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Sample records for oil-adjuvanted vaccine delays

  1. Growth and performance of Atlantic salmon, Salmo salar L., following administration of a rhabdovirus DNA vaccine alone or concurrently with an oil-adjuvanted, polyvalent vaccine.

    PubMed

    Skinner, L A; Schulte, P M; LaPatra, S E; Balfry, S K; McKinley, R S

    2008-09-01

    This research demonstrates for the first time an absence of growth-related side effects in Atlantic salmon, Salmo salar L., following the injection of a DNA vaccine alone or concurrently with a commercially available, polyvalent, oil-adjuvanted vaccine. Using weight and specific growth rate measurements, individually tagged Atlantic salmon were monitored for 2028 degree days (dd) post-vaccination. During this time, DNA-vaccinated fish did not differ in weight, length, condition factor or specific growth rate compared to unvaccinated control fish. While differences in weight were observed between unvaccinated control and concurrently vaccinated fish, there were no significant differences in weight, length, condition factor or specific growth rate between concurrently vaccinated fish and adjuvant-vaccinated fish, suggesting that only adjuvant vaccination affected growth. To further determine if concurrent injection of a DNA vaccine and a polyvalent, oil-adjuvanted vaccine had a physiological impact on the Atlantic salmon, swimming performance tests were performed at 106 dd post-vaccination with U(crit,1), U(crit,2), the U(crit) recovery ratio (RR) and the normalized RR being similar to values obtained from unvaccinated control fish. In summary, this study shows that concurrent injection of a DNA vaccine and a polyvalent, oil-adjuvanted vaccine does not negatively influence the growth or swimming performance of Atlantic salmon compared to adjuvant vaccination alone.

  2. Antibody response and protective immunity of chickens vaccinated with booster dose of recombinant oil-adjuvanted Leucocytozoon caulleryi subunit vaccine.

    PubMed

    Umali, Dennis V; Ito, Akira; Del Valle, Fletcher P; Shirota, Kazutoshi; Katoh, Hiromitsu

    2014-12-01

    Leucocytozoon caulleryi is an economically important poultry pathogen that causes subclinical to fatal disease in chickens. Because of limited preventive and treatment options against this disease, an oil-adjuvanted recombinant vaccine (O-rR7) targeting the R7 protein of L. caulleryi second-generation schizonts was developed. Different vaccination programs, namely, single vaccination at 45 days (0.1-ml dose), single vaccination at 130 days (0.25 ml), and initial vaccination at 45 days (0.1 ml) followed by a booster dose at 130 days (0.25 ml) were explored to compare the effects of single and booster vaccination on antibody response, duration of protective immunity, and degree of clinical signs after experimental L. caulleryi infection. Of the three treatments groups, initial vaccination at 45 days followed by a booster vaccination at 130 days of age resulted to rapid increase in antibody titers, which persisted for up to 182 days. Antibody titers reached peak values 35 days and 14 days after initial and booster vaccination, respectively. In comparison, single vaccination at 45 days of age resulted in production of antibodies above 1600 ELISA units for 56 days postvaccination, and single vaccination at 130 days of age produced peak antibody titers 35 days postvaccination, which remained above 1600 ELISA units for 126 days. Experimental infection of L. caulleryi at 256 days, when antibody titers had waned, did not result to severe clinical disease in chickens that received booster vaccination, whereas mild to severe disease was observed in chickens that received a single vaccination. Evaluation of immune response at 15 and 21 days postinfection showed that chickens that received booster vaccination had a twofold increase (P < 0.01) in antibody titers as compared to those receiving a single vaccination. Administering booster shots of O-rR7 is therefore recommended, especially in farms located in areas where Leucocytozoon is endemic.

  3. Safety test and field study of an inactivated oil-adjuvanted H5N1 avian influenza vaccine.

    PubMed

    Imamura, Takashi; Sakamoto, Ryuichi; Sasaki, Takashi; Kokumai, Norihide; Ohgitani, Toshiaki; Sawata, Akira; Lin, Zhifeng; Sakaguchi, Masashi

    2010-11-01

    We previously reported the development of an inactivated oil-adjuvanted avian influenza vaccine using an apathogenic H5N1 strain of the same lineage as the Eurasian lineage viruses currently epidemic in Asia. In this study, we confirmed the safety and evaluated the efficacy of this vaccine in layer chicken farms by field trials. No problematic adverse reactions occurred in the safety test. In addition, no adverse effects were observed in the field trial, and the antibody titer exceeded a protective level (hemagglutination inhibition (HI) antibody titer of 16) at 3 weeks after a single injection. Based on the above findings, this vaccine was confirmed to be safe and induced a protective level of antibody titer with a single injection in the chickens at the farms.

  4. QS-21 enhances the early antibody response to oil adjuvant foot-and-mouth disease vaccine in cattle

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Purpose One of the most important tools against foot-and-mouth disease, a highly contagious and variable viral disease of cloven-hoofed animals, is vaccination. However, the effectiveness of foot-and-mouth disease vaccines on slowing the spread of the disease is questionable. In contrast, high potency vaccines providing early protection may solve issues with the spread of the disease, escaping mutants, and persistency. To increase the potency of the vaccine, additives such as saponin and aluminium hydroxide are used. However, the use of saponin with an oil adjuvant is not common and is sometimes linked to toxicity. QS-21, which is less toxic than Quil A, has been presented as an alternative for use with saponin. In this study, the addition of QS-21 to a commercially available foot-and-mouth disease water-in-oil-in-water emulsion vaccine was evaluated in cattle. Materials and Methods After vaccination, serum samples were collected periodically over 3 months. Sera of the QS-21 and normal oil vaccine groups were compared via serum virus neutralization antibody titre and liquid phase blocking enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay antibody titre. Results The results showed that there was a significant early antibody increase in the QS-21 group. Conclusion Strong early virus neutralizing antibody response will be useful for emergency or ring vaccinations against foot-and-mouth disease in target animals. PMID:27489804

  5. Effect of alum co-adjuvantation of oil adjuvant vaccine on emulsion stability and immune responses against haemorhagic septicaemia in mice.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Sujeet; Chaturvedi, Vinod Kumar; Kumar, Bablu; Kumar, Pankaj; Somarajan, Sudha Rani; Mishra, Anil Kumar; Sharma, Bhaskar

    2015-04-01

    Haemorrhagic septicaemia (HS), caused by Pasteurella multocida, is the most important bacterial disease of cattle and buffaloes in India. Oil adjuvant vaccine (OAV) is the most potent vaccine available for the control of HS. The study aims to evaluate the effect of alum co-adjuvantation of OAV on emulsion stability and immune response. Two different oil adjuvant vaccines viz., standard oil adjuvant vaccine (OAV) and alum precipitated oil adjuvant vaccine (A-OAV) were prepared with Pasteurella multocida antigen. Emulsion stability was tested by centrifugation, storage at 37 °C for 3 months and microscopy. Immune responses were evaluated by ELISA antibody titer, CD4, CD8 T cell populations and survival post challenge by P. multocida in mice. The separation of aqueous and oil phase of emulsion by centrifugation and storage test were 0 and 6.76% in A-OAV as compared to 11.00 and 26.39% in OAV, respectively. The mean droplet size was significantly smaller (p<0.01) in A-OAV as compared to OAV. The A-OAV recorded higher ELISA antibody titer (p<0.05) up to 21st days post vaccination, and higher CD4 (p>0.05) and CD8 T cell (p<0.05) populations compared to OAV. The A-OAV group conferred 100% protection after challenge with both 100 LD50 and 1000 LD50 as compared to 100 and 60% respective protection by OAV group. The results indicates that A-OAV had better emulsion stability, produces higher level of CD4, CD8 T cells and antibody titer with better protection compared to oil adjuvant vaccine.

  6. Effect of alum co-adjuvantation of oil adjuvant vaccine on emulsion stability and immune responses against haemorhagic septicaemia in mice

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, Sujeet; Chaturvedi, Vinod Kumar; Kumar, Bablu; Kumar, Pankaj; Somarajan, Sudha Rani; Mishra, Anil Kumar; Sharma, Bhaskar

    2015-01-01

    Background and Objectives: Haemorrhagic septicaemia (HS), caused by Pasteurella multocida, is the most important bacterial disease of cattle and buffaloes in India. Oil adjuvant vaccine (OAV) is the most potent vaccine available for the control of HS. The study aims to evaluate the effect of alum co-adjuvantation of OAV on emulsion stability and immune response. Materials and Methods: Two different oil adjuvant vaccines viz., standard oil adjuvant vaccine (OAV) and alum precipitated oil adjuvant vaccine (A–OAV) were prepared with Pasteurella multocida antigen. Emulsion stability was tested by centrifugation, storage at 37 °C for 3 months and microscopy. Immune responses were evaluated by ELISA antibody titer, CD4, CD8 T cell populations and survival post challenge by P. multocida in mice. Results: The separation of aqueous and oil phase of emulsion by centrifugation and storage test were 0 and 6.76% in A-OAV as compared to 11.00 and 26.39% in OAV, respectively. The mean droplet size was significantly smaller (p<0.01) in A–OAV as compared to OAV. The A–OAV recorded higher ELISA antibody titer (p<0.05) up to 21st days post vaccination, and higher CD4 (p>0.05) and CD8 T cell (p<0.05) populations compared to OAV. The A–OAV group conferred 100% protection after challenge with both 100 LD50 and 1000 LD50 as compared to 100 and 60% respective protection by OAV group. Conclusion: The results indicates that A–OAV had better emulsion stability, produces higher level of CD4, CD8 T cells and antibody titer with better protection compared to oil adjuvant vaccine. PMID:26622968

  7. The association between metabolic rate, immune parameters, and growth performance of rainbow trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss (Walbaum), following the injection of a DNA vaccine alone and concurrently with a polyvalent, oil-adjuvanted vaccine.

    PubMed

    Skinner, Lisa A; Schulte, P M; Balfry, S K; McKinley, R S; LaPatra, S E

    2010-02-01

    This research demonstrates a significant increase in routine metabolic rate (RMR) following injection of a DNA vaccine concurrently with a polyvalent, oil-adjuvanted vaccine. The increase in RMR was transient and associated with increased activity of both the non-specific and specific immune responses. Rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) were injected with a DNA vaccine (DV), a commercially available polyvalent, oil-adjuvanted vaccine (AV), or the two vaccines in combination and sampled at 203, 305, and 406 days (dd) post-vaccine injection (pvi) for RMR and key immune parameters (serum lysozyme activity, serum neutralization antibody titres). The RMR of fish that received both the DV and the AV was significantly higher at 203 dd pvi, compared to fish from all other treatment groups which included the control, the AV, and the DV groups. The increased RMR corresponded to elevated levels of serum lysozyme activity and an earlier seroconversion of virus-specific neutralizing antibodies. To determine if growth performance was affected by the transient increase in RMR, specific growth rate (SGR), percent daily weight gain (WG), and feed conversion ratio (FCR) were determined at 798, 1204, and 1610 dd pvi. Although fish in all three vaccine groups showed significant increases in SGR and WG at 798 and 1610 dd pvi compared to the control group, the overall weight of the fish was not different at the end of the experiment. In summary, this study shows that concurrent injection of a DV and an AV transiently increases the RMR of rainbow trout and changes the manner in which the immune response occurs, but does not affect the overall growth performance of the fish.

  8. PRIORITIZATION OF DELAYED VACCINATION FOR PANDEMIC INFLUENZA

    PubMed Central

    Shim, Eunha

    2013-01-01

    Limited production capacity and delays in vaccine development are major obstacles to vaccination programs that are designed to mitigate a pandemic influenza. In order to evaluate and compare the impact of various vaccination strategies during a pandemic influenza, we developed an age/risk-structured model of influenza transmission, and parameterized it with epidemiological data from the 2009 H1N1 influenza A pandemic. Our model predicts that the impact of vaccination would be considerably diminished by delays in vaccination and staggered vaccine supply. Nonetheless, prioritizing limited H1N1 vaccine to individuals with a high risk of complications, followed by school-age children, and then preschool-age children, would minimize an over-all attack rate as well as hospitalizations and deaths. This vaccination scheme would maximize the benefits of vaccination by protecting the high-risk people directly, and generating indirect protection by vaccinating children who are most likely to transmit the disease. PMID:21361402

  9. Antibody responses correlate with antigen dose and in vivo protection for oil-adjuvanted, experimental furunculosis (Aeromonas salmonicida subsp. salmonicida) vaccines in Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar L.) and can be used for batch potency testing of vaccines.

    PubMed

    Romstad, Anne Berit; Reitan, Liv Jorun; Midtlyng, Paul; Gravningen, Kjersti; Evensen, Øystein

    2013-01-21

    Salmon farming has increased dramatically over last thirty years and a key to the success is the introduction of protective vaccines. In Norway, almost 100% of all Atlantic salmon are vaccinated prior to sea transfer. This extensive use of vaccines demands use of a lot of resources in production and quality control of vaccines, and fish are now one of the most widely used laboratory animal species in Norway, since all batch testing today is performed by challenge experiments. With an increasing focus on the 3 R's (Replacement, Reduction and Refinement), new methods are needed. The aim of this study was to assess the use of different vaccine evaluation methods to identify furunculosis vaccines of different "potency", using ELISA as in vitro assay and intraperitoneal and cohabitation challenge as in vivo assays. Eleven vaccines with different antigen content (0, 2, 5, 10, 20, 40, 80, 100 and 200%) and different antigen qualities were included in the study. Challenge and blood sampling for the ELISA assay were conducted 9 weeks post vaccination. The results from this study indicated that there is a close correlation between the antigen dose in the vaccine and the antibody response against Aeromonas salmonicida as measured by ELISA. There is also a close correlation between the antibody response and protection for both i.p. and cohabitation challenge models. The ELISA method identified sub-potent batches better than currently used in vivo assay (i.p challenge) and seems to be the best method of performing a batch potency test of furunculosis vaccines particularly when taking the 3R's principles into account. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Distribution and retention of antigens of Aeromonas salmonicida in Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar L.) vaccinated with a DeltaaroA mutant or formalin-inactivated bacteria in oil-adjuvant.

    PubMed

    Grove, S; Høie, S; Evensen, Ø

    2003-10-01

    In this study we report the differences in distribution and retention of Aeromonas salmonicida antigens after vaccination with two different vaccines. Parr of Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) were given intraperitoneal injections of either a commercial, monovalent furunculosis vaccine (Apoject) or live, attenuated A. salmonicida (DeltaaroA). Fish were sampled at weeks 2, 4 and 12 post-vaccination and head kidney and spleen were collected. Presence of LPS and 16S rDNA in isolated leukocytes were investigated by immunocytochemistry and polymerase chain reaction (PCR).16S rDNA was detected in head kidney and spleen of all DeltaaroA vaccinated and most Apoject-vaccinated fish at weeks 2 and 4. At week 12, 16S rDNA was detected in none of the DeltaaroA vaccinated fish, but it was detected in head kidney of 75% of Apoject-vaccinated fish. LPS was detected in both vaccination groups at all sampling times, but most frequently in the DeltaaroA vaccinated fish (in head kidney 75-83% vs. 50%, in spleen 58-67% vs. 17-25%).

  11. [Post anthrax vaccine delayed hypersensitivity. II--delayed hypersensitivity in humans vaccinated against anthrax].

    PubMed

    Shlyakhov, E; Rubinstein, E

    1994-01-01

    To detect cell immunity characterized by delayed postvaccination hypersensitivity to anthrax in man and assess its dynamics, vaccination using unencapsulated live anthrax vaccine was performed in 668 healthy volunteers. Vaccination was performed either by scarification (n = 172), subcutaneous injection (n = 202), or low-dose (n = 202) or high-dose (n = 83) inhalation. The anthraxin intradermal tests were performed in each patient at various times during the year following vaccination (D7, D15, D90, D180, D365). This study confirm that, regardless of the mode of administration, the vaccine induces cell-mediated immunity in man, as determined by positive anthraxine skin test. The incidence of positive tests decreases with time regardless of the mode of vaccination. After one year, the test remained positive in 34.8% of subjects vaccinated by subcutaneous injection, 37.5% vaccinated by low-dose inhalation, 34.2% vaccinated by high-dose inhalation, and 22.4% vaccinated by scarification. These findings are in agreement with those obtained in clinical epidemiological studies documenting the effectiveness of encapsulated live anthrax vaccine in man.

  12. Analysis of delayed TBE-vaccine booster after primary vaccination.

    PubMed

    Aerssens, Annelies; Cochez, Christel; Niedrig, Matthias; Heyman, Paul; Kühlmann-Rabens, Ilona; Soentjens, Patrick

    2016-02-01

    An open, uncontrolled single centre study was conducted in the Travel Clinic at the Military Hospital, Brussels. Eighty-eight subjects were recruited who had a primary series of tick-borne encephalitis (TBE) vaccine more than 5 years ago and who never received a booster dose afterwards. Response rate after booster vaccination was very high: 84 out of 88 subjects (95.5%) had neutralizing antibodies on plaque reduction neutralization test and all (100%) had IgG antibodies on ELISA, on Day 21-28 after booster vaccination. This study adds valuable information to the common situation of delayed booster interval. The results of our study indicate that in young healthy travellers (<50 years), one booster vaccination after a primary series of TBE vaccine in the past is sufficient to obtain protective antibodies, even if primary vaccination is much longer than the recommended booster interval of 5 years. © International Society of Travel Medicine, 2016. All rights reserved.For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  13. Delayed-type hypersensitivity reaction to anthrax vaccine.

    PubMed

    Greidanus, Thomas G; Honl, Beth A

    2002-01-01

    The Anthrax Vaccine Immunization Program is a Department of Defense initiative to protect military personnel against the threat of anthrax. Surveillance for adverse events associated with anthrax vaccination has shown that mild local reactions are not uncommon while systemic reactions are extremely rare. We present a case of 26-year-old male with delayed-type hypersensitivity after two doses of anthrax vaccine.

  14. Vaccination Confidence and Parental Refusal/Delay of Early Childhood Vaccines.

    PubMed

    Gilkey, Melissa B; McRee, Annie-Laurie; Magnus, Brooke E; Reiter, Paul L; Dempsey, Amanda F; Brewer, Noel T

    2016-01-01

    To support efforts to address parental hesitancy towards early childhood vaccination, we sought to validate the Vaccination Confidence Scale using data from a large, population-based sample of U.S. parents. We used weighted data from 9,354 parents who completed the 2011 National Immunization Survey. Parents reported on the immunization history of a 19- to 35-month-old child in their households. Healthcare providers then verified children's vaccination status for vaccines including measles, mumps, and rubella (MMR), varicella, and seasonal flu. We used separate multivariable logistic regression models to assess associations between parents' mean scores on the 8-item Vaccination Confidence Scale and vaccine refusal, vaccine delay, and vaccination status. A substantial minority of parents reported a history of vaccine refusal (15%) or delay (27%). Vaccination confidence was negatively associated with refusal of any vaccine (odds ratio [OR] = 0.58, 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.54-0.63) as well as refusal of MMR, varicella, and flu vaccines specifically. Negative associations between vaccination confidence and measures of vaccine delay were more moderate, including delay of any vaccine (OR = 0.81, 95% CI, 0.76-0.86). Vaccination confidence was positively associated with having received vaccines, including MMR (OR = 1.53, 95% CI, 1.40-1.68), varicella (OR = 1.54, 95% CI, 1.42-1.66), and flu vaccines (OR = 1.32, 95% CI, 1.23-1.42). Vaccination confidence was consistently associated with early childhood vaccination behavior across multiple vaccine types. Our findings support expanding the application of the Vaccination Confidence Scale to measure vaccination beliefs among parents of young children.

  15. Vaccination Confidence and Parental Refusal/Delay of Early Childhood Vaccines

    PubMed Central

    Gilkey, Melissa B.; McRee, Annie-Laurie; Magnus, Brooke E.; Reiter, Paul L.; Dempsey, Amanda F.; Brewer, Noel T.

    2016-01-01

    Objective To support efforts to address parental hesitancy towards early childhood vaccination, we sought to validate the Vaccination Confidence Scale using data from a large, population-based sample of U.S. parents. Methods We used weighted data from 9,354 parents who completed the 2011 National Immunization Survey. Parents reported on the immunization history of a 19- to 35-month-old child in their households. Healthcare providers then verified children’s vaccination status for vaccines including measles, mumps, and rubella (MMR), varicella, and seasonal flu. We used separate multivariable logistic regression models to assess associations between parents’ mean scores on the 8-item Vaccination Confidence Scale and vaccine refusal, vaccine delay, and vaccination status. Results A substantial minority of parents reported a history of vaccine refusal (15%) or delay (27%). Vaccination confidence was negatively associated with refusal of any vaccine (odds ratio [OR] = 0.58, 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.54–0.63) as well as refusal of MMR, varicella, and flu vaccines specifically. Negative associations between vaccination confidence and measures of vaccine delay were more moderate, including delay of any vaccine (OR = 0.81, 95% CI, 0.76–0.86). Vaccination confidence was positively associated with having received vaccines, including MMR (OR = 1.53, 95% CI, 1.40–1.68), varicella (OR = 1.54, 95% CI, 1.42–1.66), and flu vaccines (OR = 1.32, 95% CI, 1.23–1.42). Conclusions Vaccination confidence was consistently associated with early childhood vaccination behavior across multiple vaccine types. Our findings support expanding the application of the Vaccination Confidence Scale to measure vaccination beliefs among parents of young children. PMID:27391098

  16. Mathematical modeling of delayed pertussis vaccination in infants.

    PubMed

    Pesco, P; Bergero, P; Fabricius, G; Hozbor, D

    2015-10-05

    Pertussis is an acute vaccine-preventable respiratory disease that remains a public health problem. In an attempt to improve the control of the disease, many countries have incorporated new boosters in their vaccination schedule. Since the incorporation of these boosters is relatively recent, there are not enough data about their impact to support and/or universalize their use. Alternative strategies such as the improvement in vaccine coverage and reduction in vaccination delays, in addition to the incorporation of boosters, could be implemented. Though these strategies are not new, they have not been adequately evaluated in order to be implemented and/or prioritized. To evaluate the potential impact of these alternative strategies on pertussis incidence, we developed a methodology that involves the use of data collected from vaccination centers and an age-structured deterministic mathematical model for pertussis transmission. The results obtained show that strategies that avoid delays in vaccination have a strong impact on incidence reduction in the most vulnerable population (infants less than 1 y). In regions with high vaccination coverage (95%) the elimination of delays in the three primary doses decreases pertussis incidence in infants by approximately 20%. In regions where delays in the administration of vaccines are higher, the combined action to reduce delays and improve coverage leads to a significant improvement in disease control in infants. By repeating the calculations using different sets of parameters that describe different possible epidemiologic scenarios, we determined the robustness of our results. All the results presented highlight the importance of having high vaccine coverage and shorter delays in vaccine administration in order to reduce the impact of the disease in infants.

  17. Shedding of live Eimeria vaccine progeny is delayed in chicks with delayed access to feed after vaccination.

    PubMed

    Price, Kayla R; Freeman, Megan; Van-Heerden, Kobus; Barta, John R

    2015-03-15

    Hatching, processing and transportation result in inevitable delays before chicks are placed into brooding and receive their first feed and drinking water after hatching. To determine if delayed access to feed for different durations following live Eimeria vaccination affected initial shedding of vaccine progeny, replacement layer chicks (480, Lohmann-LSL Lite) aged approximately 6h after hatch were administered a commercial live Eimeria vaccine. Vaccinated chicks were divided randomly into groups and were provided access to feed immediately (0 h) or after a delay of 6, 12, or 24 h (4 treatments × 6 replicates per treatment × 20 pullets per replicate). All pullets were provided drinking water immediately following vaccination. Fecal oocysts shed per gram of feces for each cage replicate was determined daily from 4 to 9 days post inoculation. Chicks provided feed immediately had peak oocyst shedding at 5 days post-inoculation but delayed access to feed for 24h was associated with a 2 days delay in peak oocyst shedding to 7 days post-inoculation. Chicks with delays in access to feed of intermediate duration (i.e. 6 or 12h) had peak oocyst shedding at 6 days post-inoculation. Overall oocyst shedding was not affected. Live Eimeria vaccination success may be measured by evaluating initial shedding of oocysts at some pre-established time after vaccine application, usually by a single fecal collection conducted at 5, 6 or 7 days post-inoculation. Recognizing that withholding feed following live Eimeria vaccination shifts the time of the resultant peak oocyst shedding complicates the assessment of vaccine application; if delayed access to feed is not taken into account, it is possible that false conclusions could be drawn regarding the relative success of vaccine administration.

  18. Quality Improvement Project to Reduce Delayed Vaccinations in Preterm Infants.

    PubMed

    Cuna, Alain; Winter, Lindy

    2017-08-01

    Preterm infants are especially vulnerable to infectious diseases. Although vaccinations are a safe and effective measure to protect preterm infants from vaccine-preventable diseases, delays in vaccinations are not uncommon. The goal of this quality improvement project was to improve on time vaccinations of preterm infants hospitalized in the neonatal intensive care unit. The Plan-Do-Study-Act model of quality improvement was adopted to develop, test, and implement interventions aimed at improving timely vaccination of preterm infants. The primary outcome measure of interest was the rate of on time vaccination, which was defined as the proportion of medically eligible preterm infants who received vaccinations within 2 weeks of the recommended schedule. Baseline on time vaccination rate was only 36%. Following several Plan-Do-Study-Act cycles, a steady increase in on time vaccinations of eligible infants was observed, and a new baseline on time vaccination rate of 82% was achieved. Simple interventions implemented within the context of Plan-Do-Study-Act cycles are effective in improving timely vaccinations among preterm infants. Future research that focuses on vaccinations in preterm infants is needed to further reinforce the safety and efficacy of vaccines. Effective methods on how to disseminate and apply this knowledge to practice should also be studied.Video Abstract available at http://links.lww.com/ANC/A27.

  19. Parents who refuse or delay HPV vaccine: Differences in vaccination behavior, beliefs, and clinical communication preferences.

    PubMed

    Gilkey, Melissa B; Calo, William A; Marciniak, Macary W; Brewer, Noel T

    2017-03-04

    We sought to estimate the national prevalence of HPV vaccine refusal and delay in a nationally-representative sample of parents of adolescents. We also compared parents who refused versus delayed HPV vaccine in terms of their vaccination beliefs and clinical communication preferences. In 2014 to 2015, we conducted an online survey of 1,484 US parents who reported on an 11- to 17-year-old child in their household. We used weighted multinomial logistic regression to assess correlates of HPV vaccine refusal and delay. Overall, 28% of parents reported that they had ever "refused or decided not to get" HPV vaccine for their child, and an additional 8% of parents reported that they had "delayed or put off getting" HPV vaccine. Compared to no refusal/delay, refusal was associated with lower confidence in adolescent vaccination (relative risk ratio [RRR] = 0.66, 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.48-0.91), lower perceived HPV vaccine effectiveness (RRR = 0.68, 95% CI, 0.50-0.91), and higher perceived harms (RRR = 3.49, 95% CI, 2.65-4.60). In contrast, delay was associated with needing more information (RRR = 1.76, 95% CI, 1.08-2.85). Most parents rated physicians and information sheets as helpful for making decisions about HPV vaccination, although parents who reported refusal endorsed these resources less often. Our findings suggest that HPV vaccine refusal is common among parents of adolescents and may have increased relative to previous estimates. Because the vaccination beliefs and communication preferences of parents who refuse appear to differ from those who delay, targeted communication strategies may be needed to effectively address HPV vaccine hesitancy.

  20. Influenza vaccine: Delayed vaccination schedules and missed opportunities in children under 2 years old.

    PubMed

    Gentile, A; Juárez, M; Hernandez, S; Moya, A; Bakir, J; Lucion, M

    2015-07-31

    In Argentina respiratory disease is the third leading cause of death in children under 5 years. In 2011 influenza vaccination was included in the National Calendar for children between 6 and 24 months (two doses schedule). Influenza vaccine coverage for second dose was 46.1% in 2013. The aim was to determine the proportion of delayed schedules and missed opportunities, to assess the characteristics of missed opportunities for vaccination and to explore the perception of influenza disease and vaccination from the parents of children between 6 and 24 months in different regions of Argentina in 2013. Analytical observational multicenter cross-sectional study. Structured surveys were carried out to the children's parents who were between 6 and 24 months of age during the influenza virus vaccination season (April-October 2013). Chi-Square test was used to assess association and differences between proportions and categorical variables. A logistic regression model was built to identify delay predictor variables in the vaccination schedules. Missed opportunities for vaccination were characterized through the estimation of proportions. 1350 surveys were conducted in the three centers. We detected 65% (884/1340) of delayed influenza vaccination schedules, 97% of them associated with missed opportunities of vaccination. The independent protective factors associated with a decreases risk of delayed schedules were: (a) perception of the importance of influenza vaccination (OR=0.42(0.18-0.94); p=0.035), (b) having less than one year of age (OR=0.75(0.59-0.96); p=0.022), (c) to have received information in pediatric visits or in any media (OR=0.71(0.56-0.90); p=0.004). There was 38% of MOIV in 1st dose and 63.4% in 2nd dose. The main cause of MOIV in 1st dose was not detecting the need for vaccination (39%) and in 2nd dose the unknowledge of the vaccination schedule (35.3%). No cultural reasons were detected. High frequency of delayed vaccination schedules and missed

  1. Delay and refusal of human papillomavirus vaccine for girls, national immunization survey-teen, 2010.

    PubMed

    Dorell, Christina; Yankey, David; Jeyarajah, Jenny; Stokley, Shannon; Fisher, Allison; Markowitz, Lauri; Smith, Philip J

    2014-03-01

    Human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine coverage among girls is low. We used data reported by parents of 4103 girls, 13 to 17 years old, to assess associations with, and reasons for, delaying or refusing HPV vaccination. Sixty-nine percent of parents neither delayed nor refused vaccination, 11% delayed only, 17% refused only, and 3% both delayed and refused. Eighty-three percent of girls who delayed only, 19% who refused only, and 46% who both delayed and refused went on to initiate the vaccine series or intended to initiate it within the next 12 months. A significantly higher proportion of parents of girls who were non-Hispanic white, lived in households with higher incomes, and had mothers with higher education levels, delayed and/or refused vaccination. The most common reasons for nonvaccination were concerns about lasting health problems from the vaccine, wondering about the vaccine's effectiveness, and believing the vaccine is not needed.

  2. Parental delay or refusal of vaccine doses, childhood vaccination coverage at 24 months of age, and the Health Belief Model.

    PubMed

    Smith, Philip J; Humiston, Sharon G; Marcuse, Edgar K; Zhao, Zhen; Dorell, Christina G; Howes, Cynthia; Hibbs, Beth

    2011-01-01

    We evaluated the association between parents' beliefs about vaccines, their decision to delay or refuse vaccines for their children, and vaccination coverage of children at aged 24 months. We used data from 11,206 parents of children aged 24-35 months at the time of the 2009 National Immunization Survey interview and determined their vaccination status at aged 24 months. Data included parents' reports of delay and/or refusal of vaccine doses, psychosocial factors suggested by the Health Belief Model, and provider-reported up-to-date vaccination status. In 2009, approximately 60.2% of parents with children aged 24-35 months neither delayed nor refused vaccines, 25.8% only delayed, 8.2% only refused, and 5.8% both delayed and refused vaccines. Compared with parents who neither delayed nor refused vaccines, parents who delayed and refused vaccines were significantly less likely to believe that vaccines are necessary to protect the health of children (70.1% vs. 96.2%), that their child might get a disease if they aren't vaccinated (71.0% vs. 90.0%), and that vaccines are safe (50.4% vs. 84.9%). Children of parents who delayed and refused also had significantly lower vaccination coverage for nine of the 10 recommended childhood vaccines including diphtheria-tetanus-acellular pertussis (65.3% vs. 85.2%), polio (76.9% vs. 93.8%), and measles-mumps-rubella (68.4% vs. 92.5%). After adjusting for sociodemographic differences, we found that parents who were less likely to agree that vaccines are necessary to protect the health of children, to believe that their child might get a disease if they aren't vaccinated, or to believe that vaccines are safe had significantly lower coverage for all 10 childhood vaccines. Parents who delayed and refused vaccine doses were more likely to have vaccine safety concerns and perceive fewer benefits associated with vaccines. Guidelines published by the American Academy of Pediatrics may assist providers in responding to parents who may delay

  3. Parental Delay or Refusal of Vaccine Doses, Childhood Vaccination Coverage at 24 Months of Age, and the Health Belief Model

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Philip J.; Humiston, Sharon G.; Marcuse, Edgar K.; Zhao, Zhen; Dorell, Christina G.; Howes, Cynthia; Hibbs, Beth

    2011-01-01

    Objective We evaluated the association between parents' beliefs about vaccines, their decision to delay or refuse vaccines for their children, and vaccination coverage of children at aged 24 months. Methods We used data from 11,206 parents of children aged 24–35 months at the time of the 2009 National Immunization Survey interview and determined their vaccination status at aged 24 months. Data included parents' reports of delay and/or refusal of vaccine doses, psychosocial factors suggested by the Health Belief Model, and provider-reported up-to-date vaccination status. Results In 2009, approximately 60.2% of parents with children aged 24–35 months neither delayed nor refused vaccines, 25.8% only delayed, 8.2% only refused, and 5.8% both delayed and refused vaccines. Compared with parents who neither delayed nor refused vaccines, parents who delayed and refused vaccines were significantly less likely to believe that vaccines are necessary to protect the health of children (70.1% vs. 96.2%), that their child might get a disease if they aren't vaccinated (71.0% vs. 90.0%), and that vaccines are safe (50.4% vs. 84.9%). Children of parents who delayed and refused also had significantly lower vaccination coverage for nine of the 10 recommended childhood vaccines including diphtheria-tetanus-acellular pertussis (65.3% vs. 85.2%), polio (76.9% vs. 93.8%), and measles-mumps-rubella (68.4% vs. 92.5%). After adjusting for sociodemographic differences, we found that parents who were less likely to agree that vaccines are necessary to protect the health of children, to believe that their child might get a disease if they aren't vaccinated, or to believe that vaccines are safe had significantly lower coverage for all 10 childhood vaccines. Conclusions Parents who delayed and refused vaccine doses were more likely to have vaccine safety concerns and perceive fewer benefits associated with vaccines. Guidelines published by the American Academy of Pediatrics may assist

  4. Vaccine Timeliness: A Cost Analysis of the Potential Implications of Delayed Pertussis Vaccination in the US.

    PubMed

    Curran, Desmond; Terlinden, Augustin; Poirrier, Jean-Etienne; Masseria, Cristina; Krishnarajah, Girishanthy

    2016-05-01

    Pertussis infection remains an important public health problem, particularly in infants. Despite high coverage, pertussis vaccination delays can leave infants at a vulnerable age with less protection than anticipated. Current diphtheria-tetanus-pertussis (DTaP) vaccination timeliness for the first 3 doses in the US was estimated using National Immunization Survey data. A Markov model estimated the potential impact on outcomes and costs of a hypothetical situation of vaccination at exactly 60, 120 and 180 days, compared with current timeliness. Incidence and unit cost data came from published sources. Age-specific incidence (for month of life) of pertussis and the associated probabilities of hospitalization and death for the US, during 2000-2007, were taken from a recently published US DTaP vaccination cost-effectiveness study. The cost analysis was conducted from the healthcare system's perspective over a 1-year time horizon. A regression analysis was conducted to explore the factors associated with vaccination delay. Current DTaP vaccination was estimated to be delayed by 16, 27 and 44 days, for the first, second and third doses, respectively, relative to vaccination at exactly 60, 120 and 180 days. The model estimated that vaccination at exactly age 60, 120 and 180 days could prevent approximately 278 pertussis cases, 103 hospitalizations and 1 death in infants aged <1 year in the US, gaining approximately 38 quality-adjusted life years and saving approximately $1.03 million in healthcare costs. Timely administration of infant pertussis vaccine doses could potentially reduce subsequent pertussis cases, hospitalizations, deaths and medical costs in infants aged <1 year in the US.

  5. [Delayed hypersensitivity after anthrax vaccination. I--Study of guinea pigs vaccinated against anthrax].

    PubMed

    Shlyakhov, E; Rubinstein, E

    1994-01-01

    To evaluate delayed hypersensitivity after anthrax vaccination, an Anthraxin skin test was performed in 682 guinea pigs at various times after immunization with veterinary unencapsulated active anthrax vaccine. Results were compared with those obtained in unimmunized control guinea pigs (n = 216), in guinea pigs that received a non-immunizing dose of live vaccine (n = 183) and in guinea pigs inoculated with inactivated vaccine (n = 120). Anthraxin skin tests were positive in the first postvaccination days. The incidence and intensity of positive tests peaked between two weeks and one month after vaccination and then gradually decreased during the first year. Study of resistance of guinea pigs to an inoculum at a lethal dose of a virulent strain of Bacillus anthracis showed a close correlation between positive tests and resistance. These findings demonstrate development of cell-mediated immunity after anthrax vaccination. The Anthraxin skin test should have practical applications for the production of vaccines and for evaluation of the immune status of vaccinated livestock [corrected].

  6. A game dynamic model for delayer strategies in vaccinating behaviour for pediatric infectious diseases.

    PubMed

    Bhattacharyya, Samit; Bauch, C T

    2010-12-07

    Several studies have found that some parents delay the age at which their children receive pediatric vaccines due to perception of higher vaccine risk at the recommended age of vaccination. This has been particularly apparently during the Measles-Mumps-Rubella scare in the United Kingdom. Under a voluntary vaccination policy, vaccine coverage in certain age groups is a potentially complex interplay between vaccinating behaviour, disease dynamics, and age-specific risk factors. Here, we construct an age-structured game dynamic model, where individuals decide whether to vaccinate according to imitation dynamics depending on age-dependent disease prevalence and perceived risk of vaccination. Individuals may be timely vaccinators, delayers, or non-vaccinators. The model exhibits multiple equilibria and a broad range of possible dynamics. For certain parameter regimes, the proportion of timely vaccinators and delayers oscillate in an anti-phase fashion in response to oscillations in infection prevalence. Under an exogenous change to the perceived risk of vaccination as might occur during a vaccine scare, the model can also capture an increase in delayer strategists similar in magnitude to that observed during the Measles-Mumps-Rubella vaccine scare in the United Kingdom. Our model also shows that number of delayers steadily increases with increasing severity of the scare, whereas it saturates to specific value with increases in duration of the scare. Finally, by comparing the model dynamics with and without the option of a delayer strategy, we show that adding a third delayer strategy can have a stabilizing effect on model dynamics. In an era where individual choice--rather than accessibility--is becoming an increasingly important determinant of vaccine uptake, more infectious disease models may need to use game theory or related techniques to determine vaccine uptake.

  7. Delayed Anaphylaxis to the flu vaccine unrelated to known non-viral components.

    PubMed

    David, J; Horbal, J; Tcheurekdjian, H; Sher, T H; Hostoffer, R

    2015-09-01

    On February 4, 2010 the CDC's Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices voted for universal flu vaccination to expand protection against the flu throughout the United States. In addition to this administration expansion, six new influenza vaccines have been introduced into the market possibly introducing new allergenic potentials. We report two cases of delayed anaphylaxis to the flu vaccine.

  8. Use of rapid needs assessment as a tool to identify vaccination delays in Guatemala and Peru.

    PubMed

    D'Ardenne, Katie K; Darrow, Juliana; Furniss, Anna; Chavez, Catia; Hernandez, Herminio; Berman, Stephen; Asturias, Edwin J

    2016-03-29

    To explore the use of rapid needs assessment (RNA) surveys to determine the prevalence and factors contributing to delays in vaccination of children in two low middle-income countries (LMIC). Data from two RNA surveys performed as part of program improvement evaluations in Guatemala and Peru were used for this analysis. The primary endpoint was the timeliness of immunization with delay defined as administration of vaccines beyond 28 days from recommended age for DTwP-HepB-Hib (Penta) and measles-mumps-rubella (MMR) vaccines, as well as past age-restrictions for rotavirus vaccine. Independent risk factors analyzed included child's gender, birth year, number of children in household, maternal age, maternal education, and food insecurity. Vaccine information was available from 811 children from 838 households surveyed. High rate of immunization delays was observed, with 75.6% of children in Guatemala and 57.8% of children in Peru being delayed for the third dose of Penta primary series. Factors associated with delayed vaccination in Guatemala included advanced maternal age and increased number of children in household. In Peru, significant associations were birth year before 2009, lower maternal education level, and increased number of children in household. RNA is a fast and effective method to identify timely vaccine coverage and derive a hypothesis of factors possibly associated with vaccination delay. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Factors associated with delayed measles vaccination among children in Shenzhen, China: A case-control study

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Weiyan; Xiong, Yongzhen; Tang, Hao; Chen, Baoli; Ni, Jindong

    2015-01-01

    A delay in the first dose of measles-containing vaccine (MCV1) may contribute to outbreaks of measles, resulting in a high age-specific incidence in infants <1 y of age. To determine the factors associated with delayed MCV1 vaccinations, we used data from the China Information Management System for Immunization Programming. Additionally, the parents/guardians of 430 children whose MCV1 vaccinations were delayed, as well as the parents/guardians of 424 children who received timely vaccinations, were surveyed by telephone. Children were less likely to receive timely MCV1 vaccinations if they belonged to an immigrant group, were male, had poor health status, had a father whose occupation e.g., a manager, had a history of delays in other Expanded Programs on Immunization (EPI) vaccinations, had parents who did not believe vaccinations were important for their children, and experienced shorter travel times to and longer waiting times in EPI clinics. The children of mothers whose occupational status (technician) were more likely to receive timely MCV1 vaccinations. The timeliness of MCV1 vaccinations should be considered as an additional indicator of the quality of vaccination programs. PMID:25668667

  10. Factors associated with delayed measles vaccination among children in Shenzhen, China: a case-control study.

    PubMed

    Lin, Weiyan; Xiong, Yongzhen; Tang, Hao; Chen, Baoli; Ni, Jindong

    2014-01-01

    A delay in the first dose of measles-containing vaccine (MCV1) may contribute to outbreaks of measles, resulting in a high age-specific incidence in infants<1 y of age. To determine the factors associated with delayed MCV1 vaccinations, we used data from the China Information Management System for Immunization Programming. Additionally, the parents/guardians of 430 children whose MCV1 vaccinations were delayed, as well as the parents/guardians of 424 children who received timely vaccinations, were surveyed by telephone. Children were less likely to receive timely MCV1 vaccinations if they belonged to an immigrant group, were male, had poor health status, had a father whose occupation e.g., a manager, had a history of delays in other Expanded Programs on Immunization (EPI) vaccinations, had parents who did not believe vaccinations were important for their children, and experienced shorter travel times to and longer waiting times in EPI clinics. The children of mothers whose occupational status (technician) were more likely to receive timely MCV1 vaccinations. The timeliness of MCV1 vaccinations should be considered as an additional indicator of the quality of vaccination programs.

  11. Infectious bursal disease DNA vaccination conferring protection by delayed appearance and rapid clearance of invading viruses.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yung-Yi; Hsieh, Ming Kun; Tung, Chun-Yu; Wu, Ching Ching; Lin, Tsang Long

    2011-12-01

    The present study was undertaken to determine the kinetics of viral load and immune response in protection against infectious bursal disease virus (IBDV) by DNA vaccination. Chickens were DNA-vaccinated and challenged with IBDV one week after the third vaccination. Tissues were collected at 12 hours postinfection (HPI), 1 day postinfection (DPI), 3, 5, 7 and 10 DPI. The vaccinated chickens had less viral RNA, with delayed appearance and shorter duration in the bursa of Fabricius, spleen, and cecal tonsil than the challenged control chickens. Their ELISA and neutralizing antibody titers were decreased at 12 HPI and significantly lower (P < 0.05) than those in the challenged control chickens at later time points. Their spleen IFNγ expression was up-regulated compared to that in the DNA-vaccinated chickens without IBDV challenge. These results indicate that DNA vaccination confers protection against IBDV challenge by delayed appearance and rapid clearance of the invading viruses.

  12. Risk factors for delay in age-appropriate vaccinations among Gambian children.

    PubMed

    Odutola, Aderonke; Afolabi, Muhammed O; Ogundare, Ezra O; Lowe-Jallow, Yamu Ndow; Worwui, Archibald; Okebe, Joseph; Ota, Martin O

    2015-08-28

    Vaccination has been shown to reduce mortality and morbidity due to vaccine-preventable diseases. However, these diseases are still responsible for majority of childhood deaths worldwide especially in the developing countries. This may be due to low vaccine coverage or delay in receipt of age-appropriate vaccines. We studied the timeliness of routine vaccinations among children aged 12-59 months attending infant welfare clinics in semi-urban areas of The Gambia, a country with high vaccine coverage. A cross-sectional survey was conducted in four health centres in the Western Region of the Gambia. Vaccination dates were obtained from health cards and timeliness assessed based on the recommended age ranges for BCG (birth-8 weeks), Diphtheria-Pertussis-Tetanus (6 weeks-4 months; 10 weeks-5 months; 14 weeks-6 months) and measles vaccines (38 weeks-12 months). Risk factors for delay in age-appropriate vaccinations were determined using logistic regression. Analysis was limited to BCG, third dose of Diphtheria-Pertussis -Tetanus (DPT3) and measles vaccines. Vaccination records of 1154 children were studied. Overall, 63.3% (95 % CI 60.6-66.1%) of the children had a delay in the recommended time to receiving at least one of the studied vaccines. The proportion of children with delayed vaccinations increased from BCG [5.8% (95 % CI 4.5-7.0%)] to DPT3 [60.4% (95 % CI 57.9%-63.0%)] but was comparatively low for the measles vaccine [10.8% (95 % CI 9.1%-12.5%)]. Mothers of affected children gave reasons for the delay, and their profile correlated with type of occupation, place of birth and mode of transportation to the health facilities. Despite high vaccination coverage reported in The Gambia, a significant proportion of the children's vaccines were delayed for reasons related to health services as well as profile of mothers. These findings are likely to obtain in several countries and should be addressed by programme managers in order to improve and optimize the impact of the

  13. Analysis of an SIR Epidemic Model with Pulse Vaccination and Distributed Time Delay

    PubMed Central

    Gao, Shujing; Teng, Zhidong; Nieto, Juan J.; Torres, Angela

    2007-01-01

    Pulse vaccination, the repeated application of vaccine over a defined age range, is gaining prominence as an effective strategy for the elimination of infectious diseases. An SIR epidemic model with pulse vaccination and distributed time delay is proposed in this paper. Using the discrete dynamical system determined by the stroboscopic map, we obtain the exact infection-free periodic solution of the impulsive epidemic system and prove that the infection-free periodic solution is globally attractive if the vaccination rate is larger enough. Moreover, we show that the disease is uniformly persistent if the vaccination rate is less than some critical value. The permanence of the model is investigated analytically. Our results indicate that a large pulse vaccination rate is sufficient for the eradication of the disease. PMID:18322563

  14. Timing and delay in children vaccination; evaluation of expanded program of immunization in outskirt of Iranian cities.

    PubMed

    Rejali, Mehri; Mohammadbeigi, Abolfazl; Mokhtari, Mohsen; Zahraei, Seyed Mohsen; Eshrati, Babak

    2015-01-01

    Most studies evaluated the vaccine coverage, but the time of vaccination is important as coverage. This study was conducted to evaluate the Expanded Program of Immunization (EPI) in outskirt of Iranian cities regarding to incidence of delay vaccination among children less than 4 years. This cross sectional descriptive study was conducted among children 24-47 months old, living in the suburbs of five metropolises of Iran. Totally, 3610 eligible children selected with proportioned cluster sampling method and data of vaccination card extracted after interview with child parents. Delayed incidence rate reported and predictive factors assessed by Chi square test and Multivariate logistic regression. Overall, 56.6% to 93.2% vaccines were administered out of time. Delayed vaccination incidence with more than one-week delay varies from 5.5% to 74.9% for polio at birth and MMR2 at 18 month, respectively. Mother's educational level and birth order were the most important predictors of delayed vaccination. Incidence of delayed vaccination was enlarged by increasing birth order and decreased in lower educated mothers. Incidence rate of delayed vaccination is more than expectation. Regarding to high coverage vaccines in Iran, heath officers and health policy makers should attempt for on-time vaccination beside of high immunization coverage especially in slum areas with more concentrated immigrants due to low literature and crowded families.

  15. Efficacy of fipronil aerially applied in oil adjuvants and drift retardants against boll weevils, Anthonomus Grandis Boheman (Coleoptera:Curculionidae)

    Treesearch

    Joseph E. Mulrooney

    2002-01-01

    Results of aerial application tests in the field and insecticide transfer tests in the laboratory showed that cottonseed oil was the most effective oil adjuvant to use with fipronil for controlling boll weevils under field conditions and for transferring fipronil from cotton leaf surfaces to boll weevils. The mineral oil and mineral oil + drift retardant more...

  16. Risk Factors of Delay Proportional Probability in Diphtheria-tetanus-pertussis Vaccination of Iranian Children; Life Table Approach Analysis.

    PubMed

    Mokhtari, Mohsen; Rezaeimanesh, Masoomeh; Mohammadbeigi, Abolfazl; Zahraei, Seyed Mohsen; Mohammadsalehi, Narges; Ansari, Hossein

    2015-01-01

    Despite success in expanded program immunization for an increase in vaccination coverage in the children of world, timeliness and schedule of vaccination remains as one of the challenges in public health. This study purposed to demonstrate the related factors of delayed diphtheria-tetanus-pertussis (DTP) vaccination using life table approach. A historical cohort study conducted in the poor areas of five large Iran cities. Totally, 3610 children with 24-47 months old age who had documented vaccination card were enrolled. Time of vaccination for the third dose of DTP vaccine was calculated. Life table survival was used to calculate the proportional probability of vaccination in each time. Wilcoxon test was used for the comparison proportional probability of delayed vaccination based on studies factors. The overall median delayed time for DTP3 was 38.52 days. The Wilcoxon test showed that city, nationality, education level of parents, birth order and being in rural areas are related to the high probability of delay time for DTP3 vaccination (P < 0. 001). Moreover, child gender and parent's job were not significant factors (P > 0.05). Being away from the capital, a high concentration of immigrants in the city borders with a low socioeconomic class leads to prolonged delay in DTP vaccination time. Special attention to these areas is needed to increase the levels of parental knowledge and to facilitate access to the health services care.

  17. Anthrax vaccine adsorbed: further evidence supporting continuing the vaccination series rather than restarting the series when doses are delayed.

    PubMed

    Pittman, Phillip R; Cavicchia, M A; Kingsbury, J L; Johnson, N A; Barrera-Oro, J G; Schmader, T; Korman, L; Quinn, X; Ranadive, M

    2014-09-03

    Whether to restart or continue the series when anthrax vaccine doses are missed is a frequent medical management problem. We applied the noninferiority analysis model to this prospective study comparing the Bacillus anthracis protective antigen (PA) IgG antibody response and lethal toxin neutralization activity at day 28 to the anthrax vaccine adsorbed (AVA) (Biothrax®) administered on schedule or delayed. A total of 600 volunteers were enrolled: 354 in the on-schedule cohort; 246 in the delayed cohort. Differences were noted in immune responses between cohorts (p<0.0001) and among the racial categories (p<0.0001). Controlling for covariates, the delayed cohort was non-inferior to the on-schedule cohort for the rate of 4-fold rise in both anti-PA IgG concentration (p<0.0001) and TNA ED50 titers (p<0.0001); as well as the mean log10-transformed anti-PA IgG concentration (p<0.0001) and the mean log10-transformed TNA ED50 titers (p<0.0001). Providing a missed AVA dose after a delay as long as 5-7 years, elicits anti-PA IgG antibody and TNA ED50 responses that are robust and non-inferior to the responses observed when the 6-month dose is given on-schedule. These important data suggest it is not necessary to restart the series when doses of the anthrax vaccine are delayed as long as 5 or more years. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  18. Social determinants of HPV vaccination delay rationales: Evidence from the 2011 National Immunization Survey–Teen

    PubMed Central

    Burdette, Amy M.; Gordon-Jokinen, Hanna; Hill, Terrence D.

    2014-01-01

    Objective To examine social variations in parental rationales for delaying or forgoing human papillomavirus vaccination in their U.S. adolescent children. Methods Using data from the 2011 National Immunization Survey–Teen, we estimated a series of binary logistic regression models to predict the odds of reporting (1) any vaccine delay (n = 25,229) and (2) specific rationales among parents who reported that they were “not likely at all” to vaccinate their teen (n = 9,964). Results The odds of not receiving a recommendation to vaccinate were higher in parents of boys (OR = 2.57; CI = 2.20–3.01). The odds of reporting a lack of knowledge were higher in parents who identified as Hispanic (OR = 1.39; CI = 1.11–1.72), Black (OR = 1.49; CI = 1.19–1.85), and other races (OR = 1.43; CI = 1.13–1.80) than parents who identified as non-Hispanic White. Socioeconomic disparities in parental rationales for delaying human papillomavirus vaccination in their teen children were sporadic and inconsistent. Conclusion Our results suggest that interventions should focus on increasing information about the benefits of the human papillomavirus vaccine among parents of minority youth. Our findings also suggest that interventions targeting health care providers may be a useful strategy for improving vaccine uptake among adolescent males. PMID:26844035

  19. [Risk factors for delayed or missed measles vaccination in young children].

    PubMed

    Schönberger, K; Grote, V; von Kries, R; Kalies, H

    2009-11-01

    Because of low measles vaccine coverage rates, measles outbreaks have been observed several times during recent years in Germany. The aim of this study is to identify parents' attitudes and beliefs towards immunisations and socio-economic factors which are associated with delayed or missed first measles vaccination in young children. We used data from a representative German-wide immunisation survey on 2116 children born between 1 January 2002 and December 2004 by collecting precise vaccination information from vaccination cards. The influence of socio-economic determinants and parental attitudes towards immunisations on the timing of the first measles dose was analysed by using multivariable Cox regression. Of these children 46.8% (95% CI: 44.5-49.1) received their first measles dose according to the recommendations of the standing committee on vaccination (STIKO) by month 15. In multivariable analysis, fathers aged 28-33 years and birth order as well as parents' belief in homeopathy and other parental attitudes indicating lack of knowledge about the importance of vaccinations significantly influenced an early immunisation. Not general opposition, but insufficient parental knowledge about the harmfulness of measles infection seemed to be responsible for the low measles vaccination rates.

  20. Case Report of Subcutaneous Nodules and Sterile Abscesses Due to Delayed Type Hypersensitivity to Aluminum-Containing Vaccines.

    PubMed

    Lauren, Christine T; Belsito, Donald V; Morel, Kimberly D; LaRussa, Philip

    2016-10-01

    Routine childhood immunizations have resulted in great reductions in vaccine-preventable infectious diseases. Vaccine-related adverse events, albeit rare, can be of significant consequence. Although anaphylaxis, or type I hypersensitivity, is recognized as a potential reaction after vaccination, delayed type hypersensitivity or type IV reactions are less so. We present a case of persistent subcutaneous nodules and sterile abscesses in the setting of delayed type hypersensitivity to aluminum, confirmed by patch testing and recurrence on re-exposure. We review sources of aluminum in common immunizations, principles for treatment, and strategies for management of future vaccinations for this patient. Copyright © 2016 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.

  1. The threshold of a stochastic delayed SIR epidemic model with vaccination

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Qun; Jiang, Daqing

    2016-11-01

    In this paper, we study the threshold dynamics of a stochastic delayed SIR epidemic model with vaccination. We obtain sufficient conditions for extinction and persistence in the mean of the epidemic. The threshold between persistence in the mean and extinction of the stochastic system is also obtained. Compared with the corresponding deterministic model, the threshold affected by the white noise is smaller than the basic reproduction number Rbar0 of the deterministic system. Results show that time delay has important effects on the persistence and extinction of the epidemic.

  2. Delayed adaptive immunity is related to higher MMR vaccine-induced antibody titers in children.

    PubMed

    Strömbeck, Anna; Lundell, Anna-Carin; Nordström, Inger; Andersson, Kerstin; Adlerberth, Ingegerd; Wold, Agnes E; Rudin, Anna

    2016-04-01

    There are notable inter-individual variations in vaccine-specific antibody responses in vaccinated children. The aim of our study was to investigate whether early-life environmental factors and adaptive immune maturation prior and close to measles-mumps-rubella (MMR) immunization relate to magnitudes of vaccine-specific antibody titers. In the FARMFLORA birth cohort, including both farming and non-farming families, children were immunized with the MMR vaccine at 18 months of age. MMR vaccine-induced antibody titers were measured in plasma samples obtained at 36 months of age. Infants' blood samples obtained at birth, 3-5 days and at 4 and 18 months of age were analyzed for T- and B-cell numbers, proportions of naive and memory T and B cells, and fractions of putative regulatory T cells. Multivariate factor analyses show that higher anti-MMR antibody titers were associated with a lower degree of adaptive immune maturation, that is, lower proportions of memory T cells and a lower capacity of mononuclear cells to produce cytokines, but with higher proportions of putative regulatory T cells. Further, children born by cesarean section (CS) had significantly higher anti-measles titers than vaginally-born children; and CS was found to be associated with delayed adaptive immunity. Also, girls presented with significantly higher anti-mumps and anti-rubella antibody levels than boys at 36 months of age. These results indicate that delayed adaptive immune maturation before and in close proximity to immunization seems to be advantageous for the ability of children to respond with higher anti-MMR antibody levels after vaccination.

  3. Delayed adaptive immunity is related to higher MMR vaccine-induced antibody titers in children

    PubMed Central

    Strömbeck, Anna; Lundell, Anna-Carin; Nordström, Inger; Andersson, Kerstin; Adlerberth, Ingegerd; Wold, Agnes E; Rudin, Anna

    2016-01-01

    There are notable inter-individual variations in vaccine-specific antibody responses in vaccinated children. The aim of our study was to investigate whether early-life environmental factors and adaptive immune maturation prior and close to measles–mumps–rubella (MMR) immunization relate to magnitudes of vaccine-specific antibody titers. In the FARMFLORA birth cohort, including both farming and non-farming families, children were immunized with the MMR vaccine at 18 months of age. MMR vaccine-induced antibody titers were measured in plasma samples obtained at 36 months of age. Infants' blood samples obtained at birth, 3–5 days and at 4 and 18 months of age were analyzed for T- and B-cell numbers, proportions of naive and memory T and B cells, and fractions of putative regulatory T cells. Multivariate factor analyses show that higher anti-MMR antibody titers were associated with a lower degree of adaptive immune maturation, that is, lower proportions of memory T cells and a lower capacity of mononuclear cells to produce cytokines, but with higher proportions of putative regulatory T cells. Further, children born by cesarean section (CS) had significantly higher anti-measles titers than vaginally-born children; and CS was found to be associated with delayed adaptive immunity. Also, girls presented with significantly higher anti-mumps and anti-rubella antibody levels than boys at 36 months of age. These results indicate that delayed adaptive immune maturation before and in close proximity to immunization seems to be advantageous for the ability of children to respond with higher anti-MMR antibody levels after vaccination. PMID:27195118

  4. Too late to vaccinate? The incremental benefits and cost-effectiveness of a delayed catch-up program using the 4-valent human papillomavirus vaccine in Norway.

    PubMed

    Burger, Emily A; Sy, Stephen; Nygård, Mari; Kristiansen, Ivar S; Kim, Jane J

    2015-01-15

    Human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccines are ideally administered before HPV exposure; therefore, catch-up programs for girls past adolescence have not been readily funded. We evaluated the benefits and cost-effectiveness of a delayed, 1-year female catch-up vaccination program in Norway. We calibrated a dynamic HPV transmission model to Norwegian data and projected the costs and benefits associated with 8 HPV-related conditions while varying the upper vaccination age limit to 20, 22, 24, or 26 years. We explored the impact of vaccine protection in women with prior vaccine-targeted HPV infections, vaccine cost, coverage, and natural- and vaccine-induced immunity. The incremental benefits and cost-effectiveness decreased as the upper age limit for catch-up increased. Assuming a vaccine cost of $150/dose, vaccination up to age 20 years remained below Norway's willingness-to-pay threshold (approximately $83 000/quality-adjusted life year gained); extension to age 22 years was cost-effective at a lower cost per dose ($50-$75). At high levels of vaccine protection in women with prior HPV exposure, vaccinating up to age 26 years was cost-effective. Results were stable with lower coverage. HPV vaccination catch-up programs, 5 years after routine implementation, may be warranted; however, even at low vaccine cost per dose, the cost-effectiveness of vaccinating beyond age 22 years remains uncertain. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Infectious Diseases Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  5. Global stability of a multi-group model with vaccination age, distributed delay and random perturbation.

    PubMed

    Xu, Jinhu; Zhou, Yicang

    2015-10-01

    A multi-group epidemic model with distributed delay and vaccination age has been formulated and studied. Mathematical analysis shows that the global dynamics of the model is determined by the basic reproduction number R0: the disease-free equilibrium is globally asymptotically stable if R0 ≤ 1, and the endemic equilibrium is globally asymptotically stable if R0 > 1. Lyapunov functionals are constructed by the non-negative matrix theory and a novel grouping technique to establish the global stability. The stochastic perturbation of the model is studied and it is proved that the endemic equilibrium of the stochastic model is stochastically asymptotically stable in the large under certain conditions.

  6. Lactococcus garvieae outbreaks in Brazilian farms Lactococcosis in Pseudoplatystoma sp. - development of an autogenous vaccine as a control strategy.

    PubMed

    Fukushima, H C S; Leal, C A G; Cavalcante, R B; Figueiredo, H C P; Arijo, S; Moriñigo, M A; Ishikawa, M; Borra, R C; Ranzani-Paiva, M J T

    2017-02-01

    This study evaluated the control of streptococcosis outbreaks in Brazil, isolated from diseased sorubim and identified as Lactococcus garvieae by genetic sequencing. This report determined the potential for lactococcosis control in sorubim Pseudoplatystoma sp. with two vaccines: an aqueous-based, whole-cell inactivated vaccine (bacterin) and an oil-adjuvanted bacterin. Their efficacy was evaluated at 30 days post-vaccination (d.p.v.) by challenge with L. garvieae, and the antibody production response at 15, 30 and 60 d.p.v. and the non-specific immune response were compared amongst treatments. High protection levels (P < 0.05) were achieved with the oil-adjuvanted vaccine with a relative percentage survival value of 81.7% at 30 d.p.v. Additionally, the oil-adjuvanted vaccine increased the immunogenicity of the bacterin as indicated by greater agglutination antibody titres from 15 until 60 d.p.v. This is the first report of a positive effect of vaccine administration on the specific immunity of sorubim, and the study showed that a specific antibody plays an important role in sorubim defence against lactococcosis because the innate immune responses were similar in all of the studied animals. These results demonstrated that oil-adjuvanted vaccine can be an effective alternative for the protection of sorubim from L. garvieae disease.

  7. Induction of delayed-type hypersensitivity in human volunteers immunized with a candidate leprosy vaccine consisting of killed Mycobacterium leprae

    PubMed Central

    Gill, H. K.; Mustafa, A. S.; Godal, T.

    1986-01-01

    A killed armadillo-derived Mycobacterium leprae vaccine was examined for its ability to induce a delayed-type hypersensitivity (DTH) response in purified protein derivative (PPD)-positive human volunteers living in a leprosy non-endemic country. Four groups of individuals aged between 23 and 28 years were given 1.5 × 107, 5 × 107, 1.5 × 108 and 5 × 108 M. leprae intradermally. A marked increase in reactivity to the M. leprae-derived skin test antigen (MLSA) was observed in the vaccinated groups receiving the three highest doses of vaccine while there was very little change observed in their PPD reactivity. No unacceptable side-effects attributable to the vaccine were observed. The killed armadillo-derived M. leprae vaccine thus appears to be able to induce a DTH response in man at doses which do not cause unacceptable side-effects. PMID:3524883

  8. Monitoring of timely and delayed vaccinations: a nation-wide registry-based study of Norwegian children aged < 2 years.

    PubMed

    Riise, Øystein Rolandsen; Laake, Ida; Bergsaker, Marianne Adeleide Riise; Nøkleby, Hanne; Haugen, Inger Lise; Storsæter, Jann

    2015-11-13

    Delayed vaccinations increase the risk for vaccine preventable diseases (VPDs). Monitoring of delayed vaccinations by using a national immunisation registry has not been studied in countries recommending a two-dose (3 and 5 months of age) primary series of e.g., pertussis vaccine. Surveillance/monitoring of all vaccinations may improve vaccination programmes functioning. We obtained information from the Norwegian immunisation registry (SYSVAK) on all programme vaccinations received at age up to 730 days in children born in 2010 (n = 63,382). Timely vaccinations were received up to 7 days after the recommended age. Vaccinations were considered delayed if they were received more than one month after the recommended age in the schedule. In vaccinated children, timely administration of the subsequent three doses of pertussis and one dose of measles occurred in 73.8, 47.6, 53.6 and 43.5 % respectively. Delay for one or more programme vaccinations (diphtheria, tetanus, pertussis, polio, Haemophilus influenza type B, invasive pneumococcal disease, measles, mumps or rubella) was present in 28,336 (44.7 %) children. Among those who were delayed the mean duration was 139 days. The proportion of children that had vaccinations delayed differed among counties (range 37.4 %-57.8 %). Immigrant children were more frequently delayed 52.3 % vs. 43.1 %, RR 1.21 (95 % CI 1.19, 1.24). Children scheduled for vaccines in the summer holiday month (July) were more frequently delayed than others (1(st) dose pertussis vaccine 6.5 % vs. 3.9 % RR 1.65 (95 % CI 1.48, 1.85). Priming against pertussis (2(nd) dose), pneumococcal (2(nd) dose) and measles (1(st) dose) was delayed in 16.8, 18.6 and 29.3 % respectively. Vaccinations were frequently delayed. Delayed vaccinations differed among counties and occurred more frequently during the summer vacation (July) and in the immigrant population. Monitoring improves programme surveillance and may be used on an annual basis.

  9. Phase 1 Safety and Immunogenicity Trial of the Plasmodium falciparum Blood-Stage Malaria Vaccine AMA1-C1/ISA 720 in Australian Adults

    PubMed Central

    Pierce, Mark A.; Ellis, Ruth D.; Martin, Laura B.; Malkin, Elissa; Tierney, Eveline; Miura, Kazutoyo; Fay, Michael P.; Marjason, Joanne; Elliott, Suzanne L.; Mullen, Gregory E. D.; Rausch, Kelly; Zhu, Daming; Long, Carole A.; Miller, Louis H.

    2010-01-01

    A Phase 1 trial was conducted in malaria-naïve adults to evaluate the recombinant protein vaccine apical membrane antigen 1 – Combination 1 (AMA1-C1) formulated in Montanide® ISA 720 (SEPPIC, France), a water-in-oil adjuvant. Vaccinations were halted early due to a formulation issue unrelated to stability or potency. Twenty-four subjects (12 in each group) were enrolled and received 5 or 20 μg protein at 0 and 3 months and 4 subjects were enrolled and received one vaccination of 80 μg protein. After first vaccination, nearly all subjects experienced mild to moderate local reactions and 6 experienced delayed local reactions occurring at day 9 or later. After the second vaccination, 3 subjects experienced transient grade 3 (severe) local reactions; the remainder experienced grade 1 or 2 local reactions. All related systemic reactogenicity was grade 1 or 2, except 1 instance of grade 3 malaise. Anti-AMA1-C1 antibody responses were dose dependent and seen following each vaccination, with mean antibody levels 2-3 fold higher in the 20 μg group compared to the 5 μg group at most time points. In vitro growth-inhibitory activity was a function of the anti-AMA1 antibody titer. AMA1-C1 formulated in ISA 720 is immunogenic in malaria-naïve Australian adults. It is reasonably tolerated, though some transient, severe, and late local reactions are seen. PMID:20051276

  10. Dynamical analysis of rumor spreading model with impulse vaccination and time delay

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huo, Liang'an; Ma, Chenyang

    2017-04-01

    Rumor cause unnecessary conflicts and confusion by misleading the cognition of the public, its spreading has largely influence on human affairs. All kinds of rumors and people's suspicion are often caused by the lack of official information. Hence, the official should take a variety of channels to deny the rumors. The promotion of scientific knowledge is implemented to improve the quality of the whole nation, reduce the harm caused by rumor spreading. In this paper, regarding the process of the science education that official deny the rumor many times as periodic impulse, we propose a XWYZ rumor spreading model with impulse vaccination and time delay, and analyze the global dynamics behaviors of the model. By using the discrete dynamical system determined by the comparison theory and Floquet theorem, we show that there exists a rumor-free periodic solution. Further, we show that the rumor-free periodic solution is globally attractive under appropriate conditions. We also obtain a sufficient condition for the permanence of model. Finally, with the numerical simulation, our results indicate that large vaccination rate, short impulse period or long latent period is sufficient condition for the extinction of the rumors.

  11. Immunogenicity of an inactivated oil-emulsion canine distemper vaccine in African wild dogs.

    PubMed

    Cirone, Francesco; Elia, Gabriella; Campolo, Marco; Friedrich, Klaus; Martella, Vito; Pratelli, Annamaria; Buonavoglia, Canio

    2004-04-01

    The immunogenicity of an inactivated oil-emulsion vaccine against canine distemper virus was evaluated in nine captive African wild dogs (Lycaon pictus). Antibody levels were determined by neutralization test in Vero cells. No significant local or systemic adverse reactions were observed in the animals. Virus neutralizing antibody levels >1:20 were detected, especially in animals that were vaccinated twice. The use of oil adjuvants is suggested as a good way to enhance the immune response to inactivated canine distemper vaccine.

