping of the highway with subsequent scooping of surface soil from both sides of the highway, and setting up of an area lead screening clinic. Initial tests on about 114 residents and cleanup workers included blood lead and FEP analysis from capillary blood (fingerstick). Five of these were elevated, however, retesting with venous blood gave normal blood lead values. Complaints of exposed individuals centered on gastrointestinal upsets (nausea, vomiting, cramping) and upper respiratory irritation. The differences between clinical manifestations of acute and chronic lead poisoning will be emphasized.

  5. How oil properties and layer thickness determine the entrainment of spilled surface oil.

    PubMed

    Zeinstra-Helfrich, Marieke; Koops, Wierd; Murk, Albertinka J

    2016-09-15

    Viscosity plays an important role in dispersion of spilled surface oil, so does adding chemical dispersants. For seven different oil grades, entrainment rate and initial droplet size distribution were investigated using a plunging jet apparatus with coupled camera equipment and subsequent image analysis. We found that amount of oil entrained is proportional to layer thickness and largely independent of oil properties: A dispersant dose of 1:200 did not result in a significantly different entrainment rate compared to no dispersants. Oil viscosity had a minor to no influence on entrainment rate, until a certain threshold above which entrainment was impeded. The mean droplet size scales with the modified Weber number as described by Johansen. The obtained results can help improve dispersion algorithms in oil spill fate and transport models, to aid making an informed decision about application of dispersants.

  6. How oil properties and layer thickness determine the entrainment of spilled surface oil.

    PubMed

    Zeinstra-Helfrich, Marieke; Koops, Wierd; Murk, Albertinka J

    2016-09-15

    Viscosity plays an important role in dispersion of spilled surface oil, so does adding chemical dispersants. For seven different oil grades, entrainment rate and initial droplet size distribution were investigated using a plunging jet apparatus with coupled camera equipment and subsequent image analysis. We found that amount of oil entrained is proportional to layer thickness and largely independent of oil properties: A dispersant dose of 1:200 did not result in a significantly different entrainment rate compared to no dispersants. Oil viscosity had a minor to no influence on entrainment rate, until a certain threshold above which entrainment was impeded. The mean droplet size scales with the modified Weber number as described by Johansen. The obtained results can help improve dispersion algorithms in oil spill fate and transport models, to aid making an informed decision about application of dispersants. PMID:27345705

  7. Simulation of impact of oil spill in the ocean--a case study of Arabian Gulf.

    PubMed

    Verma, Parikshit; Wate, Satish R; Devotta, Sukumar

    2008-11-01

    To meet the growing energy demand worldwide, oil and gas exploration and production activities have increased rapidly both in onshore and offshore areas. The produced oil from the ocean bed is transported onshore either by ship or pipeline. This has increased the risk of oil spill in the coastal area. In order to prepare an emergency preparedness plan and to assess the magnitude of risk involved in transporting and offloading oil, oil spill simulation studies play an important role. This paper describes a simulation of oil spill in coastal bay of Arabian Gulf where new developments are taking place using MIKE 21 model. The developments include a diesel based thermal power plant near Sir Baniyas Island, which is an ecological fragile area. Based on the project activity, two probable scenarios, one for diesel leak (250 m3/h) for 1 h and the other for instantaneous spill (500 m3) are considered. The MIKE 21 model was calibrated for hydrodynamics using measured field data followed by diesel-spill simulation to track its movement in the Arabian Gulf. The results for both leak and instantaneous spill indicate that spilled diesel will not move towards the Sir Banyas Island and more than 45% of the diesel will be evaporated within 48 h of oil spill. Based on the results, a clean up and contingency plan is proposed to mitigate the adverse impacts arising due to diesel spill in the study area.

  8. Detection of oil spills using 13.3 GHz radar scatterometer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Krishen, K.

    1972-01-01

    The results of an analysis of 13.3-GHz single polarized scatterometer data collected during NASA/MSC Mission 135, flown on March 16, 1970 are reported. Data were gathered over a crude oil spill on the Gulf of Mexico off the Mississippi Delta. With the aid of RC-8 camera photographs, the scattering cross section was correlated with the extent of the oil spill. The scattering cross section at higher incidence angles decreased by 5 db to 10 db in the presence of the oil spill. This was attributed to oil's damping of small gravity and capillary waves. The composite scattering theory and the scatterometer acquired data were used to obtain an expression of radar scattering over ocean surfaces with oil spills. The study demonstrates that the presence and extent of oil spills can be detected using high frequency radar systems.

  9. Detection of oil spills using a 13.3-GHz radar scatterometer.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Krishen, K.

    1973-01-01

    This paper describes the results of an analysis of 13.3-GHz single-polarized scatterometer data collected during NASA/MSC mission 135, flown on March 16, 1970. Data were gathered over a crude oil spill on the Gulf of Mexico (test site 128) off the Mississippi delta. With the aid of RC-8 camera photographs the scattering cross section was correlated with the extent of the oil spill. The scattering cross section at higher incidence angles (25 to 50 deg) decreased by 5-10 db in the presence of the oil spill. This was attributed to the damping by oil of small gravity and capillary waves. The composite scattering theory and the scatterometer-acquired data were used to obtain an expression of radar scattering over ocean surfaces with oil spills. The study demonstrates that the presence and extent of oil spills can be detected with high-frequency radar systems.

  10. Video systems for real-time oil-spill detection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Millard, J. P.; Arvesen, J. C.; Lewis, P. L.; Woolever, G. F.

