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Sample records for oil-seed rape field

  1. Effects of damping-off caused by Rhizoctonia solani anastomosis group 2-1 on roots of wheat and oil seed rape quantified using X-ray Computed Tomography and real-time PCR.

    PubMed

    Sturrock, Craig J; Woodhall, James; Brown, Matthew; Walker, Catherine; Mooney, Sacha J; Ray, Rumiana V

    2015-01-01

    Rhizoctonia solani is a plant pathogenic fungus that causes significant establishment and yield losses to several important food crops globally. This is the first application of high resolution X-ray micro Computed Tomography (X-ray μCT) and real-time PCR to study host-pathogen interactions in situ and elucidate the mechanism of Rhizoctonia damping-off disease over a 6-day period caused by R. solani, anastomosis group (AG) 2-1 in wheat (Triticum aestivum cv. Gallant) and oil seed rape (OSR, Brassica napus cv. Marinka). Temporal, non-destructive analysis of root system architectures was performed using RooTrak and validated by the destructive method of root washing. Disease was assessed visually and related to pathogen DNA quantification in soil using real-time PCR. R. solani AG2-1 at similar initial DNA concentrations in soil was capable of causing significant damage to the developing root systems of both wheat and OSR. Disease caused reductions in primary root number, root volume, root surface area, and convex hull which were affected less in the monocotyledonous host. Wheat was more tolerant to the pathogen, exhibited fewer symptoms and developed more complex root systems. In contrast, R. solani caused earlier damage and maceration of the taproot of the dicot, OSR. Disease severity was related to pathogen DNA accumulation in soil only for OSR, however, reductions in root traits were significantly associated with both disease and pathogen DNA. The method offers the first steps in advancing current understanding of soil-borne pathogen behavior in situ at the pore scale, which may lead to the development of mitigation measures to combat disease influence in the field. PMID:26157449

  2. Effects of damping-off caused by Rhizoctonia solani anastomosis group 2-1 on roots of wheat and oil seed rape quantified using X-ray Computed Tomography and real-time PCR

    PubMed Central

    Sturrock, Craig J.; Woodhall, James; Brown, Matthew; Walker, Catherine; Mooney, Sacha J.; Ray, Rumiana V.

    2015-01-01

    Rhizoctonia solani is a plant pathogenic fungus that causes significant establishment and yield losses to several important food crops globally. This is the first application of high resolution X-ray micro Computed Tomography (X-ray μCT) and real-time PCR to study host–pathogen interactions in situ and elucidate the mechanism of Rhizoctonia damping-off disease over a 6-day period caused by R. solani, anastomosis group (AG) 2-1 in wheat (Triticum aestivum cv. Gallant) and oil seed rape (OSR, Brassica napus cv. Marinka). Temporal, non-destructive analysis of root system architectures was performed using RooTrak and validated by the destructive method of root washing. Disease was assessed visually and related to pathogen DNA quantification in soil using real-time PCR. R. solani AG2-1 at similar initial DNA concentrations in soil was capable of causing significant damage to the developing root systems of both wheat and OSR. Disease caused reductions in primary root number, root volume, root surface area, and convex hull which were affected less in the monocotyledonous host. Wheat was more tolerant to the pathogen, exhibited fewer symptoms and developed more complex root systems. In contrast, R. solani caused earlier damage and maceration of the taproot of the dicot, OSR. Disease severity was related to pathogen DNA accumulation in soil only for OSR, however, reductions in root traits were significantly associated with both disease and pathogen DNA. The method offers the first steps in advancing current understanding of soil-borne pathogen behavior in situ at the pore scale, which may lead to the development of mitigation measures to combat disease influence in the field. PMID:26157449

  3. Effects of damping-off caused by Rhizoctonia solani anastomosis group 2-1 on roots of wheat and oil seed rape quantified using X-ray Computed Tomography and real-time PCR.

    PubMed

    Sturrock, Craig J; Woodhall, James; Brown, Matthew; Walker, Catherine; Mooney, Sacha J; Ray, Rumiana V

    2015-01-01

    Rhizoctonia solani is a plant pathogenic fungus that causes significant establishment and yield losses to several important food crops globally. This is the first application of high resolution X-ray micro Computed Tomography (X-ray μCT) and real-time PCR to study host-pathogen interactions in situ and elucidate the mechanism of Rhizoctonia damping-off disease over a 6-day period caused by R. solani, anastomosis group (AG) 2-1 in wheat (Triticum aestivum cv. Gallant) and oil seed rape (OSR, Brassica napus cv. Marinka). Temporal, non-destructive analysis of root system architectures was performed using RooTrak and validated by the destructive method of root washing. Disease was assessed visually and related to pathogen DNA quantification in soil using real-time PCR. R. solani AG2-1 at similar initial DNA concentrations in soil was capable of causing significant damage to the developing root systems of both wheat and OSR. Disease caused reductions in primary root number, root volume, root surface area, and convex hull which were affected less in the monocotyledonous host. Wheat was more tolerant to the pathogen, exhibited fewer symptoms and developed more complex root systems. In contrast, R. solani caused earlier damage and maceration of the taproot of the dicot, OSR. Disease severity was related to pathogen DNA accumulation in soil only for OSR, however, reductions in root traits were significantly associated with both disease and pathogen DNA. The method offers the first steps in advancing current understanding of soil-borne pathogen behavior in situ at the pore scale, which may lead to the development of mitigation measures to combat disease influence in the field.

  4. Rape

    MedlinePlus

    ... How Can I Help a Friend Who Cuts? Rape KidsHealth > For Teens > Rape Print A A A Text Size What's in ... Happens During the Medical Exam? Dealing With Feelings Rape, sometimes also called sexual assault, can happen to ...

  5. Biotechnology of oil seed crops

    SciTech Connect

    James, A.T.

    1985-02-01

    A general summary of possibilities and limitation application of biotechnology processes to processing and/or production of fats and oils is presented. Enzymatic processes, cloning of premium perennial oil crops and genetic manipulation of oil seed compositions are discussed.

  6. In-field frequencies and characteristics of oilseed rape with double herbicide resistance.

    PubMed

    Dietz-Pfeilstetter, Antje; Zwerger, Peter

    2009-01-01

    When growing different transgenic herbicide-resistant oilseed rape cultivars side by side, seeds with multiple herbicide resistance can arise, possibly causing problems for the management of volunteer plants. Large-scale field experiments were performed in the years 1999/2000 and 2000/2001 in order to investigate the frequencies and the consequences of the transfer of herbicide resistance genes from transgenic oilseed rape to cultivars grown on neighboring agricultural fields. Transgenic oilseed rape with resistance to glufosinate-ammonium (LibertyLink, LL) and with glyphosate resistance (RoundupReady, RR), respectively, was sown in adjacent 0.5 ha plots, surrounded by about 8 ha non-transgenic oilseed rape. The plots and the field were either in direct contact (0.5 m gap width) or they were separated by 10 m of fallow land. Seed samples taken during harvest in the transgenic plots at different distances were investigated for progeny with resistance to the respective other herbicide. It was found that outcrossing frequencies were reduced to different extents by a 10 m isolation distance. In addition to pollen-mediated transgene flow as a result of outcrossing, we found considerable seed-mediated gene flow by adventitious dispersal of transgenic seeds through the harvesting machine. Volunteer plants with double herbicide resistance emerging in the transgenic plots after harvest were selected by suitable applications of the complementary herbicides Basta and Roundup Ultra. In both years, double-resistant volunteers were largely restricted to the inner edges of the plots. Expression analysis under controlled laboratory conditions of double-resistant plants generated by manual crosses revealed stability of transgene expression even at elevated temperatures. Greenhouse tests with double-resistant oilseed rape plants gave no indication that the sensitivity to a range of different herbicides is changed as compared to non-transgenic oilseed rape.

  7. In-field frequencies and characteristics of oilseed rape with double herbicide resistance.

    PubMed

    Dietz-Pfeilstetter, Antje; Zwerger, Peter

    2009-01-01

    When growing different transgenic herbicide-resistant oilseed rape cultivars side by side, seeds with multiple herbicide resistance can arise, possibly causing problems for the management of volunteer plants. Large-scale field experiments were performed in the years 1999/2000 and 2000/2001 in order to investigate the frequencies and the consequences of the transfer of herbicide resistance genes from transgenic oilseed rape to cultivars grown on neighboring agricultural fields. Transgenic oilseed rape with resistance to glufosinate-ammonium (LibertyLink, LL) and with glyphosate resistance (RoundupReady, RR), respectively, was sown in adjacent 0.5 ha plots, surrounded by about 8 ha non-transgenic oilseed rape. The plots and the field were either in direct contact (0.5 m gap width) or they were separated by 10 m of fallow land. Seed samples taken during harvest in the transgenic plots at different distances were investigated for progeny with resistance to the respective other herbicide. It was found that outcrossing frequencies were reduced to different extents by a 10 m isolation distance. In addition to pollen-mediated transgene flow as a result of outcrossing, we found considerable seed-mediated gene flow by adventitious dispersal of transgenic seeds through the harvesting machine. Volunteer plants with double herbicide resistance emerging in the transgenic plots after harvest were selected by suitable applications of the complementary herbicides Basta and Roundup Ultra. In both years, double-resistant volunteers were largely restricted to the inner edges of the plots. Expression analysis under controlled laboratory conditions of double-resistant plants generated by manual crosses revealed stability of transgene expression even at elevated temperatures. Greenhouse tests with double-resistant oilseed rape plants gave no indication that the sensitivity to a range of different herbicides is changed as compared to non-transgenic oilseed rape. PMID:19833077

  8. [Effects of wheat planted adjacent to rape on the major pests and their natural enemies in wheat field].

    PubMed

    Li, Chuan; Wu, Wen-Qing; Zhu, Liang; Zhang, Qing-Wen; Liu, Xiao-Xia

    2011-12-01

    Based on the dynamic analysis of insect community structure characteristics, an investigation was conducted on the composition, abundance, and stability of wheat aphids and their major natural enemies in the wheat field adjacent to rape field in Handan City, Hebei Province in 2008-2009. The wheat and rape fields had the similar composition of insect communities. The main pests were aphids, their predatory natural enemies included ladybirds, green lacewings, spiders, and hover flies, and their parasitic natural enemies were wasps. In 2008-2009, the composition of insect communities in the wheat and rape fields had definite changes, but the common features were the lowest abundance of aphids and the highest abundance of predatory and parasitic natural enemies in wheat field adjacent to rape field. The insect community, aphid sub-community, and predatory natural enemy' s sub-community had a high stability in the wheat field adjacent to rape field and a low stability far from the rape field, suggesting that planting wheat adjacent to rape could effectively protect and make use of the natural enemies and promote their control ability on wheat aphids in wheat field.

  9. Heterogeneity in the distribution of genetically modified and conventional oilseed rape within fields and seed lots.

    PubMed

    Begg, Graham S; Elliott, Martin J; Cullen, Danny W; Iannetta, Pietro P M; Squire, Geoff R

    2008-10-01

    The implementation of co-existence in the commercialisation of GM crops requires GM and non-GM products to be segregated in production and supply. However, maintaining segregation in oilseed rape will be made difficult by the highly persistent nature of this species. An understanding of its population dynamics is needed to predict persistence and develop potential strategies for control, while to ensure segregation is being achieved, the production of GM oilseed rape must be accompanied by the monitoring of GM levels in crop or seed populations. Heterogeneity in the spatial distribution of oilseed rape has the potential to affect both control and monitoring and, although a universal phenomenon in arable weeds and harvested seed lots, spatial heterogeneity in oilseed rape populations remains to be demonstrated and quantified. Here we investigate the distribution of crop and volunteer populations in a commercial field before and during the cultivation of the first conventional oilseed rape (winter) crop since the cultivation of a GM glufosinate-tolerant oilseed rape crop (spring) three years previously. GM presence was detected by ELISA for the PAT protein in each of three morphologically distinguishable phenotypes: autumn germinating crop-type plants (3% GM), autumn-germinating 'regrowths' (72% GM) and spring germinating 'small-type' plants (17% GM). Statistical models (Poisson log-normal and binomial logit-normal) were used to describe the spatial distribution of these populations at multiple spatial scales in the field and of GM presence in the harvested seed lot. Heterogeneity was a consistent feature in the distribution of GM and conventional oilseed rape. Large trends across the field (50 x 400 m) and seed lot (4 x 1.5 x 1.5 m) were observed in addition to small-scale heterogeneity, less than 20 m in the field and 20 cm in the seed lot. The heterogeneity was greater for the 'regrowth' and 'small' phenotypes, which were likely to be volunteers and included most

  10. Residue dynamics of clopyralid and picloram in rape plant rapeseed and field soil.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Pengyue; Wang, Lei; Chen, Li; Pan, Canping

    2011-01-01

    A new method for simultaneous analysis of clopyralid and picloram residues in rape plant, rapeseed and field soil was developed and validated. The residual dynamics and final residues of clopyralid and picloram in rape plant, rapeseed and soil were determined by high performance liquid chromtography-diode array detector (HPLC-DAD) and high performance liquid chromtography-mass spectroscopy detector (HPLC-MSD). The limit of quantification (LOQ) was established as 0.02 mg/kg for soil sample, 0.5 mg/kg for rape and rapeseed sample, respectively. It was shown that recoveries ranged from 71.3%-109.0% for clopyralid, and 84.0%-100.5% for picloram at fortified levels of 0.02-2 mg/kg. From residue trials at two geographical experimental plots in China and laboratory simulated pots, the results showed that the half-lives of clopyralid in rape and soil were 3.66-4.83 and 2.53-5.17 days, respectively, for picloram with half-lives of 5.17-10.73 and 3.45-7.11 days. For tirals applied according to the label recommended, at harvest time the final residues of clopyralid in rapeseed were below 1.82 mg/kg, while the picloram residues could not be detected in rapeseed (

  11. Residue dynamics of clopyralid and picloram in rape plant rapeseed and field soil.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Pengyue; Wang, Lei; Chen, Li; Pan, Canping

    2011-01-01

    A new method for simultaneous analysis of clopyralid and picloram residues in rape plant, rapeseed and field soil was developed and validated. The residual dynamics and final residues of clopyralid and picloram in rape plant, rapeseed and soil were determined by high performance liquid chromtography-diode array detector (HPLC-DAD) and high performance liquid chromtography-mass spectroscopy detector (HPLC-MSD). The limit of quantification (LOQ) was established as 0.02 mg/kg for soil sample, 0.5 mg/kg for rape and rapeseed sample, respectively. It was shown that recoveries ranged from 71.3%-109.0% for clopyralid, and 84.0%-100.5% for picloram at fortified levels of 0.02-2 mg/kg. From residue trials at two geographical experimental plots in China and laboratory simulated pots, the results showed that the half-lives of clopyralid in rape and soil were 3.66-4.83 and 2.53-5.17 days, respectively, for picloram with half-lives of 5.17-10.73 and 3.45-7.11 days. For tirals applied according to the label recommended, at harvest time the final residues of clopyralid in rapeseed were below 1.82 mg/kg, while the picloram residues could not be detected in rapeseed (

  12. The environmental fate of different forms of ZJ0702 in open rape field and MRL calculation.

    PubMed

    Li, Li; Liang, Hongwu; Li, Wei; Ji, Ran

    2011-01-01

    In the present work, the environmental fate, including residual level and dissipation rate of two formulations of ZJ0702 (a new pyrimidine salicylic herbicide which showed good inhibitory effect on the weeds in rape fields), EC and SC, were determined by high performance liquid chromatography with DAD. The herbicide was used in Hangzhou and Kunming in rape fields at the same time for 2 years. The results were that half-lives of ZJ0702 in rape ranged from 1.2-6.8 days, while in soil samples were from 15.2-47.1 days. On the sampling days, the final residues of ZJ0702 in rapeseed were below the limit of quantitation (0.02 mg/kg). The differences of dissipation rate suggest that local soil characteristics and climate, and the formulations would affect the decline of ZJ0702. The low final residue levels of ZJ0702 in rapeseed and soil indicated that this new pesticide was environmentally safe. It was recommended that MRL for ZJ0702 in rapeseed be 1 mg/kg in China.

  13. The environmental fate of different forms of ZJ0702 in open rape field and MRL calculation.

    PubMed

    Li, Li; Liang, Hongwu; Li, Wei; Ji, Ran

    2011-01-01

    In the present work, the environmental fate, including residual level and dissipation rate of two formulations of ZJ0702 (a new pyrimidine salicylic herbicide which showed good inhibitory effect on the weeds in rape fields), EC and SC, were determined by high performance liquid chromatography with DAD. The herbicide was used in Hangzhou and Kunming in rape fields at the same time for 2 years. The results were that half-lives of ZJ0702 in rape ranged from 1.2-6.8 days, while in soil samples were from 15.2-47.1 days. On the sampling days, the final residues of ZJ0702 in rapeseed were below the limit of quantitation (0.02 mg/kg). The differences of dissipation rate suggest that local soil characteristics and climate, and the formulations would affect the decline of ZJ0702. The low final residue levels of ZJ0702 in rapeseed and soil indicated that this new pesticide was environmentally safe. It was recommended that MRL for ZJ0702 in rapeseed be 1 mg/kg in China. PMID:21067477

  14. Chemical changes induced by methyl jasmonate in oilseed rape grown in the laboratory and in the field.

    PubMed

    Loivamäki, Maaria; Holopainen, Jarmo K; Nerg, Anne-Marja

    2004-12-15

    The effect of methyl jasmonate (MJ) spraying on the chemistry of Brassica plants was investigated. Glucosinolates (GLS) in the leaves, stems, and roots of laboratory-grown oilseed rape (Brassica rapa subsp. oleifera cv. Tuli and Valo) 3 and 7 days after MJ treatment were analyzed. Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) from whole oilseed rape plants were collected 3 days after MJ treatment. GLS were also analyzed from field-grown oilseed rape (cv. Valo) treated with MJ. The production of indolyl GLS in laboratory-grown oilseed rape, especially the concentration of 4-hydroxy-3-indolylmethyl (4-OH-glucobrassicin) in leaves, stems, and roots, 3-indolylmethyl (glucobrassicin) in stems, and 4-methoxy-3-indolylmethyl (4-methoxyglucobrassicin) in roots, was induced after MJ treatment. The VOC emission profile changed after MJ treatment, and homoterpene (E)-4,8-dimethyl-1,3,7-nonatriene (DMNT) was detected only in MJ-treated plants. The GLS concentration in the field-grown plants was significantly higher in MJ-treated plants than in control plants. These results suggest that spraying with MJ induces the production of secondary compounds, that is, GLS and VOCs, in Brassica plants. The induction of VOC emissions in oilseed rape is comparable to that caused by insect feeding damage. Thus, MJ-treated crop plants may become less palatable to insect herbivores and more attractive to natural enemies of herbivores.

  15. [Application of successive projections algorithm to nondestructive determination of total amino acids in oilseed rape leaves].

    PubMed

    Liu, Fei; Zhang, Fan; Fang, Hui; Jin, Zong-Lai; Zhou, Wei-Jun; He, Yong

    2009-11-01

    Near infrared (NIR) spectroscopy combined with successive projections algorithm (SPA) was investigated for the fast and nondestructive determination of total amino acids (TAA) in oilseed rape leaves. Total amino acids are important indices of the growing status of oilseed rape. A total of 150 leave samples were scanned, the calibration set was composed of 80 samples, the validation set was composed of 40 samples and the prediction set was composed of 30 samples. The optimal partial least squares (PLS) model was developed for the prediction of total amino acids in oilseed rape leaves after the performance comparison of different pretreatments, including smoothing method, standard normal variate (SNV), the first derivative and second derivative. Simultaneously, successive projections algorithm was applied for the extraction of effective wavelengths (EWs), which were thought to have least collinearity and redundancies in the spectral data. The selected effective wavelengths were used as the inputs of multiple linear regression (MLR), partial least squares (PLS) and least square-support vector machine (LS-SVM). Then the SPA-MLR, SPA-PLS and SPA-LS-SVM models were developed for performance comparison. The determination coefficient (R2) and root mean square error (RMSE) were used as the model evaluation indices. The results indicated that both SPA-MLR and SPA-PLS models were better than full-spectrum PLS model, and the best performance was achieved by SPA-LS-SVM model with R2 = 0.983 0 and RMSEP = 0.396 4. An excellent prediction precision was achieved. In conclusion, successive projections algorithm is a powerful way for effective wavelength selection, and it is feasible to determine the total amino acids in oil-seed rape leaves using near infrared spectroscopy and SPA-LS-SVM, and an excellent prediction precision was obtained. This study supplied a new and alternative approach to the further application of near infrared spectroscopy in the response of stress and on-field

  16. Dissipation and residues of N-(2-bromophenyl)-2-(4,6-dimethoxypyrimidin-2-yloxy)benzylamine residues in rape and soil under field conditions.

    PubMed

    Liu, Dan; Qin, Dongmei; Ji, Ran

    2009-09-01

    N-(2-Bromophenyl)-2-(4,6-dimethoxypyrimidin-2-yloxy)benzylamine, compound A, is a highly active herbicide. Field trials indicate that it controls major weeds with a good tolerance on rape by postemergence application. In the present study, it was studied the dissipation behavior of compound A residues in rapes and soils. Analyses were carried out using high performance-liquid chromatography with diode array detection. The limits of detections (LOD) of compound A in rape plant and rape seed samples were 0.03 mg kg(-1) and its in soil was 0.02 mg kg(-1). At three different spiking levels mean recoveries and relative standard deviation (RSD) from spiked samples in five replicated experiment for each matrix were in the range 87.3%-96.4% and 2.9%-8.7%, respectively. The dissipation rate was found to vary with the nature of the studied sample. In soil, half-live were 33 and 25 days in Yunnan and Zhejiang, respectively, while in rape, it was 7.2 and 8.5 days. The residual amounts of compound A in rape and soil samples were below LOD after the recommended dosage and two times dosage. According to the calculation of the ADI of compound A and other data, the result suggest that the MRL for compound A in rape is 1 mg kg(-1).

  17. Application of a rotation system to oilseed rape and rice fields in Cd-contaminated agricultural land to ensure food safety.

    PubMed

    Yu, Lingling; Zhu, Junyan; Huang, Qingqing; Su, Dechun; Jiang, Rongfeng; Li, Huafen

    2014-10-01

    This field experiment analyzed the phytoremediation effects of oilseed rape in moderately cadmium (Cd)-contaminated farmland and the food safety of successive rice in an oilseed rape-rice rotation system. Two oilseed rape cultivars accumulated Cd at different rates. The rapeseed cultivar Zhucang Huazi exhibited high Cd accumulation rates, higher than the legal limit for human consumption (0.2mgkg(-1)); Cd concentrations in the cultivar Chuanyou II-93 were all below the maximum allowed level. Planting oilseed rape increased the uptake of Cd by the successive rice crop compared with a previous fallow treatment. Most Cd concentrations of brown rice were below the maximum allowed level. The phytoextraction efficiency was lower in the moderately Cd-contaminated soil in field experiments. The results suggest screening rice cultivars with lower Cd accumulation can assure the food safety; the mobilization of heavy metals by roots of different plant species should be considered during crop rotation to assure food safety.

  18. What Is Rape and Date Rape?

    MedlinePlus

    ... What is rape and date rape? What is rape and date rape? Get help National Sexual Assault Hotline 800-656- ... drinking, it is NOT your fault. What is sexual assault? Sexual assault and abuse is any kind of ...

  19. Distance from forest edge affects bee pollinators in oilseed rape fields

    PubMed Central

    Bailey, Samantha; Requier, Fabrice; Nusillard, Benoît; Roberts, Stuart P M; Potts, Simon G; Bouget, Christophe

    2014-01-01

    Wild pollinators have been shown to enhance the pollination of Brassica napus (oilseed rape) and thus increase its market value. Several studies have previously shown that pollination services are greater in crops adjoining forest patches or other seminatural habitats than in crops completely surrounded by other crops. In this study, we investigated the specific importance of forest edges in providing potential pollinators in B. napus fields in two areas in France. Bees were caught with yellow pan traps at increasing distances from both warm and cold forest edges into B. napus fields during the blooming period. A total of 4594 individual bees, representing six families and 83 taxa, were collected. We found that both bee abundance and taxa richness were negatively affected by the distance from forest edge. However, responses varied between bee groups and edge orientations. The ITD (Inter-Tegular distance) of the species, a good proxy for bee foraging range, seems to limit how far the bees can travel from the forest edge. We found a greater abundance of cuckoo bees (Nomada spp.) of Andrena spp. and Andrena spp. males at forest edges, which we assume indicate suitable nesting sites, or at least mating sites, for some abundant Andrena species and their parasites (Fig. 1). Synthesis and Applications. This study provides one of the first examples in temperate ecosystems of how forest edges may actually act as a reservoir of potential pollinators and directly benefit agricultural crops by providing nesting or mating sites for important early spring pollinators. Policy-makers and land managers should take forest edges into account and encourage their protection in the agricultural matrix to promote wild bees and their pollination services. PMID:24634722

  20. Distance from forest edge affects bee pollinators in oilseed rape fields.

    PubMed

    Bailey, Samantha; Requier, Fabrice; Nusillard, Benoît; Roberts, Stuart P M; Potts, Simon G; Bouget, Christophe

    2014-02-01

    Wild pollinators have been shown to enhance the pollination of Brassica napus (oilseed rape) and thus increase its market value. Several studies have previously shown that pollination services are greater in crops adjoining forest patches or other seminatural habitats than in crops completely surrounded by other crops. In this study, we investigated the specific importance of forest edges in providing potential pollinators in B. napus fields in two areas in France. Bees were caught with yellow pan traps at increasing distances from both warm and cold forest edges into B. napus fields during the blooming period. A total of 4594 individual bees, representing six families and 83 taxa, were collected. We found that both bee abundance and taxa richness were negatively affected by the distance from forest edge. However, responses varied between bee groups and edge orientations. The ITD (Inter-Tegular distance) of the species, a good proxy for bee foraging range, seems to limit how far the bees can travel from the forest edge. We found a greater abundance of cuckoo bees (Nomada spp.) of Andrena spp. and Andrena spp. males at forest edges, which we assume indicate suitable nesting sites, or at least mating sites, for some abundant Andrena species and their parasites (Fig. 1). Synthesis and Applications. This study provides one of the first examples in temperate ecosystems of how forest edges may actually act as a reservoir of potential pollinators and directly benefit agricultural crops by providing nesting or mating sites for important early spring pollinators. Policy-makers and land managers should take forest edges into account and encourage their protection in the agricultural matrix to promote wild bees and their pollination services.

  1. Distance from forest edge affects bee pollinators in oilseed rape fields.

    PubMed

    Bailey, Samantha; Requier, Fabrice; Nusillard, Benoît; Roberts, Stuart P M; Potts, Simon G; Bouget, Christophe

    2014-02-01

    Wild pollinators have been shown to enhance the pollination of Brassica napus (oilseed rape) and thus increase its market value. Several studies have previously shown that pollination services are greater in crops adjoining forest patches or other seminatural habitats than in crops completely surrounded by other crops. In this study, we investigated the specific importance of forest edges in providing potential pollinators in B. napus fields in two areas in France. Bees were caught with yellow pan traps at increasing distances from both warm and cold forest edges into B. napus fields during the blooming period. A total of 4594 individual bees, representing six families and 83 taxa, were collected. We found that both bee abundance and taxa richness were negatively affected by the distance from forest edge. However, responses varied between bee groups and edge orientations. The ITD (Inter-Tegular distance) of the species, a good proxy for bee foraging range, seems to limit how far the bees can travel from the forest edge. We found a greater abundance of cuckoo bees (Nomada spp.) of Andrena spp. and Andrena spp. males at forest edges, which we assume indicate suitable nesting sites, or at least mating sites, for some abundant Andrena species and their parasites (Fig. 1). Synthesis and Applications. This study provides one of the first examples in temperate ecosystems of how forest edges may actually act as a reservoir of potential pollinators and directly benefit agricultural crops by providing nesting or mating sites for important early spring pollinators. Policy-makers and land managers should take forest edges into account and encourage their protection in the agricultural matrix to promote wild bees and their pollination services. PMID:24634722

  2. Millipedes and earthworms increase the decomposition rate of 15N-labelled winter rape litter in an arable field.

    PubMed

    Martens, H; Alphei, J; Schaefer, M; Scheu, S

    2001-01-01

    Effects of millipedes and earthworms on the decomposition of 15N-labelled litter of winter oilseed rape were investigated in a microcosm field experiment over a period of 264 days on an oat field near Göttingen managed by integrated farming. A total of 32 microcosms were filled with defaunated soil. 15N-labelled rape litter was placed either on top of the soil or buried into the soil simulating mulching and ploughing, respectively. To the microcosms nine adult individuals of Blaniulus guttulatus (Diplopoda) and two of Aporrectodea caliginosa (Lumbricidae) were added separately or in combination. In general, the presence of the animals accelerated the decomposition rate of the litter material. The effects were most pronounced in the presence of Aporrectodea caliginosa. The total amount of nitrate, ammonium and the amount of 35N leached from the microcosms was increased in the presence of earthworms or of both earthworms and millipedes. Both species proved to be important members of the detritus food web of the agricultural system studied.

  3. Rape prevention

    MedlinePlus

    Date rape - prevention; Sexual assault - prevention ... Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Sexual assault and abuse and STDs. In: 2015 sexually transmitted diseases treatment guidelines 2015. Updated June 4, 2015. www.cdc.gov/ ...

  4. Perceptions of Rape.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Witten, Barbara J.; Remer, Rory

    Society does not view rape seriously. Few rape crimes are successfully prosecuted. Rape results in permanent alteration of the victim's life. Besides street rape there is no consensus on the definition of rape. This study attempts to gather people's perceptions of rape. Subjects (N=96) were approached randomly and accepted if they fit into desired…

  5. Cross-pollination between genetically modified and conventional oilseed rape fields.

    PubMed

    Degrieck, I; Van Bockstaele, E; De Loose, M

    2003-01-01

    Since the introduction of genetically modified crops in Europe, gene flow from those crops to conventional crops and wild relatives has been a key element in the safety assessment. In this experiment cross-pollination frequencies from a genetically modified herbicide tolerant oilseed rape crop to a conventional one were measured at six defined distances from the GM crop by taking seed samples in the conventional crop and analysing the progeny for presence of the herbicide tolerance gene. Levels of cross-pollination tend to decrease with increasing distance from the pollen source. Transgenic volunteers emerging in the subsequent crop can however be readily controlled with normal agricultural practices.

  6. Nitrous oxide emissions from rape field as affected by nitrogen fertilizer management: A case study in Central China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Shan; Iqbal, Javed; Hu, Ronggui; Wu, Jinshui; Zhao, Jinsong; Ruan, Leilei; Malghani, Saadatullah

    2011-03-01

    Agricultural soils are one of the major sources of atmospheric nitrous oxide (N 2O) emission. Red soil, one of the typical agricultural soils in sub-tropical China, plays an important role in the global N 2O flux emissions. To determine its N mineralization potential, a field study was conducted to assess the effect of application of nitrogen (N) fertilizer in a rape field under red soil at the experimental station of Heshengqiao at Xianning, Hubei, China. To estimate N-induced N 2O flux, we examined N 2O flux during the growth stages of the rape field including four treatments: fertilizer PK (N0), fertilizer NPK (60 kg N ha -1) (N1), fertilizer NPK (120 kg N ha -1) (N2), fertilizer NPK (240 kg N ha -1) (N3). There were distinct variations in soil N 2O fluxes (from 0.16 to 0.90 kg N ha -1), with higher values being observed during the spring and autumn while low values were observed during winter season. Among different treatments, N fertilization significantly increased the N 2O fluxes, with highest fluxes from N3 while lowest values being observed from N0 treatment. This suggested increased microbial activity in response to increased N fertilizer application. It was interesting to note that fertilizer-induced emissions decreased as the applied fertilizer amount was increased. During the whole growing season, N 2O flux did not correlate with soil temperature, but it significantly correlated to other environmental variables; water-filled pore space (WFPS), soil NO 3--N and NH 4+-N contents, which suggests the need for efficient water use and low inorganic nitrogen fertilizer management practices.

  7. Hydroponics versus field lysimeter studies of urea, ammonium and nitrate uptake by oilseed rape (Brassica napus L.).

    PubMed

    Arkoun, Mustapha; Sarda, Xavier; Jannin, Laëtitia; Laîné, Philippe; Etienne, Philippe; Garcia-Mina, José-Maria; Yvin, Jean-Claude; Ourry, Alain

    2012-09-01

    N-fertilizer use efficiencies are affected by their chemical composition and suffer from potential N-losses by volatilization. In a field lysimeter experiment, (15)N-labelled fertilizers were used to follow N uptake by Brassica napus L. and assess N-losses by volatilization. Use of urea with NBPT (urease inhibitor) showed the best efficiency with the lowest N losses (8% of N applied compared with 25% with urea alone). Plants receiving ammonium sulphate, had similar yield achieved through a better N mobilization from vegetative tissues to the seeds, despite a lower N uptake resulting from a higher volatilization (43% of applied N). Amounts of (15)N in the plant were also higher when plants were fertilized with ammonium nitrate but N-losses reached 23% of applied N. In parallel, hydroponic experiments showed a deleterious effect of ammonium and urea on the growth of oilseed rape. This was alleviated by the nitrate supply, which was preferentially taken up. B. napus was also characterized by a very low potential for urea uptake. BnDUR3 and BnAMT1, encoding urea and ammonium transporters, were up-regulated by urea, suggesting that urea-grown plants suffered from nitrogen deficiency. The results also suggested a role for nitrate as a signal for the expression of BnDUR3, in addition to its role as a major nutrient. Overall, the results of the hydroponic study showed that urea itself does not contribute significantly to the N nutrition of oilseed rape. Moreover, it may contribute indirectly since a better use efficiency for urea fertilizer, which was further increased by the application of a urease inhibitor, was observed in the lysimeter study.

  8. Genetic Diversity of Oilseed Rape Fields and Feral Populations in the Context of Coexistence with GM Crops

    PubMed Central

    Bailleul, Diane; Ollier, Sébastien; Lecomte, Jane

    2016-01-01

    Despite growing concern about transgenes escaping from fields, few studies have analysed the genetic diversity of crops in an agroecosystem over several years. Accurate information about the dynamics and relationship of the genetic diversity of crops in an agroecosystem is essential for risk assessment and policies concerning the containment of genetically modified crops and their coexistence with crops grown by conventional practices. Here, we analysed the genetic diversity of oilseed rape plants from fields and feral populations over 4 years in an agricultural landscape of 41 km2. We used exact compatibility and maximum likelihood assignment methods to assign these plants to cultivars. Even pure lines and hybrid cultivar seed lots contained several genotypes. The cultivar diversity in fields reflected the conventional view of agroecosystems quite well: that is, there was a succession of cultivars, some grown for longer than others because of their good performance, some used for one year and then abandoned, and others gradually adopted. Three types of field emerged: fields sown with a single cultivar, fields sown with two cultivars, and unassigned fields (too many cultivars or unassigned plants to reliably assign the field). Field plant diversity was higher than expected, indicating the persistence of cultivars that were grown for only one year. The cultivar composition of feral populations was similar to that of field plants, with an increasing number of cultivars each year. By using genetic tools, we found a link between the cultivars of field plants in a particular year and the cultivars of feral population plants in the following year. Feral populations on road verges were more diverse than those on path verges. All of these findings are discussed in terms of their consequences in the context of coexistence with genetically modified crops. PMID:27359342

  9. Genetic Diversity of Oilseed Rape Fields and Feral Populations in the Context of Coexistence with GM Crops.

    PubMed

    Bailleul, Diane; Ollier, Sébastien; Lecomte, Jane

    2016-01-01

    Despite growing concern about transgenes escaping from fields, few studies have analysed the genetic diversity of crops in an agroecosystem over several years. Accurate information about the dynamics and relationship of the genetic diversity of crops in an agroecosystem is essential for risk assessment and policies concerning the containment of genetically modified crops and their coexistence with crops grown by conventional practices. Here, we analysed the genetic diversity of oilseed rape plants from fields and feral populations over 4 years in an agricultural landscape of 41 km2. We used exact compatibility and maximum likelihood assignment methods to assign these plants to cultivars. Even pure lines and hybrid cultivar seed lots contained several genotypes. The cultivar diversity in fields reflected the conventional view of agroecosystems quite well: that is, there was a succession of cultivars, some grown for longer than others because of their good performance, some used for one year and then abandoned, and others gradually adopted. Three types of field emerged: fields sown with a single cultivar, fields sown with two cultivars, and unassigned fields (too many cultivars or unassigned plants to reliably assign the field). Field plant diversity was higher than expected, indicating the persistence of cultivars that were grown for only one year. The cultivar composition of feral populations was similar to that of field plants, with an increasing number of cultivars each year. By using genetic tools, we found a link between the cultivars of field plants in a particular year and the cultivars of feral population plants in the following year. Feral populations on road verges were more diverse than those on path verges. All of these findings are discussed in terms of their consequences in the context of coexistence with genetically modified crops.

  10. Genetic Diversity of Oilseed Rape Fields and Feral Populations in the Context of Coexistence with GM Crops.

    PubMed

    Bailleul, Diane; Ollier, Sébastien; Lecomte, Jane

    2016-01-01

    Despite growing concern about transgenes escaping from fields, few studies have analysed the genetic diversity of crops in an agroecosystem over several years. Accurate information about the dynamics and relationship of the genetic diversity of crops in an agroecosystem is essential for risk assessment and policies concerning the containment of genetically modified crops and their coexistence with crops grown by conventional practices. Here, we analysed the genetic diversity of oilseed rape plants from fields and feral populations over 4 years in an agricultural landscape of 41 km2. We used exact compatibility and maximum likelihood assignment methods to assign these plants to cultivars. Even pure lines and hybrid cultivar seed lots contained several genotypes. The cultivar diversity in fields reflected the conventional view of agroecosystems quite well: that is, there was a succession of cultivars, some grown for longer than others because of their good performance, some used for one year and then abandoned, and others gradually adopted. Three types of field emerged: fields sown with a single cultivar, fields sown with two cultivars, and unassigned fields (too many cultivars or unassigned plants to reliably assign the field). Field plant diversity was higher than expected, indicating the persistence of cultivars that were grown for only one year. The cultivar composition of feral populations was similar to that of field plants, with an increasing number of cultivars each year. By using genetic tools, we found a link between the cultivars of field plants in a particular year and the cultivars of feral population plants in the following year. Feral populations on road verges were more diverse than those on path verges. All of these findings are discussed in terms of their consequences in the context of coexistence with genetically modified crops. PMID:27359342

  11. Reflections on researching rape resistance.

    PubMed

    Ullman, Sarah E

    2014-03-01

    This article provides a retrospective account of my experience embarking on research about women's resistance to rape, including reflections on personal and professional experiences related to studying this topic. I discuss factors inspiring my interest, including pioneering feminist rape researchers, my experience as a woman living with the reality and fear of rape, and influential mentors who facilitated my career development as a scholar in graduate school and beyond. I weave this narrative together with my thoughts about how the study of resistance relates to other important issues in the field of sexual assault including alcohol, recovery, and prevention.

  12. Rape (sexual assault) - overview

    MedlinePlus

    Sex and rape; Date rape; Sexual assault ... Rape may occur between members of the same sex. This is more common in places such as prisons, military settings, and single-sex schools. People with physical or mental disabilities or ...

  13. Molecular investigations of the soil, rhizosphere and transgenic glufosinate-resistant rape and maize plants in combination with herbicide (Basta) application under field conditions.

    PubMed

    Ernst, Dieter; Rosenbrock-Krestel, Hilkea; Kirchhof, Gudrun; Bieber, Evi; Giunaschwili, Nathela; Müller, Rüdiger; Fischbeck, Gerhard; Wagner, Tobias; Sandermann, Heinrich; Hartmann, Anton

    2008-01-01

    A field study was conducted during 1994 to 1998 on the Experimental Farm Roggenstein, near Fürstenfeldbruck, Bavaria, Germany to determine the effect of transgenic glufosinate-resistant rape in combination with the herbicide Basta [glufosinate-ammonium, phosphinothricin, ammonium (2RS)-2-amino-4-(methylphosphinato) butyric acid] application on soil microorganisms and the behaviour of the synthetic transgenic DNA in response to normal agricultural practice. No influence of Basta on microbial biomass could be detected. The phospholipid fatty acid analysis of soil extracts showed no difference between Basta application and mechanical weed control, whereas conventional herbicide application revealed a different pattern. Basta application resulted in a changed population of weeds with a selective effect for Viola arvensis. During senescence, transgenic rape DNA was degraded similar to endogenous control DNA. After ploughing the chopped plant material in the soil, transgenic as well as endogenous control DNA sequences could be detected for up to 4 weeks for rape and up to 7 months for maize, whereas PCR analysis of composted transgenic maize revealed the presence of the transgene over a period of 22 months.

  14. Molecular investigations of the soil, rhizosphere and transgenic glufosinate-resistant rape and maize plants in combination with herbicide (Basta) application under field conditions.

    PubMed

    Ernst, Dieter; Rosenbrock-Krestel, Hilkea; Kirchhof, Gudrun; Bieber, Evi; Giunaschwili, Nathela; Müller, Rüdiger; Fischbeck, Gerhard; Wagner, Tobias; Sandermann, Heinrich; Hartmann, Anton

    2008-01-01

    A field study was conducted during 1994 to 1998 on the Experimental Farm Roggenstein, near Fürstenfeldbruck, Bavaria, Germany to determine the effect of transgenic glufosinate-resistant rape in combination with the herbicide Basta [glufosinate-ammonium, phosphinothricin, ammonium (2RS)-2-amino-4-(methylphosphinato) butyric acid] application on soil microorganisms and the behaviour of the synthetic transgenic DNA in response to normal agricultural practice. No influence of Basta on microbial biomass could be detected. The phospholipid fatty acid analysis of soil extracts showed no difference between Basta application and mechanical weed control, whereas conventional herbicide application revealed a different pattern. Basta application resulted in a changed population of weeds with a selective effect for Viola arvensis. During senescence, transgenic rape DNA was degraded similar to endogenous control DNA. After ploughing the chopped plant material in the soil, transgenic as well as endogenous control DNA sequences could be detected for up to 4 weeks for rape and up to 7 months for maize, whereas PCR analysis of composted transgenic maize revealed the presence of the transgene over a period of 22 months. PMID:19227836

  15. Patterns of domestication in the Ethiopian oil-seed crop noug (Guizotia abyssinica).

    PubMed

    Dempewolf, Hannes; Tesfaye, Misteru; Teshome, Abel; Bjorkman, Anne D; Andrew, Rose L; Scascitelli, Moira; Black, Scott; Bekele, Endashaw; Engels, Johannes M M; Cronk, Quentin C B; Rieseberg, Loren H

    2015-06-01

    Noug (Guizotia abyssinica) is a semidomesticated oil-seed crop, which is primarily cultivated in Ethiopia. Unlike its closest crop relative, sunflower, noug has small seeds, small flowering heads, many branches, many flowering heads, and indeterminate flowering, and it shatters in the field. Here, we conducted common garden studies and microsatellite analyses of genetic variation to test whether high levels of crop-wild gene flow and/or unfavorable phenotypic correlations have hindered noug domestication. With the exception of one population, analyses of microsatellite variation failed to detect substantial recent admixture between noug and its wild progenitor. Likewise, only very weak correlations were found between seed mass and the number or size of flowering heads. Thus, noug's 'atypical' domestication syndrome does not seem to be a consequence of recent introgression or unfavorable phenotypic correlations. Nonetheless, our data do reveal evidence of local adaptation of noug cultivars to different precipitation regimes, as well as high levels of phenotypic plasticity, which may permit reasonable yields under diverse environmental conditions. Why noug has not been fully domesticated remains a mystery, but perhaps early farmers selected for resilience to episodic drought or untended environments rather than larger seeds. Domestication may also have been slowed by noug's outcrossing mating system.

  16. Patterns of domestication in the Ethiopian oil-seed crop noug (Guizotia abyssinica)

    PubMed Central

    Dempewolf, Hannes; Tesfaye, Misteru; Teshome, Abel; Bjorkman, Anne D; Andrew, Rose L; Scascitelli, Moira; Black, Scott; Bekele, Endashaw; Engels, Johannes M M; Cronk, Quentin C B; Rieseberg, Loren H

    2015-01-01

    Noug (Guizotia abyssinica) is a semidomesticated oil-seed crop, which is primarily cultivated in Ethiopia. Unlike its closest crop relative, sunflower, noug has small seeds, small flowering heads, many branches, many flowering heads, and indeterminate flowering, and it shatters in the field. Here, we conducted common garden studies and microsatellite analyses of genetic variation to test whether high levels of crop–wild gene flow and/or unfavorable phenotypic correlations have hindered noug domestication. With the exception of one population, analyses of microsatellite variation failed to detect substantial recent admixture between noug and its wild progenitor. Likewise, only very weak correlations were found between seed mass and the number or size of flowering heads. Thus, noug's ‘atypical’ domestication syndrome does not seem to be a consequence of recent introgression or unfavorable phenotypic correlations. Nonetheless, our data do reveal evidence of local adaptation of noug cultivars to different precipitation regimes, as well as high levels of phenotypic plasticity, which may permit reasonable yields under diverse environmental conditions. Why noug has not been fully domesticated remains a mystery, but perhaps early farmers selected for resilience to episodic drought or untended environments rather than larger seeds. Domestication may also have been slowed by noug's outcrossing mating system. PMID:26029260

  17. Diversity and phylotype consistency of bacteria in the guts of three bee species (Apoidea) at an oilseed rape field.

    PubMed

    Mohr, Kathrin I; Tebbe, Christoph C

    2006-02-01

    The gut of insects may harbour one of the largest reservoirs of a yet unexplored microbial diversity. To understand how specific insects select for their own bacterial communities, the structural diversity and variability of bacteria found in the gut of different bee species was analysed. For three successive years, adults and larvae of Apis mellifera ssp. carnica (honey bee), and Bombus terrestris (bumble bee), as well as larvae of Osmia bicornis (red mason bee) were collected at a flowering oilseed rape field. Total DNA was extracted from gut material and the bacterial diversity was analysed, independent of cultivation, by genetic profiling with single-strand conformation polymorphism (SSCP) of polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-amplified partial 16S rRNA genes. The SSCP profiles were specific for all bee species and for larvae and adults. Qualitative and quantitative differences were found in the bacterial community structure of larvae and adults of A. mellifera, but differences in B. terrestris were mainly quantitative. Sequencing of the PCR products revealed a dominance of Alpha-, Beta-, and Gammaproteobacteria, Bacteroidetes, and Firmicutes in all bee species. Single-strand conformation polymorphism profiles suggested a higher abundance and diversity of lactobacilli in adults of A. mellifera than in larvae. Further phylogenetic analyses indicated common bacterial phylotypes for all three bee species, e.g. those related to Simonsiella, Serratia, and Lactobacillus. Clades related to Delftia acidovorans, Pseudomonas aeruginosa or Lactobacillus intestinalis only contained sequences from larvae. Several of the bee-specific clusters also contained identical or highly similar sequences from bacteria detected in other A. mellifera subspecies from South Africa, suggesting the existence of cosmopolitan gut bacteria in bees.

  18. Biodiversity of nematofauna of oilseed rape (Brassica napus L.).

    PubMed

    Manachini, B; Landi, S; Tomasini, V

    2005-01-01

    Few data is available on the nematodes found in Brassicaceae, except for the most important plant parasite. However, studying the structure of nematofauna could be an important database for the soil quality and in order to assess the effects of future disturbance. This is particularly important considering that the diffusion of the canola crop in the world is increasing because of its use as a bio-diesel. Very diffused is also the Bt variety of oil seed rape, and, in this case, the study of the impact on the soil health and on bio-diversity is essential. In this research we have analyzed the nematode community, used as a bio-indicator of the soil condition. The nematofauna found in canola (Brassica napus var. oleifera) fields located in Southern Italy (Metaponto - MT) was investigated. The nematode community was studied considering its abundance, genus composition and trophic structure. Maturity and biodiversity indices were also calculated. A total of 5286 nematodes were extracted. They belong to 14 families and 24 genera. Bacterial and fungal feeders, 50.18% and 42.90% of the total respectively, dominated the trophic structure. Aphelencus is the most abundant genus (23.71%) followed by Acrobeloides (20.49%) and Aphelencoides (19.18%). Among plant feeders (6.59%), Pratylenchus is the dominant genus (2.20%) and Tylenchidae the main family (3.54%). No infestation of Meloidogyne, Heterodera or Naboccus, important plant-parasitic nematodes of canola crops, was recorded. Other important phytophagous were Helycotylenchus (0.5%), Trichotylenchus (0.5%) and Filenchus (0.9%). All of them had an abundance level below injury level. The indices of biodiversity are rather low (H'=0.93, J'=0.67), as is typical for agro ecosystems. However, the nematofauna community is quite well structured (N2=6.31, D=0.16) and the maturity index rather high (EMI=1.94). These values demonstrate that oilseed rape has a lower impact on the soil compared to other crop systems and that it could be

  19. Hybridization and backcrossing between transgenic oilseed rape and two related weed species under field conditions.

    PubMed

    Halfhill, Matthew D; Zhu, Bin; Warwick, Suzanne I; Raymer, Paul L; Millwood, Reginald J; Weissinger, Arthur K; Stewart, C Neal

    2004-01-01

    Determining the frequency of crop-wild transgene flow under field conditions is a necessity for the development of regulatory strategies to manage transgenic hybrids. Gene flow of green fluorescent protein (GFP) and Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) transgenes was quantified in three field experiments using eleven independent transformed Brassica napus L. lines and the wild relatives, B. rapa L. and Raphanus raphanistrum L. Under a high crop to wild relative ratio (600:1), hybridization frequency with B. rapa differed among the individual transformed B. napus lines (ranging from ca. 4% to 22%), however, this difference could be caused by the insertion events or other factors, e.g., differences in the hybridization frequencies among the B. rapa plants. The average hybridization frequency over all transformed lines was close to 10%. No hybridization with R. raphanistrum was detected. Under a lower crop to wild relative ratio (180:1), hybridization frequency with B. rapa was consistent among the transformed B. napus lines at ca. 2%. Interspecific hybridization was higher when B. rapa occurred within the B. napus plot (ca. 37.2%) compared with plot margins (ca. 5.2%). No significant differences were detected among marginal plants grown at 1, 2, and 3 m from the field plot. Transgene backcrossing frequency between B. rapa and transgenic hybrids was determined in two field experiments in which the wild relative to transgenic hybrid ratio was 5-15 plants of B. rapa to 1 transgenic hybrid. As expected, ca. 50% of the seeds produced were transgenic backcrosses when the transgenic hybrid plants served as the maternal parent. When B. rapa plants served as the maternal parent, transgene backcrossing frequencies were 0.088% and 0.060%. Results show that transgene flow from many independent transformed lines of B. napus to B. rapa can occur under a range of field conditions, and that transgenic hybrids have a high potential to produce transgenic seeds in backcrosses. PMID:15612504

  20. Hybridization and backcrossing between transgenic oilseed rape and two related weed species under field conditions.

    PubMed

    Halfhill, Matthew D; Zhu, Bin; Warwick, Suzanne I; Raymer, Paul L; Millwood, Reginald J; Weissinger, Arthur K; Stewart, C Neal

    2004-01-01

    Determining the frequency of crop-wild transgene flow under field conditions is a necessity for the development of regulatory strategies to manage transgenic hybrids. Gene flow of green fluorescent protein (GFP) and Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) transgenes was quantified in three field experiments using eleven independent transformed Brassica napus L. lines and the wild relatives, B. rapa L. and Raphanus raphanistrum L. Under a high crop to wild relative ratio (600:1), hybridization frequency with B. rapa differed among the individual transformed B. napus lines (ranging from ca. 4% to 22%), however, this difference could be caused by the insertion events or other factors, e.g., differences in the hybridization frequencies among the B. rapa plants. The average hybridization frequency over all transformed lines was close to 10%. No hybridization with R. raphanistrum was detected. Under a lower crop to wild relative ratio (180:1), hybridization frequency with B. rapa was consistent among the transformed B. napus lines at ca. 2%. Interspecific hybridization was higher when B. rapa occurred within the B. napus plot (ca. 37.2%) compared with plot margins (ca. 5.2%). No significant differences were detected among marginal plants grown at 1, 2, and 3 m from the field plot. Transgene backcrossing frequency between B. rapa and transgenic hybrids was determined in two field experiments in which the wild relative to transgenic hybrid ratio was 5-15 plants of B. rapa to 1 transgenic hybrid. As expected, ca. 50% of the seeds produced were transgenic backcrosses when the transgenic hybrid plants served as the maternal parent. When B. rapa plants served as the maternal parent, transgene backcrossing frequencies were 0.088% and 0.060%. Results show that transgene flow from many independent transformed lines of B. napus to B. rapa can occur under a range of field conditions, and that transgenic hybrids have a high potential to produce transgenic seeds in backcrosses.