  12. Delayed vaccine virus replication in chickens vaccinated subcutaneously with an immune complex infectious bursal disease vaccine: Quantification of vaccine virus by real-time polymerase chain reaction

    PubMed Central

    2005-01-01

    Abstract The distribution of the immune complex vaccine virus for infectious bursal disease (IBD) in tissue was examined and the viral loads of the organs were quantitatively compared. One-day-old specific pathogen free (SPF) and maternally immune broiler chickens were injected subcutaneously with the vaccine. Lymphoid and non-lymphoid tissues were collected at various time intervals during the experiment to test for infectious bursal disease virus (IBDV)-RNA by using reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). Only the bursa of Fabricius was found to be positive with unusually long viral persistence in the broiler group. The positive bursa samples were further investigated by using real-time PCR coupled with a TaqMan probe. The highest amounts of the virus were detected at its first appearance in the bursa: on day 14 post vaccination (PV) in the SPF chickens and on day 17 and day 21 PV in the maternally immune broiler group. The virus then gradually cleared, most likely due to the parallel appearance of the active immune response indicated by seroconversion. PMID:15971678

  13. Delayed Dosing of Oral Rotavirus Vaccine Demonstrates Decreased Risk of Rotavirus Gastroenteritis Associated With Serum Zinc: A Randomized Controlled Trial.

    PubMed

    Colgate, E Ross; Haque, Rashidul; Dickson, Dorothy M; Carmolli, Marya P; Mychaleckyj, Josyf C; Nayak, Uma; Qadri, Firdausi; Alam, Masud; Walsh, Mary Claire; Diehl, Sean A; Zaman, K; Petri, William A; Kirkpatrick, Beth D

    2016-09-01

    Rotavirus is the world's leading cause of childhood diarrheal death. Despite successes, oral rotavirus vaccines are less effective in developing countries. In an urban slum of Dhaka, we performed active diarrhea surveillance to evaluate monovalent G1P[8] rotavirus vaccine (RV1) efficacy and understand variables contributing to risk of rotavirus diarrhea (RVD). We performed a randomized controlled trial of monovalent oral rotavirus vaccine (RV1). Seven hundred healthy infants received RV1 or no RV1 (1:1) using delayed dosing (10 and 17 weeks) and were followed for 1 year. Intensive diarrhea surveillance was performed. The primary outcome was ≥1 episode of RVD. Nutritional, socioeconomic, and immunologic factors were assessed by logistic regression best-subsets analysis for association with risk of RVD and interactions with vaccine arm. Incidence of all RVD was 38.3 cases per 100 person-years. Per-protocol RV1 efficacy was 73.5% (95% confidence interval [CI], 45.8%-87.0%) against severe RVD and 51% (95% CI, 33.8%-63.7%) against all RVD. Serum zinc level (odds ratio [OR], 0.77; P = .002) and lack of rotavirus immunoglobulin A (IgA) seroconversion (OR, 1.95; P = .018) were associated with risk of RVD, independent of vaccination status. Water treatment and exclusive breastfeeding were of borderline significance. Factors not associated with RVD included height for age at 10 weeks, vitamin D, retinol binding protein, maternal education, household income, and sex. In an urban slum with high incidence of RVD, the efficacy of RV1 against severe RVD was higher than anticipated in the setting of delayed dosing. Lower serum zinc level and lack of IgA seroconversion were associated with increased risk of RVD independent of vaccination. NCT01375647. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press for the Infectious Diseases Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, e-mail journals.permissions@oup.com.

  14. Gradual reduction of testosterone using a gonadotropin-releasing hormone vaccination delays castration resistance in a prostate cancer model

    PubMed Central

    Barranco, Jesús A. Junco; Millar, Robert P.; Fuentes, Franklin; Bover, Eddy; Pimentel, Eulogio; Basulto, Roberto; Calzada, Lesvia; Morán, Rolando; Rodríguez, Ayni; Garay, Hilda; Reyes, Osvaldo; Castro, Maria D.; Bringas, Ricardo; Arteaga, Niurka; Toudurí, Henio; Rabassa, Mauricio; Fernández, Yairis; Serradelo, Andrés; Hernández, Eduardo; Guillén, Gerardo E.

    2016-01-01

    In a previous study aimed to design a novel prostate cancer vaccine, the authors of the present study demonstrated the advantage of combining the adjuvants Montanide ISA 51 with very small size proteoliposomes (VSSP) to promote a significant humoral immune response to gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) in healthy animals. The present study compared the efficacy of this vaccine formulation versus the standard treatment currently available in terms of preventing the development of tumors in DD/S mice injected with Shionogi carcinoma (SC) 115 cells. The results demonstrated that 5 non-vaccinated control mice exhibited a fast tumor growth, and succumbed to the disease within 19–31 days. Mice immunized with the GnRH/Montanide ISA 51/VSSP vaccine exhibited a moderate decline in testosterone levels that was associated with a decrease in anti-GnRH antibody titers, which lead to a sustained tumor growth inhibition. In total, 2 mice in the immunized group exhibited complete remission of the tumor for the duration of the present study. In addition, castrated mice, which were used as a control for standard hormonal therapy, exhibited an accelerated decrease in tumor size. However, tumor relapse was observed between days 50 and 54, and between days 65 and 85, following the injection of SC 155 cells. Therefore, these mice were sacrificed at day 90. The present study concludes that the slow and moderate reduction of testosterone levels observed using the GnRH-based vaccine may delay the appearance of castration resistance in a Shionogi prostate cancer model. These findings suggest that this vaccine may be used to delay castration resistance in patients with prostate cancer. PMID:27446378

  15. Gradual reduction of testosterone using a gonadotropin-releasing hormone vaccination delays castration resistance in a prostate cancer model.

    PubMed

    Barranco, Jesús A Junco; Millar, Robert P; Fuentes, Franklin; Bover, Eddy; Pimentel, Eulogio; Basulto, Roberto; Calzada, Lesvia; Morán, Rolando; Rodríguez, Ayni; Garay, Hilda; Reyes, Osvaldo; Castro, Maria D; Bringas, Ricardo; Arteaga, Niurka; Toudurí, Henio; Rabassa, Mauricio; Fernández, Yairis; Serradelo, Andrés; Hernández, Eduardo; Guillén, Gerardo E

    2016-08-01

    In a previous study aimed to design a novel prostate cancer vaccine, the authors of the present study demonstrated the advantage of combining the adjuvants Montanide ISA 51 with very small size proteoliposomes (VSSP) to promote a significant humoral immune response to gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) in healthy animals. The present study compared the efficacy of this vaccine formulation versus the standard treatment currently available in terms of preventing the development of tumors in DD/S mice injected with Shionogi carcinoma (SC) 115 cells. The results demonstrated that 5 non-vaccinated control mice exhibited a fast tumor growth, and succumbed to the disease within 19-31 days. Mice immunized with the GnRH/Montanide ISA 51/VSSP vaccine exhibited a moderate decline in testosterone levels that was associated with a decrease in anti-GnRH antibody titers, which lead to a sustained tumor growth inhibition. In total, 2 mice in the immunized group exhibited complete remission of the tumor for the duration of the present study. In addition, castrated mice, which were used as a control for standard hormonal therapy, exhibited an accelerated decrease in tumor size. However, tumor relapse was observed between days 50 and 54, and between days 65 and 85, following the injection of SC 155 cells. Therefore, these mice were sacrificed at day 90. The present study concludes that the slow and moderate reduction of testosterone levels observed using the GnRH-based vaccine may delay the appearance of castration resistance in a Shionogi prostate cancer model. These findings suggest that this vaccine may be used to delay castration resistance in patients with prostate cancer.

  16. Initial design and physical characterization of a polymeric device for osmosis-driven delayed burst delivery of vaccines.

    PubMed

    Melchels, Ferry P W; Fehr, Ingo; Reitz, Annika S; Dunker, Urip; Beagley, Kenneth W; Dargaville, Tim R; Hutmacher, Dietmar W

    2015-09-01

    Achieving the combination of delayed and immediate release of a vaccine from a delivery device without applying external triggers remains elusive in implementing single administration vaccination strategies. Here a means of vaccine delivery is presented, which exploits osmosis to trigger delayed burst release of an active compound. Poly(ε-caprolactone) capsules of 2 mm diameter were prepared by dip-coating, and their burst pressure and release characteristics were evaluated. Burst pressures (in bar) increased with wall thickness (t in mm) following Pburst  = 131(.) t + 3(.) 4 (R(2)  = 0.93). Upon immersion in PBS, glucose solution-filled capsules burst after 8.7 ± 2.9 days. Copolymers of hydrophobic ε -caprolactone and hydrophilic polyethylene glycol were synthesized and their physico-chemical properties were assessed. With increasing hydrophilic content, the copolymer capsules showed increased water uptake rates and maximum weight increase, while the burst release was earlier: 5.6 ± 2.0 days and 1.9 ± 0.2 days for 5 and 10 wt% polyethylene glycol, respectively. The presented approach enables the reproducible preparation of capsules with high versatility in materials and properties, while these vaccine delivery vehicles can be prepared separately from, and independently of the active compound. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  17. Greater efficacy of the ECMS-oil adjuvant over other formulations on immune responses against Bordetella bronchiseptica in rabbits and the underlying mechanism.

    PubMed

    Xiao, Chenwen; Bao, Guolian; Liu, Yan; Wei, Qiang; Ji, Quanan; Liu, Yaping; Pan, Lijun

    2016-09-01

    the ECMS800μg+oil groups was significantly higher than the oil, ECMS800μg and control using antigen alone group (p<0.05). ECMS-oil adjuvant mixture could most effectively protect B. bronchiseptica immunized rabbits and, therefore, could be an alternative way of improving B. bronchiseptica vaccination in rabbits.

  18. Effect of delayed anthrax vaccine dose on Bacillus anthracis protective antigen IgG response and lethal toxin neutralization activity.

    PubMed

    Pittman, Phillip R; Fisher, Diana; Quinn, Xiaofei; Schmader, Trevor; Barrera-Oro, Julio G

    2013-10-17

    We describe the Bacillus anthracis protective antigen IgG antibody response and the B. anthracis lethal toxin neutralization activity to a delayed dose of anthrax vaccine adsorbed (AVA, BioThrax(®)) using validated assays. 373 individuals received 1, 2, or 3 priming doses, 18-24 months afterward, they received a delayed dose of AVA. Overall, 23.6% of subjects showed detectable anti-PA IgG before the boost, compared to 99.2% (P<0.0001) 28 days after the boost. Geometric mean anti-PA IgG concentration (GMC) was 1.66 μg/mL before and 887.82 μg/mL after the boost (P<0.0001). The proportion of individuals with four-fold increase in GMC following the boost ranged from 93.8% to 100%. Robust anti-PA IgG levels and B. anthracis lethal toxin neutralization activity are induced when an AVA dose is delayed as long as two years. These data support continuing with the vaccination schedule when a dose is delayed as long as two years rather than restarting the series. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  19. Live attenuated Salmonella enterica serovar Choleraesuis vaccine vector displaying regulated delayed attenuation and regulated delayed antigen synthesis to confer protection against Streptococcus suis in mice.

    PubMed

    Ji, Zhenying; Shang, Jing; Li, Yuan; Wang, Shifeng; Shi, Huoying

    2015-09-11

    Salmonella enterica serotype Choleraesuis (S. Choleraesuis) and Streptococcus suis (S. suis) are important swine pathogens. Development of a safe and effective attenuated S. Choleraesuis vaccine vector would open a new window to prevent and control pig diseases. To achieve this goal, the mannose and arabinose regulated delayed attenuated systems (RDAS), Δpmi and ΔPcrp::TT araC PBADcrp, were introduced into the wild type S. Choleraesuis strain C78-3. We also introduced ΔrelA::araC PBADlacI TT to achieve regulated delayed antigen synthesis and ΔasdA to constitute a balanced-lethal plasmid system. The safety and immunogenicity of the resulted RDAS S. Choleraesuis strain rSC0011 carrying 6-phosphogluconate dehydrogenase (6-PGD) of S. suis serotype 2 (SS2) were evaluated in vitro and in vivo. Compared with the wild type parent strain C78-3 and vaccine strain C500, a live attenuated S. Choleraesuis vaccine licensed for piglet in China, the results showed that the survival curves of the vaccine strain rSC0011 were similar to those of strains C78-3 and C500 at the early stage of infection, but lower than those of C78-3 and higher than those of C500 at the later stage in both porcine alveolar macrophages and peripheral porcine monocytes. The LD50 of the RDAS strains rSC0011 by oral route in mice was close to that of C500 and 10,000-fold higher than that of C78-3. Similar results were achieved by intraperitoneal (i.p.) route, suggesting that the RDAS strains rSC0011 achieved similar attenuation as C500. However, the RDAS strain rSC0011 was superior to C500 in colonization of Peyer's patches. Adult mice orally immunized with strain rSC0011 carrying a plasmid expression 6-phosphogluconate dehydrogenase (6-PGD) gene from SS2 developed strong immune responses against 6-PGD and Salmonella antigens, and conferred high protection against i.p. challenge with SS2.

  20. Social Cultivation of Vaccine Refusal and Delay among Waldorf (Steiner) School Parents.

    PubMed

    Sobo, Elisa J

    2015-09-01

    U.S. media reports suggest that vastly disproportionate numbers of un- and under-vaccinated children attend Waldorf (private alternative) schools. After confirming this statistically, I analyzed qualitative and quantitative vaccination-related data provided by parents from a well-established U.S. Waldorf school. In Europe, Waldorf-related non-vaccination is associated with anthroposophy (a worldview foundational to Waldorf education)—but that was not the case here. Nor was simple ignorance to blame: Parents were highly educated and dedicated to self-education regarding child health. They saw vaccination as variously unnecessary, toxic, developmentally inappropriate, and profit driven. Some vaccine caution likely predated matriculation, but notable post-enrollment refusal increases provided evidence of the socially cultivated nature of vaccine refusal in the Waldorf school setting. Vaccine caution was nourished and intensified by an institutionalized emphasis on alternative information and by school community norms lauding vaccine refusal and masking uptake. Implications for intervention are explored. © 2015 by the American Anthropological Association.

  1. [Post-vaccination granulomas caused by delayed-type reaction to aluminum salts].

    PubMed

    Wahl, R U; Wurpts, G; Merk, H F

    2014-05-01

    Aluminium salts are common adjuvants in all established inactivated vaccines. They are necessary to activate the humoral immune system. In the 1990s a Swedish study on an acellular vaccination against pertussis was started. Until 2013, 745 of 760,000 children with pruritic subcutaneous nodules were identified. In 77 % of these children a contact allergy to aluminium could be proven. Contact allergy to aluminium induced by vaccines causes pruritic subcutaneous nodules at the vaccination site. During infections of the upper respiratory tract the pruritus often escalates with inflammatory, erythematous and urticarial plaques. The use of solutions containing aluminium salts for specific immunotherapy is contraindicated in the case of contact allergy to aluminium. Intramuscular injections of inactivated vaccines can be employed to avoid granuloma formation.

  2. Thimerosal-Containing Hepatitis B Vaccination and the Risk for Diagnosed Specific Delays in Development in the United States: A Case-Control Study in the Vaccine Safety Datalink

    PubMed Central

    Geier, David A.; Kern, Janet K.; Hooker, Brian S.; King, Paul G.; Sykes, Lisa K.; Geier, Mark R.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Within the first 3 years of life, the brain develops rapidly. Its development is characterized by critical developmental periods for speech, vision, hearing, language, balance, etc.; and alteration in any of the processes occurring in those critical periods can lead to specific delays in development. Aims: The present study evaluated the potential toxic effects of organic-mercury exposure from Thimerosal (49.55% mercury by weight) in childhood vaccines and its hypothesized possible relationship with specific delays in development. Materials and Methods: A hypothesis testing case-control study was undertaken to evaluate the relationship between exposure to Thimerosal-containing hepatitis B vaccines administered at specific intervals in the first 6 months among cases diagnosed with specific delays in development and controls born between 1991-2000, utilizing data in the Vaccine Safety Datalink database. Results: Cases were significantly more likely than controls to have received increased organic-mercury from Thimerosal-containing hepatitis B vaccine administered in the first, second, and sixth month of life. Conclusion: Though routine childhood vaccination may be an important public health tool to reduce the morbidity and mortality associated with infectious diseases, the present study supports an association between increasing organic-mercury exposure from Thimerosal-containing childhood vaccines and the subsequent risk of specific delays in development among males and females. PMID:25489565

  3. [Influenza vaccine and adjuvant].

    PubMed

    Nakayama, Tetsuo

    2011-01-01

    Adjuvant is originated from the Latin word "adjuvare" which means "help" in English to enhance the immunological responses when given together with antigens. The beginning of adjuvant was mineral oil which enhanced the immune response when it was given with inactivated Salmonella typhimurium. Aluminium salt was used to precipitate diphtheria toxoid and increased level of antibody response was demonstrated when administered with alum-precipitated antigens. Since 1930, aluminium salt has been used as DTaP (diphtheria-tetanus-acellular pertussis vaccine) adjuvant. Many candidates were tested for adjuvant activity but only aluminum salt is allowed to use for human vaccines. New adjuvant MF59, oil-in-water emulsion type, was developed for influenza vaccine for elderly (Fluad) and series of AS adjuvant are used for hepatitis B, pandemic flue, and human papiloma virus vaccines. Oil-adjuvanted influenza pandemic vaccines induced higher antibody response than alum-adjuvanted vaccine with higher incidence of adverse events, especially for local reactions. Alum-adjuvanted whole virion inactivated H5N1 vaccine was developed in Japan, and it induced relatively well immune responses in adults. When it applied for children, febrile reaction was noted in approximately 60% of the subjects, with higher antibodies. Recent investigation on innate immunity demonstrates that adjuvant activity is initiated from the stimulation on innate immunity and/or inflammasome, resulting in cytokine induction and antigen uptake by monocytes and macrophages. The probable reason for high incidence of febrile reaction should be investigated to develop a safe and effective influenza vaccine.

  4. Risk of Delayed Human Papillomavirus Vaccination in Inner-City Adolescent Women.

    PubMed

    Schlecht, Nicolas F; Diaz, Angela; Shankar, Viswanathan; Szporn, Arnold H; Wu, Maoxin; Nucci-Sack, Anne; Peake, Ken; Strickler, Howard D; Burk, Robert D

    2016-12-15

     Uptake of human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine in the United States is slow, and the effectiveness of the vaccine has not been assessed in high-risk adolescent populations.  We conducted a longitudinal study of 1139 sexually active, inner-city adolescent women receiving the 3-dose quadrivalent (4vHPV) vaccine. Cervical and anal specimens collected semiannually were tested using an L1-specific polymerase chain reaction assay. Postvaccination incidence of 4vHPV vaccine and nonvaccine HPV types, and risk of cervical cytological abnormalities, were assessed in relation to time to completion of all 3 vaccine doses.  Compared to vaccine naive women at enrollment, vaccinated women had significantly lower incidence rate ratios of cervical infection with HPV6/11/16/18 (0.2; 95% confidence interval [CI], .1-.4) and the related types HPV31 and HPV45 (0.4 [95% CI, .2-1.0] and 0.3 [95% CI, .1-.6], respectively), as well as significantly lower incidence rate ratios of anal infection with HPV6/11/16/18 (0.4; 95% CI, .2-.7). Notably, we observed higher risks of cervical HPV6/11/16/18 infection (hazards ratio [HR], 2.9; 95% CI, 1.0-8.0) and associated cytological abnormalities (HR, 4.5; 95% CI, .7-26.0) among women immunized at ≥15 years of age who took ≥12 months (vs <12 months) to complete the 3-dose regimen.  Among adolescents immunized at ≥15 years of age, a longer time to complete the 3-dose schedule was associated with an increased risk of anogenital HPV6/11/16/18 infection and an increased incidence of associated cervical cytological abnormalities. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press for the Infectious Diseases Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, e-mail journals.permissions@oup.com.

  5. Protection Against Necrotic Enteritis in Broiler Chickens by Regulated Delayed Lysis Salmonella Vaccines.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Yanlong; Mo, Hua; Willingham, Crystal; Wang, Shifeng; Park, Jie-Yeun; Kong, Wei; Roland, Kenneth L; Curtiss, Roy

    2015-12-01

    Necrotic enteritis (NE), caused by Gram-positive Clostridium perfringens type A strains, has gained more attention in the broiler industry due to governmental restrictions affecting the use of growth-promoting antibiotics in feed. To date, there is only one commercial NE vaccine available, based on the C. perfringens alpha toxin. However, recent work has suggested that the NetB toxin, not alpha toxin, is the most critical virulence factor for causing NE. These findings notwithstanding, it is clear from prior research that immune responses against both toxins can provide some protection against NE. In this study, we delivered a carboxyl-terminal fragment of alpha toxin and a GST-NetB fusion protein using a novel attenuated Salmonella vaccine strain designed to lyse after 6-10 rounds of replication in the chicken host. We immunized birds with vaccine strains producing each protein individually, a mixture of the two strains, or with a single vaccine strain that produced both proteins. Immunization with strains producing either of the single proteins was not protective, but immunization with a mixture of the two or with a single strain producing both proteins resulted in protective immunity. The vaccine strain synthesizing both PlcC and GST-NetB was able to elicit strong production of intestinal IgA, IgY, and IgM antibodies and significantly protect broilers against C. perfringens challenge against both mild and severe challenges. Although not part of our experimental plan, the broiler chicks we obtained for these studies were apparently contaminated during transit from the hatchery with group D Salmonella. Despite this drawback, the vaccines worked well, indicating applicability to real-world conditions.

  6. Vaccines

    MedlinePlus Videos and Cool Tools

    Vaccinations are injections of antigens into the body. Once the antigens enter the blood, they circulate along ... suppressor T cells stop the attack. After a vaccination, the body will have a memory of an ...

  7. Passive immunity in calf diarrhea: vaccination with K99 antigen of enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli and rotavirus.

    PubMed Central

    Snodgrass, D R; Nagy, L K; Sherwood, D; Campbell, I

    1982-01-01

    Twenty-four pregnant cows were vaccinated intramuscularly with K99 extract from enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli and inactivated rotavirus as follows: six cows were injected with 2 ml of oil-adjuvanted vaccine; six cows were injected with 0.5 ml of oil-adjuvanted vaccine; six cows were injected with 4 ml of aluminum hydroxide-adjuvanted vaccine twice with a four-week interval; and six cows were unvaccinated as controls. Calves born to these cows were challenged with enterotoxigenic E. coli at 6 to 18 h after birth. Serum and milk antibodies to K99 and rotavirus in cows vaccinated with either dose of oil vaccine were significantly increased until at least 28 days after calving. In cows vaccinated with alhydrogel vaccine, there was a significant K99 antibody increase in serum and in colostrum but not in milk and a significant rotavirus antibody increase only in colostrum. Five of six calves born to unvaccinated cows developed enterotoxic colibacillosis after challenge, and all excreted the challenge strain of enterotoxigenic E. coli. None of the 18 calves in the three vaccinated groups developed clinical colibacillosis, and fecal excretion of the challenge organism was reduced. A combined enterotoxigenic E. coli-rotavirus vaccine may prove useful in preventing some outbreaks of calf diarrhea. PMID:6288567

  8. Vaccine Hesitancy.

    PubMed

    Jacobson, Robert M; St Sauver, Jennifer L; Finney Rutten, Lila J

    2015-11-01

    Vaccine refusal received a lot of press with the 2015 Disneyland measles outbreak, but vaccine refusal is only a fraction of a much larger problem of vaccine delay and hesitancy. Opposition to vaccination dates back to the 1800 s, Edward Jenner, and the first vaccine ever. It has never gone away despite the public's growing scientific sophistication. A variety of factors contribute to modern vaccine hesitancy, including the layperson's heuristic thinking when it comes to balancing risks and benefits as well as a number of other features of vaccination, including falling victim to its own success. Vaccine hesitancy is pervasive, affecting a quarter to a third of US parents. Clinicians report that they routinely receive requests to delay vaccines and that they routinely acquiesce. Vaccine rates vary by state and locale and by specific vaccine, and vaccine hesitancy results in personal risk and in the failure to achieve or sustain herd immunity to protect others who have contraindications to the vaccine or fail to generate immunity to the vaccine. Clinicians should adopt a variety of practices to combat vaccine hesitancy, including a variety of population health management approaches that go beyond the usual call to educate patients, clinicians, and the public. Strategies include using every visit to vaccinate, the creation of standing orders or nursing protocols to provide vaccination without clinical encounters, and adopting the practice of stating clear recommendations. Up-to-date, trusted resources exist to support clinicians' efforts in adopting these approaches to reduce vaccine hesitancy and its impact.

  9. [Vaccination].

    PubMed

    Graubner, U B; Liese, J; Belohradsky, B H

    2001-09-01

    Vaccination has been an important part of antiinfectious prophylaxis in pediatric oncology comprising immunizations with special indication like varicella vaccine and follow-up of routine immunizations after chemotherapy and bone marrow transplantation (BMT). Studies from the last decade demonstrate a loss of long term immunity to immunization preventable disease in most patients with chemotherapy and BMT who had received appropriate immunization before. So far routine vaccination programs following intensive chemotherapy have not been studied prospectively. Immunization programs following BMT have shown that immunizations with tetanus toxoid, diphtheria toxoid, inactivated poliovirus vaccine and influenza vaccine - given at least 12 months after transplantation - are safe and effective. Vaccination with live attenuated trivalent vaccine against measles, mumps and rubella in patients without chronic "graft versus host disease" (GVHD) and without ongoing immunosuppressive therapy, performed 24 months after transplantation, proved to be safe too. Recommendations have been published by 5 different official groups: (1.) "Ständige Impfkommission" (STIKO) and (2.) "Deutsche Gesellschaft für pädiatrische Infektiologie" (DGPI) recommend varicella vaccine für children with leukemia in remission for at least 12 months, for children with solid tumors and for patients getting an organ transplantation. Both societies do not comment on the schedule of booster vaccinations (with live attenuated vaccines) after the end of chemotherapy and after BMT. (3.) "Qualitätssicherungsgruppe" der "Gesellschaft für pädiatrische Onkologie und Hämatologie" (QS-GPOH) recommends immunization with nonliving vaccines when the patient is off therapy for at least 3 months and immunization with live attenuated vaccines when he is off therapy for at least 6 months. This group does not comment on varicella vaccine which has been controversial among pediatric oncologists. (4.) The " Infectious

  10. Adjuvants and immunostimulants in fish vaccines: current knowledge and future perspectives.

    PubMed

    Tafalla, Carolina; Bøgwald, Jarl; Dalmo, Roy A

    2013-12-01

    Vaccination is the most adequate method to control infectious diseases that threaten the aquaculture industry worldwide. Unfortunately, vaccines are usually not able to confer protection on their own; especially those vaccines based on recombinant antigens or inactivated pathogens. Therefore, the use of adjuvants or immunostimulants is often necessary to increase the vaccine efficacy. Traditional adjuvants such as mineral oils are routinely used in different commercial bacterial vaccines available for fish; however, important side effects may occur with this type of adjuvants. A search for alternative molecules or certain combinations of them as adjuvants is desirable in order to increase animal welfare without reducing protection levels. Especially, combinations that may target specific cell responses and thus a specific pathogen, with no or minor side effects, should be explored. Despite this, the oil adjuvants currently used are quite friendlier with respect to side effects compared with the oil adjuvants previously used. The great lack of fish antiviral vaccines also evidences the importance of identifying optimal combinations of a vaccination strategy with the use of a targeting adjuvant, especially for the promising fish antiviral DNA vaccines. In this review, we summarise previous studies performed with both traditional adjuvants as well as the most promising new generation adjuvants such as ligands for Toll receptors or different cytokines, focussing mostly on their protective efficacies, and also on what is known concerning their effects on the fish immune system when delivered in vivo.

  11. Vaccinations

    MedlinePlus

    ... be spread from animals to people. For example, rabies is a serious, often fatal, disease that can ... animals to people. By vaccinating your pets for rabies, you are protecting your family as well as ...

  12. Vaccine Adjuvants in Fish Vaccines Make a Difference: Comparing Three Adjuvants (Montanide ISA763A Oil, CpG/Poly I:C Combo and VHSV Glycoprotein) Alone or in Combination Formulated with an Inactivated Whole Salmonid Alphavirus Antigen.

    PubMed

    Thim, Hanna L; Villoing, Stéphane; McLoughlin, Marian; Christie, Karen Elina; Grove, Søren; Frost, Petter; Jørgensen, Jorunn B

    2014-03-25

    Most commercial vaccines offered to the aquaculture industry include inactivated antigens (Ag) formulated in oil adjuvants. Safety concerns are related to the use of oil adjuvants in multivalent vaccines for fish, since adverse side effects (e.g., adhesions) can appear. Therefore, there is a request for vaccine formulations for which protection will be maintained or improved, while the risk of side effects is reduced. Here, by using an inactivated salmonid alphavirus (SAV) as the test Ag, the combined use of two Toll-like receptor (TLR) ligand adjuvants, CpG oligonucleotides (ODNs) and poly I:C, as well as a genetic adjuvant consisting of a DNA plasmid vector expressing the viral haemorrhagic septicaemia virus (VHSV) glycoprotein (G) was explored. VHSV-G DNA vaccine was intramuscularly injected in combination with intraperitoneal injection of either SAV Ag alone or combined with the oil adjuvant, Montanide ISA763, or the CpG/polyI:C combo. Adjuvant formulations were evaluated for their ability to boost immune responses and induce protection against SAV in Atlantic salmon, following cohabitation challenge. It was observed that CpG/polyI:C-based formulations generated the highest neutralizing antibody titres (nAbs) before challenge, which endured post challenge. nAb responses for VHSV G-DNA- and oil-adjuvanted formulations were marginal compared to the CpG/poly I:C treatment. Interestingly, heat-inactivated sera showed reduced nAb titres compared to their non-heated counterparts, which suggests a role of complement-mediated neutralization against SAV. Consistently elevated levels of innate antiviral immune genes in the CpG/polyI:C injected groups suggested a role of IFN-mediated responses. Co-delivery of the VHSV-G DNA construct with either CpG/polyI:C or oil-adjuvanted SAV vaccine generated higher CD4 responses in head kidney at 48 h compared to injection of this vector or SAV Ag alone. The results demonstrate that a combination of pattern recognizing receptor (PRR

  13. Vaccine Adjuvants in Fish Vaccines Make a Difference: Comparing Three Adjuvants (Montanide ISA763A Oil, CpG/Poly I:C Combo and VHSV Glycoprotein) Alone or in Combination Formulated with an Inactivated Whole Salmonid Alphavirus Antigen

    PubMed Central

    Thim, Hanna L.; Villoing, Stéphane; McLoughlin, Marian; Christie, Karen Elina; Grove, Søren; Frost, Petter; Jørgensen, Jorunn B.

    2014-01-01

    Most commercial vaccines offered to the aquaculture industry include inactivated antigens (Ag) formulated in oil adjuvants. Safety concerns are related to the use of oil adjuvants in multivalent vaccines for fish, since adverse side effects (e.g., adhesions) can appear. Therefore, there is a request for vaccine formulations for which protection will be maintained or improved, while the risk of side effects is reduced. Here, by using an inactivated salmonid alphavirus (SAV) as the test Ag, the combined use of two Toll-like receptor (TLR) ligand adjuvants, CpG oligonucleotides (ODNs) and poly I:C, as well as a genetic adjuvant consisting of a DNA plasmid vector expressing the viral haemorrhagic septicaemia virus (VHSV) glycoprotein (G) was explored. VHSV-G DNA vaccine was intramuscularly injected in combination with intraperitoneal injection of either SAV Ag alone or combined with the oil adjuvant, Montanide ISA763, or the CpG/polyI:C combo. Adjuvant formulations were evaluated for their ability to boost immune responses and induce protection against SAV in Atlantic salmon, following cohabitation challenge. It was observed that CpG/polyI:C-based formulations generated the highest neutralizing antibody titres (nAbs) before challenge, which endured post challenge. nAb responses for VHSV G-DNA- and oil-adjuvanted formulations were marginal compared to the CpG/poly I:C treatment. Interestingly, heat-inactivated sera showed reduced nAb titres compared to their non-heated counterparts, which suggests a role of complement-mediated neutralization against SAV. Consistently elevated levels of innate antiviral immune genes in the CpG/polyI:C injected groups suggested a role of IFN-mediated responses. Co-delivery of the VHSV-G DNA construct with either CpG/polyI:C or oil-adjuvanted SAV vaccine generated higher CD4 responses in head kidney at 48 h compared to injection of this vector or SAV Ag alone. The results demonstrate that a combination of pattern recognizing receptor (PRR

  14. Inactivated simian immunodeficiency virus vaccine failed to protect rhesus macaques from intravenous or genital mucosal infection but delayed disease in intravenously exposed animals

    SciTech Connect

    Sutjipto, S.; Pedersen, N.C.; Miller, C.J.; Gardner, M.B.; Hanson, C.V.; Gettie, A.; Jennings, M.; Higgins, J.; Marx, P.A. )

    1990-05-01

    Eight rhesus macaques were immunized four times over a period of 8 months with a psoralen-UV-light-inactivated whole simian immunodeficiency virus vaccine adjuvanted with threonyl muramyl dipeptide. Eight unvaccinated control animals received adjuvant alone. Only the vaccinated animals made antibodies before challenge exposure to the viral core and envelope as determined by Western blotting (immunoblotting) and virus-neutralizing antibodies. Ten days after the final immunization, one-half of the vaccinated and nonvaccinated monkeys were challenged exposed intravenously (i.v.) and one-half were challenge exposed via the genital mucosa with virulent simian immunodeficiency virus. All of the nonvaccinated control monkeys became persistently infected. In spite of preexisting neutralizing antibodies and an anamnestic antibody response, all of the immunized monkeys also became persistently infected. However, there was evidence that the clinical course in immunized i.v. infected animals was delayed. All four mock-vaccinated i.v. challenge-exposed animals died with disease from 3 to 9 months postchallenge. In contrast, only one of four vaccinated i.v. challenge-exposed monkeys had died by 11 months postchallenge.

  15. Persistent itching nodules after the fourth dose of diphtheria-tetanus toxoid vaccines without evidence of delayed hypersensitivity to aluminium.

    PubMed

    Netterlid, E; Bruze, M; Hindsén, M; Isaksson, M; Olin, P

    2004-09-09

    Studies in Gothenburg, Sweden, reported an exceptionally high rate of persistent itching nodules at the site of injection of aluminium containing vaccines, usually with positive epicutaneous tests to aluminium. When a new booster diphtheria-tetanus vaccine was introduced we performed a prospective cluster randomised active surveillance in 25,232 10-year-olds. Parental reports 6 months after vaccination with Duplex or diTeBooster were collected for 22,365 (88%) pupils in 851 schools. We identified 3-6 children per 10,000 with a local itching nodule persisting for at least 2 months. There were no significant differences between the vaccine groups. Contact allergy to aluminium was not detected. The findings support the use of the vaccine presently available in the Swedish vaccination program. Continued surveillance of persistent itching nodules and aluminium contact allergy is, however, warranted for vaccines containing pertussis toxoid and aluminium.

  16. Assessing recording delays in general practice records to inform near real‐time vaccine safety surveillance using the Clinical Practice Research Datalink (CPRD)

    PubMed Central

    Andrews, Nick J.; Thomas, Sara L.

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Purpose Near real‐time vaccine safety surveillance (NRTVSS) is an option for post‐licensure vaccine safety assessment. NRTVSS requires timely recording of outcomes in the database used. Our main objective was to examine recording delays in the Clinical Practice Research Datalink (CPRD) for outcomes of interest for vaccine safety to inform the feasibility of NRTVSS using these data. We also evaluated completeness of recording and further assessed reporting delays for hospitalized events in CPRD. Methods We selected Guillain–Barré syndrome (GBS), Bell's palsy (BP), optic neuritis (ON) and febrile seizures (FS), from January 2005 to June 2014. We assessed recording delays (e.g. due to feedback from specialist referral) in stand‐alone CPRD by comparing the event and system dates and excluding delays >1 year. We used linked CPRD‐hospitalization data to further evaluate delays and completeness of recording in CPRD. Results Among 51 220 patients for the stand‐alone CPRD analysis (GBS: n = 830; BP: n = 12 602; ON: n = 1720; and FS: n = 36 236), most had a record entered within 1 month of the event date (GBS: 73.6%; BP: 93.4%; ON: 76.2%; and FS: 85.6%). A total of 13 482 patients, with a first record in hospital, were included for the analysis of linked data (GBS: n = 678; BP: n = 4060; ON: n = 485; and FS: n = 8321). Of these, <50% had a record in CPRD after 1 year (GBS: 41.3%; BP: 22.1%; ON: 22.4%; and FS: 41.8%). Conclusion This work shows that most diagnoses in CPRD for the conditions examined were recorded with delays of ≤30 days, making NRTVSS possible. The pattern of delays was condition‐specific and could be used to adjust for delays in the NRTVSS analysis. Despite low sensitivity of recording, implementing NRTVSS in CPRD is worthwhile and could be carried out, at least on a trial basis, for events of interest. © 2017 The Authors. Pharmacoepidemiology & Drug Safety Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd. PMID:28156036

  17. Delayed-type hypersensitivity (DTH) immune response related with EBV-DNA in nasopharyngeal carcinoma treated with autologous dendritic cell vaccination after radiotherapy.

    PubMed

    Li, Feng; Song, Dan; Lu, Yue; Zhu, Huanfeng; Chen, Zhenzhang; He, Xia

    2013-04-01

    The aim of this work was to investigate the outcome of an autologous dendritic cell (DC) vaccination in patients with stage II/III nasopharyngeal carcinomas (NPC). From 38 patients with stage II/III Epstein-Barr virus (EBV)-associated NPCs after a radiotherapy, 16 human leukocyte antigen-A2 (HLA-A2)-positive patients were enrolled and medicated with autologous DCs, which were pulsed with HLA-A2-restricted EBV-encoded latent membrane protein 2A (LMP2A) peptides. The lymphocyte subsets, serum cytokines, and EBV-DNA levels as well as the delayed-type hypersensitivity (DTH) responses were determined after vaccination combined with a radiotherapy/chemotherapy. The serum levels of interleukin-2 and interferon-γ (P<0.05) as well as the percentage of natural killer and CD4+T cells increased significantly (P<0.05) after the vaccination. Nine of 16 (56.25%) patients showed a positive skin response to the HLA-A2 restricted EBV LMP2A peptides in a DTH test. The serum EBV-DNA level decreased significantly from 1519 ± 384 to 1214 ± 211 copies/mL in the 9 DTH-positive patients (P=0.0310). No unanticipated or serious toxicity was observed and the vaccine was well tolerated. In conclusion, in NPC patients vaccinated after radiotherapy with autologous DCs, which were pulsed with EBV LMP2A peptides, Th1-specific immune responses were elicited particularly in DTH test positive individuals. The clinical results obtained are encouraging and the EBV-specific HLA-A2-restricted DC vaccination is a promising treatment for EBV-related NPCs.

  18. Efficacy of three candidate Rift Valley fever vaccines in sheep.

    PubMed

    Kortekaas, J; Antonis, A F G; Kant, J; Vloet, R P M; Vogel, A; Oreshkova, N; de Boer, S M; Bosch, B J; Moormann, R J M

    2012-05-14

    Rift Valley fever virus (RVFV) is a mosquito-transmitted Bunyavirus that causes high morbidity and mortality among ruminants and humans. The virus is endemic to the African continent and the Arabian Peninsula and continues to spread into new areas. The explosive nature of RVF outbreaks requires that vaccines provide swift protection after a single vaccination. We recently developed several candidate vaccines and here report their efficacy in lambs within three weeks after a single vaccination. The first vaccine comprises the purified ectodomain of the Gn structural glycoprotein formulated in a water-in-oil adjuvant. The second vaccine is based on a Newcastle disease virus-based vector that produces both RVFV structural glycoproteins Gn and Gc. The third vaccine comprises a recently developed nonspreading RVFV. The latter two vaccines were administered without adjuvant. The inactivated whole virus-based vaccine produced by Onderstepoort Biological Products was used as a positive control. Five out of six mock-vaccinated lambs developed high viremia and fever and one lamb succumbed to the challenge infection. A single vaccination with each vaccine resulted in a neutralizing antibody response within three weeks after vaccination and protected lambs from viremia, pyrexia and mortality.

  19. Mucosal B Cells Are Associated with Delayed SIV Acquisition in Vaccinated Female but Not Male Rhesus Macaques Following SIVmac251 Rectal Challenge.

    PubMed

    Tuero, Iskra; Mohanram, Venkatramanan; Musich, Thomas; Miller, Leia; Vargas-Inchaustegui, Diego A; Demberg, Thorsten; Venzon, David; Kalisz, Irene; Kalyanaraman, V S; Pal, Ranajit; Ferrari, Maria Grazia; LaBranche, Celia; Montefiori, David C; Rao, Mangala; Vaccari, Monica; Franchini, Genoveffa; Barnett, Susan W; Robert-Guroff, Marjorie

    2015-08-01

    Many viral infections, including HIV, exhibit sex-based pathogenic differences. However, few studies have examined vaccine-related sex differences. We compared immunogenicity and protective efficacy of monomeric SIV gp120 with oligomeric SIV gp140 in a pre-clinical rhesus macaque study and explored a subsequent sex bias in vaccine outcome. Each immunization group (16 females, 8 males) was primed twice mucosally with replication-competent Ad-recombinants encoding SIVsmH4env/rev, SIV239gag and SIV239nefΔ1-13 and boosted twice intramuscularly with SIVmac239 monomeric gp120 or oligomeric gp140 in MF59 adjuvant. Controls (7 females, 5 males) received empty Ad and MF59. Up to 9 weekly intrarectal challenges with low-dose SIVmac251 were administered until macaques became infected. We assessed vaccine-induced binding, neutralizing, and non-neutralizing antibodies, Env-specific memory B cells and plasmablasts/plasma cells (PB/PC) in bone marrow and rectal tissue, mucosal Env-specific antibodies, and Env-specific T-cells. Post-challenge, only one macaque (gp140-immunized) remained uninfected. However, SIV acquisition was significantly delayed in vaccinated females but not males, correlated with Env-specific IgA in rectal secretions, rectal Env-specific memory B cells, and PC in rectal tissue. These results extend previous correlations of mucosal antibodies and memory B cells with protective efficacy. The gp140 regimen was more immunogenic, stimulating elevated gp140 and cyclic V2 binding antibodies, ADCC and ADCP activities, bone marrow Env-specific PB/PC, and rectal gp140-specific IgG. However, immunization with gp120, the form of envelope immunogen used in RV144, the only vaccine trial to show some efficacy, provided more significant acquisition delay. Further over 40 weeks of follow-up, no gp120 immunized macaques met euthanasia criteria in contrast to 7 gp140-immunized and 2 control animals. Although males had higher binding antibodies than females, ADCC and ADCP

  20. Indoor Air Pollution and Delayed Measles Vaccination Increase the Risk of Severe Pneumonia in Children: Results from a Case-Control Study in Mwanza, Tanzania.

    PubMed

    PrayGod, George; Mukerebe, Crispin; Magawa, Ruth; Jeremiah, Kidola; Török, M Estée

    2016-01-01

    Mortality due to severe pneumonia during childhood in resource-constrained settings is high, but data to provide basis for interventions to improve survival are limited. The objective of this study was to determine the risk factors for severe pneumonia in children aged under five years old in Mwanza, Tanzania. We conducted a case-control study of children aged 2 to 59 months at Sekou-Toure regional hospital in Mwanza City, north-western, Tanzania from May 2013 to March 2014. Cases were children with severe pneumonia and controls were children with other illnesses. Data on demography, social-economical status, nutritional status, environmental factors, vaccination status, vitamin A supplementation and deworming, and nasopharyngeal carriage were collected and analysed using logistic regression. 117 patients were included in the study. Of these, 45 were cases and 72 controls. Cases were younger than controls, but there were no differences in social-economic or nutritional status between the two groups. In multiple regression, we found that an increased risk of severe pneumonia was associated with cooking indoors (OR 5.5, 95% CI: 1.4, 22.1), and delayed measles vaccination (OR 3.9, 95% CI: 1.1, 14.8). The lack of vitamin A supplementation in the preceding six month and Enterobacter spp nasopharyngeal carriage were not associated with higher risk of severe pneumonia. Age ≥24 months (OR 0.2, 95% CI: 0.04, 0.8) and not receiving antibiotics before referral (OR 0.3, 95% CI 0.1, 0.9) were associated with lower risk for severe pneumonia. Indoor air pollution and delayed measles vaccination increase the risk for severe pneumonia among children aged below five years. Interventions to reduce indoor air pollution and to promote timely administration of measles vaccination are urgently needed to reduce the burden of severe pneumonia in children in Tanzania.

  1. Influence of antibodies transferred by colostrum in the immune responses of calves to current foot-and-mouth disease vaccines.

    PubMed

    Bucafusco, Danilo; Di Giacomo, Sebastián; Pega, Juan; Juncos, María Sol; Schammas, Juan Manuel; Pérez-Filgueira, Mariano; Capozzo, Alejandra Victoria

    2014-11-12

    Immunity to currently used oil-adjuvanted inactivated vaccines against foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) has been studied in detail in adult animals; however, the influence of maternally derived antibodies transferred through colostrum (Mat-Abs) in the immune responses of vaccinated calves is less clear. Here, we report the anti-FMDV humoral responses elicited in calves with or without Mat-Abs that received one or two doses of the current tetravalent oil-adjuvanted commercial vaccine used in Argentina. Anti-FMDV (O1/Campos strain) antibodies (Abs) were evaluated by Liquid Phase Blocking ELISA (LPB-ELISA), virus neutralization test (VNT), isotype ELISA (IgG1, IgG2 and IgM) and avidity ELISA, to allow for the first time a more detailed description of the humoral responses elicited. Our results show that primary IgM responses to FMDV vaccination only became evident as Mat-Abs titers decreased. Likewise, prime and boost vaccination schedules, applied 35 days apart to groups of calves with high or low levels of Mat-Abs, showed that the levels of preexisting neutralizing Mat-Abs prevented the loss of total Abs measured by LPB-ELISA but negatively interfered with the induction of virus neutralizing responses. Altogether, these findings indicate that comprehensive serological characterization of immune responses generated after vaccination in calves may reveal important information on the actual effectiveness of vaccination strategies for young animals, particularly in endemic settings.

  2. Effects of on-arrival versus delayed clostridial or modified live respiratory vaccinations on health, performance, bovine viral diarrhea virus type I titers, and stress and immune measures of newly received beef calves.

    PubMed

    Richeson, J T; Kegley, E B; Gadberry, M S; Beck, P A; Powell, J G; Jones, C A

    2009-07-01

    Stress, commonly associated with weaning, marketing, and shipment of feeder cattle, can compromise immune function, and vaccine administration during immunosuppression may reduce vaccine efficacy and calf growth. Four treatments were compared in a 2 x 2 factorial arrangement to evaluate the effect of on-arrival (d 0) vs. delayed (d 14) administration of clostridial (CLOS) and respiratory (RESP) vaccines on health, performance, bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) antibody titers, and physiological immune measurements of high-risk, newly received calves. Crossbred bull and steer calves (n = 263) were weighed (239 +/- 1.2 kg), stratified by sex, and randomly assigned to vaccination treatment: 1) arrival CLOS, arrival RESP (ACAR); 2) arrival CLOS, delayed RESP (ACDR); 3) delayed CLOS, arrival RESP (DCAR); and 4) delayed CLOS, delayed RESP (DCDR). Body weight and blood samples were collected on d 0, 14, 28, 42, and 56. Average daily gain did not differ (P > or = 0.34), averaging 0.98, 0.93, 0.95, and 0.91 kg/d for ACAR, ACDR, DCAR, and DCDR, respectively, for the entire 56-d trial. Vaccination timing did not affect morbidity (P > or = 0.23); however, there tended to be a CLOS timing effect (P = 0.07) and RESP timing effect (P = 0.09) on days to initial bovine respiratory disease (BRD) treatment. Average days to initial BRD treatment were less for ACAR (6 +/- 0.8 d) compared with DCDR (8 +/- 0.8 d; P = 0.01). Greater white blood cell counts were observed for DCDR than ACDR (P = 0.01), with ACAR and DCAR being intermediate. Serum cortisol concentrations were greater on d 0 than d 14 (P < 0.01) or d 28 (P = 0.01) but no treatment x day interaction (P = 0.21) was observed. Timing of RESP administration affected (P = 0.001) serum BVDV type I titers, with greater (P < 0.01) levels in calves receiving RESP vaccine on arrival. Delaying CLOS or RESP vaccination did not affect BW gain or morbidity in high risk, newly received stocker calves. Calves administered RESP vaccine on d 0

  3. Optimization of inactivated H5N9 highly pathogenic avian influenza vaccine and inactivated Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium vaccine with antigen dose and prime-boost regimen in domestic ducks.

    PubMed

    Yuk, Seong-Su; To, Eredene-Ochir; Kwon, Jung-Hoon; Noh, Jin-Yong; Hong, Woo-Tack; Jeong, Jei-Hyun; Gwon, Gyeong-Bin; Song, Chang-Seon

    2017-09-01

    Owing to the increase in the number of diseases affecting ducks and the demand for food safety by consumers, vaccination has become one of the factors that influence duck meat productivity. The highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) virus is one of the most prevalent and causes one of the most lethal diseases in domestic ducks, and Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium is a food-borne pathogen persistent in the domestic duck population. To better understand the optimal usage of HPAI and S. enterica serovar Typhimurium vaccines, we aimed to determine antigen dose, oil and gel adjuvant usage with prime-boost regimen, and vaccination age, inducing the best immune response in ducks, without an effect on body weight gain. In the case of the inactivated H5N9 vaccine, a single dose of vaccine was inadequate to induce proper antibody titer when administered to day-old ducks, which necessitates boost vaccination. Administration of the oil-adjuvanted H5N9 vaccine administration in day-old and 2-week-old ducks resulted in a lower body weight at the time of slaughtering, compared to that of gel-adjuvanted H5N9 vaccine. However, gel-adjuvanted H5N9 vaccine failed to induce proper immune response to an extent recommend by OIE-World Organization for Animal Health. In the case of the Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium vaccine, a moderate or low dose of vaccine was appropriate for day-old ducks receiving the gel prime-oil boost vaccination. Single vaccination with oil adjuvants affects the mean body weight of 7-week-old ducks, suggesting that the gel adjuvant is more suitable for meat production. We expect that the use of adjuvants in a prime-boost regimen and at antigen doses set in this study will be helpful to maximize body weight in the case of domestic duck production at the actual farm site. © 2017 Poultry Science Association Inc.

  4. A controlled field trial of the effectiveness of cholera and cholera El Tor vaccines in the Philippines*

    PubMed Central

    1965-01-01

    In a controlled field trial on some 584 000 people in an endemic cholera El Tor area in the Philippines, it was demonstrated that cholera vaccines gave moderate protection of short duration. Injection of a single dose of vaccine prepared from either Vibrio cholerae or Vibrio El Tor gave over 50% protection for the first two months. The immunity conferred by the V. cholerae vaccine rapidly declined after three to four months. The V. El Tor vaccine gave protection for six months, but its effectiveness declined. An oil-adjuvant vaccine prepared from V. cholerae conferred an increasing degree of protection of long duration, but, owing to severe vaccination reactions, its use could not be recommended. PMID:5294176

  5. A controlled field trial of the effectiveness of cholera and cholera El Tor vaccines in the Philippines*

    PubMed Central

    Azurin, J. C.; Cruz, A.; Pesigan, T. P.; Alvero, M.; Camena, T.; Suplido, R.; Ledesma, L.; Gomez, C. Z.

    1967-01-01

    A controlled field trial on some 584 000 people in an endemic cholera El Tor area in the Philippines demonstrated that cholera vaccines gave moderate protection of short duration. Injection of a single dose of vaccine prepared from either Vibrio cholerae or El Tor vibrios gave over 50% protection for the first 2 months. The immunity conferred by the V. cholerae vaccine declined rapidly after 3 to 4 months. The effectiveness of the El Tor vaccine continued for 6 months. An oil-adjuvant vaccine prepared from V. cholerae conferred an equally high degree of protection for a longer period of time, but, owing to severe vaccination reactions, its use could not be recommended. PMID:5300874

  6. Montanide ISA™ 201 adjuvanted FMD vaccine induces improved immune responses and protection in cattle.

    PubMed

    Dar, Pervaiz; Kalaivanan, Ramya; Sied, Nuru; Mamo, Bedaso; Kishore, Subodh; Suryanarayana, V V S; Kondabattula, Ganesh

    2013-07-18

    Despite significant advancements in modern vaccinology, inactivated whole virus vaccines for foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) remain the mainstay for prophylactic and emergency uses. Many efforts are currently devoted to improve the immune responses and protective efficacy of these vaccines. Adjuvants, which are often used to potentiate immune responses, provide an excellent mean to improve the efficacy of FMD vaccines. This study aimed to evaluate three oil adjuvants namely: Montanide ISA-201, ISA-206 (SEPPIC, France) and GAHOL (an in-house developed oil-adjuvant) for adjuvant potential in inactivated FMD vaccine. Groups of cattle (n=6) were immunized once intramuscularly with monovalent FMDV 'O' vaccine formulated in these adjuvants, and humoral (serum neutralizing antibody, IgG1 and IgG2) and cellular (lymphoproliferation) responses were measured. Montanide ISA-201 adjuvanted vaccine induced earlier and higher neutralizing antibody responses as compared to the two other adjuvants. All the adjuvants induced mainly serum IgG1 isotype antibody responses against FMDV. However, Montanide ISA-201 induced relatively higher IgG2 responses than the other two adjuvants. Lymphoproliferative responses to recall FMDV antigen were relatively higher with Montanide ISA-201, although not always statistically significant. On homologous FMDV challenge at 30 days post-vaccination, 100% (6/6) of the cattle immunized with Montanide-201 adjuvanted vaccine were protected, which was superior to those immunized with ISA-206 (66.6%, 4/6) or GAHOL adjuvanted vaccine (50%, 3/6). Virus replication following challenge infection, as determined by presence of the viral genome in oropharynx and non-structural protein serology, was lowest with Montanide ISA-201 adjuvant. Collectively, these results indicate that the Montanide ISA-201 adjuvanted FMD vaccine induces enhanced immune responses and protective efficacy in cattle. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Development of foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) serotype O virus-like-particles (VLPs) vaccine and evaluation of its potency.

    PubMed

    Mohana Subramanian, B; Madhanmohan, M; Sriraman, Rajan; Chandrasekhar Reddy, R V; Yuvaraj, S; Manikumar, Kankipati; Rajalakshmi, S; Nagendrakumar, S B; Rana, Samir Kumar; Srinivasan, V A

    2012-12-01

    Foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) is an economically significant viral disease that rampage dairy and other livestock industries in many countries. The disease is being controlled by the use of an inactivated vaccine. However, a recombinant marker vaccine, which avoids the use of live virus, may be an option for the unambiguous differentiation of infected animals from vaccinated animals. A recombinant baculovirus clone containing P1-2A-3C coding sequences of foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) serotype O(1) Manisa was generated. The FMDV structural proteins along with the 3C protease were expressed in Sf9 cells and the generation of virus like particles (VLP) was studied. The recombinant protein was formulated as vaccine using an oil adjuvant, ISA 206 and potency of the vaccine was tested in cattle. The vaccine had a potency value (PD(50)) of 5.01 and most of the vaccinated animals exhibited neutralizing antibody titers after two immunizations.

  8. Modeling protective anti-tumor immunity via preventative cancer vaccines using a hybrid agent-based and delay differential equation approach.

    PubMed

    Kim, Peter S; Lee, Peter P

    2012-01-01

    A next generation approach to cancer envisions developing preventative vaccinations to stimulate a person's immune cells, particularly cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTLs), to eliminate incipient tumors before clinical detection. The purpose of our study is to quantitatively assess whether such an approach would be feasible, and if so, how many anti-cancer CTLs would have to be primed against tumor antigen to provide significant protection. To understand the relevant dynamics, we develop a two-compartment model of tumor-immune interactions at the tumor site and the draining lymph node. We model interactions at the tumor site using an agent-based model (ABM) and dynamics in the lymph node using a system of delay differential equations (DDEs). We combine the models into a hybrid ABM-DDE system and investigate dynamics over a wide range of parameters, including cell proliferation rates, tumor antigenicity, CTL recruitment times, and initial memory CTL populations. Our results indicate that an anti-cancer memory CTL pool of 3% or less can successfully eradicate a tumor population over a wide range of model parameters, implying that a vaccination approach is feasible. In addition, sensitivity analysis of our model reveals conditions that will result in rapid tumor destruction, oscillation, and polynomial rather than exponential decline in the tumor population due to tumor geometry.

  9. A cytomegalovirus-based vaccine expressing a single tumor-specific CD8+ T-cell epitope delays tumor growth in a murine model of prostate cancer.

    PubMed

    Klyushnenkova, Elena N; Kouiavskaia, Diana V; Parkins, Christopher J; Caposio, Patrizia; Botto, Sara; Alexander, Richard B; Jarvis, Michael A

    2012-06-01

    Cytomegalovirus (CMV) is a highly immunogenic virus that results in a persistent, life-long infection in the host typically with no ill effects. Certain unique features of CMV, including its capacity to actively replicate in the presence of strong host CMV-specific immunity, may give CMV an advantage compared with other virus-based vaccine delivery platforms. In the present study, we tested the utility of mouse CMV (mCMV)-based vaccines expressing human prostate-specific antigen (PSA) for prostate cancer immunotherapy in double-transgenic mice expressing PSA and HLA-DRB1*1501 (DR2bxPSA F1 mice). We assessed the capacity of 2 mCMV-based vectors to induce PSA-specific CD8 T-cell responses and affect the growth of PSA-expressing Transgenic Adenocarcinoma of the Mouse Prostate tumors (TRAMP-PSA). In the absence of tumor challenge, immunization with mCMV vectors expressing either a H2-D(b)-restricted epitope PSA(65-73) (mCMV/PSA(65-73)) or the full-length gene for PSA (mCMV/PSA(FL)) induced comparable levels of CD8 T-cell responses that increased (inflated) with time. Upon challenge with TRAMP-PSA tumor cells, animals immunized with mCMV/PSA(65-73) had delay of tumor growth and increased PSA-specific CD8 T-cell responses, whereas animals immunized with mCMV/PSA(FL) showed progressive tumor growth and no increase in number of splenic PSA(65-73)-specific T cells. The data show that a prototype CMV-based prostate cancer vaccine can induce an effective antitumor immune response in a "humanized" double-transgenic mouse model. The observation that mCMV/PSA(FL) is not effective against TRAMP-PSA is consistent with our previous findings that HLA-DRB1*1501-restricted immune responses to PSA are associated with suppression of effective CD8 T-cell responses to TRAMP-PSA tumors.

  10. Enhanced immune responses of foot-and-mouth disease vaccine using new oil/gel adjuvant mixtures in pigs and goats.

    PubMed

    Park, Min-Eun; Lee, Seo-Yong; Kim, Rae-Hyung; Ko, Mi-Kyeong; Lee, Kwang-Nyeong; Kim, Su-Mi; Kim, Byoung-Kwan; Lee, Jong-Soo; Kim, Byounghan; Park, Jong-Hyeon

    2014-09-08

    The immunity and protective capability produced by vaccines can vary remarkably according to the kinds of adjuvants being used. In the case of foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) vaccines in pigs, only oil-adjuvant vaccines have been used, and these tend to show lower immunity in pigs than in cattle. New adjuvants for these vaccines are therefore needed. We made different experimental FMD vaccines using new adjuvants (ISA 201, Carbigen, Emulsigen-D) and well-known adjuvants (ISA 206, aluminum hydroxide gel) and then conducted tests to compare the enhancement in pig immunity. More effective immune responses and protection against challenge were observed with the new adjuvants Emulsigen-D and ISA 201 compared to existing adjuvants. In the case of dairy goats, a mixture of Emulsigen-D and aluminum hydroxide gel produced rapid neutralizing antibody responses that were similar to results from tests conducted with pigs.

  11. Vaccine hesitancy: Definition, scope and determinants.

    PubMed

    MacDonald, Noni E

    2015-08-14

    The SAGE Working Group on Vaccine Hesitancy concluded that vaccine hesitancy refers to delay in acceptance or refusal of vaccination despite availability of vaccination services. Vaccine hesitancy is complex and context specific, varying across time, place and vaccines. It is influenced by factors such as complacency, convenience and confidence. The Working Group retained the term 'vaccine' rather than 'vaccination' hesitancy, although the latter more correctly implies the broader range of immunization concerns, as vaccine hesitancy is the more commonly used term. While high levels of hesitancy lead to low vaccine demand, low levels of hesitancy do not necessarily mean high vaccine demand. The Vaccine Hesitancy Determinants Matrix displays the factors influencing the behavioral decision to accept, delay or reject some or all vaccines under three categories: contextual, individual and group, and vaccine/vaccination-specific influences.

  12. Evaluation of several adjuvants in avian influenza vaccine to chickens and ducks

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    The effects of three different adjuvants, mineral oil, Montanide™ ISA 70M VG, and Montanide™ ISA 206 VG, were evaluated on reverse genetics H5N3 avian influenza virus cell cultured vaccine. The immune results of SPF chickens after challenging with highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) virus demonstrated that mineral oil adjuvant group and 70M adjuvant group provided 100% protection efficiency, but 206 adjuvant group provided only 40%. Statistical analysis indicated that the protection effects of mineral oil adjuvant group and the 70M adjuvant showed no significant difference to each other, but with significant difference to 206 adjuvant group. All three groups could induce high titres of antibody after immunizing SPF ducks, but there was no significant difference among them. The immunization effect of 70M adjuvant group on SPF chickens were the best and showed significant difference compared with optimized 70Mi Montanide™ eight series adjuvants groups. These results suggest that 70M adjuvant could be a novel adjuvant for preparing avian influenza vaccine. PMID:21703008

  13. Evaluation of a Subunit H5 Vaccine and an Inactivated H5N2 Avian Influenza Marker Vaccine in Ducks Challenged with Vietnamese H5N1 Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza Virus

    PubMed Central

    Chua, Tze-Hoong; Leung, Connie Y. H.; Fang, H. E.; Chow, Chun-Kin; Ma, Siu-Kit; Sia, Sin-Fun; Ng, Iris H. Y.; Fenwick, Stanley G.; James, Cassandra M.; Chua, Sin Bin; Chew, Siang Thai; Kwang, Jimmy; Peiris, J. S. M.; Ellis, Trevor M.

    2010-01-01

    The protective efficacy of a subunit avian influenza virus H5 vaccine based on recombinant baculovirus expressed H5 haemagglutinin antigen and an inactivated H5N2 avian influenza vaccine combined with a marker antigen (tetanus toxoid) was compared with commercially available inactivated H5N2 avian influenza vaccine in young ducks. Antibody responses, morbidity, mortality, and virus shedding were evaluated after challenge with a Vietnamese clade 1 H5N1 HPAI virus [A/VN/1203/04 (H5N1)] that was known to cause a high mortality rate in ducks. All three vaccines, administered with water-in-oil adjuvant, provided significant protection and dramatically reduced the duration and titer of virus shedding in the vaccinated challenged ducks compared with unvaccinated controls. The H5 subunit vaccine was shown to provide equivalent protection to the other two vaccines despite the H5 antibody responses in subunit vaccinated ducks being significantly lower prior to challenge. Ducks vaccinated with the H5N2 marker vaccine consistently produced antitetanus toxoid antibody. The two novel vaccines have attributes that would enhance H5N1 avian influenza surveillance and control by vaccination in small scale and village poultry systems. PMID:23074648

  14. Vaccination of sex reversed hybrid tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus × O. aureus) with an inactivated Vibrio vulnificus vaccine.

    PubMed

    Shoemaker, Craig A; Lafrentz, Benjamin R; Klesius, Phillip H

    2011-11-01

    Vibrio vulnificus causes disease in economically important aquaculture raised fish and is an opportunistic human pathogen. This study reports on the isolation of V. vulnificus from diseased hybrid tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus × O. aureus) cultured in a North American water reuse facility. Our objectives were to characterize the isolate using biochemical and molecular methods, develop a disease challenge model, and determine the ability of a formalin inactivated whole-cell vaccine to protect against V. vulnificus. The V. vulnificus isolate recovered was biotype 1, 16S rRNA type B, vcg type C, and vvhA type 2 and caused disease in tilapia held in static salt water (1.5 g/l sea salt). Fish vaccinated with the formalin inactivated whole-cell vaccine responded to vaccination with titers from vaccinated fish ranging from 32 to 64 and titers from non-vaccinated fish ranging from 4 to 8. In two trials, vaccinated tilapia exhibited relative percent survival (RPS) of 73 and 60% following homologous isolate challenge. In two additional trials, vaccinated tilapia exhibited RPS values of up to 88% following challenge with a heterologous isolate; the use of a mineral oil adjuvant enhanced protection. This vaccine may provide an effective means of preventing infections caused by biochemically and genetically diverse V. vulnificus.

  15. Laboratory methods for assessing and licensing influenza vaccines for poultry.

    PubMed

    Swayne, David E

    2014-01-01

    Avian influenza vaccines for poultry are based on hemagglutinin proteins, and protection is specific to the vaccine subtype. Over 113 billion doses have been used between 2002 and 2010 for high pathogenicity avian influenza control. No universal vaccines are currently available. The majority of avian influenza vaccines are inactivated whole influenza viruses that are grown in embryonating eggs, inactivated, emulsified in oil adjuvant systems, and injected into chickens. Live virus-vectored vaccines such as recombinant viruses of fowl pox, Newcastle disease, herpesvirus of turkeys and duck enteritis containing inserts of avian influenza virus hemagglutinin genes have been used on a more limited basis. In studies to evaluate vaccine efficacy and potency, the protocol design and its implementation should address the biosafety level needed for the work, provide information required for approval by Institutional Biosafety and Animal Care Committees, contain information on seed strain selection, provide needed information on animal subjects and their relevant parameters, and address the selection and use of challenge viruses. Various metrics have been used to directly measure vaccine induced protection. These include prevention of death, clinical signs, and lesions; prevention of decreases in egg production and alterations in egg quality; quantification of the reduction in virus replication and shedding from the respiratory tract and gastrointestinal tracts; and prevention of contact transmission in in vivo poultry experiments. In addition, indirect measures of vaccine potency and protection can be developed and validated against the direct measures and include serological assays in vaccinated poultry and assessment of the content of hemagglutinin antigen in the vaccine. These indirect assessments of protection are useful in determining if vaccine batches have a consistent ability to protect. For adequate potency, vaccines should contain 50 mean protective doses of

  16. Influence of vaccine potency and booster administration of foot-and-mouth disease vaccines on the antibody response in calves with maternal antibodies

    PubMed Central

    Türkoğlu, Tunçer; Uzunlu, Ergün; Sareyyüpoğlu, Beyhan; Hancı, İbrahim; İpek, Ahmet; Arslan, Abdullah; Babak, Ayca; İldeniz, Gülnur; Gülyaz, Veli

    2017-01-01

    Foot-and-mouth disease is one of the most important viral diseases of cloven-hoofed animals. Mass vaccination is an effective method to control the disease and is frequently utilized in endemic regions. Sufficient protection of young animals is important in mass vaccination campaigns. Maternal antibodies negatively affect the success of vaccination. Hence, determination of the optimal vaccination age is crucial for the uninterrupted protection of young animals. This study was performed to identify the effect of vaccine potency and booster administration on serum neutralizing antibody titers of calves with different levels of maternal antibodies. Calves (n = 111) on a state farm were used in this study. Oil adjuvant foot-and-mouth disease vaccines with 3 PD50 and 6 PD50 potencies were used with or without booster administration. Serum samples were collected each month up to day 120 postvaccination. Virus neutralization tests were used to measure the serum neutralizing antibody titers and estimate the protection period by using pre-determined cut-off values for protection. The results revealed that a vaccination with a 6 PD50 potency vaccine, preferably followed by a booster dose, should be used to overcome maternal immunity for incessant protection. PMID:28859271

  17. Alum-precipitated autoclaved Leishmania major plus bacille Calmette-Guérrin, a candidate vaccine for visceral leishmaniasis: safety, skin-delayed type hypersensitivity response and dose finding in healthy volunteers.