    1973-01-01

    Three airborne television systems are being developed to evaluate techniques for oil-spill surveillance. These include a conventional TV camera, two cameras operating in a subtractive mode, and a field-sequential camera. False-color enhancement and wavelength and polarization filtering are also employed. The first of a series of flight tests indicates that an appropriately filtered conventional TV camera is a relatively inexpensive method of improving contrast between oil and water. False-color enhancement improves the contrast, but the problem caused by sun glint now limits the application to overcast days. Future effort will be aimed toward a one-camera system. Solving the sun-glint problem and developing the field-sequential camera into an operable system offers potential for color 'flagging' oil on water.

  11. A probabilistic approach for a cost-benefit analysis of oil spill management under uncertainty: A Bayesian network model for the Gulf of Finland.

    PubMed

    Helle, Inari; Ahtiainen, Heini; Luoma, Emilia; Hänninen, Maria; Kuikka, Sakari

    2015-08-01

    Large-scale oil accidents can inflict substantial costs to the society, as they typically result in expensive oil combating and waste treatment operations and have negative impacts on recreational and environmental values. Cost-benefit analysis (CBA) offers a way to assess the economic efficiency of management measures capable of mitigating the adverse effects. However, the irregular occurrence of spills combined with uncertainties related to the possible effects makes the analysis a challenging task. We develop a probabilistic modeling approach for a CBA of oil spill management and apply it in the Gulf of Finland, the Baltic Sea. The model has a causal structure, and it covers a large number of factors relevant to the realistic description of oil spills, as well as the costs of oil combating operations at open sea, shoreline clean-up, and waste treatment activities. Further, to describe the effects on environmental benefits, we use data from a contingent valuation survey. The results encourage seeking for cost-effective preventive measures, and emphasize the importance of the inclusion of the costs related to waste treatment and environmental values in the analysis. Although the model is developed for a specific area, the methodology is applicable also to other areas facing the risk of oil spills as well as to other fields that need to cope with the challenging combination of low probabilities, high losses and major uncertainties. PMID:25983196

  12. A probabilistic approach for a cost-benefit analysis of oil spill management under uncertainty: A Bayesian network model for the Gulf of Finland.

    PubMed

    Helle, Inari; Ahtiainen, Heini; Luoma, Emilia; Hänninen, Maria; Kuikka, Sakari

    2015-08-01

    Large-scale oil accidents can inflict substantial costs to the society, as they typically result in expensive oil combating and waste treatment operations and have negative impacts on recreational and environmental values. Cost-benefit analysis (CBA) offers a way to assess the economic efficiency of management measures capable of mitigating the adverse effects. However, the irregular occurrence of spills combined with uncertainties related to the possible effects makes the analysis a challenging task. We develop a probabilistic modeling approach for a CBA of oil spill management and apply it in the Gulf of Finland, the Baltic Sea. The model has a causal structure, and it covers a large number of factors relevant to the realistic description of oil spills, as well as the costs of oil combating operations at open sea, shoreline clean-up, and waste treatment activities. Further, to describe the effects on environmental benefits, we use data from a contingent valuation survey. The results encourage seeking for cost-effective preventive measures, and emphasize the importance of the inclusion of the costs related to waste treatment and environmental values in the analysis. Although the model is developed for a specific area, the methodology is applicable also to other areas facing the risk of oil spills as well as to other fields that need to cope with the challenging combination of low probabilities, high losses and major uncertainties.

  13. Robust satellite techniques for oil spill detection and monitoring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Casciello, D.; Pergola, N.; Tramutoli, V.

    Discharge of oil into the sea is one of the most dangerous, among technological hazards, for the maritime environment. In the last years maritime transport and exploitation of marine resources continued to increase; as a result, tanker accidents are nowadays increasingly frequent, continuously menacing the maritime security and safety. Satellite remote sensing could contribute in multiple ways, in particular for what concerns early warning and real-time (or near real-time) monitoring. Several satellite techniques exist, mainly based on the use of SAR (Synthetic Aperture Radar) technology, which are able to recognise, with sufficient accuracy, oil spills discharged into the sea. Unfortunately, such methods cannot be profitably used for real-time detection, because of the low observational frequency assured by present satellite platforms carrying SAR sensors (the mean repetition rate is something like 30 days). On the other hand, potential of optical sensors aboard meteorological satellites, was not yet fully exploited and no reliable techniques have been developed until now for this purpose. Main limit of proposed techniques can be found in the ``fixed threshold'' approach which makes such techniques difficult to implement without operator supervision and, generally, without an independent information on the oil spill presence that could drive the choice of the best threshold. A different methodological approach (RAT, Robust AVHRR Techniques) proposed by Tramutoli (1998) and already successfully applied to several natural and environmental emergencies related to volcanic eruptions, forest fires and seismic activity. In this paper its extension to near real-time detection and monitoring of oil spills by means of NOAA-AVHRR (Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer) records will be described. Briefly, RAT approach is an automatic change-detection scheme that considers a satellite image as a space-time process, described at each place (x,y) and time t, by the value of

  14. Combining molecular fingerprints with multidimensional scaling analyses to identify the source of spilled oil from highly similar suspected oils.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Peiyu; Chen, Changshu; Ye, Jianjun; Shen, Wenjie; Xiong, Xiaofei; Hu, Ping; Fang, Hongda; Huang, Chuguang; Sun, Yongge

    2015-04-15

    Oil fingerprints have been a powerful tool widely used for determining the source of spilled oil. In most cases, this tool works well. However, it is usually difficult to identify the source if the oil spill accident occurs during offshore petroleum exploration due to the highly similar physiochemical characteristics of suspected oils from the same drilling platform. In this report, a case study from the waters of the South China Sea is presented, and multidimensional scaling analysis (MDS) is introduced to demonstrate how oil fingerprints can be combined with mathematical methods to identify the source of spilled oil from highly similar suspected sources. The results suggest that the MDS calculation based on oil fingerprints and subsequently integrated with specific biomarkers in spilled oils is the most effective method with a great potential for determining the source in terms of highly similar suspected oils.