  1. Field-test of a date-rape drug detection device.

    PubMed

    Quest, Dale W; Horsley, Joanne

    2007-01-01

    Drink Safe Technology Version 1.2 is an inexpensive color-change reagent test marketed internationally for use by consumers in settings such as a night club to detect potentially incapacitating concentrations of gamma-hydroxybutyric acid (GHB) and ketamine in beverages. The objective of this study was to compare product performance in the laboratory and performance in the hands of consumers in the field. Product performance in the laboratory adhered to the protocol defined by the manufacturer. Product performance in the hands of consumers in field settings allowed browsing participants to pipette an aliquot of their own drinks into randomly coded vials containing authentic drugs, or pure water, so as to yield the same concentrations of GHB or ketamine specified in the manufacturer-defined protocol, or blanks. Consumers were to proceed according to the directions printed on the product, and to record their results on a card with a code corresponding with the vial to which they had added an aliquot of their beverage. Diagnostic performance was calculated using two-way analysis. In the laboratory, Drink Safe Technology Version 1.2 reliably detected GHB and ketamine at concentrations specified by the manufacturer's protocol. The reactive color change denoting a positive test for GHB was rapid, but a positive test for ketamine required substantially more time to resolve. Nonetheless, test accuracy following the manufacturer's protocol in the laboratory was 100%. In the field, based on 101 paired-test results recorded by consumers, the test efficiency was 65.1%, sensitivity 50%, and specificity 91.6%. The product performed much better in the laboratory than it did in the hand of consumers in the field. There seems to be considerable potential for consumers to misinterpret a test result. The potential for consumers to record a false-negative test result for a spiked drink is cause for concern. PMID:17725882

  2. Field-test of a date-rape drug detection device.

    PubMed

    Quest, Dale W; Horsley, Joanne

    2007-01-01

    Drink Safe Technology Version 1.2 is an inexpensive color-change reagent test marketed internationally for use by consumers in settings such as a night club to detect potentially incapacitating concentrations of gamma-hydroxybutyric acid (GHB) and ketamine in beverages. The objective of this study was to compare product performance in the laboratory and performance in the hands of consumers in the field. Product performance in the laboratory adhered to the protocol defined by the manufacturer. Product performance in the hands of consumers in field settings allowed browsing participants to pipette an aliquot of their own drinks into randomly coded vials containing authentic drugs, or pure water, so as to yield the same concentrations of GHB or ketamine specified in the manufacturer-defined protocol, or blanks. Consumers were to proceed according to the directions printed on the product, and to record their results on a card with a code corresponding with the vial to which they had added an aliquot of their beverage. Diagnostic performance was calculated using two-way analysis. In the laboratory, Drink Safe Technology Version 1.2 reliably detected GHB and ketamine at concentrations specified by the manufacturer's protocol. The reactive color change denoting a positive test for GHB was rapid, but a positive test for ketamine required substantially more time to resolve. Nonetheless, test accuracy following the manufacturer's protocol in the laboratory was 100%. In the field, based on 101 paired-test results recorded by consumers, the test efficiency was 65.1%, sensitivity 50%, and specificity 91.6%. The product performed much better in the laboratory than it did in the hand of consumers in the field. There seems to be considerable potential for consumers to misinterpret a test result. The potential for consumers to record a false-negative test result for a spiked drink is cause for concern.

  3. Long-Term Monitoring of Field Trial Sites with Genetically Modified Oilseed Rape (Brassica napus L.) in Saxony-Anhalt, Germany. Fifteen Years Persistence to Date but No Spatial Dispersion.

    PubMed

    Belter, Anke

    2016-01-01

    Oilseed rape is known to persist in arable fields because of its ability to develop secondary seed dormancy in certain agronomic and environmental conditions. If conditions change, rapeseeds are able to germinate up to 10 years later to build volunteers in ensuing crops. Extrapolations of experimental data acted on the assumption of persistence periods for more than 20 years after last harvest of rapeseed. Genetically-modified oilseed rape-cultivated widely in Northern America since 1996-is assumed not to differ from its conventional form in this property. Here, experimental data are reported from official monitoring activities that verify these assumptions. At two former field trial sites in Saxony-Anhalt genetically-modified herbicide-resistant oilseed rape volunteers are found up to fifteen years after harvest. Nevertheless, spatial dispersion or establishment of GM plants outside of the field sites was not observed within this period. PMID:26784233

  4. The effects of rape residue mulching on net global warming potential and greenhouse gas intensity from no-tillage paddy fields.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Zhi-Sheng; Cao, Cou-Gui; Guo, Li-Jin; Li, Cheng-Fang

    2014-01-01

    A field experiment was conducted to provide a complete greenhouse gas (GHG) accounting for global warming potential (GWP), net GWP, and greenhouse gas intensity (GHGI) from no-tillage (NT) paddy fields with different amounts of oilseed rape residue mulch (0, 3000, 4000, and 6000 kg dry matter (DM) ha(-1)) during a rice-growing season after 3 years of oilseed rape-rice cultivation. Residue mulching treatments showed significantly more organic carbon (C) density for the 0-20 cm soil layer at harvesting than no residue treatment. During a rice-growing season, residue mulching treatments sequestered significantly more organic C from 687 kg C ha(-1) season(-1) to 1654 kg C ha(-1) season(-1) than no residue treatment. Residue mulching significantly increased emissions of CO2 and N2O but decreased CH4 emissions. Residue mulching treatments significantly increased GWP by 9-30% but significantly decreased net GWP by 33-71% and GHGI by 35-72% relative to no residue treatment. These results suggest that agricultural economic viability and GHG mitigation can be achieved simultaneously by residue mulching on NT paddy fields in central China.

  5. The Effects of Rape Residue Mulching on Net Global Warming Potential and Greenhouse Gas Intensity from No-Tillage Paddy Fields

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Zhi-Sheng; Cao, Cou-Gui; Guo, Li-Jin; Li, Cheng-Fang

    2014-01-01

    A field experiment was conducted to provide a complete greenhouse gas (GHG) accounting for global warming potential (GWP), net GWP, and greenhouse gas intensity (GHGI) from no-tillage (NT) paddy fields with different amounts of oilseed rape residue mulch (0, 3000, 4000, and 6000 kg dry matter (DM) ha−1) during a rice-growing season after 3 years of oilseed rape-rice cultivation. Residue mulching treatments showed significantly more organic carbon (C) density for the 0–20 cm soil layer at harvesting than no residue treatment. During a rice-growing season, residue mulching treatments sequestered significantly more organic C from 687 kg C ha−1 season−1 to 1654 kg C ha−1 season−1 than no residue treatment. Residue mulching significantly increased emissions of CO2 and N2O but decreased CH4 emissions. Residue mulching treatments significantly increased GWP by 9–30% but significantly decreased net GWP by 33–71% and GHGI by 35–72% relative to no residue treatment. These results suggest that agricultural economic viability and GHG mitigation can be achieved simultaneously by residue mulching on NT paddy fields in central China. PMID:25140329

  6. Rape Myths, Rape Scripts, and Common Rape Experiences of College Women: Differences in Perceptions of Women Who Have Been Raped.

    PubMed

    Hockett, Jericho M; Saucier, Donald A; Badke, Caitlyn

    2016-03-01

    Rape is prevalent at colleges. Although research suggests commonalities across many college women's rape experiences (e.g., perpetrators using multiple coercive strategies), vignettes used to assess rape perceptions often reflect false beliefs. Two studies varying a perpetrator's coercive tactics examine rape perceptions using vignettes reflecting rape myths, rape scripts, or many college women's common rape experiences. Participants perceive a woman who was raped more positively in vignettes reflecting common rape experiences versus those reflecting rape myths or scripts. Theoretical, educational, and research implications are discussed.

  7. Victims of Rape.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Krasner William; And Others

    A scientific, multidisciplinary examination of the social and psychological effects of rape upon female victims is presented, which is then correlated with: (1) the circumstances that surrounded the rape; (2) the victim's personality and social adaptation before she was raped; and (3) the support available from organizations and people who were…

  8. Rape and Seduction Scripts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ryan, Kathryn M.

    1988-01-01

    College students (N=18) wrote scripts about "typical" rape and "typical" seduction. Scripts were coded on 20 dimensions. Results showed that rape and seduction scripts were very different. Most subjects described blitz rape in which woman outdoors was attacked by male stranger. Seductions described were usually indoors and often involved alcohol.…

  9. Expression of green fluorescent protein in pollen of oilseed rape (Brassica napus L.) and its utility for assessing pollen movement in the field.

    PubMed

    Moon, Hong S; Halfhill, Matthew D; Hudson, Laura C; Millwood, Reginald J; Stewart, C Neal

    2006-10-01

    Transgene movement via pollen is an important component of gene flow from transgenic plants. Here, we present proof-of-concept studies that demonstrate the monitoring of short distant movement of pollen expressing a genetically encoded fluorescent tag in oilseed rape (Brassica napus L. cv. Westar). Transgenic oilseed rape plants were produced using Agrobacterium-mediated transformation method with the pBINDC1 construct containing a green fluorescent protein (GFP) variant, mGFP5-ER, under the control of the pollen-specific LAT59 promoter from tomato. Transgenic pollen was differentiated from non-transgenic pollen in vivo by a unique spectral signature, and was shown to be an effective tool to monitor pollen movement in the greenhouse and field. GFP-tagged pollen also served as a practical marker to determine the zygosity of plants. In a greenhouse pollen flow study, more pollen was captured at closer distances from the source plant plot with consistent wind generated by a fan. Under field conditions, GFP transgenic pollen grains were detected up to a distance of 15 m, the farthest distance from source plants assayed. GFP-tagged pollen was easily distinguishable from non-transgenic pollen using an epifluorescence microscope.

  10. The Realities of Date Rape.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Presley, Cara; Watson, Jennifer; Williams, Audrey R.

    This poster presentation addresses the issue of date rape, specifically in the college environment. Highlighted are date rape statistics, demographics, and date rape drugs. Also discussed are date rape warnings and prevention strategies. It is concluded that college and university administrators must place the issue of date rape and acquaintance…

  11. Rape and homosexuality.

    PubMed

    Cohen-Addad, G

    1990-01-01

    The relationship between rape and homosexuality can be best understood by studying male rape. Offender(s) may deny homosexuality and confuse an aggressive active behaviour with a masculine (even macho) behaviour. They may project their homosexual feelings onto the victim. In the aftermath of rape, the victim may be ashamed of having lost control and may question himself about his real sexual identity. An aspect of female or male rape by a group of males may be an attempt to annihilate latent homosexual tendencies existing between members of this group. Surprisingly, in the short term, post traumatic disorder related to rape and pre-existing psychiatric disorder may develop separately, without substantial interaction. In the famous case of Schreiber described by Freud, homosexuality is assumed to play an important role in the development of paranoid schizophrenia. Cases in which schizophrenic patients (of both sexes) imagine being raped by a member of the opposite sex, may possibly challenge this opinion.

  12. Phosphorylation of glyoxysomal malate synthase from castor oil seed endosperm and cucumber cotyledon

    SciTech Connect

    Yang, Y.P; Randall, D.D. )

    1989-04-01

    Glyoxysomal malate synthase (MS) was purified to apparent homogeneity from 3-d germinating castor oil seed endosperm by a relatively simple procedure including two sucrose density gradient centrifugations. Antibodies raised to the caster oil seed MS crossreacted with MS from cucumber cotyledon. MS was phosphorylated in both tissues in an MgATP dependent reaction. The phosphorylation pattern was similar for both enzymes and both enzymes were inhibited by NaF, NaMo, (NH{sub 4})SO{sub 4}, glyoxylate and high concentration of MgCl{sub 2} (60 mM), but was not inhibited by NaCl and malate. Further characterization of the phosphorylation of MS from castor oil seed endosperms showed that the 5S form of MS is the form which is labelled by {sup 32}P. The addition of exogenous alkaline phosphatase to MS not only decreased enzyme activity, but could also dephosphorylate phospho-MS. The relationship between dephosphorylation of MS and the decrease of MS activity is currently under investigation.

  13. War rape, natality and genocide.

    PubMed

    Schott, Robin May

    2011-01-01

    Feminist philosophy can make an important contribution to the field of genocide studies, and issues relating to gender and war are gaining new attention. In this article I trace legal and philosophical analyses of sexual violence against women in war. I analyze the strengths and limitations of the concept of social death—introduced into this field by Claudia Card—for understanding the genocidal features of war rape, and draw on the work of Hannah Arendt to understand the central harm of genocide as an assault on natality. The threat to natality posed by the harms of rape, forced pregnancy and forced maternity lie in the potential expulsion from the public world of certain groups—including women who are victims, members of the 'enemy' group, and children born of forced birth.

  14. Integrating Sunflower Oil Seed Crops into Florida Horticultural Production Systems

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Locally produced biodiesel feedstock plant oil creates a unique possibility to integrate multiple-goal oriented cover crops into Florida horticultural production systems. Typically, cover crops are planted to improve soil fertility and the natural suppression of soilborne pests at times when fields...

  15. Rape: an Asian perspective.

    PubMed

    Nadesan, K

    2001-06-01

    Rape is one of the fastest growing violent crimes in many parts of the world. Rape laws have been amended in most countries in an attempt to cope with the proliferation of this crime. Even though the legal definition of rape and the procedural laws have been amended, rape remains a serious problem in both the developed and developing nations. In some countries the offence of rape carries severe punishment sometimes even the death sentence. In many jurisdictions the term 'sexual penetration' is being used instead of 'sexual intercourse'. Sexual penetration includes sexual intercourse, anal intercourse, cunnilingus, fellatio or any other intrusions involving any part of a human body or of any object into the genital or anal opening of a person's body. In many countries rape and other sexual offences have been replaced with a series of gender neutral and graded offences with appropriate punishments. Medical examination can provide independent, scientific, corroborative evidence that may be of value to the court in arriving at a judgement. Doctors should have a clear understanding of different rape laws in order to apprectiate the various issues involved. Special knowledge, skill and experience are essential to conduct a good-quality medical examination. There is a dearth of trained forensic physicians in many Asian countries. However, managing a rape victim (survivor) goes for beyond proving the case in a court of law. There should be an adequate rehabilitation programme available to the victims to help them cope.

  16. Rape: A Family Crisis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    White, Priscilla N.; Rollins, Judith C.

    1981-01-01

    Rape is a crisis shared by the victim and her family. The family's reaction is influenced by cultural views such as viewing rape as sex rather than violence. Adaptive responses can be supported by open expression, education, and family, as well as individual counseling. (JAC)

  17. Explaining wartime rape.

    PubMed

    Gottschall, Jonathan

    2004-05-01

    In the years since the first reports of mass rapes in the Yugoslavian wars of secession and the genocidal massacres in Rwanda, feminist activists and scholars, human rights organizations, journalists, and social scientists have dedicated unprecedented efforts to document, explain, and seek solutions for the phenomenon of wartime rape. While contributors to this literature agree on much, there is no consensus on causal factors. This paper provides a brief overview of the literature on wartime rape in historical and ethnographical societies and a critical analysis of the four leading explanations for its root causes: the feminist theory, the cultural pathology theory, the strategic rape theory, and the biosocial theory. The paper concludes that the biosocial theory is the only one capable of bringing all the phenomena associated with wartime rape into a single explanatory context.

  18. Gender Differences in Rape Reporting.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pino, Nathan W.; Meier, Robert F.

    1999-01-01

    Compares male and female rape reporting behavior using data from the National Crime and Victimization Survey for 897 rape victims. Data indicate that the situational characteristics of rape and factors that influence reporting a rape differ by sex. Women reported victimization more frequently than did men. (SLD)

  19. Long-Term Monitoring of Field Trial Sites with Genetically Modified Oilseed Rape (Brassica napus L.) in Saxony-Anhalt, Germany. Fifteen Years Persistence to Date but No Spatial Dispersion

    PubMed Central

    Belter, Anke

    2016-01-01

    Oilseed rape is known to persist in arable fields because of its ability to develop secondary seed dormancy in certain agronomic and environmental conditions. If conditions change, rapeseeds are able to germinate up to 10 years later to build volunteers in ensuing crops. Extrapolations of experimental data acted on the assumption of persistence periods for more than 20 years after last harvest of rapeseed. Genetically-modified oilseed rape—cultivated widely in Northern America since 1996—is assumed not to differ from its conventional form in this property. Here, experimental data are reported from official monitoring activities that verify these assumptions. At two former field trial sites in Saxony-Anhalt genetically-modified herbicide-resistant oilseed rape volunteers are found up to fifteen years after harvest. Nevertheless, spatial dispersion or establishment of GM plants outside of the field sites was not observed within this period. PMID:26784233

  20. Mapping field spatial distribution patterns of isoproturon-mineralizing activity over a three-year winter wheat/rape seed/barley rotation.

    PubMed

    Hussain, S; Devers-Lamrani, M; Spor, A; Rouard, N; Porcherot, M; Beguet, J; Martin-Laurent, F

    2013-03-01

    The temporal and spatial variability of the activity of soil microorganisms able to mineralize the herbicide isoproturon (IPU) pesticide was investigated over a three-year long crop rotation between 2008 and 2010. Isoproturon mineralization was higher in 2008, when winter wheat was treated with this herbicide, than in 2009 and 2010, when rape seed and barley were treated with different herbicides. Under laboratory conditions, we showed that isoproturon mineralization was not promoted by sulfonylurea herbicide applied on barley crop in 2010. IPU mineralization was shown to be highly variable at the field scale in years 2009 and 2010. Principal component analyses and analyses of similarities revealed that soil pH and equivalent humidity, and to a lesser extent soil organic matter content and cation exchange capacity (CEC) were the main drivers of isoproturon-mineralizing activity variance. Using a rather simple model that yields the rate of isoproturon mineralization as a function of soil pH and equivalent humidity, we explained up to 85% of the variance observed. Mapping field-scale distribution of isoproturon mineralization over the three-year survey indicated higher variability in 2009 and in 2010 as compared to 2008, suggesting that isoproturon treatment applied to winter wheat promoted isoproturon mineralization activity and reduced its spatial variability. Field-scale distribution of isoproturon mineralization showed important similarity to the distribution of soil pH, equivalent humidity and to a lesser extent to soil organic matter and cation exchange capacity (CEC) thereby confirming our model.

  1. Mapping field spatial distribution patterns of isoproturon-mineralizing activity over a three-year winter wheat/rape seed/barley rotation.

    PubMed

    Hussain, S; Devers-Lamrani, M; Spor, A; Rouard, N; Porcherot, M; Beguet, J; Martin-Laurent, F

    2013-03-01

    The temporal and spatial variability of the activity of soil microorganisms able to mineralize the herbicide isoproturon (IPU) pesticide was investigated over a three-year long crop rotation between 2008 and 2010. Isoproturon mineralization was higher in 2008, when winter wheat was treated with this herbicide, than in 2009 and 2010, when rape seed and barley were treated with different herbicides. Under laboratory conditions, we showed that isoproturon mineralization was not promoted by sulfonylurea herbicide applied on barley crop in 2010. IPU mineralization was shown to be highly variable at the field scale in years 2009 and 2010. Principal component analyses and analyses of similarities revealed that soil pH and equivalent humidity, and to a lesser extent soil organic matter content and cation exchange capacity (CEC) were the main drivers of isoproturon-mineralizing activity variance. Using a rather simple model that yields the rate of isoproturon mineralization as a function of soil pH and equivalent humidity, we explained up to 85% of the variance observed. Mapping field-scale distribution of isoproturon mineralization over the three-year survey indicated higher variability in 2009 and in 2010 as compared to 2008, suggesting that isoproturon treatment applied to winter wheat promoted isoproturon mineralization activity and reduced its spatial variability. Field-scale distribution of isoproturon mineralization showed important similarity to the distribution of soil pH, equivalent humidity and to a lesser extent to soil organic matter and cation exchange capacity (CEC) thereby confirming our model. PMID:23246724

  2. NMR metabolomics of ripened and developing oilseed rape (Brassica napus) and turnip rape (Brassica rapa).

    PubMed

    Kortesniemi, Maaria; Vuorinen, Anssi L; Sinkkonen, Jari; Yang, Baoru; Rajala, Ari; Kallio, Heikki

    2015-04-01

    The oilseeds of the commercially important oilseed rape (Brassica napus) and turnip rape (Brassica rapa) were investigated with (1)H NMR metabolomics. The compositions of ripened (cultivated in field trials) and developing seeds (cultivated in controlled conditions) were compared in multivariate models using principal component analysis (PCA), partial least squares discriminant analysis (PLS-DA), and orthogonal partial least squares discriminant analysis (OPLS-DA). Differences in the major lipids and the minor metabolites between the two species were found. A higher content of polyunsaturated fatty acids and sucrose were observed in turnip rape, while the overall oil content and sinapine levels were higher in oilseed rape. The genotype traits were negligible compared to the effect of the growing site and concomitant conditions on the oilseed metabolome. This study demonstrates the applicability of NMR-based analysis in determining the species, geographical origin, developmental stage, and quality of oilseed Brassicas.

  3. Isotope labeling-based quantitative proteomics of developing seeds of castor oil seed (Ricinus communis L.).

    PubMed

    Nogueira, Fábio C S; Palmisano, Giuseppe; Schwämmle, Veit; Soares, Emanuela L; Soares, Arlete A; Roepstorff, Peter; Domont, Gilberto B; Campos, Francisco A P

    2013-11-01

    In this study, we used a mass spectrometry-based quantification approach employing isotopic (ICPL) and isobaric (iTRAQ) labeling to investigate the pattern of protein deposition during castor oil seed (Ricinus communis L.) development, including that of proteins involved in fatty acid metabolism, seed-storage proteins (SSPs), toxins, and allergens. Additionally, we have used off-line hydrophilic interaction chromatography (HILIC) as a step of peptide fractionation preceding the reverse-phase nanoLC coupled to a LTQ Orbitrap. We were able to identify a total of 1875 proteins, and from these 1748 could be mapped to extant castor gene models, considerably expanding the number of proteins so far identified from developing castor seeds. Cluster validation and statistical analysis resulted in 975 protein trend patterns and the relative abundance of 618 proteins. The results presented in this work give important insights into certain aspects of the biology of castor oil seed development such as carbon flow, anabolism, and catabolism of fatty acid and the pattern of deposition of SSPs, toxins, and allergens such as ricin and 2S albumins. We also found, for the first time, some genes of SSP that are differentially expressed during seed development.

  4. The therapeutic applications of celery oil seed extract on the plasticizer di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate toxicity.

    PubMed

    El-Shinnawy, Nashwa A

    2015-04-01

    The present study investigated the impact of two doses, 500 mg/kg and 1000 mg/kg, of di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP) and studied the possible therapeutic dose of celery oil seed extract for 6 weeks on some atheroscelerogenic, obesogenic, antioxidant and liver functions in rats. Both doses of DEHP caused over-expression of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha (PPARα) messenger RNA with significant increase in liver weights, relative liver weights, serum cholesterol (Chol), triglycerides, low-density lipoprotein Chol, liver total lipids, along with an increase in the activities of serum aspartate aminotransferase, alanine aminotransferase, serum endothelin 1 and liver tissue thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS). Additionally, DEHP administration to rats resulted in significant decrease in final body weights, serum total protein, albumin, liver total protein and serum total nitric oxide. Our study confirmed the role of oral combination of Apium graveolens (celery) oil seed extract at small cumulative doses (50 µl/kg for 6 weeks) with DEHP in ameliorating the toxicological effects of DEHP, which was revealed in reducing the expression of PPARα, lipid profile, with restoring liver functions, vascular oxidative stress and inhibition of TBARS activity.

  5. Secondary victims of rape.

    PubMed

    Christiansen, Dorte; Bak, Rikke; Elklit, Ask

    2012-01-01

    Rape is often a very traumatic experience, which affects not only the primary victim (PV) but also his/her significant others. Studies on secondary victims of rape are few and have almost exclusively studied male partners of female rape victims. This study examined the impact of rape on 107 secondary victims, including family members, partners, and friends of male and female rape victims. We found that many respondents found it difficult to support the PV and that their relationship with the PV was often affected by the assault. Furthermore, the sample showed significant levels of traumatization, and it was estimated that approximately one quarter of the respondents suffered from posttraumatic stress syndrome (PTSD). Degree of traumatization was associated with a more recent assault, higher efforts to support the PV, recurrent thoughts about having been able to prevent the assault, a lack of social support for the respondent, and feeling let down by others. The respondents were generally interested in friend-, family-, and partner-focused interventions, particularly in receiving education about how best to support a rape victim.

  6. Abortion and rape.

    PubMed

    Barry-Martin, P

    1977-10-26

    The letter is an answer to a previous letter which appeared in the same journal and which was discrediting, according to the author of this letter, the Royal Commission on Contraception, Sterilization, and Abortion. The earlier letter refutes a quote from "Abortion and Social Justice" used by the Commission, regarding the situation in Colorado after rape became an indication for abortion. The quote reports that although between 1967-1971 the number of abortions for rape totalled 290, no rapist was charged or convicted for the crime. However, according to the author of this letter, the actual quote reads somewhat differently, and states that, during the same period, "no rapist was ever charged with his crime, much less convicted of it, which casts some real doubts on the reality of the alleged rapes." The meaning of this passage is that none of the alleged rapists had actually caused the 290 pregnancies. From records and government statistics it is possible to count about 3300 cases of rape known to the police in Colorado for the years 1967-1971. To suggest that none of these cases were charged or convicted is ridiculous. The author also states that rape as an indication for abortion will lead to abuse of the law, and that pregnancy for actual rape is rare.

  7. High-throughput phenotyping (HTP) identifies seedling root traits linked to variation in seed yield and nutrient capture in field-grown oilseed rape (Brassica napus L.)

    PubMed Central

    Thomas, C. L.; Graham, N. S.; Hayden, R.; Meacham, M. C.; Neugebauer, K.; Nightingale, M.; Dupuy, L. X.; Hammond, J. P.; White, P. J.; Broadley, M. R.

    2016-01-01

    Background and Aims Root traits can be selected for crop improvement. Techniques such as soil excavations can be used to screen root traits in the field, but are limited to genotypes that are well-adapted to field conditions. The aim of this study was to compare a low-cost, high-throughput root phenotyping (HTP) technique in a controlled environment with field performance, using oilseed rape (OSR; Brassica napus) varieties. Methods Primary root length (PRL), lateral root length and lateral root density (LRD) were measured on 14-d-old seedlings of elite OSR varieties (n = 32) using a ‘pouch and wick’ HTP system (∼40 replicates). Six field experiments were conducted using the same varieties at two UK sites each year for 3 years. Plants were excavated at the 6- to 8-leaf stage for general vigour assessments of roots and shoots in all six experiments, and final seed yield was determined. Leaves were sampled for mineral composition from one of the field experiments. Key Results Seedling PRL in the HTP system correlated with seed yield in four out of six (r = 0·50, 0·50, 0·33, 0·49; P < 0·05) and with emergence in three out of five (r = 0·59, 0·22, 0·49; P < 0·05) field experiments. Seedling LRD correlated positively with leaf concentrations of some minerals, e.g. calcium (r = 0·46; P < 0·01) and zinc (r = 0·58; P < 0·001), but did not correlate with emergence, general early vigour or yield in the field. Conclusions Associations between PRL and field performance are generally related to early vigour. These root traits might therefore be of limited additional selection value, given that vigour can be measured easily on shoots/canopies. In contrast, LRD cannot be assessed easily in the field and, if LRD can improve nutrient uptake, then it may be possible to use HTP systems to screen this trait in both elite and more genetically diverse, non-field-adapted OSR. PMID:27052342

  8. Dissipation and residues of clethodim and its oxidation metabolites in a rape-field ecosystem using QuEChERS and liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    You, Xiangwei; Liang, Lin; Liu, Fengmao

    2014-01-15

    A rapid, sensitive and selective method using Quick, Easy, Cheap, Effective, Rugged, and Safe (QuEChERS) procedure for simultaneous determination of clethodim and its oxidation metabolites (clethodim sulfoxide and clethodim sulphone) in soil, rape plant and rape seed was developed using high-performance liquid chromatography coupled with tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC-MS/MS). The limits of detection (LODs) of the proposed method ranged from 0.002mg/kg to 0.01mg/kg, and average recoveries were 78.7-104.2%. The trial results showed that clethodim dissipated so rapidly that few clethodim residues were detectable. Clethodim sulfoxide dissipated quickly in rape plant and soil with half-lives of 4.3 and 4.0days, respectively. Clethodim sulphone showed a tendency of rapid increase initially followed by a decrease in rape plant but could not be detected in soil. The terminal residues of clethodim in rape seedsat harvest time were below the maximum residue limit (MRL, 0.5mg/kg).

  9. Dissipation and residues of clethodim and its oxidation metabolites in a rape-field ecosystem using QuEChERS and liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    You, Xiangwei; Liang, Lin; Liu, Fengmao

    2014-01-15

    A rapid, sensitive and selective method using Quick, Easy, Cheap, Effective, Rugged, and Safe (QuEChERS) procedure for simultaneous determination of clethodim and its oxidation metabolites (clethodim sulfoxide and clethodim sulphone) in soil, rape plant and rape seed was developed using high-performance liquid chromatography coupled with tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC-MS/MS). The limits of detection (LODs) of the proposed method ranged from 0.002mg/kg to 0.01mg/kg, and average recoveries were 78.7-104.2%. The trial results showed that clethodim dissipated so rapidly that few clethodim residues were detectable. Clethodim sulfoxide dissipated quickly in rape plant and soil with half-lives of 4.3 and 4.0days, respectively. Clethodim sulphone showed a tendency of rapid increase initially followed by a decrease in rape plant but could not be detected in soil. The terminal residues of clethodim in rape seedsat harvest time were below the maximum residue limit (MRL, 0.5mg/kg). PMID:24054227

  10. Field evidence of cadmium phytoavailability decreased effectively by rape straw and/or red mud with zinc sulphate in a Cd-contaminated calcareous soil.

    PubMed

    Li, Bo; Yang, Junxing; Wei, Dongpu; Chen, Shibao; Li, Jumei; Ma, Yibing

    2014-01-01

    To reduce Cd phytoavailability in calcareous soils, the effects of soil amendments of red mud, rape straw, and corn straw in combination with zinc fertilization on Cd extractability and phytoavailability to spinach, tomato, Chinese cabbage and radish were investigated in a calcareous soil with added Cd at 1.5 mg kg-1. The results showed that water soluble and exchangeable Cd in soils was significantly decreased by the amendments themselves from 26% to 70%, which resulted in marked decrease by approximately from 34% to 77% in Cd concentration in vegetables. The amendments plus Zn fertilization further decreased the Cd concentration in vegetables. Also cruciferous rape straw was more effective than gramineous corn straw. In all treatments, rape straw plus red mud combined with Zn fertilization was most effective in decreasing Cd phytoavailability in soils, and it is potential to be an efficient and cost-effective measure to ensure food safety for vegetable production in mildly Cd-contaminated calcareous soils.

  11. Campus Gang Rape: Party Games?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ehrhart, Julie K.; Sandler, Bernice R.

    The phenomenon of gang rape as it sometimes occurs on college campuses is described, with attention to causes, impacts on the victim and other students, responses the college should take, and prevention. Consideration is given to the role of alcohol, drugs, and pornography in fraternity gang rape; successful model programs for rape prevention…

  12. Childhood Maltreatment and Date Rape.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sanders, Barbara; Moore, Dina L.

    1999-01-01

    Study compares women college students who reported unwanted sexual experiences judged to constitute date rape with controls who reported no rape. Findings suggest that compared to controls, date-rape group had significantly higher scores on measures of overall childhood stress. Concludes that early forms of maltreatment (not specifically sexual)…

  13. An improved method for extraction of high-quality total RNA from oil seeds.

    PubMed

    Rayani, Azadeh; Dehghan Nayeri, Fatemeh

    2015-04-01

    Seeds of oilseed plants that contain large amounts of oil, polysaccharides, proteins and polyphenols are not amenable to conventional RNA isolation protocols. The presence of these substances affects the quality and quantity of isolated nucleic acids. Here, a rapid and efficient RNA isolation protocol that, in contrast to other methods tested, allows high purify, integrity and yield of total RNA from seeds of sesame, corn, sunflower, flax and rapeseed was developed. The average yields of total RNA from 70 mg oil seeds ranged from 84 to 310 µg with A260/A280 between 1.9 and 2.08. The RNA isolated with this protocol was verified to be suitable for PCR, quantitative real-time PCR, semi-quantitative RT-PCR, cDNA synthesis and expression analysis.

  14. An Acquaintance Rape Prevention Program: Effects on Attitudes Toward Women, Rape-Related Attitudes, and Perceptions of Rape Scenarios.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pinzone-Glover, Holly A.; Gidycz, Christine A.; Jacobs, Cecilia Dine

    1998-01-01

    Studied the effects of an acquaintance-rape prevention program on college students' attitudes (n=152) toward rape and attitudes toward women, perceptions of acquaintance rape scenarios, and rape empathy. Positive attitude change was stronger among men, who became more certain of rape definitions. Contains 53 references. (SLD)

  15. Social Perception of Rape: How Rape Myth Acceptance Modulates the Influence of Situational Factors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frese, Bettina; Moya, Miguel; Megias, Jesus

    2004-01-01

    This study assessed the role of rape myth acceptance (RMA) and situational factors in the perception of three different rape scenarios (date rape, marital rape, and stranger rape). One hundred and eighty-two psychology undergraduates were asked to emit four judgements about each rape situation: victim responsibility, perpetrator responsibility,…

  16. Treatment of Rape Victims.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Foa, Edna B.; And Others

    1993-01-01

    Highlights the methodological issues pertinent in the design of studies to evaluate the treatment outcome of rape-related posttraumatic stress disorder. The wide range of interventions for the treatment of postrape sequelae are reviewed, and special attention is given to cognitive-behavioral interventions because they have been subjected to more…

  17. Rape: A Family Crisis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Feinauer, Leslie

    1982-01-01

    Suggests that, although a young woman who has been sexually assaulted may experience pain and alienation as an individual, family members also experience trauma, often left unresolved while retaining an impact on the family's ability to function. Introduces family therapy as a desirable approach to treatment of the rape victim. (Author/JAC)

  18. Counseling Rape Victims.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Watts, Deborah L.

    The psychological treatment of rape victims is complicated due to the nature of the crime; the trauma which may occur in four main areas of the victim's life (social, emotional, physical and sexual); community agency involvement and treatment, if any; and the societal attitude that places the blame on the victim. Therapists, in treating rape…

  19. Precursors to rape: pressuring behaviors and rape proclivity.

    PubMed

    Strain, Megan L; Hockett, Jericho M; Saucier, Donald A

    2015-01-01

    We developed measures assessing personal and normative attitudes toward two types of behaviors that are symptomatic of rape culture. We conceptualize sexual violence as existing on a continuum and argue that two types of behaviors may be potential antecedents to (and consequences of) sexual violence: attempts to pressure, which mimic the power dynamics of rape in a less aggressive fashion, and benevolent dating behaviors, which are accepted dating scripts in which men initiate action. We examined individuals' acceptance of these behaviors in relation to their attitudes toward rape victims and among men to rape proclivity. This initial work suggests that these constructs and measures may be useful to investigate in future research.

  20. Field Evidence of Cadmium Phytoavailability Decreased Effectively by Rape Straw and/or Red Mud with Zinc Sulphate in a Cd-Contaminated Calcareous Soil

    PubMed Central

    Li, Bo; Yang, Junxing; Wei, Dongpu; Chen, Shibao; Li, Jumei; Ma, Yibing

    2014-01-01

    To reduce Cd phytoavailability in calcareous soils, the effects of soil amendments of red mud, rape straw, and corn straw in combination with zinc fertilization on Cd extractability and phytoavailability to spinach, tomato, Chinese cabbage and radish were investigated in a calcareous soil with added Cd at 1.5 mg kg−1. The results showed that water soluble and exchangeable Cd in soils was significantly decreased by the amendments themselves from 26% to 70%, which resulted in marked decrease by approximately from 34% to 77% in Cd concentration in vegetables. The amendments plus Zn fertilization further decreased the Cd concentration in vegetables. Also cruciferous rape straw was more effective than gramineous corn straw. In all treatments, rape straw plus red mud combined with Zn fertilization was most effective in decreasing Cd phytoavailability in soils, and it is potential to be an efficient and cost-effective measure to ensure food safety for vegetable production in mildly Cd-contaminated calcareous soils. PMID:25303439

  1. Field evidence of cadmium phytoavailability decreased effectively by rape straw and/or red mud with zinc sulphate in a Cd-contaminated calcareous soil.

    PubMed

    Li, Bo; Yang, Junxing; Wei, Dongpu; Chen, Shibao; Li, Jumei; Ma, Yibing

    2014-01-01

    To reduce Cd phytoavailability in calcareous soils, the effects of soil amendments of red mud, rape straw, and corn straw in combination with zinc fertilization on Cd extractability and phytoavailability to spinach, tomato, Chinese cabbage and radish were investigated in a calcareous soil with added Cd at 1.5 mg kg-1. The results showed that water soluble and exchangeable Cd in soils was significantly decreased by the amendments themselves from 26% to 70%, which resulted in marked decrease by approximately from 34% to 77% in Cd concentration in vegetables. The amendments plus Zn fertilization further decreased the Cd concentration in vegetables. Also cruciferous rape straw was more effective than gramineous corn straw. In all treatments, rape straw plus red mud combined with Zn fertilization was most effective in decreasing Cd phytoavailability in soils, and it is potential to be an efficient and cost-effective measure to ensure food safety for vegetable production in mildly Cd-contaminated calcareous soils. PMID:25303439

  2. Attitudes toward rape and victims of rape: a test of the feminist theory in Ghana.

    PubMed

    Boakye, Kofi E

    2009-10-01

    This study explores the usefulness of the feminist theory in explaining attitudes toward rape and victims of rape in Ghana. The feminist theory of rape posits, inter alia, that patriarchy and gender inequality are major factors in the aetiology of rape and attitudes toward rape and that underlying patriarchy and gender inequality are gender stereotypes and false beliefs (myths) about rape, rapists, and victims of rape. Thus, the theory suggests a relationship between rape myths and less favorable attitudes toward rape and victims of rape. Results from a survey conducted in Ghana show some support for the feminist theory of rape: There is evidence of rape myth acceptance in Ghana; gender is significant in predicting levels of rape myth acceptance; and finally, education or profession and age, but not religion, are associated with levels of rape myth acceptance in a predictable way.

  3. Quality evaluation of co-composted wheat straw, poultry droppings and oil seed cakes.

    PubMed

    Gaind, Sunita; Nain, Lata; Patel, V B

    2009-06-01

    Poultry droppings, neem cake, castor cake, jatropha cake and grass clippings were used separately as organic nitrogen additives to decrease the high C:N ratio of wheat straw. Composting was carried out aerobically in presence of fungal consortium developed by including Aspergillus awamori, Aspergillus nidulans, Trichoderma viride and Phanerochaete chrysosporium. The degraded product was characterized to assess the technical viability of organic nitrogen supplements as well as fungal consortium in improving the quality of compost and hastening the process of decomposition of high lignocellulolytic waste. Evaluation of maturity showed that mixture of wheat straw, poultry dropping and jatropha cake had the lowest C:N ratio of 10:1, the highest humic acid fraction of 3.15%, the lowest dehydrogenase activity and a germination index exceeding 80% in 60 days of decomposition. Inoculated and grass clipping amended wheat straw-poultry dropping mixture resulted in compost with highest humus content of 11.8% and C:N ratio of 13.5, humic acid fraction of 2.84% and germination index of 59.66%. Fungal consortium was effective in improving the humus content of all the composted mixtures. In some treatments, germination index could not be correlated with C:N ratio. Non edible oil seed cake supplemented substrate mixtures did not respond to fungal inoculation as far as C:N ratio was concerned. PMID:19015937

  4. Modified method for combined DNA and RNA isolation from peanut and other oil seeds.

    PubMed

    Dang, Phat M; Chen, Charles Y

    2013-02-01

    Isolation of good quality RNA and DNA from seeds is difficult due to high levels of polysaccharides, polyphenols, and lipids that can degrade or co-precipitate with nucleic acids. Standard RNA extraction methods utilizing guanidinium-phenol-chloroform extraction has not shown to be successful. RNA isolation from plant seeds is a prerequisite for many seed specific gene expression studies and DNA is necessary in marker-assisted selection and other genetic studies. We describe a modified method to isolate both RNA and DNA from the same seed tissue and have been successful with several oil seeds including peanut, soybean, sunflower, canola, and oil radish. An additional LiCl precipitation step was added to isolate both RNA and DNA from the same seed tissues. High quality nucleic acids were observed based on A(260)/A(280) and A(260)/A(230) ratios above 2.0 and distinct bands on gel-electrophoresis. RNA was shown to be suitable for reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction based on actin or 60S ribosomal primer amplification and DNA was shown to have a single band on gel-electrophoresis analysis. This result shows that RNA and DNA isolated using this method can be appropriate for molecular studies in peanut and other oil containing seeds.

  5. Quality evaluation of co-composted wheat straw, poultry droppings and oil seed cakes.

    PubMed

    Gaind, Sunita; Nain, Lata; Patel, V B

    2009-06-01

    Poultry droppings, neem cake, castor cake, jatropha cake and grass clippings were used separately as organic nitrogen additives to decrease the high C:N ratio of wheat straw. Composting was carried out aerobically in presence of fungal consortium developed by including Aspergillus awamori, Aspergillus nidulans, Trichoderma viride and Phanerochaete chrysosporium. The degraded product was characterized to assess the technical viability of organic nitrogen supplements as well as fungal consortium in improving the quality of compost and hastening the process of decomposition of high lignocellulolytic waste. Evaluation of maturity showed that mixture of wheat straw, poultry dropping and jatropha cake had the lowest C:N ratio of 10:1, the highest humic acid fraction of 3.15%, the lowest dehydrogenase activity and a germination index exceeding 80% in 60 days of decomposition. Inoculated and grass clipping amended wheat straw-poultry dropping mixture resulted in compost with highest humus content of 11.8% and C:N ratio of 13.5, humic acid fraction of 2.84% and germination index of 59.66%. Fungal consortium was effective in improving the humus content of all the composted mixtures. In some treatments, germination index could not be correlated with C:N ratio. Non edible oil seed cake supplemented substrate mixtures did not respond to fungal inoculation as far as C:N ratio was concerned.

  6. The costs of rape.

    PubMed

    Perilloux, Carin; Duntley, Joshua D; Buss, David M

    2012-10-01

    The current study examined costs experienced by victims of completed rape (n=49) and attempted sexual assault (n=91) using quantitative analyses of 13 domains: health, self-esteem, self-perceived attractiveness, self-perceived mate value, family relationships,work life, social life, social reputation, sexual reputation, desire to have sex, frequency of sex, enjoyment of sex, and long-term, committed relationships. Women also provided descriptive accounts of their experiences, and we used these to illustrate the costs in the victims' own words.Compared to victims of an attempted sexual assault, victims of a completed rape reported significantly more negative outcomes in 11 of the 13 domains. The most negatively affected domains were self-esteem, sexual reputation, frequency of sex, desire to have sex, and self-perceived mate value. Although victims of rape experienced more negative effects than victims of attempted sexual assault,both groups of victims reported negative effects in every domain.Discussion focuses on the implications of the differing degrees and patterns of the costs of attempted and completed sexual victimization.

  7. The costs of rape.

    PubMed

    Perilloux, Carin; Duntley, Joshua D; Buss, David M

    2012-10-01

    The current study examined costs experienced by victims of completed rape (n=49) and attempted sexual assault (n=91) using quantitative analyses of 13 domains: health, self-esteem, self-perceived attractiveness, self-perceived mate value, family relationships,work life, social life, social reputation, sexual reputation, desire to have sex, frequency of sex, enjoyment of sex, and long-term, committed relationships. Women also provided descriptive accounts of their experiences, and we used these to illustrate the costs in the victims' own words.Compared to victims of an attempted sexual assault, victims of a completed rape reported significantly more negative outcomes in 11 of the 13 domains. The most negatively affected domains were self-esteem, sexual reputation, frequency of sex, desire to have sex, and self-perceived mate value. Although victims of rape experienced more negative effects than victims of attempted sexual assault,both groups of victims reported negative effects in every domain.Discussion focuses on the implications of the differing degrees and patterns of the costs of attempted and completed sexual victimization. PMID:21975924

  8. Rape Myth Consistency and Gender Differences in Perceiving Rape Victims: A Meta-Analysis.

    PubMed

    Hockett, Jericho M; Smith, Sara J; Klausing, Cathleen D; Saucier, Donald A

    2016-02-01

    An overview discusses feminist analyses of oppression, attitudes toward rape victims, and previously studied predictors of individuals' attitudes toward rape victims. To better understand such attitudes, this meta-analysis examines the moderating influences of various rape victim, perpetrator, and crime characteristics' rape myth consistency on gender differences in individuals' perceptions of rape victims (i.e., victim responsibility and blame attributions and rape minimizing attitudes). Consistent with feminist theoretical predictions, results indicated that, overall, men perceived rape victims more negatively than women did. However, this sex difference was moderated by the rape myth consistency within the rape vignettes. Implications for research are discussed. PMID:26446194

  9. Rape Myth Consistency and Gender Differences in Perceiving Rape Victims: A Meta-Analysis.

    PubMed

    Hockett, Jericho M; Smith, Sara J; Klausing, Cathleen D; Saucier, Donald A

    2016-02-01

    An overview discusses feminist analyses of oppression, attitudes toward rape victims, and previously studied predictors of individuals' attitudes toward rape victims. To better understand such attitudes, this meta-analysis examines the moderating influences of various rape victim, perpetrator, and crime characteristics' rape myth consistency on gender differences in individuals' perceptions of rape victims (i.e., victim responsibility and blame attributions and rape minimizing attitudes). Consistent with feminist theoretical predictions, results indicated that, overall, men perceived rape victims more negatively than women did. However, this sex difference was moderated by the rape myth consistency within the rape vignettes. Implications for research are discussed.

  10. Rape Myth Acceptance and Rape Proclivity: Expected Dominance Versus Expected Arousal as Mediators in Acquaintance-Rape Situations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chiroro, Patrick; Bohner, Gerd; Viki, G. Tendayi; Jarvis, Christopher I.

    2004-01-01

    Individuals who are high in rape myth acceptance (RMA) have been found to report a high proclivity to rape. In a series of three studies, the authors examined whether the relationship between RMA and self-reported rape proclivity was mediated by anticipated sexual arousal or anticipated enjoyment of sexually dominating the rape victim. Results of…

  11. Attitudes toward Rape and Victims of Rape: A Test of the Feminist Theory in Ghana

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boakye, Kofi E.

    2009-01-01

    This study explores the usefulness of the feminist theory in explaining attitudes toward rape and victims of rape in Ghana. The feminist theory of rape posits, inter alia, that patriarchy and gender inequality are major factors in the aetiology of rape and attitudes toward rape and that underlying patriarchy and gender inequality are gender…

  12. ASD and PTSD in Rape Victims

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Elklit, Ask; Christiansen, Dorte M.

    2010-01-01

    In recent years, a number of studies have investigated the prediction of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) through the presence of acute stress disorder (ASD). The predictive power of ASD on PTSD was examined in a population of 148 female rape victims who visited a center for rape victims shortly after the rape or attempted rape. The PTSD…

  13. Rape: Legal issues in mental health perspective

    PubMed Central

    Jiloha, R. C.

    2013-01-01

    Rape of women by men has occurred throughout recorded history and across cultures and religions. It is a crime against basic human right and a most common crime against women in India. In this article, rape is discussed from legal and mental health perspective. In India ‘rape laws’ began with enactment of Indian Penal Code in 1860. There have been subsequent amendments and the main issue of focus remained the definition of ‘rape and inclusion of ‘marital rape’ in the ambit of rape. Law Commission Reports related to rape and the psychological impacts of rape have been discussed. PMID:24082245

  14. Effect of organic matter and liming on the reduction of cadmium uptake from soil by triticale and spring oilseed rape.

    PubMed

    Ciecko, Z; Wyszkowski, M; Krajewski, W; Zabielska, J

    2001-12-17

    The aim of the study conducted on triticale and spring oilseed rape was to determine the role of liming, brown coal and compost medium in reducing the effect of cadmium contamination (at the rates of 0, 7.5, 15 and 22.5 mg Cd kg(-1) of soil) on yield and chemical composition of the crop. In the series of experiments without liming, a considerable decline in the yield of spring triticale grain, straw, root weight and green mass yield of rape was observed in response to the soil contamination with cadmium. Brown coal and especially compost medium added to soil neutralised the negative effect of cadmium on the grain yield and reduced a decrease in the yield of straw and roots of triticale. Soil liming proved to reduce the yield drop in oilseed rape caused by the contamination of soil with cadmium. The content of cadmium in roots and grain of spring triticale far exceeded that determined in triticale straw. The pollution of soil with cadmium caused a 26-fold increase in the content of this metal in grain, a 10-fold increase in roots of triticale and a twofold in oil-seed rape. Application of compost medium, brown coal and, to a smaller extent, liming reduced the level of cadmium in the parts of triticale brought to investigation. The soil contamination with cadmium caused certain modifications in the content of nitrogen, potassium, magnesium, calcium and sodium in spring triticale and in the content of N-total, potassium and magnesium in spring oilseed rape.

  15. Predicting Rape Victim Empathy Based on Rape Victimization and Acknowledgment Labeling.

    PubMed

    Osman, Suzanne L

    2016-06-01

    Two studies examined rape victim empathy based on personal rape victimization and acknowledgment labeling. Female undergraduates (Study 1, n = 267; Study 2, n = 381) from a Northeast U.S. midsize public university completed the Rape-Victim Empathy Scale and Sexual Experiences Survey. As predicted, both studies found that acknowledged "rape" victims reported greater empathy than unacknowledged victims and nonvictims. Unexpectedly, these latter two groups did not differ. Study 1 also found that acknowledged "rape" victims reported greater empathy than victims who acknowledged being "sexually victimized." Findings suggest that being raped and acknowledging "rape" together may facilitate rape victim empathy.