    PubMed

    Kamil, A A; Khalil, E A G; Musa, A M; Modabber, F; Mukhtar, M M; Ibrahim, M E; Zijlstra, E E; Sacks, D; Smith, P G; Zicker, F; El-Hassan, A M

    2003-01-01

    In a previous efficacy study, autoclaved Leishmania major (ALM) + bacille Calmette-Guérrin (BCG) vaccine was shown to be safe, but not superior to BCG alone, in protecting against visceral leishmaniasis. From June 1999 to June 2000, we studied the safety and immunogenicity of different doses of alum-precipitated ALM + BCG vaccine mixture administered intradermally to evaluate whether the addition of alum improved the immunogenicity of ALM. Twenty-four healthy adult volunteers were recruited and sequentially allocated to receive either 10 microg, 100 microg, 200 microg, or 400 microg of leishmanial protein in the alum-precipitated ALM + BCG vaccine mixture. Side effects were minimal for all doses and confined to the site of injection. All volunteers in the 10 microg, 100 microg, and 400 microg groups had a leishmanin skin test (LST) reaction of > or = 5 mm by day 42 and this response was maintained when tested after 90 d. Only 1 volunteer out of 5 in the 200 microg group had a LST reaction of > or = 5 mm by day 42 and the reasons for the different LST responses in this group are unclear. This is the first time that an alum adjuvant with ALM has been in used in humans and the vaccine mixture was safe and induced a strong delayed type hypersensitivity (DTH) reaction in the study volunteers. On the basis of this study we suggest that 100 1 microg of leishmanial protein in the vaccine mixture is a suitable dose for future efficacy studies, as it induced the strongest DTH reaction following vaccination.

  18. Stabilizing effects of excipients on dissociation of intact (146S) foot-and-mouth disease virions into 12S particles during storage as oil-emulsion vaccine.

    PubMed

    Harmsen, M M; Fijten, H P D; Westra, D F; Dekker, A

    2015-05-15

    Most conventional foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) vaccines contain oil-adjuvant. Their potency decreases upon prolonged storage. Intact (146S) FMDV particles can dissociate into 12S degradation products with a concomitant decrease in immunogenicity. We therefore measured virion stability in vaccines using two previously developed ELISAs to separately quantify 12S and 146S particles. Virions completely dissociated into 12S particles within 3 months after oil-emulsification. Dissociation occurred at a much lower rate in a comparable aqueous solution that was not oil-emulsified. Thus, oil-emulsification stimulates virion dissociation, presumably due to the protein denaturing effect of the oil-water interface. In real-time stability studies the stability of oil-adjuvanted virions of four different FMDV strains was significantly increased by addition of sucrose and BSA in a synergistic manner. Contrary to BSA addition, the effect of sucrose addition was concentration dependent. This study illustrates the importance of analysing antigen integrity after oil-emulsification and provides methods for FMDV vaccine stabilization.

  19. Evaluation of the efficacy of a new oil-based adjuvant ISA 61 VG FMD vaccine as a potential vaccine for cattle

    PubMed Central

    Khorasani, A.; Madadgar, O.; Soleimanjahi, H.; Keyvanfar, H.; Mahravani, H.

    2016-01-01

    Foot-and-mouth disease is an important viral disease of cloven-hoofed animals. Inactivated whole particle virus vaccines are still widely used in prophylactic vaccination campaigns. The choice of adjuvant is a very important factor in enhancing immune responses and the efficacy of inactivated vaccines. Montanide ISA 61 VG is a new ready-to-use mineral oil-based adjuvant developed by SEPPIC Inc. (SEPPIC, France) with high-potential immune responses needed for clinical protection against FMD infection. In this study, we compared the efficacy of two FMD vaccines either formulated with the new oil-based adjuvant ISA 61 VG and saponin, or with aluminum hydroxide gel and saponin. Both vaccines contained the same antigen payloads of O2010/IR. Two groups of 15 naive cattle received a single vaccination with different doses (full dose, 1/3 dose and 1/9 dose) to calculate their PD50 (50% protective dose) after being challenged with the homologous virulent virus. The mean neutralizing antibody titer was determined at 0, 7, 14 and 21 days after vaccination, measured by a micro neutralization test. The new vaccine improved humoral immune responses by 19%, while inducing a higher geometric mean. The titer for neutralizing antibodies was 2.91 log10 compared to the alum-gel based adjuvant vaccine which was 2.44 log10 (P-value=0.1782). The new vaccine showed a PD50 value of 10.05 as compared to a PD50 value of 4.171, respectively. According to the results, the FMD vaccine formulated with the new oil adjuvant, ISA 61 VG, shows potential as an alternative vaccine for routine and emergency vaccinations in the FMD enzootic region. PMID:27656222

  20. Evaluation of the efficacy of a new oil-based adjuvant ISA 61 VG FMD vaccine as a potential vaccine for cattle.

    PubMed

    Khorasani, A; Madadgar, O; Soleimanjahi, H; Keyvanfar, H; Mahravani, H

    2016-01-01

    Foot-and-mouth disease is an important viral disease of cloven-hoofed animals. Inactivated whole particle virus vaccines are still widely used in prophylactic vaccination campaigns. The choice of adjuvant is a very important factor in enhancing immune responses and the efficacy of inactivated vaccines. Montanide ISA 61 VG is a new ready-to-use mineral oil-based adjuvant developed by SEPPIC Inc. (SEPPIC, France) with high-potential immune responses needed for clinical protection against FMD infection. In this study, we compared the efficacy of two FMD vaccines either formulated with the new oil-based adjuvant ISA 61 VG and saponin, or with aluminum hydroxide gel and saponin. Both vaccines contained the same antigen payloads of O2010/IR. Two groups of 15 naive cattle received a single vaccination with different doses (full dose, 1/3 dose and 1/9 dose) to calculate their PD50 (50% protective dose) after being challenged with the homologous virulent virus. The mean neutralizing antibody titer was determined at 0, 7, 14 and 21 days after vaccination, measured by a micro neutralization test. The new vaccine improved humoral immune responses by 19%, while inducing a higher geometric mean. The titer for neutralizing antibodies was 2.91 log10 compared to the alum-gel based adjuvant vaccine which was 2.44 log10 (P-value=0.1782). The new vaccine showed a PD50 value of 10.05 as compared to a PD50 value of 4.171, respectively. According to the results, the FMD vaccine formulated with the new oil adjuvant, ISA 61 VG, shows potential as an alternative vaccine for routine and emergency vaccinations in the FMD enzootic region.

  1. Intra-serotype SAT2 chimeric foot-and-mouth disease vaccine protects cattle against FMDV challenge.

    PubMed

    Maree, Francois F; Nsamba, Peninah; Mutowembwa, Paidamwoyo; Rotherham, Lia S; Esterhuysen, Jan; Scott, Katherine

    2015-06-09

    The genetic diversity of the three Southern African Territories (SAT) types of foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) reflects high antigenic variation, and indications are that vaccines targeting each SAT-specific topotype may be needed. This has serious implications for control of FMD using vaccines as well as the choice of strains to include in regional antigen banks. Here, we investigated an intra-serotype chimeric virus, vSAT2(ZIM14)-SAT2, which was engineered by replacing the surface-exposed capsid-coding region (1B-1D/2A) of a SAT2 genome-length clone, pSAT2, with that of the field isolate, SAT2/ZIM/14/90. The chimeric FMDV produced by this technique was viable, grew to high titres and stably maintained the 1B-1D/2A sequence upon passage. Chemically inactivated, oil adjuvanted vaccines of both the chimeric and parental immunogens were used to vaccinate cattle. The serological response to vaccination showed the production of strong neutralizing antibody titres that correlated with protection against homologous FMDV challenge. We also predicted a good likelihood that cattle vaccinated with an intra-serotype chimeric vaccine would be protected against challenge with viruses that caused recent outbreaks in southern Africa. These results provide support that chimeric vaccines containing the external capsid of field isolates induce protective immune responses in FMD host species similar to the parental vaccine.

  2. Critical assessment of regulatory standards and tests for fish vaccines.

    PubMed

    Midtlyng, P J

    2005-01-01

    Within the European Economic Area (EU member states plus Norway, Iceland and Liechtenstein), veterinary vaccines must comply with EU regulations and relevant monographs of the European Pharmacopoeia. Since 1996, three European monographs specific for fish have been adopted; concerning oil-adjuvanted, injectable vaccine for salmonids against furunculosis, as well as bacterins against classical vibriosis (Listonella anguillarum) or cold-water vibriosis (Vibrio salmonicida) in salmonids. The regulatory requirements laid down in these monographs include the use of seronegative fish for in vivo safety testing; conduct of vaccination trials in which experimental challenge is administered by injection, and minimum relative protection to be achieved at a given level of control mortality. Several aspects of these requirements are being questioned. This concerns the relevance of injection challenge methods as opposed to waterborne challenge; the validity of relative protection assessed at 60 % control mortality (RPS6) as compared to protection calculated at the endpoint of mortality (RPSendpoint), and poor test power due to low numbers of fish per treatment group. There is a strong need for future efforts to refine the methods for documentation and testing of fish vaccines, and to assure their suitability for the intended purpose.

  3. Unexpectedly high incidence of persistent itching nodules and delayed hypersensitivity to aluminium in children after the use of adsorbed vaccines from a single manufacturer.

    PubMed

    Bergfors, Elisabet; Trollfors, Birger; Inerot, Annica

    2003-12-08

    During trials of aluminium adsorbed diphtheria-tetanus/acellular pertussis vaccines from a single producer, persistent itching nodules at the vaccination site were observed in an unexpectedly high frequency. The afflicted children were followed in a longitudinal observational study, and the presence of aluminium sensitization was investigated in the children with itching nodules and their symptomless siblings by patch tests. Itching nodules were found in 645 children out of about 76,000 vaccinees (0.8%) after both subcutaneous (s.c.) and intramuscular (i.m.) injection. The itching was intense and long-lasting. So far, 75% still have symptoms after a median duration of 4 years. Contact hypersensitivity to aluminium was demonstrated in 77% of the children with itching nodules and in 8% of the symptomless siblings who had received the same vaccines (P<0.001). Children with persistent itching nodules and/or aluminium sensitization should be warned about aluminium containing products (e.g. vaccines and antiperspirants). The reason for the high incidence of itching nodules after SSI vaccines is unknown and should be further investigated.

  4. Identifying and addressing vaccine hesitancy.

    PubMed

    Kestenbaum, Lori A; Feemster, Kristen A

    2015-04-01

    In the 20th century, the introduction of multiple vaccines significantly reduced childhood morbidity, mortality, and disease outbreaks. Despite, and perhaps because of, their public health impact, an increasing number of parents and patients are choosing to delay or refuse vaccines. These individuals are described as "vaccine hesitant." This phenomenon has developed due to the confluence of multiple social, cultural, political, and personal factors. As immunization programs continue to expand, understanding and addressing vaccine hesitancy will be crucial to their successful implementation. This review explores the history of vaccine hesitancy, its causes, and suggested approaches for reducing hesitancy and strengthening vaccine acceptance.

  5. Identifying and Addressing Vaccine Hesitancy

    PubMed Central

    Kestenbaum, Lori A.; Feemster, Kristen A.

    2015-01-01

    In the 20th century, the introduction of multiple vaccines significantly reduced childhood morbidity, mortality, and disease outbreaks. Despite, and perhaps because of, their public health impact, an increasing number of parents and patients are choosing to delay or refuse vaccines. These individuals are described as vaccine hesitant. This phenomenon has developed due to the confluence of multiple social, cultural, political and personal factors. As immunization programs continue to expand, understanding and addressing vaccine hesitancy will be crucial to their successful implementation. This review explores the history of vaccine hesitancy, its causes, and suggested approaches for reducing hesitancy and strengthening vaccine acceptance. PMID:25875982

  6. Marker vaccine potential of a foot-and-mouth disease virus with a partial VP1 G-H loop deletion.

    PubMed

    Fowler, V L; Knowles, N J; Paton, D J; Barnett, P V

    2010-04-26

    Previous work in cattle and pigs demonstrated that protection against foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) could be achieved following vaccination with chimeric foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) vaccines, in which the VP1 G-H loop had been substituted with that from another serotype. This indicated that the VP1 G-H loop may not be essential for the protection of natural hosts against FMDV. If this could be substantiated there would be potential to develop FMD marker vaccines, characterised by the absence of this region. Here, we investigate the serological responses to vaccination with a virus with a partial VP1 G-H loop deletion in order to determine the likelihood of achieving protection and the potential of this virus as a marker vaccine. Inactivated, oil adjuvanted, vaccines, consisting of chemically inactivated virus with or without a partially deleted VP1 G-H loop, were used to immunise cattle. Serum was collected on days 0, 7, 14 and 21 and antibody titres calculated using the virus neutralisation test (VNT) to estimate the likelihood of protection. We predict a good likelihood that cattle vaccinated with a vaccine characterised by a partial VP1 G-H loop would be protected against challenge with the same virus containing the VP1 G-H loop. We also present evidence on the potential of such a construct to act as a marker vaccine, when used in conjunction with a novel serological test.

  7. Vaccines of the future.

    PubMed

    Nossal, G J V

    2011-12-30

    Vaccines of the future can be divided into three broad groups, namely those of the near future (<10 years); the medium-term future (10-19 years); and the long-term future (20-50 years). For the near future, there is some "low hanging fruit" which is clearly on the horizon, such as a Vi-conjugate vaccine for typhoid or a protein-based vaccine for Neisseria meningitidis serogroup B. Just slightly more distant will be vaccines for shigellosis and a common protein vaccine for Streptococcus pneumoniae. Also in this group, but not as far advanced, will be a vaccine for Group A streptococcus. I place vaccines for the "big three", malaria, tuberculosis and HIV/AIDS in the medium term basket. The sporozoite malaria vaccine RTS-S is closest, but surely a definitive malaria vaccine will also require antigens from other stages of the life cycle. A tuberculosis vaccine will be either a re-engineered BCG; or a molecular vaccine with several protein antigens; or one based on prime-boost strategies. What will delay this is the high cost of clinical trials. For HIV/AIDS, the partial success of the Sanofi-Pasteur prime-boost vaccine has given some hope. I still place much faith in antibody-based vaccines and especially on mimotopes of the env transitional state assumed after initial CD4 binding. Monoclonal antibodies are also leading us in interesting directions. Longer term, the vaccine approach will be successful for autoimmune diseases, e.g. juvenile diabetes and coeliac disease. Cancer vaccines are also briefly surveyed. Adjunct issues needing to be addressed include more extensive combinations; alternate delivery systems; and more intelligently designed adjuvants based on knowledge of the innate immune system.

  8. HPV vaccine

    MedlinePlus

    ... HPV; Gardasil; HPV2; HPV4; Vaccine to prevent cervical cancer; Genital warts - HPV vaccine; Cervical dysplasia - HPV vaccine; Cervical cancer - HPV vaccine; Cancer of the cervix - HPV vaccine; ...

  9. Rabies virus inactivation by binary ethylenimine: new method for inactivated vaccine production.

    PubMed Central

    Larghi, O P; Nebel, A E

    1980-01-01

    The inactivation dynamics of rabies virus (PV strain) by binary ethylenimine, and the immunogenic properites and the stability of the vaccines prepared using this agent, were studied. Binary ethylenimine at a final concentration of 0.01 M was prepared wtih 2-bromoethylamine hydrobromide in alkaline solutions, either separately from or in suspensions of rabies virus propagated in BHK cells. The infectivity of virus suspensions containing more than 108 plaque-forming units per 0.1 ml was inactivated in 2 h when the inactivating agent was prepared before its addition to the suspensions, and in3 h when prepared directly in the suspensions. Liquid vaccines prepared in this manner and stored at different temperatures maintained potency for 1 month at 37 degrees C and for 6 months at 4 degrees C and 22 to 25 degrees C. Lyophilized vaccine maintained its potency for 6 months at the three temperatures. The inactivated vaccine mixed with aluminum or oil adjuvant at high dilutions protected guinea pigs against challenge. This safer procedure for rabies virus inactivation offers promise for the production of effective vaccines for the immunization of dogs and cattle. PMID:7358836

  10. Subunit vaccine candidates against Aeromonas salmonicida in rainbow trout Oncorhynchus mykiss

    PubMed Central

    Jørgensen, Louise von Gersdorff; Skov, Jakob; Chettri, Jiwan Kumar; Holm Mattsson, Andreas; Dalsgaard, Inger; Kania, Per Walter; Buchmann, Kurt

    2017-01-01

    Aeromonas salmonicida subsp. salmonicida is the etiological agent of furunculosis and a major fish health problem in salmonid aquaculture worldwide. Injection vaccination with commercial mineral oil-adjuvanted bacterin vaccines has been partly successful in preventing the disease but in Danish rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss, Walbaum) aquaculture furunculosis outbreaks still occur. In this study we tested the efficacy of experimental subunit vaccines against A. salmonicida infection in rainbow trout. We utilized in silico screening of the proteome of A. salmonicida subsp. salmonicida strain A449 and identified potential protective protein antigens that were tested by in vivo challenge trial. A total of 14 proteins were recombinantly expressed in Escherichia coli and prepared in 3 different subunit vaccine combinations to immunize 3 groups of rainbow trout by intraperitoneal (i.p.) injection. The fish were exposed to virulent A. salmonicida 7 weeks after immunization. To assess the efficacy of the subunit vaccines we evaluated the immune response in fish after immunization and challenge infection by measuring the antibody levels and monitoring the survival of fish in different groups. The survival of fish at 3 weeks after challenge infection showed that all 3 groups of fish immunized with 3 different protein combinations exhibited significantly lower mortalities (17–30%) compared to the control groups (48% and 56%). The ELISA results revealed significantly elevated antibody levels in fish against several protein antigens, which in some cases were positively correlated to the survival. PMID:28182704

  11. Effects of adjuvant Montanide™ ISA 763 A VG in rainbow trout injection vaccinated against Yersinia ruckeri.

    PubMed

    Jaafar, Rzgar M; Chettri, Jiwan K; Dalsgaard, Inger; Al-Jubury, Azmi; Kania, Per W; Skov, Jakob; Buchmann, Kurt

    2015-12-01

    Enteric redmouth disease (ERM) caused by the fish pathogen Yersinia ruckeri is a major threat to freshwater production of rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) throughout all life stages. Injection vaccination of rainbow trout against Y. ruckeri infection has been shown to confer better protection compared to the traditionally applied immersion vaccination. It may be hypothesized, based on experience from other vaccines, that adjuvants may increase the protective level of ERM injection vaccines even more. Controlled comparative vaccination studies have been performed to investigate effects of the oil adjuvant Montanide™ ISA 763 A VG (Seppic) when added to an experimental Y. ruckeri bacterin (containing both biotype 1 and 2 of serotype O1). A total of 1000 fish with mean weight 19 g was divided into five different groups (in duplicated tanks 2 × 100 fish per group) 1) non-vaccinated control fish (NonVac), 2) fish injected with a commercial vaccine (AquaVac(®) Relera™) (ComVac), 3) fish injected with an experimental vaccine (ExpVac), 4) fish injected with an experimental vaccine + adjuvant (ExpVacAdj) and 5) fish injected with adjuvant alone (Adj). Injection of the experimental vaccine (both adjuvanted and non-adjuvanted) induced a significantly higher antibody (IgM) level, increased occurrence of IgM(+) cells in spleen tissue and significant up-regulation of several immune genes. Additional experiments using a higher challenge dosage suggested an immune enhancing effect of the adjuvant as the challenge produced 100% mortality in the NonVac group, 60% mortality in both of ComVac and Adj groups and only 13 and 2.5% mortalities in the ExpVac and the ExpVacAdj groups, respectively. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Delayed ejaculation

    MedlinePlus

    Ejaculatory incompetence; Sex - delayed ejaculation; Retarded ejaculation; Anejaculation; Infertility - delayed ejaculation ... include: Religious background that makes the person view sex as sinful Lack of attraction for a partner ...

  13. Immunogenicity and protective efficacy of the norovirus P particle-M2e chimeric vaccine in chickens.

    PubMed

    Elaish, M; Kang, K I; Xia, M; Ali, A; Shany, S A S; Wang, L; Jiang, X; Lee, C W

    2015-09-11

    The ectodomain of the influenza matrix protein 2 (M2e) is highly conserved across strains and has been shown to be a promising candidate for universal influenza vaccine in the mouse model. In this study, we tested immune response and protective efficacy of a chimeric norovirus P particle containing the avian M2e protein against challenges with three avian influenza (AI) viruses (H5N2, H6N2, H7N2) in chickens. Two-week-old specific pathogen free chickens were vaccinated 3 times with an M2e-P particle (M2e-PP) vaccine via the subcutaneous (SQ) route with oil adjuvant, and transmucosal routes (intranasal, IN; eye drop, ED; microspray, MS) without adjuvant. M2e-PP vaccination via the SQ route induced significant IgG antibody responses which were increased by each booster vaccination. In groups vaccinated via IN, ED or MS, neither IgG nor IgA responses were detected from sera or nasal washes of immunized birds. The M2e-PP vaccination via the SQ route significantly reduced the virus shedding in the trachea and the cloaca for all three challenge viruses. Despite the absence of detectable IgG and IgA responses in birds vaccinated with the M2e-PP via intranasal routes, a similar level of reduction in virus shedding was observed in the IN group compared to the SQ group. Our results supports that the universal vaccine approach using M2e-based vaccine can provide cross-protection against challenge viruses among different HA subtypes although the efficacy of the vaccine should be enhanced further to be practical. Better understanding of the protective immune mechanism will be critical for the development of an M2e-based vaccine in chickens.

  14. The Effectiveness of Anti-R. equi Hyperimmune Plasma against R. equi Challenge in Thoroughbred Arabian Foals of Mares Vaccinated with R. equi Vaccine

    PubMed Central

    Erganis, Osman; Sayin, Zafer; Hadimli, Hasan Huseyin; Sakmanoglu, Asli; Pinarkara, Yasemin; Ozdemir, Ozgur; Maden, Mehmet

    2014-01-01

    This study aimed to determine the effectiveness of a pregnant mare immunization of a Rhodococcus equi (R. equi) vaccine candidate containing a water-based nanoparticle mineral oil adjuvanted (Montanide IMS 3012) inactive bacterin and virulence-associated protein A (VapA), as well as the administration of anti-R. equi hyperimmune (HI) plasma against R. equi challenge in the mares' foals. The efficacy of passive immunizations (colostral passive immunity by mare vaccination and artificial passive immunity by HI plasma administration) was evaluated based on clinical signs, complete blood count, blood gas analysis, serological response (ELISA), interleukin-4 (IL-4) and interferon gamma (IFN-γ), total cell count of the bronchoalveolar lavage fluids (BALF) samples, reisolation rate of R. equi from BALF samples (CFU/mL), lung samples (CFU/gr), and lesion scores of the organs and tissue according to pathological findings after necropsy in the foals. The vaccination of pregnant mares and HI plasma administration in the foals reduced the severity of R. equi pneumonia and lesion scores of the organs and tissue by 3.54-fold compared to the control foals. This study thus indicates that immunization of pregnant mares with R. equi vaccine candidate and administration of HI plasma in mares' foals effectively protect foals against R. equi challenge. PMID:24982958

  15. The effectiveness of anti-R. equi hyperimmune plasma against R. equi challenge in thoroughbred Arabian foals of mares vaccinated with R. equi vaccine.

    PubMed

    Erganis, Osman; Sayin, Zafer; Hadimli, Hasan Huseyin; Sakmanoglu, Asli; Pinarkara, Yasemin; Ozdemir, Ozgur; Maden, Mehmet

    2014-01-01

    This study aimed to determine the effectiveness of a pregnant mare immunization of a Rhodococcus equi (R. equi) vaccine candidate containing a water-based nanoparticle mineral oil adjuvanted (Montanide IMS 3012) inactive bacterin and virulence-associated protein A (VapA), as well as the administration of anti-R. equi hyperimmune (HI) plasma against R. equi challenge in the mares' foals. The efficacy of passive immunizations (colostral passive immunity by mare vaccination and artificial passive immunity by HI plasma administration) was evaluated based on clinical signs, complete blood count, blood gas analysis, serological response (ELISA), interleukin-4 (IL-4) and interferon gamma (IFN- γ ), total cell count of the bronchoalveolar lavage fluids (BALF) samples, reisolation rate of R. equi from BALF samples (CFU/mL), lung samples (CFU/gr), and lesion scores of the organs and tissue according to pathological findings after necropsy in the foals. The vaccination of pregnant mares and HI plasma administration in the foals reduced the severity of R. equi pneumonia and lesion scores of the organs and tissue by 3.54-fold compared to the control foals. This study thus indicates that immunization of pregnant mares with R. equi vaccine candidate and administration of HI plasma in mares' foals effectively protect foals against R. equi challenge.

  16. Vaccination of cattle against pseudorabies (Aujeszky's disease) with homologous virus (herpes suis) and heterologous virus (herpes bovis 1).

    PubMed

    Biront, P; Vandeputte, J; Pensaert, M B; Leunen, J

    1982-05-01

    Study was made to determine whether vaccination of cattle against pseudorabies (PR; Aujeszky's disease) affords protection upon subsequent intranasal challenge exposure with virulent virus. Vaccinations were performed with a commercially available oil-adjuvant PR virus vaccine, in some cases supplemented with A1(OH)3 (given subcutaneously), with the attenuated NIA4 strain of PR virus (given intranasally), and with a commercially available temperature-sensitive mutant of bovine herpesvirus-1 (infectious bovine rhinotracheitis [IBR] virus) given intranasally. Challenge exposure was performed intranasally with 10(3) median lethal doses (LD50) of the virulent PR virus. In earlier experiments, it was found that LD50 median tissue culture infective doses of this virulent PR virus in primary pig kidney cells represented about 1 LD50 for cattle. This LD50 was practically no different for cattle whether or not they had antibodies against PR virus before exposure to virulent PR virus. In the seropositive animals, antibodies were present presumably as a consequence of a previous IBR infection in the field. Vaccination intranasally with NIA4 or IBR virus did not result in serologic response or protection against challenge exposure. The inactivated-virus vaccine induced a good serologic reaction, but there was poor protection against challenge exposure. Consequently, vaccination of cattle at risk of exposure to virulent PR virus cannot be advised. In the present experiments, initiation of infection with virulent PR virus in cattle always resulted in disease and death.

  17. Vaccination strategies to prevent emerging diseases for Spanish aquaculture.

    PubMed

    Romalde, J L; Ravelo, C; López-Romalde, S; Avendaño-Herrera, R; Magariños, B; Toranzo, A E

    2005-01-01

    In recent years, three serious diseases have emerged in Spanish aquaculture. These are lactococcosis caused by Lactococcus garvieae, which is of economical importance in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss); pseudomonadiasis caused by Pseudomonas anguilliseptica which affects gilthead seabream (Sparus aurata) and turbot (Scophthalmus maximus); and flexibacteriosis caused by Tenacibaculum maritimum which became a devastating problem in the emerging culture of sole (Solea spp). To obtain useful information for the design and development of new vaccines, antigenic characterisation of representative strains was performed. In this work we present the strategies adopted for the vaccine formulation (strains included, use of adjuvants) and administration (route, necessity of booster, etc.). The results from laboratory and/or field vaccination trials performed showed that for lactococcosis, protection lasting for five months was obtained with an oil-adjuvanted bacterin formulation. Unadjuvanted bacterin gave only a short duration of protection, which could, however, be prolonged by an antigen boost administered via the feed. A bacterin against Pseudomonas anguilliseptica gave protection for 12 weeks when tested in an experimental challenge trial in turbot. Besides the flexibacteriosis vaccine developed by our group for turbot, and due to the antigenic host-associated variability within T. maritimum, a new bacterin was developed against this bacterium to be used specifically in sole. This new bacterin, administered to sole by intraperitoneal injection, yielded RPS values of 94 % six weeks after immunization. In conclusion, these results suggest that vaccination constitutes a cost-effective method of controlling diseases that have emerged in the most important fish species being cultured in Spain.

  18. [Mercury in vaccines].

    PubMed

    Hessel, Luc

    2003-01-01

    Thiomersal, also called thimerosal, is an ethyl mercury derivative used as a preservative to prevent bacterial contamination of multidose vaccine vials after they have been opened. Exposure to low doses of thiomersal has essentially been associated with hypersensitivity reactions. Nevertheless there is no evidence that allergy to thiomersal could be induced by thiomersal-containing vaccines. Allergy to thiomersal is usually of delayed-hypersensitivity type, but its detection through cutaneous tests is not very reliable. Hypersensitivity to thiomersal is not considered as a contraindication to the use of thiomersal-containing vaccines. In 1999 in the USA, thiomersal was present in approximately 30 different childhood vaccines, whereas there were only 2 in France. Although there were no evidence of neurological toxicity in infants related to the use of thiomersal-containing vaccines, the FDA considered that the cumulative dose of mercury received by young infants following vaccination was high enough (although lower than the FDA threshold for methyl mercury) to request vaccine manufacturers to remove thiomersal from vaccine formulations. Since 2002, all childhood vaccines used in Europe and the USA are thiomersal-free or contain only minute amounts of thiomersal. Recently published studies have shown that the mercury levels in the blood, faeces and urine of children who had received thiomersal-containing vaccines were much lower than those accepted by the American Environmental Protection Agency. It has also been demonstrated that the elimination of mercury in children was much faster than what was expected on the basis of studies conducted with methyl mercury originating from food. Recently, the hypothesis that mercury contained in vaccines could be the cause of autism and other neurological developmental disorders created a new debate in the medical community and the general public. To date, none of the epidemiological studies conducted in Europe and elsewhere

  19. HPV Vaccine

    MedlinePlus

    ... Surgery? A Week of Healthy Breakfasts Shyness HPV Vaccine KidsHealth > For Teens > HPV Vaccine A A A ... starting at age 9. continue How Does the Vaccine Work? The HPV vaccine is approved for people ...

  20. Polio Vaccine

    MedlinePlus

    ... staff Home Family Health Infants and Toddlers Polio Vaccine Polio Vaccine Share Print Polio Vaccine What is polio? Poliomyelitis (polio) is a serious ... each year. Fortunately, the use of the polio vaccine has made the disease very rare in most ...

  1. Increasing versatility of the DNA vaccines through modification of the subcellular location of plasmid-encoded antigen expression in the in vivo transfected cells.

    PubMed

    Martinez-Lopez, Alicia; García-Valtanen, Pablo; Ortega-Villaizan, María Del Mar; Chico, Verónica; Medina-Gali, Regla María; Perez, Luis; Coll, Julio; Estepa, Amparo

    2013-01-01

    The route of administration of DNA vaccines can play a key role in the magnitude and quality of the immune response triggered after their administration. DNA vaccines containing the gene of the membrane-anchored glycoprotein (gpG) of the fish rhabdoviruses infectious haematopoietic necrosis virus (IHNV) or viral haematopoietic septicaemia virus (VHSV), perhaps the most effective DNA vaccines generated so far, confer maximum protection when injected intramuscularly in contrast to their low efficacy when injected intraperitoneally. In this work, taking as a model the DNA vaccine against VHSV, we focused on developing a more versatile DNA vaccine capable of inducing protective immunity regardless of the administration route used. For that, we designed two alternative constructs to gpG₁₋₅₀₇ (the wild type membrane-anchored gpG of VHSV) encoding either a soluble (gpG₁₋₄₆₂) or a secreted soluble (gpG(LmPle20-462)) form of the VHSV-gpG. In vivo immunisation/challenge assays showed that only gpG(LmPle20-462) (the secreted soluble form) conferred protective immunity against VHSV lethal challenge via both intramuscular and intraperitoneal injection, being this the first description of a fish viral DNA vaccine that confers protection when administered intraperitoneally. Moreover, this new DNA vaccine construct also conferred protection when administered in the presence of an oil adjuvant suggesting that DNA vaccines against rhabdoviruses could be included in the formulation of current multicomponent-intaperitoneally injectable fish vaccines formulated with an oil adjuvant. On the other hand, a strong recruitment of membrane immunoglobulin expressing B cells, mainly membrane IgT, as well as t-bet expressing T cells, at early times post-immunisation, was specifically observed in the fish immunised with the secreted soluble form of the VHSV-gpG protein; this may indicate that the subcellular location of plasmid-encoded antigen expression in the in vivo

  2. Viva Delay.

    PubMed

    Yahaghi, Hossein; Sorooshian, Shahryar; Yahaghi, Javad

    2016-06-28

    The time delay between submission of a thesis and Viva Voce is intolerable for students. This letter tries to draw the readers' attention to the effect of choosing the right examiner, in order to reduce the Viva Voce delay.

  3. Superior protection elicited by live-attenuated vaccines in the murine model of paratuberculosis.

    PubMed

    Ghosh, Pallab; Shippy, Daniel C; Talaat, Adel M

    2015-12-16

    Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis (M. paratuberculosis) causes Johne's disease, a chronic enteric infection in ruminants with severe economic impact on the dairy industry in the USA and worldwide. Currently, available vaccines have limited protective efficacy against disease progression and does not prevent spread of the infection among animals. Because of their ability to elicit wide-spectrum immune responses, we adopted a live-attenuated vaccine approach based on a sigH knock-out strain of M. paratuberculosis (ΔsigH). Earlier analysis of the ΔsigH mutant in mice indicated their inadequate ability to colonize host tissues, unlike the isogenic wild-type strain, validating the role of this sigma factor in M. paratuberculosis virulence. In the present study, we evaluated the performance of the ΔsigH mutant compared to inactivated vaccine constructs in a vaccine/challenge model of murine paratuberculosis. The presented analysis indicated that ΔsigH mutant with or without QuilA adjuvant is capable of eliciting strong immune responses (such as interferon gamma-γ, IFN-γ) suggesting their immunogenicity and ability to potentially initiate effective vaccine-induced immunity. Following a challenge with virulent strains of M. paratuberculosis, ΔsigH conferred protective immunity as indicated by the reduced bacterial burden accompanied with reduced lesions in main body organs (liver, spleen and intestine) usually infected with M. paratuberculosis. More importantly, our data indicated better ability of the ΔsigH vaccine to confer protection compared to the inactivated vaccine constructs even with the presence of oil-adjuvant. Overall, our approach provides a rational basis for using live-attenuated mutant strains to develop improved vaccines that elicit robust immunity against this chronic infection.

  4. Protective effect of NaOH-extracted Erysipelothrix rhusiopathiae vaccine in pigs.

    PubMed

    Kitajima, T; Oishi, E; Amimoto, K; Ui, S; Nakamura, H; Okada, N; Sasaki, O; Yasuhara, H

    1998-01-01

    A vaccine was prepared from a NaOH-extracted antigen of the Kyoto strain (serovar 2) of Erysipelothrix rhusiopathiae (E. rhusiopathiae) with an oil adjuvant, and was injected twice at 3-week intervals into SPF pigs and conventional pigs with maternal antibodies. After the second vaccination, IgG-GA titers of immunized SPF pigs were more than 256-fold at 3 weeks, and immunized pigs with maternal antibodies were 64-fold at 7 weeks. The pig with maternal antibodies vaccinated once with live vaccine had less than 4-fold titers. The ELISA antibody titers which were measured by using the NaOH-extracted antigen showed similar transition to the IgG-GA antibody titers. All immunized pigs and nonvaccinated control pigs were challenged with the strains Fujisawa (serovar 1a) or Saitama-1 (serovar 2). After challenge exposure, all pigs immunized with the NaOH-extracted vaccine showed no clinical signs and survived, and the pig immunized with the live vaccine had a local rhomboidal lesion at the site of the injection. Nonvaccinated pigs developed typical symptoms of E. rhusiopathiae infection and one of them died. After the autopsy, the challenge strains were not recovered from the main organs except tonsils of the pigs immunized with the NaOH-extracted vaccine. These results indicated that the NaOH-extracted vaccine induces a protective effect in pigs with maternal antibodies as well as in SPF pigs negative for such antibodies, and that 67-64, 62-60 kDa proteins in the NaOH-extracted antigen play an important role in protecting against E. rhusiopathiae infection.

  5. Vaccines (immunizations) - overview

    MedlinePlus

    Vaccinations; Immunizations; Immunize; Vaccine shots; Prevention - vaccine ... component) of the vaccine. VACCINE SCHEDULE The recommended vaccination (immunization) schedule is updated every 12 months by ...

  6. B cells delay neutrophil migration towards the site of stimulus: tardiness critical for effective BCG vaccination against TB infection in mice1

    PubMed Central

    Kondratieva, Tatiana K.; Rubakova, Elvira I.; Linge, Irina A.; Evstifeev, Vladimir V.; Majorov, Konstantin B.; Apt, Alexander S.

    2010-01-01

    Summary Mutations in the btk gene encoding Bruton’s tyrosine kinase cause X-linked immune deficiency (XID), with impaired B-lymphocyte function as the major phenotype. Earlier we demonstrated that CBA/N-xid mice, unlike the wild type CBA mice, were not protected by BCG vaccination against tuberculosis (TB) infection. Since IFN-γ-producing T-cells and activated macrophages are key elements of anti-TB protection, it remained unclear how the mutation predominantly affecting B-cell functions interferes with responses along the T-cell – macrophage axis. Here we show that B cell deficiency leads to an abnormally rapid neutrophil migration towards the site of external stimulus. Using adoptive cell transfers and B cell genetic knock-out we demonstrate a previously unappreciated capacity of B cells to down-regulate neutrophil motility. In our system, an advanced capture of BCG by neutrophils instead of macrophages leads to a significant decrease in numbers of IFN-γ-producing T-cells and impairs BCG performance in XID mice. The defect is readily compensated for by the in vivo neutrophil depletion. PMID:20028653

  7. B cells delay neutrophil migration toward the site of stimulus: tardiness critical for effective bacillus Calmette-Guérin vaccination against tuberculosis infection in mice.

    PubMed

    Kondratieva, Tatiana K; Rubakova, Elvira I; Linge, Irina A; Evstifeev, Vladimir V; Majorov, Konstantin B; Apt, Alexander S

    2010-02-01

    Mutations in the btk gene encoding Bruton's tyrosine kinase cause X-linked immune deficiency, with impaired B lymphocyte function as the major phenotype. Earlier, we demonstrated that CBA/N-xid mice, unlike the wild-type CBA mice, were not protected by bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG) vaccination against tuberculosis infection. Because IFN-gamma-producing T cells and activated macrophages are key elements of antituberculosis protection, it remained unclear how the mutation predominantly affecting B cell functions interferes with responses along the T cell-macrophage axis. In this study, we show that B cell deficiency leads to an abnormally rapid neutrophil migration toward the site of external stimulus. Using adoptive cell transfers and B cell genetic knockout, we demonstrate a previously unappreciated capacity of B cells to downregulate neutrophil motility. In our system, an advanced capture of BCG by neutrophils instead of macrophages leads to a significant decrease in numbers of IFN-gamma-producing T cells and impairs BCG performance in X-linked immune-deficient mice. The defect is readily compensated for by the in vivo neutrophil depletion.

  8. Regulated delayed expression of rfc enhances the immunogenicity and protective efficacy of a heterologous antigen delivered by live attenuated Salmonella enterica vaccines.

    PubMed

    Kong, Qingke; Liu, Qing; Jansen, Angela M; Curtiss, Roy

    2010-08-23

    The Salmonella rfc gene encodes the O-antigen polymerase. We constructed three strains in which we replaced the native rfc promoter with the arabinose-dependent araC P(BAD) promoter so that rfc expression was dependent on exogenously supplied arabinose provided during in vitro growth. The three mutant strains were designed to synthesize different amounts of Rfc by altering the ribosome-binding sequence and start codon. We examined these strains for a number of in vitro characteristics compared to an isogenic Deltarfc mutant and the wild-type parent strain. One promoter-replacement mutation, DeltaP(rfc174), yielded an optimal profile, exhibiting wild-type characteristics when grown with arabinose, and Deltarfc characteristics when grown without arabinose. In addition, when administered orally, the DeltaP(rfc174) strain was completely attenuated in for virulence in mice. The DeltaP(rfc174) mutation was introduced into attenuated Salmonella vaccine strain chi9241 (DeltapabA DeltapabB DeltaasdA) followed by introduction of an Asd(+) balanced-lethal plasmid to designed for expression of the pneumococcal surface protein PspA. Mice immunized with either chi9241 or its DeltaP(rfc174) derivative expressing pspA were protected against S. pneumoniae challenge.

  9. Vaccine hesitancy

    PubMed Central

    Dubé, Eve; Laberge, Caroline; Guay, Maryse; Bramadat, Paul; Roy, Réal; Bettinger, Julie A.

    2013-01-01

    Despite being recognized as one of the most successful public health measures, vaccination is perceived as unsafe and unnecessary by a growing number of individuals. Lack of confidence in vaccines is now considered a threat to the success of vaccination programs. Vaccine hesitancy is believed to be responsible for decreasing vaccine coverage and an increasing risk of vaccine-preventable disease outbreaks and epidemics. This review provides an overview of the phenomenon of vaccine hesitancy. First, we will characterize vaccine hesitancy and suggest the possible causes of the apparent increase in vaccine hesitancy in the developed world. Then we will look at determinants of individual decision-making about vaccination. PMID:23584253

  10. Public awareness regarding children vaccination in Jordan

    PubMed Central

    Masadeh, Majed M; Alzoubi, Karem H; Al-Azzam, Sayer I; Al-Agedi, Hassan S; Abu Rashid, Baraa E; Mukattash, Tariq L

    2014-01-01

    Immunization can contribute to a dramatic reduction in number of vaccine-preventable diseases among children. The aim of this study is to investigate mothers’ awareness about child vaccines and vaccination in Jordan. This study was a community-based, cross-sectional study that was performed at public places in Irbid City. Data was collected from 506 mothers. After verbal approval, mothers were interviewed to assess their knowledge, attitudes, and practice toward vaccination. Results show that majority of mothers had acceptable knowledge and positive attitude toward vaccination. Most of mothers (94.7–86.8%) were able to identify vaccines that are mandatory as per the national vaccination program. Lower knowledge was observed among mothers (71.6%) for HIB vaccination being mandatory. Most mothers (97.2%) had vaccination card for their baby form the national vaccination programs. Vaccination delay was reported by about 36.6% of mothers and was shown to be associated with significantly (P = 0.001) lower vaccination knowledge/attitude score. Additionally, mothers who reported to be regularly offered information about vaccination during visits and those who identified medical staff members as their major information source had significantly higher vaccination knowledge/attitude score (P = 0.002). In conclusion, vaccination coverage rate is high; however, some aspects of knowledge, attitudes, and practice of vaccination need to be improved. Knowledge and attitudes of mothers were directly associated with their practice of vaccination. Medical staff education about vaccination during each visit seems to be the most effective tool that directly reflects on better practice of vaccination such as reducing the possibility for vaccination delay. PMID:24732060

  11. Public awareness regarding children vaccination in Jordan.

    PubMed

    Masadeh, Majed M; Alzoubi, Karem H; Al-Azzam, Sayer I; Al-Agedi, Hassan S; Abu Rashid, Baraa E; Mukattash, Tariq L

    2014-01-01

    Immunization can contribute to a dramatic reduction in number of vaccine-preventable diseases among children. The aim of this study is to investigate mothers' awareness about child vaccines and vaccination in Jordan. This study was a community-based, cross-sectional study that was performed at public places in Irbid City. Data was collected from 506 mothers. After verbal approval, mothers were interviewed to assess their knowledge, attitudes, and practice toward vaccination. Results show that majority of mothers had acceptable knowledge and positive attitude toward vaccination. Most of mothers (94.7-86.8%) were able to identify vaccines that are mandatory as per the national vaccination program. Lower knowledge was observed among mothers (71.6%) for HIB vaccination being mandatory. Most mothers (97.2%) had vaccination card for their baby form the national vaccination programs. Vaccination delay was reported by about 36.6% of mothers and was shown to be associated with significantly (P = 0.001) lower vaccination knowledge/attitude score. Additionally, mothers who reported to be regularly offered information about vaccination during visits and those who identified medical staff members as their major information source had significantly higher vaccination knowledge/attitude score (P = 0.002). In conclusion, vaccination coverage rate is high; however, some aspects of knowledge, attitudes, and practice of vaccination need to be improved. Knowledge and attitudes of mothers were directly associated with their practice of vaccination. Medical staff education about vaccination during each visit seems to be the most effective tool that directly reflects on better practice of vaccination such as reducing the possibility for vaccination delay.

  12. Vaccine hesitancy and healthcare providers.

    PubMed

    Paterson, Pauline; Meurice, François; Stanberry, Lawrence R; Glismann, Steffen; Rosenthal, Susan L; Larson, Heidi J

    2016-12-20

    While most people vaccinate according to the recommended schedule, this success is challenged by individuals and groups who delay or refuse vaccines. The aim of this article is to review studies on vaccine hesitancy among healthcare providers (HCPs), and the influences of their own vaccine confidence and vaccination behaviour on their vaccination recommendations to others. The search strategy was developed in Medline and then adapted across several multidisciplinary mainstream databases including Embase Classic & Embase, and PschInfo. All foreign language articles were included if the abstract was available in English. A total of 185 articles were included in the literature review. 66% studied the vaccine hesitancy among HCPs, 17% analysed concerns, attitudes and/or behaviour of HCPs towards vaccinating others, and 9% were about evaluating intervention(s). Overall, knowledge about particular vaccines, their efficacy and safety, helped to build HCPs own confidence in vaccines and their willingness to recommend vaccines to others. The importance of societal endorsement and support from colleagues was also reported. In the face of emerging vaccine hesitancy, HCPs still remain the most trusted advisor and influencer of vaccination decisions. The capacity and confidence of HCPs, though, are stretched as they are faced with time constraints, increased workload and limited resources, and often have inadequate information or training support to address parents' questions. Overall, HCPs need more support to manage the quickly evolving vaccine environment as well as changing public, especially those who are reluctant or refuse vaccination. Some recommended strategies included strengthening trust between HCPs, health authorities and policymakers, through more shared involvement in the establishment of vaccine recommendations.

  13. [Travelers' vaccines].

    PubMed

    Ouchi, Kazunobu

    2011-09-01

    The number of Japanese oversea travelers has gradually increased year by year, however they usually pay less attention to the poor physical condition at the voyage place. Many oversea travelers caught vaccine preventable diseases in developing countries. The Vaccine Guideline for Oversea Travelers 2010 published by Japanese Society of Travel Health will be helpful for spreading the knowledge of travelers' vaccine and vaccine preventable diseases in developing countries. Many travelers' vaccines have not licensed in Japan. I hope these travelers' vaccines, such as typhoid vaccine, meningococcal vaccine, cholera vaccine and so on will be licensed in the near future.

  14. Technical and economic evaluation of different methods of Newcastle disease vaccine administration.

    PubMed

    Degefa, T; Dadi, L; Yami, A; GMariam, K; Nassir, M

    2004-01-01

    Two types of locally produced live vaccines (HB1 and La Sota--lentogenic strains) and inactivated oil adjuvant (IOAV) vaccine were used to compare the efficiency of three vaccination techniques, namely drinking water, ocular and spray on broiler chicks. The ocular route of vaccination on 1-day-old chicks followed by a booster dose on the third week through the same route induced a significantly higher level of haemagglutination inhibition antibody titre (P < 0.0001). The highest mean antibody titre was log(2) 6.6 and 93.3% of the chicks were protected from the challenge. The spray technique induced a lower antibody titre (peak of log(2) 5.9) and only 53% of the chicks in this treatment survived against the challenge. The results of this study show that the ocular route is superior to the drinking water route, which is superior to the spray technique. The economic analysis result showed that the ocular HB1 and La Sota vaccine administration method to 1- and 21-day-old chicks gave the highest revenue followed by the drinking water method. In terms of total cost, the injection method required the highest cost (0.21 birr/chick) followed by the ocular method (0.18 birr/chick). The marginal cost of vaccine administration is too small compared with marginal revenues from relative effectiveness of the methods. The internal rate of return for the ocular method was very high. The results of sensitive analysis on revenues from different vaccination methods indicate that a 25% reduction in broiler price reduces the marginal revenue from the ocular method by 12 487 birr but this still does not prove that the ocular method is economically viable for small- and medium-scale poultry farms.

  15. [Delayed puberty].

    PubMed

    Edouard, T; Tauber, M

    2010-02-01

    Delayed puberty is defined in girls by the absence of breast development beyond 13 years old and in boys by the absence of testicular enlargement (< 4 ml) beyond 14 years old. Simple investigations lead to the diagnosis of central or peripheral hypogonadism and constitutional delay of puberty. In girls, delayed puberty is rare and often organic, and then Turner syndrome should be systematically suspected. In boys, delayed puberty is often constitutional and functional. Treatment is etiologic when possible, hormonal replacement therapy (oestrogen in girls and testosterone in boys) and psychological management.

  16. Vaccine candidates in STD.

    PubMed

    Fletcher, Mark A

    2002-12-01

    Sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) are caused by organisms that infect the mucosal surfaces of the genitourinary tract. In spite of its public health importance, current STD vaccine research lags behind work against pathogens that target another mucosal region, the respiratory tract. In the latter case, live-attenuated viral vaccines, killed whole-cell bacterial vaccines, subunit/protein bacterial vaccines, and bacterial polysaccharide vaccines have been enormously successful. To move STD vaccine research forward, complex issues must be resolved. Those include selection of an appropriate antigen (e.g. scientific feasibility and intellectual property rights), the manufacture of the vaccine (e.g. delivery systems, formulation processes, and production steps), and the appropriate public health approach (e.g. medical indications and marketing aspects). Particular scientific problems have delayed STD vaccine development, like incomplete attenuation (human herpes simplex virus type 2), accentuated immunopathology (Chlamydia trachomatis), poor immunogenicity (Treponema pallidum), and broad antigenic heterogeneity (Neisseria gonorrhoeae). Nevertheless, efforts continue with the use of protein antigens: for example, the haemolysin toxoid of Haemophilus ducreyi; the major outer membrane protein(s) of N. gonorrhoeae and C. trachomatis; the glycoprotein D of human herpes simplex virus type 2; and the proteins E6 and E7 of human papilloma virus. It may be predicted that eventual STD vaccines (administered either for prophylaxis or for therapy) will use approaches that include (1) live-attenuated viruses, (2) subunit proteins or inactivated whole organisms given with mucosal adjuvants or with cellular immune response adjuvants, and (3) DNA plasmids expressing the vaccine antigen.

  17. Leptospirosis vaccines

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Zhijun; Jin, Li; Węgrzyn, Alicja

    2007-01-01

    Leptospirosis is a serious infection disease caused by pathogenic strains of the Leptospira spirochetes, which affects not only humans but also animals. It has long been expected to find an effective vaccine to prevent leptospirosis through immunization of high risk humans or animals. Although some leptospirosis vaccines have been obtained, the vaccination is relatively unsuccessful in clinical application despite decades of research and millions of dollars spent. In this review, the recent advancements of recombinant outer membrane protein (OMP) vaccines, lipopolysaccharide (LPS) vaccines, inactivated vaccines, attenuated vaccines and DNA vaccines against leptospirosis are reviewed. A comparison of these vaccines may lead to development of new potential methods to combat leptospirosis and facilitate the leptospirosis vaccine research. Moreover, a vaccine ontology database was built for the scientists working on the leptospirosis vaccines as a starting tool. PMID:18072968

  18. Rotavirus Vaccine

    MedlinePlus

    ... have had a type of bowel blockage called "intussusception" should not get rotavirus vaccine. Babies who are ... of rotavirus vaccine.Severe problems following rotavirus vaccine:Intussusception is a type of bowel blockage that is ...

  19. Quillaja brasiliensis saponins induce robust humoral and cellular responses in a bovine viral diarrhea virus vaccine in mice.

    PubMed

    Cibulski, Samuel Paulo; Silveira, Fernando; Mourglia-Ettlin, Gustavo; Teixeira, Thais Fumaco; dos Santos, Helton Fernandes; Yendo, Anna Carolina; de Costa, Fernanda; Fett-Neto, Arthur Germano; Gosmann, Grace; Roehe, Paulo Michel

    2016-04-01

    A saponin fraction extracted from Quillaja brasiliensis leaves (QB-90) and a semi-purified aqueous extract (AE) were evaluated as adjuvants in a bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) vaccine in mice. Animals were immunized on days 0 and 14 with antigen plus either QB-90 or AE or an oil-adjuvanted vaccine. Two-weeks after boosting, antibodies were measured by ELISA; cellular immunity was evaluated by DTH, lymphoproliferation, cytokine release and single cell IFN-γ production. Serum anti-BVDV IgG, IgG1 and IgG2b were significantly increased in QB-90- and AE-adjuvanted vaccines. A robust DTH response, increased splenocyte proliferation, Th1-type cytokines and enhanced production of IFN-γ by CD4(+) and CD8(+) T lymphocytes were detected in mice that received QB-90-adjuvanted vaccine. The AE-adjuvanted preparation stimulated humoral responses but not cellular immune responses. These findings reveal that QB-90 is capable of stimulating both cellular and humoral immune responses when used as adjuvant. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Edible vaccines.

    PubMed

    Meloen, R H; Hamilton, W D; Casal, J I; Dalsgaard, K; Langeveld, J P

    1998-01-01

    The ultimate vaccine is an oral vaccine which given once protects against a multitude of diseases. Furthermore this ultimate vaccine needs to be very stable and inexpensive to produce. Probably this latter condition can be met only if the vaccines are produced in plants. Such vaccines are called 'edible vaccines'. Edible vaccines can be produced in plants in many ways. Using recombinant plantvirus, CPMV, it was shown that plants can produce massive amounts of chimaeric virus particles which protect after a single injection the target animal against disease. The final step, oral administration, is being addressed at present. Preliminary experiments by others suggest that this step may be solved sooner than expected.

  1. Age-appropriate versus up-to-date coverage of routine childhood vaccinations among young children in Israel.

    PubMed

    Stein-Zamir, Chen; Israeli, Avi

    2017-09-02

    Routine childhood vaccinations schedules recommend that children receive the vaccine doses at specific ages. Vaccination coverage data are conventionally reported by the up-to-date method. We aimed to assess vaccination timeliness by the age-appropriate method and compare with the up-to-date vaccination coverage. Assessment of age-appropriate and up-to-date vaccination coverage among children born in Israel in 2009 and followed to age 48 months (national representative sample, n = 3892). The vaccinations included: Hepatitis B vaccine (HBV), Diphtheria-Tetanus-acellular Pertussis-Polio-Haemophilus-influenzae-b (DTaP-IPV-Hib), Pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV), Measles-mumps-rubella-varicella vaccine (MMR/MMRV) and Hepatitis A vaccine (HAV). The categories defined: age-appropriate (at the recommended age and up to 1 month), delayed less than 6 months, delayed 6 months and above and unvaccinated (48 months). The age-specific vaccinations assessment showed considerable delay in receipt of routine vaccination. While most (96%, 95%, 91%, 96%, 94% and 86%) children were vaccinated up-to-date for HBV3, DTaP-IPV-Hib4, PCV3, MMR/MMRV1, HAV1and HAV2 vaccine doses; only 26%, 29%, 47%, 64%, 55% and 12% were vaccinated age-appropriate. Vaccination delay was more common in vaccines with multiple doses. Vaccination delay was associated with high child's birth order, low socio-economic rank, ethnicity (delay more common in Jews vs. Arabs), season of birth (winter) and delayed receipt of DTaP-IPV-Hib vaccine 1st dose. This study assessed age-appropriate childhood vaccination coverage in a national cohort of children. While the overall vaccination coverage stands in line with the WHO goals, vaccination timeliness and equity are inadequate and targeted public health intervention programs aimed at vaccination timeliness are necessary.

  2. Epidemiology of vaccine hesitancy in the United States

    PubMed Central

    Siddiqui, Mariam; Salmon, Daniel A; Omer, Saad B

    2013-01-01

    Vaccines are among the most effective public health interventions against infectious diseases. However, there is evidence in the United States for parents either delaying or refusing recommended childhood vaccination. Exemptions to school immunization laws and use of alternative schedule from those recommended by the Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices and the American Academy of Pediatrics cannot only increase the risk of children contracting vaccine-preventable diseases but also increases the risk of infecting others who are either too young to be vaccinated, cannot be vaccinated for medical reasons or did not develop a sufficient immunological response to the vaccine. Healthcare providers are cited as the most influential source by parents on vaccine decision-making. Vaccine hesitancy needs to be addressed by healthcare providers and the scientific community by listening to the parental concerns and discussing risks associated with either delaying or refusing vaccines. PMID:24247148

  3. Edible vaccines.

    PubMed

    Artnzen, C J

    1997-01-01

    Vaccines were the result of trial and error research until molecular biology and genetic engineering made possible the creation of of many new and improved vaccines. New vaccines need to be inexpensive, easily administered, and capable of being stored and transported without refrigeration; without these characteristics, developing countries find it difficult to adopt vaccination as the central strategy for preventing their most devastating diseases. The authors describe a promising approach to inexpensive and effective vaccines: producing them in plants we commonly consume.

  4. Alternative vaccination schedule preferences among parents of young children.

    PubMed

    Dempsey, Amanda F; Schaffer, Sarah; Singer, Dianne; Butchart, Amy; Davis, Matthew; Freed, Gary L

    2011-11-01

    Increasing numbers of parents use alternative vaccination schedules that differ from the recommended childhood vaccination schedule for their children. We sought to describe national patterns of alternative vaccination schedule use and the potential "malleability" of parents' current vaccination schedule choices. We performed a cross-sectional, Internet-based survey of a nationally representative sample of parents of children 6 months to 6 years of age. Bivariate and multivariate analyses determined associations between demographic and attitudinal factors and alternative vaccination schedule use. The response rate was 61% (N = 748). Of the 13% of parents who reported following an alternative vaccination schedule, most refused only certain vaccines (53%) and/or delayed some vaccines until the child was older (55%). Only 17% reported refusing all vaccines. In multivariate models, nonblack race and not having a regular health care provider for the child were the only factors significantly associated with higher odds of using an alternative schedule. A large proportion of alternative vaccinators (30%) reported having initially followed the recommended vaccination schedule. Among parents following the recommended vaccination schedule, 28% thought that delaying vaccine doses was safer than the schedule they used, and 22% disagreed that the best vaccination schedule to follow was the one recommended by vaccination experts. More than 1 of 10 parents of young children currently use an alternative vaccination schedule. In addition, a large proportion of parents currently following the recommended schedule seem to be "at risk" for switching to an alternative schedule.

  5. Vaccine safety.

    PubMed

    Jacobson, Robert M

    2003-11-01

    Rates of reported adverse events are remarkably low. VAERS identifies an adverse event rate approximating 11.4 reports per 100,000 vaccine doses. Approximately 15% of these reports represent SAEs, but less than 2% involve death; in most cases, reviews have shown no causal relation between the events and the vaccine. Across the spectrum of vaccines in use (including those directed against influenza and hepatitis B virus), many claims of adverse events regarding vaccines represent typical reactions to vaccinations. These reactions can be thought of as foreign-body reactions and predominate among the inactivated vaccines. In controlled studies, the adverse event rates that occur with vaccination resemble those that occur with placebo injections. Typical reactions associated with live viral and bacterial vaccines, such as MMR and varicella vaccines, may resemble attenuated forms of the disease for which the vaccine is directed. Other claims against vaccines represent chance-coincidence or misunderstood data; further studies of claims have vindicated the overall safety of the vaccines in most cases. Two documented safety concerns with vaccines, however, have demonstrated that vaccines (like other biologics and pharmacologic) can result in harm (eg, rotavirus and OPV vaccines). The denouement with these vaccines indicates the broad postmarketing data collection and evaluation that extends efforts made with prelicensure study to balance the benefits from vaccination with the risk for harm. Overall, measures including prelicensure study and postlicensure surveillance, such as VAERS, the Vaccine Safety Datalink Project, and the Clinical Immunization Safety Assessment Centers, have resulted in an exceptional safety profile for the vaccines in use.

  6. Perspective of vaccine manufacturers on financing pediatric and adolescent vaccines in the United States.

    PubMed

    Shen, Angela K; Rodewald, Lance E; Birkhead, Guthrie S

    2009-12-01

    The goal was to understand vaccine manufacturers' perspectives on vaccine financing as a barrier to immunization. Individual telephone interviews with representatives of the 6 manufacturers that produce routinely recommended vaccines for children and adolescents in the United States were conducted in November and December 2006. Although manufacturers acknowledged that the price of newer vaccines presents challenges to optimal vaccine use, they asserted that children and adolescents have access to vaccinations through public and private insurance. Respondents suggested that the system could be improved through adequate funding of the public-sector safety net. Respondents stated that providers should receive timely reimbursement for the full costs of vaccine purchase and administration, and manufacturers who sell directly to health care providers may provide flexible payment terms for vaccine purchases. Manufacturers supported targeted expansion of the Vaccines for Children program to allow children with incomplete insurance coverage for vaccines to receive vaccines at health department clinics. Manufacturers perceived delays in publication of Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices recommendations as a potential barrier to vaccine uptake. They viewed the perceived lack of public value for vaccines as a potential barrier to adequate reimbursement and optimal utilization. Respondents also maintained that their ability to negotiate vaccine prices through the private market is a crucial priority. Manufacturers assert that children and adolescents have access to immunizations through public and private insurance. Manufacturers think that they have mitigated the challenge most directly in their control: the large financial outlays required for up-front vaccine purchases.

  7. Rotavirus vaccines

    PubMed Central

    Yen, Catherine; Tate, Jacqueline E; Hyde, Terri B; Cortese, Margaret M; Lopman, Benjamin A; Jiang, Baoming; Glass, Roger I; Parashar, Umesh D

    2016-01-01

    Rotavirus is the leading cause of severe diarrhea among children <5 years worldwide. Currently licensed rotavirus vaccines have been efficacious and effective, with many countries reporting substantial declines in diarrheal and rotavirus-specific morbidity and mortality. However, the full public health impact of these vaccines has not been realized. Most countries, including those with the highest disease burden, have not yet introduced rotavirus vaccines into their national immunization programs. Research activities that may help inform vaccine introduction decisions include (1) establishing effectiveness, impact, and safety for rotavirus vaccines in low-income settings; (2) identifying potential strategies to improve performance of oral rotavirus vaccines in developing countries, such as zinc supplementation; and (3) pursuing alternate approaches to oral vaccines, such as parenteral immunization. Policy- and program-level barriers, such as financial implications of new vaccine introductions, should be addressed to ensure that countries are able to make informed decisions regarding rotavirus vaccine introduction. PMID:24755452

  8. The Cost-effectiveness of Varicella Zoster Virus Vaccination Considering Late Onset Asthma.

    PubMed

    Ditkowsky, Jared; Kohlhoff, Stephan; Smith-Norowitz, Tamar A

    2016-09-01

    Recent studies reported that infection by varicella zoster virus (VZV) may lead to delayed onset of asthma in children/adolescents. This information will likely alter the cost-effectiveness of the US. VZV vaccination program. We created a decision analysis model to estimate the costs and health-related effects of VZV 2-dose vaccination, assuming VZV infection delays asthma onset. The Markov model considered a birth cohort of 3,957,577 individuals entering the population from a societal perspective. We predicted the number of asthma/VZV cases, asthma-/VZV-related mortality and costs associated with asthma/VZV. Comparison arms included (1) VZV vaccination program without delayed asthma onset, (2) VZV vaccination program with delayed asthma onset and (3) no VZV vaccination program with delayed asthma onset. We considered delayed onset ranging from 3 to 12 years. The vaccination program proved cost-effective without an assumed delay in asthma onset. When the vaccination and no-vaccination arms were compared assuming delayed asthma onset, vaccination remained less costly despite increased savings related to asthma without vaccination. With delayed asthma onset of 9 years post VZV infection, cost savings due to vaccination were $914.09 million, with 9984 cases of asthma averted and 9 greater overall deaths with vaccination. VZV vaccination program was less costly than the "no-vaccination" scenario, despite delayed onset of asthma post VZV infection. However, vaccination resulted in increased asthma morbidity and mortality. This adds to current evidence that VZV vaccination is cost-effective, and may alter asthma-related health-care outcomes. VZV's effect on asthma symptoms still needs further evaluation before firm conclusions can be reached.

  9. Delayed puberty.

    PubMed

    Traggiai, Cristina; Stanhope, Richard

    2002-03-01

    Puberty is the acquisition of secondary sexual characteristics associated with a growth spurt and resulting in the attainment of reproductive function. Delayed puberty is diagnosed when there is no breast development by 13.4 years of age in a girl and no testicular enlargement by 14.0 years in a boy. The aetiologies are: (i) pubertal delay, either with constitutional delay of growth and puberty or secondary to chronic illness, and (ii) pubertal failure, with hypogonadotrophic (defect in the hypothalamo-pituitary region) or hypergonadotrophic (secondary to gonadal failure) hypogonadism, or both (secondary to radio/chemotherapy). The investigation includes: history, auxological data and pubertal development examination. Boys usually require treatment and, if they do not respond, investigation. In girls it is appropriate to measure the thyroid function and karyotype first and, if necessary, to offer treatment. If they present with dysmorphic features, or positive familial history, an assessment is required before treatment.

  10. Is There a Connection Between Vaccines and Autism?

    MedlinePlus

    ... published in 1998 that suggested that the MMR (measles-mumps-rubella) vaccine , or infection with the naturally occurring measles virus ... delay vaccinations. But this is extremely risky because vaccine-preventable diseases like measles are still very much around. So if an ...

  11. DENGUE VACCINES.

    PubMed

    Thisyakorn, Usa; Thisyakorn, Chule

    2015-01-01

    The uniqueness of the dengue viruses (DENVs) and the spectrum of disease resulting from infection have made dengue vaccine development difficult. Several vaccine candidates are currently being evaluated in clinical studies. The candidate currently at the most advanced clinical development stage, a live-attenuated tetravalent vaccine based on the chimeric yellow fever-dengue virus (CYD-TDV), has progressed to Phase 3 efficacy studies. Several other live-attenuated vaccines, as well as subunit, DNA, and purified inactivated vaccine candidates are at earlier stages of clinical development. Additional technological approaches, such as virus-vectored and Virus-Like Particles (VLP)-based vaccines are under evaluation in preclinical studies.

  12. Delayed puberty.

    PubMed

    Fenichel, Patrick

    2012-01-01

    Since puberty is a long ongoing developmental process with significant individual and population differences in timing, the definition of delayed puberty for a given individual needs to rest on simple, though arbitrary criteria based on epidemiological data. Although several genes involved in the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal maturation cascade have been characterized recently from familial or sporadic cases of primitive isolated hypogonadotropic hypogonadism, many genes regulating puberty onset remain undetermined. In case of delayed puberty and/or primary amenorrhea, a complete clinical examination including a detailed past history will evaluate the development of secondary sex characteristics, verify the association with a growth delay and look for specific indicative features pertaining to the etiological diagnosis. This clinical check-up completed if necessary with biological, ultrasonographic, radiological and genetic investigations will try to determine which girls will have a permanent sexual infantilism of gonadal, hypophyseal or hypothalamic origin, which girls will undergo spontaneous but delayed puberty and which girls have primary amenorrhea with developed secondary sex characteristics. Therapeutic attitude will have to integrate etiological factors, statural prognosis, bone mass preservation and psychological factors.

  13. Vaccine Safety

    MedlinePlus

    ... FAQs about Vaccine Safety Research Publications HDM Reports ISO Scientific Agenda Ensuring Safety History Understanding Side Effects ... Datalink Publications Emergency Preparedness Vaccine Safety Partners About ISO File Formats Help: How do I view different ...

  14. International Dengue Vaccine Communication and Advocacy: Challenges and Way Forward.

    PubMed

    Carvalho, Ana; Van Roy, Rebecca; Andrus, Jon

    2016-01-01

    Dengue vaccine introduction will likely occur soon. However, little has been published on international dengue vaccine communication and advocacy. More effort at the international level is required to review, unify and strategically disseminate dengue vaccine knowledge to endemic countries' decision makers and potential donors. Waiting to plan for the introduction of new vaccines until licensure may delay access in developing countries. Concerted efforts to communicate and advocate for vaccines prior to licensure are likely challenged by unknowns of the use of dengue vaccines and the disease, including uncertainties of vaccine impact, vaccine access and dengue's complex pathogenesis and epidemiology. Nevertheless, the international community has the opportunity to apply previous best practices for vaccine communication and advocacy. The following key strategies will strengthen international dengue vaccine communication and advocacy: consolidating existing coalitions under one strategic umbrella, urgently convening stakeholders to formulate the roadmap for integrated dengue prevention and control, and improving the dissemination of dengue scientific knowledge.

  15. Reactive vaccination in the presence of disease hotspots.

    PubMed

    Azman, Andrew S; Lessler, Justin

    2015-01-07

    Reactive vaccination has recently been adopted as an outbreak response tool for cholera and other infectious diseases. Owing to the global shortage of oral cholera vaccine, health officials must quickly decide who and where to distribute limited vaccine. Targeted vaccination in transmission hotspots (i.e. areas with high transmission efficiency) may be a potential approach to efficiently allocate vaccine, however its effectiveness will likely be context-dependent. We compared strategies for allocating vaccine across multiple areas with heterogeneous transmission efficiency. We constructed metapopulation models of a cholera-like disease and compared simulated epidemics where: vaccine is targeted at areas of high or low transmission efficiency, where vaccine is distributed across the population, and where no vaccine is used. We find that connectivity between populations, transmission efficiency, vaccination timing and the amount of vaccine available all shape the performance of different allocation strategies. In highly connected settings (e.g. cities) when vaccinating early in the epidemic, targeting limited vaccine at transmission hotspots is often optimal. Once vaccination is delayed, targeting the hotspot is rarely optimal, and strategies that either spread vaccine between areas or those targeted at non-hotspots will avert more cases. Although hotspots may be an intuitive outbreak control target, we show that, in many situations, the hotspot-epidemic proceeds so fast that hotspot-targeted reactive vaccination will prevent relatively few cases, and vaccination shared across areas where transmission can be sustained is often best.