  15. Combining molecular fingerprints with multidimensional scaling analyses to identify the source of spilled oil from highly similar suspected oils.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Peiyu; Chen, Changshu; Ye, Jianjun; Shen, Wenjie; Xiong, Xiaofei; Hu, Ping; Fang, Hongda; Huang, Chuguang; Sun, Yongge

    2015-04-15

    Oil fingerprints have been a powerful tool widely used for determining the source of spilled oil. In most cases, this tool works well. However, it is usually difficult to identify the source if the oil spill accident occurs during offshore petroleum exploration due to the highly similar physiochemical characteristics of suspected oils from the same drilling platform. In this report, a case study from the waters of the South China Sea is presented, and multidimensional scaling analysis (MDS) is introduced to demonstrate how oil fingerprints can be combined with mathematical methods to identify the source of spilled oil from highly similar suspected sources. The results suggest that the MDS calculation based on oil fingerprints and subsequently integrated with specific biomarkers in spilled oils is the most effective method with a great potential for determining the source in terms of highly similar suspected oils. PMID:25765488

  16. Effects of the Exxon Valdez Oil Spill on bald eagles. Bird study number 4. Exxon Valdez Oil Spill state/federal natural resource damage assessment final report

    SciTech Connect

    Bowman, T.D.; Schempf, P.F.; Bernatowicz, J.A.

    1993-12-01

    We estimated that about 8000 bald eagles (Halieetus leucocephalus) inhabited the area affected by the spill at the time of the Exxon Valdez oil spill. We conducted a 3-year study to determine effects of the spill on the bald eagle population and reproduction and survival of adults and fledglings. The greatest injuries to bald eagles occurred in 1989 and were manifested by direct mortality of bald eagles throughout the spill area and significantly reduced reproduction in PWS. We could not discern negative effects on the population or reproduction of eagles after 1989.

  17. Environmental effects of the Deepwater Horizon oil spill: A review.

    PubMed

    Beyer, Jonny; Trannum, Hilde C; Bakke, Torgeir; Hodson, Peter V; Collier, Tracy K

    2016-09-15

    The Deepwater Horizon oil spill constituted an ecosystem-level injury in the northern Gulf of Mexico. Much oil spread at 1100-1300m depth, contaminating and affecting deepwater habitats. Factors such as oil-biodegradation, ocean currents and response measures (dispersants, burning) reduced coastal oiling. Still, >2100km of shoreline and many coastal habitats were affected. Research demonstrates that oiling caused a wide range of biological effects, although worst-case impact scenarios did not materialize. Biomarkers in individual organisms were more informative about oiling stress than population and community indices. Salt marshes and seabird populations were hard hit, but were also quite resilient to oiling effects. Monitoring demonstrated little contamination of seafood. Certain impacts are still understudied, such as effects on seagrass communities. Concerns of long-term impacts remain for large fish species, deep-sea corals, sea turtles and cetaceans. These species and their habitats should continue to receive attention (monitoring and research) for years to come. PMID:27301686

  18. Autonomous Graphene Vessel for Suctioning and Storing Liquid Body of Spilled Oil

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Taewoo; Lee, Jeong Seok; Lee, Geonhui; Seo, Dong Kyun; Baek, Youngbin; Yoon, Jeyong; Oh, Seung M.; Kang, Tae June; Lee, Hong H.; Kim, Yong Hyup

    2016-01-01

    Despite remarkable strides in science and technology, the strategy for spilled oil collection has remained almost the same since the 1969 Santa Barbara oil spill. The graphene vessel devised here can bring about an important yet basic change in the strategy for spilled oil collection. When it is placed on the oil-covered seawater, the graphene vessel selectively separates the oil, then collects and stores the collected oil in the vessel all by itself without any external power inputs. Capillarity and gravity work together to fill this proto-type graphene vessel with the spilled oil at a rate that is higher than 20,000 liters per square meter per hour (LMH) with oil purity better than 99.9%, and allow the vessel to withstand a water head of 0.5 m. The vessel also has a superb chemical stability and recyclability. An expanded oil contact area, considerably greater than the thickness of the oil layer, forms at the reduced graphene oxide (rGO) foam interface upon contact with the spilled oil. This expanded contact area does not change much even when the oil layer thins out. As a result, the high oil collection rate is maintained throughout the recovery of spilled oil. PMID:26923622

  19. Autonomous Graphene Vessel for Suctioning and Storing Liquid Body of Spilled Oil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Taewoo; Lee, Jeong Seok; Lee, Geonhui; Seo, Dong Kyun; Baek, Youngbin; Yoon, Jeyong; Oh, Seung M.; Kang, Tae June; Lee, Hong H.; Kim, Yong Hyup

    2016-02-01

    Despite remarkable strides in science and technology, the strategy for spilled oil collection has remained almost the same since the 1969 Santa Barbara oil spill. The graphene vessel devised here can bring about an important yet basic change in the strategy for spilled oil collection. When it is placed on the oil-covered seawater, the graphene vessel selectively separates the oil, then collects and stores the collected oil in the vessel all by itself without any external power inputs. Capillarity and gravity work together to fill this proto-type graphene vessel with the spilled oil at a rate that is higher than 20,000 liters per square meter per hour (LMH) with oil purity better than 99.9%, and allow the vessel to withstand a water head of 0.5 m. The vessel also has a superb chemical stability and recyclability. An expanded oil contact area, considerably greater than the thickness of the oil layer, forms at the reduced graphene oxide (rGO) foam interface upon contact with the spilled oil. This expanded contact area does not change much even when the oil layer thins out. As a result, the high oil collection rate is maintained throughout the recovery of spilled oil.

