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Sample records for oil-seed rape field

  1. Effects of damping-off caused by Rhizoctonia solani anastomosis group 2-1 on roots of wheat and oil seed rape quantified using X-ray Computed Tomography and real-time PCR

    PubMed Central

    Sturrock, Craig J.; Woodhall, James; Brown, Matthew; Walker, Catherine; Mooney, Sacha J.; Ray, Rumiana V.

    2015-01-01

    Rhizoctonia solani is a plant pathogenic fungus that causes significant establishment and yield losses to several important food crops globally. This is the first application of high resolution X-ray micro Computed Tomography (X-ray μCT) and real-time PCR to study host–pathogen interactions in situ and elucidate the mechanism of Rhizoctonia damping-off disease over a 6-day period caused by R. solani, anastomosis group (AG) 2-1 in wheat (Triticum aestivum cv. Gallant) and oil seed rape (OSR, Brassica napus cv. Marinka). Temporal, non-destructive analysis of root system architectures was performed using RooTrak and validated by the destructive method of root washing. Disease was assessed visually and related to pathogen DNA quantification in soil using real-time PCR. R. solani AG2-1 at similar initial DNA concentrations in soil was capable of causing significant damage to the developing root systems of both wheat and OSR. Disease caused reductions in primary root number, root volume, root surface area, and convex hull which were affected less in the monocotyledonous host. Wheat was more tolerant to the pathogen, exhibited fewer symptoms and developed more complex root systems. In contrast, R. solani caused earlier damage and maceration of the taproot of the dicot, OSR. Disease severity was related to pathogen DNA accumulation in soil only for OSR, however, reductions in root traits were significantly associated with both disease and pathogen DNA. The method offers the first steps in advancing current understanding of soil-borne pathogen behavior in situ at the pore scale, which may lead to the development of mitigation measures to combat disease influence in the field. PMID:26157449

  2. Effects of damping-off caused by Rhizoctonia solani anastomosis group 2-1 on roots of wheat and oil seed rape quantified using X-ray Computed Tomography and real-time PCR.

    PubMed

    Sturrock, Craig J; Woodhall, James; Brown, Matthew; Walker, Catherine; Mooney, Sacha J; Ray, Rumiana V

    2015-01-01

    Rhizoctonia solani is a plant pathogenic fungus that causes significant establishment and yield losses to several important food crops globally. This is the first application of high resolution X-ray micro Computed Tomography (X-ray μCT) and real-time PCR to study host-pathogen interactions in situ and elucidate the mechanism of Rhizoctonia damping-off disease over a 6-day period caused by R. solani, anastomosis group (AG) 2-1 in wheat (Triticum aestivum cv. Gallant) and oil seed rape (OSR, Brassica napus cv. Marinka). Temporal, non-destructive analysis of root system architectures was performed using RooTrak and validated by the destructive method of root washing. Disease was assessed visually and related to pathogen DNA quantification in soil using real-time PCR. R. solani AG2-1 at similar initial DNA concentrations in soil was capable of causing significant damage to the developing root systems of both wheat and OSR. Disease caused reductions in primary root number, root volume, root surface area, and convex hull which were affected less in the monocotyledonous host. Wheat was more tolerant to the pathogen, exhibited fewer symptoms and developed more complex root systems. In contrast, R. solani caused earlier damage and maceration of the taproot of the dicot, OSR. Disease severity was related to pathogen DNA accumulation in soil only for OSR, however, reductions in root traits were significantly associated with both disease and pathogen DNA. The method offers the first steps in advancing current understanding of soil-borne pathogen behavior in situ at the pore scale, which may lead to the development of mitigation measures to combat disease influence in the field.

  3. Heterogeneity in the distribution of genetically modified and conventional oilseed rape within fields and seed lots.

    PubMed

    Begg, Graham S; Elliott, Martin J; Cullen, Danny W; Iannetta, Pietro P M; Squire, Geoff R

    2008-10-01

    The implementation of co-existence in the commercialisation of GM crops requires GM and non-GM products to be segregated in production and supply. However, maintaining segregation in oilseed rape will be made difficult by the highly persistent nature of this species. An understanding of its population dynamics is needed to predict persistence and develop potential strategies for control, while to ensure segregation is being achieved, the production of GM oilseed rape must be accompanied by the monitoring of GM levels in crop or seed populations. Heterogeneity in the spatial distribution of oilseed rape has the potential to affect both control and monitoring and, although a universal phenomenon in arable weeds and harvested seed lots, spatial heterogeneity in oilseed rape populations remains to be demonstrated and quantified. Here we investigate the distribution of crop and volunteer populations in a commercial field before and during the cultivation of the first conventional oilseed rape (winter) crop since the cultivation of a GM glufosinate-tolerant oilseed rape crop (spring) three years previously. GM presence was detected by ELISA for the PAT protein in each of three morphologically distinguishable phenotypes: autumn germinating crop-type plants (3% GM), autumn-germinating 'regrowths' (72% GM) and spring germinating 'small-type' plants (17% GM). Statistical models (Poisson log-normal and binomial logit-normal) were used to describe the spatial distribution of these populations at multiple spatial scales in the field and of GM presence in the harvested seed lot. Heterogeneity was a consistent feature in the distribution of GM and conventional oilseed rape. Large trends across the field (50 x 400 m) and seed lot (4 x 1.5 x 1.5 m) were observed in addition to small-scale heterogeneity, less than 20 m in the field and 20 cm in the seed lot. The heterogeneity was greater for the 'regrowth' and 'small' phenotypes, which were likely to be volunteers and included most

  4. Bacillus megaterium A6 suppresses Sclerotinia sclerotiorum on oilseed rape in the field and promotes oilseed rape growth

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Sclerotinia sclerotiorum causes serious yield losses in crops in The People’s Republic of China and other regions of the world. Two formulations of oilseed rape seed containing the plant-growth promoting bacterium Bacillus megaterium A6 were evaluated for suppression of this pathogen on oilseed rap...

  5. Formulations of Bacillus subtilis BY-2 suppress Sclerotinia sclerotiorum on oilseed rape in the field

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We are developing a collection of Bacillus strains, isolated from different environments, for use in controlling Sclerotinia sclerotiorum on oilseed rape in China and elsewhere. Strain BY-2, isolated from internal tissues of an oilseed rape root, was demonstrated to be Bacillus subtilis based on bi...

  6. Distance from forest edge affects bee pollinators in oilseed rape fields

    PubMed Central

    Bailey, Samantha; Requier, Fabrice; Nusillard, Benoît; Roberts, Stuart P M; Potts, Simon G; Bouget, Christophe

    2014-01-01

    Wild pollinators have been shown to enhance the pollination of Brassica napus (oilseed rape) and thus increase its market value. Several studies have previously shown that pollination services are greater in crops adjoining forest patches or other seminatural habitats than in crops completely surrounded by other crops. In this study, we investigated the specific importance of forest edges in providing potential pollinators in B. napus fields in two areas in France. Bees were caught with yellow pan traps at increasing distances from both warm and cold forest edges into B. napus fields during the blooming period. A total of 4594 individual bees, representing six families and 83 taxa, were collected. We found that both bee abundance and taxa richness were negatively affected by the distance from forest edge. However, responses varied between bee groups and edge orientations. The ITD (Inter-Tegular distance) of the species, a good proxy for bee foraging range, seems to limit how far the bees can travel from the forest edge. We found a greater abundance of cuckoo bees (Nomada spp.) of Andrena spp. and Andrena spp. males at forest edges, which we assume indicate suitable nesting sites, or at least mating sites, for some abundant Andrena species and their parasites (Fig. 1). Synthesis and Applications. This study provides one of the first examples in temperate ecosystems of how forest edges may actually act as a reservoir of potential pollinators and directly benefit agricultural crops by providing nesting or mating sites for important early spring pollinators. Policy-makers and land managers should take forest edges into account and encourage their protection in the agricultural matrix to promote wild bees and their pollination services. PMID:24634722

  7. Distance from forest edge affects bee pollinators in oilseed rape fields.

    PubMed

    Bailey, Samantha; Requier, Fabrice; Nusillard, Benoît; Roberts, Stuart P M; Potts, Simon G; Bouget, Christophe

    2014-02-01

    Wild pollinators have been shown to enhance the pollination of Brassica napus (oilseed rape) and thus increase its market value. Several studies have previously shown that pollination services are greater in crops adjoining forest patches or other seminatural habitats than in crops completely surrounded by other crops. In this study, we investigated the specific importance of forest edges in providing potential pollinators in B. napus fields in two areas in France. Bees were caught with yellow pan traps at increasing distances from both warm and cold forest edges into B. napus fields during the blooming period. A total of 4594 individual bees, representing six families and 83 taxa, were collected. We found that both bee abundance and taxa richness were negatively affected by the distance from forest edge. However, responses varied between bee groups and edge orientations. The ITD (Inter-Tegular distance) of the species, a good proxy for bee foraging range, seems to limit how far the bees can travel from the forest edge. We found a greater abundance of cuckoo bees (Nomada spp.) of Andrena spp. and Andrena spp. males at forest edges, which we assume indicate suitable nesting sites, or at least mating sites, for some abundant Andrena species and their parasites (Fig. 1). Synthesis and Applications. This study provides one of the first examples in temperate ecosystems of how forest edges may actually act as a reservoir of potential pollinators and directly benefit agricultural crops by providing nesting or mating sites for important early spring pollinators. Policy-makers and land managers should take forest edges into account and encourage their protection in the agricultural matrix to promote wild bees and their pollination services.

  8. Rape prevention

    MedlinePlus

    Date rape - prevention; Sexual assault - prevention ... Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Sexual assault and abuse and STDs. In: 2015 sexually transmitted diseases treatment guidelines 2015. Updated June 4, 2015. www.cdc.gov/ ...

  9. Perceptions of Rape.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Witten, Barbara J.; Remer, Rory

    Society does not view rape seriously. Few rape crimes are successfully prosecuted. Rape results in permanent alteration of the victim's life. Besides street rape there is no consensus on the definition of rape. This study attempts to gather people's perceptions of rape. Subjects (N=96) were approached randomly and accepted if they fit into desired…

  10. Formulations of the endophytic bacterium Bacillus subtilis Tu-100 suppress Sclerotinia sclerotiorum on oilseed rape and improve plant vigor in field trials conducted at separate locations

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Sclerotinia sclerotiorum causes serious yield losses in crops in The People’s Republic of China. Two formulations of oilseed rape seed containing the endophytic bacterium Bacillus subtilis Tu-100 were evaluated for suppression of this pathogen in field trials conducted at two independent locations....

  11. Nitrous oxide emissions from rape field as affected by nitrogen fertilizer management: A case study in Central China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Shan; Iqbal, Javed; Hu, Ronggui; Wu, Jinshui; Zhao, Jinsong; Ruan, Leilei; Malghani, Saadatullah

    2011-03-01

    Agricultural soils are one of the major sources of atmospheric nitrous oxide (N 2O) emission. Red soil, one of the typical agricultural soils in sub-tropical China, plays an important role in the global N 2O flux emissions. To determine its N mineralization potential, a field study was conducted to assess the effect of application of nitrogen (N) fertilizer in a rape field under red soil at the experimental station of Heshengqiao at Xianning, Hubei, China. To estimate N-induced N 2O flux, we examined N 2O flux during the growth stages of the rape field including four treatments: fertilizer PK (N0), fertilizer NPK (60 kg N ha -1) (N1), fertilizer NPK (120 kg N ha -1) (N2), fertilizer NPK (240 kg N ha -1) (N3). There were distinct variations in soil N 2O fluxes (from 0.16 to 0.90 kg N ha -1), with higher values being observed during the spring and autumn while low values were observed during winter season. Among different treatments, N fertilization significantly increased the N 2O fluxes, with highest fluxes from N3 while lowest values being observed from N0 treatment. This suggested increased microbial activity in response to increased N fertilizer application. It was interesting to note that fertilizer-induced emissions decreased as the applied fertilizer amount was increased. During the whole growing season, N 2O flux did not correlate with soil temperature, but it significantly correlated to other environmental variables; water-filled pore space (WFPS), soil NO 3--N and NH 4+-N contents, which suggests the need for efficient water use and low inorganic nitrogen fertilizer management practices.

  12. Monoterpene emissions and carbonyl compound air concentrations during the blooming period of rape (Brassica napus).

    PubMed

    Müller, Konrad; Pelzing, Matthias; Gnauk, Thomas; Kappe, Anett; Teichmann, Ulrich; Spindler, Gerald; Haferkorn, Sylvia; Jahn, Yvonne; Herrmann, Hartmut

    2002-12-01

    An increasing percentage of agricultural land in Germany is used for oil seed plants. Hence, rape has become an important agricultural plant (in Saxony 1998: 12% of the farmland) in the recent years. During flowering of rape along with intensive radiation and high temperatures, a higher production and emission of biogenic VOC was observed. The emissions of terpenes were determined and more importantly, high concentrations of organic carbonyl compounds were observed during this field experiment. All measurements of interest have been carried out during two selected days with optimal weather conditions. It is found that the origin or the mechanism of formation of different group of compounds had strong influence on the day to day variation of their concentrations. The emission flux of terpenes from flowering rape plants was determined to be 16-32 microg h(-1) m(-2) (30-60 ng h(-1) per g dry plant-540-11080 ng h(-1) per plant), in total. Limonene, alpha-thujene and sabinene were the most important compounds (about 60% of total terpenes). For limonene and sabinene reference emission rates (Ms) and temperature coefficients were determined: beta(limonene) = 0.108 K(-1) and Ms = 14.57 microg h(-1) m(-2) beta(sabinene) = 0.095 K(-1) and Ms = 5.39 microg h(-1) m(-2). The detected carbonyl compound concentrations were unexpectedly high (maximum formaldehyde concentration was 18.1 ppbv and 3.4 ppbv for butyraldehyde) for an open field. Possible reasons for these concentrations are the combination of primary emission from the plants induced by high temperature and high ozone stress, the secondary formation from biogenically and advected anthropogenically emitted VOC at high radiation intensities and furthered by the low wind speeds at this time.

  13. Reflections on researching rape resistance.

    PubMed

    Ullman, Sarah E

    2014-03-01

    This article provides a retrospective account of my experience embarking on research about women's resistance to rape, including reflections on personal and professional experiences related to studying this topic. I discuss factors inspiring my interest, including pioneering feminist rape researchers, my experience as a woman living with the reality and fear of rape, and influential mentors who facilitated my career development as a scholar in graduate school and beyond. I weave this narrative together with my thoughts about how the study of resistance relates to other important issues in the field of sexual assault including alcohol, recovery, and prevention.

  14. Hydroponics versus field lysimeter studies of urea, ammonium and nitrate uptake by oilseed rape (Brassica napus L.).

    PubMed

    Arkoun, Mustapha; Sarda, Xavier; Jannin, Laëtitia; Laîné, Philippe; Etienne, Philippe; Garcia-Mina, José-Maria; Yvin, Jean-Claude; Ourry, Alain

    2012-09-01

    N-fertilizer use efficiencies are affected by their chemical composition and suffer from potential N-losses by volatilization. In a field lysimeter experiment, (15)N-labelled fertilizers were used to follow N uptake by Brassica napus L. and assess N-losses by volatilization. Use of urea with NBPT (urease inhibitor) showed the best efficiency with the lowest N losses (8% of N applied compared with 25% with urea alone). Plants receiving ammonium sulphate, had similar yield achieved through a better N mobilization from vegetative tissues to the seeds, despite a lower N uptake resulting from a higher volatilization (43% of applied N). Amounts of (15)N in the plant were also higher when plants were fertilized with ammonium nitrate but N-losses reached 23% of applied N. In parallel, hydroponic experiments showed a deleterious effect of ammonium and urea on the growth of oilseed rape. This was alleviated by the nitrate supply, which was preferentially taken up. B. napus was also characterized by a very low potential for urea uptake. BnDUR3 and BnAMT1, encoding urea and ammonium transporters, were up-regulated by urea, suggesting that urea-grown plants suffered from nitrogen deficiency. The results also suggested a role for nitrate as a signal for the expression of BnDUR3, in addition to its role as a major nutrient. Overall, the results of the hydroponic study showed that urea itself does not contribute significantly to the N nutrition of oilseed rape. Moreover, it may contribute indirectly since a better use efficiency for urea fertilizer, which was further increased by the application of a urease inhibitor, was observed in the lysimeter study.

  15. Rape (sexual assault) - overview

    MedlinePlus

    Sex and rape; Date rape; Sexual assault ... Rape may occur between members of the same sex. This is more common in places such as prisons, military settings, and single-sex schools. People with physical or mental disabilities or ...

  16. Genetic Diversity of Oilseed Rape Fields and Feral Populations in the Context of Coexistence with GM Crops.

    PubMed

    Bailleul, Diane; Ollier, Sébastien; Lecomte, Jane

    2016-01-01

    Despite growing concern about transgenes escaping from fields, few studies have analysed the genetic diversity of crops in an agroecosystem over several years. Accurate information about the dynamics and relationship of the genetic diversity of crops in an agroecosystem is essential for risk assessment and policies concerning the containment of genetically modified crops and their coexistence with crops grown by conventional practices. Here, we analysed the genetic diversity of oilseed rape plants from fields and feral populations over 4 years in an agricultural landscape of 41 km2. We used exact compatibility and maximum likelihood assignment methods to assign these plants to cultivars. Even pure lines and hybrid cultivar seed lots contained several genotypes. The cultivar diversity in fields reflected the conventional view of agroecosystems quite well: that is, there was a succession of cultivars, some grown for longer than others because of their good performance, some used for one year and then abandoned, and others gradually adopted. Three types of field emerged: fields sown with a single cultivar, fields sown with two cultivars, and unassigned fields (too many cultivars or unassigned plants to reliably assign the field). Field plant diversity was higher than expected, indicating the persistence of cultivars that were grown for only one year. The cultivar composition of feral populations was similar to that of field plants, with an increasing number of cultivars each year. By using genetic tools, we found a link between the cultivars of field plants in a particular year and the cultivars of feral population plants in the following year. Feral populations on road verges were more diverse than those on path verges. All of these findings are discussed in terms of their consequences in the context of coexistence with genetically modified crops.

  17. Genetic Diversity of Oilseed Rape Fields and Feral Populations in the Context of Coexistence with GM Crops

    PubMed Central

    Bailleul, Diane; Ollier, Sébastien; Lecomte, Jane

    2016-01-01

    Despite growing concern about transgenes escaping from fields, few studies have analysed the genetic diversity of crops in an agroecosystem over several years. Accurate information about the dynamics and relationship of the genetic diversity of crops in an agroecosystem is essential for risk assessment and policies concerning the containment of genetically modified crops and their coexistence with crops grown by conventional practices. Here, we analysed the genetic diversity of oilseed rape plants from fields and feral populations over 4 years in an agricultural landscape of 41 km2. We used exact compatibility and maximum likelihood assignment methods to assign these plants to cultivars. Even pure lines and hybrid cultivar seed lots contained several genotypes. The cultivar diversity in fields reflected the conventional view of agroecosystems quite well: that is, there was a succession of cultivars, some grown for longer than others because of their good performance, some used for one year and then abandoned, and others gradually adopted. Three types of field emerged: fields sown with a single cultivar, fields sown with two cultivars, and unassigned fields (too many cultivars or unassigned plants to reliably assign the field). Field plant diversity was higher than expected, indicating the persistence of cultivars that were grown for only one year. The cultivar composition of feral populations was similar to that of field plants, with an increasing number of cultivars each year. By using genetic tools, we found a link between the cultivars of field plants in a particular year and the cultivars of feral population plants in the following year. Feral populations on road verges were more diverse than those on path verges. All of these findings are discussed in terms of their consequences in the context of coexistence with genetically modified crops. PMID:27359342

  18. Rice Yield and the Fate of Fertilizer Nitrogen as Affected by Addition of Earthworm Casts Collected from Oilseed Rape Fields: A Pot Experiment

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Min; Zhou, Xuefeng; Xie, Xiaobing; Zhao, Chunrong; Chen, Jiana; Cao, Fangbo; Zou, Yingbin

    2016-01-01

    The mechanism associated with improvement of soil nutritional status by oilseed rape crop, leading to better performance of rice crop, in rice-oilseed rape cropping systems is little known. The present study was aimed to test the hypothesis that earthworm casts produced during oilseed rape-growing season have positive effects on grain yield and fertilizer nitrogen (N) utilization in the subsequent flooded rice crop. A 15N-tracing pot experiment was conducted to determine the effects of earthworm casts collected from oilseed rape fields on yield attributes in rice and the fate of fertilizer N. Soil treated with earthworm casts (soil: earthworm casts = 4: 1, w/w) (EC1) produced 39% higher grain yield than soil only (EC0). EC1 had 18% more panicle number and 10% higher spikelet filling percentage than EC0. Aboveground biomass and harvest index were higher in EC1 than in EC0 by 20% and 15%, respectively. SPAD values in flag leaves were 10% and 22% higher under EC1 than EC0 at 15 and 20 days after heading, respectively. EC1 had 19% higher total N uptake and 18% higher physiological N-use efficiency than EC0. These positive effects of earthworm casts on yield attributes offset negative effects of decreasing N rate from 0.74 g pot–1 (equivalent to the recommended field rate of 150 kg ha–1) to 0.44 g pot–1 (equivalent to 60% of the recommended rate). Fertilizer N retention rate was 7% higher while fertilizer N loss rate was 6% lower in EC1 than in EC0. Our study suggests that earthworm casts produced during oilseed rape-growing season are expected to have the following benefits on the subsequent flooded rice system: (1) improving growth and physiological processes in rice plants and consequently increasing rice grain yield, and (2) increasing fertilizer N retention rate and hence decreasing fertilizer N loss rate and reducing environmental risk. PMID:27880837

  19. Dynamics of Nitrogen Uptake and Mobilization in Field-grown Winter Oilseed Rape (Brassica napus) from Stem Extension to Harvest

    PubMed Central

    MALAGOLI, P.; LAINE, P.; ROSSATO, L.; OURRY, A.

    2005-01-01

    • Background and Aims Despite its high capacity to take up nitrate from the soil, winter oilseed rape (Brassica napus) is characterized by a very low N recovery in the reproductive tissues under field conditions. A significant part of the N taken up is lost to the soil in dead leaves during the growth cycle. An accurate description of N dynamics at the whole plant level in each compartment under field conditions should lead to a better understanding of N allocation in B. napus and improvements in the nitrogen harvest index. • Methods An experiment was conducted in field conditions using sequential weekly 15N labelling to follow N uptake, partitioning and mobilization. Nitrogen labelling (2·5 kg N ha−1; 10 % excess) was analysed weekly (from stem extension to harvest) to distinguish between uptake of new N (labelled) and mobilized N (unlabelled) in the different plant components. • Key Results and Conclusions N requirements for seed filling were satisfied mainly by N mobilized from vegetative parts (about 73 % of the total N in pods). Determination of the endogenous N flow showed that there was net transfer of N to the pods by leaves (36 %), stem (34 %), inflorescences (22 %) and taproot (8 %). Precise study of N flow from leaves at different nodes revealed the existence of two main groups of leaves in terms of their apparent capacity to mobilize N; 30–60 % and 70–80 % of peak N content occurring during flowering and pod filling, respectively. Moreover, the latter group was found to be the main source of endogenous N from leaves. The mobilization of endogenous N from these leaves was prolonged and concomitant with N accumulation in the pods. A complex pattern of N mobilization from the leaves, to vegetative or reproductive tissues, was revealed. These results will be used to model N partitioning during the growth cycle. PMID:15701662

  20. Diversity and phylotype consistency of bacteria in the guts of three bee species (Apoidea) at an oilseed rape field.

    PubMed

    Mohr, Kathrin I; Tebbe, Christoph C

    2006-02-01

    The gut of insects may harbour one of the largest reservoirs of a yet unexplored microbial diversity. To understand how specific insects select for their own bacterial communities, the structural diversity and variability of bacteria found in the gut of different bee species was analysed. For three successive years, adults and larvae of Apis mellifera ssp. carnica (honey bee), and Bombus terrestris (bumble bee), as well as larvae of Osmia bicornis (red mason bee) were collected at a flowering oilseed rape field. Total DNA was extracted from gut material and the bacterial diversity was analysed, independent of cultivation, by genetic profiling with single-strand conformation polymorphism (SSCP) of polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-amplified partial 16S rRNA genes. The SSCP profiles were specific for all bee species and for larvae and adults. Qualitative and quantitative differences were found in the bacterial community structure of larvae and adults of A. mellifera, but differences in B. terrestris were mainly quantitative. Sequencing of the PCR products revealed a dominance of Alpha-, Beta-, and Gammaproteobacteria, Bacteroidetes, and Firmicutes in all bee species. Single-strand conformation polymorphism profiles suggested a higher abundance and diversity of lactobacilli in adults of A. mellifera than in larvae. Further phylogenetic analyses indicated common bacterial phylotypes for all three bee species, e.g. those related to Simonsiella, Serratia, and Lactobacillus. Clades related to Delftia acidovorans, Pseudomonas aeruginosa or Lactobacillus intestinalis only contained sequences from larvae. Several of the bee-specific clusters also contained identical or highly similar sequences from bacteria detected in other A. mellifera subspecies from South Africa, suggesting the existence of cosmopolitan gut bacteria in bees.

  1. Date Rape (For Teens)

    MedlinePlus

    ... local numbers or call the national sexual assault hotline at (800) 656-HOPE. Rape crisis calls are ... local numbers or call the national sexual assault hotline at (800) 656-HOPE. Rape crisis calls are ...

  2. Field-test of a date-rape drug detection device.

    PubMed

    Quest, Dale W; Horsley, Joanne

    2007-01-01

    Drink Safe Technology Version 1.2 is an inexpensive color-change reagent test marketed internationally for use by consumers in settings such as a night club to detect potentially incapacitating concentrations of gamma-hydroxybutyric acid (GHB) and ketamine in beverages. The objective of this study was to compare product performance in the laboratory and performance in the hands of consumers in the field. Product performance in the laboratory adhered to the protocol defined by the manufacturer. Product performance in the hands of consumers in field settings allowed browsing participants to pipette an aliquot of their own drinks into randomly coded vials containing authentic drugs, or pure water, so as to yield the same concentrations of GHB or ketamine specified in the manufacturer-defined protocol, or blanks. Consumers were to proceed according to the directions printed on the product, and to record their results on a card with a code corresponding with the vial to which they had added an aliquot of their beverage. Diagnostic performance was calculated using two-way analysis. In the laboratory, Drink Safe Technology Version 1.2 reliably detected GHB and ketamine at concentrations specified by the manufacturer's protocol. The reactive color change denoting a positive test for GHB was rapid, but a positive test for ketamine required substantially more time to resolve. Nonetheless, test accuracy following the manufacturer's protocol in the laboratory was 100%. In the field, based on 101 paired-test results recorded by consumers, the test efficiency was 65.1%, sensitivity 50%, and specificity 91.6%. The product performed much better in the laboratory than it did in the hand of consumers in the field. There seems to be considerable potential for consumers to misinterpret a test result. The potential for consumers to record a false-negative test result for a spiked drink is cause for concern.

  3. Rape Myths, Rape Scripts, and Common Rape Experiences of College Women: Differences in Perceptions of Women Who Have Been Raped.

    PubMed

    Hockett, Jericho M; Saucier, Donald A; Badke, Caitlyn

    2016-03-01

    Rape is prevalent at colleges. Although research suggests commonalities across many college women's rape experiences (e.g., perpetrators using multiple coercive strategies), vignettes used to assess rape perceptions often reflect false beliefs. Two studies varying a perpetrator's coercive tactics examine rape perceptions using vignettes reflecting rape myths, rape scripts, or many college women's common rape experiences. Participants perceive a woman who was raped more positively in vignettes reflecting common rape experiences versus those reflecting rape myths or scripts. Theoretical, educational, and research implications are discussed.

  4. Rape and Seduction Scripts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ryan, Kathryn M.

    1988-01-01

    College students (N=18) wrote scripts about "typical" rape and "typical" seduction. Scripts were coded on 20 dimensions. Results showed that rape and seduction scripts were very different. Most subjects described blitz rape in which woman outdoors was attacked by male stranger. Seductions described were usually indoors and…

  5. The effects of rape residue mulching on net global warming potential and greenhouse gas intensity from no-tillage paddy fields.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Zhi-Sheng; Cao, Cou-Gui; Guo, Li-Jin; Li, Cheng-Fang

    2014-01-01

    A field experiment was conducted to provide a complete greenhouse gas (GHG) accounting for global warming potential (GWP), net GWP, and greenhouse gas intensity (GHGI) from no-tillage (NT) paddy fields with different amounts of oilseed rape residue mulch (0, 3000, 4000, and 6000 kg dry matter (DM) ha(-1)) during a rice-growing season after 3 years of oilseed rape-rice cultivation. Residue mulching treatments showed significantly more organic carbon (C) density for the 0-20 cm soil layer at harvesting than no residue treatment. During a rice-growing season, residue mulching treatments sequestered significantly more organic C from 687 kg C ha(-1) season(-1) to 1654 kg C ha(-1) season(-1) than no residue treatment. Residue mulching significantly increased emissions of CO2 and N2O but decreased CH4 emissions. Residue mulching treatments significantly increased GWP by 9-30% but significantly decreased net GWP by 33-71% and GHGI by 35-72% relative to no residue treatment. These results suggest that agricultural economic viability and GHG mitigation can be achieved simultaneously by residue mulching on NT paddy fields in central China.

  6. Long-Term Monitoring of Field Trial Sites with Genetically Modified Oilseed Rape (Brassica napus L.) in Saxony-Anhalt, Germany. Fifteen Years Persistence to Date but No Spatial Dispersion.

    PubMed

    Belter, Anke

    2016-01-16

    Oilseed rape is known to persist in arable fields because of its ability to develop secondary seed dormancy in certain agronomic and environmental conditions. If conditions change, rapeseeds are able to germinate up to 10 years later to build volunteers in ensuing crops. Extrapolations of experimental data acted on the assumption of persistence periods for more than 20 years after last harvest of rapeseed. Genetically-modified oilseed rape-cultivated widely in Northern America since 1996-is assumed not to differ from its conventional form in this property. Here, experimental data are reported from official monitoring activities that verify these assumptions. At two former field trial sites in Saxony-Anhalt genetically-modified herbicide-resistant oilseed rape volunteers are found up to fifteen years after harvest. Nevertheless, spatial dispersion or establishment of GM plants outside of the field sites was not observed within this period.

  7. Expression of green fluorescent protein in pollen of oilseed rape (Brassica napus L.) and its utility for assessing pollen movement in the field.

    PubMed

    Moon, Hong S; Halfhill, Matthew D; Hudson, Laura C; Millwood, Reginald J; Stewart, C Neal

    2006-10-01

    Transgene movement via pollen is an important component of gene flow from transgenic plants. Here, we present proof-of-concept studies that demonstrate the monitoring of short distant movement of pollen expressing a genetically encoded fluorescent tag in oilseed rape (Brassica napus L. cv. Westar). Transgenic oilseed rape plants were produced using Agrobacterium-mediated transformation method with the pBINDC1 construct containing a green fluorescent protein (GFP) variant, mGFP5-ER, under the control of the pollen-specific LAT59 promoter from tomato. Transgenic pollen was differentiated from non-transgenic pollen in vivo by a unique spectral signature, and was shown to be an effective tool to monitor pollen movement in the greenhouse and field. GFP-tagged pollen also served as a practical marker to determine the zygosity of plants. In a greenhouse pollen flow study, more pollen was captured at closer distances from the source plant plot with consistent wind generated by a fan. Under field conditions, GFP transgenic pollen grains were detected up to a distance of 15 m, the farthest distance from source plants assayed. GFP-tagged pollen was easily distinguishable from non-transgenic pollen using an epifluorescence microscope.

  8. The Realities of Date Rape.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Presley, Cara; Watson, Jennifer; Williams, Audrey R.

    This poster presentation addresses the issue of date rape, specifically in the college environment. Highlighted are date rape statistics, demographics, and date rape drugs. Also discussed are date rape warnings and prevention strategies. It is concluded that college and university administrators must place the issue of date rape and acquaintance…

  9. Patterns of domestication in the Ethiopian oil-seed crop noug (Guizotia abyssinica)

    PubMed Central

    Dempewolf, Hannes; Tesfaye, Misteru; Teshome, Abel; Bjorkman, Anne D; Andrew, Rose L; Scascitelli, Moira; Black, Scott; Bekele, Endashaw; Engels, Johannes M M; Cronk, Quentin C B; Rieseberg, Loren H

    2015-01-01

    Noug (Guizotia abyssinica) is a semidomesticated oil-seed crop, which is primarily cultivated in Ethiopia. Unlike its closest crop relative, sunflower, noug has small seeds, small flowering heads, many branches, many flowering heads, and indeterminate flowering, and it shatters in the field. Here, we conducted common garden studies and microsatellite analyses of genetic variation to test whether high levels of crop–wild gene flow and/or unfavorable phenotypic correlations have hindered noug domestication. With the exception of one population, analyses of microsatellite variation failed to detect substantial recent admixture between noug and its wild progenitor. Likewise, only very weak correlations were found between seed mass and the number or size of flowering heads. Thus, noug's ‘atypical’ domestication syndrome does not seem to be a consequence of recent introgression or unfavorable phenotypic correlations. Nonetheless, our data do reveal evidence of local adaptation of noug cultivars to different precipitation regimes, as well as high levels of phenotypic plasticity, which may permit reasonable yields under diverse environmental conditions. Why noug has not been fully domesticated remains a mystery, but perhaps early farmers selected for resilience to episodic drought or untended environments rather than larger seeds. Domestication may also have been slowed by noug's outcrossing mating system. PMID:26029260

  10. Rape: medical and legal information.

    PubMed

    Price, H R

    1998-01-01

    The author explores the topic of rape in order to help security directors and rape victims better understand the medical and legal procedures a victim might experience. He describes how a rape case might be handled and what to expect.

  11. Modeling Nitrogen Uptake in Oilseed Rape cv Capitol during a Growth Cycle Using Influx Kinetics of Root Nitrate Transport Systems and Field Experimental Data

    PubMed Central

    Malagoli, Philippe; Lainé, Philippe; Le Deunff, Erwan; Rossato, Laurence; Ney, Bertrand; Ourry, Alain

    2004-01-01

    The use of kinetic equations of NO3- transport systems in oilseed rape (Brassica napus), determined by 15NO3- labeling under controlled conditions, combined with experimental field data from the INRA-Châlons rape database were used to model NO3- uptake during the plant growth cycle. The quantitative effects of different factors such as day/night cycle, ontogenetic stages, root temperature, photosynthetically active radiation, and soil nitrate availability on different components of the constitutive high-affinity transport systems, constitutive low-affinity transport systems, inducible low-affinity transport systems, and inducible high-affinity transport systems of nitrate were then determined to improve the model's predictions. Simulated uptake correlated well with measured values of nitrogen (N) uptake under field conditions for all N fertilization rates tested. Model outputs showed that the high-affinity transport system accounted for about 89% of total NO3- uptake (18% and 71% for constitutive high-affinity transport systems and inducible high-affinity transport systems, respectively) when no fertilizer was applied. The low-affinity transport system accounted for a minor proportion of total N uptake, and its activity was restricted to the early phase of the growth cycle. However, N fertilization in spring increased the duration of its contribution to total N uptake. Overall, data show that this mechanistic and environmentally regulated approach is a powerful means to simulate total N uptake in the field with the advantage of taking both physiologically regulated processes at the overall plant level and specific nitrate transport system characteristics into account. PMID:14671012

  12. War rape, natality and genocide.

    PubMed

    Schott, Robin May

    2011-01-01

    Feminist philosophy can make an important contribution to the field of genocide studies, and issues relating to gender and war are gaining new attention. In this article I trace legal and philosophical analyses of sexual violence against women in war. I analyze the strengths and limitations of the concept of social death—introduced into this field by Claudia Card—for understanding the genocidal features of war rape, and draw on the work of Hannah Arendt to understand the central harm of genocide as an assault on natality. The threat to natality posed by the harms of rape, forced pregnancy and forced maternity lie in the potential expulsion from the public world of certain groups—including women who are victims, members of the 'enemy' group, and children born of forced birth.

  13. Rape: an Asian perspective.

    PubMed

    Nadesan, K

    2001-06-01

    Rape is one of the fastest growing violent crimes in many parts of the world. Rape laws have been amended in most countries in an attempt to cope with the proliferation of this crime. Even though the legal definition of rape and the procedural laws have been amended, rape remains a serious problem in both the developed and developing nations. In some countries the offence of rape carries severe punishment sometimes even the death sentence. In many jurisdictions the term 'sexual penetration' is being used instead of 'sexual intercourse'. Sexual penetration includes sexual intercourse, anal intercourse, cunnilingus, fellatio or any other intrusions involving any part of a human body or of any object into the genital or anal opening of a person's body. In many countries rape and other sexual offences have been replaced with a series of gender neutral and graded offences with appropriate punishments. Medical examination can provide independent, scientific, corroborative evidence that may be of value to the court in arriving at a judgement. Doctors should have a clear understanding of different rape laws in order to apprectiate the various issues involved. Special knowledge, skill and experience are essential to conduct a good-quality medical examination. There is a dearth of trained forensic physicians in many Asian countries. However, managing a rape victim (survivor) goes for beyond proving the case in a court of law. There should be an adequate rehabilitation programme available to the victims to help them cope.

  14. Explaining wartime rape.

    PubMed

    Gottschall, Jonathan

    2004-05-01

    In the years since the first reports of mass rapes in the Yugoslavian wars of secession and the genocidal massacres in Rwanda, feminist activists and scholars, human rights organizations, journalists, and social scientists have dedicated unprecedented efforts to document, explain, and seek solutions for the phenomenon of wartime rape. While contributors to this literature agree on much, there is no consensus on causal factors. This paper provides a brief overview of the literature on wartime rape in historical and ethnographical societies and a critical analysis of the four leading explanations for its root causes: the feminist theory, the cultural pathology theory, the strategic rape theory, and the biosocial theory. The paper concludes that the biosocial theory is the only one capable of bringing all the phenomena associated with wartime rape into a single explanatory context.

  15. Long-Term Monitoring of Field Trial Sites with Genetically Modified Oilseed Rape (Brassica napus L.) in Saxony-Anhalt, Germany. Fifteen Years Persistence to Date but No Spatial Dispersion

    PubMed Central

    Belter, Anke

    2016-01-01

    Oilseed rape is known to persist in arable fields because of its ability to develop secondary seed dormancy in certain agronomic and environmental conditions. If conditions change, rapeseeds are able to germinate up to 10 years later to build volunteers in ensuing crops. Extrapolations of experimental data acted on the assumption of persistence periods for more than 20 years after last harvest of rapeseed. Genetically-modified oilseed rape—cultivated widely in Northern America since 1996—is assumed not to differ from its conventional form in this property. Here, experimental data are reported from official monitoring activities that verify these assumptions. At two former field trial sites in Saxony-Anhalt genetically-modified herbicide-resistant oilseed rape volunteers are found up to fifteen years after harvest. Nevertheless, spatial dispersion or establishment of GM plants outside of the field sites was not observed within this period. PMID:26784233

  16. Rape (For Teens)

    MedlinePlus

    ... person's ability to fight back. Rape is a crime, whether the person committing it is a stranger, ... you . For some people, that means reporting the crime immediately and fighting to see the rapist brought ...

  17. Date Rape (For Teens)

    MedlinePlus

    ... ve been drinking. continue Protect Yourself The best defense against date rape is to try to prevent ... for help if you feel threatened. Take self-defense courses. These can build confidence and teach valuable ...

  18. NMR metabolomics of ripened and developing oilseed rape (Brassica napus) and turnip rape (Brassica rapa).

    PubMed

    Kortesniemi, Maaria; Vuorinen, Anssi L; Sinkkonen, Jari; Yang, Baoru; Rajala, Ari; Kallio, Heikki

    2015-04-01

    The oilseeds of the commercially important oilseed rape (Brassica napus) and turnip rape (Brassica rapa) were investigated with (1)H NMR metabolomics. The compositions of ripened (cultivated in field trials) and developing seeds (cultivated in controlled conditions) were compared in multivariate models using principal component analysis (PCA), partial least squares discriminant analysis (PLS-DA), and orthogonal partial least squares discriminant analysis (OPLS-DA). Differences in the major lipids and the minor metabolites between the two species were found. A higher content of polyunsaturated fatty acids and sucrose were observed in turnip rape, while the overall oil content and sinapine levels were higher in oilseed rape. The genotype traits were negligible compared to the effect of the growing site and concomitant conditions on the oilseed metabolome. This study demonstrates the applicability of NMR-based analysis in determining the species, geographical origin, developmental stage, and quality of oilseed Brassicas.

  19. [Post-rape pregnancy].

    PubMed

    Muhlstein, J; Martrille, L; Guillet-May, F; Routiot, T; Coudane, H; Judlin, P

    2013-02-01

    A rape is a traumatizing circumstance for the victim. This aggression often has, regrettably, immediate repercussions, and then medium and long-term ones. Its complications are psychological, but also sometimes somatic, like pregnancy. Through an international literature review, and the study of the national legislation, we will summarize the main essential elements of the medical and forensic care of a pregnancy arising after a rape.

  20. Field study results on the probability and risk of a horizontal gene transfer from transgenic herbicide-resistant oilseed rape pollen to gut bacteria of bees.

    PubMed

    Mohr, Kathrin I; Tebbe, Christoph C

    2007-06-01

    Bees are specifically subjected to intimate contacts with transgenic plants due to their feeding activities on pollen. In this study, the probability and ecological risk of a gene transfer from pollen to gut bacteria of bees was investigated with larvae of Apis mellifera (honeybee), Bombus terrestris (bumblebee), and Osmia bicornis (red mason bee), all collected at a flowering transgenic oilseed rape field. The plants were genetically engineered with the pat-gene, conferring resistance against glufosinate (syn. phosphinothricin), a glutamine-synthetase inhibitor in plants and microorganisms. Ninety-six bacterial strains were isolated and characterized by 16S rRNA gene sequencing, revealing that Firmicutes represented 58% of the isolates, Actinobacteria 31%, and Proteobacteria 11%, respectively. Of all isolates, 40% were resistant to 1 mM glufosinate, and 11% even to 10 mM. Resistant phenotypes were found in all phylogenetic groups. None of the resistant phenotypes carried the recombinant pat-gene in its genome. The threshold of detecting gene transfer in this field study was relatively insensitive due to the high background of natural glufosinate resistance. However, the broad occurrence of glufosinate-resistant bacteria from different phylogenetic groups suggests that rare events of horizontal gene transfer will not add significantly to natural bacterial glufosinate resistance.

  1. Phosphorylation of glyoxysomal malate synthase from castor oil seed endosperm and cucumber cotyledon

    SciTech Connect

    Yang, Y.P; Randall, D.D. )

    1989-04-01

    Glyoxysomal malate synthase (MS) was purified to apparent homogeneity from 3-d germinating castor oil seed endosperm by a relatively simple procedure including two sucrose density gradient centrifugations. Antibodies raised to the caster oil seed MS crossreacted with MS from cucumber cotyledon. MS was phosphorylated in both tissues in an MgATP dependent reaction. The phosphorylation pattern was similar for both enzymes and both enzymes were inhibited by NaF, NaMo, (NH{sub 4})SO{sub 4}, glyoxylate and high concentration of MgCl{sub 2} (60 mM), but was not inhibited by NaCl and malate. Further characterization of the phosphorylation of MS from castor oil seed endosperms showed that the 5S form of MS is the form which is labelled by {sup 32}P. The addition of exogenous alkaline phosphatase to MS not only decreased enzyme activity, but could also dephosphorylate phospho-MS. The relationship between dephosphorylation of MS and the decrease of MS activity is currently under investigation.

  2. Rape Beyond Crime.

    PubMed

    Kaplan, Margo

    2017-02-01

    Public health experts agree that sexual violence constitutes a significant public health issue. Yet criminal law dominates rape law almost completely, with public health law playing at best a small supporting role. Recent civil law developments, such as university disciplinary proceedings, similarly fixate on how best to find and penalize perpetrators. As a result, rape law continues to spin its wheels in the same arguments and obstacles. This Article argues that, without broader cultural changes, criminal law faces a double bind: rape laws will either be ineffective or neglect the importance of individual culpability. Public health law provides more promising terrain for rape prevention because it is a strong legal framework that can engage the complex causes of rape, including the social norms that promote sexual aggression. While criminal law can only punish bad behavior, public health interventions can use the more effective prevention strategy of promoting positive behaviors and relationships. They can also address the myriad sexual behaviors and social determinants that increase the risk of rape but are outside the scope of criminal law. Perhaps most importantly, public health law relies on evidence-based interventions and the expertise of public health authorities to ensure that laws and policies are effective. Transforming rape law in this way provides a framework for legal feminism to undertake the unmet challenge of "theorizing yes," that is, moving beyond how to protect women’s right to refuse sex and toward promoting and exploring positive models of sex. Criminal law is simply incapable of meeting this challenge because it concerns only what sex should not be. A public health framework can give the law a richer role in addressing the full spectrum of sexual attitudes and behaviors.

  3. High-throughput phenotyping (HTP) identifies seedling root traits linked to variation in seed yield and nutrient capture in field-grown oilseed rape (Brassica napus L.)

    PubMed Central

    Thomas, C. L.; Graham, N. S.; Hayden, R.; Meacham, M. C.; Neugebauer, K.; Nightingale, M.; Dupuy, L. X.; Hammond, J. P.; White, P. J.; Broadley, M. R.

    2016-01-01

    Background and Aims Root traits can be selected for crop improvement. Techniques such as soil excavations can be used to screen root traits in the field, but are limited to genotypes that are well-adapted to field conditions. The aim of this study was to compare a low-cost, high-throughput root phenotyping (HTP) technique in a controlled environment with field performance, using oilseed rape (OSR; Brassica napus) varieties. Methods Primary root length (PRL), lateral root length and lateral root density (LRD) were measured on 14-d-old seedlings of elite OSR varieties (n = 32) using a ‘pouch and wick’ HTP system (∼40 replicates). Six field experiments were conducted using the same varieties at two UK sites each year for 3 years. Plants were excavated at the 6- to 8-leaf stage for general vigour assessments of roots and shoots in all six experiments, and final seed yield was determined. Leaves were sampled for mineral composition from one of the field experiments. Key Results Seedling PRL in the HTP system correlated with seed yield in four out of six (r = 0·50, 0·50, 0·33, 0·49; P < 0·05) and with emergence in three out of five (r = 0·59, 0·22, 0·49; P < 0·05) field experiments. Seedling LRD correlated positively with leaf concentrations of some minerals, e.g. calcium (r = 0·46; P < 0·01) and zinc (r = 0·58; P < 0·001), but did not correlate with emergence, general early vigour or yield in the field. Conclusions Associations between PRL and field performance are generally related to early vigour. These root traits might therefore be of limited additional selection value, given that vigour can be measured easily on shoots/canopies. In contrast, LRD cannot be assessed easily in the field and, if LRD can improve nutrient uptake, then it may be possible to use HTP systems to screen this trait in both elite and more genetically diverse, non-field-adapted OSR. PMID:27052342

  4. Campus Gang Rape: Party Games?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ehrhart, Julie K.; Sandler, Bernice R.

    The phenomenon of gang rape as it sometimes occurs on college campuses is described, with attention to causes, impacts on the victim and other students, responses the college should take, and prevention. Consideration is given to the role of alcohol, drugs, and pornography in fraternity gang rape; successful model programs for rape prevention…

  5. Dynamics of Nitrogen Uptake and Mobilization in Field-grown Winter Oilseed Rape (Brassica napus) From Stem Extension to Harvest. II. An 15N-labelling-based Simulation Model of N Partitioning Between Vegetative and Reproductive Tissues

    PubMed Central

    MALAGOLI, P.; LAINE, P.; ROSSATO, L.; OURRY, A.

    2005-01-01

    • Background and Aims Oilseed rape (Brassica napus) has often been used as a catch crop to deal with the issue of N leaching, but for this to be effective, prediction of the crop's N uptake capability and N partitioning is required. The aim of this work was to build a compartmental model of N dynamics in oilseed rape, based on the kinetic description of N uptake, partitioning and mobilization in each organ. • Model In this study, logistic and exponential equations were fitted to the N relations of each compartment, especially the leaf at each node. Data previously obtained from an 15N-labelling field experiment was used to quantify the partitioning of total N content, the allocation of N taken up and subsequent changes in the sink/source status for endogenous N in each tissue throughout the growth cycle. • Key Results and Conclusions This modelling approach provides a unique tool for the quantitative estimation of cycling of endogenous N in relation to changes in N uptake at the whole-plant level. Furthermore, as oilseed rape is known to release large amounts of N to the soil during spring through leaf loss, this model was used to identify potential methods for improving the N harvest index of the crop. Simulations showed that N content or yield could be improved by 15 % by optimizing N transfer from vegetative to reproductive tissues and by reducing the residual %N (DW) in abscised leaves. PMID:15802311

  6. [Gene flow and its ecological risks of transgenic oilseed rape ( Brassica napus)].

    PubMed

    Tang, Guixiang; Song, Wenjian; Zhou, Weijun

    2005-12-01

    Transgenic oilseed rape Brassica napus, one of the first genetically modified crops, has now been released to commercial use in Canada and Australia. As a cross-pollinating crop, its natural crossing rate is 30%, and it is liable to cross with other Brassica species. The ecological risk of transgenic oilseed rape has been concerned by the scientists all over the world. There are two ways for the pollens flow of transgenic oilseed rape, one takes place between transgenic oilseed rape and other related wild species, and the other occurs between transgenic and nontransgenic oilseed rape. The gene may flow to other related wild species, but it is unlikely to get hybrids in field. Because the gene can really flow to the conventional oilseed rape, it is necessary to have a sufficient isolation distance in cultivating transgenic oilseed rape.

  7. Rape (For Teens)

    MedlinePlus

    ... look for and take samples of the rapist's hair, skin, nails, or bodily fluids from your clothes or body. If you think you've been given a rape drug, a doctor or technician can test for this, too. Be aware that this toxicology ...

  8. Social Perception of Rape: How Rape Myth Acceptance Modulates the Influence of Situational Factors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frese, Bettina; Moya, Miguel; Megias, Jesus

    2004-01-01

    This study assessed the role of rape myth acceptance (RMA) and situational factors in the perception of three different rape scenarios (date rape, marital rape, and stranger rape). One hundred and eighty-two psychology undergraduates were asked to emit four judgements about each rape situation: victim responsibility, perpetrator responsibility,…

  9. The therapeutic applications of celery oil seed extract on the plasticizer di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate toxicity.

    PubMed

    El-Shinnawy, Nashwa A

    2015-04-01

    The present study investigated the impact of two doses, 500 mg/kg and 1000 mg/kg, of di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP) and studied the possible therapeutic dose of celery oil seed extract for 6 weeks on some atheroscelerogenic, obesogenic, antioxidant and liver functions in rats. Both doses of DEHP caused over-expression of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha (PPARα) messenger RNA with significant increase in liver weights, relative liver weights, serum cholesterol (Chol), triglycerides, low-density lipoprotein Chol, liver total lipids, along with an increase in the activities of serum aspartate aminotransferase, alanine aminotransferase, serum endothelin 1 and liver tissue thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS). Additionally, DEHP administration to rats resulted in significant decrease in final body weights, serum total protein, albumin, liver total protein and serum total nitric oxide. Our study confirmed the role of oral combination of Apium graveolens (celery) oil seed extract at small cumulative doses (50 µl/kg for 6 weeks) with DEHP in ameliorating the toxicological effects of DEHP, which was revealed in reducing the expression of PPARα, lipid profile, with restoring liver functions, vascular oxidative stress and inhibition of TBARS activity.

  10. Isotope labeling-based quantitative proteomics of developing seeds of castor oil seed (Ricinus communis L.).

    PubMed

    Nogueira, Fábio C S; Palmisano, Giuseppe; Schwämmle, Veit; Soares, Emanuela L; Soares, Arlete A; Roepstorff, Peter; Domont, Gilberto B; Campos, Francisco A P

    2013-11-01

    In this study, we used a mass spectrometry-based quantification approach employing isotopic (ICPL) and isobaric (iTRAQ) labeling to investigate the pattern of protein deposition during castor oil seed (Ricinus communis L.) development, including that of proteins involved in fatty acid metabolism, seed-storage proteins (SSPs), toxins, and allergens. Additionally, we have used off-line hydrophilic interaction chromatography (HILIC) as a step of peptide fractionation preceding the reverse-phase nanoLC coupled to a LTQ Orbitrap. We were able to identify a total of 1875 proteins, and from these 1748 could be mapped to extant castor gene models, considerably expanding the number of proteins so far identified from developing castor seeds. Cluster validation and statistical analysis resulted in 975 protein trend patterns and the relative abundance of 618 proteins. The results presented in this work give important insights into certain aspects of the biology of castor oil seed development such as carbon flow, anabolism, and catabolism of fatty acid and the pattern of deposition of SSPs, toxins, and allergens such as ricin and 2S albumins. We also found, for the first time, some genes of SSP that are differentially expressed during seed development.

  11. Precursors to rape: pressuring behaviors and rape proclivity.

    PubMed

    Strain, Megan L; Hockett, Jericho M; Saucier, Donald A

    2015-01-01

    We developed measures assessing personal and normative attitudes toward two types of behaviors that are symptomatic of rape culture. We conceptualize sexual violence as existing on a continuum and argue that two types of behaviors may be potential antecedents to (and consequences of) sexual violence: attempts to pressure, which mimic the power dynamics of rape in a less aggressive fashion, and benevolent dating behaviors, which are accepted dating scripts in which men initiate action. We examined individuals' acceptance of these behaviors in relation to their attitudes toward rape victims and among men to rape proclivity. This initial work suggests that these constructs and measures may be useful to investigate in future research.

  12. The costs of rape.

    PubMed

    Perilloux, Carin; Duntley, Joshua D; Buss, David M

    2012-10-01

    The current study examined costs experienced by victims of completed rape (n=49) and attempted sexual assault (n=91) using quantitative analyses of 13 domains: health, self-esteem, self-perceived attractiveness, self-perceived mate value, family relationships,work life, social life, social reputation, sexual reputation, desire to have sex, frequency of sex, enjoyment of sex, and long-term, committed relationships. Women also provided descriptive accounts of their experiences, and we used these to illustrate the costs in the victims' own words.Compared to victims of an attempted sexual assault, victims of a completed rape reported significantly more negative outcomes in 11 of the 13 domains. The most negatively affected domains were self-esteem, sexual reputation, frequency of sex, desire to have sex, and self-perceived mate value. Although victims of rape experienced more negative effects than victims of attempted sexual assault,both groups of victims reported negative effects in every domain.Discussion focuses on the implications of the differing degrees and patterns of the costs of attempted and completed sexual victimization.

  13. Attitudes toward rape and victims of rape: a test of the feminist theory in Ghana.

    PubMed

    Boakye, Kofi E

    2009-10-01

    This study explores the usefulness of the feminist theory in explaining attitudes toward rape and victims of rape in Ghana. The feminist theory of rape posits, inter alia, that patriarchy and gender inequality are major factors in the aetiology of rape and attitudes toward rape and that underlying patriarchy and gender inequality are gender stereotypes and false beliefs (myths) about rape, rapists, and victims of rape. Thus, the theory suggests a relationship between rape myths and less favorable attitudes toward rape and victims of rape. Results from a survey conducted in Ghana show some support for the feminist theory of rape: There is evidence of rape myth acceptance in Ghana; gender is significant in predicting levels of rape myth acceptance; and finally, education or profession and age, but not religion, are associated with levels of rape myth acceptance in a predictable way.