  16. Timeliness of childhood vaccinations in 31 low and middle-income countries.

    PubMed

    Akmatov, Manas K; Mikolajczyk, Rafael T

    2012-07-01

    This study assessed the extent of delays in childhood vaccinations and examined sociodemographic correlates of delayed and missing vaccinations. Datasets from the 2005-7 Multiple Indicator Cluster Surveys from 31 countries were used. Information on vaccinations was based on vaccination cards. Survival analysis was applied to assess age-specific vaccination rates, and multilevel logistic regression analysis was used to assess factors associated with delayed and missing vaccinations. The median vaccination coverage across all countries varied from 91% measles-containing vaccine (MCV) to 98% bacille Calmette-Guérin vaccine (BCG). The median fraction of timely administered vaccinations was 65% (range 14.5-97.2%) for BCG, 67% (11.6-89.3%) for the first dose of vaccine against diphtheria, tetanus and pertussis (DTP1), 41% (10.8-82.1%) for DTP3, 68% (29.7-90.3%) for the first dose of polio vaccine (polio1), 38% (10.5-81.0%) for polio3 and 51% (22.3-91.1%) for MCV. The median of the median delays across all countries was 2.1 weeks (IQR 0.9-3.0) for BCG, 2.4 weeks (1.5-3.1) for DTP1; 6.3 weeks (3.3-9.0) for DTP3; 2.0 weeks (1.3-3.1) for polio1, 6.6 weeks (4.3-9.3) for polio3 and 4.1 weeks (2.5-5.8) for MCV. A higher number of children in households and lower socioeconomic status were associated with delayed and missing vaccinations; however, the effects of socioeconomic gradient varied by country. Most countries achieved high up-to-date vaccination coverage. However, there were substantial vaccination delays. Collecting information on the timeliness of vaccination in national surveillance systems will provide a more complete view of vaccination coverage. Missing and delayed vaccinations can be addressed jointly in prevention programmes.

  17. Delayed puberty.

    PubMed

    Reiter, Edward O; Lee, Peter A

    2002-02-01

    Normal puberty is a time of life and a process of development that results in full adult maturity of growth, sexual development, and psychosocial achievement. Delayed puberty describes the clinical condition in which the pubertal events start late (usually > +2.5 SD later than the mean) or are attenuated in progression. The differential diagnosis includes syndromes of low gonadotropin production, usually constitutional delay of growth and maturation associated with chronic disease, but also an array of gene-mediated disorders, and syndromes of primary gonadal dysfunction with hypergonadotropic hypogonadism, including Turner and Klinefelter syndromes, and a group of acquired and genetic abnormalities. Diagnostic assessment and varied therapeutic modalities are discussed. The issues of androgen or estrogen therapy are important to assess, and growth hormone treatment remains a difficult dilemma.

  18. Evaluation of Montanide™ ISA 71 VG adjuvant during profilin vaccination against experimental coccidiosis.

    PubMed

    Jang, Seung I; Kim, Duk Kyung; Lillehoj, Hyun S; Lee, Sung Hyen; Lee, Kyung Woo; Bertrand, François; Dupuis, Laurent; Deville, Sébastien; Ben Arous, Juliette; Lillehoj, Erik P

    2013-01-01

    Chickens were immunized subcutaneously with an Eimeria recombinant profilin protein plus Montanide™ ISA 70 VG (ISA 70) or Montanide™ ISA 71 VG (ISA 71) water-in-oil adjuvants, or with profilin alone, and comparative RNA microarray hybridizations were performed to ascertain global transcriptome changes induced by profilin/ISA 70 vs. profilin alone and by profilin/ISA 71 vs. profilin alone. While immunization with profilin/ISA 70 vs. profilin alone altered the levels of more total transcripts compared with profilin/ISA 71 vs. profilin alone (509 vs. 296), the latter was associated with a greater number of unique biological functions, and a larger number of genes within these functions, compared with the former. Further, canonical pathway analysis identified 10 pathways that were associated with genes encoding the altered transcripts in animals immunized with profilin/ISA 71 vs. profilin alone, compared with only 2 pathways in profilin/ISA 70 vs. profilin alone. Therefore, ISA 71 was selected as a candidate adjuvant in conjunction with profilin vaccination for in vivo disease protection studies. Vaccination with profilin/ISA 71 was associated with greater body weight gain following E. acervulina infection, and decreased parasite fecal shedding after E. maxima infection, compared with profilin alone. Anti-profilin antibody levels were higher in sera of E. maxima- and E. tenella-infected chickens vaccinated with profilin/ISA 71 compared with profilin alone. Finally, the levels of transcripts encoding interferon-γ, interleukin (IL)-2, IL-10, and IL-17A were increased in intestinal lymphocytes from E. acervulina-, E. maxima-, and/or E. tenella-infected chickens vaccinated with profilin/ISA 71 compared with profilin alone. None of these effects were seen in chickens injected with ISA 71 alone indicating that the adjuvant was not conferring non-specific immune stimulation. These results suggest that profilin plus ISA 71 augments protective immunity against selective

  19. The multi-epitope polypeptide approach in HIV-1 vaccine development.

    PubMed

    Cano, C A

    1999-11-01

    The application of a preventive HIV vaccine is the only hope for most developing countries to halt the AIDS pandemic. A project aimed to develop a preventive AIDS vaccine is being carried out since 1992 by three Cuban research institutions: Centro de Ingeniería Genética y Biotecnologia de La Habana, Instituto de Medicina Tropical 'Pedro Kouri' and Laboratorio de Investigaciones de SIDA de La Habana. The project includes two main strategies: (a) generation of recombinant multi-epitope polypeptides (MEPs) bearing several copies of the V3 loop from different HIV-1 isolates; and (b) development of immunogens capable of inducing a cytotoxic T cell response (CTL) specific for human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) antigens. This article summarizes the work in the first of these strategies. Based on the sequence of the V3 loop of HIV-1 we constructed a series of MEPs and evaluated their immunogenicity in mice, rabbits and macaques. The MEP TAB9, containing six V3 epitopes from isolates LR10, JY1, RF, MN, BRVA and IIIB, was selected together with the oil adjuvant Montanide ISA720 (SEPPIC, France) to perform a Phase I clinical trial in HIV seronegative Cuban volunteers. The trial was double blinded, randomized, and fulfilled all ethical and regulatory requirements. All TAB9 vaccinated volunteers developed a strong immune response and neutralizing antibodies were observed in the 50% of the subjects. However the second and third inoculations of the vaccine were not well tolerated because transient severe local reactions appeared in some individuals. A new formulation of TAB9 is currently in pre-clinical studies and is expected to enter clinical trials in 1999.

  20. Validation of the Vaccination Confidence Scale: A Brief Measure to Identify Parents at Risk for Refusing Adolescent Vaccines.

    PubMed

    Gilkey, Melissa B; Reiter, Paul L; Magnus, Brooke E; McRee, Annie-Laurie; Dempsey, Amanda F; Brewer, Noel T

    2016-01-01

    To validate a brief measure of vaccination confidence using a large, nationally representative sample of parents. We analyzed weighted data from 9018 parents who completed the 2010 National Immunization Survey-Teen, an annual, population-based telephone survey. Parents reported on the immunization history of a 13- to 17-year-old child in their households for vaccines including tetanus, diphtheria, and acellular pertussis (Tdap), meningococcal, and human papillomavirus vaccines. For each vaccine, separate logistic regression models assessed associations between parents' mean scores on the 8-item Vaccination Confidence Scale and vaccine refusal, vaccine delay, and vaccination status. We repeated analyses for the scale's 4-item short form. One quarter of parents (24%) reported refusal of any vaccine, with refusal of specific vaccines ranging from 21% for human papillomavirus to 2% for Tdap. Using the full 8-item scale, vaccination confidence was negatively associated with measures of vaccine refusal and positively associated with measures of vaccination status. For example, refusal of any vaccine was more common among parents whose scale scores were medium (odds ratio, 2.08; 95% confidence interval, 1.75-2.47) or low (odds ratio, 4.61; 95% confidence interval, 3.51-6.05) versus high. For the 4-item short form, scores were also consistently associated with vaccine refusal and vaccination status. Vaccination confidence was inconsistently associated with vaccine delay. The Vaccination Confidence Scale shows promise as a tool for identifying parents at risk for refusing adolescent vaccines. The scale's short form appears to offer comparable performance. Copyright © 2016 Academic Pediatric Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Edible vaccines.

    PubMed Central

    Artnzen, C J

    1997-01-01

    Vaccines were the result of trial and error research until molecular biology and genetic engineering made possible the creation of of many new and improved vaccines. New vaccines need to be inexpensive, easily administered, and capable of being stored and transported without refrigeration; without these characteristics, developing countries find it difficult to adopt vaccination as the central strategy for preventing their most devastating diseases. The authors describe a promising approach to inexpensive and effective vaccines: producing them in plants we commonly consume. Images p190-a p191-a p193-a p196-a PMID:9182305

  2. [Antiviral vaccines].

    PubMed

    Girard, M

    1999-01-01

    Vaccination has been successful in controlling numerous diseases in man and animals. Smallpox has been eradicated and poliomyelitis is on the verge of being eradicated. The traditional immunization arsenal includes vaccines using live, attenuated, and inactivated organisms. DNA recombinant technology has added two new types of vaccines, i.e. subunit vaccines based on purified antigens produced by genetic engineering in bacterial, yeast, or animal-cell cultures and live recombinant vaccines based on attenuated bacterial or viral vectors. Currently the best known examples of these new vaccines are those using poxvirus vectors (vaccinia virus, canarypox virus, or fowlpox virus) but new vectors are under development. Another application for genetic engineering in the field of vaccinology is the development of DNA vaccines using naked plasmid DNA. This technique has achieved remarkable results in small rodents but its efficacy, safety, and feasibility in man has yet to be demonstrated. Numerous studies are now under way to improve the process. In the field of synthetic vaccines, lipopeptides have shown promise for induction of cell immune response. Development of vaccines for administration by the oral or nasal route may one day revolutionize vaccination techniques. However, effective vaccines against hepatitis C and HIV have stalled in the face of the complexity and pathophysiology of these diseases. These are the greatest challenges confronting scientists at the dawn of the new millennium.

  3. DNA vaccines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gregersen, Jens-Peter

    2001-12-01

    Immunization by genes encoding immunogens, rather than with the immunogen itself, has opened up new possibilities for vaccine research and development and offers chances for new applications and indications for future vaccines. The underlying mechanisms of antigen processing, immune presentation and regulation of immune responses raise high expectations for new and more effective prophylactic or therapeutic vaccines, particularly for vaccines against chronic or persistent infectious diseases and tumors. Our current knowledge and experience of DNA vaccination is summarized and critically reviewed with particular attention to basic immunological mechanisms, the construction of plasmids, screening for protective immunogens to be encoded by these plasmids, modes of application, pharmacokinetics, safety and immunotoxicological aspects. DNA vaccines have the potential to accelerate the research phase of new vaccines and to improve the chances of success, since finding new immunogens with the desired properties is at least technically less demanding than for conventional vaccines. However, on the way to innovative vaccine products, several hurdles have to be overcome. The efficacy of DNA vaccines in humans appears to be much less than indicated by early studies in mice. Open questions remain concerning the persistence and distribution of inoculated plasmid DNA in vivo, its potential to express antigens inappropriately, or the potentially deleterious ability to insert genes into the host cell's genome. Furthermore, the possibility of inducing immunotolerance or autoimmune diseases also needs to be investigated more thoroughly, in order to arrive at a well-founded consensus, which justifies the widespread application of DNA vaccines in a healthy population.

  4. Hepatitis B vaccination timing: results from demographic health surveys in 47 countries

    PubMed Central

    Akmatov, Manas K; Krause, Gérard

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Objective To examine the impact of hepatitis B vaccination schedules and types of vaccines on hepatitis B vaccination timing. Methods We used data for 211 643 children from demographic and health surveys in 47 low- and middle-income countries (median study year 2012). Data were from vaccination cards and maternal interviews. We grouped countries according to the vaccination schedule and type of vaccine used (monovalent or combination). For each country, we calculated hepatitis B vaccination coverage and timely receipt of vaccine doses. We used multivariable logistic regression models to study the effect of vaccination schedules and types on vaccination delay. Findings Substantial delays in vaccination were observed even in countries with fairly high coverage of all doses. Median delay was 1.0 week (interquartile range, IQR: 0.3 to 3.6) for the first dose (n = 108 626 children) and 3.7 weeks (IQR: 1.4 to 9.3) for the third dose (n = 101  542). We observed a tendency of lower odds of delays in vaccination schedules starting at 6 and at 9 weeks of age. For the first vaccine dose, we recorded lower odds of delays for combination vaccines than for monovalent vaccines (adjusted odds ratio, aOR: 0.76, 95% confidence interval, CI: 0.71 to 0.81). Conclusion Wide variations in hepatitis B vaccination coverage and adherence to vaccination schedules across countries underscore the continued need to strengthen national immunization systems. Timely initiation of the vaccination process might lead to timely receipt of successive doses and improved overall coverage. We suggest incorporating vaccination timing as a performance indicator of vaccination programmes to complement coverage metrics. PMID:28250533

  5. Hepatitis Vaccines

    PubMed Central

    Ogholikhan, Sina; Schwarz, Kathleen B.

    2016-01-01

    Viral hepatitis is a serious health problem all over the world. However, the reduction of the morbidity and mortality due to vaccinations against hepatitis A and hepatitis B has been a major component in the overall reduction in vaccine preventable diseases. We will discuss the epidemiology, vaccine development, and post-vaccination effects of the hepatitis A and B virus. In addition, we discuss attempts to provide hepatitis D vaccine for the 350 million individuals infected with hepatitis B globally. Given the lack of a hepatitis C vaccine, the many challenges facing the production of a hepatitis C vaccine will be shown, along with current and former vaccination trials. As there is no current FDA-approved hepatitis E vaccine, we will present vaccination data that is available in the rest of the world. Finally, we will discuss the existing challenges and questions facing future endeavors for each of the hepatitis viruses, with efforts continuing to focus on dramatically reducing the morbidity and mortality associated with these serious infections of the liver. PMID:26978406

  6. Porcine Dendritic Cells as an In Vitro Model to Assess the Immunological Behaviour of Streptococcus suis Subunit Vaccine Formulations and the Polarizing Effect of Adjuvants

    PubMed Central

    Martelet, Léa; Lacouture, Sonia; Goyette-Desjardins, Guillaume; Beauchamp, Guy; Surprenant, Charles; Gottschalk, Marcelo; Segura, Mariela

    2017-01-01

    An in vitro porcine bone marrow-derived dendritic cell (DC) culture was developed as a model for evaluating immune polarization induced by adjuvants when administered with immunogens that may become vaccine candidates if appropriately formulated. The swine pathogen Streptococcus suis was chosen as a prototype to evaluate proposed S. suis vaccine candidates in combination with the adjuvants Poly I:C, Quil A ®, Alhydrogel ®, TiterMax Gold ® and Stimune ®. The toll-like receptor ligand Poly I:C and the saponin Quil A ® polarized swine DC cytokines towards a type 1 phenotype, with preferential production of IL-12 and TNF-α. The water-in-oil adjuvants TiterMax Gold ® and Stimune ® favoured a type 2 profile as suggested by a marked IL-6 release. In contrast, Alhydrogel ® induced a type 1/type 2 mixed cytokine profile. The antigen type differently modified the magnitude of the adjuvant effect, but overall polarization was preserved. This is the first comparative report on swine DC immune activation by different adjuvants. Although further swine immunization studies would be required to better characterize the induced responses, the herein proposed in vitro model is a promising approach that helps assessing behaviour of the vaccine formulation rapidly at the pre-screening stage and will certainly reduce numbers of animals used while advancing vaccinology science. PMID:28327531

  7. The Adjuvant Activity of Epimedium Polysaccharide-Propolis Flavone Liposome on Enhancing Immune Responses to Inactivated Porcine Circovirus Vaccine in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Fan, Yunpeng; Guo, Liwei; Hou, Weifeng; Guo, Chao; Zhang, Weimin; Ma, Xia; Ma, Lin; Song, Xiaoping

    2015-01-01

    Objectives. The adjuvant activity of Epimedium polysaccharide-propolis flavone liposome (EPL) was investigated in vitro and in vivo. Methods. In vitro, the effects of EPL at different concentrations on splenic lymphocytes proliferation and mRNA expression of IFN-γ and IL-6 were determined. In vivo, the adjuvant activities of EPL, EP, and mineral oil were compared in BALB/c mice through vaccination with inactivated porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV2) vaccine. Results. In vitro, EPL promoted lymphocytes proliferation and increased the mRNA expression of IFN-γ and IL-6, and the effect was significantly better than EP at all concentrations. In vivo, EPL significantly promoted the lymphocytes proliferation and the secretion of cytokines and improved the killing activity of NK cells, PCV2-specific antibody titers, and the proportion of T-cell subgroups. The effects of EPL were significantly better than EP and oil adjuvant at most time points. Conclusion. EPL could significantly improve both PCV2-specific cellular and humoral immune responses, and its medium dose had the best efficacy. Therefore, EPL would be exploited in an effective immune adjuvant for inactivated PCV2 vaccine. PMID:26612996

  8. Effectiveness and timing of vaccination during school measles outbreak.

    PubMed

    Bonačić Marinović, Axel Antonio; Swaan, Corien; Wichmann, Ole; van Steenbergen, Jim; Kretzschmar, Mirjam

    2012-09-01

    Despite high vaccination coverage in most European countries, large community outbreaks of measles do occur, normally clustered around schools and resulting from suboptimal vaccination coverage. To determine whether or when it is worth implementing outbreak-response vaccination campaigns in schools, we used stochastic outbreak models to reproduce a public school outbreak in Germany, where no vaccination campaign was implemented. We assumed 2 scenarios covering the baseline vaccination ratio range (91.3%-94.3%) estimated for that school and computed outbreaks assuming various vaccination delays. In one scenario, reacting (i.e., implementing outbreak-response vaccination campaigns) within 12-24 days avoided large outbreaks and reacting within 50 days reduced outbreak size. In the other scenario, reacting within 6-14 days avoided large outbreaks and reacting within 40 days reduced the outbreak size. These are realistic time frames for implementing school outbreak response vaccination campaigns. High baseline vaccination ratios extended the time needed for effective response.

  9. Provider communication about HPV vaccination: A systematic review

    PubMed Central

    Gilkey, Melissa B.; McRee, Annie-Laurie

    2016-01-01

    abstract Background. Improving HPV vaccination coverage in the US will require healthcare providers to recommend the vaccine more effectively. To inform quality improvement efforts, we systematically reviewed studies of provider communication about HPV vaccination. Methods. We searched MEDLINE, CINAHL, EMBASE, and POPLINE in August 2015 to identify studies of provider communication about HPV vaccination. Results. We identified 101 qualitative and quantitative studies. Providers less often recommended HPV vaccine if they were uncomfortable discussing sex, perceived parents as hesitant, or believed patients to be low risk. Patients less often received recommendations if they were younger, male, or from racial/ethnic minorities. Despite parents' preference for unambiguous recommendations, providers often sent mixed messages by failing to endorse HPV vaccine strongly, differentiating it from other vaccines, and presenting it as an “optional” vaccine that could be delayed. Conclusion. Interventions are needed to help providers deliver effective recommendations in the complex communication environment surrounding HPV vaccination. PMID:26838681

  10. Framework for Optimal Global Vaccine Stockpile Design for Vaccine-Preventable Diseases: Application to Measles and Cholera Vaccines as Contrasting Examples.

    PubMed

    Thompson, Kimberly M; Duintjer Tebbens, Radboud J

    2016-07-01

    Managing the dynamics of vaccine supply and demand represents a significant challenge with very high stakes. Insufficient vaccine supplies can necessitate rationing, lead to preventable adverse health outcomes, delay the achievements of elimination or eradication goals, and/or pose reputation risks for public health authorities and/or manufacturers. This article explores the dynamics of global vaccine supply and demand to consider the opportunities to develop and maintain optimal global vaccine stockpiles for universal vaccines, characterized by large global demand (for which we use measles vaccines as an example), and nonuniversal (including new and niche) vaccines (for which we use oral cholera vaccine as an example). We contrast our approach with other vaccine stockpile optimization frameworks previously developed for the United States pediatric vaccine stockpile to address disruptions in supply and global emergency response vaccine stockpiles to provide on-demand vaccines for use in outbreaks. For measles vaccine, we explore the complexity that arises due to different formulations and presentations of vaccines, consideration of rubella, and the context of regional elimination goals. We conclude that global health policy leaders and stakeholders should procure and maintain appropriate global vaccine rotating stocks for measles and rubella vaccine now to support current regional elimination goals, and should probably also do so for other vaccines to help prevent and control endemic or epidemic diseases. This work suggests the need to better model global vaccine supplies to improve efficiency in the vaccine supply chain, ensure adequate supplies to support elimination and eradication initiatives, and support progress toward the goals of the Global Vaccine Action Plan.

  11. Improved coverage and timing of childhood vaccinations in two post-Soviet countries, Armenia and Kyrgyzstan.

    PubMed

    Schweitzer, A; Krause, G; Pessler, F; Akmatov, M K

    2015-08-19

    Timing of childhood vaccinations has received close attention in many countries. Little is known about the trends in correctly timed vaccination in former Soviet countries. We examined trends in vaccination coverage and correct timing of vaccination in two post-Soviet countries, Armenia and Kyrgyzstan, and analyzed factors associated with delayed vaccinations. We used data from the Demographic and Health Surveys; the surveys were conducted in 2000 (n = 1726), 2005 (n = 1430) and 2010 (n = 1473) in Armenia and in 1997 (n = 1127) and 2012 (n = 4363) in Kyrgyzstan. We applied the Kaplan-Meier method to estimate age-specific vaccination coverage with diphtheria, tetanus and pertussis (DTP) vaccine and a measles-containing vaccine (MCV). A Cox proportional hazard regression with shared frailty was used to examine factors associated with delayed vaccinations. Vaccination coverage for all three doses of the DTP vaccine increased in Armenia from 92 % in 2000 to 96 % in 2010. In Kyrgyzstan, DTP coverage was 96 % and 97 % in 1997 and 2012, respectively. Vaccination coverage for MCV increased from 89 % (Armenia, 2000) and 93 % (Kyrgyzstan, 1997) to 97 % (Armenia, 2010) and 98 % (Kyrgyzstan, 2012). The proportion of children with correctly timed vaccinations increased over time for all examined vaccinations in both countries. For example, the proportion of children in Armenia with correctly timed first DTP dose (DTP1) increased from 46 % (2000) to 66 % (2010). In Kyrgyzstan, the proportion of correctly timed DTP1 increased from 75 % (1997) to 87 % (2012). In Armenia, delays in the third DTP dose (DTP3) and MCV vaccinations were less likely to occur in the capital, whereas in Kyrgyzstan DTP3 and MCV start was delayed in the capital compared to other regions of the country. Also, in Armenia living in urban areas was associated with delayed vaccinations. Vaccination coverage and timing of vaccination improved over the last years in both countries. Further

  12. Microalgal vaccines.

    PubMed

    Siripornadulsil, Surasak; Dabrowski, Konrad; Sayre, Richard

    2007-01-01

    A variety of recombinant vaccines and vaccine delivery systems are currently under development as alternatives to vaccines produced in animals that are primarily administered by injections. These nonanimal alternatives do not transmit animal pathogens, are often rapid to develop, and can be produced on a large scale at low costs. Many of these new vaccine technologies are based on oral delivery systems and avoid the risks of disease transmission associated with the use of syringes for injectable vaccines. In addition, many of these novel systems have extended shelf life, often not requiring refrigeration and thus are applicable in developing countries or remote locations. Here we describe the development of microalgal-based immunization systems. Antigens expressed in the chloroplast or anchored to the surface of plasma membrane are shown to effectively immunize fish and rabbits. The effective oral delivery of antigens by microalgae provides a safe and inexpensive mechanism to immunize animals. The applications of microalgal vaccines are currently being investigated.

  13. Vaccination coverage of patients with inborn errors of metabolism and the attitudes of their parents towards vaccines.

    PubMed

    Cerutti, Marta; De Lonlay, Pascale; Menni, Francesca; Parini, Rossella; Principi, Nicola; Esposito, Susanna

    2015-11-27

    To evaluate vaccination coverage of children and adolescents with inborn errors of metabolism (IEMs) and the attitudes of their parents towards vaccination, the vaccination status of 128 patients with IEM and 128 age- and gender-matched healthy controls was established by consulting the official vaccination chart. In children with IEMs, compared with healthy controls, low vaccination rates and/or delays in administration were observed for pneumococcal conjugate, meningococcus C, measles, mumps, rubella, diphtheria-tetanus-pertussis-inactivated polio, Bacillus Calmette-Guerin, and influenza vaccines. Among the parents of IEM patients, vaccine schedule compliance was primarily driven by the doctors at the hospital's reference centres; among the parents of the healthy controls, compliance was driven by the primary care paediatricians. These results show that IEM patients demonstrate sub-optimal vaccination coverage. Further studies of the different vaccines in each IEM disorder and educational programmes aimed at physicians and parents to increase immunization coverage in these patients are urgently needed.

  14. Vaccine Adverse Events

    MedlinePlus

    ... Vaccines, Blood & Biologics Animal & Veterinary Cosmetics Tobacco Products Vaccines, Blood & Biologics Home Vaccines, Blood & Biologics Safety & Availability ( ... Center for Biologics Evaluation & Research Vaccine Adverse Events Vaccine Adverse Events Share Tweet Linkedin Pin it More ...

  15. Vaccines.gov

    MedlinePlus

    ... Statements Vaccine Approvals Features: News & Video Free Resources Vaccines are safe, effective, and save lives. Find answers ... by science, on vaccine safety. Are your child’s vaccines up to date? Getting all recommended vaccines on ...

  16. Delaying obsolescence.

    PubMed

    Lawlor, Rob

    2015-04-01

    This paper argues that those who emphasise that designers and engineers need to plan for obsolescence are too conservative. Rather, in addition to planning for obsolescence, designers and engineers should also think carefully about what they could do in order delay obsolescence. They should so this by thinking about the design itself, thinking of ways in which products could be useful and appealing for longer before becoming obsolete, as well thinking about the wider context in terms of the marketing of products, and also the social and legal. The paper also considers objections that these suggestions are unrealistically idealistic, failing to recognise the economic realities. I respond to these objections appealing to research in advertising, psychology, cognitive linguistics, philosophy, history, and economics, as well as drawing on the Statement of Ethical Principles developed by the Royal Academy of Engineering and the Engineering Council.

  17. [HPV vaccination].

    PubMed

    Stronski Huwiler, Susanne; Spaar, Anne

    2016-01-01

    Human Papilloma Viruses are associated with genital carcinoma (of the cervix, anus, vulva, vagina and the penis) as well as with non-genital carcinoma (oropharyngeal carcinoma) and genital warts. In Switzerland two highly efficient and safe vaccines are available. The safety of these vaccines has been repeatedly subject of controversial discussions, however so far post marketing surveillance has always been able to confirm the safety. In Switzerland girls and young women have been offered the HPV vaccination within cantonal programmes since 2008. 2015 the recommendation for the HPV-vaccination for boys and young men was issued, and starting July 1, 2016 they as well will be offered vaccination free of charge within the cantonal programmes. This article discusses the burden of disease, efficacy and safety of the vaccines and presents facts which are important for vaccinating these young people. Specifically, aspects of the decisional capacity of adolescents to consent to the vaccination are presented. Finally, the future perspective with a focus on a new vaccine with an enlarged spectrum of HPV-types is discussed.

  18. Filovirus vaccines

    PubMed Central

    Bradfute, Steven B; Dye, John M

    2011-01-01

    Filoviruses can cause severe and often fatal hemorrhagic fever in humans and non-human primates (NHPs). Although there are currently no clinically proven treatments for filovirus disease, much progress has been made in recent years in the discovery of therapeutics and vaccines against these viruses. A variety of vaccine platforms have been shown to be effective against filovirus infection. This review summarizes the literature in this field, focusing on vaccines that have been shown to protect NHPs from infection. Furthermore, the uses of rodent models in vaccine development, as well as correlates of immunity, are discussed. PMID:21519188

  19. [Vaccination programmes].

    PubMed

    Varela, M Carmen

    2009-01-01

    Immunization is a highly cost-effective intervention that saves many lives. Its objective is to control and eliminate vaccine-preventable diseases (when the characteristics of the disease and the vaccine make it possible), resulting in improvements in the health of the population. In Spain, the first vaccination schedule was introduced in 1975 and currently coverages > 95% are achieved in children aged < 2 years of age. Before deciding to introduce a vaccination programme in a community or country, a series of aspects should be considered, including the disease burden in the population, the effectiveness and safety of the vaccine, the changes in the dynamics of the infection when the vaccine is introduced, the cost-effectiveness of the vaccine, the theoretical potential of elimination/eradication of the disease and the existence of other preventive or therapeutic measures. Once the programme has been introduced it should be subject to evaluation, considering aspects such as the coverage, effectiveness, safety and the impact on the population. This work defines different vaccination strategies for three diseases for which efficacious and safe vaccines are available: hepatitis A, influenza and varicella.

  20. Weighing the risks and benefits of vaccination.

    PubMed

    Glickman, L T

    1999-01-01

    The following summarizes this author's current thoughts regarding veterinary vaccines and their safety: 1. Every licensed animal vaccine is probably effective, but also produces some adverse effects. 2. Prelicensing studies of vaccines are not specifically designed to detect adverse vaccine reactions. 3. An improved system of national postmarketing surveillance is required to identify most adverse vaccine reactions that occur at low and moderate frequency. 4. Even a good postmarketing surveillance system is unlikely, however, to detect delayed adverse vaccine reactions, and the longer the delay the less likely they will be associated with vaccination. 5. Analytic epidemiologic (field) studies are the best way to link vaccination with delayed adverse reactions, but these are often hindered by incomplete vaccination histories in medical records in veterinary practice and by a lack of veterinarians in industry trained in epidemiologic methods. 6. Each licensed veterinary vaccine should be subjected to a quantitative risk assessment, and these should be updated on a regular basis as new information becomes available. 7. Risk assessment should be used to identify gaps in information regarding the safety and efficacy of vaccines, and appropriate epidemiologic studies conducted to fill these gaps that contribute to the uncertainty in risk estimates. 8. Risk assessment is an analytical process that is firmly based on scientific considerations, but it also requires judgments to be made when the available information is incomplete. These judgments inevitably draw on both scientific and policy considerations. 9. Representatives from industry, government, veterinary medicine, and the animal-owning public should be involved in risk management, that is, deciding between policy options. The controversy regarding vaccine risks is intensifying to the point that some animal owners have stopped vaccinating their animals. They offer as justification the belief that current vaccines

  1. [Pretravel vaccination].

    PubMed

    Koch, Claus

    2005-10-17

    Vaccination is a simple and effective way to protect against certain infectious diseases and is nearly always to be recommended when one is travelling to countries with lesser hygienic standards. This report provides guidance on immunization concerns and describes the individual vaccines most commonly used in travel medicine.

  2. Biologic Vaccines

    PubMed Central

    ADAMS, KATHERINE T.

    2009-01-01

    The threat of new disease pandemics has spurred the development of biologic vaccines, which promise tremendous improvements in global and local health. Several lend themselves to the prevention or treatment of chronic diseases. But the uncertainties of whom to vaccinate raise the question of whether the health care system can make these promising products viable. PMID:22478749

  3. Hamlet's delay.

    PubMed

    Dendy, E B

    2001-01-01

    This paper raises a question about Freud's understanding of Hamlet and offers a fresh psychoanalytic perspective on the play, emphasizing the psychological use made of Hamlet by the audience. It suggests Hamlet and Claudius both serve as sacrificial objects, scapegoats, for the audience, embodying, through a mechanism of both identification and disidentification, the fulfillment, punishment, and renunciation of the audience's forbidden (i.e. Oedipal) wishes. The play is thus seen to represent unconsciously a rite of sacrifice in which both Claudius and Hamlet, both the father and the son, are led, albeit circuitously, to the slaughter. The need for delay on the part of Hamlet is thus seen to arise not merely from Hamlet's psychology, whatever the audience may project onto it, but ultimately from the function (both sadistic and defensive) that the sacrificial spectacle, the play as a whole, serves for the audience. The paper also speculates somewhat on the role of tragic heroes and heroines in general, and points to the unconscious collusion that permits author and audience to make use of them. Finally, in an addendum, the paper discusses the work of René Girard, a nonpsychoanalytic thinker whose ideas nonetheless are somewhat similar to those presented here.

  4. Approved but non-funded vaccines: accessing individual protection.

    PubMed

    Scheifele, David W; Ward, Brian J; Halperin, Scott A; McNeil, Shelly A; Crowcroft, Natasha S; Bjornson, Gordean

    2014-02-07

    Funded immunization programs are best able to achieve high participation rates, optimal protection of the target population, and indirect protection of others. However, in many countries public funding of approved vaccines can be substantially delayed, limited to a portion of the at-risk population or denied altogether. In these situations, unfunded vaccines are often inaccessible to individuals at risk, allowing potentially avoidable morbidity and mortality to continue to occur. We contend that private access to approved but unfunded vaccines should be reconsidered and encouraged, with recognition that individuals have a prerogative to take advantage of a vaccine of potential benefit to them whether it is publicly funded or not. Moreover, numbers of "approved but unfunded" vaccines are likely to grow because governments will not be able to fund all future vaccines of potential benefit to some citizens. New strategies are needed to better use unfunded vaccines even though the net benefits will fall short of those of funded programs. Canada, after recent delays funding several new vaccine programs, has developed means to encourage private vaccine use. Physicians are required to inform relevant patients about risks and benefits of all recommended vaccines, publicly funded or not. Likewise, some provincial public health departments now recommend and promote both funded and unfunded vaccines. Pharmacists are key players in making unfunded vaccines locally available. Professional organizations are contributing to public and provider education about unfunded vaccines (e.g. herpes zoster, not funded in any province). Vaccine companies are gaining expertise with direct-to-consumer advertising. However, major challenges remain, such as making unfunded vaccines more available to low-income families and overcoming public expectations that all vaccines will be provided cost-free, when many other recommended personal preventive measures are user-pay. The greatest need is to

  5. Are Clade Specific HIV Vaccines a Necessity? An Analysis Based on Mathematical Models.

    PubMed

    Dimitrov, Dobromir; Kublin, James G; Ramsey, Scott; Corey, Lawrence

    2015-12-01

    As HIV-1 envelope immune responses are critical to vaccine related protection, most candidate HIV vaccines entering efficacy trials are based upon a clade specific design. This need for clade specific vaccine prototypes markedly reduces the implementation of potentially effective HIV vaccines. We utilized a mathematical model to determine the effectiveness of immediate roll-out of a non-clade matched vaccine with reduced efficacy compared to constructing clade specific vaccines, which would take considerable time to manufacture and test in safety and efficacy trials. We simulated the HIV epidemic in San Francisco (SF) and South Africa (SA) and projected effectiveness of three vaccination strategies: i) immediate intervention with a 20-40% vaccine efficacy (VE) non-matched vaccine, ii) delayed intervention by developing a 50% VE clade-specific vaccine, and iii) immediate intervention with a non-matched vaccine replaced by a clade-specific vaccine when developed. Immediate vaccination with a non-clade matched vaccine, even with reduced efficacy, would prevent thousands of new infections in SF and millions in SA over 30 years. Vaccination with 50% VE delayed for five years needs six and 12 years in SA to break-even with immediate 20 and 30% VE vaccination, respectively, while not able to surpass the impact of immediate 40% VE vaccination over 30 years. Replacing a 30% VE with a 50% VE vaccine after 5 years reduces the HIV acquisition by 5% compared to delayed vaccination. The immediate use of an HIV vaccine with reduced VE in high risk communities appears desirable over a short time line but higher VE should be the pursued to achieve strong long-term impact. Our analysis illustrates the importance of developing surrogate markers (correlates of protection) to allow bridging types of immunogenicity studies to support more rapid assessment of clade specific vaccines.

  6. Missed opportunities for HPV vaccination in adolescent girls: a qualitative study.

    PubMed

    Perkins, Rebecca B; Clark, Jack A; Apte, Gauri; Vercruysse, Jessica L; Sumner, Justen J; Wall-Haas, Constance L; Rosenquist, Anna W; Pierre-Joseph, Natalie

    2014-09-01

    The goal of this study was to identify the rationale by parents/guardians and providers for delaying or administering human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccination to girls. Qualitative interviews were conducted with parents/guardians accompanying their vaccine-eligible 11- to 17-year-old daughters to medical visits. Interviews were conducted in 1 public clinic and 3 private practice settings to ascertain why girls did or did not receive HPV vaccination. Questions probed vaccine decision-making from the point of view of parents/guardians and providers. A total of 124 parents/guardians and 37 providers participated. The most common reasons parents reported for not vaccinating their daughters was the lack of a physician recommendation (44%). Both parents and providers believed that HPV vaccination provided important health benefits, but the timing of vaccination with relation to sexual activity was an important theme related to vaccine delay. Providers with lower self-reported vaccination rates delayed vaccine recommendations in girls perceived to be at low risk for sexual activity, and several parents reported that their providers suggested or supported delaying vaccination until their daughters were older. However, parents/guardians and providers agreed that predicting the timing of sexual debut was extremely difficult. In contrast, providers with high vaccination rates presented HPV vaccination as a routine vaccine with proven safety to prevent cancer, and parents responded positively to these messages. Although most parents and providers believe that HPV vaccination is important, missed opportunities result from assumptions about the timing of vaccination relative to sexual activity. Routinely recommending HPV vaccination as cancer prevention to be coadministered with other vaccines at age 11 years can improve vaccination rates. Copyright © 2014 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.

  7. UAVs and Control Delays

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-09-01

    Transport Delay itI tl2 s2+(tl +t2tI2)s+ 1 Delay Figure 17 A Matlab Simulink model used to compare a simple delayed system , in this case an integrator...23 3 Control of tim e-delay system s...discuss the various sources of delays, leading to an assessment of typical delays to be expected in a few example systems . Sources of delay that will

  8. Development of a subunit vaccine for infectious pancreatic necrosis virus using a baculovirus insect/larvae system

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Shivappa, R.B.; McAllister, P.E.; Edwards, G.H.; Santi, N.; Evensen, O.; Vakharia, V.N.; ,

    2005-01-01

    Various attempts to develop a vaccine against infectious pancreatic necrosis virus (IPNV) have not yielded consistent results. Thus, at present, no commercial vaccine is available that can be used with confidence to immunize fry of salmon and trout. We generated a cDNA clone of the large genome segment A of an IPNV Sp strain and expressed all structural protein genes in insect cells and larvae using a baculovirus expression system. Green fluorescent protein was also co-expressed as a reporter molecule. High yields of IPNV proteins were obtained and the structural proteins self assembled to form virus-like particles (VLPs). We tested the immunogenicity of the putative VLP antigen in immersion vaccine experiments (two concentrations) in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) fry, and by intraperitoneal immunisation of Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) pre-smolts using an oil adjuvant formulation. Rainbow trout were challenged by immersion using either the Sp or the VR-299 strain of IPNV two or three weeks post-vaccination, while Atlantic salmon were bath challenged with Sp strain after two months, after parr-smolt transformation. In the rainbow trout fry challenged two weeks post-immunization, cumulative mortality rates three weeks post challenge were 14 % in the fry that had received the highest dose versus 8 % in the control groups. No indication of protection was seen in repeated trials using a lower dose of antigen and challenge three weeks post-immunisation. The cumulative mortality rate of intraperitoneally immunised Atlantic salmon post-smolts four weeks post challenge was lower (56 %) than in the control fish (77 %), showing a dose-response pattern.

  9. Association Between Vaccine Refusal and Vaccine-Preventable Diseases in the United States

    PubMed Central

    Phadke, Varun K.; Bednarczyk, Robert A.; Salmon, Daniel A.; Omer, Saad B.

    2016-01-01

    IMPORTANCE Parents hesitant to vaccinate their children may delay routine immunizations or seek exemptions from state vaccine mandates. Recent outbreaks of vaccine-preventable diseases in the United States have drawn attention to this phenomenon. Improved understanding of the association between vaccine refusal and the epidemiology of these diseases is needed. OBJECTIVE To review the published literature to evaluate the association between vaccine delay, refusal, or exemption and the epidemiology of measles and pertussis, 2 vaccine-preventable diseases with recent US outbreaks. EVIDENCE REVIEW Search of PubMed through November 30, 2015, for reports of US measles outbreaks that have occurred since measles was declared eliminated in the United States (after January 1, 2000), endemic and epidemic pertussis since the lowest point in US pertussis incidence (after January 1, 1977), and for studies that assessed disease risk in the context of vaccine delay or exemption. FINDINGS We identified 18 published measles studies (9 annual summaries and 9 outbreak reports), which described 1416 measles cases (individual age range, 2 weeks-84 years; 178 cases younger than 12 months) and more than half (56.8%) had no history of measles vaccination. Of the 970 measles cases with detailed vaccination data, 574 cases were unvaccinated despite being vaccine eligible and 405 (70.6%) of these had nonmedical exemptions (eg, exemptions for religious or philosophical reasons, as opposed to medical contraindications; 41.8%of total). Among 32 reports of pertussis outbreaks, which included 10 609 individuals for whom vaccination status was reported (age range, 10 days-87 years), the 5 largest statewide epidemics had substantial proportions (range, 24%–45%) of unvaccinated or undervaccinated individuals. However, several pertussis outbreaks also occurred in highly vaccinated populations, indicating waning immunity. Nine reports (describing 12 outbreaks) provided detailed vaccination data on

  10. Efficacy of a high potency O1 Manisa monovalent vaccine against heterologous challenge with foot-and-mouth disease virus of O/SEA/Mya-98 lineage in sheep.

    PubMed

    Singanallur, N B; Pacheco, J M; Arzt, J; Stenfeldt, C; Fosgate, G T; Rodriguez, L; Vosloo, W

    2017-09-01

    Potency tests for commercial oil-adjuvanted foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) vaccines are usually carried out in cattle, using a full dose (2 ml) of vaccine and homologous virus challenge. However, in sheep the recommended vaccine dose is half of the cattle dose (1 ml) and most vaccines have not been potency tested for this species, especially with heterologous viruses. To determine the efficacy of a high potency (>6PD50) FMD virus (FMDV) O1Manisa vaccine in sheep, we carried out a study using a heterologous FMDV (FMDV O/SKR/2010 - Mya-98 strain) challenge. Groups of seven animals each were vaccinated with 2×, 1×, 1/2× or 1/4× dose (2 ml, 1 ml, 0.5 ml or 0.25 ml respectively) and challenged at 7 days post vaccination (dpv). Only 3 of the 7 sheep in the group vaccinated with 2 ml were protected. With 2 additional groups, receiving double or single doses and challenged at 14 dpv, 4 of 7 sheep were protected in each group. None of the sheep had measurable neutralising antibodies against the vaccine or challenge virus at 7 dpv. However, all vaccinated animals challenged at 14 dpv had a homologous neutralising response against FMDV O1 Manisa on the day of challenge and all but one animal also had a heterologous response to FMDV O/SKR/2010. Infectious FMDV and viral RNA could be found in nasal swabs between 1 and 6 days post challenge (dpc) in most vaccinated sheep, but those vaccinated with higher doses or challenged at 14 dpv showed significant decreases in the level of FMDV detection. Intermittent virus shedding was noticed between 1 and 35 dpc in all vaccinated groups, but persistent infection could be demonstrated only in 4 sheep (20%). This study showed that at the recommended dose, a high potency (>6 PD50) FMDV O1Manisa vaccine does not protect sheep against a heterologous challenge at 7 dpv. However, partial protection was observed when a double dose was used at 7 dpv or when double or single dose vaccinated sheep were challenged at 14 dpv. Copyright

  11. AIDS vaccines. IAVI issues blueprint to assure global access.

    PubMed

    2000-07-31

    During the 13th International AIDS Conference, the International AIDS Vaccine Initiative (IAVI) issued a detailed working agenda, ¿AIDS Vaccines for World: Preparing Now to Assure Access.¿ The report provides an overview of vaccine economics and concludes that the existing 15-year delay in introducing vaccines to developing countries constitutes a colossal public health failure. Hence, it calls for specific changes in the way vaccines are produced, licensed, priced, purchased, and distributed, and includes a five-point action plan for immediate implementation. To this effect, IAVI proposes a program of unprecedented global collaboration in order to assure global access. This collaboration is a firm commitment from richer nations to purchase vaccines for use in hard-hit developing countries. The Initiative also calls for the tiered pricing of new vaccines so that poorer countries can sharply lower prices than industrialized countries. Moreover, IAVI proposes the creation of an international panel of experts to monitor HIV vaccine trials.

  12. Policy perspectives on post pandemic influenza vaccination in Ghana and Malawi.

    PubMed

    Sambala, Evanson Z; Manderson, Lenore

    2017-02-28

    In the late 1990s, in the context of renewed concerns of an influenza pandemic, countries such as Ghana and Malawi established plans for the deployment of vaccines and vaccination strategies. A new pandemic was declared in mid-June 2009, and by April 2011, Ghana and Malawi vaccinated 10% of the population. We examine the public health policy perspectives on vaccination as a means to prevent the spread of infection under post pandemic conditions. In-depth interviews were conducted with 46 policymakers (Ghana, n = 24; Malawi, n = 22), identified through snowballing sampling. Interviews were supplemented by field notes and the analysis of policy documents. The use of vaccination to interrupt the pandemic influenza was affected by delays in the procurement, delivery and administration of vaccines, suboptimal vaccination coverage, refusals to be vaccinated, and the politics behind vaccination strategies. More generally, rolling-out of vaccination after the transmission of the influenza virus had abated was influenced by policymakers' own financial incentives, and government and foreign policy conditionality on vaccination. This led to confusion about targeting and coverage, with many policymakers justifying that the vaccination of 10% of the population would establish herd immunity and so reduce future risk. Ghana succeeded in vaccinating 2.3 million of the select groups (100% coverage), while Malawi, despite recourse to force, succeeded only in vaccinating 1.15 million (74% coverage of select groups). For most policymakers, vaccination coverage was perceived as successful, despite that vaccination delays and coverage would not have prevented infection when influenza was at its peak. While the vaccination strategy was problematic and implemented too late to reduce the effects of the 2009 epidemic, policy makers supported the overall goal of pandemic influenza vaccination to interrupt infection. In this context, there was strong support for governments engaging

  13. What are the factors that contribute to parental vaccine-hesitancy and what can we do about it?

    PubMed Central

    Williams, Sarah E

    2014-01-01

    Parental refusal or delay of childhood vaccines is increasing. Barriers to vaccination among this population have been described, yet less is known regarding motivating factors. Researchers are beginning to evaluate various approaches to address the concerns of “vaccine-hesitant” parents, but few studies have evaluated the effect of interventions on timely vaccine uptake. Several models for communicating with vaccine-hesitant parents have been reported for healthcare providers; however, the effectiveness and utility of these strategies has not been quantified. This article reviews the known barriers to vaccination reported by vaccine-hesitant parents and the current evidence on strategies to address parental vaccine hesitancy. PMID:25483505

  14. The ring vaccination trial: a novel cluster randomised controlled trial design to evaluate vaccine efficacy and effectiveness during outbreaks, with special reference to Ebola

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    A World Health Organization expert meeting on Ebola vaccines proposed urgent safety and efficacy studies in response to the outbreak in West Africa. One approach to communicable disease control is ring vaccination of individuals at high risk of infection due to their social or geographical connection to a known case. This paper describes the protocol for a novel cluster randomised controlled trial design which uses ring vaccination. In the Ebola ça suffit ring vaccination trial, rings are randomised 1:1 to (a) immediate vaccination of eligible adults with single dose vaccination or (b) vaccination delayed by 21 days. Vaccine efficacy against disease is assessed in participants over equivalent periods from the day of randomisation. Secondary objectives include vaccine effectiveness at the level of the ring, and incidence of serious adverse events. Ring vaccination trials are adaptive, can be run until disease elimination, allow interim analysis, and can go dormant during inter-epidemic periods. PMID:26215666

  15. The ring vaccination trial: a novel cluster randomised controlled trial design to evaluate vaccine efficacy and effectiveness during outbreaks, with special reference to Ebola.

    PubMed

    2015-07-27

    A World Health Organization expert meeting on Ebola vaccines proposed urgent safety and efficacy studies in response to the outbreak in West Africa. One approach to communicable disease control is ring vaccination of individuals at high risk of infection due to their social or geographical connection to a known case. This paper describes the protocol for a novel cluster randomised controlled trial design which uses ring vaccination.In the Ebola ça suffit ring vaccination trial, rings are randomised 1:1 to (a) immediate vaccination of eligible adults with single dose vaccination or (b) vaccination delayed by 21 days. Vaccine efficacy against disease is assessed in participants over equivalent periods from the day of randomisation. Secondary objectives include vaccine effectiveness at the level of the ring, and incidence of serious adverse events. Ring vaccination trials are adaptive, can be run until disease elimination, allow interim analysis, and can go dormant during inter-epidemic periods.

  16. Mice develop effective but delayed protective immune responses when immunized as neonates either intranasally with nonliving VP6/LT(R192G) or orally with live rhesus rotavirus vaccine candidates.

    PubMed

    VanCott, John L; Prada, Anne E; McNeal, Monica M; Stone, Susan C; Basu, Mitali; Huffer, Bert; Smiley, Kristi L; Shao, Mingyuan; Bean, Judy A; Clements, John D; Choi, Anthony H-C; Ward, Richard L

    2006-05-01

    Rotavirus vaccines are delivered early in life, when the immune system is immature. To determine the effects of immaturity on responses to candidate vaccines, neonatal (7 days old) and adult mice were immunized with single doses of either Escherichia coli-expressed rotavirus VP6 protein and the adjuvant LT(R192G) or live rhesus rotavirus (RRV), and protection against fecal rotavirus shedding following challenge with the murine rotavirus strain EDIM was determined. Neonatal mice immunized intranasally with VP6/LT(R192G) were unprotected at 10 days postimmunization (dpi) and had no detectable rotavirus B-cell (antibody) or CD4(+) CD8(+) T-cell (rotavirus-inducible, Th1 [gamma interferon and interleukin-2 {IL-2}]-, Th2 [IL-5 and IL-4]-, or ThIL-17 [IL-17]-producing spleen cells) responses. However, by 28 and 42 dpi, these mice were significantly (P >or= 0.003) protected and contained memory rotavirus-specific T cells but produced no rotavirus antibody. In contrast, adult mice were nearly fully protected by 10 dpi and contained both rotavirus immunoglobulin G and memory T cells. Neonates immunized orally with RRV were also less protected (P=0.01) than adult mice by 10 dpi and produced correspondingly less rotavirus antibody. Both groups contained few rotavirus-specific memory T cells. Protection levels by 28 dpi for neonates or adults were equal, as were rotavirus antibody levels. This report introduces a neonatal mouse model for active protection studies with rotavirus vaccines. It indicates that, with time, neonatal mice develop full protection after intranasal immunization with VP6/LT(R192G) or oral immunization with a live heterologous rotavirus and supports reports that protection depends on CD4(+) T cells or antibody, respectively.

  17. Mice Develop Effective but Delayed Protective Immune Responses When Immunized as Neonates either Intranasally with Nonliving VP6/LT(R192G) or Orally with Live Rhesus Rotavirus Vaccine Candidates

    PubMed Central

    VanCott, John L.; Prada, Anne E.; McNeal, Monica M.; Stone, Susan C.; Basu, Mitali; Huffer, Bert; Smiley, Kristi L.; Shao, Mingyuan; Bean, Judy A.; Clements, John D.; Choi, Anthony H.-C.; Ward, Richard L.

    2006-01-01

    Rotavirus vaccines are delivered early in life, when the immune system is immature. To determine the effects of immaturity on responses to candidate vaccines, neonatal (7 days old) and adult mice were immunized with single doses of either Escherichia coli-expressed rotavirus VP6 protein and the adjuvant LT(R192G) or live rhesus rotavirus (RRV), and protection against fecal rotavirus shedding following challenge with the murine rotavirus strain EDIM was determined. Neonatal mice immunized intranasally with VP6/LT(R192G) were unprotected at 10 days postimmunization (dpi) and had no detectable rotavirus B-cell (antibody) or CD4+ CD8+ T-cell (rotavirus-inducible, Th1 [gamma interferon and interleukin-2 {IL-2}]-, Th2 [IL-5 and IL-4]-, or ThIL-17 [IL-17]-producing spleen cells) responses. However, by 28 and 42 dpi, these mice were significantly (P ≥ 0.003) protected and contained memory rotavirus-specific T cells but produced no rotavirus antibody. In contrast, adult mice were nearly fully protected by 10 dpi and contained both rotavirus immunoglobulin G and memory T cells. Neonates immunized orally with RRV were also less protected (P = 0.01) than adult mice by 10 dpi and produced correspondingly less rotavirus antibody. Both groups contained few rotavirus-specific memory T cells. Protection levels by 28 dpi for neonates or adults were equal, as were rotavirus antibody levels. This report introduces a neonatal mouse model for active protection studies with rotavirus vaccines. It indicates that, with time, neonatal mice develop full protection after intranasal immunization with VP6/LT(R192G) or oral immunization with a live heterologous rotavirus and supports reports that protection depends on CD4+ T cells or antibody, respectively. PMID:16641286

  18. Delayed childbearing.

    PubMed

    Francis, H H

    1985-06-01

    In many Western nations, including England and Wales, Sweden, and the US, there is a current trend towards delayed childbearing because of women's pursuit of a career, later marriage, a longer interval between marriage and the 1st birth, and the increasing number of divorcees having children in a 2nd marriage. Wives of men in social classes I and II in England and Wales are, on average, having their 1st child at 27.9 years, 1.6 years later than in 1973, and in social classes IV and V, 1.0 years later than in 1973, at a mean age of 23.7 years. Consequently, the total period fertility rate for British women aged 30-34 years, 35-39 years, and 40 and over increased by 4%, 2%, and 4%, respectively, between 1982-83, in contrast to reductions of 2% and 3%, respectively, in the 15-19 year and 20-24 year age groups, with the 25-29-year-olds remaining static. The average maternal mortality for all parties in England and Wales during 1976-78 was 106/million for adolescents, 70.4/million for 20-24 year-olds, and 1162/million for those aged 40 years and older. The specific obstetric and allied conditions which increase with age are the hypertensive diseases of pregnancy, hemorrhage, pulmonary embolism, abortion, cardiac disease, caesarean section, ruptured uterus, and amniotic fluid embolism. The Swedish Medical Birth Registry of all live births and perinatal deaths since 1973 has shown that the risk of late fetal death is significantly greater in women aged 30-39 years than in those of the same parity and gravidity aged 20-24 years. The risk of giving birth to low birth weight babies preterm and at term and of premature labor are similarly increased. The early neonatal death rate also was increased for primigravidas and nulliparas in the 30-39 year age group but not in parous women. This is, in part, due to the rise in incidence of fetal abnormalities with advancing maternal age because of chromosomal and nonchromosomal anomalies. These also appear to be the cause of the

  19. Typhoid Vaccine

    MedlinePlus

    ... serious disease. It is caused by bacteria called Salmonella Typhi. Typhoid causes a high fever, fatigue, weakness, ... a typhoid carrier. • Laboratory workers who work with Salmonella Typhi bacteria. Inactivated typhoid vaccine (shot) • One dose ...

  20. Typhoid Vaccine

    MedlinePlus

    ... serious disease. It is caused by bacteria called Salmonella Typhi. Typhoid causes a high fever, fatigue, weakness, stomach ... a typhoid carrier. Laboratory workers who work with Salmonella Typhi bacteria. Inactivated typhoid vaccine (shot)One dose provides ...

  1. Polio Vaccine

    MedlinePlus

    ... As with any medicine, there is a very remote chance of a vaccine causing a serious injury ... state health department. Contact the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC): call 1-800-232-4636 ( ...

  2. Finding reliable information about vaccines.

    PubMed

    Pineda, Diego; Myers, Martin G

    2011-05-01

    Misinformation about vaccines confuses parents who may delay or refuse vaccines for their children, which places them and others at risk of vaccine-preventable diseases. Many parents do not understand the risks and severity of these diseases but also are unaware that they are uninformed. There are a number of favorable factors available for educating parents about these diseases, their prevention, and how to counter misinformation: most parents are seeking a trusting health care relationship; they want more information; they appreciate guidance; and they are looking for means to validate the information that they find. These factors represent opportunities to enhance confidence in immunization programs by providing parents with the tools that they need.

  3. [Which vaccination strategies for African meningococcal meningitis?].

    PubMed

    Saliou, P; Debois, H

    2002-12-01

    In 1963, Lapeyssonnie published a masterful description of the epidemiology of cerebrospinal meningococcal meningitis in the Sahel region of Africa (essentially due to the Neisseria meningitidis sero-group A): geographic spread (meningitis belt), seasonal cycle (dry and cool season). When a combined polyosidic AC vaccine became available in the early 1970s, a disease control strategy was defined along the lines of epidemiological surveillance, prophylaxis of lethality by early treatment of cases and reactive vaccination, since the polyosidic vaccine could not be included in the Expanded Programme on Immunization (EPI). Despite some success, this strategy has not led to the control of cerebrospinal meningococcal meningitis in Africa. Amongst the obstacles encountered are the difficulty to define at what point an out-break becomes an epidemic, gaps in epidemiological surveillance, unavailable vaccine doses, delayed and complex vaccination campaigns. At the end of the 1990s, controversy ensued: since reactive vaccination was fraught with so many problems, why not consider a strategy of preventive AC vaccination for high risk areas? But this controversy may well die out with the emergence of the present-day W 135 serogroup responsible for the first large scale epidemic in Burkina Faso in 2002. If this is confirmed, a polyosidic vaCcine containing the W 135 antigen would be required, pending the availability for Africa of a conjugate tetravalent ACYW135 vaccine which could be included in the EPI.

  4. Plants for delivery of edible vaccines.

    PubMed

    Walmsley, A M; Arntzen, C J

    2000-04-01

    Over the past decade, scientific advances in molecular biology and immunology have improved understanding of many diseases and led to the development of novel strategies for vaccination. The development of plants expressing vaccine antigens is a particularly promising approach. Plant-derived antigenic proteins have delayed or prevented the onset of disease in animals and have proven to be safe and functional in human clinical trials. Future areas of research should further characterize the induction of the mucosal immune system and appropriate crop species for delivery of animal and human vaccines.

  5. Smallpox Vaccine Overview

    MedlinePlus

    ... Facebook Tweet Share Compartir SMALLPOX FACT SHEET The Smallpox Vaccine The smallpox vaccine helps the body develop ... disease or may modify the severity of disease. Smallpox Vaccine Safety The smallpox vaccine is the best ...

  6. Influenza Vaccine, Live Intranasal

    MedlinePlus

    ... the recombinant influenza vaccine (RIV). The nasal spray flu vaccine (live attenuated influenza vaccine or LAIV) should NOT ... to your doctor or pharmacist about the best flu vaccine option for you or your family.

  7. Predictors of Uptake and Timeliness of Newly Introduced Pneumococcal and Rotavirus Vaccines, and of Measles Vaccine in Rural Malawi: A Population Cohort Study.

    PubMed

    Mvula, Hazzie; Heinsbroek, Ellen; Chihana, Menard; Crampin, Amelia C; Kabuluzi, Storn; Chirwa, Geoffrey; Mwansambo, Charles; Costello, Anthony; Cunliffe, Nigel A; Heyderman, Robert S; French, Neil; Bar-Zeev, Naor

    2016-01-01

    Malawi introduced pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV13) and monovalent rotavirus vaccine (RV1) in 2011 and 2012 respectively, and is planning the introduction of a second-dose measles vaccine (MV). We assessed predictors of availability, uptake and timeliness of these vaccines in a rural Malawian setting. Commencing on the first date of PCV13 eligibility we conducted a prospective population-based birth cohort study of 2,616 children under demographic surveillance in Karonga District, northern Malawi who were eligible for PCV13, or from the date of RV1 introduction both PCV13 and RV1. Potential predictors of vaccine uptake and timeliness for PCV13, RV1 and MV were analysed respectively using robust Poisson and Cox regression. Vaccine coverage was high for all vaccines, ranging from 86.9% for RV1 dose 2 to 95.4% for PCV13 dose 1. Median time delay for PCV13 dose 1 was 17 days (IQR 7-36), 19 days (IQR 8-36) for RV1 dose 1 and 20 days (IQR 3-46) for MV. Infants born to lower educated or farming mothers and those living further away from the road or clinic were at greater risk of being not fully vaccinated and being vaccinated late. Delays in vaccination were also associated with non-facility birth. Vaccine stock-outs resulted in both a delay in vaccine timeliness and in a decrease in completion of schedule. Despite high vaccination coverage in this setting, delays in vaccination were common. We identified programmatic and socio-demographic risk factors for uptake and timeliness of vaccination. Understanding who remains most vulnerable to be unvaccinated allows for focussed delivery thereby increasing population coverage and maximising the equitable benefits of universal vaccination programmes.

  8. Optimizing Real-Time Vaccine Allocation in a Stochastic SIR Model

    PubMed Central

    Nguyen, Chantal; Carlson, Jean M.

    2016-01-01

    Real-time vaccination following an outbreak can effectively mitigate the damage caused by an infectious disease. However, in many cases, available resources are insufficient to vaccinate the entire at-risk population, logistics result in delayed vaccine deployment, and the interaction between members of different cities facilitates a wide spatial spread of infection. Limited vaccine, time delays, and interaction (or coupling) of cities lead to tradeoffs that impact the overall magnitude of the epidemic. These tradeoffs mandate investigation of optimal strategies that minimize the severity of the epidemic by prioritizing allocation of vaccine to specific subpopulations. We use an SIR model to describe the disease dynamics of an epidemic which breaks out in one city and spreads to another. We solve a master equation to determine the resulting probability distribution of the final epidemic size. We then identify tradeoffs between vaccine, time delay, and coupling, and we determine the optimal vaccination protocols resulting from these tradeoffs. PMID:27043931

  9. Immunogenicity of recombinant hepatitis B vaccine: comparison of two different vaccination schedules

    PubMed Central

    Agladioglu, S.; Beyazova, U.; Sahin, F.; Atak, A.

    2010-01-01

    Background Neonatal immunization with hepatitis B (HB) vaccine induces protective levels of antibody (anti-HBs ≥10 IU/L) in a majority of vaccines. However, the duration of protection after HB vaccination in infants is unknown. A smaller proportion of children vaccinated beginning at birth with three doses of HB vaccine were found to have protective titers 5–10 years after initial vaccination. Long-term efficacy of HB vaccine depends mainly on peak antibody levels after vaccination, and subjects were observed to have lower levels of antibodies if they received the first dose of vaccine immediately after birth. The aim of our study was to compare the immunogenicity of two different HB vaccine schedules in infants born to HB surface antigen-negative mothers. Methods Anti-HBs titers in infants vaccinated with two different schedules were compared. Infants were vaccinated at 0, 2, and 9 months (group 1) or at 2, 4, and 9 months (group 2). In total, 267 blood samples were analyzed at a mean of 14.20 ± 2.39 months after the third vaccine dose. Sera were tested for hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg), hepatitis B surface antibody (anti-HBs), and hepatitis B core antibody (anti-HBc) using commercial enzyme immunoassay kits. Results The geometric mean titers for anti-HBs were 95.00 and 379.51 IU/L and the rates of anti-HBs more than ≥100 IU/L were 57.7 and 94.9% in group 1 and 2 infants, respectively. Conclusion Delaying the first dose of the HB vaccine until 2 months after birth produces a higher immune response and can provide longer term protection. PMID:20512395

  10. Microneedle-based vaccines

    PubMed Central

    Prausnitz, Mark R.; Mikszta, John A.; Cormier, Michel; Andrianov, Alexander K.

    2010-01-01

    The threat of pandemic influenza and other public health needs motivates development of better vaccine delivery systems. To address this need, microneedles have been developed as micron-scale needles fabricated using low-cost manufacturing methods that administer vaccine into the skin using a simple device that may be suitable for self-administration. Delivery using solid or hollow microneedles can be accomplished by (i) piercing the skin and then applying a vaccine formulation or patch onto the permeabilized skin, (ii) coating or encapsulating vaccine onto or within microneedles for rapid, or delayed, dissolution and release in the skin and (iii) injection into the skin using a modified syringe or pump. Extensive clinical experience with smallpox, TB and other vaccines has shown that vaccine delivery into the skin using conventional intradermal injection is generally safe and effective and often elicits the same immune responses at lower doses compared to intramuscular injection. Animal experiments using microneedles have shown similar benefits. Microneedles have been used to deliver whole, inactivated virus; trivalent split antigen vaccines; and DNA plasmid encoding the influenza hemagglutinin to rodents and found strong antibody responses. In addition, ChimeriVax™-JE against yellow fever was administered to non-human primates and generated protective levels of neutralizing antibodies more than seven times greater than subcutaneous delivery; DNA plasmid encoding hepatitis B surface antigen was administered to mice and generated antibody and T cell responses at least as strong as hypodermic injections; recombinant Protective Antigen of Baccilus anthracis was administered to rabbits and provided complete protection from lethal aerosol anthrax spore challenge at a lower dose than intramuscular injection; and DNA plasmid encoding four vaccinia virus genes administered to mice in combination with electroporation generated neutralizing antibodies that apparently

  11. Human vaccines & immunotherapeutics: news.

    PubMed

    Riedmann, Eva M

    2013-10-01

    Infant rotavirus vaccination provides for herd immunity Nonreplicating sporozoite vaccine protects humans against malaria Personalized brain cancer vaccine enters phase 2 trial Novel implantable therapeutic cancer vaccine to be tested in humans Clostridium difficile vaccine candidate successful in phase 1 CDC reports strong uptake of HPV vaccine in boys Whooping cough outbreak in Texas.

  12. Analysis of vaccination status of preschool children in Teresina (PI), Brazil.

    PubMed

    Fernandes, Ana Catharina Nunes; Gomes, Keila Rejane Oliveira; de Araújo, Telma Maria Evangelista; Moreira-Araújo, Regilda Saraiva dos Reis

    2015-01-01

    Immunization is a priority action of the Ministry of Health for contributing to reducing child mortality; however, studies show increased vaccination delays and non-vaccination. This study aims to analyze the immunization status of preschool children in Teresina - PI. Cross-sectional study involving 542 children, aged 2-6 years, enrolled in local public schools in four Municipal Childhood Education Centers selected at random, following the proportional division by regions of the city. Data were collected through a pre-coded and pre-tested form, in addition to scanning the children's vaccination card. For univariate descriptive statistical analysis, Pearson's χ2 Test and Fisher's Exact Test were used, and for multivariate analysis, multiple logistic regression was conducted using SPSS version 17.0. The study complied with the ethical aspects in accordance with current legislation. The frequency of delayed vaccination/non-vaccination was 24.9%. The average of non-administered vaccines was 1.7 (SD ± 1.2) and of delayed vaccines was 3.3 (SD ± 1.6). The binomial logistic regression model showed a significant association (p < 0.05) between young caregivers (under 24 years) and low frequency in childcare consultations with delayed vaccination/non-vaccination. There was no association with the variables related to the experience of children in the vaccination room and with the implementation of the Family Health Strategy. Ensuring and strengthening primary healthcare actions are essential tools to reduce non-vaccination and vaccine delays. Professionals who care for children in vaccination rooms need to sensitize themselves to guide and encourage parents/caregivers to meet the vaccination schedules without delays or errors.

  13. Misinformation lingers in memory: Failure of three pro-vaccination strategies.

    PubMed

    Pluviano, Sara; Watt, Caroline; Della Sala, Sergio

    2017-01-01

    People's inability to update their memories in light of corrective information may have important public health consequences, as in the case of vaccination choice. In the present study, we compare three potentially effective strategies in vaccine promotion: one contrasting myths vs. facts, one employing fact and icon boxes, and one showing images of non-vaccinated sick children. Beliefs in the autism/vaccines link and in vaccines side effects, along with intention to vaccinate a future child, were evaluated both immediately after the correction intervention and after a 7-day delay to reveal possible backfire effects. Results show that existing strategies to correct vaccine misinformation are ineffective and often backfire, resulting in the unintended opposite effect, reinforcing ill-founded beliefs about vaccination and reducing intentions to vaccinate. The implications for research on vaccines misinformation and recommendations for progress are discussed.

  14. Cancer vaccines.

    PubMed

    Butterfield, Lisa H

    2015-04-22

    Cancer vaccines are designed to promote tumor specific immune responses, particularly cytotoxic CD8 positive T cells that are specific to tumor antigens. The earliest vaccines, which were developed in 1994-95, tested non-mutated, shared tumor associated antigens that had been shown to be immunogenic and capable of inducing clinical responses in a minority of people with late stage cancer. Technological developments in the past few years have enabled the investigation of vaccines that target mutated antigens that are patient specific. Several platforms for cancer vaccination are being tested, including peptides, proteins, antigen presenting cells, tumor cells, and viral vectors. Standard of care treatments, such as surgery and ablation, chemotherapy, and radiotherapy, can also induce antitumor immunity, thereby having cancer vaccine effects. The monitoring of patients' immune responses at baseline and after standard of care treatment is shedding light on immune biomarkers. Combination therapies are being tested in clinical trials and are likely to be the best approach to improving patient outcomes.