  20. Autonomous Graphene Vessel for Suctioning and Storing Liquid Body of Spilled Oil.

    PubMed

    Kim, Taewoo; Lee, Jeong Seok; Lee, Geonhui; Seo, Dong Kyun; Baek, Youngbin; Yoon, Jeyong; Oh, Seung M; Kang, Tae June; Lee, Hong H; Kim, Yong Hyup

    2016-01-01

    Despite remarkable strides in science and technology, the strategy for spilled oil collection has remained almost the same since the 1969 Santa Barbara oil spill. The graphene vessel devised here can bring about an important yet basic change in the strategy for spilled oil collection. When it is placed on the oil-covered seawater, the graphene vessel selectively separates the oil, then collects and stores the collected oil in the vessel all by itself without any external power inputs. Capillarity and gravity work together to fill this proto-type graphene vessel with the spilled oil at a rate that is higher than 20,000 liters per square meter per hour (LMH) with oil purity better than 99.9%, and allow the vessel to withstand a water head of 0.5 m. The vessel also has a superb chemical stability and recyclability. An expanded oil contact area, considerably greater than the thickness of the oil layer, forms at the reduced graphene oxide (rGO) foam interface upon contact with the spilled oil. This expanded contact area does not change much even when the oil layer thins out. As a result, the high oil collection rate is maintained throughout the recovery of spilled oil. PMID:26923622

  1. Decision support system for emergency management of oil spill accidents in the Mediterranean Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liubartseva, Svitlana; Coppini, Giovanni; Pinardi, Nadia; De Dominicis, Michela; Lecci, Rita; Turrisi, Giuseppe; Cretì, Sergio; Martinelli, Sara; Agostini, Paola; Marra, Palmalisa; Palermo, Francesco

    2016-08-01

    This paper presents an innovative web-based decision support system to facilitate emergency management in the case of oil spill accidents, called WITOIL (Where Is The Oil). The system can be applied to create a forecast of oil spill events, evaluate uncertainty of the predictions, and calculate hazards based on historical meteo-oceanographic datasets. To compute the oil transport and transformation, WITOIL uses the MEDSLIK-II oil spill model forced by operational meteo-oceanographic services. Results of the modeling are visualized through Google Maps. A special application for Android is designed to provide mobile access for competent authorities, technical and scientific institutions, and citizens.

  2. Enrichment of Fusobacteria in Sea Surface Oil Slicks from the Deepwater Horizon Oil Spill

    PubMed Central

    Gutierrez, Tony; Berry, David; Teske, Andreas; Aitken, Michael D.

    2016-01-01

    The Deepwater Horizon (DWH) oil spill led to rapid microbial community shifts in the Gulf of Mexico, including the formation of unprecedented quantities of marine oil snow (MOS) and of a massive subsurface oil plume. The major taxa that bloomed in sea surface oil slicks during the spill included Cycloclasticus, and to a lesser extent Halomonas, Alteromonas, and Pseudoalteromonas—organisms that grow and degrade oil hydrocarbons aerobically. Here, we show that sea surface oil slicks at DWH contained obligate and facultative anaerobic taxa, including members of the obligate anaerobic phylum Fusobacteria that are commonly found in marine sediment environments. Pyrosequencing analysis revealed that Fusobacteria were strongly selected for when sea surface oil slicks were allowed to develop anaerobically. These organisms have been found in oil-contaminated sediments in the Gulf of Mexico, in deep marine oil reservoirs, and other oil-contaminated sites, suggesting they have putative hydrocarbon-degrading qualities. The occurrence and strong selection for Fusobacteria in a lab-based incubation of a sea surface oil slick sample collected during the spill suggests that these organisms may have become enriched in anaerobic zones of suspended particulates, such as MOS. Whilst the formation and rapid sinking of MOS is recognised as an important mechanism by which a proportion of the Macondo oil had been transported to the sea floor, its role in potentially transporting microorganisms, including oil-degraders, from the upper reaches of the water column to the seafloor should be considered. The presence of Fusobacteria on the sea surface—a highly oxygenated environment—is intriguing, and may be explained by the vertical upsurge of oil that provided a carrier to transport these organisms from anaerobic/micro-aerophilic zones in the oil plume or seabed to the upper reaches of the water column. We also propose that the formation of rapidly-sinking MOS may have re

  3. Enrichment of Fusobacteria in Sea Surface Oil Slicks from the Deepwater Horizon Oil Spill.

    PubMed

    Gutierrez, Tony; Berry, David; Teske, Andreas; Aitken, Michael D

    2016-01-01

    The Deepwater Horizon (DWH) oil spill led to rapid microbial community shifts in the Gulf of Mexico, including the formation of unprecedented quantities of marine oil snow (MOS) and of a massive subsurface oil plume. The major taxa that bloomed in sea surface oil slicks during the spill included Cycloclasticus, and to a lesser extent Halomonas, Alteromonas, and Pseudoalteromonas-organisms that grow and degrade oil hydrocarbons aerobically. Here, we show that sea surface oil slicks at DWH contained obligate and facultative anaerobic taxa, including members of the obligate anaerobic phylum Fusobacteria that are commonly found in marine sediment environments. Pyrosequencing analysis revealed that Fusobacteria were strongly selected for when sea surface oil slicks were allowed to develop anaerobically. These organisms have been found in oil-contaminated sediments in the Gulf of Mexico, in deep marine oil reservoirs, and other oil-contaminated sites, suggesting they have putative hydrocarbon-degrading qualities. The occurrence and strong selection for Fusobacteria in a lab-based incubation of a sea surface oil slick sample collected during the spill suggests that these organisms may have become enriched in anaerobic zones of suspended particulates, such as MOS. Whilst the formation and rapid sinking of MOS is recognised as an important mechanism by which a proportion of the Macondo oil had been transported to the sea floor, its role in potentially transporting microorganisms, including oil-degraders, from the upper reaches of the water column to the seafloor should be considered. The presence of Fusobacteria on the sea surface-a highly oxygenated environment-is intriguing, and may be explained by the vertical upsurge of oil that provided a carrier to transport these organisms from anaerobic/micro-aerophilic zones in the oil plume or seabed to the upper reaches of the water column. We also propose that the formation of rapidly-sinking MOS may have re-transported these