  14. Rape: Legal issues in mental health perspective.

    PubMed

    Jiloha, R C

    2013-07-01

    Rape of women by men has occurred throughout recorded history and across cultures and religions. It is a crime against basic human right and a most common crime against women in India. In this article, rape is discussed from legal and mental health perspective. In India 'rape laws' began with enactment of Indian Penal Code in 1860. There have been subsequent amendments and the main issue of focus remained the definition of 'rape and inclusion of 'marital rape' in the ambit of rape. Law Commission Reports related to rape and the psychological impacts of rape have been discussed.

  15. Field Evidence of Cadmium Phytoavailability Decreased Effectively by Rape Straw and/or Red Mud with Zinc Sulphate in a Cd-Contaminated Calcareous Soil

    PubMed Central

    Li, Bo; Yang, Junxing; Wei, Dongpu; Chen, Shibao; Li, Jumei; Ma, Yibing

    2014-01-01

    To reduce Cd phytoavailability in calcareous soils, the effects of soil amendments of red mud, rape straw, and corn straw in combination with zinc fertilization on Cd extractability and phytoavailability to spinach, tomato, Chinese cabbage and radish were investigated in a calcareous soil with added Cd at 1.5 mg kg−1. The results showed that water soluble and exchangeable Cd in soils was significantly decreased by the amendments themselves from 26% to 70%, which resulted in marked decrease by approximately from 34% to 77% in Cd concentration in vegetables. The amendments plus Zn fertilization further decreased the Cd concentration in vegetables. Also cruciferous rape straw was more effective than gramineous corn straw. In all treatments, rape straw plus red mud combined with Zn fertilization was most effective in decreasing Cd phytoavailability in soils, and it is potential to be an efficient and cost-effective measure to ensure food safety for vegetable production in mildly Cd-contaminated calcareous soils. PMID:25303439

  16. Rape: Counseling the Traumatized Victim

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heppner, P. Paul; Heppner, Mary

    1977-01-01

    There are at least three goals of intensive rape counseling: identifying and accepting feelings, reorienting perceptions, attributions, and self-statements, and resuming a normal lifestyle. Various counseling techniques can be employed to help rape victims restructure cognitions to reduce negative self-evaluations, physical distress, and loss of…

  17. An improved method for extraction of high-quality total RNA from oil seeds.

    PubMed

    Rayani, Azadeh; Dehghan Nayeri, Fatemeh

    2015-04-01

    Seeds of oilseed plants that contain large amounts of oil, polysaccharides, proteins and polyphenols are not amenable to conventional RNA isolation protocols. The presence of these substances affects the quality and quantity of isolated nucleic acids. Here, a rapid and efficient RNA isolation protocol that, in contrast to other methods tested, allows high purify, integrity and yield of total RNA from seeds of sesame, corn, sunflower, flax and rapeseed was developed. The average yields of total RNA from 70 mg oil seeds ranged from 84 to 310 µg with A260/A280 between 1.9 and 2.08. The RNA isolated with this protocol was verified to be suitable for PCR, quantitative real-time PCR, semi-quantitative RT-PCR, cDNA synthesis and expression analysis.

  18. Rape Myth Consistency and Gender Differences in Perceiving Rape Victims: A Meta-Analysis.

    PubMed

    Hockett, Jericho M; Smith, Sara J; Klausing, Cathleen D; Saucier, Donald A

    2016-02-01

    An overview discusses feminist analyses of oppression, attitudes toward rape victims, and previously studied predictors of individuals' attitudes toward rape victims. To better understand such attitudes, this meta-analysis examines the moderating influences of various rape victim, perpetrator, and crime characteristics' rape myth consistency on gender differences in individuals' perceptions of rape victims (i.e., victim responsibility and blame attributions and rape minimizing attitudes). Consistent with feminist theoretical predictions, results indicated that, overall, men perceived rape victims more negatively than women did. However, this sex difference was moderated by the rape myth consistency within the rape vignettes. Implications for research are discussed.

  19. Attitudes toward Rape and Victims of Rape: A Test of the Feminist Theory in Ghana

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boakye, Kofi E.

    2009-01-01

    This study explores the usefulness of the feminist theory in explaining attitudes toward rape and victims of rape in Ghana. The feminist theory of rape posits, inter alia, that patriarchy and gender inequality are major factors in the aetiology of rape and attitudes toward rape and that underlying patriarchy and gender inequality are gender…

  20. The Culture of Rape

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-05-09

    that he is not still in his teenage years as Charlotte is. The next problem modern readers may have with tills passage is learning Charlotte’s age...without her consent, effected by force, duress, intimidation or deception as to the nature of the act" (Webster). As proved earlier, once K r o s k... alcohol and the details of her rape are fuzzy to her. Maybe her story changes because she cannot fully remember what happened. Maybe she is a stripper

  1. Rape on Campus: Facts and Measures.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koss, Mary

    1992-01-01

    Literature on rape on college campuses is reviewed, beginning with definitions of rape and controversy over date or rape, analysis of the risk of rape on campus, and the actions college administrators can take to reduce the risk of sexual assault. Prevention, legal issues, and campus security safeguards are discussed. (MSE)

  2. ASD and PTSD in Rape Victims

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Elklit, Ask; Christiansen, Dorte M.

    2010-01-01

    In recent years, a number of studies have investigated the prediction of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) through the presence of acute stress disorder (ASD). The predictive power of ASD on PTSD was examined in a population of 148 female rape victims who visited a center for rape victims shortly after the rape or attempted rape. The PTSD…

  3. Males disposed to commit rape.

    PubMed

    Freund, K; Scher, H; Racansky, I G; Campbell, K; Heasman, G

    1986-02-01

    The hypothesis that the preferential rape pattern belongs among the courtship disorders like voyeurism, exhibitionism, and toucheurism was tested. The study consisted of two experiments. The first compared 11 rape-prone males, who were most likely afflicted with the preferential rape pattern, with 11 sexually normal controls on penile response to narratives that depicted scenes in which the individual engaged in behavior typical of voyeurs, exhibitionists, or toucheurs. Narratives depicting normal tactile interaction (short of intercourse) with a genuinely participating woman, normal intercourse, and sexually neutral scenes were also presented. The rape-prone males responded more to the voyeuristic situations than did the controls. The standing of the normal intercourse situations on the scale of erotic value, relative to the other above-mentioned situations, was lower for the rape-prone males than for the normal controls. A second experiment compared 12 rape-prone males, who most likely demonstrated the preferential rape pattern, with 12 males with (other) courtship disorders and 12 sexually normal controls. Penile response to narratives depicting the individual involved in pretactile erotic activity, in tactile sexual activity short of intercourse, or in having intercourse was compared. Each situation was presented in two modalities depicting either a genuinely participating woman or a woman fearful of the individual. The penile responses of the rape-prone males, as well as those of males with other courtship disorders, differentiated less between sexual interaction with a fearful woman and such interaction with a participating woman than did the penile responses of normal controls. There was no significant difference in this respect between the rape-prone males and males with other courtship disorders.

  4. Multiple group rape: psychosocial considerations.

    PubMed

    Hamilton, J W

    1979-02-01

    Psychiatric examination of the participants in repeated episodes of rape demonstrated that sexual assault combined with stealing represents symbolically an attack upon the bad mother, such hostile acting out enabling the individual to defend against strong, but ambivalent, wishes to be nurtured. Separation from home in each case was considered a crucial precipitant of such behavior. It is suggested that exhibitionistic-voyeuristic conflict may be an important determinant of whether or not rape is committed in group fashion.

  5. Pressurised fluid extraction (PFE) as an alternative general method for the determination of pesticide residues in rape seed.

    PubMed

    Pihlström, Tuija; Isaac, Giorgis; Waldebäck, Monica; Osterdahl, Bengt-Göran; Markides, Karin E

    2002-04-01

    A pressurised fluid extraction (PFE) multi-method has been developed for the determination of pesticide residues in rape seed. The method was validated for 25 different pesticides and metabolites. The reliability and efficiency of PFE for extracting pesticide residues from rape seed was investigated. The traditional extraction solvent, hexane saturated with acetonitrile, was used at elevated temperature and pressure. With increased temperature, the extraction kinetics were improved but at the same time more co-extractives were obtained in the form of lipids. When 1 g of rape seed was extracted at temperatures from 60 degrees C to 150 degrees C, the lipid content extracted was found to be as high as 17-26%. An additional clean-up step was therefore required and lipid co-extractives were effectively removed by gel permeation chromatography. The interpretation of the chromatograms and the quantification of the results were satisfactorily improved by the removal of interfering lipids. The developed method was used to extract vinclozolin and iprodione from incurred samples, resulting in a concentration in accordance with the results using conventional liquid-liquid extraction (LLE) between hexane and acetonitrile and also supercritical fluid extraction (SFE) using carbon dioxide. The results of the present study suggest that PEE is a good alternative extraction technique for the determination of pesticide residues in oil seed. Despite the necessity for a lipid-removal clean-up step, the PFE technique facilitated the extraction process by faster extractions and the possibility of automated analysis.

  6. Quality evaluation of co-composted wheat straw, poultry droppings and oil seed cakes.

    PubMed

    Gaind, Sunita; Nain, Lata; Patel, V B

    2009-06-01

    Poultry droppings, neem cake, castor cake, jatropha cake and grass clippings were used separately as organic nitrogen additives to decrease the high C:N ratio of wheat straw. Composting was carried out aerobically in presence of fungal consortium developed by including Aspergillus awamori, Aspergillus nidulans, Trichoderma viride and Phanerochaete chrysosporium. The degraded product was characterized to assess the technical viability of organic nitrogen supplements as well as fungal consortium in improving the quality of compost and hastening the process of decomposition of high lignocellulolytic waste. Evaluation of maturity showed that mixture of wheat straw, poultry dropping and jatropha cake had the lowest C:N ratio of 10:1, the highest humic acid fraction of 3.15%, the lowest dehydrogenase activity and a germination index exceeding 80% in 60 days of decomposition. Inoculated and grass clipping amended wheat straw-poultry dropping mixture resulted in compost with highest humus content of 11.8% and C:N ratio of 13.5, humic acid fraction of 2.84% and germination index of 59.66%. Fungal consortium was effective in improving the humus content of all the composted mixtures. In some treatments, germination index could not be correlated with C:N ratio. Non edible oil seed cake supplemented substrate mixtures did not respond to fungal inoculation as far as C:N ratio was concerned.

  7. Rape reporting: "Classic Rape" and the behavior of law.

    PubMed

    Clay-Warner, Jody; McMahon-Howard, Jennifer

    2009-01-01

    Two theories of rape reporting, the Classic Rape perspective and Black's Theory of the Behavior of Law, are tested in this article. We offer the first comprehensive multivariate test of Classic Rape predictions among a nationally representative sample of victims, as well as the first test of Black's predictions for rape reporting. Through the construction of multinomial regression models, we are able to examine reporting patterns for both victims and third parties. Weapon use and physical injury consistently predicted reporting. The likelihood of victim reporting significantly increased when assaults occurred either in public or through a "home blitz," whereas place of assault did not affect the likelihood of third-party reporting. On the other hand, victim-offender relationship significantly affected the likelihood of third-party reporting but was not significant in the victim-reporting models. There were mixed findings regarding Black's stratification and morphology predictions, and we found no significant effects for culture, organization, or social control. Overall, these findings lend greater support to the Classic Rape perspective than to Black's model.

  8. Beyond Rape Myths: A More Complex View of Perceptions of Rape Victims.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Buddie, Amy M.; Miller, Arthur G.

    2001-01-01

    Examined personal beliefs and perceptions of cultural stereotypes surrounding rape victims. Primarily white college students listed their beliefs and perceptions and rated a specific rape victim accordingly. Students' personal beliefs tended to focus more on perceptions of victim reactions to the rape rather than rape myths. However, their…

  9. Rape myth acceptance impacts the reporting of rape to the police: a study of incarcerated women.

    PubMed

    Heath, Nicole M; Lynch, Shannon M; Fritch, April M; Wong, Maria M

    2013-09-01

    We examined the association between rape myth acceptance (RMA) and reporting rapes to the police. Situational characteristics of the rape (e.g., stranger attack, injury) are known predictors of reporting, but no existing studies have examined the association between beliefs about rape and reporting. In addition, most studies of RMA do not assess victimization history. Incarcerated women experience high rates of sexual assaults prior to incarceration. We recruited 74 rape survivors from a northwestern state prison. Results suggest that women who endorsed higher levels of RMA were less likely to report their rapes to police; however, participants endorsed few rape myths.

  10. Law enforcement officers' perception of rape and rape victims: a multimethod study.

    PubMed

    Mennicke, Annelise; Anderson, Delaney; Oehme, Karen; Kennedy, Stephanie

    2014-01-01

    In a study to assess law enforcement officers' perceptions of rape and rape victims, researchers asked 149 law enforcement officers to respond to surveys which included a definition of rape measure, an unfounded rape claims measure, and the Rape Myth Acceptance Scale-Revised (RMA-R) measure. Although most officers scored low on the RMA-R--indicating that they did not adhere to myths about rape--most officers also responded with incomplete definitions of rape and inaccurate estimates of the number of false rape claims. Multivariate analyses indicated that officers' open-ended responses did not predict their scores on the RMA-R scale. It is argued that the RMA-R alone does not accurately measure officers' understanding of rape. Officers need ongoing training on the legal elements of the crime, the necessity of sensitivity with victims, and research-based statistics on the prevalence of rape.

  11. Male Rape Victim and Perpetrator Blaming

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sleath, Emma; Bull, Ray

    2010-01-01

    One of four possible vignettes manipulated by (a) level of rape myth contained within them (low vs. high) and (b) type of rape (stranger vs. acquaintance) was presented to participants followed by scales measuring victim blame, perpetrator blame, belief in a just world, sex-role egalitarian beliefs, and male rape myth acceptance. Victim blaming…

  12. Marital rape: history, research, and practice.

    PubMed

    Bennice, Jennifer A; Resick, Patricia A

    2003-07-01

    Despite the increased recognition that the topic of marital rape has generated in the past 2 decades, the literature in this area remains sparse. This article provides a comprehensive review of the current state of the marital rape literature. First, the lengthy history of legal, cultural, and professional invalidation of marital rape victims, and the resulting negative treatment implications, is discussed. Second, marital rape research is reviewed, including prevalence, descriptive, and comparison studies. This review highlights the seriousness of marital rape, in terms of prevalence and posttrauma distress, as well as the limitations of extant research. Finally, barriers to treatment and recommendations for professionals are discussed.

  13. Nurses' attributions about rape victims.

    PubMed

    Damrosch, S P; Gallo, B; Kulak, D; Whitaker, C M

    1987-08-01

    In an evaluation experiment, 80 registered nurses (64% of whom had cared for at least one rape victim) read an account of a rape involving a woman who drove to a drugstore on her way home from work. By random assignment, the nurses read one of four versions of the rape which varied in terms of whether or not the victim locked her car door (carelessness manipulation) and time of attack (5:00 p.m. or midnight). Subjects evaluated the victim on a series of 0 to 9 bipolar adjective scales. MANOVA showed a significant main effect for the locked/unlocked conditions: Nurses who read the unlocked version, as compared to those reading the locked version, showed differences in terms of more negative ratings of the victim on such variables as less liking for her, less identification with her, and assigning greater responsibility for the rape to her (p less than or equal to .005). Time of attack and the interaction were not significant.

  14. If Your Child is Raped

    MedlinePlus

    ... look for and take samples of the rapist's hair, skin, nails, or bodily fluids from your child's clothes or body. If you think your child has been given a rape drug, a doctor or technician can test for this, too. Pictures of any injuries may ...

  15. Breaking the silence surrounding rape.

    PubMed

    Ramsay, S

    1999-12-11

    This article documents the turning points in the rape issue, which led to the acknowledgement of its prevalence in the world, especially in South Africa. November 25 marked the first day of the "Take a Stand" movement in South Africa, which coincided with the International Day Against Violence Against Women. This movement involves peaceful protests and poster campaigns, followed by months of sustained news coverage of rape. This was launched by a coalition of organizations, including women's groups, churches, businesses, and trades unions, that are speaking out against all forms of sexual violence. In the international community, rape is starting to be taken seriously. In 1996, sexual assault was cited as a crime against humanity by the International Criminal Tribunal for the former Yugoslavia. In addition, a forum in London, UK, on November 25, discussed rape issues and recommendations on how to prevent such violence were given. The need for a change in legal systems, which currently discourage women from taking legal actions, was also recognized. In view of this, the medical community is challenged to provide sensitive and appropriate help to women who have been assaulted.

  16. Counseling Date Rape Survivors: Implications for College Student Personnel Professionals.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lynch, Sherry K.

    A general legal definition of rape is sexual intercourse forced on an individual by another against his/her will and overcoming his/her resistance. Although the female is usually referred to as the survivor and the male as the perpetrator, there are cases of male rape. Rape may be divided into stranger rape and acquaintance rape. Types of…

  17. Child rape: facets of a heinous crime.

    PubMed

    Gangrade, K D; Sooryamoorthy, R; Renjini, D

    1995-01-01

    This article discusses the extent of child rape in India, case studies of girl children in legal procedures, rape settings and perpetrators, public morality, and the nature of rape laws in India. It is concluded that there is no safe place for children. Currently, rapists are allowed to go free or are acquitted. Prevention and control of child rape must involve punishment of rapists. It is not appropriate that society ostracize the victim and her family. Victims should not remain silent. National Crime Records Bureau statistics reveal increases in rape during 1986-91. State figures are given for 1986-88. Madhya Pradesh had the highest reported incidence of rape in 1988. In 1993, Madhya Pradesh had a total of 2459 rapes. Nationally, 10,425 women were reported as raped in 1991. 51.7% were 16-30 years old. There were 1099 cases of pedophilia in 1991, which was an increase over 1990. Over 50% of the pedophilia cases were reported in Uttar Pradesh. The record of convictions shows very low figures. 1992 trial results of 276 rape cases indicated that only 46 persons were convicted. Victims suffer from psychological effects of embarrassment, disgust, depression, guilt, and even suicidal tendencies. There is police and prosecution indifference as well as social stigma and social ostracism of the victim and her family. Many cases go unreported. The case studies illustrate the difficulties for the victim of experiencing the rape and the social responses: police harassment, shame and fear, and occasionally public outrage. The case studies illustrate rape in familiar settings, such as schools, family homes, and neighbors and friends' homes; rape by policemen; and rape by political influentials. Most offenders are young, married, and socioeconomically poor. Mass media portrayals fuel the frustrations of poor and lonely men in cities. Rapists exhibit anti-social behavior or psychopathology. Sexual offenses are related to society's moral values.

  18. Rape myth acceptance and rape proclivity: expected dominance versus expected arousal as mediators in acquaintance-rape situations.

    PubMed

    Chiroro, Patrick; Bohner, Gerd; Viki, G Tendayi; Jarvis, Christopher I

    2004-04-01

    Individuals who are high in rape myth acceptance (RMA) have been found to report a high proclivity to rape. In a series of three studies, the authors examined whether the relationship between RMA and self-reported rape proclivity was mediated by anticipated sexual arousal or anticipated enjoyment of sexually dominating the rape victim. Results of all three studies suggest that the anticipated enjoyment of sexual dominance mediates the relationship between RMA and rape proclivity, whereas anticipated sexual arousal does not. These findings are consistent with the feminist argument that rape and sexual violence may be motivated by men's desire to exert power over women. Theoretical and practical implications of our findings are discussed.

  19. Rape and the prevalence of hybrids in broadly sympatric species: a case study using albatrosses.

    PubMed

    Rohwer, Sievert; Harris, Rebecca B; Walsh, Hollie E

    2014-01-01

    Conspecific rape often increases male reproductive success. However, the haste and aggression of forced copulations suggests that males may sometimes rape heterospecific females, thus making rape a likely, but undocumented, source of hybrids between broadly sympatric species. We present evidence that heterospecific rape may be the source of hybrids between Black-footed and Laysan Albatrosses (Phoebastria nigripes, and P. immutabilis, respectively). Extensive field studies have shown that paired (but not unpaired) males of both of these albatross species use rape as a supplemental reproductive strategy. Between species differences in size, timing of laying, and aggressiveness suggest that Black-footed Albatrosses should be more successful than Laysan Albatrosses in heteropspecific rape attempts, and male Black-footed Albatrosses have been observed attempting to force copulations on female Laysan Albatrosses. Nuclear markers showed that the six hybrids we studied were F1s and mitochondrial markers showed that male Black-footed Albatrosses sired all six hybrids. Long-term gene exchange between these species has been from Black-footed Albatrosses into Laysan Albatrosses, suggesting that the siring asymmetry found in our hybrids has long persisted. If hybrids are sired in heterospecific rapes, they presumably would be raised and sexually imprinted on Laysan Albatrosses, and two unmated hybrids in a previous study courted only Laysan Albatrosses.

  20. Annual dynamics of wild bee densities: attractiveness and productivity effects of oilseed rape.

    PubMed

    Riedinger, Verena; Mitesser, Oliver; Hovestadt, Thomas; Steffan-Dewenter, Ingolf; Holzschuh, Andrea

    2015-05-01

    Mass-flowering crops may affect long-term population dynamics, but effects on pollinators have never been studied across several years. We monitored wild bees in oilseed rape fields in 16 landscapes in Germany in two consecutive years. Effects on bee densities of landscape oilseed rape cover in the years of monitoring and in the previous years were evaluated with landscape data from three consecutive years. We fit empirical data to a mechanistic model to provide estimates for oilseed rape attractiveness and its effect on bee productivity in comparison to the rest of the landscape, and we evaluated consequences for pollinator densities in consecutive years. Our results show that high oilseed rape cover in the previous year enhances current densities of wild bees (except for bumble bees). Moreover, we show a strong attractiveness of and dilution on (i.e., decreasing bee densities with increasing landscape oilseed rape cover) oilseed rape for bees during flowering in the current year, modifying the effect of the previous year's oilseed rape cover in the case of wild bees (excluding Bombus). As long as other factors such as nesting sites or natural enemies do not limit bee reproduction, our findings suggest long-term positive effects of mass-flowering crops on bee populations, at least for non-Bombus generalists, which possibly help to maintain crop pollination services even when crop area increases. Similar effects are conceivable for other organisms providing ecosystem services in annual crops and should be considered in future studies.

  1. Rape and the Serial Rapist

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1993-12-01

    Continued) Page The Sexual Arousal Of The Rapist 20 The Sexual Behavior Of The Rapist 21 Sexual Dysfunctions And The Rapist 23 Notes 25...research oriented study on this subject. This author does however hope that by constructing a multi-disciplined comprehensive literature review, it will...this issue. DEFINITION OF TERMS Rape. Forcible sexual penetration of an unwilling victim.4 Serial Rapist. An individual who has committed 10 or more

  2. Violence against women in war: rape, AIDS, sex slavery. International.

    PubMed

    At an international conference attended by 2000 delegates, violence against women in Rwanda, former Yugoslavia, and Kurdistan was discussed. Kalliope Migirou, of the United Nations Human Rights Field Operation in Rwanda, described the slaughter of between 500,000 and 1.5 million Tutsis and moderate Hutus in 1994; estimates of the number of rapes ranged from 15,700 (Rwandan government) to 250,000-500,000 (UN special representative). Women were gang-raped and sexually mutilated; fathers were forced to rape their daughters, and sons, their mothers. The transmission of HIV was used as a weapon to murder women and their communities. Women were taken to refugee camps as sex slaves and have written their families about their "new marriages" to Hutu militia men. No rape charge is found among the more than 4000 cases prepared for the Rwandan war crimes trial. 80,000 Rwandans are in prison on suspicion of participating in the genocide; 8% are women. Violete Krasnic, of the Autonomous Women's Center Against Sexual Violence in Belgrade, spoke about the war in former Yugoslavia, which increased all forms of violence against women: 1) domestic violence, particularly in inter-ethnic marriages; 2) death threats against women (up 30-50%); 3) rape (up 30%); and 4) threats with weapons (40%). Men, upon exposure to nationalistic propaganda, used violence against their wives. Nazaneen Rasheed, a London-based representative of the Women's Union of Kurdistan, stated that women in northern Iraq had no power or land. While some turned to prostitution to survive, hundreds were killed by male relatives because of shame to the family.

  3. [Effects of tillage-cropping systems on methane and nitrous oxide emissions from permanently flooded rice fields in a central Sichuan hilly area of Southwest China].

    PubMed

    Jiang, Chang-sheng; Wang, Yue-si; Zheng, Xun-hua; Zhu, Bo; Huang, Yao

    2006-02-01

    Using the static opaque chamber method, a field experiment was conducted in situ for two years to study the effects of three cultivation systems on CH4 and N2O emissions from permanently flooded rice fields in a hilly area in Southwest China. The results show that the average CH4 fluxes from a permanently flooded rice field with a single middle rice crop and flooded with no winter crop (PF) were (21.44 +/- 1.77) mg x (m2 x h)(-1) and (3.77 +/- 0.99) mg x (m2 x h)(-1) during rice-growing and non-rice growing periods, respectively, where both values were much lower than many previous reports from similar regions in Southwest China. The annual CH4 emission was mainly occurred in the rice growing period, being only 23.2% of the total annual CH4 flux emitted from the non-rice growing period, though the latter occupied two thirds of a year. The annual average flux of nitrous oxide was (0.051 +/- 0.008) mg x (m2 x h)(-1) and the N2O emission also intensive in the rice growing period. However, being only 8.1% of total annual N2O flux emitted from the non-rice growing period. After implementing the rice-wheat rotation (RW) and rice oil-seed rape rotation (RR), the CH4 emissions were reduced substantially, only 43.8% and 40.6% of those of PF, respectively. However, the N2O emissions were increased after conducting RW and RR systems, which were 3.7 and 4.5 times larger than those of PF. The global warming potentials (GWPs) of the CH4 and N2O emissions under the three tillage-cropping systems were assessed in an integrated way. The results show that the integrated GWPs of the CH4 and N2O emissions are in the following sequence: PF>RR approximately equal to RR. Within 20, 100 and 500 years spans, the GWPs of the CH4 and N2O emissions of PF were 2.6, 2.1 and 1.7 times larger than those of RW (or RR), respectively. After introducing rice-wheat or rice oil-seed rape rotation systems into the permanently flooded rice fields, the integrated GWPs of the CH4 and N2O emissions were

  4. Nitrous oxide emission from wetland soil following single and seasonal split application of cattle manure to field tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum, Mill var. Heinz) and rape (Brassica napus, L. var. Giant) crops.

    PubMed

    Masaka, Johnson; Nyamangara, Justice; Wuta, Menas

    2016-01-01

    An understanding of the contribution of manure applications to global atmospheric N2O loading is needed to evaluate agriculture's contribution to the global warming process. Two field experiments were carried out at Dufuya wetland (19°17'S; 29°21'E, 1260 m above sea level) to determine the effects of single and split manure applications on emissions of N2O from soil during the growing seasons of two rape and two tomato crops. Two field experiments were established. In the first experiment the manure was applied in three levels of 0, 15, and 30 Mg ha(-1) as a single application just before planting of the first tomato crop. In the second experiment the 15 and 30 Mg ha(-1) manure application rates were divided into four split applications of 3.75 and 7.5 Mg ha(-1) respectively, for each of the four cropping events. Single applications of 15 and 30 Mg ha(-1) manure once in four cropping events had higher emissions of N2O than those recorded on plots that received split applications of 3.75 and 7.5 Mg ha(-1) manure at least up to the second test crop. Thereafter N2O emissions on plots subjected to split applications of manure were higher or equal to those recorded in plots that received single basal applications of 30 Mg ha(-1) applied a week before planting the first crop. Seasonal split applications of manure to wetland vegetable crops can reduce emissions of N2O at least up to the second seasonal split application.

  5. Challenges and issues concerning mycotoxins contamination in oil seeds and their edible oils: Updates from last decade.

    PubMed

    Bhat, Rajeev; Reddy, Kasa Ravindra Nadha

    2017-01-15

    Safety concerns pertaining towards fungal occurrence and mycotoxins contamination in agri-food commodities has been an issue of high apprehension. With the increase in evidence based research knowledge on health effects posed by ingestion of mycotoxins-contaminated food and feed by humans and livestock, concerns have been raised towards providing more insights on screening of agri-food commodities to benefit consumers. Available reports indicate majority of edible oil-yielding seeds to be contaminated by various fungi, capable of producing mycotoxins. These mycotoxins can enter human food chain via use of edible oils or via animals fed with contaminated oil cake residues. In this review, we have decisively evaluated available data (from the past decade) pertaining towards fungal occurrence and level of mycotoxins in various oil seeds and their edible oils. This review can be of practical use to justify the prevailing gaps, especially relevant to the research on presence of mycotoxins in edible plant based oils.

  6. Power, sex, and rape myth acceptance: testing two models of rape proclivity.

    PubMed

    Chapleau, Kristine M; Oswald, Debra L

    2010-01-01

    Power and sex are thought to be important factors associated with sexual aggression. The goal of this study was to offer a dual-process model to determine how both an implicit power-sex association and explicit power-sex beliefs contribute to rape myth acceptance and rape proclivity. In Study 1, an explicit measure of power-sex beliefs was developed using a participant sample of 131 college students (54% female; age: M = 20.2 years, SD = 3.5 years). In Study 2, 108 male college students (age: M = 19.1 years, SD = 1.3 years) completed a power-sex implicit association test and three explicit measures assessing power-sex beliefs, rape myth acceptance, and rape proclivity. Two models of rape proclivity were compared. The best-fitting model showed that rape myth acceptance mediated the relationships between rape proclivity and an implicit power-sex association, as well as explicit power-sex beliefs.

  7. Religious Affiliation, Religiosity, Gender, and Rape Myth Acceptance: Feminist Theory and Rape Culture.

    PubMed

    Barnett, Michael D; Sligar, Kylie B; Wang, Chiachih D C

    2016-08-24

    Rape myths are false beliefs about rape, rape victims, and rapists, often prejudicial and stereotypical. Guided by feminist theory and available empirical research, this study aimed to examine the influences of gender, religious affiliation, and religiosity on rape myth acceptance of U.S. emerging adults. A sample of 653 university students aged 18 to 30 years were recruited from a large public university in the southern United States to complete the research questionnaires. Results indicated that individuals who identified as Roman Catholic or Protestant endorsed higher levels of rape myth acceptance than their atheist or agnostic counterparts. Men were found more likely to ascribe to rape myths than their female counterparts. Religiosity was positively associated with rape myth acceptance, even after controlling the effect of conservative political ideology. No significant interaction was found between gender and religious affiliation or gender and religiosity. Limitations, future research directions, and implications of the findings are discussed from the perspective of feminist theory.

  8. Feral genetically modified herbicide tolerant oilseed rape from seed import spills: are concerns scientifically justified?

    PubMed

    Devos, Yann; Hails, Rosemary S; Messéan, Antoine; Perry, Joe N; Squire, Geoffrey R

    2012-02-01

    One of the concerns surrounding the import (for food and feed uses or processing) of genetically modified herbicide tolerant (GMHT) oilseed rape is that, through seed spillage, the herbicide tolerance (HT) trait will escape into agricultural or semi-natural habitats, causing environmental or economic problems. Based on these concerns, three EU countries have invoked national safeguard clauses to ban the marketing of specific GMHT oilseed rape events on their territory. However, the scientific basis for the environmental and economic concerns posed by feral GMHT oilseed rape resulting from seed import spills is debatable. While oilseed rape has characteristics such as secondary dormancy and small seed size that enable it to persist and be redistributed in the landscape, the presence of ferals is not in itself an environmental or economic problem. Crucially, feral oilseed rape has not become invasive outside cultivated and ruderal habitats, and HT traits are not likely to result in increased invasiveness. Feral GMHT oilseed rape has the potential to introduce HT traits to volunteer weeds in agricultural fields, but would only be amplified if the herbicides to which HT volunteers are tolerant were used routinely in the field. However, this worst-case scenario is most unlikely, as seed import spills are mostly confined to port areas. Economic concerns revolve around the potential for feral GMHT oilseed rape to contribute to GM admixtures in non-GM crops. Since feral plants derived from cultivation (as distinct from import) occur at too low a frequency to affect the coexistence threshold of 0.9% in the EU, it can be concluded that feral GMHT plants resulting from seed import spills will have little relevance as a potential source of pollen or seed for GM admixture. This paper concludes that feral oilseed rape in Europe should not be routinely managed, and certainly not in semi-natural habitats, as the benefits of such action would not outweigh the negative effects of

  9. Beliefs About Rape and Women's Social Roles.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Costin, Frank; And Others

    The hypothesis that views of rape which place women at a disadvantage are positively related to beliefs which restrict the rights and roles of women in our society is tested. Two scales, the R scale and the W scale, based on a survey of beliefs about rape (Hubert Feild) and the attitudes toward women's scale (Janet Spence and Robert Helmreich),…

  10. What has Reform of Rape Legislation Wrought?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Loh, Wallace D.

    1981-01-01

    Compares the impact of common law and reform rape legislation on prosecution based on analysis of 445 forcible and statutory rape cases in King County, Washington. Concludes that the impact of the statutory reform has been mainly symbolic and educative for society at large, rather than instrumental for law enforcement. (Author/MJL)

  11. From Kobe Bryant to Campus Rape

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Malveaux, Julianne

    2004-01-01

    Even though laws have been passed to protect young women--who are most at risk for rape--from sexual assault on campus, many young men think they can rape without consequence. Thus, the Campus Security Act of 1990 (now known as the Jerome Clery Act), which requires campuses to report serious crimes on campus, and the Campus Sexual Assault Victim's…

  12. Rape avoidance behavior among Slovak women.

    PubMed

    Prokop, Pavol

    2013-05-28

    Rape has been a recurrent adaptive problem for many species, including humans. Rape is costly to women in terms of disease transmission, partner abandonment, and unwanted pregnancy (among other costs). Therefore, behavioral strategies which allow women to avoid coercive men may have been favored by selection. In line with this evolutionary reasoning, the current research documented that physically stronger women and those in a committed romantic relationship reported more rape avoidance behavior. In addition, virgin women tended to perform more rape avoidance behavior compared with their non-virgin counterparts. Women with high conception risk perceived themselves as physically stronger, which may protect them against a potential rapist. Fear of unwanted pregnancy from rape decreased as age increased, reflecting higher fertility among younger participants. However, older women reported more rape avoidance behavior, which contradicts evolutionary predictions. The results provide some support for evolutionary hypotheses of rape avoidance behavior which suggest that woman's perception of rape is influenced by parental investment and perceived physical condition.

  13. The Psychological Impact of Rape Victims

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Campbell, Rebecca

    2008-01-01

    This review article examines rape victims' experiences seeking postassault assistance from the legal, medical, and mental health systems and how those interactions impact their psychological well-being. This literature suggests that although some rape victims have positive, helpful experiences with social system personnel, for many victims,…

  14. National Directory: Rape Prevention and Treatment Resources.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Inst. of Mental Health (DHHS), Rockville, MD. National Center for the Control and Prevention of Rape.

    This directory is a result of a 1976 study to identify rape prevention and treatment programs and resources in the United States and Canada. Seven hundred listings are included in this updated version. They include rape crisis centers, community mental health centers, medical facilities, government and police agencies, and individuals. The…

  15. Japanese International Students' Attitudes toward Acquaintance Rape.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Motoike, Janice; Stockdale, Margaret

    This study looked at the influence of an Asian sociocultural variable, loss of face or social integrity, as a predictor of perceptions of acquaintance rape among Japanese students. In addition to the expected associations between gender, sexism, and perceptions of rape, loss of face was predicted to interact with the perpetrator's reference group…

  16. Rape myths among Appalachian college students.

    PubMed

    Haywood, Holly; Swank, Eric

    2008-01-01

    Rape myths regularly admonish victims for supposedly provoking the violence done against them. While rape attitudes have been studied in national and urban samples, the support of rape myths in rural populations is seldom investigated. Furthermore, the few empirical studies on sexual coercion in Appalachia are mostly descriptive and rarely compare the sentiments of Appalachians and non-Appalachians. To address this gap, this study surveyed 512 college students at a public university in Eastern Kentucky. In testing an Appalachian distinctiveness question, this study revealed that Appalachian students were less likely to criticize rape victims. Students were also less inclined to condemn rape victims when they were victims themselves, came from egalitarian families, stayed in college longer, rejected modem sexism, and felt little animosity toward women.

  17. Determination of trace elements in rape honey and its corresponding rape flower and stem by ICP-MS.

    PubMed

    Chen, Hui; Wang, Zhi-Bin; Chang, Qiao-Ying; Wang, Wei; Fan, Chun-Lin; Pang, Guo-Fang

    2014-02-01

    The determination of 10 trace elements including Na, Mg, P, K, Ca, Mn, Zn, Rb, Sr and Ba, in rape honey and its corresponding rape flower and stem gathered from nine sampling sites was carried out by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). The contents of K, P, Ca, Mg and Na were obviously higher than Zn, Rb, Mn, Sr and Ba in rape honey, rape flower and rape stem. For the first five elements, K had the highest content, followed by P, Ca, Mg and Na. However, the order of content for latter five elements was not the same in different matrixes. The contents of K, P and Ca were all higher than 1 000 mg x kg(-1) in rape flower and rape stem, while the contents of P, Ca, Mn, Zn and Rb in rape flower were slightly higher than in rape stem. It can be concluded that rape flower showed slightly higher concentrating ability for trace elements than rape stem. Based on these results, radar chart was firstly applied to research the relationship of 10 elements in rape honey and its corresponding rape flower and stem. The aim of the present work was to study the possibility of using trace elements contents in rape flower to trace the geographical and botanical origin of honey instead of rape honey. It can be found from the radar charts that the stars of rape honey, rape flower and rape stem were similar to each other. This research not only provides the basic data of trace elements in comparative study of rape honey, but also gives scientific basis for tracing the origin of rape honey according to the trace elements in corresponding rape flower that replaces those of rape honey.

  18. Male Rape Myths: The Role of Gender, Violence, and Sexism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chapleau, Kristine M.; Oswald, Debra L.; Russell, Brenda L.

    2008-01-01

    This study investigates the structure of Struckman-Johnson and Struckman-Johnson's Male Rape Myth Scale, examines gender differences in rape myth acceptance, and explores the underlying ideologies that facilitate male rape myth acceptance. A three-factor model, with rape myths regarding Trauma, Blame, and Denial as separate subscales, is the best…

  19. Transfer Assessment of Carbendazim Residues from Rape Flowers to Apicultural Products

    PubMed Central

    Li, Ying-Hong; Zhou, Bei-Lei; Qian, Ming-Rong; Wang, Qiang

    2017-01-01

    Carbendazim is usually used to control the Sclerotinia sclerotiorum of rapes during the flowering period. This paper presents a study on transfer assessment of carbendazim residues from rape flowers to apicultural products. In the field trials, the rapes were sprayed with carbendazim on standard dosage. Bees produced apicultural products (bee pollen, honey, and royal jelly) from sprayed rapes. Apicultural products were collected on a regular basis. Carbendazim residues were extracted from bee pollen, honey, and royal jelly, respectively. HPLC/ESI-MS/MS method was developed and partially validated to identify and quantify carbendazim residues. The limits of quantification in pollen, honey, and royal jelly were 0.01 mg/kg. Mathematical curve fitting was carried out on the basis of transfer assessment of carbendazim residues from rape flowers to apicultural products. The respective carbendazim residues were 1.10 ± 0.03 mg/kg in pollen on 18th day, 0.032 ± 0.001 mg/kg in honey on 24th day, and 0.077 ± 0.002 mg/kg in royal jelly on 22nd day. Transfer assessment and mathematical curve fitting of carbendazim residues from rape flowers to apicultural products show carbendazim diminished over spraying time. The gap of carbendazim residues between pollen and honey is decreased with time. The carbendazim residues in pollen are 10 times higher than that of honey and jelly. PMID:28246574

  20. Management of herbicide-tolerant oilseed rape in Europe: a case study on minimizing vertical gene flow.

    PubMed

    Devos, Yann; Reheul, Dirk; de Schrijver, Adinda; Cors, François; Moens, William

    2004-01-01

    The potential commercialization of genetically modified herbicide-tolerant (GMHT) oilseed rape in Europe raises various concerns about their potential environmental and agronomic impacts, especially those associated with the escape of transgenes. Pollen of oilseed rape can be dispersed in space, resulting in the fertilization of sympatric compatible wild relatives (e.g. Brassica rapa) and oilseed rape cultivars grown nearby (GM and/or non-GM Brassica napus). The spatial and temporal dispersal of seeds of oilseed rape may lead to feral oilseed rape populations outside the cropped areas and oilseed rape volunteers in subsequent crops in the rotation. The incorporation of a HT trait(s) may increase the fitness of the recipient plants, making them more abundant and persistent, and may result in weeds that are difficult to control by the herbicide(s) to which they are tolerant. Vertical gene flow from transgenic oilseed rape to non-GM counterparts may also have an impact on farming and supply chain management, depending on labelling thresholds for the adventitious presence of GM material in non-GM products. Given the extent of pollen and seed dispersal in oilseed rape, it is obvious that the safe and sound integration of GMHT oilseed rape in Europe may require significant on-farm and off-farm management efforts. Crucial practical measures that can reduce vertical gene flow include (1) isolating seed production of Brassica napus, (2) the use of certified seed, (3) isolating fields of GM oilseed rape, (4) harvesting at the correct crop development stage with properly adjusted combine settings, (5) ensuring maximum germination of shed seeds after harvest, (6) controlling volunteers in subsequent crops, and (7) keeping on-farm records. The implementation of the recommended practices may, however, be difficult, entailing various challenges.

  1. Understanding Attribution of Blame in Cases of Rape: An Analysis of Participant Gender, Type of Rape and Perceived Similarity to the Victim

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grubb, Amy Rose; Harrower, Julie

    2009-01-01

    This study examined a variety of factors that may influence attributions towards rape victims. A total of 156 participants completed a questionnaire, which included a measure of attitudes towards rape victims and a vignette depicting one of three rape scenarios (a stranger rape, date rape and seduction rape). Participants rated the extent to which…

  2. Hostile sexism, type of rape, and self-reported rape proclivity within a sample of Zimbabwean males.

    PubMed

    Viki, G Tendayi; Chiroro, Patrick; Abrams, Dominic

    2006-08-01

    The role of hostile sexism in accounting for rape proclivity among men was investigated using a sample of Zimbabwean students. Participants were presented with either an acquaintance rape or a stranger rape scenario and asked to respond to five questions about the scenario designed to assess rape proclivity. As expected, a significant relationship between hostile sexism and rape proclivity was obtained in the acquaintance rape but not the stranger rape condition. These results replicate previous research and suggest that hostile sexists are more likely to express their hostility toward women in situations where such behavior might be perceived as acceptable.

  3. Proposed Recruit Training Topic: Rape Awareness.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1984-03-01

    Rape . Forced sexual intercourse when the victim is unable, because of age or mental inability, to consent. The information on the Uniform Code of...person subject to this chapter who commits an act of sexual intercourse with a female not his wife, by force and without her consent, is guilty of rape and...not amounting to rape , commits an act of sexual intercourse with a female not his wife who has not attained the age of 16 years, is guilty of carnal

  4. What is a typical rape? Effects of victim and participant gender in female and male rape perception.

    PubMed

    Anderson, Irina

    2007-03-01

    The study had three research aims: (1) to examine the current perception of female rape. Given recent changes in public awareness of female rape, it was predicted that respondents would conceptualize a typical female rape as an acquaintance rape rather than as the stranger rape stereotype; (2) to examine whether these perceptions differ according to respondents' gender; (3) to examine the 'cultural lag' theory of male rape, where it was hypothesized that if the public perception of male rape lags behind female rape, then a typical male rape will be conceptualized as the classic stranger rape stereotype. Findings showed that contrary to predictions, a typical female rape was conceptualized according to the stranger rape stereotype. It was also found that instead of lagging behind female rape along the stranger-acquaintance rape dimension, male rape was viewed predominantly in terms of 'other' factors (factors not found on the stranger-acquaintance dimension, e.g. victim/rapist sexual orientation, rapist calls victim names), which were erroneous, sexualizing and homophobic.

  5. Multiple personality: self-rape.

    PubMed

    Beer, D; Beer, J; Beer, J

    1994-12-01

    Multiple personality disorder is the classification given a person for whom two or more distinct personalities are diagnosed. The personalities can be different and vary in character from aggressive to submissive (victimized). The victim alters can be abused and abuse or mutilate self to relieve anxiety or guilt (deserving punishment) or to exert control. Alters may provide a means of expressing anger or other feelings. Aggression towards the body may be sexually oriented, so one may ask whether aggression could make self-rape possible. If so, such expression of self-injuries may be observed in a person with multiple personality as when one alter may injure another. Clinical case material is presented on this concept for a woman who had been formally diagnosed with multiple personality disorder.

  6. Components of a rice-oilseed rape production system augmented with trichoderma sp. Tri-1 control sclerotinia sclerotiorum on oilseed rape

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Sclerotinia sclerotiorum causes serious yield losses on many crops throughout the world. In two field trials conducted at the same location in consecutive years, a treatment containing formulated Trichoderma harzianum-1 (Tri-1) resulted in oilseed rape seed yield that was significantly greater than...

  7. Rape--victiminological and psychiatric aspects.

    PubMed

    Mezey, G C

    1985-03-01

    Rape is a violent crime in which sexuality is used to express power, anger, and aggression. The nature of the victim's reactions, which resembles those of other violent crimes, is discussed in relation to its origin in the doctrine of victimology. The distress experienced by victims of rape should entitle them to the same standards of care and sympathy as victims of other life crises.

  8. Non-isothermal kinetic study of de-oiled seeds cake of African star apple (Chrosophyllum albidum) using thermogravimetry.

    PubMed

    Sokoto, M A; Singh, Rawel; Krishna, Bhavya B; Kumar, Jitendra; Bhaskar, Thallada

    2016-10-01

    Thermal decomposition and kinetics behaviour of the de-oiled seed cake of African star apple (Chrosophyllum albidum) has been investigated using thermogravimetry under the nitrogen atmosphere from ambient temperature to 900 °C. The thermogravimetric data for the cake decomposition at six different heating rates (5, 10, 15, 20, 30 and 40 °C/min) were used to evaluate the kinetic decomposition of the cake using Friedman (FD), Kissinger-Akahira-Sunose (KAS) and Flynn-Wall-Ozawa (FWO) models. Thermal decomposition of the cake showed thermograms indicating dehydration and devolitilization stages (200-400 °C). The maximum temperature for the decomposition of the cake (Tmax) increases from 289.42-335.96 °C with increase in heating rates. The average apparent activation energy (Ea) values of 153.15, 145.14 and 147.15 kJ/mol were calculated using Friedman, Kissinger-Akahira-Sunose, and Flynn-Wall-Ozawa models respectively. The extent of mass conversion (α) shows dependence on apparent activation Ea values which is an evidence of multi-step decomposition kinetic. The thermal profile and kinetic data obtained could be helpful in evaluating the thermal stability of the cake as well as modeling, designing and developing a thermo-chemical system for the conversion of the cake to fuel.

  9. Biosynthesis of bacitracin in solid-state fermentation by Bacillus licheniformis using defatted oil seed cakes as substrate.

    PubMed

    Farzana, Kalsoom; Shah, Syed Nisar Hussain; Butt, Farooq Bashir; Awan, Sattar Bukhsh

    2005-01-01

    Bacitracin is being imported in Pakistan involving substantial amount of foreign exchange for its incorporation in poultry feed. The cheap raw material for its production is readily available and cheap such as soybean meal, sunflower meal, wheat bran etc. Thus development of this technology in our country would result in saving a reasonable amount of foreign exchange by exploiting indigenous resources. The present study is concerned with the biosynthesis of antibiotic bacitracin in solid-state fermentation by Bacillus licheniformis on laboratory scale using defatted oil seed cakes of agricultural by-products as starting material for maximum production of the antibiotic Bacitracin. In solid-state fermentation, wheat bran, soybean meal, sunflower meal, rice hulls and their different combinations were used. The antibiotic activity, 48 hours after inoculation was 4375 i.u / gm when only soybean was used. However, maximum titre 4820 i.u / gm of antibiotic was obtained using wheat bran and soybean meal in ratio of 1:3.

  10. Do Rape Education Programs Influence Rape Patterns among New York State College Students?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parrot, Andrea

    This study examined the differences in patterns of college student reports of rape and the availability of educational programs among college students. College students (N=994) from 26 colleges and universities in New York State were studied to determine the extent of forced sex and rape experiences. Additionally, they were studied to determine if…

  11. Prevention of post-rape psychopathology: preliminary findings of a controlled acute rape treatment study.

    PubMed

    Resnick, H; Acierno, R; Holmes, M; Kilpatrick, D G; Jager, N

    1999-01-01

    Violent sexual assault such as rape typically results in extremely high levels of acute distress. The intensity of these acute psychological reactions may play a role in later recovery, with higher levels of immediate distress associated with poorer outcome. Unfortunately, post-rape forensic evidence collection procedures may serve to increase, rather than reduce initial distress, potentially exacerbating future psychopathology. To address these concerns, an acute time-frame hospital-based video intervention was developed to: (a) minimize anxiety during forensic rape exams, and (b) prevent post-rape posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), panic, and anxiety. Preliminary data indicated that (1) psychological distress at the time of the exam was strongly related to PTSD symptomatology 6 weeks post-rape, and (2) the video intervention successfully reduced distress during forensic exams.

  12. Exploring rape myths, gendered norms, group processing, and the social context of rape among college women: a qualitative analysis.

    PubMed

    Deming, Michelle E; Covan, Eleanor Krassen; Swan, Suzanne C; Billings, Deborah L

    2013-04-01

    The purpose of this research is to explore the negotiation strategies of college women as they interpret ambiguous rape scenarios. In focus groups, 1st- and 4th-year college women were presented with a series of three vignettes depicting incidents that meet the legal criteria for rape yet are ambiguous due to the presence of cultural rape myths, contexts involving alcohol consumption, varying degrees of consent, and a known perpetrator. These contexts are critical in understanding how college women define rape. Key findings indicated many of these college women utilized rape myths and norms within their peer groups to interpret rape scenarios.

  13. The sensitivity of forensic tests for rape.

    PubMed

    Ferris, L E; Sandercock, J

    1998-01-01

    The objective of this study is to provide an overview of the types of forensic evidence gathered during clinical examinations in cases of sexual assault, and to review the literature regarding the sensitivity of individual procedures. The methodology involved a computerized literature search of the MEDLINE, PsycINFO, Cinahl and HealthStar databases from 1992 to 1996, and a secondary search involving consultation with local facilities and manual searching of reference lists. Based on our review, the chance of finding positive evidence is largely time-dependent, particularly regarding sperm and seminal products, which are weighted most heavily in rape investigations. The best chance of recovering seminal evidence is most frequently stated as being less than 50%, with far lower chances after 24 hours. Specific tests such as pubic hair combing would not be expected to yield evidence in more than 4% of cases. That test, while of low sensitivity, is at least not as invasive as some of the others. More invasive tests, such as sampling from the rectal cavity, yield positive sperm findings in fewer than 2% of cases. The importance of ensuring that those working in the field of sexual assault understand that no positive finding on forensic tests does not mean that no attack occurred is highlighted. Medico-legal implications are discussed and suggestions for future research initiatives are highlighted.

  14. La Violacion Sexual--The Reality of Rape

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garcia, Chris; And Others

    1978-01-01

    The Hispanic rape victim often finds herself in a situation where discussing a rape may jeopardize not only her self esteem but her residency status, job and familial relations. Small wonder she prefers to remain silent. (Author/NQ)

  15. Rape, sex partnership, and substance use consequences in women veterans.

    PubMed

    Booth, Brenda M; Mengeling, Michelle; Torner, James; Sadler, Anne G

    2011-06-01

    The association of rape history and sexual partnership with alcohol and drug use consequences in women veterans is unknown. Midwestern women veterans (N = 1,004) completed a retrospective telephone interview assessing demographics, rape history, substance abuse and dependence, depression, and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). One third met lifetime criteria for substance use disorder (SUD), half reported lifetime completed rape, a third childhood rape, one quarter in-military rape, 11% sex with women. Lifetime SUD was higher for women with rape history (64% vs. 44%). Women with women as sex partners had significantly higher rates of all measures of rape, and also lifetime substance use disorder. Postmilitary rape, sex partnership, and current depression were significantly associated with lifetime SUD in multivariate models (odds ratio = 2.3, 3.6, 2.1, respectively). Many women veterans have a high need for comprehensive mental health services.

  16. Male rape myths: the role of gender, violence, and sexism.

    PubMed

    Chapleau, Kristine M; Oswald, Debra L; Russell, Brenda L

    2008-05-01

    This study investigates the structure of Struckman-Johnson and Struckman-Johnson's Male Rape Myth Scale, examines gender differences in rape myth acceptance, and explores the underlying ideologies that facilitate male rape myth acceptance. A three-factor model, with rape myths regarding Trauma, Blame, and Denial as separate subscales, is the best fitting solution. However, the results indicate that additional scale development and validity tests are necessary. In exploratory analyses, men are more accepting of male rape myths than are women. Benevolent sexism toward men and acceptance of interpersonal violence are strong predictors of male rape myth acceptance for both men and women. Thus, the attitudes that facilitate rape myth acceptance against men appear to be similar to those that facilitate rape myth acceptance against women. Suggestions for future scale development are outlined and theoretical implications of the findings are discussed.

  17. Oil Biosynthesis in Underground Oil-Rich Storage Vegetative Tissue: Comparison of Cyperus esculentus Tuber with Oil Seeds and Fruits.

    PubMed

    Yang, Zhenle; Ji, Hongying; Liu, Dantong

    2016-12-01

    Cyperus esculentus is unique in that it can accumulate rich oil in its tubers. However, the underlying mechanism of tuber oil biosynthesis is still unclear. Our transcriptional analyses of the pathways from pyruvate production up to triacylglycerol (TAG) accumulation in tubers revealed many distinct species-specific lipid expression patterns from oil seeds and fruits, indicating that in C. esculentus tuber: (i) carbon flux from sucrose toward plastid pyruvate could be produced mostly through the cytosolic glycolytic pathway; (ii) acetyl-CoA synthetase might be an important contributor to acetyl-CoA formation for plastid fatty acid biosynthesis; (iii) the expression pattern for stearoyl-ACP desaturase was associated with high oleic acid composition; (iv) it was most likely that endoplasmic reticulum (ER)-associated acyl-CoA synthetase played a significant role in the export of fatty acids between the plastid and ER; (v) lipid phosphate phosphatase (LPP)-δ was most probably related to the formation of the diacylglycerol (DAG) pool in the Kennedy pathway; and (vi) diacylglyceroltransacylase 2 (DGAT2) and phospholipid:diacylglycerolacyltransferase 1 (PDAT1) might play crucial roles in tuber oil biosynthesis. In contrast to oil-rich fruits, there existed many oleosins, caleosins and steroleosins with very high transcripts in tubers. Surprisingly, only a single ortholog of WRINKLED1 (WRI1)-like transcription factor was identified and it was poorly expressed during tuber development. Our study not only provides insights into lipid metabolism in tuber tissues, but also broadens our understanding of TAG synthesis in oil plants. Such knowledge is of significance in exploiting this oil-rich species and manipulating other non-seed tissues to enhance storage oil production.