  15. Nanoparticle vaccines.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Liang; Seth, Arjun; Wibowo, Nani; Zhao, Chun-Xia; Mitter, Neena; Yu, Chengzhong; Middelberg, Anton P J

    2014-01-09

    Nanotechnology increasingly plays a significant role in vaccine development. As vaccine development orientates toward less immunogenic "minimalist" compositions, formulations that boost antigen effectiveness are increasingly needed. The use of nanoparticles in vaccine formulations allows not only improved antigen stability and immunogenicity, but also targeted delivery and slow release. A number of nanoparticle vaccines varying in composition, size, shape, and surface properties have been approved for human use and the number of candidates is increasing. However, challenges remain due to a lack of fundamental understanding regarding the in vivo behavior of nanoparticles, which can operate as either a delivery system to enhance antigen processing and/or as an immunostimulant adjuvant to activate or enhance immunity. This review provides a broad overview of recent advances in prophylactic nanovaccinology. Types of nanoparticles used are outlined and their interaction with immune cells and the biosystem are discussed. Increased knowledge and fundamental understanding of nanoparticle mechanism of action in both immunostimulatory and delivery modes, and better understanding of in vivo biodistribution and fate, are urgently required, and will accelerate the rational design of nanoparticle-containing vaccines. Copyright © 2013 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  16. Hypersensitivity reactions to vaccine constituents: a case series and review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Leventhal, Jonathan S; Berger, Emily M; Brauer, Jeremy A; Cohen, David E

    2012-01-01

    Vaccines are composed of immunogens, preservatives, adjuvants, antibiotics, and manufacturing by-products. Components of vaccines may rarely elicit adverse reactions in susceptible individuals, thus raising concerns regarding vaccine safety. In this report, we add to the medical literature 3 cases of cutaneous delayed-type hypersensitivity to the vaccine preservative aluminum. We provide a review of major constituents in vaccines that have elicited immediate-type or delayed-type hypersensitivity reactions and describe their clinical manifestations. We include a table of the Food and Drug Administration-approved vaccines, which lists the quantities of major components including ovalbumin (egg protein), gelatin, aluminum, neomycin, 2-phenoxyethanol, thimerosal, and formaldehyde. Our goals were to inform physicians on the variety of hypersensitivity reactions to common vaccines and to provide information on the choice of vaccines in patients with suspected hypersensitivity.

  17. Immunological responses to polyvalent canine vaccines in dogs.

    PubMed

    Miyamoto, T; Taura, Y; Une, S; Yoshitake, M; Nakama, S; Watanabe, S

    1995-04-01

    The immunological responses to commercially available polyvalent vaccines in dogs were examined. There was a tendency in decreased lymphocyte counts on day 7 in the puppy and adult dogs. There was a significant increase in the blastogenesis of lymphocytes on day 7 and 21 in puppies, whereas no significant changes were seen in the adult dogs. Delayed type hypersensitivity (DTH) responses to phytohemagglutinin (PHA) and canine parvo-virus (CPV) vaccine monitored 0, 3, 8 weeks after vaccination produced strong reactions, in particular those to CPV vaccine rose significantly after vaccination and maintained the higher responses for at least 2 months. Therefore, it is considered that vaccination is immunomodulative rather than immunosuppressive and that DTH responses to PHA and CPV vaccine are helpful to monitor non-specific and specific immune functions in vivo.

  18. Understanding Vaccine Hesitancy in Canada: Results of a Consultation Study by the Canadian Immunization Research Network.

    PubMed

    Dubé, Eve; Gagnon, Dominique; Ouakki, Manale; Bettinger, Julie A; Guay, Maryse; Halperin, Scott; Wilson, Kumanan; Graham, Janice; Witteman, Holly O; MacDonald, Shannon; Fisher, William; Monnais, Laurence; Tran, Dat; Gagneur, Arnaud; Guichon, Juliet; Saini, Vineet; Heffernan, Jane M; Meyer, Samantha; Driedger, S Michelle; Greenberg, Joshua; MacDougall, Heather

    2016-01-01

    "Vaccine hesitancy" is a concept now frequently used in vaccination discourse. The increased popularity of this concept in both academic and public health circles is challenging previously held perspectives that individual vaccination attitudes and behaviours are a simple dichotomy of accept or reject. A consultation study was designed to assess the opinions of experts and health professionals concerning the definition, scope, and causes of vaccine hesitancy in Canada. We sent online surveys to two panels (1- vaccination experts and 2- front-line vaccine providers). Two questionnaires were completed by each panel, with data from the first questionnaire informing the development of questions for the second. Our participants defined vaccine hesitancy as an attitude (doubts, concerns) as well as a behaviour (refusing some / many vaccines, delaying vaccination). Our findings also indicate that both vaccine experts and front-line vaccine providers have the perception that vaccine rates have been declining and consider vaccine hesitancy an important issue to address in Canada. Diffusion of negative information online and lack of knowledge about vaccines were identified as the key causes of vaccine hesitancy by the participants. A common understanding of vaccine hesitancy among researchers, public health experts, policymakers and health care providers will better guide interventions that can more effectively address vaccine hesitancy within Canada.

  19. Understanding Vaccine Hesitancy in Canada: Results of a Consultation Study by the Canadian Immunization Research Network

    PubMed Central

    Dubé, Eve; Gagnon, Dominique; Ouakki, Manale; Bettinger, Julie A.; Guay, Maryse; Halperin, Scott; Wilson, Kumanan; Graham, Janice; Witteman, Holly O.; MacDonald, Shannon; Fisher, William; Monnais, Laurence; Tran, Dat; Gagneur, Arnaud; Guichon, Juliet; Saini, Vineet; Heffernan, Jane M.; Meyer, Samantha; Driedger, S. Michelle; Greenberg, Joshua; MacDougall, Heather

    2016-01-01

    Vaccine hesitancy” is a concept now frequently used in vaccination discourse. The increased popularity of this concept in both academic and public health circles is challenging previously held perspectives that individual vaccination attitudes and behaviours are a simple dichotomy of accept or reject. A consultation study was designed to assess the opinions of experts and health professionals concerning the definition, scope, and causes of vaccine hesitancy in Canada. We sent online surveys to two panels (1- vaccination experts and 2- front-line vaccine providers). Two questionnaires were completed by each panel, with data from the first questionnaire informing the development of questions for the second. Our participants defined vaccine hesitancy as an attitude (doubts, concerns) as well as a behaviour (refusing some / many vaccines, delaying vaccination). Our findings also indicate that both vaccine experts and front-line vaccine providers have the perception that vaccine rates have been declining and consider vaccine hesitancy an important issue to address in Canada. Diffusion of negative information online and lack of knowledge about vaccines were identified as the key causes of vaccine hesitancy by the participants. A common understanding of vaccine hesitancy among researchers, public health experts, policymakers and health care providers will better guide interventions that can more effectively address vaccine hesitancy within Canada. PMID:27257809

  20. Development of an HIV vaccine attitudes scale to predict HIV vaccine acceptability among vulnerable populations: L.A. VOICES.

    PubMed

    Lee, Sung-Jae; Newman, Peter A; Duan, Naihua; Cunningham, William E

    2014-09-03

    Decade-long delays in successful implementation of Hepatitis B vaccines and ongoing obstacles in HPV vaccine roll-out suggest the importance of an implementation science approach to prepare for the effective translation of future HIV vaccines from clinical trials into routine practice. The objective of this study was to test HIV vaccine attitude items to develop reliable scales and to examine their association with HIV vaccine acceptability. HIV vaccine attitude items were assessed as part of the L.A. VOICES survey, a large-scale study conducted among underserved residents of Los Angeles, to identify factors that may influence HIV vaccine acceptability. Participants (n=1225) were randomly selected from public STD clinics, needle exchange sites and Latino community clinics using three-stage, venue-based time space sampling. Exploratory factor analysis across 20 items revealed four distinct factors - mistrust, HIV vaccine social concerns, risk compensation, and altruistic vaccination - with acceptable reliability coefficients for each subscale (Cronbach's α range 0.61-0.84). We found no significant differences in reliability by gender or by vaccine acceptability. Risk compensation (odds ratio (OR)=1.49; 95% CI=[1.18, 1.89]; p=0.001) and altruistic vaccination (OR=1.40; 95% CI=[1.14, 1.71]; p=0.001) were significantly and positively associated with HIV vaccine acceptability. We identified four HIV vaccine attitude scales with sound internal reliability parameters. In the aftermath of the first candidate vaccine to demonstrate efficacy against HIV infection, these scales may be helpful in bridging expectable research-to-practice gaps in future HIV vaccine dissemination among populations at risk. As HIV vaccine trials progress in the United States and globally, these measures also may be useful as a tool to assess and facilitate effective responses to community concerns about HIV vaccine trials and to target interventions to support recruitment and mitigate risk

  1. Mucosal vaccines

    PubMed Central

    Nizard, Mevyn; Diniz, Mariana O; Roussel, Helene; Tran, Thi; Ferreira, Luis CS; Badoual, Cecile; Tartour, Eric

    2014-01-01

    The mucosal immune system displays several adaptations reflecting the exposure to the external environment. The efficient induction of mucosal immune responses also requires specific approaches, such as the use of appropriate administration routes and specific adjuvants and/or delivery systems. In contrast to vaccines delivered via parenteral routes, experimental, and clinical evidences demonstrated that mucosal vaccines can efficiently induce local immune responses to pathogens or tumors located at mucosal sites as well as systemic response. At least in part, such features can be explained by the compartmentalization of mucosal B and T cell populations that play important roles in the modulation of local immune responses. In the present review, we discuss molecular and cellular features of the mucosal immune system as well as novel immunization approaches that may lead to the development of innovative and efficient vaccines targeting pathogens and tumors at different mucosal sites. PMID:25424921

  2. Human Vaccines & Immunotherapeutics: News

    PubMed Central

    Riedmann, Eva M

    2013-01-01

    Vaccinating boys against HPV to reduce cancer rates across the sexes New melanoma vaccine contains natural product from marine sponges Impact of Hib conjugate vaccines in developing countries Electronic Health Records to keep track of immunization status Pregnant women urged to get whooping cough vaccination New nano-coating developed to preserve vaccines Alternative approach to creating a universal flu vaccine New modular vaccine design: MAPS technology PMID:24051387

  3. Immune Interference After Sequential Alphavirus Vaccine Vaccinations

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-01-01

    REPORT DATE 11 MAR 2009 2. REPORT TYPE N/A 3. DATES COVERED - 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Immune interference after sequential alphavirus ...of administration of investigational alphavirus vaccines on neutralizing antibody response. Volunteers who received the inactivated eastern and...vaccine strategy among those receiving multiple alphavirus vaccines and those developing next generation vaccines for these threats. 15. SUBJECT TERMS

  4. Young multiethnic women's attitudes toward the HPV vaccine and HPV vaccination.

    PubMed

    Wong, Li Ping

    2008-11-01

    To investigate the acceptability of the HPV vaccine among a multiethnic sample of young women in Malaysia. A qualitative study of 40 young women aged between 13 and 27 years recruited into 7 focus groups to discuss their knowledge of HPV infection, and their attitudes toward and acceptance of the HPV vaccine. The women were divided into Malay, Chinese, and Indian groups to allow for comparison among ethnicities. Poor knowledge about HPV did not influence the HPV vaccine's acceptability. Although participants were in favor of the vaccine, the majority preferred to delay vaccination because it is newly introduced, they did not perceive themselves to be at risk of HPV infection, or because of cost factors. Concerns were raised regarding the vaccine's safety, the potential to be perceived as promiscuous and sexually active, and whether the vaccine was halal. Promotion of the HPV vaccine should take account of social and cultural acceptability. The findings will help develop strategies for effective vaccination initiatives in a multiethnic and multireligious Asian society.

  5. Effects of mass media coverage on timing and annual receipt of influenza vaccination among Medicare elderly.

    PubMed

    Yoo, Byung-Kwang; Holland, Margaret L; Bhattacharya, Jay; Phelps, Charles E; Szilagyi, Peter G

    2010-10-01

    To measure the association between mass media coverage on flu-related topics and influenza vaccination, regarding timing and annual vaccination rates, among the nationally representative community-dwelling elderly. Years 1999, 2000, and 2001 Medicare Current Beneficiary Survey. Cross-sectional survival analyses during each of three influenza vaccination seasons between September 1999 and December 2001. The outcome variable was daily vaccine receipt. We measured daily media coverage by counting the number of television program transcripts and newspaper/wire service articles, including keywords of influenza/flu and vaccine/shot shortage/delay. All models' covariates included three types of media, vaccine supply, and regional/individual factors. Influenza-related reports in all three media sources had a positive association with earlier vaccination timing and annual vaccination rate. Four television networks' reports had most consistent positive effects in all models, for example, shifting the mean vaccination timing earlier by 1.8-4.1 days (p<.001) or increasing the annual vaccination rate by 2.3-7.9 percentage points (p<.001). These effects tended to be greater when reported in a headline rather than in text only and if including additional keywords, for example, vaccine shortage/delay. Timing and annual receipt of influenza vaccination appear to be influenced by media coverage, particularly by headlines and specific reports on shortage/delay. Copyright © Health Research and Educational Trust.

  6. Effects of Three Types of Inactivation Agents on the Antibody Response and Immune Protection of Inactivated IHNV Vaccine in Rainbow Trout.

    PubMed

    Tang, Lijie; Kang, Haiyan; Duan, Kexin; Guo, Mengting; Lian, Gaihong; Wu, Yang; Li, Yijing; Gao, Shuai; Jiang, Yanping; Yin, Jiyuan; Liu, Min

    2016-09-01

    Infectious hematopoietic necrosis virus (IHNV) infects salmonid fish, resulting in high mortality and serious economic losses to salmonid aquaculture. Therefore, an effective IHNV vaccine is urgently needed. To select an inactivation agent for the preparation of an effective IHNV vaccine, rainbow trout were immunized with mineral oil emulsions of IHNV vaccines inactivated by formaldehyde, binary ethylenimine (BEI), or β-propiolactone (BPL). The fish were challenged 8 weeks after vaccination, and their IgM antibody response and relative percent survival (RPS) were evaluated. The results show that formaldehyde, BEI, and BPL abolished IHNV HLJ-09 infectivity within 24, 48, and 24 h at final concentrations of 0.2%, 0.02%, and 0.01%, respectively. The mean levels of specific IgM, both in serum and mucus (collected from the skin surface and gills), for the three immunized groups (from high to low) ranked as follows: the BPL group, BEI group, and formaldehyde group. From weeks 5 to 9, the mean log2 serum titers of IgM in the BPL group were significantly higher compared with those of the other groups (p < 0.05) during the 9 weeks of observation after vaccination (immunized at weeks 0 and6). Mucus OD490 values of the BPL group were significantly higher compared with those of the other groups (p < 0.05) when reaching their peak at weeks 5 and 8, but the difference between the formaldehyde and BEI groups was not significant (p > 0.05). The BPL-inactivated whole-virus vaccine had the greatest protective effect on the rainbow trout after challenge by an intraperitoneal injection of live IHNV, with an RPS rate of 91.67%, which was significantly higher compared with the BEI (83.33%) and formaldehyde (79.17%) groups. These results indicate that the BPL-inactivated IHNV oil-adjuvant vaccine was more effective than the formaldehyde- or BEI-inactivated vaccines. The results of this study provide an important foundation for further studies on inactivated IHNV vaccines.

  7. Nanotoxoid Vaccines

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Che-Ming J.; Zhang, Liangfang

    2014-01-01

    To improve innate defense against diseases, vaccine formulations are routinely administered to mount immune responses against disease-causing organisms or their associated toxins. These formulations are typically prepared with weakened forms of microbes, their surface proteins, or their virulence factors, which can train the immune system to recognize and neutralize similar infectious threats in later exposures. Owing to many unique properties of nanoparticles in enhancing vaccine potency, nanoscale carriers are drawing increasing interest as a platform for developing safer and more effective vaccine formulations. Notably, a nanoparticle-based strategy was recently demonstrated to safely deliver intact, non-denatured protein toxins to mount a potent anti-toxin immune response. A biomimetic nanoparticle cloaked in biological membranes was used to sequester membrane-active toxins. Upon interaction with the nanoparticles, the toxins become retrained and lose their toxicity as they are precluded from interacting with cellular targets. The resulting particle/toxin complex adopts a nanoparticulate morphology that facilitates the toxins’ intracellular delivery. This sequestration approach has immense immunological implications owing to its ability in enabling structurally preserved toxins for immune processing. This technique offers opportunities in novel toxoid vaccine designs that promise more effective anti-toxin immune responses and contrasts the existing paradigm in toxoid preparation, in which toxins are antigenically altered to ensure virulence removal. The potent nanotoxoid formulations provide a viable anti-virulence measure in combating microbial infections that involve membrane-damaging toxins, including methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) and Group A streptococcal infections. PMID:25285152

  8. Replicating vaccines

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Early work on fish immunology and disease resistance demonstrated fish (like animals and humans) that survived infection were typically resistant to re-infection with the same pathogen. The concepts of resistance upon reinfection lead to the research and development of replicating (live) vaccines in...

  9. Vexing Vaccines

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bowman, Darcia Harris

    2004-01-01

    Schools play a key role in ensuring that children are being immunized against diseases, but conflicting research is making enforcement difficult. This article discusses a growing trend of vaccine avoidance and the endless supply of conflicting information and research about immunization safety. Despite the controversy, many people appear to accept…

  10. AIDS Vaccines.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Matthews, Thomas J.; Bolognesi, Dani P.

    1988-01-01

    Reveals that success of discovering vaccines is far from being assured although several candidates are being tested. States that the devious nature of the virus, the lack of a good animal model for the disease, and the difficulties of clinical trials inhibit the efforts of researchers. (RT)

  11. Vexing Vaccines

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bowman, Darcia Harris

    2004-01-01

    Schools play a key role in ensuring that children are being immunized against diseases, but conflicting research is making enforcement difficult. This article discusses a growing trend of vaccine avoidance and the endless supply of conflicting information and research about immunization safety. Despite the controversy, many people appear to accept…

  12. Malaria vaccine.

    PubMed

    1994-05-01

    Some have argued that the vaccine against malaria developed by Manuel Pattaroyo, a Colombian scientist, is being tested prematurely in humans and that it is unlikely to be successful. While the Pattaroyo vaccine has been shown to confer protection against the relatively mild malaria found in Colombia, doubts exist over whether it will be effective in Africa. Encouraging first results, however, are emerging from field tests in Tanzania. The vaccine triggered a strong new immune response, even in individuals previously exposed to malaria. Additional steps must be taken to establish its impact upon mortality and morbidity. Five major trials are underway around the world. The creator estimates that the first ever effective malaria vaccine could be available for widespread use within five years and he has no intention of securing a patent for the discovery. In another development, malaria specialists from 35 African countries convened at an international workshop in Zimbabwe to compare notes. Participants disparaged financial outlays for the fight against malaria equivalent to 2% of total AIDS funding as insufficient; noted intercountry differences in prevention, diagnosis, and treatment; and found information exchange between anglophone and francophone doctors to be generally poor.

  13. Valuing vaccination

    PubMed Central

    Bärnighausen, Till; Bloom, David E.; Cafiero-Fonseca, Elizabeth T.; O’Brien, Jennifer Carroll

    2014-01-01

    Vaccination has led to remarkable health gains over the last century. However, large coverage gaps remain, which will require significant financial resources and political will to address. In recent years, a compelling line of inquiry has established the economic benefits of health, at both the individual and aggregate levels. Most existing economic evaluations of particular health interventions fail to account for this new research, leading to potentially sizable undervaluation of those interventions. In line with this new research, we set forth a framework for conceptualizing the full benefits of vaccination, including avoided medical care costs, outcome-related productivity gains, behavior-related productivity gains, community health externalities, community economic externalities, and the value of risk reduction and pure health gains. We also review literature highlighting the magnitude of these sources of benefit for different vaccinations. Finally, we outline the steps that need to be taken to implement a broad-approach economic evaluation and discuss the implications of this work for research, policy, and resource allocation for vaccine development and delivery. PMID:25136129

  14. Vaccine stockouts around the world: Are essential vaccines always available when needed?

    PubMed

    Lydon, Patrick; Schreiber, Benjamin; Gasca, Aurelia; Dumolard, Laure; Urfer, Daniela; Senouci, Kamel

    2017-04-19

    As countries rise to the challenge of implementing the priorities of this "Decade of Vaccine" and their commitments delineated in the Global Vaccine Action Plan (GVAP), many continue to face important challenges of securing a continuous supply of essential vaccine for their national immunization programme. This study provides evidence on the incidence of vaccine stockouts in countries, their root causes and their potential impact on service delivery. Vaccine stockout indicators collected from the WHO-UNICEF Joint Reporting Form (JRF) and UNICEF's Vaccine Forecasting Tool were analysed for the years covering the first half of the GVAP (2011 to 2015) and using 2010 as the baseline year. While the JRF collects annual information on national and subnational stockouts by vaccine, the UNICEF Vaccine Forecasting Tool has the advantage of requesting UNICEF procuring countries to report on the reasons underpinning any stockouts. Every year on average, one in every three WHO Member States experiences at least one stockout of at least one vaccine for at least one month. The incidence is most pronounced in Sub-Saharan Africa where 38% of countries in this area of the world report national-level stockouts. The vaccines most affected are DTP containing vaccines (often combined with HepB and Hib) and BCG. They account for respectively 43% and 31% of stockout events reported. While national level vaccine stockouts occur in countries of all income groups, middle income countries are the most affected. In 80% of cases, national level stockouts were due to reasons internal to countries. More specifically, 39% of stockouts were attributable to government funding delays, 23% were caused by delays in the procurement processes, and poor forecasting and stock management at country level accounted for an additional 18%. When a national level stockout of vaccines occurs, there is an 89% chance that a subnational stockout will occur at district level. More concerning is that if a district

  15. Vaccine chronicle in Japan.

    PubMed

    Nakayama, Tetsuo

    2013-10-01

    The concept of immunization was started in Japan in 1849 when Jenner's cowpox vaccine seed was introduced, and the current immunization law was stipulated in 1948. There have been two turning points for amendments to the immunization law: the compensation remedy for vaccine-associated adverse events in 1976, and the concept of private vaccination in 1994. In 1992, the regional Court of Tokyo, not the Supreme Court, decided the governmental responsibility on vaccine-associated adverse events, which caused the stagnation of vaccine development. In 2010, many universal vaccines became available as the recommended vaccines, but several vaccines, including mumps, zoster, hepatitis B, and rota vaccines, are still voluntary vaccines, not universal routine applications. In this report, immunization strategies and vaccine development are reviewed for each vaccine item and future vaccine concerns are discussed.

  16. Development of an HIV Vaccine Attitudes Scale to Predict HIV Vaccine Acceptability among Vulnerable Populations: L.A. VOICES

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Sung-Jae; Newman, Peter A.; Duan, Naihua; Cunningham, William E.

    2014-01-01

    Background Decade-long delays in successful implementation of Hepatitis B vaccines and ongoing obstacles in HPV vaccine roll-out suggest the importance of an implementation science approach to prepare for the effective translation of future HIV vaccines from clinical trials into routine practice. The objective of this study wasto test HIV vaccine attitude items to develop reliable scales and to examine their association with HIV vaccine acceptability. Methods HIV vaccine attitude items were assessed as part of the L.A. VOICES survey, a large-scale study conducted among underserved residents of Los Angeles, to identify factors that may influence HIV vaccine acceptability. Participants (n=1,225) were randomly selected from public STD clinics, needle exchange sites and Latino community clinics using three-stage, venue-based time space sampling. Results Exploratory factor analysis across 20 items revealed four distinct factors—mistrust, HIV vaccine social concerns, risk compensation, and altruistic vaccination—with acceptable reliability coefficients for each subscale (Cronbach’s α range 0.61 – 0.84). We found no significant differences in reliability by gender or by vaccine acceptability. Risk compensation (Odds Ratio (OR) =1.49; 95% CI=[1.18, 1.89]; p=0.001) and altruistic vaccination (OR=1.40; 95% CI=[1.14, 1.71]; p=0.001) were significantly and positively associated with HIV vaccine acceptability. Conclusions We identified four HIV vaccine attitude scales with sound internal reliability parameters. In the aftermath of the first candidate vaccine to demonstrate efficacy against HIV infection, these scales may be helpful in bridging expectable research-to-practice gaps in future HIV vaccine dissemination among populations at risk. As HIV vaccine trials progress in the United States and globally, these measures also may be useful as a tool to assess and facilitate effective responses to community concerns about HIV vaccine trials and to target interventions

  17. Story and science: how providers and parents can utilize storytelling to combat anti-vaccine misinformation.

    PubMed

    Shelby, Ashley; Ernst, Karen

    2013-08-01

    With little or no evidence-based information to back up claims of vaccine danger, anti-vaccine activists have relied on the power of storytelling to infect an entire generation of parents with fear of and doubt about vaccines. These parent accounts of perceived vaccine injury, coupled with Andrew Wakefield's fraudulent research study linking the MMR vaccine to autism, created a substantial amount of vaccine hesitancy in new parents, which manifests in both vaccine refusal and the adoption of delayed vaccine schedules. The tools used by the medical and public health communities to counteract the anti-vaccine movement include statistics, research, and other evidence-based information, often delivered verbally or in the form of the CDC's Vaccine Information Statements. This approach may not be effective enough on its own to convince vaccine-hesitant parents that vaccines are safe, effective, and crucial to their children's health. Utilizing some of the storytelling strategies used by the anti-vaccine movement, in addition to evidence-based vaccine information, could potentially offer providers, public health officials, and pro-vaccine parents an opportunity to mount a much stronger defense against anti-vaccine messaging.

  18. Varicella (Chickenpox) Vaccine

    MedlinePlus

    ProQuad® (as a combination product containing Measles Vaccine, Mumps Vaccine, Rubella Vaccine, Varicella Vaccine) ... up to about 1 person in 5) and measles-like rash (about 1 person in 20) than MMR and varicella vaccines given separately. Moderate Problems:Seizure (jerking or staring) ...

  19. Fish Vaccines in Aquaculture

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Vaccination is a proven, cost-effective method to prevent infectious diseases in animals. Current fish vaccines can be categorized as killed fish vaccines or modified live vaccines. The major advantage of live vaccine is their ability to stimulate both cell-mediated and humoral immune responses for ...

  20. Vaccines against biologic agents: uses and developments.

    PubMed

    Ales, Noel C; Katial, Rohit K

    2004-03-01

    Although the Geneva protocol that prohibits the use of chemical and biologic weapons was ratified in 1925, many countries failed to accept this protocol: others stipulated retaliation, and some, like the United States, did not ratify the protocol for decades. This delay allowed the continued development of chemical and biologic agents. Members of the health care community are responsible for determining the best way to protect society from the potentially devastating effects of these biologic agents. Ideally,these diseases would be prevented from ever developing into systemic illnesses. In the past, vaccination has been a successful means of eradicating disease. Vaccines remain a hopeful therapy for the future, but time is short,and there are many obstacles.Information regarding bioterrorism agents and their treatments comes mainly from dated data or from in vitro or animal studies that may not apply to human treatment and disease. Additionally, the current threat of bioterrorism does not allow enough time for accurate, well-designed,controlled studies in humans before the release of investigational vaccines. Furthermore, some human studies would not be safe or ethical. Finally,many members of society suffer from illnesses that would put them at high risk to receive prophylactic vaccination. It is therefore naive to believe that vaccines would be the ultimate protection from these agents. In addition to vaccine development, there must be concurrent investigations into disease management and treatment. Even in instances in which vaccination is known to be an effective means of disease protection. biologic agents may be presented in a manner that renders vaccines ineffective. Virulent strains of organisms may be used, more than one organism may be used in tandem to increase virulence, and strains may be selected for antibiotic and vaccine resistance. Genetically engineered strains may use virulence factors other than those targeted in vaccines, and high

  1. Measuring vaccine hesitancy: The development of a survey tool.

    PubMed

    Larson, Heidi J; Jarrett, Caitlin; Schulz, William S; Chaudhuri, Mohuya; Zhou, Yuqing; Dube, Eve; Schuster, Melanie; MacDonald, Noni E; Wilson, Rose

    2015-08-14

    In March 2012, the SAGE Working Group on Vaccine Hesitancy was convened to define the term "vaccine hesitancy", as well as to map the determinants of vaccine hesitancy and develop tools to measure and address the nature and scale of hesitancy in settings where it is becoming more evident. The definition of vaccine hesitancy and a matrix of determinants guided the development of a survey tool to assess the nature and scale of hesitancy issues. Additionally, vaccine hesitancy questions were piloted in the annual WHO-UNICEF joint reporting form, completed by National Immunization Managers globally. The objective of characterizing the nature and scale of vaccine hesitancy issues is to better inform the development of appropriate strategies and policies to address the concerns expressed, and to sustain confidence in vaccination. The Working Group developed a matrix of the determinants of vaccine hesitancy informed by a systematic review of peer reviewed and grey literature, and by the expertise of the working group. The matrix mapped the key factors influencing the decision to accept, delay or reject some or all vaccines under three categories: contextual, individual and group, and vaccine-specific. These categories framed the menu of survey questions presented in this paper to help diagnose and address vaccine hesitancy.

  2. Decision-making on childhood vaccination by highly educated parents.

    PubMed

    Barbieri, Carolina Luísa Alves; Couto, Márcia Thereza

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To analyze the sociocultural aspects involved in the decision-making process of vaccination in upper-class and highly educated families. METHODS A qualitative approach based on in-depth interviews with 15 couples from the city of Sao Paulo, Southeastern Brazil, falling into three categories: vaccinators, late or selective vaccinators, and nonvaccinators. The interpretation of produced empirical material was performed through content analysis. RESULTS The study showed diverse and particular aspects surrounding the three groups' decisions whether to vaccinate their children. The vaccinators' decision to vaccinate their children was spontaneous and raised no questions. Most late or selective vaccinators experienced a wide range of situations that were instrumental in the decision to delay or not apply certain vaccines. The nonvaccinator's decision-making process expressed a broader context of both criticism of hegemonic obstetric practices in Brazil and access to information transmitted via social networks and the internet. The data showed that the problematization of vaccines (culminating in the decision to not vaccinate their children) occurred in the context of humanized birth, was protagonized by women and was greatly influenced by health information from the internet. CONCLUSIONS Sociocultural aspects of the singular Brazilian context and the contemporary society were involved in the decision-making on children's vaccination. Understanding this process can provide a real basis for a deeper reflection on health and immunization practices in Brazil in light of the new contexts and challenges of the world today.

  3. A Review of Factors Affecting Vaccine Preventable Disease in Japan

    PubMed Central

    Ching, Michael SL

    2014-01-01

    Japan is well known as a country with a strong health record. However its incidence rates of vaccine preventable diseases (VPD) such as hepatitis B, measles, mumps, rubella, and varicella remain higher than other developed countries. This article reviews the factors that contribute to the high rates of VPD in Japan. These include historical and political factors that delayed the introduction of several important vaccines until recently. Access has also been affected by vaccines being divided into government-funded “routine” (eg, polio, pertussis) and self-pay “voluntary” groups (eg, hepatitis A and B). Routine vaccines have higher rates of administration than voluntary vaccines. Administration factors include differences in well child care schedules, the approach to simultaneous vaccination, vaccination contraindication due to fever, and vaccination spacing. Parental factors include low intention to fully vaccinate their children and misperceptions about side effects and efficacy. There are also provider knowledge gaps regarding indications, adverse effects, interval, and simultaneous vaccination. These multifactorial issues combine to produce lower population immunization rates and a higher incidence of VPD than other developed countries. This article will provide insight into the current situation of Japanese vaccinations, the issues to be addressed and suggestions for public health promotion. PMID:25628969

  4. “Everybody just wants to do what’s best for their child”: Understanding how pro-vaccine parents can support a culture of vaccine hesitancy

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Eileen; Baras, Yelena; Buttenheim, Alison M.

    2017-01-01

    Background Although a large majority of parents vaccinate their children, vaccine hesitancy has become more widespread. It is not well understood how this culture of vaccine hesitancy has emerged and how it influences parents’ decisions about vaccine schedules. Objective We sought to examine how attitudes and beliefs of parents who self-report as pro-vaccine are developed and contribute to immunization decisions, including delaying or spacing vaccines. Methods Open-ended, in-depth interviews (N=23) were conducted with upper-middle class parents with young children living in Philadelphia. Interview data were coded and key themes identified related to vaccine decision-making. Results Parents who sought out vaccine information were often overwhelmed by the quantity and ambiguity when interpreting that information, and, consequently, had to rely on their own instinct or judgment to make vaccine decisions. In particular, while parents in this sample did not refuse vaccines, and described themselves as pro-vaccine, they did frequently delay or space vaccines. This experience also generated sympathy for and tolerance of vaccine hesitancy in other parents. Parents also perceived minimal severe consequences for deviating from the recommended immunization schedule. Conclusion These findings suggest that the rise in and persistence of vaccine hesitancy and refusal are, in part, influenced by the conflicts in the information parents gather, making it difficult to interpret. Considerable deviations from the recommended vaccination schedule may manifest even within a pro-vaccine population due to this perceived ambiguity of available information and resulting tolerance for vaccine hesitancy. PMID:26518397

  5. Envelope Determinants of Equine Lentiviral Vaccine Protection

    PubMed Central

    Craigo, Jodi K.; Ezzelarab, Corin; Cook, Sheila J.; Chong, Liu; Horohov, David; Issel, Charles J.; Montelaro, Ronald C.

    2013-01-01

    Lentiviral envelope (Env) antigenic variation and associated immune evasion present major obstacles to vaccine development. The concept that Env is a critical determinant for vaccine efficacy is well accepted, however defined correlates of protection associated with Env variation have yet to be determined. We reported an attenuated equine infectious anemia virus (EIAV) vaccine study that directly examined the effect of lentiviral Env sequence variation on vaccine efficacy. The study identified a significant, inverse, linear correlation between vaccine efficacy and increasing divergence of the challenge virus Env gp90 protein compared to the vaccine virus gp90. The report demonstrated approximately 100% protection of immunized ponies from disease after challenge by virus with a homologous gp90 (EV0), and roughly 40% protection against challenge by virus (EV13) with a gp90 13% divergent from the vaccine strain. In the current study we examine whether the protection observed when challenging with the EV0 strain could be conferred to animals via chimeric challenge viruses between the EV0 and EV13 strains, allowing for mapping of protection to specific Env sequences. Viruses containing the EV13 proviral backbone and selected domains of the EV0 gp90 were constructed and in vitro and in vivo infectivity examined. Vaccine efficacy studies indicated that homology between the vaccine strain gp90 and the N-terminus of the challenge strain gp90 was capable of inducing immunity that resulted in significantly lower levels of post-challenge virus and significantly delayed the onset of disease. However, a homologous N-terminal region alone inserted in the EV13 backbone could not impart the 100% protection observed with the EV0 strain. Data presented here denote the complicated and potentially contradictory relationship between in vitro virulence and in vivo pathogenicity. The study highlights the importance of structural conformation for immunogens and emphasizes the need for

  6. Immune interference after sequential alphavirus vaccine vaccinations.

    PubMed

    Pittman, Phillip R; Liu, Ching-Tong; Cannon, Timothy L; Mangiafico, Joseph A; Gibbs, Paul H

    2009-08-06

    We compared the effect of order of administration of investigational alphavirus vaccines on neutralizing antibody response. Volunteers who received the inactivated eastern and western equine encephalitis (EEE and WEE) vaccines before live attenuated Venezuelan (VEE) vaccine had significantly lower rates of antibody response than those receiving VEE vaccine before EEE and WEE vaccines (66.7% vs. 80.6%; p=0.026). The odds of having a VEE antibody non-response among those initially receiving EEE and WEE vaccines, adjusted for gender, were significant (odds ratio [OR]=2.20; 95% CI=1.2-4.1 [p=0.0145]) as were the odds of non-response among females adjusted for group (OR=1.81; 95% CI=1.2-2.7 [p=0.0037]). Antibody interference and gender effect have major implications for vaccine strategy among those receiving multiple alphavirus vaccines and those developing next generation vaccines for these threats.

  7. Delayed puberty in girls

    MedlinePlus

    ... hormones. These changes normally begin to appear in girls between ages 8 to 14 years old. With delayed puberty, these changes either don't occur, or if they do, they don't progress normally. Delayed puberty is more common in boys than in girls. Causes In most cases of delayed puberty, growth ...

  8. Association Between Vaccine Refusal and Vaccine-Preventable Diseases in the United States: A Review of Measles and Pertussis.

    PubMed

    Phadke, Varun K; Bednarczyk, Robert A; Salmon, Daniel A; Omer, Saad B

    2016-03-15

    Parents hesitant to vaccinate their children may delay routine immunizations or seek exemptions from state vaccine mandates. Recent outbreaks of vaccine-preventable diseases in the United States have drawn attention to this phenomenon. Improved understanding of the association between vaccine refusal and the epidemiology of these diseases is needed. To review the published literature to evaluate the association between vaccine delay, refusal, or exemption and the epidemiology of measles and pertussis, 2 vaccine-preventable diseases with recent US outbreaks. Search of PubMed through November 30, 2015, for reports of US measles outbreaks that have occurred since measles was declared eliminated in the United States (after January 1, 2000), endemic and epidemic pertussis since the lowest point in US pertussis incidence (after January 1, 1977), and for studies that assessed disease risk in the context of vaccine delay or exemption. We identified 18 published measles studies (9 annual summaries and 9 outbreak reports), which described 1416 measles cases (individual age range, 2 weeks-84 years; 178 cases younger than 12 months) and more than half (56.8%) had no history of measles vaccination. Of the 970 measles cases with detailed vaccination data, 574 cases were unvaccinated despite being vaccine eligible and 405 (70.6%) of these had nonmedical exemptions (eg, exemptions for religious or philosophical reasons, as opposed to medical contraindications; 41.8% of total). Among 32 reports of pertussis outbreaks, which included 10,609 individuals for whom vaccination status was reported (age range, 10 days-87 years), the 5 largest statewide epidemics had substantial proportions (range, 24%-45%) of unvaccinated or undervaccinated individuals. However, several pertussis outbreaks also occurred in highly vaccinated populations, indicating waning immunity. Nine reports (describing 12 outbreaks) provided detailed vaccination data on unimmunized cases; among 8 of these outbreaks

  9. Accelerating introduction of new vaccines: barriers to introduction and lessons learned from the recent Haemophilus influenzae type B vaccine experience.

    PubMed

    Hajjeh, Rana

    2011-10-12

    Adoption of new vaccines in developing countries is critical to reducing child mortality and meeting Millennium Development Goal 4. However, such introduction has historically suffered from significant delays that can be attributed to various factors including (i) lack of recognition of the value of a vaccine, (ii) factors related to weak health systems, and (iii) policy considerations. Recently, the Global Alliance for Vaccines and Immunization (GAVI) supported efforts to accelerate the introduction of Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib) vaccines in developing countries, which resulted in a significant surge in vaccine adoption by these countries. The experience with Hib vaccines, as well as similar efforts by GAVI to support the introduction of new pneumococcal and rotavirus vaccines, provides a strategy for new vaccine adoption that is reviewed in this paper, providing a useful model to help accelerate the uptake of other life-saving vaccines. This strategy addresses barriers for vaccine adoption by focusing on three major areas: (i) communications to increase awareness about the various factors needed for evidence-based decisions that meet a country's health goals; (ii) research activities to answer key questions that support vaccine introduction and long-term programme sustainability; and (iii) coordination with the various stakeholders at global, regional and country levels to ensure successful programme implementation.

  10. Accelerating introduction of new vaccines: barriers to introduction and lessons learned from the recent Haemophilus influenzae type b vaccine experience

    PubMed Central

    Hajjeh, Rana

    2011-01-01

    Adoption of new vaccines in developing countries is critical to reducing child mortality and meeting Millennium Development Goal 4. However, such introduction has historically suffered from significant delays that can be attributed to various factors including (i) lack of recognition of the value of a vaccine, (ii) factors related to weak health systems, and (iii) policy considerations. Recently, the Global Alliance for Vaccines and Immunization (GAVI) supported efforts to accelerate the introduction of Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib) vaccines in developing countries, which resulted in a significant surge in vaccine adoption by these countries. The experience with Hib vaccines, as well as similar efforts by GAVI to support the introduction of new pneumococcal and rotavirus vaccines, provides a strategy for new vaccine adoption that is reviewed in this paper, providing a useful model to help accelerate the uptake of other life-saving vaccines. This strategy addresses barriers for vaccine adoption by focusing on three major areas: (i) communications to increase awareness about the various factors needed for evidence-based decisions that meet a country's health goals; (ii) research activities to answer key questions that support vaccine introduction and long-term programme sustainability; and (iii) coordination with the various stakeholders at global, regional and country levels to ensure successful programme implementation. PMID:21893547

  11. Cholera vaccine field trials in East Pakistan

    PubMed Central

    Benenson, A. S.; Joseph, P. R.; Oseasohn, R. O.

    1968-01-01

    Double-blind controlled cholera-vaccine trials were carried out in rural East Pakistan in 1963 and 1964. Pretrial studies indicated that a whole-cell cholera vaccine of high mouse protective potency, at a dose of 0.5 ml, produced an antibody response and reaction pattern consistent with use in such trials. A purified Ogawa antigen, given at a dose of 100 μg, elicited no adverse reactions and evoked both agglutinating and vibriocidal antibodies against both Inaba and Ogawa test suspensions. In the field, adverse reactions to the cholera vaccines occurred primarily among adults and were observed with both the whole-cell preparation and the purified Ogawa antigen. At the dose used in the field trials (0.4 ml), the reactions elicited by the whole-cell vaccine were acceptable to the population and no more marked than those following the locally prepared typhoid-paratyphoid vaccine. Delayed reactions to the whole-cell cholera vaccine were observed beginning 4 to 7 days after the vaccine was administered; the bulk of them (60%) did not interfere with work at any time; all resolved promptly; and none developed fluctuation or was associated with abscess formation. PMID:5302328

  12. Vaccinations during Pregnancy

    MedlinePlus

    ... get is safe. Make sure your vaccinations are up to date before you get pregnant. What is a vaccination? ... are recommended before pregnancy? It’s best to be up to date on all your routine adult vaccinations before you ...

  13. Human Papillomavirus (HPV) Vaccine

    MedlinePlus

    Why get vaccinated?HPV vaccine prevents infection with human papillomavirus (HPV) types that are associated with cause ... at http://www.cdc.gov/hpv. HPV Vaccine (Human Papillomavirus) Information Statement. U.S. Department of Health and ...

  14. Meningococcal Vaccine (For Parents)

    MedlinePlus

    ... to 2-Year-Old Your Child's Immunizations: Meningococcal Vaccines KidsHealth > For Parents > Your Child's Immunizations: Meningococcal Vaccines ... or her parents, and the doctor. Why the Vaccines Are Recommended Meningococcal disease is caused by a ...

  15. Vaccines Stop Illness

    MedlinePlus

    Skip Navigation Bar Home Current Issue Past Issues Vaccines Stop Illness Past Issues / Spring 2008 Table of ... meningitis won't infect, cripple, or kill children. Vaccine Safety In light of recent questions about vaccine ...

  16. Childhood Vaccine Schedule

    MedlinePlus

    ... Navigation Bar Home Current Issue Past Issues Childhood Vaccine Schedule Past Issues / Spring 2008 Table of Contents ... please turn Javascript on. When to Vaccinate What Vaccine Why Birth (or any age if not previously ...

  17. Ingredients of Vaccines

    MedlinePlus

    ... contain no thimerosal or only trace amounts. Reference Materials Vaccine ingredients sorted by vaccine [3 pages] U.S. ... of the latest information, continue to reference these materials. To report a health problem that followed vaccination ...

  18. Meningococcal Vaccine (For Parents)

    MedlinePlus

    ... Your 1- to 2-Year-Old Your Child's Immunizations: Meningococcal Vaccines KidsHealth > For Parents > Your Child's Immunizations: ... who are at increased risk for meningococcal disease. Immunization Schedule Vaccination with meningococcal conjugate vaccine is recommended: ...

  19. Infant vaccination timing: Beyond traditional coverage metrics for maximizing impact of vaccine programs, an example from southern Nepal.

    PubMed

    Hughes, Michelle M; Katz, Joanne; Englund, Janet A; Khatry, Subarna K; Shrestha, Laxman; LeClerq, Steven C; Steinhoff, Mark; Tielsch, James M

    2016-02-10

    Immunization programs currently measure coverage by assessing the proportion of children 12-24 months who have been immunized but this does not address the important question of when the scheduled vaccines were administered. Data capturing the timing of vaccination in first 6 months, when severe disease is most likely to occur, are limited. To estimate the time to Bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG) (recommended at birth), diphtheria-tetanus-pertussis-H, influenza b-hepatitis B (DTP-Hib-HepB), and oral polio vaccine (OPV) (recommended at 6, 10, and 14 weeks) vaccinations and risk factors for vaccination delay in infants <6 months of age in a district in southern Nepal where traditional coverage metrics are high. Infants enrolled in a randomized controlled trial of maternal influenza vaccination were visited weekly at home from birth through age 6 months to ascertain if any vaccinations had been given in the prior week. Infant, maternal, and household characteristics were recorded. BCG, DTP-Hib-HepB, and OPV vaccination coverage at 4 and 6 months was estimated. Time to vaccination was estimated through Kaplan-Meier curves; Cox-proportional hazards models were used to examine risk factors for delay for the first vaccine. The median age of BCG, first OPV and DTP-Hib-HepB receipt was 22, 21, and 18 weeks, respectively. Almost half of infants received no BCG by age 6 months. Only 8% and 7% of infants had received three doses of OPV and DTP-Hib-HepB, respectively, by age 6 months. A significant delay in receipt of infant vaccines was found in a prospective, population-based, cohort in southern Nepal despite traditional coverage metrics being high. Immunization programs should consider measuring time to receipt relative to the official schedule in order to maximize benefits for disease control and child health. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  20. Infant vaccination timing: Beyond traditional coverage metrics for maximizing impact of vaccine programs, an example from southern Nepal

    PubMed Central

    Hughes, Michelle M.; Katz, Joanne; Englund, Janet A.; Khatry, Subarna K.; Shrestha, Laxman; LeClerq, Steven C.; Steinhoff, Mark; Tielsch, James M.

    2016-01-01

    Background Immunization programs currently measure coverage by assessing the proportion of children 12–24 months who have been immunized but this does not address the important question of when the scheduled vaccines were administered. Data capturing the timing of vaccination in first 6 months, when severe disease is most likely to occur, are limited. Objective To estimate the time to Bacillus Calmette–Guérin (BCG) (recommended at birth), diphtheria-tetanus-pertussis-H, influenza b-hepatitis B (DTP-Hib-HepB), and oral polio vaccine (OPV) (recommended at 6, 10, and 14 weeks) vaccinations and risk factors for vaccination delay in infants <6 months of age in a district in southern Nepal where traditional coverage metrics are high. Design/methods Infants enrolled in a randomized controlled trial of maternal influenza vaccination were visited weekly at home from birth through age 6 months to ascertain if any vaccinations had been given in the prior week. Infant, maternal, and household characteristics were recorded. BCG, DTP-Hib-HepB, and OPV vaccination coverage at 4 and 6 months was estimated. Time to vaccination was estimated through Kaplan–Meier curves; Cox-proportional hazards models were used to examine risk factors for delay for the first vaccine. Results The median age of BCG, first OPV and DTP-Hib-HepB receipt was 22, 21, and 18 weeks, respectively. Almost half of infants received no BCG by age 6 months. Only 8% and 7% of infants had received three doses of OPV and DTP-Hib-HepB, respectively, by age 6 months. Conclusion A significant delay in receipt of infant vaccines was found in a prospective, population-based, cohort in southern Nepal despite traditional coverage metrics being high. Immunization programs should consider measuring time to receipt relative to the official schedule in order to maximize benefits for disease control and child health. PMID:26788880

  1. Subviral Particle as Vaccine and Vaccine Platform

    PubMed Central

    Tan, Ming; Jiang, Xi

    2014-01-01

    Recombinant subvirual particles retain similar antigenic features of their authentic viral capsids and thus have been applied as nonreplicating subunit vaccines against viral infection and illness. Additionally, the self-assembled, polyvalent subviral particles are excellent platforms to display foreign antigens for immune enhancement for vaccine development. These subviral particle-based vaccines are noninfectious and thus safer than the conventional live attenuated and inactivated vaccines. While several VLP vaccines are available in the markets, numerous others, including dual vaccines against more than one pathogen, are under clinical or preclinical development. This article provides an update of these efforts. PMID:24662314

  2. Human Vaccines & Immunotherapeutics

    PubMed Central

    Riedmann, Eva M

    2014-01-01

    Efficacy and safety of first-ever Dengue vaccine candidate in Phase 3 Agenus‘ brain cancer vaccine doubles survival rate in GBM patients New study: Rotavirus vaccines dramatically cut hospitalization rates in US children Therapeutic vaccines – from heart disease to cancer Agenus‘ genital herpes vaccine significantly reduces viral burden in Phase 2 The latest on PaxVax‘ and Gotovax AB’s cholera vaccine candidates ACIP ponders recommendation for Prevnar use in seniors PMID:25424916

  3. Human Vaccines & Immunotherapeutics

    PubMed Central

    Riedmann, Eva M.

    2012-01-01

    Two therapeutic HPV vaccine candidates successful in phase 1 Flu shot may prevent heart attacks and stroke CDX-1401 combined with TLR agonist: Positive phase 1 results Three MRSA vaccines in early clincial trials Ovarian cancer vaccine candidate DPX-Survivac: Positive interim results from phase 1 Chinese biotech partnership brings first hepatitis E vaccine to the market Therapeutic vaccine for treatment of genital herpes enters phase 2 Visionary concept: Printable vaccines PMID:23817319

  4. Vaccine Policy Issues

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-05-19

    for health needs of developing countries, some Members seek to increase access to existing vaccines and to spur development of affordable vaccines for...presence even after a vaccine is approved. It requires extensive testing of vaccines and all CRS-3 6In the United States, FDA — mostly within its Center...by increasing the distribution of vaccines and improving and clarifying the vaccine injury compensation program....” In fall 2004, in response to the

  5. Engineered human vaccines

    SciTech Connect

    Sandhu, J.S. . Div. of Immunology and Neurobiology)

    1994-01-01

    The limitations of human vaccines in use at present and the design requirements for a new generation of human vaccines are discussed. The progress in engineering of human vaccines for bacteria, viruses, parasites, and cancer is reviewed, and the data from human studies with the engineered vaccines are discussed, especially for cancer and AIDS vaccines. The final section of the review deals with the possible future developments in the field of engineered human vaccines and the requirement for effective new human adjuvants.

  6. [Vaccination against mouse pox].

    PubMed

    Mahnel, H

    1985-01-01

    Attenuated MVA-strain of vaccinia virus has been efficient in the control of enzootic mousepox and in prophylactic vaccination. The virus has been used as a live vaccine for prophylactic and emergency vaccinations as well as for sanitation of populations. More than 100 000 vaccinations were carried out safely. Even after suspension of the obligatory vaccination of humans against smallpox the MVA-vaccine can be employed without risk and danger.

  7. Human Vaccines & Immunotherapeutics

    PubMed Central

    Riedmann, Eva M

    2014-01-01

    Measles vaccination: Targeted and non-targeted benefits CDC reports: 2-dose regimen of chickenpox vaccine is a success Positive preliminary results from the CAPiTA study Seasonal flu vaccine associate with reduced stroke risk HPV vaccine shown to halve cervical abnormalities Global prize for mobile mast vaccine storage project Developmental pathway of potent HIV-neutralizing antibodies Burkholderia vaccine: US Dep of Defense collaborates with Bavarian Nordic

  8. Assessment of attenuated Salmonella vaccine strains in controlling experimental Salmonella Typhimurium infection in chickens.

    PubMed

    Pei, Yanlong; Parreira, Valeria R; Roland, Kenneth L; Curtiss, Roy; Prescott, John F

    2014-01-01

    Salmonella hold considerable promise as vaccine delivery vectors for heterologous antigens in chickens. Such vaccines have the potential additional benefit of also controlling Salmonella infection in immunized birds. As a way of selecting attenuated strains with optimal immunogenic potential as antigen delivery vectors, this study screened 20 novel Salmonella Typhimurium vaccine strains, differing in mutations associated with delayed antigen synthesis and delayed attenuation, for their efficacy in controlling colonization by virulent Salmonella Typhimurium, as well as for their persistence in the intestine and the spleen. Marked differences were observed between strains in these characteristics, which provide the basis for selection for further study as vaccine vectors.

  9. Immunology Update: New Vaccines.

    PubMed

    Starr, S Paul

    2016-11-01

    A new 9-valent human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine is effective against more cancer-causing HPV types than previous vaccines. HPV vaccine series started with previous vaccines can be completed with the 9-valent vaccine. Two new influenza vaccines are available for adults 65 years and older: a high-dose vaccine and an enhanced adjuvant vaccine. These elicit stronger antibody responses than standard-dose vaccines. Current guidelines specify no preference for the new versus standard-dose vaccines. Two new group B meningococcal vaccines are intended for use during outbreaks and for patients with asplenia, complement deficiencies, frequent occupational meningococcus exposure, or for patients who desire protection from type B meningococcus. These are not substitutes for the quadrivalent vaccine already in use. For pneumococcus, new recommendations state that 13-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV13) should be administered to patients 65 years and older, followed at least 1 year later by the polyvalent pneumococcal polysaccharide vaccine (PPSV23). For patients ages 19 to 64 years with immunocompromise and not previously vaccinated against pneumococcus, administration of these two vaccines should be separated by at least 8 weeks. Rotavirus vaccine is standard for infants at age 2 months. Also, there is a new cholera vaccine approved for use in the United States. Written permission from the American Academy of Family Physicians is required for reproduction of this material in whole or in part in any form or medium.

  10. Cooperative effects of immune enhancer TPPPS and different adjuvants on antibody responses induced by recombinant ALV-J gp85 subunit vaccines in SPF chickens.

    PubMed

    Li, Yang; Meng, Fanfeng; Cui, Shuai; Fu, Jiayuan; Wang, Yixin; Cui, Zhizhong; Chang, Shuang; Zhao, Peng

    2017-03-14

    To explore the antibody responses and protective effects induced by subgroup J avian leukosis virus (ALV-J) gp85 protein vaccine plus different adjuvants (CpG and white oil adjuvant YF01) combined with the immune enhancer Taishan Pinus massoniana pollen polysaccharide (TPPPS), we immunized SPF chickens with the recombinant ALV-J gp85 protein, along with different adjuvants and immune enhancer, which protected the chickens by inducing different levels of protective antibodies. Results showed that a single injection of gp85 recombinant protein could only produce low-titre antibodies that were maintained over a short time in few chickens. When combined with YF01 or CpG adjuvants, the recombinant protein could induce high-titre antibodies in most of the immunized chickens. Moreover, when the immune enhancer TPPPS was used with the two adjuvants, it further elevated the antibody levels for a longer duration. The eggs from four groups with the highest levels of ALV-J antibodies were collected, hatched, and examined for maternal antibodies. The protection by the maternal antibodies against ALV-J infection in the TPPPS-immunized group was higher than that in the group without TPPPS, which was consistent with the observations in the parents. This study shows that the immune enhancer TPPPS, combined with YF01 or CpG adjuvants, can enhance the immunogenicity of gp85 recombinant proteins, and provide a better immuno-protection. It provides a powerful experimental basis for the development of ALV-J subunit vaccine. Efficient subunit vaccine development will also accelerate the process of purification of ALV-J.

  11. Establishment of vaccination clinics; user fees for investigational new drug (IND) influenza vaccine services and vaccines. Interim final rule and request for comments.

    PubMed

    2005-01-25

    We are amending 42 CFR part 70 to establish vaccination clinics and a user fee in connection with the administration of vaccination services and vaccine. On December 7, 2004, HHS Secretary Tommy G. Thompson announced the purchase of 1.2 million doses of GlaxoSmithKline (GSK) influenza vaccine, Fluarix, for distribution to areas most in need as determined by State public health authorities. The Fluarix vaccine has been approved in seventy-eight foreign countries, and FDA has recently reviewed extensive manufacturing and summary clinical information and conducted an inspection of the GSK manufacturing facility in Germany to determine that this vaccine, although not licensed in the United States, is suitable for use under an Investigational New Drug application (IND). The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) reviewed GSK's IND application as well as the clinical protocol and manufacturing data. CDC and CDC's Institutional Review Board approved the GSK flu vaccine response protocol including the informed consent document. To ensure that the vaccine is properly administered to individuals identified to be most at risk and facilitate compliance with IND requirements, CDC is establishing vaccination clinics. CDC is proceeding without delay because of the unprecedented nature of this season's influenza vaccine shortage caused by contamination problems with Chiron Corporation's production facility in the United Kingdom, which effectively cut in half the expected United States supply of inactivated influenza vaccine. A user fee is being established in order to recoup the costs associated with administering the vaccine and for the vaccine itself. All individuals, other than those who are enrolled in Medicare Part B, will be required to pay the user fee.

  12. Vaccines and vaccinations. The strategic issues.

    PubMed

    Ford, R B

    2001-05-01

    The rapid proliferation of companion animal vaccines, advances in diagnostic and vaccine technology, and concerns over vaccine safety are clearly among the most important issues practicing veterinarians face as we enter the 21st century. Although many would argue that these are already issues, the future promises to be especially challenging as the vaccines we currently use and the protocols we recommend undergo unprecedented review.

  13. Developmental and reproductive toxicity testing of vaccines.

    PubMed

    Barrow, Paul

    2012-03-01

    The majority of new preventative and therapeutic vaccines are now assessed for developmental toxicity according to guidelines issued by the FDA in 2006. Despite the absence of confirmed effects in humans, vaccines are frequently suspected of having adverse side-effects on the development of children. Such suspicions are perhaps unavoidable considering the extremely widespread use of vaccines. The preclinical developmental toxicology studies are designed to assess possible influences of each component of the vaccine formulation-and the induced antibodies-on the development of the conceptus, neonate and suckling organism. Immune modulation by a vaccine or an adjuvant could, for instance, affect the outcome of pregnancy by interfering with the natural shift in immune balance of the mother during gestation. Maternal immunoglobulins are transferred from the mother to the offspring in order to confer passive immunity during early life. This maternal antibody transport is prenatal in humans and monkeys, but tends to be delayed until after birth in other species. Therefore, a suitable model species needs to be chosen for preclinical studies in order to ensure exposure of the foetus to the induced maternal antibodies following vaccination. Rabbits are the best laboratory model for prenatal immunoglobulin transfer, but rodents are more practical for the necessary postnatal investigations. Non-human primates are the only appropriate models for the testing of vaccines that are not immunogenic in lower species. It is advisable to test new adjuvants separately according to the ICH S5(R2) guidelines. Preclinical paediatric investigations are not currently required for vaccines, even though most vaccines are given to children. Other areas of regulatory concern include developmental immunotoxicity and effects on the preimplantation embryo. Because of the limitations of the available animal models for developmental toxicity testing, pharmacovigilance is essential. Copyright © 2011

  14. Are Recent Medical Graduates More Skeptical of Vaccines?

    PubMed

    Mergler, Michelle J; Omer, Saad B; Pan, William K Y; Navar-Boggan, Ann Marie; Orenstein, Walter; Marcuse, Edgar K; Taylor, James; deHart, M Patricia; Carter, Terrell C; Damico, Anthony; Halsey, Neal; Salmon, Daniel A

    2013-04-29

    Rates of delay and refusal of recommended childhood vaccines are increasing in many U.S. communities. Children's health care providers have a strong influence on parents' knowledge, attitudes, and beliefs about vaccines. Provider attitudes towards immunizations vary and affect their immunization advocacy. One factor that may contribute to this variability is their familiarity with vaccine-preventable diseases and their sequelae. The purpose of this study was to investigate the association of health care provider year of graduation with vaccines and vaccine-preventable disease beliefs. We conducted a cross sectional survey in 2005 of primary care providers identified by parents of children whose children were fully vaccinated or exempt from one or more school immunization requirements. We examined the association of provider graduation cohort (5 years) with beliefs on immunization, disease susceptibility, disease severity, vaccine safety, and vaccine efficacy. Surveys were completed by 551 providers (84.3% response rate). More recent health care provider graduates had 15% decreased odds of believing vaccines are efficacious compared to graduates from a previous 5 year period; had lower odds of believing that many commonly used childhood vaccines were safe; and 3.7% of recent graduates believed that immunizations do more harm than good. Recent health care provider graduates have a perception of the risk-benefit balance of immunization, which differs from that of their older counterparts. This change has the potential to be reflected in their immunization advocacy and affect parental attitudes.

  15. Decision-making on childhood vaccination by highly educated parents

    PubMed Central

    Barbieri, Carolina Luísa Alves; Couto, Márcia Thereza

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To analyze the sociocultural aspects involved in the decision-making process of vaccination in upper-class and highly educated families. METHODS A qualitative approach based on in-depth interviews with 15 couples from the city of Sao Paulo, Southeastern Brazil, falling into three categories: vaccinators, late or selective vaccinators, and nonvaccinators. The interpretation of produced empirical material was performed through content analysis. RESULTS The study showed diverse and particular aspects surrounding the three groups’ decisions whether to vaccinate their children. The vaccinators’ decision to vaccinate their children was spontaneous and raised no questions. Most late or selective vaccinators experienced a wide range of situations that were instrumental in the decision to delay or not apply certain vaccines. The nonvaccinator’s decision-making process expressed a broader context of both criticism of hegemonic obstetric practices in Brazil and access to information transmitted via social networks and the internet. The data showed that the problematization of vaccines (culminating in the decision to not vaccinate their children) occurred in the context of humanized birth, was protagonized by women and was greatly influenced by health information from the internet. CONCLUSIONS Sociocultural aspects of the singular Brazilian context and the contemporary society were involved in the decision-making on children’s vaccination. Understanding this process can provide a real basis for a deeper reflection on health and immunization practices in Brazil in light of the new contexts and challenges of the world today. PMID:25830870

  16. Negotiating vaccine acceptance in an era of reluctance.

    PubMed

    Larson, Heidi J

    2013-08-01

    Studies to better understand the determinants of vaccine acceptance have expanded to include more investigation into dynamics of individual decision-making as well as the influences of peers and social networks. Vaccine acceptance is determined by a range of factors, from structural issues of supply, costs and access to services, as well as the more demand-side determinants. The term vaccine hesitancy is increasingly used in the investigation of demand-side determinants, moving away from the more polarized framing of pro- and anti-vaccine groups to recognizing the importance of understanding and engaging those who are delaying vaccination, accepting only some vaccines, or who are yet undecided, but reluctant. As hesitancy is a state of indecision, it is difficult to measure, but the stage of indecision is a critical time to engage and support the decision-making process. This article suggests modes of investigating the determinants of vaccine confidence and levers of vaccine acceptance toward better engagement and dialogue early in the process of decision-making. Pressure to vaccinate can be counter-productive. Listening and dialog can support individual decision-making and more effectively inform the public health community of the issues and concerns influencing vaccine hesitancy.

  17. Quantifying the Value of Perfect Information in Emergency Vaccination Campaigns

    PubMed Central

    Probert, William J. M.; Shea, Katriona; Fonnesbeck, Christopher J.; Ferrari, Matthew J.; Tildesley, Michael J.

    2017-01-01

    Foot-and-mouth disease outbreaks in non-endemic countries can lead to large economic costs and livestock losses but the use of vaccination has been contentious, partly due to uncertainty about emergency FMD vaccination. Value of information methods can be applied to disease outbreak problems such as FMD in order to investigate the performance improvement from resolving uncertainties. Here we calculate the expected value of resolving uncertainty about vaccine efficacy, time delay to immunity after vaccination and daily vaccination capacity for a hypothetical FMD outbreak in the UK. If it were possible to resolve all uncertainty prior to the introduction of control, we could expect savings of £55 million in outbreak cost, 221,900 livestock culled and 4.3 days of outbreak duration. All vaccination strategies were found to be preferable to a culling only strategy. However, the optimal vaccination radius was found to be highly dependent upon vaccination capacity for all management objectives. We calculate that by resolving the uncertainty surrounding vaccination capacity we would expect to return over 85% of the above savings, regardless of management objective. It may be possible to resolve uncertainty about daily vaccination capacity before an outbreak, and this would enable decision makers to select the optimal control action via careful contingency planning. PMID:28207777

  18. Are Recent Medical Graduates More Skeptical of Vaccines?

    PubMed Central

    Mergler, Michelle J.; Omer, Saad B.; Pan, William K.Y.; Navar-Boggan, Ann Marie; Orenstein, Walter; Marcuse, Edgar K.; Taylor, James; deHart, M. Patricia; Carter, Terrell C.; Damico, Anthony; Halsey, Neal; Salmon, Daniel A.

    2013-01-01

    Rates of delay and refusal of recommended childhood vaccines are increasing in many U.S. communities. Children’s health care providers have a strong influence on parents’ knowledge, attitudes, and beliefs about vaccines. Provider attitudes towards immunizations vary and affect their immunization advocacy. One factor that may contribute to this variability is their familiarity with vaccine-preventable diseases and their sequelae. The purpose of this study was to investigate the association of health care provider year of graduation with vaccines and vaccine-preventable disease beliefs. We conducted a cross sectional survey in 2005 of primary care providers identified by parents of children whose children were fully vaccinated or exempt from one or more school immunization requirements. We examined the association of provider graduation cohort (5 years) with beliefs on immunization, disease susceptibility, disease severity, vaccine safety, and vaccine efficacy. Surveys were completed by 551 providers (84.3% response rate). More recent health care provider graduates had 15% decreased odds of believing vaccines are efficacious compared to graduates from a previous 5 year period; had lower odds of believing that many commonly used childhood vaccines were safe; and 3.7% of recent graduates believed that immunizations do more harm than good. Recent health care provider graduates have a perception of the risk-benefit balance of immunization, which differs from that of their older counterparts. This change has the potential to be reflected in their immunization advocacy and affect parental attitudes. PMID:26343964

  19. Challenges in the rabbit haemorrhagic disease 2 (RHDV2) molecular diagnosis of vaccinated rabbits.

    PubMed

    Carvalho, C L; Duarte, E L; Monteiro, M; Botelho, A; Albuquerque, T; Fevereiro, M; Henriques, A M; Barros, S S; Duarte, Margarida Dias

    2017-01-01

    Molecular methods are fundamental tools for the diagnosis of viral infections. While interpretation of results is straightforward for unvaccinated animals, where positivity represents ongoing or past infections, the presence of vaccine virus in the tissues of recently vaccinated animals may mislead diagnosis. In this study, we investigated the interference of RHDV2 vaccination in the results of a RT-qPCR for RHDV2 detection, and possible associations between mean Cq values of five animal groups differing in age, vaccination status and origin (domestic/wild). Viral sequences from vaccinated rabbits that died of RHDV2 infection (n=14) were compared with the sequences from the commercial vaccines used in those animals. Group Cq means were compared through Independent t-test and One-way ANOVA. We proved that RHDV2 vaccine-RNA is not detected by the RT-qPCR as early as 15days post-vaccination, an important fact in assisting results interpretation for diagnosis. Cq values of vaccinated and non-vaccinated infected domestic adults showed a statistically significant difference (p<0.05), demonstrating that vaccination-induced immunity reduces viral loads and delays disease progression. Contrarily, in vaccinated young rabbits higher viral loads were registered compared to non-vaccinated kittens. No significant variation (p=0.3824) was observed between viral loads of non-vaccinated domestic and wild RHDV2-victimised rabbits. Although the reduced number of vaccinated young animals analysed hampered a robust statistical analysis, this occurrence suggests that passively acquired maternal antibodies may inhibit the active immune response to vaccination, delaying protection and favouring disease progression. Our finding emphasises the importance of adapting kitten RHDV2 vaccination schedules to circumvent this interference phenomenon.

  20. Avian influenza vaccines and vaccination for poultry

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Vaccines against avian influenza (AI) have had more limited use in poultry than vaccines against other poultry diseases such as Newcastle disease (ND) and infectious bronchitis, and have been used more commonly in the developing world. Over the past 40 years, AI vaccines have been primarily based o...

  1. CGI delay compensation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcfarland, Richard E.

    1986-01-01

    Computer-generated graphics in real-time helicopter simulation produces objectionable scene-presentation time delays. In the flight simulation laboratory at Ames Research Center, it has been determined that these delays have an adverse influence on pilot performance during aggressive tasks such as nap-of-the-earth (NOE) maneuvers. Using contemporary equipment, computer-generated image (CGI) time delays are an unavoidable consequence of the operations required for scene generation. However, providing that magnitide distortions at higher frequencies are tolerable, delay compensation is possible over a restricted frequency range. This range, assumed to have an upper limit of perhaps 10 or 15 rad/sec, conforms approximately to the bandwidth associated with helicopter handling qualities research. A compensation algorithm is introduced here and evaluated in terms of tradeoffs in frequency responses. The algorithm has a discrete basis and accommodates both a large, constant transport delay interval and a periodic delay interval, as associated with asynchronous operations.