  16. Pressurised fluid extraction (PFE) as an alternative general method for the determination of pesticide residues in rape seed.

    PubMed

    Pihlström, Tuija; Isaac, Giorgis; Waldebäck, Monica; Osterdahl, Bengt-Göran; Markides, Karin E

    2002-04-01

    A pressurised fluid extraction (PFE) multi-method has been developed for the determination of pesticide residues in rape seed. The method was validated for 25 different pesticides and metabolites. The reliability and efficiency of PFE for extracting pesticide residues from rape seed was investigated. The traditional extraction solvent, hexane saturated with acetonitrile, was used at elevated temperature and pressure. With increased temperature, the extraction kinetics were improved but at the same time more co-extractives were obtained in the form of lipids. When 1 g of rape seed was extracted at temperatures from 60 degrees C to 150 degrees C, the lipid content extracted was found to be as high as 17-26%. An additional clean-up step was therefore required and lipid co-extractives were effectively removed by gel permeation chromatography. The interpretation of the chromatograms and the quantification of the results were satisfactorily improved by the removal of interfering lipids. The developed method was used to extract vinclozolin and iprodione from incurred samples, resulting in a concentration in accordance with the results using conventional liquid-liquid extraction (LLE) between hexane and acetonitrile and also supercritical fluid extraction (SFE) using carbon dioxide. The results of the present study suggest that PEE is a good alternative extraction technique for the determination of pesticide residues in oil seed. Despite the necessity for a lipid-removal clean-up step, the PFE technique facilitated the extraction process by faster extractions and the possibility of automated analysis.

  17. Kinetic and regulatory properties of cytosolic pyruvate kinase from germinating castor oil seeds.

    PubMed

    Podestá, F E; Plaxton, W C

    1991-10-15

    The kinetic and regulatory properties of cytosolic pyruvate kinase (PKc) isolated from endosperm of germinating castor oil seeds (Ricinus communis L.) have been studied. Optimal efficiency in substrate utilization (in terms of Vmax/Km for phosphoenolpyruvate or ADP) occurred between pH 6.7 and 7.4. Enzyme activity was absolutely dependent on the presence of a bivalent and a univalent metal cation, with Mg2+ and K+ fulfilling this requirement. Mg2+ binding showed positive and negative co-operativity at pH 6.5 (h = 1.6) and pH 7.2 (h = 0.69) respectively. Hyperbolic saturation kinetics were observed with phosphoenolpyruvate (PEP) and K+, whereas ADP acted as a mixed-type inhibitor over 1 mM. Glycerol (10%, v/v) increased the S0.5(ADP) 2.3-fold and altered the pattern of nucleotide binding from hyperbolic (h = 1.0) to sigmoidal (h = 1.79) without modifying PEP saturation kinetics. No activators were identified. ATP, AMP, isocitrate, 2-oxoglutarate, malate, 2-phosphoglycerate, 2,3-bisphosphoglycerate, 3-phosphoglycerate, glycerol 3-phosphate and phosphoglycolate were the most effective inhibitors. These metabolites yielded additive inhibition when tested in pairs. ATP and 3-phosphoglycerate were mixed-type inhibitors with respect to PEP, whereas competitive inhibition was observed for other inhibitors. Inhibition by malate, 2-oxoglutarate, phosphorylated triose sugars or phosphoglycolate was far more pronounced at pH 7.2 than at pH 6.5. Although 32P-labelling studies revealed that extensive phosphorylation in vivo of soluble endosperm proteins occurred between days 3 and 5 of seed germination, no alteration in the 32P-labelling pattern of 5-day-germinated endosperm was observed after 30 min of anaerobiosis. Moreover, no evidence was obtained that PKc was a phosphoprotein in aerobic or anoxic endosperms. It is proposed that endosperm PKc activity of germinating castor seeds is enhanced after anaerobiosis through concerted decreases in ATP levels, cytosolic pH and

  18. If Your Child is Raped

    MedlinePlus

    ... for someone whose been raped, such as a forensic nurse examiner (FNE) or sexual assault nurse examiner ( ... doctor. © 1995- The Nemours Foundation. All rights reserved. Images provided by The Nemours Foundation, iStock, Getty Images, ...

  19. An Assessment of College Students' Attitudes and Empathy toward Rape.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chng, Chwee Lye; Burke, Sloane

    1999-01-01

    College students (n=387) completed the "attitudes toward rape" questionnaire and the rape empathy scale. Analysis found that prior experience as a rape survivor and gender were significantly related to rape intolerant attitudes and empathy toward rape survivors. Rape tolerant attitudes and lower levels of empathy were more commonly found among men…

  20. An Application of Art Therapy to the Trauma of Rape.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hargrave-Nykaza, Karen

    1994-01-01

    Explores rape in terms of specific trauma usually experienced after rape: posttraumatic stress disorder, rape trauma syndrome, and permanent life changes. Explores ways in which art therapy can help rape victim engage in healing. Reviews study of one rape victim and current literature as example of life-altering effects of rape and importance of…

  1. Beyond Rape Myths: A More Complex View of Perceptions of Rape Victims.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Buddie, Amy M.; Miller, Arthur G.

    2001-01-01

    Examined personal beliefs and perceptions of cultural stereotypes surrounding rape victims. Primarily white college students listed their beliefs and perceptions and rated a specific rape victim accordingly. Students' personal beliefs tended to focus more on perceptions of victim reactions to the rape rather than rape myths. However, their…

  2. Rape myth acceptance impacts the reporting of rape to the police: a study of incarcerated women.

    PubMed

    Heath, Nicole M; Lynch, Shannon M; Fritch, April M; Wong, Maria M

    2013-09-01

    We examined the association between rape myth acceptance (RMA) and reporting rapes to the police. Situational characteristics of the rape (e.g., stranger attack, injury) are known predictors of reporting, but no existing studies have examined the association between beliefs about rape and reporting. In addition, most studies of RMA do not assess victimization history. Incarcerated women experience high rates of sexual assaults prior to incarceration. We recruited 74 rape survivors from a northwestern state prison. Results suggest that women who endorsed higher levels of RMA were less likely to report their rapes to police; however, participants endorsed few rape myths.

  3. Law enforcement officers' perception of rape and rape victims: a multimethod study.

    PubMed

    Mennicke, Annelise; Anderson, Delaney; Oehme, Karen; Kennedy, Stephanie

    2014-01-01

    In a study to assess law enforcement officers' perceptions of rape and rape victims, researchers asked 149 law enforcement officers to respond to surveys which included a definition of rape measure, an unfounded rape claims measure, and the Rape Myth Acceptance Scale-Revised (RMA-R) measure. Although most officers scored low on the RMA-R--indicating that they did not adhere to myths about rape--most officers also responded with incomplete definitions of rape and inaccurate estimates of the number of false rape claims. Multivariate analyses indicated that officers' open-ended responses did not predict their scores on the RMA-R scale. It is argued that the RMA-R alone does not accurately measure officers' understanding of rape. Officers need ongoing training on the legal elements of the crime, the necessity of sensitivity with victims, and research-based statistics on the prevalence of rape.

  4. [Relationship between rare earth accumulation and rape sclerotiniose].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jian; Cheng, Heyuan; Jin, Wangzhi; Li, Guoliang; Zhang, Zili

    2002-05-01

    Field plot experiment with long-term application of rare earth fertilizers showed that 0.5-10% of adsorption capactiy and 0.6 kg.hm-2 of rare earth application had no remarkable effect on natural incidence of rape sclerotiniose, ratio of diseased plants, natural disease index, expanding rate of diseased spots, yield of single plant, and 1000-seed weight.

  5. Membranous appendices of spherosomes (oleosomes) : Possible role in fat utilization in germinating oil seeds.

    PubMed

    Wanner, G; Theimer, R R

    1978-01-01

    Spherosomes (oleosomes) of cotyledons of rape (Brassica napus L.), sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.), and watermelon (Citrullus vulgaris, Schrad.) seedlings are delimited by a "half unit membrane" that appears to be continuous with each of the osmiophilic layers of a tripartite unit membrane forming a handlelike appendix of the spherosomes. Prior to any noticeable utilization of the spherosomal storage fat, ribosomes were found to be attached to these "handles". At later stages appendices of the spherosomes are smooth, showing a diameter of about 22 nm that greatly exceeds the thickness of any other unit membrane profiles identical in structure and diameter osomes appears to be continuous with the thick lipid layer of the handles. In intermediate stages of fat depletion the spherosomal bodies become invaginated with cytoplasmic material. Finally vesicles with cytoplasmic contents surrounded by a membrane with a typically thick lipid layer are left in the cells. Membrane profiles indentical in structure and diameter to the spherosomal appendices were also present in electron micrographs of the lipolytic membrane fraction recovered from sucrose density gradients after centrifugation of a microsomal cell fraction. The ultrastructural observations are taken for evidence that the spherosomal appendices represent the lipase-carrying membranes isolated previously (Theimer and Rosnitschek, 1978). A novel hypothesis for development and utilization of fat-storing spherosomes is also proposed. PMID:24414473

  6. Simulation and Baseline Research in Rape Prevention.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brodsky, Stanley L.; Klemmack, Susan H.

    This paper begins by describing an organizational model for the disciplinary study of rape--the University of Alabama's Rape Research Group. It outlines the structure, function, and some techniques of the study group, including the use of simulations and prototypical situations. In one study, verbal responses of rape victims were classified into…

  7. Male Rape Victim and Perpetrator Blaming

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sleath, Emma; Bull, Ray

    2010-01-01

    One of four possible vignettes manipulated by (a) level of rape myth contained within them (low vs. high) and (b) type of rape (stranger vs. acquaintance) was presented to participants followed by scales measuring victim blame, perpetrator blame, belief in a just world, sex-role egalitarian beliefs, and male rape myth acceptance. Victim blaming…

  8. Challenges and issues concerning mycotoxins contamination in oil seeds and their edible oils: Updates from last decade.

    PubMed

    Bhat, Rajeev; Reddy, Kasa Ravindra Nadha

    2017-01-15

    Safety concerns pertaining towards fungal occurrence and mycotoxins contamination in agri-food commodities has been an issue of high apprehension. With the increase in evidence based research knowledge on health effects posed by ingestion of mycotoxins-contaminated food and feed by humans and livestock, concerns have been raised towards providing more insights on screening of agri-food commodities to benefit consumers. Available reports indicate majority of edible oil-yielding seeds to be contaminated by various fungi, capable of producing mycotoxins. These mycotoxins can enter human food chain via use of edible oils or via animals fed with contaminated oil cake residues. In this review, we have decisively evaluated available data (from the past decade) pertaining towards fungal occurrence and level of mycotoxins in various oil seeds and their edible oils. This review can be of practical use to justify the prevailing gaps, especially relevant to the research on presence of mycotoxins in edible plant based oils.

  9. Challenges and issues concerning mycotoxins contamination in oil seeds and their edible oils: Updates from last decade.

    PubMed

    Bhat, Rajeev; Reddy, Kasa Ravindra Nadha

    2017-01-15

    Safety concerns pertaining towards fungal occurrence and mycotoxins contamination in agri-food commodities has been an issue of high apprehension. With the increase in evidence based research knowledge on health effects posed by ingestion of mycotoxins-contaminated food and feed by humans and livestock, concerns have been raised towards providing more insights on screening of agri-food commodities to benefit consumers. Available reports indicate majority of edible oil-yielding seeds to be contaminated by various fungi, capable of producing mycotoxins. These mycotoxins can enter human food chain via use of edible oils or via animals fed with contaminated oil cake residues. In this review, we have decisively evaluated available data (from the past decade) pertaining towards fungal occurrence and level of mycotoxins in various oil seeds and their edible oils. This review can be of practical use to justify the prevailing gaps, especially relevant to the research on presence of mycotoxins in edible plant based oils. PMID:27542495

  10. Components of a Rice-Oilseed Rape Production System Augmented with Trichoderma sp. Tri-1 Control Sclerotinia sclerotiorum on Oilseed Rape.

    PubMed

    Hu, Xiaojia; Roberts, Daniel P; Xie, Lihua; Maul, Jude E; Yu, Changbing; Li, Yinshui; Zhang, Yinbo; Qin, Lu; Liao, Xing

    2015-10-01

    Sclerotinia sclerotiorum causes serious yield losses on many crops throughout the world. A multicomponent treatment that consisted of the residual rice straw remaining after rice harvest and Trichoderma sp. Tri-1 (Tri-1) formulated with the oilseed rape seedcake fertilizer was used in field soil infested with S. sclerotiorum. This treatment resulted in oilseed rape seed yield that was significantly greater than the nontreated control or when the fungicide carbendizem was used in the presence of this pathogen in field trials. Yield data suggested that the rice straw, oilseed rape seedcake, and Tri-1 components of this treatment all contributed incrementally. Similar treatment results were obtained regarding reduction in disease incidence. Slight improvements in yield and disease incidence were detected when this multicomponent treatment was combined with a fungicide spray. Inhibition of sclerotial germination by this multicomponent treatment trended greater than the nontreated control at 90, 120, and 150 days in field studies but was not significantly different from this control. This multicomponent treatment resulted in increased yield relative to the nontreated control in the absence of pathogen in a greenhouse pot study, while the straw alone and the straw plus oilseed rape seedcake treatments did not; suggesting that Tri-1 was capable of promoting growth. Experiments reported here indicate that a treatment containing components of a rice-oilseed rape production system augmented with Tri-1 can control S. sclerotiorum on oilseed rape, be used in integrated strategies containing fungicide sprays for control of this pathogen, and promote plant growth.

  11. Components of a Rice-Oilseed Rape Production System Augmented with Trichoderma sp. Tri-1 Control Sclerotinia sclerotiorum on Oilseed Rape.

    PubMed

    Hu, Xiaojia; Roberts, Daniel P; Xie, Lihua; Maul, Jude E; Yu, Changbing; Li, Yinshui; Zhang, Yinbo; Qin, Lu; Liao, Xing

    2015-10-01

    Sclerotinia sclerotiorum causes serious yield losses on many crops throughout the world. A multicomponent treatment that consisted of the residual rice straw remaining after rice harvest and Trichoderma sp. Tri-1 (Tri-1) formulated with the oilseed rape seedcake fertilizer was used in field soil infested with S. sclerotiorum. This treatment resulted in oilseed rape seed yield that was significantly greater than the nontreated control or when the fungicide carbendizem was used in the presence of this pathogen in field trials. Yield data suggested that the rice straw, oilseed rape seedcake, and Tri-1 components of this treatment all contributed incrementally. Similar treatment results were obtained regarding reduction in disease incidence. Slight improvements in yield and disease incidence were detected when this multicomponent treatment was combined with a fungicide spray. Inhibition of sclerotial germination by this multicomponent treatment trended greater than the nontreated control at 90, 120, and 150 days in field studies but was not significantly different from this control. This multicomponent treatment resulted in increased yield relative to the nontreated control in the absence of pathogen in a greenhouse pot study, while the straw alone and the straw plus oilseed rape seedcake treatments did not; suggesting that Tri-1 was capable of promoting growth. Experiments reported here indicate that a treatment containing components of a rice-oilseed rape production system augmented with Tri-1 can control S. sclerotiorum on oilseed rape, be used in integrated strategies containing fungicide sprays for control of this pathogen, and promote plant growth. PMID:26390095

  12. False rape: a case report.

    PubMed

    Fanton, L; Schoendorff, P; Achache, P; Miras, A; Malicier, D

    1999-12-01

    A 16-year-old girl was admitted to the emergency department for sexual assault. The forensic examination revealed genital lesions of an age that were incompatible with her statements. She also presented extragenital lesions that resembled self-inflicted lesions. The reports of false rape allegations in the literature have all dealt with the motivations of the false victims. This case report is a reminder that an allegation of rape can be considered only on the basis of proof and not on speculation. PMID:10624933

  13. Interpreting Rape: Differences Among Professionals and Non-Professional Resources.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Calhoun, Lawrence G.

    Physicians and rape crisis counselors may play important roles in assisting a rape victim; their beliefs and perceptions about rape may influence their treatment of the victim. Physicians (N=10) and volunteer rape counselors (N=44) completed questionnaires focused on demographic characteristics, their experiences with rape victims, and personal…

  14. Counseling Date Rape Survivors: Implications for College Student Personnel Professionals.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lynch, Sherry K.

    A general legal definition of rape is sexual intercourse forced on an individual by another against his/her will and overcoming his/her resistance. Although the female is usually referred to as the survivor and the male as the perpetrator, there are cases of male rape. Rape may be divided into stranger rape and acquaintance rape. Types of…

  15. Annual dynamics of wild bee densities: attractiveness and productivity effects of oilseed rape.

    PubMed

    Riedinger, Verena; Mitesser, Oliver; Hovestadt, Thomas; Steffan-Dewenter, Ingolf; Holzschuh, Andrea

    2015-05-01

    Mass-flowering crops may affect long-term population dynamics, but effects on pollinators have never been studied across several years. We monitored wild bees in oilseed rape fields in 16 landscapes in Germany in two consecutive years. Effects on bee densities of landscape oilseed rape cover in the years of monitoring and in the previous years were evaluated with landscape data from three consecutive years. We fit empirical data to a mechanistic model to provide estimates for oilseed rape attractiveness and its effect on bee productivity in comparison to the rest of the landscape, and we evaluated consequences for pollinator densities in consecutive years. Our results show that high oilseed rape cover in the previous year enhances current densities of wild bees (except for bumble bees). Moreover, we show a strong attractiveness of and dilution on (i.e., decreasing bee densities with increasing landscape oilseed rape cover) oilseed rape for bees during flowering in the current year, modifying the effect of the previous year's oilseed rape cover in the case of wild bees (excluding Bombus). As long as other factors such as nesting sites or natural enemies do not limit bee reproduction, our findings suggest long-term positive effects of mass-flowering crops on bee populations, at least for non-Bombus generalists, which possibly help to maintain crop pollination services even when crop area increases. Similar effects are conceivable for other organisms providing ecosystem services in annual crops and should be considered in future studies. PMID:26236848

  16. Annual dynamics of wild bee densities: attractiveness and productivity effects of oilseed rape.

    PubMed

    Riedinger, Verena; Mitesser, Oliver; Hovestadt, Thomas; Steffan-Dewenter, Ingolf; Holzschuh, Andrea

    2015-05-01

    Mass-flowering crops may affect long-term population dynamics, but effects on pollinators have never been studied across several years. We monitored wild bees in oilseed rape fields in 16 landscapes in Germany in two consecutive years. Effects on bee densities of landscape oilseed rape cover in the years of monitoring and in the previous years were evaluated with landscape data from three consecutive years. We fit empirical data to a mechanistic model to provide estimates for oilseed rape attractiveness and its effect on bee productivity in comparison to the rest of the landscape, and we evaluated consequences for pollinator densities in consecutive years. Our results show that high oilseed rape cover in the previous year enhances current densities of wild bees (except for bumble bees). Moreover, we show a strong attractiveness of and dilution on (i.e., decreasing bee densities with increasing landscape oilseed rape cover) oilseed rape for bees during flowering in the current year, modifying the effect of the previous year's oilseed rape cover in the case of wild bees (excluding Bombus). As long as other factors such as nesting sites or natural enemies do not limit bee reproduction, our findings suggest long-term positive effects of mass-flowering crops on bee populations, at least for non-Bombus generalists, which possibly help to maintain crop pollination services even when crop area increases. Similar effects are conceivable for other organisms providing ecosystem services in annual crops and should be considered in future studies.

  17. Competition affects gene flow from oilseed rape (female symbol) to Brassica rapa (male symbol).

    PubMed

    Johannessen, M M; Andersen, B A; Jørgensen, R B

    2006-05-01

    Unlike most studies on hybridisation between oilseed rape and Brassica rapa, this study focused on hybridisation with oilseed rape as the maternal parent. This is a key cross because, assuming that plastids are inherited maternally, F(1)-hybrid production with maternal oilseed rape (B. napus) is the only transgene escape route from transplastomic oilseed rape. We investigated such F(1)-hybrid production in winter oilseed rape co-cultivated with weedy B. rapa at three plant densities each with two proportions of the different species. The paternity of the progeny produced on oilseed rape was assessed, and several fitness parameters were determined in oilseed rape mother plants in order to correlate hybridisation and plant competition. At higher density, the vegetative fitness per mother plant decreased significantly, but the density only affected the frequency of F(1)-hybrids significantly (a decrease) in the treatment with equal proportions of each species. As to the proportions, at higher B. napus frequencies, there were fewer F(1)-hybrids per mother plant and a significant increase in most biomass components. Thus, B. rapa was the stronger competitor in its effect on both the vegetative and reproductive fitness in B. napus, and the hybridisation frequency. In conclusion, the relative frequency of the two species was a more influential parameter than the density. Hybridisation with B. napus as the female will be most likely at current field densities of B. napus and when B. rapa is an abundant weed.

  18. Competition affects gene flow from oilseed rape (female symbol) to Brassica rapa (male symbol).

    PubMed

    Johannessen, M M; Andersen, B A; Jørgensen, R B

    2006-05-01

    Unlike most studies on hybridisation between oilseed rape and Brassica rapa, this study focused on hybridisation with oilseed rape as the maternal parent. This is a key cross because, assuming that plastids are inherited maternally, F(1)-hybrid production with maternal oilseed rape (B. napus) is the only transgene escape route from transplastomic oilseed rape. We investigated such F(1)-hybrid production in winter oilseed rape co-cultivated with weedy B. rapa at three plant densities each with two proportions of the different species. The paternity of the progeny produced on oilseed rape was assessed, and several fitness parameters were determined in oilseed rape mother plants in order to correlate hybridisation and plant competition. At higher density, the vegetative fitness per mother plant decreased significantly, but the density only affected the frequency of F(1)-hybrids significantly (a decrease) in the treatment with equal proportions of each species. As to the proportions, at higher B. napus frequencies, there were fewer F(1)-hybrids per mother plant and a significant increase in most biomass components. Thus, B. rapa was the stronger competitor in its effect on both the vegetative and reproductive fitness in B. napus, and the hybridisation frequency. In conclusion, the relative frequency of the two species was a more influential parameter than the density. Hybridisation with B. napus as the female will be most likely at current field densities of B. napus and when B. rapa is an abundant weed. PMID:16508664

  19. Rape and the prevalence of hybrids in broadly sympatric species: a case study using albatrosses

    PubMed Central

    Harris, Rebecca B.; Walsh, Hollie E.

    2014-01-01

    Conspecific rape often increases male reproductive success. However, the haste and aggression of forced copulations suggests that males may sometimes rape heterospecific females, thus making rape a likely, but undocumented, source of hybrids between broadly sympatric species. We present evidence that heterospecific rape may be the source of hybrids between Black-footed and Laysan Albatrosses (Phoebastria nigripes, and P. immutabilis, respectively). Extensive field studies have shown that paired (but not unpaired) males of both of these albatross species use rape as a supplemental reproductive strategy. Between species differences in size, timing of laying, and aggressiveness suggest that Black-footed Albatrosses should be more successful than Laysan Albatrosses in heteropspecific rape attempts, and male Black-footed Albatrosses have been observed attempting to force copulations on female Laysan Albatrosses. Nuclear markers showed that the six hybrids we studied were F1s and mitochondrial markers showed that male Black-footed Albatrosses sired all six hybrids. Long-term gene exchange between these species has been from Black-footed Albatrosses into Laysan Albatrosses, suggesting that the siring asymmetry found in our hybrids has long persisted. If hybrids are sired in heterospecific rapes, they presumably would be raised and sexually imprinted on Laysan Albatrosses, and two unmated hybrids in a previous study courted only Laysan Albatrosses. PMID:24949232

  20. Calling It Rape: Differences in Experiences of Women Who Do or Do Not Label Their Sexual Assault as Rape

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kahn, Arnold S.; Jackson, Jennifer; Kully, Christine; Badger, Kelly; Halvorsen, Jessica

    2003-01-01

    Past research had found that one-half or more of all women who have had an experience that might meet the definition of rape do not label themselves rape victims. The present study examined the actual rape experiences of 33 women who labeled their assault experience as rape and 56 women who did not label their assault experience as rape through…

  1. Child rape: facets of a heinous crime.

    PubMed

    Gangrade, K D; Sooryamoorthy, R; Renjini, D

    1995-01-01

    This article discusses the extent of child rape in India, case studies of girl children in legal procedures, rape settings and perpetrators, public morality, and the nature of rape laws in India. It is concluded that there is no safe place for children. Currently, rapists are allowed to go free or are acquitted. Prevention and control of child rape must involve punishment of rapists. It is not appropriate that society ostracize the victim and her family. Victims should not remain silent. National Crime Records Bureau statistics reveal increases in rape during 1986-91. State figures are given for 1986-88. Madhya Pradesh had the highest reported incidence of rape in 1988. In 1993, Madhya Pradesh had a total of 2459 rapes. Nationally, 10,425 women were reported as raped in 1991. 51.7% were 16-30 years old. There were 1099 cases of pedophilia in 1991, which was an increase over 1990. Over 50% of the pedophilia cases were reported in Uttar Pradesh. The record of convictions shows very low figures. 1992 trial results of 276 rape cases indicated that only 46 persons were convicted. Victims suffer from psychological effects of embarrassment, disgust, depression, guilt, and even suicidal tendencies. There is police and prosecution indifference as well as social stigma and social ostracism of the victim and her family. Many cases go unreported. The case studies illustrate the difficulties for the victim of experiencing the rape and the social responses: police harassment, shame and fear, and occasionally public outrage. The case studies illustrate rape in familiar settings, such as schools, family homes, and neighbors and friends' homes; rape by policemen; and rape by political influentials. Most offenders are young, married, and socioeconomically poor. Mass media portrayals fuel the frustrations of poor and lonely men in cities. Rapists exhibit anti-social behavior or psychopathology. Sexual offenses are related to society's moral values.

  2. Child rape: facets of a heinous crime.

    PubMed

    Gangrade, K D; Sooryamoorthy, R; Renjini, D

    1995-01-01

    This article discusses the extent of child rape in India, case studies of girl children in legal procedures, rape settings and perpetrators, public morality, and the nature of rape laws in India. It is concluded that there is no safe place for children. Currently, rapists are allowed to go free or are acquitted. Prevention and control of child rape must involve punishment of rapists. It is not appropriate that society ostracize the victim and her family. Victims should not remain silent. National Crime Records Bureau statistics reveal increases in rape during 1986-91. State figures are given for 1986-88. Madhya Pradesh had the highest reported incidence of rape in 1988. In 1993, Madhya Pradesh had a total of 2459 rapes. Nationally, 10,425 women were reported as raped in 1991. 51.7% were 16-30 years old. There were 1099 cases of pedophilia in 1991, which was an increase over 1990. Over 50% of the pedophilia cases were reported in Uttar Pradesh. The record of convictions shows very low figures. 1992 trial results of 276 rape cases indicated that only 46 persons were convicted. Victims suffer from psychological effects of embarrassment, disgust, depression, guilt, and even suicidal tendencies. There is police and prosecution indifference as well as social stigma and social ostracism of the victim and her family. Many cases go unreported. The case studies illustrate the difficulties for the victim of experiencing the rape and the social responses: police harassment, shame and fear, and occasionally public outrage. The case studies illustrate rape in familiar settings, such as schools, family homes, and neighbors and friends' homes; rape by policemen; and rape by political influentials. Most offenders are young, married, and socioeconomically poor. Mass media portrayals fuel the frustrations of poor and lonely men in cities. Rapists exhibit anti-social behavior or psychopathology. Sexual offenses are related to society's moral values. PMID:12158004

  3. Nitrous oxide emission from wetland soil following single and seasonal split application of cattle manure to field tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum, Mill var. Heinz) and rape (Brassica napus, L. var. Giant) crops.

    PubMed

    Masaka, Johnson; Nyamangara, Justice; Wuta, Menas

    2016-01-01

    An understanding of the contribution of manure applications to global atmospheric N2O loading is needed to evaluate agriculture's contribution to the global warming process. Two field experiments were carried out at Dufuya wetland (19°17'S; 29°21'E, 1260 m above sea level) to determine the effects of single and split manure applications on emissions of N2O from soil during the growing seasons of two rape and two tomato crops. Two field experiments were established. In the first experiment the manure was applied in three levels of 0, 15, and 30 Mg ha(-1) as a single application just before planting of the first tomato crop. In the second experiment the 15 and 30 Mg ha(-1) manure application rates were divided into four split applications of 3.75 and 7.5 Mg ha(-1) respectively, for each of the four cropping events. Single applications of 15 and 30 Mg ha(-1) manure once in four cropping events had higher emissions of N2O than those recorded on plots that received split applications of 3.75 and 7.5 Mg ha(-1) manure at least up to the second test crop. Thereafter N2O emissions on plots subjected to split applications of manure were higher or equal to those recorded in plots that received single basal applications of 30 Mg ha(-1) applied a week before planting the first crop. Seasonal split applications of manure to wetland vegetable crops can reduce emissions of N2O at least up to the second seasonal split application. PMID:27099826

  4. The psychological impact of rape victims.

    PubMed

    Campbell, Rebecca

    2008-11-01

    This review article examines rape victims' experiences seeking postassault assistance from the legal, medical, and mental health systems and how those interactions impact their psychological well-being. This literature suggests that although some rape victims have positive, helpful experiences with social system personnel, for many victims, postassault help seeking becomes a "second rape," a secondary victimization to the initial trauma. Most reported rapes are not prosecuted, victims treated in hospital emergency departments do not receive comprehensive medical care, and many victims do not have access to quality mental health services. In response to growing concerns about the community response to rape, new interventions and programs have emerged that seek to improve services and prevent secondary victimization. The contributions of rape crisis centers, restorative justice programs, and sexual assault nurse examiner programs are examined. Strategies for creating more visible and impactful roles for psychologists and allied professionals are also discussed.

  5. Reactions to Rape Victims: Effects of Rape Circumstances, Victim's Emotional Response, and Sex of Helper.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Krulewitz, Judith E.

    1982-01-01

    Female and male undergraduates judged impact of the rape experience on victims' psychological adjustment and indicated their likely counseling goals. Results are discussed in terms of popular assumptions about rape victims and sex differences in identification with and empathy for female rape victims. Implications for training are noted. (Author)

  6. Violence against women in war: rape, AIDS, sex slavery. International.

    PubMed

    At an international conference attended by 2000 delegates, violence against women in Rwanda, former Yugoslavia, and Kurdistan was discussed. Kalliope Migirou, of the United Nations Human Rights Field Operation in Rwanda, described the slaughter of between 500,000 and 1.5 million Tutsis and moderate Hutus in 1994; estimates of the number of rapes ranged from 15,700 (Rwandan government) to 250,000-500,000 (UN special representative). Women were gang-raped and sexually mutilated; fathers were forced to rape their daughters, and sons, their mothers. The transmission of HIV was used as a weapon to murder women and their communities. Women were taken to refugee camps as sex slaves and have written their families about their "new marriages" to Hutu militia men. No rape charge is found among the more than 4000 cases prepared for the Rwandan war crimes trial. 80,000 Rwandans are in prison on suspicion of participating in the genocide; 8% are women. Violete Krasnic, of the Autonomous Women's Center Against Sexual Violence in Belgrade, spoke about the war in former Yugoslavia, which increased all forms of violence against women: 1) domestic violence, particularly in inter-ethnic marriages; 2) death threats against women (up 30-50%); 3) rape (up 30%); and 4) threats with weapons (40%). Men, upon exposure to nationalistic propaganda, used violence against their wives. Nazaneen Rasheed, a London-based representative of the Women's Union of Kurdistan, stated that women in northern Iraq had no power or land. While some turned to prostitution to survive, hundreds were killed by male relatives because of shame to the family.

  7. Biosynthesis of bacitracin in solid-state fermentation by Bacillus licheniformis using defatted oil seed cakes as substrate.

    PubMed

    Farzana, Kalsoom; Shah, Syed Nisar Hussain; Butt, Farooq Bashir; Awan, Sattar Bukhsh

    2005-01-01

    Bacitracin is being imported in Pakistan involving substantial amount of foreign exchange for its incorporation in poultry feed. The cheap raw material for its production is readily available and cheap such as soybean meal, sunflower meal, wheat bran etc. Thus development of this technology in our country would result in saving a reasonable amount of foreign exchange by exploiting indigenous resources. The present study is concerned with the biosynthesis of antibiotic bacitracin in solid-state fermentation by Bacillus licheniformis on laboratory scale using defatted oil seed cakes of agricultural by-products as starting material for maximum production of the antibiotic Bacitracin. In solid-state fermentation, wheat bran, soybean meal, sunflower meal, rice hulls and their different combinations were used. The antibiotic activity, 48 hours after inoculation was 4375 i.u / gm when only soybean was used. However, maximum titre 4820 i.u / gm of antibiotic was obtained using wheat bran and soybean meal in ratio of 1:3.

  8. Feral genetically modified herbicide tolerant oilseed rape from seed import spills: are concerns scientifically justified?

    PubMed

    Devos, Yann; Hails, Rosemary S; Messéan, Antoine; Perry, Joe N; Squire, Geoffrey R

    2012-02-01

    One of the concerns surrounding the import (for food and feed uses or processing) of genetically modified herbicide tolerant (GMHT) oilseed rape is that, through seed spillage, the herbicide tolerance (HT) trait will escape into agricultural or semi-natural habitats, causing environmental or economic problems. Based on these concerns, three EU countries have invoked national safeguard clauses to ban the marketing of specific GMHT oilseed rape events on their territory. However, the scientific basis for the environmental and economic concerns posed by feral GMHT oilseed rape resulting from seed import spills is debatable. While oilseed rape has characteristics such as secondary dormancy and small seed size that enable it to persist and be redistributed in the landscape, the presence of ferals is not in itself an environmental or economic problem. Crucially, feral oilseed rape has not become invasive outside cultivated and ruderal habitats, and HT traits are not likely to result in increased invasiveness. Feral GMHT oilseed rape has the potential to introduce HT traits to volunteer weeds in agricultural fields, but would only be amplified if the herbicides to which HT volunteers are tolerant were used routinely in the field. However, this worst-case scenario is most unlikely, as seed import spills are mostly confined to port areas. Economic concerns revolve around the potential for feral GMHT oilseed rape to contribute to GM admixtures in non-GM crops. Since feral plants derived from cultivation (as distinct from import) occur at too low a frequency to affect the coexistence threshold of 0.9% in the EU, it can be concluded that feral GMHT plants resulting from seed import spills will have little relevance as a potential source of pollen or seed for GM admixture. This paper concludes that feral oilseed rape in Europe should not be routinely managed, and certainly not in semi-natural habitats, as the benefits of such action would not outweigh the negative effects of

  9. Seed dressings to control slug damage in oilseed rape.

    PubMed

    Simms, Louise C; Mullins, Christopher E; Wilson, Michael J

    2002-07-01

    Slugs are major pests of oilseed rape that are poorly controlled by conventional bait pellets. A series of laboratory experiments investigated the potential of seed-dressings to control slug damage in this crop. Four compounds: metaldehyde, methiocarb, cinnamamide and 3,5-dimethoxycinnamic acid (DMCA) were tested at a range of doses for phytotoxicity and ability to reduce damage by Deroceras reticulatum (Müller). Metaldehyde and methiocarb were not phytotoxic at any doses, whereas all doses of cinnamamide and DMCA were. All compounds reduced slug damage, but metaldehyde and methiocarb consistently performed better than cinnamamide and DMCA. Metaldehyde and methiocarb seed-dressings were compared with baited pellets containing the same active ingredients at recommended field doses. The seed-dressings protected plants from damage by D reticulatum and Arion subfuscus (Draparnaud) as well as, or better than, baited pellets. We therefore recommend that metaldehyde and methiocarb should be field-tested as seed dressings to control slugs in oilseed rape.

  10. Individual differences in women's rape avoidance behaviors.

    PubMed

    McKibbin, William F; Shackelford, Todd K; Miner, Emily J; Bates, Vincent M; Liddle, James R

    2011-04-01

    Rape can exact severe psychological, physical, and reproductive costs on women, and likely was a recurrent adaptive problem over human evolutionary history. Therefore, women may have evolved psychological mechanisms that motivate rape avoidance behaviors. Guided heuristically by an evolutionary perspective, we tested the hypothesis that women's rape avoidance behaviors would vary with several individual difference variables. Specifically, we predicted that rape avoidance behaviors would covary positively with (1) women's attractiveness, (2) women's involvement in a committed romantic relationship, and (3) the number of family members living nearby. We also predicted that women's rape avoidance behaviors would covary negatively with age. We administered the Rape Avoidance Inventory (McKibbin et al., Pers Indiv Differ 39:336-340, 2009) and a demographic survey to a sample of women (n = 144). The results of correlational and regression analyses were consistent with the predictions, with the exception that women's rape avoidance behaviors did not covary with women's age. Discussion highlighted limitations of the current research and directions for future research on women's rape avoidance psychology and behaviors.

  11. Rape avoidance behavior among Slovak women.

    PubMed

    Prokop, Pavol

    2013-05-28

    Rape has been a recurrent adaptive problem for many species, including humans. Rape is costly to women in terms of disease transmission, partner abandonment, and unwanted pregnancy (among other costs). Therefore, behavioral strategies which allow women to avoid coercive men may have been favored by selection. In line with this evolutionary reasoning, the current research documented that physically stronger women and those in a committed romantic relationship reported more rape avoidance behavior. In addition, virgin women tended to perform more rape avoidance behavior compared with their non-virgin counterparts. Women with high conception risk perceived themselves as physically stronger, which may protect them against a potential rapist. Fear of unwanted pregnancy from rape decreased as age increased, reflecting higher fertility among younger participants. However, older women reported more rape avoidance behavior, which contradicts evolutionary predictions. The results provide some support for evolutionary hypotheses of rape avoidance behavior which suggest that woman's perception of rape is influenced by parental investment and perceived physical condition.

  12. Fighting Back: Women's Resistance to Rape.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ullman, Sarah E.; Knight, Raymond A.

    1992-01-01

    Using police reports and court testimonies, examined women's resistance strategies to rape. Results indicated that 85 percent of the women who resisted with physical force were responding to the offender's initiated violence. Women reacting with physical aggression to violent attack were more likely to avoid rape than were nonresisting women. (RJM)

  13. From Kobe Bryant to Campus Rape

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Malveaux, Julianne

    2004-01-01

    Even though laws have been passed to protect young women--who are most at risk for rape--from sexual assault on campus, many young men think they can rape without consequence. Thus, the Campus Security Act of 1990 (now known as the Jerome Clery Act), which requires campuses to report serious crimes on campus, and the Campus Sexual Assault Victim's…

  14. Likelihood To Rape in College Males.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Osland, Julie A.; And Others

    1996-01-01

    Proclivities toward rape and sexual force were studied among 159 college men at a small church-affiliated college. In completing a questionnaire, 34% reported some proclivity to rape or force sex, and those who reported such proclivities held more gender stereotyped attitudes. (SLD)

  15. Japanese International Students' Attitudes toward Acquaintance Rape.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Motoike, Janice; Stockdale, Margaret

    This study looked at the influence of an Asian sociocultural variable, loss of face or social integrity, as a predictor of perceptions of acquaintance rape among Japanese students. In addition to the expected associations between gender, sexism, and perceptions of rape, loss of face was predicted to interact with the perpetrator's reference group…

  16. The Psychological Impact of Rape Victims

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Campbell, Rebecca

    2008-01-01

    This review article examines rape victims' experiences seeking postassault assistance from the legal, medical, and mental health systems and how those interactions impact their psychological well-being. This literature suggests that although some rape victims have positive, helpful experiences with social system personnel, for many victims,…

  17. Determination of trace elements in rape honey and its corresponding rape flower and stem by ICP-MS.

    PubMed

    Chen, Hui; Wang, Zhi-Bin; Chang, Qiao-Ying; Wang, Wei; Fan, Chun-Lin; Pang, Guo-Fang

    2014-02-01

    The determination of 10 trace elements including Na, Mg, P, K, Ca, Mn, Zn, Rb, Sr and Ba, in rape honey and its corresponding rape flower and stem gathered from nine sampling sites was carried out by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). The contents of K, P, Ca, Mg and Na were obviously higher than Zn, Rb, Mn, Sr and Ba in rape honey, rape flower and rape stem. For the first five elements, K had the highest content, followed by P, Ca, Mg and Na. However, the order of content for latter five elements was not the same in different matrixes. The contents of K, P and Ca were all higher than 1 000 mg x kg(-1) in rape flower and rape stem, while the contents of P, Ca, Mn, Zn and Rb in rape flower were slightly higher than in rape stem. It can be concluded that rape flower showed slightly higher concentrating ability for trace elements than rape stem. Based on these results, radar chart was firstly applied to research the relationship of 10 elements in rape honey and its corresponding rape flower and stem. The aim of the present work was to study the possibility of using trace elements contents in rape flower to trace the geographical and botanical origin of honey instead of rape honey. It can be found from the radar charts that the stars of rape honey, rape flower and rape stem were similar to each other. This research not only provides the basic data of trace elements in comparative study of rape honey, but also gives scientific basis for tracing the origin of rape honey according to the trace elements in corresponding rape flower that replaces those of rape honey.

  18. Bt-transgenic oilseed rape hybridization with its weedy relative, Brassica rapa.

    PubMed

    Halfhill, Matthew D; Millwood, Reginald J; Raymer, Paul L; Stewart, C Neal

    2002-10-01

    The movement of transgenes from crops to weeds and the resulting consequences are concerns of modern agriculture. The possible generation of "superweeds" from the escape of fitness-enhancing transgenes into wild populations is a risk that is often discussed, but rarely studied. Oilseed rape, Brassica napus (L.), is a crop with sexually compatible weedy relatives, such as birdseed rape (Brassica rapa (L.)). Hybridization of this crop with weedy relatives is an extant risk and an excellent interspecific gene flow model system. In laboratory crosses, T3 lines of seven independent transformation events of Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) oilseed rape were hybridized with two weedy accessions of B. rapa. Transgenic hybrids were generated from six of these oilseed rape lines, and the hybrids exhibited an intermediate morphology between the parental species. The Bt transgene was present in the hybrids, and the protein was synthesized at similar levels to the corresponding independent oilseed rape lines. Insect bioassays were performed and confirmed that the hybrid material was insecticidal. The hybrids were backcrossed with the weedy parent, and only half the oilseed rape lines were able to produce transgenic backcrosses. After two backcrosses, the ploidy level and morphology of the resultant plants were indistinguishable from B. rapa. Hybridization was monitored under field conditions (Tifton, GA, USA) with four independent lines of Bt oilseed rape with a crop to wild relative ratio of 1200:1. When B. rapa was used as the female parent, hybridization frequency varied among oilseed rape lines and ranged from 16.9% to 0.7%.

  19. Management of herbicide-tolerant oilseed rape in Europe: a case study on minimizing vertical gene flow.

    PubMed

    Devos, Yann; Reheul, Dirk; de Schrijver, Adinda; Cors, François; Moens, William

    2004-01-01

    The potential commercialization of genetically modified herbicide-tolerant (GMHT) oilseed rape in Europe raises various concerns about their potential environmental and agronomic impacts, especially those associated with the escape of transgenes. Pollen of oilseed rape can be dispersed in space, resulting in the fertilization of sympatric compatible wild relatives (e.g. Brassica rapa) and oilseed rape cultivars grown nearby (GM and/or non-GM Brassica napus). The spatial and temporal dispersal of seeds of oilseed rape may lead to feral oilseed rape populations outside the cropped areas and oilseed rape volunteers in subsequent crops in the rotation. The incorporation of a HT trait(s) may increase the fitness of the recipient plants, making them more abundant and persistent, and may result in weeds that are difficult to control by the herbicide(s) to which they are tolerant. Vertical gene flow from transgenic oilseed rape to non-GM counterparts may also have an impact on farming and supply chain management, depending on labelling thresholds for the adventitious presence of GM material in non-GM products. Given the extent of pollen and seed dispersal in oilseed rape, it is obvious that the safe and sound integration of GMHT oilseed rape in Europe may require significant on-farm and off-farm management efforts. Crucial practical measures that can reduce vertical gene flow include (1) isolating seed production of Brassica napus, (2) the use of certified seed, (3) isolating fields of GM oilseed rape, (4) harvesting at the correct crop development stage with properly adjusted combine settings, (5) ensuring maximum germination of shed seeds after harvest, (6) controlling volunteers in subsequent crops, and (7) keeping on-farm records. The implementation of the recommended practices may, however, be difficult, entailing various challenges.

  20. Social Context Variables in the Social Perception of Rape.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cann, Arnie; And Others

    The physical and interpersonal contexts within which rapes occur were investigated. The physical context, defined in terms of observers' perceptions of the likelihood of rapes occurring in a particular setting, produce variations in the degree of responsibility assigned to the victim. Women raped in high probability of rape settings were held as…

  1. Rape on College Campuses: Reform through Title IX.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Steinberg, Terry Nicole

    1991-01-01

    This article first, analyzes the growing problem of campus rape; second, evaluates some college rape reduction programs; third, uses case law to demonstrate that rape should be considered sex discrimination under Title IX; and, fourth, suggests an amendment to Title IX, defining rape as sex discrimination. Appropriate implementation measures by…

  2. Male Rape Myths: The Role of Gender, Violence, and Sexism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chapleau, Kristine M.; Oswald, Debra L.; Russell, Brenda L.

    2008-01-01

    This study investigates the structure of Struckman-Johnson and Struckman-Johnson's Male Rape Myth Scale, examines gender differences in rape myth acceptance, and explores the underlying ideologies that facilitate male rape myth acceptance. A three-factor model, with rape myths regarding Trauma, Blame, and Denial as separate subscales, is the best…

  3. Understanding Attribution of Blame in Cases of Rape: An Analysis of Participant Gender, Type of Rape and Perceived Similarity to the Victim

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grubb, Amy Rose; Harrower, Julie

    2009-01-01

    This study examined a variety of factors that may influence attributions towards rape victims. A total of 156 participants completed a questionnaire, which included a measure of attitudes towards rape victims and a vignette depicting one of three rape scenarios (a stranger rape, date rape and seduction rape). Participants rated the extent to which…

  4. In Vivo Regulatory Phosphorylation of Novel Phosphoenolpyruvate Carboxylase Isoforms in Endosperm of Developing Castor Oil Seeds1

    PubMed Central

    Tripodi, Karina E.; Turner, William L.; Gennidakis, Sam; Plaxton, William C.

    2005-01-01

    Our previous research characterized two phosphoenolpyruvate (PEP) carboxylase (PEPC) isoforms (PEPC1 and PEPC2) from developing castor oil seeds (COS). The association of a shared 107-kD subunit (p107) with an immunologically unrelated bacterial PEPC-type 64-kD polypeptide (p64) leads to marked physical and kinetic differences between the PEPC1 p107 homotetramer and PEPC2 p107/p64 heterooctamer. Here, we describe the production of antiphosphorylation site-specific antibodies to the conserved p107 N-terminal serine-6 phosphorylation site. Immunoblotting established that the serine-6 of p107 is phosphorylated in COS PEPC1 and PEPC2. This phosphorylation was reversed in vitro following incubation of clarified COS extracts or purified PEPC1 or PEPC2 with mammalian protein phosphatase type 2A and is not involved in a potential PEPC1 and PEPC2 interconversion. Similar to other plant PEPCs examined to date, p107 phosphorylation increased PEPC1 activity at pH 7.3 by decreasing its Km(PEP) and sensitivity to l-malate inhibition, while enhancing glucose-6-P activation. By contrast, p107 phosphorylation increased PEPC2's Km(PEP) and sensitivity to malate, glutamic acid, and aspartic acid inhibition. Phosphorylation of p107 was promoted during COS development (coincident with a >5-fold increase in the I50 [malate] value for total PEPC activity in desalted extracts) but disappeared during COS desiccation. The p107 of stage VII COS became fully dephosphorylated in planta 48 h following excision of COS pods or following 72 h of dark treatment of intact plants. The in vivo phosphorylation status of p107 appears to be modulated by photosynthate recently translocated from source leaves into developing COS. PMID:16169958

  5. The Rape Myth and Blame-Based Beliefs of Counselors-in-Training toward Male Victims of Rape.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kassing, Leslee R.; Prieto, Loreto R.

    2003-01-01

    Surveyed counselors-in-training regarding their acceptance of rape myths and their willingness to make blame-based attributions toward a male victim of rape. Results suggested male counselor trainees tended to endorse the greatest degree of acceptance of rape myths. Trainees of both sexes thought that a male rape victim who showed no resistance to…

  6. [Isothiocyanate and vinyl thio-oxazolidone contents of rape seeds and rape seed oil].

    PubMed

    Franzke, C; Göbel, R; Noack, G; Seiffert, I

    1975-01-01

    Comparative studies on the isothiocyanate content of rape-seeds and rape-seed oil show that, apart from nearly 300 mg/100 g of vinyl thio-oxazolidone, rape-seeds contain almost 200--300 mg/100 g of isothiocyanates of which 3-butenyl isothiocyanate and 4-pentenyl isothiocyanate (ratio of 4:1) are the main components as evidenced thin-layer and gaschromatographically. Only about 1 mg/100 g of isothiocyanates are found in pressed rape-seed oil; and but circa 10 mg/100 g, in extracted rape-seed oil. 3-Butenyl isothiocyanate and 4-pentenyl isothiocyanate (ratio of 4:1) are once more the main components. Thioglycerides are not detected in the oil. Vinyl thio-oxazolidone is found only in extracted rape-seed oil (about 2 mg/100 g). PMID:1152977

  7. Complete genome sequence of Kibdelosporangium phytohabitans KLBMP 1111(T), a plant growth promoting endophytic actinomycete isolated from oil-seed plant Jatropha curcas L.

    PubMed

    Qin, Sheng; Feng, Wei-Wei; Xing, Ke; Bai, Juan-Luan; Yuan, Bo; Liu, Wei-Jie; Jiang, Ji-Hong

    2015-12-20

    Kibdelosporangium phytohabitans KLBMP 1111(T) is a plant growth promoting endophytic actinomycete isolated from the oil-seed plant Jatropha curcas L. collected from dry-hot valley, in Sichuan, China. The complete genome sequence of this actinomycete consists of one chromosome (11,759,770bp) with no plasmid. From the genome, we identified gene clusters responsible for polyketide and nonribosomal peptide synthesis of natural products, and genes related to the plant growth promoting, such as zeatin, 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate deaminase (ACCD) and siderophore. The complete genome information may be useful to understand the beneficial interactions between K. phytohabitans KLBMP 1111(T) and host plants. PMID:26516119

  8. Pyrolysis of de-oiled seed cake of Jatropha Curcas and catalytic steam reforming of pyrolytic bio-oil to hydrogen.

    PubMed

    Renny, Andrew; Santhosh, Viswanathan; Somkuwar, Nitin; Gokak, D T; Sharma, Pankaj; Bhargava, Sanjay

    2016-11-01

    The aim of this work was to study the pyrolysis of de-oiled seed cake of Jatropha Curcas and catalytic steam reforming of pyrolytic bio-oil to hydrogen. As per literature, presence of heavy nitrogenous and oxygenated compounds leads to catalyst deactivation. Here, an attempt has been made to tune pyrolytic reactions to optimize the N and O content of the pyrolytic bio-oil. Bio-oil conversion and hydrogen yield decreased as reaction progressed, which attributes to temporary loss of catalytic activity by blockage of catalyst pores by carbon deposition. Further, retention of steam reforming activity after repetitive steam activation suggests long-term catalyst usage.