  18. Purification and characterization of cytosolic fructose-1, 6-bisphosphate aldolase from endosperm of germinated castor oil seeds.

    PubMed

    Hodgson, R J; Plaxton, W C

    1998-07-15

    Cytosolic fructose-1,6-bisphosphate (FBP) aldolase (ALDc) from the endosperm of 4- to 5-day germinated castor oil seeds (COS) has been purified 83-fold to electrophoretic homogeneity and a final specific activity of 2.5 micromol FBP cleaved/min/mg protein. SDS-PAGE and denaturing isoelectric focusing of the final preparation revealed a single protein-staining band of 40 kDa and pI value 7.2. The native Mr was determined by gel-filtration chromatography and multiangle laser light scattering to be 160-175 kDa, indicating that the enzyme is homotetrameric. The enzyme (a) is a class I aldolase, since EDTA or Mg2+ had no effect on its activity; and (b) was relatively heat stable and had an activation energy of 100 kJ/mol. It exhibited a broad pH-activity optima of 7.2, a relatively high affinity for FBP (Km = 0.16 microM), and a forward:reverse Vmax ratio of 0.77. Rabbit anti-(COS ALDc) antibodies cross-reacted with COS ALDc, but not with the corresponding plastidic isozyme. Time-course studies revealed that (a) the increase in total ALD activity that occurs during COS development and early germination coincides with an increase in ALDc concentration and (b) the latter stages of COS maturation and germination are accompanied by marked reductions in ALD activity and ALDc concentration. The most significant elevation in ALDc concentration occurred over the first 4 days of germination when COS initiates the gluconeogenic conversion of P-enolpyruvate and triose-P, derived from reserve triacylglycerols, into the sucrose required to support early seedling growth.

  19. Phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase protein kinase from developing castor oil seeds: partial purification, characterization, and reversible control by photosynthate supply.

    PubMed

    Murmu, Jhadeswar; Plaxton, William C

    2007-10-01

    Phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase (PEPC, EC 4.1.1.31) protein kinase (PPCK) was purified approximately 1,500-fold from developing castor oil seeds (COS). Gel filtration and immunoblotting with anti-(rice PPCK2)-immune serum indicated that this Ca2+-insensitive PPCK exists as a 31-kDa monomer. COS PPCK-mediated rephosphorylation of the 107-kDa subunit (p107) of COS PEPC1 (Km = 2.2 microM) activated PEPC1 by approximately 80% when assayed under suboptimal conditions (pH 7.3, 0.2 mM PEP, and 0.125 mM malate). COS PPCK displayed remarkable selectivity for phosphorylating COS PEPC1 (relative to tobacco, sorghum, or maize PEPCs), exhibited a broad pH-activity optima of approximately pH 8.5, and at pH 7.3 was activated 40-65% by 1 mM PEP, or 10 mM Gln or Asn, but inhibited 65% by 10 mM L-malate. The possible control of COS PPCK by disulfide-dithiol interconversion was suggested by its rapid inactivation and subsequent reactivation when incubated with oxidized glutathione and then dithiothreitol. In vitro PPCK activity correlated with in vivo p107 phosphorylation status, with both peaking in mid-cotyledon to full-cotyledon developing COS. Notably, PPCK activity and p107 phosphorylation of developing COS were eliminated following pod excision or prolonged darkness of intact plants. Both effects were fully reversed 12 h following reillumination of darkened plants. These results implicate a direct relationship between the up-regulation of COS PPCK and p107 phosphorylation during the recommencement of photosynthate delivery from illuminated leaves to the non-photosynthetic COS. Overall, the results support the hypothesis that PEPC and PPCK participate in the control of photosynthate partitioning into C-skeletons needed as precursors for key biosynthetic pathways of developing COS.

  20. Rape as a weapon of war in the Democratic Republic of the Congo.

    PubMed

    Brown, Carly

    2012-01-01

    The Democratic Republic of the Congo has been appropriately acknowledged as "the rape capital of the world." While the country has been trapped in conflict, the use of rape as a weapon of war has been rampant and unyielding. The sexual violence inflicted upon women has been nothing less than brutal and destructive, physically, socially, and psychologically. This paper analyzes the use of rape as a weapon of war in the Congo, taking into context the ongoing war, cultural and social situations that facilitate its existence, and the many consequences the victims are forced to endure. Drawing information from various academic journals, articles, and field research from international organizations, this paper paints a concise picture of the sexual atrocities occurring in the Democratic Republic of the Congo.

  1. Addressing rape: the urgency for action.

    PubMed

    1998-09-01

    With 20% of women worldwide victimized by rape, the fear of rape haunts women throughout their lives. Victimization by violence costs women of reproductive age a loss of 5-16% of healthy years of life and is, thus, a major public health problem. Rape survivors incur medical costs 2.5 times those of non-victims and suffer problems with their physical, psychological, and emotional health. Interventions should involve 1) across-the-board political reforms, 2) integration of appropriate values into health education and training activities, 3) criminalizing gender violence with specific legislation, 4) creating gender-sensitive support groups, and 5) raising public consciousness. Some of these strategies are already being carried out in the Asia-Pacific region, but a paradigm shift is also needed to improve women's status and empower women by 1) reinterpreting discriminatory religious texts to eliminate biased interpretations that foster gender violence, 2) removing cultural relativity from considerations of rape and its impact, and 3) gender-sensitizing religious institutions so that rape survivors are no longer stigmatized.

  2. A Snapshot of Serial Rape: An Investigation of Criminal Sophistication and Use of Force on Victim Injury and Severity of the Assault.

    PubMed

    de Heer, Brooke

    2016-02-01

    Prior research on rapes reported to law enforcement has identified criminal sophistication and the use of force against the victim as possible unique identifiers to serial rape versus one-time rape. This study sought to contribute to the current literature on reported serial rape by investigating how the level of criminal sophistication of the rapist and use of force used were associated with two important outcomes of rape: victim injury and overall severity of the assault. In addition, it was evaluated whether rapist and victim ethnicity affected these relationships. A nation-wide sample of serial rape cases reported to law enforcement collected by the Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI) was analyzed (108 rapists, 543 victims). Results indicated that serial rapists typically used a limited amount of force against the victim and displayed a high degree of criminal sophistication. In addition, the more criminally sophisticated the perpetrator was, the more sexual acts he performed on his victim. Finally, rapes between a White rapist and White victim were found to exhibit higher levels of criminal sophistication and were more severe in terms of number and types of sexual acts committed. These findings provide a more in-depth understanding of serial rape that can inform both academics and practitioners in the field about contributors to victim injury and severity of the assault.

  3. Clinical Treatment of Nonrecent Rape: How Much Do We Know?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koss, Mary P.; And Others

    Although studies indicate that as many as 22 percent of women have been raped, few of these women seek help immediately after the rape. Most rape victims experience a postrape distress response which may not be resolved for some victims. Long-term symptom patterns include fear/avoidance responses, affective constriction, disturbances of…

  4. Exposure to Pornography and Acceptance of Rape Myths.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allen, Mike; And Others

    1995-01-01

    Summarizes the literature examining the association between acceptance of rape myths and exposure to pornography. States that nonexperimental methodology shows that exposure to pornography does not increase rape myth acceptance, while experimental studies show that exposure to pornography increases rape myth acceptance. Concludes that experimental…

  5. Rape Myth Acceptance, Sexual Trauma History, and Posttraumatic Stress Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baugher, Shannon N.; Elhai, Jon D.; Monroe, James R.; Gray, Matt J.

    2010-01-01

    The prediction of false rape-related beliefs (rape myth acceptance [RMA]) was examined using the Illinois Rape Myth Acceptance Scale (Payne, Lonsway, & Fitzgerald, 1999) among a nonclinical sample of 258 male and female college students. Predictor variables included measures of attitudes toward women, gender role identity (GRI), sexual trauma…

  6. 77 FR 30871 - Implementing the Prison Rape Elimination Act

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-23

    ... May 23, 2012 Part VI The President Memorandum of May 17, 2012--Implementing the Prison Rape... 3-- #0;The President ] Memorandum of May 17, 2012 Implementing the Prison Rape Elimination Act... assault on human dignity and an affront to American values. The Prison Rape Elimination Act of 2003...

  7. An Updated Measure for Assessing Subtle Rape Myths

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McMahon, Sarah; Farmer, G. Lawrence

    2011-01-01

    Social workers responsible for developing rape prevention programs on college campuses must have valid evaluation instruments. This article presents the challenges encountered by the authors when they attempted to keep rape myth measures relevant to student populations by updating the language to reflect the subtleties involved with rape myths.…

  8. Reporting Rape in a National Sample of College Women

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wolitzky-Taylor, Kate B.; Resnick, Heidi S.; Amstadter, Ananda B.; McCauley, Jenna L.; Ruggiero, Kenneth J.; Kilpatrick, Dean G.

    2011-01-01

    Background: Studies indicate that a small percentage of rapes are reported to law enforcement officials. Research also suggests that rapes perpetrated by a stranger are more likely to be reported and that rapes involving drugs and/or alcohol are less likely to be reported. College women represent a unique and understudied population with regard to…

  9. Long-Term Effects of Labeling a Rape Experience

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McMullin, Darcy; White, Jacquelyn W.

    2006-01-01

    Research has found that approximately half of women who report an experience that meets the legal definition of rape do not label it rape. It has been assumed that labeling the experience as rape is necessary and beneficial for recovery; however, conflicting findings have been reported. In the present study, a longitudinal design was utilized to…

  10. 3 CFR - Implementing the Prison Rape Elimination Act

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 3 The President 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Implementing the Prison Rape Elimination Act Presidential Documents Other Presidential Documents Memorandum of May 17, 2012 Implementing the Prison Rape... victim, is an assault on human dignity and an affront to American values. The Prison Rape Elimination...

  11. Empirically Enhanced Reflections on 20 Years of Rape Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koss, Mary P.

    2005-01-01

    Using PsychInfo review of rape and sexual assault publications, the period of greatest fertility coincided with the establishment (1975) and demise (1987) of the National Center for the Prevention and Control of Rape. To document what has been learned and when, the era in which new rape concepts entered the literature is summarized and important…

  12. Working Together To Change the Rape and Violence Culture.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abrams, Julie M.; And Others

    This publication is a collection of 20 supporting documents for a conference program, "Working Together To Change the Rape and Violence Culture." Contents include: (1) "Presenter Contact Information"; (2) "Characteristics of Rape-Prone versus Rape-Free Cultures"; (3) "Dater's Bill of Rights"; (4)…

  13. Freeing Our Lives: A Feminist Analysis of Rape Prevention.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Graff, Sunny; And Others

    The factors which contribute to women's vulnerability to rape are a lack of information about and understanding of rape; women's subordinate relationship to men; socially reinforced physical weakness and passivity; isolation from other women; isolation in the community. Prevention means more than just reducing the incidence of rape or providing…

  14. Race and Rape: The Black Woman as Legitimate Victim.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams, Linda Meyer

    Scientific investigations of the relationship between race and rape have been flawed by the acceptance of official statistics and have been influenced by prevailing myths about rape and race. This paper proposes a theoretical framework for understanding rape and race. The thesis is presented that only the black victim of sexual assault is viewed…

  15. Large-scale monitoring of effects of clothianidin-dressed oilseed rape seeds on pollinating insects in Northern Germany: effects on honey bees (Apis mellifera).

    PubMed

    Rolke, Daniel; Fuchs, Stefan; Grünewald, Bernd; Gao, Zhenglei; Blenau, Wolfgang

    2016-11-01

    Possible effects of clothianidin seed-treated oilseed rape on honey bee colonies were investigated in a large-scale monitoring project in Northern Germany, where oilseed rape usually comprises 25-33 % of the arable land. For both reference and test sites, six study locations were selected and eight honey bee hives were placed at each location. At each site, three locations were directly adjacent to oilseed rape fields and three locations were situated 400 m away from the nearest oilseed rape field. Thus, 96 hives were exposed to fully flowering oilseed rape crops. Colony sizes and weights, the amount of honey harvested, and infection with parasites and diseases were monitored between April and September 2014. The percentage of oilseed rape pollen was determined in pollen and honey samples. After oilseed rape flowering, the hives were transferred to an extensive isolated area for post-exposure monitoring. Total numbers of adult bees and brood cells showed seasonal fluctuations, and there were no significant differences between the sites. The honey, which was extracted at the end of the exposure phase, contained 62.0-83.5 % oilseed rape pollen. Varroa destructor infestation was low during most of the course of the study but increased at the end of the study due to flumethrin resistance in the mite populations. In summary, honey bee colonies foraging in clothianidin seed-treated oilseed rape did not show any detrimental symptoms as compared to colonies foraging in clothianidin-free oilseed rape. Development of colony strength, brood success as well as honey yield and pathogen infection were not significantly affected by clothianidin seed-treatment during this study.

  16. Resisting rape: the effects of victim self-protection on rape completion and injury.

    PubMed

    Tark, Jongyeon; Kleck, Gary

    2014-03-01

    The impact of victim resistance on rape completion and injury was examined utilizing a large probability sample of sexual assault incidents, derived from the National Crime Victimization Survey (1992-2002), and taking into account whether harm to the victim followed or preceded self-protection (SP) actions. Additional injuries besides rape, particularly serious injuries, following victim resistance are rare. Results indicate that most SP actions, both forceful and nonforceful, reduce the risk of rape completion, and do not significantly affect the risk of additional injury.

  17. The Effectiveness of Two Types of Rape Prevention Programs in Changing the Rape-Supportive Attitudes of College Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderson, Linda A.; Stoelb, Matthew P.; Duggan, Peter; Hieger, Brad; Kling, Kathleen H.; Payne, June P.

    1998-01-01

    The effectiveness of two rape-prevention programs in changing college students' rape-supportive attitudes was investigated. (N=215) Conditions included an interactive mock talk show and a structured video intervention. Both interventions were effective, but attitudes were found to rebound over time. Implications for future rape-prevention…

  18. Rape, War, and the Socialization of Masculinity: Why Our Refusal to Give up War Ensures that Rape Cannot Be Eradicated

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zurbriggen, Eileen L.

    2010-01-01

    Rape is endemic during war, suggesting that there may be important conceptual links between the two. A theoretical model is presented positing that rape and war are correlated because traditional (hegemonic) masculinity underlies, and is a cause of, both. An analysis of the literatures on masculinity, rape perpetration, and military socialization…

  19. Perceptions of, and Assistance Provided to, a Hypothetical Rape Victim: Differences between Rape Disclosure Recipients and Nonrecipients

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Paul, Lisa A.; Kehn, Andre; Gray, Matt J.; Salapska-Gelleri, Joanna

    2014-01-01

    Objective: Undergraduate rape disclosure recipients' and nonrecipients' sociodemographic and life experience variables, attitudes towards rape, and responses to a hypothetical rape disclosure were compared to determine differences between them. Participants: One hundred ninety-two undergraduates at 3 universities participated in this online survey…

  20. Examining the Relationship between Male Rape Myth Acceptance, Female Rape Myth Acceptance, Victim Blame, Homophobia, Gender Roles, and Ambivalent Sexism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davies, Michelle; Gilston, Jennifer; Rogers, Paul

    2012-01-01

    The relationship between male rape myth acceptance, female rape myth acceptance, attitudes toward gay men, a series of gender role and sexism measures, victim blame and assault severity were investigated. It was predicted that men would display more negative, stereotypical attitudes than women and that male rape myth endorsement would be related…

  1. Pyrolysis of de-oiled seed cake of Jatropha Curcas and catalytic steam reforming of pyrolytic bio-oil to hydrogen.

    PubMed

    Renny, Andrew; Santhosh, Viswanathan; Somkuwar, Nitin; Gokak, D T; Sharma, Pankaj; Bhargava, Sanjay

    2016-11-01

    The aim of this work was to study the pyrolysis of de-oiled seed cake of Jatropha Curcas and catalytic steam reforming of pyrolytic bio-oil to hydrogen. As per literature, presence of heavy nitrogenous and oxygenated compounds leads to catalyst deactivation. Here, an attempt has been made to tune pyrolytic reactions to optimize the N and O content of the pyrolytic bio-oil. Bio-oil conversion and hydrogen yield decreased as reaction progressed, which attributes to temporary loss of catalytic activity by blockage of catalyst pores by carbon deposition. Further, retention of steam reforming activity after repetitive steam activation suggests long-term catalyst usage.

  2. Rape stereotypes and labeling: awareness of victimization and trauma.

    PubMed

    Sarmiento, Ilaria

    2011-02-01

    For years, studies in the U.S. college population have described the phenomena of date and acquaintance rape. These phenomena have perpetuated myths regarding rape leading to the faulty labeling of the experience by the survivors themselves. Compared with the U.S., in Europe there are very few studies concerning this issue. This preliminary study in Italy comprised surveys of 210 participants who were asked to express their opinions on 2 scenarios of sexual assault (a forced rape and an acquaintance rape). Only 48% of the participants thought that acquaintance rape should be tried in a criminal court.

  3. Man to Man about Rape: A Rape Prevention Program for Men.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ring, Timothy E.; Kilmartin, Christopher

    1992-01-01

    Describes "Man to Man about Rape," project offered at one university that uses both didactic and small group experiential formats to educate male college students about male socialization, intimacy, violent behavior, objectification, father-son relationships, and sexual behavior. (NB)

  4. Incapacitated rape and alcohol use: a prospective analysis.

    PubMed

    Kaysen, Debra; Neighbors, Clayton; Martell, Joel; Fossos, Nicole; Larimer, Mary E

    2006-10-01

    This study examined timing of alcohol-related sexual assaults (incapacitated rape) in relation to both alcohol consumption and alcohol-related negative consequences. The sample was drawn from a randomly selected pool of college students across three campuses (n=1238) followed over a three year time period. 91% of students never experienced an incapacitated rape, 2% reported an incapacitated rape prior to the first assessment point (n=30), and 6% reported one over the course of the study (n=76). Results indicated that incapacitated rape was associated with higher alcohol use and more negative consequences in the years prior to the assault. Incapacitated rape was also associated with higher alcohol use and more negative consequences during the year in which the rape took place and subsequent years, with highest rates measured for the year of the rape. These results suggest alcohol use can function as both risk factor and consequence of sexual victimization.

  5. Women's rape fantasies: an empirical evaluation of the major explanations.

    PubMed

    Bivona, Jenny M; Critelli, Joseph W; Clark, Michael J

    2012-10-01

    This study evaluated explanations of rape fantasy in a sample of female undergraduates (N = 355) using a sexual fantasy checklist which included eight types of rape fantasy, participants' detailed descriptions of a rape fantasy they have had, a rape fantasy scenario audio presentation, and measures of personality. Three explanations of rape fantasy were tested: openness to sexual experience, sexual desirability, and sexual blame avoidance. Women who were higher in erotophilia and self-esteem and who had more frequent consensual sexual fantasies and more frequent desirability fantasies, particularly of performing as a stripper, had more frequent rape fantasies. Women who were higher in erotophilia, openness to fantasy, desirability fantasies, and self-esteem reported greater sexual arousal to rape fantasies. Sexual blame avoidance theory was not supported; sexual desirability theory was moderately supported; openness to sexual experience theory received the strongest support.

  6. Multi range spectral feature fitting for hyperspectral imagery in extracting oilseed rape planting area

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pan, Zhuokun; Huang, Jingfeng; Wang, Fumin

    2013-12-01

    Spectral feature fitting (SFF) is a commonly used strategy for hyperspectral imagery analysis to discriminate ground targets. Compared to other image analysis techniques, SFF does not secure higher accuracy in extracting image information in all circumstances. Multi range spectral feature fitting (MRSFF) from ENVI software allows user to focus on those interesting spectral features to yield better performance. Thus spectral wavelength ranges and their corresponding weights must be determined. The purpose of this article is to demonstrate the performance of MRSFF in oilseed rape planting area extraction. A practical method for defining the weighted values, the variance coefficient weight method, was proposed to set up criterion. Oilseed rape field canopy spectra from the whole growth stage were collected prior to investigating its phenological varieties; oilseed rape endmember spectra were extracted from the Hyperion image as identifying samples to be used in analyzing the oilseed rape field. Wavelength range divisions were determined by the difference between field-measured spectra and image spectra, and image spectral variance coefficient weights for each wavelength range were calculated corresponding to field-measured spectra from the closest date. By using MRSFF, wavelength ranges were classified to characterize the target's spectral features without compromising spectral profile's entirety. The analysis was substantially successful in extracting oilseed rape planting areas (RMSE ≤ 0.06), and the RMSE histogram indicated a superior result compared to a conventional SFF. Accuracy assessment was based on the mapping result compared with spectral angle mapping (SAM) and the normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI). The MRSFF yielded a robust, convincible result and, therefore, may further the use of hyperspectral imagery in precision agriculture.

  7. Numbing after rape, and depth of therapy.

    PubMed

    Barglow, Peter

    2014-01-01

    The author considers the reactions of four women who had been sexually assaulted, with a focus on the rape trauma of two women with the diagnosis of "Complex-PTSD." Both patients also had prolonged episodes of illegal drug dependence. The article investigates a variety of therapeutic responses to ameliorate disabling post-rape psychological symptoms, especially an intense feeling of numbing. Psychodynamic treatment was chosen for investigation rather than Prolonged Exposure (PET), or Cognitive Behavioral Therapy (CBT). Choice of these two treatments is supported by substantial statistical evidence. But many therapists continue to use psychoanalytic based approaches to treat rape victims. Schottenbauer et al, (2008) concluded that PET and CBT approaches had high non-response and dropout rates. Also psychodynamic comprehension may be particularly suitable for "complex PTSD" as defined below in this article. Two vignettes contrast the treatment processes and outcomes of these two women to two other patients who had been sexually assaulted, but whose psychopathology was less severe. The author proposes that full comprehension of severe numbing is essential in the selection of the best intervention strategy because this symptom (or affect) may determine the prognosis of raped patients.

  8. Acquaintance Rape on College and University Campuses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Romeo, Felicia F.

    2004-01-01

    While a university experience offers young women many rewards, unfortunately, there are also significant dangers, and one of these dangers is men who are sexual predators. Acquaintance rape is a sexual assault perpetrated by someone who is known to the victim. It is a violent and serious crime that is far too common an occurrence at our…

  9. Rape Within the Hispanic Family Unit.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Quinones-Sierra, Sylvia

    Because problems such as rape are often viewed as personal concerns of "la familia" there is great tendency on the part of Hispanics to accept this crime as something that must be resolved without intervention from the police, the hospitals or the courts. Seldom will much needed therapy and auxillary type services be sought due to the extreme…

  10. Risk Appraisal in Scripted Acquaintance Rape Scenarios.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wright, Doris J.

    Cognitive appraisals are believed to influence how women judge or appraise risk in acquaintance interactions which lead to sexual assault. Ways in which men and women judge the presence of risk factors in scripted acquaintance rape scenarios, and whether alcohol was a significant factor in assessing risk, are examined in this paper. Participants…

  11. Attribution of Fault to Rape Victims.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Feinman, Saul

    An experimental design, the impact of the marital status, physical attractiveness, amount of victim resistance, and immediate reaction of the victim as well as sex of observer on attributions of fault to hypothetical rape victims were investigated. Participants were 440 undergraduate students at the University of Wyoming. Each participant was…

  12. Proposed Recruit Training Topic: Rape Awareness.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thompson, Janet R.

    This guide, prepared by the United States Navy Recruit Training Command, was designed to address the differential training needs of male and female recruits in the area of personal security, i.e., rape awareness/prevention. In section I, the role of the Recruit Training Command is noted, and information on the incidence of sexual assault is…

  13. Stop Rape Crisis Center: An Exemplary Project.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Whitcomb, Debra; And Others

    An exemplary project, the Stop Rape Crisis Center in Baton Rouge, Louisiana, which was initially funded by the Law Enforcement Assistance Administration (LEAA), is described. Issues addressed include the following: (1) initlal start-up and continuing program assessment; (2) staffing and the use of volunteers; (3) coordination with law enforcement…

  14. Rape Myths and the Cross-Cultural Adaptation of the Illinois Rape Myth Acceptance Scale in China.

    PubMed

    Xue, Jia; Fang, Gang; Huang, Hui; Cui, Naixue; Rhodes, Karin V; Gelles, Richard

    2016-06-05

    The study examines the similarities and differences between China and the United States with regard to rape myths. We assessed the individual level of rape myth acceptance among Chinese university students by adapting and translating a widely used measure of rape myth endorsement in the United States, the Illinois Rape Myth Acceptance (IRMA) scale. We assessed whether the IRMA scale would be an appropriate assessment of attitudes toward rape among young adults in China. The sample consisted of 975 Chinese university students enrolled in seven Chinese universities. We used explorative factor analysis to examine the factor structure of the Chinese translation of the IRMA scale. Results suggest that the IRMA scale requires some modification to be employed with young adults in China. Our analyses indicate that 20 items should be deleted, and a five-factor model is generated. We discuss relevant similarities and differences in the factor structure and item loadings between the Chinese Rape Myth Acceptance (CRMA) and the IRMA scales. A revised version of the IRMA, the CRMA, can be used as a resource in rape prevention services and rape victim support services. Future research in China that employs CRMA will allow researchers to examine whether individual's response to rape myth acceptance can predict rape potential and judgments of victim blaming and community members' acceptance of marital rape.

  15. Large-scale pollination experiment demonstrates the importance of insect pollination in winter oilseed rape.

    PubMed

    Lindström, Sandra A M; Herbertsson, Lina; Rundlöf, Maj; Smith, Henrik G; Bommarco, Riccardo

    2016-03-01

    Insect pollination, despite its potential to contribute substantially to crop production, is not an integrated part of agronomic planning. A major reason for this are knowledge gaps in the contribution of pollinators to yield, which partly result from difficulties in determining area-based estimates of yield effects from insect pollination under field conditions. We have experimentally manipulated honey bee Apis mellifera densities at 43 oilseed rape Brassica napus fields over 2 years in Scandinavia. Honey bee hives were placed in 22 fields; an additional 21 fields without large apiaries in the surrounding landscape were selected as controls. Depending on the pollination system in the parental generation, the B. napus cultivars in the crop fields are classified as either open-pollinated or first-generation hybrids, with both types being open-pollinated in the generation of plants cultivated in the fields. Three cultivars of each type were grown. We measured the activity of flower-visiting insects during flowering and estimated yields by harvesting with small combine harvesters. The addition of honey bee hives to the fields dramatically increased abundance of flower-visiting honey bees in those fields. Honey bees affected yield, but the effect depended on cultivar type (p = 0.04). Post-hoc analysis revealed that open-pollinated cultivars, but not hybrid cultivars, had 11% higher yields in fields with added honey bees than those grown in the control fields (p = 0.07). To our knowledge, this is the first whole-field study in replicated landscapes to assess the benefit of insect pollination in oilseed rape. Our results demonstrate that honey bees have the potential to increase oilseed rape yields, thereby emphasizing the importance of pollinator management for optimal cultivation of oilseed rape.

  16. Contact with Counter-Stereotypical Women Predicts Less Sexism, Less Rape Myth Acceptance, Less Intention to Rape (in Men) and Less Projected Enjoyment of Rape (in Women).

    PubMed

    Taschler, Miriam; West, Keon

    2017-01-01

    Intergroup contact-(positive) interactions with people from different social groups-is a widely researched and strongly supported prejudice-reducing mechanism shown to reduce prejudice against a wide variety of outgroups. However, no known previous research has investigated whether intergroup contact can also reduce sexism against women. Sexism has an array of negative outcomes. One of the most detrimental and violent ones is rape, which is both justified and downplayed by rape myth acceptance. We hypothesised that more frequent, higher quality contact with counter-stereotypical women would predict lower levels of sexism and thus less rape myth acceptance (in men) and less sexualised projected responses to rape (in women). Two studies using online surveys with community samples supported these hypotheses. In Study 1, 170 male participants who experienced more positive contact with counter-stereotypical women reported less intention to rape. Similarly, in Study 2, 280 female participants who experienced more positive contact with counter-stereotypical women reported less projected sexual arousal at the thought of being raped. Thus, the present research is the first known to show that contact could be a potential tool to combat sexism, rape myth acceptance, intentions to rape in men, and sexualisation of rape by women.

  17. Examining the relationship between male rape myth acceptance, female rape myth acceptance, victim blame, homophobia, gender roles, and ambivalent sexism.

    PubMed

    Davies, Michelle; Gilston, Jennifer; Rogers, Paul

    2012-09-01

    The relationship between male rape myth acceptance, female rape myth acceptance, attitudes toward gay men, a series of gender role and sexism measures, victim blame and assault severity were investigated. It was predicted that men would display more negative, stereotypical attitudes than women and that male rape myth endorsement would be related to, and predicted by, the other attitude and attribution scales. Respondents comprised 323 undergraduates (146 males and 177 females) from a large University in the Northwest of England. Results broadly conformed to predictions, with men generally more negative than women, and male rape myth acceptance significantly related to female rape myth acceptance, negative attitudes about gay men, gender role attitudes, and victim blame. Furthermore, male rape myth acceptance was predicted by female rape myth acceptance, gender attitudes, and victim blame. Methodological issues and implications for future work and those working with victims are discussed.

  18. A simple method for the determination of organochlorine pollutants and the enantiomers in oil seeds based on matrix solid-phase dispersion.

    PubMed

    Zhan, Jing; Li, Jindong; Liu, Donghui; Liu, Chang; Yang, Genggeng; Zhou, Zhiqiang; Wang, Peng

    2016-03-01

    A simple, rapid and effective method was developed based on matrix solid-phase dispersion (MSPD) for the determination of organochlorine pollutants including sixteen organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) and seven polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in oil seeds (peanuts and soybeans). Among the organochlorine pollutants selected, α-HCH, heptachlor, o,p'-DDT, o,p'-DDD, trans-chlordane and cis-chlordane were chiral and their enantiomers were determined by GC-ECD with a chiral column. The MSPD procedure was optimized focusing on the type and amount of dispersion sorbent, co-column sorbent and eluting solvent. Under the optimized condition, good recoveries were obtained in the range of 68.9-103.3% with relative standard deviations (RSD) values below 16.1% in all cases. LODs and LOQs were in range of 0.1-2.0ngg(-1) and 0.4-6.7ngg(-1) respectively. In summary, the method set up was qualified to be used for the determination of the pollutants and the enantiomers in oil seeds.

  19. Suggested Acquaintance/Date Rape Education & Prevention Strategies for School Health Instruction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weiler, Robert M.; Walls, Nicole A.

    Data suggest that acquaintance and date rape may account for 50-70 percent of all reported rapes in the United States. Recent findings also indicate that one in four college women have been raped or a victim of attempted rape. As most rape victims are between 15 and 24 years of age, high school-based education programs must be provided if society…

  20. Stop Blaming the Victim: A Meta-Analysis on Rape Myths

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Suarez, Eliana; Gadalla, Tahany M.

    2010-01-01

    Although male rape is being reported more often than before, the majority of rape victims continue to be women. Rape myths--false beliefs used mainly to shift the blame of rape from perpetrators to victims--are also prevalent in today's society and in many ways contribute toward the pervasiveness of rape. Despite this, there has been limited…

  1. Meta-Analysis of the Prevalence of Unacknowledged Rape.

    PubMed

    Wilson, Laura C; Miller, Katherine E

    2016-04-01

    Many sexual violence survivors do not label their experiences as rape but instead use more benign labels, such as "bad sex" or "miscommunication." A meta-analysis was conducted to estimate the mean prevalence of unacknowledged rape and to inform our understanding of methodological factors that influence the detection of this phenomenon. Studies were identified using PsycINFO, PubMED, and PILOTS and were required to report the percentage of unacknowledged rape that had occurred since the age of 14 among female survivors. Moderator variables included mean participant age, recruitment source, rape definition, and unacknowledged rape definition. Twenty-eight studies (30 independent samples) containing 5,917 female rape survivors met the inclusion criteria. Based on a random effects model, the overall weighted mean percentage of unacknowledged rape was 60.4% (95% confidence interval [55.0%, 65.6%]). There was a large amount of heterogeneity, Q(29) = 445.11, p < .001, and inconsistency (I(2) = 93.5%) among included studies. The prevalence was significantly higher among college student participants compared to noncollege participants. The findings supported that over half of all female rape survivors do not acknowledge that they have been raped. The results suggest that screening tools should use behaviorally descriptive items about sexual contact, rather than using terms such as "rape."

  2. Criminalizing rape within marriage: perspectives of Ghanaian university students.

    PubMed

    Adinkrah, Mensah

    2011-09-01

    Forcing sexual intercourse on an unwilling marital partner, or marital rape, is not a crime in many societies around the world, because of a marital exemption rule that prohibits the prosecution of husbands who rape their wives. Concurrently, marital rape is one of the least studied phenomena in sexual violence research. This is particularly true for societies in the non-Western world. The current study examined the general attitudes of a sample of university students in Ghana, a West African country, toward marital rape. Respondents were also asked whether an ongoing legislative effort to criminalize marital rape in the country was warranted. The results indicated strong opposition toward criminalization. The results also indicated no marked differences between male and female respondents in attitudes toward marital rape and the need for a legislative response to the phenomenon. Patriarchal ideologies such as wifely submission to the husband and an implicit duty to provide sex in marriage provided some of the justifications furnished for why marital rape should remain noncriminalized. Advocates of criminalization mentioned the social, physical, and psychological effects of rape and how the enactment of marital rape legislation and the imposition of severe criminal sanctions would help prevent the incidence of marital rape and other forms of violence against women in the society.

  3. Police officers' collaboration with rape victim advocates: barriers and facilitators.

    PubMed

    Rich, Karen; Seffrin, Patrick

    2013-01-01

    Secondary victimization may occur when rape victims make police reports. This can compromise the quality of official statements and jeopardize criminal cases. Rape reporters receive better treatment by police officers when advocates are involved and best practice police work includes such collaboration. Studies of advocates have described tension, role confusion, and poor communication with police officers. Many variables, including rape myth acceptance (RMA) and training on sexual assault dynamics, may affect officers' collaboration with advocates. There were 429 police officers who responded to a survey measuring their victim interviewing skill, formal training about rape, years on the job, number of victims known personally, number of recent rape cases, RMA, and collaboration with advocates. Results suggest that officers' interviewing skill, years on the job, and specific training are related to collaboration with victim advocates on rape cases. Professional, rather than personal, variables were most predictive of collaboration. Implications for officer selection and training are explored.

  4. Communicating/Muting Date Rape: A Co-Cultural Theoretical Analysis of Communication Factors Related to Rape Culture on a College Campus

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burnett, Ann; Mattern, Jody L.; Herakova, Liliana L.; Kahl, David H., Jr.; Tobola, Cloy; Bornsen, Susan E.

    2009-01-01

    Previous studies suggest that college campuses foster a rape culture in which date rape (most commonly, rape of women) is an accepted part of campus activity (Buchwald, Fletcher, & Roth, 1993; Sanday, 2007). In focus groups at a Midwestern university, researchers asked students about rape as they experienced it or knew about it on campus. The…

  5. Is Reporting of Rape on the Rise? A Comparison of Women with Reported versus Unreported Rape Experiences in the National Women's Study-Replication

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wolitzky-Taylor, Kate B.; Resnick, Heidi S.; McCauley, Jenna L.; Amstadter, Ananda B.; Kilpatrick, Dean G.; Ruggiero, Kenneth J.

    2011-01-01

    Rape affects one in seven women nationwide. Historically, most rape victims do not report rape to law enforcement. Research is needed to identify barriers to reporting and correlates of reporting to guide policy recommendations that address such barriers. We investigated the prevalence of reporting rape among a national sample of women (N = 3,001)…

  6. Effects of Two Versions of an Empathy-Based Rape Prevention Program on Fraternity Men's Survivor Empathy, Attitudes, and Behavioral Intent to Commit Rape or Sexual Assault

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Foubert, John D.; Newberry, Johnathan T.

    2006-01-01

    Fraternity men (N = 261) at a small to midsized public university saw one of two versions of a rape prevention program or were in a control group. Program participants reported significant increases in empathy toward rape survivors and significant declines in rape myth acceptance, likelihood of raping, and likelihood of committing sexual assault.…

  7. Drug-facilitated sexual assault ('date rape').

    PubMed

    Schwartz, R H; Milteer, R; LeBeau, M A

    2000-06-01

    In the past few years, drug-facilitated sexual assaults have received widespread media coverage. In addition to alcohol, the most frequently used date-rape drug, flunitrazepam (Rohypnol), a fast-acting benzodiazepine, and gamma-hydroxybutyrate (GHB) and its congeners are among the most popular drugs used for this purpose. The latter drug is easily procured at some gymnasiums, popular bars, discos, and rave clubs, as well as over the Internet. Perpetrators choose these drugs because they act rapidly, produce disinhibition and relaxation of voluntary muscles, and cause the victim to have lasting anterograde amnesia for events that occur under the influence of the drug. Alcoholic beverages potentiate the drug effects. We review several date-rape drugs, provide information on laboratory testing for them, and offer guidelines for preventing drug-facilitated sexual assault.

  8. Introducing the Date and Acquaintance Rape Avoidance Scale.

    PubMed

    Resendez, Josephine R; Hughes, Jamie S

    2016-01-01

    We present the Date and Acquaintance Rape Avoidance Scale (DARAS). The DARAS is a measure of a woman's behaviors used to avoid date and acquaintance rape. Three factor structures were possible. The DARAS may have measured several factors related to alcohol and drug use, self-defense, and date behaviors; 2 factors related to behaviors to avoid acquaintance versus date rape; or a single factor that represented general vigilance. The data revealed a highly reliable, 63 item single factor that was correlated with stranger rape avoidance, rejection of rape myths, hostile sexist beliefs about men, and benevolent sexist beliefs about women. The creation of the DARAS adds to the growing body of research on rape avoidance. The DARAS is key to understanding the behaviors women employ to avoid date rape. Rather than placing the responsibility for rape on the victim, the DARAS was developed as a theoretical and applied tool that can be used to improve theory and construct rape education and prevention programs.

  9. The role of the new "date rape drugs" in attributions about date rape.

    PubMed

    Girard, April L; Senn, Charlene Y

    2008-01-01

    This study investigates the effect of voluntary and involuntary drug use on attributions about sexual assault. The sample was composed of 280 randomly selected male and female undergraduate students. The type of drug used (GHB, alcohol, or none) and the voluntariness of the administration were varied in an unambiguous date rape scenario. Participants viewed sexual assault facilitated by alcohol or drugs similarly to sexual assault without drug or alcohol involvement, assigning the highest levels of responsibility and blame to the perpetrator and the lowest levels of both to the victim in these situations. In contrast, women's voluntary consumption of drugs prior to a sexual assault reduced perpetrator responsibility and blame and increased blame to the victim compared to other situations (except in some cases, voluntary drunkenness). These findings extend the limited research on date rape drugs and previous work on the influence of alcohol on date rape attributions.

  10. Athletes and rape: is there a connection?

    PubMed

    Caron, S L; Halteman, W A; Stacy, C

    1997-12-01

    The present study builds upon previous research examining variables related to sexual assault. Previous studies have linked sexual aggression with attitudes toward rape as well as hostility toward women. Recent high-profile cases involving athletes and sexual assault have raised questions about the link with athletes. In fact, recent research has suggested that athletes may be more prone to commit rape; however, no study has examined competitiveness. This characteristic, associated with athletes, may predict sexual aggression and help assess why rape is reportedly perpetrated by athletes significantly more frequently than by nonathletes. It may be that individuals with high competitiveness may be more likely to be involved in sexual assaults. Scores on Competitiveness in 104 college men were significantly correlated with reported sexual aggression and athletic participation; however, there was no significant difference between athletes and nonathletes on aggressive sexual behavior. These findings suggest that characteristics of athletes rather than athletic participation alone must be considered further in examining the presumed link between athletes and sexual assault.

  11. Recent research in flaxseed (oil seed) on molecular structure and metabolic characteristics of protein, heat processing-induced effect and nutrition with advanced synchrotron-based molecular techniques.

    PubMed

    Doiron, Kevin J; Yu, Peiqiang

    2017-01-02

    Advanced synchrotron radiation-based infrared microspectroscopy is able to reveal feed and food structure feature at cellular and molecular levels and simultaneously provides composition, structure, environment, and chemistry within intact tissue. However, to date, this advanced synchrotron-based technique is still seldom known to food and feed scientists. This article aims to provide detailed background for flaxseed (oil seed) protein research and then review recent progress and development in flaxseed research in ruminant nutrition in the areas of (1) dietary inclusion of flaxseed in rations; (2) heat processing effect; (3) assessing dietary protein; (4) synchrotron-based Fourier transform infrared microspectroscopy as a tool of nutritive evaluation within cellular and subcellular dimensions; (5) recent synchrotron applications in flaxseed research on a molecular basis. The information described in this paper gives better insight in flaxseed research progress and update.

  12. The bacterial-type phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase isozyme from developing castor oil seeds is subject to in vivo regulatory phosphorylation at serine-451.

    PubMed

    Dalziel, Katie J; O'Leary, Brendan; Brikis, Carolyne; Rao, Srinath K; She, Yi-Min; Cyr, Terry; Plaxton, William C

    2012-04-05

    Phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase (PEPC) is a tightly controlled anaplerotic enzyme situated at a pivotal branch point of plant carbohydrate-metabolism. In developing castor oil seeds (COS) a novel allosterically-densensitized 910-kDa Class-2 PEPC hetero-octameric complex arises from a tight interaction between 107-kDa plant-type PEPC and 118-kDa bacterial-type PEPC (BTPC) subunits. Mass spectrometry and immunoblotting with anti-phosphoSer451 specific antibodies established that COS BTPC is in vivo phosphorylated at Ser451, a highly conserved target residue that occurs within an intrinsically disordered region. This phosphorylation was enhanced during COS development or in response to depodding. Kinetic characterization of a phosphomimetic (S451D) mutant indicated that Ser451 phosphorylation inhibits the catalytic activity of BTPC subunits within the Class-2 PEPC complex.

  13. A large-scale field study examining effects of exposure to clothianidin seed-treated canola on honey bee colony health, development, and overwintering success

    PubMed Central

    Scott-Dupree, Cynthia D.; Sultan, Maryam; McFarlane, Andrew D.; Brewer, Larry

    2014-01-01

    In summer 2012, we initiated a large-scale field experiment in southern Ontario, Canada, to determine whether exposure to clothianidin seed-treated canola (oil seed rape) has any adverse impacts on honey bees. Colonies were placed in clothianidin seed-treated or control canola fields during bloom, and thereafter were moved to an apiary with no surrounding crops grown from seeds treated with neonicotinoids. Colony weight gain, honey production, pest incidence, bee mortality, number of adults, and amount of sealed brood were assessed in each colony throughout summer and autumn. Samples of honey, beeswax, pollen, and nectar were regularly collected, and samples were analyzed for clothianidin residues. Several of these endpoints were also measured in spring 2013. Overall, colonies were vigorous during and after the exposure period, and we found no effects of exposure to clothianidin seed-treated canola on any endpoint measures. Bees foraged heavily on the test fields during peak bloom and residue analysis indicated that honey bees were exposed to low levels (0.5–2 ppb) of clothianidin in pollen. Low levels of clothianidin were detected in a few pollen samples collected toward the end of the bloom from control hives, illustrating the difficulty of conducting a perfectly controlled field study with free-ranging honey bees in agricultural landscapes. Overwintering success did not differ significantly between treatment and control hives, and was similar to overwintering colony loss rates reported for the winter of 2012–2013 for beekeepers in Ontario and Canada. Our results suggest that exposure to canola grown from seed treated with clothianidin poses low risk to honey bees. PMID:25374790

  14. A large-scale field study examining effects of exposure to clothianidin seed-treated canola on honey bee colony health, development, and overwintering success.

    PubMed

    Cutler, G Christopher; Scott-Dupree, Cynthia D; Sultan, Maryam; McFarlane, Andrew D; Brewer, Larry

    2014-01-01

    In summer 2012, we initiated a large-scale field experiment in southern Ontario, Canada, to determine whether exposure to clothianidin seed-treated canola (oil seed rape) has any adverse impacts on honey bees. Colonies were placed in clothianidin seed-treated or control canola fields during bloom, and thereafter were moved to an apiary with no surrounding crops grown from seeds treated with neonicotinoids. Colony weight gain, honey production, pest incidence, bee mortality, number of adults, and amount of sealed brood were assessed in each colony throughout summer and autumn. Samples of honey, beeswax, pollen, and nectar were regularly collected, and samples were analyzed for clothianidin residues. Several of these endpoints were also measured in spring 2013. Overall, colonies were vigorous during and after the exposure period, and we found no effects of exposure to clothianidin seed-treated canola on any endpoint measures. Bees foraged heavily on the test fields during peak bloom and residue analysis indicated that honey bees were exposed to low levels (0.5-2 ppb) of clothianidin in pollen. Low levels of clothianidin were detected in a few pollen samples collected toward the end of the bloom from control hives, illustrating the difficulty of conducting a perfectly controlled field study with free-ranging honey bees in agricultural landscapes. Overwintering success did not differ significantly between treatment and control hives, and was similar to overwintering colony loss rates reported for the winter of 2012-2013 for beekeepers in Ontario and Canada. Our results suggest that exposure to canola grown from seed treated with clothianidin poses low risk to honey bees.

  15. Rape: It Can't Happen to Me!

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chu, W.; Fong-torres, S.

    1979-01-01

    Cultural factors such as the family system, communication patterns and institutional racism make the impact of rape on Asian women different from its impact on other women. In this article suggestions for avoiding a rape attack on the street and at home are offered. (PMR)

  16. Rape on Campus: Postsecondary Institutions as Third Party Defendants.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hauserman, Nancy; Lansing, Paul

    1981-01-01

    The implications and impact of immunity doctrines and the burden of proof upon the issues of postsecondary institutions' liability for sexual assaults occurring on campus are examined. The legal history of rape and rape cases, notably those civil cases involving third party defendants, are considered. (MLW)

  17. Rape nitrogen nutrition diagnosis using continuum-removed hyperspectral reflectance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Xuehong; Tian, Qingjiu

    2008-12-01

    The hyperspectral reflectance for rape fresh leaves and data of chlorophyll and total nitrogen content were acquired in primary growth stages under different nitrogen levels in order to monitor rape status and diagnose nitrogen using remote sensing method. A new method was developed for estimating the nitrogen nutrition of rape using continuum-removed method, which generally used in spectral analysis on rock and mineral. Based on the continuum-removed treatment and the correlation between absorption feature parameters and total nitrogen content of fresh leaves, results show that reflectance at the visible region decreased with increasing in the nitrogen fertilization, and continuum-removed operation can magnify the subtle difference in spectral absorption characteristics arose from the nitrogen stress on rape. During the seeding stage, bud-emerging stage and flowering stage of rape, total area of absorption peak, area left of the absorption peak and area right of the absorption peak in 550-750 nm region increased with increasing in the nitrogen fertilization, but it was opposite for the area-normalized maximal absorption depth. The correlation analysis indicated that it is at seeding stage that the relation between absorption characteristics parameters and leaf total nitrogen was best close. The research demonstrated that continuum-removed method is a feasible method for quantificational evaluation of rape nitrogen nutrition, and the seeding stage of rape is the best stage for assessment of rape nitrogen nutrition based on absorption characteristics of fresh leaves.

  18. Decreased interpretation of nonverbal cues in rape victims.

    PubMed

    Giannini, A J; Price, W A; Kniepple, J L

    The ability to receive nonverbal facial cues was tested in twelve female victims of multiple nonserial rapes and matched controls. Subjects attempted to interpret nonverbal messages transmitted by male and female senders who were covertly taped while involved in a gambling task. Rape victims had significantly decreased ability to interpret the nonverbal facial cues of both male and female senders.

  19. Resources for Developing Acquaintance Rape Prevention Programs for Men.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Earle, James P.; Nies, Charles T.

    1994-01-01

    Provides an annotated bibliography of videos and printed materials that may be used as educational tools in rape prevention programs. Focuses on sources that are aimed directly at men. Also outlines the use of consultants or lecturers as one of many resources in the construction and implementation of rape prevention programs. (KW)

  20. Date Violence and Rape among Adolescents: Associations with Psychological Health.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ackard, Diann M.; Neumark-Sztainer, Dianne

    This study assessed the prevalence of date violence and rape among adolescents in order to examine the associations between date violence and rape, and eating disorders and psychopathology. The study also attempted to determine if these associations remained significant after controlling for sociodemographic characteristics. A Minnesota…

  1. Athletes as rape-awareness educators: athletes for sexual responsibility.

    PubMed

    Caron, S L

    1993-05-01

    Sexual assault, including both date rape and gang rape, is an area of great concern for college students today. The University of Maine is addressing this serious national problem through a unique peer education program that enlists athletes as role models for appropriate social and sexual behavior, as well as of physical strength, agility, and stamina.

  2. "Spreading the Love" and Using Performances to Prevent Rape

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Murphy, Aurora

    2013-01-01

    While rape is ordinarily considered an invariable reality, Sharon Marcus argues that it is instead a cultural script, which casts women as victims and men as perpetrators. In imagining rape as a script, it may seem pertinent to suggest that the arts and performance have a role in its prevention. Performances can provide a forum to publicly reflect…

  3. A Protection Motivation Theory application to date rape education.

    PubMed

    Singh, Shweta; Orwat, John; Grossman, Susan

    2011-12-01

    Date rape risk communication is a key component of education-based Date Rape Prevention Programs, common across colleges. In such programs, risk assessment in date rape is approached cautiously in order to avoid a tone of "victim blaming." Since it is important in the assessment of any risk to understand the surrounding social context of the risky situation and the individual's unique relationship with that social context, this study examines Protection Motivation Theory as it applies to handling the risk of date rape without victim blaming. The paper links individual personality and social contexts with risk communication. The study sample comprised 367 undergraduate women enrolled in a large Southern Public University. The study examines the relationships between dating activity, social competency, and type of information provided with the dependents variables of date rape related protection behavior (intent), belief, and knowledge. A factorial multiple analysis of covariance analysis found that the dependent variables had a significant relationship with aspects of social competency and dating activity. The exposure to varying information about date rape was not significantly related to the dependent variables of date rape-related protection behavior (intent), belief, and knowledge. The identification of social competency and dating activity status as protective factors in this study makes a significant contribution to the practice and research efforts in date rape education.

  4. Rape Myth Beliefs and Bystander Attitudes among Incoming College Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McMahon, Sarah

    2010-01-01

    Objective: The bystander approach to rape prevention is gaining popularity on college campuses, although research is limited. This study explored bystander attitudes and their relationship with rape myths in a sample of college students. Participants: Surveys from 2,338 incoming undergraduate students at a large, northeastern university were…

  5. Rape Survivors' Agency within the Legal and Medical Systems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greeson, Megan R.; Campbell, Rebecca

    2011-01-01

    Many rape survivors seek help from the legal and medical systems post-assault. Previous studies have examined how social system personnel treat survivors, but less attention has been paid to how survivors attempt to shape their interactions with these systems. The purpose of this qualitative study was to examine rape survivors' agency--the active…

  6. Rape Prevention with College Men: Evaluating Risk Status

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stephens, Kari A.; George, William H.

    2009-01-01

    This study evaluates the effectiveness of a theoretically based rape prevention intervention with college men who were at high or low risk to perpetrate sexually coercive behavior. Participants (N = 146) are randomly assigned to the intervention or control group. Outcomes include rape myth acceptance, victim empathy, attraction to sexual…

  7. Hidden, Unacknowledged, Acquaintance, and Date Rape: Looking Back, Looking Forward

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koss, Mary P.

    2011-01-01

    In this commentary, the author reflects on two articles that have been among the most highly cited publications in "Psychology of Women Quarterly" ("PWQ") over its first 35 years, "The Hidden Rape Victim: Personality, Attitudinal, and Situational Characteristics" (Koss, 1985) and "Stranger and Acquaintance Rape: Are There Differences in the…

  8. Should We Whistle as We Shirk? What is Rape Prevention?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Neely, Margery A.

    Different theories have been offered about why some men rape. The interactive theory of rape describes coercive elements in heterosexual relations resulting from faulty socialization or abuse in childhood. Prevention according to this theory would involve mental health specialists incorporating preventive strategies into parent training, guidance,…

  9. Leda and the Swan--and other myths about rape.

    PubMed

    Norfolk, Guy A

    2011-07-01

    In his David Jenkins Memorial Lecture, Dr Norfolk discusses rape and some of the myths that surround the topic, exploring the research evidence about conviction rates, false allegations, clinician gender preferences of rape victims and the role of sexual assault referral centres in service delivery.

  10. Development and Validation of the Korean Rape Myth Acceptance Scale

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oh, Euna; Neville, Helen

    2004-01-01

    The purpose of this investigation was to develop a culturally relevant rape myth acceptance scale for Koreans. Three studies on the Korean Rape Myth Acceptance Scale (KRMAS) with approximately 1,000 observations provide initial validity and reliability. Specifically, results from exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses support four subscales:…

  11. Women's Acceptance of Rape Myths and their Sexual Experiences.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderson, Wayne P.; Cummings, Kimberly

    1993-01-01

    Explored relationship among female college students' (n=112) acceptance of traditional feminine roles, rape myths, and experiences of being physically or psychologically pressured into sexual intercourse. Found significant relationship between acceptance of traditional feminine social roles and belief in rape myths. Size of correlation (0.41)…

  12. Multiple Perpetrator Rape: Naming an Offence and Initial Research Findings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Horvath, Miranda Angel Helena; Kelly, Liz

    2009-01-01

    Multiple perpetrator rape presents a significant problem nationally and internationally. However, previous research is limited and findings are often contradictory. The details of 101 rape allegations recorded in a six-month period in a large police force in England were analysed. Findings are presented about case classification, victim and…

  13. The Role of the New "Date Rape Drugs" in Attributions about Date Rape

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Girard, April L.; Senn, Charlene Y.

    2008-01-01

    This study investigates the effect of voluntary and involuntary drug use on attributions about sexual assault. The sample was composed of 280 randomly selected male and female undergraduate students. The type of drug used (GHB, alcohol, or none) and the voluntariness of the administration were varied in an unambiguous date rape scenario.…

  14. Silent Survivors: Rape Myth Acceptance in Incarcerated Women's Narratives of Disclosure and Reporting of Rape

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heath, Nicole M.; Lynch, Shannon M.; Fritch, April M.; McArthur, Lyn N.; Smith, Shilo L.

    2011-01-01

    Prior research suggests that rape victims who do not disclose or report to the police give reasons including self-blame and fear of judgment; however, this research has not been conducted with incarcerated women. Female offenders are a unique population because they experience high rates of sexual assault prior to incarceration. This study…

  15. Risk factors for rape re-victimisation: a retrospective analysis.

    PubMed

    Lurie, S; Boaz, M; Golan, A

    2013-11-01

    Sexual re-victimisation refers to a pattern in which the sexual assault victim has an increased risk of subsequent victimisation relative to an individual who was never victimised. The purpose of our study was to identify risks factors for a second rape, the severest form of sexual re-victimisation. All rape victims treated at the First Regional Israeli Center for Sexual Assault Victims between October 2000 and July 2010 were included in this retrospective analysis. We compared characteristics of 53 rape victims who were victimised twice to those of 1,939 rape victims who were victimised once. We identified several risk factors for a second rape, which can be used in prevention programmes. These are: psychiatric background, history of social services involvement, adulthood, non-virginity and minority ethnicity.