  2. Environmentally Benign Pyrotechnic Delays

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-06-01

    jay.poret@us.army.mil † School of Mechanical Engineering, Purdue University, West Lafayette, Indiana, USA ABSTRACT Pyrotechnic delays are used in...benign formulations are described. The delay time of the new system is easily tunable. These compositions will consistently function in aluminum ...tunable. These compositions will consistently function in aluminum housings which is generally difficult for delay compositions due to extreme thermal

  3. History of vaccination.

    PubMed

    Plotkin, Stanley

    2014-08-26

    Vaccines have a history that started late in the 18th century. From the late 19th century, vaccines could be developed in the laboratory. However, in the 20th century, it became possible to develop vaccines based on immunologic markers. In the 21st century, molecular biology permits vaccine development that was not possible before.

  4. History of vaccination

    PubMed Central

    Plotkin, Stanley

    2014-01-01

    Vaccines have a history that started late in the 18th century. From the late 19th century, vaccines could be developed in the laboratory. However, in the 20th century, it became possible to develop vaccines based on immunologic markers. In the 21st century, molecular biology permits vaccine development that was not possible before. PMID:25136134

  5. Delayed puberty and amenorrhea.

    PubMed

    Hoffman, Barbara; Bradshaw, Karen D

    2003-11-01

    The ability to diagnose and manage disorders that cause delayed puberty requires a thorough understanding of the physical and hormonal events of puberty. Wide variation exists within normal pubertal maturation, but most adolescent girls in the United States have begun to mature by the age of 13. Delayed puberty, a rare condition in girls, occurs in only approximately 2.5% of the population. Constitutional delay, genetic defects, or hypothalamic-pituitary disorders are common causes. Amenorrhea, often found as a symptom of delayed puberty, may be due to congenital genital tract anomalies, ovarian failure, or chronic anovulation with estrogen presence or with estrogen absence.

  6. Delayed Orgasm and Anorgasmia

    PubMed Central

    Jenkins, Lawrence C.; Mulhall, John P.

    2016-01-01

    Delayed orgasm/anorgasmia defined as the persistent or recurrent difficulty, delay in, or absence of attaining orgasm after sufficient sexual stimulation, which causes personal distress. Delayed orgasm and anorgasmia are associated with significant sexual dissatisfaction. A focused medical history can shed light on the potential etiologies; which include: medications, penile sensation loss, endocrinopathies, penile hyperstimulation and psychological etiologies, amongst others. Unfortunately, there are no excellent pharmacotherapies for delayed orgasm/anorgasmia, and treatment revolves largely around addressing potential causative factors and psychotherapy. PMID:26439762

  7. Delayed orgasm and anorgasmia.

    PubMed

    Jenkins, Lawrence C; Mulhall, John P

    2015-11-01

    Delayed orgasm/anorgasmia defined as the persistent or recurrent difficulty, delay in, or absence of attaining orgasm after sufficient sexual stimulation, which causes personal distress. Delayed orgasm and anorgasmia are associated with significant sexual dissatisfaction. A focused medical history can shed light on the potential etiologies, which include medications, penile sensation loss, endocrinopathies, penile hyperstimulation, and psychological etiologies. Unfortunately, there are no excellent pharmacotherapies for delayed orgasm/anorgasmia, and treatment revolves largely around addressing potential causative factors and psychotherapy. Copyright © 2015 American Society for Reproductive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Delayed emergence after anesthesia.

    PubMed

    Tzabazis, Alexander; Miller, Christopher; Dobrow, Marc F; Zheng, Karl; Brock-Utne, John G

    2015-06-01

    In most instances, delayed emergence from anesthesia is attributed to residual anesthetic or analgesic medications. However, delayed emergence can be secondary to unusual causes and present diagnostic dilemmas. Data from clinical studies is scarce and most available published material is comprised of case reports. In this review, we summarize and discuss less common and difficult to diagnose reasons for delayed emergence and present cases from our own experience or reference published case reports/case series. The goal is to draw attention to less common reasons for delayed emergence, identify patient populations that are potentially at risk and to help anesthesiologists identifying a possible cause why their patient is slow to wake up.

  9. VARIABLE TIME DELAY MEANS

    DOEpatents

    Clemensen, R.E.

    1959-11-01

    An electrically variable time delay line is described which may be readily controlled simuitaneously with variable impedance matching means coupied thereto such that reflections are prevented. Broadly, the delay line includes a signal winding about a magnetic core whose permeability is electrically variable. Inasmuch as the inductance of the line varies directly with the permeability, the time delay and characteristic impedance of the line both vary as the square root of the permeability. Consequently, impedance matching means may be varied similariy and simultaneously w:th the electrically variable permeability to match the line impedance over the entire range of time delay whereby reflections are prevented.

  10. Impact of organizational structure on vaccination of first responders: a case study.

    PubMed

    McGuire-Wolfe, Christine

    2011-01-01

    The experience of H1N1 vaccine delivery to public safety personnel in a suburban county in Florida suggests a relationship between the degree of hierarchy of an agency and successful implementation of a vaccination program for novel 2009 H1N1 influenza virus. This case study describes the structural organization of the Sheriff's Office and Fire Rescue in County X, provides timelines for vaccine program implementation and numbers of personnel vaccinated, and illustrates the impact of autonomy on the timeliness of vaccine implementation. An "emergency approval pathway" is recommended for organizations or departments that are likely to encounter delays in disaster or pandemic response due to organizational structure.

  11. Paralysis in AIDS vaccine development violates ethical principles and human rights.

    PubMed

    Mann, J M

    1998-05-01

    Although a preventive vaccine is essential for controlling the HIV/AIDS epidemic and AIDS vaccine candidates exist, field trials of AIDS vaccine candidates are still not underway. Reasons for field trials of HIV vaccines not being underway include: ethical issues regarding how such trials would be conducted, fear that trial failure would make successive trials impossible to conduct, and controversy among the scientific community that the current crop of vaccines will effectively protect against HIV infection. Explanations for why none of these arguments are realistic reasons for delays in testing are provided. The ethical and human rights issues underlying the failure to proceed with field trials are also explored.

  12. Provider communication and HPV vaccination: The impact of recommendation quality

    PubMed Central

    Gilkey, Melissa B.; Calo, William A.; Moss, Jennifer L.; Shah, Parth D.; Marciniak, Macary W.; Brewer, Noel T.

    2016-01-01

    Background Receiving a healthcare provider’s recommendation is a strong predictor of HPV vaccination, but little is known empirically about which types of recommendation are most influential. Thus, we sought to investigate the relationship between recommendation quality and HPV vaccination among U.S. adolescents. Methods In 2014, we conducted a national, online survey of 1,495 parents of 11- to 17-year-old adolescents. Parents reported whether providers endorsed HPV vaccination strongly, encouraged same-day vaccination, and discussed cancer prevention. Using an index of these quality indicators, we categorized parents as having received no, low-quality, or high-quality recommendations for HPV vaccination. Separate multivariable logistic regression models assessed associations between recommendation quality and HPV vaccine initiation (≥1 dose), follow through (3 doses, among initiators), refusal, and delay. Results Almost half (48%) of parents reported no provider recommendation for HPV vaccination, while 16% received low-quality recommendations and 36% received high-quality recommendations. Compared to no recommendation, high-quality recommendations were associated with over nine times the odds of HPV vaccine initiation (23% vs. 74%, OR=9.31, 95% CI, 7.10–12.22) and over three times the odds of follow through (17% vs. 44%, OR=3.82, 95% CI, 2.39–6.11). Low-quality recommendations were more modestly associated with initiation (OR=4.13, 95% CI, 2.99–5.70), but not follow through. Parents who received high-versus low-quality recommendations less often reported HPV vaccine refusal or delay. Conclusions High-quality recommendations were strongly associated with HPV vaccination behavior, but only about one-third of parents received them. Interventions are needed to improve not only whether, but how providers recommend HPV vaccination for adolescents. PMID:26812078

  13. Vaccinating in disease-free regions: a vaccine model with application to yellow fever.

    PubMed

    Codeço, Claudia T; Luz, Paula M; Coelho, Flavio; Galvani, Alison P; Struchiner, Claudio

    2007-12-22

    Concerns regarding natural or induced emergence of infectious diseases have raised a debate on the pros and cons of pre-emptive vaccination of populations under uncertain risk. In the absence of immediate risk, ethical issues arise because even smaller risks associated with the vaccine are greater than the immediate disease risk (which is zero). The model proposed here seeks to formalize the vaccination decision process looking from the perspective of the susceptible individual, and results are shown in the context of the emergence of urban yellow fever in Brazil. The model decomposes the individual's choice about vaccinating or not into uncertain components. The choice is modelled as a function of (i) the risk of a vaccine adverse event, (ii) the risk of an outbreak and (iii) the probability of receiving the vaccine or escaping serious disease given an outbreak. Additionally, we explore how this decision varies as a function of mass vaccination strategies of varying efficiency. If disease is considered possible but unlikely (risk of outbreak less than 0.1), delay vaccination is a good strategy if a reasonably efficient campaign is expected. The advantage of waiting increases as the rate of transmission is reduced (low R0) suggesting that vector control programmes and emergency vaccination preparedness work together to favour this strategy. The opposing strategy, vaccinating pre-emptively, is favoured if the probability of yellow fever urbanization is high or if expected R0 is high and emergency action is expected to be slow. In summary, our model highlights the nonlinear dependence of an individual's best strategy on the preparedness of a response to a yellow fever outbreak or other emergent infectious disease.

  14. Vaccines today, vaccines tomorrow: a perspective.

    PubMed

    Loucq, Christian

    2013-01-01

    Vaccines are considered as one of the major contributions of the 20th century and one of the most cost effective public health interventions. The International Vaccine Institute has as a mission to discover, develop and deliver new and improved vaccines against infectious diseases that affects developing nations. If Louis Pasteur is known across the globe, vaccinologists like Maurice Hilleman, Jonas Salk and Charles Mérieux are known among experts only despite their contribution to global health. Thanks to a vaccine, smallpox has been eradicated, polio has nearly disappeared, Haemophilus influenzae B, measles and more recently meningitis A are controlled in many countries. While a malaria vaccine is undergoing phase 3, International Vaccine Institute, in collaboration with an Indian manufacturer has brought an oral inactivated cholera vaccine to pre-qualification. The field of vaccinology has undergone major changes thanks to philanthropists such as Bill and Melinda Gates, initiatives like the Decade of Vaccines and public private partnerships. Current researches on vaccines have more challenging targets like the dengue viruses, malaria, human immunodeficiency virus, the respiratory syncytial virus and nosocomial diseases. Exciting research is taking place on new adjuvants, nanoparticles, virus like particles and new route of administration. An overcrowded infant immunization program, anti-vaccine groups, immunizing a growing number of elderlies and delivering vaccines to difficult places are among challenges faced by vaccinologists and global health experts.

  15. Vaccines today, vaccines tomorrow: a perspective

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Vaccines are considered as one of the major contributions of the 20th century and one of the most cost effective public health interventions. The International Vaccine Institute has as a mission to discover, develop and deliver new and improved vaccines against infectious diseases that affects developing nations. If Louis Pasteur is known across the globe, vaccinologists like Maurice Hilleman, Jonas Salk and Charles Mérieux are known among experts only despite their contribution to global health. Thanks to a vaccine, smallpox has been eradicated, polio has nearly disappeared, Haemophilus influenzae B, measles and more recently meningitis A are controlled in many countries. While a malaria vaccine is undergoing phase 3, International Vaccine Institute, in collaboration with an Indian manufacturer has brought an oral inactivated cholera vaccine to pre-qualification. The field of vaccinology has undergone major changes thanks to philanthropists such as Bill and Melinda Gates, initiatives like the Decade of Vaccines and public private partnerships. Current researches on vaccines have more challenging targets like the dengue viruses, malaria, human immunodeficiency virus, the respiratory syncytial virus and nosocomial diseases. Exciting research is taking place on new adjuvants, nanoparticles, virus like particles and new route of administration. An overcrowded infant immunization program, anti-vaccine groups, immunizing a growing number of elderlies and delivering vaccines to difficult places are among challenges faced by vaccinologists and global health experts. PMID:23596584

  16. Varicella vaccination coverage of children under two years of age in Germany

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Since July 2004, routine varicella vaccination is recommended by the German Standing Vaccination Committee in Germany. Health Insurance Funds started to cover vaccination costs at different time points between 2004 and 2006 in the Federal States. Nationwide representative data on vaccination coverage against varicella of children under two years of age are not available. We aimed to determine varicella vaccination coverage in statutory health insured children under two years of age in twelve German Federal States using data from associations of statutory health insurance physicians (ASHIPs), in order to investigate the acceptance of the recommended routine varicella vaccination programme. Methods We analysed data on varicella vaccination from 13 of 17 ASHIPs of the years 2004 to 2007. The study population consisted of all statutory health insured children under two years of age born in 2004 (cohort 2004) or 2005 (cohort 2005) in one of the studied regions. Vaccination coverage was determined by the number of children vaccinated under 2 years of age within the study population. Results Varicella vaccination coverage of children under two years of age with either one dose of the monovalent varicella vaccine or two doses of the measles, mumps, rubella, and varicella vaccine increased from 34% (cohort 2004) to 51% (cohort 2005) in the studied regions (p < 0.001). More than half of the vaccinated children of cohort 2004 and two third of cohort 2005 were immunised at the recommended age 11 to 14 months. The level of vaccination coverage of cohort 2004 was significantly associated with the delay in introduction of cost coverage since the recommendation of varicella vaccination (p < 0.001). Conclusions Our study shows increasing varicella vaccination coverage of young children, indicating a growing acceptance of the routine varicella vaccination programme by the parents and physicians. We recommend further monitoring of vaccination coverage using data from

  17. Digital time delay

    DOEpatents

    Martin, A.D.

    1986-05-09

    Method and apparatus are provided for generating an output pulse following a trigger pulse at a time delay interval preset with a resolution which is high relative to a low resolution available from supplied clock pulses. A first lumped constant delay provides a first output signal at predetermined interpolation intervals corresponding to the desired high resolution time interval. Latching circuits latch the high resolution data to form a first synchronizing data set. A selected time interval has been preset to internal counters and corrected for circuit propagation delay times having the same order of magnitude as the desired high resolution. Internal system clock pulses count down the counters to generate an internal pulse delayed by an internal which is functionally related to the preset time interval. A second LCD corrects the internal signal with the high resolution time delay. A second internal pulse is then applied to a third LCD to generate a second set of synchronizing data which is complementary with the first set of synchronizing data for presentation to logic circuits. The logic circuits further delay the internal output signal with the internal pulses. The final delayed output signal thereafter enables the output pulse generator to produce the desired output pulse at the preset time delay interval following input of the trigger pulse.

  18. Time Delay Estimation

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-01-01

    investigate the possibility of exploiting the properties of a detected Low Probability of Intercept (LPI) signal waveform to estimate time delay, and by...ratios, namely 10 dB and less. We also examine the minimum time –delay estimate error – the Cramer–Rao bound. The results indicate that the method

  19. Vaccination timeliness in preterm infants: An integrative review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Sisson, Helen; Gardiner, Eric; Watson, Roger

    2017-06-15

    To take a systematic approach to reviewing the scientific literature examining the timeliness of vaccination in preterm infants and to identify any factors associated with timeliness. Preterm infants are vulnerable to infection and guidance advocates they are vaccinated in accordance with their full-term peers. Vaccination is well tolerated and protective immune responses are observed, yet some early enquiries suggest that preterm infants experience unwarranted delays. The recent surge in pertussis cases and the increase in vaccinations administered make this a topic requiring further exploration. An integrative review of the empirical literature. Studies were identified following a search of Medline, Academic Search Premier, Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews and the Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature. The review methods used were influenced by a narrative synthesis approach. The retrieval of papers adhered to recognised reporting standards. Fourteen studies were identified, which indicated that infants with the lowest gestational ages and birthweights experience the greatest delays. Vaccination timeliness is influenced by hospitalisation and increased postdischarge follow-up. There was a lack of consensus to indicate that parental socio-economic status and level of education were indicators for a delay. The studies propose that many delays are unjustified and not according to genuine contraindications. This review indicates that preterm infants are not vaccinated in a timely manner. Those involved in vaccinating preterm infants must be informed of the genuine contraindications to avoid unnecessary delays putting preterm infants at an increased risk of infection. Care providers should acknowledge the risk of a delay in preterm infants and actively promote vaccination in this population. Regular training should help to negate the occurrence of inappropriate delays, and careful discharge planning is needed to ensure that preterm infants

  20. Application of autologous tumor cell vaccine and NDV vaccine in treatment of tumors of digestive traet

    PubMed Central

    Liang, Wei; Wang, Hui; Sun, Tie-Mie; Yao, Wen-Qing; Chen, Li-Li; Jin, Yu; Li, Chun-Ling; Meng, Fan-Juan

    2003-01-01

    AIM: To treat patients with stage I-IV malignant tumors of digestive tract using autologous tumor cell vaccine and NDV (Newcastle disease virus) vaccine, and observe the survival period and curative effect. METHODS: 335 patients with malignant tumors of digestive tract were treated with autologous tumor cell vaccine and NDV vaccine. The autologous tumor cell vaccine received were assigned for long-term survival observation. While these failed to obtain the autologous tumor tissue were given with NDV vaccine for a received short-term observation on curative effect. RESULTS: The colorectal cancer patients treated with autologous tumor cell vaccine were divided into two groups: the controlled group (subjected to resection alone) (n = 257), the vaccine group (subjected to both resection and immunotherapy) (n = 310). 25 patients treated with NDV immunotherapy were all at stage IV without having resection. In postoperation adjuvant therapy patients, the 5, 6 and 7-year survival rates were 66.51%, 60.52%, 56.50% respectively; whereas in patients with resection alone, only 45.57%, 44.76% and 43.42% respectively. The average survival period was 5.13 years (resection alone group 4.15 years), the median survival period was over 7 years (resection alone group 4.46 years). There were significant differences between the two groups. The patients treated with resection plus vaccine were measured delayed-type hypersensitivity (DTH) reactions after vaccination, (indurative scope > 5 mm). The magnitude of DTH was related to the prognosis. The 5-year survival rate was 80% for those with indurations greater than 5 mm, compared with 30% for those with indurations less than 5 mm. The 1-year survival rate was 96% for 25 patients treated with NDV immunotherapy. The total effective rate (CR+PR) was 24.00% in NDV immunotherapy; complete remission (CR) in 1 case (4.00%), partial remission (PR) in 5 cases (20.00%), stabilizedin in 16 cases (64.00%), progression (PD) in 1 case (4.00%). After

  1. Comparison of sow and/or piglet vaccination of 3 commercial porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV2) single-dose vaccines on pigs under experimental PCV2 challenge.

    PubMed

    Oh, Yeonsu; Seo, Hwi Won; Park, Changhoon; Chae, Chanhee

    2014-08-27

    The objective of the present study was to compare the effect of sow and/or piglet vaccination regimen by three commercial porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV2) vaccines on pigs experimentally challenged with PCV2 at 84 days of age based on immunological, virological, and pathological evaluation. One hundred and nineteen piglets born to vaccinated or non-vaccinated sows were divided into 17 groups. A portion of the pigs with or without passively acquired immunity was vaccinated at 21 or 49 days of age. Regardless of the PCV2 vaccine, the combination of sow and pig (49 days of age) vaccinations significantly (P<0.05) reduced PCV2 viremia, induced higher log2 transformed neutralizing antibody titers, and resulted in higher proportion of CD4(+)CD8(+)IFN-γ(+) lymphocyte subsets than the sow vaccination alone, the pig (21 or 49 days of age) vaccination alone, and the combination of sow and pig (21 days of age) vaccinations at various days post challenge. The results showed a significant negative correlation between maternally derived antibodies at the day of vaccination and the increment of antibody titers to PCV2 at 28 days post vaccination in the combination of sow and pig (21 days of age) vaccinations but not the combination of sow and pig (49 days of age) vaccinations. The combination of sow and pig (49 days of age) vaccinations could be more effective for controlling PCV2 infection if PCV2 the infection occurs during the growing-finishing period in herds. Optimal vaccination strategies must balance the advantage of delayed vaccination with the need to induce immunity prior to exposure to pathogens under field conditions.

  2. Typhoid fever vaccination strategies.

    PubMed

    Date, Kashmira A; Bentsi-Enchill, Adwoa; Marks, Florian; Fox, Kimberley

    2015-06-19

    Typhoid vaccination is an important component of typhoid fever prevention and control, and is recommended for public health programmatic use in both endemic and outbreak settings. We reviewed experiences with various vaccination strategies using the currently available typhoid vaccines (injectable Vi polysaccharide vaccine [ViPS], oral Ty21a vaccine, and injectable typhoid conjugate vaccine [TCV]). We assessed the rationale, acceptability, effectiveness, impact and implementation lessons of these strategies to inform effective typhoid vaccination strategies for the future. Vaccination strategies were categorized by vaccine disease control strategy (preemptive use for endemic disease or to prevent an outbreak, and reactive use for outbreak control) and vaccine delivery strategy (community-based routine, community-based campaign and school-based). Almost all public health typhoid vaccination programs used ViPS vaccine and have been in countries of Asia, with one example in the Pacific and one experience using the Ty21a vaccine in South America. All vaccination strategies were found to be acceptable, feasible and effective in the settings evaluated; evidence of impact, where available, was strongest in endemic settings and in the short- to medium-term. Vaccination was cost-effective in high-incidence but not low-incidence settings. Experience in disaster and outbreak settings remains limited. TCVs have recently become available and none are WHO-prequalified yet; no program experience with TCVs was found in published literature. Despite the demonstrated success of several typhoid vaccination strategies, typhoid vaccines remain underused. Implementation lessons should be applied to design optimal vaccination strategies using TCVs which have several anticipated advantages, such as potential for use in infant immunization programs and longer duration of protection, over the ViPS and Ty21a vaccines for typhoid prevention and control. Copyright © 2015. Published by

  3. A novel rabies vaccine based-on toll-like receptor 3 (TLR3) agonist PIKA adjuvant exhibiting excellent safety and efficacy in animal studies

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Yi; Zhang, Shoufeng; Li, Wei; Hu, Yuchi; Zhao, Jinyan; Liu, Fang; Lin, Haixiang; Liu, Yuan; Wang, Liliang; Xu, Shu; Hu, Rongliang; Shao, Hui; Li, Lietao

    2016-02-15

    Vaccination alone is not sufficiently effective to protect human from post-exposure rabies virus infection due to delayed generation of rabies virus neutralizing antibodies and weak cellular immunity. Therefore, it is vital to develop safer and more efficacious vaccine against rabies. PIKA, a stabilized chemical analog of double-stranded RNA that interacts with TLR3, was employed as adjuvant of rabies vaccine. The efficacy and safety of PIKA rabies vaccine were evaluated. The results showed that PIKA rabies vaccine enhanced both humoral and cellular immunity. After viral challenge, PIKA rabies vaccine protected 70–80% of animals, while the survival rate of non-adjuvant vaccine group (control) was 20–30%. According to the results of toxicity tests, PIKA and PIKA rabies vaccine are shown to be well tolerated in mice. Thus, this study indicates that PIKA rabies vaccine is an effective and safe vaccine which has the potential to develop next-generation rabies vaccine and encourage the start of clinical studies. - Highlights: • Vaccination alone is not effective to protect human from rabies virus infection due to delayed generation of rabies virus neutralizing antibodies (RVNA) and weak cellular immunity. • Therefore, it is vital to develop safer and more efficacious vaccine against rabies. PIKA, a stabilized chemical analog of double-stranded RNA that interacts with TLR3, was employed as an adjuvant of rabies vaccine. • The efficacy and safety of PIKA rabies vaccine was evaluated in mice. • The results showed that PIKA rabies vaccine enhanced both humoral and cellular immunity. • After viral challenge, PIKA rabies vaccine protected 70–80% of animals, while the survival rate of non-adjuvant vaccine group was only 20–30%. • According to the results of toxicity tests, PIKA and PIKA rabies vaccine are shown to be well tolerated in mice. • Thus, this study indicates that PIKA rabies vaccine is an effective and safe vaccine which has the potential to

  4. Obesity vaccines

    PubMed Central

    Monteiro, Mariana P

    2014-01-01

    Obesity is one of the largest and fastest growing public health problems in the world. Last century social changes have set an obesogenic milieu that calls for micro and macro environment interventions for disease prevention, while treatment is mandatory for individuals already obese. The cornerstone of overweight and obesity treatment is diet and physical exercise. However, many patients find lifestyle modifications difficult to comply and prone to failure in the long-term; therefore many patients consider anti-obesity drugs an important adjuvant if not a better alternative to behavioral approach or obesity surgery. Since the pharmacological options for obesity treatment remain quite limited, this is an exciting research area, with new treatment targets and strategies on the horizon. This review discusses the development of innovative therapeutic agents, focusing in energy homeostasis regulation and the use of molecular vaccines, targeting hormones such as somatostatin, GIP and ghrelin, to reduce body weight. PMID:24365968

  5. Obesity vaccines.

    PubMed

    Monteiro, Mariana P

    2014-01-01

    Obesity is one of the largest and fastest growing public health problems in the world. Last century social changes have set an obesogenic milieu that calls for micro and macro environment interventions for disease prevention, while treatment is mandatory for individuals already obese. The cornerstone of overweight and obesity treatment is diet and physical exercise. However, many patients find lifestyle modifications difficult to comply and prone to failure in the long-term; therefore many patients consider anti-obesity drugs an important adjuvant if not a better alternative to behavioral approach or obesity surgery. Since the pharmacological options for obesity treatment remain quite limited, this is an exciting research area, with new treatment targets and strategies on the horizon. This review discusses the development of innovative therapeutic agents, focusing in energy homeostasis regulation and the use of molecular vaccines, targeting hormones such as somatostatin, GIP and ghrelin, to reduce body weight.

  6. Making vaccines “on demand”

    PubMed Central

    De Groot, Anne S; Einck, Leo; Moise, Leonard; Chambers, Michael; Ballantyne, John; Malone, Robert W; Ardito, Matthew; Martin, William

    2013-01-01

    The integrated US Public Health Emergency Medical Countermeasures Enterprise (PHEMCE) has made great strides in strategic preparedness and response capabilities. There have been numerous advances in planning, biothreat countermeasure development, licensure, manufacturing, stockpiling and deployment. Increased biodefense surveillance capability has dramatically improved, while new tools and increased awareness have fostered rapid identification of new potential public health pathogens. Unfortunately, structural delays in vaccine design, development, manufacture, clinical testing and licensure processes remain significant obstacles to an effective national biodefense rapid response capability. This is particularly true for the very real threat of “novel pathogens” such as the avian-origin influenzas H7N9 and H5N1, and new coronaviruses such as hCoV-EMC. Conventional approaches to vaccine development, production, clinical testing and licensure are incompatible with the prompt deployment needed for an effective public health response. An alternative approach, proposed here, is to apply computational vaccine design tools and rapid production technologies that now make it possible to engineer vaccines for novel emerging pathogen and WMD biowarfare agent countermeasures in record time. These new tools have the potential to significantly reduce the time needed to design string-of-epitope vaccines for previously unknown pathogens. The design process—from genome to gene sequence, ready to insert in a DNA plasmid—can now be accomplished in less than 24 h. While these vaccines are by no means “standard,” the need for innovation in the vaccine design and production process is great. Should such vaccines be developed, their 60-d start-to-finish timeline would represent a 2-fold faster response than the current standard. PMID:23877094

  7. Patent data mining: a tool for accelerating HIV vaccine innovation.

    PubMed

    Clark, K; Cavicchi, J; Jensen, K; Fitzgerald, R; Bennett, A; Kowalski, S P

    2011-05-31

    Global access to advanced vaccine technologies is challenged by the interrelated components of intellectual property (IP) management strategies, technology transfer (legal and technical) capabilities and the capacity necessary for accelerating R&D, commercialization and delivery of vaccines. Due to a negative association with the management of IP, patents are often overlooked as a vast resource of freely available, information akin to scientific journals as well as business and technological information and trends fundamental for formulating policies and IP management strategies. Therefore, a fundamental step towards facilitating global vaccine access will be the assembly, organization and analysis of patent landscapes, to identify the amount of patenting, ownership (assignees) and fields of technology covered. This is critical for making informed decisions (e.g., identifying licensees, building research and product development collaborations, and ascertaining freedom to operate). Such information is of particular interest to the HIV vaccine community where the HIV Vaccine Enterprise, have voiced concern that IP rights (particularly patents and trade secrets) may prevent data and materials sharing, delaying progress in research and development of a HIV vaccine. We have compiled and analyzed a representative HIV vaccine patent landscape for a prime-boost, DNA/adenoviral vaccine platform, as an example for identifying obstacles, maximizing opportunities and making informed IP management strategy decisions towards the development and deployment of an efficacious HIV vaccine.

  8. A policy framework for accelerating adoption of new vaccines

    PubMed Central

    Hajjeh, Rana; Wecker, John; Cherian, Thomas; O'Brien, Katherine L; Knoll, Maria Deloria; Privor-Dumm, Lois; Kvist, Hans; Nanni, Angeline; Bear, Allyson P; Santosham, Mathuram

    2010-01-01

    Rapid uptake of new vaccines can improve health and wealth and contribute to meeting Millennium Development Goals. In the past, however, the introduction and use of new vaccines has been characterized by delayed uptake in the countries where the need is greatest. Based on experience with accelerating the adoption of Hib, pneumococcal and rotavirus vaccines, we propose here a framework for new vaccine adoption that may be useful for future efforts. The framework organizes the major steps in the process into a continuum from evidence to policy, implementation and finally access. It highlights the important roles of different actors at various times in the process and may allow new vaccine initiatives to save time and improve their efficiency by anticipating key steps and actions. PMID:21150269

  9. Current concepts and progress in RSV vaccine development.

    PubMed

    Guvenel, Aleks K; Chiu, Christopher; Openshaw, Peter Jm

    2014-03-01

    Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) disease is an important cause of morbidity and mortality in children and debilitated adults and remains one of the major global unmet challenges for vaccine development. Several immunological issues have delayed the development of vaccines, especially the poorly protective response to natural infection and the enhancement of disease following administration of formalin inactivated vaccines during trials conducted in the 1960s. Advances in knowledge of the immune system, of the virus and its antigenic properties combined with new vaccine technologies are now injecting new hope into the field and have given rise to many promising vaccine approaches. Some of these may be optimal for use in children, while others may be more appropriate for pregnant women or vulnerable older adults. With a multi-pronged approach to prevention, we propose that it may be possible to destabilise community circulation of RSV and thus to significantly lessen the impact of RSV disease.

  10. DNA Vaccination in Chickens.

    PubMed

    Gupta, Shishir Kumar; Dey, Sohini; Chellappa, Madhan Mohan

    2016-01-01

    Robust and sustainable development of poultry industry requires prevention of deadly infectious diseases. Vigorous vaccination of the birds is a routine practice; however, the live and inactivated vaccines that are used have inherent disadvantages. New-generation vaccines such as DNA vaccines offer several advantages over conventional vaccines. DNA vaccines, which encode an antigen of interest or multiple antigens in the target host, are stable, easy to produce and administer, do not require cold chain maintenance, and are not affected by the maternal antibodies. In addition, DNA vaccines can also be administered in ovo, and thus, mass vaccination and early induction of immune response can effectively be achieved. In this chapter, we focus on the development of DNA vaccines against important infectious viral as well as parasitic diseases of poultry.

  11. Neurologic complications of vaccinations.

    PubMed

    Miravalle, Augusto A; Schreiner, Teri

    2014-01-01

    This chapter reviews the most common neurologic disorders associated with common vaccines, evaluates the data linking the disorder with the vaccine, and discusses the potential mechanism of disease. A literature search was conducted in PubMed using a combination of the following terms: vaccines, vaccination, immunization, and neurologic complications. Data were also gathered from publications of the American Academy of Pediatrics Committee on Infectious Diseases, the World Health Organization, the US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, and the Vaccine Adverse Event Reporting System. Neurologic complications of vaccination are rare. Many associations have been asserted without objective data to support a causal relationship. Rarely, patients with a neurologic complication will have a poor outcome. However, most patients recover fully from the neurologic complication. Vaccinations have altered the landscape of infectious disease. However, perception of risk associated with vaccinations has limited the success of disease eradication measures. Neurologic complications can be severe, and can provoke fear in potential vaccines. Evaluating whether there is causal link between neurologic disorders and vaccinations, not just temporal association, is critical to addressing public misperception of risk of vaccination. Among the vaccines available today, the cost-benefit analysis of vaccinations and complications strongly argues in favor of vaccination.

  12. Vaccination: An Act of Love

    MedlinePlus

    ... benefits of vaccines. For this reason, we created Vaccination Week in the Americas to get vaccines to ... and no one gets left behind. Help the vaccination teams when they come to your town, your ...

  13. Vaccinations for Adults with Diabetes

    MedlinePlus

    Vaccinations for Adults with Diabetes The table below shows which vaccinations you should have to protect your health if ... sure you and your healthcare provider keep your vaccinations up to date. Vaccine Do you need it? ...

  14. Nasal spray flu vaccine (image)

    MedlinePlus

    The flu vaccine can also be administered as a nasal spray instead of the usual injection method. It can be ... the recombinant influenza vaccine (RIV). The nasal spray flu vaccine (live attenuated influenza vaccine or LAIV) should not ...

  15. Requirements for improved vaccines against foot-and-mouth disease epidemics

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Inactivated foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) vaccines are currently used worldwide. With the emergence of various FMD virus serotypes and subtypes, vaccines must become more suitable for field-based uses under the current circumstances in terms of the fast and proper selection of vaccine strains, an extended vaccine development period for new viruses, protecting against the risk of virus leakage during vaccine manufacture, counteracting the delayed onset of immune response, counteracting shorter durations of immunity, and the accurate serological differentiation of infected and vaccinated animals and multiple vaccination. The quality of vaccines should then be improved to effectively control FMD outbreaks and minimize the problems that can arise among livestock after vaccinations. Vaccine improvement should be based on using attenuated virus strains with high levels of safety. Moreover, when vaccines are urgently required for newly spread field strains, the seed viruses for new vaccines should be developed for only a short period. Improved vaccines should offer superior immunization to all susceptible animals including cattle and swine. In addition, they should have highly protective effects without persistent infection. In this way, if vaccines are developed using new methods such as reverse genetics or vector vaccine technology, in which live viruses can be easily made by replacing specific protective antigens, even a single vaccination is likely to generate highly protective effects with an extended duration of immunity, and the safety and stability of the vaccines will be assured. We therefore reviewed the current FMD vaccines and their adjuvants, and evaluated if they provide superior immunization to all susceptible animals including cattle and swine. PMID:23596585

  16. Effect of vaccinations on seizure risk and disease course in Dravet syndrome.

    PubMed

    Verbeek, Nienke E; van der Maas, Nicoline A T; Sonsma, Anja C M; Ippel, Elly; Vermeer-de Bondt, Patricia E; Hagebeuk, Eveline; Jansen, Floor E; Geesink, Huibert H; Braun, Kees P; de Louw, Anton; Augustijn, Paul B; Neuteboom, Rinze F; Schieving, Jolanda H; Stroink, Hans; Vermeulen, R Jeroen; Nicolai, Joost; Brouwer, Oebele F; van Kempen, Marjan; de Kovel, Carolien G F; Kemmeren, Jeanet M; Koeleman, Bobby P C; Knoers, Nine V; Lindhout, Dick; Gunning, W Boudewijn; Brilstra, Eva H

    2015-08-18

    To study the effect of vaccination-associated seizure onset on disease course and estimate the risk of subsequent seizures after infant pertussis combination and measles, mumps, and rubella (MMR) vaccinations in Dravet syndrome (DS). We retrospectively analyzed data from hospital medical files, child health clinics, and the vaccination register for children with DS and pathogenic SCN1A mutations. Seizures within 24 hours after infant whole-cell, acellular, or nonpertussis combination vaccination or within 5 to 12 days after MMR vaccination were defined as "vaccination-associated." Risks of vaccination-associated seizures for the different vaccines were analyzed in univariable and in multivariable logistic regression for pertussis combination vaccines and by a self-controlled case series analysis using parental seizure registries for MMR vaccines. Disease courses of children with and without vaccination-associated seizure onset were compared. Children who had DS (n = 77) with and without vaccination-associated seizure onset (21% and 79%, respectively) differed in age at first seizure (median 3.7 vs 6.1 months, p < 0.001) but not in age at first nonvaccination-associated seizure, age at first report of developmental delay, or cognitive outcome. The risk of subsequent vaccination-associated seizures was significantly lower for acellular pertussis (9%; odds ratio 0.18, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.05-0.71) and nonpertussis (8%; odds ratio 0.11, 95% CI 0.02-0.59) than whole-cell pertussis (37%; reference) vaccines. Self-controlled case series analysis showed an increased incidence rate ratio of seizures of 2.3 (95% CI 1.5-3.4) within the risk period of 5 to 12 days following MMR vaccination. Our results suggest that vaccination-associated earlier seizure onset does not alter disease course in DS, while the risk of subsequent vaccination-associated seizures is probably vaccine-specific. © 2015 American Academy of Neurology.

  17. 42 CFR 410.57 - Pneumococcal vaccine and flu vaccine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Pneumococcal vaccine and flu vaccine. 410.57... § 410.57 Pneumococcal vaccine and flu vaccine. (a) Medicare Part B pays for pneumococcal vaccine and its administration when reasonable and necessary for the prevention of disease, if the vaccine is ordered by a doctor...

  18. 42 CFR 410.57 - Pneumococcal vaccine and flu vaccine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Pneumococcal vaccine and flu vaccine. 410.57... § 410.57 Pneumococcal vaccine and flu vaccine. (a) Medicare Part B pays for pneumococcal vaccine and its administration when reasonable and necessary for the prevention of disease, if the vaccine is ordered by a doctor...

  19. 42 CFR 410.57 - Pneumococcal vaccine and flu vaccine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Pneumococcal vaccine and flu vaccine. 410.57... § 410.57 Pneumococcal vaccine and flu vaccine. (a) Medicare Part B pays for pneumococcal vaccine and its administration when reasonable and necessary for the prevention of disease, if the vaccine is ordered by a doctor...

  20. 42 CFR 410.57 - Pneumococcal vaccine and flu vaccine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Pneumococcal vaccine and flu vaccine. 410.57... § 410.57 Pneumococcal vaccine and flu vaccine. (a) Medicare Part B pays for pneumococcal vaccine and its administration when reasonable and necessary for the prevention of disease, if the vaccine is ordered by a doctor...

  1. 42 CFR 410.57 - Pneumococcal vaccine and flu vaccine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Pneumococcal vaccine and flu vaccine. 410.57... § 410.57 Pneumococcal vaccine and flu vaccine. (a) Medicare Part B pays for pneumococcal vaccine and its administration when reasonable and necessary for the prevention of disease, if the vaccine is ordered by a doctor...

  2. Exploring the Reasons Behind Parental Refusal of Vaccines

    PubMed Central

    Bohannon, Kristin

    2016-01-01

    Parental refusal of vaccines is a growing a concern for the increased occurrence of vaccine preventable diseases in children. A number of studies have looked into the reasons that parents refuse, delay, or are hesitant to vaccinate their child(ren). These reasons vary widely between parents, but they can be encompassed in 4 overarching categories. The 4 categories are religious reasons, personal beliefs or philosophical reasons, safety concerns, and a desire for more information from healthcare providers. Parental concerns about vaccines in each category lead to a wide spectrum of decisions varying from parents completely refusing all vaccinations to only delaying vaccinations so that they are more spread out. A large subset of parents admits to having concerns and questions about childhood vaccinations. For this reason, it can be helpful for pharmacists and other healthcare providers to understand the cited reasons for hesitancy so they are better prepared to educate their patients' families. Education is a key player in equipping parents with the necessary information so that they can make responsible immunization decisions for their children. PMID:27199617

  3. Vaccination of cattle with a CpG oligodeoxynucleotide-formulated mycobacterial protein vaccine and Mycobacterium bovis BCG induces levels of protection against bovine tuberculosis superior to those induced by vaccination with BCG alone.

    PubMed

    Wedlock, D Neil; Denis, Michel; Skinner, Margot A; Koach, Jessica; de Lisle, Geoffrey W; Vordermeier, H Martin; Hewinson, R Glyn; van Drunen Littel-van den Hurk, Sylvia; Babiuk, Lorne A; Hecker, Rolf; Buddle, Bryce M

    2005-06-01

    The development of a subunit protein vaccine for bovine tuberculosis which could be used either in combination with Mycobacterium bovis BCG (to improve the efficacy of that vaccine) or alone would offer significant advantages over currently available strategies. A study was conducted with cattle to determine the protective efficacy of a strategy based on concurrent immunization with an M. bovis culture filtrate (CFP) vaccine and BCG compared to vaccination with either vaccine alone. One group of calves (10 animals per group) was vaccinated subcutaneously with CFP formulated with Emulsigen and combined with a CpG oligodeoxynucleotide (ODN). A second group was vaccinated with both the CFP vaccine and BCG injected at adjacent sites (CFP-BCG). One further group was vaccinated subcutaneously with BCG, while another group served as nonvaccinated control animals. Vaccination with CFP-BCG induced levels of antigen-specific gamma interferon (IFN-gamma) and interleukin-2 (IL-2) in whole-blood cultures that were higher than those induced by vaccination with BCG alone. The combination of CFP and BCG did not enhance the production of antibodies to M. bovis CFP compared to vaccination with CFP alone. Vaccination with CFP alone led to delayed antigen-specific IFN-gamma and IL-2 responses. Vaccination with CFP-BCG induced a high level of protection against an intratracheal challenge with virulent M. bovis, based on a significant enhancement of six pathological and microbiological parameters of protection compared with the nonvaccinated group. In contrast, vaccination with BCG alone induced a significant enhancement of protection in only one parameter, while CFP alone induced no protection. These results suggest that a combination of a CpG ODN-formulated protein vaccine and BCG offers better protection against bovine tuberculosis than does BCG alone.

  4. Vaccines against poverty

    PubMed Central

    MacLennan, Calman A.; Saul, Allan

    2014-01-01

    With the 2010s declared the Decade of Vaccines, and Millennium Development Goals 4 and 5 focused on reducing diseases that are potentially vaccine preventable, now is an exciting time for vaccines against poverty, that is, vaccines against diseases that disproportionately affect low- and middle-income countries (LMICs). The Global Burden of Disease Study 2010 has helped better understand which vaccines are most needed. In 2012, US$1.3 billion was spent on research and development for new vaccines for neglected infectious diseases. However, the majority of this went to three diseases: HIV/AIDS, malaria, and tuberculosis, and not neglected diseases. Much of it went to basic research rather than development, with an ongoing decline in funding for product development partnerships. Further investment in vaccines against diarrheal diseases, hepatitis C, and group A Streptococcus could lead to a major health impact in LMICs, along with vaccines to prevent sepsis, particularly among mothers and neonates. The Advanced Market Commitment strategy of the Global Alliance for Vaccines and Immunisation (GAVI) Alliance is helping to implement vaccines against rotavirus and pneumococcus in LMICs, and the roll out of the MenAfriVac meningococcal A vaccine in the African Meningitis Belt represents a paradigm shift in vaccines against poverty: the development of a vaccine primarily targeted at LMICs. Global health vaccine institutes and increasing capacity of vaccine manufacturers in emerging economies are helping drive forward new vaccines for LMICs. Above all, partnership is needed between those developing and manufacturing LMIC vaccines and the scientists, health care professionals, and policy makers in LMICs where such vaccines will be implemented. PMID:25136089

  5. Vaccines against poverty.

    PubMed

    MacLennan, Calman A; Saul, Allan

    2014-08-26

    With the 2010s declared the Decade of Vaccines, and Millennium Development Goals 4 and 5 focused on reducing diseases that are potentially vaccine preventable, now is an exciting time for vaccines against poverty, that is, vaccines against diseases that disproportionately affect low- and middle-income countries (LMICs). The Global Burden of Disease Study 2010 has helped better understand which vaccines are most needed. In 2012, US$1.3 billion was spent on research and development for new vaccines for neglected infectious diseases. However, the majority of this went to three diseases: HIV/AIDS, malaria, and tuberculosis, and not neglected diseases. Much of it went to basic research rather than development, with an ongoing decline in funding for product development partnerships. Further investment in vaccines against diarrheal diseases, hepatitis C, and group A Streptococcus could lead to a major health impact in LMICs, along with vaccines to prevent sepsis, particularly among mothers and neonates. The Advanced Market Commitment strategy of the Global Alliance for Vaccines and Immunisation (GAVI) Alliance is helping to implement vaccines against rotavirus and pneumococcus in LMICs, and the roll out of the MenAfriVac meningococcal A vaccine in the African Meningitis Belt represents a paradigm shift in vaccines against poverty: the development of a vaccine primarily targeted at LMICs. Global health vaccine institutes and increasing capacity of vaccine manufacturers in emerging economies are helping drive forward new vaccines for LMICs. Above all, partnership is needed between those developing and manufacturing LMIC vaccines and the scientists, health care professionals, and policy makers in LMICs where such vaccines will be implemented.

  6. Atlantic halibut (Hippoglossus hippoglossus L.) T-cell and cytokine response after vaccination and challenge with nodavirus.

    PubMed

    Overgård, Aina-Cathrine; Patel, Sonal; Nøstbakken, Ole Jakob; Nerland, Audun Helge

    2013-05-01

    Viral encephalopathy and retinopathy (VER), caused by nodavirus, is one of the major infectious diseases affecting the marine fish farming industry, yet no effective vaccine is available. In this study, we examined the halibut immune response following administration of an experimental vaccine comprising a recombinant nodavirus capsid protein in combination with an oil adjuvant (OA). Four groups of halibut were injected with either: PBS alone, PBS plus OA, 10μg recCP plus OA, or 50μg recCP plus OA. 15 weeks later, half the fish in each group were challenged with nodavirus and the immune response investigated by analysis of: serum levels of recCP-specific halibut immunoglobulins (Igs), and mRNA transcript levels of several T-cell markers (CD3ɛ, Lck, CD4, CD4-2, CD8α and CD8β) and cytokines (IL-1β, IL-6, IL-12βc and IFNγ). Additionally, the presence of nodaviral RNA2 transcripts in the brains of infected halibut was analysed. After vaccination, the level of IL-6 was consistently elevated in the spleens of fish given injections containing the OA. The combination of recCP and OA increased the expression of IL-1β and IFNγ, as well as the level of recCP-specific Igs in blood plasma. Following challenge with nodavirus, IL-1β and IFNγ were elevated in halibut spleens after 24h in all groups that had received OA with or without recCP antigen. In brain, a general increase in the expression levels of all T-cell markers and IFNγ was observed following challenge with nodavirus. The viral load at 8 weeks post-challenge was lower in the fish that received 50μg recCP, with 5 out of 8 individuals being negative for nodavirus. Additionally, a better correlation between these markers (apart from the CD8 markers), and the viral RNA2 was also observed in this group, suggesting that the activation of CD4+T-cells might be important in reducing the viral load. In conclusion, this study identifies recCP as a promising candidate antigen for the future development of a vaccine

  7. Immunogenicity of Danish-SSI 1331 BCG vaccine in the UK: comparison with Glaxo-Evans 1077 BCG vaccine.

    PubMed

    Gorak-Stolinska, Patricia; Weir, Rosemary E; Floyd, Sian; Lalor, Maeve K; Stenson, Sally; Branson, Keith; Blitz, Rose; Luke, Sarah; Nazareth, Bernadette; Ben-Smith, Anne; Fine, Paul E M; Dockrell, Hazel M

    2006-07-17

    The immunogenicity and reactogenicity, in British schoolchildren, of the newly introduced Danish-SSI 1331 BCG vaccine was compared with that of the previously used Glaxo-Evans 1077 BCG vaccine. Interferon-gamma (IFN-gamma) response to M. tuberculosis purified protein derivative (M.tb PPD) in a 6-day whole blood assay and delayed type hypersensitivity (DTH) to tuberculin PPD were determined before and 1 year after receiving BCG or no vaccination. Scar size was measured 1 year after vaccination. There was no evidence of a difference in immunogenicity (IFN-gamma and DTH conversion rates) but evidence of lower reactogenicity (scar size) with Danish-SSI 1331 compared to Glaxo-Evans 1077 vaccines.

  8. Simple method of measuring delay time in manufacturing delay lines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kasahara, Yukio; Mikoda, Masanari

    1982-07-01

    A simple method for measuring delay time in an operational frequency range is required in manufacturing delay lines used for video tape recorders and television receiver sets. This paper describes a simple method of measuring and adjusting the delay time of such delay lines. The delay time is obtained by measuring a phase difference ϑ between the signals at the input and output transducers of the delay line with frequencies under test. The delay time is more precisely obtained by measuring the ϑ at a constant frequency within the bandwidth of the delay line. A delay-time tolerance of a polished glass medium at 3.58 MHz was found to be within 100 ns. The delay time was found to be shortened by 30 ns by attaching the medium on polishing powder and oil. Also shown is a simple method for adjusting the delay time by polishing a delay medium while measuring the phase difference.

  9. Vaccines and Immunization Practice.

    PubMed

    Hogue, Michael D; Meador, Anna E

    2016-03-01

    Vaccines are among most cost-effective public health strategies. Despite effective vaccines for many bacterial and viral illnesses, tens of thousands of adults and hundreds of children die each year in the United States from vaccine-preventable diseases. Underutilization of vaccines requires rethinking the approach to incorporating vaccines into practice. Arguably, immunizations could be a part all health care encounters. Shared responsibility is paramount if deaths are to be reduced. This article reviews the available vaccines in the US market, as well as practice recommendations of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention's Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices.

  10. Evaluation of the safety, immunogenicity and efficacy of three capripoxvirus vaccine strains against lumpy skin disease virus.

    PubMed

    Gari, Getachew; Abie, Getnet; Gizaw, Daniel; Wubete, Alehegn; Kidane, Membere; Asgedom, Hagos; Bayissa, Berecha; Ayelet, Gelagay; Oura, Christopher A L; Roger, Francois; Tuppurainen, Eeva S M

    2015-06-22

    The safety, immunogenicity and efficacy of three commercially available vaccines against lumpy skin disease (LSD) in cattle have been evaluated using a combination of vaccine challenge experiments and the monitoring of immune responses in vaccinated animals in the field. The three vaccines evaluated in the study included two locally produced (Ethiopian) vaccines (lumpy skin disease virus (LSDV) Neethling and Kenyan sheep and goat pox (KSGP) O-180 strain vaccines) and a Gorgan goat pox (GTP) vaccine manufactured by Jordan Bio-Industries Centre (JOVAC). The latter vaccine was evaluated for the first time in cattle against LSDV. The Ethiopian Neethling and KSGPO-180 vaccines failed to provide protection in cattle against LSDV, whereas the Gorgan GTP vaccine protected all the vaccinated calves from clinical signs of LSD. There was no significant difference in protective efficacy detected between two dosage levels (P=0.2, P=0.25, and P=0.1 for KSGP, Neethling and Gorgan vaccines, respectively). Additionally, the Gorgan GTP vaccinated cattle showed stronger levels of cellular immune responses measured using Delayed-Type Hypersensitivity (DTH) reactions at the vaccination site indicating higher levels of immunogenicity produced by the GTPV vaccine in cattle, as opposed to the other two vaccines. This study indicated, for the first time, that the Gorgan GTP vaccine can effectively protect cattle against LSDV and that the Neethling and KSGP O-180 vaccine were not protective. The results emphasise the need for molecular characterization of the Neethling and KSGP O-180 vaccine seed viruses used for vaccine production in Ethiopia. In addition, the potency and efficacy testing process of the Ethiopian LSD Neethling and KSGP O-180 vaccines should be re-evaluated.

  11. Quick assessment of the influence of the Hepatitis B vaccine event on children's vaccination.

    PubMed

    Yue, Chenyan; Sun, Xiaojin; Wei, Ning; Yu, Wenzhou; Cui, Fuqiang; Wang, Huaqing; Li, Li; Zhang, Lijie; Shi, Guoqing; An, Zhijie

    2016-10-02

    From December 2013 to January 2014, a large number of medias in China reported negative information about Hepatitis B vaccine (HepB) safety issues using eye-catching titles, such as "3 infants in Hunan inoculated with HepB occurred adverse event, and 2 died," and that caused crisis of confidence in vaccination, which we called "HepB event." The progress of "HepB event" could be divided into 3 stages which were initiation, peak and ending stages. In order to evaluate the influence of "HepB event" on the attitudes of participants toward Hepatitis B vaccine safety and their intention of vaccinating their children in different stages, and provide evidence for authority departments as soon as possible to take measures to prevent decrease of HepB coverage rate, a quick field investigation was carried out. Using convenience sampling methods during the initiation, peak and ending stages of the "HepB event." In the 3 stages of the "HepB event," the awareness rate of the event among participants was rapidly rising, showing that the participants paid great attention to the event, and the information was spread very quickly. The proportion of participants who knew the event but thought that the Hepatitis B vaccine was unsafe were 31%, 37% and 26% respectively in 3 stages. In addition, the acceptance of vaccination by the participants was influenced, the proportion of participants who would like to delay or reject vaccinating their children was up to 43% in the peak stage of the event. The "HepB event" had impacted on the participants' confidence in the safety of Hepatitis B vaccine. For such event, relevant authority departments need effectively communicate with the media and the public, and promptly issue positive information and the investigation result, thereby reducing the negative impact of the event, and improve the vaccine confidence among the public.

  12. Optimal Dosing and Dynamic Distribution of Vaccines in an Influenza Pandemic

    PubMed Central

    McCaw, James; Becker, Niels; Nolan, Terry; MacIntyre, C. Raina

    2009-01-01

    Limited production capacity and delays inherent in vaccine development are major hurdles to the widespread use of vaccines to mitigate the effects of a new influenza pandemic. Antigen-sparing vaccines have the most potential to increase population coverage but may be less efficacious. The authors explored this trade-off by applying simple models of influenza transmission and dose response to recent clinical trial data. In this paper, these data are used to illustrate an approach to comparing vaccines on the basis of antigen supply and inferred efficacy. The effects of delays in matched vaccine availability and seroconversion on epidemic size during pandemic phase 6 were also studied. The authors infer from trial data that population benefits stem from the use of low-antigen vaccines. Delayed availability of a matched vaccine could be partially alleviated by using a 1-dose vaccination program with increased coverage and reduced time to full protection. Although less immunogenic, an overall attack rate of up to 6% lower than a 2-dose program could be achieved. However, if prevalence at vaccination is above 1%, effectiveness is much reduced, emphasizing the need for other control measures. PMID:19395691

  13. Robust Vaccine Responses in Adult and Pediatric Cord Blood Transplantation Recipients Treated for Hematologic Malignancies.

    PubMed

    Shah, Gunjan L; Shune, Leyla; Purtill, Duncan; Devlin, Sean; Lauer, Emily; Lubin, Marissa; Bhatt, Valkal; McElrath, Courtney; Kernan, Nancy A; Scaradavou, Andromachi; Giralt, Sergio; Perales, Miguel A; Ponce, Doris M; Young, James W; Shah, Monica; Papanicolaou, Genovefa; Barker, Juliet N

    2015-12-01

    Because cord blood (CB) lacks memory T and B cells and recent decreases in herd immunity to vaccine-preventable diseases in many developed countries have been documented, vaccine responses in CB transplantation (CBT) survivors are of great interest. We analyzed vaccine responses in double-unit CBT recipients transplanted for hematologic malignancies. In 103 vaccine-eligible patients, graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) most commonly precluded vaccination. Sixty-five patients (63%; engrafting units median HLA-allele match 5/8; range, 2 to 7/8) received protein conjugated vaccines, and 63 patients (median age, 34 years; range, .9 to 64) were evaluated for responses. Median vaccination time was 17 months (range, 7 to 45) post-CBT. GVHD (n = 42) and prior rituximab (n = 13) delayed vaccination. Responses to Prevnar 7 and/or 13 vaccines (serotypes 14, 19F, 23F) were seen in children and adults (60% versus 49%, P = .555). Responses to tetanus, diphtheria, pertussis, Haemophilus influenzae, and polio were observed in children (86% to 100%) and adults (53% to 89%) even if patients had prior GVHD or rituximab. CD4(+)CD45RA(+) and CD19(+) cell recovery significantly influenced tetanus and polio responses. In a smaller cohort responses were seen to measles (65%), mumps (50%), and rubella (100%) vaccines. No vaccine side effects were identified, and all vaccinated patients survived (median follow-up, 57 months). Although GVHD and rituximab can delay vaccination, CBT recipients (including adults and those with prior GVHD) have similar vaccine response rates to adult donor allograft recipients supporting vaccination in CBT recipients.

  14. Robust Vaccine Responses in Adult and Pediatric Cord Blood Transplantation Recipients Treated for Hematologic Malignancies

    PubMed Central

    Shah, Gunjan L.; Shune, Leyla; Purtill, Duncan; Devlin, Sean; Lauer, Emily; Lubin, Marissa; Bhatt, Valkal; McElrath, Courtney; Kernan, Nancy A.; Scaradavou, Andromachi; Giralt, Sergio; Perales, Miguel A.; Ponce, Doris M.; Young, James W.; Shah, Monica; Papanicolaou, Genovefa; Barker, Juliet N.

    2015-01-01

    As cord blood (CB) lacks memory T- and B-cells, and recent decreases in herd immunity to vaccine preventable diseases in many developed countries have been documented, vaccine responses in CB transplantation (CBT) survivors are of great interest. We analyzed vaccine responses in double-unit CBT recipients transplanted for hematologic malignancies. In 103 vaccine eligible patients, graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) most commonly precluded vaccination. Sixty-five (63%) patients (engrafting units median HLA-allele match 5/8, range 2–7/8) received protein-conjugated vaccines, and 63 (median age 34 years, range 0.9–64) were evaluated for responses. Median vaccination time was 17 months (range 7–45) post-CBT. GVHD (n = 42) and prior rituximab (n = 13) delayed vaccination. Responses to Prevnar 7 and/or 13 vaccines (serotypes 14, 19f, 23f) were seen in children and adults (60% versus 49%, p = 0.555). Responses to tetanus, diphtheria, pertussis, H. influenzae, and polio were observed in children (86–100%) and adults (53–89%) even if patients had prior GVHD or rituximab. CD4+CD45RA+ and CD19+ cell recovery significantly influenced tetanus and polio responses. In a smaller cohort, responses were seen to measles (65%), mumps (50%), and rubella (100%) vaccines. No vaccine side-effects were identified and all vaccinated patients survive (median follow-up 57 months). While GVHD and rituximab can delay vaccination, CBT recipients (including adults and those with prior GVHD) have similar vaccine response rates to adult donor allograft recipients supporting vaccination in CBT recipients. PMID:26271191

  15. Using simulation to aid trial design: Ring-vaccination trials

    PubMed Central

    Hitchings, Matt David Thomas; Grais, Rebecca Freeman

    2017-01-01

    Background The 2014–6 West African Ebola epidemic highlights the need for rigorous, rapid clinical trial methods for vaccines. A challenge for trial design is making sample size calculations based on incidence within the trial, total vaccine effect, and intracluster correlation, when these parameters are uncertain in the presence of indirect effects of vaccination. Methods and findings We present a stochastic, compartmental model for a ring vaccination trial. After identification of an index case, a ring of contacts is recruited and either vaccinated immediately or after 21 days. The primary outcome of the trial is total vaccine effect, counting cases only from a pre-specified window in which the immediate arm is assumed to be fully protected and the delayed arm is not protected. Simulation results are used to calculate necessary sample size and estimated vaccine effect. Under baseline assumptions about vaccine properties, monthly incidence in unvaccinated rings and trial design, a standard sample-size calculation neglecting dynamic effects estimated that 7,100 participants would be needed to achieve 80% power to detect a difference in attack rate between arms, while incorporating dynamic considerations in the model increased the estimate to 8,900. This approach replaces assumptions about parameters at the ring level with assumptions about disease dynamics and vaccine characteristics at the individual level, so within this framework we were able to describe the sensitivity of the trial power and estimated effect to various parameters. We found that both of these quantities are sensitive to properties of the vaccine, to setting-specific parameters over which investigators have little control, and to parameters that are determined by the study design. Conclusions Incorporating simulation into the trial design process can improve robustness of sample size calculations. For this specific trial design, vaccine effectiveness depends on properties of the ring

  16. Vaccination Timeliness in Children Under India's Universal Immunization Program.

    PubMed

    Shrivastwa, Nijika; Gillespie, Brenda W; Lepkowski, James M; Boulton, Matthew L

    2016-09-01

    India has the highest number of deaths among children younger than 5 years of age globally; the majority are from vaccine preventable diseases. Untimely vaccination unnecessarily prolongs susceptibility to disease and contributes to the burden of childhood morbidity and mortality, yet there is scarce literature on vaccination delays. The aim of this study is to characterize the timeliness of childhood vaccinations administered under India's routine immunization program using a novel application of an existing statistical methodology. This study utilized the district level household and facility survey data, 2008 from India using vaccination data from children with and without immunization cards. Turnbull estimator of the cumulative distribution function was used to estimate the probability of vaccination at each age. Timeliness of Bacille Calmette-Guerin (BCG), all 3 doses of diphtheria, pertussis and tetanus vaccine (DPT) and measles-containing vaccine (MCV) were considered for this analysis. Vaccination data on 268,553 children who were 0-60 months of age were analyzed; timely administration of BCG, DPT3 and MCV occurred in 31%, 19% and 34% of children, respectively. The estimated vaccination probability plateaued for DPT and BCG around the age of 24 months, whereas MCV uptake increased another 5% after 24 months of age. The 5-year coverage of BCG, DPT3 and MCV in Indian children was 87%, 63% and 76%, respectively. Lack of timely administration of key childhood vaccines, especially DPT3 and MCV, remains a major challenge in India and likely contributes to the significant burden of vaccine preventable disease-related morbidity and mortality in children.

  17. Influenza and pertussis vaccination coverage in pregnant women.

    PubMed

    Laenen, Jolien; Roelants, Mathieu; Devlieger, Roland; Vandermeulen, Corinne

    2015-04-27

    Pregnant women have an increased risk for complications and hospitalizations when infected with the influenza virus in the second or third trimester. Additionally, infants under six months of age are most vulnerable when contracting pertussis. Immunization against influenza and pertussis during pregnancy provides protection for mother and neonate against influenza and for neonates against pertussis pending protection through infant immunization. In Belgium, a gradual increase in pertussis cases over the past decade was observed. This study was undertaken to document vaccination coverage for influenza and pertussis and factors related to vaccination status in pregnant women. Two hundred and fifty pregnant women completed a questionnaire during their third trimester. Vaccination data were collected and reasons for non-vaccination were noted as well as socio-demographic data which are known to influence vaccination coverage. A documented vaccination coverage of 42.8% for influenza and 39.2% for pertussis was observed. Taking into account doses which were not documented, but administered according to the expectant mother, coverage for influenza would increase to 62% and for pertussis to 46%. The most important reasons for non-vaccination were the absence of a recommendation by medical staff (9.6%) and delay in vaccination (8.4%). The GP was the most important vaccinator. Pregnant women with a lower education and those with a foreign origin were more vulnerable for non-vaccination. Incomplete documentation is the most important barrier in determining the vaccination status of pregnant women. Immunization during pregnancy needs further integration through vaccination campaigns aimed at both health care providers and pregnant women. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Human papillomavirus vaccines and vaccine implementation.

    PubMed

    de Sanjosé, Silvia; Alemany, Laia; Castellsagué, Xavier; Bosch, F Xavier

    2008-11-01

    Countries are now challenged by the rapid development of vaccines aimed at the primary prevention of infections. In the years to come, several vaccines will need to be considered as potential candidates in routine immunization programs. Recently, two new vaccines against two/four types of human papillomavirus (HPV) have been commercialized. Bivalent HPV 16 and 18 (Cervarix) and quadrivalent HPV 6, 11, 16 and 18 (Gardasil) vaccines are now extensively used in some countries. These vaccines will prevent infection and long-running complications, such as cervical cancer, other HPV-related cancers and genital warts (for the quadrivalent vaccine). The beneficial effect of these vaccines will be largely observed in women. This article summarizes the burden of HPV preventable disease worldwide and briefly describes the impact of secondary prevention and the most relevant aspects of the current available vaccines, their efficacy and safety. Finally, some major aspects that are likely to impact the introduction of these vaccines around the world are outlined, with particular emphasis on developing countries.

  19. Very small size proteoliposomes (VSSP) and Montanide combination enhance the humoral immuno response in a GnRH based vaccine directed to prostate cancer.

    PubMed

    Aguilar, Franklin Fuentes; Barranco, Jesús Junco; Fuentes, Eddy Bover; Aguilera, Lesvia Calzada; Sáez, Yovisleydis Lopez; Santana, María Dolores Castro; Vázquez, Eulogio Pimentel; Baker, Roberto Basulto; Acosta, Osvaldo Reyes; Pérez, Hilda Garay; Nieto, Gerardo Guillén

    2012-10-12

    Very small size proteoliposomes (VSSP) constitute a complex of very small size proteoliposomes that includes proteins, lipids, CpG and gangliosides tumor-associated that provides a potential target for cancer immunotherapy. This compound has been described to stimulate the humoral and cellular response, dendritic cells (DC) activation and differentiation of T-helper cells, specially, in immunocompromised patients with cancer status. This work deals with the stimulating capacity of the VSSP to reach a humoral response when they are used as a component in a peptidic vaccine based on the gonadotrophin releasing hormone (GnRH). This study was carried out in male Copenhagen rats, which were immunized with 750μg of the GnRH mimetic peptide (GnRHm1-TT) with or without the VSSP. The mixtures were always emulsified with the oil adjuvant Montanide ISA 51. The anti GnRH seroconversion analysis revealed that the group immunized with the peptide GnRHm1-TT/VSSP developed a strong anti GnRH seroconversion. These antibody levels proved to be significant superior to those reached by the use of the GnRHm1-TT peptide solely emulsified in Montanide. Post-mortem analysis on the Testosterone ablation target organs (prostate and testicles) yielded a sudden decrease in their size and weight in respect to the control group. On the other hand, the group submitted to the use of GnRHm1-TT/VSSP, showed a significant difference in the reduction of these target organs in comparison with the group only immunized with GnRHm1-TT adjuvated in Montanide ISA 51. These values turned to be of p=0.023 and p=0.009 in the prostate and testicles respectively. These findings foreground the VSSP as a useful immunopotentiator to be used as part of a GnRH based vaccine to treat prostate cancer.

  20. Universal fungal vaccines

    PubMed Central

    Hamad, Mawieh

    2012-01-01

    The complex nature of fungal pathogens, the intricate host-pathogen relationship and the health status of subjects in need of antifungal vaccination continue to hamper efforts to develop fungal vaccines for clinical use. That said, the rise of the universal vaccine concept is hoped to revive fungal vaccine research by expanding the pool of vaccine candidates worthy of clinical evaluation. It can do so through antigenic commonality-based screening for vaccine candidates from a wide range of pathogens and by reassessing the sizable collection of already available experimental and approved vaccines. Development of experimental vaccines protective against multiple fungal pathogens is evidence of the utility of this concept in fungal vaccine research. However, universal fungal vaccines are not without difficulties; for instance, development of vaccines with differential effectiveness is an issue that should be addressed. Additionally, rationalizing the development of universal fungal vaccines on health or economic basis could be contentious. Herein, universal fungal vaccines are discussed in terms of their potential usefulness and possible drawbacks. PMID:22922769

  1. Allergic reactions to vaccines.

    PubMed

    Wood, Robert A

    2013-09-01

    Anaphylactic reactions to vaccines are rare but do occur, and have been reported for nearly every vaccine. And while the reaction rate per each dose of vaccine is low, this is a common clinical question due in large part to the enormous numbers of vaccines administered. Reactions are most often due to vaccine constituents rather than the microbial components of the vaccine, but in many instances, the specific ingredient triggering the reaction cannot be definitively identified. Evaluation of patients with suspected vaccine reactions should begin by determining whether the symptoms and timing of the reaction were consistent with a true allergic reaction, followed by an assessment to determine whether the patient needs further doses of the vaccine in question, or similar vaccines, in the future. Skin and serologic testing to vaccines and vaccine constituents can then be performed to further assess the potential cause of the reaction and to develop a plan for future immunizations. Specific guidelines for the administration of influenza vaccines to egg allergic patients have been revised to allow virtually all patients to receive this vaccine in a straightforward manner. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  2. Speech and Language Delay

    MedlinePlus

    ... adults)Being a twinAutism (a developmental disorder)Elective mutism (the child just doesn’t want to talk) ... palsy, developmental disability, Early Language Milestone Scale, elective mutism, expressive language disorder, hearing loss, language delay, psychosocial ...

  3. Choice and reinforcement delay

    SciTech Connect

    Gentry, G.D.; Marr, M.J.

    1980-01-01

    Previous studies of choice between two delayed reinforcers have indicated that the relative immediacy of the reinforcer is a major determinant of the relative frequency of responding. Parallel studies of choice between two interresponse times have found exceptions to this generality. The present study looked at the choice by pigeons between two delays, one of which was always four times longer than the other, but whose absolute durations were varied across conditions. The results indicated that choice is not uniquely determined by the relative immediacy of reinforcement, but that absolute delays are also involved. Models for concurrent chained schedules appear to be more applicable to the present data than the matching relation; however, these too failed to predict choice for long delays.