  4. Enrichment of Fusobacteria in Sea Surface Oil Slicks from the Deepwater Horizon Oil Spill.

    PubMed

    Gutierrez, Tony; Berry, David; Teske, Andreas; Aitken, Michael D

    2016-07-27

    The Deepwater Horizon (DWH) oil spill led to rapid microbial community shifts in the Gulf of Mexico, including the formation of unprecedented quantities of marine oil snow (MOS) and of a massive subsurface oil plume. The major taxa that bloomed in sea surface oil slicks during the spill included Cycloclasticus, and to a lesser extent Halomonas, Alteromonas, and Pseudoalteromonas-organisms that grow and degrade oil hydrocarbons aerobically. Here, we show that sea surface oil slicks at DWH contained obligate and facultative anaerobic taxa, including members of the obligate anaerobic phylum Fusobacteria that are commonly found in marine sediment environments. Pyrosequencing analysis revealed that Fusobacteria were strongly selected for when sea surface oil slicks were allowed to develop anaerobically. These organisms have been found in oil-contaminated sediments in the Gulf of Mexico, in deep marine oil reservoirs, and other oil-contaminated sites, suggesting they have putative hydrocarbon-degrading qualities. The occurrence and strong selection for Fusobacteria in a lab-based incubation of a sea surface oil slick sample collected during the spill suggests that these organisms may have become enriched in anaerobic zones of suspended particulates, such as MOS. Whilst the formation and rapid sinking of MOS is recognised as an important mechanism by which a proportion of the Macondo oil had been transported to the sea floor, its role in potentially transporting microorganisms, including oil-degraders, from the upper reaches of the water column to the seafloor should be considered. The presence of Fusobacteria on the sea surface-a highly oxygenated environment-is intriguing, and may be explained by the vertical upsurge of oil that provided a carrier to transport these organisms from anaerobic/micro-aerophilic zones in the oil plume or seabed to the upper reaches of the water column. We also propose that the formation of rapidly-sinking MOS may have re-transported these

  5. Enrichment of Fusobacteria in Sea Surface Oil Slicks from the Deepwater Horizon Oil Spill

    PubMed Central

    Gutierrez, Tony; Berry, David; Teske, Andreas; Aitken, Michael D.

    2016-01-01

    The Deepwater Horizon (DWH) oil spill led to rapid microbial community shifts in the Gulf of Mexico, including the formation of unprecedented quantities of marine oil snow (MOS) and of a massive subsurface oil plume. The major taxa that bloomed in sea surface oil slicks during the spill included Cycloclasticus, and to a lesser extent Halomonas, Alteromonas, and Pseudoalteromonas—organisms that grow and degrade oil hydrocarbons aerobically. Here, we show that sea surface oil slicks at DWH contained obligate and facultative anaerobic taxa, including members of the obligate anaerobic phylum Fusobacteria that are commonly found in marine sediment environments. Pyrosequencing analysis revealed that Fusobacteria were strongly selected for when sea surface oil slicks were allowed to develop anaerobically. These organisms have been found in oil-contaminated sediments in the Gulf of Mexico, in deep marine oil reservoirs, and other oil-contaminated sites, suggesting they have putative hydrocarbon-degrading qualities. The occurrence and strong selection for Fusobacteria in a lab-based incubation of a sea surface oil slick sample collected during the spill suggests that these organisms may have become enriched in anaerobic zones of suspended particulates, such as MOS. Whilst the formation and rapid sinking of MOS is recognised as an important mechanism by which a proportion of the Macondo oil had been transported to the sea floor, its role in potentially transporting microorganisms, including oil-degraders, from the upper reaches of the water column to the seafloor should be considered. The presence of Fusobacteria on the sea surface—a highly oxygenated environment—is intriguing, and may be explained by the vertical upsurge of oil that provided a carrier to transport these organisms from anaerobic/micro-aerophilic zones in the oil plume or seabed to the upper reaches of the water column. We also propose that the formation of rapidly-sinking MOS may have re

  6. 78 FR 66763 - Information Collection: Oil Spill Financial Responsibility for Offshore Facilities; Submitted for...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-11-06

    ... Bureau of Ocean Energy Management Information Collection: Oil Spill Financial Responsibility for Offshore... requirements for 30 CFR 553, Oil Spill Financial Responsibility for Offshore Facilities, as well as the revised... Financial Responsibility for Offshore Facilities. Forms: BOEM-1016 through 1023 and BOEM-1025....

  7. 75 FR 79961 - Temporary Suspension of Certain Oil Spill Response Time Requirements To Support Deepwater Horizon...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-21

    ... Gulf of Mexico Deepwater Horizon SONSat the FOSC's request. 75 FR 37712. The rule also confirmed that...; 2050-AG63 Temporary Suspension of Certain Oil Spill Response Time Requirements To Support Deepwater.... Oil Spill Response Resources Return Time Several comments noted concerns about the return of assets...