  16. "You Owe Me": Effects of Date Cost, Who Pays, Participant Gender, and Rape Myth Beliefs on Perceptions of Rape

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Basow, Susan A.; Minieri, Alexandra

    2011-01-01

    Sexual social exchange theory was applied to perceptions of a date rape by manipulating the cost of the date and who paid in vignettes presented to 188 U.S. college students, who then rated the characters' sexual expectations, blame, responsibility, and rape justifiability. Findings from this between-participant design partially supported…

  17. Mental health assessment of rape offenders

    PubMed Central

    Sarkar, Jaydip

    2013-01-01

    There is an urgent need for development of methods of assessment and management of sex offenders (rapists, child sex offenders, other sexual offenders, and murderers) to mount a society-wide battle against the scourge of sexual offences in India. This paper provides an overview of theories, models, and assessment methods of rapists. It draws upon literature from psychiatry, psychology, criminology, probation, and ethics to provide a framework for understanding reasons behind rape, how mental health issues are implicated, what mental health professionals can do to contribute to crime management, and why this is ethically right and proper. PMID:24082243

  18. Mental health assessment of rape offenders.

    PubMed

    Sarkar, Jaydip

    2013-07-01

    There is an urgent need for development of methods of assessment and management of sex offenders (rapists, child sex offenders, other sexual offenders, and murderers) to mount a society-wide battle against the scourge of sexual offences in India. This paper provides an overview of theories, models, and assessment methods of rapists. It draws upon literature from psychiatry, psychology, criminology, probation, and ethics to provide a framework for understanding reasons behind rape, how mental health issues are implicated, what mental health professionals can do to contribute to crime management, and why this is ethically right and proper.

  19. Rape and Child Sexual Abuse: What Beliefs Persist about Motives, Perpetrators, and Survivors?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McGee, Hannah; O'Higgins, Madeleine; Garavan, Rebecca; Conroy, Ronan

    2011-01-01

    Rape myths are prejudicial and stereotyped beliefs about rape which persist in society. They may have a significant impact on those affected by rape as well as the performance of legal and public participants in the justice system. Rape myths may differ over time and within different societies and cultural settings. Awareness of contemporary and…

  20. A Preliminary Study of Eighth Grade Students' Attitudes toward Rape Myths and Women's Roles.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boxley, Jeanne; And Others

    1995-01-01

    This study examined the relationship between sex role stereotypes of women and eighth graders' beliefs in rape myths. Surveys indicated that both sexes accepted some rape myths and sex role stereotyping of women. There was an association between belief in rape myths and stereotyping. More boys than girls accepted rape myths. (SM)

  1. Perceptions of, and Assistance Provided to, a Hypothetical Rape Victim: Differences Between Rape Disclosure Recipients and Nonrecipients

    PubMed Central

    Paul, Lisa A.; Kehn, Andre; Gray, Matt J.; Salapska-Gelleri, Joanna

    2014-01-01

    Objective Undergraduate rape disclosure recipients and nonrecipients’ sociodemographic and life experience variables, attitudes towards rape and responses to a hypothetical rape disclosure were compared to determine differences between them. Participants One-hundred-ninety-two undergraduates at three universities participated in this online survey between November 2011 – April 2012. Methods Participants reported on their rape myth acceptance (RMA) and personal direct and indirect (i.e., disclosure receipt) experiences with sexual assault. Participants also responded to a hypothetical rape disclosure. Results Disclosure recipients were more likely to report a victimization history, and less confusion and perceived ineffectiveness in helping the hypothetical victim. RMA and nonrecipient status predicted perceived victim responsibility; these variables and childhood victimization predicted confusion about helping. RMA also predicted perceived ineffectiveness of one’s helping behaviors. Victimization history and female gender predicted victim empathy. Conclusions These findings can inform sexual assault-related programming for undergraduates through the provision of targeted assistance and corrective information. PMID:24779405

  2. Transgenic glyphosate-resistant oilseed rape (Brassica napus) as an invasive weed in Argentina: detection, characterization, and control alternatives.

    PubMed

    Pandolfo, Claudio E; Presotto, Alejandro; Carbonell, Francisco Torres; Ureta, Soledad; Poverene, Mónica; Cantamutto, Miguel

    2016-12-01

    The presence of glyphosate-resistant oilseed rape populations in Argentina was detected and characterized. The resistant plants were found as weeds in RR soybeans and other fields. The immunological and molecular analysis showed that the accessions presented the GT73 transgenic event. The origin of this event was uncertain, as the cultivation of transgenic oilseed rape cultivars is prohibited in Argentina. This finding might suggest that glyphosate resistance could come from unauthorized transgenic oilseed rape crops cultivated in the country or as seed contaminants in imported oilseed rape cultivars or other seed imports. Experimentation showed that there are alternative herbicides for controlling resistant Brassica napus populations in various situations and crops. AHAS-inhibiting herbicides (imazethapyr, chlorimuron and diclosulam), glufosinate, 2,4-D, fluroxypyr and saflufenacil proved to be very effective in controlling these plants. Herbicides evaluated in this research were employed by farmers in one of the fields invaded with this biotype and monitoring of this field showed no evidence of its presence in the following years.

  3. Rape in war: the humanitarian response.

    PubMed

    Shanks, L; Schull, M J

    2000-10-31

    Women and children are vulnerable to sexual violence in times of conflict, and the risk persists even after they have escaped the conflict area. The impact of rape goes far beyond the immediate effects of the physical attack and has long-lasting consequences. We describe the humanitarian community's response to sexual violence and rape in times of war and civil unrest by drawing on the experiences of Médecins Sans Frontières/Doctors Without Borders and other humanitarian agencies. Health care workers must have a keen awareness of the problem and be prepared to respond appropriately. This requires a comprehensive intervention protocol, including antibiotic prophylaxis, emergency contraception, referral for psychological support, and proper documentation and reporting procedures. Preventing widespread sexual violence requires increasing the security in refugee camps. It also requires speaking out and holding states accountable when violations of international law occur. The challenge is to remain alert to these often hidden, but extremely destructive, crimes in the midst of a chaotic emergency relief setting.

  4. Receipt of Post-Rape Medical Care in a National Sample of Female Victims

    PubMed Central

    Zinzow, Heidi M.; Resnick, Heidi S.; Barr, Simone C.; Danielson, Carla K.; Kilpatrick, Dean G.

    2014-01-01

    Background It is important for rape victims to receive medical care to prevent and treat rape-related diseases and injuries, access forensic exams, and connect to needed resources. Few victims seek care, and factors associated with post-rape medical care–seeking are poorly understood. Purpose The current study examined prevalence and factors associated with post-rape medical care–seeking in a national sample of women who reported a most-recent or only incident of forcible rape, and drug- or alcohol-facilitated/incapacitated rape when they were aged ≥14 years. Methods A national sample of U.S. adult women (N=3001) completed structured telephone interviews in 2006, and data for this study were analyzed in 2011. Logistic regression analyses examined demographic variables, health, rape characteristics, and post-rape concerns in relation to post-rape medical care–seeking among 445 female rape victims. Results A minority of rape victims (21%) sought post-rape medical attention following the incident. In the final multivariate model, correlates of medical care included black race, rape-related injury, concerns about sexually transmitted diseases, pregnancy concerns, and reporting the incident to police. Conclusions Women who experience rapes consistent with stereotypic scenarios, acknowledge the rape, report the rape, and harbor health concerns appear to be more likely to seek post-rape medical services. Education is needed to increase rape acknowledgment, awareness of post-rape services that do not require formal reporting, and recognition of the need to treat rape-related health problems. PMID:22813683

  5. Gender-Blind Sexism and Rape Myth Acceptance.

    PubMed

    Stoll, Laurie Cooper; Lilley, Terry Glenn; Pinter, Kelly

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to explore whether gender-blind sexism, as an extension of Bonilla-Silva's racialized social system theory, is an appropriate theoretical framework for understanding the creation and continued prevalence of rape myth acceptance. Specifically, we hypothesize that individuals who hold attitudes consistent with the frames of gender-blind sexism are more likely to accept common rape myths. Data for this article come from an online survey administered to the entire undergraduate student body at a large Midwestern institution (N = 1,401). Regression analysis showed strong support for the effects of gender-blind sexism on rape myth acceptance.

  6. Rape in South Africa: an invisible part of apartheid's legacy.

    PubMed

    Armstrong, S

    1994-06-01

    Male dominated power systems in South Africa coupled with a culture of aggression and domination have not allowed for the mainstream emergence of qualities such as trust, compassion, and gentleness, frequently associated with female virtues. Rape under such circumstances is the assertion of male power, and, as expected, the numbers of rape cases and other forms of gender violence have increased. Under an apartheid system, where only the rape of white women was prosecuted, and gender and race issues could diffuse the black struggle, there were difficulties in mobilizing support to end violence against black women. There was social acceptance that rape of black women was part of life. Police statistics on the incidence of rape were notoriously unreliable, because only a small percentage of cases are reported to police, and many women would be ashamed to admit to marital abuse, including rape. In women's groups, it was reported that 1 out of every 4 women had been raped, and raped at early ages, such as 14 years of age. In impoverished communities, there is widespread poverty, injustice, prejudice, alcohol abuse, and other conditions impacting on women. The rapists may be school classmates, or street fighters, or political activists. The sexual initiation of women worldwide and in South Africa frequently is accompanied by coercion. Abduction and forced sex is considered legitimate for young men, who believe that mental health is deleteriously affected by lack of sex. Girls may even be abducted from the classroom, as a way of preventing women's power and control over assets and resources and diminishing the potential threat to gender power relations. School girls who become pregnant are often forced to leave school. Victims of rape may be excluded from family life and forced to seek prostitution as a means of support. Rape is reportedly experienced among older women with bottles, tins, or other devices which inflict injury. Only rape with penal penetration is an

  7. The effects of receiving a rape disclosure: college friends' stories.

    PubMed

    Branch, Kathryn A; Richards, Tara N

    2013-05-01

    Research suggests that college women are at greater risk for rape and sexual assault than women in the general population or in a comparable age group. College women, away from home and family, may turn to friends for support. Friends may experience emotional reactions that affect their own functioning and may not feel they have anywhere to turn. In this study, we interviewed male and female college students who had received a rape disclosure from a friend. Their unique stories provide insight into the secondary effects of rape disclosure on friends. Implications of these findings for college campuses are discussed.

  8. ["Biastophilia"--rape as a form of paraphilia?].

    PubMed

    Knecht, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    Rape is primarily regarded as a crime against sexual integrity. If rape is the only way for an individual to get sexual satisfaction, it meets the criteria of paraphilia, i.e. a disorder of sexual preference. The correct technical term is "biastophilia". The author investigates the evolutionary origins of this deviant form of copulation behavior, whose crucial characteristic is breaking the will of the sexual object. He shows that in a primeval environment this type of mating behavior may have been a promising strategy to pass on one's genes to the next generation. Thus, the behavioral pattern of raping had the chance to become widely spread in spite of its social undesirability.

  9. Blame of victim and perpetrator in rape versus theft.

    PubMed

    Brems, C; Wagner, P

    1994-06-01

    Variables that may affect attribution of responsibility and blame were explored to assess whether societal stereotypes about rape victims still exist among students in Alaska. In ambiguous crime situations, more blame was attributed to victims and less responsibility to perpetrators if the subjects had traditional views about women's roles. The victims were rated as being more responsible for a theft than for a rape, but the perpetrators were rated as being more responsible for a rape than for a theft. Overall, type of crime affected social judgments. Attitudes toward women affected the attribution of blame, but not fault, in ambiguous crime situations.

  10. Transfer of thallium from rape seed to rape oil is negligible and oil is fit for human consumption.

    PubMed

    Loula, Martin; Kaňa, Antonín; Vosmanská, Magda; Koplík, Richard; Mestek, Oto

    2016-01-01

    Rape and other Brassicaceae family plants can accumulate appreciable amounts of thallium from the soil. Because some species of this family are common crops utilised as food for direct consumption or raw materials for food production, thallium can enter the food chain. A useful method for thallium determination is inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. The limit of detection (0.2 pg ml(-1) Tl or 0.02 ng g(-1) Tl, taking in the account dilution during sample decomposition) found in the current study was very low, and the method can be used for ultra-trace analysis. Possible transfer of thallium from rape seed to the rape oil was investigated in two ways. The balance of thallium in rape seed meal (content 140-200 ng g(-1) Tl) and defatted rape seed meal indicated that thallium did not pass into the oil (p < 0.05). Moreover, the analyses of thallium in six kinds of edible rape seed oil and three kinds of margarines showed that the amount of thallium in rape seed oil is negligible.

  11. Changing attitudes and perceptions of Hispanic men ages 18 to 25 about rape and rape prevention.

    PubMed

    Lawson, Sarah Lynn; Munoz-Rojas, Derby; Gutman, Lauren Samantha; Siman, Matilde Nathalia

    2012-12-01

    This exploratory study was designed to test the effectiveness of Foubert's intervention, The Men's Program, on a sample of 18- to 25-year-old Hispanic men who are not enrolled at a University or College. We explored participants' perceptions of, reactions to, and experience of the program. The information collected will be used to adapt the program to this specific population in order to increase cultural relevancy and specificity and create lasting attitudinal change. Three groups of six-eight Hispanic males (n = 22) were exposed to the intervention program. The Bystander Attitude Scale and the Rape Attitude and Beliefs Scale were administered as pre- and post-test measures. A short focus group was conducted to ask the men about their experience of the intervention. Analysis showed a significant increase in participants' willingness to intervene (p = 0.005) along with a decrease in rape myth acceptance in four of the five subscales (Justice p = 0.03; Status p = 0.004; Tactics p = 0.04; and Gender p = 0.002) after exposure to the intervention. Analysis of focus group material yielded several interesting themes about knowledge of rape, family and culture, perceptions of women, and the program material. This study showed promising change in attitudes about rape beliefs and bystander behaviors in Hispanic males exposed to an educational intervention. Through the information obtained, a cultural adaption from the analysis of the focus group data will be implemented during Phase 2 of the study. The adapted intervention will be tested before, after, and 1- and 3-months post-intervention to test whether the change in attitudes and behaviors are sustainable over time.

  12. Large-scale monitoring of effects of clothianidin-dressed oilseed rape seeds on pollinating insects in Northern Germany: effects on red mason bees (Osmia bicornis).

    PubMed

    Peters, Britta; Gao, Zhenglei; Zumkier, Ulrich

    2016-11-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of Elado® (10 g clothianidin & 2 g beta-cyfluthrin/kg seed)-dressed oilseed rape on the development and reproduction of mason bees (Osmia bicornis) as part of a large-scale monitoring field study in Northern Germany, where oilseed rape is usually cultivated at 25-33 % of the arable land. Both reference and test sites comprised 65 km(2) in which no other crops attractive to pollinating insects were present. Six study locations were selected per site and three nesting shelters were placed at each location. Of these locations, three locations were directly adjacent to oilseed rape fields, while the other three locations were situated 100 m distant from the nearest oilseed rape field. At each location, 1500 cocoons of O. bicornis were placed into the central nesting shelter. During the exposure phase, nest building activities and foraging behaviour were assessed repeatedly. Cocoons were harvested in autumn to assess parasitization and reproduction including larval development. The following spring, the emergence of the next generation of adults from cocoons was monitored. High reproductive output and low parasitization rates indicated that Elado(®)-dressed oilseed rape did not cause any detrimental effects on the development or reproduction of mason bees.

  13. Critical period of weed control in oilseed rape in two Moroccan regions.

    PubMed

    Maataoui, A; Bouhache, M; Benbella, M; Talouizte, A

    2003-01-01

    The determination of critical period of weed control in oilseed rape is necessary to know the weed control period. To determine the critical period, two fields experiments were carried out during 1995-96 growth season in Loukkos and Saïs regions at two oilseed densities (D1 = 24 and D2 = 36 plants m(-2)). Ten treatments corresponding to plots left weed free or weeded plots until four leaves, flowers bud, flowering, puds formation, and maturity stages of oilseed rape were tested. Density and biomass of weeds were determined at each oilseed stages. Results showed that weed density and biomass were higher in Saïs than in Loukkos sites. For a 10% yield loss, critical period of weed control in Loukkos was from 458 to 720 degree days after emergence (D degrees AE) and from 480 to 720 D degrees AE in oilseed conducted at densities D1 and D2, respectively. In Saïs, critical period of weed control was from 474 to 738 D degrees AE and from 468 to 675 D degrees AE in oilseed conducted at D1 and D2, respectively. It was concluded that the length of the critical period of weed control in oilseed rape grain yield seems to be dependant of the level of the infestation.

  14. Nitrogen stress measurement of rape based on charged coupled device imaging sensor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feng, Lei; He, Yong; Zhu, Zheyan; Huang, Min

    2005-10-01

    Site-specific variable nitrogen application is one of the major precision crop production management operations. To obtain sufficient crop nitrogen stress information is essential for achieving effective site-specific nitrogen applications. This paper presents the development of a multi-spectral nitrogen deficiency sensor, which uses three channels (green, red, near-infrared) of crop images to determine nitrogen level of the rape. This sensor assess the nitrogen stress by means of the estimated SPAD value of the rape based on rape canopy reflectance sensed using three channels (green, red, near-infrared) of the multispectral camera. The core of this investigation is the calibration methods between the multi-spectral references and the nitrogen levels in crops measured using a SPAD 502 chlorophyll meter. Based on the results obtained from this study (The correlation was 0.89.), it can be concluded that a multi-spectral CCD camera can provide sufficient information to perform reasonable SPAD values estimation on-the-go during field operations.

  15. An Induced Chromosomal Translocation in Soybean Disrupts a KASI Ortholog and Is Associated with a High-Sucrose and Low-Oil Seed Phenotype

    PubMed Central

    Dobbels, Austin A.; Michno, Jean-Michel; Campbell, Benjamin W.; Virdi, Kamaldeep S.; Stec, Adrian O.; Muehlbauer, Gary J.; Naeve, Seth L.; Stupar, Robert M.

    2017-01-01

    Mutagenesis is a useful tool in many crop species to induce heritable genetic variability for trait improvement and gene discovery. In this study, forward screening of a soybean fast neutron (FN) mutant population identified an individual that produced seed with nearly twice the amount of sucrose (8.1% on dry matter basis) and less than half the amount of oil (8.5% on dry matter basis) as compared to wild type. Bulked segregant analysis (BSA), comparative genomic hybridization, and genome resequencing were used to associate the seed composition phenotype with a reciprocal translocation between chromosomes 8 and 13. In a backcross population, the translocation perfectly cosegregated with the seed composition phenotype and exhibited non-Mendelian segregation patterns. We hypothesize that the translocation is responsible for the altered seed composition by disrupting a β-ketoacyl-[acyl carrier protein] synthase 1 (KASI) ortholog. KASI is a core fatty acid synthesis enzyme that is involved in the conversion of sucrose into oil in developing seeds. This finding may lead to new research directions for developing soybean cultivars with modified carbohydrate and oil seed composition. PMID:28235823

  16. Plausible exploitation of Jatropha de-oiled seed cake for lipase and phytase production and simultaneous detoxification by Candida parapsilosis isolated from poultry garbage.

    PubMed

    Kannoju, Balakrishna; Ganapathiwar, Swaruparani; Nunavath, Hanumalal; Sunkar, Bindu; Bhukya, Bhima

    2017-02-01

    Jatropha de-oiled seed cake was explored to utilize as a basic nutrient source for Candida parapsilosis, isolated from poultry garbage and selected based on the production of lipase and phytase enzymes under submerged fermentation. At optimized parameters under solid-state fermentation, lipase and phytase activities were recorded as 1056.66±2.92 and 833±2.5U/g of substrate (U/g), respectively. Besides enzyme production, complete elimination of phorbol esters and significant phytate reduction from 6.51±0.01 to 0.43±0.01g/100g of seed cake were noted after 3days incubation. Curcin and trypsin inhibition activity were reduced significantly from 26.33±0.43 to 0.56±0.02mg/100g and 229.33±2.02 to 11.66±0.28U/g, respectively after 5days incubation. Saponins were reduced from 5.56±0.19 to 1.95±0.01g/100g of seed cake after 7days incubation.

  17. Complete utilization of non-edible oil seeds of Cascabela thevetia through a cascade of approaches for biofuel and by-products.

    PubMed

    Sut, Debashis; Chutia, Rahul Singh; Bordoloi, Neonjyoti; Narzari, Rumi; Kataki, Rupam

    2016-08-01

    Lipid-rich biomass, generally opted for biodiesel production, produces a substantial amount of by-product (de-oiled cake and seed cover) during the process. Complete utilization of Cascabela thevetia seeds for biofuel production through both chemical and thermochemical conversion route is investigated in the present study. Various properties of biodiesel produced was characterized and compared with those obtained from similar oil seeds. The by-products of the chemical process were used as a feedstock for pyrolysis at different temperatures in a fixed bed reactor. Maximum bio-oil yields of 29.11% and 26.18% were observed at 500°C. The bio-oil obtained at optimum yield was characterized by CHN analyzer, NMR and FTIR spectroscopy. The biochar produced was further characterized by SEM-EDX, XRD and FTIR along with elemental analysis to explore its utilization for various purposes. The present investigation depicts a new approach towards complete utilization of lipid-rich bio-resources to different types of biofuels and biochar.

  18. Schema Effects of Rape Myth Acceptance on Judgments of Guilt and Blame in Rape Cases: The Role of Perceived Entitlement to Judge

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eyssel, Friederike; Bohner, Gerd

    2011-01-01

    Two experiments (N = 330) examined conditions that facilitate biasing effects of rape myth acceptance (RMA) on judgments of blame in rape cases. In both experiments, participants read a short vignette depicting a rape case. In Experiment 1, the amount of case-irrelevant information about defendant and plaintiff was varied. As predicted, high-RMA…

  19. Assessment of Rape-Supportive Attitudes and Beliefs in College Men: Development, Reliability, and Validity of the Rape Attitudes and Beliefs Scale

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burgess, Gerald H.

    2007-01-01

    Discussed is the development and psychometric analysis of a measure of rape-supportive attitudes and beliefs called the Rape Attitudes and Beliefs Scale (RABS), intended for the use with college men. Items were developed from a literature review of "rape myths" that were correlated to some measure of sexual aggression. An exploratory…

  20. 42 CFR 50.306 - Rape and incest.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... APPLICABILITY Abortions and Related Medical Services in Federally Assisted Programs of the Public Health Service... participation is also available in expenditures for abortions for victims of rape or incest under...

  1. 42 CFR 50.306 - Rape and incest.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... APPLICABILITY Abortions and Related Medical Services in Federally Assisted Programs of the Public Health Service... participation is also available in expenditures for abortions for victims of rape or incest under...

  2. 42 CFR 50.306 - Rape and incest.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... APPLICABILITY Abortions and Related Medical Services in Federally Assisted Programs of the Public Health Service... participation is also available in expenditures for abortions for victims of rape or incest under...

  3. 42 CFR 50.306 - Rape and incest.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... APPLICABILITY Abortions and Related Medical Services in Federally Assisted Programs of the Public Health Service... participation is also available in expenditures for abortions for victims of rape or incest under...

  4. 42 CFR 50.306 - Rape and incest.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... APPLICABILITY Abortions and Related Medical Services in Federally Assisted Programs of the Public Health Service... participation is also available in expenditures for abortions for victims of rape or incest under...

  5. A model for predicting depression in victims of rape.

    PubMed

    Regehr, C; Regehr, G; Bradford, J

    1998-01-01

    This article proposes a model for understanding the factors contributing to long-standing depression in women who have been raped. A path analysis of data obtained from 71 women who had been raped revealed that women with generalized beliefs that they could not control events in their lives were more likely to attribute responsibility for their rape to permanent intrapsychic factors and were more likely to be depressed. Women who perceived that they had higher levels of internal control tended to have higher levels of education, were more likely to be employed, and were less likely to be depressed more than one year after having been raped. Childhood sexual abuse was not associated with internal control or attributions of causality or depression in this analysis. Implications for the determination of prognosis and treatment recommendations in civil litigation assessments are discussed.

  6. Characterization of the key aroma compounds in rape honey by means of the molecular sensory science concept.

    PubMed

    Ruisinger, Brigitte; Schieberle, Peter

    2012-05-02

    By application of aroma extract dilution analysis (AEDA) on the volatile fraction isolated by solvent extraction and solvent-assisted flavor evaporation (SAFE) from unifloral rape honey harvested in July 2009, 28 odor-active areas could be detected within a flavor dilution factor (FD) range of 4-2048. The highest FD factors were found for (E)-β-damascenone (cooked apple-like), phenylacetic acid (honey-like), 4-methoxybenzaldehyde (aniseed-like), 3-phenylpropanoic acid (flowery, waxy), and 2-methoxy-4-vinylphenol (clove-like). Twenty-three odorants were then quantitated by application of stable isotope dilution assays, and their odor activity values (OAV, ratio of concentration to odor threshold) were calculated on the basis of newly determined odor thresholds in an aqueous fructose-glucose solution. The highest OAVs were calculated for (E)-β-damascenone, 3-phenylpropanoic acid, phenylacetic acid, dimethyl trisulfide, and phenylacetaldehyde. Quantitative measurements on a rape honey produced in 2011 confirmed the results. A model mixture containing the 12 odorants showing an OAV ≥ 1 at the same concentrations as they occurred in the rape honey was able to mimick the aroma impression of the original honey. The characterization of the key odorants in rape flowers from the same field suggested 3-phenylpropanoic acid, phenylacetic acid, and three further odorants to be transferred via the bees into the honey.

  7. Measurement of aspartic acid in oilseed rape leaves under herbicide stress using near infrared spectroscopy and chemometrics.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Chu; Kong, Wenwen; Liu, Fei; He, Yong

    2016-01-01

    Oilseed rape is used as both food and a renewable energy resource. Physiological parameters, such as the amino acid aspartic acid, can indicate the growth status of oilseed rape. Traditional detection methods are laborious, time consuming, costly, and not usable in the field. Here, we investigate near infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) as a fast and non-destructive detection method of aspartic acid in oilseed rape leaves under herbicide stress. Different spectral pre-processing methods were compared for optimal prediction performance. The variable selection methods were applied for relevant variable selection, including successive projections algorithm (SPA), Monte Carlo-uninformative variable elimination (MC-UVE) and random frog (RF). The selected effective wavelengths (EWs) were used as input by multiple linear regression (MLR), partial least squares (PLS) and least-square support vector machine (LS-SVM). The best predictive performance was achieved by SPA-LS-SVM (Raw) model using 22 EWs, and the prediction results were Rp = 0.9962 and RMSEP = 0.0339 for the prediction set. The result indicated that NIR combined with LS-SVM is a powerful new method to detect aspartic acid in oilseed rape leaves under herbicide stress.

  8. Understanding Disparities in Service Seeking Following Forcible Versus Drug-or Alcohol-Facilitated/ Incapacitated Rape

    PubMed Central

    Walsh, Kate; Zinzow, Heidi M.; Badour, Christal L.; Ruggiero, Kenneth J.; Kilpatrick, Dean G.; Resnick, Heidi S.

    2015-01-01

    Victims of drug- or alcohol-facilitated/incapacitated rape (DAFR/IR) are substantially less likely to seek medical, rape crisis, or police services compared with victims of forcible rape (FR); however, reasons for these disparities are poorly understood. The current study examined explanatory mechanisms in the pathway from rape type (FR vs. DAFR/IR) to disparities in post-rape service seeking (medical, rape crisis, criminal justice). Participants were 445 adult women from a nationally representative household probability sample who had experienced FR, DAFR/IR, or both since age 14. Personal characteristics (age, race, income, prior rape history), rape characteristics (fear, injury, loss of consciousness), and post-rape acknowledgment, medical concerns, and service seeking were collected. An indirect effects model using bootstrapped standard errors was estimated to examine pathways from rape type to service seeking. DAFR/IR-only victims were less likely to seek services compared with FR victims despite similar post-rape medical concerns. FR victims were more likely to report fear during the rape and a prior rape history, and to acknowledge the incident as rape; each of these characteristics was positively associated with service seeking. However, only prior rape history and acknowledgment served as indirect paths to service seeking; acknowledgment was the strongest predictor of service seeking. Diminished acknowledgment of the incident as rape may be especially important to explaining why DAFR/IR victims are less likely than FR victims to seek services. Public service campaigns designed to increase awareness of rape definitions, particularly around DAFR/IR, are important to reducing disparities in rape-related service seeking. PMID:25846758

  9. Understanding Disparities in Service Seeking Following Forcible Versus Drug- or Alcohol-Facilitated/Incapacitated Rape.

    PubMed

    Walsh, Kate; Zinzow, Heidi M; Badour, Christal L; Ruggiero, Kenneth J; Kilpatrick, Dean G; Resnick, Heidi S

    2016-09-01

    Victims of drug- or alcohol-facilitated/incapacitated rape (DAFR/IR) are substantially less likely to seek medical, rape crisis, or police services compared with victims of forcible rape (FR); however, reasons for these disparities are poorly understood. The current study examined explanatory mechanisms in the pathway from rape type (FR vs. DAFR/IR) to disparities in post-rape service seeking (medical, rape crisis, criminal justice). Participants were 445 adult women from a nationally representative household probability sample who had experienced FR, DAFR/IR, or both since age 14. Personal characteristics (age, race, income, prior rape history), rape characteristics (fear, injury, loss of consciousness), and post-rape acknowledgment, medical concerns, and service seeking were collected. An indirect effects model using bootstrapped standard errors was estimated to examine pathways from rape type to service seeking. DAFR/IR-only victims were less likely to seek services compared with FR victims despite similar post-rape medical concerns. FR victims were more likely to report fear during the rape and a prior rape history, and to acknowledge the incident as rape; each of these characteristics was positively associated with service seeking. However, only prior rape history and acknowledgment served as indirect paths to service seeking; acknowledgment was the strongest predictor of service seeking. Diminished acknowledgment of the incident as rape may be especially important to explaining why DAFR/IR victims are less likely than FR victims to seek services. Public service campaigns designed to increase awareness of rape definitions, particularly around DAFR/IR, are important to reducing disparities in rape-related service seeking.

  10. Women's erotic rape fantasies: an evaluation of theory and research.

    PubMed

    Critelli, Joseph W; Bivona, Jenny M

    2008-01-01

    This article is the first systematic review of the research literature on women's rape fantasies. Current research indicates that between 31% and 57% of women have fantasies in which they are forced into sex against their will, and for 9% to 17% of women these are a frequent or favorite fantasy experience. Erotic rape fantasies are paradoxical: they do not appear to make sense. Why would a person have an erotic and pleasurable fantasy about an event that, in real life, would be abhorrent and traumatic? In this article, the major theories of women's rape fantasies are evaluated both rationally and empirically. These theories explain rape fantasies in terms of masochism, sexual blame avoidance, openness to sexuality, sexual desirability, male rape culture, biological predisposition to surrender, sympathetic physiological activation, and adversary transformation. This article evaluates theory and research, makes provisional judgments as to which theories appear to be most viable, and begins the task of theoretical integration to arrive at a more complete and internally consistent explanation for why many women engage in erotic rape fantasies. Methodological critiques and programs for future research are presented throughout.

  11. Rape and child sexual abuse: what beliefs persist about motives, perpetrators, and survivors?

    PubMed

    McGee, Hannah; O'Higgins, Madeleine; Garavan, Rebecca; Conroy, Ronán

    2011-11-01

    Rape myths are prejudicial and stereotyped beliefs about rape which persist in society. They may have a significant impact on those affected by rape as well as the performance of legal and public participants in the justice system. Rape myths may differ over time and within different societies and cultural settings. Awareness of contemporary and local rape myths is necessary if they are to be successfully challenged through public campaigns and other means. This study sought to assess the prevalence of myths concerning rape and sexual abuse in a national population survey.

  12. Metacognitive aspects of rape myths: subjective strength of rape myth acceptance moderates its effects on information processing and behavioral intentions.

    PubMed

    Süssenbach, Philipp; Eyssel, Friederike; Bohner, Gerd

    2013-07-01

    The authors present a metacognitive approach to influences of rape myth acceptance (RMA) on the processing of rape-related information and rape proclivity. In Study 1, participants (N = 264) completed an RMA scale and subsequently reported the subjective strength (e.g., importance, certainty) of their RMA. Then they read about a rape case, viewed a photograph of the alleged crime scene, and rated the defendant's guilt on several items. Depending on condition, the photograph contained either RMA-applicable stimuli (e.g., alcoholic beverages) or neutral stimuli. Higher RMA predicted lower ratings of defendant guilt especially when applicable stimuli were present and RMA was strong. Study 2 (N = 85) showed that RMA-related attitude strength also moderated the effect of RMA on self-reported rape proclivity. Results of both studies indicate that the subjective strength of rape-related beliefs may be reliably assessed and serves as an important moderator of effects of RMA. The implications of these findings for prevention programs as well as future directions for research are discussed.

  13. Biochemical and Molecular Characterization of RcSUS1, a Cytosolic Sucrose Synthase Phosphorylated in Vivo at Serine 11 in Developing Castor Oil Seeds*

    PubMed Central

    Fedosejevs, Eric T.; Ying, Sheng; Park, Joonho; Anderson, Erin M.; Mullen, Robert T.; She, Yi-Min; Plaxton, William C.

    2014-01-01

    Sucrose synthase (SUS) catalyzes the UDP-dependent cleavage of sucrose into UDP-glucose and fructose and has become an important target for improving seed crops via metabolic engineering. A UDP-specific SUS homotetramer composed of 93-kDa subunits was purified to homogeneity from the triacylglyceride-rich endosperm of developing castor oil seeds (COS) and identified as RcSUS1 by mass spectrometry. RcSUS1 transcripts peaked during early development, whereas levels of SUS activity and immunoreactive 93-kDa SUS polypeptides maximized during mid-development, becoming undetectable in fully mature COS. The cytosolic location of the enzyme was established following transient expression of RcSUS1-enhanced YFP in tobacco suspension cells and fluorescence microscopy. Immunological studies using anti-phosphosite-specific antibodies revealed dynamic and high stoichiometric in vivo phosphorylation of RcSUS1 at its conserved Ser-11 residue during COS development. Incorporation of 32Pi from [γ-32P]ATP into a RcSUS1 peptide substrate, alongside a phosphosite-specific ELISA assay, established the presence of calcium-dependent RcSUS1 (Ser-11) kinase activity. Approximately 10% of RcSUS1 was associated with COS microsomal membranes and was hypophosphorylated relative to the remainder of RcSUS1 that partitioned into the soluble, cytosolic fraction. Elimination of sucrose supply caused by excision of intact pods of developing COS abolished RcSUS1 transcription while triggering the progressive dephosphorylation of RcSUS1 in planta. This did not influence the proportion of RcSUS1 associated with microsomal membranes but instead correlated with a subsequent marked decline in SUS activity and immunoreactive RcSUS1 polypeptides. Phosphorylation at Ser-11 appears to protect RcSUS1 from proteolysis, rather than influence its kinetic properties or partitioning between the soluble cytosol and microsomal membranes. PMID:25313400

  14. Biochemical and molecular characterization of RcSUS1, a cytosolic sucrose synthase phosphorylated in vivo at serine 11 in developing castor oil seeds.

    PubMed

    Fedosejevs, Eric T; Ying, Sheng; Park, Joonho; Anderson, Erin M; Mullen, Robert T; She, Yi-Min; Plaxton, William C

    2014-11-28

    Sucrose synthase (SUS) catalyzes the UDP-dependent cleavage of sucrose into UDP-glucose and fructose and has become an important target for improving seed crops via metabolic engineering. A UDP-specific SUS homotetramer composed of 93-kDa subunits was purified to homogeneity from the triacylglyceride-rich endosperm of developing castor oil seeds (COS) and identified as RcSUS1 by mass spectrometry. RcSUS1 transcripts peaked during early development, whereas levels of SUS activity and immunoreactive 93-kDa SUS polypeptides maximized during mid-development, becoming undetectable in fully mature COS. The cytosolic location of the enzyme was established following transient expression of RcSUS1-enhanced YFP in tobacco suspension cells and fluorescence microscopy. Immunological studies using anti-phosphosite-specific antibodies revealed dynamic and high stoichiometric in vivo phosphorylation of RcSUS1 at its conserved Ser-11 residue during COS development. Incorporation of (32)P(i) from [γ-(32)P]ATP into a RcSUS1 peptide substrate, alongside a phosphosite-specific ELISA assay, established the presence of calcium-dependent RcSUS1 (Ser-11) kinase activity. Approximately 10% of RcSUS1 was associated with COS microsomal membranes and was hypophosphorylated relative to the remainder of RcSUS1 that partitioned into the soluble, cytosolic fraction. Elimination of sucrose supply caused by excision of intact pods of developing COS abolished RcSUS1 transcription while triggering the progressive dephosphorylation of RcSUS1 in planta. This did not influence the proportion of RcSUS1 associated with microsomal membranes but instead correlated with a subsequent marked decline in SUS activity and immunoreactive RcSUS1 polypeptides. Phosphorylation at Ser-11 appears to protect RcSUS1 from proteolysis, rather than influence its kinetic properties or partitioning between the soluble cytosol and microsomal membranes.

  15. Bacterial- and plant-type phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase isozymes from developing castor oil seeds interact in vivo and associate with the surface of mitochondria.

    PubMed

    Park, Joonho; Khuu, Nicholas; Howard, Alexander S M; Mullen, Robert T; Plaxton, William C

    2012-07-01

    Phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase (PEPC) from developing castor oil seeds (COS) exists as two distinct oligomeric isoforms. The typical class-1 PEPC homotetramer consists of 107-kDa plant-type PEPC (PTPC) subunits, whereas the allosterically desensitized 910-kDa class-2 PEPC hetero-octamer arises from the association of class-1 PEPC with 118-kDa bacterial-type PEPC (BTPC) subunits. The in vivo interaction and subcellular location of COS BTPC and PTPC were assessed by imaging fluorescent protein (FP)-tagged PEPCs in tobacco suspension-cultured cells. The BTPC-FP mainly localized to cytoplasmic punctate/globular structures, identified as mitochondria by co-immunostaining of endogenous cytochrome oxidase. Inhibition of respiration with KCN resulted in proportional decreases and increases in mitochondrial versus cytosolic BTPC-FP, respectively. The FP-PTPC and NLS-FP-PTPC (containing an appended nuclear localization signal, NLS) localized to the cytosol and nucleus, respectively, but both co-localized with mitochondrial-associated BTPC when co-expressed with BTPC-FP. Transmission electron microscopy of immunogold-labeled developing COS revealed that BTPC and PTPC are localized at the mitochondrial (outer) envelope, as well as the cytosol. Moreover, thermolysin-sensitive BTPC and PTPC polypeptides were detected on immunoblots of purified COS mitochondria. Overall, our results demonstrate that: (i) COS BTPC and PTPC interact in vivo as a class-2 PEPC complex that associates with the surface of mitochondria, (ii) BTPC's unique and divergent intrinsically disordered region mediates its interaction with PTPC, whereas (iii) the PTPC-containing class-1 PEPC is entirely cytosolic. We hypothesize that mitochondrial-associated class-2 PEPC facilitates rapid refixation of respiratory CO(2) while sustaining a large anaplerotic flux to replenish tricarboxylic acid cycle C-skeletons withdrawn for biosynthesis.

  16. Phosphorylation of bacterial-type phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase at Ser425 provides a further tier of enzyme control in developing castor oil seeds.

    PubMed

    O'Leary, Brendan; Rao, Srinath K; Plaxton, William C

    2011-01-01

    PEPC [PEP (phosphoenolpyruvate) carboxylase] is a tightly controlled anaplerotic enzyme situated at a pivotal branch point of plant carbohydrate metabolism. Two distinct oligomeric PEPC classes were discovered in developing COS (castor oil seeds). Class-1 PEPC is a typical homotetramer of 107 kDa PTPC (plant-type PEPC) subunits, whereas the novel 910-kDa Class-2 PEPC hetero-octamer arises from a tight interaction between Class-1 PEPC and 118 kDa BTPC (bacterial-type PEPC) subunits. Mass spectrometric analysis of immunopurified COS BTPC indicated that it is subject to in vivo proline-directed phosphorylation at Ser425. We show that immunoblots probed with phosphorylation site-specific antibodies demonstrated that Ser425 phosphorylation is promoted during COS development, becoming maximal at stage IX (maturation phase) or in response to depodding. Kinetic analyses of a recombinant, chimaeric Class-2 PEPC containing phosphomimetic BTPC mutant subunits (S425D) indicated that Ser425 phosphorylation results in significant BTPC inhibition by: (i) increasing its Km(PEP) 3-fold, (ii) reducing its I50 (L-malate and L-aspartate) values by 4.5- and 2.5-fold respectively, while (iii) decreasing its activity within the physiological pH range. The developmental pattern and kinetic influence of Ser425 BTPC phosphorylation is very distinct from the in vivo phosphorylation/activation of COS Class-1 PEPC's PTPC subunits at Ser11. Collectively, the results establish that BTPC's phospho-Ser425 content depends upon COS developmental and physiological status and that Ser425 phosphorylation attenuates the catalytic activity of BTPC subunits within a Class-2 PEPC complex. To the best of our knowledge, this study provides the first evidence for protein phosphorylation as a mechanism for the in vivo control of vascular plant BTPC activity.

  17. Coimmunopurification of phosphorylated bacterial- and plant-type phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylases with the plastidial pyruvate dehydrogenase complex from developing castor oil seeds.

    PubMed

    Uhrig, R Glen; O'Leary, Brendan; Spang, H Elizabeth; MacDonald, Justin A; She, Yi-Min; Plaxton, William C

    2008-03-01

    The phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase (PEPC) interactome of developing castor oil seed (COS; Ricinus communis) endosperm was assessed using coimmunopurification (co-IP) followed by proteomic analysis. Earlier studies suggested that immunologically unrelated 107-kD plant-type PEPCs (p107/PTPC) and 118-kD bacterial-type PEPCs (p118/BTPC) are subunits of an unusual 910-kD hetero-octameric class 2 PEPC complex of developing COS. The current results confirm that a tight physical interaction occurs between p118 and p107 because p118 quantitatively coimmunopurified with p107 following elution of COS extracts through an anti-p107-IgG immunoaffinity column. No PEPC activity or immunoreactive PEPC polypeptides were detected in the corresponding flow-through fractions. Although BTPCs lack the N-terminal phosphorylation motif characteristic of PTPCs, Pro-Q Diamond phosphoprotein staining, immunoblotting with phospho-serine (Ser)/threonine Akt substrate IgG, and phosphate-affinity PAGE established that coimmunopurified p118 was multiphosphorylated at unique Ser and/or threonine residues. Tandem mass spectrometric analysis of an endoproteinase Lys-C p118 peptide digest demonstrated that Ser-425 is subject to in vivo proline-directed phosphorylation. The co-IP of p118 with p107 did not appear to be influenced by their phosphorylation status. Because p118 phosphorylation was unchanged 48 h following elimination of photosynthate supply due to COS depodding, the signaling mechanisms responsible for photosynthate-dependent p107 phosphorylation differ from those controlling p118's in vivo phosphorylation. A 110-kD PTPC coimmunopurified with p118 and p107 when depodded COS was used. The plastidial pyruvate dehydrogenase complex (PDC(pl)) was identified as a novel PEPC interactor. Thus, a putative metabolon involving PEPC and PDC(pl) could function to channel carbon from phosphoenolpyruvate to acetyl-coenzyme A and/or to recycle CO(2) from PDC(pl) to PEPC.

  18. Date rape among Cypriot female college students: an explorative study.

    PubMed

    Kouta, Christiana; Tolma, Eleni L; Pavlou, Susana Elisa

    2013-09-01

    This study examined the prevalence and reporting of date rape among female college students (aged 18-24) in Cyprus and assessed the students' attitudes and awareness regarding date rape. In addition, the study examined how date rape is perceived among representatives of related private and governmental organizations in Cyprus. This is part of a larger multi-country study. This paper will focus only on the results pertaining to Cyprus. The study was coordinated by the Mediterranean Institute of Gender Studies. This study used quantitative and qualitative methods. In total, 476 female college students responded to an anonymous questionnaire, two focus group discussions were carried out, and five key-informant interviews with relevant institutional representatives were conducted. The results of the study indicated that unwanted sexual experiences and sexual violence, including date rape, do exist among young Cypriot women. Specifically, 1.3% of the research participants reported experiencing an attempted rape by their date, and 1.9 % of the study participants reported being raped on a date. Often this was caused by their boyfriend, friend or sexual partner (54.2%). The results of the qualitative study showed that young female Cypriots agreed that many women give in to psychological pressure because they feel guilty about letting the other person down or because they 'didn't satisfy him' or fear they might lose him. Despite the explorative nature of the study, it is significant as research on date rape in Cyprus is almost non-existent. The authors anticipate that the results of the study will be useful to other researchers and policy-makers involved in this area of research.

  19. Insect pollination enhances seed yield, quality, and market value in oilseed rape.

    PubMed

    Bommarco, Riccardo; Marini, Lorenzo; Vaissière, Bernard E

    2012-08-01

    The relationships between landscape intensification, the abundance and diversity of pollinating insects, and their contributions to crop yield, quality, and market value are poorly studied, despite observed declines in wild and domesticated pollinators. Abundance and species richness of pollinating insects were estimated in ten fields of spring oilseed rape, Brassica napus var. SW Stratos™, located along a gradient of landscape compositions ranging from simple landscapes dominated by arable land to heterogeneous landscapes with extensive cover of semi-natural habitats. In each field, we assessed the contribution of wind and insect pollination to seed yield, seed quality (individual seed weight and oil and chlorophyll contents), and market value in a block experiment with four replicates and two treatments: (1) all flowers were accessible to insects, self and wind pollination, and (2) flowers enclosed in tulle net bags (mesh: 1 × 1 mm) were accessible only to wind and self pollination. Complex landscapes enhanced the overall abundance of wild insects as well as the abundance and species richness of hoverflies. This did not translate to a higher yield, probably due to consistent pollination by honey bees across all fields. However, the pollination experiment showed that insects increased seed weight per plant by 18% and market value by 20%. Seed quality was enhanced by insect pollination, rendering heavier seeds as well as higher oil and lower chlorophyll contents, clearly showing that insect pollination is required to reach high seed yield and quality in oilseed rape. Our study demonstrates considerable and previously underestimated contributions from pollinating insects to both the yield and the market value of oilseed rape.

  20. The relationship of thought suppression and recent rape to disordered eating in emerging adulthood.

    PubMed

    Collins, Brittany; Fischer, Sarah; Stojek, Monika; Becker, Kendra

    2014-02-01

    This study utilizes a prospective design to examine the interaction of recent rape/attempted rape with individual differences in thought suppression on increases in disordered eating symptoms during late adolescence/emerging adulthood. Thought suppression is the attempt to suppress unwanted thoughts. We propose that emerging adult women who have experienced recent rape/attempted rape and tend to use thought suppression as a coping mechanism are at risk for increases in disordered eating. 319 women completed the Eating Disorder Examination Questionnaire, the Sexual Experiences Survey, the Childhood Trauma Questionnaire, and the White Bear Thought Suppression Inventory in their first month of college and three months later. The experience of recent rape/attempted rape in the three months prior to the assessment accounted for unique variance in disordered eating at Time 2. Levels of thought suppression assessed at Time 1 significantly moderated the influence of recent rape/attempted rape on disordered eating at Time 2.

  1. Perceptions of rape and attitudes toward women in a sample of Lebanese students.

    PubMed

    Rebeiz, Maria J; Harb, Charles

    2010-04-01

    This study investigated values, ambivalent sexism, religiosity, religious differences, gender, and attitudes toward rape victims as predictors of rape myths in a sample of Lebanese students (N = 300). Values of self-transcendence and conservation, gender, hostile sexism, and attitudes toward rape victims emerged as significant predictors of rape myths, confirming some of the premises in the literature. Type of rape (date, marital, acquaintance, and stranger rape) and victim's characteristics (widowed, married, devout, promiscuous, and chaste) were also investigated. Results revealed that no matter what the relationship between the victim and her perpetrator was, and regardless of the victim's characteristics, forcible sexual contact was always considered as rape. However, differences did emerge as to the degree to which these variations were perceived as rape. Implication of findings for research and the Lebanese culture are discussed.

  2. Attitudes toward rape: a comparison between Asian and Caucasian college students.

    PubMed

    Lee, Joohee; Pomeroy, Elizabeth C; Yoo, Seo-Koo; Rheinboldt, Kurt T

    2005-02-01

    The purpose of this study is to investigate differences in attitudes toward rape between Asian and Caucasian college students. The Attitudes Toward Rape scale was used to measure beliefs about rape in a convenience sample of 169 college students. Three items regarding stranger rape myths were added. Findings suggest that Asian students are more likely than Caucasian students to believe women should be held responsible for preventing rape and to view sex as the primary motivation for rape. Asians also have stronger beliefs than Caucasians do that victims cause the rape and that most rapists are strangers. This research suggests that outreach programs can play an important role in providing information, education, and prevention regarding rape and that males and Asian students should be target populations for such programs.

  3. Nitrous oxide emission factors for urine and dung from sheep fed either fresh forage rape (Brassica napus L.) or fresh perennial ryegrass (Lolium perenne L.).

    PubMed

    Luo, J; Sun, X Z; Pacheco, D; Ledgard, S F; Lindsey, S B; Hoogendoorn, C J; Wise, B; Watkins, N L

    2015-03-01

    In New Zealand, agriculture is predominantly based on pastoral grazing systems and animal excreta deposited on soil during grazing have been identified as a major source of nitrous oxide (N2O) emissions. Forage brassicas (Brassica spp.) have been increasingly used to improve lamb performance. Compared with conventional forage perennial ryegrass (Lolium perenne L.), a common forage in New Zealand, forage brassicas have faster growth rates, higher dry matter production and higher nutritive value. The aim of this study was to determine the partitioning of dietary nitrogen (N) between urine and dung in the excreta from sheep fed forage brassica rape (B. napus subsp. oleifera L.) or ryegrass, and then to measure N2O emissions when the excreta from the two different feed sources were applied to a pasture soil. A sheep metabolism study was conducted to determine urine and dung-N outputs from sheep fed forage rape or ryegrass, and N partitioning between urine and dung. Urine and dung were collected and then used in a field plot experiment for measuring N2O emissions. The experimental site contained a perennial ryegrass/white clover pasture on a poorly drained silt-loam soil. The treatments included urine from sheep fed forage rape or ryegrass, dung from sheep fed forage rape or ryegrass, and a control without dung or urine applied. N2O emission measurements were carried out using a static chamber technique. For each excreta type, the total N2O emissions and emission factor (EF3; N2O-N emitted during the 3- or 8-month measurement period as a per cent of animal urine or dung-N applied, respectively) were calculated. Our results indicate that, in terms of per unit of N intake, a similar amount of N was excreted in urine from sheep fed either forage rape or ryegrass, but less dung N was excreted from sheep fed forage rape than ryegrass. The EF3 for urine from sheep fed forage rape was lower compared with urine from sheep fed ryegrass. This may have been because of plant

  4. Competitive disadvantage makes attitudes towards rape less negative.

    PubMed

    Nunes, Kevin L; Pettersen, Cathrine

    2011-10-12

    Evolutionary theorists have argued that perceived competitive disadvantage may lead to more positive evaluation of, and greater likelihood of engaging in, risky and antisocial behavior. However, experimental studies have not yet examined the effects of competitive disadvantage on perceptions of rape. In the current study, we created a manipulation of perceived competitive status to test its effects on beliefs about rape. In one condition, participants were made to feel disadvantaged relative to male peers in terms of financial, physical, and intellectual power, whereas in the other condition they were made to feel advantaged. Participants were 120 heterosexual male undergraduate students. The manipulation was effective; compared to participants in the advantage condition, those in the disadvantage condition rated themselves as significantly worse off financially, shorter, in worse physical shape, and as having lower course marks than the average male student at the university. Compared to perceived competitive advantage, perceived disadvantage led to less negative attitudes towards rape. However, perceived competitive status did not significantly affect justifications and excuses for rape. Future studies using similar experimental manipulations can complement correlational studies and may contribute to greater clarity, precision, and sophistication of research and theory on the role of competitive disadvantage in rape.

  5. Women's Attitudes and Fantasies about Rape as a Function of Early Exposure to Pornography.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Corne, Shawn; And Others

    1992-01-01

    Tested hypothesis that women's attitudes and fantasies about rape arise partially from their socialization to accept sexual aggression as normative. Female participants answered questions on childhood exposure to pornography, sex fantasies, and rape attitudes. Early exposure to pornography correlated to "rape fantasies" and attitudes…

  6. Perceptions of Rape and Attitudes toward Women in a Sample of Lebanese Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rebeiz, Maria J.; Harb, Charles

    2010-01-01

    This study investigated values, ambivalent sexism, religiosity, religious differences, gender, and attitudes toward rape victims as predictors of rape myths in a sample of Lebanese students (N = 300). Values of self-transcendence and conservation, gender, hostile sexism, and attitudes toward rape victims emerged as significant predictors of rape…

  7. An acute post-rape intervention to prevent substance use and abuse.

    PubMed

    Acierno, Ron; Resnick, Heidi S; Flood, Amanda; Holmes, Melisa

    2003-12-01

    The trauma of rape is routinely associated with extreme acute distress. Such peri-event anxiety increases risk of developing psychopathology and substance use or abuse post-rape, with the degree of initial distress positively predicting future problems. Unfortunately, the nature of post-rape forensic evidence collection procedures may exacerbate initial distress, thereby potentiating post-rape negative emotional sequelae. Consequently, substance use may increase in an effort to ameliorate this distress. To address this, a two-part video intervention was developed for use in acute post-rape time frames to (a) minimize anxiety during forensic rape examinations, thereby reducing risk of future emotional problems, and (b) prevent increased post-rape substance use and abuse. Pilot study data with 124 rape victims indicated that the low-cost, easily administered intervention was effective in reducing risk of marijuana abuse at 6 weeks. Nonstatistically significant trends also were evident for reduced marijuana use. Trends were also noted in favor of the intervention in the subgroup of women who were actively using substances pre-rape (among pre-rape alcohol users, 28% viewers vs. 43% nonviewers met criteria for post-rape alcohol abuse; among pre-rape marijuana users, the rates of post-marijuana use were 17% vs. 43%).

  8. 76 FR 20711 - Hearings of the Review Panel on Prison Rape

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-13

    ... Office of Justice Programs Hearings of the Review Panel on Prison Rape AGENCY: Office of Justice Programs... Review Panel on Prison Rape (Panel) will hold hearings in Washington, DC on April 26-27, 2011. The... rape, respectively, based on an anonymous survey by the BJS of inmates in a representative sample of...

  9. The Long-Term Effects of Rape on Lifestyle and Psychological Functioning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Esper, Jody A.; Runge, Christopher J.