  9. Pyrolysis of de-oiled seed cake of Jatropha Curcas and catalytic steam reforming of pyrolytic bio-oil to hydrogen.

    PubMed

    Renny, Andrew; Santhosh, Viswanathan; Somkuwar, Nitin; Gokak, D T; Sharma, Pankaj; Bhargava, Sanjay

    2016-11-01

    The aim of this work was to study the pyrolysis of de-oiled seed cake of Jatropha Curcas and catalytic steam reforming of pyrolytic bio-oil to hydrogen. As per literature, presence of heavy nitrogenous and oxygenated compounds leads to catalyst deactivation. Here, an attempt has been made to tune pyrolytic reactions to optimize the N and O content of the pyrolytic bio-oil. Bio-oil conversion and hydrogen yield decreased as reaction progressed, which attributes to temporary loss of catalytic activity by blockage of catalyst pores by carbon deposition. Further, retention of steam reforming activity after repetitive steam activation suggests long-term catalyst usage. PMID:27566523

  10. Components of a rice-oilseed rape production system augmented with trichoderma sp. Tri-1 control sclerotinia sclerotiorum on oilseed rape

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Sclerotinia sclerotiorum causes serious yield losses on many crops throughout the world. In two field trials conducted at the same location in consecutive years, a treatment containing formulated Trichoderma harzianum-1 (Tri-1) resulted in oilseed rape seed yield that was significantly greater than...

  11. Populations of selected microbial and fungal species growing on the surface of rape seeds following treatment with desiccants or plant growth regulators.

    PubMed

    Frac, Magdalena; Jezierska-Tys, Stefania; Tys, Jerzy

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the effects of desiccants and plant growth regulators on selected microbial species affecting rape seeds, with special emphasis on the growth of fungi and identification of the genus and species composition. The experimental material in the study was seeds of winter rape cv. Californium that were collected from the field during combine harvest. The chemical agents applied, both desiccants and growth regulators, generally decreased the populations of bacteria occurring on the surface of rape seeds. The responses of fungi depended upon the type of agent applied and were manifested as either stimulation or inhibition of the growth of the fungal species. The fungi isolated from the surface of rape seeds were characteristic of those found in the field environment (Cladosporium and Penicillium) and typical for those present on the surface of rape seeds (Alternaria).

  12. Copurification of cytosolic fructose-1,6-bisphosphatase and cytosolic aldolase from endosperm of germinating castor oil seeds.

    PubMed

    Moorhead, G B; Hodgson, R J; Plaxton, W C

    1994-08-01

    The cytosolic isozymes of fructose-1,6-bisphosphatase (FBPasec) and aldolase (ALDc) from germinating castor oil seed endosperm (COS) (Ricinus communis L.; cv Hale) were purified to homogeneity and final specific activities 49 and 2.8 (mumol product produced/min)/mg protein, respectively. Nondenaturing polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis of the final FBPasec preparation resolved a single protein-staining band which comigrated with FBPase activity. Two protein-staining bands of 41 and 39 kDa that occurred in an approximate 1:1 ratio were observed following sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis of the final FBPasec preparation. Rabbit anti-(FBPasec) immune serum immunoprecipitated the activities of FBPasec, but not that of the plastidic isozyme of FBPase from germinated COS. Immunoblot analysis utilizing affinity purified anti-(COS FBPasec) immunoglobulin G established that the 39-kDa subunit of FBP-asec did not arise via proteolytic cleavage of the 41-kDa subunit during tissue extraction and enzyme purification. However, FBPasec was susceptible to degradation by endogenous protease(s) during incubation of an acidic (pH 5.9) clarified COS extract at 25 degrees C. This proteolysis caused the production of a 32-kDa antigenic polypeptide and resulted in FBPase inactivation. Gel filtration indicated that purified FBPasec exists in at least 8 different oligomeric forms ranging in size from > 2 million to < 34 kDa. The majority of FBPasec, however, eluted as a 143-kDa heterotetramer. Sodium dodecyl sulfate gel electrophoresis of the final ALDc preparation yielded a single 40-kDa protein-staining polypeptide that cross-reacted with anti-(carrot ALDc) IgG. FBPasec copurified with ALDc through polyethylene glycol fractionation, Q-Sepharose, and phosphocellulose chromatographies, and the intensity of the fluorescence emission spectrum of ALDc was greatly reduced in the presence of COS FBPasec, but not rabbit muscle FBPase. These findings suggest that these

  13. Physiology of Oil Seeds

    PubMed Central

    Ketring, D. L.; Morgan, P. W.

    1971-01-01

    Germination, ethylene production, and carbon dioxide production by dormant Virginia-type peanuts were determined during treatments with plant growth regulators. Kinetin, benzylaminopurine, and 2-chloroethylphosphonic acid induced extensive germination above the water controls. Benzylaminopurine and 2-chloroethylphosphonic acid increased the germination of the more dormant basal seeds to a larger extent above the controls than the less dormant apical seeds. Coumarin induced a slight stimulation of germination while abscisic acid, 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid, and succinic acid 2,2-dimethylhydrazide did not stimulate germination above the controls. In addition to stimulating germination, the cytokinins also stimulated ethylene production by the seeds. In the case of benzylaminopurine, where the more dormant basal seeds were stimulated to germinate above the control to a larger extent than the less dormant apical seeds, correspondingly more ethylene production was induced in the basal seeds. However, the opposite was true of kinetin for both germination and ethylene production. When germination was extensively stimulated by the cytokinins, maximal ethylene and carbon dioxide evolution occurred at 24 and 72 hours, respectively. Abscisic acid inhibited ethylene production and germinaton of the seeds while carbon dioxide evolution was comparatively high. The crucial physiological event for germination of dormant peanut seeds was enhancement of ethylene production by the seeds. PMID:16657647

  14. Rape--victiminological and psychiatric aspects.

    PubMed

    Mezey, G C

    1985-03-01

    Rape is a violent crime in which sexuality is used to express power, anger, and aggression. The nature of the victim's reactions, which resembles those of other violent crimes, is discussed in relation to its origin in the doctrine of victimology. The distress experienced by victims of rape should entitle them to the same standards of care and sympathy as victims of other life crises.

  15. Demography and findings of reported rape cases.

    PubMed

    Quader, M M; Rahman, M H; Kamal, M; Ahmed, A U; Saha, S K

    2010-01-01

    Six hundred and ninety nine cases of alleged rape were studied by the authors during the period from 2007-2008 at the Mymensingh Medical College, Mymensingh. Of these cases, 122 had positive findings of recent sexual intercourse; 250 cases had the positive findings of habituated sexual intercourse, and 327 cases had no findings of sexual intercourse but they complained of forcible sexual intercourse and found no sign of sexual intercourse. Most of the alleged victims of rape were nulliparous 87.12% and parous was only 12.87%. 430 (61.51%) cases of reported victims who were students of schools and colleges were not considered as rape cases considering their victim's history of love affairs, leaving home secretly with their lovers, living with them for many days. Gang rape was not so common (4.29% of raped cases) in our study. Age groups, their occupations, living areas, time of arrival for medico-legal examination have been studied. Most of the cases were students (61.51%). A few numbers of victims were subjected to gang rape. Examination and reporting the cases have been discussed.

  16. Attributions in Rape: Effects of Type of Rape and Victim Power Strategy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DeLamarter, William A.; Westervelt, Karen E.

    Recent trials have brought the issue of date rape into public awareness. It is appropriate to examine the impact of variables such as the appearance of the accuser, the relationship between the accuser and the defendant, and the behavior of the accuser and defendant on attributions of responsibility in a rape situation. This study manipulated…

  17. Do Rape Education Programs Influence Rape Patterns among New York State College Students?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parrot, Andrea

    This study examined the differences in patterns of college student reports of rape and the availability of educational programs among college students. College students (N=994) from 26 colleges and universities in New York State were studied to determine the extent of forced sex and rape experiences. Additionally, they were studied to determine if…

  18. College Students' Attitudes toward Date Rape and Date Rape Backlash: Implications for Prevention Programs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Woods, Susan; Bower, Douglas J.

    2001-01-01

    Surveyed college students regarding their acceptance of rape-myth beliefs expounded by the date rape backlash movement. Results indicated that gender, adversarial attitudes toward sexual relationships, political and sex role views, perception of false accusation vulnerability, academic honorary membership, Greek affiliation, and knowledge of a…

  19. Exploring rape myths, gendered norms, group processing, and the social context of rape among college women: a qualitative analysis.

    PubMed

    Deming, Michelle E; Covan, Eleanor Krassen; Swan, Suzanne C; Billings, Deborah L

    2013-04-01

    The purpose of this research is to explore the negotiation strategies of college women as they interpret ambiguous rape scenarios. In focus groups, 1st- and 4th-year college women were presented with a series of three vignettes depicting incidents that meet the legal criteria for rape yet are ambiguous due to the presence of cultural rape myths, contexts involving alcohol consumption, varying degrees of consent, and a known perpetrator. These contexts are critical in understanding how college women define rape. Key findings indicated many of these college women utilized rape myths and norms within their peer groups to interpret rape scenarios.

  20. Exploring rape myths, gendered norms, group processing, and the social context of rape among college women: a qualitative analysis.

    PubMed

    Deming, Michelle E; Covan, Eleanor Krassen; Swan, Suzanne C; Billings, Deborah L

    2013-04-01

    The purpose of this research is to explore the negotiation strategies of college women as they interpret ambiguous rape scenarios. In focus groups, 1st- and 4th-year college women were presented with a series of three vignettes depicting incidents that meet the legal criteria for rape yet are ambiguous due to the presence of cultural rape myths, contexts involving alcohol consumption, varying degrees of consent, and a known perpetrator. These contexts are critical in understanding how college women define rape. Key findings indicated many of these college women utilized rape myths and norms within their peer groups to interpret rape scenarios. PMID:23637315

  1. Polycylic aromatic hydrocarbons in rape seeds with relation to their growing site and thermal treatment.

    PubMed

    Bojanowska, M; Czerwiński, J

    2010-01-01

    A significant source of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) in human diet is vegetable oils, especially those produced from plants grown in regions where the soil and the atmosphere are contaminated with these chemicals. Contamination with PAH of vegetable oils may also occur in the process of plant material drying with smoke or exhaust fumes, or in the course of extraction of that material with solvents containing trace amounts of PAH. The objective of this study was to determine the relationship between the levels of PAH present in rape seeds and the occurrence of these compounds in cultivation region and the relationship of the levels of PAH in rape seeds to thermal treatment after harvest. Rape seeds and pods from experimental fields and rape seeds subjected to thermal treatment in dryers obtained from suppliers of the raw material were examined and compared. Cleanup of extracts was performed with high-resolution size exclusion chromatography (SEC) and final determinations were by Trace Ultra/PolarisQ gas chromatography-mass spectroscopy (GC-MS). The results obtained indicated that during thermal treatment of rape seeds the concentration of PAH increased, but the levels of benzo[a]pyrene did not exceed threshold permissible levels. Data demonstrate that rapeseed cultivation in the presence of PAH results in higher levels of contaminants; however, the PAH levels still did not exceed the maximal allowable levels in Poland.

  2. Researches of Optimum Leaf Area Index Dynamicmodels for Rape(brassica Napus L.)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cao, Hongxin; Zhang, Chunlei; Li, Guangming; Zhang, Baojun; Zhao, Suolao; Wang, Baoqing; Jin, Zhiqing; Zhu, Dawei; Zhu, Juanjuan; Wei, Xiufang

    The objectives of developing optimum leaf area index dynamic models for rape (OLAIDM) was to develop Rape Cultivation Simulation-Optimization- Decision Making System(Rape-CSODS) , to design its planting , to regulate and control its growth and development, and to fulfill its high yield, good quality, high benefits and standard production eventually. The OLAIDM were developed based on field experiments with 3 cultivars, 6 sowing dates, 2 types of plant pattern and 4 sites from 2002 to 2007 in middle and lower valley of Yangtze river in China and relative data from references of rape researches, employed ideas of R/WCSODS (Rice/Wheat Cultivation Simulation- Optimization-Decision Making System), and in the same time, the OLAIMR and its parameters also were assessed, calibrated and tested. The average absolute deviation(de), correlation coefficients(r) and the standard errors of their absolute deviation(Sde) of between the observed and simulated values for LAI of two cultivars in Wuhan and Nanjing were -0.03~0.1533, 0.9707~0.9997 and0.1332~0.4032, respectively. 1:1 line of them were in Fig. 1 to 4. Multi-factors such as the ramification types, cultivars, and light et al. were taken into account in this study, therefore, the OLAIDM with general adaptability, clear yield aim, mechanism, and dynamic characteristic can simulate optimum LAI dynamic for rape under different sites, cultivars and ramification types, and yielding levels.

  3. Polycylic aromatic hydrocarbons in rape seeds with relation to their growing site and thermal treatment.

    PubMed

    Bojanowska, M; Czerwiński, J

    2010-01-01

    A significant source of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) in human diet is vegetable oils, especially those produced from plants grown in regions where the soil and the atmosphere are contaminated with these chemicals. Contamination with PAH of vegetable oils may also occur in the process of plant material drying with smoke or exhaust fumes, or in the course of extraction of that material with solvents containing trace amounts of PAH. The objective of this study was to determine the relationship between the levels of PAH present in rape seeds and the occurrence of these compounds in cultivation region and the relationship of the levels of PAH in rape seeds to thermal treatment after harvest. Rape seeds and pods from experimental fields and rape seeds subjected to thermal treatment in dryers obtained from suppliers of the raw material were examined and compared. Cleanup of extracts was performed with high-resolution size exclusion chromatography (SEC) and final determinations were by Trace Ultra/PolarisQ gas chromatography-mass spectroscopy (GC-MS). The results obtained indicated that during thermal treatment of rape seeds the concentration of PAH increased, but the levels of benzo[a]pyrene did not exceed threshold permissible levels. Data demonstrate that rapeseed cultivation in the presence of PAH results in higher levels of contaminants; however, the PAH levels still did not exceed the maximal allowable levels in Poland. PMID:20706951

  4. Prevention of post-rape psychopathology: preliminary findings of a controlled acute rape treatment study.

    PubMed

    Resnick, H; Acierno, R; Holmes, M; Kilpatrick, D G; Jager, N

    1999-01-01

    Violent sexual assault such as rape typically results in extremely high levels of acute distress. The intensity of these acute psychological reactions may play a role in later recovery, with higher levels of immediate distress associated with poorer outcome. Unfortunately, post-rape forensic evidence collection procedures may serve to increase, rather than reduce initial distress, potentially exacerbating future psychopathology. To address these concerns, an acute time-frame hospital-based video intervention was developed to: (a) minimize anxiety during forensic rape exams, and (b) prevent post-rape posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), panic, and anxiety. Preliminary data indicated that (1) psychological distress at the time of the exam was strongly related to PTSD symptomatology 6 weeks post-rape, and (2) the video intervention successfully reduced distress during forensic exams.

  5. A Snapshot of Serial Rape: An Investigation of Criminal Sophistication and Use of Force on Victim Injury and Severity of the Assault.

    PubMed

    de Heer, Brooke

    2016-02-01

    Prior research on rapes reported to law enforcement has identified criminal sophistication and the use of force against the victim as possible unique identifiers to serial rape versus one-time rape. This study sought to contribute to the current literature on reported serial rape by investigating how the level of criminal sophistication of the rapist and use of force used were associated with two important outcomes of rape: victim injury and overall severity of the assault. In addition, it was evaluated whether rapist and victim ethnicity affected these relationships. A nation-wide sample of serial rape cases reported to law enforcement collected by the Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI) was analyzed (108 rapists, 543 victims). Results indicated that serial rapists typically used a limited amount of force against the victim and displayed a high degree of criminal sophistication. In addition, the more criminally sophisticated the perpetrator was, the more sexual acts he performed on his victim. Finally, rapes between a White rapist and White victim were found to exhibit higher levels of criminal sophistication and were more severe in terms of number and types of sexual acts committed. These findings provide a more in-depth understanding of serial rape that can inform both academics and practitioners in the field about contributors to victim injury and severity of the assault.

  6. A Snapshot of Serial Rape: An Investigation of Criminal Sophistication and Use of Force on Victim Injury and Severity of the Assault.

    PubMed

    de Heer, Brooke

    2016-02-01

    Prior research on rapes reported to law enforcement has identified criminal sophistication and the use of force against the victim as possible unique identifiers to serial rape versus one-time rape. This study sought to contribute to the current literature on reported serial rape by investigating how the level of criminal sophistication of the rapist and use of force used were associated with two important outcomes of rape: victim injury and overall severity of the assault. In addition, it was evaluated whether rapist and victim ethnicity affected these relationships. A nation-wide sample of serial rape cases reported to law enforcement collected by the Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI) was analyzed (108 rapists, 543 victims). Results indicated that serial rapists typically used a limited amount of force against the victim and displayed a high degree of criminal sophistication. In addition, the more criminally sophisticated the perpetrator was, the more sexual acts he performed on his victim. Finally, rapes between a White rapist and White victim were found to exhibit higher levels of criminal sophistication and were more severe in terms of number and types of sexual acts committed. These findings provide a more in-depth understanding of serial rape that can inform both academics and practitioners in the field about contributors to victim injury and severity of the assault. PMID:25466982

  7. Rape as a weapon of war in the Democratic Republic of the Congo.

    PubMed

    Brown, Carly

    2012-01-01

    The Democratic Republic of the Congo has been appropriately acknowledged as "the rape capital of the world." While the country has been trapped in conflict, the use of rape as a weapon of war has been rampant and unyielding. The sexual violence inflicted upon women has been nothing less than brutal and destructive, physically, socially, and psychologically. This paper analyzes the use of rape as a weapon of war in the Congo, taking into context the ongoing war, cultural and social situations that facilitate its existence, and the many consequences the victims are forced to endure. Drawing information from various academic journals, articles, and field research from international organizations, this paper paints a concise picture of the sexual atrocities occurring in the Democratic Republic of the Congo.

  8. La Violacion Sexual--The Reality of Rape

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garcia, Chris; And Others

    1978-01-01

    The Hispanic rape victim often finds herself in a situation where discussing a rape may jeopardize not only her self esteem but her residency status, job and familial relations. Small wonder she prefers to remain silent. (Author/NQ)

  9. Rape, sex partnership, and substance use consequences in women veterans.

    PubMed

    Booth, Brenda M; Mengeling, Michelle; Torner, James; Sadler, Anne G

    2011-06-01

    The association of rape history and sexual partnership with alcohol and drug use consequences in women veterans is unknown. Midwestern women veterans (N = 1,004) completed a retrospective telephone interview assessing demographics, rape history, substance abuse and dependence, depression, and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). One third met lifetime criteria for substance use disorder (SUD), half reported lifetime completed rape, a third childhood rape, one quarter in-military rape, 11% sex with women. Lifetime SUD was higher for women with rape history (64% vs. 44%). Women with women as sex partners had significantly higher rates of all measures of rape, and also lifetime substance use disorder. Postmilitary rape, sex partnership, and current depression were significantly associated with lifetime SUD in multivariate models (odds ratio = 2.3, 3.6, 2.1, respectively). Many women veterans have a high need for comprehensive mental health services.

  10. Male rape myths: the role of gender, violence, and sexism.

    PubMed

    Chapleau, Kristine M; Oswald, Debra L; Russell, Brenda L

    2008-05-01

    This study investigates the structure of Struckman-Johnson and Struckman-Johnson's Male Rape Myth Scale, examines gender differences in rape myth acceptance, and explores the underlying ideologies that facilitate male rape myth acceptance. A three-factor model, with rape myths regarding Trauma, Blame, and Denial as separate subscales, is the best fitting solution. However, the results indicate that additional scale development and validity tests are necessary. In exploratory analyses, men are more accepting of male rape myths than are women. Benevolent sexism toward men and acceptance of interpersonal violence are strong predictors of male rape myth acceptance for both men and women. Thus, the attitudes that facilitate rape myth acceptance against men appear to be similar to those that facilitate rape myth acceptance against women. Suggestions for future scale development are outlined and theoretical implications of the findings are discussed.

  11. Inhibition and covalent modification of rape seed (Brassica napus) enoyl ACP reductase by phenylglyoxal.

    PubMed

    Cottingham, I R; Austin, A J; Slabas, A R

    1989-05-01

    The NADH-dependent enoyl-ACP reductase from oil seed rape (Brassica napus) was inactivated by treatment with phenylglyoxal, a reagent which specifically modifies arginine residues. The inhibition at various phenylglyoxal concentrations shows pseudo-first-order kinetics, with an apparent second-order rate constant of 14.2 M-1.min-1 for inactivation. The protective ability of several substrates and substrate analogues was investigated in order to ascertain if the inhibition was directed towards the active site of the enzyme. NADH and NAD+ did not protect but acyl carrier protein (ACP) and reduced coenzyme A, along with various derivatives, did protect. 9 microM ACP gave 35% protection from inactivation and 10 mM reduced coenzyme A gave 98% protection. The effectiveness of various subfragments of coenzyme A in protecting against inhibition indicates that the phosphate group is essential for preventing the binding of phenylglyoxal. The idea that phenylglyoxal is inhibiting by binding at the active site is further supported by the observation that the incorporation of 14C-labelled phenylglyoxal is directly related to the loss of activity. Extrapolation of the amount of label incorporated to give total inhibition shows that 4 mol of phenylglyoxal would be incorporated per mol of enzyme. This corresponds to the modification of two arginine side-chains with equal reactiveness towards the reagent. These results are consistent with there being two arginine residues either at the active site of the enzyme or in an environment which is protected from phenylglyoxal by a conformational change induced by coenzyme A binding.

  12. Long-Term Effects of Labeling a Rape Experience

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McMullin, Darcy; White, Jacquelyn W.

    2006-01-01

    Research has found that approximately half of women who report an experience that meets the legal definition of rape do not label it rape. It has been assumed that labeling the experience as rape is necessary and beneficial for recovery; however, conflicting findings have been reported. In the present study, a longitudinal design was utilized to…

  13. An Updated Measure for Assessing Subtle Rape Myths

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McMahon, Sarah; Farmer, G. Lawrence

    2011-01-01

    Social workers responsible for developing rape prevention programs on college campuses must have valid evaluation instruments. This article presents the challenges encountered by the authors when they attempted to keep rape myth measures relevant to student populations by updating the language to reflect the subtleties involved with rape myths.…

  14. 3 CFR - Implementing the Prison Rape Elimination Act

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 3 The President 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Implementing the Prison Rape Elimination Act Presidential Documents Other Presidential Documents Memorandum of May 17, 2012 Implementing the Prison Rape... victim, is an assault on human dignity and an affront to American values. The Prison Rape Elimination...

  15. Reporting Rape in a National Sample of College Women

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wolitzky-Taylor, Kate B.; Resnick, Heidi S.; Amstadter, Ananda B.; McCauley, Jenna L.; Ruggiero, Kenneth J.; Kilpatrick, Dean G.

    2011-01-01

    Background: Studies indicate that a small percentage of rapes are reported to law enforcement officials. Research also suggests that rapes perpetrated by a stranger are more likely to be reported and that rapes involving drugs and/or alcohol are less likely to be reported. College women represent a unique and understudied population with regard to…

  16. Working Together To Change the Rape and Violence Culture.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abrams, Julie M.; And Others

    This publication is a collection of 20 supporting documents for a conference program, "Working Together To Change the Rape and Violence Culture." Contents include: (1) "Presenter Contact Information"; (2) "Characteristics of Rape-Prone versus Rape-Free Cultures"; (3) "Dater's Bill of Rights"; (4) "Quotes for Discussion"; (5) "University of…

  17. Presumed Motive in the Male and Female Perception of Rape.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heilbrun, Alfred B., Jr.

    1980-01-01

    Sex differences in "rape stereotypes" were investigated. Males' subjective impressions of rape emphasized the aggressive rather than the sexual motive; females did not differentiate. The stereotype of a sexually motivated rape was well organized for females. No organization was found when an aggressive motive was assumed. (Author)

  18. Exposure to Pornography and Acceptance of Rape Myths.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allen, Mike; And Others

    1995-01-01

    Summarizes the literature examining the association between acceptance of rape myths and exposure to pornography. States that nonexperimental methodology shows that exposure to pornography does not increase rape myth acceptance, while experimental studies show that exposure to pornography increases rape myth acceptance. Concludes that experimental…

  19. Reading "Rape Stories": Material Rhetoric and the Trauma of Representation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hesford, Wendy S.

    1999-01-01

    Raises questions about the representability of the trauma of rape and the purposes of its representation. Focuses on how the strategic enactment of a culturally dominant rape script can potentially open up a gap within which that script can be contested and the act of rape or death resisted. Discusses pedagogical challenges of teaching the…

  20. Rape Myth Acceptance, Sexual Trauma History, and Posttraumatic Stress Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baugher, Shannon N.; Elhai, Jon D.; Monroe, James R.; Gray, Matt J.

    2010-01-01

    The prediction of false rape-related beliefs (rape myth acceptance [RMA]) was examined using the Illinois Rape Myth Acceptance Scale (Payne, Lonsway, & Fitzgerald, 1999) among a nonclinical sample of 258 male and female college students. Predictor variables included measures of attitudes toward women, gender role identity (GRI), sexual trauma…

  1. Clinical Treatment of Nonrecent Rape: How Much Do We Know?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koss, Mary P.; And Others

    Although studies indicate that as many as 22 percent of women have been raped, few of these women seek help immediately after the rape. Most rape victims experience a postrape distress response which may not be resolved for some victims. Long-term symptom patterns include fear/avoidance responses, affective constriction, disturbances of…

  2. A Men's Support Group for Significant Others of Rape Victims.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rodkin, Lawrence I.; And Others

    1982-01-01

    Discusses the trauma experienced by women rape victims and focuses on a men's support group for male-significant-others of women who have been raped. Describes the developmental phases through which the male significant others of rape victims achieve resolution and the impact of the male's response upon the relationship. (Author)

  3. "Friends" Raping Friends. Could It Happen to You?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hughes, Jean O'Gorman; Sandler, Bernice R.

    This publication concerning rape committed by acquaintances and "friends" is designed to provide information and support for college students. The early warning signs and how to react to potential "acquaintance" or "date" rape are addressed. Consideration is given to why this type of rape occurs and information is provided on how to avoid date…

  4. [Effects of rape cropping in summer fallow period on dryland soil moisture content and winter wheat yield].

    PubMed

    Zhao, Gang; Fan, Ting-Lu; Li, Shang-Zhong; Zhang, Jian-Jun; Wang, Yong; Dang, Yi; Wang, Lei

    2013-10-01

    Taking the fallow land with wheat stubble after harvesting as the control, a 4-year field experiment was conducted in a dryland of east Gansu, Northwest China to investigate the effects of rape cropping in summer fallow period on the soil moisture content, wheat yield, and water use efficiency (WUE). The rape was sown at 6 dates. There was a significant difference (P < 0.05) in the soil moisture content in summer fallow period when the rape was sown at different dates. When the rape was sown on August 5, the soil water storage efficiency was 58.5%, and the wheat yield and WUE were increased by 7.5% and 5.9%, respectively, as compared with the control. Averagely, cropping rape in fallow period could increase the wheat yield by 16. 1% in dry year and 6.8% in normal year. It was suggested that rape cropping in summer fallow period would benefit the wheat yield and drought resistance of drylands in Northwest China.

  5. [Effects of rape cropping in summer fallow period on dryland soil moisture content and winter wheat yield].

    PubMed

    Zhao, Gang; Fan, Ting-Lu; Li, Shang-Zhong; Zhang, Jian-Jun; Wang, Yong; Dang, Yi; Wang, Lei

    2013-10-01

    Taking the fallow land with wheat stubble after harvesting as the control, a 4-year field experiment was conducted in a dryland of east Gansu, Northwest China to investigate the effects of rape cropping in summer fallow period on the soil moisture content, wheat yield, and water use efficiency (WUE). The rape was sown at 6 dates. There was a significant difference (P < 0.05) in the soil moisture content in summer fallow period when the rape was sown at different dates. When the rape was sown on August 5, the soil water storage efficiency was 58.5%, and the wheat yield and WUE were increased by 7.5% and 5.9%, respectively, as compared with the control. Averagely, cropping rape in fallow period could increase the wheat yield by 16. 1% in dry year and 6.8% in normal year. It was suggested that rape cropping in summer fallow period would benefit the wheat yield and drought resistance of drylands in Northwest China. PMID:24483074

  6. Rape, War, and the Socialization of Masculinity: Why Our Refusal to Give up War Ensures that Rape Cannot Be Eradicated

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zurbriggen, Eileen L.

    2010-01-01

    Rape is endemic during war, suggesting that there may be important conceptual links between the two. A theoretical model is presented positing that rape and war are correlated because traditional (hegemonic) masculinity underlies, and is a cause of, both. An analysis of the literatures on masculinity, rape perpetration, and military socialization…

  7. Perceptions of, and Assistance Provided to, a Hypothetical Rape Victim: Differences between Rape Disclosure Recipients and Nonrecipients

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Paul, Lisa A.; Kehn, Andre; Gray, Matt J.; Salapska-Gelleri, Joanna

    2014-01-01

    Objective: Undergraduate rape disclosure recipients' and nonrecipients' sociodemographic and life experience variables, attitudes towards rape, and responses to a hypothetical rape disclosure were compared to determine differences between them. Participants: One hundred ninety-two undergraduates at 3 universities participated in this…

  8. Examining the Relationship between Male Rape Myth Acceptance, Female Rape Myth Acceptance, Victim Blame, Homophobia, Gender Roles, and Ambivalent Sexism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davies, Michelle; Gilston, Jennifer; Rogers, Paul

    2012-01-01

    The relationship between male rape myth acceptance, female rape myth acceptance, attitudes toward gay men, a series of gender role and sexism measures, victim blame and assault severity were investigated. It was predicted that men would display more negative, stereotypical attitudes than women and that male rape myth endorsement would be related…

  9. The Effectiveness of Two Types of Rape Prevention Programs in Changing the Rape-Supportive Attitudes of College Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderson, Linda A.; Stoelb, Matthew P.; Duggan, Peter; Hieger, Brad; Kling, Kathleen H.; Payne, June P.

    1998-01-01

    The effectiveness of two rape-prevention programs in changing college students' rape-supportive attitudes was investigated. (N=215) Conditions included an interactive mock talk show and a structured video intervention. Both interventions were effective, but attitudes were found to rebound over time. Implications for future rape-prevention…

  10. "Nobody Told Me It Was Rape": A Parent's Guide for Talking with Teenagers about Acquaintance Rape and Sexual Exploitation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adams, Caren; Fay, Jennifer

    This book was written to help parents talk to their adolescent children about acquaintance rape and sexual exploitation. It may also be useful to family life educators presenting units on rape and sexual exploitation. Acquaintance rape and sexual exploitation are explained in the first section. The second section discusses talking with teenagers…

  11. Resisting rape: the effects of victim self-protection on rape completion and injury.

    PubMed

    Tark, Jongyeon; Kleck, Gary

    2014-03-01

    The impact of victim resistance on rape completion and injury was examined utilizing a large probability sample of sexual assault incidents, derived from the National Crime Victimization Survey (1992-2002), and taking into account whether harm to the victim followed or preceded self-protection (SP) actions. Additional injuries besides rape, particularly serious injuries, following victim resistance are rare. Results indicate that most SP actions, both forceful and nonforceful, reduce the risk of rape completion, and do not significantly affect the risk of additional injury.

  12. Longitudinal Trajectories of Cigarette Smoking Following Rape

    PubMed Central

    Amstadter, Ananda B.; Resnick, Heidi S.; Nugent, Nicole R.; Acierno, Ron; Rheingold, Alyssa A.; Minhinnett, Robin; Kilpatrick, Dean G.

    2009-01-01

    Although prior research has identified increases in cigarette smoking following trauma exposure, no studies have examined longitudinal trajectories of smoking following rape. The present investigation identifies and characterizes longitudinal (< 3 months, 3-6 months, and > 6 months post-assault) trajectories of smoking (N = 152) following a rape in a sample of 268 sexual assault victims participating in a forensic medical exam. Further, we examine acute predictors of subsequent smoking trajectories. Of participants endorsing smoking post-rape, a two-class solution was identified, with the majority of participants (74.6%) evidencing moderate smoking with a slight decrease over time and remaining participants showing heavy smoking with a slight increase over time. Having sustained an injury, minority status, and post-exam distress all predicted subsequent smoking trajectory. PMID:19370699

  13. The bacterial-type phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase isozyme from developing castor oil seeds is subject to in vivo regulatory phosphorylation at serine-451.

    PubMed

    Dalziel, Katie J; O'Leary, Brendan; Brikis, Carolyne; Rao, Srinath K; She, Yi-Min; Cyr, Terry; Plaxton, William C

    2012-04-01

    Phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase (PEPC) is a tightly controlled anaplerotic enzyme situated at a pivotal branch point of plant carbohydrate-metabolism. In developing castor oil seeds (COS) a novel allosterically-densensitized 910-kDa Class-2 PEPC hetero-octameric complex arises from a tight interaction between 107-kDa plant-type PEPC and 118-kDa bacterial-type PEPC (BTPC) subunits. Mass spectrometry and immunoblotting with anti-phosphoSer451 specific antibodies established that COS BTPC is in vivo phosphorylated at Ser451, a highly conserved target residue that occurs within an intrinsically disordered region. This phosphorylation was enhanced during COS development or in response to depodding. Kinetic characterization of a phosphomimetic (S451D) mutant indicated that Ser451 phosphorylation inhibits the catalytic activity of BTPC subunits within the Class-2 PEPC complex.

  14. Effect of partial replacement of different defatted oil seed cakes as substrate in biosynthesis of bacitracin in solid-state fermentation by Bacillus licheniformis.

    PubMed

    Farzana, Kalsoom; Shah, Syed Nisar Hussain; Butt, Farooq Bashir; Khan, Jamshaid Ali

    2007-07-01

    The present study was conducted to ascertain the effect of partial replacement of different defatted oil seed cakes as substrate i.e. sunflower meal, rice hulls and soybean meal, in biosynthesis of Bacitracin in Solid-State Fermentation by Bacillus licheniformis on laboratory scale. In solid-state fermentation, wheat bran, soybean meal, sunflower meal, rice hulls and their different combinations were used. The antibiotic activity was determined at various intervals and recorded 48 hours gave maximum yield, 4375 i.u/gm when only soybean was used. However, maximum titre 4820 i.u / gm of antibiotic were obtained when wheat bran and soybean meal was in ratio of 1:3. The raw material for its production is readily available and cheap such as soybean meal, sunflower meal and wheat bran. Thus development of this technology in our country would result in utilizing our own resources in Pakistan.

  15. Rape of S.A. journalist brings attention to PEP.

    PubMed

    1999-08-01

    Female rape victims in South Africa may have difficulties obtaining post-exposure prophylaxis, even if they can afford treatment. South Africa has one of the highest rates of rape reported in the world. In addition, because adult HIV rates in South Africa are estimated at 33 percent, the issue of post-rape preventive treatment is important. The government is reluctant to allocate resources to treat HIV in rape victims, because the chances of contracting the disease through rape are unknown. Also, it is generally believed that funds should be reserved for the use of antiretroviral drugs in preventing mother-to-fetus transmission, which has shown to be effective.

  16. Rape stereotypes and labeling: awareness of victimization and trauma.

    PubMed

    Sarmiento, Ilaria

    2011-02-01

    For years, studies in the U.S. college population have described the phenomena of date and acquaintance rape. These phenomena have perpetuated myths regarding rape leading to the faulty labeling of the experience by the survivors themselves. Compared with the U.S., in Europe there are very few studies concerning this issue. This preliminary study in Italy comprised surveys of 210 participants who were asked to express their opinions on 2 scenarios of sexual assault (a forced rape and an acquaintance rape). Only 48% of the participants thought that acquaintance rape should be tried in a criminal court.

  17. Seed dressings to control slug damage in oilseed rape.

    PubMed

    Simms, Louise C; Mullins, Christopher E; Wilson, Michael J

    2002-07-01

    Slugs are major pests of oilseed rape that are poorly controlled by conventional bait pellets. A series of laboratory experiments investigated the potential of seed-dressings to control slug damage in this crop. Four compounds: metaldehyde, methiocarb, cinnamamide and 3,5-dimethoxycinnamic acid (DMCA) were tested at a range of doses for phytotoxicity and ability to reduce damage by Deroceras reticulatum (Müller). Metaldehyde and methiocarb were not phytotoxic at any doses, whereas all doses of cinnamamide and DMCA were. All compounds reduced slug damage, but metaldehyde and methiocarb consistently performed better than cinnamamide and DMCA. Metaldehyde and methiocarb seed-dressings were compared with baited pellets containing the same active ingredients at recommended field doses. The seed-dressings protected plants from damage by D reticulatum and Arion subfuscus (Draparnaud) as well as, or better than, baited pellets. We therefore recommend that metaldehyde and methiocarb should be field-tested as seed dressings to control slugs in oilseed rape. PMID:12146169

  18. Multi range spectral feature fitting for hyperspectral imagery in extracting oilseed rape planting area

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pan, Zhuokun; Huang, Jingfeng; Wang, Fumin

    2013-12-01

    Spectral feature fitting (SFF) is a commonly used strategy for hyperspectral imagery analysis to discriminate ground targets. Compared to other image analysis techniques, SFF does not secure higher accuracy in extracting image information in all circumstances. Multi range spectral feature fitting (MRSFF) from ENVI software allows user to focus on those interesting spectral features to yield better performance. Thus spectral wavelength ranges and their corresponding weights must be determined. The purpose of this article is to demonstrate the performance of MRSFF in oilseed rape planting area extraction. A practical method for defining the weighted values, the variance coefficient weight method, was proposed to set up criterion. Oilseed rape field canopy spectra from the whole growth stage were collected prior to investigating its phenological varieties; oilseed rape endmember spectra were extracted from the Hyperion image as identifying samples to be used in analyzing the oilseed rape field. Wavelength range divisions were determined by the difference between field-measured spectra and image spectra, and image spectral variance coefficient weights for each wavelength range were calculated corresponding to field-measured spectra from the closest date. By using MRSFF, wavelength ranges were classified to characterize the target's spectral features without compromising spectral profile's entirety. The analysis was substantially successful in extracting oilseed rape planting areas (RMSE ≤ 0.06), and the RMSE histogram indicated a superior result compared to a conventional SFF. Accuracy assessment was based on the mapping result compared with spectral angle mapping (SAM) and the normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI). The MRSFF yielded a robust, convincible result and, therefore, may further the use of hyperspectral imagery in precision agriculture.

  19. Large-scale pollination experiment demonstrates the importance of insect pollination in winter oilseed rape.

    PubMed

    Lindström, Sandra A M; Herbertsson, Lina; Rundlöf, Maj; Smith, Henrik G; Bommarco, Riccardo

    2016-03-01

    Insect pollination, despite its potential to contribute substantially to crop production, is not an integrated part of agronomic planning. A major reason for this are knowledge gaps in the contribution of pollinators to yield, which partly result from difficulties in determining area-based estimates of yield effects from insect pollination under field conditions. We have experimentally manipulated honey bee Apis mellifera densities at 43 oilseed rape Brassica napus fields over 2 years in Scandinavia. Honey bee hives were placed in 22 fields; an additional 21 fields without large apiaries in the surrounding landscape were selected as controls. Depending on the pollination system in the parental generation, the B. napus cultivars in the crop fields are classified as either open-pollinated or first-generation hybrids, with both types being open-pollinated in the generation of plants cultivated in the fields. Three cultivars of each type were grown. We measured the activity of flower-visiting insects during flowering and estimated yields by harvesting with small combine harvesters. The addition of honey bee hives to the fields dramatically increased abundance of flower-visiting honey bees in those fields. Honey bees affected yield, but the effect depended on cultivar type (p = 0.04). Post-hoc analysis revealed that open-pollinated cultivars, but not hybrid cultivars, had 11% higher yields in fields with added honey bees than those grown in the control fields (p = 0.07). To our knowledge, this is the first whole-field study in replicated landscapes to assess the benefit of insect pollination in oilseed rape. Our results demonstrate that honey bees have the potential to increase oilseed rape yields, thereby emphasizing the importance of pollinator management for optimal cultivation of oilseed rape. PMID:26650584

  20. Large-scale pollination experiment demonstrates the importance of insect pollination in winter oilseed rape.

    PubMed

    Lindström, Sandra A M; Herbertsson, Lina; Rundlöf, Maj; Smith, Henrik G; Bommarco, Riccardo

    2016-03-01

    Insect pollination, despite its potential to contribute substantially to crop production, is not an integrated part of agronomic planning. A major reason for this are knowledge gaps in the contribution of pollinators to yield, which partly result from difficulties in determining area-based estimates of yield effects from insect pollination under field conditions. We have experimentally manipulated honey bee Apis mellifera densities at 43 oilseed rape Brassica napus fields over 2 years in Scandinavia. Honey bee hives were placed in 22 fields; an additional 21 fields without large apiaries in the surrounding landscape were selected as controls. Depending on the pollination system in the parental generation, the B. napus cultivars in the crop fields are classified as either open-pollinated or first-generation hybrids, with both types being open-pollinated in the generation of plants cultivated in the fields. Three cultivars of each type were grown. We measured the activity of flower-visiting insects during flowering and estimated yields by harvesting with small combine harvesters. The addition of honey bee hives to the fields dramatically increased abundance of flower-visiting honey bees in those fields. Honey bees affected yield, but the effect depended on cultivar type (p = 0.04). Post-hoc analysis revealed that open-pollinated cultivars, but not hybrid cultivars, had 11% higher yields in fields with added honey bees than those grown in the control fields (p = 0.07). To our knowledge, this is the first whole-field study in replicated landscapes to assess the benefit of insect pollination in oilseed rape. Our results demonstrate that honey bees have the potential to increase oilseed rape yields, thereby emphasizing the importance of pollinator management for optimal cultivation of oilseed rape.

  1. Women's rape fantasies: an empirical evaluation of the major explanations.

    PubMed

    Bivona, Jenny M; Critelli, Joseph W; Clark, Michael J

    2012-10-01

    This study evaluated explanations of rape fantasy in a sample of female undergraduates (N = 355) using a sexual fantasy checklist which included eight types of rape fantasy, participants' detailed descriptions of a rape fantasy they have had, a rape fantasy scenario audio presentation, and measures of personality. Three explanations of rape fantasy were tested: openness to sexual experience, sexual desirability, and sexual blame avoidance. Women who were higher in erotophilia and self-esteem and who had more frequent consensual sexual fantasies and more frequent desirability fantasies, particularly of performing as a stripper, had more frequent rape fantasies. Women who were higher in erotophilia, openness to fantasy, desirability fantasies, and self-esteem reported greater sexual arousal to rape fantasies. Sexual blame avoidance theory was not supported; sexual desirability theory was moderately supported; openness to sexual experience theory received the strongest support.

  2. Stop Blaming the Victim: A Meta-Analysis on Rape Myths

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Suarez, Eliana; Gadalla, Tahany M.

    2010-01-01

    Although male rape is being reported more often than before, the majority of rape victims continue to be women. Rape myths--false beliefs used mainly to shift the blame of rape from perpetrators to victims--are also prevalent in today's society and in many ways contribute toward the pervasiveness of rape. Despite this, there has been limited…

  3. Suggested Acquaintance/Date Rape Education & Prevention Strategies for School Health Instruction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weiler, Robert M.; Walls, Nicole A.

    Data suggest that acquaintance and date rape may account for 50-70 percent of all reported rapes in the United States. Recent findings also indicate that one in four college women have been raped or a victim of attempted rape. As most rape victims are between 15 and 24 years of age, high school-based education programs must be provided if society…

  4. Examining the relationship between male rape myth acceptance, female rape myth acceptance, victim blame, homophobia, gender roles, and ambivalent sexism.

    PubMed

    Davies, Michelle; Gilston, Jennifer; Rogers, Paul

    2012-09-01

    The relationship between male rape myth acceptance, female rape myth acceptance, attitudes toward gay men, a series of gender role and sexism measures, victim blame and assault severity were investigated. It was predicted that men would display more negative, stereotypical attitudes than women and that male rape myth endorsement would be related to, and predicted by, the other attitude and attribution scales. Respondents comprised 323 undergraduates (146 males and 177 females) from a large University in the Northwest of England. Results broadly conformed to predictions, with men generally more negative than women, and male rape myth acceptance significantly related to female rape myth acceptance, negative attitudes about gay men, gender role attitudes, and victim blame. Furthermore, male rape myth acceptance was predicted by female rape myth acceptance, gender attitudes, and victim blame. Methodological issues and implications for future work and those working with victims are discussed.

  5. Stop Rape Crisis Center: An Exemplary Project.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Whitcomb, Debra; And Others

    An exemplary project, the Stop Rape Crisis Center in Baton Rouge, Louisiana, which was initially funded by the Law Enforcement Assistance Administration (LEAA), is described. Issues addressed include the following: (1) initlal start-up and continuing program assessment; (2) staffing and the use of volunteers; (3) coordination with law enforcement…

  6. Proposed Recruit Training Topic: Rape Awareness.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thompson, Janet R.

    This guide, prepared by the United States Navy Recruit Training Command, was designed to address the differential training needs of male and female recruits in the area of personal security, i.e., rape awareness/prevention. In section I, the role of the Recruit Training Command is noted, and information on the incidence of sexual assault is…

  7. Rape Within the Hispanic Family Unit.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Quinones-Sierra, Sylvia

    Because problems such as rape are often viewed as personal concerns of "la familia" there is great tendency on the part of Hispanics to accept this crime as something that must be resolved without intervention from the police, the hospitals or the courts. Seldom will much needed therapy and auxillary type services be sought due to the extreme…

  8. Numbing after rape, and depth of therapy.

    PubMed

    Barglow, Peter

    2014-01-01

    The author considers the reactions of four women who had been sexually assaulted, with a focus on the rape trauma of two women with the diagnosis of "Complex-PTSD." Both patients also had prolonged episodes of illegal drug dependence. The article investigates a variety of therapeutic responses to ameliorate disabling post-rape psychological symptoms, especially an intense feeling of numbing. Psychodynamic treatment was chosen for investigation rather than Prolonged Exposure (PET), or Cognitive Behavioral Therapy (CBT). Choice of these two treatments is supported by substantial statistical evidence. But many therapists continue to use psychoanalytic based approaches to treat rape victims. Schottenbauer et al, (2008) concluded that PET and CBT approaches had high non-response and dropout rates. Also psychodynamic comprehension may be particularly suitable for "complex PTSD" as defined below in this article. Two vignettes contrast the treatment processes and outcomes of these two women to two other patients who had been sexually assaulted, but whose psychopathology was less severe. The author proposes that full comprehension of severe numbing is essential in the selection of the best intervention strategy because this symptom (or affect) may determine the prognosis of raped patients.

  9. Rape and the Elderly: An Initial Analysis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kerschner, Paul A.

    This paper presents some preliminary data on rape and older women as a means for informing the interested in gathering data in their own geographic and/or socio-economic areas. Utilizing data from the 1970 census in Los Angeles, the author attempts to paint a broad-brush picture of this situation in a large metropolitan city. In addition, he hopes…

  10. Risk Appraisal in Scripted Acquaintance Rape Scenarios.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wright, Doris J.

    Cognitive appraisals are believed to influence how women judge or appraise risk in acquaintance interactions which lead to sexual assault. Ways in which men and women judge the presence of risk factors in scripted acquaintance rape scenarios, and whether alcohol was a significant factor in assessing risk, are examined in this paper. Participants…

  11. Forcible Rape: An Analysis of Legal Issues.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Inst. of Law Enforcement and Criminal Justice (Dept. of Justice/LEAA), Washington, DC.

    Traditionally, rape has been defined as "carnal knowledge of a woman by force and against her will." The test of force has been crucial, and consent deduced. Victims were assumed to be consenting parties unless criminal circumstances could be proved. Victims were oftened questioned about past sexual behavior. Current reform efforts have attempted…

  12. Sensitization to turnip rape and oilseed rape in children with atopic dermatitis: a case-control study.

    PubMed

    Poikonen, Sanna; Puumalainen, Tuija J; Kautiainen, Hannu; Palosuo, Timo; Reunala, Timo; Turjanmaa, Kristiina

    2008-08-01

    Turnip rape and oilseed rape 2S albumins are new allergens in children with atopic dermatitis suspected for food allergy. We recently found that 11% (206/1887) of these children had a positive skin prick test to seeds of oilseed rape (Brassica napus) and/or turnip rape (Brassica rapa). In the present case-control study we examined how the children with atopic dermatitis sensitized to turnip rape and oilseed rape had been breast-fed and whether they had some common sensitization pattern to certain foods or pollens. A total of 64 children with atopic dermatitis and a positive skin prick test to turnip rape and/or oilseed rape (>or=5 mm) were examined. Sixty-four age- and sex-matched children with atopic dermatitis but negative skin prick tests to turnip rape and oilseed rape served as case controls. The turnip rape and/or oilseed rape sensitized children with atopic dermatitis had significantly more often positive skin prick tests reactions and IgE antibodies to various foods (cow's milk, egg, wheat, mustard; p < 0.01) and pollens (birch, timothy, mugwort; p < 0.01) than the control children. They had been exclusively breast-fed for a longer period (median 4 months; p < 0.05) and had more often associated asthma (36%) and allergic rhinitis (44%). Children with atopic dermatitis sensitized to oilseed rape and turnip rape had high frequency of associated sensitizations to all foods and pollens tested showing that oilseed plant sensitization affects especially atopic children who have been sensitized to multiple allergens.