  4. Delayed puberty in boys

    MedlinePlus

    ... Endocrinology: Adult and Pediatric. 7th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Saunders; 2016:chap 139. Curry SA, Biancuzzo RM. ... FF, ed. Ferri's Clinical Advisor 2017 . Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier; 2017:348-350. Haddad NG, Eugster EA. Delayed ...

  5. Timeliness and completeness of routine childhood vaccinations in children by two years of age in Alberta, Canada.

    PubMed

    Saini, Vineet; MacDonald, Shannon E; McNeil, Deborah A; McDonald, Sheila W; Kellner, James D; Edwards, Sarah A; Stagg, Victoria; Tough, Suzanne

    2017-06-16

    Assessing timeliness and completeness of vaccine administration is important for evaluating the effectiveness of immunization programs. Few studies have reported timeliness, particularly in Canada. The objective of this study was to examine timeliness of the receipt of vaccination for each routine childhood recommended vaccine by 24 months of age among children in a community-based pregnancy cohort in Calgary, Alberta. Survey data from a community-based pregnancy cohort in Alberta were linked to Public Health vaccination records of children (n = 2763). The proportion of children receiving early, timely, delayed, or no vaccination was calculated. A dose was considered early if it was administered before the recommended age in days as per the vaccination schedule, timely if administered at any time from start of recommended age in days to age in days when delay counts were initiated, and delayed if it was administered on or after age in days when delay counts were initiated. Series completion rates were also calculated. For multi-dose vaccines, over 80% of children had timely doses at 2, 4 and 6 months. By 12 months, this proportion decreased to 65% (95% CI: 63%-66%) for meningococcal conjugate group C, 61% (95% CI: 59%-62%) for measles antigen-containing vaccines and 64% (95% CI: 62%-65%) for varicella antigen-containing vaccines. At 18 months, only 55% (95% CI: 53%-56%) of the children had a timely 4th dose of diphtheria, acellular pertussis, tetanus, polio, and Haemophilus influenzae type b vaccine. Eventual series completion rate for all recommended vaccines was 77% (95% CI: 75%-79%). The timeliness and completeness of routine childhood vaccination in preschool children in this community-based pregnancy cohort is lower than provincial targets. Data on timeliness of vaccination can inform further work on barriers and enablers to vaccination in order to meet provincial targets.

  6. Time delay spectrum conditioner

    DOEpatents

    Greiner, Norman R.

    1980-01-01

    A device for delaying specified frequencies of a multiple frequency laser beam. The device separates the multiple frequency beam into a series of spatially separated single frequency beams. The propagation distance of the single frequency beam is subsequently altered to provide the desired delay for each specific frequency. Focusing reflectors can be utilized to provide a simple but nonadjustable system or, flat reflectors with collimating and focusing optics can be utilized to provide an adjustable system.

  7. Vaccine Safety Datalink

    Cancer.gov

    The Vaccine Safety Datalink is part of the National Immunization Program within the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention and was started in recognition of gaps in the scientific knowledge of rare vaccine side effects.

  8. Clinical vaccine development

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Vaccination is regarded as one of the biggest triumphs in the history of medicine. We are living in the most successful period of vaccine development. The accumulation of multidisciplinary knowledge and the investment of massive funding have enabled the development of vaccines against many infectious diseases as well as other diseases including malignant tumors. The paradigm of clinical vaccine evaluation and licensure has also been modernized based on scientific improvements and historical experience. However, there remain a number of hurdles to overcome. Continuous efforts are focused on increasing the efficacy and reducing the risks related to vaccine use. Cutting-edge knowledge about immunology and microbiology is being rapidly translated to vaccine development. Thus, physicians and others involved in the clinical development of vaccines should have sufficient understanding of the recent developmental trends in vaccination and the diseases of interest. PMID:25648742

  9. Vaccines in Multiple Sclerosis.

    PubMed

    Williamson, Eric M L; Chahin, Salim; Berger, Joseph R

    2016-04-01

    Vaccinations help prevent communicable disease. To be valuable, a vaccine's ability to prevent disease must exceed the risk of adverse effects from administration. Many vaccines present no risk of infection as they are comprised of killed or non-infectious components while other vaccines consist of live attenuated microorganisms which carry a potential risk of infection-particularly, in patients with compromised immunity. There are several unique considerations with respect to vaccination in the multiple sclerosis (MS) population. First, there has been concern that vaccination may trigger or aggravate the disease. Second, disease-modifying therapies (DMTs) employed in the treatment of MS may increase the risk of infectious complications from vaccines or alter their efficacy. Lastly, in some cases, vaccination strategies may be part of the treatment paradigm in attempts to avoid complications of therapy.

  10. The HPV Vaccination Crisis

    Cancer.gov

    Following the release of a consensus statement from the NCI-Designated Cancer Centers urging HPV vaccination in the United States, Dr. Noel Brewer discusses the country’s low vaccination rates and how clinicians can help to improve them.

  11. Pneumococcal Vaccines (PCV, PPSV)

    MedlinePlus

    ... to 2-Year-Old Your Child's Immunizations: Pneumococcal Vaccines (PCV, PPSV) KidsHealth > For Parents > Your Child's Immunizations: ... or HIV infection); or cochlear implants. Why the Vaccines Are Recommended Children younger than 2 years old, ...

  12. Screening Tests and Vaccines

    MedlinePlus

    ... Contact Us Text size | Print | Screening Tests and Vaccines This information in Spanish ( en español ) Getting important screening tests and vaccines can save your life. Check this section of ...

  13. Adjuvants for malaria vaccines.

    PubMed

    Coler, R N; Carter, D; Friede, M; Reed, S G

    2009-09-01

    There is a renewed enthusiasm about subunit vaccines for malaria coincident with the formation of new alliances and partnerships raising international public awareness, attracting increased resources and the re-focusing of research programs on adjuvant development for infectious disease vaccines. It is generally accepted that subunit vaccines for malaria will require adjuvants to induce protective immune responses, and availability of suitable adjuvants has in the past been a barrier to the development of malaria vaccines. Several novel adjuvants are now in licensed products or in late stage clinical development, while several others are in the earlier development pipeline. Successful vaccine development requires knowing which adjuvants to use and knowing how to formulate adjuvants and antigens to achieve stable, safe, and immunogenic vaccines. For the majority of vaccine researchers this information is not readily available, nor is access to well-characterized adjuvants. In this minireview, we outline the current state of adjuvant research and development as it pertains to effective malaria vaccines.

  14. Vaccination Records for Kids

    MedlinePlus

    ... visit this page: About CDC.gov . Redirect CDC - Vaccination Records for Kids Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share ... HPV (Human Papillomavirus) Meningococcal Tdap Records and Requirements Immunization Coverage in the US Travel and Vaccines Resources ...

  15. Ethics of vaccination programs.

    PubMed

    Schwartz, Jason L; Caplan, Arthur L

    2011-10-01

    Ethical issues are present at each stage in the vaccine product life cycle, the period extending from the earliest stages of research through the eventual design and implementation of global vaccination programs. Recent developments highlight fundamental principles of vaccine ethics and raise unique issues for ongoing vaccination activities worldwide. These include the 2009-10 H1N1 pandemic influenza vaccination campaign, renewed attention to the potential global eradication of polio, and the ongoing evaluation of vaccine risk controversies, most notably the alleged link between childhood vaccines and autism. These cases present ethical challenges for public health policy-makers, scientists, physicians, and other stakeholders in their efforts to improve the health of individuals, communities, and nations through vaccination. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. China's emerging vaccine industry.

    PubMed

    Hendriks, Jan; Liang, Yan; Zeng, Bing

    2010-07-01

    The Chinese vaccine industry is developing rapidly due to an emerging and large market for current and new vaccines, a large potential for local vaccine manufacturing both in the public and private domain, and a governmental orientation towards national vaccine self-sufficiency. There are currently over 40 companies and institutions manufacturing a large variety of traditional (EPI) and some new vaccines. The innovative development capacity of state vaccine institutions is stimulated by significant government investments. Various Chinese influenza manufacturers were in 2009 among the first worldwide to obtain national license for their pandemic H1N1 flu vaccines. It is of interest to note that private but also governmental entities are committed to raise manufacturing quality standards to reach WHO prequalification. It is expected that WHO prequalification for at least one product from a Chinese manufacturer will have been obtained by 2011. This will open the door to the global market for Chinese vaccines.

  17. National Vaccine Program Office

    MedlinePlus

    ... Track Your Community Vaccine Safety Scientific Agenda Newsletter Sign Up Subscribe to newsletter updates for the latest information ... National Vaccine Program Office. Email Connect With NVPO Sign Up for NVPO Updates To sign up for updates ...

  18. Live Virus Smallpox Vaccine

    MedlinePlus

    ... Submit What's this? Submit Button The Live Virus Smallpox Vaccine Language: English Español (Spanish) Recommend on Facebook ... the vaccinia virus. Who should NOT get the smallpox vaccine? People most likely to have side effects ...

  19. Japanese Encephalitis Vaccine

    MedlinePlus

    ... disability. It is believed that infection in a pregnant woman could harm her unborn baby. JE vaccine can ... your doctor if you have any severe allergies. Pregnant women should usually not get JE vaccine. If you ...

  20. Vaccines against malaria.

    PubMed

    Ouattara, Amed; Laurens, Matthew B

    2015-03-15

    Despite global efforts to control malaria, the illness remains a significant public health threat. Currently, there is no licensed vaccine against malaria, but an efficacious vaccine would represent an important public health tool for successful malaria elimination. Malaria vaccine development continues to be hindered by a poor understanding of antimalarial immunity, a lack of an immune correlate of protection, and the genetic diversity of malaria parasites. Current vaccine development efforts largely target Plasmodium falciparum parasites in the pre-erythrocytic and erythrocytic stages, with some research on transmission-blocking vaccines against asexual stages and vaccines against pregnancy-associated malaria. The leading pre-erythrocytic vaccine candidate is RTS,S, and early results of ongoing Phase 3 testing show overall efficacy of 46% against clinical malaria. The next steps for malaria vaccine development will focus on the design of a product that is efficacious against the highly diverse strains of malaria and the identification of a correlate of protection against disease.

  1. Mathematical models of vaccination.

    PubMed

    Scherer, Almut; McLean, Angela

    2002-01-01

    Mathematical models of epidemics have a long history of contributing to the understanding of the impact of vaccination programmes. Simple, one-line models can predict target vaccination coverage that will eradicate an infectious agent, whilst other questions require complex simulations of stochastic processes in space and time. This review introduces some simple ordinary differential equation models of mass vaccination that can be used to address important questions about the predicted impact of vaccination programmes. We show how to calculate the threshold vaccination coverage rate that will eradicate an infection, explore the impact of vaccine-induced immunity that wanes through time, and study the competitive interactions between vaccine susceptible and vaccine resistant strains of infectious agent.

  2. Ear Infection and Vaccines

    MedlinePlus

    ... ENTCareers Marketplace Find an ENT Doctor Near You Ear Infection and Vaccines Ear Infection and Vaccines Patient Health Information News media ... who suffer from the most common type of ear infection, called middle ear infection or otitis media ( ...

  3. Comparing human papillomavirus vaccine knowledge and intentions among parents of boys and girls

    PubMed Central

    Lindley, Megan C.; Jeyarajah, Jenny; Yankey, David; Curtis, C. Robinette; Markowitz, Lauri E.; Stokley, Shannon

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Background/Objective: Human papillomavirus (HPV) is the most common sexually transmitted infection in the United States. Previous research suggests some differences between male and female adolescents in correlates of vaccine receipt and reasons for non-vaccination; few studies examine both sexes together. This analysis assessed knowledge and attitudes related to HPV disease and vaccination, intention to vaccinate, and reasons for delayed vaccination or non-vaccination among parents of boys and girls 13–17 y old in 50 states, the District of Columbia, and selected local areas. Methods: National Immunization Survey-Teen 2013 data were analyzed and gender differences examined. Results: In this sample, adolescent boys were more likely than girls to be unvaccinated and less likely to have completed the HPV vaccination series (p < 0.005 for both). Parents of girls were more likely than parents of boys to report a provider recommendation for HPV vaccination (65.0% vs. 42.1%). Only 29% of girls' parents reported a provider recommendation to begin vaccination by 11–12 y old. Among unvaccinated teens, parental intention to vaccinate in the next 12 months did not differ by sex, but reasons for vaccination or non-vaccination did. Many parents do not know the recommended number of HPV doses. Conclusions: Gender differences in provider vaccination recommendations and reasons for vaccination might partially explain differential HPV uptake by male and female adolescents. Clinicians should offer strong recommendations for HPV vaccination at 11–12 y old for both girls and boys. To reduce missed opportunities, HPV vaccination should be presented in the context of, and given concurrently with, other routinely administered vaccines. PMID:27003108

  4. New approaches to the assessment of vaccine herd protection in clinical trials.

    PubMed

    Clemens, John; Shin, Sunheang; Ali, Mohammad

    2011-06-01

    Criteria for the introduction of new vaccines into routine public health practice are becoming increasingly stringent. For vaccines that are expensive and those that provide moderate protection, the ability to confer herd protection could be crucial to policy deliberations about vaccine introduction. Traditionally, herd protection has been assessed after a vaccine is introduced, delaying the availability of data on herd effects to inform decisions about vaccine introduction. New methodological developments now provide the possibility to assess herd protection before the introduction of a vaccine into public health programmes. One approach is a cluster-randomised trial, which allows assessment of herd protection in a way that minimises biases. Analysis of individually randomised trials by appropriately selected clusters created post hoc can also provide measurements of herd protection. Here we discuss the use of these designs, which can generate an improved evidence base at an early stage for making decisions about the introduction of new vaccines.

  5. Ongoing pharmacovigilance on vaccines.

    PubMed

    Santuccio, Carmela; Trotta, Francesco; Felicetti, Patrizia

    2015-02-01

    Vaccines have peculiar characteristics as well as their surveillance. Specific requirements, needs and challenges for the vaccine vigilance are discussed in the perspective to improve the whole system in order to guarantee a safer vaccine use and the keeping of the public confidence in vaccinations. Key elements for the routine safety monitoring, new regulations and some available tools are taken into account. Finally, the Italian experience is shortly described.

  6. Lipospheres as a Vaccine Carrier System: Effects of Size, Charge, and Phospholipid Composition

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1992-01-01

    triglycerides and lecithin ). The surflace activity of’ lipospheres is provided by thle phospholipid component embedded in the particle surface. 390) LIP...131.19;- 21t9 7. Hilleman M: Critical appraisal of emulsified oil adjuvant,, applied to viral vaccinces. Prtigr. -Mcd N tilol I 964 I ; 182. 8. Beebe GW

  7. Evaluation of Montanide ISA 71 VG adjuvant during profilin vaccination against experimental coccidiosis

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Chickens were immunized subcutaneously with an Eimeria recombinant profilin protein plus ISA 70 VG (ISA 70) or ISA 71 VG (ISA 71) water-in-oil adjuvants, or with profilin alone, and comparative RNA microarray hybridizations were performed to ascertain global transcriptome changes induced by profilin...

  8. A Dengue Vaccine.

    PubMed

    Durbin, Anna P

    2016-06-30

    Denvaxia is the first licensed vaccine for the prevention of dengue. It is a live vaccine developed using recombinant DNA technology. The vaccine is given as three doses over the course of a year and has the potential to prevent hundreds of thousands of hospitalizations each year.

  9. Pharmacy management of vaccines.

    PubMed

    Cannon, H Eric

    2007-09-01

    Although standard vaccines have traditionally been granted full coverage in managed care, the recent introduction of several novel vaccine products has necessitated the revision of pharmacy management strategies throughout the nation. To review pharmacy management strategies for a number of emerging vaccines, with unique plan perspectives from SelectHealth, an Intermountain Healthcare company serving approximately 500,000 members in Utah. Because several recently introduced vaccines target previously unaddressed diseases and carry higher costs than traditional vaccines, several plans have adapted a novel approach to manage vaccine coverage on an individual product basis. At SelectHealth, recently introduced vaccines for rotavirus, respiratory syncytial virus (RSV), herpes zoster, and human papillomavirus (HPV) have required special attention in terms of pharmacy management. After carefully weighing acquisition and administration costs, anticipated uptake and use, direct and indirect health care costs averted, and quality of life issues, plan leadership decided to cover many of the new vaccines (i.e., rotavirus, RSV, and herpes zoster) under a nonstandard vaccination benefit. However, because substantial cost savings and high use of the quadrivalent HPV vaccine was anticipated within SelectHealth, the plan decided to fully cover the product. Although they complicate traditional pharmacy management, novel vaccines provide clinical benefit that managed care organizations cannot ignore. One universal strategy will not suffice in managing all the different vaccines entering the market, and a tailored approach should be employed based on the individual characteristics and use of each product.

  10. Polysaccharide-Based Vaccines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Santana, Violeta Fernández; Balbin, Yury Valdés; Calderón, Janoi Chang; Icart, Luis Peña; Verez-Bencomo, Vicente

    Capsular polysaccharides (CPS) and lipopolysaccharides from bacteria are employed for the production of vaccines against human diseases. Initial development of CPS as a vaccine was followed by the development and introduction of conjugate polysaccharide-protein vaccines. The principles leading to both developments are reviewed.

  11. Parasite Carbohydrate Vaccines

    PubMed Central

    Jaurigue, Jonnel A.; Seeberger, Peter H.

    2017-01-01

    Vaccination is an efficient means of combating infectious disease burden globally. However, routine vaccines for the world's major human parasitic diseases do not yet exist. Vaccines based on carbohydrate antigens are a viable option for parasite vaccine development, given the proven success of carbohydrate vaccines to combat bacterial infections. We will review the key components of carbohydrate vaccines that have remained largely consistent since their inception, and the success of bacterial carbohydrate vaccines. We will then explore the latest developments for both traditional and non-traditional carbohydrate vaccine approaches for three of the world's major protozoan parasitic diseases—malaria, toxoplasmosis, and leishmaniasis. The traditional prophylactic carbohydrate vaccine strategy is being explored for malaria. However, given that parasite disease biology is complex and often arises from host immune responses to parasite antigens, carbohydrate vaccines against deleterious immune responses in host-parasite interactions are also being explored. In particular, the highly abundant glycosylphosphatidylinositol molecules specific for Plasmodium, Toxoplasma, and Leishmania spp. are considered exploitable antigens for this non-traditional vaccine approach. Discussion will revolve around the application of these protozoan carbohydrate antigens for vaccines currently in preclinical development. PMID:28660174

  12. [Improving vaccination measures].

    PubMed

    Iannazzo, S

    2014-01-01

    Despite the benefits of routine vaccination of newborns are known and widely documented, in recent years we are observing a gradual increase in the number of parents who express doubts and concerns about the safety of vaccines and the real need to submit their children to vaccinations included in the national recommendations. This attitude is reinforced by the current epidemiological profile, in Western countries, of many vaccine preventable diseases, accompanied by a low risk perception among parents. Institutions and all the actors involved in vaccination programs have a duty to investigate the reasons for the loss of confidence in vaccination among the population in order to identify and implement appropriate and effective interventions. The improvement of vaccination should, theoretically, goes on a double track, placing side by side the provision of effective vaccines, safe and necessary, and interventions designed to increase demand for vaccination among the population, improve access to vaccination services, improve the system as a whole. But to actually improve the vaccinations' offer it is necessary also to provide interventions aimed at regaining the confidence of the population in relation to vaccination and the institutions that promote them. Particular attention should be given to the aspects of communication and risk communication.

  13. Hepatitis A Vaccine

    MedlinePlus

    Twinrix® (as a combination product containing Hepatitis A Vaccine, Hepatitis B Vaccine) ... Why get vaccinated against hepatitis A?Hepatitis A is a serious liver disease. It is caused by the hepatitis A virus (HAV). HAV is spread from ...

  14. Vaccine against herpes zoster.

    PubMed

    Pasternak, Jacyr

    2013-01-01

    The herpes zoster vaccine is made using high doses of live attenuated varicella/zoster virus. The vaccine is well tolerated and has few adverse effects: the most common one is pain at the injection site. Complications can occur mainly in persons who had prior zoster keratitis or uveitis. The vaccine can prevent this disease with low mortality but high morbidity.

  15. Vaccines in dermatological diseases.

    PubMed

    Magel, G D; Mendoza, N; Digiorgio, C M; Haitz, K A; Lapolla, W J; Tyring, S K

    2011-06-01

    Vaccines have been a cornerstone in medicine and public health since their inception in the 18th century by Edward Jenner. Today, greater than 20 vaccines are used worldwide for the prevention of both viral and bacterial diseases. This article will review the vaccines used for the following dermatological diseases: smallpox, measles, mumps, rubella, chickenpox, shingles, and human papillomavirus.

  16. Improving newcastle disease vaccination with homologous vaccines

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    All Newcastle disease viruses (NDVs) belong to a single serotype; however, current vaccine strains display important amino acid differences at the F and HN protein compared with virulent outbreak strains (vNDV). Previous studies have shown decreased viral shedding after challenge when vaccines were...

  17. Quantitative assessment of the impact of partially protective anti-schistosomiasis vaccines.

    PubMed

    Alsallaq, Ramzi A; Gurarie, David; Ndeffo Mbah, Martial; Galvani, Alison; King, Charles

    2017-04-01

    Mass drug administration (MDA) of praziquantel has been the intervention of choice against schistosomiasis but with limited success in interrupting the transmission. The development of anti-Schistosoma vaccines is underway. Our objective is to quantify the population-level impact of anti-Schistosoma vaccines when administered alone and in combination with mass drug administration (MDA) and determine factors in vaccine design and public health implementation that optimize vaccination role in schistosomiasis control and elimination. We developed a deterministic compartmental model simulation of schistosomiasis transmission in a high-risk Kenyan community, including stratification by age, parasite burden, and vaccination status. The modeled schistosomiasis vaccines differed in terms of vaccine duration of protection (durability) and three biological efficacies. These are vaccine susceptibility effect (SE) of reducing person's susceptibility to Schistosoma acquisition, vaccine mortality effect (ME) of reducing established worm burden and vaccine fecundity effect (FE) of reducing egg release by mature worms. We quantified the population-level impact of vaccination over two decades under diverse vaccination schemes (childhood vs. mass campaigns), with different age-targeting scenarios, different risk settings, and with combined intervention with MDA. We also assessed the sensitivity of our predictions to uncertainties in model parameters. Over two decades, our base case vaccine with 80% SE, FE, and ME efficacies, 10 years' durability, provided by mass vaccination every 10 years, reduced host prevalence, mean intensity, incidence, and patent snail prevalence to 31%, 20 eggs/10-ml sample/person, 0.87 worm/person-year, and 0.74%, from endemic-state values of 71%, 152, 3.3, and 0.98%, respectively. Lower impact was found when coverage did not encompass all potential contaminators, and childhood-only vaccination schemes showed delayed and lower impact. In lower prevalence

  18. Quantitative assessment of the impact of partially protective anti-schistosomiasis vaccines

    PubMed Central

    Ndeffo Mbah, Martial; Galvani, Alison

    2017-01-01

    Background Mass drug administration (MDA) of praziquantel has been the intervention of choice against schistosomiasis but with limited success in interrupting the transmission. The development of anti-Schistosoma vaccines is underway. Our objective is to quantify the population-level impact of anti-Schistosoma vaccines when administered alone and in combination with mass drug administration (MDA) and determine factors in vaccine design and public health implementation that optimize vaccination role in schistosomiasis control and elimination. Methods and findings We developed a deterministic compartmental model simulation of schistosomiasis transmission in a high-risk Kenyan community, including stratification by age, parasite burden, and vaccination status. The modeled schistosomiasis vaccines differed in terms of vaccine duration of protection (durability) and three biological efficacies. These are vaccine susceptibility effect (SE) of reducing person’s susceptibility to Schistosoma acquisition, vaccine mortality effect (ME) of reducing established worm burden and vaccine fecundity effect (FE) of reducing egg release by mature worms. We quantified the population-level impact of vaccination over two decades under diverse vaccination schemes (childhood vs. mass campaigns), with different age-targeting scenarios, different risk settings, and with combined intervention with MDA. We also assessed the sensitivity of our predictions to uncertainties in model parameters. Over two decades, our base case vaccine with 80% SE, FE, and ME efficacies, 10 years’ durability, provided by mass vaccination every 10 years, reduced host prevalence, mean intensity, incidence, and patent snail prevalence to 31%, 20 eggs/10-ml sample/person, 0.87 worm/person-year, and 0.74%, from endemic-state values of 71%, 152, 3.3, and 0.98%, respectively. Lower impact was found when coverage did not encompass all potential contaminators, and childhood-only vaccination schemes showed delayed and

  19. Information scanning and vaccine safety concerns among African American, Mexican American, and non-Hispanic White women.

    PubMed

    Moran, Meghan Bridgid; Frank, Lauren B; Chatterjee, Joyee S; Murphy, Sheila T; Baezconde-Garbanati, Lourdes

    2016-01-01

    A significant number of parents delay or refuse vaccinating their children. Incidental exposure to vaccine information (i.e., scanned information) may be an important contributor to anti-vaccine sentiment. This study examines the association between scanned information, trust in health information sources and vaccine safety concerns among African American, Mexican American, and non-Hispanic White women. Women (N=761) in Los Angeles County were sampled via random digit dial and surveyed regarding use of and trust in health information resources and vaccine safety concerns. Analyses indicate that the sources of information associated with vaccine safety concerns varied by ethnicity. Each ethnic group exhibited different patterns of association between trust in health information resources and vaccine safety concerns. Information scanning is associated with beliefs about vaccine safety, which may lead parents to refuse or delay vaccinating their children. These relationships vary by ethnicity. These findings help inform practitioners and policy makers about communication factors that influence vaccine safety concerns. Knowing these sources of information will equip practitioners to better identify women who may have been exposed to anti-vaccine messages and counter these beliefs with effective, vaccine-promoting messages via the most relevant information sources. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Information scanning and vaccine safety concerns among African American, Mexican American, and non-Hispanic White women

    PubMed Central

    Moran, Meghan Bridgid; Frank, Lauren B.; Chatterjee, Joyee S.; Murphy, Sheila T.; Baezconde-Garbanati, Lourdes

    2015-01-01

    Objective A significant number of parents delay or refuse vaccinating their children. Incidental exposure to vaccine information (i.e., scanned information) may be an important contributor to anti-vaccine sentiment. This study examines the association between scanned information, trust in health information sources and vaccine safety concerns among African American, Mexican American, and non-Hispanic White women. Methods Women (N=761) in Los Angeles County were sampled via random digit dial and surveyed regarding use of and trust in health information resources and vaccine safety concerns. Results Analyses indicate that the sources of information associated with vaccine safety concerns varied by ethnicity. Each ethnic group exhibited different patterns of association between trust in health information resources and vaccine safety concerns. Conclusions Information scanning is associated with beliefs about vaccine safety, which may lead parents to refuse or delay vaccinating their children. These relationships vary by ethnicity. Practice Implications These findings help inform practitioners and policy makers about communication factors that influence vaccine safety concerns. Knowing these sources of information will equip practitioners to better identify women who may have been exposed to anti-vaccine messages and counter these beliefs with effective, vaccine-promoting messages via the most relevant information sources. PMID:26321294

  1. A comparison of antibody responses to commercial equine influenza vaccines following annual booster vaccination of National Hunt horses - a randomised blind study.

    PubMed

    Gildea, Sarah; Arkins, Sean; Walsh, Cathal; Cullinane, Ann

    2011-05-17

    Protection against equine influenza virus (EIV) relies largely on the production of circulating antibodies specific for the haemagglutinin (HA) glycoprotein. The objective of this study was to determine the antibody response of National Hunt horses in training to booster vaccination. The antibody response to the six equine influenza vaccines available in Ireland (three whole inactivated vaccines, two subunit vaccines and a canary pox recombinant vaccine), was monitored by single radial haemolysis (SRH) for six months post vaccination. There was no significant difference between antibody response induced following booster vaccination with any of the six vaccines. The antibodies peaked between two and four weeks post vaccination, decreased significantly by three months post vaccination and declined to their original levels by six months post vaccination. Peak antibody response to the canary pox recombinant vaccine was delayed in comparison to the other vaccines. Although analysis of the mean SRH levels of the horses suggested that they were clinically protected post booster vaccination, analysis of the individual responses suggested that there was potential for vaccination breakdown in a manner similar to that observed previously in racing yards in Ireland. There was a significant correlation between the SRH level at the time of vaccination and the antibody response. The findings of the study suggest that it would be advantageous to monitor SRH levels and to vaccinate strategically. The revaccination of horses with low antibody levels three months post booster vaccination may have been more effective in protecting horses in this yard than the annual vaccination of horses with high SRH levels. Eighteen of the 44 (41%) horses included in this study did not demonstrate a significant rise in SRH level to H3N8 following booster vaccination. It is presumed that annual revaccination is the minimum necessary to protect all horses against EI but this assumption needs to be

  2. Importance of vaccination habit and vaccine choice on influenza vaccination among healthy working adults.

    PubMed

    Lin, Chyongchiou J; Nowalk, Mary Patricia; Toback, Seth L; Rousculp, Matthew D; Raymund, Mahlon; Ambrose, Christopher S; Zimmerman, Richard K

    2010-11-10

    This randomized cluster trial was designed to improve workplace influenza vaccination rates using enhanced advertising, choice of vaccine type (intranasal or injectable) and an incentive. Workers aged 18-49 years were surveyed immediately following vaccination to determine factors associated with vaccination behavior and choice. The questionnaire assessed attitudes, beliefs and social support for influenza vaccine, demographics, and historical, current, and intentional vaccination behavior. Of the 2389 vaccinees, 83.3% received injectable vaccine and 16.7% received intranasal vaccine. Factors associated with previous influenza vaccination were older age, female sex, higher education and greater support for injectable vaccine (all P<.02). Current influenza vaccination with intranasal vaccine vs. injectable vaccine was associated with higher education, the study interventions, greater support for the intranasal vaccine and nasal sprays, less support of injectable vaccine, more negative attitudes about influenza vaccine, and a greater likelihood of reporting that the individual would not have been vaccinated had only injectable vaccine been offered (all P<.01). Intentional vaccine choice was most highly associated with previous vaccination behavior (P<.001). A key to long term improvements in workplace vaccination is to encourage first time influenza vaccination through interventions that include incentives, publicity and vaccine choice. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Fowlpox-based survivin vaccination for malignant mesothelioma therapy

    PubMed Central

    Bertino, Pietro; Panigada, Maddalena; Soprana, Elisa; Bianchi, Valentina; Bertilaccio, Sabrina; Sanvito, Francesca; Rose, Aaron H.; Yang, Haining; Gaudino, Giovanni; Hoffmann, Peter R.; Siccardi, Antonio; Carbone, Michele

    2013-01-01

    Survivin protein is an attractive candidate for cancer immunotherapy since it is abundantly expressed in most common human cancers and mostly absent in normal adult tissues. Malignant mesothelioma (MM) is a deadly cancer associated with asbestos or erionite exposure for which no successful therapies are currently available. In this study, we evaluated the therapeutic efficacy of a novel survivin-based vaccine by subcutaneous or intraperitoneum injection of BALB/c mice with murine fiber-induced MM tumor cells followed by vaccination with recombinant Fowlpox virus replicons encoding survivin. Vaccination generated significant immune responses in both models, leading to delayed tumor growth and improved animal survival. Flow cytometry and immunofluorescence analyses of tumors from vaccinated mice showed CD8+ T cell infiltration, and real-time PCR demonstrated increased mRNA and protein levels of immunostimulatory cytokines. Analyses of survivin peptide-pulsed spleen and lymph node cells from vaccinated mice using ELISPOT and intracellular cytokine staining confirmed antigen-specific, interferon-γ-producing CD8+ T cell responses. In addition pentamer-based flow cytometry showed that vaccination generated survivin-specific CD8+ T cells. Importantly, vaccination did not affect fertility or induce autoimmune abnormalities in mice. Our results demonstrate that vaccination with recombinant Fowlpox expressing survivin improves T cell responses against aggressive MM tumors and may form the basis for promising clinical applications. PMID:23335100

  4. Brucellosis vaccines for livestock.

    PubMed

    Goodwin, Zakia I; Pascual, David W

    2016-11-15

    Brucellosis is a livestock disease responsible for fetal loss due to abortions. Worldwide, this disease has profound economic and social impact by reducing the ability of livestock producers to provide an adequate supply of disease-free meat and dairy products. In addition to its presence in domesticated animals, brucellosis is harbored in a number of wildlife species creating new disease reservoirs, which adds to the difficulty of eradicating this disease. Broad and consistent use of the available vaccines would contribute in reducing the incidence of brucellosis. Unfortunately, this practice is not common. In addition, the current brucellosis vaccines cannot provide sterilizing immunity, and in certain circumstances, vaccinated livestock are not protected against co-mingling Brucella-infected wildlife. Given that these vaccines are inadequate for conferring complete protection for some vaccinated livestock, alternatives are being sought, and these include genetic modifications of current vaccines or their reformulations. Alternatively, many groups have sought to develop new vaccines. Subunit vaccines, delivered as a combination of soluble vaccine plus adjuvant or the heterologous expression of Brucella epitopes by different vaccine vectors are currently being tested. New live attenuated Brucella vaccines are also being developed and tested in their natural hosts. Yet, what is rarely considered is the route of vaccination which could improve vaccine efficacy. Since Brucella infections are mostly transmitted mucosally, mucosal delivery of a vaccine has the potential of eliciting a more robust protective immune response for improved efficacy. Hence, this review will examine these questions and provide the status of new vaccines for livestock brucellosis.

  5. Downhole delay assembly for blasting with series delay

    DOEpatents

    Ricketts, Thomas E.

    1982-01-01

    A downhole delay assembly is provided which can be placed into a blasthole for initiation of explosive in the blasthole. The downhole delay assembly includes at least two detonating time delay devices in series in order to effect a time delay of longer than about 200 milliseconds in a round of explosions. The downhole delay assembly provides a protective housing to prevent detonation of explosive in the blasthole in response to the detonation of the first detonating time delay device. There is further provided a connection between the first and second time delay devices. The connection is responsive to the detonation of the first detonating time delay device and initiates the second detonating time delay device. A plurality of such downhole delay assemblies are placed downhole in unfragmented formation and are initiated simultaneously for providing a round of explosive expansions. The explosive expansions can be used to form an in situ oil shale retort containing a fragmented permeable mass of formation particles.

  6. Parental migration and children's timely measles vaccination in rural China: a cross-sectional study.

    PubMed

    Tang, Xianyan; Geater, Alan; McNeil, Edward; Zhou, Hongxia; Deng, Qiuyun; Dong, Aihu; Li, Qiao

    2016-07-01

    With the rapid economic development in China, millions of rural residents are migrating to the cities to gain employment, resulting in numerous left-behind children (LBC). Simultaneously, outbreaks of measles continue to occur, yet the effect of parental migration on children's vaccination status is largely unknown. This study aimed to evaluate the association between parental migration and children's timely measles vaccination in rural China, after adjusting for family socio-economic status (SES) indicators. We conducted a cross-sectional survey using multistage sampling among children aged 18-54 months in rural Guangxi of China. Information on measles vaccination status was obtained from the child's vaccination certificate, and data on SES were collected by interviewing the child's primary guardian. Family SES and vaccination coverage were compared between LBC and non-left-behind children (NLBC) using weighted logistic regression, while the delay in vaccination was compared using Kaplan-Meier survival analysis. Of the 1216 study children, 46% were LBC and 54% were NLBC. Compared to NLBC, the coverage of timely measles vaccination was significantly lower, and the median delay period was longer among LBC. After adjusting for SES indicators, LBC were significantly more likely to have an untimely vaccination for their first dose of measles vaccine than NLBC (OR = 1.33, 95% CI = 1.02-1.75). Due to the negative effect of parental migration and family SES, LBC were more likely to encounter serious delays of measles vaccination in rural China. Optimising vaccination policies could facilitate timely vaccination among LBC in rural China. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  7. Vaccination of influenza a virus decreases transmission rates in pigs.

    PubMed

    Romagosa, Anna; Allerson, Matt; Gramer, Marie; Joo, Han Soo; Deen, John; Detmer, Susan; Torremorell, Montserrat

    2011-12-20

    Limited information is available on the transmission and spread of influenza virus in pig populations with differing immune statuses. In this study we assessed differences in transmission patterns and quantified the spread of a triple reassortant H1N1 influenza virus in naïve and vaccinated pig populations by estimating the reproduction ratio (R) of infection (i.e. the number of secondary infections caused by an infectious individual) using a deterministic Susceptible-Infectious-Recovered (SIR) model, fitted on experimental data. One hundred and ten pigs were distributed in ten isolated rooms as follows: (i) non-vaccinated (NV), (ii) vaccinated with a heterologous vaccine (HE), and (iii) vaccinated with a homologous inactivated vaccine (HO). The study was run with multiple replicates and for each replicate, an infected non-vaccinated pig was placed with 10 contact pigs for two weeks and transmission of influenza evaluated daily by analyzing individual nasal swabs by RT-PCR. A statistically significant difference between R estimates was observed between vaccinated and non-vaccinated pigs (p < 0.05). A statistically significant reduction in transmission was observed in the vaccinated groups where R (95%CI) was 1 (0.39-2.09) and 0 for the HE and the HO groups respectively, compared to an Ro value of 10.66 (6.57-16.46) in NV pigs (p < 0.05). Transmission in the HE group was delayed and variable when compared to the NV group and transmission could not be detected in the HO group. Results from this study indicate that influenza vaccines can be used to decrease susceptibility to influenza infection and decrease influenza transmission.

  8. Vaccination of influenza a virus decreases transmission rates in pigs

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Limited information is available on the transmission and spread of influenza virus in pig populations with differing immune statuses. In this study we assessed differences in transmission patterns and quantified the spread of a triple reassortant H1N1 influenza virus in naïve and vaccinated pig populations by estimating the reproduction ratio (R) of infection (i.e. the number of secondary infections caused by an infectious individual) using a deterministic Susceptible-Infectious-Recovered (SIR) model, fitted on experimental data. One hundred and ten pigs were distributed in ten isolated rooms as follows: (i) non-vaccinated (NV), (ii) vaccinated with a heterologous vaccine (HE), and (iii) vaccinated with a homologous inactivated vaccine (HO). The study was run with multiple replicates and for each replicate, an infected non-vaccinated pig was placed with 10 contact pigs for two weeks and transmission of influenza evaluated daily by analyzing individual nasal swabs by RT-PCR. A statistically significant difference between R estimates was observed between vaccinated and non-vaccinated pigs (p < 0.05). A statistically significant reduction in transmission was observed in the vaccinated groups where R (95%CI) was 1 (0.39-2.09) and 0 for the HE and the HO groups respectively, compared to an Ro value of 10.66 (6.57-16.46) in NV pigs (p < 0.05). Transmission in the HE group was delayed and variable when compared to the NV group and transmission could not be detected in the HO group. Results from this study indicate that influenza vaccines can be used to decrease susceptibility to influenza infection and decrease influenza transmission. PMID:22185601

  9. Routine vaccination against chickenpox?

    PubMed

    2012-04-01

    Varicella-zoster virus (VZV) causes both varicella and herpes zoster. In 1995 a varicella vaccine was licensed in the USA and was incorporated into the routine vaccination programme for children; a decline of varicella among children and adults, and a reduction in associated hospitalisation, complications and mortality, has resulted. In the UK, a policy of targeted vaccination of at-risk groups has been in place since the vaccine was introduced. Here we review the evidence for the different approaches to VZV vaccination policy.

  10. Diagnostic and vaccine chapter.

    PubMed

    Wolfram, J H; Kokanov, S K; Verkhovsky, O A

    2010-10-01

    The first report in this chapter describes the development of a killed composite vaccine. This killed vaccine is non-infectious to humans, other animals, and the environment. The vaccine has low reactivity, is non-abortive, and does not induce pathomorphological alterations to the organs of vaccinated animals. The second report of this chapter describes the diagnostic value of a competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for detecting Brucella-specific antibodies and its ability to discriminate vaccinated cattle from infected cattle. The results indicated that the competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay is more sensitive than traditional tests for detecting antibodies to Brucella abortus in naturally and experimentally infected cattle.

  11. Adjuvants for Animal Vaccines.

    PubMed

    Burakova, Yulia; Madera, Rachel; McVey, Scott; Schlup, John R; Shi, Jishu

    2017-06-15

    Vaccines are essential tools for the prevention and control of infectious diseases in animals. One of the most important steps in vaccine development is the selection of a suitable adjuvant. The focus of this review is the adjuvants used in vaccines for animals. We will discuss current commercial adjuvants and experimental formulations with attention to mineral salts, emulsions, bacterial-derived components, saponins, and several other immunoactive compounds. In addition, we will also examine the mechanisms of action for different adjuvants, examples of adjuvant combinations in one vaccine formulation, and challenges in the research and development of veterinary vaccine adjuvants.

  12. Patenting malarial vaccine.

    PubMed

    Wiwanitkit, Viroj

    2008-01-01

    Malaria is an important tropical infection affecting millions of world population each year. Malarial vaccine development is the hope for successful control of malaria. Knowledge on malaria vaccine has been considered patentable subject for decades. Due to the present advance biotechnology, the number of patent applications related to malarial vaccine is growing exponentially. Several malarial vaccine candidates have been recently identified and the genetic manipulation of these candidates is becoming more efficient with the advancement of new biotechnologies. This review summarizes some of the recent published patents on malarial vaccines covering antigens, candidate epitopes and recombinant processing.

  13. Vaccination for Disease

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oehen, Stephan; Hengartner, Hans; Zinkernagel, Rolf M.

    1991-01-01

    Recombinant virus vaccines that express a limited number of epitopes are currently being developed to prevent disease by changing the relative balance between viral spread and the immune response. Some circumstances, however, were found in infections with a noncytopathic virus in which vaccination caused disease; sensitive parameters included the genetic background of the host, the time or dose of infection, and the constituents of the vaccine. Thus, immunopathologic damage by T cells may be an unwanted consequence of vaccination with the new types of peptide or recombinant vaccines that are being investigated for the human immunodeficiency viruses and other pathogens.

  14. Prediction of delayed subsidence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burns, K.

    A predictive model of delayed subsidence is discussed. A numerical implementation is tested on one of the best-described study areas, Allegheny County in Pennsylvania. In planning insurance of restitution measures, a predictive model is of value in estimating the magnitude of the problem and the size of long-term budgetary commitments. Contrary to active subsidence, which occurs concurrently with mining operations, or is completed within a few days following coal extraction, delayed subsidence may take many years to appear at the surface after coal mines are abandoned. There are two principal morphological types of delayed subsidence: troughs, which are shallow depressions, and sinks, which are steep-sided crown pits. Both types are damaging to surface structures, and a variety of methods were introduced to deal with the problem, ranging from subsidence insurance to site restitution.

  15. Vaccination against Klebsiella aerogenes.

    PubMed Central

    Roe, E. A.; Jones, R. J.

    1984-01-01

    Klebsiella vaccine was prepared from strains of Klebsiella aerogenes with capsular types K1, K36, K44 and K Cross (a type which cross-reacts in vitro with sera from many klebsiella capsular types). The vaccine was extracted by dialysis and ultrafiltration from capsular material released during growth of the bacteria in a five-day batch culture. Mice given one dose of vaccine from K1a (1.0 microgram/mouse) survived lethal intraperitoneal challenge of 11/11 homologous klebsiella strains four days after vaccination; 14 days after vaccination protection against the same challenge strains had declined to 5/11 strains. Vaccines from K1a, b, c, K36, K44 and K Cross induced homologous protection and protected mice against different ranges of heterologous klebsiella capsular types. The protective response of the mice was greatly enhanced by administering three doses of the vaccines. Vaccines from K1, K36, K44 and K Cross protected mice against 14/20, 11/20, 10/20 and 9/20 homologous and heterologous klebsiella challenge strains respectively. None of the klebsiella vaccines was toxic for mice at the immunizing dose (1.0 microgram/mouse). Vaccine from K36 was the most lethal, killing mice at 10(3) immunizing doses. The least toxic vaccine was from K44, which killed mice at 10(4) immunizing doses. PMID:6389699

  16. DNA vaccines against tuberculosis.

    PubMed

    Bruffaerts, Nicolas; Huygen, Kris; Romano, Marta

    2014-12-01

    Tuberculosis (TB) remains a major health problem and novel vaccination regimens are urgently needed. DNA vaccines against TB have been tested in various preclinical models and strategies have been developed to increase their immunogenicity in large animal species. DNA vaccines are able to induce a wide variety of immune responses, including CD8(+) T-cell-mediated cytolytic and IFN-γ responses. DNA vaccination may be valuable in heterologous prime-boost strategies with the currently used bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG) vaccine. This approach could broaden the antigenic repertoire of BCG and enhance its weak induction of MHC class I-restricted immune responses. DNA vaccines offer a number of advantages over certain other types of vaccines, such as the induction of robust MHC class I-restricted cytotoxic T lymphocyte (CTL), their generic manufacturing platform and their relatively low manufacturing costs. Because of their strong potential for inducing memory responses, DNA vaccines are particularly suited for priming immune responses. Furthermore, DNA vaccine technology may help antigen discovery by facilitating screening of candidate vaccines. Co-administration of BCG with plasmid DNA coding for immunodominant, subdominant and phase-specific antigens, poorly expressed by BCG, may lead to the development of improved TB vaccines.

  17. [Vaccinations for international travelers].

    PubMed

    Berens-Riha, N; Alberer, M; Löscher, T

    2014-03-01

    Vaccinations are a prominent part of health preparations before international travel. They can avoid or significantly reduce the risk of numerous infectious diseases. Until recently, vaccination against yellow fever was the only obligatory vaccination. However, according to updated international health regulations, other vaccinations and prophylactic measures may be required at entry from certain countries. For all routine vaccinations as recommended in Germany, necessary revaccination and catch-up of missed vaccinations should be administered before travel. At most destinations the risk of infection is higher than in Germany. Hepatitis A vaccine is generally recommended for travelers to areas of increased risk, polio vaccine for all destinations where eradication is not yet confirmed (Asia and Africa). The indications for other travel vaccines must take into consideration travel destination and itinerary, type and duration of travel, individual risk of exposure as well as the epidemiology of the disease to be prevented. Several vaccines of potential interest for travel medicine, e.g., new vaccines against malaria and dengue fever, are under development.

  18. Emerging Vaccine Informatics

    PubMed Central

    He, Yongqun; Rappuoli, Rino; De Groot, Anne S.; Chen, Robert T.

    2010-01-01

    Vaccine informatics is an emerging research area that focuses on development and applications of bioinformatics methods that can be used to facilitate every aspect of the preclinical, clinical, and postlicensure vaccine enterprises. Many immunoinformatics algorithms and resources have been developed to predict T- and B-cell immune epitopes for epitope vaccine development and protective immunity analysis. Vaccine protein candidates are predictable in silico from genome sequences using reverse vaccinology. Systematic transcriptomics and proteomics gene expression analyses facilitate rational vaccine design and identification of gene responses that are correlates of protection in vivo. Mathematical simulations have been used to model host-pathogen interactions and improve vaccine production and vaccination protocols. Computational methods have also been used for development of immunization registries or immunization information systems, assessment of vaccine safety and efficacy, and immunization modeling. Computational literature mining and databases effectively process, mine, and store large amounts of vaccine literature and data. Vaccine Ontology (VO) has been initiated to integrate various vaccine data and support automated reasoning. PMID:21772787

  19. Targeting dendritic cells to accelerate T-cell activation overcomes a bottleneck in tuberculosis vaccine efficacy

    PubMed Central

    Griffiths, Kristin L.; Ahmed, Mushtaq; Das, Shibali; Gopal, Radha; Horne, William; Connell, Terry D.; Moynihan, Kelly D.; Kolls, Jay K.; Irvine, Darrell J.; Artyomov, Maxim N.; Rangel-Moreno, Javier; Khader, Shabaana A.

    2016-01-01

    The development of a tuberculosis (TB) vaccine that induces sterilizing immunity to Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection has been elusive. Absence of sterilizing immunity induced by TB vaccines may be due to delayed activation of mucosal dendritic cells (DCs), and subsequent delay in antigen presentation and activation of vaccine-induced CD4+ T-cell responses. Here we show that pulmonary delivery of activated M. tuberculosis antigen-primed DCs into vaccinated mice, at the time of M. tuberculosis exposure, can overcome the delay in accumulation of vaccine-induced CD4+ T-cell responses. In addition, activating endogenous host CD103+ DCs and the CD40–CD40L pathway can similarly induce rapid accumulation of vaccine-induced lung CD4+ T-cell responses and limit early M. tuberculosis growth. Thus, our study provides proof of concept that targeting mucosal DCs can accelerate vaccine-induced T-cell responses on M. tuberculosis infection, and provide insights to overcome bottlenecks in TB vaccine efficacy. PMID:28004802

  20. Vaccines for allergy

    PubMed Central

    Linhart, Birgit; Valenta, Rudolf

    2012-01-01

    Vaccines aim to establish or strengthen immune responses but are also effective for the treatment of allergy. The latter is surprising because allergy represents a hyper-immune response based on immunoglobulin E production against harmless environmental antigens, i.e., allergens. Nevertheless, vaccination with allergens, termed allergen-specific immunotherapy is the only disease-modifying therapy of allergy with long-lasting effects. New forms of allergy diagnosis and allergy vaccines based on recombinant allergen-derivatives, peptides and allergen genes have emerged through molecular allergen characterization. The molecular allergy vaccines allow sophisticated targeting of the immune system and may eliminate side effects which so far have limited the use of traditional allergen extract-based vaccines. Successful clinical trials performed with the new vaccines indicate that broad allergy vaccination is on the horizon and may help to control the allergy pandemic. PMID:22521141

  1. Vaccine quality and safety

    PubMed Central

    Patil, Rajan R

    2014-01-01

    Background: There has been major controversy over vaccine safety in India following newspaper reports citing right to information (RTI) disclosure that there have been increasing vaccine related deaths following immunization in children in the recent years. Methods: Secondary data analysis. Results and Conclusion: Adverse effect following immunization (AEFI) events in recent years are being linked to closure of three government owned vaccine producing public sector units (PSU) closures in India. The media reports quoting government sources suggest that the total number of reported deaths due to AEFI in a pre-closure of vaccine PSUs 7 years (2001–2007) was 136, whereas it is 355 in the post vaccine PSU closure 3 years (2008 to 2010). There is an issue of comparability of numbers of AEFI deaths pre- (2001–2007) and post-vaccine PSU closure era (2008–2011) and linking increased AEFI deaths to vaccine PSU closure. PMID:24299731

  2. Vaccine epidemiology: A review

    PubMed Central

    Lahariya, Chandrakant

    2016-01-01

    This review article outlines the key concepts in vaccine epidemiology, such as basic reproductive numbers, force of infection, vaccine efficacy and effectiveness, vaccine failure, herd immunity, herd effect, epidemiological shift, disease modeling, and describes the application of this knowledge both at program levels and in the practice by family physicians, epidemiologists, and pediatricians. A case has been made for increased knowledge and understanding of vaccine epidemiology among key stakeholders including policy makers, immunization program managers, public health experts, pediatricians, family physicians, and other experts/individuals involved in immunization service delivery. It has been argued that knowledge of vaccine epidemiology which is likely to benefit the society through contributions to the informed decision-making and improving vaccination coverage in the low and middle income countries (LMICs). The article ends with suggestions for the provision of systematic training and learning platforms in vaccine epidemiology to save millions of preventable deaths and improve health outcomes through life-course. PMID:27453836

  3. Endotoxins in commercial vaccines.

    PubMed Central

    Geier, M R; Stanbro, H; Merril, C R

    1978-01-01

    Twenty samples of commercial vaccines intended for administration to humans were assayed for the presence of bacterial endotoxins by using the Limulus amebocyte lysate test. Sixteen of the vaccines contained more than 0.1 ng of endotoxin per ml (which corresponds to 103 bacterial cell wall equivalents per ml in the undiluted vaccines). These results suggest that at some stage of preparation, the vaccines have contained varying amounts of gram-negative bacteria and may indicate the presence of other bacterial products as well. It might be useful to list the level of endotoxins, phage, and other contaminants on each vaccine lot to facilitate studies on any side effects of these contaminants. Selection of vaccine lots with the least endotoxin might reduce some of the adverse effects of vaccinations. PMID:727776

  4. [Vaccines and pregnancy].

    PubMed

    Tavares, Mariana Vide; Ramos, Vera Nobre; Tavares, Margarida; Moura, Paulo

    2011-12-01

    Routine vaccination is part of the pediatrics universe. In adulthood and particularly when women voluntarily access to medical care, immunization should be reviewed and updated. There are many doubts that generate in all health professionals anxiety and concern about the vaccination of a pregnant woman. This article aims to describe the immunological changes in pregnant women, to clarify the purpose of immunization during pregnancy, and to enumerate indications, contraindications and risks of vaccines of the Portuguese National Vaccine Plane and other vaccines against diseases with prevalence in other countries. Due to the medical and social impact of vaccination against seasonal influenza and influenza A (H1N1) in the winter of 2009, during an influenza (H1N1) pandemic flu, we make reference to the indications and vaccination against these infections in pregnancy.

  5. Logistics of community smallpox control through contact tracing and ring vaccination: a stochastic network model

    PubMed Central

    Porco, Travis C; Holbrook, Karen A; Fernyak, Susan E; Portnoy, Diane L; Reiter, Randy; Aragón, Tomás J

    2004-01-01

    Background Previous smallpox ring vaccination models based on contact tracing over a network suggest that ring vaccination would be effective, but have not explicitly included response logistics and limited numbers of vaccinators. Methods We developed a continuous-time stochastic simulation of smallpox transmission, including network structure, post-exposure vaccination, vaccination of contacts of contacts, limited response capacity, heterogeneity in symptoms and infectiousness, vaccination prior to the discontinuation of routine vaccination, more rapid diagnosis due to public awareness, surveillance of asymptomatic contacts, and isolation of cases. Results We found that even in cases of very rapidly spreading smallpox, ring vaccination (when coupled with surveillance) is sufficient in most cases to eliminate smallpox quickly, assuming that 95% of household contacts are traced, 80% of workplace or social contacts are traced, and no casual contacts are traced, and that in most cases the ability to trace 1–5 individuals per day per index case is sufficient. If smallpox is assumed to be transmitted very quickly to contacts, it may at times escape containment by ring vaccination, but could be controlled in these circumstances by mass vaccination. Conclusions Small introductions of smallpox are likely to be easily contained by ring vaccination, provided contact tracing is feasible. Uncertainties in the nature of bioterrorist smallpox (infectiousness, vaccine efficacy) support continued planning for ring vaccination as well as mass vaccination. If initiated, ring vaccination should be conducted without delays in vaccination, should include contacts of contacts (whenever there is sufficient capacity) and should be accompanied by increased public awareness and surveillance. PMID:15298713

  6. Traditional smallpox vaccination with reduced risk of inadvertent contact spread by administration of povidone iodine ointment

    PubMed Central

    Hammarlund, Erika; Lewis, Matthew W.; Hanifin, Jon; Simpson, Eric L.; Carlson, Nichole E.; Slifka, Mark K.

    2008-01-01

    One concern with traditional smallpox vaccination is inadvertent spread of virus to atopic or immunocompromised contacts. To reduce this risk, we tested the ability of povidone iodine to inactivate infectious virus at the vaccination site beginning at 7 days after transcutaneous smallpox vaccination. This ointment rapidly inactivated virus on the skin without reducing neutralizing antibody titers or antiviral T cell responses. Moreover, there was no delay in healing/eschar separation following povidone iodine application. Together, this indicates that administration of an antiviral/antimicrobial cream can effectively block virus shedding after traditional smallpox vaccination and reduce the risks of autoinoculation or contact spread. PMID:18083278

  7. Principles of Vaccination.

    PubMed

    Zepp, Fred

    2016-01-01

    While many of the currently available vaccines have been developed empirically, with limited understanding on how they activate the immune system and elicit protective immunity, the recent progress in basic sciences like immunology, microbiology, genetics, and molecular biology has fostered our understanding on the interaction of microorganisms with the human immune system. In consequence, modern vaccine development strongly builds on the precise knowledge of the biology of microbial pathogens, their interaction with the human immune system, as well as their capacity to counteract and evade innate and adaptive immune mechanisms. Strategies engaged by pathogens strongly determine how a vaccine should be formulated to evoke potent and efficient protective immune responses. The improved knowledge of immune response mechanisms has facilitated the development of new vaccines with the capacity to defend against challenging pathogens and can help to protect individuals particular at risk like immunocompromised and elderly populations. Modern vaccine development technologies include the production of highly purified antigens that provide a lower reactogenicity and higher safety profile than the traditional empirically developed vaccines. Attempts to improve vaccine antigen purity, however, may result in impaired vaccine immunogenicity. Some of such disadvantages related to highly purified and/or genetically engineered vaccines yet can be overcome by innovative technologies, such as live vector vaccines, and DNA or RNA vaccines. Moreover, recent years have witnessed the development of novel adjuvant formulations that specifically focus on the augmentation and/or control of the interplay between innate and adaptive immune systems as well as the function of antigen-presenting cells. Finally, vaccine design has become more tailored, and in turn has opened up the potential of extending its application to hitherto not accessible complex microbial pathogens plus providing new

  8. Influenza vaccines and vaccination strategies in birds.

    PubMed

    van den Berg, Thierry; Lambrecht, Bénédicte; Marché, Sylvie; Steensels, Mieke; Van Borm, Steven; Bublot, Michel

    2008-03-01

    Although it is well accepted that the present Asian H5N1 panzootic is predominantly an animal health problem, the human health implications and the risk of human pandemic have highlighted the need for more information and collaboration in the field of veterinary and human health. H5 and H7 avian influenza (AI) viruses have the unique property of becoming highly pathogenic (HPAI) during circulation in poultry. Therefore, the final objective of poultry vaccination against AI must be eradication of the virus and the disease. Actually, important differences exist in the control of avian and human influenza viruses. Firstly, unlike human vaccines that must be adapted to the circulating strain to provide adequate protection, avian influenza vaccination provides broader protection against HPAI viruses. Secondly, although clinical protection is the primary goal of human vaccines, poultry vaccination must also stop transmission to achieve efficient control of the disease. This paper addresses these differences by reviewing the current and future influenza vaccines and vaccination strategies in birds.

  9. Vaccination status and sequence of vaccinations as risk factors for hospitalisation among outpatients in a high mortality country.

    PubMed

    Biai, Sidu; Rodrigues, Amabelia; Nielsen, Jens; Sodemann, Morten; Aaby, Peter

    2011-05-09

    Most developing countries are implementing the WHO immunisation programme. Although vaccines reach most children, many modifications of the recommended schedule are observed in practice. We investigated the association between vaccination status and risk of hospitalisation in Guinea-Bissau. From May 2003 to May 2004, all consultations of children less than five years of age at the outpatient clinic of the paediatric ward at the national hospital in Bissau were registered. For each consultation, information was collected about the child's name, sex, age and socio-cultural conditions, as well as diagnosis and whether the child was hospitalised. Information about vaccinations was also registered from the child's vaccination card. We analysed the association between vaccination status and risk of hospitalisation in age intervals according to the pre-dominant vaccines. We particularly emphasised the comparison of those who had received the recommended vaccination for the age groups and those who were delayed and only had the previous vaccinations. We also examined those who had received the vaccines out of sequence. Information about vaccinations was available for 11,949 outpatient children of whom 2219 (19%) were hospitalised. Among children less than 3 months of age, unvaccinated children compared to BCG children had as expected a higher risk of hospitalisation; controlled for important determinants of hospitalisation, the hospitalisation risk ratio (HRR) was 1.99 (95% CI 1.37-2.89). In contrast, there was no difference in the HRR for children aged 1½-8 months who were delayed and had only received BCG compared to those who as recommended had received diphtheria-tetanus-pertussis (DTP) vaccine after BCG (HRR=1.10 (0.77-1.59)). In the age interval 9-17 months of age, children who were delayed and had only received DTP had significantly higher risk of hospitalisation compared with children who as recommended had measles vaccine (MV) as the most recent vaccination (HRR

  10. Advances in FIV vaccine technology

    PubMed Central

    Uhl, Elizabeth W.; Martin, Marcus; Coleman, James K.; Yamamoto, Janet K.

    2008-01-01

    Advances in vaccine technology are occurring in the molecular techniques used to develop vaccines and in the assessment of vaccine efficacy, allowing more complete characterization of vaccine-induced immunity correlating to protection. FIV vaccine development has closely mirrored and occasionally surpassed the development of HIV-1 vaccine, leading to first licensed technology. This review will discuss technological advances in vaccine designs, challenge infection assessment, and characterization of vaccine immunity in the context of the protection detected with prototype and commercial dual-subtype FIV vaccines and in relation to HIV-1. PMID:18295907

  11. 'No delays achiever'.

    PubMed

    2007-05-01

    The latest version of the NHS Institute for Innovation and Improvement's 'no delays achiever', a web based tool created to help NHS organisations achieve the 18-week target for GP referrals to first treatment, is available at www.nodelaysachiever.nhs.uk.

  12. Contingencies promote delay tolerance.

    PubMed

    Ghaemmaghami, Mahshid; Hanley, Gregory P; Jessel, Joshua

    2016-09-01

    The effectiveness of functional communication training as treatment for problem behavior depends on the extent to which treatment can be extended to typical environments that include unavoidable and unpredictable reinforcement delays. Time-based progressive delay (TBPD) often results in the loss of acquired communication responses and the resurgence of problem behavior, whereas contingency-based progressive delay (CBPD) appears to be effective for increasing tolerance for delayed reinforcement. No direct comparison of TBPD and CBPD has, however, been conducted. We used single-subject designs to compare the relative efficacy of TBPD and CBPD. Four individuals who engaged in problem behavior (e.g., aggression, vocal and motor disruptions, self-injury) participated. Results were consistent across all participants, and showed lower rates of problem behavior and collateral responses during CBPD than during TBPD. The generality of CBPD treatment effects, including optimal rates of communication and compliance with demands, was demonstrated across a small but heterogeneous group of participants, reinforcement contingencies, and contexts.

  13. Delayed traumatic diaphragmatic hernia

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Jing; Wang, Bo; Che, Xiangming; Li, Xuqi; Qiu, Guanglin; He, Shicai; Fan, Lin

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Background: Traumatic diaphragmatic hernias (TDHs) are sometimes difficult to identify at an early stage and can consequently result in diagnostic delays with life-threatening outcomes. It is the aim of this case study to highlight the difficulties encountered with the earlier detection of traumatic diaphragmatic hernias. Methods: Clinical data of patients who received treatment for delayed traumatic diaphragmatic hernias in registers of the First Affiliated Hospital of Xi’an Jiaotong University from 1998 to 2014 were analyzed retrospectively. Results: Six patients were included in this study. Left hemidiaphragm was affected in all of them. Most of the patients had a history of traffic accident and 1 a stab-penetrating injury. The interval from injury to developing symptoms ranged from 2 to 11 years (median 5 years). The hernial contents included the stomach, omentum, small intestine, and colon. Diaphragmatic injury was missed in all of them during the initial managements. All patients received operations once the diagnosis of delayed TDH was confirmed, and no postoperative mortality was detected. Conclusions: Delayed TDHs are not common, but can lead to serious consequences once occurred. Early detection of diaphragmatic injuries is crucial. Surgeons should maintain a high suspicion for injuries of the diaphragm in cases with abdominal or lower chest traumas, especially in the initial surgical explorations. We emphasize the need for radiographical follow-up to detect diaphragmatic injuries at an earlier stage. PMID:27512848

  14. Human Papillomavirus (HPV) Vaccine (Cervarix)

    MedlinePlus

    ... a previous dose of HPV vaccine, should not get the vaccine. Tell your doctor if the person getting vaccinated has any severe allergies, including an allergy to latex. HPV vaccine is not recommended for pregnant women. However, receiving HPV vaccine when pregnant is ...

  15. Human Papillomavirus (HPV) Vaccine (Gardasil)

    MedlinePlus

    ... a previous dose of HPV vaccine, should not get the vaccine. Tell your doctor if the person getting vaccinated has any severe allergies, including an allergy to yeast. HPV vaccine is not recommended for pregnant women. However, receiving HPV vaccine when pregnant is ...

  16. Influenza Vaccines: Challenges and Solutions

    PubMed Central

    Houser, Katherine; Subbarao, Kanta

    2015-01-01

    Vaccination is the best method for the prevention and control of influenza. Vaccination can reduce illness and lessen severity of infection. This review focuses on how currently licensed influenza vaccines are generated in the U.S., why the biology of influenza poses vaccine challenges, and vaccine approaches on the horizon that address these challenges. PMID:25766291

  17. The Flu Vaccine and Pregnancy

    MedlinePlus

    ... of complications from the flu? Who should get vaccinated against the flu? Which type of flu vaccine should I get? How does the flu vaccine work? How often should I get the flu vaccine? How does getting the flu vaccine when I am pregnant help ...

  18. The Case for Reactive Mass Oral Cholera Vaccinations

    PubMed Central

    Reyburn, Rita; Deen, Jacqueline L.; Grais, Rebecca F.; Bhattacharya, Sujit K.; Sur, Dipika; Lopez, Anna L.; Jiddawi, Mohamed S.; Clemens, John D.; von Seidlein, Lorenz

    2011-01-01

    Introduction The outbreak of cholera in Zimbabwe intensified interest in the control and prevention of cholera. While there is agreement that safe water, sanitation, and personal hygiene are ideal for the long term control of cholera, there is controversy about the role of newer approaches such as oral cholera vaccines (OCVs). In October 2009 the Strategic Advisory Group of Experts advised the World Health Organization to consider reactive vaccination campaigns in response to large cholera outbreaks. To evaluate the potential benefit of this pivotal change in WHO policy, we used existing data from cholera outbreaks to simulate the number of cholera cases preventable by reactive mass vaccination. Methods Datasets of cholera outbreaks from three sites with varying cholera endemicity—Zimbabwe, Kolkata (India), and Zanzibar (Tanzania)—were analysed to estimate the number of cholera cases preventable under differing response times, vaccine coverage, and vaccine doses. Findings The large cholera outbreak in Zimbabwe started in mid August 2008 and by July 2009, 98,591 cholera cases had been reported with 4,288 deaths attributed to cholera. If a rapid response had taken place and half of the population had been vaccinated once the first 400 cases had occurred, as many as 34,900 (40%) cholera cases and 1,695 deaths (40%) could have been prevented. In the sites with endemic cholera, Kolkata and Zanzibar, a significant number of cases could have been prevented but the impact would have been less dramatic. A brisk response is required for outbreaks with the majority of cases occurring during the early weeks. Even a delayed response can save a substantial number of cases and deaths in long, drawn-out outbreaks. If circumstances prevent a rapid response there are good reasons to roll out cholera mass vaccination campaigns well into the outbreak. Once a substantial proportion of a population is vaccinated, outbreaks in subsequent years may be reduced if not prevented. A

  19. The case for reactive mass oral cholera vaccinations.

    PubMed

    Reyburn, Rita; Deen, Jacqueline L; Grais, Rebecca F; Bhattacharya, Sujit K; Sur, Dipika; Lopez, Anna L; Jiddawi, Mohamed S; Clemens, John D; von Seidlein, Lorenz

    2011-01-25

    The outbreak of cholera in Zimbabwe intensified interest in the control and prevention of cholera. While there is agreement that safe water, sanitation, and personal hygiene are ideal for the long term control of cholera, there is controversy about the role of newer approaches such as oral cholera vaccines (OCVs). In October 2009 the Strategic Advisory Group of Experts advised the World Health Organization to consider reactive vaccination campaigns in response to large cholera outbreaks. To evaluate the potential benefit of this pivotal change in WHO policy, we used existing data from cholera outbreaks to simulate the number of cholera cases preventable by reactive mass vaccination. Datasets of cholera outbreaks from three sites with varying cholera endemicity--Zimbabwe, Kolkata (India), and Zanzibar (Tanzania)--were analysed to estimate the number of cholera cases preventable under differing response times, vaccine coverage, and vaccine doses. The large cholera outbreak in Zimbabwe started in mid August 2008 and by July 2009, 98,591 cholera cases had been reported with 4,288 deaths attributed to cholera. If a rapid response had taken place and half of the population had been vaccinated once the first 400 cases had occurred, as many as 34,900 (40%) cholera cases and 1,695 deaths (40%) could have been prevented. In the sites with endemic cholera, Kolkata and Zanzibar, a significant number of cases could have been prevented but the impact would have been less dramatic. A brisk response is required for outbreaks with the majority of cases occurring during the early weeks. Even a delayed response can save a substantial number of cases and deaths in long, drawn-out outbreaks. If circumstances prevent a rapid response there are good reasons to roll out cholera mass vaccination campaigns well into the outbreak. Once a substantial proportion of a population is vaccinated, outbreaks in subsequent years may be reduced if not prevented. A single dose vaccine would be of

  20. Interferometric Propagation Delay

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goldstein, Richard

    1999-01-01

    Radar interferometry based on (near) exact repeat passes has lately been used by many groups of scientists, worldwide, to achieve state of the art measurements of topography, glacier and ice stream motion, earthquake displacements, oil field subsidence, lava flows, crop-induced surface decorrelation, and other effects. Variations of tropospheric and ionospheric propagation delays limit the accuracy of all such measurements. We are investigating the extent of this limitation, using data from the Shuttle radar flight, SIR-C, which is sensitive to the troposphere, and the Earth Resources Satellites, ERS-1/2, which are sensitive to both the troposphere and the ionosphere. We are presently gathering statistics of the delay variations over selected, diverse areas to determine the best accuracy possible for repeat track interferometry. The phases of an interferogram depend on both the topography of the scene and variations in propagation delay. The delay variations can be caused by movement of elements in the scene, by changes in tropospheric water vapor and by changes of the charge concentrations in the ionosphere. We plan to separate these causes by using the data from a third satellite visit (three-pass interferometry). The figure gives the geometry of the three-pass observations. The page of the figure is taken to be perpendicular to the spacecraft orbits. The three observational locations are marked on the figure, giving baselines B-12 and B-13, separated by the angle alpha. These parameters are almost constant over the whole scene. However, each pixel has an individual look angle, theta, which is related to the topography, rho is the slant range. A possible spurious time delay is shown. Additional information is contained in the original.