    Research has shown rape to be an act of violence which affects the lives of many individuals each year. For many survivors of rape, effects on psychological functioning and lifestyle may endure for many years. This study was undertaken to develop and pilot the Rape Assessment Schedule, an interview schedule designed to assess the very long-term…

  10. Peer Educators and Close Friends as Predictors of Male College Students' Willingness to Prevent Rape

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stein, Jerrold L.

    2007-01-01

    Astin's (1977, 1991, 1993) input-environment-outcome (I-E-O) model provided a conceptual framework for this study which measured 156 male college students' willingness to prevent rape (outcome variable). Predictor variables included personal attitudes (input variable), perceptions of close friends' attitudes toward rape and rape prevention…

  11. Current Perceptions of Marital Rape: Some Good and Not-So-Good News

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ferro, Christine; Cermele, Jill; Saltzman, Ann

    2008-01-01

    The current study extends previous research on marital rape and acceptance of general rape myths by comparing the perceptions of undergraduate college students (n = 85) to those of college alumni/ae (n = 44) who graduated from the same university three decades earlier. Participants read a hypothetical rape scenario that depicted the perpetrator as…

  12. 75 FR 27000 - Hearings of the Review Panel on Prison Rape

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-13

    ... of Justice Programs Hearings of the Review Panel on Prison Rape AGENCY: Office of Justice Programs... Review Panel on Prison Rape (Panel) will hold hearings in Washington, DC on June 3-4, 2010. The hearing... incidence of rape, respectively, based on an anonymous survey by the BJS of youth in a representative...

  13. A Socioecological Model of Rape Survivors' Decisions to Aid in Case Prosecution

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anders, Mary C.; Christopher, F. Scott

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of our study was to identify factors underlying rape survivors' post-assault prosecution decisions by testing a decision model that included the complex relations between the multiple social ecological systems within which rape survivors are embedded. We coded 440 police rape cases for characteristics of the assault and characteristics…

  14. The Impact of Past Sexual Experiences on Attributions of Responsibility for Rape

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mason, Gillian E.; Riger, Stephanie; Foley, Linda A.

    2004-01-01

    Two factors potentially affect observers' attributions of responsibility to a rape survivor: how closely they identify with the survivor and how much they adhere to rape myths. To assess the impact of these factors, 157 female college students categorized by their sexual assault history and by their acceptance of rape myths, evaluated a sexual…

  15. Understanding Rape and Sexual Assault: 20 Years of Progress and Future Directions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Campbell, Rebecca; Wasco, Sharon M.

    2005-01-01

    During the past 20 years, researchers have documented the widespread problem of rape in American society. Approximately one in four women are raped in their adult lifetime, which causes severe psychological distress and long-term physical health problems. The impact of sexual assault extends far beyond rape survivors as their family, friends, and…

  16. 78 FR 77495 - Hearings of the Review Panel on Prison Rape

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-23

    ... of Justice Programs Hearings of the Review Panel on Prison Rape AGENCY: Office of Justice Programs... Review Panel on Prison Rape (Panel) will hold hearings in Washington, DC, on January 8-9, 2014. The..., and juvenile facilities with the highest and lowest incidence of rape, respectively, based...

  17. Sexual Assault Nurse Examiners' Perceptions of Their Relationship with Doctors, Rape Victim Advocates, Police, and Prosecutors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maier, Shana L.

    2012-01-01

    In response to the negative and inefficient treatment of rape victims by emergency room personnel, the first Sexual Assault Nurse Examiner (SANE) programs began in the late 1970s. While SANEs, doctors, rape victim advocates, police officers and prosecutors work together to ensure the most comprehensive and sensitive care of rape victims, they all…

  18. 75 FR 11077 - National Standards To Prevent, Detect, and Respond to Prison Rape

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-10

    ... Part 115 RIN 1105-AB34 National Standards To Prevent, Detect, and Respond to Prison Rape AGENCY... abuse in confinement settings that were prepared by the National Prison Rape Elimination Commission (Commission) pursuant to the Prison Rape Elimination Act of 2003 (PREA) and recommended by the Commission...

  19. Understanding Rape Survivors' Decisions Not to Seek Help from Formal Social Systems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Patterson, Debra; Greeson, Megan; Campbell, Rebecca

    2009-01-01

    Few rape survivors seek help from formal social systems after their assault. The purpose of this study was to examine factors that prevent survivors from seeking help from the legal, medical, and mental health systems and rape crisis centers. In this study, 29 female rape survivors who did not seek any postassault formal help were interviewed…

  20. Rape Perception and the Function of Ambivalent Sexism and Gender-Role Traditionality

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yamawaki, Niwako

    2007-01-01

    This study explores the roles of benevolent sexism (BS), hostile sexism (HS), and gender-role traditionality (GRT) in minimizing rape, blaming the victim, and excusing the rapist. As predicted, hostile sexists minimize the seriousness of the rape in both stranger and date-rape scenarios. In the victim-blame scale, both BS and GRT significantly…

  1. Factors Related to Rape Reporting Behavior in Brazil: Examining the Role of Spatio-Temporal Factors.

    PubMed

    Melo, Silas Nogueira de; Beauregard, Eric; Andresen, Martin A

    2016-07-10

    The reporting of rape to police is an important component of this crime to have the criminal justice system involved and, potentially, punish offenders. However, for a number of reasons (fear of retribution, self-blame, etc.), most rapes are not reported to police. Most often, the research investigating this phenomenon considers incident and victim factors with little attention to the spatio-temporal factors of the rape. In this study, we consider incident, victim, and spatio-temporal factors relating to rape reporting in Campinas, Brazil. Our primary research question is whether or not the spatio-temporal factors play a significant role in the reporting of rape, over and above incident and victim factors. The subjects under study are women who were admitted to the Women's Integrated Healthcare Center at the State University of Campinas, Brazil, and surveyed by a psychologist or a social worker. Rape reporting to police was measured using a dichotomous variable. Logistic regression was used to predict the probability of rape reporting based on incident, victim, and spatio-temporal factors. Although we find that incident and victim factors matter for rape reporting, spatio-temporal factors (rape/home location and whether the rape was in a private or public place) play an important role in rape reporting, similar to the literature that considers these factors. This result has significant implications for sexual violence education. Only when we know why women decide not to report a rape may we begin to work on strategies to overcome these hurdles.

  2. From Survivor to Thriver: A Pilot Study of an Online Program for Rape Victims

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Littleton, Heather; Buck, Katherine; Rosman, Lindsey; Grills-Taquechel, Amie

    2012-01-01

    Approximately 15% to 20% of women have been victims of rape and close to a third report current rape-related PTSD or clinically significant depression or anxiety. Unfortunately, very few distressed rape victims seek formal help. This suggests a need to develop alternative ways to assist the many distressed victims of sexual violence. Online…

  3. Nitrous oxide emissions from crop rotations including wheat, oilseed rape and dry peas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jeuffroy, M. H.; Baranger, E.; Carrouée, B.; de Chezelles, E.; Gosme, M.; Hénault, C.; Schneider, A.; Cellier, P.

    2013-03-01

    Approximately 65% of anthropogenic emissions of N2O, a potent greenhouse gas (GHG), originate from soils at a global scale, and particularly after N fertilisation of the main crops in Europe. Thanks to their capacity to fix atmospheric N2 through biological fixation, legumes can reduce N fertilizer use, and possibly N2O emissions. Nevertheless, the decomposition of crop organic matter during the crop cycle and residue decomposition, and possibly the N fixation process itself, could lead to N2O emissions. The objective of this study was to quantify N2O emissions from a dry pea crop (Pisum sativum, harvested at maturity) and from the subsequent crops in comparison with N2O emissions from wheat and oilseed rape crops, fertilized or not, in various rotations. A field experiment was conducted over 4 consecutive years to compare the emissions during the pea crop, in comparison with those during the wheat (fertilized or not) or oilseed rape crops, and after the pea crop, in comparison with other preceding crops. N2O fluxes were measured using static chambers. In spite of low N2O fluxes, mainly due to the site's soil characteristics, fluxes during the crop were significantly lower for pea and unfertilized wheat than for fertilized wheat and oilseed rape. The effect of the preceding crop was not significant, while soil mineral N at harvest was higher after the pea crop. These results should be confirmed over a wider range of soil types. Nevertheless, they demonstrate the absence of N2O emissions linked to the symbiotic N fixation process, and allow us to estimate the decrease in N2O emissions by 20-25% through including one pea crop in a three-year rotation. On a larger scale, this reduction of GHG emissions at field level has to be added to the decrease due to the reduced production and transport of the N fertilizer not applied to the pea crop.

  4. Fear of rape among college women: a social psychological analysis.

    PubMed

    Pryor, Douglas W; Hughes, Marion R

    2013-01-01

    This article examines social psychological underpinnings of fear of rape among college women. We analyze data from a survey of 1,905 female undergraduates to test the influence of 5 subjective perceptions about vulnerability and harm: unique invulnerability, gender risk, defensibility, anticipatory shame, and attribution of injury. We include 3 sources of crime exposure in our models: past sexual victimization, past noncontact violent victimization, and structural risk measured by age, parent's income, and race. Separate measures of fear of stranger and acquaintance rape are modeled, including variables tapping current versus anticipatory fear, fear on campus versus everywhere, and fear anytime versus at night. The data show that fear of rape among college women appears more grounded in constructed perceptions of harm and danger than in past violent experiences.

  5. Criminal sittings – rape in the colony, New Zealand, 1862.

    PubMed

    Erai, Michelle

    2011-01-01

    In 1862 His Honor, Justice Johnston, issued his instructions to the jury of the New Zealand Supreme Court for two simultaneous rape trials – the alleged rape of a European woman by two Māori men, and an alleged “assault with intent to commit a rape” of a Māori woman by a European man. This article argues that those instructions should be read within an historiographical critique of British colonial expansion, print capitalism and violence. Drawing on feminist postcolonial theorizing the question posed here, is, “What is the historical, ideological context for a newspaper reporting of the possible rape of a Māori woman in 1862?

  6. Preferential rape in the theory of courtship disorder.

    PubMed

    Freund, K; Seto, M C

    1998-10-01

    The theory of courtship disorder suggests voyeurism, exhibitionism, frotteurism, and preferential rape (a paraphilic preference for coercive sex) are expressions of a common underlying disturbance. Previous research has demonstrated that voyeurism, exhibitionism, and frotteurism are relatively likely to co-occur; however, their associations with rape are weaker. One explanation is that rapists are more heterogeneous and may not always be motivated by a paraphilic interest in coercive sex. Paraphilic interests can be identified using phallometric testing, but the sensitivity of the test is attenuated by voluntary control over erectile responding. Another approach is to look for a behavioral marker associated with paraphilic rape-proneness. Freund (1990) has argued that exhibitionism may be the "hub" of courtship disorder because exposing one's genitals to a stranger is rare in control subjects. We predicted that rapists who also engaged in exhibitionistic activity would be more likely than other rapists to also engage in other expressions of courtship disorder, i.e., voyeurism and frotteurism. To rule out the possibility that rapists who report exhibitionistic activity only differ in their willingness to report anomalous sexual behavior, we also predicted no difference between the groups in their self-reported involvement in other paraphilic activities such as sadism or masochism, or paraphilic target preferences such as fetishism or transvestism. Finally, we predicted no difference between groups in their willingness to admit to attempting or committing rape. The results supported our predictions, and lend credence to the notion of preferential rape as an expression of courtship disorder. Moreover, these results suggest that the presence of another paraphilia, particularly exhibitionism, may be useful as a behavioral marker for paraphilic rape-proneness.

  7. Attitude May Be Everything, But Is Everything an Attitude? Cognitive Distortions May Not Be Evaluations of Rape.

    PubMed

    Nunes, Kevin L; Hermann, Chantal A; White, Kristen; Pettersen, Cathrine; Bumby, Kurt

    2016-01-18

    Cognitive distortions are often referred to as attitudes toward rape in theory, research, and clinical practice pertaining to sexual aggression. In the social-psychological literature, however, attitudes are typically defined as evaluations; thus, in this context, attitudes toward rape are considered evaluations of rape (e.g., rape is negative vs. positive). The purpose of the current study was to explore whether a widely used measure of cognitive distortions (RAPE Scale; Bumby, 1996) assesses evaluation of rape, and, if not, whether evaluation of rape and the cognitions assessed by the RAPE Scale are independently associated with sexually aggressive behavior. Participants (660 male undergraduate students) completed the RAPE Scale as well as measures of evaluation of rape and sexually aggressive behavior. An exploratory factor analysis revealed that the RAPE Scale items formed a correlated but distinct factor from the Evaluation of Rape Scale items. Regression analyses indicated that the Evaluation of Rape Scale and the RAPE Scale had small to moderate independent associations with self-report measures of sexually aggressive behavior. Our results suggest that evaluation of rape may be distinct from cognitive distortions regarding rape, and both evaluation and cognitive distortions may be relevant for understanding sexual violence.

  8. The calcium-dependent protein kinase RcCDPK2 phosphorylates sucrose synthase at Ser11 in developing castor oil seeds.

    PubMed

    Fedosejevs, Eric T; Gerdis, Suzanne A; Ying, Sheng; Pyc, Michal; Anderson, Erin M; Snedden, Wayne A; Mullen, Robert T; She, Yi-Min; Plaxton, William C

    2016-10-15

    Imported sucrose is cleaved by sucrose synthase (SUS) as a critical initial reaction in the biosynthesis of storage end-products by developing seeds. Although SUS is phosphorylated at a conserved seryl residue by an apparent CDPK (Ca(2+)-dependent protein kinase) in diverse plant tissues, the functions and mechanistic details of this process remain obscure. Thus, the native CDPK that phosphorylates RcSUS1 (Ricinus communis SUS1) at Ser(11) in developing COS (castor oil seeds) was highly purified and identified as RcCDPK2 by MS/MS. Purified RcSUS1-K (-kinase) and heterologously expressed RcCDPK2 catalyzed Ca(2+)-dependent Ser(11) phosphorylation of RcSUS1 and its corresponding dephosphopeptide, while exhibiting a high affinity for free Ca(2+) ions [K0.5(Ca(2+)) < 0.4 µM]. RcSUS1-K activity, RcCDPK2 expression, and RcSUS1 Ser(11) phosphorylation peaked during early COS development and then declined in parallel. The elimination of sucrose import via fruit excision triggered RcSUS1 dephosphorylation but did not alter RcSUS1-K activity, suggesting a link between sucrose signaling and posttranslational RcCDPK2 control. Both RcCDPK2-mCherry and RcSUS1-EYFP co-localized throughout the cytosol when transiently co-expressed in tobacco suspension cells, although RcCDPK2-mCherry was also partially localized to the nucleus. Subcellular fractionation revealed that ∼20% of RcSUS1-K activity associates with microsomal membranes in developing COS, as does RcSUS1. In contrast with RcCDPK1, which catalyzes inhibitory phosphorylation of COS bacterial-type phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase at Ser(451), RcCDPK2 exhibited broad substrate specificity, a wide pH-activity profile centered at pH 8.5, and insensitivity to metabolite effectors or thiol redox status. Our combined results indicate a possible link between cytosolic Ca(2+)-signaling and the control of photosynthate partitioning during COS development.

  9. Associations Between Sexual Behavior Norm Beliefs in Relationships and Intimate Partner Rape Judgments.

    PubMed

    Lynch, Kellie R; Jewell, Jenna A; Golding, Jonathan M; Kembel, Hannah B

    2016-05-05

    Using a community sample (n = 296), we investigated the associations between sexual behavior norm beliefs, acceptance of partner rape, judgments that non-consensual partner sex is "wrong not rape," and decisions if non-consensual partner sex should be charged as rape. Sexual behavior norm beliefs were associated both directly and indirectly with latter components in the model related to acceptance of non-consensual partner sex judgments and charging rape judgments. In addition, participant gender moderated the model, such that many of the associations between the variables were stronger for males than for females. The results have implications for understanding how individuals label rape between intimate partners.

  10. Unacknowledged Rape: The Influences of Child Sexual Abuse and Personality Traits.

    PubMed

    Wilson, Laura C; Scarpa, Angela

    2015-01-01

    Evidence supports that the majority of young women who experience sexual victimization that meets the legal definition of rape do not label their experiences as rape--this has been termed unacknowledged rape. In a sample of 77 young adult women, the odds of unacknowledged rape significantly increased as a function of less severe child sexual abuse histories and greater levels of dysfunctional personality traits. Potential explanations for these findings as well as clinical implications are discussed. Because of the potential psychological and societal consequences of unacknowledged rape, it is vital that researchers continue to examine this phenomenon.

  11. It's Her Fault: Student Acceptance of Rape Myths On Two College Campuses.

    PubMed

    Hayes, Rebecca M; Abbott, Rebecca L; Cook, Savannah

    2016-11-01

    The present study examined factors that are associated with an individual's adherence to rape myths at two colleges located in the same town. Particularly, we examined sex, race, and participants' drinking behavior in relation to rape myth acceptance. We found that males and heavy drinkers are more likely than females and non/low drinkers to adhere to rape myths. An interaction between males and drinking was also found indicating a moderated effect of gender on rape myth acceptance. In addition, the college with sexual assault programming did not experience a lowered acceptance of rape myths compared with the college with no programming.

  12. Arthropod Pest Control for UK Oilseed Rape – Comparing Insecticide Efficacies, Side Effects and Alternatives

    PubMed Central

    Breeze, Tom; Bailey, Alison; Garthwaite, David; Harrington, Richard; Potts, Simon G.

    2017-01-01

    Oilseed rape (Brassica napus) is an important combinable break crop in the UK, which is largely protected from arthropod pests by insecticidal chemicals. Despite ongoing debate regarding the use of neonicotinoids, the dominant seed treatment ingredients used for this crop, there is little publicly available data comparing the efficacy of insecticides in controlling key arthropod pests or comparing the impacts on non-target species and the wider environment. To provide an insight into these matters, a UK-wide expert survey targeting agronomists and entomologists was conducted from March to June 2015. Based on the opinions of 90 respondents, an average of 20% yield loss caused by the key arthropod pests was expected to have occurred in the absence of insecticide treatments. Relatively older chemical groups were perceived to have lower efficacy for target pests than newer ones, partly due to the development of insecticide resistance. Without neonicotinoid seed treatments, a lack of good control for cabbage stem flea beetle was perceived. Wide spectrum foliar insecticide sprays were perceived to have significantly greater negative impacts than seed treatments on users’ health, natural enemies, pollinators, soil and water, and many foliar active ingredients have had potential risks for non-target arthropod species in UK oilseed rape fields for the past 25 years. Overall, 72% of respondents opposed the neonicotinoid restriction, while 10% supported it. Opposition and support of the restriction were largely based on concerns for pollinators and the wider environment, highlighting the uncertainty over the side effects of neonicotinoid use. More people from the government and research institutes leaned towards neutrality over the issue, compared to those directly involved in growing the crop. Neonicotinoid restriction was expected to result in greater effort and expenditure on pest control and lower production (0–1 t/ha less). Alternatives for future oilseed rape

  13. Large-scale monitoring of effects of clothianidin-dressed oilseed rape seeds on pollinating insects in northern Germany: residues of clothianidin in pollen, nectar and honey.

    PubMed

    Rolke, Daniel; Persigehl, Markus; Peters, Britta; Sterk, Guido; Blenau, Wolfgang

    2016-11-01

    This study was part of a large-scale monitoring project to assess the possible effects of Elado(®) (10 g clothianidin & 2 g β-cyfluthrin/kg seed)-dressed oilseed rape seeds on different pollinators in Northern Germany. Firstly, residues of clothianidin and its active metabolites thiazolylnitroguanidine and thiazolylmethylurea were measured in nectar and pollen from Elado(®)-dressed (test site, T) and undressed (reference site, R) oilseed rape collected by honey bees confined within tunnel tents. Clothianidin and its metabolites could not be detected or quantified in samples from R fields. Clothianidin concentrations in samples from T fields were 1.3 ± 0.9 μg/kg and 1.7 ± 0.9 μg/kg in nectar and pollen, respectively. Secondly, pollen and nectar for residue analyses were sampled from free flying honey bees, bumble bees and mason bees, placed at six study locations each in the R and T sites at the start of oilseed rape flowering. Honey samples were analysed from all honey bee colonies at the end of oilseed rape flowering. Neither clothianidin nor its metabolites were detectable or quantifiable in R site samples. Clothianidin concentrations in samples from the T site were below the limit of quantification (LOQ, 1.0 µg/kg) in most pollen and nectar samples collected by bees and 1.4 ± 0.5 µg/kg in honey taken from honey bee colonies. In summary, the study provides reliable semi-field and field data of clothianidin residues in nectar and pollen collected by different bee species in oilseed rape fields under common agricultural conditions.

  14. Nitrogen Fertilizer Management for Enhancing Crop Productivity and Nitrogen Use Efficiency in a Rice-Oilseed Rape Rotation System in China

    PubMed Central

    Yousaf, Muhammad; Li, Xiaokun; Zhang, Zhi; Ren, Tao; Cong, Rihuan; Ata-Ul-Karim, Syed Tahir; Fahad, Shah; Shah, Adnan N.; Lu, Jianwei

    2016-01-01

    The use of efficient rates of nitrogen (N) fertilizer application is important with regard to increasing crop productivity and maintaining environmental sustainability. Rice-oilseed rape rotations are a mainstay of the economy and food security of China. Therefore, a field experiment was carried out during 2011–2013 in Honghu to identify the most appropriate N application rates for enhancing crop productivity and N use efficiency for rice (Oryza sativa L.)-oilseed rape (Brassica napus L.) rotations. Six N fertilizer treatments (RO1, RO2, RO3, RO4, RO5, and RO6) were laid out in a randomized complete block design with three replicates. ROx represented the N fertilizer application rates (kg ha−1) for rice and oilseed rape, respectively. Grain yields from plots receiving N fertilizer were significantly increased by 59–71% (rice) and 109–160% (oilseed rape) during the total rotation (2011–2013), as compared to RO1 (control; no application). Furthermore, a similar trend was observed for N accumulation, ranging from 88 to 125% and 134 to 200% in aerial parts of rice and oilseed rape, respectively. Nitrogen use efficiency (NUE) was significantly higher (38.5%) under RO2 and lower (34.2%) under RO6 while apparent N balance (ANB) was positively lowest under R05 (183.4 kg ha−1) followed by R02 (234.2 kg ha−1) and highest under R06 (344.5 kg ha−1) during the total rotation. The results of grain yield, NUE, and ANB indicated that the R02 rate of N application was superior. This information should help to develop a cost-effective and environment-friendly N management strategy for rice-oilseed rape rotation systems of central China. PMID:27746809

  15. Nitrogen Fertilizer Management for Enhancing Crop Productivity and Nitrogen Use Efficiency in a Rice-Oilseed Rape Rotation System in China.

    PubMed

    Yousaf, Muhammad; Li, Xiaokun; Zhang, Zhi; Ren, Tao; Cong, Rihuan; Ata-Ul-Karim, Syed Tahir; Fahad, Shah; Shah, Adnan N; Lu, Jianwei

    2016-01-01

    The use of efficient rates of nitrogen (N) fertilizer application is important with regard to increasing crop productivity and maintaining environmental sustainability. Rice-oilseed rape rotations are a mainstay of the economy and food security of China. Therefore, a field experiment was carried out during 2011-2013 in Honghu to identify the most appropriate N application rates for enhancing crop productivity and N use efficiency for rice (Oryza sativa L.)-oilseed rape (Brassica napus L.) rotations. Six N fertilizer treatments (RO1, RO2, RO3, RO4, RO5, and RO6) were laid out in a randomized complete block design with three replicates. ROx represented the N fertilizer application rates (kg ha(-1)) for rice and oilseed rape, respectively. Grain yields from plots receiving N fertilizer were significantly increased by 59-71% (rice) and 109-160% (oilseed rape) during the total rotation (2011-2013), as compared to RO1 (control; no application). Furthermore, a similar trend was observed for N accumulation, ranging from 88 to 125% and 134 to 200% in aerial parts of rice and oilseed rape, respectively. Nitrogen use efficiency (NUE) was significantly higher (38.5%) under RO2 and lower (34.2%) under RO6 while apparent N balance (ANB) was positively lowest under R05 (183.4 kg ha(-1)) followed by R02 (234.2 kg ha(-1)) and highest under R06 (344.5 kg ha(-1)) during the total rotation. The results of grain yield, NUE, and ANB indicated that the R02 rate of N application was superior. This information should help to develop a cost-effective and environment-friendly N management strategy for rice-oilseed rape rotation systems of central China.

  16. Correlates of Self-Report of Rape Among Male School Adolescents in Ile-Ife, Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Ogunfowokan, Adesola A; Olagunju, Oluwayemisi E; Olajubu, Aanuoluwapo O; Faremi, Funmilola A; Oloyede, Ajoke S; Sharps, Phyllis W

    2016-02-01

    This study examined male adolescents' self-report of rape of adolescent girls and the socio-demographic variables that correlated with self-report of rape. Descriptive-correlational design was used and the study was conducted in five public senior secondary schools in Ile-Ife, Nigeria. Three hundred and thirty-eight male adolescents participated in the study. A structured questionnaire was used to collect data. Findings from the study revealed the mean age of the adolescent males to be 16 years, with the majority (73%) of them in the middle adolescent stage. Six percent of the adolescent males reported they had raped an adolescent girl in the past. Among the boys who reported rape, 55% reported they had raped their sexual partners, and 55% reported they had perpetrated gang rape. Smoking (p = .0001), alcohol consumption (p = .001), and birth order (p = .006) predicted self-report of rape. The coefficient of birth order showed that odds of self-report of rape by first-born male increases by 6 times compared with other children. Study findings also provided evidence that adolescent males are moving from lone rape to gang rape in intimate partner relationships. Male adolescents are important group to target in rape prevention programs.

  17. Labeling Sexual Victimization Experiences: The Role of Sexism, Rape Myth Acceptance, and Tolerance for Sexual Harassment.

    PubMed

    LeMaire, Kelly L; Oswald, Debra L; Russell, Brenda L

    2016-01-01

    This study investigated whether attitudinal variables, such as benevolent and hostile sexism toward men and women, female rape myth acceptance, and tolerance of sexual harassment are related to women labeling their sexual assault experiences as rape. In a sample of 276 female college students, 71 (25.7%) reported at least one experience that met the operational definition of rape, although only 46.5% of those women labeled the experience "rape." Benevolent sexism, tolerance of sexual harassment, and rape myth acceptance, but not hostile sexism, significantly predicted labeling of previous sexual assault experiences by the victims. Specifically, those with more benevolent sexist attitudes toward both men and women, greater rape myth acceptance, and more tolerant attitudes of sexual harassment were less likely to label their past sexual assault experience as rape. The results are discussed for their clinical and theoretical implications.

  18. Incapacitated and Forcible Rape of College Women: Prevalence Across the First Year

    PubMed Central

    Carey, Kate B.; Durney, Sarah; Shepardson, Robyn L.; Carey, Michael P.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose To document the point and cumulative prevalence of incapacitated and forcible rape among first-year college women. Methods Female students (N = 483) completed a health questionnaire: (a) upon arrival on campus, (b) at the end of the fall semester, (c) at the end of the spring semester, and (d) at the end of the summer following their first year of college. Results Before entering college, 18% reported incapacitated rape (attempted and/or completed), and 15% reported forcible rape (attempted and/or completed). During the first year of college, 15% reported incapacitated rape (attempted or completed) and 9% reported forcible rape (attempted or completed). By the start of the second year (lifetime prevalence), 26% and 22% had experienced incapacitated and forcible rape (attempted or completed), respectively. Conclusions Both incapacitated and forcible sexual assaults and rape have reached epidemic levels among college women. Interventions to address sexual violence on campus are urgently needed. PMID:26003585

  19. Understanding men's perceptions of risks and rewards in a date rape scenario.

    PubMed

    Bouffard, Leana A; Bouffard, Jeffrey A

    2011-06-01

    Existing research on date rape has identified important correlations between rape-supportive attitudes and sexual aggression. What remains unclear is the mechanism by which these attitudes are translated into sexually aggressive behavior. This study borrows from a rational choice framework to explore the relationship between attitudes, perceptions of the risks and rewards of engaging in date rape, and self-reported hypothetical aggression in a date rape scenario. Results suggest that rape-supportive attitudes are related to particular patterns of identified risks and rewards of date rape as well as to the self-reported likelihood of engaging in date rape behavior. This supports a perspective that certain attitude structures may alter the risks and rewards that potential offenders consider in deciding whether or not to engage in sexual aggression. Implications for future research and prevention programs are discussed.

  20. There are no "innocent victims": the influence of just world beliefs and prior victimization on rape myth acceptance.

    PubMed

    Vonderhaar, Rebecca L; Carmody, Dianne Cyr

    2015-06-01

    Utilizing data from an online survey of 979 university students, this study explores the relationship between prior sexual assault victimization experiences, belief in a just world, and acceptance of rape myths. Results indicated that men, younger respondents, and those with less education were more likely to support rape myths. Support for just world beliefs and rape myths were also positively associated, while rape victims exhibited less support for rape myths than non-victims. Implications for future studies are discussed.

  1. The right to protection from sexual assault: the Indian anti-rape campaign.

    PubMed

    Gangoli, G

    1996-11-01

    This article reveals a viewpoint that emphasizes some dilemmas among Indian feminist practice, women's sexuality in legal terms, and case law in India. The Indian Women's Movement (IWM) was successful in 1983 in adding a legal amendment on rape and child abuse. The case that mobilized women to change the law occurred in 1980 when a court acquitted two policemen who were charged with raping and molesting a 16-year-old tribal girl. The Bombay High Court overturned the judgement and convicted both policemen. The case was appealed, and the policemen successfully argued that rape did not occur because the girl did not protest and was sexually experienced anyway. In 1980 the Forum Against Rape was formed to mobilize public support and to lobby the State for reform of the law on rape. The campaign focused on custodial rape and political repression, rape as civil rights issue, and rape as a women's issue. There was a distancing between the victim, who occupied a lower caste and class position, and her defenders in the women's groups. The campaign appealed to both the appropriate judgement of the State and the denial that the State was an effective vehicle for change. The campaign did not directly address incest and marital rape or domestic violence within families. The legislature debated the issue of legal change during 1982. The debate revealed deep divisions about sexuality and women's status. It was argued that chaste women were not rape victims, and unchaste women were of a socially inferior caste and class. It was argued that there should be a ban on child marriage rather than spousal rape laws. Child rape is a legal issue only when the perpetrator is outside the family. Rape was discussed as an act of lust and not violence. In 1992, a woman promoting an end to child marriage was raped and the men were acquitted. It was argued that the law was out-of-date and in need of revision.

  2. Pornography, Sexual Callousness, and the Trivialization of Rape.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zillmann, Dolf; Bryant, Jennings

    1982-01-01

    Explored the consequences of continued exposure to pornography on beliefs about sexuality in general and on dispositions toward women in particular. Found that massive exposure to pornography resulted in a loss of compassion toward women as rape victims and toward women in general. (PD)

  3. Detecting ketamine in beverage residues: Application in date rape detection.

    PubMed

    Albright, Jessica A; Stevens, Sarah A; Beussman, Douglas J

    2012-05-01

    Ketamine can be used to facilitate date-rape when unknowingly spiked into a victim's beverage. If a biological sample is not available from the victim, the beverage container might be the only remaining source of forensic evidence. We present a rapid, simple analysis method for the detection of ketamine in wet or dry beverage residues based on liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS). Wet residues consist of the final few drops (<1 ml) in a container while dry residues are the remains once all liquid has evaporated. By using LC-MS, which readily handles aqueous samples, often no derivatization or sample extraction is needed, thus reducing analysis time and lab technician involvement. Tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS) provides an enhancement in both selectivity and sensitivity. We have studied a range of beverages and determined limits of detection between 1.2 × 10-3 and 1.3 × 10-4 mg/ml, compared to 0.21-0.85 mg/ml used in most date-rape scenarios. This paper represents the first published report of using LC-MS/MS for the analysis of beverage residues for the presence of a date-rape drug. This method could replace the current gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) methods and provide a faster, more selective method for the analysis of date-rape drugs, requiring virtually no sample preparation.

  4. Date Rape: Hidden Epidemic Makes Campuses Unsafe for Women.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Brien, Eileen M.

    1989-01-01

    Date and acquaintance rape may be more prevalent on college campuses than in other environments, and colleges are struggling to confront the issue. Sexism and racism contribute to underreporting of and misconceptions about sexual abuse in college settings. Policies, programs, and procedures for combating sexual assaults on campus are recommended.…

  5. Reports of Rape Reperpetration by Newly Enlisted Male Navy Personnel

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-01-01

    devastating personal and adverse societal impact of sexual violence , sexual assault, including attempted and completed rape, remains the most under...changing attitudes and beliefs that directly and indirectly support sexual violence , encouraging a reduction in alcohol consumption, teaching...designed to teach bystanders or witnesses of sexual violence how to intervene before or during an incident, ways to counter social norms that support

  6. Rape Myth Acceptance in College Students: A Literature Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Iconis, Rosemary

    2008-01-01

    Sexual violence is a common phenomenon in the United States. College women appear to be at an even higher risk than those in the general population. Though there is much we still do not know about the causes of sexual violence, the acceptance of rape myths has been associated with the perpetration of sexual assaults.

  7. [Medicolegal considerations about rape as a reason to decriminalize abortion].

    PubMed

    González-Wilhelm, Leonardo; Moreno, Leonardo; Carnevali, Raúl

    2016-06-01

    The Chilean senate is discussing a proposal to decriminalize abortion in 3 causals. One of these is when the pregnancy occurs as a result of a rape. To be legally able to perform the abortion in this circumstance, a health care team must confirm the occurrence of the facts constituting the offence. Regardless of the patient’s will, the accusation will be reported to the justice. In our view, in its current status the proposed rule does not consider certain medicolegal and procedural topics. Those flaws may determine in certain scenarios critical problems, such as: a) a wrongful conviction as a consequence of a false allegation of rape; (b) some pregnant due to a rape will not have access to the abortion procedure; (c) some accusations of rape will not be accredited nor criminally sanctioned. Employing a fictional case, we illustrate how those scenarios can actually be seen in practice. We also emphasize the difficulties and limitations that the health care team will encounter if the project is approved under the current conditions. Finally, we encourage the professional societies implicated in the theme to contribute in the legislatorial debate. Therefore, we give a set of proposals aimed to improve the bill before it may be enacted as a law.

  8. Forcible Rape: A Literature Review and Annotated Bibliography.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chappell, Duncan; Fogarty, Faith

    This selective, annotated bibliography provides guidance to the source and content of a small proportion of the existing publicity about rape, Non-English-language publications, as well as those receiving only limited distribution, are excluded. All materials are recent, most having been published during the 1970's. Outdated materials, such as…

  9. Uses of Erotica and Acceptance of Rape Myths.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Perse, Elizabeth M.

    1994-01-01

    Explores two models of the effects of sexually explicit materials on college students. Considers the connection between reasons for using sexually explicit materials and beliefs in gender-role stereotypes and acceptance of date-rape myths. Identifies four motives for college students using erotica and connects these reasons to stereotypes. (HB)

  10. Why Rape Survivors Participate in the Criminal Justice System

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Patterson, Debra; Campbell, Rebecca

    2010-01-01

    After a rape, survivors may seek help from multiple community organizations including the criminal justice system (CJS). Research has found that few survivors report their assaults to the police and of those who do report, many withdraw their participation during the investigation. However, relatively little is known about the factors that lead…

  11. Perception of Rape Victims: The Impact of Evidentiary Reform.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Borgida, Eugene; And Others

    A simulated jury deliberation with experienced and inexperienced jurors sampled from the jury population of Hennepin County, Minnesota, was investigated. The purpose was to assess the impact of recent reforms in evidentiary rules pertaining to the admissibility of prior sexual history evidence in rape trials. Specific questions included: (1)…

  12. Alcohol-Involved Rapes: Are They More Violent?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abbey, Antonia; Clinton, A. Monique; McAuslan, Pam; Zawacki, Tina; Buck, Philip O.

    2002-01-01

    Alcohol's psychological, cognitive, and motor effects contribute to rape. Based on theory and past research, we hypothesized that there would be a curvilinear relationship between the quantity of alcohol consumed by perpetrators and how aggressively they behaved. Moderate levels of intoxication encourage aggressiveness; however, extreme levels…

  13. Rape and Older Women: A Guide to Prevention and Protection.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davis, Linda J.; Brody, Elaine M.

    Due to rising violent crime rates, crime and fear of victimization have joined health, income and housing as major concerns of older Americans. This guide proposes solutions which reflect the best available information. The three main sections focus on rape of women over 50, its prevention, and education programs and training aids. The guidelines…

  14. Perceptions Matter: Case Studies of Policing Statutory Rape

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kandakai, Tina L.; Ding, Kele; Broomfield, Tyree S.; Iverson, Susan V.

    2013-01-01

    The legal parameters regarding adult-child sexual intimacy varies across states. In many states, rules regarding the definition of "child" and age-of-consent laws seem to perpetuate lax and ambivalent responses to adult- child sex. To explore the criminal response to adult-child sex, particularly statutory rape, seven active male and…

  15. Perceptions of control and long-term recovery from rape.

    PubMed

    Regehr, C; Cadell, S; Jansen, K

    1999-01-01

    The relationship between perceptions of control and symptoms of both long-term depression and post-traumatic stress was examined. Enduring beliefs of personal competence and control were found to be associated with lower rates of depression and stress and to be stronger predictors of long-term recovery than were rape-specific attributions. Implications for clinical practice are discussed.

  16. Factors Related to Intentions to Report a Rape.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Feldman-Summers, Shirley; Ashworth, Clark D.

    1981-01-01

    Discusses a study conducted among Asian, Black, Hispanic, and White women to: (1) identify the factors related to intention to report/not report a rape to various people; and (2) ascertain the usefulness of Fishbein's model of behavioral intentions, which consists of "perceived outcomes" and "perceived expectations" components,…

  17. Specifics of soil temperature under winter oilseed rape canopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krčmářová, Jana; Středa, Tomáš; Pokorný, Radovan

    2014-09-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the course of soil temperature under the winter oilseed rape canopy and to determine relationships between soil temperature, air temperature and partly soil moisture. In addition, the aim was to describe the dependence by means of regression equations usable for pests and pathogens prediction, crop development, and yields models. The measurement of soil and near the ground air temperatures was performed at the experimental field Žabiče (South Moravia, the Czech Republic). The course of temperature was determined under or in the winter oilseed rape canopy during spring growth season in the course of four years (2010 - 2012 and 2014). In all years, the standard varieties (Petrol, Sherpa) were grown, in 2014 the semi-dwarf variety PX104 was added. Automatic soil sensors were positioned at three depths (0.05, 0.10 and 0.20 m) under soil surface, air temperature sensors in 0.05 m above soil surfaces. The course of soil temperature differs significantly between standard (Sherpa and Petrol) and semi-dwarf (PX104) varieties. Results of the cross correlation analysis showed, that the best interrelationships between air and soil temperature were achieved in 2 hours delay for the soil temperature in 0.05 m, 4 hour delay for 0.10 m and 7 hour delay for 0.20 m for standard varieties. For semi-dwarf variety, this delay reached 6 hour for the soil temperature in 0.05 m, 7 hour delay for 0.10 m and 11 hour for 0.20 m. After the time correction, the determination coefficient (R2) reached values from 0.67 to 0.95 for 0.05 m, 0.50 to 0.84 for 0.10 m in variety Sherpa during all experimental years. For variety PX104 this coefficient reached values from 0.51 to 0.72 in 0.05 m depth and from 0.39 to 0.67 in 0.10 m depth in the year 2014. The determination coefficient in the 0.20 m depth was lower for both varieties; its values were from 0.15 to 0.65 in variety Sherpa. In variety PX104 the values of R2 from 0.23 to 0.57 were determined. When using

  18. Rape against Brazilian Women: Characteristics of Victims and Sex Offenders

    PubMed Central

    SOUTO, Rafaella Q.; ARAÚJO, Francisco K. C. D.; XAVIER, Alidianne F. C.; CAVALCANTI, Alessandro L.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Violence against women is a serious social problem and affects mainly young women. This study aimed to evaluate sexual violence against women in Campina Grande, Brazil. Methods: A retrospective study with analysis of 886 forensic medical reports of sexual violence from the Institute of Legal Medicine of Campina Grande, Brazil, was conducted between January 2005 and December 2009. Sociodemographic variables related to victims, offenders and aggressions were analyzed. Significance level of 5% was adopted. Results: Two hundred and ninety-one cases of rape (32.8%) were confirmed, the majority of victims aged between 0 and 19 years (89.9%), were single (98.8%) and had low educational level (86.9%), with association with marital status (P = 0.02). The sex offender was known to the victim in 84.2% of cases and in 93.8% of cases, he acted alone. There was an association between rape and the relationship with the offenders (P = 0.01) and the age of the offenders (P = 0.03). The rape occurred in most cases at the home of victims (49.3%), with the use of violence in 72.3% of cases, but only 5.7% of the victims exhibited physical injuries. There was an association between rape and variables date of occurrence (P = 0.001), previous virginity (P = 0.001) and violence during practice (P = 0.001). Conclusion: Over one third of women were victims of rape, predominantly adolescents, unmarried and with low educational level. The offenders were known to the victims, and acted alone in most situations, making use of physical violence. PMID:26811812

  19. Algerian abortion controversy highlights rape of war victims.

    PubMed

    Chelala, C

    1998-05-09

    This brief article highlights the change in Islamic practices to allow abortion for women raped during war situations in Algeria. The Islamic Supreme Council on April 12, 1998, issued an edict (fatwa) that allowed abortions for women attacked by Islamic extremists. This changes the prior prohibition of abortion, except in cases where the mother's life is in danger. The day after the edict, the newspapers Le Matin and La Tribune denied the existence of the edict, because the President's council did not request the change in Islamic law. The newspaper Al Khabar published the April 12, 1998, news of the edict and drew attention to the fate of over 1000 women and young girls raped during attacks. An estimated 70,000 people have been reported killed since 1992. The war was precipitated when the army nullified national elections that would have given the Islamic party political power. The Algerian Family Solidarity Ministry reports that as many as 1600 women, mostly aged 13-20 years, have been abducted and raped since 1994, by bands from the Armed Islamic Group. Figures are considered underestimates. Many women were able to escape from captors, but many of these women were pregnant. The stigma is so strong that many of these women will not be accepted home by their own families. In addition to those women who survived being raped, an estimated 2000 raped women were killed by their captors. The abductions have declined, but are still ongoing, especially around Algiers and near the Moroccan and Tunisian borders. The terrorists consider the act a "temporary marriage." Amnesty International and others have criticized the recent UN Human Rights Commission for not taking action in Algeria.

  20. Misogyny, Acculturation, and Ethnic Identity: Relation to Rape-Supportive Attitudes in Asian American College Men

    PubMed Central

    Koo, Kelly H.; Stephens, Kari A.; Lindgren, Kristen P.; George, William H.

    2013-01-01

    Asian Americans have been understudied with respect to sexuality and rape and its contributory factors. Some attitudinal research has shown that Asian American college males tend to hold more rape-supportive beliefs than their White counterparts. Generally, this research treats ethnicity as a proxy for culture rather than examining specific facets of culture per se. The current study incorporated measures of misogynistic beliefs, acculturation, and ethnic identity to investigate these ethnic differences in rape-supportive attitudes. White (n = 222) and Asian American (n = 155) college men read an acquaintance rape vignette and evaluated it on four judgments: how much they blamed the perpetrator and the victim, how credible they viewed the victim’s refusal, and to what degree they defined the event as rape. Consistent with previous research, Asian American men made more rape-supportive judgments than Whites. This relationship was partially mediated by misogynistic beliefs for all judgments except the extent to which they defined the vignette as rape. Among Asian Americans, acculturation was negatively associated with all four rape vignette judgments above and beyond generational status, and ethnic identity was positively associated with two of the four judgments above and beyond acculturation and generational status. These findings suggest that cultural constructs are relevant to understanding rape-supportive attitudes among Asian American men, and may be useful for promoting culturally enhanced theoretical models of rape and sexual assault prevention efforts, as well as a deeper understanding of cultural influences on sexuality. PMID:21290256

  1. Misogyny, acculturation, and ethnic identity: relation to rape-supportive attitudes in Asian American college men.

    PubMed

    Koo, Kelly H; Stephens, Kari A; Lindgren, Kristen P; George, William H

    2012-08-01

    Asian Americans have been understudied with respect to sexuality and rape and its contributory factors. Some attitudinal research has shown that Asian American college males tend to hold more rape-supportive beliefs than their White counterparts. Generally, this research treats ethnicity as a proxy for culture rather than examining specific facets of culture per se. The current study incorporated measures of misogynistic beliefs, acculturation, and ethnic identity to investigate these ethnic differences in rape-supportive attitudes. White (n = 222) and Asian American (n = 155) college men read an acquaintance rape vignette and evaluated it on four judgments: how much they blamed the perpetrator and the victim, how credible they viewed the victim's refusal, and to what degree they defined the event as rape. Consistent with previous research, Asian American men made more rape-supportive judgments than Whites. This relationship was partially mediated by misogynistic beliefs for all judgments except the extent to which they defined the vignette as rape. Among Asian Americans, acculturation was negatively associated with all four rape vignette judgments above and beyond generational status, and ethnic identity was positively associated with two of the four judgments above and beyond acculturation and generational status. These findings suggest that cultural constructs are relevant to understanding rape-supportive attitudes among Asian American men, and may be useful for promoting culturally enhanced theoretical models of rape and sexual assault prevention efforts, as well as a deeper understanding of cultural influences on sexuality.

  2. Stop blaming the victim: a meta-analysis on rape myths.

    PubMed

    Suarez, Eliana; Gadalla, Tahany M

    2010-11-01

    Although male rape is being reported more often than before, the majority of rape victims continue to be women. Rape myths-false beliefs used mainly to shift the blame of rape from perpetrators to victims-are also prevalent in today's society and in many ways contribute toward the pervasiveness of rape. Despite this, there has been limited consideration as to how rape prevention programs and policies can address this phenomenon, and there is no updated information on the demographic, attitudinal, or behavioral factors currently associated with rape myths. This research aimed to address this gap by examining the correlates of rape-myths acceptance (RMA) in published studies. A total of 37 studies were reviewed, and their results were combined using meta-analytic techniques. Overall, the findings indicated that men displayed a significantly higher endorsement of RMA than women. RMA was also strongly associated with hostile attitudes and behaviors toward women, thus supporting feminist premise that sexism perpetuates RMA. RMA was also found to be correlated with other "isms," such as racism, heterosexism, classism, and ageism. These findings suggest that rape prevention programs and policies must be broadened to incorporate strategies that also address other oppressive beliefs concurrent with RMA. Indeed, a renewed awareness of how RMA shapes societal perceptions of rape victims, including perceptions of service providers, could also reduce victims' re-victimization and enhance their coping mechanisms.

  3. Supplementation of herbal plants differently modulated metabolic profile, insulin sensitivity, and oxidative stress in transition dairy cows fed various extruded oil seeds.

    PubMed

    Hashemzadeh-Cigari, F; Ghorbani, G R; Khorvash, M; Riasi, A; Taghizadeh, A; Zebeli, Q

    2015-01-01

    The study investigated the effects of a mixture of herbal plants (HM) and two sources of unsaturated fatty acids (FA), extruded linseed (LS) and soybean (SB), on metabolic profile, insulin sensitivity, and oxidative status of transition dairy cows. Thirty-two prepartum Holstein cows, blocked by parity and calving day, were randomly assigned to 1 of 4 treatments, in a 2×2 factorial design, starting from 25 days before the expected calving date to 26 days postpartum. The supplementation rates of HM were 150 and 170 g/animal/day at pre- and postpartum, respectively. Blood samples were analyzed for metabolites on day 7.15±1.70 prepartum and on days 1 and 21 postpartum. An intravenous glucose tolerance test (IV-GTT) was conducted on day 25 postpartum. Data showed that cows supplemented with HM had lower serum concentration of NEFA (0.395 vs. 0.602±0.044 mmol/L; P<0.01) and NEFA to insulin ratio (P<0.01) postpartum. Compared to animals fed SB-based diets, cows fed the LS-based diet had greater serum glucose concentration during prepartum (80.7 vs. 71.3±3.32 mg/dL; P=0.06) and postpartum period (86.3 vs. 73.5±3.35 mg/dL; P=0.01), as well as lower NEFA (0.425 vs. 0.572±0.044 mmol/L; P=0.03) and insulin to glucose ratio (P<0.01) postpartum. Revised quantitative insulin-sensitivity check index revealed that supplementing HM in LS-based diet improved insulin sensitivity (0.45 vs. 0.41±0.013; P=0.03) prepartum, whereas after parturition, the HM addition was effective for both oil seeds (0.40 vs. 0.37±0.008; P=0.06) in enhancing insulin sensitivity. Result of IV-GTT indicated that cows fed LS-based diets had higher basal glucose concentration (63.7 vs. 55.7±2.37; mg/dL; P=0.02) and lower glucose area under the curve (995.8 vs. 1529.5±100.7; mg/dL×45 min; P<0.01). Supplementing HM resulted in greater total antioxidant capacity prepartum (0.55 vs. 0.48±0.017 nmol/L; P=0.01) and lower malondialdehyde concentration at prepartum (1.03 vs. 1.96±0.140 μmol/L; P<0.01) and

  4. Thiamethoxam: Assessing flight activity of honeybees foraging on treated oilseed rape using radio frequency identification technology.

    PubMed

    Thompson, Helen; Coulson, Mike; Ruddle, Natalie; Wilkins, Selwyn; Harkin, Sarah

    2016-02-01

    The present study was designed to assess homing behavior of bees foraging on winter oilseed rape grown from seed treated with thiamethoxam (as Cruiser OSR), with 1 field drilled with thiamethoxam-treated seed and 2 control fields drilled with fungicide-only-treated seed. Twelve honeybee colonies were used per treatment group, 4 each located at the field edge (on-field site), at approximately 500 m and 1000 m from the field. A total of nearly 300 newly emerged bees per colony were fitted (tagged) with Mic3 radio frequency identification (RFID) transponders and introduced into each of the 36 study hives. The RFID readers fitted to the entrances of the test colonies were used to monitor the activity of the tagged bees for the duration of the 5-wk flowering period of the crop. These activity data were analyzed to assess any impact on flight activity of bees foraging on the treated compared with untreated crops. Honeybees were seen to be actively foraging within all 3 treatment groups during the exposure period. The data for the more than 3000 RFID-tagged bees and more than 90 000 foraging flights monitored throughout the exposure phase for the study follow the same trends across the treatment and controls and at each of the 3 apiary distances, indicating that there were no effects from foraging on the treated crop. Under the experimental conditions, there was no effect of foraging on thiamethoxam-treated oilseed rape on honeybee flight activity or on their ability to return to the hive.

  5. Screening for pesticide residues in oil seeds using solid-phase dispersion extraction and comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography time-of-flight mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xiupin; Li, Peiwu; Zhang, Wen; Zhang, Qi; Ma, Fei; Yu, Li; Wang, Lin

    2012-07-01

    In this paper, we describe the development of an oil-absorbing matrix solid-phase dispersion extraction with comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography time-of-flight mass spectrometry suitable for screening of 68 pesticide residues (PRs) in peanut, soybean, rape seed, sesame, and sunflower seed. The 68 PRs include 27 kinds of organophosphorus, 23 organic chlorines, 11 synthetic pyrethroids, and 7 carbamates. Heptachlor epoxide was used as the internal standard. Aminopropyl silica was chosen as the dispersion sorbent of the oil-absorbing matrix solid-phase dispersion extraction and was applied to capture hydrophobic components from high oil samples. A 35-min orthogonal separation was performed by using comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography time-of-flight mass spectrometry with a nonpolar-polar column set. Identification of 68 PRs in the extract was finished by using the time-of-flight mass spectrometry in the assistance of an automated peak-find and spectral deconvolution software. A screening based on control design was introduced and explained. This screening method considerably reduced the cost for the quantitative and confirmatory analyses. The quality of present screening method was evaluated by the Document No. SANCO/10684/2009. The false positive rate and false negative rate provide a useful tool for the evaluation of screening performance.

  6. An empirical study of rape in the context of multiple murder.

    PubMed

    DeLisi, Matt

    2014-03-01

    In recent years, multiple homicide offending has received increased research attention from criminologists; however, there is mixed evidence about the role of rape toward the perpetration of multiple murder. Drawing on criminal career data from a nonprobability sample of 618 confined male homicide offenders selected from eight U.S. states, the current study examines the role of rape as a predictor of multiple homicide offending. Bivariate analyses indicated a significant association between rape and murder charges. Multivariate path regression models indicated that rape had a significant and robust association with multiple murder. This relationship withstood the confounding effects of kidnapping, prior prison confinement, and prior murder, rape, and kidnapping. These results provide evidence that rape potentially serves as a gateway to multiple murder for some serious offenders. Suggestions for future research are proffered.

  7. Battles on women's bodies: war, rape and traumatisation in eastern Democratic Republic of Congo.

    PubMed

    Trenholm, J E; Olsson, P; Ahlberg, B M

    2011-01-01

    Rape has been used as a weapon in the conflict in eastern Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC) in unprecedented ways. Research into the phenomenon of war-rape is limited, particularly in this context. The aim of this study was to explore perceptions of local leaders in eastern DRC concerning rape and raped women in the war context. Local leaders were chosen for their ability to both reflect and influence their constituencies. Interviews were conducted with 10 local leaders and transcripts subjected to qualitative content analysis. The study suggests that mass raping and the methods of perpetration created a chaos effectively destroying communities and the entire society and that humanitarian aid was often inappropriate. Furthermore, an exclusive focus on raped women missed the extent of traumatisation entire communities suffered. More significantly, the lack of political will, corruption, greed and inappropriate aid creates a tangled web serving to intensify the war. This complexity has implications for humanitarian interventions including public health.

  8. Gender equality and women's absolute status: a test of the feminist models of rape.

    PubMed

    Martin, Kimberly; Vieraitis, Lynne M; Britto, Sarah

    2006-04-01

    Feminist theory predicts both a positive and negative relationship between gender equality and rape rates. Although liberal and radical feminist theory predicts that gender equality should ameliorate rape victimization, radical feminist theorists have argued that gender equality may increase rape in the form of male backlash. Alternatively, Marxist criminologists focus on women's absolute socioeconomic status rather than gender equality as a predictor of rape rates, whereas socialist feminists combine both radical and Marxist perspectives. This study uses factor analysis to overcome multicollinearity limitations of past studies while exploring the relationship between women's absolute and relative socioeconomic status on rape rates in major U.S. cities using 2000 census data. The findings indicate support for both the Marxist and radical feminist explanations of rape but no support for the ameliorative hypothesis. These findings support a more inclusive socialist feminist theory that takes both Marxist and radical feminist hypotheses into account.

  9. "I Know It When I See It": Recent Victimization and Perceptions of Rape.