  8. Children's Moral and Ecological Reasoning about the Prince William Sound Oil Spill.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kahn, Peter H., Jr.; Friedman, Batya

    This study investigated children's moral and ecological conceptions and values about an actual, environmentally destructive accident, the large oil spill that occurred in Prince William Sound, Alaska in 1989. Sixty children from second, fifth, and eighth grades were interviewed on children's reasoning and understandings about the oil spill which…

  9. 75 FR 12561 - Delaware River and Bay Oil Spill Advisory Committee; Meeting Cancelled

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-16

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard Delaware River and Bay Oil Spill Advisory Committee; Meeting Cancelled AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION: Notice of cancellation of meeting. SUMMARY: The Delaware River and Bay Oil Spill... Federal Register on March 2, 2010 (75 FR 9426) is cancelled. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT:...

  10. 75 FR 73116 - Delaware River and Bay Oil Spill Advisory Committee; Meetings

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-29

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard Delaware River and Bay Oil Spill Advisory Committee; Meetings AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION: Notice of advisory committee meetings. SUMMARY: The Delaware River and Bay Oil Spill Advisory Committee (DRBOSAC) will meet in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, to discuss and approve DRBOSAC's report on...

  11. 33 CFR Appendix D to Part 154 - Training Elements for Oil Spill Response Plans

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ....14Occupational Safety and Health Administration requirements for worker health and safety (29 CFR 1910.120). 3... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Training Elements for Oil Spill... Appendix D to Part 154—Training Elements for Oil Spill Response Plans 1. General 1.1The portion of the...

  12. 33 CFR Appendix C to Part 155 - Training Elements for Oil Spill Response Plans

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... worker health and safety (29 CFR 1910.120). 3. Further Considerations In drafting the training section of... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Training Elements for Oil Spill.... 155, App. C Appendix C to Part 155—Training Elements for Oil Spill Response Plans 1. General...

  13. 33 CFR Appendix D to Part 154 - Training Elements for Oil Spill Response Plans

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ....14Occupational Safety and Health Administration requirements for worker health and safety (29 CFR 1910.120). 3... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Training Elements for Oil Spill... Appendix D to Part 154—Training Elements for Oil Spill Response Plans 1. General 1.1The portion of the...

  14. 30 CFR 250.219 - What oil and hazardous substance spills information must accompany the EP?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...), (d), and (e)). (b) Modeling report. If you model a potential oil or hazardous substance spill in... under 30 CFR 254.6) and hazardous substances (see definition under 40 CFR part 116) as applicable, must accompany your EP: (a) Oil spill response planning. The material required under paragraph (a)(1) or...

  15. 75 FR 69652 - National Commission on the BP Deepwater Horizon Oil Spill and Offshore Drilling

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-15

    ... National Commission on the BP Deepwater Horizon Oil Spill and Offshore Drilling AGENCY: Department of... meeting of the National Commission on the BP Deepwater Horizon Oil Spill and Offshore Drilling (the... associated with offshore drilling in the future. The Commission is composed of seven members appointed by...

  16. 75 FR 60097 - National Commission on the BP Deepwater Horizon Oil Spill and Offshore Drilling

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-29

    ... National Commission on the BP Deepwater Horizon Oil Spill and Offshore Drilling AGENCY: Department of... meeting of the National Commission on the BP Deepwater Horizon Oil Spill and Offshore Drilling (the... associated with offshore drilling in the future. The Commission is composed of seven members appointed by...

  17. 75 FR 39518 - National Commission on the BP Deepwater Horizon Oil Spill and Offshore Drilling; Correction

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-09

    ..., 2010, of the National Commission on the BP Deepwater Horizon Oil Spill and Offshore Drilling, (75 FR... National Commission on the BP Deepwater Horizon Oil Spill and Offshore Drilling; Correction AGENCY: Office...: Christopher A. Smith, (202) 586-0716. Corrections In the Federal Register of June 30, 2010, in FR Doc....

  18. 75 FR 37783 - National Commission on the BP Deepwater Horizon Oil Spill and Offshore Drilling

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-30

    ... National Commission on the BP Deepwater Horizon Oil Spill and Offshore Drilling AGENCY: Department of... meeting of the National Commission on the BP Deepwater Horizon Oil Spill and Offshore Drilling (the... offshore drilling in the future. The Commission is composed of seven members appointed by the President...

  19. 75 FR 56526 - National Commission on the BP Deepwater Horizon Oil Spill and Offshore Drilling

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-16

    ... National Commission on the BP Deepwater Horizon Oil Spill and Offshore Drilling AGENCY: Department of... meeting of the National Commission on the BP Deepwater Horizon Oil Spill and Offshore Drilling (the... with offshore drilling in the future. The Commission is composed of seven members appointed by...

  20. 77 FR 32978 - Exxon Valdez Oil Spill Trustee Council; Notice of Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-04

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR Office of the Secretary Exxon Valdez Oil Spill Trustee Council; Notice of Meeting AGENCY: Office of the..., Office of the Secretary is announcing a public meeting of the Exxon Valdez Oil Spill Public...