  1. Delayed fluorescence in photosynthesis.

    PubMed

    Goltsev, Vasilij; Zaharieva, Ivelina; Chernev, Petko; Strasser, Reto J

    2009-01-01

    Photosynthesis is a very efficient photochemical process. Nevertheless, plants emit some of the absorbed energy as light quanta. This luminescence is emitted, predominantly, by excited chlorophyll a molecules in the light-harvesting antenna, associated with Photosystem II (PS II) reaction centers. The emission that occurs before the utilization of the excitation energy in the primary photochemical reaction is called prompt fluorescence. Light emission can also be observed from repopulated excited chlorophylls as a result of recombination of the charge pairs. In this case, some time-dependent redox reactions occur before the excitation of the chlorophyll. This delays the light emission and provides the name for this phenomenon-delayed fluorescence (DF), or delayed light emission (DLE). The DF intensity is a decreasing polyphasic function of the time after illumination, which reflects the kinetics of electron transport reactions both on the (electron) donor and the (electron) acceptor sides of PS II. Two main experimental approaches are used for DF measurements: (a) recording of the DF decay in the dark after a single turnover flash or after continuous light excitation and (b) recording of the DF intensity during light adaptation of the photosynthesizing samples (induction curves), following a period of darkness. In this paper we review historical data on DF research and recent advances in the understanding of the relation between the delayed fluorescence and specific reactions in PS II. An experimental method for simultaneous recording of the induction transients of prompt and delayed chlorophyll fluorescence and decay curves of DF in the millisecond time domain is discussed.

  2. Interferometric Propagation Delay

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goldstein, Richard

    1999-01-01

    Radar interferometry based on (near) exact repeat passes has lately been used by many groups of scientists, worldwide, to achieve state of the art measurements of topography, glacier and ice stream motion, earthquake displacements, oil field subsidence, lava flows, crop-induced surface decorrelation, and other effects. Variations of tropospheric and ionospheric propagation delays limit the accuracy of all such measurements. We are investigating the extent of this limitation, using data from the Shuttle radar flight, SIR-C, which is sensitive to the troposphere, and the Earth Resources Satellites, ERS-1/2, which are sensitive to both the troposphere and the ionosphere. We are presently gathering statistics of the delay variations over selected, diverse areas to determine the best accuracy possible for repeat track interferometry. The phases of an interferogram depend on both the topography of the scene and variations in propagation delay. The delay variations can be caused by movement of elements in the scene, by changes in tropospheric water vapor and by changes of the charge concentrations in the ionosphere. We plan to separate these causes by using the data from a third satellite visit (three-pass interferometry). The figure gives the geometry of the three-pass observations. The page of the figure is taken to be perpendicular to the spacecraft orbits. The three observational locations are marked on the figure, giving baselines B-12 and B-13, separated by the angle alpha. These parameters are almost constant over the whole scene. However, each pixel has an individual look angle, theta, which is related to the topography, rho is the slant range. A possible spurious time delay is shown. Additional information is contained in the original.

  3. Current Ebola vaccines

    PubMed Central

    Hoenen, Thomas; Groseth, Allison; Feldmann, Heinz

    2012-01-01

    Introduction Ebolaviruses cause severe viral hemorrhagic fever in humans and non-human primates, with case fatality rates of up to 90%. Currently, neither a specific treatment nor a vaccine licensed for use in humans is available. However, a number of vaccine candidates have been developed in the last decade that are highly protective in non-human primates, the gold standard animal model for Ebola hemorrhagic fever. Areas covered This review analyzes a number of scenarios for the use of ebolavirus vaccines, discusses the requirements for ebolavirus vaccines in these scenarios, and describes current ebolavirus vaccines. Among these vaccines are recombinant Adenoviruses, recombinant Vesicular Stomatitis viruses, recombinant Human Parainfluenza viruses and virus-like particles. Interestingly, one of these vaccine platforms, based on recombinant Vesicular Stomatitis viruses, has also demonstrated post-exposure protection in non-human primates. Expert opinion The most pressing remaining challenge is now to move these vaccine candidates forward into human trials and towards licensure. In order to achieve this, it will be necessary to establish the mechanisms and correlates of protection for these vaccines, and to continue to demonstrate their safety, particularly in potentially immunocompromised populations. However, already now there is sufficient evidence that, from a scientific perspective, a vaccine protective against ebolaviruses is possible. PMID:22559078

  4. Vaccines for emerging infections.

    PubMed

    Marano, N; Rupprecht, C; Regnery, R

    2007-04-01

    Emerging infectious diseases represent a grave threat to animal and human populations in terms of their impact on global health, agriculture and the economy. Vaccines developed for emerging infections in animals can protect animal health and prevent transmission of zoonotic diseases to humans. Examples in this paper illustrate how industry and public health can collaborate to develop a vaccine to prevent an emerging disease in horses (West Nile virus vaccine), how poultry vaccination can protect animals and prevent transmission to people (avian influenza vaccine), how regulatory changes can pave the way for vaccines that will control the carrier state in animals and thus prevent infection in humans (Bartonella henselae vaccine in cats) and how novel technologies could be applied to vaccinate wildlife reservoir species for rabies. Stemming from the realisation that zoonotic diseases are the predominant source of human emerging infectious diseases, it behoves academic, public health, and animal health agencies to consider creative constructive approaches to combat serious public health challenges. Vaccination of vector/reservoir species, when efficacious vaccines are available, offers significant advantages to combating zoonotic human disease.

  5. Anti-prion activity generated by a novel vaccine formulation.

    PubMed

    Pilon, John; Loiacono, Christina; Okeson, Danelle; Lund, Sharon; Vercauteren, Kurt; Rhyan, Jack; Miller, Lowell

    2007-12-18

    Chronic wasting disease (CWD) is a transmissible spongiform encephalopathy (TSE) of domestic and wild cervids in North America. To address possible prevention regimens for CWD, we have used a mouse model system and the Rocky Mountain Laboratory (RML) mouse-adapted scrapie prion strain to screen efficacy of potential vaccine candidates. Three peptides derived from the primary amino acid sequence of the prion protein were conjugated to blue carrier protein (BCP) and formulated in an adjuvant containing M. avium subsp. avium. CL57/BL6 mice were vaccinated and boosted with 50 microg of the carrier protein-peptide conjugate formulation; all vaccines produced a humoral immune response as measured by ELISA. Disease challenge with the RML scrapie prion strain revealed anti-prion activity was generated by the vaccine formulations as measured by a delay in clinical disease onset and prolonged survivorship.

  6. Vaccine strategies: Optimising outcomes.

    PubMed

    Hardt, Karin; Bonanni, Paolo; King, Susan; Santos, Jose Ignacio; El-Hodhod, Mostafa; Zimet, Gregory D; Preiss, Scott

    2016-12-20

    Successful immunisation programmes generally result from high vaccine effectiveness and adequate uptake of vaccines. In the development of new vaccination strategies, the structure and strength of the local healthcare system is a key consideration. In high income countries, existing infrastructures are usually used, while in less developed countries, the capacity for introducing new vaccines may need to be strengthened, particularly for vaccines administered beyond early childhood, such as the measles or human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine. Reliable immunisation service funding is another important factor and low income countries often need external supplementary sources of finance. Many regions also obtain support in generating an evidence base for vaccination via initiatives created by organisations including World Health Organization (WHO), the Pan American Health Organization (PAHO), the Agence de Médecine Préventive and the Sabin Vaccine Institute. Strong monitoring and surveillance mechanisms are also required. An example is the efficient and low-cost approaches for measuring the impact of the hepatitis B control initiative and evaluating achievement of goals that have been established in the WHO Western Pacific region. A review of implementation strategies reveals differing degrees of success. For example, in the Americas, PAHO advanced a measles-mumps-rubella vaccine strategy, targeting different population groups in mass, catch-up and follow-up vaccination campaigns. This has had much success but coverage data from some parts of the region suggest that children are still not receiving all appropriate vaccines, highlighting problems with local service infrastructures. Stark differences in coverage levels are also observed among high income countries, as is the case with HPV vaccine implementation in the USA versus the UK and Australia, reflecting differences in delivery settings. Experience and research have shown which vaccine strategies work well and the

  7. Knowledge, Attitudes and Perceptions About Routine Childhood Vaccinations Among Jewish Ultra-Orthodox Mothers Residing in Communities with Low Vaccination Coverage in the Jerusalem District.

    PubMed

    Stein Zamir, Chen; Israeli, Avi

    2017-05-01

    Background and aims Childhood vaccinations are an important component of primary prevention. Maternal and Child Health (MCH) clinics in Israel provide routine vaccinations without charge. Several vaccine-preventable-diseases outbreaks (measles, mumps) emerged in Jerusalem in the past decade. We aimed to study attitudes and knowledge on vaccinations among mothers, in communities with low immunization coverage. Methods A qualitative study including focus groups and semi-structured interviews. Results Low immunization coverage was defined below the district's mean (age 2 years, 2013) for measles-mumps-rubella-varicella 1st dose (MMR1\\MMRV1) and diphtheria-tetanus-pertussis 4th dose (DTaP4), 96 and 89%, respectively. Five communities were included, all were Jewish ultra-orthodox. The mothers' (n = 87) median age was 30 years and median number of children 4. Most mothers (94%) rated vaccinations as the main activity in the MCH clinics with overall positive attitudes. Knowledge about vaccines and vaccination schedule was inadequate. Of vaccines scheduled at ages 0-2 years (n = 13), the mean number mentioned was 3.9 ± 2.8 (median 4, range 0-9). Vaccines mentioned more often were outbreak-related (measles, mumps, polio) and HBV (given to newborns). Concerns about vaccines were obvious, trust issues and religious beliefs were not. Vaccination delay was very common and timeliness was considered insignificant. Practical difficulties in adhering to the recommended schedule prevailed. The vaccinations visits were associated with pain and stress. Overall, there was a sense of self-responsibility accompanied by inability to influence others. Conclusion Investigating maternal knowledge and attitudes on childhood vaccinations provides insights that may assist in planning tailored intervention programs aimed to increase both vaccination coverage and timeliness.

  8. Comparative study on the immunopotentiator effect of ISA 201, ISA 61, ISA 50, ISA 206 used in trivalent foot and mouth disease vaccine

    PubMed Central

    Ibrahim, Ehab El-Sayed; Gamal, Wael Mossad; Hassan, Amr Ismail; Mahdy, Safy El-Din; Hegazy, Akram Zakria; Abdel-Atty, Magdy Mahmoud

    2015-01-01

    Aim: A comparison study was conducted to explore the best internationally available adjuvant that could be used in production of a highly potent foot and mouth disease (FMD) vaccine, that could stimulate a strong immune response and possibly give greater protection against FMD. Materials and Methods: Four experimental batches of trivalent FMD vaccine were prepared with different available oil adjuvants which included Montanide ISA 201, 206, 61 and 50. Results: The results indicated that vaccines emulsified using Montanide ISA 201 and Montanide ISA 206 adjuvants elicited a protective humoral immune response from the 2nd week postvaccination (WPV) as for ISA 201 with serum neutralization test (SNT) and enzyme-linked immune sorbent assay (ELISA) antibody titers of 1.62±0.047a and 1.8±0.049a, 1.59±0.076a and 1.836±0.077a, and 1.71±0.06b and 1.96±0.074b for serotypes O, A, SAT2, respectively, and for ISA 206 at SNT and ELISA antibody titers of 1.5±0.082a and 1.84±0.084a, 1.56±0.037a and 1.818±0.052a, and 1.5±0.106a,b and 1.81±0.104a,b for FMD virus serotypes O, A and SAT2, respectively. For ISA 61 and ISA 50, the protective antibody titer appeared in the 3rd WPV. In the ISA 61 FMD vaccine, SNT and ELISA titer were 1.59±0.076a and 1.9±0.094a, 1.53±0.056a and 1.83±0.070a, and 1.5±0.082a and 1.84±0.094a for serotypes O, A and SAT2, respectively, and in the case of ISA 50 FMD vaccine, the SNT, and ELISA titer were recorded for serotypes O, A and SAT2 respectively, 1.59±0.037a and 1.8±0.030a, 1.68±0.056a,b and 1.916±0.065a,b, and 1.65±0.082a and 1.9±0.09a. On estimating the cellular immune response, the highest delta optical density levels for ISA 201 (0.395-0.460) and ISA 206 (0.375-0.428) were observed on 14 and 21 days post vaccination (DPV) respectively, while the highest levels of lymphoproliferation for ISA 61 (0.375-0.455) and ISA 50 (0.411-0.430) were on 21 and 28 DPV, respectively. Conclusion: The duration of immunity from Montanide ISA oils

  9. Seasonal influenza vaccines.

    PubMed

    Fiore, Anthony E; Bridges, Carolyn B; Cox, Nancy J

    2009-01-01

    Influenza vaccines are the mainstay of efforts to reduce the substantial health burden from seasonal influenza. Inactivated influenza vaccines have been available since the 1940s and are administered via intramuscular injection. Inactivated vaccines can be given to anyone six months of age or older. Live attenuated, cold-adapted influenza vaccines (LAIV) were developed in the 1960s but were not licensed in the United States until 2003, and are administered via nasal spray. Both vaccines are trivalent preparations grown in eggs and do not contain adjuvants. LAIV is licensed for use in the United States for healthy nonpregnant persons 2-49 years of age.Influenza vaccination induces antibodies primarily against the major surface glycoproteins hemagglutinin (HA) and neuraminidase (NA); antibodies directed against the HA are most important for protection against illness. The immune response peaks at 2-4 weeks after one dose in primed individuals. In previously unvaccinated children <9 years of age, two doses of influenza vaccine are recommended, as some children in this age group have limited or no prior infections from circulating types and subtypes of seasonal influenza. These children require both an initial priming dose and a subsequent booster dose of vaccine to mount a protective antibody response.The most common adverse events associated with inactivated vaccines are sore arm and redness at the injection site; systemic symptoms such as fever or malaise are less commonly reported. Guillian-Barré Syndrome (GBS) was identified among approximately 1 per 100,000 recipients of the 1976 swine influenza vaccine. The risk of influenza vaccine-associated GBS from seasonal influenza vaccine is thought to be at most approximately 1-2 cases per 1 million vaccinees, based on a few studies that have found an association; other studies have found no association.The most common adverse events associated with LAIV are nasal congestion, headache, myalgias or fever. Studies of the

  10. Use of health care reimbursement data to estimate vaccination coverage in France: Example of hepatitis B, meningitis C, and human papillomavirus vaccination.

    PubMed

    Fonteneau, L; Ragot, M; Guthmann, J-P; Lévy-Bruhl, D

    2015-10-01

    Sources of data used in France to routinely monitor vaccination coverage, such as the Child Health Certificates and school surveys, allow reliable estimations, but data are not made available with long delays. To rapidly identify recent changes, we have explored the feasibility and relevance of using vaccine reimbursement data. We used the Permanent Sample of Beneficiaries, a representative sample of the National Health Insurance Information System, which contains data on health spending reimbursement of the vast majority of the population. We first validated this new source by comparing measles vaccine coverage between Child Health Certificates and the Permanent Sample of Beneficiaries. We present herein the results on hepatitis B, meningococcal C, and human papillomavirus vaccination (HPV) coverage. Measles vaccine coverage estimated with the Permanent Sample of Beneficiaries (91.4%) is very close to the estimation obtained through Child Health Certificates (90.6%). For children born in 2011, hepatitis B vaccination coverage at 24 months of age was 88.7% for one dose and meningococcal vaccination coverage was 56.4% for one dose in December 2013. Of girls born in 1997, 20.1% had received the full HPV vaccination series on their 16th birthday. This novel routine vaccination coverage monitoring tool provides regularly updated reactive and reliable vaccination coverage estimates in children. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS.

  11. Intellectual property rights and challenges for development of affordable human papillomavirus, rotavirus and pneumococcal vaccines: Patent landscaping and perspectives of developing country vaccine manufacturers.

    PubMed

    Chandrasekharan, Subhashini; Amin, Tahir; Kim, Joyce; Furrer, Eliane; Matterson, Anna-Carin; Schwalbe, Nina; Nguyen, Aurélia

    2015-11-17

    The success of Gavi, the Vaccine Alliance depends on the vaccine markets providing appropriate, affordable vaccines at sufficient and reliable quantities. Gavi's current supplier base for new and underutilized vaccines, such as the human papillomavirus (HPV), rotavirus, and the pneumococcal conjugate vaccine is very small. There is growing concern that following globalization of laws on intellectual property rights (IPRs) through trade agreements, IPRs are impeding new manufacturers from entering the market with competing vaccines. This article examines the extent to which IPRs, specifically patents, can create such obstacles, in particular for developing country vaccine manufacturers (DCVMs). Through building patent landscapes in Brazil, China, and India and interviews with manufacturers and experts in the field, we found intense patenting activity for the HPV and pneumococcal vaccines that could potentially delay the entry of new manufacturers. Increased transparency around patenting of vaccine technologies, stricter patentability criteria suited for local development needs and strengthening of IPRs management capabilities where relevant, may help reduce impediments to market entry for new manufacturers and ensure a competitive supplier base for quality vaccines at sustainably low prices. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  12. Vaccine process technology.

    PubMed

    Josefsberg, Jessica O; Buckland, Barry

    2012-06-01

    The evolution of vaccines (e.g., live attenuated, recombinant) and vaccine production methods (e.g., in ovo, cell culture) are intimately tied to each other. As vaccine technology has advanced, the methods to produce the vaccine have advanced and new vaccine opportunities have been created. These technologies will continue to evolve as we strive for safer and more immunogenic vaccines and as our understanding of biology improves. The evolution of vaccine process technology has occurred in parallel to the remarkable growth in the development of therapeutic proteins as products; therefore, recent vaccine innovations can leverage the progress made in the broader biotechnology industry. Numerous important legacy vaccines are still in use today despite their traditional manufacturing processes, with further development focusing on improving stability (e.g., novel excipients) and updating formulation (e.g., combination vaccines) and delivery methods (e.g., skin patches). Modern vaccine development is currently exploiting a wide array of novel technologies to create safer and more efficacious vaccines including: viral vectors produced in animal cells, virus-like particles produced in yeast or insect cells, polysaccharide conjugation to carrier proteins, DNA plasmids produced in E. coli, and therapeutic cancer vaccines created by in vitro activation of patient leukocytes. Purification advances (e.g., membrane adsorption, precipitation) are increasing efficiency, while innovative analytical methods (e.g., microsphere-based multiplex assays, RNA microarrays) are improving process understanding. Novel adjuvants such as monophosphoryl lipid A, which acts on antigen presenting cell toll-like receptors, are expanding the previously conservative list of widely accepted vaccine adjuvants. As in other areas of biotechnology, process characterization by sophisticated analysis is critical not only to improve yields, but also to determine the final product quality. From a regulatory

  13. Delivering vaccines: a case study of the distribution system of Vaccines for Children.

    PubMed

    Shafrin, Jason T; Fontanesi, John M

    2009-10-01

    To evaluate the efficacy of the centralization by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention of their pediatric vaccine distribution system. In March 2007, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention began a pilot program to reform the Vaccines for Children (VFC) program. All California VFC providers were required to place vaccine orders under the centralized logistic system of the Vaccine Management Business Improvement Project (VMBIP). For this study, VFC ordering, use, and delivery data were collected from 2 large southern California healthcare providers that collectively served more than 200,000 children. Data collection occurred between January 2005 and June 2008. This case study measures the change in the mean VFC delivery times before and after the VMBIP. The data underwent simulation to estimate the number of days per year a provider would have zero VFC inventory before and after the VMBIP. After the VMBIP was implemented, delivery times increased from 1.6 to 12.3 business days (P <.001). The probability that VFC deliveries took longer than 1 week increased from 7% before the VMBIP to 89% afterward. Our simulation demonstrates that for 7 of 11 vaccines investigated there was a statistically significant increase in the number of days a provider would be without VFC (P <.01). Although the VMBIP was implemented to save costs, this study finds that during the VMBIP's initial implementation timeline, providers experienced longer delivery delays and a higher probability of a VFC stockout.

  14. Cost-Effectiveness of Rotavirus Vaccination in France-Accounting for Indirect Protection.

    PubMed

    Yamin, Dan; Atkins, Katherine E; Remy, Vanessa; Galvani, Alison P

    Vaccination against rotavirus has shown great potential for reducing the primary cause of severe childhood gastroenteritis. Previous economic evaluations of rotavirus vaccination in France have not modeled the potential impact of vaccines on disease burden via reduced transmission. To determine the cost-effectiveness of the introduction of pentavalent rotavirus vaccination into the French infant vaccination schedule. We developed an age-structured model of rotavirus transmission calibrated to 6 years of French gastroenteritis incidence and vaccine clinical trial data. We evaluated the cost-effectiveness of pentavalent rotavirus vaccination considering that 75% of infants would receive the three-dose vaccine course. Our model predicts that rotavirus vaccination will decrease rotavirus gastroenteritis incidence and associated clinical outcomes in vaccinated and unvaccinated individuals, delay the seasonal peak of infection, and increase the age of infection. From the societal perspective, our base-case scenario predicts that vaccination coverage would be cost-effective at €115 or €135 per vaccine course at €28,500 and €39,500/quality-adjusted life-year (QALY) gained, respectively, and suggests that almost 95% of the financial benefits will be recouped within the first 5 years following vaccination implementation. From the third-party payer perspective, incremental cost-effectiveness ratios ranged from €12,500 to €20,000/QALY, respectively. Our uncertainty analysis suggests that findings were sensitive to various assumptions including the number of hospitalizations, outpatient visits, and the extent of QALY losses per rotavirus episode. Introducing pentavalent rotavirus vaccination into the French infant vaccination schedule would significantly reduce the burden of rotavirus disease in children, and could be cost-effective under plausible conditions. Copyright © 2016 International Society for Pharmacoeconomics and Outcomes Research (ISPOR). Published by

  15. Vaccine herd effect.

    PubMed

    Kim, Tae Hyong; Johnstone, Jennie; Loeb, Mark

    2011-09-01

    Vaccination ideally protects susceptible populations at high risk for complications of the infection. However, vaccines for these subgroups do not always provide sufficient effectiveness. The herd effect or herd immunity is an attractive way to extend vaccine benefits beyond the directly targeted population. It refers to the indirect protection of unvaccinated persons, whereby an increase in the prevalence of immunity by the vaccine prevents circulation of infectious agents in susceptible populations. The herd effect has had a major impact in the eradication of smallpox, has reduced transmission of pertussis, and protects against influenza and pneumococcal disease. A high uptake of vaccines is generally needed for success. In this paper we aim to provide an update review on the herd effect, focusing on the clinical benefit, by reviewing data for specific vaccines.

  16. Chikungunya vaccines in development

    PubMed Central

    Schwameis, Michael; Buchtele, Nina; Wadowski, Patricia Pia; Schoergenhofer, Christian; Jilma, Bernd

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Chikungunya virus has become a global health threat, spreading to the industrial world of Europe and the Americas; no treatment or prophylactic vaccine is available. Since the late 1960s much effort has been put into the development of a vaccine, and several heterogeneous strategies have already been explored. Only two candidates have recently qualified to enter clinical phase II trials, a chikungunya virus-like particle-based vaccine and a recombinant live attenuated measles virus-vectored vaccine. This review focuses on the current status of vaccine development against chikungunya virus in humans and discusses the diversity of immunization strategies, results of recent human trials and promising vaccine candidates. PMID:26554522

  17. Ricin vaccine development.

    PubMed

    Smallshaw, Joan E; Vitetta, Ellen S

    2012-01-01

    In this chapter we discuss vaccines to protect against the highly toxic plant-derived toxin, ricin. Due to its prevalence, ease of use, and stability it has been used in sporadic incidents of espionage. There is also concern that it will be used as an agent of bioterrorism. As a result there has been a great deal of interest in developing a safe vaccine or antidote to protect humans, and in particular soldiers and first responders. Although multiple types of vaccines have been tested, at this time two recombinant vaccines are the leading candidates for the national vaccine stockpile. In terms of passive post-exposure protection, monoclonal neutralizing antibodies that passively protect animals are also under development. These vaccines and antibodies are discussed in the context of the toxicity and structure of ricin.

  18. Vaccines and Kawasaki disease.

    PubMed

    Esposito, Susanna; Bianchini, Sonia; Dellepiane, Rosa Maria; Principi, Nicola

    2016-01-01

    The distinctive immune system characteristics of children with Kawasaki disease (KD) could suggest that they respond in a particular way to all antigenic stimulations, including those due to vaccines. Moreover, treatment of KD is mainly based on immunomodulatory therapy. These factors suggest that vaccines and KD may interact in several ways. These interactions could be of clinical relevance because KD is a disease of younger children who receive most of the vaccines recommended for infectious disease prevention. This paper shows that available evidence does not support an association between KD development and vaccine administration. Moreover, it highlights that administration of routine vaccines is mandatory even in children with KD and all efforts must be made to ensure the highest degree of protection against vaccine-preventable diseases for these patients. However, studies are needed to clarify currently unsolved issues, especially issues related to immunologic interference induced by intravenous immunoglobulin and biological drugs.

  19. Immunizations: vaccinations in general.

    PubMed

    Wiley, Catherine C

    2015-06-01

    The childhood immunization schedule is complex and nuanced. Although serious adverse reactions to immunizations are uncommon, clinicians must be well-versed in these reactions as well as the contraindications and precautions to each vaccine. • Conjugate vaccine technology links polysaccharide antigens to carrier proteins, triggering T-cell-dependent immunity to polysaccharides, thereby strengthening immune memory. • On the basis of some research evidence and consensus, live vaccines are generally contraindicated in immunocompromised patients and in pregnancy. Most live vaccines can be administered to household contacts of immunocompromised patients. • On the basis of some research and consensus, modified administration of meningococcal, pneumococcal, and less commonly, other vaccines may be indicated to protect immunocompromised patients. • On the basis of disease epidemiology and consensus, international travelers should be up-to-date with all routine immunizations; depending on destination, additional vaccines or immune globulin may be required.

  20. Herpes zoster virus vaccine.

    PubMed

    Woolery, William Alan

    2008-10-01

    Varicella zoster virus (VZV) is the etiologic agent of varicella and herpes zoster (HZ) in humans. Herpes zoster is the result of reactivation of VZV within certain sensory ganglia. The burden of illness from HZ and post-herpetic neuralgia (PHN) is high. Herpes-zoster vaccine contains live attenuated varicella-zoster virus in an amount approximately 14 times greater than that found in the varicella virus vaccine. Herpes zoster vaccine is approved for the prevention of shingles in appropriate persons aged 60 and older. The vaccine is administered in a single subcutaneous dose. Reported side effects are mild and generally limited to localized injection site findings. Herpes-zoster vaccine reportedly decreases the occurrence of herpes zoster by approximately 50 percent and prevents the development of PHN by two thirds. The vaccine appears to be minimally effective in those individuals over the age of 80 and is not recommended in this age group.

  1. Vaccine development for syphilis.

    PubMed

    Lithgow, Karen V; Cameron, Caroline E

    2017-01-01

    Syphilis, caused by the spirochete Treponema pallidum subspecies pallidum, continues to be a globally prevalent disease despite remaining susceptible to penicillin treatment. Syphilis vaccine development is a viable preventative approach that will serve to complement public health-oriented syphilis prevention, screening and treatment initiatives to deliver a two-pronged approach to stemming disease spread worldwide. Areas covered: This article provides an overview of the need for development of a syphilis vaccine, summarizes significant information that has been garnered from prior syphilis vaccine studies, discusses the critical aspects of infection that would have to be targeted by a syphilis vaccine, and presents the current understanding within the field of the correlates of protection needed to be achieved through vaccination. Expert commentary: Syphilis vaccine development should be considered a priority by industry, regulatory and funding agencies, and should be appropriately promoted and supported.

  2. Systems immunogenetics of vaccines.

    PubMed

    Mooney, Michael; McWeeney, Shannon; Sékaly, Rafick-Pierre

    2013-04-01

    Vaccines are the most cost effective public health measure for preventing viral infection and limiting epidemic spread within susceptible populations. However, the efficacy of current protective vaccines is highly variable, particularly in aging populations. In addition, there have been a number of challenges in the development of new vaccines due to a lack of detailed understanding of the immune correlates of protection. To identify the mechanisms underlying the variability of the immune response to vaccines, system-level tools need to be developed that will further our understanding of virus-host interactions and correlates of vaccine efficacy. This will provide critical information for rational vaccine design and allow the development of an analog to the "precision medicine" framework (already acknowledged as a powerful approach in medicine and therapeutics) to be applied to vaccinology.

  3. Therapeutic cancer vaccines

    PubMed Central

    Melief, Cornelis J.M.; van Hall, Thorbald; Arens, Ramon; Ossendorp, Ferry; van der Burg, Sjoerd H.

    2015-01-01

    The clinical benefit of therapeutic cancer vaccines has been established. Whereas regression of lesions was shown for premalignant lesions caused by HPV, clinical benefit in cancer patients was mostly noted as prolonged survival. Suboptimal vaccine design and an immunosuppressive cancer microenvironment are the root causes of the lack of cancer eradication. Effective cancer vaccines deliver concentrated antigen to both HLA class I and II molecules of DCs, promoting both CD4 and CD8 T cell responses. Optimal vaccine platforms include DNA and RNA vaccines and synthetic long peptides. Antigens of choice include mutant sequences, selected cancer testis antigens, and viral antigens. Drugs or physical treatments can mitigate the immunosuppressive cancer microenvironment and include chemotherapeutics, radiation, indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase (IDO) inhibitors, inhibitors of T cell checkpoints, agonists of selected TNF receptor family members, and inhibitors of undesirable cytokines. The specificity of therapeutic vaccination combined with such immunomodulation offers an attractive avenue for the development of future cancer therapies. PMID:26214521

  4. Addressing Parental Vaccine Concerns: Engagement, Balance, and Timing.

    PubMed

    Glanz, Jason M; Kraus, Courtney R; Daley, Matthew F

    2015-08-01

    The recent United States measles epidemic has sparked another contentious national discussion about childhood vaccination. A growing number of parents are expressing concerns about the safety of vaccines, often fueled by misinformation from the internet, books, and other nonmedical sources. Many of these concerned parents are choosing to refuse or delay childhood vaccines, placing their children and surrounding communities at risk for serious diseases that are nearly 100% preventable with vaccination. Between 10% and 15% of parents are asking physicians to space out the timing of vaccines, which often poses an ethical dilemma for physicians. This trend reflects a tension between personal liberty and public health, as parents fight to control the decisions that affect the health of their children and public health officials strive to maintain high immunization rates to prevent outbreaks of vaccine-preventable diseases. Interventions to address this emerging public health issue are needed. We describe a framework by which web-based interventions can be used to help parents make evidence-based decisions about childhood vaccinations.

  5. Vaccine hesitancy: clarifying a theoretical framework for an ambiguous notion.

    PubMed

    Peretti-Watel, Patrick; Larson, Heidi J; Ward, Jeremy K; Schulz, William S; Verger, Pierre

    2015-02-25

    Today, according to many public health experts, public confidence in vaccines is waning. The term "vaccine hesitancy" (VH) is increasingly used to describe the spread of such vaccine reluctance. But VH is an ambiguous notion and its theoretical background appears uncertain. To clarify this concept, we first review the current definitions of VH in the public health literature and examine its most prominent characteristics. VH has been defined as a set of beliefs, attitudes, or behaviours, or some combination of them, shared by a large and heterogeneous portion of the population and including people who exhibit reluctant conformism (they may either decline a vaccine, delay it or accept it despite their doubts) and vaccine-specific behaviours. Secondly, we underline some of the ambiguities of this notion and argue that it is more a catchall category than a real concept. We also call into question the usefulness of understanding VH as an intermediate position along a continuum ranging from anti-vaccine to pro-vaccine attitudes, and we discuss its qualification as a belief, attitude or behaviour. Thirdly, we propose a theoretical framework, based on previous literature and taking into account some major structural features of contemporary societies, that considers VH as a kind of decision-making process that depends on people's level of commitment to healthism/risk culture and on their level of confidence in the health authorities and mainstream medicine.

  6. Poliovirus vaccination during the endgame: insights from integrated modeling.

    PubMed

    Duintjer Tebbens, Radboud J; Thompson, Kimberly M

    2017-06-01

    Managing the polio endgame requires access to sufficient quantities of poliovirus vaccines. After oral poliovirus vaccine (OPV) cessation, outbreaks may occur that require outbreak response using monovalent OPV (mOPV) and/or inactivated poliovirus vaccine. Areas covered: We review the experience and challenges with managing vaccine supplies in the context of the polio endgame. Building on models that explored polio endgame risks and the potential mOPV needs to stop outbreaks from live poliovirus reintroductions, we conceptually explore the potential demands for finished and bulk mOPV doses from a stockpile in the context of limited shelf-life of finished vaccine and time delays to convert bulk to finished vaccine. Our analysis suggests that the required size of the mOPV stockpile varies by serotype, with the highest expected needs for serotype 1 mOPV. Based on realizations of poliovirus risks after OPV cessation, the stockpile required to eliminate the chance of a stock-out appears considerably larger than the currently planned mOPV stockpiles. Expert commentary: The total required stockpile size depends on the acceptable probability of a stock-out, and increases with longer times to finish bulk doses and shorter shelf-lives of finished doses. Successful polio endgame management will require careful attention to poliovirus vaccine supplies.

  7. Vaccines for Nontypeable Haemophilus influenzae: the Future Is Now.

    PubMed

    Murphy, Timothy F

    2015-05-01

    Infections due to nontypeable Haemophilus influenzae result in enormous global morbidity in two clinical settings: otitis media in children and respiratory tract infections in adults with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Recurrent otitis media affects up to 20% of children and results in hearing loss, delays in speech and language development and, in developing countries, chronic suppurative otitis media. Infections in people with COPD result in clinic and emergency room visits, hospital admissions, and respiratory failure. An effective vaccine would prevent morbidity, help control health care costs, and reduce antibiotic use, a major contributor to the global crisis in bacterial antibiotic resistance. The widespread use of the pneumococcal conjugate vaccines is causing a relative increase in H. influenzae otitis media. The partial protection against H. influenzae otitis media induced by the pneumococcal H. influenzae protein D conjugate vaccine represents a proof of principle of the feasibility of a vaccine for nontypeable H. influenzae. An ideal vaccine antigen should be conserved among strains, have abundant epitopes on the bacterial surface, be immunogenic, and induce protective immune responses. Several surface proteins of H. influenzae have been identified as potential vaccine candidates and are in various stages of development. With continued research, progress toward a broadly effective vaccine to prevent infections caused by nontypeable H. influenzae is expected over the next several years.

  8. Vector transmission of leishmania abrogates vaccine-induced protective immunity.

    PubMed

    Peters, Nathan C; Kimblin, Nicola; Secundino, Nagila; Kamhawi, Shaden; Lawyer, Phillip; Sacks, David L

    2009-06-01

    Numerous experimental vaccines have been developed to protect against the cutaneous and visceral forms of leishmaniasis caused by infection with the obligate intracellular protozoan Leishmania, but a human vaccine still does not exist. Remarkably, the efficacy of anti-Leishmania vaccines has never been fully evaluated under experimental conditions following natural vector transmission by infected sand fly bite. The only immunization strategy known to protect humans against natural exposure is "leishmanization," in which viable L. major parasites are intentionally inoculated into a selected site in the skin. We employed mice with healed L. major infections to mimic leishmanization, and found tissue-seeking, cytokine-producing CD4+ T cells specific for Leishmania at the site of challenge by infected sand fly bite within 24 hours, and these mice were highly resistant to sand fly transmitted infection. In contrast, mice vaccinated with a killed vaccine comprised of autoclaved L. major antigen (ALM)+CpG oligodeoxynucleotides that protected against needle inoculation of parasites, showed delayed expression of protective immunity and failed to protect against infected sand fly challenge. Two-photon intra-vital microscopy and flow cytometric analysis revealed that sand fly, but not needle challenge, resulted in the maintenance of a localized neutrophilic response at the inoculation site, and removal of neutrophils following vector transmission led to increased parasite-specific immune responses and promoted the efficacy of the killed vaccine. These observations identify the critical immunological factors influencing vaccine efficacy following natural transmission of Leishmania.

  9. Vaccines for Nontypeable Haemophilus influenzae: the Future Is Now

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Infections due to nontypeable Haemophilus influenzae result in enormous global morbidity in two clinical settings: otitis media in children and respiratory tract infections in adults with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Recurrent otitis media affects up to 20% of children and results in hearing loss, delays in speech and language development and, in developing countries, chronic suppurative otitis media. Infections in people with COPD result in clinic and emergency room visits, hospital admissions, and respiratory failure. An effective vaccine would prevent morbidity, help control health care costs, and reduce antibiotic use, a major contributor to the global crisis in bacterial antibiotic resistance. The widespread use of the pneumococcal conjugate vaccines is causing a relative increase in H. influenzae otitis media. The partial protection against H. influenzae otitis media induced by the pneumococcal H. influenzae protein D conjugate vaccine represents a proof of principle of the feasibility of a vaccine for nontypeable H. influenzae. An ideal vaccine antigen should be conserved among strains, have abundant epitopes on the bacterial surface, be immunogenic, and induce protective immune responses. Several surface proteins of H. influenzae have been identified as potential vaccine candidates and are in various stages of development. With continued research, progress toward a broadly effective vaccine to prevent infections caused by nontypeable H. influenzae is expected over the next several years. PMID:25787137

  10. Vaccine Hesitancy: Clarifying a Theoretical Framework for an Ambiguous Notion

    PubMed Central

    Peretti-Watel, Patrick; Larson, Heidi J; Ward, Jeremy K.; Schulz, William S; Verger, Pierre

    2015-01-01

    Today, according to many public health experts, public confidence in vaccines is waning. The term “vaccine hesitancy” (VH) is increasingly used to describe the spread of such vaccine reluctance. But VH is an ambiguous notion and its theoretical background appears uncertain. To clarify this concept, we first review the current definitions of VH in the public health literature and examine its most prominent characteristics. VH has been defined as a set of beliefs, attitudes, or behaviours, or some combination of them, shared by a large and heterogeneous portion of the population and including people who exhibit reluctant conformism (they may either decline a vaccine, delay it or accept it despite their doubts) and vaccine-specific behaviours. Secondly, we underline some of the ambiguities of this notion and argue that it is more a catchall category than a real concept. We also call into question the usefulness of understanding VH as an intermediate position along a continuum ranging from anti-vaccine to pro-vaccine attitudes, and we discuss its qualification as a belief, attitude or behaviour. Thirdly, we propose a theoretical framework, based on previous literature and taking into account some major structural features of contemporary societies, that considers VH as a kind of decision-making process that depends on people’s level of commitment to healthism/risk culture and on their level of confidence in the health authorities and mainstream medicine. PMID:25789201

  11. Addressing Parental Vaccine Concerns: Engagement, Balance, and Timing

    PubMed Central

    Glanz, Jason M.; Kraus, Courtney R.; Daley, Matthew F.

    2015-01-01

    The recent United States measles epidemic has sparked another contentious national discussion about childhood vaccination. A growing number of parents are expressing concerns about the safety of vaccines, often fueled by misinformation from the internet, books, and other nonmedical sources. Many of these concerned parents are choosing to refuse or delay childhood vaccines, placing their children and surrounding communities at risk for serious diseases that are nearly 100% preventable with vaccination. Between 10% and 15% of parents are asking physicians to space out the timing of vaccines, which often poses an ethical dilemma for physicians. This trend reflects a tension between personal liberty and public health, as parents fight to control the decisions that affect the health of their children and public health officials strive to maintain high immunization rates to prevent outbreaks of vaccine-preventable diseases. Interventions to address this emerging public health issue are needed. We describe a framework by which web-based interventions can be used to help parents make evidence-based decisions about childhood vaccinations. PMID:26252770

  12. What Vaccines Do You Need?

    MedlinePlus

    ... Recommendations Why Immunize? Vaccines: The Basics The Adult Vaccine Quiz Language: English Español (Spanish) Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir Vaccines are recommended for adults based on age, health ...

  13. The Latest in Vaccine Policies: Selected Issues in School Vaccinations, Healthcare Worker Vaccinations, and Pharmacist Vaccination Authority Laws.

    PubMed

    Barraza, Leila; Schmit, Cason; Hoss, Aila

    2017-03-01

    This paper discusses recent changes to state legal frameworks for mandatory vaccination in the context of school and healthcare worker vaccination. It then discusses state laws that allow pharmacists the authority to vaccinate.

  14. HIV Infection and Adult Vaccination

    MedlinePlus

    ... Resources for Healthcare Professionals HIV Infection and Adult Vaccination Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir Vaccines are ... percentage is less than 15%. Learn about adult vaccination and other health conditions Asplenia Diabetes Type 1 ...

  15. Renal Disease and Adult Vaccination

    MedlinePlus

    ... Resources for Healthcare Professionals Renal Disease and Adult Vaccination Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir Vaccines are ... have immunity to this disease Learn about adult vaccination and other health conditions Asplenia Diabetes Type 1 ...

  16. Liver Disease and Adult Vaccination

    MedlinePlus

    ... Resources for Healthcare Professionals Liver Disease and Adult Vaccination Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir Vaccines are ... have immunity to this disease Learn about adult vaccination and other health conditions Asplenia Diabetes Type 1 ...

  17. Influenza Vaccine, Inactivated or Recombinant

    MedlinePlus

    ... die from flu, and many more are hospitalized.Flu vaccine can:keep you from getting flu, make flu ... inactivated or recombinant influenza vaccine?A dose of flu vaccine is recommended every flu season. Children 6 months ...

  18. Geographic prioritization of distributing pandemic influenza vaccines.

    PubMed

    Araz, Ozgur M; Galvani, Alison; Meyers, Lauren A

    2012-09-01

    Pandemic influenza is an international public health concern. In light of the persistent threat of H5N1 avian influenza and the recent pandemic of A/H1N1swine influenza outbreak, public health agencies around the globe are continuously revising their preparedness plans. The A/H1N1 pandemic of 2009 demonstrated that influenza activity and severity might vary considerably among age groups and locations, and the distribution of an effective influenza vaccine may be significantly delayed and staggered. Thus, pandemic influenza vaccine distribution policies should be tailored to the demographic and spatial structures of communities. Here, we introduce a bi-criteria decision-making framework for vaccine distribution policies that is based on a geospatial and demographically-structured model of pandemic influenza transmission within and between counties of Arizona in the Unites States. Based on data from the 2009-2010 H1N1 pandemic, the policy predicted to reduce overall attack rate most effectively is prioritizing counties expected to experience the latest epidemic waves (a policy that may be politically untenable). However, when we consider reductions in both the attack rate and the waiting period for those seeking vaccines, the widely adopted pro rata policy (distributing according to population size) is also predicted to be an effective strategy.

  19. Vaccination against strontium-90-induced bone tumors

    SciTech Connect

    Reif, A.E.; Triest, W.E.

    1983-09-01

    The thesis was tested that immunization against a murine osteosarcoma virus can reduce the incidence of bone tumors induced by /sup 90/Sr. C57BL/6J female mice (190) were divided into three sets of 2 groups. Each set consisted of a control group and an experimental group treated ip with 1.0 muCi /sup 90/Sr at 66 days of age. The three sets of groups received the following additional treatments: none (controls), 6 injections of Formalin-inactivated FBJ osteosarcoma virus (vaccinated group), or 6 injections of active FBJ virus (active virus controls). Only 1 bone tumor developed in a mouse not treated with /sup 90/Sr in the active virus controls. In /sup 90/Sr-treated mice, vaccination reduced bone tumor deaths during the first 600 days from 9 of 36 in controls to 1 of 33 in vaccinated mice (P less than .01), but bone tumor deaths during the entire life-span, 10 of 36 and 5 of 33, respectively, were not significantly different (P . .07). Thus the vaccination procedure delayed the development of bone tumors. In contrast, injection of active virus into /sup 90/Sr-treated mice increased the lifetime incidence of bone tumors from 10 of 36 in controls to 19 of 32 (P . .01).

  20. Vaccination coverage of children with rare genetic diseases and attitudes of their parents toward vaccines.

    PubMed

    Esposito, Susanna; Cerutti, Marta; Milani, Donatella; Menni, Francesca; Principi, Nicola

    2016-03-03

    Despite the fact that the achievement of appropriate immunization coverage for routine vaccines is a priority for health authorities worldwide, vaccination delays or missed opportunities for immunization are common in children with chronic diseases. The main aim of this cross-sectional study was to evaluate immunization coverage and the timeliness of vaccination in children suffering from 3 different rare genetic diseases: Rubinstein-Taybi syndrome (RSTS), Sotos syndrome (SS), and Beckwith-Wiedemann syndrome (BWS). A total of 57 children with genetic diseases (15 with RSTS, 14 children with SS, and 28 with BWS) and 57 healthy controls with similar characteristics were enrolled. The coverage of all the recommended vaccines in children with genetic syndromes was significantly lower than that observed in healthy controls (p < 0.05 for all the comparisons). However, when vaccinated, all of the patients, independent of the genetic syndrome from which they suffer, were administered the primary series and the booster doses at a similar time to healthy controls. In comparison with parents of healthy controls, parents of children with genetic diseases were found to more frequently have negative attitudes toward vaccination (p < 0.05 for all the comparisons), mainly for fear of the emergence of adverse events or deterioration of the underlying disease. This study shows that vaccination coverage is poor in pediatric patients with RSTS, BWS, and SS and significantly lower than that observed in healthy children. These results highlight the need for educational programs specifically aimed at both parents and pediatricians to increase immunization coverage in children with these rare genetic diseases.

  1. Myopericarditis following Smallpox Vaccination

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2004-04-20

    smallpox vaccinations with this strain of vaccinia virus . Fifty-eight males and one female aged 21–43 years with confirmed or probable acute...or unrecognized event after smallpox vaccinations with the New York City Board of Health strain of vaccinia virus (Dryvax; Wyeth Laboratories, Marietta...respectively). military personnel; myocarditis; pericarditis; smallpox; vaccination; vaccinia virus Abbreviations: CDC, Centers for Disease Control and

  2. Emerging Vaccine Technologies

    PubMed Central

    Loomis, Rebecca J.; Johnson, Philip R.

    2015-01-01

    Vaccination has proven to be an invaluable means of preventing infectious diseases by reducing both incidence of disease and mortality. However, vaccines have not been effectively developed for many diseases including HIV-1, hepatitis C virus (HCV), tuberculosis and malaria, among others. The emergence of new technologies with a growing understanding of host-pathogen interactions and immunity may lead to efficacious vaccines against pathogens, previously thought impossible. PMID:26343196

  3. Existing antibacterial vaccines.

    PubMed

    Mendoza, Natalia; Ravanfar, Parisa; Satyaprakash, Anita; Satyaprakah, Anita; Pillai, Sivaprabha; Creed, Rosella

    2009-01-01

    There are countless bacterial pathogens that cause disease in humans. Many of these bacterial infections not only cause significant morbidity and mortality in the human population but also cause a significant economic impact on society. Vaccines allow for reduction and potential eradication of such diseases. This article will review the currently approved antibacterial vaccines, which are vaccines for pertussis, tetanus, diphtheria, meningococcus, pneumococcus, Haemophilus influenza, cholera, typhoid, and anthrax.

  4. [Does vaccination cause disease?].

    PubMed

    Zingg, W

    2005-10-01

    Not many inventions in medical history have influenced our society as much as vaccination. The concept is old and simple. When Edward Jenner published his work on cowpox, "variolation" was quite common. In this procedure, pus of patients with mild smallpox was transferred to healthy individuals. Meanwhile smallpox has been eradicated worldwide. Diseases such as poliomyelitis, diphtheria or tetanus almost disappeared in industrialized countries. The same happened with epiglottitis and meningitis due to Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib) after vaccination against Hib was introduced in Switzerland in 1990. This success was possible because of routine vaccination. Immunization is a save procedure and adverse events are much lower than complications in the natural course of the prevented diseases. However vaccinations were accused to cause diseases themselves such as asthma, multiple sclerosis, diabetes mellitus, chronic arthritis or autism. Hitherto no large cohort study or case-control-study was able to proof responsibility of vaccines in any of these diseases. Public media are eager to publish early data from surveillance reports or case reports which are descriptive and never a principle of cause and effect. In large controlled trials there was no proof that vaccination causes asthma, hepatitis-B-vaccination causes multiple sclerosis or macrophagic myofasciitis, Hib-vaccination causes diabetes mellitus, rubella-vaccination causes chronic arthritis, measles-mumps-rubella-vaccination causes gait disturbance or thiomersal causes autism. These results are rarely published in newspapers or television. Thus, many caring parents are left with negative ideas about immunization. Looking for the best for their children they withhold vaccination and give way to resurgence of preventable diseases in our communities. This must be prevented. There is more evidence than expected that vaccination is safe and this can and must be told to parents.

  5. [Diagnosis of delayed puberty].

    PubMed

    Busiah, K; Belien, V; Dallot, N; Fila, M; Guilbert, J; Harroche, A; Leger, J

    2007-09-01

    Puberty is the phenomenon that conducts once to reproductive maturation. Delayed puberty (DP) is defined by the absence of testicular development in boys beyond 14 years old (or a testicular volume lower than 4 ml) and by the absence of breast development in girls beyond 13 years old. DP occurs in approximatively 3% of cases. Most cases are functional DP, with a large amount of constitutional delay of puberty. Others etiologies are hypogonadotrophic hypogonadism like Kallmann syndrome, or hypergonadotrophic hypogonadism. Turner syndrome is a diagnostic one should not forget by its frequency. Treatment is hormonal replacement therapy and of the etiology. During the last decade, many genes have been identified and elucidated the etiological diagnosis of some hypogonadotrophic hypogonadism syndrome. Further studies are required in collaboration with molecular biologists to better understand the mechanism of hypothalamic pituitary gonadal axis abnormalities and of the neuroendocrine physiology of the onset of puberty.

  6. Human Vaccines and Immunotherapeutics: News

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Two studies on optimal timing for measles vaccination Chinese scientists develop bird flu vaccine Influenza vaccination reduces risk of heart attack and stroke Two-dose vaccination program shows positive impact on varicella incidence WHO prequalifies Chinese-produced Japanese encephalitis vaccine Phase 3: RTS,S almost halves malaria cases in young children Herd immunity protects babies against whooping cough New developments in nanoparticle-based vaccination

  7. Theoretical Delay Time Distributions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nelemans, Gijs; Toonen, Silvia; Bours, Madelon

    2013-01-01

    We briefly discuss the method of population synthesis to calculate theoretical delay time distributions of Type Ia supernova progenitors. We also compare the results of different research groups and conclude that, although one of the main differences in the results for single degenerate progenitors is the retention efficiency with which accreted hydrogen is added to the white dwarf core, this alone cannot explain all the differences.

  8. [Striated and delayed nephrography].

    PubMed

    Marlois, O; Padovani, J; Faure, F; Devred, P; Grangier, M L; Panuel, M

    1985-10-01

    About a case of striated and delayed nephrogram seen on a diabetic child, authors come back to the different etiologies. Among them, the tubular precipitation of Tamm-Horsfall protein seems to be given like on the right possibilities. Whatever is its etiology, the mechanism of striated appearance is always the same, being founded on the radiated disposal of the collecting ducts and on a tubular stasis beeing with iodine concentration.

  9. Delayed visual maturation.

    PubMed Central

    Cole, G F; Hungerford, J; Jones, R B

    1984-01-01

    Sixteen blind babies who were considered to be showing the characteristics of delayed visual maturation were studied prospectively. The diagnosis was made on clinical grounds, and the criteria for this are discussed. All of these infants developed visual responses between 4 and 6 months of age and had normal or near normal visual acuities by 1 year of age. Long term follow up, however, has shown neurological abnormalities in some of these children. PMID:6200080

  10. Vaccines: Shaping global health.

    PubMed

    Pagliusi, Sonia; Ting, Ching-Chia; Lobos, Fernando

    2017-03-14

    The Developing Countries Vaccine Manufacturers' Network (DCVMN) gathered leaders in immunization programs, vaccine manufacturing, representatives of the Argentinean Health Authorities and Pan American Health Organization, among other global health stakeholders, for its 17th Annual General Meeting in Buenos Aires, to reflect on how vaccines are shaping global health. Polio eradication and elimination of measles and rubella from the Americas is a result of successful collaboration, made possible by timely supply of affordable vaccines. After decades of intense competition for high-value markets, collaboration with developing countries has become critical, and involvement of multiple manufacturers as well as public- and private-sector investments are essential, for developing new vaccines against emerging infectious diseases. The recent Zika virus outbreak and the accelerated Ebola vaccine development exemplify the need for international partnerships to combat infectious diseases. A new player, Coalition for Epidemic Preparedness Innovations (CEPI) has made its entrance in the global health community, aiming to stimulate research preparedness against emerging infections. Face-to-face panel discussions facilitated the dialogue around challenges, such as risks of viability to vaccine development and regulatory convergence, to improve access to sustainable vaccine supply. It was discussed that joint efforts to optimizing regulatory pathways in developing countries, reducing registration time by up to 50%, are required. Outbreaks of emerging infections and the global Polio eradication and containment challenges are reminders of the importance of vaccines' access, and of the importance of new public-private partnerships. Copyright © 2017.

  11. Rift Valley fever vaccines

    PubMed Central

    Ikegami, Tetsuro; Makino, Shinji

    2009-01-01

    Rift Valley fever virus (RVFV), which belongs to the genus Phlebovirus, family Bunyaviridae, is a negative-stranded RNA virus carrying a tripartite RNA genome. RVFV is transmitted by mosquitoes and causes large outbreaks among ruminants and humans in Africa and the Arabian Peninsula. Human patients develop an acute febrile illness, followed by a fatal hemorrhagic fever, encephalitis or ocular diseases, whereas ruminants experience abortions during outbreak. Effective vaccination of both humans and ruminants is the best approach to control Rift Valley fever. This article summarizes the development of inactivated RVFV vaccine, live attenuated vaccine, and other new generation vaccines. PMID:19837291

  12. Dengue virus vaccine development.

    PubMed

    Yauch, Lauren E; Shresta, Sujan

    2014-01-01

    Dengue virus (DENV) is a significant cause of morbidity and mortality in tropical and subtropical regions, causing hundreds of millions of infections each year. Infections range from asymptomatic to a self-limited febrile illness, dengue fever (DF), to the life-threatening dengue hemorrhagic fever/dengue shock syndrome (DHF/DSS). The expanding of the habitat of DENV-transmitting mosquitoes has resulted in dramatic increases in the number of cases over the past 50 years, and recent outbreaks have occurred in the United States. Developing a dengue vaccine is a global health priority. DENV vaccine development is challenging due to the existence of four serotypes of the virus (DENV1-4), which a vaccine must protect against. Additionally, the adaptive immune response to DENV may be both protective and pathogenic upon subsequent infection, and the precise features of protective versus pathogenic immune responses to DENV are unknown, complicating vaccine development. Numerous vaccine candidates, including live attenuated, inactivated, recombinant subunit, DNA, and viral vectored vaccines, are in various stages of clinical development, from preclinical to phase 3. This review will discuss the adaptive immune response to DENV, dengue vaccine challenges, animal models used to test dengue vaccine candidates, and historical and current dengue vaccine approaches.

  13. Vaccines and global health

    PubMed Central

    Greenwood, Brian; Salisbury, David; Hill, Adrian V. S.

    2011-01-01

    Vaccines have made a major contribution to global health in recent decades but they could do much more. In November 2011, a Royal Society discussion meeting, ‘New vaccines for global health’, was held in London to discuss the past contribution of vaccines to global health and to consider what more could be expected in the future. Papers presented at the meeting reviewed recent successes in the deployment of vaccines against major infections of childhood and the challenges faced in developing vaccines against some of the world's remaining major infectious diseases such as human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), malaria and tuberculosis. The important contribution that development of more effective veterinary vaccines could make to global health was also addressed. Some of the social and financial challenges to the development and deployment of new vaccines were reviewed. The latter issues were also discussed at a subsequent satellite meeting, ‘Accelerating vaccine development’, held at the Kavli Royal Society International Centre. Delegates at this meeting considered challenges to the more rapid development and deployment of both human and veterinary vaccines and how these might be addressed. Papers based on presentations at the discussion meeting and a summary of the main conclusions of the satellite meeting are included in this issue of Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B. PMID:21893534

  14. Vaccines, our shared responsibility.

    PubMed

    Pagliusi, Sonia; Jain, Rishabh; Suri, Rajinder Kumar

    2015-05-05

    The Developing Countries Vaccine Manufacturers' Network (DCVMN) held its fifteenth annual meeting from October 27-29, 2014, New Delhi, India. The DCVMN, together with the co-organizing institution Panacea Biotec, welcomed over 240 delegates representing high-profile governmental and nongovernmental global health organizations from 36 countries. Over the three-day meeting, attendees exchanged information about their efforts to achieve their shared goal of preventing death and disability from known and emerging infectious diseases. Special praise was extended to all stakeholders involved in the success of polio eradication in South East Asia and highlighted challenges in vaccine supply for measles-rubella immunization over the coming decades. Innovative vaccines and vaccine delivery technologies indicated creative solutions for achieving global immunization goals. Discussions were focused on three major themes including regulatory challenges for developing countries that may be overcome with better communication; global collaborations and partnerships for leveraging investments and enable uninterrupted supply of affordable and suitable vaccines; and leading innovation in vaccines difficult to develop, such as dengue, Chikungunya, typhoid-conjugated and EV71, and needle-free technologies that may speed up vaccine delivery. Moving further into the Decade of Vaccines, participants renewed their commitment to shared responsibility toward a world free of vaccine-preventable diseases. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  15. Pulmonary vaccine delivery.

    PubMed

    Lu, Dongmei; Hickey, Anthony J

    2007-04-01

    This review will discuss developments in the field of pulmonary vaccine delivery. The possibilities of adopting aerosol-generation technology and specific pharmaceutical formulations for the purpose of pulmonary immunization are described. Aerosol-generation systems might offer advantages with respect to vaccine stability and antigenicity. Adjuvants and their inclusion in vaccine-delivery systems are described. Other formulation components, such as surfactants, particulate systems and dispersion of the aerosols are detailed in this paper. The noninvasive, relatively safe and low-cost nature of pulmonary delivery may provide great benefits to the public health vaccination campaign.

  16. Polyvalent AIDS Vaccines

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Shan; Grimes Serrano, Jill M.; Wang, Shixia

    2013-01-01

    A major hurdle in the development of a global HIV-1 vaccine is viral diversity. For close to three decades, HIV vaccine development has focused on either the induction of T cell immune responses or antibody responses, and only rarely on both components. After the failure of the STEP trial, the scientific community concluded that a T cell-based vaccine would likely not be protective if the T cell immune responses were elicited against only a few dominant epitopes. Similarly, for vaccines focusing on antibody responses, one of the main criticisms after VaxGen’s failed Phase III trials was on the limited antigen breadth included in the two formulations used. The successes of polyvalent vaccine approaches against other antigenically variable pathogens encourage implementation of the same approach for the design of HIV-1 vaccines. A review of the existing HIV-1 vaccination approaches based on the polyvalent principle is included here to provide a historical perspective for the current effort of developing a polyvalent HIV-1 vaccine. Results summarized in this review provide a clear indication that the polyvalent approach is a viable one for the future development of an effective HIV vaccine. PMID:21054250

  17. Neglected tropical disease vaccines.

    PubMed

    Hotez, Peter J; Brown, Ami Shah

    2009-06-01

    The neglected tropical diseases or 'NTDs' represent the most common infections of the world's one billion poorest people. Unlike the better known acute or emerging infections, the NTDs are generally chronic and disabling (and often disfiguring) conditions. The long-term disability they cause has been revealed as a major reason why poor people in developing countries cannot escape the poverty trap. Because NTDs are associated with poverty, vaccines against these conditions are sometimes referred to as antipoverty vaccines. However, despite their global public health and economic importance, such vaccines have largely been ignored by industry and today are predominantly being produced through the activities of non-profit product development partnerships (PDPs). The Human Hookworm Vaccine Initiative based at the Sabin Vaccine Institute is one such PDP developing two antipoverty vaccines for hookworm and schistosomiasis, respectively. It has been proposed to combine these vaccines in order to target polyparasitic co-infections leading to severe anemia. Ultimately, to ensure global access of a multivalent anthelminthic vaccine, it may be linked to deworming programs through vaccine-linked chemotherapy. This would be an important step towards achieving the Millennium Development Goals for sustainable poverty reduction by 2015.

  18. A universal flu vaccine.

    PubMed

    Kesik-Brodacka, Malgorzata; Plucienniczak, Grazyna

    2014-01-01

    Influenza is a global health concern. The single most effective way of protecting people against influenza infection and disease is vaccination. However, currently available vaccines against influenza induce only strain-specific immunity, and do not elicit long-lasting serum antibody titers. Therefore, they are ineffective in the case of possible pandemics. There is an urgent need for a new generation vaccine which would induce broad and long-lasting immune protection against antigenically distinct flu viruses. The paper presents recent achievements and the challenges in the field of universal vaccine construction.

  19. Vaccines for foreign travel.

    PubMed

    Wolfe, M S

    1990-06-01

    Exotic infections are a significant threat to the child traveling to or going to live in the developing world. Vaccines are available that can prevent some of these infections. It is essential that basic routine childhood vaccination be up to date and that necessary modifications be made from the usual schedule in the United States. The current requirements and local disease conditions (both endemic and epidemic) for each country to be visited must be known so that appropriate vaccines are received. Resources for this information are listed. Details for each vaccine are given, including indications, dose, booster, side effects, contraindications, and other specific information.

  20. Vaccination against Brucella.

    PubMed

    Nicoletti, P

    1990-01-01

    Vaccination has played an enormous role in reducing brucellosis in many countries. It is certain to continue to be the preeminent factor in control of the disease in others. The search for an ideal vaccine continues. Live vaccines have proved to be superior to inactivated products. They are effective, inexpensive, and immunity is more persistent. The disadvantages of postvaccinal antibodies can be minimized by reduction of previously recommended doses and through use of supplemental diagnostic tests. These procedures now make entire population vaccination of great practical significance with many advantages over limited use of the strains 19 and Rev. 1. Adult animal vaccination should be much more extensive in many countries. A live B. suis strain 2 vaccine developed in China deserves much additional evaluation, including use in swine, for which no satisfactory vaccine exists. It is generally agreed that cell-mediated responses are the dominant aspect of immunogenesis. However, the correlates that have frequently been used--dermal hypersensitivity and lymphocyte stimulation in vitro--appear to be poor indices of cell-mediated immunity in brucellosis. Many studies have shown that postvaccinal antibodies do not predict subsequent immunity. There is a great need for simple in vivo or in vitro methods to measure CMI. While vaccination of humans may be useful in control of brucellosis in some high-risk occupations, the ultimate success is dependent upon reduction of this very important zoonosis in natural hosts. This is most effectively accomplished by widespread use of vaccination.

  1. Delayed coking process

    SciTech Connect

    Shigley, J.K.; Roussel, K.M.; Harris, S.D.

    1991-07-02

    This patent describes improvement in a delayed premium coking process in which an aromatic mineral oil feedstock is heated to elevated temperature and introduced continuously to a coking drum under delayed coking conditions wherein the heated feedstock soaks in its contained heat to convert the feedstock to cracked vapors and premium coke at lower than normal coking temperatures in the range of about 780{degrees} F. to about 895{degrees} F. and in which the introduction of feedstock to the coking drum is discontinued after the coking drum is filled to a desired level. The improvement comprises: introducing additional aromatic mineral oil capable of forming coke admixed with a non-coking material to the coking drum under delayed coking conditions for a sufficient period of time to convert unconverted liquid material to coke wherein the concentration of aromatic mineral oil in the admixture is from 5 to 90 percent, and thereafter subjecting the contents of the coke drum to a heat soak at a temperature greater than the initial coking temperature whereby a premium coke having improved CTE and reduced fluff is obtained.

  2. Contribution of Immunization Weeks toward improving coverage, access to services, and completion of recommended childhood vaccinations in Assam, India.

    PubMed

    Ryman, Tove K; Trakroo, Ajay; Ekka, J B; Watkins, Margaret

    2012-03-28

    Recommended childhood vaccines have typically been provided through routine immunization programs. Recently, implementation of strategies that use campaign-like features for providing all the recommended childhood immunizations have been utilized to increase vaccination coverage. Between January 2006 and January 2008, Assam, India, conducted Immunization Weeks (IWs), a periodic campaign-like approach for providing the recommended childhood vaccines generally administered through the routine Universal Immunization Program (UIP). Using data from a household vaccination coverage survey conducted in 5 districts of Assam in late-2007/early-2008 among children 12-28 months of age, a secondary analysis was conducted for a subset of children with vaccination cards to assess the impacts of implementing the IW-strategy. Sixty-five percent of the 3310 surveyed children received at least one vaccine dose through an IW. Without IWs, coverage would likely have been lower for all vaccines (e.g., 75% measles vaccine coverage including IWs doses and an estimated 61% without IWs). The proportion of children receiving at least one IW dose was significantly different depending on the child's residence; 72% in hard-to-reach char areas, 66% in rural areas and 53% in urban areas (p=0.01). Overall, 2085 (63%) of children were fully vaccinated; of these 60% received a combination of IW and UIP doses, 35% received doses only through the UIP, and 5% received doses only through IWs. A delay in administration later than the recommended ages was found for both UIP doses and for IW doses (e.g., for measles vaccine, UIP doses were 6.9 weeks delayed and IW doses 13.6 weeks delayed). Among this sample of vaccinated children, IWs appeared to increase vaccination coverage and improve access to services in hard-to-reach areas. However, the UIP appeared to be a better system for ensuring that children received all doses in the recommended vaccination series.

  3. Delay discounting by pathological gamblers.

    PubMed Central

    Dixon, Mark R; Marley, Janice; Jacobs, Eric A

    2003-01-01

    Discounting of delayed rewards by pathological gamblers was compared to discounting of delayed rewards by matched control nongambling participants. All participants completed a hypothetical choice task in which they made repeated choices between dollars 1,000 available after a delay and an equal or lesser amount of money available immediately. The delay to the large amount of money was varied from 1 week to 10 years across conditions. Indifference points between immediate money and delayed money were identified at each delay condition by varying the amount of immediate money across choice trials. For the majority of participants, indifference points decreased monotonically across delays. Overall, gamblers discounted the delayed rewards more steeply than did control participants. PMID:14768665

  4. [Adverse reactions to vaccines].

    PubMed

    Eseverri, J L; Ranea, S; Marin, A

    2003-01-01

    Adverse reactions to vaccines are highly varied, ranging from mild local reactions to fatal outcomes. In the last few years many adverse reactions have been attributed to vaccines, often without justification. In agreement with the World Health Organization, these reactions can be classified as follows, depending on the cause: vaccination-induced reactions (due to an effect of the vaccine itself or to an idiosyncrasy); reactions due to errors in storage, manipulation and/or administration; and coincidental reactions (no causal relationship with the vaccine). Hypersensitivity reactions fall into six categories, depending on the causative agent: reactions due to some component of the infectious agent or one of its products; reactions due to adjuvants: aluminium hydroxide; reactions due to stabilizers: gelatin; reactions due to preservatives: thiomersal; reactions due to antibiotics: neomycin; and reactions due to a biological culture medium: chicken embryo cells. Allergic children should not be excluded from the normal vaccine calendar. Immunologically, allergic individuals are more susceptible to infection and to microbial and viral diseases, which often play an aggravating role. Rubella, whooping cough, and influenza usually exacerbate respiratory allergies. Non-vaccination carries a marked risk of contracting serious diseases such as poliomyelitis, tetanus, and diphtheria, etc. In a not too distant future, the techniques of genetic recombination and monoclonal antibody production will allow the creation of vaccines from organisms that cannot be cultivated in the laboratory or that produce small quantities of antigen. These techniques will also lead to identification of the antigens with the greatest immunogenic power and, consequently, to extremely pure vaccines. The adverse reactions to vaccines referred to our service account for between 0.59 % and 1.27 % of first visits in the last three years. We recorded a total of 48 adverse reactions to vaccines. Of

  5. History of polio vaccination

    PubMed Central

    Baicus, Anda

    20