    PubMed

    Haugen, Andrea D; Salter, Phia; Phillips, Nia L

    2016-08-19

    This study examined various individual differences that influence perceptions of sexual assault (SA), specifically focusing on participants' self-reported recent experiences of rape or sexual coercion. Female college students (N = 214) read 16 short SA encounter vignettes, indicated whether what they read constituted rape, and completed individual difference measures. Results indicated that participants who confirmed a recent history of SA endorsed rape myths to a greater degree, held more adversarial sexual beliefs, reported higher levels of sociosexuality, and were less likely to construct the SA encounters as rape when compared with women who do not report recent SA or coercion. Further analyses showed that these variables interacted to predict rape perception in ambiguous SA vignettes, as identified by the participants. These findings illuminate some of the impacts of SA and coercion on women and provide suggestions for future research to further examine the relationship between recent assault history and perceptions of rape.

  10. Rape myth acceptance in men who completed the prostitution offender program of British Columbia.

    PubMed

    Klein, Carolin; Kennedy, M Alexis; Gorzalka, Boris B

    2009-06-01

    In an effort to characterize the attitudes and characteristics of men who solicit sex, this study investigated rape myth acceptance as assessed by a modification of Burt's Rape Myth Acceptance Scale. The participants were all men who took part in the Prostitution Offender Program of British Columbia after being arrested for attempting to solicit sex from an undercover police officer. Relationships between endorsement of rape myths, other attitudes, sexual behavior, and demographic variables were examined. Results reveal that age, education, use of pornography, ideal frequency of intercourse, and believing that purchasing sex is a problem are all negatively correlated with rape myth acceptance. Positive correlations were found between rape myth acceptance and sexual conservatism, sexual violence/coercion, and social desirability. Results are discussed in terms of the association between rape myth acceptance and the violence frequently perpetrated against those working in the sex trade.

  11. Reading Playboy for the articles: the graying of rape myths in black and white text, 1953 to 2003.

    PubMed

    Kettrey, Heather Hensman

    2013-08-01

    This longitudinal investigation analyzes the manner in which rape myths are conveyed through textual material published in Playboy. Results indicate that Playboy (a) portrays rape as a gender-neutral issue, ignoring patriarchal roots of sexual violence against women, and (b) promulgates ambiguous discourse, which is equally likely to endorse and refute rape myths. Interestingly, readers' contributions are most often the source of refutations of rape myths. Overall, findings suggest that little progress has been made over time in deconstructing rape myths promulgated to men, as this particular men's publication has consistently painted a gray picture in which refutations have remained unsuccessful in disempowering rape myths.

  12. The role of male sexual arousal in rape: six models.

    PubMed

    Barbaree, H E; Marshall, W L

    1991-10-01

    This article examines men's sexual arousal to rape cues and its possible role in sexual assault. The article presents six different models that have been described in the literature to account for men's sexual arousal to descriptions of rape. The models are divided into two broad categories, response control models and stimulus control models, and are further divided into models postulating a "trait" that might distinguish rapists from other men and those postulating a "state" that might be present in men while they commit a sexual assault. A number of the models are supported by empirical data, and some of these data are reviewed. The article suggests that different models may be operating in different men when they commit sexual assault. These models are discussed in relation to the current literature on the classification and diagnosis of sexual offenders.

  13. A History of Rape in American Society Prior to 1900.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crossman, Leslie

    By tracing the concept of rape as it has been defined by man in the earliest laws, it is evident that the criminal act was viewed with horror, and the deadly punishments that were seen fit to apply had little to do with an actual act of sexual violence that a woman might sustain. The past records indicate a gradual decrease in the prosecution rate…

  14. Unexpected changes in urinary catecholamines and vanillylmandelic acid following rape assault.

    PubMed

    Ende, N; Gertner, S B; Socha, B

    1990-03-01

    Although psychological changes are recognized to occur in rape assault survivors there is no information on the biochemical changes in these victims. This study compares urinary catecholamines and metabolites in 17 rape victims to two female control groups (one of which engaged in normal sexual intercourse and the other did not). We found, in the rape victims, unexpected changes in the excretion pattern of catecholamines and metabolites as compared to the various control groups. The most significant difference was the dramatic increase in urinary conjugated dopamine (P less than 0.01) in the rape victims which remained elevated for over 24 hr. Urinary vanillylmandelic acid (VMA) rose significantly in rape assault victims when compared to the normal control group. The VMA levels in rape victims were significantly lower, however, than in the women who had undergone (normal) sexual intercourse (P less than 0.01). Urinary free epinephrine showed a marked decline and remained depressed for over 24 hr in the rape assault victims (P less than 0.01) compared to normal controls. Some possible reasons for these patterns in catecholamines and metabolite excretion are suggested. These changes may be of importance in the poststress syndrome that occurs following the rape assault. In summary, a different profile of catecholamine and metabolite excretion patterns was found in rape compared to normal sexual intercourse. The enhanced dopamine excretion is contrary to the expected change of enhanced epinephrine secretion in severe stress.

  15. The mental health focus in rape crisis services: tensions and recommendations.

    PubMed

    Woody, Jane D; Beldin, Kerry L

    2012-01-01

    In the evolution of rape crisis services, tensions persist between rape crisis service programs and mental health professionals. Changes within these programs and professions have brought the embedded concerns to the surface, but they remain unexamined and unresolved. Recent research on rape trauma and survivors' mental health needs has added to tensions by calling for description and evaluation of rape crisis services and timely psychological treatment for survivors. This article offers a new perspective by discussing the tensions in an open but balanced way so as to promote discussion and solutions. Recommendations and action steps are offered for promoting constructive dialogue and change to improve direct services for survivors.

  16. Using a non-invasive technique in nutrition: synchrotron radiation infrared microspectroscopy spectroscopic characterization of oil seeds treated with different processing conditions on molecular spectral factors influencing nutrient delivery.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xuewei; Yu, Peiqiang

    2014-07-02

    Non-invasive techniques are a key to study nutrition and structure interaction. Fourier transform infrared microspectroscopy coupled with a synchrotron radiation source (SR-IMS) is a rapid, non-invasive, and non-destructive bioanalytical technique. To understand internal structure changes in relation to nutrient availability in oil seed processing is vital to find optimal processing conditions. The objective of this study was to use a synchrotron-based bioanalytical technique SR-IMS as a non-invasive and non-destructive tool to study the effects of heat-processing methods and oil seed canola type on modeled protein structure based on spectral data within intact tissue that were randomly selected and quantify the relationship between the modeled protein structure and protein nutrient supply to ruminants. The results showed that the moisture heat-related processing significantly changed (p<0.05) modeled protein structures compared to the raw canola (control) and those processing by dry heating. The moisture heating increased (p<0.05) spectral intensities of amide I, amide II, α-helices, and β-sheets but decreased (p<0.05) the ratio of modeled α-helices to β-sheet spectral intensity. There was no difference (p>0.05) in the protein spectral profile between the raw and dry-heated canola tissue and between yellow- and brown-type canola tissue. The results indicated that different heat processing methods have different impacts on the protein inherent structure. The protein intrinsic structure in canola seed tissue was more sensitive and more response to the moisture heating in comparison to the dry heating. These changes are expected to be related to the nutritive value. However, the current study is based on limited samples, and more large-scale studies are needed to confirm our findings.

  17. Rape revisited: sexual violence against women in the former Yugoslavia.

    PubMed

    Valentich, M

    1994-01-01

    This article presents information on the rape of women in the former Yugoslavia, focusing more on Muslim women in Bosnia-Herzegovina, and examines the evolutionary, sociological, psychological, and feminist theories of this form of sexual violence. Using a case study approach, through documentation from newspapers and other media accounts, this paper investigated the sexual violence that featured strongly in the campaign of ethnic cleansing or genocide of Muslims in Bosnia-Herzegovina. It was noted that the variables of power, sex, and aggression in the context of war seem to be linked. This is particularly evident when authority legitimates sexual aggression. Without the backing of authority, some rape is expected, but not of such proportion or brutality. In terms of the theories, the evolutionary perspective appears to have limited applicability in explaining rape as an act of war. However, the feminist and macrosociological multivariate theories that focus on heterogeneity of the population, a cultural foundation of very traditional gender roles, and a historical tradition that legitimates sexual violence by armies in war-time, provide more persuasive insights.

  18. Transesterification process to manufacture ethyl ester of rape oil

    SciTech Connect

    Korus, R.A.; Hoffman, D.S.; Bam, N.; Peterson, C.L.; Drown, D.C.

    1993-12-31

    A process for the production of the ethyl ester of winter rape [EEWR] for use as a biodiesel fuel has been studied. The essential part of the process is the transesterification of rape oil with ethanol, in the presence of a catalyst, to yield the ethyl ester of rape oil as a product and glycerin as a by-product. Experiments have been performed to determine the optimum conditions for the preparation of EEWR. The process variables were: (1) temperature, (2) catalyst, (3) rate of agitation, (4) water content of the alcohol used, and (5) the amount of excess alcohol used. The optimum conditions were: (1) room temperature, (2) 0.5% sodium methoxide or 1% potassium hydroxide catalyst by weight of rapeseed oil, (3) extremely vigorous agitation with some splashing during the initial phase of the reaction and agitation was not necessary after the reaction mixture became homogeneous, (4) absolute ethanol was necessary for high conversion, and (5) 50% excess ethanol with NaOCH{sub 3} or 100% excess with KOH gave a maximum conversion. Viscosity, cloud point and pour point of the EEWR were measured. A preliminary break-even cost for the commercial production of EEWR was found to be $0.55/liter [$2.08/US gallon].

  19. Don't tell: Military culture and male rape.

    PubMed

    O'Brien, Carol; Keith, Jessica; Shoemaker, Lisa

    2015-11-01

    The issue of sexual assault that occurs during military service has been a focus of attention over the past several years. Although approximately 50% of survivors of military sexual assault are men, virtually all of the literature focuses on the assault of female service members. Research has demonstrated that cultural variables are robust correlates of the sexual assault of women. This paper proposes that cultural variables are equally important when examining the rape of men, especially when this assault occurs in military contexts. We discuss male rape myths and related constructs as they are expressed within military culture. The results of data analysis from a treatment sample of veterans with military sexual trauma (MST)-related posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and clinical case examples are presented to further explore the concepts. We conclude that male rape myths and related beliefs that arise from cultural norms and are further amplified and modified by military culture impact male MST survivors and delay or obstruct their recovery. Suggestions for clinical application and future research are offered to encourage further efforts in this important area of practice.

  20. Influence of development stage of spring oilseed rape and spring wheat on interception of wet-deposited radiocaesium and radiostrontium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bengtsson, S. B.; Eriksson, J.; Gärdenäs, A. I.; Rosén, K.

    2012-12-01

    The dry and wet deposition of radionuclides released into the atmosphere can be intercepted by vegetation in terrestrial ecosystems. The aim of this study was to quantify the interception of wet deposited 134Cs and 85Sr by spring oilseed rape (Brassíca napus L.) and spring wheat (Tríticum aestívum L.). The dependency of the intercepted fraction (f) on total above ground plant biomass, growing stage and the Leaf Area Index (LAI) was quantified. A trial was established in Uppsala (east central Sweden), with land management in accordance to common agricultural practices. The field trial was a randomised block design of 1 × 1 m2 parcels with three replicates. During the growing season of 2010, a rainfall simulator deposited 134Cs and 85Sr during six different growth stages. Two to 3 h after deposition, the biomass of the centre 25 × 25 cm2 area of each parcel was sampled and above ground biomass and LAI were measured. The radioactivity concentration and radioactivity of samples were measured by High Purity Germanium (HPGe)-detectors. For 134Cs, there was a correlation between f and LAI (r2 = 0.55, p < 0.05) for spring wheat, but not for spring oilseed rape (r2 = 0.28, p > 0.05). For 85Sr, there was a correlation between f and LAI for both crops (r2 = 0.41, p < 0.05 for spring oilseed rape and r2 = 0.48 p, <0.05 for spring wheat). There was no correlation between f and above ground plant biomass in spring oilseed rape for either 134Cs (r2 = 0.01, p > 0.05) or for 85Sr (r2 = 0.11, p > 0.05). For spring wheat, there was a correlation for both 134Cs (r2 = 0.36, p < 0.05) and 85Sr (r2 = 0.32, p < 0.05). For spring oilseed rape, f was highest at growth stage 'stem elongation' for 134Cs (0.32 ± 0.22) and 85Sr (0.41 ± 0.29). For spring wheat, f was highest at growth stage 'ripening' for both radionuclides (134Cs was 0.36 ± 0.14 and 85Sr was 0.48 ± 0.18). Thus, LAI can be used to quantify interception of both radionuclides for both crops, whereas, above ground plant

  1. Factors that affect college students' perceptions of rape: what is the role of gender and other situational factors?

    PubMed

    Vandiver, Donna M; Dupalo, Jessica Rager

    2013-05-01

    Prior research has shown that various situational factors and behaviors can affect one's perception of whether a rape has occurred. Moreover, some hold false beliefs about rape. This can also affect one's perception of ambiguous situations. This study included the administration of a survey to 584 college students; the survey examined the prevalence of rape myths and responses to vignettes of potential rape scenarios. It was found that although the majority of this sample did not support rape myths, male students were significantly more likely than female students to support rape myths. Furthermore, approximately 20% of students did support one subscale of the rape myth scale: He didn't mean to [commit rape]. The results also revealed an interaction effect between the observer's sex and the victim's sex, suggesting a complex gender relationship.

  2. The longitudinal effects of a rape-prevention program on fraternity men's attitudes, behavioral intent, and behavior.

    PubMed

    Foubert, J D

    2000-01-01

    Rape myth acceptance, likelihood of raping, and sexually coercive behavior of 145 fraternity men randomly assigned to a control group or a rape-prevention program were surveyed. One third of 23 fraternities on a mid-Atlantic public university campus volunteered to participate in the study. The rape-prevention intervention consisted of "the men's program," a victim empathy-based presentation titled "How to help a sexual assault survivor: What men can do." Although no evidence of change in sexually coercive behavior was found, significant 7-month declines in rape myth acceptance and the likelihood of committing rape were shown among program participants. In the case of rape myth acceptance, the 7-month decrement remained lower in the participant group than in the control group. Implications of using these initial findings from the men's program for rape-prevention programming are discussed.

  3. Development of a biologically based fertilizer, incorporating Bacillus megaterium A6, for improved phosphorus nutrition of oilseed rape

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Sustainable methods with diminished impact on the environment need to be developed for the production of oilseed rape in China and other regions of the world. A biological fertilizer consisting of Bacillus megaterium A6 cultured on oilseed rape meal doubled oilseed rape seed yield (P < 0.0001) rela...

  4. Rape Myth Acceptance among Korean College Students: The Roles of Gender, Attitudes toward Women, and Sexual Double Standard

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Joohee; Kim, Jinseok; Lim, Hyunsung

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of the current study was to examine factors that influence rape myths among Korean college students. This study was particularly interested in the ways in which attitudes toward women and sexual double standard affect the relationship between gender and rape myths. Although the incidence of rape is a common concern in many current…

  5. Moving beyond Naturalism: Using a Discussion of "Miss Julie" to Educate Students about Date Rape--and More

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bloom, Davida

    2006-01-01

    In this article, the author talks about using the play entitled, "Miss Julie" to educate her students about date rape. According to her, the play presents a unique opportunity to bring up the topic of date rape. Several theories, including the social learning theory and the evolutionary theory, have been put forth to explain the existence of rape.…

  6. The Rape Prevention and Education (RPE) Theory Model of Community Change: Connecting Individual and Social Change

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cox, Pamela J.; Lang, Karen S.; Townsend, Stephanie M.; Campbell, Rebecca

    2010-01-01

    Social work practice has long focused on the connections between an individual and the social environment that affect the individual's social functioning. The Rape Prevention and Education (RPE) Program's theory model, Creating Safer Communities: The Rape Prevention and Education Model of Community Change, provides family social workers with a…

  7. Perceptions of Appropriate Punishment for Committing Date Rape: Male College Students Recommend Lenient Punishments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McDonald, Theodore W.; Kline, Linda M.

    2004-01-01

    Past research has shown that date rape is a crime that is committed with surprising frequency, particularly on college campuses, and that college men may hold a number of rape-tolerant attitudes that make this crime more likely. In the present research, 300 men and women college students read one of three vignettes, varying the type of descriptive…

  8. Where Do I Start?: A Parents' Guide for Talking to Teens about Acquaintance Rape.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bateman, Py; Stringer, Gayle M.

    This is a booklet designed for parents interested in helping their teenage children avoid the possibility of sexual assault. The first section of the booklet provides background on acquaintance rape, discussing attitudes about acquaintance rape, what boys and girls learn about sexual activity, gender different perceptions, and teenagers and peer…

  9. Anti-Rape on the Road: Men Hit the Highways to Share a Powerful Message

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Foubert, John D.

    2005-01-01

    Several years ago, the author was asked to counsel one university's male students on the truth of rape. Today, he and other men are taking that truth on the road--in a used RV. Their "One in Four" national tour will work to end rape on college campuses by presenting "The Men's Program" to college students nationwide. The program aims to educate…

  10. Men as Allies: The Efficacy of a High School Rape Prevention Intervention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hillenbrand-Gunn, Theresa L.; Heppner, Mary J.; Mauch, Pamela A.; Park, Hyun-joo

    2010-01-01

    This study investigated the effects of a Men as Allies--based intervention on high school students' rape-supportive attitudes and behaviors. As hypothesized at posttest, the male and female experimental groups demonstrated a significant decrease in rape-supportive attitudes, which was maintained at follow-up. Male participants viewed peers'…

  11. Homogeneity in Community-Based Rape Prevention Programs: Empirical Evidence of Institutional Isomorphism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Townsend, Stephanie M.; Campbell, Rebecca

    2007-01-01

    This study examined the practices of 24 community-based rape prevention programs. Although these programs were geographically dispersed throughout one state, they were remarkably similar in their approach to rape prevention programming. DiMaggio and Powell's (1991) theory of institutional isomorphism was used to explain the underlying causes of…

  12. Avoidant Coping and Treatment Outcome in Rape-Related Posttraumatic Stress Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leiner, Amy S.; Kearns, Megan C.; Jackson, Joan L.; Astin, Millie C.; Rothbaum, Barbara O.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: This study investigated the impact of avoidant coping on treatment outcome in rape-related posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Method: Adult women with rape-related PTSD (N = 62) received 9 sessions of prolonged exposure (PE) or eye movement desensitization and reprocessing (EMDR). The mean age for the sample was 34.7 years, and race…

  13. American College Students' Attitudes toward Rape Victims and Beliefs in a Just World.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chen, Jeaw Mei; Lin, Phylis Lan

    Two hundred sixty-six college students from four Indiana colleges and universities completed a series of surveys to determine gender differences in attitudes toward rape victims. The instruments adapted and used included the Rubin and Peplau Just World Scale (JWS), the Burt Sex Role Stereotype Scale, the Attitudes Toward Rape Victims Scale (ATRVS)…

  14. Description of an Early Intervention to Prevent Substance Abuse and Psychopathology in Recent Rape Victims

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Resnick, Heidi; Acierno, Ron; Kilpatrick, Dean G.; Holmes, Melissa

    2005-01-01

    Approximately 683,000 adult women are raped each year. Only one in seven of these victims report the assault to police and receive forensic exams and other professional services. For many rape victims, this may be the only professional contact with service providers; however these services are typically limited to evidence collection and…

  15. Predicting Perceptions of Date Rape: An Examination of Perpetrator Motivation, Relationship Length, and Gender Role Beliefs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Angelone, David J.; Mitchell, Damon; Lucente, Lauren

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of the current study is to examine the influence of multiple offender motivations (including no indication of a motivation), relationship length, and gender role beliefs on perceptions of a male-on-female date rape. A sample of 348 U.S. college students read a brief vignette depicting a date rape and completed a questionnaire regarding…

  16. Advantages of Group Therapy for Adolescent Participants in the Same Gang Rape

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Etgar, Talia; Prager, Keren Ganot

    2009-01-01

    This paper deals with the issue of including in the same therapeutic group in a prison setting two (or more) young people who participated in the same gang rape. We provide a background for group therapy with adolescent sex offenders and point out the characteristics of group rape. In addition, we describe the uniqueness of working in a prison as…

  17. Who Is to Blame? Rape of Hindu-Muslim Women in Interethnic Violence in India

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Murthi, Meera

    2009-01-01

    This research examined attitudes that predict rape blame in contexts of interethnic violence between minority Muslims and dominant Hindu communities in Mumbai, India. I hypothesized that, in contexts of interethnic violence, prejudicial attitudes toward communities and attitudes that view rape as a conflict tool (i.e., an effective strategy to…

  18. 76 FR 56481 - Hearings of the Review Panel on Prison Rape

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-13

    ... of Justice Programs Hearings of the Review Panel on Prison Rape AGENCY: Office of Justice Programs... Review Panel on Prison Rape (Panel) will hold hearings in Washington, DC on September 15-16, 2011. The... U.S. jails, and the common characteristics of jails with the highest and lowest incidence of...

  19. An Acquaintance Rape Education Program for Students Transitioning to High School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fay, Karen E.; Medway, Frederic J.

    2006-01-01

    Based on Parrot's work with college students, a six-activity acquaintance rape prevention program for first-year high school students living in a rural South Carolina community was implemented and evaluated. The program decreased students' acceptance of rape myths compared with non-participating students both on a scale developed by Burt and on…

  20. Exposure to Sexist Humor and Rape Proclivity: The Moderator Effect of Aversiveness Ratings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Romero-Sanchez, Monica; Duran, Mercedes; Carretero-Dios, Hugo; Megias, Jesus L.; Moya, Miguel

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this study is to explore the effect of exposure to sexist humor about women on men's self-reported rape proclivity. Earlier studies have shown that exposure to this type of humor increases rape proclivity and that funniness responses to jokes are a key element to consider. However, the role of aversiveness responses has not been…

  1. The Influence of Length of Marriage and Fidelity Status on Perception of Marital Rape

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Munge, Bethany A.; Pomerantz, Andrew M.; Pettibone, Jonathan C.; Falconer, Jameca W.

    2007-01-01

    To what extent does the length of the marriage or the wife's faithfulness to the husband influence the perception of responsibility or trauma in marital rape? In the current study, each participant was presented with one of four marital rape vignettes. The vignettes varied only in the length of the marriage (3 years or 15 years) and the fidelity…

  2. Acquaintance Rape Workshops: Their Effectiveness in Changing the Attitudes of First Year College Men

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Earle, James P.

    2009-01-01

    The statistics on acquaintance rape and sexual assault against women are a clear indication that this is a problem that needs to be confronted. An increasing number of articles address the problems that rape survivors face and examine methods mental health professionals can use to assist survivors in dealing with these problems. Articles that…

  3. Training to Be a Volunteer Rape Crisis Counsellor: A Qualitative Study of Women's Experiences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rath, Jean

    2008-01-01

    This is an account of a qualitative study designed to elicit and analyse the narratives of women who had trained to be volunteer counsellors at a Rape Crisis centre. Little prior research has focused on the experiences of workers in Rape Crisis centres and this project was designed to explore women's experiences in ways that were meaningful to…

  4. Risk Factors for Physical Assault and Rape among Six Native American Tribes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yuan, Nicole P.; Koss, Mary P.; Polacca, Mona; Goldman, David

    2006-01-01

    Prevalence and correlates of adult physical assault and rape in six Native American tribes are presented (N = 1,368). Among women, 45% reported being physically assaulted and 14% were raped since age 18 years. For men, figures were 36% and 2%, respectively. Demographic characteristics, adverse childhood experiences, adulthood alcohol dependence,…

  5. Sexual Assault and Rape Perpetration by College Men: The Role of the Big Five Personality Traits

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Voller, Emily K.; Long, Patricia J.

    2010-01-01

    A sample of 521 college men completed the Revised NEO Personality Inventory and an expanded version of the Sexual Experiences Survey to examine whether variation in the Big Five personality traits in a normal, college population provides any insight into the nature of sexual assault and rape perpetrators. Rape perpetrators reported lower levels of…

  6. Exploring the Aesthetics of Rape in the Work of Juan de Moncayo y Gurrea

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McVay, Ted E., Jr.

    2009-01-01

    Interpreting the occurrence of sexual violation in seventeenth-century Spanish literary works necessitates for modem scholars the difficult task of understanding prevailing contemporary attitudes toward rape. Studies by Higgins and Silver, Casas, and Welles discuss how literary texts with rape scenes as narrative material often use the act or its…

  7. Perceptions of Dating Behaviors and Reasons Offered to Justify Date Rape.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bostwick, Tracy; And Others

    1995-01-01

    Reports on a study that asked undergraduate students from a large, public midwestern university to identify specific dating behaviors that indicate an interest in sex, as well as perceptions of what women do that lead men to justify raping them and perceptions of what men say to justify having raped. (Author/JPS)

  8. Preventing Alcohol-Related Problems on Campus: Acquaintance Rape. A Guide for Program Coordinators.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Finn, Peter

    This is a guide for college and university program coordinators and planning committees on how to establish, expand, or improve a program on the prevention of acquaintance rape. Information is given for Presidents, Vice Presidents, and Deans on the relationship between acquaintance rape and alcohol, reasons for top administrators to become…

  9. Isolating Knowledge of the Unpleasant: The Rape of Nanking in Japanese High-School Textbooks.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barnard, Christopher

    2001-01-01

    Investigates how the Rape of Nanking is reported in 88 Japanese high school history textbooks authorized by the Japanese Ministry of Education. Analysis of language used in the textbooks reveals that a consistent language pattern isolates knowledge of the Rape of Nanking from Japan and the Japanese. (Author/PAL)

  10. Attitudes Toward Victims of Rape: Effects of Gender, Race, Religion, and Social Class

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nagel, Barbara; Matsuo, Hisako; McIntyre, Kevin P.; Morrison, Nancy

    2005-01-01

    Although previous literature focusing on perceptions of victims of rape has examined how gender, race, and culture influence the attitudes one holds toward victims, these studies have yielded mixed results. This study compared perceptions of victims of rape across a wide range of ages, educational backgrounds, religions, and income levels, while…

  11. Rape Culture and Campus Environment: An Introduction for Student Affairs Professionals.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Watson, Lemeul W.; Derby, Dustin

    2000-01-01

    Provides a brief introduction for student affairs professional to the American rape culture. Offers suggestions and examples to assist student affairs professionals in their quest to develop adequate programs and services on their campus with regard to rape and sexual assault incidents. (Contains 31 references.) (GCP)

  12. Change in Cognitive Mediators of Rape's Impact on Psychosocial Health across 2 Years of Recovery

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koss, Mary P.; Figueredo, Aurelio Jose

    2004-01-01

    A previously published cross-sectional model of cognitive mediation of rape's impact on health (M. P. Koss, A. J. Figueredo, & R. J. Prince, 2002) was replicated longitudinally. Rape survivors (n = 59) were assessed 4 times at 3-24 months postrape. Growth curve analysis demonstrated significant change in all mediators and outcomes. Previously…

  13. Patterns of reported rape in a tri-ethnic population: Houston, Texas, 1974--1975.

    PubMed

    Sanford, J; Cryer, L; Christensen, B L; Mattox, K L

    1979-05-01

    Police records of reported rape, compiled for the Federal Bureau of Investigation Uniform Crime Reports, in Houston, Texas for 1974 and 1975, were analyzed in relation to ethnicity and age of victim/offender, and time and place of occurrence. Blacks had the highest race-specific rates for both victims and offenders; the majority of all rapes were intraracial. The high-risk age group for both victims and offenders was from 20 to 24 years. Rapes increased slightly during the summer months, peaked during the hours of darkness, and were fairly evenly distributed among the days of the week. The weekend calculated as from 4:00 pm Friday to 8:00 am Monday accounted for 43.6 per cent of all rape occurrences. The majority of rape events involved the use of a lethal weapon and took place in a residence.

  14. Sexual assault and rape perpetration by college men: the role of the big five personality traits.

    PubMed

    Voller, Emily K; Long, Patricia J

    2010-03-01

    A sample of 521 college men completed the Revised NEO Personality Inventory and an expanded version of the Sexual Experiences Survey to examine whether variation in the Big Five personality traits in a normal, college population provides any insight into the nature of sexual assault and rape perpetrators. Rape perpetrators reported lower levels of Agreeableness and Conscientiousness when compared to both sexual assault perpetrators and nonperpetrators, and lower levels of Extraversion when compared to nonperpetrators. Rape perpetrators also endorsed lower levels of tendermindedness, excitement-seeking, warmth, positive emotions, feelings, altruism, competence, and dutifulness, and higher levels of vulnerability. Contrary to expectation, overall personality profiles followed remarkably comparable patterns for sexual assault and nonperpetrators, suggesting that sexual assault perpetrators were more similar to nonperpetrators than to rape perpetrators. Findings suggest that individuals who perpetrate sexual offenses, particularly rape, differ from nonperpetrators on dimensions of normal personality. Clinical and research implications are discussed.

  15. The Exploitive Mating Strategy of the Dark Triad Traits: Tests of Rape-Enabling Attitudes.

    PubMed

    Jonason, Peter K; Girgis, Mary; Milne-Home, Josephine

    2017-01-24

    The Dark Triad traits have been repeatedly labeled as facilitating an exploitive mating strategy. However, various researchers have repeatedly conflated short-term mating or casual sex with an exploitive mating strategy. In this study using Mechanical Turk participants (N = 252; 142 men, 110 women), we provided a better test of just how sexually exploitive those high on the Dark Triad traits might be by examining how the traits related to rape-enabling attitudes. We examined how each trait may facilitate rape, whether these associations were robust to partialing the variance associated with the Big Five traits and similar in men and women, and showed that one reason why men may be more likely to rape than women is they are characterized by the Dark Triad traits more than women are. In so doing, we test the confluence model of rape that asserts that personality traits similar to the Dark Triad traits act as one pathway to rape.

  16. Feminist Framework Plus: Knitting Feminist Theories of Rape Etiology Into a Comprehensive Model.

    PubMed

    McPhail, Beverly A

    2016-07-01

    The radical-liberal feminist perspective on rape posits that the assault is motivated by power and control rather than sexual gratification and is a violent rather than a sexual act. However, rape is a complex act. Relying on only one early strand of feminist thought to explain the etiology of rape limits feminists' understanding of rape and the practice based upon the theory. The history of the adoption of the "power, not sex" theory is presented and the model critiqued. A more integrated model is developed and presented, the Feminist Framework Plus, which knits together five feminist theories into a comprehensive model that better explains the depth and breadth of the etiology of rape. Empirical evidence that supports each theory is detailed as well as the implications of the model on service provision, education, and advocacy.

  17. Cellulose accessibility and microbial community in solid state anaerobic digestion of rape straw.

    PubMed

    Tian, Jiang-Hao; Pourcher, Anne-Marie; Bureau, Chrystelle; Peu, Pascal

    2017-01-01

    Solid state anaerobic digestion (SSAD) with leachate recirculation is an appropriate method for the valorization of agriculture residues. Rape straw is a massively produced residue with considerable biochemical methane potential, but its degradation in SSAD remains poorly understood. A thorough study was conducted to understand the performance of rape straw as feedstock for laboratory solid state anaerobic digesters. We investigated the methane production kinetics of rape straw in relation to cellulose accessibility to cellulase and the microbial community. Improving cellulose accessibility through milling had a positive influence on both the methane production rate and methane yield. The SSAD of rape straw reached 60% of its BMP in a 40-day pilot-scale test. Distinct bacterial communities were observed in digested rape straw and leachate, with Bacteroidales and Sphingobacteriales as the most abundant orders, respectively. Archaeal populations showed no phase preference and increased chronologically.

  18. Provision of antiretroviral prophylaxis to child rape victims in South Africa: HIV status and delayed reporting.

    PubMed

    Collings, Steven J

    2005-02-01

    In a sample of 780 South African child victims of rape (girls under the age of 18 years; age M= 10.5 yr., SD=4.8), 10% did not qualify for antiretroviral prophylaxis because HIV status at presentation was positive and a further 34.1% did not qualify because the rape was reported more than 72 hours after the alleged offense. Regression analyses indicated that child rape victims who reported that they had been sexually active prior to the rape constitute a particularly high risk group for HIV infection and suggest primary and secondary prevention programs should be designed to decrease sexual activity among children and to encourage more immediate reporting of rape among younger children, children who are not sexually active, and children who are incestuously abused.

  19. Root-Derived Short-Chain Suberin Diacids from Rice and Rape Seed in a Paddy Soil under Rice Cultivar Treatments

    PubMed Central

    Ji, Haishi; Ding, Yuanjun; Liu, Xiaoyu; Li, Lianqing; Zhang, Dengxiao; Li, Zichuan; Sun, Jingling; Lashari, Muhammad Siddique; Joseph, Stephen; Meng, Yuanduo; Kuzyakov, Yakov; Pan, Genxing

    2015-01-01

    Suberin-derived substituted fatty acids have been shown to be potential biomarkers for plant-derived carbon (C) in soils across ecosystems. Analyzing root derived suberin compounds bound in soil could help to understand the root input into a soil organic carbon pool. In this study, bound lipids were extracted and identified in root and topsoil samples. Short-chain suberin diacids were quantified under rice (Oryza sativa L.) and rape (Brassica campestris) rotations with different cultivar combinations in a Chinese rice paddy. After removal of free lipids with sequential extraction, the residual bound lipids were obtained with saponification and derivatization before analysis using gas chromatography–mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Diacids C16 and C18 in bound lipids were detected both in rice and rape root samples, while diacids C20 and C22 were detected only in rape root samples. Accordingly, diacids were quantified in both rhizosphere and bulk soil (0–15 cm). The amount of total root-derived diacids in bulk soil varied in a range of 5.6–9.6 mg/kg across growth stages and crop seasons. After one year-round rice-rape rotation, root-derived suberin diacids were maintained at a level of 7–9 mg/kg in bulk soil; this was higher under a super rice cultivar LY than under a hybrid cultivar IIY. While concentrations of the analyzed diacids were generally higher in rhizosphere than in bulk soil, the total diacid (DA) concentration was higher at the time of rape harvest than at rice harvest, suggesting that rape roots made a major contribution to the preservation of diacids in the paddy. Moreover, the net change in the concentration and the ratios of C16:0 DA to C18:1 DA, and of C16:0 DA to C18:0 DA, over a whole growing season, were greater under LY than under IIY, though there was no difference between cultivars within a single growth stage. Overall, total concentration of root-derived suberin diacids was found to be positively correlated to soil organic carbon

  20. Root-Derived Short-Chain Suberin Diacids from Rice and Rape Seed in a Paddy Soil under Rice Cultivar Treatments.

    PubMed

    Ji, Haishi; Ding, Yuanjun; Liu, Xiaoyu; Li, Lianqing; Zhang, Dengxiao; Li, Zichuan; Sun, Jingling; Lashari, Muhammad Siddique; Joseph, Stephen; Meng, Yuanduo; Kuzyakov, Yakov; Pan, Genxing

    2015-01-01

    Suberin-derived substituted fatty acids have been shown to be potential biomarkers for plant-derived carbon (C) in soils across ecosystems. Analyzing root derived suberin compounds bound in soil could help to understand the root input into a soil organic carbon pool. In this study, bound lipids were extracted and identified in root and topsoil samples. Short-chain suberin diacids were quantified under rice (Oryza sativa L.) and rape (Brassica campestris) rotations with different cultivar combinations in a Chinese rice paddy. After removal of free lipids with sequential extraction, the residual bound lipids were obtained with saponification and derivatization before analysis using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Diacids C16 and C18 in bound lipids were detected both in rice and rape root samples, while diacids C20 and C22 were detected only in rape root samples. Accordingly, diacids were quantified in both rhizosphere and bulk soil (0-15 cm). The amount of total root-derived diacids in bulk soil varied in a range of 5.6-9.6 mg/kg across growth stages and crop seasons. After one year-round rice-rape rotation, root-derived suberin diacids were maintained at a level of 7-9 mg/kg in bulk soil; this was higher under a super rice cultivar LY than under a hybrid cultivar IIY. While concentrations of the analyzed diacids were generally higher in rhizosphere than in bulk soil, the total diacid (DA) concentration was higher at the time of rape harvest than at rice harvest, suggesting that rape roots made a major contribution to the preservation of diacids in the paddy. Moreover, the net change in the concentration and the ratios of C16:0 DA to C18:1 DA, and of C16:0 DA to C18:0 DA, over a whole growing season, were greater under LY than under IIY, though there was no difference between cultivars within a single growth stage. Overall, total concentration of root-derived suberin diacids was found to be positively correlated to soil organic carbon concentration

  1. ''If they rape me, I can't blame them": reflections on gender in the social context of child rape in South Africa and Namibia.

    PubMed

    Jewkes, Rachel; Penn-Kekana, Loveday; Rose-Junius, Hetty

    2005-10-01

    The study was based on 77 semi-structured in-depth interviews and 3 small group discussions which were conducted with informants in Windhoek, Namibia and rural Mpumalanga province, South Africa. Children (abuse survivors and others), parents, men and women from the community and a range of key informants (such as police, social workers, health workers, NGO staff and teachers) were asked about their experiences and perceptions of child rape and child rearing. This study has its roots in the recent popular concern about the high prevalence of child rape in Southern Africa. Drawing on the data, we reflect on aspects of the social context of child rape in South Africa and Namibia that at least provide space for, without actually legitimating, these acts. We argue that children are rendered vulnerable to abuse because of a series of ideas which create opportunities, the most important of which is the dominant patriarchal ideology, compounded by the pronounced age hierarchies found in these societies. The high status of men, with respect to particularly girl children, leads to vulnerability through reducing girls' ability to refuse sexual advances and generating expectations in men that they should control women and children. Rape is often an act of punishment, used to demonstrate power over girl children and manufacture control. Rape is also used as an instrument of communication with oneself (the rapist) about masculinity and powerfulness. This ability to avoid being caught was important in some rapes. Some children are rendered vulnerable by coming from backgrounds where the likelihood of cases being pursued was low. Whilst it is often said that communities abhor child rape, responses to cases show that often strong action is not taken against perpetrators and the girls may be equally, or predominantly, blamed. In cases close to home, perpetrators are often protected. Thus the dominant message is that much as child rape is abhorred, responses are highly inadequate

  2. The epidemiology of rape and sexual coercion in South Africa: an overview.

    PubMed

    Jewkes, Rachel; Abrahams, Naeema

    2002-10-01

    During 1999 the issue of rape in South Africa was debated at the highest levels. The epidemiology of rape has become an issue of considerable political importance and sensitivity, with President Mbeki demanding an answer to the question: how much rape is there in South Africa? The purpose of this paper is both to summarise and synthesise the findings of research to provide an overview of the epidemiology of rape of women in South Africa and to show how difficult it is to answer the President's question. The review begins by considering why rape is so difficult to research. Data available shows that rape reported to the police (240 incidents of rape and attempted rape per 100,000 women each year) represents the tip of an ice berg of sexual coercion. Representative community-based surveys have found, for example, that in the 17-48 age group there are 2070 such incidents per 100,000 women per year. Non-consensual sex in marriage and dating relationships is believed to be very common but is usually not well reported in surveys. Forced sexual initiation is reported by almost a third of adolescent girls. In addition coerced consensual sex is a common problem in schools, workplaces and amongst peers. Knowledge of causal and contributory factors influencing the high levels of rape are also discussed. We conclude that the rape statistic for the country is currently elusive but levels of non-consensual and coerced sex are clearly very high. International comparison needs to be approached with caution because most developing countries lack the infrastructure for accurate crime reporting and do not have such a substantial body of survey data.

  3. Psychological Consequences of Rape on Women in 1991-1995 War in Croatia and Bosnia and Herzegovina

    PubMed Central

    Lončar, Mladen; Medved, Vesna; Jovanović, Nikolina; Hotujac, Ljubomir

    2006-01-01

    Aim To explore the short- and long-term psychological consequences of rape on women victims of rape during the 1992-1995 war against Croatia and Bosnia and Herzegovina. Methods The study included 68 women victims of rape and was conducted at the Medical Center for Human Rights, Zagreb, Croatia, from 1992 to 1995. Testimony method and a questionnaire were used to obtain the description of rapes and symptoms women suffered immediately after rape and at the time of the study, ie, 11.9 ± 2.4 months after the trauma. Structured clinical interviews were conducted to diagnose psychiatric disorders that were present at the time of study, according to the third edition of Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders. Results The raped women were Croatian and Muslim (Bosniak) women, residents of Croatia and Bosnia and Herzegovina. Forty-four of them were raped more than once, 21 were raped every day during their captivity, and 18 were forced to witness rapes. Most of the rapes (n = 65) were accompanied by physical torture. The most frequent psychological symptoms felt immediately after the rape were depressiveness (n = 58), avoidance of thoughts or conversations associated with the trauma (n = 40), and suicidal ideas (n = 25). Although none of the women had a psychiatric history before the rape, at the time of study 52 suffered from depression, 51 from social phobia, 21 from posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), and 17 had sexual dysfunctions. These disorders were often comorbid. Out of 29 women who got pregnant after rape, 17 had artificial abortion. The decision to have an abortion was strongly predicted by suicidal thoughts and impulses (odds ratio, 25.8; 95% confidence interval, 2.53-263.2). Conclusion War-time rapes had deep immediate and long-term consequences on the mental health of women victims of rapes and their social and interpersonal functioning. PMID:16489699

  4. The Relationship Between Television Sports Exposure and Rape Myth Acceptance: The Mediating Role of Sexism and Sexual Objectification of Women.

    PubMed

    Custers, Kathleen; McNallie, Jenna

    2016-06-30

    Rape affects a large proportion of women in the United States but is one of the most underreported crimes. It is believed that rape myth acceptance contributes to low reporting rates. We tested whether television sports exposure was indirectly related to higher acceptance of rape myth beliefs. An online survey involving 465 undergraduate students showed that viewing TV sports was positively related to hostile sexism, benevolent sexism, and sexual objectification of women. Through these variables, TV sports was indirectly and positively associated with rape myth acceptance. These results suggest that sports programming contributes to the perpetuation of rape myths in society.

  5. The impact of sexual enhancement alcohol expectancies and risky behavior on alcohol-involved rape among college women.

    PubMed

    Messman-Moore, Terri L; Ward, Rose Marie; DeNardi, Kathleen A

    2013-04-01

    A structural equation model examined sexual enhancement alcohol expectancies, heavy episodic drinking (HED), and risky sexual behavior as correlates of alcohol-involved rape in a sample of 353 college women. Prevalence of alcohol-involved rape was 15.6%. Sexual enhancement alcohol expectancies were indirectly associated with alcohol-involved rape via increased levels of HED, greater likelihood of sex while intoxicated, and number of sex partners. All forms of risky behavior were associated with alcohol-involved rape although HED had the strongest relationship. Findings suggest continued focus on women's positive alcohol expectancies and HED as risk factors for alcohol-involved rape. Implications for intervention will be discussed.

  6. Rape myth acceptance among Korean college students: the roles of gender, attitudes toward women, and sexual double standard.

    PubMed

    Lee, Joohee; Kim, Jinseok; Lim, Hyunsung

    2010-07-01

    The purpose of the current study was to examine factors that influence rape myths among Korean college students. This study was particularly interested in the ways in which attitudes toward women and sexual double standard affect the relationship between gender and rape myths. Although the incidence of rape is a common concern in many current societies, within each society, the specific components of rape myths reflect the cultural values and norms of that particular society. A sample of 327 college students in South Korea completed the Korean Rape Myth Acceptance Scale-Revised, the Attitudes Toward Women Scale, and the Sexual Double Standard Scale. Structural equation modeling (SEM) was used to test hypothesized models. Results revealed that in three of the four models, rape survivor myths, rape perpetrator myths, and myths about the impact of rape, attitudes toward women were a more important predictor of rape myths than gender or sexual double standard. In the rape spontaneity myths model, on the other hand, sexual double standard was a more important predictor than gender or attitudes toward women. This study provides valuable information that can be useful in developing culturally specific rape prevention and victim intervention programs.

  7. The cultural context of nondisclosure of alcohol-involved acquaintance rape among Asian American college women: a qualitative study.

    PubMed

    Koo, Kelly H; Nguyen, Hong V; Andrasik, Michele P; George, William H

    2015-01-01

    With high college enrollment and increasing alcohol use, Asian American (AA) college women may be at particular risk for experiencing alcohol-involved acquaintance rape. Although AA women have expressed the weakest intentions to report rape when compared to other ethnic groups, cultural factors influencing these intentions remain unexamined. Guided by grounded theory, 17 self-identified AA college women were interviewed about how the average AA college woman would respond to an alcohol-involved acquaintance rape. Despite awareness of benefits of disclosing rape, participants emphasized that nondisclosure would be the normative response. Three themes emerged from participants: institutional, sociocultural, and psychological contexts of nondisclosure. At an institutional level, nondisclosure referenced mental health and police services, which included Asian stereotypes and mistrust of police. Within a sociocultural context, rape nondisclosure focused on negative consequences on relationships with parents and, to a lesser extent, on friendships. Emotional avoidance and not labeling an acquaintance rape as rape were psychological strategies for rape nondisclosure. Participant's conceptualizations of mental and physical health concerns, specifically post-rape concerns, were framed within sociocultural/macrostructural contexts and may not match that of the more individualistic U.S. mainstream conceptualizations of health. Culturally sensitive rape education may be more effective in increasing rape prevention and support.

  8. Nudity as a Disinhibiting Cue in a Date Rape Analogue.

    PubMed

    Fairweather, Annabree; Kingston, Drew A; Lalumière, Martin L

    2016-05-01

    Situational factors likely play a role in date rape. The sexual inhibition hypothesis suggests that men are typically sexually inhibited by violence and non-consent, but that inhibition can also be disrupted. We attempted to determine if female nudity reduces inhibition of sexual arousal to non-consensual cues in sexually non-aggressive men. In two studies, heterosexual men (aged 18-25) were presented with six 2-min audiotaped narratives depicting consensual sexual interactions, non-consensual sexual interactions (rape), and non-sexual interactions (neutral) involving a man and a woman. In the first study, 20 participants saw pictures depicting nude or clothed women while listening to the stories. In the second study, 20 other participants saw videos depicting nude or clothed women exercising, also while listening to the stories. Genital responses and subjective sexual arousal were measured. Results suggested that nudity may have a disinhibitory effect on sexual arousal to non-consensual cues, but only when presented in the form of moving images.

  9. Explicating the role of sexual coercion and vulnerability alcohol expectancies in rape attributions.

    PubMed

    Starfelt, Louise C; Young, Ross McD; White, Katherine M; Palk, Gavan R M

    2015-07-01

    Despite evidence suggesting that alcohol expectancies may influence people's rape perceptions, no study to date has measured context-specific expectancies comprehensively. This study represents an initial investigation of the role of sexual coercion and vulnerability alcohol expectancies in young Australian adults' rape blame attributions. Using a vignette method, it was hypothesized that participants' stronger expectancy endorsement would predict lesser perpetrator blame and greater victim blame. Participants (n = 210; 34.9% males; 18-25 years) read a hypothetical rape scenario and rated dimensions of blameworthiness attributed to the intoxicated sexual perpetrator and victim. Participants completed the Sexual Coercion and Sexual Vulnerability subscales of the Drinking Expectancy Sexual Vulnerabilities Questionnaire for the targets self, men, and women in addition to measures of traditional gender role attitudes and rape myth acceptance. Hierarchical multiple regressions revealed that, as expected, stronger sexual coercion expectancy predicted lower perpetrator blame and greater victim blame. Self-oriented expectancy predicted evaluations of the perpetrator whereas other-oriented expectancy predicted victim evaluations. These effects were robust after controlling for gender role attitudes and rape myth acceptance. Alcohol expectancies appear to be part of a network of beliefs and attitudes which perpetuate biased rape attributions and may be useful to challenge in altering rape perceptions.

  10. Does knowledge about sexuality prevent adolescents from developing rape-supportive beliefs?

    PubMed

    Mallet, Pascal; Herbé, Dominique

    2011-07-01

    Believing that rape is acceptable in some situations may account for adolescent boys' perpetration of forced sex on girls. This study was intended to examine two hypothesized cognitive factors of adolescents' rape-supportive beliefs: general knowledge, measured with grade point average (GPA); and specific knowledge about sexuality, measured with a newly devised questionnaire. Fourteen-year-old adolescents (N = 248) participated in a short-term longitudinal study. They completed questionnaires designed to assess sexual knowledge and rape-supportive beliefs, and six months later completed them again. Sexual knowledge increased sharply between Time 1 and Time 2, whereas rape-supportive beliefs decreased during the same time. Boys obtained higher rape-supportive belief scores than girls. Regression analyses showed that sexual knowledge significantly predicted the level of rape-supportive beliefs six months later, independent of GPA and sex of participants. GPA accounted for a greater part of the variance in rape-supportive beliefs. This article discusses the importance of paying attention to the level of academic achievement of adolescents, as well as to their sexuality-specific knowledge, as a way of improving the efficiency of programs specializing in the prevention of adolescent sexual violence.

  11. Experimental Study of Reciprocating Friction between Rape Stalk and Bionic Nonsmooth Surface Units

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Zheng; Li, Yaoming; Xu, Lizhang

    2015-01-01

    Background. China is the largest producer of rape oilseed in the world; however, the mechanization level of rape harvest is relatively low, because rape materials easily adhere to the cleaning screens of combine harvesters, resulting in significant cleaning losses. Previous studies have shown that bionic nonsmooth surface cleaning screens restrain the adhesion of rape materials, but the underlying mechanisms remain unclear. Objective. The reciprocating friction between rape stalk and bionic nonsmooth metal surface was examined. Methods. The short-time Fourier transform method was used to discriminate the stable phase of friction signals and the stick-lag distance was defined to analyze the stable reciprocating friction in a phase diagram. Results. The reciprocating friction between rape stalk and metal surface is a typical stick-slip friction, and the bionic nonsmooth metal surfaces with concave or convex units reduced friction force with increasing reciprocating frequency. The results also showed that the stick-lag distance of convex surface increased with reciprocating frequency, which indicated that convex surface reduces friction force more efficiently. Conclusions. We suggest that bionic nonsmooth surface cleaning screens, especially with convex units, restrain the adhesion of rape materials more efficiently compared to the smooth surface cleaning screens. PMID:27034611

  12. Transgenic oilseed rape along transportation routes and port of Vancouver in western Canada.

    PubMed

    Yoshimura, Yasuyuki; Beckie, Hugh J; Matsuo, Kazuhito

    2006-01-01

    The occurrence of transgenic herbicide-resistant oilseed rape (Brassica napus) in ruderal (non-crop disturbed) areas has not been investigated previously in Canada. The primary objective of this study was to document their occurrence in two main ruderal areas (along railways and roads) in the province of Saskatchewan, where half of all oilseed rape is grown, and at the port of Vancouver, British Columbia on the west coast of Canada, where most oilseed rape destined for export is transported by rail. During the 2005 growing season, leaf samples of oilseed rape plants were collected at randomly-selected sites along railways and roads across Saskatchewan ecoregions and at Vancouver; infestation area, density, and plant height of oilseed rape were measured at each site. The presence of the glyphosate and glufosinate resistance traits was determined using test strips. The infestation area of oilseed rape, averaged across 155 sampled sites in the Saskatchewan survey, was markedly smaller in populations along railways than roads; in contrast, infestation area averaged across 54 sites in the Vancouver survey was greater for populations along railways than roads. In both surveys, mean plant density was greater for populations found along railways than roads. Two-thirds of oilseed rape plants sampled across Saskatchewan ecoregions and at Vancouver were transgenic, although the relative proportion of plants with the glyphosate or glufosinate resistance trait varied between surveys. Frequency of occurrence of transgenic plants in ruderal areas was similar to the proportion of the oilseed rape area planted with transgenic cultivars in the recent preceding years. A single transgenic B. rapa x B. napus hybrid was found along a road in Vancouver, confirming the relatively high probability of hybridization between these two Brassica species. With current control measures, transgenic oilseed rape populations may persist and spread in these ruderal areas.

  13. College Women’s Experiences With Rape Disclosure: A National Study

    PubMed Central

    Paul, Lisa A.; Walsh, Kate; McCauley, Jenna L.; Ruggiero, Kenneth J.; Resnick, Heidi S.; Kilpatrick, Dean G.

    2014-01-01

    Disclosure of a rape to informal support sources (e.g., friends) is a relatively common experience, but it is not well understood. This study expands our limited knowledge of the characteristics and life experiences of disclosure recipients among a national sample of 2,000 female college students. Over 40% of respondents reported having received a rape disclosure, and more than two thirds of these recipients encouraged victims to formally report their rapes to the police or other authorities. Correlates of disclosure receipt and encouragement of reporting, including personal assault history, mental health history, and substance use, are presented and discussed. PMID:23651638

  14. Rape disclosure: the interplay of gender, culture and kinship in contemporary Vietnam.

    PubMed

    Huong, Nguyen Thu

    2012-01-01

    This paper examines the social management of rape within kin groups in contemporary Vietnam, with a particular focus on the decision whether or not to seek legal redress. Post-rape management entails negotiations among families on matters such as apology and compensation before a decision is made about whether to report the incident to the authorities. By drawing on an ethnographic study of a limited number of respondents, this paper highlights how rape disclosure is often bound up with notions of family honour, with assumptions about kinship, gender relations, social belonging and shared responsibility in a collective society such as Vietnam.

  15. Seed-specific increased expression of 2S albumin promoter of sesame qualifies it as a useful genetic tool for fatty acid metabolic engineering and related transgenic intervention in sesame and other oil seed crops.

    PubMed

    Bhunia, Rupam Kumar; Chakraborty, Anirban; Kaur, Ranjeet; Gayatri, T; Bhattacharyya, Jagannath; Basu, Asitava; Maiti, Mrinal K; Sen, Soumitra Kumar

    2014-11-01

    The sesame 2S albumin (2Salb) promoter was evaluated for its capacity to express the reporter gusA gene encoding β-glucuronidase in transgenic tobacco seeds relative to the soybean fad3C gene promoter element. Results revealed increased expression of gusA gene in tobacco seed tissue when driven by sesame 2S albumin promoter. Prediction based deletion analysis of both the promoter elements confirmed the necessary cis-acting regulatory elements as well as the minimal promoter element for optimal expression in each case. The results also revealed that cis-regulatory elements might have been responsible for high level expression as well as spatio-temporal regulation of the sesame 2S albumin promoter. Transgenic over-expression of a fatty acid desaturase (fad3C) gene of soybean driven by 2S albumin promoter resulted in seed-specific enhanced level of α-linolenic acid in sesame. The present study, for the first time helped to identify that the sesame 2S albumin promoter is a promising endogenous genetic element in genetic engineering approaches requiring spatio-temporal regulation of gene(s) of interest in sesame and can also be useful as a heterologous genetic element in other important oil seed crop plants in general for which seed oil is the harvested product. The study also established the feasibility of fatty acid metabolic engineering strategy undertaken to improve quality of edible seed oil in sesame using the 2S albumin promoter as regulatory element.

  16. Spatially structured population dynamics in feral oilseed rape.

    PubMed Central

    Crawley, Michael J.; Brown, Susan L.