  1. Combustive management of oil spills. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-12-01

    Extensive experiments with in situ incineration were performed on a desert site at the University of Arizona with very striking results. The largest incinerator, 6 feet in diameter with a 30 foot chimney, developed combustion temperatures of 3000, F, and attendant soot production approximately 1000 times less than that produced by conventional in situ burning. This soot production, in fact, is approximately 30 times less than current allowable EPA standards for incinerators and internal combustion engines. Furthermore, as a consequence of the high temperature combustion, the bum rate was established at a very high 3400 gallons per hour for this particular 6 foot diameter structure. The rudimentary design studies we have carried out relative to a seagoing 8 foot diameter incinerator have predicted that a continuous burn rate of 7000 gallons per hour is realistic. This structure was taken as a basis for operational design because it is compatible with C130 flyability, and will be inexpensive enough ($120,000 per copy) to be stored at those seaside depots throughout the US coast line in which the requisite ancillary equipments (booms, service tugs, etc.) are already deployed. The LOX experiments verified our expectations with respect to combustion of debris and various highly weathered or emulsified oils. We have concluded, however, that the use of liquid oxygen in actual beach clean up is not promising because the very high temperatures associated with this combustion are almost certain to produce environmentally deleterious effects on the beach surface and its immediately sublying structures. However, the use of liquid oxygen augmentation for shore based and flyable incinerators may still play an important role in handing the problem of accumulated debris.

  2. Oil carbon entered the coastal planktonic food web during the Deepwater Horizon oil spill

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Graham, William M.; Condon, Robert H.; Carmichael, Ruth H.; D'Ambra, Isabella; Patterson, Heather K.; Linn, Laura J.; Hernandez, Frank J., Jr.

    2010-10-01

    The Deepwater Horizon oil spill was unprecedented in total loading of petroleum hydrocarbons accidentally released to a marine ecosystem. Controversial application of chemical dispersants presumably accelerated microbial consumption of oil components, especially in warm Gulf of Mexico surface waters. We employed δ13C as a tracer of oil-derived carbon to resolve two periods of isotopic carbon depletion in two plankton size classes. Carbon depletion was coincident with the arrival of surface oil slicks in the far northern Gulf, and demonstrated that subsurface oil carbon was incorporated into the plankton food web.

  3. Spilled Oils: Static Mixtures or Dynamic Weathering and Bioavailability?

    PubMed Central

    Carls, Mark G.; Larsen, Marie L.; Holland, Larry G.

    2015-01-01

    Polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) from sequestered MV Selendang Ayu oil were biologically available in 2008, 3.6 y after it was spilled along Unalaska Island, Alaska. Thermodynamically driven weathering was the most probable mechanism of organism exposure to PAHs. Alkane and PAH composition in oil changed over time as smaller constituents were preferentially lost, indicative of weathering. In contrast, composition of the largest compounds (biomarkers) including triterpanes, hopanes, and steranes remained unchanged. Smaller molecules (the PAHs) lost from stranded oil were observed in indigenous mussels and passive samplers deployed in July 2008. Concentration and composition of PAHs were significantly different than in a non-oiled reference area and patterns observed in mussels were repeated in passive samplers deployed in three zones (intertidal, subtidal, and water). Thus, hydrocarbons lost from one compartment (sequestered whole oil) were detectable in another (mussels and passive samplers) implying aqueous transfer. Quantities of mobile oil constituents were small, yielding uptake concentrations that are likely inconsequential for mussels, but the sensitivity provided by bioaccumulation and passive sampler uptake ensured that dissolved hydrocarbons were detectable. PMID:26332909

  4. An oil spill surveillance program for Lake Pontchartrain.

    PubMed

    Boyd, Ezra; Pereira, Joao F; Retana, Gabriel; Baker, Andy; Lopez, John; McCorquodale, Alex

    2013-01-01

    This article describes an oil spill surveillance strategy implemented in response to BP's 2010 MC252 oil well blowout in the Gulf of Mexico. A three-pronged strategy consisted of Geographic Information System (GIS) monitoring of the surface slick, hydrodynamic modeling of the potential movement of the slick within the Basin, and weekly field reconnaissance. Our analysis was completed in near real time during the event and the results and predictions helped local responders minimize oiling impacts in Lake Pontchartrain. No prior planning was undertaken before this crisis response, and this article reports our support activities as they happened. For the GIS component, a remote sensing derived surface slick outline layer was obtained to produce near daily maps showing the slick's proximity to Lake Pontchartrain along with weather conditions and deployed response assets. This regular monitoring of the slicks' location was complemented by hydrodynamic numerical modeling that simulated the currents that determined the trajectories of oil particles. These data were ground-truthed through weekly reconnaissance trips that assessed the potential routes of oil penetration into Lake Pontchartrain for the presence of sheen, tarballs, and other oil constituents. Despite the ad hoc design and on-the-fly implementation, these three assessments provided consistent and actionable information.

  5. Spilled Oils: Static Mixtures or Dynamic Weathering and Bioavailability?

    PubMed

    Carls, Mark G; Larsen, Marie L; Holland, Larry G

    2015-01-01

    Polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) from sequestered MV Selendang Ayu oil were biologically available in 2008, 3.6 y after it was spilled along Unalaska Island, Alaska. Thermodynamically driven weathering was the most probable mechanism of organism exposure to PAHs. Alkane and PAH composition in oil changed over time as smaller constituents were preferentially lost, indicative of weathering. In contrast, composition of the largest compounds (biomarkers) including triterpanes, hopanes, and steranes remained unchanged. Smaller molecules (the PAHs) lost from stranded oil were observed in indigenous mussels and passive samplers deployed in July 2008. Concentration and composition of PAHs were significantly different than in a non-oiled reference area and patterns observed in mussels were repeated in passive samplers deployed in three zones (intertidal, subtidal, and water). Thus, hydrocarbons lost from one compartment (sequestered whole oil) were detectable in another (mussels and passive samplers) implying aqueous transfer. Quantities of mobile oil constituents were small, yielding uptake concentrations that are likely inconsequential for mussels, but the sensitivity provided by bioaccumulation and passive sampler uptake ensured that dissolved hydrocarbons were detectable.