  13. Date-rape drugs scene in Poland.

    PubMed

    Adamowicz, Piotr; Kała, Maria

    2005-01-01

    Since the beginnings of twenty-first century in Poland increasing number of reports about the drug-facilitated sexual assaults have been observed. Many drugs have been identified as so-called "date-rape drugs", because of their pharmacological properties, especially inducing amnesia. These drugs are used for the purpose of "drugging" unsuspected victims and than raping them. In a typical scenario, the perpetrator surreptitiously adds "date-rape drug" to the alcoholic or non-alcoholic beverage of an unsuspecting person, who is subsequently sexually assaulted while under the influence of this substance. Many victims do not report the incident until several days after the event or even do not report it at all. They report the incident so late after the events because they often have problems with remember the course of incident. It causes that victim is not reliable witness for justice. Detection of "date-rape drugs" in biological fluids is unequivocal evidence of perpetration. Analysis of biological fluids collected from victims of rapes for presence of drugs was rare in Poland up to now. The aim of this study is to show the use of "date-rape drugs" in Poland. Materials for this study were from the routine casework elaborated at the Institute of Forensic Research in Kraków. APCI-LC-MS methods were applied for screening of biological fluids (blood and/or urine) for amphetamine and its 6 analogues, for 12 substances from benzodiazepine group and for quantification of the detected drugs. HPLC-DAD was used as a screening method for wide range of medicinal drugs, and NCI-GC-MS methods for determination of ketamine and tetrahydrocannabinols (delta9-tetrahydrocannabinol, 9THC) and its metabolite (11-nor-carboxy-delta9-tetrahydrocannabinol, THCCOOH). In 2000-2004, the biological fluids taken from 33 persons, both sexually assaulted or perpetrators were analysed. In 2000 and 2002 not any case of this type was registered, in 2001 only two cases were recorded. After 2003

  14. A large-scale field study examining effects of exposure to clothianidin seed-treated canola on honey bee colony health, development, and overwintering success

    PubMed Central

    Scott-Dupree, Cynthia D.; Sultan, Maryam; McFarlane, Andrew D.; Brewer, Larry

    2014-01-01

    In summer 2012, we initiated a large-scale field experiment in southern Ontario, Canada, to determine whether exposure to clothianidin seed-treated canola (oil seed rape) has any adverse impacts on honey bees. Colonies were placed in clothianidin seed-treated or control canola fields during bloom, and thereafter were moved to an apiary with no surrounding crops grown from seeds treated with neonicotinoids. Colony weight gain, honey production, pest incidence, bee mortality, number of adults, and amount of sealed brood were assessed in each colony throughout summer and autumn. Samples of honey, beeswax, pollen, and nectar were regularly collected, and samples were analyzed for clothianidin residues. Several of these endpoints were also measured in spring 2013. Overall, colonies were vigorous during and after the exposure period, and we found no effects of exposure to clothianidin seed-treated canola on any endpoint measures. Bees foraged heavily on the test fields during peak bloom and residue analysis indicated that honey bees were exposed to low levels (0.5–2 ppb) of clothianidin in pollen. Low levels of clothianidin were detected in a few pollen samples collected toward the end of the bloom from control hives, illustrating the difficulty of conducting a perfectly controlled field study with free-ranging honey bees in agricultural landscapes. Overwintering success did not differ significantly between treatment and control hives, and was similar to overwintering colony loss rates reported for the winter of 2012–2013 for beekeepers in Ontario and Canada. Our results suggest that exposure to canola grown from seed treated with clothianidin poses low risk to honey bees. PMID:25374790

  15. Criminalizing rape within marriage: perspectives of Ghanaian university students.

    PubMed

    Adinkrah, Mensah

    2011-09-01

    Forcing sexual intercourse on an unwilling marital partner, or marital rape, is not a crime in many societies around the world, because of a marital exemption rule that prohibits the prosecution of husbands who rape their wives. Concurrently, marital rape is one of the least studied phenomena in sexual violence research. This is particularly true for societies in the non-Western world. The current study examined the general attitudes of a sample of university students in Ghana, a West African country, toward marital rape. Respondents were also asked whether an ongoing legislative effort to criminalize marital rape in the country was warranted. The results indicated strong opposition toward criminalization. The results also indicated no marked differences between male and female respondents in attitudes toward marital rape and the need for a legislative response to the phenomenon. Patriarchal ideologies such as wifely submission to the husband and an implicit duty to provide sex in marriage provided some of the justifications furnished for why marital rape should remain noncriminalized. Advocates of criminalization mentioned the social, physical, and psychological effects of rape and how the enactment of marital rape legislation and the imposition of severe criminal sanctions would help prevent the incidence of marital rape and other forms of violence against women in the society.

  16. Meta-Analysis of the Prevalence of Unacknowledged Rape.

    PubMed

    Wilson, Laura C; Miller, Katherine E

    2016-04-01

    Many sexual violence survivors do not label their experiences as rape but instead use more benign labels, such as "bad sex" or "miscommunication." A meta-analysis was conducted to estimate the mean prevalence of unacknowledged rape and to inform our understanding of methodological factors that influence the detection of this phenomenon. Studies were identified using PsycINFO, PubMED, and PILOTS and were required to report the percentage of unacknowledged rape that had occurred since the age of 14 among female survivors. Moderator variables included mean participant age, recruitment source, rape definition, and unacknowledged rape definition. Twenty-eight studies (30 independent samples) containing 5,917 female rape survivors met the inclusion criteria. Based on a random effects model, the overall weighted mean percentage of unacknowledged rape was 60.4% (95% confidence interval [55.0%, 65.6%]). There was a large amount of heterogeneity, Q(29) = 445.11, p < .001, and inconsistency (I(2) = 93.5%) among included studies. The prevalence was significantly higher among college student participants compared to noncollege participants. The findings supported that over half of all female rape survivors do not acknowledge that they have been raped. The results suggest that screening tools should use behaviorally descriptive items about sexual contact, rather than using terms such as "rape." PMID:25784571

  17. Meta-Analysis of the Prevalence of Unacknowledged Rape.

    PubMed

    Wilson, Laura C; Miller, Katherine E

    2016-04-01

    Many sexual violence survivors do not label their experiences as rape but instead use more benign labels, such as "bad sex" or "miscommunication." A meta-analysis was conducted to estimate the mean prevalence of unacknowledged rape and to inform our understanding of methodological factors that influence the detection of this phenomenon. Studies were identified using PsycINFO, PubMED, and PILOTS and were required to report the percentage of unacknowledged rape that had occurred since the age of 14 among female survivors. Moderator variables included mean participant age, recruitment source, rape definition, and unacknowledged rape definition. Twenty-eight studies (30 independent samples) containing 5,917 female rape survivors met the inclusion criteria. Based on a random effects model, the overall weighted mean percentage of unacknowledged rape was 60.4% (95% confidence interval [55.0%, 65.6%]). There was a large amount of heterogeneity, Q(29) = 445.11, p < .001, and inconsistency (I(2) = 93.5%) among included studies. The prevalence was significantly higher among college student participants compared to noncollege participants. The findings supported that over half of all female rape survivors do not acknowledge that they have been raped. The results suggest that screening tools should use behaviorally descriptive items about sexual contact, rather than using terms such as "rape."

  18. Sexual violence in the protracted conflict of DRC programming for rape survivors in South Kivu

    PubMed Central

    Steiner, Birthe; Benner, Marie T; Sondorp, Egbert; Schmitz, K Peter; Mesmer, Ursula; Rosenberger, Sandrine

    2009-01-01

    Background Despite international acknowledgement of the linkages between sexual violence and conflict, reliable data on its prevalence, the circumstances, characteristics of perpetrators, and physical or mental health impacts is rare. Among the conflicts that have been associated with widespread sexual violence has been the one in the Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC). Methods From 2003 till to date Malteser International has run a medico-social support programme for rape survivors in South Kivu province, DRC. In the context of this programme, a host of data was collected. We present these data and discuss the findings within the frame of available literature. Results Malteser International registered 20,517 female rape survivors in the three year period 2005–2007. Women of all ages have been targeted by sexual violence and only few of those – and many of them only after several years – sought medical care and psychological help. Sexual violence in the DRC frequently led to social, especially familial, exclusion. Members of military and paramilitary groups were identified as the main perpetrators of sexual violence. Conclusion We have documented that in the DRC conflict sexual violence has been – and continues to be – highly prevalent in a wide area in the East of the country. Humanitarian programming in this field is challenging due to the multiple needs of rape survivors. The easily accessible, integrated medical and psycho-social care that the programme offered apparently responded to the needs of many rape survivors in this area. PMID:19284879

  19. Early osmotic adjustment responses in drought-resistant and drought-sensitive oilseed rape.

    PubMed

    Hatzig, Sarah; Zaharia, L Irina; Abrams, Suzanne; Hohmann, Marie; Legoahec, Laurie; Bouchereau, Alain; Nesi, Nathalie; Snowdon, Rod J

    2014-08-01

    The impact of osmotic stress on growth, physiology, and metabolism of winter oilseed rape (Brassica napus L.) was investigated by detailed analysis of biomass traits, hormone metabolites and osmolytes in two genetically unrelated drought-tolerant genotypes and two unrelated drought-sensitive genotypes. Seedlings were grown in vitro under controlled conditions and osmotic stress was simulated by applying a gradual treatment with polyethylene glycol (PEG 6000), followed by hypo-osmotic treatment of variants used for metabolite determination. The results provide a basis for the identification of reliable selection criteria for drought resistance in oilseed rape. The in vitro cultivation system established during this study enabled effective discrimination of early osmotic stress responses between drought-resistant and -susceptible oilseed rape genotypes that also show large differences in relative seed yield under drought conditions in the field. Clear physiological and metabolic differences were observed between the drought-resistant and drought-sensitive genotypes, suggesting that osmotic adjustment is a key component of drought response in oilseed rape. Unexpectedly, however, the drought-resistant genotypes did not show typical hormonal adjustment and osmolyte accumulation, suggesting that they possess alternative physiological mechanisms enabling avoidance of stress symptoms. PMID:24667002

  20. Is Reporting of Rape on the Rise? A Comparison of Women with Reported versus Unreported Rape Experiences in the National Women's Study-Replication

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wolitzky-Taylor, Kate B.; Resnick, Heidi S.; McCauley, Jenna L.; Amstadter, Ananda B.; Kilpatrick, Dean G.; Ruggiero, Kenneth J.

    2011-01-01

    Rape affects one in seven women nationwide. Historically, most rape victims do not report rape to law enforcement. Research is needed to identify barriers to reporting and correlates of reporting to guide policy recommendations that address such barriers. We investigated the prevalence of reporting rape among a national sample of women (N = 3,001)…

  1. Communicating/Muting Date Rape: A Co-Cultural Theoretical Analysis of Communication Factors Related to Rape Culture on a College Campus

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burnett, Ann; Mattern, Jody L.; Herakova, Liliana L.; Kahl, David H., Jr.; Tobola, Cloy; Bornsen, Susan E.

    2009-01-01

    Previous studies suggest that college campuses foster a rape culture in which date rape (most commonly, rape of women) is an accepted part of campus activity (Buchwald, Fletcher, & Roth, 1993; Sanday, 2007). In focus groups at a Midwestern university, researchers asked students about rape as they experienced it or knew about it on campus. The…

  2. Effects of Two Versions of an Empathy-Based Rape Prevention Program on Fraternity Men's Survivor Empathy, Attitudes, and Behavioral Intent to Commit Rape or Sexual Assault

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Foubert, John D.; Newberry, Johnathan T.

    2006-01-01

    Fraternity men (N = 261) at a small to midsized public university saw one of two versions of a rape prevention program or were in a control group. Program participants reported significant increases in empathy toward rape survivors and significant declines in rape myth acceptance, likelihood of raping, and likelihood of committing sexual assault.…

  3. Police officers' collaboration with rape victim advocates: barriers and facilitators.

    PubMed

    Rich, Karen; Seffrin, Patrick

    2013-01-01

    Secondary victimization may occur when rape victims make police reports. This can compromise the quality of official statements and jeopardize criminal cases. Rape reporters receive better treatment by police officers when advocates are involved and best practice police work includes such collaboration. Studies of advocates have described tension, role confusion, and poor communication with police officers. Many variables, including rape myth acceptance (RMA) and training on sexual assault dynamics, may affect officers' collaboration with advocates. There were 429 police officers who responded to a survey measuring their victim interviewing skill, formal training about rape, years on the job, number of victims known personally, number of recent rape cases, RMA, and collaboration with advocates. Results suggest that officers' interviewing skill, years on the job, and specific training are related to collaboration with victim advocates on rape cases. Professional, rather than personal, variables were most predictive of collaboration. Implications for officer selection and training are explored.

  4. Deceiving others/deceiving oneself: four cases of factitious rape.

    PubMed

    Feldman, M D; Ford, C V; Stone, T

    1994-07-01

    Although patients with factitious disorders typically seek the "patient" role through illness portrayals, some instead portray themselves falsely as "victims." We discuss the cases of four women who claimed to have been victims of rape; the allegations ultimately were disproved. Factitious rape may be prompted by a search for nurturance; by dissociation, leading individuals to believe that trauma earlier in life is ongoing; by a need to be rescued from real, current abuse; and by projection of anger onto specific male targets. Although dramatic, factitious rape is rare, we advocate thorough investigation of rape claims even when patients have known histories of deceptive behavior.

  5. Introducing the Date and Acquaintance Rape Avoidance Scale.

    PubMed

    Resendez, Josephine R; Hughes, Jamie S

    2016-01-01

    We present the Date and Acquaintance Rape Avoidance Scale (DARAS). The DARAS is a measure of a woman's behaviors used to avoid date and acquaintance rape. Three factor structures were possible. The DARAS may have measured several factors related to alcohol and drug use, self-defense, and date behaviors; 2 factors related to behaviors to avoid acquaintance versus date rape; or a single factor that represented general vigilance. The data revealed a highly reliable, 63 item single factor that was correlated with stranger rape avoidance, rejection of rape myths, hostile sexist beliefs about men, and benevolent sexist beliefs about women. The creation of the DARAS adds to the growing body of research on rape avoidance. The DARAS is key to understanding the behaviors women employ to avoid date rape. Rather than placing the responsibility for rape on the victim, the DARAS was developed as a theoretical and applied tool that can be used to improve theory and construct rape education and prevention programs. PMID:27302901

  6. Introducing the Date and Acquaintance Rape Avoidance Scale.

    PubMed

    Resendez, Josephine R; Hughes, Jamie S

    2016-01-01

    We present the Date and Acquaintance Rape Avoidance Scale (DARAS). The DARAS is a measure of a woman's behaviors used to avoid date and acquaintance rape. Three factor structures were possible. The DARAS may have measured several factors related to alcohol and drug use, self-defense, and date behaviors; 2 factors related to behaviors to avoid acquaintance versus date rape; or a single factor that represented general vigilance. The data revealed a highly reliable, 63 item single factor that was correlated with stranger rape avoidance, rejection of rape myths, hostile sexist beliefs about men, and benevolent sexist beliefs about women. The creation of the DARAS adds to the growing body of research on rape avoidance. The DARAS is key to understanding the behaviors women employ to avoid date rape. Rather than placing the responsibility for rape on the victim, the DARAS was developed as a theoretical and applied tool that can be used to improve theory and construct rape education and prevention programs.

  7. Drug-facilitated sexual assault ('date rape').

    PubMed

    Schwartz, R H; Milteer, R; LeBeau, M A

    2000-06-01

    In the past few years, drug-facilitated sexual assaults have received widespread media coverage. In addition to alcohol, the most frequently used date-rape drug, flunitrazepam (Rohypnol), a fast-acting benzodiazepine, and gamma-hydroxybutyrate (GHB) and its congeners are among the most popular drugs used for this purpose. The latter drug is easily procured at some gymnasiums, popular bars, discos, and rave clubs, as well as over the Internet. Perpetrators choose these drugs because they act rapidly, produce disinhibition and relaxation of voluntary muscles, and cause the victim to have lasting anterograde amnesia for events that occur under the influence of the drug. Alcoholic beverages potentiate the drug effects. We review several date-rape drugs, provide information on laboratory testing for them, and offer guidelines for preventing drug-facilitated sexual assault. PMID:10881768

  8. Vestibular response in denatured rape oil intoxication.

    PubMed

    Gavilán, C; Gavilán, J; Abril, A

    1985-10-01

    During the spring of 1981 a massive intoxication broke out in Spain, which is presently attributed to the ingestion of denatured rape oil, and which has been called 'Toxic Syndrome' (TS). We studied 51 patients affected by the TS one year after the onset of their disease, analyzing their vestibular responses in the caloric test with the help of an analog-digital computer. A significant decrease in the number of nystagmic beats of the affected patients can be observed, while the rest of the parameters studied show similar values to those found simultaneously in 30 normal subjects. It is suggested that these differences are yet another manifestation of the polyneuropathy found in intoxication by denatured rape oil. PMID:3877134

  9. Leadership in multiple perpetrator stranger rape.

    PubMed

    Woodhams, Jessica; Cooke, Claire; Harkins, Leigh; Silva, Teresa da

    2012-03-01

    Sexual offences by multiple perpetrators are more violent and involve more severe forms of sexual violation than those perpetrated by a lone offender. Often a clear leader exists within these groups. Questions have been raised as to the relative risk of reoffending and the potentially differing criminogenic needs of leaders and followers. However, a recent study comparing leaders and followers in juvenile multiple perpetrator rapes (t'Hart-Kerkhoffs et al., 2011) failed to find some of the expected differences. It was proposed that this might be due, in part, to the way leaders and followers were classified in the study. Before work can progress in this area, it is important to devise reliable and valid means of identifying leaders and followers in multiple perpetrator rape. This article reports on a study which investigated the utility of two different methods of identifying leadership. The Scale of Influence (Porter & Alison, 2001) was applied to a sample of 256 offenders responsible for 95 multiple perpetrator rapes from the United Kingdom. Following this, the relative number of directives uttered by offenders was used to designate leadership. In 66% of the offences sampled, a leader was designated using the number of directives uttered compared with 80% when using the Scale of Influence. When combining both measures to form a composite measure of leadership, this percentage increased to 89%. Classifications of offenders as leaders, followers, and neither, according to the Scale of Influence, the count of directives, and the composite measure, were compared with classifications made by a practitioner to assess their concordance. The composite measure showed the greatest agreement with practitioner opinion. These findings suggest that the Scale of Influence could be developed to take account of other ways that leadership is displayed during multiple perpetrator rapes.

  10. The role of the new "date rape drugs" in attributions about date rape.

    PubMed

    Girard, April L; Senn, Charlene Y

    2008-01-01

    This study investigates the effect of voluntary and involuntary drug use on attributions about sexual assault. The sample was composed of 280 randomly selected male and female undergraduate students. The type of drug used (GHB, alcohol, or none) and the voluntariness of the administration were varied in an unambiguous date rape scenario. Participants viewed sexual assault facilitated by alcohol or drugs similarly to sexual assault without drug or alcohol involvement, assigning the highest levels of responsibility and blame to the perpetrator and the lowest levels of both to the victim in these situations. In contrast, women's voluntary consumption of drugs prior to a sexual assault reduced perpetrator responsibility and blame and increased blame to the victim compared to other situations (except in some cases, voluntary drunkenness). These findings extend the limited research on date rape drugs and previous work on the influence of alcohol on date rape attributions. PMID:18087029

  11. Complete utilization of non-edible oil seeds of Cascabela thevetia through a cascade of approaches for biofuel and by-products.

    PubMed

    Sut, Debashis; Chutia, Rahul Singh; Bordoloi, Neonjyoti; Narzari, Rumi; Kataki, Rupam

    2016-08-01

    Lipid-rich biomass, generally opted for biodiesel production, produces a substantial amount of by-product (de-oiled cake and seed cover) during the process. Complete utilization of Cascabela thevetia seeds for biofuel production through both chemical and thermochemical conversion route is investigated in the present study. Various properties of biodiesel produced was characterized and compared with those obtained from similar oil seeds. The by-products of the chemical process were used as a feedstock for pyrolysis at different temperatures in a fixed bed reactor. Maximum bio-oil yields of 29.11% and 26.18% were observed at 500°C. The bio-oil obtained at optimum yield was characterized by CHN analyzer, NMR and FTIR spectroscopy. The biochar produced was further characterized by SEM-EDX, XRD and FTIR along with elemental analysis to explore its utilization for various purposes. The present investigation depicts a new approach towards complete utilization of lipid-rich bio-resources to different types of biofuels and biochar.

  12. "Trauma of rape" discourse: a double-edged template for everyday understandings of the impact of rape?

    PubMed

    Gavey, Nicola; Schmidt, Johanna

    2011-04-01

    We map a discourse of the trauma of rape that was widely drawn upon by 29 "lay" New Zealand women and men in focus group discussions about the impact of rape. Using a discursive approach, we identify the key interlocking elements of this discourse. It centers on the contention that rape is traumatic, and depicts this trauma as unique, severe, long lasting, and in need of healing. We discuss the ways in which this ostensibly more enlightened and sensitive framework of meaning brings forth its own ways of potentially othering, stigmatizing, violating, and obstructing avenues of support and understanding for women who have experienced rape.

  13. Rape Myth Beliefs and Bystander Attitudes among Incoming College Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McMahon, Sarah

    2010-01-01

    Objective: The bystander approach to rape prevention is gaining popularity on college campuses, although research is limited. This study explored bystander attitudes and their relationship with rape myths in a sample of college students. Participants: Surveys from 2,338 incoming undergraduate students at a large, northeastern university were…

  14. Rape Prevention with College Men: Evaluating Risk Status

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stephens, Kari A.; George, William H.

    2009-01-01

    This study evaluates the effectiveness of a theoretically based rape prevention intervention with college men who were at high or low risk to perpetrate sexually coercive behavior. Participants (N = 146) are randomly assigned to the intervention or control group. Outcomes include rape myth acceptance, victim empathy, attraction to sexual…

  15. Multiple Perpetrator Rape: Naming an Offence and Initial Research Findings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Horvath, Miranda Angel Helena; Kelly, Liz

    2009-01-01

    Multiple perpetrator rape presents a significant problem nationally and internationally. However, previous research is limited and findings are often contradictory. The details of 101 rape allegations recorded in a six-month period in a large police force in England were analysed. Findings are presented about case classification, victim and…

  16. "Spreading the Love" and Using Performances to Prevent Rape

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Murphy, Aurora

    2013-01-01

    While rape is ordinarily considered an invariable reality, Sharon Marcus argues that it is instead a cultural script, which casts women as victims and men as perpetrators. In imagining rape as a script, it may seem pertinent to suggest that the arts and performance have a role in its prevention. Performances can provide a forum to publicly reflect…

  17. Rape Survivors' Agency within the Legal and Medical Systems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greeson, Megan R.; Campbell, Rebecca

    2011-01-01

    Many rape survivors seek help from the legal and medical systems post-assault. Previous studies have examined how social system personnel treat survivors, but less attention has been paid to how survivors attempt to shape their interactions with these systems. The purpose of this qualitative study was to examine rape survivors' agency--the active…

  18. Hidden, Unacknowledged, Acquaintance, and Date Rape: Looking Back, Looking Forward

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koss, Mary P.

    2011-01-01

    In this commentary, the author reflects on two articles that have been among the most highly cited publications in "Psychology of Women Quarterly" ("PWQ") over its first 35 years, "The Hidden Rape Victim: Personality, Attitudinal, and Situational Characteristics" (Koss, 1985) and "Stranger and Acquaintance Rape: Are There Differences in the…

  19. Should We Whistle as We Shirk? What is Rape Prevention?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Neely, Margery A.

    Different theories have been offered about why some men rape. The interactive theory of rape describes coercive elements in heterosexual relations resulting from faulty socialization or abuse in childhood. Prevention according to this theory would involve mental health specialists incorporating preventive strategies into parent training, guidance,…

  20. Resources for Developing Acquaintance Rape Prevention Programs for Men.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Earle, James P.; Nies, Charles T.

    1994-01-01

    Provides an annotated bibliography of videos and printed materials that may be used as educational tools in rape prevention programs. Focuses on sources that are aimed directly at men. Also outlines the use of consultants or lecturers as one of many resources in the construction and implementation of rape prevention programs. (KW)

  1. Decreased interpretation of nonverbal cues in rape victims.

    PubMed

    Giannini, A J; Price, W A; Kniepple, J L

    The ability to receive nonverbal facial cues was tested in twelve female victims of multiple nonserial rapes and matched controls. Subjects attempted to interpret nonverbal messages transmitted by male and female senders who were covertly taped while involved in a gambling task. Rape victims had significantly decreased ability to interpret the nonverbal facial cues of both male and female senders.

  2. Sex Differences in Perceptions and Punishment of Rape.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heim, Margaret; And Others

    Two studies examined the effects of variations of intent, outcome and pain in depictions of rape on the perceptions and punishment of rape. Numerous sex differences in perceptions were found. Females perceived more pain and tended to focus on the effects of outcome while males tended to respond more to the intent variation. Females assigned more…

  3. Models of Rape Judgment: Attributions Concerning Event, Perpetrator, and Victim.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Langley, Travis; And Others

    1991-01-01

    Reviews models developed to identify cognitive mediators of rape judgments. Recent models examine perceptions of perpetrator's violent behavior and of victim's desire for intercourse as mediators of effects of violence levels and victim's behavior upon rape judgments. Sex differences in models suggest that female evaluators may be more likely to…

  4. Power, Sex, and Violence: The Case of Marital Rape

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gelles, Richard J.

    1977-01-01

    The available evidence on marital violence indicates that a number of women are forced into having sexual relations with their husbands through intimidation or physical force. Although marital rape is not possible in a strict legal sense, some women are talking about and reporting incidents of marital rape. (Author)

  5. A Protection Motivation Theory application to date rape education.

    PubMed

    Singh, Shweta; Orwat, John; Grossman, Susan

    2011-12-01

    Date rape risk communication is a key component of education-based Date Rape Prevention Programs, common across colleges. In such programs, risk assessment in date rape is approached cautiously in order to avoid a tone of "victim blaming." Since it is important in the assessment of any risk to understand the surrounding social context of the risky situation and the individual's unique relationship with that social context, this study examines Protection Motivation Theory as it applies to handling the risk of date rape without victim blaming. The paper links individual personality and social contexts with risk communication. The study sample comprised 367 undergraduate women enrolled in a large Southern Public University. The study examines the relationships between dating activity, social competency, and type of information provided with the dependents variables of date rape related protection behavior (intent), belief, and knowledge. A factorial multiple analysis of covariance analysis found that the dependent variables had a significant relationship with aspects of social competency and dating activity. The exposure to varying information about date rape was not significantly related to the dependent variables of date rape-related protection behavior (intent), belief, and knowledge. The identification of social competency and dating activity status as protective factors in this study makes a significant contribution to the practice and research efforts in date rape education.

  6. Decreased interpretation of nonverbal cues in rape victims.

    PubMed

    Giannini, A J; Price, W A; Kniepple, J L

    The ability to receive nonverbal facial cues was tested in twelve female victims of multiple nonserial rapes and matched controls. Subjects attempted to interpret nonverbal messages transmitted by male and female senders who were covertly taped while involved in a gambling task. Rape victims had significantly decreased ability to interpret the nonverbal facial cues of both male and female senders. PMID:3557809

  7. Rape nitrogen nutrition diagnosis using continuum-removed hyperspectral reflectance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Xuehong; Tian, Qingjiu

    2008-12-01

    The hyperspectral reflectance for rape fresh leaves and data of chlorophyll and total nitrogen content were acquired in primary growth stages under different nitrogen levels in order to monitor rape status and diagnose nitrogen using remote sensing method. A new method was developed for estimating the nitrogen nutrition of rape using continuum-removed method, which generally used in spectral analysis on rock and mineral. Based on the continuum-removed treatment and the correlation between absorption feature parameters and total nitrogen content of fresh leaves, results show that reflectance at the visible region decreased with increasing in the nitrogen fertilization, and continuum-removed operation can magnify the subtle difference in spectral absorption characteristics arose from the nitrogen stress on rape. During the seeding stage, bud-emerging stage and flowering stage of rape, total area of absorption peak, area left of the absorption peak and area right of the absorption peak in 550-750 nm region increased with increasing in the nitrogen fertilization, but it was opposite for the area-normalized maximal absorption depth. The correlation analysis indicated that it is at seeding stage that the relation between absorption characteristics parameters and leaf total nitrogen was best close. The research demonstrated that continuum-removed method is a feasible method for quantificational evaluation of rape nitrogen nutrition, and the seeding stage of rape is the best stage for assessment of rape nitrogen nutrition based on absorption characteristics of fresh leaves.

  8. A Model for Police Assistance to Rape Victims.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Merchant, Jerrold J.

    Noting that an increasing number of rape victims who seek alternatives to police procedures do so because of the insensitive behavior of the investigating police officer, this paper provides a model of interpersonal communication skills that will enable police officers to better relate to and support the victims of rape. The areas covered in the…

  9. Responding to Campus Rape: A Practical Guide for College Administrators.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fossey, Richard; Smith, Michael Clay

    1996-01-01

    In addressing rape on campus, colleges and universities should provide a rape awareness program, a campus sexual harassment policy, a campus security plan focusing on prevention, procedures for notifying the community about criminal activity, adequate disciplinary procedures, and protection for minor children with whom campus employees work. A…

  10. Rape, race, and the death penalty in Georgia.

    PubMed

    Wolfgang, M E; Riedel, M

    1975-07-01

    Following the 1972 Supreme Court decision on capital punishment, the Georgia legislature enacted a death penalty statute that attempts to avoid constitutional objections by establishing discretionary death sentencing for 361 rape cases in Georgia, comparing legal and nonlegal variables. Results indicate that blacks convicted of raping whites were disproportionately sentenced to death.

  11. Acquaintance Rape on Campus: The Problem, the Victims, and Prevention.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Neff, Laurie

    1988-01-01

    Asserts that, although providing educational programs and materials on acquaintance rape and prevention strategies is important, attention must also be given to victims. Discusses recognition of stress response pattern of victims suffering from Rape Trauma Syndrome and provision of appropriate referral and support services. Includes selected list…

  12. Forcible Rape: Institutionalized Sexism in the Criminal Justice System

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robin, Gerald D.

    1977-01-01

    Achieving more humane and dignified treatment of rape victims in the arms of the law has been provided by "rape crisis centers." This approach has been significantly aided by successful attempts to modify the basic definition of the crime and to revise the legal elements needed for conviction. (Author)

  13. Development and Validation of the Korean Rape Myth Acceptance Scale

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oh, Euna; Neville, Helen

    2004-01-01

    The purpose of this investigation was to develop a culturally relevant rape myth acceptance scale for Koreans. Three studies on the Korean Rape Myth Acceptance Scale (KRMAS) with approximately 1,000 observations provide initial validity and reliability. Specifically, results from exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses support four subscales:…

  14. Silent Survivors: Rape Myth Acceptance in Incarcerated Women's Narratives of Disclosure and Reporting of Rape

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heath, Nicole M.; Lynch, Shannon M.; Fritch, April M.; McArthur, Lyn N.; Smith, Shilo L.

    2011-01-01

    Prior research suggests that rape victims who do not disclose or report to the police give reasons including self-blame and fear of judgment; however, this research has not been conducted with incarcerated women. Female offenders are a unique population because they experience high rates of sexual assault prior to incarceration. This study…

  15. The Role of the New "Date Rape Drugs" in Attributions about Date Rape

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Girard, April L.; Senn, Charlene Y.

    2008-01-01

    This study investigates the effect of voluntary and involuntary drug use on attributions about sexual assault. The sample was composed of 280 randomly selected male and female undergraduate students. The type of drug used (GHB, alcohol, or none) and the voluntariness of the administration were varied in an unambiguous date rape scenario.…

  16. Risk factors for rape re-victimisation: a retrospective analysis.

    PubMed

    Lurie, S; Boaz, M; Golan, A

    2013-11-01

    Sexual re-victimisation refers to a pattern in which the sexual assault victim has an increased risk of subsequent victimisation relative to an individual who was never victimised. The purpose of our study was to identify risks factors for a second rape, the severest form of sexual re-victimisation. All rape victims treated at the First Regional Israeli Center for Sexual Assault Victims between October 2000 and July 2010 were included in this retrospective analysis. We compared characteristics of 53 rape victims who were victimised twice to those of 1,939 rape victims who were victimised once. We identified several risk factors for a second rape, which can be used in prevention programmes. These are: psychiatric background, history of social services involvement, adulthood, non-virginity and minority ethnicity.

  17. Evaluation of an intervention to change attitudes toward date rape.

    PubMed

    Lanier, C A; Elliott, M N; Martin, D W; Kapadia, A

    1998-01-01

    The prevalence of date rape among college students is a major concern. Although much research has been done on risk factors for date rape, few researchers have specifically described interventions for the various stages of developing a date-rape prevention program. Previous programs have often relied on educational videos that feature a "typical" date-rape scenario, a format that some researchers suggest may have a negative effect on the way people engage in aggressive sexual behavior. A less violent theatrical production based on social learning theory and risk-factor reduction that resulted in a significant improvement in attitudes related to date rape among both male and female students at an elite Texas university is described. PMID:9519580

  18. Widespread rape does not directly appear to increase the overall HIV prevalence in conflict-affected countries: so now what?

    PubMed Central

    Anema, Aranka; Joffres, Michel R; Mills, Edward; Spiegel, Paul B

    2008-01-01

    Background Sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) is severely affected by HIV/AIDS and conflict. Sexual violence as a weapon of war has been associated with concerns about heightened HIV incidence among women. Widespread rape by combatants has been documented in Burundi, Sierra Leone, Rwanda, Democratic Republic of Congo, Liberia, Sudan and Uganda. To examine the assertion that widespread rape may not directly increase HIV prevalence at the population level, we built a model to determine the potential impact of varying scenarios of widespread rape on HIV prevalence in the above seven African countries. Discussion Our findings show that even in the most extreme situations, where 15% of the female population was raped, where HIV prevalence among assailants was 8 times the country population prevalence, and where the HIV transmission rate was highest at 4 times the average high rate, widespread rape increased the absolute HIV prevalence of these countries by only 0.023%. These projections support the finding that widespread rape in conflict-affected countries in SSA has not incurred a major direct population-level change in HIV prevalence. However, this must not be interpreted to say that widespread rape does not pose serious problems to women's acquisition of HIV on an individual basis or in specific settings. Furthermore, direct and indirect consequences of sexual violence, such as physical and psychosocial trauma, unwanted pregnancies, and stigma and discrimination cannot be understated. Summary The conclusions of this article do not significantly change current practices in the field from an operational perspective. Proper care and treatment must be provided to every survivor of rape regardless of the epidemiological effects of HIV transmission at the population level. Sexual violence must be treated as a protection issue and not solely a reproductive health and psychosocial issue. It is worth publishing data and conclusions that could be misconstrued and may not make much of a

  19. Rape and Child Sexual Abuse: What Beliefs Persist about Motives, Perpetrators, and Survivors?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McGee, Hannah; O'Higgins, Madeleine; Garavan, Rebecca; Conroy, Ronan

    2011-01-01

    Rape myths are prejudicial and stereotyped beliefs about rape which persist in society. They may have a significant impact on those affected by rape as well as the performance of legal and public participants in the justice system. Rape myths may differ over time and within different societies and cultural settings. Awareness of contemporary and…

  20. A Preliminary Study of Eighth Grade Students' Attitudes toward Rape Myths and Women's Roles.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boxley, Jeanne; And Others

    1995-01-01

    This study examined the relationship between sex role stereotypes of women and eighth graders' beliefs in rape myths. Surveys indicated that both sexes accepted some rape myths and sex role stereotyping of women. There was an association between belief in rape myths and stereotyping. More boys than girls accepted rape myths. (SM)

  1. The Effect of Knowing a Rape Victim on Reactions to Other Victims.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barnett, Mark A.; And Others

    1992-01-01

    Examined whether having had a friend or family member experience rape heightens empathy for rape victims. Subjects who knew a rape victim reported experiencing more empathy for a patient presented on videotape than did subjects not knowing a rape victim. This empathy extended to all victims of trauma. (RJM)

  2. Date Rape: Its Relationship to Trauma Symptoms and Sexual Self-Esteem.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shapiro, Brenda L.; Schwarz, J. Conrad

    1997-01-01

    Extends previous research on date rape by assessing trauma symptoms and sexual self-esteem among college women who had, or who had not, been raped. Results indicate that rape victims had significantly more trauma symptoms and lower sexual self-esteem compared to other women, thus suggesting date rape's significant consequences. (RJM)

  3. "You Owe Me": Effects of Date Cost, Who Pays, Participant Gender, and Rape Myth Beliefs on Perceptions of Rape

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Basow, Susan A.; Minieri, Alexandra

    2011-01-01

    Sexual social exchange theory was applied to perceptions of a date rape by manipulating the cost of the date and who paid in vignettes presented to 188 U.S. college students, who then rated the characters' sexual expectations, blame, responsibility, and rape justifiability. Findings from this between-participant design partially supported…

  4. [The knowledge about "date rape drugs" among Polish students].

    PubMed

    Dziuban', Agata; Ratecka, Anna; Brzyski, Piotr; Foryś, Zofia; Gomółka, Ewa; Ogonowska, Dorota

    2009-01-01

    The Main Department of Police in Poland notes about 2000 rapes a year. Some of the crimes are performed with "Date Rape Drugs". The term means substances helping comitting a rape such as GHB (gamma hydroxybutyric acid), ketamine, flunitrazepam and other benzodiazepines derivatives, MDMA ("ecstasy"), marihuana, amphetamine. The substances are often joined with alcohol. The victims are usually young women, and not all the cases are recorded by the police or physicians, because the victims often do not remember details of the event. The toxicological analysis of blood or urine would be helpful to explain the circumstances of the case and to prove using "Date Rape Drug". The samples for toxicological determinations should be collected as soon as possible (24 to 72 hours after admission). Preventing violence with "Date Rape Drugs" include wide education by media, police, teachers and parents. The purpose of the research was to check the level of knowledge about "Date Rape Drugs". The consciousness of risk behavior when the kind of substances is used and the ways of preventing the risk of being a sexual victim were checked. Material for the research were the results of questionnaire prepared by The Department of Medicine Sociology Collegium Medicum Jagiellonian University in Krakow, carried out on 740 students. Most of respondents (77%) were women. The age of respondents was between 19-36 years (mean 21.41; SD - 1.29). The results of the research showed, that respondents didn't have completed knowledge about "Date Rape Drugs". They did not know the ways of recognizing and preventing the risk of being given this kind of substances. The main source of information about "Date Rape Drugs" were internet and colleagues. There is a need to start education about "Date Rape Drugs" by serious institutions such as the police and schools in Poland. This is the best way to prevent young people against a risk of being given "Date Rape Drugs" and being a victim of sexual crimes. PMID

  5. Uncommon associations in target resistance among French populations of Myzus persicae from oilseed rape crops.

    PubMed

    Fontaine, Séverine; Caddoux, Laëtitia; Brazier, Christine; Bertho, Corentin; Bertolla, Paul; Micoud, Annie; Roy, Lise

    2011-08-01

    Within the framework of a molecular exploration of target resistance in populations of Myzus persicae on oilseed rapes in France, (1) the S431F mutation (coding gene ace2), although previously reckoned to be rare, revealed to be frequent, (2) M918L (phenotypically characterised) and L932F (both on para) were found for the first time in M. persicae, and (3) a linkage was revealed between M918L and S431F. While until recently populations developing on French oilseed rapes were dominated by genotypes possessing pyrethroid target resistance and esterase overproduction, to date a different type of dominating genotype, equipped with carbamate and pyrethroid target resistance, seems to be invading such fields.

  6. Novel application of NMR relaxometry in studies of diffusion in virgin rape oil.

    PubMed

    Rachocki, A; Tritt-Goc, J

    2014-01-01

    Field cycling (FC) proton nuclear magnetic resonance ((1)H NMR) relaxometry was applied to study the dynamics of rape oil molecules. The spin-lattice relaxation data, measured in the frequency range from 0.01 to 30 MHz, were analysed by applying relaxation theory combined with the force-free-hard-sphere (FFHS) diffusion model. In the low frequency range, the relaxation was dominated by the translational diffusion contribution. Therefore, the diffusion coefficient of rape oil was determined from a linear dependence of the (1)H NMR relaxation dispersion drawn as a function of the square root of Larmor frequency. The results are consistent with those obtained from the pulse gradient spin echo (PGSE) NMR method. To estimate the density of oil protons, a parameter required to derive the diffusion coefficient from NMR relaxometry, a single point imaging (SPI) NMR experiment was proposed.

  7. Bacterial- and plant-type phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase isozymes from developing castor oil seeds interact in vivo and associate with the surface of mitochondria.

    PubMed

    Park, Joonho; Khuu, Nicholas; Howard, Alexander S M; Mullen, Robert T; Plaxton, William C

    2012-07-01

    Phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase (PEPC) from developing castor oil seeds (COS) exists as two distinct oligomeric isoforms. The typical class-1 PEPC homotetramer consists of 107-kDa plant-type PEPC (PTPC) subunits, whereas the allosterically desensitized 910-kDa class-2 PEPC hetero-octamer arises from the association of class-1 PEPC with 118-kDa bacterial-type PEPC (BTPC) subunits. The in vivo interaction and subcellular location of COS BTPC and PTPC were assessed by imaging fluorescent protein (FP)-tagged PEPCs in tobacco suspension-cultured cells. The BTPC-FP mainly localized to cytoplasmic punctate/globular structures, identified as mitochondria by co-immunostaining of endogenous cytochrome oxidase. Inhibition of respiration with KCN resulted in proportional decreases and increases in mitochondrial versus cytosolic BTPC-FP, respectively. The FP-PTPC and NLS-FP-PTPC (containing an appended nuclear localization signal, NLS) localized to the cytosol and nucleus, respectively, but both co-localized with mitochondrial-associated BTPC when co-expressed with BTPC-FP. Transmission electron microscopy of immunogold-labeled developing COS revealed that BTPC and PTPC are localized at the mitochondrial (outer) envelope, as well as the cytosol. Moreover, thermolysin-sensitive BTPC and PTPC polypeptides were detected on immunoblots of purified COS mitochondria. Overall, our results demonstrate that: (i) COS BTPC and PTPC interact in vivo as a class-2 PEPC complex that associates with the surface of mitochondria, (ii) BTPC's unique and divergent intrinsically disordered region mediates its interaction with PTPC, whereas (iii) the PTPC-containing class-1 PEPC is entirely cytosolic. We hypothesize that mitochondrial-associated class-2 PEPC facilitates rapid refixation of respiratory CO(2) while sustaining a large anaplerotic flux to replenish tricarboxylic acid cycle C-skeletons withdrawn for biosynthesis. PMID:22404138

  8. Bacterial- and plant-type phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase isozymes from developing castor oil seeds interact in vivo and associate with the surface of mitochondria.

    PubMed

    Park, Joonho; Khuu, Nicholas; Howard, Alexander S M; Mullen, Robert T; Plaxton, William C

    2012-07-01

    Phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase (PEPC) from developing castor oil seeds (COS) exists as two distinct oligomeric isoforms. The typical class-1 PEPC homotetramer consists of 107-kDa plant-type PEPC (PTPC) subunits, whereas the allosterically desensitized 910-kDa class-2 PEPC hetero-octamer arises from the association of class-1 PEPC with 118-kDa bacterial-type PEPC (BTPC) subunits. The in vivo interaction and subcellular location of COS BTPC and PTPC were assessed by imaging fluorescent protein (FP)-tagged PEPCs in tobacco suspension-cultured cells. The BTPC-FP mainly localized to cytoplasmic punctate/globular structures, identified as mitochondria by co-immunostaining of endogenous cytochrome oxidase. Inhibition of respiration with KCN resulted in proportional decreases and increases in mitochondrial versus cytosolic BTPC-FP, respectively. The FP-PTPC and NLS-FP-PTPC (containing an appended nuclear localization signal, NLS) localized to the cytosol and nucleus, respectively, but both co-localized with mitochondrial-associated BTPC when co-expressed with BTPC-FP. Transmission electron microscopy of immunogold-labeled developing COS revealed that BTPC and PTPC are localized at the mitochondrial (outer) envelope, as well as the cytosol. Moreover, thermolysin-sensitive BTPC and PTPC polypeptides were detected on immunoblots of purified COS mitochondria. Overall, our results demonstrate that: (i) COS BTPC and PTPC interact in vivo as a class-2 PEPC complex that associates with the surface of mitochondria, (ii) BTPC's unique and divergent intrinsically disordered region mediates its interaction with PTPC, whereas (iii) the PTPC-containing class-1 PEPC is entirely cytosolic. We hypothesize that mitochondrial-associated class-2 PEPC facilitates rapid refixation of respiratory CO(2) while sustaining a large anaplerotic flux to replenish tricarboxylic acid cycle C-skeletons withdrawn for biosynthesis.

  9. Biochemical and molecular characterization of RcSUS1, a cytosolic sucrose synthase phosphorylated in vivo at serine 11 in developing castor oil seeds.

    PubMed

    Fedosejevs, Eric T; Ying, Sheng; Park, Joonho; Anderson, Erin M; Mullen, Robert T; She, Yi-Min; Plaxton, William C

    2014-11-28

    Sucrose synthase (SUS) catalyzes the UDP-dependent cleavage of sucrose into UDP-glucose and fructose and has become an important target for improving seed crops via metabolic engineering. A UDP-specific SUS homotetramer composed of 93-kDa subunits was purified to homogeneity from the triacylglyceride-rich endosperm of developing castor oil seeds (COS) and identified as RcSUS1 by mass spectrometry. RcSUS1 transcripts peaked during early development, whereas levels of SUS activity and immunoreactive 93-kDa SUS polypeptides maximized during mid-development, becoming undetectable in fully mature COS. The cytosolic location of the enzyme was established following transient expression of RcSUS1-enhanced YFP in tobacco suspension cells and fluorescence microscopy. Immunological studies using anti-phosphosite-specific antibodies revealed dynamic and high stoichiometric in vivo phosphorylation of RcSUS1 at its conserved Ser-11 residue during COS development. Incorporation of (32)P(i) from [γ-(32)P]ATP into a RcSUS1 peptide substrate, alongside a phosphosite-specific ELISA assay, established the presence of calcium-dependent RcSUS1 (Ser-11) kinase activity. Approximately 10% of RcSUS1 was associated with COS microsomal membranes and was hypophosphorylated relative to the remainder of RcSUS1 that partitioned into the soluble, cytosolic fraction. Elimination of sucrose supply caused by excision of intact pods of developing COS abolished RcSUS1 transcription while triggering the progressive dephosphorylation of RcSUS1 in planta. This did not influence the proportion of RcSUS1 associated with microsomal membranes but instead correlated with a subsequent marked decline in SUS activity and immunoreactive RcSUS1 polypeptides. Phosphorylation at Ser-11 appears to protect RcSUS1 from proteolysis, rather than influence its kinetic properties or partitioning between the soluble cytosol and microsomal membranes.

  10. Mental health assessment of rape offenders

    PubMed Central

    Sarkar, Jaydip

    2013-01-01

    There is an urgent need for development of methods of assessment and management of sex offenders (rapists, child sex offenders, other sexual offenders, and murderers) to mount a society-wide battle against the scourge of sexual offences in India. This paper provides an overview of theories, models, and assessment methods of rapists. It draws upon literature from psychiatry, psychology, criminology, probation, and ethics to provide a framework for understanding reasons behind rape, how mental health issues are implicated, what mental health professionals can do to contribute to crime management, and why this is ethically right and proper. PMID:24082243

  11. Rape in war: the humanitarian response.

    PubMed

    Shanks, L; Schull, M J

    2000-10-31

    Women and children are vulnerable to sexual violence in times of conflict, and the risk persists even after they have escaped the conflict area. The impact of rape goes far beyond the immediate effects of the physical attack and has long-lasting consequences. We describe the humanitarian community's response to sexual violence and rape in times of war and civil unrest by drawing on the experiences of Médecins Sans Frontières/Doctors Without Borders and other humanitarian agencies. Health care workers must have a keen awareness of the problem and be prepared to respond appropriately. This requires a comprehensive intervention protocol, including antibiotic prophylaxis, emergency contraception, referral for psychological support, and proper documentation and reporting procedures. Preventing widespread sexual violence requires increasing the security in refugee camps. It also requires speaking out and holding states accountable when violations of international law occur. The challenge is to remain alert to these often hidden, but extremely destructive, crimes in the midst of a chaotic emergency relief setting.

  12. Acquaintance rape and the high school student.

    PubMed

    Davis, T C; Peck, G Q; Storment, J M

    1993-05-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the prevalence of forced sex among high school students and to assess student attitudes about it. The questionnaires were given in conjunction with a presentation on date rape to 9th through 12th grade students in health and science classes in three large metropolitan Louisiana public high schools. The first questionnaire, given before the presentation, elicited demographic information and attitudes about forced sex in 11 scenarios; the second, given after the program, asked if the student had ever been in a situation involving forced sex and, if so, whether he or she had told anyone. The two questionnaires were completed by all 237 students. Although one out of five students (20%) reported they had experienced forced sex, only half had told about the experience. A majority of boys (60%) found it acceptable in one or more situations for a boy to force sex on a girl. Male, black, and older students were significantly more likely (p < 0.05) to indicate that it was acceptable for a boy to force sex on a girl in certain circumstances. These findings should alert physicians to the risk of acquaintance rape among their high school student patients. Student attitudes, particularly those of males, may provide an important focus of preventive sex education in the physician's office, the classroom, and the community. PMID:8323934

  13. Rape in war: the humanitarian response

    PubMed Central

    Shanks, Leslie; Schull, Michael J.

    2000-01-01

    Women and children are vulnerable to sexual violence in times of conflict, and the risk persists even after they have escaped the conflict area. The impact of rape goes far beyond the immediate effects of the physical attack and has long-lasting consequences. We describe the humanitarian community's response to sexual violence and rape in times of war and civil unrest by drawing on the experiences of Médecins Sans Frontières/Doctors Without Borders and other humanitarian agencies. Health care workers must have a keen awareness of the problem and be prepared to respond appropriately. This requires a comprehensive intervention protocol, including antibiotic prophylaxis, emergency contraception, referral for psychological support, and proper documentation and reporting procedures. Preventing widespread sexual violence requires increasing the security in refugee camps. It also requires speaking out and holding states accountable when violations of international law occur. The challenge is to remain alert to these often hidden, but extremely destructive, crimes in the midst of a chaotic emergency relief setting. PMID:11079062

  14. Critical period of weed control in oilseed rape in two Moroccan regions.

    PubMed

    Maataoui, A; Bouhache, M; Benbella, M; Talouizte, A

    2003-01-01

    The determination of critical period of weed control in oilseed rape is necessary to know the weed control period. To determine the critical period, two fields experiments were carried out during 1995-96 growth season in Loukkos and Saïs regions at two oilseed densities (D1 = 24 and D2 = 36 plants m(-2)). Ten treatments corresponding to plots left weed free or weeded plots until four leaves, flowers bud, flowering, puds formation, and maturity stages of oilseed rape were tested. Density and biomass of weeds were determined at each oilseed stages. Results showed that weed density and biomass were higher in Saïs than in Loukkos sites. For a 10% yield loss, critical period of weed control in Loukkos was from 458 to 720 degree days after emergence (D degrees AE) and from 480 to 720 D degrees AE in oilseed conducted at densities D1 and D2, respectively. In Saïs, critical period of weed control was from 474 to 738 D degrees AE and from 468 to 675 D degrees AE in oilseed conducted at D1 and D2, respectively. It was concluded that the length of the critical period of weed control in oilseed rape grain yield seems to be dependant of the level of the infestation.

  15. Critical period of weed control in oilseed rape in two Moroccan regions.

    PubMed

    Maataoui, A; Bouhache, M; Benbella, M; Talouizte, A

    2003-01-01

    The determination of critical period of weed control in oilseed rape is necessary to know the weed control period. To determine the critical period, two fields experiments were carried out during 1995-96 growth season in Loukkos and Saïs regions at two oilseed densities (D1 = 24 and D2 = 36 plants m(-2)). Ten treatments corresponding to plots left weed free or weeded plots until four leaves, flowers bud, flowering, puds formation, and maturity stages of oilseed rape were tested. Density and biomass of weeds were determined at each oilseed stages. Results showed that weed density and biomass were higher in Saïs than in Loukkos sites. For a 10% yield loss, critical period of weed control in Loukkos was from 458 to 720 degree days after emergence (D degrees AE) and from 480 to 720 D degrees AE in oilseed conducted at densities D1 and D2, respectively. In Saïs, critical period of weed control was from 474 to 738 D degrees AE and from 468 to 675 D degrees AE in oilseed conducted at D1 and D2, respectively. It was concluded that the length of the critical period of weed control in oilseed rape grain yield seems to be dependant of the level of the infestation. PMID:15149131

  16. ["Biastophilia"--rape as a form of paraphilia?].