    2004-01-01

    We studied the population dynamics of feral oilseed rape (Brassica napus) for 10 years (1993-2002) in 3658 adjacent permanent 100 m quadrats in the verges of the M25 motorway around London, UK. The aim was to determine the relative importance of different factors affecting the observed temporal patterns of population dynamics and their spatial correlations. A wide range of population dynamics was observed (downward or upward trends, cycles, local extinctions and recolonizations), but overall the populations were not self-replacing (lambda < 1). Many quadrats remained unoccupied throughout the study period, but a few were occupied at high densities for all 10 years. Most quadrats showed transient oilseed rape populations, lasting 1-4 years. There were strong spatial patterns in mean population density, associated with soil conditions and the successional age of the plant community dominating the verge, and these large-scale spatial patterns were highly consistent from year to year. The importance of seed spilled from trucks in transit to the processing plant at Erith in Kent was confirmed: rape populations were significantly higher on the 'to Erith' verge than the 'from Erith' verge (overall mean 2.83-fold greater stem density). Quadrats in which lambda > 1 were much more frequent in the 'to Erith' verge, indicating that seed immigration can give the spurious impression of self-replacing population dynamics in time-series analysis. There was little evidence of a pervasive Moran effect, and climatic forcing did not produce widespread large-scale synchrony in population dynamics for the motorway as a whole; just 23% of quadrats had significant rank correlations with the mean time-series. There was, however, significant local spatial synchrony of population dynamics, apparently associated with soil disturbance and seed input. This study draws attention to the possibility that different processes may impose population synchrony at different scales. We hypothesize that

  17. Large-scale monitoring of effects of clothianidin dressed oilseed rape seeds on pollinating insects in Northern Germany: implementation of the monitoring project and its representativeness.

    PubMed

    Heimbach, Fred; Russ, Anja; Schimmer, Maren; Born, Katrin

    2016-11-01

    Monitoring studies at the landscape level are complex, expensive and difficult to conduct. Many aspects have to be considered to avoid confounding effects which is probably the reason why they are not regularly performed in the context of risk assessments of plant protection products to pollinating insects. However, if conducted appropriately their contribution is most valuable. In this paper we identify the requirements of a large-scale monitoring study for the assessment of side-effects of clothianidin seed-treated winter oilseed rape on three species of pollinating insects (Apis mellifera, Bombus terrestris and Osmia bicornis) and present how these requirements were implemented. Two circular study sites were delineated next to each other in northeast Germany and comprised almost 65 km(2) each. At the reference site, study fields were drilled with clothianidin-free OSR seeds while at the test site the oilseed rape seeds contained a coating with 10 g clothianidin and 2 g beta-cyfluthrin per kg seeds (Elado®). The comparison of environmental conditions at the study sites indicated that they are as similar as possible in terms of climate, soil, land use, history and current practice of agriculture as well as in availability of oilseed rape and non-crop bee forage. Accordingly, local environmental conditions were considered not to have had any confounding effect on the results of the monitoring of the bee species. Furthermore, the study area was found to be representative for other oilseed rape cultivation regions in Europe.

  18. Social reactions to rape: experiences and perceptions of women rape survivors and their potential support providers in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania.

    PubMed

    Muganyizi, Projestine S; Hogan, Nora; Emmelin, Maria; Lindmark, Gunilla; Massawe, Siriel; Nystrom, Lennarth; Axemo, Pia

    2009-01-01

    Social reactions to rape are socioculturally determined and have a strong influence on the coping and recovery of the survivor. The existing knowledge on social reactions emanates from Western countries with limited research attention on non-Western populations, particularly sub-Saharan Africa. We aimed to establish the types and perceptions of social reactions that are expressed to rape survivors and people's intentions to express them to survivors of varied social backgrounds in Tanzania. Using triangulation of research methods, experiences of social reactions among rape survivors (n = 50) and nurses (n = 44) from a community in Tanzania were explored, and the intentions to express typical social reactions to rape survivors of different social backgrounds were established from a representative community sample (n = 1,505). Twelve typical social reactions were identified with the positive reactions more commonly mentioned than the negative reactions. Nondisclosure of rape events and distracting the survivor from the event were perceived as both positive and negative. A commercial sex worker was most vulnerable to negative reactions. The cultural influences of social reactions and implications for practical applicability of the results are discussed.

  19. Prevalence and risk of psychiatric disorders as a function of variant rape histories: results from a national survey of women

    PubMed Central

    Resnick, Heidi S.; McCauley, Jenna L.; Amstadter, Ananda B.; Ruggiero, Kenneth J.; Kilpatrick, Dean G.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose Rape is an established risk factor for mental health disorders, such as posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), major depressive episodes (MDE), and substance use disorders. The majority of studies have not differentiated substance-involved rape or examined comorbid diagnoses among victims. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to estimate the prevalence of common trauma-related psychiatric disorders (and their comorbidity) in a national sample of women, with an emphasis on distinguishing between rape tactics. A secondary objective was to estimate the risk for psychiatric disorders among victims of variant rape tactics, in comparison to non-victims. Methods A nationally representative population-based sample of 3,001 non-institutionalized, civilian, English or Spanish speaking women (aged 18–86 years) participated in a structured telephone interview assessing rape history and DSM-IV criteria for PTSD, MDE, alcohol abuse (AA), and drug abuse (DA). Descriptive statistics and multivariate logistic regression analyses were employed. Results Women with rape histories involving both substance facilitation and forcible tactics reported the highest current prevalence of PTSD (36%), MDE (36%), and AA (20%). Multivariate models demonstrated that this victim group was also at highest risk for psychiatric disorders, after controlling for demographics and childhood and multiple victimization history. Women with substance-facilitated rapes reported higher prevalence of substance abuse in comparison to women with forcible rape histories. Comorbidity between PTSD and other psychiatric disorders was higher among rape victims in comparison to non-rape victims. Conclusions Researchers and clinicians should assess substance-facilitated rape tactics and attend to comorbidity among rape victims. Empirically supported treatments are needed to address the complex presentations observed among women with variant rape histories. PMID:21603967

  20. Male sexual assault and rape: who seeks counseling?

    PubMed

    Monk-Turner, Elizabeth; Light, David

    2010-09-01

    This work rests on responses from 219 male sexual assault and rape victims who self-reported their victimization in the 1994-1996 Violence and Threats of Violence Against Women and Men in the United States survey. The authors expected that men who reported being severely assaulted would be more likely than others to seek counseling. They defined severely assaulted as having been penetrated, assaulted with a weapon, threatened, self-reported sustaining physical injuries, sought medical care, and/or reported the assault to the police. However, in their logistic model that explores who sought counseling, only one variable was significant. The odds of seeking counseling for men who reported being penetrated had significantly lower odds of seeking counseling all else equal.

  1. Inmate's rape suit is viable despite missing paperwork.

    PubMed

    1999-10-29

    An appeals court has reinstated a rape suit filed by an inmate who did not follow procedures when filing his complaint. The 6th U.S. Circuit Court of Appeals reinstated the suit by [name removed], who claims officials of the Ohio Department of Corrections (DOC) were deliberately indifferent to his safety and provided inadequate care after he was attacked by a fellow inmate. The case was originally dismissed on the grounds that [name removed] filed his lawsuit before filing a grievance form as required by the Prison Litigation Reform Act of 1996. The 6th Circuit ruled that [name removed] complied with the law by writing letters to several prison officials inquiring about his attacker's HIV status and possible charges against the attacker.

  2. Identifying common practices in community-based rape prevention programs.

    PubMed

    Townsend, Stephanie M; Campbell, Rebecca

    2008-01-01

    Community-based rape prevention programs have received little attention in the research literature. In this study qualitative methods were used to describe such programs and to assess the degree of homogeneity in their practices. In-depth interviews were conducted with representatives of 10 community-based prevention programs in a single state. Findings suggest that two typologies exist: short programs and extended programs. Homogeneity across programs was common as most programs emphasized secondary and tertiary prevention and relied on short curricula that are implemented with mixed-gender groups of students. A comparison to practices found in the research literature indicate that they are mostly using the same practices and these practices have not been demonstrated to have sustained behavioral effects that would reduce the incidence of sexual violence. Implications for future practice are discussed.

  3. Investigating the Self-Protective Potential of Immobility in Victims of Rape.

    PubMed

    A de Heer, Brooke; C Jones, Lynn

    2017-01-27

    Using a nationwide sample of reported rape cases collected by the Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI; 389 victims; 89% stranger rapes), this study investigates assumptions about self-protective behaviors for rape victims. Past research on victim resistance strategies often specifies active resistance as self-protective, inadvertently underestimating the potential for biologically based reactions, such as tonic immobility, to be self-protective as well. Results confirm that rape victims who were verbally and physically immobile during the attack were less likely to be injured and have force used against them. In addition, victims who were verbally immobile suffered a less severe attack. The results indicate that immobility may protect the victim from increased injury, force, and severity of the attack. Implications for the legal and public definition of consent are discussed.

  4. The Effect of Victim Resistance on Rape Completion: A Meta-Analysis.

    PubMed

    Wong, Jennifer S; Balemba, Samantha

    2016-08-12

    When confronted with a sexual attacker, women are often extremely concerned with avoiding rape completion. While narrative reviews typically suggest that the victim resistance is linked to rape avoidance, much of the existing literature relies on overlapping samples from the National Crime Victimization Survey. The current meta-analysis examines whether victim resistance is related to a greater likelihood of avoiding rape completion. Results from a systematic literature search across 25 databases supplemented by a search of the gray literature resulted in 4,581 hits of which seven studies met eligibility criteria for the review. Findings suggest that women who resist their attacker are significantly more likely than nonresisters to avoid rape completion. This finding held across analyses for physical resistance, verbal resistance, or resistance of any kind. Limitations of the analysis and policy implications are discussed, with particular focus on other research findings that resistance may be linked to greater victim injury.

  5. Implicit and explicit attitudes toward rape are associated with sexual aggression.

    PubMed

    Nunes, Kevin L; Hermann, Chantal A; Ratcliffe, Katie

    2013-09-01

    We examined the relationship between self-reported sexual aggression and implicit and explicit attitudes towards rape in a sample of 86 male heterosexual university students. Large, significant group differences were found between the most sexually aggressive participants and the nonaggressive participants, with the most sexually aggressive group showing less negative implicit and explicit attitudes towards rape (Cohen's d=0.76-1.20). Implicit and explicit attitudes provided complementary information such that together they were more strongly associated with sexual aggression than on their own. The current findings suggest that implicit and explicit attitudes towards rape are associated with sexual aggression. In addition to the broader set of cognitions that appear to be assessed by most self-report measures, the narrower construct of attitudes towards rape may be a fruitful avenue of further exploration for research, assessment, and treatment of sexual aggression.

  6. Using colposcopy in the rape exam: health care, forensic, and criminal justice issues.

    PubMed

    Sommers, Marilyn Sawyer; Fisher, Bonnie S; Karjane, Heather M

    2005-01-01

    In the setting of a forensic examination following rape, colposcopy allows practitioners to identify and photograph genital injury not readily visible to the unaided eye, thereby clarifying the location and extent of injury as well as providing evidence for court proceedings. Since the 1980s, the technique once reserved for victims of child abuse has been used across the lifespan and has been shown to identify genital injury in up to 87% of women who have been raped. The role of colposcopic findings as evidence in court testimony, however, remains controversial. This paper explores the history of colposcopy in the rape exam and describes the epidemiology of genital injury in consensual sex as well as rape.

  7. The (in)credible words of women: false allegations in European rape research.

    PubMed

    Kelly, Liz

    2010-12-01

    The issue of false allegations in rape cases cannot be understood without reference to the ways in which rape law and its interpretation has historically problematized "the words of a woman" when what they were speaking about was sexual violation. Whilst the letter of the law has been reformed in many countries, legacies remain sedimented into institutional cultures and practices, creating a risk of over-identification of false allegations by police and prosecutors. Findings from two European studies on attrition in reported rape cases are drawn on to highlight both the mechanisms and processes which create the category of false allegations, especially the opaque "no crime/unfounded" designations and that CJS personnel believe the rates to be considerably higher than their own data. The article concludes by raising the possibility of internationally agreed standards for designating a rape report "false."

  8. Facing sexual violence in a rape emergency room: identification, projective identification, and the myth of nemesis.

    PubMed

    Orlandini, Alvise

    2002-01-01

    This article focuses on the relationship between identification and sexual abuse. Three subsequent levels are considered, namely, the relationship between (1) the abuser and the victim, (2) the gynecologist or social worker of the Rape Emergency Room (RER) and the victim, and (3) the gynecologist or social worker and the entire RER staff. In the relationship with a rape victim, the gynecologist and the social worker may perceive unexpected negative feelings such as fear, horror, impotence, despair, or even anger which can interfere in the identification with the victim. Rape can be considered also as a concrete form of devaluation through concrete penetration of the victim. As an example, a myth of sexual abuse will be presented: the rape of Nemesis by Zeus.

  9. Differences between Japanese and American college students in giving advice about help seeking to rape victims.

    PubMed

    Yamawaki, Niwako

    2007-10-01

    In this study, the author investigated differences in Japanese and American college students' tendencies to advise a hypothetical rape victim (their sister) to seek help from police, family members, or mental health professionals. Japanese students tended to encourage the victim to seek help from her family members, whereas American students tended to encourage her to seek help from police and mental health counselors. Cross-cultural discrepancies were marked by the following factors: (a) feelings of shame moderated advice to seek help from police; (b) minimization of rape mediated the likelihood to advise the involvement of police and mental health counselors; (c) attitudes toward mental health counselors mediated advice to seek help from them; and (d) the type of rape (stranger vs. date rape) moderated advice to report the crime to police.

  10. Prospective Study of Rape Perpetration by Young South African Men: Incidence & Risk Factors

    PubMed Central

    Jewkes, Rachel; Nduna, Mzikazi; Jama Shai, Nwabisa; Dunkle, Kristin

    2012-01-01

    Background There has been very little prospective research on rape perpetration among men. This paper describes the incidence and risk factors for new rape and attempted rape events among young South African men in an HIV prevention trial. Methods We followed 1,147 men aged 15–26 years who enrolled into a cluster randomised controlled trial to evaluate the HIV prevention behavioural intervention Stepping Stones. Incidence rate ratios for factors associated with incident rape were derived from Poisson models. Results The young men reported 217 incident rapes (completed or attempted) of a girl or woman over 1,914 person years of follow up, yielding a rape incidence of 11.2 per 100 person years. Overall 24.9% of men had previously raped at baseline, and 18.9% did so during the follow up. Among the latter, 61.3% raped for the first time, and 38.7% re-offended. Multivariable Poisson modelling showed a higher incidence of rape perpetration among men who had ever used drugs (IRR 1.86 95%CI 1.39, 2.49), had eight or more lifetime partners (IRR 1.48 95% CI 1.09, 2.01), had been physically violent toward a female partner (IRR 1.50 95%CI 1.11, 2.03) and had disclosed rape perpetration at baseline (IRR 1.45 95%CI 1.07, 1.97). A lower incidence was found among those with greater resistance to peer pressure (IRR 0.85 95%CI 0.74, 0.97). Conclusions The findings highlight the importance of male gender socialisation and addressing delinquent youth sub-cultures in rape prevention. Prevention requires change in hegemonic masculinity, with its emphasis on gender hierarchy, exaggerated performance of heterosexuality and control of women. Interventions are needed to address male socialisation with delinquent peers, by reducing exposure to childhood trauma and strengthening opportunities for gainful employment (in work or recreation). PMID:22675449

  11. [Analysis of forensic-medical expert conclusions on rap and concealed rape (data from anonymous questionnaires)].

    PubMed

    Pigolkin, Iu I; Dmitrieva, O A

    2001-01-01

    Specific features of modern cases of raping are analyzed on the basis of the data of forensic medical obstetrical and gynecological expert evaluations carried out in the Primorye territory. Age and risk groups are defined, health status of victims is characterized, and specific injuries of the body and genitals are described. Specific features of concealed sexual violations in Vladivostok are defined and the need in creation of rehabilitation centers for victims of raping is discussed.

  12. Coordinate changes in gene expression and triacylglycerol composition in the developing seeds of oilseed rape (Brassica napus) and turnip rape (Brassica rapa).

    PubMed

    Vuorinen, Anssi L; Kalpio, Marika; Linderborg, Kaisa M; Kortesniemi, Maaria; Lehto, Kirsi; Niemi, Jarmo; Yang, Baoru; Kallio, Heikki P

    2014-02-15

    Crop production for vegetable oil in the northern latitudes utilises oilseed rape (Brassica napus subsp. oleifera) and turnip rape (B. rapa subsp. oleifera), having similar oil compositions. The oil consists mostly of triacylglycerols, which are synthesised during seed development. In this study, we characterised the oil composition and the expression levels of genes involved in triacylglycerol biosynthesis in the developing seeds in optimal, low temperature (15 °C) and short day (12-h day length) conditions. Gene expression levels of several genes were altered during seed development. Low temperature and short day treatments increased the level of 9,12,15-octadecatrienoic acid (18:3n-3) in turnip rape and short day treatment decreased the total oil content in both species. This study gives a novel view on seed oil biosynthesis under different growth conditions, bringing together gene expression levels of the triacylglycerol biosynthesis pathway and oil composition over a time series in two related oilseed species.

  13. Antioxidant enzyme systems and the ascorbate-glutathione cycle as contributing factors to cadmium accumulation and tolerance in two oilseed rape cultivars (Brassica napus L.) under moderate cadmium stress.

    PubMed

    Wu, Zhichao; Zhao, Xiaohu; Sun, Xuecheng; Tan, Qiling; Tang, Yafang; Nie, Zhaojun; Qu, Chanjuan; Chen, Zuoxin; Hu, Chengxiao

    2015-11-01

    Oilseed rape (Brassica napus L.) with high tolerance to cadmium (Cd) may be used in the phytoremediation of Cd-contaminated fields. However, the mechanisms responsible for Cd accumulation and tolerance in oilseed rape are still poorly understood. Here, we investigated the physiological and molecular processes involved in Cd tolerance of two oilseed rape cultivars with different Cd accumulation abilities. The total Cd accumulation in cultivar L351 was higher than cultivar L338, particularly with increasing concentrations of Cd exposure. L338 was a more pronounced Cd-sensitive cultivar than L351, while higher activities of antioxidant enzymes (CAT, APX, GR, DHAR) as well as higher contents of GSH and AsA were all observed in L351 under Cd treatments, especially at high levels. No differences were found in SOD activities between the two cultivars under the same Cd treatments, suggesting that SOD was not the key factor in relation to the differences of Cd tolerance and accumulation between them. Gene expression levels of BnFe-SOD, BnCAT, BnAPX, BcGR and BoDHAR in roots of L351 were relatively higher than that in L338 under Cd exposure as well as BnCAT and BcGR in leaves. It is concluded that antioxidant enzymes and the ascorbate-glutathione cycle play important roles in oilseed rape Cd accumulation and tolerance.

  14. Caught between teens and the law: family planning programs and statutory rape reporting.

    PubMed

    Donovan, P

    1998-06-01

    In the US, policy-makers and legislators have considered using statutory rape prosecutions of males to reduce the incidence of adolescent pregnancy or the incidence of minors being exploited sexually by much older males. However, health care professionals fear that mandatory reporting of such cases will discourage young women from seeking health care. Statutory rape laws vary from state to state, but every state has an age below which a minor may not legally consent to sexual intercourse. Reporting laws are more complicated because they are tied to child abuse statutes instead of statutory rape laws. In about half of the states, the definition of child abuse includes some cases of statutory rape. Thus, agencies created to deal with intrafamilial abuse have no mechanism for responding to reports of extrafamilial statutory rape, so some case reports are simply filed while others result in the man being charged with a crime. Such a response simply breaches the confidentiality of the victim and has other unintended negative consequences. Many service providers edit the questions they ask their clients so that they can avoid mandatory reporting. Others tell their clients not to divulge the age of their sexual partner, but such a warning can make young women afraid to confide in service providers. To shed light on this dilemma, the American Bar Association is doing research to identify the "best practice" adopted by communities seeking a more vigorous response to statutory rape laws, and lawmakers should wait for this report before taking action.

  15. From Survivor to Thriver: A Pilot Study of an Online Program for Rape Victims

    PubMed Central

    Littleton, Heather; Buck, Katherine; Rosman, Lindsey; Grills-Taquechel, Amie

    2013-01-01

    Approximately 15% to 20% of women have been victims of rape and close to a third report current rape-related PTSD or clinically significant depression or anxiety. Unfortunately, very few distressed rape victims seek formal help. This suggests a need to develop alternative ways to assist the many distressed victims of sexual violence. Online treatment programs represent a potentially important alternative strategy for reaching such individuals. The current paper describes a pilot evaluation of an online, therapist-facilitated, self-paced cognitive behavioral program for rape victims. Five college women with current rape-related PTSD were recruited to complete the From Survivor to Thriver (S to T) program in a lab setting over the course of 7 weeks. After completing the program, 4 participants reported clinically significant reductions in PTSD symptoms and no longer met criteria for PTSD. All participants reported clinically significant reductions in vulnerability fears and 4 reported significant reductions in negative trauma-related cognitions. Implications of the results for further development of the S to T program and how clinicians could utilize this program in treating rape-related PTSD are discussed. PMID:24009410

  16. Randomized controlled evaluation of an early intervention to prevent post-rape psychopathology.

    PubMed

    Resnick, Heidi; Acierno, Ron; Waldrop, Angela E; King, Lynda; King, Daniel; Danielson, Carla; Ruggiero, Kenneth J; Kilpatrick, Dean

    2007-10-01

    A randomized between-group design was used to evaluate the efficacy of a video intervention to reduce post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and other mental health problems, implemented prior to the forensic medical examination conducted within 72 h post-sexual assault. Participants were 140 female victims of sexual assault (68 video/72 nonvideo) aged 15 years or older. Assessments were targeted for 6 weeks (Time 1) and 6 months (Time 2) post-assault. At Time 1, the intervention was associated with lower scores on measures of PTSD and depression among women with a prior rape history relative to scores among women with a prior rape history in the standard care condition. At Time 2, depression scores were also lower among those with a prior rape history who were in the video relative to the standard care condition. Small effects indicating higher PTSD and Beck Anxiety Inventory (BAI) scores among women without a prior rape history in the video condition were observed at Time 1. Accelerated longitudinal growth curve analysis indicated a videoxprior rape history interaction for PTSD, yielding four patterns of symptom trajectory over time. Women with a prior rape history in the video condition generally maintained the lowest level of symptoms.

  17. How nursing students' reactions to rape victims are affected by a perceived act of carelessness.

    PubMed

    Damrosch, S P

    1981-01-01

    This experiment focused on how reactions to a rape victim would be affected by a perceived act of carelessness. The subjects were 116 graduating baccalaureate nursing students, 31% of whom were registered nurses. All subjects read a vignette of a rape in which the victim was described as having driven to a drugstore on a legitimate errand. Subjects were randomly assigned to read one of four versions, in which the victim either locked or failed to lock her car door (carelessness manipulation) and in which the rape occurred at 10:00 P.M. or midnight. All subjects evaluated the victim on a series of 11-point rating scales, and the data were analyzed by means of 2 x 2 analyses of variance. As hypothesized, subjects in the unlocked condition (compared to those in the locked condition) liked and identified with the victim significantly less, and attributed significantly more carelessness and responsibility for the rape to her. There was no significant main effect for the time the rape occurred. Use of vignettes as an unobtrusive measure of attitude toward rape, and implications for nursing education and practice are discussed.

  18. Same-Sex and Race-Based Disparities in Statutory Rape Arrests.

    PubMed

    Chaffin, Mark; Chenoweth, Stephanie; Letourneau, Elizabeth J

    2016-01-01

    This study tests a liberation hypothesis for statutory rape incidents, specifically that there may be same-sex and race/ethnicity arrest disparities among statutory rape incidents and that these will be greater among statutory rape than among forcible sex crime incidents. 26,726 reported incidents of statutory rape as defined under state statutes and 96,474 forcible sex crime incidents were extracted from National Incident-Based Reporting System data sets. Arrest outcomes were tested using multilevel modeling. Same-sex statutory rape pairings were rare but had much higher arrest odds. A victim-offender romantic relationship amplified arrest odds for same-sex pairings, but damped arrest odds for male-on-female pairings. Same-sex disparities were larger among statutory than among forcible incidents. Female-on-male incidents had uniformly lower arrest odds. Race/ethnicity effects were smaller than gender effects and more complexly patterned. The findings support the liberation hypothesis for same-sex statutory rape arrest disparities, particularly among same-sex romantic pairings. Support for race/ethnicity-based arrest disparities was limited and mixed.

  19. Attitude towards rape: a comparative study among prospective physicians of Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Sivagnanam, G; Bairy, K L; D'Souza, Urban

    2005-08-01

    The global statistics reveal that at least one in every five women experiences rape or attempted rape during her lifetime. Rape myths encompass a set of (false) beliefs. Adolescents have high rates of rape victimization than other age groups. Rape myths among health care providers may have a negative influence on proper care of the victims. A total of 422 medical undergraduates of both sexes, studying at two Malaysian Institutes took part in the study. A validated questionnaire used in an earlier study was used for the present study, with a slight modification of scoring system. The age range of medical students was 17 to 34 years: mean +/- SD of men and women, were 20.6 +/- 2.1 and 20.3 +/- 2 respectively. Only about 19% of women and 11% of men had a very good positive attitude. Nearly 1/3 of women and 1/2 of men had a more negative attitude. On the whole the average total score of women was significantly higher (p=0.0004) than men. Nearly 50% of candidates with a village background carried more negative attitude. Violence against women is a significant public health problem. The major revelation of the present study is that only less than 20% of the medical undergraduates had a more positive attitude towards rape. Introduction of courses on 'sexual violence' in medical curriculum is likely to increase a) awareness, b) skills in management, c) in providing support and care for the victims and d) in implementing preventive actions.

  20. Rape-myth congruent beliefs in women resulting from exposure to violent pornography: effects of alcohol and sexual arousal.

    PubMed

    Davis, Kelly Cue; Norris, Jeanette; George, William H; Martell, Joel; Heiman, Julia R

    2006-09-01

    Previous research findings indicate that women suffer a variety of detrimental effects from exposure to violent pornography. This study used an experimental paradigm to examine the effects of a moderate alcohol dose and alcohol expectancies on women's acute reactions to a violent pornographic stimulus. A community sample of female social drinkers (N = 134) read an eroticized rape depiction after completing an alcohol administration protocol. As predicted, intoxicated participants were less likely to label the depicted events as rape than their sober counterparts. A path analytic model illustrated that participants' self-reported sexual arousal to the stimulus, as influenced by alcohol consumption and expectancies, resulted in increased rape myth congruent perceptions of the victim and decreased labeling of the incident as rape. Findings suggest that acute alcohol intoxication during violent pornography exposure may ultimately result in women developing more calloused attitudes toward rape and rape victims.

  1. Correlates of reasons for not reporting rape to police: results from a national telephone household probability sample of women with forcible or drug-or-alcohol facilitated/incapacitated rape.

    PubMed

    Cohn, Amy M; Zinzow, Heidi M; Resnick, Heidi S; Kilpatrick, Dean G

    2013-02-01

    Rape tactics, rape incident characteristics, and mental health problems (lifetime depression, PTSD, and substance abuse) were investigated as correlates of eight different reasons for not reporting a rape to police among women who had experienced but did not report a rape to police (n = 441) within a national telephone household probability sample. Rape tactics (nonmutually exclusive) included drug or alcohol-facilitated or incapacitated rape (DAFR/IR; n = 119) and forcible rape (FR; n = 376). Principal Components Analysis (PCA) was conducted to extract a dominant set of patterns among the eight reasons for not reporting, and to reduce the set of dependent variables. PCA results indicated three unique factors: Not Wanting Others to Know, Nonacknowledgment of Rape, and Criminal Justice Concerns. Hierarchical regression analyses showed DAFR/IR and FR were both positively and significantly associated with Criminal Justice Concerns, whereas DAFR/IR, but not FR, was associated with Nonacknowledgment as a reason for not reporting to police. Neither DAFR/IR nor FR emerged as significant predictors of Others Knowing after controlling for fear of death or injury at the time of the incident. Correlations among variables showed that the Criminal Justice Concerns factor was positively related to lifetime depression and PTSD and the Nonacknowledgement factor was negatively related to lifetime PTSD. Findings suggest prevention programs should educate women about the definition of rape, which may include incapacitation due to alcohol or drugs, to increase acknowledgement and decrease barriers to police reporting.

  2. Gender Inequitable Masculinity and Sexual Entitlement in Rape Perpetration South Africa: Findings of a Cross-Sectional Study

    PubMed Central

    Jewkes, Rachel; Sikweyiya, Yandisa; Morrell, Robert; Dunkle, Kristin

    2011-01-01

    Objective To describe the prevalence and patterns of rape perpetration in a randomly selected sample of men from the general adult population, to explore factors associated with rape and to describe how men explained their acts of rape. Design Cross-sectional household study with a two- stage randomly selected sample of men. Methods 1737 South African men aged 18–49 completed a questionnaire administered using an Audio-enhanced Personal Digital Assistant. Multivariable logistic regression models were built to identify factors associated with rape perpetration. Results In all 27.6% (466/1686) of men had raped a woman, whether an intimate partner, stranger or acquaintance, and whether perpetrated alone or with accomplices, and 4.7% had raped in the last 12 months. First rapes for 75% were perpetrated before age 20, and 53.9% (251) of those raping, did so on multiple occasions. The logistic regression model showed that having raped was associated with greater adversity in childhood, having been raped by a man and higher maternal education. It was associated with less equitable views on gender relations, having had more partners, and many more gender inequitable practices including transactional sex and physical partner violence. Also drug use, gang membership and a higher score on the dimensions of psychopathic personality, namely blame externalisation and Machiavellian egocentricity. Asked about why they did it, the most common motivations stemmed from ideas of sexual entitlement. Conclusions Perpetration of rape is so prevalent that population-based measures of prevention are essential to complement criminal justice system responses. Our findings show the importance of measures to build gender equity and change dominant ideas of masculinity and gender relations as part of rape prevention. Reducing men's exposure to trauma in childhood is also critically important. PMID:22216324

  3. Quantification of Plasmodiophora brassicae Using a DNA-Based Soil Test Facilitates Sustainable Oilseed Rape Production.

    PubMed

    Wallenhammar, Ann-Charlotte; Gunnarson, Albin; Hansson, Fredrik; Jonsson, Anders

    2016-04-22

    Outbreaks of clubroot disease caused by the soil-borne obligate parasite Plasmodiophora brassicae are common in oilseed rape (OSR) in Sweden. A DNA-based soil testing service that identifies fields where P. brassicae poses a significant risk of clubroot infection is now commercially available. It was applied here in field surveys to monitor the prevalence of P. brassicae DNA in field soils intended for winter OSR production and winter OSR field experiments. In 2013 in Scania, prior to planting, P. brassicae DNA was detected in 60% of 45 fields on 10 of 18 farms. In 2014, P. brassicae DNA was detected in 44% of 59 fields in 14 of 36 farms, in the main winter OSR producing region in southern Sweden. P. brassicae was present indicative of a risk for >10% yield loss with susceptible cultivars (>1300 DNA copies g soil(-1)) in 47% and 44% of fields in 2013 and 2014 respectively. Furthermore, P. brassicae DNA was indicative of sites at risk of complete crop failure if susceptible cultivars were grown (>50 000 copies g(-1) soil) in 14% and 8% of fields in 2013 and 2014, respectively. A survey of all fields at Lanna research station in western Sweden showed that P. brassicae was spread throughout the farm, as only three of the fields (20%) showed infection levels below the detection limit for P.brassicae DNA, while the level was >50,000 DNA copies g(-1) soil in 20% of the fields. Soil-borne spread is of critical importance and soil scraped off footwear showed levels of up to 682 million spores g(-1) soil. Soil testing is an important tool for determining the presence of P. brassicae and providing an indication of potential yield loss, e.g., in advisory work on planning for a sustainable OSR crop rotation. This soil test is gaining acceptance as a tool that increases the likelihood of success in precision agriculture and in applied research conducted in commercial oilseed fields and at research stations. The present application highlights the importance of prevention of

  4. Phosphorylation of bacterial-type phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase by a Ca2+-dependent protein kinase suggests a link between Ca2+ signalling and anaplerotic pathway control in developing castor oil seeds.

    PubMed

    Hill, Allyson T; Ying, Sheng; Plaxton, William C

    2014-02-15

    The aim of the present study was to characterize the native protein kinase [BTPC (bacterial-type phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase)-K (BTPC Ser451 kinase)] that in vivo phosphorylates Ser451 of the BTPC subunits of an unusual Class-2 PEP (phosphoenolpyruvate) carboxylase hetero-octameric complex of developing COS (castor oil seeds). COS BTPC-K was highly purified by PEG fractionation and hydrophobic size-exclusion anion-exchange and affinity chromatographies. BTPC-K phosphorylated BTPC strictly at Ser451 (Km=1.0 μM; pH optimum=7.3), a conserved target residue occurring within an intrinsically disordered region, as well as the protein histone III-S (Km=1.7 μM), but not a COS plant-type PEP carboxylase or sucrose synthase or α-casein. Its activity was Ca2+- (K0.5=2.7 μM) and ATP- (Km=6.6 μM) dependent, and markedly inhibited by trifluoperazine, 3-phosphoglycerate and PEP, but insensitive to calmodulin or 14-3-3 proteins. BTPC-K exhibited a native molecular mass of ~63 kDa and was soluble rather than membrane-bound. Inactivation and reactivation occurred upon BTPC-K's incubation with GSSG and then DTT respectively. Ser451 phosphorylation by BTPC-K inhibited BTPC activity by ~50% when assayed under suboptimal conditions (pH 7.3, 1 mM PEP and 10 mM L-malate). Our collective results indicate a possible link between cytosolic Ca2+ signalling and anaplerotic flux control in developing COS.

  5. Self-defense or undermining the self? Exploring the possibilities and limitations of a novel anti-rape technology.

    PubMed

    White, Deborah; Rees, Gethin

    2014-03-01

    Despite decades of feminist-inspired law reforms, rape remains highly prevalent. While many continue to fight for broad cultural and institutional changes, some argue that more immediate interventions are required. Self-defense techniques represent a key strategy of resistance to rape, and empirical evidence suggests that women's active resistance may hold a number of positive benefits. In this essay, we compare the aims and objectives of a novel anti-rape technology, known as the Rape-aXe, with traditional self-defense techniques, focusing upon the potential for both to resist individual acts of sexual aggression and, more broadly, end gendered sexual violence.

  6. Seed Architecture Shapes Embryo Metabolism in Oilseed Rape[W][OA

    PubMed Central

    Borisjuk, Ljudmilla; Neuberger, Thomas; Schwender, Jörg; Heinzel, Nicolas; Sunderhaus, Stephanie; Fuchs, Johannes; Hay, Jordan O.; Tschiersch, Henning; Braun, Hans-Peter; Denolf, Peter; Lambert, Bart; Jakob, Peter M.; Rolletschek, Hardy

    2013-01-01

    Constrained to develop within the seed, the plant embryo must adapt its shape and size to fit the space available. Here, we demonstrate how this adjustment shapes metabolism of photosynthetic embryo. Noninvasive NMR-based imaging of the developing oilseed rape (Brassica napus) seed illustrates that, following embryo bending, gradients in lipid concentration became established. These were correlated with the local photosynthetic electron transport rate and the accumulation of storage products. Experimentally induced changes in embryo morphology and/or light supply altered these gradients and were accompanied by alterations in both proteome and metabolome. Tissue-specific metabolic models predicted that the outer cotyledon and hypocotyl/radicle generate the bulk of plastidic reductant/ATP via photosynthesis, while the inner cotyledon, being enclosed by the outer cotyledon, is forced to grow essentially heterotrophically. Under field-relevant high-light conditions, major contribution of the ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase–bypass to seed storage metabolism is predicted for the outer cotyledon and the hypocotyl/radicle only. Differences between in vitro– versus in planta–grown embryos suggest that metabolic heterogeneity of embryo is not observable by in vitro approaches. We conclude that in vivo metabolic fluxes are locally regulated and connected to seed architecture, driving the embryo toward an efficient use of available light and space. PMID:23709628

  7. Impunity or immunity: wartime male rape and sexual torture as a crime against humanity.

    PubMed

    Zawati, Hilmi M

    2007-01-01

    This paper seeks to analyze the phenomenon of wartime rape and sexual torture of Croatian and Iraqi men and to explore the avenues for its prosecution under international humanitarian and human rights law. Male rape, in time of war, is predominantly an assertion of power and aggression rather than an attempt on the part of the perpetrator to satisfy sexual desire. The effect of such a horrible attack is to damage the victim's psyche, rob him of his pride, and intimidate him. In Bosnia- Herzegovina, Croatia, and Iraq, therefore, male rape and sexual torture has been used as a weapon of war with dire consequences for the victim's mental, physical, and sexual health. Testimonies collected at the Medical Centre for Human Rights in Zagreb and reports received from Iraq make it clear that prisoners in these conflicts have been exposed to sexual humiliation, as well as to systematic and systemic sexual torture. This paper calls upon the international community to combat the culture of impunity in both dictator-ruled and democratic countries by bringing the crime of wartime rape into the international arena, and by removing all barriers to justice facing the victims. Moreover, it emphasizes the fact that wartime rape is the ultimate humiliation that can be inflicted on a human being, and it must be regarded as one of the most grievous crimes against humanity. The international community has to consider wartime rape a crime of war and a threat to peace and security. It is in this respect that civilian community associations can fulfill their duties by encouraging victims of male rape to break their silence and address their socio-medical needs, including reparations and rehabilitation.

  8. Examining the Associations Between Sex Trade Involvement, Rape, and Symptomatology of Sexual Abuse Trauma

    PubMed Central

    Lutnick, Alexandra; Harris, Jennie; Lorvick, Jennifer; Cheng, Helen; Wenger, Lynn D.; Bourgois, Philippe; Kral, Alex H.

    2015-01-01

    The high prevalence of rape and sexual trauma symptomatology among women involved in street-based sex trades is well-established. Because prior research has lacked appropriate, non-sex trade involved comparison groups, it is unknown whether differences exist among similarly situated women who do and do not trade sex. This article explores experiences of childhood and adult rape and symptomatology of sexual abuse trauma among a community-based sample of 322 women who use methamphetamine in San Francisco, California, 61% of whom were involved in the sex trade. Study participants were recruited via respondent-driven sampling and eligible if they were cisgender women, aged 18 or older, current methamphetamine users, and sexually active with at least one cisgender man in the past 6 months. The dependent variable was sexual abuse trauma symptomatology, as measured by the Sexual Abuse Trauma Index (SATI) subscale of the Trauma Symptom Checklist–40 (TSC-40), and the explanatory variable was sex trade involvement. Potential covariates were age, current homelessness, methamphetamine dependence, and experiences of childhood and adult rape. Sixty-one percent of participants had a SATI subscale score suggestive of sexual abuse trauma. The overall prevalence of rape in childhood and adulthood was 52% and 73%, respectively. In bivariate analysis, sex trade involvement and all of the potential covariates except for homelessness and age were associated with a SATI score suggestive of sexual abuse trauma. In multivariate models controlling for significant covariates, there was no longer a statistically significant association between sex trade involvement or childhood rape and an elevated SATI score. Elevated levels of psychological dependence on methamphetamine and experiences of rape as an adult were still associated with a high SATI score. These findings highlight that urban poor women, regardless of sex trade involvement, suffer high levels of rape and related trauma

  9. Examining the associations between sex trade involvement, rape, and symptomatology of sexual abuse trauma.

    PubMed

    Lutnick, Alexandra; Harris, Jennie; Lorvick, Jennifer; Cheng, Helen; Wenger, Lynn D; Bourgois, Philippe; Kral, Alex H

    2015-07-01

    The high prevalence of rape and sexual trauma symptomatology among women involved in street-based sex trades is well-established. Because prior research has lacked appropriate, non-sex trade involved comparison groups, it is unknown whether differences exist among similarly situated women who do and do not trade sex. This article explores experiences of childhood and adult rape and symptomatology of sexual abuse trauma among a community-based sample of 322 women who use methamphetamine in San Francisco, California, 61% of whom were involved in the sex trade. Study participants were recruited via respondent-driven sampling and eligible if they were cisgender women, aged 18 or older, current methamphetamine users, and sexually active with at least one cisgender man in the past 6 months. The dependent variable was sexual abuse trauma symptomatology, as measured by the Sexual Abuse Trauma Index (SATI) subscale of the Trauma Symptom Checklist-40 (TSC-40), and the explanatory variable was sex trade involvement. Potential covariates were age, current homelessness, methamphetamine dependence, and experiences of childhood and adult rape. Sixty-one percent of participants had a SATI subscale score suggestive of sexual abuse trauma. The overall prevalence of rape in childhood and adulthood was 52% and 73%, respectively. In bivariate analysis, sex trade involvement and all of the potential covariates except for homelessness and age were associated with a SATI score suggestive of sexual abuse trauma. In multivariate models controlling for significant covariates, there was no longer a statistically significant association between sex trade involvement or childhood rape and an elevated SATI score. Elevated levels of psychological dependence on methamphetamine and experiences of rape as an adult were still associated with a high SATI score. These findings highlight that urban poor women, regardless of sex trade involvement, suffer high levels of rape and related trauma

  10. Community perceptions of rape and child sexual abuse: a qualitative study in rural Tanzania

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Rape of women and children is recognized as a health and human rights issue in Tanzania and internationally. Exploration of the prevailing perceptions in rural areas is needed in order to expand the understanding of sexual violence in the diversity of Tanzania’s contexts. The aim of this study therefore was to explore and understand perceptions of rape of women and children at the community level in a rural district in Tanzania with the added objective of exploring those perceptions that may contribute to perpetuating and/or hindering the disclosure of rape incidences. Methods A qualitative design was employed using focus group discussions with male and female community members including religious leaders, professionals, and other community members. The discussions centered on causes of rape, survivors of rape, help-seeking and reporting, and gathered suggestions on measures for improvement. Six focus group discussions (four of single gender and two of mixed gender) were conducted. The focus group discussions were recorded, transcribed verbatim, and analyzed using manifest qualitative content analysis. Results The participants perceived rape of women and children to be a frequent and hidden phenomenon. A number of factors were singled out as contributing to rape, such as erosion of social norms, globalization, poverty, vulnerability of children, alcohol/drug abuse and poor parental care. Participants perceived the need for educating the community to raise their knowledge of sexual violence and its consequences, and their roles as preventive agents. Conclusions In this rural context, social norms reinforce sexual violence against women and children, and hinder them from seeking help from support services. Addressing the identified challenges may promote help-seeking behavior and improve care of survivors of sexual violence, while changes in social and cultural norms are needed for the prevention of sexual violence. PMID:25132543

  11. Is Rape in the Eye or in the Mind of the Offender? A Survey of Rape Perception among Nigerian University Stakeholders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Elegbeleye, O. S.

    2006-01-01

    The issue of the escalating incidents of rape in Nigerian higher institutions has, not unexpectedly, agitated the minds of both students and university workers on the one hand, and the general public, on the other. This development has forced the hands of the authorities in some of the Nigerian universities to give priority to finding a solution…

  12. Forcible, drug-facilitated, and incapacitated rape in relation to substance use problems: results from a national sample of college women.

    PubMed

    McCauley, Jenna; Ruggiero, Kenneth J; Resnick, Heidi S; Conoscenti, Lauren M; Kilpatrick, Dean G

    2009-05-01

    This is the first study to examine the relation between rape and substance use problems in college women as a function of three legally recognized forms of rape: forcible, incapacitated, and substance-facilitated rape. Data were collected via structured telephone interview with a large national sample of college women aged 18-34 years (n=1980). Lifetime prevalence of any type of rape was 11.3% in the sample. Prevalence estimates for binge drinking and substance abuse were 15.8% and 19.8%, respectively. Lifetime experience of incapacitated rape and drug-alcohol facilitated rape, but not forcible rape, were associated with increased odds of past-year binge drinking and substance abuse. Findings have implications for secondary prevention and call for continued differentiation in assessment of rape type.

  13. Low level impurities in imported wheat are a likely source of feral transgenic oilseed rape (Brassica napus L.) in Switzerland.

    PubMed

    Schulze, Juerg; Brodmann, Peter; Oehen, Bernadette; Bagutti, Claudia

    2015-11-01

    In Switzerland, the cultivation of genetically modified (GM) oilseed rape (Brassica napus L.) and the use of its seeds for food and feed are not permitted. Nevertheless, the GM oilseed rape events GT73, MS8×RF3, MS8 and RF3 have recently been found in the Rhine port of Basel, Switzerland. The sources of GM oilseed rape seeds have been unknown. The main agricultural good being imported at the Rhine port of Basel is wheat and from 2010 to 2013, 19% of all Swiss wheat imports originated from Canada. As over 90% of all oilseed rape grown in Canada is GM, we hypothesised that imports of Canadian wheat may contain low level impurities of GM oilseed rape. Therefore, waste fraction samples gathered during the mechanical cleaning of Canadian wheat from two Swiss grain mills were analysed by separating oilseed rape seeds from waste fraction samples and testing DNA of pooled seeds for the presence of transgenes by real-time PCR. Furthermore, oilseed rape seeds from each grain mill were sown in a germination experiment, and seedling DNA was tested for the presence of transgenes by real-time PCR. GT73, MS8×RF3, MS8 and RF3 oilseed rape was detected among seed samples and seedlings of both grain mills. Based on this data, we projected a mean proportion of 0.005% of oilseed rape in wheat imported from Canada. Besides Canadian wheat, the Rhine port of Basel does not import any other significant amounts of agricultural products from GM oilseed rape producing countries. We therefore conclude that Canadian wheat is the major source of unintended introduction of GM oilseed rape seeds into Switzerland.

  14. Stress responses of spring rape plants to soil flooding

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Balakhnina, T.; Bennicelli, R.; Stêpniewska, Z.; Stêpniewski, W.; Borkowska, A.; Fomina, I.

    2012-10-01

    Stress responses of spring rape to soil hypoxia were investigated during 8-days flooding. Soil air-filled porosity decreased from 25-30% to 0%, oxygen diffusion rate - from 2.6-3.5 to 0.34 μmol O2 m-2 s-1, and redox potential - from 460 to 150mVwithin few hours. Alcohol dehydrogenase activity in roots increased up to 7-fold after one day of flooding and then decreased to 170% of control. Superoxide dismutase activity in roots increased by 27% during first 3 days and then dropped to 60% of control; in the leaves superoxide dismutase activity increased in average by 44%. Ascorbate peroxidase activity in leaves increased by 37% during first 3 days and then decreased to control value. Glutathione reductase activity increased by 45% in roots of flooded plants but did not change in leaves. Proline concentration in leaves increased up to 4-fold on the 3d day of flooding and then decreased to control value. Thus soil flooding induces increase of alcohol dehydrogenase activity and subsequent increase of superoxide dismutase and glutathione reductase activities in roots while the leaves display a few days increase of free proline concentration and ascorbate peroxidase activity, and a long-term increase of superoxide dismutase activity.

  15. Motives for Filing a False Allegation of Rape.

    PubMed

    De Zutter, André W E A; Horselenberg, Robert; van Koppen, Peter J

    2017-02-17

    The list of motives by Kanin (1994) is the most cited list of motives to file a false allegation of rape. Kanin posited that complainants file a false allegation out of revenge, to produce an alibi or to get sympathy. A new list of motives is proposed in which gain is the predominant factor. In the proposed list, complainants file a false allegation out of material gain, emotional gain, or a disturbed mental state. The list can be subdivided into eight different categories: material gain, alibi, revenge, sympathy, attention, a disturbed mental state, relabeling, or regret. To test the validity of the list, a sample of 57 proven false allegations were studied at and provided by the National Unit of the Dutch National Police (NU). The complete files were studied to ensure correct classification by the NU and to identify the motives of the complainants. The results support the overall validity of the list. Complainants were primarily motivated by emotional gain. Most false allegations were used to cover up other behavior such as adultery or skipping school. Some complainants, however, reported more than one motive. A large proportion, 20% of complainants, said that they did not know why they filed a false allegation. The results confirm the complexity of motivations for filing false allegations and the difficulties associated with archival studies. In conclusion, the list of Kanin is, based on the current results, valid but insufficient to explain all the different motives of complainants to file a false allegation.

  16. Crime scene analysis and the escalation of violence in serial rape.

    PubMed

    Warren, J; Reboussin, R; Hazelwood, R R; Gibbs, N A; Trumbetta, S L; Cummings, A

    1999-03-15

    The current study examines the crime scene behavior manifest by 108 serial rapists responsible for the perpetration of 565 rapes across various cities within the US. The goal of the current study is to identify which aspects of crime scene behavior reported to law enforcement by the victim are most useful in predicting, early in a series of offenses, which rapists are most likely to escalate into higher and, at times, life threatening levels of violence. Using 58 scales that quantify the verbal, physical, and sexual behavior manifest by a rapist in his interaction with his victim during his first reported rape and 36 modal variables that summarized approach, timing, demographics, and weapon usage across the series of rapes, the study attempts to differentiate between those rapists who escalate in their use of blunt force (Increasers) from those who do not (Non-Increasers). A logistic regression indicates that rapists who are white rather than of minority status and who, at the time of their first reported rape, rape their victims for longer periods of time and use more profanity are more likely to escalate in their level of blunt force than those rapists who do not exhibit these behaviors. The relevance of this type of predictive framework for law enforcement in its attempts to prioritize particular investigations is discussed.

  17. Sexual abuse prevention with high-risk males: the roles of victim empathy and rape myths.

    PubMed

    Schewe, P A; O'Donohue, W

    1993-01-01

    The outcome of two sexual abuse prevention programs, one emphasizing victim empathy and the other stressing modifying rape myths, was evaluated with high-risk males. Sixty-eight high-risk males, as determined by self-reported likelihood of committing sexual abuse, were randomly assigned to an empathy-treatment, a facts-treatment, or a no-treatment control group. Treatment effects were assessed using subjects' pre- and post-treatment scores on the Likelihood of Sexually Abusing scale, the Rape Empathy Scale, the Acceptance of Interpersonal Violence scale, the Adversarial Sexual Beliefs Scale, and a test of self-reported sexual arousal to forced versus consenting sex. In addition, posttest scores on an Asch-type conformity measure were obtained. Results of validity checks indicated that high-risk subjects differed from low-risk subjects on a number of rape-related variables, that the victim-empathy condition increased subjects' empathy, and that subjects found both treatments to be credible and helpful. Comparisons between the empathy-, facts-, and no-treatment group contraindicated the practice of dispelling rape myths as a method of preventing rape among high-risk males.

  18. Conscientious objection, barriers, and abortion in the case of rape: a study among physicians in Brazil.

    PubMed

    Diniz, Debora; Madeiro, Alberto; Rosas, Cristião

    2014-05-01

    In Brazil, to have a legal abortion in the case of rape, the woman's statement that rape has occurred is considered sufficient to guarantee the right to abortion. The aim of this study was to understand the practice and opinions about providing abortion in the case of rape among obstetricians-gynecologists (OBGYNs) in Brazil. A mixed-method study was conducted from April to July 2012 with 1,690 OBGYNs who responded to a structured, electronic, self-completed questionnaire. In the quantitative phase, 81.6% of the physicians required police reports or judicial authorization to guarantee the care requested. In-depth telephone interviews with 50 of these physicians showed that they frequently tested women's rape claim by making them repeat their story to several health professionals; 43.5% of these claimed conscientious objection when they were uncertain whether the woman was telling the truth. The moral environment of illegal abortion alters the purpose of listening to a patient - from providing care to passing judgement on her. The data suggest that women's access to legal abortion is being blocked by these barriers in spite of the law. We recommend that FEBRASGO and the Ministry of Health work together to clarify to physicians that a woman's statement that rape occurred should allow her to access a legal abortion.

  19. Measurement Matters: Comparing Old and New Definitions of Rape in Federal Statistical Reporting.

    PubMed

    Bierie, David M; Davis-Siegel, James C

    2015-10-01

    National statistics on the incidence of rape play an important role in the work of policymakers and academics. The Uniform Crime Reports (UCR) have provided some of the most widely used and influential statistics on the incidence of rape across the United States over the past 80 years. The definition of rape used by UCR changed in 2012 to include substantially more types of sexual assault. This article draws on 20 years of data from the National Incident-Based Reporting System to describe the impact this definitional change will have on estimates of the incidence of rape and trends over time. Drawing on time series as well as panel random effects methodologies, we show that 40% of sexual assaults have been excluded by the prior definition and that the magnitude of this error has grown over time. However, the overall trend in rape over time (year-to-year change) was not substantially different when comparing events meeting the prior definition and the subgroups of sexual assault that will now be counted.

  20. Criterion-related validity of a phallometric test for paraphilic rape and sadism.

    PubMed

    Seto, M C; Kuban, M

    1996-02-01

    Eight men admitting to sadistic fantasies or urges (fantasizers), 7 sadistic rapists (sadists), 14 nonsadistic rapists, 31 courtship-disordered men (men displaying exhibitionism, voyeurism, frotteurism, or a combination of these paraphilias), and 20 community controls were compared on their relative phallometric responses to stimuli depicting rape, violent rape, and nonsexual violence. This study extended previous research by including a group of men who admitted to having sadistic fantasies or urges, in contrast to rapists who are likely to deny any such interests because of possible legal or social sanctions, and by including a large comparison group of men with a paraphilia other than sadism. Criterion-related validity was greater after combining the sadistic and nonsadistic rapists: fantasizers, sadists, and rapists did not differ from each other; fantasizers differed from community controls in their relative responses to rape, violent rape, and nonsexual violence; rapists differed from community controls in their relative responses to violent rape and nonsexual violence; and courtship-disordered men differed from community controls in their relative responses to nonsexual violence.

  1. Exploring negative dating experiences and beliefs about rape among younger and older women.

    PubMed

    Kalra, M; Wood, E; Desmarais, S; Verberg, N; Senn, C Y

    1998-04-01

    Although there is extensive research describing negative dating experiences and rape myth beliefs among university- and college-age women, there is little exploration of these issues among older dating women. An exploratory study that extends existing research by investigating rape myth beliefs and negative dating experiences of women ranging in age from 18 to 85 years is described. Participants (N = 115) completed a questionnaire which included a standardized measure of rape myth adherence (R-Scale; Costin, 1985), and a series of questions that assessed concerns about the potential for negative experiences while dating and actual negative dating experiences (ranging from unwanted affection to rape). There were remarkable similarities among younger and older women with respect to their dating behaviors and experiences. Women from both age groups reported being the target of negative dating experiences and being concerned about these experiences--with older women expressing slightly more concern. Older women, however, endorsed rape myths to a greater extent. This suggests that older women may be at greater risk for self-deprecation because they may be more likely to attribute the negative experiences they encounter to personal faults. Findings highlight the need for more life-span research of dating experiences and attitudes towards dating violence.

  2. Self-Reported Health and Behavioral Problems among Adolescent Victims of Rape in France: Results of a Cross-Sectional Survey.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Choquet, Marie; Darves-Bornoz, Jean-Michel; Ledoux, Sylvie; Manfredi, Robert; Hassler, Christine

    1997-01-01

    Comparison of 61 self-identified rape victims in France with 122 nonvictims found a prevalence rate of rape of 0.9% for girls, 0.6% for boys and a relationship between rape and current sleep difficulties, depressive symptoms, somatic complaints, tobacco consumption, and behavior problems. Additional problems for male victims included attempted…

  3. Sexuality, Substance Use, and Susceptibility to Victimization: Risk for Rape and Sexual Coercion in a Prospective Study of College Women

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Messman-Moore, Terri L.; Coates, Aubrey A.; Gaffey, Kathryn J.; Johnson, Carrie F.