  6. 30 CFR 553.14 - How do I determine the worst case oil-spill discharge volume?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false How do I determine the worst case oil-spill... THE INTERIOR OFFSHORE OIL SPILL FINANCIAL RESPONSIBILITY FOR OFFSHORE FACILITIES Applicability and Amount of OSFR § 553.14 How do I determine the worst case oil-spill discharge volume? (a) To...

  7. 30 CFR 253.5 - What is the authority for collecting Oil Spill Financial Responsibility (OSFR) information?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false What is the authority for collecting Oil Spill... SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR OFFSHORE OIL SPILL FINANCIAL RESPONSIBILITY FOR OFFSHORE FACILITIES General § 253.5 What is the authority for collecting Oil Spill Financial Responsibility (OSFR)...

  8. 30 CFR 553.14 - How do I determine the worst case oil-spill discharge volume?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false How do I determine the worst case oil-spill... THE INTERIOR OFFSHORE OIL SPILL FINANCIAL RESPONSIBILITY FOR OFFSHORE FACILITIES Applicability and Amount of OSFR § 553.14 How do I determine the worst case oil-spill discharge volume? (a) To...

  9. 46 CFR 126.225 - Alternate tonnage for offshore supply vessels seeking oil spill response vessel certification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... oil spill response vessel certification. 126.225 Section 126.225 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF... Inspection § 126.225 Alternate tonnage for offshore supply vessels seeking oil spill response vessel... also be certificated as an oil spill response vessel....

  10. Oil spill removal: Dispersants, absorbents, booms, and skimmers. (Latest citations from the Life Sciences Collection database). Published Search

    SciTech Connect

    1995-12-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning the techniques available for the removal of oil following major spills. Chemical dispersants, gelling agents, foam plastics, booms, skimmers, and burning are discussed. Specific oil spills are considered, and the environmental impacts of oil spills are noted.(Contains 50-250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.) (Copyright NERAC, Inc. 1995)

  11. 30 CFR 553.5 - What is the authority for collecting Oil Spill Financial Responsibility (OSFR) information?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false What is the authority for collecting Oil Spill... MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR OFFSHORE OIL SPILL FINANCIAL RESPONSIBILITY FOR OFFSHORE FACILITIES General § 553.5 What is the authority for collecting Oil Spill Financial Responsibility (OSFR)...

  12. 30 CFR 253.5 - What is the authority for collecting Oil Spill Financial Responsibility (OSFR) information?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false What is the authority for collecting Oil Spill... MANAGEMENT, REGULATION, AND ENFORCEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR OFFSHORE OIL SPILL FINANCIAL RESPONSIBILITY FOR OFFSHORE FACILITIES General § 253.5 What is the authority for collecting Oil Spill...

  13. Oil spill removal: Dispersants, absorbents, booms, and skimmers. (Latest citations from the Life Sciences Collection database). Published Search

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-10-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning the techniques available for the removal of oil following major spills. Chemical dispersants, gelling agents, foam plastics, booms, skimmers, and burning are discussed. Specific oil spills are considered, and the environmental impacts of oil spills are noted. (Contains a minimum of 80 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

  14. Oil spill removal: Dispersants, absorbents, booms, and skimmers. (Latest citations from the Life Sciences Collection database). Published Search

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-06-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning the techniques available for the removal of oil following major spills. Chemical dispersants, gelling agents, foam plastics, booms, skimmers, and burning are discussed. Specific oil spills are considered, and the environmental impacts of oil spills are noted. (Contains a minimum of 77 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

  15. 46 CFR 126.225 - Alternate tonnage for offshore supply vessels seeking oil spill response vessel certification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... oil spill response vessel certification. 126.225 Section 126.225 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF... Inspection § 126.225 Alternate tonnage for offshore supply vessels seeking oil spill response vessel... also be certificated as an oil spill response vessel....

  16. 30 CFR 553.14 - How do I determine the worst case oil-spill discharge volume?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false How do I determine the worst case oil-spill... THE INTERIOR OFFSHORE OIL SPILL FINANCIAL RESPONSIBILITY FOR OFFSHORE FACILITIES Applicability and Amount of OSFR § 553.14 How do I determine the worst case oil-spill discharge volume? (a) To...

  17. 46 CFR 126.225 - Alternate tonnage for offshore supply vessels seeking oil spill response vessel certification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... oil spill response vessel certification. 126.225 Section 126.225 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF... Inspection § 126.225 Alternate tonnage for offshore supply vessels seeking oil spill response vessel... also be certificated as an oil spill response vessel....

  18. 30 CFR 553.5 - What is the authority for collecting Oil Spill Financial Responsibility (OSFR) information?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false What is the authority for collecting Oil Spill... MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR OFFSHORE OIL SPILL FINANCIAL RESPONSIBILITY FOR OFFSHORE FACILITIES General § 553.5 What is the authority for collecting Oil Spill Financial Responsibility (OSFR)...

  19. 30 CFR 253.14 - How do I determine the worst case oil-spill discharge volume?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false How do I determine the worst case oil-spill... INTERIOR OFFSHORE OIL SPILL FINANCIAL RESPONSIBILITY FOR OFFSHORE FACILITIES Applicability and Amount of OSFR § 253.14 How do I determine the worst case oil-spill discharge volume? (a) To calculate the...

  20. 30 CFR 253.14 - How do I determine the worst case oil-spill discharge volume?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false How do I determine the worst case oil-spill... ENFORCEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR OFFSHORE OIL SPILL FINANCIAL RESPONSIBILITY FOR OFFSHORE FACILITIES Applicability and Amount of OSFR § 253.14 How do I determine the worst case oil-spill discharge volume? (a)...