    PubMed

    Knecht, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    Rape is primarily regarded as a crime against sexual integrity. If rape is the only way for an individual to get sexual satisfaction, it meets the criteria of paraphilia, i.e. a disorder of sexual preference. The correct technical term is "biastophilia". The author investigates the evolutionary origins of this deviant form of copulation behavior, whose crucial characteristic is breaking the will of the sexual object. He shows that in a primeval environment this type of mating behavior may have been a promising strategy to pass on one's genes to the next generation. Thus, the behavioral pattern of raping had the chance to become widely spread in spite of its social undesirability.

  17. Rape in South Africa: an invisible part of apartheid's legacy.

    PubMed

    Armstrong, S

    1994-06-01

    Male dominated power systems in South Africa coupled with a culture of aggression and domination have not allowed for the mainstream emergence of qualities such as trust, compassion, and gentleness, frequently associated with female virtues. Rape under such circumstances is the assertion of male power, and, as expected, the numbers of rape cases and other forms of gender violence have increased. Under an apartheid system, where only the rape of white women was prosecuted, and gender and race issues could diffuse the black struggle, there were difficulties in mobilizing support to end violence against black women. There was social acceptance that rape of black women was part of life. Police statistics on the incidence of rape were notoriously unreliable, because only a small percentage of cases are reported to police, and many women would be ashamed to admit to marital abuse, including rape. In women's groups, it was reported that 1 out of every 4 women had been raped, and raped at early ages, such as 14 years of age. In impoverished communities, there is widespread poverty, injustice, prejudice, alcohol abuse, and other conditions impacting on women. The rapists may be school classmates, or street fighters, or political activists. The sexual initiation of women worldwide and in South Africa frequently is accompanied by coercion. Abduction and forced sex is considered legitimate for young men, who believe that mental health is deleteriously affected by lack of sex. Girls may even be abducted from the classroom, as a way of preventing women's power and control over assets and resources and diminishing the potential threat to gender power relations. School girls who become pregnant are often forced to leave school. Victims of rape may be excluded from family life and forced to seek prostitution as a means of support. Rape is reportedly experienced among older women with bottles, tins, or other devices which inflict injury. Only rape with penal penetration is an

  18. The effects of receiving a rape disclosure: college friends' stories.

    PubMed

    Branch, Kathryn A; Richards, Tara N

    2013-05-01

    Research suggests that college women are at greater risk for rape and sexual assault than women in the general population or in a comparable age group. College women, away from home and family, may turn to friends for support. Friends may experience emotional reactions that affect their own functioning and may not feel they have anywhere to turn. In this study, we interviewed male and female college students who had received a rape disclosure from a friend. Their unique stories provide insight into the secondary effects of rape disclosure on friends. Implications of these findings for college campuses are discussed.

  19. Rape trauma syndrome: time to open the floodgates?

    PubMed

    Keogh, Andrew

    2007-05-01

    The conviction rate in rape cases remains remarkably low, leading many to believe a new approach is needed to prosecuting such crimes. Many important steps have been taken in relation to the collection and retention of evidence and the setting up of specialist rape prosecutors, but important evidential weaknesses remain present in the system alongside Victorian attitudes to sexual conduct. The British Home Office is currently consulting on a number of measures, including the admissibility of evidence showing the presence of rape trauma syndrome. This paper examines the history of this controversial evidential debate.

  20. Rape in South Africa: an invisible part of apartheid's legacy.

    PubMed

    Armstrong, S

    1994-06-01

    Male dominated power systems in South Africa coupled with a culture of aggression and domination have not allowed for the mainstream emergence of qualities such as trust, compassion, and gentleness, frequently associated with female virtues. Rape under such circumstances is the assertion of male power, and, as expected, the numbers of rape cases and other forms of gender violence have increased. Under an apartheid system, where only the rape of white women was prosecuted, and gender and race issues could diffuse the black struggle, there were difficulties in mobilizing support to end violence against black women. There was social acceptance that rape of black women was part of life. Police statistics on the incidence of rape were notoriously unreliable, because only a small percentage of cases are reported to police, and many women would be ashamed to admit to marital abuse, including rape. In women's groups, it was reported that 1 out of every 4 women had been raped, and raped at early ages, such as 14 years of age. In impoverished communities, there is widespread poverty, injustice, prejudice, alcohol abuse, and other conditions impacting on women. The rapists may be school classmates, or street fighters, or political activists. The sexual initiation of women worldwide and in South Africa frequently is accompanied by coercion. Abduction and forced sex is considered legitimate for young men, who believe that mental health is deleteriously affected by lack of sex. Girls may even be abducted from the classroom, as a way of preventing women's power and control over assets and resources and diminishing the potential threat to gender power relations. School girls who become pregnant are often forced to leave school. Victims of rape may be excluded from family life and forced to seek prostitution as a means of support. Rape is reportedly experienced among older women with bottles, tins, or other devices which inflict injury. Only rape with penal penetration is an

  1. Blame of victim and perpetrator in rape versus theft.

    PubMed

    Brems, C; Wagner, P

    1994-06-01

    Variables that may affect attribution of responsibility and blame were explored to assess whether societal stereotypes about rape victims still exist among students in Alaska. In ambiguous crime situations, more blame was attributed to victims and less responsibility to perpetrators if the subjects had traditional views about women's roles. The victims were rated as being more responsible for a theft than for a rape, but the perpetrators were rated as being more responsible for a rape than for a theft. Overall, type of crime affected social judgments. Attitudes toward women affected the attribution of blame, but not fault, in ambiguous crime situations.

  2. Transfer of thallium from rape seed to rape oil is negligible and oil is fit for human consumption.

    PubMed

    Loula, Martin; Kaňa, Antonín; Vosmanská, Magda; Koplík, Richard; Mestek, Oto

    2016-01-01

    Rape and other Brassicaceae family plants can accumulate appreciable amounts of thallium from the soil. Because some species of this family are common crops utilised as food for direct consumption or raw materials for food production, thallium can enter the food chain. A useful method for thallium determination is inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. The limit of detection (0.2 pg ml(-1) Tl or 0.02 ng g(-1) Tl, taking in the account dilution during sample decomposition) found in the current study was very low, and the method can be used for ultra-trace analysis. Possible transfer of thallium from rape seed to the rape oil was investigated in two ways. The balance of thallium in rape seed meal (content 140-200 ng g(-1) Tl) and defatted rape seed meal indicated that thallium did not pass into the oil (p < 0.05). Moreover, the analyses of thallium in six kinds of edible rape seed oil and three kinds of margarines showed that the amount of thallium in rape seed oil is negligible. PMID:26934111

  3. Transfer of thallium from rape seed to rape oil is negligible and oil is fit for human consumption.

    PubMed

    Loula, Martin; Kaňa, Antonín; Vosmanská, Magda; Koplík, Richard; Mestek, Oto

    2016-01-01

    Rape and other Brassicaceae family plants can accumulate appreciable amounts of thallium from the soil. Because some species of this family are common crops utilised as food for direct consumption or raw materials for food production, thallium can enter the food chain. A useful method for thallium determination is inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. The limit of detection (0.2 pg ml(-1) Tl or 0.02 ng g(-1) Tl, taking in the account dilution during sample decomposition) found in the current study was very low, and the method can be used for ultra-trace analysis. Possible transfer of thallium from rape seed to the rape oil was investigated in two ways. The balance of thallium in rape seed meal (content 140-200 ng g(-1) Tl) and defatted rape seed meal indicated that thallium did not pass into the oil (p < 0.05). Moreover, the analyses of thallium in six kinds of edible rape seed oil and three kinds of margarines showed that the amount of thallium in rape seed oil is negligible.

  4. Changing attitudes and perceptions of Hispanic men ages 18 to 25 about rape and rape prevention.

    PubMed

    Lawson, Sarah Lynn; Munoz-Rojas, Derby; Gutman, Lauren Samantha; Siman, Matilde Nathalia

    2012-12-01

    This exploratory study was designed to test the effectiveness of Foubert's intervention, The Men's Program, on a sample of 18- to 25-year-old Hispanic men who are not enrolled at a University or College. We explored participants' perceptions of, reactions to, and experience of the program. The information collected will be used to adapt the program to this specific population in order to increase cultural relevancy and specificity and create lasting attitudinal change. Three groups of six-eight Hispanic males (n = 22) were exposed to the intervention program. The Bystander Attitude Scale and the Rape Attitude and Beliefs Scale were administered as pre- and post-test measures. A short focus group was conducted to ask the men about their experience of the intervention. Analysis showed a significant increase in participants' willingness to intervene (p = 0.005) along with a decrease in rape myth acceptance in four of the five subscales (Justice p = 0.03; Status p = 0.004; Tactics p = 0.04; and Gender p = 0.002) after exposure to the intervention. Analysis of focus group material yielded several interesting themes about knowledge of rape, family and culture, perceptions of women, and the program material. This study showed promising change in attitudes about rape beliefs and bystander behaviors in Hispanic males exposed to an educational intervention. Through the information obtained, a cultural adaption from the analysis of the focus group data will be implemented during Phase 2 of the study. The adapted intervention will be tested before, after, and 1- and 3-months post-intervention to test whether the change in attitudes and behaviors are sustainable over time.

  5. Schema Effects of Rape Myth Acceptance on Judgments of Guilt and Blame in Rape Cases: The Role of Perceived Entitlement to Judge

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eyssel, Friederike; Bohner, Gerd

    2011-01-01

    Two experiments (N = 330) examined conditions that facilitate biasing effects of rape myth acceptance (RMA) on judgments of blame in rape cases. In both experiments, participants read a short vignette depicting a rape case. In Experiment 1, the amount of case-irrelevant information about defendant and plaintiff was varied. As predicted, high-RMA…

  6. Assessment of Rape-Supportive Attitudes and Beliefs in College Men: Development, Reliability, and Validity of the Rape Attitudes and Beliefs Scale

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burgess, Gerald H.

    2007-01-01

    Discussed is the development and psychometric analysis of a measure of rape-supportive attitudes and beliefs called the Rape Attitudes and Beliefs Scale (RABS), intended for the use with college men. Items were developed from a literature review of "rape myths" that were correlated to some measure of sexual aggression. An exploratory factor…

  7. Measurement of aspartic acid in oilseed rape leaves under herbicide stress using near infrared spectroscopy and chemometrics.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Chu; Kong, Wenwen; Liu, Fei; He, Yong

    2016-01-01

    Oilseed rape is used as both food and a renewable energy resource. Physiological parameters, such as the amino acid aspartic acid, can indicate the growth status of oilseed rape. Traditional detection methods are laborious, time consuming, costly, and not usable in the field. Here, we investigate near infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) as a fast and non-destructive detection method of aspartic acid in oilseed rape leaves under herbicide stress. Different spectral pre-processing methods were compared for optimal prediction performance. The variable selection methods were applied for relevant variable selection, including successive projections algorithm (SPA), Monte Carlo-uninformative variable elimination (MC-UVE) and random frog (RF). The selected effective wavelengths (EWs) were used as input by multiple linear regression (MLR), partial least squares (PLS) and least-square support vector machine (LS-SVM). The best predictive performance was achieved by SPA-LS-SVM (Raw) model using 22 EWs, and the prediction results were Rp = 0.9962 and RMSEP = 0.0339 for the prediction set. The result indicated that NIR combined with LS-SVM is a powerful new method to detect aspartic acid in oilseed rape leaves under herbicide stress. PMID:27441244

  8. Rights -- Swaziland: women call for stiff penalties for rape.

    PubMed

    1993-10-01

    Swazi women, alarmed by a high incidence of rape in the country, are campaigning for stiffer penalties, including life imprisonment and death sentences, on convicted rapists. Launched last week, the campaign also aims to persuade magistrates and judges not to grant bail or an option of fines to people convicted of rape charges. The campaign is led by the Swaziland Action Group Against Abuse (SWAGAA), Lutsango Lwakangwane, the country's women organization, the King's women regiment, and the Swaziland and Mental Health Society. The increasing cases of sexual assault in this tiny kingdom of 700,000 people are alarming, while the maximum sentence for those convicted ranges from 2 to 5 years. About 10 women, including a 12-year-old school girl, were raped in the first 2 weeks of this year alone, the police say. At least 30 other women, and a 5-year-old girl, were raped--some fatally--between May and September. PMID:12287225

  9. Organizational affiliation and effectiveness: the case of rape crisis centers.

    PubMed

    Byington, D B; Martin, P Y; DiNitto, D M; Maxwell, M S

    1991-01-01

    Many rape crisis centers (RCCs) that were founded as autonomous organizations have affiliated with other organizations. The relationship of affiliation type and effectiveness is examined in a sample of 25 RCCs in Florida. Effectiveness is defined in terms of range of services for rape victims and involvement in rape prevention (social change) activities. The data show that 23 RCCs are affiliated with six types of organizations and two are free-standing. Each affiliation type has advantages and disadvantages but, overall, free-standing RCCs appear to be most effective and RCCs affiliated with community mental health centers, least effective. Of the seven types, free-standing agencies are most involved in rape prevention activities aimed at social change. PMID:10114294

  10. Rape myth acceptance, sexual trauma history, and posttraumatic stress disorder.

    PubMed

    Baugher, Shannon N; Elhai, Jon D; Monroe, James R; Gray, Matt J

    2010-11-01

    The prediction of false rape-related beliefs (rape myth acceptance [RMA]) was examined using the Illinois Rape Myth Acceptance Scale (Payne, Lonsway, & Fitzgerald, 1999) among a nonclinical sample of 258 male and female college students. Predictor variables included measures of attitudes toward women, gender role identity (GRI), sexual trauma history, and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptom severity. Using linear regression and testing interaction effects, negative attitudes toward women significantly predicted greater RMA for individuals without a sexual trauma history. However, neither attitudes toward women nor GRI were significant predictors of RMA for individuals with a sexual trauma history. PTSD did not moderate RMA's relationship with attitudes toward women and GRI. This study has clinical implications for treatment as well as for the development of rape myth-dispelling programs.

  11. 42 CFR 50.306 - Rape and incest.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... APPLICABILITY Abortions and Related Medical Services in Federally Assisted Programs of the Public Health Service... participation is also available in expenditures for abortions for victims of rape or incest under...

  12. 42 CFR 50.306 - Rape and incest.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... APPLICABILITY Abortions and Related Medical Services in Federally Assisted Programs of the Public Health Service... participation is also available in expenditures for abortions for victims of rape or incest under...

  13. 42 CFR 50.306 - Rape and incest.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... APPLICABILITY Abortions and Related Medical Services in Federally Assisted Programs of the Public Health Service... participation is also available in expenditures for abortions for victims of rape or incest under...

  14. 42 CFR 50.306 - Rape and incest.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... APPLICABILITY Abortions and Related Medical Services in Federally Assisted Programs of the Public Health Service... participation is also available in expenditures for abortions for victims of rape or incest under...

  15. 42 CFR 50.306 - Rape and incest.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... APPLICABILITY Abortions and Related Medical Services in Federally Assisted Programs of the Public Health Service... participation is also available in expenditures for abortions for victims of rape or incest under...

  16. Understanding Disparities in Service Seeking Following Forcible Versus Drug- or Alcohol-Facilitated/Incapacitated Rape.

    PubMed

    Walsh, Kate; Zinzow, Heidi M; Badour, Christal L; Ruggiero, Kenneth J; Kilpatrick, Dean G; Resnick, Heidi S

    2016-09-01

    Victims of drug- or alcohol-facilitated/incapacitated rape (DAFR/IR) are substantially less likely to seek medical, rape crisis, or police services compared with victims of forcible rape (FR); however, reasons for these disparities are poorly understood. The current study examined explanatory mechanisms in the pathway from rape type (FR vs. DAFR/IR) to disparities in post-rape service seeking (medical, rape crisis, criminal justice). Participants were 445 adult women from a nationally representative household probability sample who had experienced FR, DAFR/IR, or both since age 14. Personal characteristics (age, race, income, prior rape history), rape characteristics (fear, injury, loss of consciousness), and post-rape acknowledgment, medical concerns, and service seeking were collected. An indirect effects model using bootstrapped standard errors was estimated to examine pathways from rape type to service seeking. DAFR/IR-only victims were less likely to seek services compared with FR victims despite similar post-rape medical concerns. FR victims were more likely to report fear during the rape and a prior rape history, and to acknowledge the incident as rape; each of these characteristics was positively associated with service seeking. However, only prior rape history and acknowledgment served as indirect paths to service seeking; acknowledgment was the strongest predictor of service seeking. Diminished acknowledgment of the incident as rape may be especially important to explaining why DAFR/IR victims are less likely than FR victims to seek services. Public service campaigns designed to increase awareness of rape definitions, particularly around DAFR/IR, are important to reducing disparities in rape-related service seeking.

  17. Understanding Disparities in Service Seeking Following Forcible Versus Drug-or Alcohol-Facilitated/ Incapacitated Rape

    PubMed Central

    Walsh, Kate; Zinzow, Heidi M.; Badour, Christal L.; Ruggiero, Kenneth J.; Kilpatrick, Dean G.; Resnick, Heidi S.

    2015-01-01

    Victims of drug- or alcohol-facilitated/incapacitated rape (DAFR/IR) are substantially less likely to seek medical, rape crisis, or police services compared with victims of forcible rape (FR); however, reasons for these disparities are poorly understood. The current study examined explanatory mechanisms in the pathway from rape type (FR vs. DAFR/IR) to disparities in post-rape service seeking (medical, rape crisis, criminal justice). Participants were 445 adult women from a nationally representative household probability sample who had experienced FR, DAFR/IR, or both since age 14. Personal characteristics (age, race, income, prior rape history), rape characteristics (fear, injury, loss of consciousness), and post-rape acknowledgment, medical concerns, and service seeking were collected. An indirect effects model using bootstrapped standard errors was estimated to examine pathways from rape type to service seeking. DAFR/IR-only victims were less likely to seek services compared with FR victims despite similar post-rape medical concerns. FR victims were more likely to report fear during the rape and a prior rape history, and to acknowledge the incident as rape; each of these characteristics was positively associated with service seeking. However, only prior rape history and acknowledgment served as indirect paths to service seeking; acknowledgment was the strongest predictor of service seeking. Diminished acknowledgment of the incident as rape may be especially important to explaining why DAFR/IR victims are less likely than FR victims to seek services. Public service campaigns designed to increase awareness of rape definitions, particularly around DAFR/IR, are important to reducing disparities in rape-related service seeking. PMID:25846758

  18. [Anxiety and depression levels in rape offenders].

    PubMed

    Herrera-Hernández, E; Marván, L; Saavedra, M; Contreras, C M

    1993-03-01

    Whether the active subject of rape possesses a particular personality trait is a much debated matter. It is an accepted fact that a small amount of rapists fall into the sadistic diagnostic category. Other psychopatologic traits likely to identify a rapist are, however, unknown. The present study was carried over at a jail near the city of Xalapa (Veracruz) Mexico. Hamilton, IDARE, and Zung scales, in their modified Spanish version were applied to a sample of imprisoned adult rapists. Compared to their control group (men serving sentences for other felonies), rapists scored higher in anxiety, and depression scales. In the light of these results, it is suggested that some rapists are likely to be anxious-depressive subjects that, after having "acquired" a sociopathic repertoire, offend other people in conditions of indefensiveness, contrary to depressive subjects who aggress themselves.

  19. [Anxiety and depression levels in rape offenders].

    PubMed

    Herrera-Hernández, E; Marván, L; Saavedra, M; Contreras, C M

    1993-03-01

    Whether the active subject of rape possesses a particular personality trait is a much debated matter. It is an accepted fact that a small amount of rapists fall into the sadistic diagnostic category. Other psychopatologic traits likely to identify a rapist are, however, unknown. The present study was carried over at a jail near the city of Xalapa (Veracruz) Mexico. Hamilton, IDARE, and Zung scales, in their modified Spanish version were applied to a sample of imprisoned adult rapists. Compared to their control group (men serving sentences for other felonies), rapists scored higher in anxiety, and depression scales. In the light of these results, it is suggested that some rapists are likely to be anxious-depressive subjects that, after having "acquired" a sociopathic repertoire, offend other people in conditions of indefensiveness, contrary to depressive subjects who aggress themselves. PMID:8237434

  20. Rape and child sexual abuse: what beliefs persist about motives, perpetrators, and survivors?

    PubMed

    McGee, Hannah; O'Higgins, Madeleine; Garavan, Rebecca; Conroy, Ronán

    2011-11-01

    Rape myths are prejudicial and stereotyped beliefs about rape which persist in society. They may have a significant impact on those affected by rape as well as the performance of legal and public participants in the justice system. Rape myths may differ over time and within different societies and cultural settings. Awareness of contemporary and local rape myths is necessary if they are to be successfully challenged through public campaigns and other means. This study sought to assess the prevalence of myths concerning rape and sexual abuse in a national population survey.

  1. Women's erotic rape fantasies: an evaluation of theory and research.

    PubMed

    Critelli, Joseph W; Bivona, Jenny M

    2008-01-01

    This article is the first systematic review of the research literature on women's rape fantasies. Current research indicates that between 31% and 57% of women have fantasies in which they are forced into sex against their will, and for 9% to 17% of women these are a frequent or favorite fantasy experience. Erotic rape fantasies are paradoxical: they do not appear to make sense. Why would a person have an erotic and pleasurable fantasy about an event that, in real life, would be abhorrent and traumatic? In this article, the major theories of women's rape fantasies are evaluated both rationally and empirically. These theories explain rape fantasies in terms of masochism, sexual blame avoidance, openness to sexuality, sexual desirability, male rape culture, biological predisposition to surrender, sympathetic physiological activation, and adversary transformation. This article evaluates theory and research, makes provisional judgments as to which theories appear to be most viable, and begins the task of theoretical integration to arrive at a more complete and internally consistent explanation for why many women engage in erotic rape fantasies. Methodological critiques and programs for future research are presented throughout.

  2. Metacognitive aspects of rape myths: subjective strength of rape myth acceptance moderates its effects on information processing and behavioral intentions.

    PubMed

    Süssenbach, Philipp; Eyssel, Friederike; Bohner, Gerd

    2013-07-01

    The authors present a metacognitive approach to influences of rape myth acceptance (RMA) on the processing of rape-related information and rape proclivity. In Study 1, participants (N = 264) completed an RMA scale and subsequently reported the subjective strength (e.g., importance, certainty) of their RMA. Then they read about a rape case, viewed a photograph of the alleged crime scene, and rated the defendant's guilt on several items. Depending on condition, the photograph contained either RMA-applicable stimuli (e.g., alcoholic beverages) or neutral stimuli. Higher RMA predicted lower ratings of defendant guilt especially when applicable stimuli were present and RMA was strong. Study 2 (N = 85) showed that RMA-related attitude strength also moderated the effect of RMA on self-reported rape proclivity. Results of both studies indicate that the subjective strength of rape-related beliefs may be reliably assessed and serves as an important moderator of effects of RMA. The implications of these findings for prevention programs as well as future directions for research are discussed.

  3. Is reporting of rape on the rise? A comparison of women with reported versus unreported rape experiences in the National Women's Study-Replication.

    PubMed

    Wolitzky-Taylor, Kate B; Resnick, Heidi S; McCauley, Jenna L; Amstadter, Ananda B; Kilpatrick, Dean G; Ruggiero, Kenneth J

    2011-03-01

    Rape affects one in seven women nationwide. Historically, most rape victims do not report rape to law enforcement. Research is needed to identify barriers to reporting and correlates of reporting to guide policy recommendations that address such barriers. We investigated the prevalence of reporting rape among a national sample of women (N = 3,001) interviewed in 2006. The study also examined predictors of reporting as well as barriers to reporting, concerns about reporting, and women's experiences with the reporting process. Results demonstrated that the overall prevalence of reporting (15.8%) has not significantly increased since the 1990s. Differences were found between rape types, with rapes involving drug or alcohol incapacitation or facilitation being less likely to be reported than forcible rapes. Several predictors of reporting emerged in multivariable analyses. Implications for public health and public policy are discussed.

  4. Insect pollination enhances seed yield, quality, and market value in oilseed rape.

    PubMed

    Bommarco, Riccardo; Marini, Lorenzo; Vaissière, Bernard E

    2012-08-01

    The relationships between landscape intensification, the abundance and diversity of pollinating insects, and their contributions to crop yield, quality, and market value are poorly studied, despite observed declines in wild and domesticated pollinators. Abundance and species richness of pollinating insects were estimated in ten fields of spring oilseed rape, Brassica napus var. SW Stratos™, located along a gradient of landscape compositions ranging from simple landscapes dominated by arable land to heterogeneous landscapes with extensive cover of semi-natural habitats. In each field, we assessed the contribution of wind and insect pollination to seed yield, seed quality (individual seed weight and oil and chlorophyll contents), and market value in a block experiment with four replicates and two treatments: (1) all flowers were accessible to insects, self and wind pollination, and (2) flowers enclosed in tulle net bags (mesh: 1 × 1 mm) were accessible only to wind and self pollination. Complex landscapes enhanced the overall abundance of wild insects as well as the abundance and species richness of hoverflies. This did not translate to a higher yield, probably due to consistent pollination by honey bees across all fields. However, the pollination experiment showed that insects increased seed weight per plant by 18% and market value by 20%. Seed quality was enhanced by insect pollination, rendering heavier seeds as well as higher oil and lower chlorophyll contents, clearly showing that insect pollination is required to reach high seed yield and quality in oilseed rape. Our study demonstrates considerable and previously underestimated contributions from pollinating insects to both the yield and the market value of oilseed rape.

  5. Insect pollination enhances seed yield, quality, and market value in oilseed rape.

    PubMed

    Bommarco, Riccardo; Marini, Lorenzo; Vaissière, Bernard E

    2012-08-01

    The relationships between landscape intensification, the abundance and diversity of pollinating insects, and their contributions to crop yield, quality, and market value are poorly studied, despite observed declines in wild and domesticated pollinators. Abundance and species richness of pollinating insects were estimated in ten fields of spring oilseed rape, Brassica napus var. SW Stratos™, located along a gradient of landscape compositions ranging from simple landscapes dominated by arable land to heterogeneous landscapes with extensive cover of semi-natural habitats. In each field, we assessed the contribution of wind and insect pollination to seed yield, seed quality (individual seed weight and oil and chlorophyll contents), and market value in a block experiment with four replicates and two treatments: (1) all flowers were accessible to insects, self and wind pollination, and (2) flowers enclosed in tulle net bags (mesh: 1 × 1 mm) were accessible only to wind and self pollination. Complex landscapes enhanced the overall abundance of wild insects as well as the abundance and species richness of hoverflies. This did not translate to a higher yield, probably due to consistent pollination by honey bees across all fields. However, the pollination experiment showed that insects increased seed weight per plant by 18% and market value by 20%. Seed quality was enhanced by insect pollination, rendering heavier seeds as well as higher oil and lower chlorophyll contents, clearly showing that insect pollination is required to reach high seed yield and quality in oilseed rape. Our study demonstrates considerable and previously underestimated contributions from pollinating insects to both the yield and the market value of oilseed rape. PMID:22311256

  6. Nitrous oxide emission factors for urine and dung from sheep fed either fresh forage rape (Brassica napus L.) or fresh perennial ryegrass (Lolium perenne L.).

    PubMed

    Luo, J; Sun, X Z; Pacheco, D; Ledgard, S F; Lindsey, S B; Hoogendoorn, C J; Wise, B; Watkins, N L

    2015-03-01

    In New Zealand, agriculture is predominantly based on pastoral grazing systems and animal excreta deposited on soil during grazing have been identified as a major source of nitrous oxide (N2O) emissions. Forage brassicas (Brassica spp.) have been increasingly used to improve lamb performance. Compared with conventional forage perennial ryegrass (Lolium perenne L.), a common forage in New Zealand, forage brassicas have faster growth rates, higher dry matter production and higher nutritive value. The aim of this study was to determine the partitioning of dietary nitrogen (N) between urine and dung in the excreta from sheep fed forage brassica rape (B. napus subsp. oleifera L.) or ryegrass, and then to measure N2O emissions when the excreta from the two different feed sources were applied to a pasture soil. A sheep metabolism study was conducted to determine urine and dung-N outputs from sheep fed forage rape or ryegrass, and N partitioning between urine and dung. Urine and dung were collected and then used in a field plot experiment for measuring N2O emissions. The experimental site contained a perennial ryegrass/white clover pasture on a poorly drained silt-loam soil. The treatments included urine from sheep fed forage rape or ryegrass, dung from sheep fed forage rape or ryegrass, and a control without dung or urine applied. N2O emission measurements were carried out using a static chamber technique. For each excreta type, the total N2O emissions and emission factor (EF3; N2O-N emitted during the 3- or 8-month measurement period as a per cent of animal urine or dung-N applied, respectively) were calculated. Our results indicate that, in terms of per unit of N intake, a similar amount of N was excreted in urine from sheep fed either forage rape or ryegrass, but less dung N was excreted from sheep fed forage rape than ryegrass. The EF3 for urine from sheep fed forage rape was lower compared with urine from sheep fed ryegrass. This may have been because of plant

  7. The relationship of thought suppression and recent rape to disordered eating in emerging adulthood.

    PubMed

    Collins, Brittany; Fischer, Sarah; Stojek, Monika; Becker, Kendra

    2014-02-01

    This study utilizes a prospective design to examine the interaction of recent rape/attempted rape with individual differences in thought suppression on increases in disordered eating symptoms during late adolescence/emerging adulthood. Thought suppression is the attempt to suppress unwanted thoughts. We propose that emerging adult women who have experienced recent rape/attempted rape and tend to use thought suppression as a coping mechanism are at risk for increases in disordered eating. 319 women completed the Eating Disorder Examination Questionnaire, the Sexual Experiences Survey, the Childhood Trauma Questionnaire, and the White Bear Thought Suppression Inventory in their first month of college and three months later. The experience of recent rape/attempted rape in the three months prior to the assessment accounted for unique variance in disordered eating at Time 2. Levels of thought suppression assessed at Time 1 significantly moderated the influence of recent rape/attempted rape on disordered eating at Time 2. PMID:24439617

  8. The relationship of thought suppression and recent rape to disordered eating in emerging adulthood.

    PubMed

    Collins, Brittany; Fischer, Sarah; Stojek, Monika; Becker, Kendra

    2014-02-01

    This study utilizes a prospective design to examine the interaction of recent rape/attempted rape with individual differences in thought suppression on increases in disordered eating symptoms during late adolescence/emerging adulthood. Thought suppression is the attempt to suppress unwanted thoughts. We propose that emerging adult women who have experienced recent rape/attempted rape and tend to use thought suppression as a coping mechanism are at risk for increases in disordered eating. 319 women completed the Eating Disorder Examination Questionnaire, the Sexual Experiences Survey, the Childhood Trauma Questionnaire, and the White Bear Thought Suppression Inventory in their first month of college and three months later. The experience of recent rape/attempted rape in the three months prior to the assessment accounted for unique variance in disordered eating at Time 2. Levels of thought suppression assessed at Time 1 significantly moderated the influence of recent rape/attempted rape on disordered eating at Time 2.

  9. Date rape among Cypriot female college students: an explorative study.

    PubMed

    Kouta, Christiana; Tolma, Eleni L; Pavlou, Susana Elisa

    2013-09-01

    This study examined the prevalence and reporting of date rape among female college students (aged 18-24) in Cyprus and assessed the students' attitudes and awareness regarding date rape. In addition, the study examined how date rape is perceived among representatives of related private and governmental organizations in Cyprus. This is part of a larger multi-country study. This paper will focus only on the results pertaining to Cyprus. The study was coordinated by the Mediterranean Institute of Gender Studies. This study used quantitative and qualitative methods. In total, 476 female college students responded to an anonymous questionnaire, two focus group discussions were carried out, and five key-informant interviews with relevant institutional representatives were conducted. The results of the study indicated that unwanted sexual experiences and sexual violence, including date rape, do exist among young Cypriot women. Specifically, 1.3% of the research participants reported experiencing an attempted rape by their date, and 1.9 % of the study participants reported being raped on a date. Often this was caused by their boyfriend, friend or sexual partner (54.2%). The results of the qualitative study showed that young female Cypriots agreed that many women give in to psychological pressure because they feel guilty about letting the other person down or because they 'didn't satisfy him' or fear they might lose him. Despite the explorative nature of the study, it is significant as research on date rape in Cyprus is almost non-existent. The authors anticipate that the results of the study will be useful to other researchers and policy-makers involved in this area of research.

  10. Nitrous oxide emissions from crop rotations including wheat, oilseed rape and dry peas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jeuffroy, M. H.; Baranger, E.; Carrouée, B.; de Chezelles, E.; Gosme, M.; Hénault, C.; Schneider, A.; Cellier, P.

    2013-03-01

    Approximately 65% of anthropogenic emissions of N2O, a potent greenhouse gas (GHG), originate from soils at a global scale, and particularly after N fertilisation of the main crops in Europe. Thanks to their capacity to fix atmospheric N2 through biological fixation, legumes can reduce N fertilizer use, and possibly N2O emissions. Nevertheless, the decomposition of crop organic matter during the crop cycle and residue decomposition, and possibly the N fixation process itself, could lead to N2O emissions. The objective of this study was to quantify N2O emissions from a dry pea crop (Pisum sativum, harvested at maturity) and from the subsequent crops in comparison with N2O emissions from wheat and oilseed rape crops, fertilized or not, in various rotations. A field experiment was conducted over 4 consecutive years to compare the emissions during the pea crop, in comparison with those during the wheat (fertilized or not) or oilseed rape crops, and after the pea crop, in comparison with other preceding crops. N2O fluxes were measured using static chambers. In spite of low N2O fluxes, mainly due to the site's soil characteristics, fluxes during the crop were significantly lower for pea and unfertilized wheat than for fertilized wheat and oilseed rape. The effect of the preceding crop was not significant, while soil mineral N at harvest was higher after the pea crop. These results should be confirmed over a wider range of soil types. Nevertheless, they demonstrate the absence of N2O emissions linked to the symbiotic N fixation process, and allow us to estimate the decrease in N2O emissions by 20-25% through including one pea crop in a three-year rotation. On a larger scale, this reduction of GHG emissions at field level has to be added to the decrease due to the reduced production and transport of the N fertilizer not applied to the pea crop.

  11. Current Perceptions of Marital Rape: Some Good and Not-So-Good News

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ferro, Christine; Cermele, Jill; Saltzman, Ann

    2008-01-01

    The current study extends previous research on marital rape and acceptance of general rape myths by comparing the perceptions of undergraduate college students (n = 85) to those of college alumni/ae (n = 44) who graduated from the same university three decades earlier. Participants read a hypothetical rape scenario that depicted the perpetrator as…

  12. 78 FR 77495 - Hearings of the Review Panel on Prison Rape

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-23

    ... of Justice Programs Hearings of the Review Panel on Prison Rape AGENCY: Office of Justice Programs... Review Panel on Prison Rape (Panel) will hold hearings in Washington, DC, on January 8-9, 2014. The..., and juvenile facilities with the highest and lowest incidence of rape, respectively, based...

  13. 76 FR 20711 - Hearings of the Review Panel on Prison Rape

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-13

    ... Office of Justice Programs Hearings of the Review Panel on Prison Rape AGENCY: Office of Justice Programs... Review Panel on Prison Rape (Panel) will hold hearings in Washington, DC on April 26-27, 2011. The... rape, respectively, based on an anonymous survey by the BJS of inmates in a representative sample of...

  14. Sexual Assault Nurse Examiners' Perceptions of Their Relationship with Doctors, Rape Victim Advocates, Police, and Prosecutors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maier, Shana L.

    2012-01-01

    In response to the negative and inefficient treatment of rape victims by emergency room personnel, the first Sexual Assault Nurse Examiner (SANE) programs began in the late 1970s. While SANEs, doctors, rape victim advocates, police officers and prosecutors work together to ensure the most comprehensive and sensitive care of rape victims, they all…

  15. Understanding Rape Survivors' Decisions Not to Seek Help from Formal Social Systems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Patterson, Debra; Greeson, Megan; Campbell, Rebecca

    2009-01-01

    Few rape survivors seek help from formal social systems after their assault. The purpose of this study was to examine factors that prevent survivors from seeking help from the legal, medical, and mental health systems and rape crisis centers. In this study, 29 female rape survivors who did not seek any postassault formal help were interviewed…

  16. A Socioecological Model of Rape Survivors' Decisions to Aid in Case Prosecution

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anders, Mary C.; Christopher, F. Scott

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of our study was to identify factors underlying rape survivors' post-assault prosecution decisions by testing a decision model that included the complex relations between the multiple social ecological systems within which rape survivors are embedded. We coded 440 police rape cases for characteristics of the assault and characteristics…

  17. Perceptions of Rape and Attitudes toward Women in a Sample of Lebanese Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rebeiz, Maria J.; Harb, Charles

    2010-01-01

    This study investigated values, ambivalent sexism, religiosity, religious differences, gender, and attitudes toward rape victims as predictors of rape myths in a sample of Lebanese students (N = 300). Values of self-transcendence and conservation, gender, hostile sexism, and attitudes toward rape victims emerged as significant predictors of rape…

  18. Rape Perception and the Function of Ambivalent Sexism and Gender-Role Traditionality

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yamawaki, Niwako

    2007-01-01

    This study explores the roles of benevolent sexism (BS), hostile sexism (HS), and gender-role traditionality (GRT) in minimizing rape, blaming the victim, and excusing the rapist. As predicted, hostile sexists minimize the seriousness of the rape in both stranger and date-rape scenarios. In the victim-blame scale, both BS and GRT significantly…

  19. The Impact of Past Sexual Experiences on Attributions of Responsibility for Rape

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mason, Gillian E.; Riger, Stephanie; Foley, Linda A.

    2004-01-01

    Two factors potentially affect observers' attributions of responsibility to a rape survivor: how closely they identify with the survivor and how much they adhere to rape myths. To assess the impact of these factors, 157 female college students categorized by their sexual assault history and by their acceptance of rape myths, evaluated a sexual…

  20. Peer Educators and Close Friends as Predictors of Male College Students' Willingness to Prevent Rape

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stein, Jerrold L.

    2007-01-01

    Astin's (1977, 1991, 1993) input-environment-outcome (I-E-O) model provided a conceptual framework for this study which measured 156 male college students' willingness to prevent rape (outcome variable). Predictor variables included personal attitudes (input variable), perceptions of close friends' attitudes toward rape and rape prevention…

  1. 75 FR 11077 - National Standards To Prevent, Detect, and Respond to Prison Rape

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-10

    ... Part 115 RIN 1105-AB34 National Standards To Prevent, Detect, and Respond to Prison Rape AGENCY... abuse in confinement settings that were prepared by the National Prison Rape Elimination Commission (Commission) pursuant to the Prison Rape Elimination Act of 2003 (PREA) and recommended by the Commission...

  2. An acute post-rape intervention to prevent substance use and abuse.

    PubMed

    Acierno, Ron; Resnick, Heidi S; Flood, Amanda; Holmes, Melisa

    2003-12-01

    The trauma of rape is routinely associated with extreme acute distress. Such peri-event anxiety increases risk of developing psychopathology and substance use or abuse post-rape, with the degree of initial distress positively predicting future problems. Unfortunately, the nature of post-rape forensic evidence collection procedures may exacerbate initial distress, thereby potentiating post-rape negative emotional sequelae. Consequently, substance use may increase in an effort to ameliorate this distress. To address this, a two-part video intervention was developed for use in acute post-rape time frames to (a) minimize anxiety during forensic rape examinations, thereby reducing risk of future emotional problems, and (b) prevent increased post-rape substance use and abuse. Pilot study data with 124 rape victims indicated that the low-cost, easily administered intervention was effective in reducing risk of marijuana abuse at 6 weeks. Nonstatistically significant trends also were evident for reduced marijuana use. Trends were also noted in favor of the intervention in the subgroup of women who were actively using substances pre-rape (among pre-rape alcohol users, 28% viewers vs. 43% nonviewers met criteria for post-rape alcohol abuse; among pre-rape marijuana users, the rates of post-marijuana use were 17% vs. 43%).

  3. Changing the Rape-Supportive Attitudes of Traditional and Nontraditional Male and Female College Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rosenthal, Eric H.; And Others

    1995-01-01

    Tested whether individuals possessing traditional sex role attitudes could have their rape-related attitudes influenced by a psychoeducational intervention that had been effective with less traditional individuals. Results revealed that subjects who received intervention adhered less to rape myths and expressed less rape-supportive attitudes than…

  4. Women's Attitudes and Fantasies about Rape as a Function of Early Exposure to Pornography.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Corne, Shawn; And Others

    1992-01-01

    Tested hypothesis that women's attitudes and fantasies about rape arise partially from their socialization to accept sexual aggression as normative. Female participants answered questions on childhood exposure to pornography, sex fantasies, and rape attitudes. Early exposure to pornography correlated to "rape fantasies" and attitudes supportive of…

  5. The Impact of Acquaintance Rape Stories and Case-Specific Pretrial Publicity on Juror Decision Making.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mullin, Charles; And Others

    1996-01-01

    Reports on a trial simulation in which exposure to publicity regarding the defendant and general stories about acquaintance rape were manipulated; participants then viewed an enacted rape trial. Finds that male subjects exposed to predatory rape publicity were pro-defendant, whereas women were unaffected. Discusses male reaction to information…

  6. Rape Victimization in 26 American Cities. Analytic Report SD-VAD-6.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McDermott, M. Joan

    The incidence of rape victimization in 26 American cities was investigated using interviews conducted with representative samples of approximately 10,000 households (22,000 individuals) in each of the cities. Results indicated that: (1) rates of rape and attempted rape were higher for younger women, minorities, women who were never married or…

  7. An acute post-rape intervention to prevent substance use and abuse.

    PubMed

    Acierno, Ron; Resnick, Heidi S; Flood, Amanda; Holmes, Melisa

    2003-12-01

    The trauma of rape is routinely associated with extreme acute distress. Such peri-event anxiety increases risk of developing psychopathology and substance use or abuse post-rape, with the degree of initial distress positively predicting future problems. Unfortunately, the nature of post-rape forensic evidence collection procedures may exacerbate initial distress, thereby potentiating post-rape negative emotional sequelae. Consequently, substance use may increase in an effort to ameliorate this distress. To address this, a two-part video intervention was developed for use in acute post-rape time frames to (a) minimize anxiety during forensic rape examinations, thereby reducing risk of future emotional problems, and (b) prevent increased post-rape substance use and abuse. Pilot study data with 124 rape victims indicated that the low-cost, easily administered intervention was effective in reducing risk of marijuana abuse at 6 weeks. Nonstatistically significant trends also were evident for reduced marijuana use. Trends were also noted in favor of the intervention in the subgroup of women who were actively using substances pre-rape (among pre-rape alcohol users, 28% viewers vs. 43% nonviewers met criteria for post-rape alcohol abuse; among pre-rape marijuana users, the rates of post-marijuana use were 17% vs. 43%). PMID:14656554

  8. Understanding Rape and Sexual Assault: 20 Years of Progress and Future Directions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Campbell, Rebecca; Wasco, Sharon M.

    2005-01-01

    During the past 20 years, researchers have documented the widespread problem of rape in American society. Approximately one in four women are raped in their adult lifetime, which causes severe psychological distress and long-term physical health problems. The impact of sexual assault extends far beyond rape survivors as their family, friends, and…

  9. From Survivor to Thriver: A Pilot Study of an Online Program for Rape Victims

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Littleton, Heather; Buck, Katherine; Rosman, Lindsey; Grills-Taquechel, Amie

    2012-01-01

    Approximately 15% to 20% of women have been victims of rape and close to a third report current rape-related PTSD or clinically significant depression or anxiety. Unfortunately, very few distressed rape victims seek formal help. This suggests a need to develop alternative ways to assist the many distressed victims of sexual violence. Online…

  10. Competitive disadvantage makes attitudes towards rape less negative.

    PubMed

    Nunes, Kevin L; Pettersen, Cathrine

    2011-10-12

    Evolutionary theorists have argued that perceived competitive disadvantage may lead to more positive evaluation of, and greater likelihood of engaging in, risky and antisocial behavior. However, experimental studies have not yet examined the effects of competitive disadvantage on perceptions of rape. In the current study, we created a manipulation of perceived competitive status to test its effects on beliefs about rape. In one condition, participants were made to feel disadvantaged relative to male peers in terms of financial, physical, and intellectual power, whereas in the other condition they were made to feel advantaged. Participants were 120 heterosexual male undergraduate students. The manipulation was effective; compared to participants in the advantage condition, those in the disadvantage condition rated themselves as significantly worse off financially, shorter, in worse physical shape, and as having lower course marks than the average male student at the university. Compared to perceived competitive advantage, perceived disadvantage led to less negative attitudes towards rape. However, perceived competitive status did not significantly affect justifications and excuses for rape. Future studies using similar experimental manipulations can complement correlational studies and may contribute to greater clarity, precision, and sophistication of research and theory on the role of competitive disadvantage in rape.

  11. Ireland: child rape case undermines abortion ban.

    PubMed

    1992-11-01

    Abortion has been illegal in Ireland since 1861. This position was written into the national Constitution in 1963 and reconfirmed by referendum in 1983. Contraception is also illegal in the country. The pregnancy of a 14-year old adolescent due to an alleged rape, however, has caused many in Ireland to voice their support for abortion in limited circumstances. Approximately 5000 pregnant women go from Ireland to the United Kingdom annually for abortions. This 14-year old youth also planned to make the crossing, but was blocked from leaving by the Irish police and later by an injunction of the Attorney-General. The Irish Supreme Court upheld the injunction even though the young woman was reportedly contemplating suicide. A national outcry ensued with thousands of demonstrators marching in Dublin to demand the availability of information on abortion and that Irish women be allowed to travel whenever and wherever they desire. 66% of respondents to recent public opinion polls favor abortion in certain circumstances. Ultimately, the Irish Supreme Court reversed their stance to allow pregnant Irish women to travel internationally and gave suicidal Irish women the right to abortions. These decisions were made shortly within the time frame needed for the young lady in question to received a legal abortion in the United Kingdom.

  12. [Effects of exogenous tetracycline on rape soil enzyme activity and rape quality].

    PubMed

    Liu, Ji-Qiang; Zhuge, Yu-Ping; Cui, Li-Na

    2009-04-01

    This paper studied the effects of applying different concentration (0, 0.30, 0.60, and 0.90 mg x kg(-1)) tetracycline on the soil enzyme activities and rape quality. The results showed that soil urease activity after applied 0.30, 0.60, and 0.90 mg x kg(-1) of tetracycline and soil suerase activity after applied 0.90 mg x kg(-1) of tetracycline were inhibited in the whole cultivating period, while the soil sucrase activity after applied 0.30 and 0.60 mg x kg(-1) of tetracycline showed a trend of activation-inhibition-activation. Soil proteinase activity showed a trend of inhibition-activation, and the extent and duration of the inhibition and activation had significant positive correlations with tetracycline concentration (r = 0.950 * *). Soil catalase activity showed activation first and turned to irregular then. The action duration of tetracycline on the activities of soil urease, catalase, sucrase and proteinase were 7 weeks, 6-8 weeks, 7 weeks, and 6-7 weeks, respectively. At harvest time, the soluble sugar contents in rape leaves after applying 0.30, 0.60, and 0.90 mg x kg(-1) of tetracycline decreased dramatically by 91.99%, 87.92%, 90.12%, while the soluble protein content increased by 26.47%, 28.13%, and 23.22%, respectively, compared to the control.

  13. Predictors of rape: findings from the National Survey of Adolescents.

    PubMed

    Elwood, Lisa S; Smith, Daniel W; Resnick, Heidi S; Gudmundsdottir, Berglind; Amstadter, Ananda B; Hanson, Rochelle F; Saunders, Benjamin E; Kilpatrick, Dean G

    2011-04-01

    The current report examines data for 872 female adolescents obtained during the initial and follow-up interviews of the National Survey of Adolescents, a nationally representative sample. Lifetime prevalence of violence exposure reported was 12% and 13% for sexual assault, 19% and 10% for physical assault/punishment, and 33% and 26% for witnessing violence at Waves I and II, respectively. Racial/ethnic status, posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), childhood sexual abuse (CSA), and family drug problems emerged as significant predictors of new rape. Each of the PTSD symptom clusters significantly predicted new rape and analyses supported the mediational role of PTSD between CSA and new rape. African American or other racial identity was associated with lower risk.

  14. Fear of rape among college women: a social psychological analysis.

    PubMed

    Pryor, Douglas W; Hughes, Marion R

    2013-01-01

    This article examines social psychological underpinnings of fear of rape among college women. We analyze data from a survey of 1,905 female undergraduates to test the influence of 5 subjective perceptions about vulnerability and harm: unique invulnerability, gender risk, defensibility, anticipatory shame, and attribution of injury. We include 3 sources of crime exposure in our models: past sexual victimization, past noncontact violent victimization, and structural risk measured by age, parent's income, and race. Separate measures of fear of stranger and acquaintance rape are modeled, including variables tapping current versus anticipatory fear, fear on campus versus everywhere, and fear anytime versus at night. The data show that fear of rape among college women appears more grounded in constructed perceptions of harm and danger than in past violent experiences.

  15. Nitrogen Fertilizer Management for Enhancing Crop Productivity and Nitrogen Use Efficiency in a Rice-Oilseed Rape Rotation System in China

    PubMed Central

    Yousaf, Muhammad; Li, Xiaokun; Zhang, Zhi; Ren, Tao; Cong, Rihuan; Ata-Ul-Karim, Syed Tahir; Fahad, Shah; Shah, Adnan N.; Lu, Jianwei

    2016-01-01

    The use of efficient rates of nitrogen (N) fertilizer application is important with regard to increasing crop productivity and maintaining environmental sustainability. Rice-oilseed rape rotations are a mainstay of the economy and food security of China. Therefore, a field experiment was carried out during 2011–2013 in Honghu to identify the most appropriate N application rates for enhancing crop productivity and N use efficiency for rice (Oryza sativa L.)-oilseed rape (Brassica napus L.) rotations. Six N fertilizer treatments (RO1, RO2, RO3, RO4, RO5, and RO6) were laid out in a randomized complete block design with three replicates. ROx represented the N fertilizer application rates (kg ha−1) for rice and oilseed rape, respectively. Grain yields from plots receiving N fertilizer were significantly increased by 59–71% (rice) and 109–160% (oilseed rape) during the total rotation (2011–2013), as compared to RO1 (control; no application). Furthermore, a similar trend was observed for N accumulation, ranging from 88 to 125% and 134 to 200% in aerial parts of rice and oilseed rape, respectively. Nitrogen use efficiency (NUE) was significantly higher (38.5%) under RO2 and lower (34.2%) under RO6 while apparent N balance (ANB) was positively lowest under R05 (183.4 kg ha−1) followed by R02 (234.2 kg ha−1) and highest under R06 (344.5 kg ha−1) during the total rotation. The results of grain yield, NUE, and ANB indicated that the R02 rate of N application was superior. This information should help to develop a cost-effective and environment-friendly N management strategy for rice-oilseed rape rotation systems of central China. PMID:27746809

  16. Improving the persistence of a formulation of the avian repellent cinnamamide, for the protection of autumn-sown oilseed rape.