    2008-01-01

    An 8-month prospective study examined behavioral, personality, and psychological variables thought to increase vulnerability for college women's experience of rape and verbal sexual coercion. Participants were 276 college women who completed self-report surveys. During 1 academic year, 9.5% of women were raped and 11.7% reported verbal sexual…

  4. The Effects of Viewing R-Rated Movie Scenes That Objectify Women on Perceptions of Date Rape.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Milburn, Michael A.; Mather, Roxanne; Conrad, Sheree D.

    2000-01-01

    Tested the effects of viewing R-rated films on perceptions of female responsibility for and enjoyment of date or stranger rape. Participants viewed nonviolent scenes objectifying and degrading women sexually or animated film scenes. They read a fictitious magazine account of a date or stranger rape. The study showed that males who viewed the…

  5. War against Rape (WAR): The Experience of an Activist Group in Karachi in Raising Awareness of Sexual Crimes against Women.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zaman, Riffat Moazam

    This paper describes the experiences of an activist group in Karachi (Pakistan) in raising awareness of sexual crimes against women, pursuant to a rape of a professional woman which occurred during an armed robbery. It describes how, since rape was regarded as rare or nonexistent in a conservative, Islamic society, the efforts of the Women's…

  6. Evaluation of the Impact of a Coeducational Sexual Assault Prevention Program on College Students' Rape Myth Attitudes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kress, Victoria E.; Shepherd, J. Brad; Anderson, Renee I.; Petuch, Aaron J.; Nolan, James Michael; Thiemeke, Darlene

    2006-01-01

    The authors examined the impact of a mandatory, coeducational sexual assault prevention program on college freshmen's rape myth attitudes. Data from 174 college freshmen required to attend the program indicated that, regardless of gender, the proposed sexual assault prevention program significantly decreased participants' rape myth acceptance…

  7. Drug- or Alcohol-Facilitated, Incapacitated, and Forcible Rape in Relationship to Mental Health among a National Sample of Women

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zinzow, Heidi M.; Resnick, Heidi S.; Amstadter, Ananda B.; McCauley, Jenna L.; Ruggiero, Kenneth J.; Kilpatrick, Dean G.

    2010-01-01

    Rape is a well-established risk factor for mental health disorders such as posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and depression. However, most studies have focused on forcible rape tactics and have not distinguished these from tactics that involve drug or alcohol intoxication. The authors' aim was to examine correlates of PTSD and depression in a…

  8. Binge Drinking and Rape: A Prospective Examination of College Women with a History of Previous Sexual Victimization

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCauley, Jenna L.; Calhoun, Karen S.; Gidycz, Christine A.

    2010-01-01

    The current study prospectively examined the longitudinal relationships between binge drinking behavior and rape experiences among a multisite sample of college women with a history of prior attempted or completed rape (N = 228). Rates of binge drinking among this high-risk sample were high. Prospective analyses indicated that binge drinking…

  9. Blaming the Victim and Exonerating the Perpetrator in Cases of Rape and Robbery: Is There a Double Standard?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bieneck, Steffen; Krahe, Barbara

    2011-01-01

    Research in legal decision making has demonstrated the tendency to blame the victim and exonerate the perpetrator of sexual assault. This study examined the hypothesis of a special leniency bias in rape cases by comparing them to cases of robbery. N = 288 participants received descriptions of rape and robbery of a female victim by a male…

  10. To Blame or Not to Blame: Influences of Target Race and Observer Sex on Rape Blame Attribution

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Donovan, Roxanne A.

    2007-01-01

    There is a paucity of research on the influence of racist and sexist stereotypes in rape blame attribution, including the jezebel and matriarch stereotypes of Black women. This study extends the literature by examining how victim race, perpetrator race, and participant sex affect perceptions of a rape survivor's promiscuity (jezebel stereotype)…

  11. Cadmium uptake and speciation changes in the rhizosphere of cadmium accumulator and non-accumulator oilseed rape varieties.

    PubMed

    Su, Dechun; Xing, Jianping; Jiao, Weiping; Wong, Woonchung

    2009-01-01

    Characteristics of cadmium (Cd) uptake kinetics and distribution of Cd speciation in the rhizosphere for Cd accumulator and non-accumulator oilseed rape varieties were investigated under nutrient solution and rhizobox soil culture conditions. The results showed that the maximal influx (V(max)) for Cd2+ and Km were significantly different for the two oilseed rape varieties. The value of V(max) for Cd accumulator oilseed rape Zhucang Huazi was two-fold greater than that for oilseed rape Chuan you II-93. The exchangeable Cd concentration in the rhizosphere was significantly lower than in non-rhizospheric soils supplemented with CdSO4 for both the varieties. Carbonate-bound Cd in the rhizosphere of Cd accumulator oilseed rape was significantly higher than that in the rhizosphere of non-accumulator oilseed rape and non-rhizospheric soil. Cd accumulator oilseed rape had a higher Cd2+ affinity and more ability to uptake insoluble Cd in the soil than the non-accumulator oilseed rape.

  12. Rape-law and woman's right--critical analysis vis-a-vis role of attending doctor.

    PubMed

    Mohanty, Nayan Kishore

    2002-12-01

    According to Supreme Court rape is not only a crime against entire society, it destroyes the entire psychology of woman and pushes her into deep emotional crisis. The need at present is to mould and evolve the rape-law so as to make it more sensitive and responsive to the demands of the time in order to resolve the basic problem. The rape-laws have some lacunae which need a fresh look for necessary changes. The necessary changes can be suggested and made in relation to sexual intercourse, age of the rape victim, genital tract defects in woman, HIV infection, injury inflicted on the victim with corroboration of evidence and circumstances which must be supervised with high precaution. It must be remembered that doctors and scientific experts play most crucial and vital role and ignorance of rape-law and lack of high degree expertise skill can make the accused easily set at liberty.

  13. A brief report on rape myth acceptance: differences between police officers, law students, and psychology students in the United Kingdom.

    PubMed

    Sleath, Emma; Bull, Ray

    2015-01-01

    A common perception is that police officers hold very negative attitudes about rape victims. Therefore, the purpose of this article is to establish whether police officers do accept stereotypical rape myths at a higher level compared to members of other populations. There were 3 comparison samples, composed of police officers, law students, and psychology students, that completed the Illinois Rape Myth Acceptance scale. Male and female police officers accepted "she lied" myths at a higher level than the student samples. Student samples were found to accept 2 types of rape myths ("she asked for it" and "he didn't meant to") at a higher level compared to police officers. No significant differences were found in the other 4 subfactors. Therefore, the pattern of results suggests that police officers do not adhere to stereotypical myths about rape victims more than do other populations.

  14. Prison inmates' views of whether reporting rape is the same as snitching: an exploratory study and research agenda.

    PubMed

    Garland, Brett; Wilson, Gabrielle

    2013-04-01

    Although the prevalence of sexual assault in U.S. prisons is debated, it is known that the consequences for victims can be quite severe. The Prison Rape Elimination Act (PREA) requires prison officials to keep track of incidents of sexual assault, but accurate figures will be generated only to the extent that inmates regularly report these acts. Male rape itself is a highly underreported phenomenon and even less reported in prisons due to inmate cultural norms that frown upon forwarding inmate information to correctional authorities. This article examines whether prison inmates believe that reporting prison rape is equivalent to snitching and analyzes possible explanations for the inmates' responses. Results indicate that inmates are less likely to view the reporting of prison rape as snitching earlier in their current commitment periods, and White inmates are more likely than Black inmates to think reporting rape is snitching. As this topic is extremely under studied, a number of suggestions for future research are advanced.

  15. Rape myth attitudes in rural Kenya: toward the development of a culturally relevant attitude scale and "blame index".

    PubMed

    Tavrow, Paula; Withers, Mellissa; Obbuyi, Albert; Omollo, Vidalyne; Wu, Elizabeth

    2013-07-01

    Rape myth attitudes (RMAs) can excuse men for rape, placing blame on female victims. This study identified and classified RMAs in rural western Kenya through 31 focus group discussions with youths and adults. We found that about half of the participants were likely to blame victims unconditionally. Stereotypes about rape victims and perpetrators were rife. Five of seven standardly used RMA categories emerged spontaneously in focus groups, along with a new category: "she owed him." Based on the data, we developed a "blame index" to assess the likelihood of community victim blaming in Kenya. To reduce victim blaming and bring about more prosecutions for rape, community education, teacher training, and reforms of rape laws are highly recommended.

  16. Date-rape-supporting and victim-blaming attitudes among high school students in a multiethnic society: Israel.

    PubMed

    Geiger, Brenda; Fischer, Michael; Eshet, Yovav

    2004-04-01

    This study examined the extent to which a multiethnic sample of 900 Israeli high school students supported date-rape and victim-blaming attitudes and the predictors of such support. Findings indicate wide support for stereotypes justifying sexual coercion by time and the location of the date, the victim's behavior, and the minimization of the seriousness of date rape. A regression analysis indicates that students' gender and age are the strongest predictors of rape-tolerant and victim-blaming attitudes. Socioeconomic status and religious orientation explain a small proportion of the variance in the support of such attitudes. By contrast, no significant relationship is indicated with ethnicity. Alternative sex-education and rape-prevention programs must address date-rape and victim-blaming attitudes and make students of both genders aware of various factors that continue to be misread as an invitation to have sex and put them at high risk of experiencing sexual coercion on a date.

  17. Lifting the curtain of silence: survivors speak about rape behind bars.

    PubMed

    Stemple, Lara

    2003-01-01

    In the struggle to end sexual violence behind bars, personal stories of abuse serve as an important advocacy tool for organizations such as Stop Prisoner Rape (SPR). The first-person accounts of men and women who have endured this abuse help to personalize, and thereby, humanize the issue. Statistics about the frequency of prisoner rape are powerful, but they can also be numbing, conveying the sense that nothing can be done to stop the problem. Personal accounts in contrast, have an emotional impact that encourages action. Speaking out about abuse also helps survivors, freeing them from a sense of shame, guilt, and humiliation and providing an avenue of political engagement that can be tremendously empowering. This article presents the first-persona accounts of four individuals whose lives were powerfully affected by rape behind bars.

  18. The Democratic Republic of Congo: a country raped by all types of men.

    PubMed

    1999-01-01

    This documentation of violence against women in war and armed conflict in Congo is concentrated on a target population of women in Bukavu who suffered particularly during the invasion of the Kabila soldiers in the Bukavu area. It is noted that many of the women have died of rape or were killed by Kabila's soldiers. A lot of them who lived are noted to be battling with HIV/AIDS, most probably resulting from the mass rapes. In addition, estimates indicate that about 1300 women got pregnant from the rapes, and gave birth to infants, many of whom are now suffering from AIDS. This report includes personal testimonies of three women victims in order to get a closer picture of the horrors and violations the women suffered under the war. Overall, the women victims demand that once peace returns to Congo, the perpetrators should be brought to justice and redress provided to the victims.

  19. Phytoextraction of Cd and Zn as single or mixed pollutants from soil by rape (Brassica napus).

    PubMed

    Cojocaru, Paula; Gusiatin, Zygmunt Mariusz; Cretescu, Igor

    2016-06-01

    This paper analyses the capacity of the rape (Brassica napus) to extract Cd and Zn from the soil and the effect of these metals on the morphometric parameters of the plant (length, weight, surface area, fractal dimension of leaves). Rape plants were mostly affected by the combined toxicity of the Cd and Zn mixture that caused a significant reduction in the rate of seed germination, the plant biomass quantity and the fractal dimension. In the case of Cd soil pollution, the bioaccumulation factor (BAF), bioaccumulation coefficient (BAC) as well as the heavy metal root-to-stalk translocation factor (TF) were determined. The results showed that B. napus had a great potential as a cadmium hyperaccumulator but not as an accumulator of Zn or Cd + Zn mixture. The efficiency of phytoextraction rape was 0.8-1.22 % for a soil heavily polluted with cadmium.

  20. Traumatic Dissociation as a Predictor of Posttraumatic Stress Disorder in South African Female Rape Survivors

    PubMed Central

    Nöthling, Jani; Lammers, Kees; Martin, Lindi; Seedat, Soraya

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Women survivors of rape are at an increased risk for posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Traumatic dissociation has been identified as a precursor of PTSD. This study assessed the predictive potential of traumatic dissociation in PTSD and depression development. The study followed a longitudinal, prospective design. Ninety-seven female rape survivors were recruited from 2 clinics in Cape Town, South Africa. Clinical interviews and symptom status assessments of the participants were completed to measure dissociation, childhood traumas, resilience, depression, and PTSD. Traumatic dissociation was a significant predictor of PTSD and depression. The linear combination of prior dissociation, current dissociation, and resilience significantly explained 20.7% of the variance in PTSD. Dissociation mediated the relationship between resilience and PTSD. As traumatic dissociation significantly predicts PTSD, its early identification and management may reduce the risk of developing PTSD. Interventions focused on promoting resilience may also be successful in reducing the risk of dissociation following rape. PMID:25906104

  1. Soxhlet-assisted matrix solid phase dispersion to extract flavonoids from rape (Brassica campestris) bee pollen.

    PubMed

    Ma, Shuangqin; Tu, Xijuan; Dong, Jiangtao; Long, Peng; Yang, Wenchao; Miao, Xiaoqing; Chen, Wenbin; Wu, Zhenhong

    2015-11-15

    Soxhlet-assisted matrix solid phase dispersion (SA-MSPD) method was developed to extract flavonoids from rape (Brassica campestris) bee pollen. Extraction parameters including the extraction solvent, the extraction time, and the solid support conditions were investigated and optimized. The best extraction yields were obtained using ethanol as the extraction solvent, silica gel as the solid support with 1:2 samples to solid support ratio, and the extraction time of one hour. Comparing with the conventional solvent extraction and Soxhlet method, our results show that SA-MSPD method is a more effective technique with clean-up ability. In the test of six different samples of rape bee pollen, the extracted content of flavonoids was close to 10mg/g. The present work provided a simple and effective method for extracting flavonoids from rape bee pollen, and it could be applied in the studies of other kinds of bee pollen.

  2. The Role of Psychopathy and Exposure to Violence in Rape Myth Acceptance.

    PubMed

    Debowska, Agata; Boduszek, Daniel; Dhingra, Katie; Kola, Susanna; Meller-Prunska, Aleksandra

    2015-09-01

    The main aim of the present study was to specify and test a structural model to examine the relationships between four psychopathy dimensions (Interpersonal Manipulation, Callous Affect, Erratic Lifestyle, and Antisocial Behavior), childhood exposure to violence, and rape myth acceptance while controlling for gender, age, sample type (prisoner vs. non-prisoner), and relationship status. Participants were a sample of non-offending adults (n = 319) recruited from the University of Security in Poznan, and a sample of prisoners (n = 129) incarcerated in Stargard Szczecinski Prison. Results indicated that the model provided a good fit for the data, and that Callous Affect and childhood exposure to violence had a significant positive effect on attitudes toward rape and rape victims. Theoretical and practical implications of our findings are discussed.

  3. Fraternity membership, rape myths, and sexual aggression on a college campus.

    PubMed

    Schwartz, M D; Nogrady, C A

    1996-06-01

    This study examines whether male support groups, specifically fraternities, supports the victimization of women, and the extent of its relationship to alcohol use. 119 self-administered questionnaires were analyzed. Among male subjects, 93.3% were Whites with an average age of 20.5 years; approximately 22% of this sample were members of fraternities. After analysis of data, the hypothesis, which states that fraternity men were more likely to hold rape myths than non-fraternity men, was rejected. It was further revealed that fraternity men are not different from other men on a variety of measures. However, the existence of a male peer support system for the victimization of women was evident in this study. Moreover, the strong relationship between heavy drinking and admission as a sexual aggressor revealed in this study should alert rape educators on college campuses to make alcohol education a high priority in their anti-rape efforts.

  4. Prevalence and effects of rape myths in print journalism: the Kobe Bryant case.

    PubMed

    Franiuk, Renae; Seefelt, Jennifer L; Cepress, Sandy L; Vandello, Joseph A

    2008-03-01

    Two studies examine the prevalence and effects of rape myths in the print media covering a real-life case of alleged sexual assault. Study 1 was an archival study of 156 sources from around the country. Articles about the Kobe Bryant case were coded for instances of rape myths, among other variables. Of the articles, 65 mentioned at least one rape myth (with "she's lying" being the single most common myth perpetuated). Study 2 assessed participants' (N = 62) prior knowledge of the Bryant case and exposed them to a myth-endorsing or myth-challenging article about the case. Those exposed to the myth-endorsing article were more likely to believe that Bryant was not guilty and the alleged victim was lying. The implications for victim reporting and reducing sexual assault in general are discussed.

  5. Authoritarian personality and rape sentence length in conservative and liberal states.

    PubMed

    McCann, Stewart J H

    2009-06-01

    The author tested the claim that authoritarians desire exceptionally strong punishment for rapists. Given data on 55,966 felons sentenced in 32 U.S. states in 1986 for homicide, rape, assault, robbery, burglary, larceny, and drug offenses (D. A. Bowers & J. L. Waltman, 1993) and given state conservatism scores of 141,798 respondents to 122 1976-1988 CBS and The New York Times national telephone polls (R. Erikson, G. Wright, & J. McIver, 1993) as proxies for authoritarianism, regression analyses showed state conservatism accounted for 18.9%, F(1, 18) = 7.11, p < .01, of the rape sentence length variance when sentence lengths for the 7 other offenses were controlled for and 12.5%, F(1, 27) = 8.16, p < .01, with means substituted for missing data. In both analyses, state conservatism and rape sentence length were positively correlated.

  6. Does Change on the MOLEST and RAPE Scales Predict Sexual Recidivism?

    PubMed

    Nunes, Kevin L; Pettersen, Cathrine; Hermann, Chantal A; Looman, Jan; Spape, Jessica

    2016-08-01

    The purpose of the current study was to examine whether the MOLEST and RAPE scales and change on these measures predicted sexual recidivism in a sample of 146 adult male sexual offenders who participated in a high-intensity treatment program while incarcerated. The majority of subjects had functional scores on the MOLEST and RAPE scales prior to treatment. Of those who had dysfunctional pre-treatment scores, the majority made significant gains. However, the MOLEST and RAPE scales did not significantly predict sexual recidivism. This was the case for pre-treatment scores, post-treatment scores, and change scores. Our findings are generally not consistent with the view that these measures assess dynamic risk factors for sexual recidivism. However, this is the first published study to examine the predictive validity of these scales and more rigorous research is needed before firm conclusions can be drawn.

  7. "We belong to them": the costs of funding for rape crisis centers.

    PubMed

    Maier, Shana L

    2011-11-01

    This research explores the transformation of rape crisis centers and whether directors, staff, interns, and volunteers see changes as beneficial or detrimental to rape crisis centers and the victims they serve. Data from 63 interviews with directors, staff, interns, and volunteers from six rape crisis centers located in four East Coast states indicate that although centers may have been formed for different reasons depending on when they opened, all have become more professional, rely less on volunteers, engage in more collaboration with other agencies, and have largely abandoned their traditional activism agenda. Traditional activism through political protests and membership in consciousness raising groups has been replaced by community education and outreach. Some of these changes are viewed as positive whereas others are viewed as negative.

  8. Attitudes toward victims of rape: effects of gender, race, religion, and social class.

    PubMed

    Nagel, Barbara; Matsuo, Hisako; McIntyre, Kevin P; Morrison, Nancy

    2005-06-01

    Although previous literature focusing on perceptions of victims of rape has examined how gender, race, and culture influence the attitudes one holds toward victims, these studies have yielded mixed results. This study compared perceptions of victims of rape across a wide range of ages, educational backgrounds, religions, and income levels, while focusing on gender and racial differences. Results indicate (N = 220) that victims of rape are generally viewed more sympathetically by females than by males and by Whites than by African Americans. However, the effect of race disappears when socioeconomic variables are controlled, suggesting a more complex relationship. Also, a hierarchical regression indicates that age, sex, education, and income are significant predictors of attitudes toward victims. This study builds on existing research that examines such attitudes from a cultural perspective and extends this literature by examining the interactive effects of several demographic variables within a community sample.

  9. Performance of winter rape (Brassica napus) based fuel mixtures in diesel engines

    SciTech Connect

    Wagner, G.L.; Peterson, C.L.

    1982-01-01

    Winter rape is well adapted to the Palouse region of Northern Idaho and Eastern Washington. Nearly all of the current US production is grown in this region. Yields of 2200 to 2700 kg/ha with 45 percent oil content are common. Even though present production only 2000 to 2500 ha per year, the long history of production and good yields of oil make winter rape the best potential fuel vegetable oil crop for the region. Winter rape oil is more viscous than sunflower oil (50 cSt at 40/sup 0/C for winter rape and 35 cSt at 40/sup 0/C for sunflower oil) and about 17 times more viscous than diesel. The viscosity of the pure oil has been found too high for operation in typical diesel injector systems. Mixtures and/or additives are essential if the oil is to be a satisfactory fuel. Conversely, the fatty acid composition of witer rape oils is such that it is potentially a more favorable fuel because of reduced rates of oxidation and thermal polymerization. This paper will report on results of short and long term engine tests using winter rape, diesel, and commercial additives as the components. Selection of mixtures for long term screening tests was based on laboratory studies which included high temperature oxidation studies and temperature-viscosity data. Fuel temperature has been monitored at the outlet of the injector nozzle on operating engines so that viscosity comparisons at the actual injector temperature can be made. 1 figure, 3 tables.

  10. [Cadmium effects on lipid metabolism of rape (Brassica napus L.)].

    PubMed

    Ben Youssef, Nabil; Nouairi, Issam; Ben Temime, Sonia; Taamalli, Wael; Zarrouk, Mokhtar; Ghorbal, Mohamed Habib; Ben Miled Daoud, Douja

    2005-08-01

    Treatment of rape seedlings with increasing CdCl2 concentrations in the culture medium resulted in a cadmium accumulation within plant tissues, which increased with external metal dose; such accumulation was more important in roots than in leaves. Biomass production was severely inhibited, even at low cadmium concentration. In leaves, quantities of chloroplastic lipids, monogalactosyldiacylglycerol (MGDG), digalactosyldiacylglycerol (DGDG), sulfolipids (SL) and phosphatidylglycerol (PG) decreased sharply under metallic treatment. However, contents of extrachloroplastic lipids, mainly phosphatidylcholine (PC) and phosphatidylethanolamine (PE) increased significantly. In contrast to leaves, contents of root phospholipids decreased. Likewise, levels of tri-unsaturated fatty acids: linolenic (C18:3) and hexadecatrienoïc (C16:3) dropped in leaves of treated seedlings as compared to those of controls, suggesting that heavy metals induced an alteration in the fatty acid desaturation process or a stimulation of their peroxidation. Also, trans palmitoleic acid (C16:1-trans) level in PG decreased considerably. In roots, there was a slight decrease in C18:3 level, with a concomitant increase in the C18:2 percentage. Radioactive labelling of leaf lipids with (1-14C) acetate allowed to show that fatty acid biosynthesis was noticeably altered at the highest cadmium dose used (50 microM). Biosynthesis of tri-unsaturated fatty acids was also inhibited which may explain the decline in non-labelled lipid contents. Results showed that metallic ion seems to affect selectively chloroplastic membranes due to an inhibition of polyunsaturated fatty acid biosynthesis. Moreover, a lipid peroxidation occurred in our case because of the spectacular increase of malondialdehyde (MDA) content observed in cadmium treated leaves.

  11. Information processing of an acquaintance rape scenario among high- and low-dissociating college women.

    PubMed

    Sandberg, D A; Lynn, S J; Matorin, A I

    2001-07-01

    To assess the impact of dissociation on information processing, 66 college women with high and low levels of trait dissociation were studied with regard to how they unitized videotape segments of an acquaintance rape scenario (actual assault not shown) and a nonthreatening control scenario. Unitization is a paradigm that measures how actively people process stimuli by recording how many times they press a button to indicate that they have seen a significant or meaningful event. Trait dissociation was negatively correlated with participants' unitization of the acquaintance rape videotape, unitization was positively correlated with danger cue identification, and state dissociation was negatively correlated with dangerousness ratings.

  12. Ordered Rape: A Principal-Agent Analysis of Wartime Sexual Violence in the DR Congo.

    PubMed

    Schneider, Gerald; Banholzer, Lilli; Albarracin, Laura

    2015-11-01

    Policy makers and academics often contend that organizational anarchy permits soldiers to perpetrate sexual violence. A recent United Nations report supports this thesis especially with regard to the massive sexual abuse in the Congolese civil war. We challenge the anarchy argument and maintain, based on a principal-agent framework, that opportunistic military commanders can order their soldiers to rape through the use of sanctions and rewards. Our qualitative and quantitative analysis of a survey of 96 Congolese ex-soldiers shows that ordered rape is more likely in organizations where soldiers fear punishment and in which commanders distribute drugs as stimulants.

  13. The impossibility of bearing witness: wartime rape and the promise of justice.

    PubMed

    Henry, Nicola

    2010-10-01

    Testimonies of wartime sexual violence contribute to the recognition of rape as a serious human rights violation. Although acknowledgement and justice are imperative to ending silence and impunity, this article critiques some commonly held therapeutic assumptions about disclosure through examining the way so-called "unspeakable" events are communicated through legal discourse. In this article, the author explores the inherent limitations of language for bearing witness to wartime rape, specifically focusing on international war crimes tribunals. The author argues that trials contribute to the impossibility of bearing witness through both the appropriation of trauma and the failure of law to accommodate traumatic experiences.

  14. The (in)significance of genital injury in rape and sexual assault.

    PubMed

    Walker, Graeme

    2015-08-01

    The forensic significance of genital injury following rape and sexual assault has been the subject of considerable academic and research interest, in terms of the contribution it may provide to the body of evidence in criminal proceedings. This essay takes a critical look at such research, in the context of modern understandings of what actually constitutes rape and sexual assault. Written from the author's perspective as a forensic physician practising in Scotland, it illustrates the fascinating interface between medical evidence and the legal system.

  15. State contexts and the criminalization of marital rape across the United States.

    PubMed

    Jackson, Aubrey L

    2015-05-01

    Spousal exemptions from rape prosecution persist in many US states' criminal codes thereby compromising women's rights to bodily self-control and personhood. Power resources theory-which emphasizes that given limited resources, groups act strategically to achieve goals-and gender stratification perspectives guided an event history analysis of the likelihood of marital rape criminalization in US states between 1978 and 2007. Findings suggest criminalization is influenced by the expected marginal benefit of law reform, women's relative socioeconomic resources, and racial heterogeneity. This research highlights the importance of considering how existing laws, group resources, and intersecting social cleavages influence the expansion of women's rights.

  16. Psychiatric nurses' attitudes toward sexuality, sexual assault/rape, and incest.

    PubMed

    Boutcher, F; Gallop, R

    1996-06-01

    This descriptive, exploratory study examined psychiatric nurses' attitudes towards sexuality, sexual assault/rape, and incest, and explored the relationships between these attitudes and the personal characteristics of the nurse. Contrary to previous research on nurses in nonpsychiatric settings, the nurses in this Canadian study had favorable attitudes towards sexuality and did not subscribe to attitudes of victim blaming in sexual assault/rape and incest. The strongest predictor of attitudes was age of the nurse (p < .02); cultural/ethnic background may also be associated with attitudes (p < .02). The results indicate a need to develop more precise measures of attitude for psychiatric nurses.

  17. Incapacitated rape and alcohol use in White and Asian American college women.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, Hong V; Kaysen, Debra; Dillworth, Tiara M; Brajcich, Marci; Larimer, Mary E

    2010-08-01

    This study examined the role of Asian ethnicity as a moderator of drinking outcomes associated with alcohol-related sexual assault (incapacitated rape). Participants were 5,467 Asian American and White college women. Results found the overall MANOVA for ethnicity and incapacitated rape (IR) interactions to be significant. Asian American participants with no history of IR had fewer drinking problems than White American participants with no history of IR. Asian American participants with IR histories had more drinking problems than White Americans with IR histories. Findings indicate Asian Americans who experience IR may be at increased risk for negative alcohol outcomes.

  18. Predicting date rape perceptions: the effects of gender, gender role attitudes, and victim resistance.

    PubMed

    Black, Katherine A; McCloskey, Kathy A

    2013-08-01

    The effects of participant gender and victim resistance on date rape perceptions have been inconsistent. Participant gender role attitudes may contribute to these inconsistencies. We found women with traditional gender role attitudes were least likely to agree that the perpetrator was guilty of rape. Participants were less convinced of the perpetrator's guilt when the victim resisted verbally than when she resisted verbally and physically, and participants with traditional gender role attitudes were less convinced of the negative impact on the victim when she resisted verbally than when she resisted verbally and physically. Perhaps previous inconsistencies resulted from varying proportions of men and women with traditional versus liberal gender role attitudes in the samples.

  19. Creating lasting attitude and behavior change in fraternity members and male student athletes: the qualitative impact of an empathy-based rape prevention program.

    PubMed

    Foubert, John D; Perry, Bradford C

    2007-01-01

    Fraternity members and male student athletes responded to open-ended questions assessing the impact of an empathy-based rape prevention program. All participants reported either lasting attitude or behavior changes; most reported both. Participants reported increased understanding of how rape might feel and attributed this change to seeing a videotape describing a male-on-male rape situation. Participants refrained from telling jokes about rape and reported feeling more effective when helping survivors seeking assistance. These behavior changes were attributed to the videotape and to a section of the program encouraging participants to confront rape jokes and challenge sexist behaviors.

  20. Rapid and facile detection of four date rape drugs in different beverages utilizing proton transfer reaction mass spectrometry (PTR-MS).

    PubMed

    Jürschik, Simone; Agarwal, Bishu; Kassebacher, Thomas; Sulzer, Philipp; Mayhew, Christopher A; Märk, Tilmann D

    2012-09-01

    In this work, we illustrate the application of proton transfer reaction mass spectrometry (PTR-MS) in the field of food and drink safety. We present proof-of-principle measurements of four different drinks (water, tea, red wine and white wine) each spiked separately with four different date rape drugs (chloral hydrate, tricholorethanol, γ-butyrolactone and butanediol). At first, the ideal PTR-MS operating conditions (reduced electric field strength and monitoring the most abundant [fragment] ion) for detection of the drugs were determined utilizing a time-of-flight-based PTR-MS instrument. We then dissolved small quantities of the drugs (below the activation threshold for effects on humans) into the various types of drinks and detected them using a quadrupole-based PTR-MS instrument via two different sampling methods: (1) dynamic headspace sampling and (2) direct liquid injection. Both methods have their advantages and drawbacks. Only with dynamic headspace sampling can rape drug contaminations be detected within a timeframe of seconds, and therefore, this method is the most promising use of PTR-MS as a fast, sensitive and selective monitor for the detection of food and drink contamination.

  1. Effects of experimental warming on fungal disease progress in oilseed rape.

    PubMed

    Siebold, Magdalena; von Tiedemann, Andreas

    2013-06-01

    Global warming will influence the growth and development of both crops and pathogens. The aims of this study were to investigate potential effects of future warming on oilseed rape growth and the epidemiology of the three economically important pathogens Verticillium longisporum, Sclerotinia sclerotiorum, and Leptosphaeria maculans (anamorph: Phoma lingam). We utilized climate chambers and a soil warming facility, where treatments represented regional warming scenarios for Lower Saxony, Germany, by 2050 and 2100, and compared results of both approaches on a thermal time scale by calculating degree-days (dd) from day of sowing, December 1st and March 1st until sampling, the latter correlating best with disease progress. Regression analysis showed that plant growth and growth stages in spring responded almost linearly to increasing thermal time until 1000-1500 dd. Colonization of plant tissue by V. longisporum showed an exponential increase when exceeding 1300-1500 dd and reaching plant growth stage BBCH 74/75 (pod development). V. longisporum colonization of plants may be advanced, potentially leading to higher inoculum densities after harvest and increased economic importance of this pathogen under future warming. Sclerotia germination of S. sclerotiorum reached its maximum at 600-900 dd. Advance of these critical degree-days may lead to earlier apothecia production, potentially advancing the infection window, whereas the future importance of S. sclerotiorum may remain constant. Severity of phoma crown canker increased linearly with increasing thermal time, but showed also large variation in response to the warming scenarios, suggesting that factors such as canopy microclimate in fall or leaf shedding over winter may play a bigger role for L. maculans infection and disease severity than higher soil temperatures. Thermal time was a suitable tool to combine and integrate data on biological responses to soil and air temperature increases from climate chamber and field

  2. Consequences of gene flow between oilseed rape (Brassica napus) and its relatives.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yongbo; Wei, Wei; Ma, Keping; Li, Junsheng; Liang, Yuyong; Darmency, Henri

    2013-10-01

    Numerous studies have focused on the probability of occurrence of gene flow between transgenic crops and their wild relatives and the likelihood of transgene escape, which should be assessed before the commercial release of transgenic crops. This review paper focuses on this issue for oilseed rape, Brassica napus L., a species that produces huge numbers of pollen grains and seeds. We analyze separately the distinct steps of gene flow: (1) pollen and seeds as vectors of gene flow; (2) spontaneous hybridization; (3) hybrid behavior, fitness cost due to hybridization and mechanisms of introgression; (4) and fitness benefit due to transgenes (e.g. herbicide resistance and Bt toxin). Some physical, biological and molecular means of transgene containment are also described. Although hybrids and first generation progeny are difficult to identify in fields and non-crop habitats, the literature shows that transgenes could readily introgress into Brassica rapa, Brassica juncea and Brassica oleracea, while introgression is expected to be rare with Brassica nigra, Hirschfeldia incana and Raphanus raphanistrum. The hybrids grow well but produce less seed than their wild parent. The difference declines with increasing generations. However, there is large uncertainty about the evolution of chromosome numbers and recombination, and many parameters of life history traits of hybrids and progeny are not determined with satisfactory confidence to build generic models capable to really cover the wide diversity of situations. We show that more studies are needed to strengthen and organize biological knowledge, which is a necessary prerequisite for model simulations to assess the practical and evolutionary outputs of introgression, and to provide guidelines for gene flow management.

  3. A system justification view of sexual violence: legitimizing gender inequality and reduced moral outrage are connected to greater rape myth acceptance.

    PubMed

    Chapleau, Kristine M; Oswald, Debra L

    2014-01-01

    Rape is a pervasive social problem that causes serious physical and psychological repercussions. Rape victims' recovery is often complicated by the public's failure to believe the victim and restore justice. This study applied system justification theory to examine whether the justification of gender inequality is related to moral outrage (an emotional precursor to corrective action) and rape myth acceptance; we also examined whether rape myth acceptance is associated with moral outrage at injustice. Results showed that gender-specific system justification correlated with less moral outrage at human suffering as well as greater rape myth acceptance. The relationships between these variables were similar for men and for women, a finding that suggests that rape myths are system justifying for women. When we controlled for gender-specific system justification, rape myth acceptance correlated with less moral outrage. Results are discussed in the context of how legitimizing ideologies reduce moral outrage at injustice and perpetuate a system of sexual violence.

  4. Collateral Damage Related to Rape and Interpersonal Violence in Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Dan L.

    2014-01-01

    Collegiate communities are often faced with difficult situations from sexual assault, rape, and other forms of interpersonal violence. These events are not only tragic or traumatic for the individuals involved but also have ripple effects and create collateral damage within the campus community. Many universities are instituting bystander training…

  5. Reactions of First-Year Men to a Rape Prevention Program: Attitude and Predicted Behavior Changes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Foubert, John D.; Tatum, Jerry L.; Donahue, Greg A.

    2006-01-01

    First-year men (261) saw a rape prevention program and were asked to give their reactions to what they saw by answering four open-ended questions, requesting information about whether participants experience either attitude or behavior change resulting from the program, particularly in relation to situations involving alcohol and sexually intimate…

  6. The Effect of Music Videos on College Students' Perceptions of Rape

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burgess, Melinda C. R.; Burpo, Sandra

    2012-01-01

    This paper examined the effect of sexualized portrayals of female artists in music videos on college students' perceptions of date rape. 132 college students were randomly assigned to view a music video that contained either high or low levels of sexuality and sexual objectification and were then asked to rate the guilt of the male in a scenario…

  7. Exposure to Pornography and Acceptance of Rape Myths: A Research Summary Using Meta-Analysis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allen, Mike; And Others

    A study quantitatively summarized the literature examining the association between acceptance of rape myths and exposure to pornography to address disputes in the academic community regarding the consistency of such research. The entire collection of "Psychological Abstracts" and "Sociological Abstracts" was manually searched…

  8. Impeaching Rape Victims in Criminal Court: Does Concurrent Civil Action Hurt Justice?

    PubMed

    Golding, Jonathan M; Lynch, Kellie R; Wasarhaley, Nesa E

    2015-05-05

    The present study investigated the impact of impeaching a rape victim with evidence of a simultaneous civil suit during a criminal trial. In three experiments, male and female undergraduates (Experiment 1) and community members (Experiments 2 and 3) read a rape trial summary in which the victim accused the defendant of raping her in a hotel. In the impeachment condition, the Defense mentioned that the victim simultaneously sued either the hotel (Experiments 1, 2, 3) or the alleged perpetrator (Experiment 3) for US$1 million. In the control condition, the Defense did not mention a civil suit. In all experiments, mock jurors were more likely to render not guilty verdicts and had higher pro-defendant ratings (e.g., defendant credibility) when the Defense impeached the victim than when the Defense did not impeach her. In addition, victim credibility (Experiments 1, 2, 3) and victim greed (Experiment 3) mediated the impact of impeachment on verdict. Results are discussed in terms of the prejudice rape victims may face in criminal court when they also seek justice in civil court.

  9. The health, mental health, and well-being benefits of rape crisis counseling.

    PubMed

    Westmarland, Nicole; Alderson, Sue

    2013-11-01

    There is very little research on interventions to alleviate the distress experienced following rape. This action research project developed and piloted the "Taking Back Control" tool that measured the impact of rape crisis counseling over time. Five rape crisis centers in the North of England agreed to pilot the tool, which was administered by the client's counselor, either on Week 1 or 2, and then repeated every 6 weeks until the end of counseling. Eighty-seven clients completed at least two questionnaires. This allowed us to measure change from their first compared with their last data collection point. The most change was made in relation to the statement "I feel empowered and in control of my life," where 61% strongly/disagreed at the first data collection point compared with 31% at the last data collection point. Large shifts were also seen in relation to "I have 'flashbacks' about what happened" and "I have panic attacks." Overall, some degree of positive change was seen for all measures. This research, despite some limitations, begins to develop an evidence base for rape crisis centers to demonstrate their benefits and to assess and develop their own practice.

  10. CDC's Rape Prevention and Education Grant Program: Preventing Sexual Violence in the United States, 2004

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 2004

    2004-01-01

    Understanding the far-reaching impact of sexual violence and the importance of prevention, Congress passed the Violence Against Women Act (VAWA) of 1994, which established CDC's Rape Prevention and Education (RPE) Program. Congress reauthorized $80 million for this program in the Violence Against Women Act of 2000. With fiscal year 2004 funding of…

  11. College Women's Rape Awareness and Use of Commonly Advocated Risk Reduction Strategies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hertzog, Jodie; Yeilding, Rosemary

    2009-01-01

    Despite national efforts to create awareness about acquaintance rape and substance- facilitated sexual assault on college campuses, little empirical research investigates whether college women are incorporating these messages into their social behavior. This exploratory study adds to the existing literature by investigating college women's…

  12. Interventions to Reduce Distress in Adult Victims of Rape and Sexual Violence: A Systematic Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Regehr, Cheryl; Alaggia, Ramona; Dennis, Jane; Pitts, Annabel; Saini, Michael

    2013-01-01

    Objectives: This article presents a systematic evaluation of the effectiveness of interventions aimed at reducing distress in adult victims of rape and sexual violence. Method: Studies were eligible for the review if the assignment of study participants to experimental or control groups was by random allocation or parallel cohort design. Results:…

  13. Alcohol's Effects on Women's Risk Detection in a Date-Rape Vignette

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Loiselle, Marci; Fuqua, Wayne R.

    2007-01-01

    Researchers have established that alcohol is a risk factor for date rape for both victims and perpetrators. Objective: The authors tried to experimentally address the link between alcohol consumption and women's risk detection abilities in a risky sexual vignette. Participants: The authors recruited 42 women from undergraduate classrooms at a…

  14. Answering the Questions of Rape Prevention Research: A Response to Tharp et al. (2011)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Foubert, John D.

    2011-01-01

    Rape prevention programmers and researchers have long struggled to select the most appropriate theoretical models to frame their work. Questions abound regarding appropriate standards of evidence for success of program interventions. The present article provides an alternative point of view to the one put forward by seven staff members from the…

  15. The Differential Effects of Rape Prevention Programming on Attitudes, Behavior, and Knowledge.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heppner, Mary J.; And Others

    1995-01-01

    Evaluates whether type of programming differentially affects the processing of rape prevention messages, attitudes, knowledge, behaviors, and stability of change. Participants (n=258) were assigned to a didactic-video program, an interactive drama, or control. Results indicated that the interactive video was most effective in central route…

  16. Reducing Rape-Myth Acceptance in Male College Students: A Meta-Analysis of Intervention Studies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Flores, Stephen A.; Hartlaub, Mark G.

    1998-01-01

    Studies evaluating interventions designed to reduce rape-supportive beliefs are examined to identify effective strategies. Searches were conducted on several databases from 1980 to present. Results indicate that human-sexuality courses, workshops, video interventions, and other formats appear to be successful strategies, although these…

  17. Randomized Controlled Evaluation of an Early Intervention to Prevent Post-Rape Psychopathology

    PubMed Central

    Resnick, Heidi; Acierno, Ron; Waldrop, Angela E.; King, Lynda; King, Daniel; Danielson, Carla; Ruggiero, Kenneth J.; Kilpatrick, Dean

    2007-01-01

    A randomized between-group design was used to evaluate efficacy of a video intervention to reduce PTSD and other mental health problems, implemented prior to the forensic medical exam conducted within 72 hours post-sexual assault. Participants were 140 female victims of sexual assault (68 video/72 nonvideo) ages 15 or older. Assessments were targeted for 6 weeks (Time 1) and 6 months (Time 2) post-assault. At Time 1, the intervention was associated with lower scores on measures of PTSD and depression among women with prior rape history relative to scores among women with prior rape history in the standard care condition. At Time 2, depression scores were also lower among those with a prior history who were in the video relative to standard care condition. Small effects indicating higher PTSD and BAI scores among women without a prior history in the video condition were observed at Time 1. Accelerated longitudinal growth curve analysis indicated a video x prior rape history interaction for PTSD, yielding four patterns of symptom trajectory over time. Women with a prior rape history in the video condition generally maintained the lowest level of symptoms. PMID:17585872

  18. Enhancing Dating Attitudes through Peer Education as a Date Rape Prevention Strategy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holcomb, Derek R.; Seehafer, Roger W.

    1995-01-01

    Presents program development and peer education training considerations for programs that attempt to influence healthy attitudes toward dating and preventing date rape. The paper discusses the program's theoretical foundations, goal determination, mixed-gender programs, themes students raise during programs, the consensual sex scenario as a…

  19. "I Just Don't Understand It": Teaching Margaret Atwood's "Rape Fantasies."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tyler, Lisa

    1998-01-01

    Discusses Margaret Atwood's "provocative and funny" short story "Rape Fantasies," and describes how, when teaching this story the author encourages students to sympathize with Estelle (the narrator) before they judge her (instead of rushing to achieve closure and begin interpretation). (SR)

  20. Basic Guidelines for Victims of Rape and Sexual Offenses. Revised Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maryland State Commission for Women, Baltimore.

    This brochure presents guidelines for victims of rape and sexual offenses in preparation for the legal and medical procedures which will follow the reporting of such an assault. The brochure states the hope that these guidelines will be useful to a victim in regaining control over the situation and in managing a difficult situation effectively.…

  1. Cognitive Processes Underlying Women's Risk Judgments: Associations with Sexual Victimization History and Rape Myth Acceptance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yeater, Elizabeth A.; Treat, Teresa A.; Viken, Richard J.; McFall, Richard M.

    2010-01-01

    Objective: This study evaluated the effects of sexual victimization history, rape myth acceptance, implicit attention, and recent learning on the cognitive processes underlying undergraduate women's explicit risk judgments. Method: Participants were 194 undergraduate women between 18 and 24 years of age. The sample was ethnically diverse and…

  2. Acquaintance Rape Workshops: Their Effectiveness in Changing the Attitudes of First Year College Men.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Earle, James P.

    1996-01-01

    Studies the effect of three different types of acquaintance rape prevention programs on men's attitudes concerning women and sexual assault. Examined single-sex versus coed workshops, small groups versus large groups, and other types of formats. Findings show that some program features are more effective than others. (RJM)

  3. Substance Use and PTSD Symptoms Impact the Likelihood of Rape and Revictimization in College Women

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Messman-Moore, Terri L.; Ward, Rose Marie; Brown, Amy L.

    2009-01-01

    The present study utilized a mixed retrospective and prospective design with an 8-month follow-up period to test a model of revictimization that included multiple childhood (i.e., child sexual, physical, and emotional abuse) and situational variables (i.e., substance use, sexual behavior) for predicting rape among 276 college women. It was of…

  4. Rape-related cognitive distortions: Preliminary findings on the role of early maladaptive schemas.

    PubMed

    Sigre-Leirós, Vera; Carvalho, Joana; Nobre, Pedro J

    2015-01-01

    Despite the important focus on the notion of cognitive distortions in the sexual offending area, the relevance of underlying cognitive schemas in sexual offenders has also been suggested. The aim of the present study was to investigate a potential relationship between Early Maladaptive Schemas (EMSs) and cognitive distortions in rapists. A total of 33 men convicted for rape completed the Bumby Rape Scale (BRS), the Young Schema Questionnaire - Short form-3 (YSQ-S3), the Brief Symptom Inventory (BSI), and the Socially Desirable Response Set Measure (SDRS-5). Results showed a significant relationship between the impaired limits schematic domain and the Justifying Rape dimension of the BRS. Specifically, after controlling for psychological distress levels and social desirability tendency, the entitlement/grandiosity schema from the impaired limits domain was a significant predictor of cognitive distortions related to Justifying Rape themes. Overall, despite preliminary, there is some evidence that the Young's Schema-Focused model namely the impaired limits dimension may contribute for the conceptualization of cognitive distortions in rapists and further investigation is recommended.

  5. Sorority Women's and Fraternity Men's Rape Myth Acceptance and Bystander Intervention Attitudes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bannon, R. Sean; Brosi, Matthew W.; Foubert, John D.

    2013-01-01

    Sorority women and fraternity men are more likely than other students to be survivors and perpetrators of sexual assault, respectively. The present study examined sorority and fraternity members' rape myth acceptance, bystander efficacy, and bystander willingness to help in potential sexual assault situations. Sorority women were more rejecting of…

  6. Sexual Assault Nurse Examiners' Perceptions of the Revictimization of Rape Victims

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maier, Shana L.

    2012-01-01

    While Sexual Assault Nurse Examiner programs have improved the treatment of rape victims by offering more compassionate and thorough treatment, SANEs believe victims continue to face revictimization by the medical, criminal justice and legal systems. The purpose of this research is to explore SANEs' perceptions of the revictimization of rape…

  7. Forcible Rape. A National Survey of the Response by Prosecutors. Prosecutors' Volume 1.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Battelle Memorial Inst., Seattle, WA. Law and Justice Study Center.

    This report presents the results of a nationwide survey of current law enforcement practices in response to the crime of forcible rape. A total of 150 prosecutor agencies were sampled. Respondents were asked to provide information regarding their agencies' general policies and specific practices in the following areas: classification methods;…

  8. Forcible Rape: A Manual for Filing and Trial Prosecutors. Prosecutors' Volume II.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Battelle Memorial Inst., Seattle, WA. Law and Justice Study Center.

    The report begins with a discussion of rape and its victims. It proceeds to more technical information about the filing, preliminary hearings and grand juries, plea bargaining, trial preparation, trial and sentencing information which is geared towards the prosecutor. Finally, the report concludes with appendices presenting sample forms for…

  9. Behavior Differences Seven Months Later: Effects of a Rape Prevention Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Foubert, John D.; Newberry, Johnathan T.; Tatum, Jerry

    2008-01-01

    First-year men at a midsized public university either saw a rape prevention program or were in a control group and were asked to complete attitude and behavior surveys at the beginning and end of an academic year. Participants were also asked whether they joined fraternities during that year. With 90% of first-year men participating throughout the…

  10. Some rape/canola seed oils: fatty acid composition and tocopherols.

    PubMed

    Matthaus, Bertrand; Özcan, Mehmet Musa; Al Juhaimi, Fahad

    2016-03-01

    Seed samples of some rape and canola cultivars were analysed for oil content, fatty acid and tocopherol profiles. Gas liquid chromotography and high performance liquid chromotography were used for fatty acid and tocopherol analysis, respectively. The oil contents of rape and canola seeds varied between 30.6% and 48.3% of the dry weight (p<0.05). The oil contents of rapeseeds were found to be high compared with canola seed oils. The main fatty acids in the oils are oleic (56.80-64.92%), linoleic (17.11-20.92%) and palmitic (4.18-5.01%) acids. A few types of tocopherols were found in rape and canola oils in various amounts: α-tocopherol, γ-tocopherol, δ-tocopherol, β-tocopherol and α-tocotrienol. The major tocopherol in the seed oils of rape and canola cultivars were α-tocopherol (13.22-40.01%) and γ-tocopherol (33.64-51.53%) accompanied by α-T3 (0.0-1.34%) and δ-tocopherol (0.25-1.86%) (p<0.05). As a result, the present study shows that oil, fatty acid and tocopherol contents differ significantly among the cultivars.

  11. Asian and Non-Asian Attitudes toward Rape, Sexual Harassment, and Sexuality.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kennedy, M. Alexis; Gorzalka, Boris B.

    2002-01-01

    Explored potential differences between Asian and non-Asian Canadian university students regarding their attitudes toward coercive and noncoercive sexual behavior. Student surveys indicated that Asian students' attitudes were significantly more conservative. Asian students were more tolerant of rape myths and sexual harassment. They demonstrated…

  12. Improving Anti-Rape Policy and Education at the University of Delaware

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schiffman, Jessica

    2010-01-01

    It is incumbent on colleges and universities to evaluate the conditions that lead to sexual assault on their campuses and to address those that may support a climate that encourages or tolerates rape. Though various policies and educational programs attempt to mitigate the problem, still it persists. The University of Delaware has not engaged in a…

  13. Acquaintance Rape Prevention with High-Risk Women: Identification and Inoculation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Himelein, Melissa J.

    1999-01-01

    Reasons are presented why rape education programming for women who have been sexually victimized may need to be different and separate from general programming. A process for identifying high-risk women is described. "Inoculation," a counseling group process, is described. Evaluation, feedback, and recommendations are reported. (EMK)

  14. Another Dimension of Campus Date Rape: Assessing College Students' Attitudes. ASHE Annual Meeting Paper.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Korn, Jessica S.

    This study examined the prevalence and impact of student attitudes tolerant toward or supportive of sexual aggression including date rape on college campuses. Data for the study come from the 1985 and 1989 Freshman Surveys involving a total of 89,070 male and female college students. Among the findings were the following: (1) students who oppose…

  15. Comparison of the Psychological Recovery of Black and White Victims of Rape.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morelli, Patricia H.

    Knowledge of individual differences of victim responses to and recovery from rape is necessary in order to provide for each victim's individual needs. Black women may be exposed to more violence in their culture and may be treated differently than white women. These differences may lead to different recovery patterns between black and white rape…

  16. The Attitudes toward Rape Victims Scale: Construction, Validation, and Cross-Cultural Applicability.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ward, Colleen

    1988-01-01

    Constructed 25-item Attitudes toward Rape Victims Scale (ARVS) which emphasized victim blame, credibility, deservingness, denigration, and trivialization. Results from administration of ARVS to university students, social workers, psychologists, physicians, lawyers, and police officers in Singapore, and to university students in the United States…

  17. The Discovery of Acquaintance Rape: The Salience of Methodological Innovation and Rigor

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fisher, Bonnie S.; Cullen, Francis T.; Daigle, Leah E.

    2005-01-01

    Over the past 20 years, research has uncovered the many types of sexual victimizations women experience. Findings regarding the victim-offender relationship in such incidents have undoubtedly been among the most striking. Particularly salient is the revelation that the sexual abuse of and violence against women - including rape - most often are…

  18. Rape as a legal indication for abortion: implications and consequences of the medical examination requirement.

    PubMed

    Teklehaimanot, K I; Smith, C Hord

    2004-01-01

    A number of countries adopt abortion laws recognizing rape as a legal ground for access to safe abortion service. As rape is a crime, these abortion laws carry with them criminal and health care elements that in turn result in the involvement of legal and medical expertise. The most common objective of the laws should be providing safe abortion services to women survivors of rape. Depending on purposes of a given abortion law, the laws usually require women to undergo a medical examination to qualify for a legal abortion. Some abortion laws are so vague as to result in uncertainties regarding the steps health personnel must follow in conducting medical examination. Another group of abortion laws do not leave room for regulation and remain too rigid to respond to changing socio-economic circumstances. Still others require medical examination as a prerequisite for abortion. As a result, a number of abortion laws remain on the books. The paper attempts to analyze legal and practical issues related to medical examination in rape cases.

  19. The Market, the Media and the Family in a School Excursion Rape Case

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gannon, Susanne

    2007-01-01

    This paper examines a local and specific instance of the effects of neoliberal markets on individual and institutional subjects of schooling. It reviews a court case between a prestigious private girls' school and an ex-student who sued the school for failing to provide adequate supervision on a school trip to Europe during which she was raped. It…

  20. Medico-Legal Findings, Legal Case Progression, and Outcomes in South African Rape Cases: Retrospective Review

    PubMed Central

    Jewkes, Rachel; Christofides, Nicola; Vetten, Lisa; Jina, Ruxana; Sigsworth, Romi; Loots, Lizle

    2009-01-01

    Background Health services for victims of rape are recognised as a particularly neglected area of the health sector internationally. Efforts to strengthen these services need to be guided by clinical research. Expert medical evidence is widely used in rape cases, but its contribution to the progress of legal cases is unclear. Only three studies have found an association between documented bodily injuries and convictions in rape cases. This article aims to describe the processing of rape cases by South African police and courts, and the association between documented injuries and DNA and case progression through the criminal justice system. Methods and Findings We analysed a provincially representative sample of 2,068 attempted and completed rape cases reported to 70 randomly selected Gauteng province police stations in 2003. Data sheets were completed from the police dockets and available medical examination forms were copied. 1,547 cases of rape had medical examinations and available forms and were analysed, which was at least 85% of the proportion of the sample having a medical examination. We present logistic regression models of the association between whether a trial started and whether the accused was found guilty and the medico-legal findings for adult and child rapes. Half the suspects were arrested (n = 771), 14% (209) of cases went to trial, and in 3% (31) of adults and 7% (44) of children there was a conviction. A report on DNA was available in 1.4% (22) of cases, but the presence or absence of injuries were documented in all cases. Documented injuries were not associated with arrest, but they were associated with children's cases (but not adult's) going to trial (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] for having genital and nongenital injuries 5.83, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.87–18.13, p = 0.003). In adult cases a conviction was more likely if there were documented injuries, whether nongenital injuries alone AOR 6.25 (95% CI 1.14–34.3, p = 0