    PubMed

    Cotterill, Jane V; Nadian, Allan K; Cowan, David P

    2004-10-01

    In a previous pilot field trial on autumn-sown oilseed rape (Brassica napus L), a suspension concentrate formulation of the avian repellent cinnamamide, using Acronal 4D (50 g litre(-1)) as the sticker, was shown to reduce damage by woodpigeons (Columba palumbus L). However, the persistence of cinnamamide on rape leaves was poor. This paper describes the development of a weather-resistant formulation by the inclusion of a more effective sticker. In vitro studies were used to investigate wash-off of cinnamamide, which was identified as being the major mechanism of loss in the field. Rainfastness of cinnamamide was assessed by washing deposits on glass slides and rape leaves using a 'rain-washing machine'. A number of stickers were evaluated and the effect of sticker concentration, ageing of deposits, freezing and intermittent washing on rain-fastness was investigated. None of the candidate stickers showed increased rainfastness compared to Acronal 4D. However, two of the stickers, Crovol T40 G and Emoleo L1, when combined with Acronal 4D in small amounts, did reduce wash-off compared with Acronal 4D alone. Freezing led to an increase in wash-off of cinnamamide, but inclusion of Emoleo L1 with Acronal 4D reduced this effect. Increasing the concentration of the sticker was also shown to improve the rainfastness; doubling the concentration of Acronal from 50 to 100 g litre(-1) halved the wash-off of cinnamamide.

  17. Pollen-mediated intraspecific gene flow from herbicide resistant oilseed rape (Brassica napus L.).

    PubMed

    Hüsken, Alexandra; Dietz-Pfeilstetter, Antje

    2007-10-01

    The cultivation of genetically modified (GM) herbicide resistant oilseed rape (Brassica napus) has increased over the past few years. The transfer of herbicide resistance genes via pollen (gene flow) from GM crops to non-GM crops is of relevance for the realisation of co-existence of different agricultural cultivation forms as well as for weed management. Therefore the likelihood of pollen-mediated gene flow has been investigated in numerous studies. Despite the difficulty to compare different experiments with varying levels of outcrossing, we performed a literature search for world-wide studies on cross-fertilisation in fully fertile oilseed rape. The occurrence and frequency of pollen-mediated intraspecific gene flow (outcrossing rate) can vary according to cultivar, experimental design, local topography and environmental conditions. The outcrossing rate from one field to another depends also on the size and arrangement of donor and recipient populations and on the ratio between donor and recipient plot size. The outcrossing levels specified in the presented studies are derived mostly from experiments where the recipient field is either surrounding the donor field (continuous design) or is located as a patch at different distances from the donor field (discontinuous design). Reports of gene flow in Brassica napus generally show that the amount of cross-fertilisation decreases as the distance from the pollen source increases. The evidence given in various studies reveals that the bulk of GM cross-fertilisation occurs within the first 10 m of the recipient field. The removal of the first 10 m of a non-transgenic field facing a GM crop might therefore be more efficient for reducing the total level of cross-fertilisation in a recipient sink population than to recommend separation distances. Future experiments should investigate cross-fertilisation with multiple adjacent donor fields at the landscape level under different spatial distributions of rapeseed cultivars

  18. Using a non-invasive technique in nutrition: synchrotron radiation infrared microspectroscopy spectroscopic characterization of oil seeds treated with different processing conditions on molecular spectral factors influencing nutrient delivery.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xuewei; Yu, Peiqiang

    2014-07-01

    Non-invasive techniques are a key to study nutrition and structure interaction. Fourier transform infrared microspectroscopy coupled with a synchrotron radiation source (SR-IMS) is a rapid, non-invasive, and non-destructive bioanalytical technique. To understand internal structure changes in relation to nutrient availability in oil seed processing is vital to find optimal processing conditions. The objective of this study was to use a synchrotron-based bioanalytical technique SR-IMS as a non-invasive and non-destructive tool to study the effects of heat-processing methods and oil seed canola type on modeled protein structure based on spectral data within intact tissue that were randomly selected and quantify the relationship between the modeled protein structure and protein nutrient supply to ruminants. The results showed that the moisture heat-related processing significantly changed (p<0.05) modeled protein structures compared to the raw canola (control) and those processing by dry heating. The moisture heating increased (p<0.05) spectral intensities of amide I, amide II, α-helices, and β-sheets but decreased (p<0.05) the ratio of modeled α-helices to β-sheet spectral intensity. There was no difference (p>0.05) in the protein spectral profile between the raw and dry-heated canola tissue and between yellow- and brown-type canola tissue. The results indicated that different heat processing methods have different impacts on the protein inherent structure. The protein intrinsic structure in canola seed tissue was more sensitive and more response to the moisture heating in comparison to the dry heating. These changes are expected to be related to the nutritive value. However, the current study is based on limited samples, and more large-scale studies are needed to confirm our findings.

  19. Using a non-invasive technique in nutrition: synchrotron radiation infrared microspectroscopy spectroscopic characterization of oil seeds treated with different processing conditions on molecular spectral factors influencing nutrient delivery.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xuewei; Yu, Peiqiang

    2014-07-01

    Non-invasive techniques are a key to study nutrition and structure interaction. Fourier transform infrared microspectroscopy coupled with a synchrotron radiation source (SR-IMS) is a rapid, non-invasive, and non-destructive bioanalytical technique. To understand internal structure changes in relation to nutrient availability in oil seed processing is vital to find optimal processing conditions. The objective of this study was to use a synchrotron-based bioanalytical technique SR-IMS as a non-invasive and non-destructive tool to study the effects of heat-processing methods and oil seed canola type on modeled protein structure based on spectral data within intact tissue that were randomly selected and quantify the relationship between the modeled protein structure and protein nutrient supply to ruminants. The results showed that the moisture heat-related processing significantly changed (p<0.05) modeled protein structures compared to the raw canola (control) and those processing by dry heating. The moisture heating increased (p<0.05) spectral intensities of amide I, amide II, α-helices, and β-sheets but decreased (p<0.05) the ratio of modeled α-helices to β-sheet spectral intensity. There was no difference (p>0.05) in the protein spectral profile between the raw and dry-heated canola tissue and between yellow- and brown-type canola tissue. The results indicated that different heat processing methods have different impacts on the protein inherent structure. The protein intrinsic structure in canola seed tissue was more sensitive and more response to the moisture heating in comparison to the dry heating. These changes are expected to be related to the nutritive value. However, the current study is based on limited samples, and more large-scale studies are needed to confirm our findings. PMID:24920208

  20. Unacknowledged Rape: The Influences of Child Sexual Abuse and Personality Traits.

    PubMed

    Wilson, Laura C; Scarpa, Angela

    2015-01-01

    Evidence supports that the majority of young women who experience sexual victimization that meets the legal definition of rape do not label their experiences as rape--this has been termed unacknowledged rape. In a sample of 77 young adult women, the odds of unacknowledged rape significantly increased as a function of less severe child sexual abuse histories and greater levels of dysfunctional personality traits. Potential explanations for these findings as well as clinical implications are discussed. Because of the potential psychological and societal consequences of unacknowledged rape, it is vital that researchers continue to examine this phenomenon.

  1. Unacknowledged Rape: The Influences of Child Sexual Abuse and Personality Traits.

    PubMed

    Wilson, Laura C; Scarpa, Angela

    2015-01-01

    Evidence supports that the majority of young women who experience sexual victimization that meets the legal definition of rape do not label their experiences as rape--this has been termed unacknowledged rape. In a sample of 77 young adult women, the odds of unacknowledged rape significantly increased as a function of less severe child sexual abuse histories and greater levels of dysfunctional personality traits. Potential explanations for these findings as well as clinical implications are discussed. Because of the potential psychological and societal consequences of unacknowledged rape, it is vital that researchers continue to examine this phenomenon. PMID:26701285

  2. Rape and the Straw Man: A Response to Lindsay Kelland.

    PubMed

    Benatar, David

    2015-11-01

    Lindsay Kelland has taken issue with a claim I made in a book titled The Second Sexism: Discrimination Against Men and Boys. In response to this claim, she has argued that when a woman is raped, it matters that her rapist is a male because "her situation as a woman under patriarchy is partly constitutive of the harm that she suffers" in being raped. In my response to her article, I show that she has taken my claim out of context and thereby misrepresented it. As a result, her article fails to respond to anything I said.

  3. Ecological Variation in Response to Mass-Flowering Oilseed Rape and Surrounding Landscape Composition by Members of a Cryptic Bumblebee Complex

    PubMed Central

    Stanley, Dara A.; Knight, Mairi E.; Stout, Jane C.

    2013-01-01

    The Bombus sensu stricto species complex is a widespread group of cryptic bumblebee species which are important pollinators of many crops and wild plants. These cryptic species have, until now, largely been grouped together in ecological studies, and so little is known about their individual colony densities, foraging ranges or habitat requirements, which can be influenced by land use at a landscape scale. We used mass-flowering oilseed rape fields as locations to sample bees of this complex, as well as the second most common visitor to oilseed rape B. lapidarius, and molecular RFLP methods to distinguish between the cryptic species. We then used microsatellite genotyping to identify sisters and estimate colony densities, and related both proportions of cryptic species and their colony densities to the composition of the landscape surrounding the fields. We found B. lucorum was the most common member of the complex present in oilseed rape followed by B. terrestris. B. cryptarum was also present in all but one site, with higher proportions found in the east of the study area. High numbers of bumblebee colonies were estimated to be using oilseed rape fields as a forage resource, with B. terrestris colony numbers higher than previous estimates from non-mass-flowering fields. We also found that the cryptic species responded differently to surrounding landscape composition: both relative proportions of B. cryptarum in samples and colony densities of B. lucorum were negatively associated with the amount of arable land in the landscape, while proportions and colony densities of other species did not respond to landscape variables at the scale measured. This suggests that the cryptic species have different ecological requirements (which may be scale-dependent) and that oilseed rape can be an important forage resource for many colonies of bumblebees. Given this, we recommend sustainable management of this crop to benefit bumblebees. PMID:23840338

  4. Correlates of Self-Report of Rape Among Male School Adolescents in Ile-Ife, Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Ogunfowokan, Adesola A; Olagunju, Oluwayemisi E; Olajubu, Aanuoluwapo O; Faremi, Funmilola A; Oloyede, Ajoke S; Sharps, Phyllis W

    2016-02-01

    This study examined male adolescents' self-report of rape of adolescent girls and the socio-demographic variables that correlated with self-report of rape. Descriptive-correlational design was used and the study was conducted in five public senior secondary schools in Ile-Ife, Nigeria. Three hundred and thirty-eight male adolescents participated in the study. A structured questionnaire was used to collect data. Findings from the study revealed the mean age of the adolescent males to be 16 years, with the majority (73%) of them in the middle adolescent stage. Six percent of the adolescent males reported they had raped an adolescent girl in the past. Among the boys who reported rape, 55% reported they had raped their sexual partners, and 55% reported they had perpetrated gang rape. Smoking (p = .0001), alcohol consumption (p = .001), and birth order (p = .006) predicted self-report of rape. The coefficient of birth order showed that odds of self-report of rape by first-born male increases by 6 times compared with other children. Study findings also provided evidence that adolescent males are moving from lone rape to gang rape in intimate partner relationships. Male adolescents are important group to target in rape prevention programs.

  5. Correlates of Self-Report of Rape Among Male School Adolescents in Ile-Ife, Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Ogunfowokan, Adesola A; Olagunju, Oluwayemisi E; Olajubu, Aanuoluwapo O; Faremi, Funmilola A; Oloyede, Ajoke S; Sharps, Phyllis W

    2016-02-01

    This study examined male adolescents' self-report of rape of adolescent girls and the socio-demographic variables that correlated with self-report of rape. Descriptive-correlational design was used and the study was conducted in five public senior secondary schools in Ile-Ife, Nigeria. Three hundred and thirty-eight male adolescents participated in the study. A structured questionnaire was used to collect data. Findings from the study revealed the mean age of the adolescent males to be 16 years, with the majority (73%) of them in the middle adolescent stage. Six percent of the adolescent males reported they had raped an adolescent girl in the past. Among the boys who reported rape, 55% reported they had raped their sexual partners, and 55% reported they had perpetrated gang rape. Smoking (p = .0001), alcohol consumption (p = .001), and birth order (p = .006) predicted self-report of rape. The coefficient of birth order showed that odds of self-report of rape by first-born male increases by 6 times compared with other children. Study findings also provided evidence that adolescent males are moving from lone rape to gang rape in intimate partner relationships. Male adolescents are important group to target in rape prevention programs. PMID:25381280

  6. Labeling Sexual Victimization Experiences: The Role of Sexism, Rape Myth Acceptance, and Tolerance for Sexual Harassment.

    PubMed

    LeMaire, Kelly L; Oswald, Debra L; Russell, Brenda L

    2016-01-01

    This study investigated whether attitudinal variables, such as benevolent and hostile sexism toward men and women, female rape myth acceptance, and tolerance of sexual harassment are related to women labeling their sexual assault experiences as rape. In a sample of 276 female college students, 71 (25.7%) reported at least one experience that met the operational definition of rape, although only 46.5% of those women labeled the experience "rape." Benevolent sexism, tolerance of sexual harassment, and rape myth acceptance, but not hostile sexism, significantly predicted labeling of previous sexual assault experiences by the victims. Specifically, those with more benevolent sexist attitudes toward both men and women, greater rape myth acceptance, and more tolerant attitudes of sexual harassment were less likely to label their past sexual assault experience as rape. The results are discussed for their clinical and theoretical implications.

  7. Understanding men's perceptions of risks and rewards in a date rape scenario.

    PubMed

    Bouffard, Leana A; Bouffard, Jeffrey A

    2011-06-01

    Existing research on date rape has identified important correlations between rape-supportive attitudes and sexual aggression. What remains unclear is the mechanism by which these attitudes are translated into sexually aggressive behavior. This study borrows from a rational choice framework to explore the relationship between attitudes, perceptions of the risks and rewards of engaging in date rape, and self-reported hypothetical aggression in a date rape scenario. Results suggest that rape-supportive attitudes are related to particular patterns of identified risks and rewards of date rape as well as to the self-reported likelihood of engaging in date rape behavior. This supports a perspective that certain attitude structures may alter the risks and rewards that potential offenders consider in deciding whether or not to engage in sexual aggression. Implications for future research and prevention programs are discussed.

  8. Incapacitated and Forcible Rape of College Women: Prevalence Across the First Year

    PubMed Central

    Carey, Kate B.; Durney, Sarah; Shepardson, Robyn L.; Carey, Michael P.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose To document the point and cumulative prevalence of incapacitated and forcible rape among first-year college women. Methods Female students (N = 483) completed a health questionnaire: (a) upon arrival on campus, (b) at the end of the fall semester, (c) at the end of the spring semester, and (d) at the end of the summer following their first year of college. Results Before entering college, 18% reported incapacitated rape (attempted and/or completed), and 15% reported forcible rape (attempted and/or completed). During the first year of college, 15% reported incapacitated rape (attempted or completed) and 9% reported forcible rape (attempted or completed). By the start of the second year (lifetime prevalence), 26% and 22% had experienced incapacitated and forcible rape (attempted or completed), respectively. Conclusions Both incapacitated and forcible sexual assaults and rape have reached epidemic levels among college women. Interventions to address sexual violence on campus are urgently needed. PMID:26003585

  9. There are no "innocent victims": the influence of just world beliefs and prior victimization on rape myth acceptance.

    PubMed

    Vonderhaar, Rebecca L; Carmody, Dianne Cyr

    2015-06-01

    Utilizing data from an online survey of 979 university students, this study explores the relationship between prior sexual assault victimization experiences, belief in a just world, and acceptance of rape myths. Results indicated that men, younger respondents, and those with less education were more likely to support rape myths. Support for just world beliefs and rape myths were also positively associated, while rape victims exhibited less support for rape myths than non-victims. Implications for future studies are discussed.

  10. The right to protection from sexual assault: the Indian anti-rape campaign.

    PubMed

    Gangoli, G

    1996-11-01

    This article reveals a viewpoint that emphasizes some dilemmas among Indian feminist practice, women's sexuality in legal terms, and case law in India. The Indian Women's Movement (IWM) was successful in 1983 in adding a legal amendment on rape and child abuse. The case that mobilized women to change the law occurred in 1980 when a court acquitted two policemen who were charged with raping and molesting a 16-year-old tribal girl. The Bombay High Court overturned the judgement and convicted both policemen. The case was appealed, and the policemen successfully argued that rape did not occur because the girl did not protest and was sexually experienced anyway. In 1980 the Forum Against Rape was formed to mobilize public support and to lobby the State for reform of the law on rape. The campaign focused on custodial rape and political repression, rape as civil rights issue, and rape as a women's issue. There was a distancing between the victim, who occupied a lower caste and class position, and her defenders in the women's groups. The campaign appealed to both the appropriate judgement of the State and the denial that the State was an effective vehicle for change. The campaign did not directly address incest and marital rape or domestic violence within families. The legislature debated the issue of legal change during 1982. The debate revealed deep divisions about sexuality and women's status. It was argued that chaste women were not rape victims, and unchaste women were of a socially inferior caste and class. It was argued that there should be a ban on child marriage rather than spousal rape laws. Child rape is a legal issue only when the perpetrator is outside the family. Rape was discussed as an act of lust and not violence. In 1992, a woman promoting an end to child marriage was raped and the men were acquitted. It was argued that the law was out-of-date and in need of revision. PMID:12291816

  11. The right to protection from sexual assault: the Indian anti-rape campaign.

    PubMed

    Gangoli, G

    1996-11-01

    This article reveals a viewpoint that emphasizes some dilemmas among Indian feminist practice, women's sexuality in legal terms, and case law in India. The Indian Women's Movement (IWM) was successful in 1983 in adding a legal amendment on rape and child abuse. The case that mobilized women to change the law occurred in 1980 when a court acquitted two policemen who were charged with raping and molesting a 16-year-old tribal girl. The Bombay High Court overturned the judgement and convicted both policemen. The case was appealed, and the policemen successfully argued that rape did not occur because the girl did not protest and was sexually experienced anyway. In 1980 the Forum Against Rape was formed to mobilize public support and to lobby the State for reform of the law on rape. The campaign focused on custodial rape and political repression, rape as civil rights issue, and rape as a women's issue. There was a distancing between the victim, who occupied a lower caste and class position, and her defenders in the women's groups. The campaign appealed to both the appropriate judgement of the State and the denial that the State was an effective vehicle for change. The campaign did not directly address incest and marital rape or domestic violence within families. The legislature debated the issue of legal change during 1982. The debate revealed deep divisions about sexuality and women's status. It was argued that chaste women were not rape victims, and unchaste women were of a socially inferior caste and class. It was argued that there should be a ban on child marriage rather than spousal rape laws. Child rape is a legal issue only when the perpetrator is outside the family. Rape was discussed as an act of lust and not violence. In 1992, a woman promoting an end to child marriage was raped and the men were acquitted. It was argued that the law was out-of-date and in need of revision.

  12. [Potential role of winter rape weeds in the extension of broomrape in Poitou-Charentes].

    PubMed

    Gibot-Leclerc, Stéphanie; Brault, Marianne; Pinochet, Xavier; Sallé, Georges

    2003-07-01

    In the Poitou-Charentes district, among the 82 species of winter rape weeds identified, 22 displayed a strong affinity for this crop (Brassica napus L.). In fields, 50% of these weeds were parasitized by Orobanche ramosa, playing the role of host plants. Greenhouse co-cultures (weed/Orobanche ramosa) showed that weeds non-parasitized in fields could be attacked by broomrape, developing a more or less complete cycle. In vitro co-cultures (weed/Orobanche ramosa) revealed that root exudates of non-parasitized weeds, in fields or in greenhouse co-cultures, could induce Orobanche ramosa seed germination, but not attachment. These weeds could play the role of false hosts. PMID:14556384

  13. Rape Myth Acceptance in College Students: A Literature Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Iconis, Rosemary

    2008-01-01

    Sexual violence is a common phenomenon in the United States. College women appear to be at an even higher risk than those in the general population. Though there is much we still do not know about the causes of sexual violence, the acceptance of rape myths has been associated with the perpetration of sexual assaults.

  14. Detecting ketamine in beverage residues: Application in date rape detection.

    PubMed

    Albright, Jessica A; Stevens, Sarah A; Beussman, Douglas J

    2012-05-01

    Ketamine can be used to facilitate date-rape when unknowingly spiked into a victim's beverage. If a biological sample is not available from the victim, the beverage container might be the only remaining source of forensic evidence. We present a rapid, simple analysis method for the detection of ketamine in wet or dry beverage residues based on liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS). Wet residues consist of the final few drops (<1 ml) in a container while dry residues are the remains once all liquid has evaporated. By using LC-MS, which readily handles aqueous samples, often no derivatization or sample extraction is needed, thus reducing analysis time and lab technician involvement. Tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS) provides an enhancement in both selectivity and sensitivity. We have studied a range of beverages and determined limits of detection between 1.2 × 10-3 and 1.3 × 10-4 mg/ml, compared to 0.21-0.85 mg/ml used in most date-rape scenarios. This paper represents the first published report of using LC-MS/MS for the analysis of beverage residues for the presence of a date-rape drug. This method could replace the current gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) methods and provide a faster, more selective method for the analysis of date-rape drugs, requiring virtually no sample preparation. PMID:22114065

  15. Evaluation of an Intervention To Change Attitudes Toward Date Rape.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lanier, Cynthia A.; Elliott, Marc N.; Martin, David W.; Kapadia, Asha

    1998-01-01

    Describes the design and evaluates effectiveness of a program at a private college to change freshman (n=615) attitudes about date rape and sexual assault. Intervention for the experimental group involved viewing a play performed by students; the control group viewed an alternative play addressing multicultural issues. Results indicated improved…

  16. Pornography, Sexual Callousness, and the Trivialization of Rape.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zillmann, Dolf; Bryant, Jennings

    1982-01-01

    Explored the consequences of continued exposure to pornography on beliefs about sexuality in general and on dispositions toward women in particular. Found that massive exposure to pornography resulted in a loss of compassion toward women as rape victims and toward women in general. (PD)

  17. [Medicolegal considerations about rape as a reason to decriminalize abortion].

    PubMed

    González-Wilhelm, Leonardo; Moreno, Leonardo; Carnevali, Raúl

    2016-06-01

    The Chilean senate is discussing a proposal to decriminalize abortion in 3 causals. One of these is when the pregnancy occurs as a result of a rape. To be legally able to perform the abortion in this circumstance, a health care team must confirm the occurrence of the facts constituting the offence. Regardless of the patient’s will, the accusation will be reported to the justice. In our view, in its current status the proposed rule does not consider certain medicolegal and procedural topics. Those flaws may determine in certain scenarios critical problems, such as: a) a wrongful conviction as a consequence of a false allegation of rape; (b) some pregnant due to a rape will not have access to the abortion procedure; (c) some accusations of rape will not be accredited nor criminally sanctioned. Employing a fictional case, we illustrate how those scenarios can actually be seen in practice. We also emphasize the difficulties and limitations that the health care team will encounter if the project is approved under the current conditions. Finally, we encourage the professional societies implicated in the theme to contribute in the legislatorial debate. Therefore, we give a set of proposals aimed to improve the bill before it may be enacted as a law.

  18. Why Rape Survivors Participate in the Criminal Justice System

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Patterson, Debra; Campbell, Rebecca

    2010-01-01

    After a rape, survivors may seek help from multiple community organizations including the criminal justice system (CJS). Research has found that few survivors report their assaults to the police and of those who do report, many withdraw their participation during the investigation. However, relatively little is known about the factors that lead…

  19. Perceptions Matter: Case Studies of Policing Statutory Rape

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kandakai, Tina L.; Ding, Kele; Broomfield, Tyree S.; Iverson, Susan V.

    2013-01-01

    The legal parameters regarding adult-child sexual intimacy varies across states. In many states, rules regarding the definition of "child" and age-of-consent laws seem to perpetuate lax and ambivalent responses to adult- child sex. To explore the criminal response to adult-child sex, particularly statutory rape, seven active male and…

  20. Alcohol-Involved Rapes: Are They More Violent?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abbey, Antonia; Clinton, A. Monique; McAuslan, Pam; Zawacki, Tina; Buck, Philip O.

    2002-01-01

    Alcohol's psychological, cognitive, and motor effects contribute to rape. Based on theory and past research, we hypothesized that there would be a curvilinear relationship between the quantity of alcohol consumed by perpetrators and how aggressively they behaved. Moderate levels of intoxication encourage aggressiveness; however, extreme levels…

  1. Responding to the rape of Indonesian Chinese women and girls.

    PubMed

    1998-09-01

    In May 1998, 168 women and girls were gang-raped during the Jakarta riots. In response, the Humanity Volunteer Team, a nongovernmental organization, set up a Violence Against Women Division. This group is composed of 400 people from diverse backgrounds and ethnic groups who undergo training and then volunteer their services to provide psychological and physical support to the affected victims and their families and to investigate the crimes. The volunteers have adopted a holistic approach and work with the cooperation of private hospitals. They accomplish their work in a climate of fear because it is considered subversive simply to bring this issue to light. Rape survivors and their families, as well as medical staff and volunteers, have been intimidated to the point that many rape survivors have traveled abroad to seek treatment. Long-term prevention strategies should include 1) a state apology to rape survivors and their communities, 2) an independent investigation to expose the perpetrators, and 3) the protection of the civil rights of the minority Chinese in Indonesia. PMID:12294313

  2. Rape and Older Women: A Guide to Prevention and Protection.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davis, Linda J.; Brody, Elaine M.

    Due to rising violent crime rates, crime and fear of victimization have joined health, income and housing as major concerns of older Americans. This guide proposes solutions which reflect the best available information. The three main sections focus on rape of women over 50, its prevention, and education programs and training aids. The guidelines…

  3. Causal Attributions and Recovery from Rape: Implications for Counseling.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frazier, Patricia A.; Schauben, Laura J.

    One factor related to postrape trauma is the survivor's belief about the cause of the rape. Most research to date on the relation between causal attributions and postrape recovery has been guided by a theoretical model which proposes that certain types of self-blame can be adaptive for survivors. Specifically, behavioral self-blame is thought to…

  4. [Medicolegal considerations about rape as a reason to decriminalize abortion].

    PubMed

    González-Wilhelm, Leonardo; Moreno, Leonardo; Carnevali, Raúl

    2016-06-01

    The Chilean senate is discussing a proposal to decriminalize abortion in 3 causals. One of these is when the pregnancy occurs as a result of a rape. To be legally able to perform the abortion in this circumstance, a health care team must confirm the occurrence of the facts constituting the offence. Regardless of the patient’s will, the accusation will be reported to the justice. In our view, in its current status the proposed rule does not consider certain medicolegal and procedural topics. Those flaws may determine in certain scenarios critical problems, such as: a) a wrongful conviction as a consequence of a false allegation of rape; (b) some pregnant due to a rape will not have access to the abortion procedure; (c) some accusations of rape will not be accredited nor criminally sanctioned. Employing a fictional case, we illustrate how those scenarios can actually be seen in practice. We also emphasize the difficulties and limitations that the health care team will encounter if the project is approved under the current conditions. Finally, we encourage the professional societies implicated in the theme to contribute in the legislatorial debate. Therefore, we give a set of proposals aimed to improve the bill before it may be enacted as a law. PMID:27598498

  5. [Effects of sowing date and planting density on the seed yield and oil content of winter oilseed rape].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Shu-Jie; Li, Ling; Zhang, Chun-Lei

    2012-05-01

    A field experiment was conducted to investigate the effects of different sowing date and planting density on the seed yield and seed oil content of winter oilseed rape (Brassica napus). Sowing date mainly affected the seed yield of branch raceme, while planting density affected the seed yields of both branch raceme and main raceme. The seed oil content was less affected by sowing date. The proportion of the seed yield of main raceme to the seed yield per plant increased with increasing planting density, and the seed oil content of main raceme was about 1% higher than that of branch raceme. Consequently, the seed oil production per plot increased significantly with increasing planting density. In the experimental region, the sowing date of winter oilseed rape should be earlier than mid-October. When sowing in late October, the seed yield would be decreased significantly. A planting density of 36-48 plants x m(-2) could improve the seed yield and oil content of winter oilseed rape.

  6. Specifics of soil temperature under winter oilseed rape canopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krčmářová, Jana; Středa, Tomáš; Pokorný, Radovan

    2014-09-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the course of soil temperature under the winter oilseed rape canopy and to determine relationships between soil temperature, air temperature and partly soil moisture. In addition, the aim was to describe the dependence by means of regression equations usable for pests and pathogens prediction, crop development, and yields models. The measurement of soil and near the ground air temperatures was performed at the experimental field Žabiče (South Moravia, the Czech Republic). The course of temperature was determined under or in the winter oilseed rape canopy during spring growth season in the course of four years (2010 - 2012 and 2014). In all years, the standard varieties (Petrol, Sherpa) were grown, in 2014 the semi-dwarf variety PX104 was added. Automatic soil sensors were positioned at three depths (0.05, 0.10 and 0.20 m) under soil surface, air temperature sensors in 0.05 m above soil surfaces. The course of soil temperature differs significantly between standard (Sherpa and Petrol) and semi-dwarf (PX104) varieties. Results of the cross correlation analysis showed, that the best interrelationships between air and soil temperature were achieved in 2 hours delay for the soil temperature in 0.05 m, 4 hour delay for 0.10 m and 7 hour delay for 0.20 m for standard varieties. For semi-dwarf variety, this delay reached 6 hour for the soil temperature in 0.05 m, 7 hour delay for 0.10 m and 11 hour for 0.20 m. After the time correction, the determination coefficient (R2) reached values from 0.67 to 0.95 for 0.05 m, 0.50 to 0.84 for 0.10 m in variety Sherpa during all experimental years. For variety PX104 this coefficient reached values from 0.51 to 0.72 in 0.05 m depth and from 0.39 to 0.67 in 0.10 m depth in the year 2014. The determination coefficient in the 0.20 m depth was lower for both varieties; its values were from 0.15 to 0.65 in variety Sherpa. In variety PX104 the values of R2 from 0.23 to 0.57 were determined. When using

  7. Algerian abortion controversy highlights rape of war victims.

    PubMed

    Chelala, C

    1998-05-01

    This brief article highlights the change in Islamic practices to allow abortion for women raped during war situations in Algeria. The Islamic Supreme Council on April 12, 1998, issued an edict (fatwa) that allowed abortions for women attacked by Islamic extremists. This changes the prior prohibition of abortion, except in cases where the mother's life is in danger. The day after the edict, the newspapers Le Matin and La Tribune denied the existence of the edict, because the President's council did not request the change in Islamic law. The newspaper Al Khabar published the April 12, 1998, news of the edict and drew attention to the fate of over 1000 women and young girls raped during attacks. An estimated 70,000 people have been reported killed since 1992. The war was precipitated when the army nullified national elections that would have given the Islamic party political power. The Algerian Family Solidarity Ministry reports that as many as 1600 women, mostly aged 13-20 years, have been abducted and raped since 1994, by bands from the Armed Islamic Group. Figures are considered underestimates. Many women were able to escape from captors, but many of these women were pregnant. The stigma is so strong that many of these women will not be accepted home by their own families. In addition to those women who survived being raped, an estimated 2000 raped women were killed by their captors. The abductions have declined, but are still ongoing, especially around Algiers and near the Moroccan and Tunisian borders. The terrorists consider the act a "temporary marriage." Amnesty International and others have criticized the recent UN Human Rights Commission for not taking action in Algeria.

  8. Rape against Brazilian Women: Characteristics of Victims and Sex Offenders

    PubMed Central

    SOUTO, Rafaella Q.; ARAÚJO, Francisco K. C. D.; XAVIER, Alidianne F. C.; CAVALCANTI, Alessandro L.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Violence against women is a serious social problem and affects mainly young women. This study aimed to evaluate sexual violence against women in Campina Grande, Brazil. Methods: A retrospective study with analysis of 886 forensic medical reports of sexual violence from the Institute of Legal Medicine of Campina Grande, Brazil, was conducted between January 2005 and December 2009. Sociodemographic variables related to victims, offenders and aggressions were analyzed. Significance level of 5% was adopted. Results: Two hundred and ninety-one cases of rape (32.8%) were confirmed, the majority of victims aged between 0 and 19 years (89.9%), were single (98.8%) and had low educational level (86.9%), with association with marital status (P = 0.02). The sex offender was known to the victim in 84.2% of cases and in 93.8% of cases, he acted alone. There was an association between rape and the relationship with the offenders (P = 0.01) and the age of the offenders (P = 0.03). The rape occurred in most cases at the home of victims (49.3%), with the use of violence in 72.3% of cases, but only 5.7% of the victims exhibited physical injuries. There was an association between rape and variables date of occurrence (P = 0.001), previous virginity (P = 0.001) and violence during practice (P = 0.001). Conclusion: Over one third of women were victims of rape, predominantly adolescents, unmarried and with low educational level. The offenders were known to the victims, and acted alone in most situations, making use of physical violence. PMID:26811812

  9. Thiamethoxam: Assessing flight activity of honeybees foraging on treated oilseed rape using radio frequency identification technology.

    PubMed

    Thompson, Helen; Coulson, Mike; Ruddle, Natalie; Wilkins, Selwyn; Harkin, Sarah

    2016-02-01

    The present study was designed to assess homing behavior of bees foraging on winter oilseed rape grown from seed treated with thiamethoxam (as Cruiser OSR), with 1 field drilled with thiamethoxam-treated seed and 2 control fields drilled with fungicide-only-treated seed. Twelve honeybee colonies were used per treatment group, 4 each located at the field edge (on-field site), at approximately 500 m and 1000 m from the field. A total of nearly 300 newly emerged bees per colony were fitted (tagged) with Mic3 radio frequency identification (RFID) transponders and introduced into each of the 36 study hives. The RFID readers fitted to the entrances of the test colonies were used to monitor the activity of the tagged bees for the duration of the 5-wk flowering period of the crop. These activity data were analyzed to assess any impact on flight activity of bees foraging on the treated compared with untreated crops. Honeybees were seen to be actively foraging within all 3 treatment groups during the exposure period. The data for the more than 3000 RFID-tagged bees and more than 90 000 foraging flights monitored throughout the exposure phase for the study follow the same trends across the treatment and controls and at each of the 3 apiary distances, indicating that there were no effects from foraging on the treated crop. Under the experimental conditions, there was no effect of foraging on thiamethoxam-treated oilseed rape on honeybee flight activity or on their ability to return to the hive.

  10. Misogyny, acculturation, and ethnic identity: relation to rape-supportive attitudes in Asian American college men.

    PubMed

    Koo, Kelly H; Stephens, Kari A; Lindgren, Kristen P; George, William H

    2012-08-01

    Asian Americans have been understudied with respect to sexuality and rape and its contributory factors. Some attitudinal research has shown that Asian American college males tend to hold more rape-supportive beliefs than their White counterparts. Generally, this research treats ethnicity as a proxy for culture rather than examining specific facets of culture per se. The current study incorporated measures of misogynistic beliefs, acculturation, and ethnic identity to investigate these ethnic differences in rape-supportive attitudes. White (n = 222) and Asian American (n = 155) college men read an acquaintance rape vignette and evaluated it on four judgments: how much they blamed the perpetrator and the victim, how credible they viewed the victim's refusal, and to what degree they defined the event as rape. Consistent with previous research, Asian American men made more rape-supportive judgments than Whites. This relationship was partially mediated by misogynistic beliefs for all judgments except the extent to which they defined the vignette as rape. Among Asian Americans, acculturation was negatively associated with all four rape vignette judgments above and beyond generational status, and ethnic identity was positively associated with two of the four judgments above and beyond acculturation and generational status. These findings suggest that cultural constructs are relevant to understanding rape-supportive attitudes among Asian American men, and may be useful for promoting culturally enhanced theoretical models of rape and sexual assault prevention efforts, as well as a deeper understanding of cultural influences on sexuality.

  11. Stop blaming the victim: a meta-analysis on rape myths.

    PubMed

    Suarez, Eliana; Gadalla, Tahany M

    2010-11-01

    Although male rape is being reported more often than before, the majority of rape victims continue to be women. Rape myths-false beliefs used mainly to shift the blame of rape from perpetrators to victims-are also prevalent in today's society and in many ways contribute toward the pervasiveness of rape. Despite this, there has been limited consideration as to how rape prevention programs and policies can address this phenomenon, and there is no updated information on the demographic, attitudinal, or behavioral factors currently associated with rape myths. This research aimed to address this gap by examining the correlates of rape-myths acceptance (RMA) in published studies. A total of 37 studies were reviewed, and their results were combined using meta-analytic techniques. Overall, the findings indicated that men displayed a significantly higher endorsement of RMA than women. RMA was also strongly associated with hostile attitudes and behaviors toward women, thus supporting feminist premise that sexism perpetuates RMA. RMA was also found to be correlated with other "isms," such as racism, heterosexism, classism, and ageism. These findings suggest that rape prevention programs and policies must be broadened to incorporate strategies that also address other oppressive beliefs concurrent with RMA. Indeed, a renewed awareness of how RMA shapes societal perceptions of rape victims, including perceptions of service providers, could also reduce victims' re-victimization and enhance their coping mechanisms.

  12. Predictive factors of chronic Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder in rape victims.

    PubMed

    Darves-Bornoz, J M; Lépine, J P; Choquet, M; Berger, C; Degiovanni, A; Gaillard, P

    1998-09-01

    This study aimed to investigate the psychological disorders following rape as well as the course of Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD), and to determine clinical factors predictive of chronic PTSD. Seventy-three rape victims were observed in a systematic follow-up study over 1 year following rape using structured interview schedules. The frequency of PTSD was massive. The early disorders predicting PTSD 1 year after rape included somatoform and dissociative disorders, agoraphobia and specific phobias as well as depressive and gender identity disorders and alcohol abuse. Through stepwise logistic regressions, the following were found to be good models of prediction of chronic PTSD 1 year after rape: for the characteristics of the traumas, intrafamily rape, being physically assaulted outside rape, and added physical violence during rape; for the early psychological and behavioural attitudes, low self-esteem, permanent feelings of emptiness and running away; and for early mental disorders, agoraphobia and depressive disorders. Finally, among all these predictive factors, added physical violence during rape, low self-esteem, permanent feelings of emptiness and agoraphobia were shown to constitute a strong model of predictors. People presenting features such as the predictive factors of chronic PTSD found in the study should be asked about a history of rape and symptoms of PTSD.

  13. Determination of benazolin-ethyl residues in soil and rape seed by SPE clean-up and GC with electron capture detection.

    PubMed

    Liu, Xiaolu; Yang, Tao; Hu, Jiye

    2013-01-01

    A method has been developed and established for residue determination of benazolin-ethyl in soil and rape seed samples by gas chromatography with electron capture detection (GC-ECD). Limits of quantification of the method are 0.005 mg/kg for both soil and rape seed, which are sufficiently below the maximum residue limit, and the limit of detection is 0.0023 ng. The average recoveries of the analyte range from 85.89 to 105.84% with relative standard deviations (coefficient of variation) less than 5.53% at the three spike levels (0.005, 0.1 and 0.5 mg/kg). The half-life of benazolin-ethyl in soil from the experimental field is 4.62 days. The final residues of benazolin-ethyl in soil and rape seed samples are lower than 0.005 mg/kg at harvest time. Direct confirmation of the analyte in real samples is achieved by GC-mass spectrometry. It is demonstrated that the proposed method is simple, rapid and efficient, and reliable to detect benazolin-ethyl residues in soil and rape seed samples.

  14. Determination of benazolin-ethyl residues in soil and rape seed by SPE clean-up and GC with electron capture detection.

    PubMed

    Liu, Xiaolu; Yang, Tao; Hu, Jiye

    2013-01-01

    A method has been developed and established for residue determination of benazolin-ethyl in soil and rape seed samples by gas chromatography with electron capture detection (GC-ECD). Limits of quantification of the method are 0.005 mg/kg for both soil and rape seed, which are sufficiently below the maximum residue limit, and the limit of detection is 0.0023 ng. The average recoveries of the analyte range from 85.89 to 105.84% with relative standard deviations (coefficient of variation) less than 5.53% at the three spike levels (0.005, 0.1 and 0.5 mg/kg). The half-life of benazolin-ethyl in soil from the experimental field is 4.62 days. The final residues of benazolin-ethyl in soil and rape seed samples are lower than 0.005 mg/kg at harvest time. Direct confirmation of the analyte in real samples is achieved by GC-mass spectrometry. It is demonstrated that the proposed method is simple, rapid and efficient, and reliable to detect benazolin-ethyl residues in soil and rape seed samples. PMID:22718745

  15. Reading Playboy for the articles: the graying of rape myths in black and white text, 1953 to 2003.

    PubMed

    Kettrey, Heather Hensman

    2013-08-01

    This longitudinal investigation analyzes the manner in which rape myths are conveyed through textual material published in Playboy. Results indicate that Playboy (a) portrays rape as a gender-neutral issue, ignoring patriarchal roots of sexual violence against women, and (b) promulgates ambiguous discourse, which is equally likely to endorse and refute rape myths. Interestingly, readers' contributions are most often the source of refutations of rape myths. Overall, findings suggest that little progress has been made over time in deconstructing rape myths promulgated to men, as this particular men's publication has consistently painted a gray picture in which refutations have remained unsuccessful in disempowering rape myths.

  16. The efficacy of a high school rape prevention program in Israel.

    PubMed

    Moor, Avigail

    2011-01-01

    Sexual violence against women and girls in Israel is rather prevalent. To address this problem, the Association of Rape Crisis Centers in Israel (ARCCI) provides rape prevention programs for middle to high school teens. These programs have been in place for several decades, but their effectiveness has not been evaluated empirically to date. This study seeks to fill this gap by performing an evaluation of one such preventive program. Three hundred and ninety-four 11th graders completed a preintervention and postintervention questionnaire, assessing their rape-related attitudes and behaviors. Results indicate a significant improvement following the workshop in the understanding of what distinguishes rape from mutually consensual relations, along with a substantial shift in many rape-supportive attitudes. At the same time, some victim blaming still remained. Likewise, self-reported behavioral changes were minimal, possibly because of a ceiling effect. Implications for future rape prevention programs in Israel are discussed. PMID:21846018

  17. An empirical study of rape in the context of multiple murder.

    PubMed

    DeLisi, Matt

    2014-03-01

    In recent years, multiple homicide offending has received increased research attention from criminologists; however, there is mixed evidence about the role of rape toward the perpetration of multiple murder. Drawing on criminal career data from a nonprobability sample of 618 confined male homicide offenders selected from eight U.S. states, the current study examines the role of rape as a predictor of multiple homicide offending. Bivariate analyses indicated a significant association between rape and murder charges. Multivariate path regression models indicated that rape had a significant and robust association with multiple murder. This relationship withstood the confounding effects of kidnapping, prior prison confinement, and prior murder, rape, and kidnapping. These results provide evidence that rape potentially serves as a gateway to multiple murder for some serious offenders. Suggestions for future research are proffered.

  18. The efficacy of a high school rape prevention program in Israel.

    PubMed

    Moor, Avigail

    2011-01-01

    Sexual violence against women and girls in Israel is rather prevalent. To address this problem, the Association of Rape Crisis Centers in Israel (ARCCI) provides rape prevention programs for middle to high school teens. These programs have been in place for several decades, but their effectiveness has not been evaluated empirically to date. This study seeks to fill this gap by performing an evaluation of one such preventive program. Three hundred and ninety-four 11th graders completed a preintervention and postintervention questionnaire, assessing their rape-related attitudes and behaviors. Results indicate a significant improvement following the workshop in the understanding of what distinguishes rape from mutually consensual relations, along with a substantial shift in many rape-supportive attitudes. At the same time, some victim blaming still remained. Likewise, self-reported behavioral changes were minimal, possibly because of a ceiling effect. Implications for future rape prevention programs in Israel are discussed.

  19. Battles on women's bodies: war, rape and traumatisation in eastern Democratic Republic of Congo.

    PubMed

    Trenholm, J E; Olsson, P; Ahlberg, B M

    2011-01-01

    Rape has been used as a weapon in the conflict in eastern Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC) in unprecedented ways. Research into the phenomenon of war-rape is limited, particularly in this context. The aim of this study was to explore perceptions of local leaders in eastern DRC concerning rape and raped women in the war context. Local leaders were chosen for their ability to both reflect and influence their constituencies. Interviews were conducted with 10 local leaders and transcripts subjected to qualitative content analysis. The study suggests that mass raping and the methods of perpetration created a chaos effectively destroying communities and the entire society and that humanitarian aid was often inappropriate. Furthermore, an exclusive focus on raped women missed the extent of traumatisation entire communities suffered. More significantly, the lack of political will, corruption, greed and inappropriate aid creates a tangled web serving to intensify the war. This complexity has implications for humanitarian interventions including public health.

  20. Gender equality and women's absolute status: a test of the feminist models of rape.

    PubMed

    Martin, Kimberly; Vieraitis, Lynne M; Britto, Sarah

    2006-04-01

    Feminist theory predicts both a positive and negative relationship between gender equality and rape rates. Although liberal and radical feminist theory predicts that gender equality should ameliorate rape victimization, radical feminist theorists have argued that gender equality may increase rape in the form of male backlash. Alternatively, Marxist criminologists focus on women's absolute socioeconomic status rather than gender equality as a predictor of rape rates, whereas socialist feminists combine both radical and Marxist perspectives. This study uses factor analysis to overcome multicollinearity limitations of past studies while exploring the relationship between women's absolute and relative socioeconomic status on rape rates in major U.S. cities using 2000 census data. The findings indicate support for both the Marxist and radical feminist explanations of rape but no support for the ameliorative hypothesis. These findings support a more inclusive socialist feminist theory that takes both Marxist and radical feminist hypotheses into account. PMID:16567334

  1. Gender equality and women's absolute status: a test of the feminist models of rape.

    PubMed

    Martin, Kimberly; Vieraitis, Lynne M; Britto, Sarah

    2006-04-01

    Feminist theory predicts both a positive and negative relationship between gender equality and rape rates. Although liberal and radical feminist theory predicts that gender equality should ameliorate rape victimization, radical feminist theorists have argued that gender equality may increase rape in the form of male backlash. Alternatively, Marxist criminologists focus on women's absolute socioeconomic status rather than gender equality as a predictor of rape rates, whereas socialist feminists combine both radical and Marxist perspectives. This study uses factor analysis to overcome multicollinearity limitations of past studies while exploring the relationship between women's absolute and relative socioeconomic status on rape rates in major U.S. cities using 2000 census data. The findings indicate support for both the Marxist and radical feminist explanations of rape but no support for the ameliorative hypothesis. These findings support a more inclusive socialist feminist theory that takes both Marxist and radical feminist hypotheses into account.

  2. Influence of development stage of spring oilseed rape and spring wheat on interception of wet-deposited radiocaesium and radiostrontium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bengtsson, S. B.; Eriksson, J.; Gärdenäs, A. I.; Rosén, K.

    2012-12-01

    The dry and wet deposition of radionuclides released into the atmosphere can be intercepted by vegetation in terrestrial ecosystems. The aim of this study was to quantify the interception of wet deposited 134Cs and 85Sr by spring oilseed rape (Brassíca napus L.) and spring wheat (Tríticum aestívum L.). The dependency of the intercepted fraction (f) on total above ground plant biomass, growing stage and the Leaf Area Index (LAI) was quantified. A trial was established in Uppsala (east central Sweden), with land management in accordance to common agricultural practices. The field trial was a randomised block design of 1 × 1 m2 parcels with three replicates. During the growing season of 2010, a rainfall simulator deposited 134Cs and 85Sr during six different growth stages. Two to 3 h after deposition, the biomass of the centre 25 × 25 cm2 area of each parcel was sampled and above ground biomass and LAI were measured. The radioactivity concentration and radioactivity of samples were measured by High Purity Germanium (HPGe)-detectors. For 134Cs, there was a correlation between f and LAI (r2 = 0.55, p < 0.05) for spring wheat, but not for spring oilseed rape (r2 = 0.28, p > 0.05). For 85Sr, there was a correlation between f and LAI for both crops (r2 = 0.41, p < 0.05 for spring oilseed rape and r2 = 0.48 p, <0.05 for spring wheat). There was no correlation between f and above ground plant biomass in spring oilseed rape for either 134Cs (r2 = 0.01, p > 0.05) or for 85Sr (r2 = 0.11, p > 0.05). For spring wheat, there was a correlation for both 134Cs (r2 = 0.36, p < 0.05) and 85Sr (r2 = 0.32, p < 0.05). For spring oilseed rape, f was highest at growth stage 'stem elongation' for 134Cs (0.32 ± 0.22) and 85Sr (0.41 ± 0.29). For spring wheat, f was highest at growth stage 'ripening' for both radionuclides (134Cs was 0.36 ± 0.14 and 85Sr was 0.48 ± 0.18). Thus, LAI can be used to quantify interception of both radionuclides for both crops, whereas, above ground plant

  3. The mental health focus in rape crisis services: tensions and recommendations.

    PubMed

    Woody, Jane D; Beldin, Kerry L

    2012-01-01

    In the evolution of rape crisis services, tensions persist between rape crisis service programs and mental health professionals. Changes within these programs and professions have brought the embedded concerns to the surface, but they remain unexamined and unresolved. Recent research on rape trauma and survivors' mental health needs has added to tensions by calling for description and evaluation of rape crisis services and timely psychological treatment for survivors. This article offers a new perspective by discussing the tensions in an open but balanced way so as to promote discussion and solutions. Recommendations and action steps are offered for promoting constructive dialogue and change to improve direct services for survivors. PMID:22455187

  4. A review of cognitive factors in the etiology of rape: theories, empirical studies, and implications.

    PubMed

    Drieschner, K; Lange, A

    1999-01-01

    In the past decade, research into the etiology of rape has increasingly focused on cognitive variables. The studies reviewed in the present article provide evidence that men with a high proclivity to rape have more rape supportive attitudes, are more likely to consider victims to be responsible for rape, and are less knowledgeable about the negative impact of rape on the victims. These men tend to misperceive cues emitted by women in heterosocial interactions; fail to generate inhibitory self-verbalizations to suppress association of sex and aggression; and have more coercive, sexual fantasies. Furthermore, a high proclivity to rape is associated with a semantic network in which concepts of sex and power are closely linked in such a way that power cues are necessary precursors of sexual feelings. Multivariate studies suggest that rape-supportive attitudes interact with noncognitive factors in the etiology of rape. Implications for rape prevention and treatment of rapists are considered. Finally, methodological issues are discussed, and recommendations for future research are given. PMID:9987584

  5. The mental health focus in rape crisis services: tensions and recommendations.

    PubMed

    Woody, Jane D; Beldin, Kerry L

    2012-01-01

    In the evolution of rape crisis services, tensions persist between rape crisis service programs and mental health professionals. Changes within these programs and professions have brought the embedded concerns to the surface, but they remain unexamined and unresolved. Recent research on rape trauma and survivors' mental health needs has added to tensions by calling for description and evaluation of rape crisis services and timely psychological treatment for survivors. This article offers a new perspective by discussing the tensions in an open but balanced way so as to promote discussion and solutions. Recommendations and action steps are offered for promoting constructive dialogue and change to improve direct services for survivors.

  6. [Extraction of rape seed proanthocyanidin with ultrasonic wave].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xiao-Jun; Wu, Jian-Ming; Xia, Chun-Tang; Zhu, Jian; Xie, Zheng-Rong

    2010-01-01

    Rape seed proanthocyanidin was extracted by ultrasonic technology, and the conditions of extraction were studied. The results showed that the order of the factors which influenced the extraction effects were as follows: ethanol concentration, extracting temperature, ultrasonic extracting time and the ratio of the quantity of raw material to extraction agent (w/v). The optimal conditions were as follows: temperature: 60 degrees C, extracting agent: 60% ethanol aqueous, the ratio of the quantity of raw material to extracting agent: 1 : 20 (w/v), extracting number: 3 times, extracting time: 20 min, respectively. The yield of proanthocyanidins extracted by ultrasonic technology was 84.5% higher than traditional method. Rape Seed was rich in proanthocyanidin.

  7. Restoring rape survivors: justice, advocacy, and a call to action.

    PubMed

    Koss, Mary P

    2006-11-01

    Rape results in mental and physical health, social, and legal consequences. For the latter, restorative justice-based programs might augment community response, but they generate controversy among advocates and policy makers. This article identifies survivors' needs and existing community responses to them. Survivors feel their legal needs are most poorly met due to justice system problems that can be summarized as attrition, retraumatization, and disparate treatment across gender, class, and ethnic lines. Empirical data support each problem and the conclusion that present justice options are inadequate. The article concludes by identifying common ground in advocacy and restorative justice goals and calls for a holistic approach to the needs of rape survivors that includes advocating for expanded justice alternatives. A call to action is issued to implement restorative alternatives to expand survivor choice and offender accountability. Conventional and restorative justice are often viewed as mutually exclusive whereas the author argues they are complementary.

  8. [A technical suggestion for laboratory tests in cases of rape].

    PubMed

    Fazio Pellacchio, M C; Celli, R

    1994-01-01

    The paper suggests completing the clinical tests carried out in cases of rape by collecting material not only from the fornix of the vagina but also from the cervical canal using cotton-wool buds, and examining any spermatozoa adhering to the cotton filaments by staining with Baecchi's method. Alternatively, the paper suggests carrying out these tests in anticipation of their possible use as forensic evidence if requested by the court.

  9. Transesterification process to manufacture ethyl ester of rape oil

    SciTech Connect

    Korus, R.A.; Hoffman, D.S.; Bam, N.; Peterson, C.L.; Drown, D.C.

    1993-12-31

    A process for the production of the ethyl ester of winter rape [EEWR] for use as a biodiesel fuel has been studied. The essential part of the process is the transesterification of rape oil with ethanol, in the presence of a catalyst, to yield the ethyl ester of rape oil as a product and glycerin as a by-product. Experiments have been performed to determine the optimum conditions for the preparation of EEWR. The process variables were: (1) temperature, (2) catalyst, (3) rate of agitation, (4) water content of the alcohol used, and (5) the amount of excess alcohol used. The optimum conditions were: (1) room temperature, (2) 0.5% sodium methoxide or 1% potassium hydroxide catalyst by weight of rapeseed oil, (3) extremely vigorous agitation with some splashing during the initial phase of the reaction and agitation was not necessary after the reaction mixture became homogeneous, (4) absolute ethanol was necessary for high conversion, and (5) 50% excess ethanol with NaOCH{sub 3} or 100% excess with KOH gave a maximum conversion. Viscosity, cloud point and pour point of the EEWR were measured. A preliminary break-even cost for the commercial production of EEWR was found to be $0.55/liter [$2.08/US gallon].

  10. Changes of redox activity during the development of rape.

    PubMed

    Filek, Maria; Mirek, Magdalena; Długolecka, Monika

    2006-01-01

    Redox activity was measured in vegetative and generative apical parts (5 mm of the stem) and youngest leaves of winter (cv. "G6rczański") and spring (cv. "Młochowski") rape. Both genotypes were cultured under the same growth conditions (17/15 degrees C day/night, 16 h photo-period), but winter rape was additionally vernalized (5/2 degrees C day/night, 56 days) in order to induce the generative development. The cyclic voltammetric method was used to measure the redox potential of samples in the presence of Fe3+ ions. Changes in the redox activity were compared with changes in riboflavin content and activities of antioxidative enzymes: superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT). The higher level of Fe3+ ions and riboflavin detected in generative apices and leaves of winter and spring varieties indicated that electrons (and their donors) were present at a lower level in these organs in comparison with the vegetative ones. On the contrary, SOD and CAT activity were lower in generative than in vegetative organs. This confirms changes in the redox balance and involvement of oxygen radicals in the generative development of rape plants. The similarity of the measured parameters between winter and spring varieties indicates that the observed changes are independent of the way of generative induction (vernalization). Riboflavin can serve as one of the electron carriers between other oxidation-reduction substances.

  11. Don't tell: Military culture and male rape.

    PubMed

    O'Brien, Carol; Keith, Jessica; Shoemaker, Lisa

    2015-11-01

    The issue of sexual assault that occurs during military service has been a focus of attention over the past several years. Although approximately 50% of survivors of military sexual assault are men, virtually all of the literature focuses on the assault of female service members. Research has demonstrated that cultural variables are robust correlates of the sexual assault of women. This paper proposes that cultural variables are equally important when examining the rape of men, especially when this assault occurs in military contexts. We discuss male rape myths and related constructs as they are expressed within military culture. The results of data analysis from a treatment sample of veterans with military sexual trauma (MST)-related posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and clinical case examples are presented to further explore the concepts. We conclude that male rape myths and related beliefs that arise from cultural norms and are further amplified and modified by military culture impact male MST survivors and delay or obstruct their recovery. Suggestions for clinical application and future research are offered to encourage further efforts in this important area of practice. PMID:26524277

  12. Rape revisited: sexual violence against women in the former Yugoslavia.

    PubMed

    Valentich, M

    1994-01-01

    This article presents information on the rape of women in the former Yugoslavia, focusing more on Muslim women in Bosnia-Herzegovina, and examines the evolutionary, sociological, psychological, and feminist theories of this form of sexual violence. Using a case study approach, through documentation from newspapers and other media accounts, this paper investigated the sexual violence that featured strongly in the campaign of ethnic cleansing or genocide of Muslims in Bosnia-Herzegovina. It was noted that the variables of power, sex, and aggression in the context of war seem to be linked. This is particularly evident when authority legitimates sexual aggression. Without the backing of authority, some rape is expected, but not of such proportion or brutality. In terms of the theories, the evolutionary perspective appears to have limited applicability in explaining rape as an act of war. However, the feminist and macrosociological multivariate theories that focus on heterogeneity of the population, a cultural foundation of very traditional gender roles, and a historical tradition that legitimates sexual violence by armies in war-time, provide more persuasive insights.

  13. Factors that affect college students' perceptions of rape: what is the role of gender and other situational factors?

    PubMed

    Vandiver, Donna M; Dupalo, Jessica Rager

    2013-05-01

    Prior research has shown that various situational factors and behaviors can affect one's perception of whether a rape has occurred. Moreover, some hold false beliefs about rape. This can also affect one's perception of ambiguous situations. This study included the administration of a survey to 584 college students; the survey examined the prevalence of rape myths and responses to vignettes of potential rape scenarios. It was found that although the majority of this sample did not support rape myths, male students were significantly more likely than female students to support rape myths. Furthermore, approximately 20% of students did support one subscale of the rape myth scale: He didn't mean to [commit rape]. The results also revealed an interaction effect between the observer's sex and the victim's sex, suggesting a complex gender relationship.

  14. Rape and its relation to social disorganization, pornography and inequality in the USA.

    PubMed

    Baron, L; Straus, M A

    1989-01-01

    A theoretical model seeks to integrate social disorganization and feminist theories of rape, reporting an empirical test of that model using data on rapes per 100,000 population known to the police in the 50 states of the United States. The model includes the following aspects of the social organization of the states: social disorganization (measured by a six item index), sexual inequality (measured by a status of women index to men), pornography (measured by a sex magazine circulation index for eight sexually explicit magazines) and the level of culturally legitimate violence (measured by a 12 item legitimate violence index using indicators like corporal punishment in schools. There were marked differences between states of the USA in the incidence of rape during the 1980-82. Path analysis was used to test the theoretical model, which posits rape as a function of the direct and indirect effects of social disorganization, sexual inequality, pornography, legitimate violence and seven control variables. The results show that all four variables play an important part in explaining differences between states in rape; and that together, the variables in the model explain 83 per cent of the state-to-state variation in rape. Women are in much greater danger of being raped in some American states than in others. Since the FBI began compiling statistics on rape, states like Alaska, Nevada, and California have consistently registered many more rapes per capita than North Dakota, Maine, and Iowa. What factors account for such differences between states? Could the variation in the rape rate be explained by four aspects of the social structure of states: (1) the proliferation of pornography (2) sexual inequality (3) culturally legitimate violence and (4) social disorganization. Each factor represents a theory which will be examined within the context of an integrated theory on rape.

  15. Rape Myth Acceptance among Korean College Students: The Roles of Gender, Attitudes toward Women, and Sexual Double Standard

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Joohee; Kim, Jinseok; Lim, Hyunsung

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of the current study was to examine factors that influence rape myths among Korean college students. This study was particularly interested in the ways in which attitudes toward women and sexual double standard affect the relationship between gender and rape myths. Although the incidence of rape is a common concern in many current…

  16. Moving beyond Naturalism: Using a Discussion of "Miss Julie" to Educate Students about Date Rape--and More

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bloom, Davida

    2006-01-01

    In this article, the author talks about using the play entitled, "Miss Julie" to educate her students about date rape. According to her, the play presents a unique opportunity to bring up the topic of date rape. Several theories, including the social learning theory and the evolutionary theory, have been put forth to explain the existence of rape.…

  17. Development and application of SINE multilocus and quantitative genetic markers to study oilseed rape (Brassica napus L.) crops.

    PubMed

    Allnutt, T R; Roper, K; Henry, C

    2008-01-23

    A genetic marker system based on the S1 Short Interspersed Elements (SINEs) in the important commercial crop, oilseed rape ( Brassica napus L.) has been developed. SINEs provided a successful multilocus, dominant marker system that was capable of clearly delineating winter- and spring-type crop varieties. Sixteen of 20 varieties tested showed unique profiles from the 17 polymorphic SINE markers generated. The 3' or 5' flank region of nine SINE markers were cloned, and DNA was sequenced. In addition, one putative pre-transposition SINE allele was cloned and sequenced. Two SINE flanking sequences were used to design real-time PCR assays. These quantitative SINE assays were applied to study the genetic structure of eight fields of oilseed rape crops. Studied fields were more genetically diverse than expected for the chosen loci (mean H T = 0.23). The spatial distribution of SINE marker frequencies was highly structured in some fields, suggesting locations of volunteer impurities within the crop. In one case, the assay identified a mislabeling of the crop variety. SINE markers were a useful tool for crop genetics, phylogenetics, variety identification, and purity analysis. The use and further application of quantitative, real-time PCR markers are discussed.

  18. Powder formulations of two strains of Bacillus subtilis for control of rape seed damping-off caused by Rhizoctonia solani.

    PubMed

    Sharifi-Tehrani, A; Ahmadzadeh, M; Farzaneh, M; Sarani, S

    2006-01-01

    Talc-based formulations of Bacillus subtilis strains B1 and B2 were tested as seed and soil treatments separately for their ability to control Rhizoctonia solani, the causal agent of rape seed damping-off, in greenhouse and field trials. In general, the formulated bacteria was more effective to suppress the disease than the suspension of bacterial cells in carboxymethylcellulose solution (1%, w/v), in both greenhouse and field trials. The formulations of strain B1 as soil treatment and strain B2 as seed treatment in greenhouse, and the formulations of strain B2 as seed and soil treatments in field trials had the greatest effect on reducing the rape seed damping-off (66.7%, 73.3%, 41.3%, and 42.4%, respectively). The formulations of strain B1 as soil treatment and strain B2 as seed treatment were the most effective treatments to increase the root dry weights in the infected soil in greenhouse. The formulation of strain B2 as soil treatment had the greatest effect on enhancement of the fresh weight of roots and stem fresh and dry weights. The formulations of strains B1 and B2 stored at 4 degrees C exhibited better shelf life and efficacy in vitro than their counterparts stored at 25 degrees C. Long-term stability of the formulation of strain B1 was found to be better.

  19. Powder formulation of Burkholderia cepacia for control of rape seed damping-off caused by Rhizoctonia solani.

    PubMed

    Sharifi-Tehrani, A; Ahmadzadeh, M; Sarani, S; Farzaneh, M

    2007-01-01

    Talc-based formulation of Burkholderia cepaci strain Bu1 was tested as seed and soil drenchs separately for its ability to control Rhizoctonia soloni the causal agent of rape seed damping-off in greenhouse and field trials. In general, the formulated bacteria was more effective to suppress the disease than the suspension of bacteria cells in carboxymethylcellulose solution (1% w/v), in both greenhouse and field trials. The formulation of strain Bul as soil and seed treatments had the greatest effect on reducing the rape seed damping-off in greenhouse and field trials (66.7, 53.3, 64.4 and 40% respectively). The formulation of strain Bu1 as soil and seed treatments were the most effective treatments to increase the root dry weights in the infected soil in greenhouse. The formulation of strain Bul as soil drench had the greatest effect on enhancement of the fresh weight of roots and stem fresh and dry weights. The formulation of strain Bu1 stored at 4 degrees C exhibited better shelf Life and efficacy in vitro than it's counterpart stored at 25 degrees C.

  20. Development and application of SINE multilocus and quantitative genetic markers to study oilseed rape (Brassica napus L.) crops.

    PubMed

    Allnutt, T R; Roper, K; Henry, C

    2008-01-23

    A genetic marker system based on the S1 Short Interspersed Elements (SINEs) in the important commercial crop, oilseed rape ( Brassica napus L.) has been developed. SINEs provided a successful multilocus, dominant marker system that was capable of clearly delineating winter- and spring-type crop varieties. Sixteen of 20 varieties tested showed unique profiles from the 17 polymorphic SINE markers generated. The 3' or 5' flank region of nine SINE markers were cloned, and DNA was sequenced. In addition, one putative pre-transposition SINE allele was cloned and sequenced. Two SINE flanking sequences were used to design real-time PCR assays. These quantitative SINE assays were applied to study the genetic structure of eight fields of oilseed rape crops. Studied fields were more genetically diverse than expected for the chosen loci (mean H T = 0.23). The spatial distribution of SINE marker frequencies was highly structured in some fields, suggesting locations of volunteer impurities within the crop. In one case, the assay identified a mislabeling of the crop variety. SINE markers were a useful tool for crop genetics, phylogenetics, variety identification, and purity analysis. The use and further application of quantitative, real-time PCR markers are discussed. PMID:18092752

  1. Root-Derived Short-Chain Suberin Diacids from Rice and Rape Seed in a Paddy Soil under Rice Cultivar Treatments.

    PubMed

    Ji, Haishi; Ding, Yuanjun; Liu, Xiaoyu; Li, Lianqing; Zhang, Dengxiao; Li, Zichuan; Sun, Jingling; Lashari, Muhammad Siddique; Joseph, Stephen; Meng, Yuanduo; Kuzyakov, Yakov; Pan, Genxing

    2015-01-01

    Suberin-derived substituted fatty acids have been shown to be potential biomarkers for plant-derived carbon (C) in soils across ecosystems. Analyzing root derived suberin compounds bound in soil could help to understand the root input into a soil organic carbon pool. In this study, bound lipids were extracted and identified in root and topsoil samples. Short-chain suberin diacids were quantified under rice (Oryza sativa L.) and rape (Brassica campestris) rotations with different cultivar combinations in a Chinese rice paddy. After removal of free lipids with sequential extraction, the residual bound lipids were obtained with saponification and derivatization before analysis using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Diacids C16 and C18 in bound lipids were detected both in rice and rape root samples, while diacids C20 and C22 were detected only in rape root samples. Accordingly, diacids were quantified in both rhizosphere and bulk soil (0-15 cm). The amount of total root-derived diacids in bulk soil varied in a range of 5.6-9.6 mg/kg across growth stages and crop seasons. After one year-round rice-rape rotation, root-derived suberin diacids were maintained at a level of 7-9 mg/kg in bulk soil; this was higher under a super rice cultivar LY than under a hybrid cultivar IIY. While concentrations of the analyzed diacids were generally higher in rhizosphere than in bulk soil, the total diacid (DA) concentration was higher at the time of rape harvest than at rice harvest, suggesting that rape roots made a major contribution to the preservation of diacids in the paddy. Moreover, the net change in the concentration and the ratios of C16:0 DA to C18:1 DA, and of C16:0 DA to C18:0 DA, over a whole growing season, were greater under LY than under IIY, though there was no difference between cultivars within a single growth stage. Overall, total concentration of root-derived suberin diacids was found to be positively correlated to soil organic carbon concentration

  2. Root-Derived Short-Chain Suberin Diacids from Rice and Rape Seed in a Paddy Soil under Rice Cultivar Treatments

    PubMed Central

    Ji, Haishi; Ding, Yuanjun; Liu, Xiaoyu; Li, Lianqing; Zhang, Dengxiao; Li, Zichuan; Sun, Jingling; Lashari, Muhammad Siddique; Joseph, Stephen; Meng, Yuanduo; Kuzyakov, Yakov; Pan, Genxing

    2015-01-01

    Suberin-derived substituted fatty acids have been shown to be potential biomarkers for plant-derived carbon (C) in soils across ecosystems. Analyzing root derived suberin compounds bound in soil could help to understand the root input into a soil organic carbon pool. In this study, bound lipids were extracted and identified in root and topsoil samples. Short-chain suberin diacids were quantified under rice (Oryza sativa L.) and rape (Brassica campestris) rotations with different cultivar combinations in a Chinese rice paddy. After removal of free lipids with sequential extraction, the residual bound lipids were obtained with saponification and derivatization before analysis using gas chromatography–mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Diacids C16 and C18 in bound lipids were detected both in rice and rape root samples, while diacids C20 and C22 were detected only in rape root samples. Accordingly, diacids were quantified in both rhizosphere and bulk soil (0–15 cm). The amount of total root-derived diacids in bulk soil varied in a range of 5.6–9.6 mg/kg across growth stages and crop seasons. After one year-round rice-rape rotation, root-derived suberin diacids were maintained at a level of 7–9 mg/kg in bulk soil; this was higher under a super rice cultivar LY than under a hybrid cultivar IIY. While concentrations of the analyzed diacids were generally higher in rhizosphere than in bulk soil, the total diacid (DA) concentration was higher at the time of rape harvest than at rice harvest, suggesting that rape roots made a major contribution to the preservation of diacids in the paddy. Moreover, the net change in the concentration and the ratios of C16:0 DA to C18:1 DA, and of C16:0 DA to C18:0 DA, over a whole growing season, were greater under LY than under IIY, though there was no difference between cultivars within a single growth stage. Overall, total concentration of root-derived suberin diacids was found to be positively correlated to soil organic carbon

  3. Root-Derived Short-Chain Suberin Diacids from Rice and Rape Seed in a Paddy Soil under Rice Cultivar Treatments.

    PubMed

    Ji, Haishi; Ding, Yuanjun; Liu, Xiaoyu; Li, Lianqing; Zhang, Dengxiao; Li, Zichuan; Sun, Jingling; Lashari, Muhammad Siddique; Joseph, Stephen; Meng, Yuanduo; Kuzyakov, Yakov; Pan, Genxing

    2015-01-01

    Suberin-derived substituted fatty acids have been shown to be potential biomarkers for plant-derived carbon (C) in soils across ecosystems. Analyzing root derived suberin compounds bound in soil could help to understand the root input into a soil organic carbon pool. In this study, bound lipids were extracted and identified in root and topsoil samples. Short-chain suberin diacids were quantified under rice (Oryza sativa L.) and rape (Brassica campestris) rotations with different cultivar combinations in a Chinese rice paddy. After removal of free lipids with sequential extraction, the residual bound lipids were obtained with saponification and derivatization before analysis using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Diacids C16 and C18 in bound lipids were detected both in rice and rape root samples, while diacids C20 and C22 were detected only in rape root samples. Accordingly, diacids were quantified in both rhizosphere and bulk soil (0-15 cm). The amount of total root-derived diacids in bulk soil varied in a range of 5.6-9.6 mg/kg across growth stages and crop seasons. After one year-round rice-rape rotation, root-derived suberin diacids were maintained at a level of 7-9 mg/kg in bulk soil; this was higher under a super rice cultivar LY than under a hybrid cultivar IIY. While concentrations of the analyzed diacids were generally higher in rhizosphere than in bulk soil, the total diacid (DA) concentration was higher at the time of rape harvest than at rice harvest, suggesting that rape roots made a major contribution to the preservation of diacids in the paddy. Moreover, the net change in the concentration and the ratios of C16:0 DA to C18:1 DA, and of C16:0 DA to C18:0 DA, over a whole growing season, were greater under LY than under IIY, though there was no difference between cultivars within a single growth stage. Overall, total concentration of root-derived suberin diacids was found to be positively correlated to soil organic carbon concentration

  4. Advantages of Group Therapy for Adolescent Participants in the Same Gang Rape

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Etgar, Talia; Prager, Keren Ganot

    2009-01-01

    This paper deals with the issue of including in the same therapeutic group in a prison setting two (or more) young people who participated in the same gang rape. We provide a background for group therapy with adolescent sex offenders and point out the characteristics of group rape. In addition, we describe the uniqueness of working in a prison as…

  5. Sexual Assault and Rape Perpetration by College Men: The Role of the Big Five Personality Traits

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Voller, Emily K.; Long, Patricia J.

    2010-01-01

    A sample of 521 college men completed the Revised NEO Personality Inventory and an expanded version of the Sexual Experiences Survey to examine whether variation in the Big Five personality traits in a normal, college population provides any insight into the nature of sexual assault and rape perpetrators. Rape perpetrators reported lower levels of…

  6. Men as Allies: The Efficacy of a High School Rape Prevention Intervention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hillenbrand-Gunn, Theresa L.; Heppner, Mary J.; Mauch, Pamela A.; Park, Hyun-joo

    2010-01-01

    This study investigated the effects of a Men as Allies--based intervention on high school students' rape-supportive attitudes and behaviors. As hypothesized at posttest, the male and female experimental groups demonstrated a significant decrease in rape-supportive attitudes, which was maintained at follow-up. Male participants viewed peers'…

  7. 76 FR 56481 - Hearings of the Review Panel on Prison Rape

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-13

    ... of Justice Programs Hearings of the Review Panel on Prison Rape AGENCY: Office of Justice Programs... Review Panel on Prison Rape (Panel) will hold hearings in Washington, DC on September 15-16, 2011. The... U.S. jails, and the common characteristics of jails with the highest and lowest incidence of...

  8. Who Is to Blame? Rape of Hindu-Muslim Women in Interethnic Violence in India

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Murthi, Meera

    2009-01-01

    This research examined attitudes that predict rape blame in contexts of interethnic violence between minority Muslims and dominant Hindu communities in Mumbai, India. I hypothesized that, in contexts of interethnic violence, prejudicial attitudes toward communities and attitudes that view rape as a conflict tool (i.e., an effective strategy to…

  9. Acquaintance Rape Workshops: Their Effectiveness in Changing the Attitudes of First Year College Men

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Earle, James P.

    2009-01-01

    The statistics on acquaintance rape and sexual assault against women are a clear indication that this is a problem that needs to be confronted. An increasing number of articles address the problems that rape survivors face and examine methods mental health professionals can use to assist survivors in dealing with these problems. Articles that…

  10. Training to Be a Volunteer Rape Crisis Counsellor: A Qualitative Study of Women's Experiences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rath, Jean

    2008-01-01

    This is an account of a qualitative study designed to elicit and analyse the narratives of women who had trained to be volunteer counsellors at a Rape Crisis centre. Little prior research has focused on the experiences of workers in Rape Crisis centres and this project was designed to explore women's experiences in ways that were meaningful to…

  11. Exposure to Sexist Humor and Rape Proclivity: The Moderator Effect of Aversiveness Ratings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Romero-Sanchez, Monica; Duran, Mercedes; Carretero-Dios, Hugo; Megias, Jesus L.; Moya, Miguel

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this study is to explore the effect of exposure to sexist humor about women on men's self-reported rape proclivity. Earlier studies have shown that exposure to this type of humor increases rape proclivity and that funniness responses to jokes are a key element to consider. However, the role of aversiveness responses has not been…

  12. A Review of Acquaintance/Date Rape Research: Implications for the University Campus.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Drapeau, Robert F.

    1992-01-01

    Reviews literature on incidence and ramifications of acquaintance rape and discusses specific gender-related factors. Identifies four areas that require proactive college response: access and intrusion, nonnegligent hiring and training, alcohol and drugs, and awareness education. Concludes that effective response to acquaintance rape requires…

  13. An Acquaintance Rape Education Program for Students Transitioning to High School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fay, Karen E.; Medway, Frederic J.

    2006-01-01

    Based on Parrot's work with college students, a six-activity acquaintance rape prevention program for first-year high school students living in a rural South Carolina community was implemented and evaluated. The program decreased students' acceptance of rape myths compared with non-participating students both on a scale developed by Burt and on…

  14. American College Students' Attitudes toward Rape Victims and Beliefs in a Just World.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chen, Jeaw Mei; Lin, Phylis Lan

    Two hundred sixty-six college students from four Indiana colleges and universities completed a series of surveys to determine gender differences in attitudes toward rape victims. The instruments adapted and used included the Rubin and Peplau Just World Scale (JWS), the Burt Sex Role Stereotype Scale, the Attitudes Toward Rape Victims Scale (ATRVS)…

  15. 2003 Carolyn Sherif Award Address: What College Women Do and Do Not Experience as Rape

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kahn, Arnold S.

    2004-01-01

    College women who did (n=33) and did not (n=56) label their sexual assault experience as rape provided written descriptions of their sexual assaults. From these descriptions we identified eight different sexual assault situations. Women who labeled their experience as rape were most likely to have been assaulted forcefully by an acquaintance,…

  16. Anti-Rape on the Road: Men Hit the Highways to Share a Powerful Message

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Foubert, John D.

    2005-01-01

    Several years ago, the author was asked to counsel one university's male students on the truth of rape. Today, he and other men are taking that truth on the road--in a used RV. Their "One in Four" national tour will work to end rape on college campuses by presenting "The Men's Program" to college students nationwide. The program aims to educate…

  17. Getting inside the House: The Effectiveness of a Rape Prevention Program for College Fraternity Men.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davis, Tracy L.; Liddell, Debora L.

    2002-01-01

    Investigates the effectiveness of a socialization-focused rape prevention program designed specifically for college fraternity men. Results suggest that a socialization approach to rape education was as effective as a more traditional prevention program with regard to attitudes and knowledge. Although attitudes rebounded to previous levels at the…

  18. Attitudes toward Rape among African American Male and Female College Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sapp, Marty; Farrell, Walter C., Jr.; Johnson, James H., Jr.; Hitchcock, Kim

    1999-01-01

    Investigates how African American male and female college students differ in their attitudes concerning rape. Two hundred and ten college students completed a 12-item questionnaire designed to measure their views toward this issue. Differences are discussed in the context of sexism and rape myths. Strategies for changing students' attitudes toward…

  19. Predicting Perceptions of Date Rape Based on Individual Beliefs and Female Alcohol Consumption.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Osman, Suzanne L.; Davis, Clive M.

    1999-01-01

    Investigates whether female alcohol consumption predicts perceptions of date rape based on two personality measures administered to 290 undergraduates. Results indicate that a stronger belief in token resistance to sex was related to weaker perceptions of rape. As hypothesized, participants scoring higher on sex-role stereotyping perceived fewer…

  20. Avoidant Coping and Treatment Outcome in Rape-Related Posttraumatic Stress Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leiner, Amy S.; Kearns, Megan C.; Jackson, Joan L.; Astin, Millie C.; Rothbaum, Barbara O.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: This study investigated the impact of avoidant coping on treatment outcome in rape-related posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Method: Adult women with rape-related PTSD (N = 62) received 9 sessions of prolonged exposure (PE) or eye movement desensitization and reprocessing (EMDR). The mean age for the sample was 34.7 years, and race…

  1. Perceptions of Dating Behaviors and Reasons Offered to Justify Date Rape.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bostwick, Tracy; And Others

    1995-01-01

    Reports on a study that asked undergraduate students from a large, public midwestern university to identify specific dating behaviors that indicate an interest in sex, as well as perceptions of what women do that lead men to justify raping them and perceptions of what men say to justify having raped. (Author/JPS)

  2. Exploring the Aesthetics of Rape in the Work of Juan de Moncayo y Gurrea

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McVay, Ted E., Jr.

    2009-01-01

    Interpreting the occurrence of sexual violation in seventeenth-century Spanish literary works necessitates for modem scholars the difficult task of understanding prevailing contemporary attitudes toward rape. Studies by Higgins and Silver, Casas, and Welles discuss how literary texts with rape scenes as narrative material often use the act or its…

  3. The Rape Prevention and Education (RPE) Theory Model of Community Change: Connecting Individual and Social Change

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cox, Pamela J.; Lang, Karen S.; Townsend, Stephanie M.; Campbell, Rebecca

    2010-01-01

    Social work practice has long focused on the connections between an individual and the social environment that affect the individual's social functioning. The Rape Prevention and Education (RPE) Program's theory model, Creating Safer Communities: The Rape Prevention and Education Model of Community Change, provides family social workers with a…

  4. Preventing Alcohol-Related Problems on Campus: Acquaintance Rape. A Guide for Program Coordinators.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Finn, Peter

    This is a guide for college and university program coordinators and planning committees on how to establish, expand, or improve a program on the prevention of acquaintance rape. Information is given for Presidents, Vice Presidents, and Deans on the relationship between acquaintance rape and alcohol, reasons for top administrators to become…

  5. Change in Cognitive Mediators of Rape's Impact on Psychosocial Health across 2 Years of Recovery

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koss, Mary P.; Figueredo, Aurelio Jose

    2004-01-01

    A previously published cross-sectional model of cognitive mediation of rape's impact on health (M. P. Koss, A. J. Figueredo, & R. J. Prince, 2002) was replicated longitudinally. Rape survivors (n = 59) were assessed 4 times at 3-24 months postrape. Growth curve analysis demonstrated significant change in all mediators and outcomes. Previously…

  6. Where Do I Start?: A Parents' Guide for Talking to Teens about Acquaintance Rape.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bateman, Py; Stringer, Gayle M.

    This is a booklet designed for parents interested in helping their teenage children avoid the possibility of sexual assault. The first section of the booklet provides background on acquaintance rape, discussing attitudes about acquaintance rape, what boys and girls learn about sexual activity, gender different perceptions, and teenagers and peer…

  7. Adventure-Based Counseling: An Alternative Therapeutic Approach for Working with Rape Survivors.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nassar, S. C.

    This document considers the usefulness of adventure-based counseling in facilitating recovery from rape. It begins with a brief introduction to this concept and a literature review examining reactions to rape trauma; traditional interventions and implications; and adventure-based counseling interventions. This section concludes that since fear and…

  8. Description of an Early Intervention to Prevent Substance Abuse and Psychopathology in Recent Rape Victims

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Resnick, Heidi; Acierno, Ron; Kilpatrick, Dean G.; Holmes, Melissa

    2005-01-01

    Approximately 683,000 adult women are raped each year. Only one in seven of these victims report the assault to police and receive forensic exams and other professional services. For many rape victims, this may be the only professional contact with service providers; however these services are typically limited to evidence collection and…

  9. Emotional Reactions of Rape Victim Advocates: A Multiple Case Study of Anger and Fear

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wasco, Sharon M.; Campbell, Rebecca

    2002-01-01

    This research explores the emotional reactions of a rarely studied group of women who work closely with survivors of sexual violence: rape victim advocates. Women who assist rape victims in obtaining medical, criminal justice, and mental health services were interviewed about their experiences, and qualitative analysis was used to delineate the…

  10. Predicting Perceptions of Date Rape: An Examination of Perpetrator Motivation, Relationship Length, and Gender Role Beliefs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Angelone, David J.; Mitchell, Damon; Lucente, Lauren

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of the current study is to examine the influence of multiple offender motivations (including no indication of a motivation), relationship length, and gender role beliefs on perceptions of a male-on-female date rape. A sample of 348 U.S. college students read a brief vignette depicting a date rape and completed a questionnaire regarding…

  11. The Influence of Length of Marriage and Fidelity Status on Perception of Marital Rape

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Munge, Bethany A.; Pomerantz, Andrew M.; Pettibone, Jonathan C.; Falconer, Jameca W.

    2007-01-01

    To what extent does the length of the marriage or the wife's faithfulness to the husband influence the perception of responsibility or trauma in marital rape? In the current study, each participant was presented with one of four marital rape vignettes. The vignettes varied only in the length of the marriage (3 years or 15 years) and the fidelity…

  12. Attitudes Toward Victims of Rape: Effects of Gender, Race, Religion, and Social Class

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nagel, Barbara; Matsuo, Hisako; McIntyre, Kevin P.; Morrison, Nancy

    2005-01-01

    Although previous literature focusing on perceptions of victims of rape has examined how gender, race, and culture influence the attitudes one holds toward victims, these studies have yielded mixed results. This study compared perceptions of victims of rape across a wide range of ages, educational backgrounds, religions, and income levels, while…

  13. Effects of Victim Sex and Sexual Orientation on Perceptions of Rape.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    White, Bradley H.; Kurpius, Sharon E. Robinson

    2002-01-01

    Investigated the relationship of sex, gender role attitudes, and sexual orientation to perceptions of rape. College students responded to scenarios depicting the rape of heterosexual and homosexual males and females. Men assigned more blame to victims (particularly male victims) than did women. Traditional gender role attitudes positively related…

  14. Epidemiology of rapes in Costa Rica: characterization of victims, perpetrators and circumstances surrounding forced intercourse.

    PubMed

    Cerdas, Loreley; Arroyo, Cynthia; Gómez, Aarón; Holst, Ileana; Angulo, Yamileth; Vargas, Marianela; Espinoza, Marta; León, Guillermo

    2014-09-01

    Since the year 2000, the number of rapes in Costa Rica has increased at a rate of 42 cases per year. In 2011, 1786 rape cases were reported to the prosecution offices throughout the country, but only 1081 reports continued through the investigation process by the Judicial Investigation Agency. A randomly collected sample of 272 reports received by Judicial Investigation Agency, between July 2012 and June 2013, were prospectively studied. The analysis was limited to cases reported within 30 days following the rape. Results indicate that most of the provinces in the country show an incidence of about 38 cases/100,000 inhabitants. Ninety-six percent of the victims were women, 50% of which were between 10 and 19 years old. More than 99.5% of violators were men. The rape was perpetrated by a single aggressor in 85% of the cases. It was found that 48% of the victims were within the first 11 days of their menstrual cycle at the time of the attack. Twenty-nine percent of rapes occurred in "high rape-risk" circumstances--e.g., victims attacked by strangers in public outdoors or indoors. Twenty-five percent of rapes occur in "moderate rape-risk" circumstances--e.g., victims attacked indoors at public locations or at the home other than the victim's by relatives, sentimental partners or acquaintances. Fifteen percent of rapes occurred in "low rape-risk" circumstances--e.g., victims attacked in their homes by relatives or sentimental partners. In 67% of the cases the perpetrator was an acquaintance of the victim. Eleven percent of the cases corresponded to rapes in which the perpetrator was a partner or ex-partner of the victim. Fourteen percent and 25% of rapes could be classified as "proactive drug-facilitated rapes" or "opportunistic drug-facilitated rapes", respectively. Semen in the vaginal fluid of victims and the genetic profile of the alleged perpetrator were detected in 55% and 33% of the cases, respectively.

  15. Feminist Framework Plus: Knitting Feminist Theories of Rape Etiology Into a Comprehensive Model.

    PubMed

    McPhail, Beverly A

    2016-07-01

    The radical-liberal feminist perspective on rape posits that the assault is motivated by power and control rather than sexual gratification and is a violent rather than a sexual act. However, rape is a complex act. Relying on only one early strand of feminist thought to explain the etiology of rape limits feminists' understanding of rape and the practice based upon the theory. The history of the adoption of the "power, not sex" theory is presented and the model critiqued. A more integrated model is developed and presented, the Feminist Framework Plus, which knits together five feminist theories into a comprehensive model that better explains the depth and breadth of the etiology of rape. Empirical evidence that supports each theory is detailed as well as the implications of the model on service provision, education, and advocacy. PMID:26018209

  16. Surviving wife rape: how women define and cope with the violence.

    PubMed

    Bergen, R K

    1995-06-01

    This article investigates how women define their experiences of marital rape and cope with the violence. The study is based on in-depth interviews conducted among 35 survivors of marital rape. It found out that women's definition of sexual violence often change over the course of the relationship in a similar manner, from seeing the sexual attacks as an aberrant incident, to redefining the incident as rape, to terminating the relationship with a ¿rapist¿. This study further describes the 6 stages through which women pass in coping with the violence, which include entering a violent relationship; managing the violence; experiencing a loss of self; redefining the violence; ending the violence; and recovering from the trauma. This study, however, gives particular attention to understanding how women manage the violence and redefine their experiences as rape. It concludes by acknowledging that marital rape is a serious problem with very real consequences for the women who experience it.

  17. Patterns of reported rape in a tri-ethnic population: Houston, Texas, 1974--1975.

    PubMed Central

    Sanford, J; Cryer, L; Christensen, B L; Mattox, K L

    1979-01-01

    Police records of reported rape, compiled for the Federal Bureau of Investigation Uniform Crime Reports, in Houston, Texas for 1974 and 1975, were analyzed in relation to ethnicity and age of victim/offender, and time and place of occurrence. Blacks had the highest race-specific rates for both victims and offenders; the majority of all rapes were intraracial. The high-risk age group for both victims and offenders was from 20 to 24 years. Rapes increased slightly during the summer months, peaked during the hours of darkness, and were fairly evenly distributed among the days of the week. The weekend calculated as from 4:00 pm Friday to 8:00 am Monday accounted for 43.6 per cent of all rape occurrences. The majority of rape events involved the use of a lethal weapon and took place in a residence. PMID:434279

  18. Predicting perceptions of date rape: an examination of perpetrator motivation, relationship length, and gender role beliefs.

    PubMed

    Angelone, David J; Mitchell, Damon; Lucente, Lauren

    2012-09-01

    The purpose of the current study is to examine the influence of multiple offender motivations (including no indication of a motivation), relationship length, and gender role beliefs on perceptions of a male-on-female date rape. A sample of 348 U.S. college students read a brief vignette depicting a date rape and completed a questionnaire regarding their attributions about the victim (culpability, credibility, trauma, pleasure) and perpetrator (culpability, guilt, sentencing recommendations). Results indicate that providing observers with information about the perpetrator's motivation was associated with lower victim blame. Relationship length is not predictive of rape attributions. Egalitarian gender role attitudes are associated with lower levels of victim blame. Overall, gender role attitudes exert a more significant influence on rape attributions than participant gender. The findings suggest that knowledge of an offender's motivation as well as observers' gender role attitudes can influence attributions about the culpability of victims and perpetrators of date rape.

  19. Model-Based Estimates of HIV Acquisition Due to Prison Rape

    PubMed Central

    Pinkerton, Steven D.; Galletly, Carol L.; Seal, David W.

    2008-01-01

    Nearly 1.4 million men are incarcerated in federal and state prisons in the United States. These men are disproportionately affected by HIV in comparison with the at-large male population. The elevated prevalence of HIV infection in U.S. prisons has raised concerns over the potential for intraprison HIV transmission due to rape and other forms of sexual victimization. However, the number of men who acquire HIV after being raped in U.S. prisons is not known. We developed a mathematical model of HIV transmission to estimate the likelihood that an incarcerated man would become infected as a result of prison rape and to provide preliminary estimates of the number of prison rape victims who acquire HIV. Our results suggest that between 43 and 93 currently incarcerated men already have or will acquire HIV as a result of being raped in prison. PMID:18584061

  20. Feminist Framework Plus: Knitting Feminist Theories of Rape Etiology Into a Comprehensive Model.

    PubMed

    McPhail, Beverly A

    2016-07-01

    The radical-liberal feminist perspective on rape posits that the assault is motivated by power and control rather than sexual gratification and is a violent rather than a sexual act. However, rape is a complex act. Relying on only one early strand of feminist thought to explain the etiology of rape limits feminists' understanding of rape and the practice based upon the theory. The history of the adoption of the "power, not sex" theory is presented and the model critiqued. A more integrated model is developed and presented, the Feminist Framework Plus, which knits together five feminist theories into a comprehensive model that better explains the depth and breadth of the etiology of rape. Empirical evidence that supports each theory is detailed as well as the implications of the model on service provision, education, and advocacy.

  1. Modelling gene flow between oilseed rape and wild radish. I. Evolution of chromosome structure.

    PubMed

    Chèvre, A M; Adamczyk, K; Eber, F; Huteau, V; Coriton, O; Letanneur, J C; Laredo, C; Jenczewski, E; Monod, H

    2007-01-01

    The assessment of gene flow from crop species to weeds has found a new emphasis over the last years because of the marketing of transgenic crops and the possible selective advantage that crop (trans)gene may confer to the weeds. Several studies focused on the F1 interspecific hybrid production but few data are available on the factors affecting the genetic structure of advanced generations. It depends on the genomic structure of the species concerned as well as on the degree of their genome homology that affect the occurrence of intergenomic recombination. Oilseed rape (Brassica napus, AACC, 2n = 38)-wild radish (Raphanus raphanistrum, RrRr, 2n = 18), a distantly related weed, is a good model to address such questions. From seven male sterile oilseed rape lines carrying an herbicide tolerance transgene, F1 interspecific hybrids and four advanced generations were produced under field conditions with wild radish as pollinator. Observation of hybrid chromosome numbers across four generations revealed a high variability, especially in the "BC1" generation. A regression model was fitted in order to describe the relationship between parent and offspring chromosome numbers. The effects of generation, transgenic line and selection pressure on the mean relationship were investigated. The first two factors had an influence on the rate of decrease of chromosome numbers, whereas selection pressure resulted in the presence of an additional chromosome in the herbicide treated plants. The model provided a convenient framework for analysing how chromosome numbers evolve over successive hybridization events and it may prove useful as a basis for simulation-based approaches. PMID:17091264

  2. ''If they rape me, I can't blame them": reflections on gender in the social context of child rape in South Africa and Namibia.

    PubMed

    Jewkes, Rachel; Penn-Kekana, Loveday; Rose-Junius, Hetty

    2005-10-01

    The study was based on 77 semi-structured in-depth interviews and 3 small group discussions which were conducted with informants in Windhoek, Namibia and rural Mpumalanga province, South Africa. Children (abuse survivors and others), parents, men and women from the community and a range of key informants (such as police, social workers, health workers, NGO staff and teachers) were asked about their experiences and perceptions of child rape and child rearing. This study has its roots in the recent popular concern about the high prevalence of child rape in Southern Africa. Drawing on the data, we reflect on aspects of the social context of child rape in South Africa and Namibia that at least provide space for, without actually legitimating, these acts. We argue that children are rendered vulnerable to abuse because of a series of ideas which create opportunities, the most important of which is the dominant patriarchal ideology, compounded by the pronounced age hierarchies found in these societies. The high status of men, with respect to particularly girl children, leads to vulnerability through reducing girls' ability to refuse sexual advances and generating expectations in men that they should control women and children. Rape is often an act of punishment, used to demonstrate power over girl children and manufacture control. Rape is also used as an instrument of communication with oneself (the rapist) about masculinity and powerfulness. This ability to avoid being caught was important in some rapes. Some children are rendered vulnerable by coming from backgrounds where the likelihood of cases being pursued was low. Whilst it is often said that communities abhor child rape, responses to cases show that often strong action is not taken against perpetrators and the girls may be equally, or predominantly, blamed. In cases close to home, perpetrators are often protected. Thus the dominant message is that much as child rape is abhorred, responses are highly inadequate

  3. ''If they rape me, I can't blame them": reflections on gender in the social context of child rape in South Africa and Namibia.

    PubMed

    Jewkes, Rachel; Penn-Kekana, Loveday; Rose-Junius, Hetty

    2005-10-01

    The study was based on 77 semi-structured in-depth interviews and 3 small group discussions which were conducted with informants in Windhoek, Namibia and rural Mpumalanga province, South Africa. Children (abuse survivors and others), parents, men and women from the community and a range of key informants (such as police, social workers, health workers, NGO staff and teachers) were asked about their experiences and perceptions of child rape and child rearing. This study has its roots in the recent popular concern about the high prevalence of child rape in Southern Africa. Drawing on the data, we reflect on aspects of the social context of child rape in South Africa and Namibia that at least provide space for, without actually legitimating, these acts. We argue that children are rendered vulnerable to abuse because of a series of ideas which create opportunities, the most important of which is the dominant patriarchal ideology, compounded by the pronounced age hierarchies found in these societies. The high status of men, with respect to particularly girl children, leads to vulnerability through reducing girls' ability to refuse sexual advances and generating expectations in men that they should control women and children. Rape is often an act of punishment, used to demonstrate power over girl children and manufacture control. Rape is also used as an instrument of communication with oneself (the rapist) about masculinity and powerfulness. This ability to avoid being caught was important in some rapes. Some children are rendered vulnerable by coming from backgrounds where the likelihood of cases being pursued was low. Whilst it is often said that communities abhor child rape, responses to cases show that often strong action is not taken against perpetrators and the girls may be equally, or predominantly, blamed. In cases close to home, perpetrators are often protected. Thus the dominant message is that much as child rape is abhorred, responses are highly inadequate

  4. N-(2-bromophenyl)-2-(4,6-dimethoxypyrimidin-2-yloxy)benzylamine, a new selective postemergent herbicide for weed control in winter oilseed rape.

    PubMed

    Wu, Jun; Cheng, Jie; Lu, Long

    2006-08-01

    N-(2-Bromophenyl)-2-(4,6-dimethoxypyrimidin-2-yloxy)benzylamine is a highly active herbicide, which belongs to a novel class of chemistry. The compound is de novo synthesized in good yield, and the structure is confirmed by (1)H NMR, IR, MS, microanalysis, and X-ray. Its herbicidal activity is assessed under greenhouse conditions. It is effective against many grass weed species, as well as broadleaf weeds, under greenhouse conditions. Field trials indicate that it controls major weeds with a good tolerance on oilseed rape by postemergence application at rates of 15-90 g of active ingredient/ha. This compound possesses low mammalian toxicity and favorable environmental profile. These results suggest that the compound has potential as a new selective postemergent herbicide in winter oilseed rape.

  5. N-(2-bromophenyl)-2-(4,6-dimethoxypyrimidin-2-yloxy)benzylamine, a new selective postemergent herbicide for weed control in winter oilseed rape.

    PubMed

    Wu, Jun; Cheng, Jie; Lu, Long

    2006-08-01

    N-(2-Bromophenyl)-2-(4,6-dimethoxypyrimidin-2-yloxy)benzylamine is a highly active herbicide, which belongs to a novel class of chemistry. The compound is de novo synthesized in good yield, and the structure is confirmed by (1)H NMR, IR, MS, microanalysis, and X-ray. Its herbicidal activity is assessed under greenhouse conditions. It is effective against many grass weed species, as well as broadleaf weeds, under greenhouse conditions. Field trials indicate that it controls major weeds with a good tolerance on oilseed rape by postemergence application at rates of 15-90 g of active ingredient/ha. This compound possesses low mammalian toxicity and favorable environmental profile. These results suggest that the compound has potential as a new selective postemergent herbicide in winter oilseed rape. PMID:16881700

  6. The impact of sexual enhancement alcohol expectancies and risky behavior on alcohol-involved rape among college women.

    PubMed

    Messman-Moore, Terri L; Ward, Rose Marie; DeNardi, Kathleen A

    2013-04-01

    A structural equation model examined sexual enhancement alcohol expectancies, heavy episodic drinking (HED), and risky sexual behavior as correlates of alcohol-involved rape in a sample of 353 college women. Prevalence of alcohol-involved rape was 15.6%. Sexual enhancement alcohol expectancies were indirectly associated with alcohol-involved rape via increased levels of HED, greater likelihood of sex while intoxicated, and number of sex partners. All forms of risky behavior were associated with alcohol-involved rape although HED had the strongest relationship. Findings suggest continued focus on women's positive alcohol expectancies and HED as risk factors for alcohol-involved rape. Implications for intervention will be discussed.

  7. Phosphorylation of bacterial-type phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase by a Ca2+-dependent protein kinase suggests a link between Ca2+ signalling and anaplerotic pathway control in developing castor oil seeds.

    PubMed

    Hill, Allyson T; Ying, Sheng; Plaxton, William C

    2014-02-15

    The aim of the present study was to characterize the native protein kinase [BTPC (bacterial-type phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase)-K (BTPC Ser451 kinase)] that in vivo phosphorylates Ser451 of the BTPC subunits of an unusual Class-2 PEP (phosphoenolpyruvate) carboxylase hetero-octameric complex of developing COS (castor oil seeds). COS BTPC-K was highly purified by PEG fractionation and hydrophobic size-exclusion anion-exchange and affinity chromatographies. BTPC-K phosphorylated BTPC strictly at Ser451 (Km=1.0 μM; pH optimum=7.3), a conserved target residue occurring within an intrinsically disordered region, as well as the protein histone III-S (Km=1.7 μM), but not a COS plant-type PEP carboxylase or sucrose synthase or α-casein. Its activity was Ca2+- (K0.5=2.7 μM) and ATP- (Km=6.6 μM) dependent, and markedly inhibited by trifluoperazine, 3-phosphoglycerate and PEP, but insensitive to calmodulin or 14-3-3 proteins. BTPC-K exhibited a native molecular mass of ~63 kDa and was soluble rather than membrane-bound. Inactivation and reactivation occurred upon BTPC-K's incubation with GSSG and then DTT respectively. Ser451 phosphorylation by BTPC-K inhibited BTPC activity by ~50% when assayed under suboptimal conditions (pH 7.3, 1 mM PEP and 10 mM L-malate). Our collective results indicate a possible link between cytosolic Ca2+ signalling and anaplerotic flux control in developing COS.

  8. [Ecological effects of wheat-oilseed rape intercropping combined with methyl salicylate release on Sitobion avenae and its main natural enemies].

    PubMed

    Dong, Jie; Liu, Ying-Jie; Li, Pei-Ling; Lin, Fang-Jing; Chen, Ju-Lian; Liu, Yong

    2012-10-01

    In order to explore the effects of wheat-oilseed rape intercropping in combining with methyl salicylate (MeSA) release on Sitobion avenae and its main natural enemies, a field experiment was conducted at the Tai'an Experimental Station of Shandong Agricultural University in East China from October 2008 to June 2010 to study the temporal dynamics of S. avenae and its main natural enemies as well as the ecological control effect on the aphid. In the plots of intercropping combined with MeSA release, the S. avenae apterae population reached a peak about 12 d in advance of the control, but the peak value was significantly lower than that of the control. The average annual number of S. avenae apterae per 100 wheat tillers decreased in the order of wheat monoculture > wheat-oilseed rape intercropping > MeSA release > wheat-oilseed rape intercropping combined with MeSA release. Moreover, the total number of ladybeetles was the highest in the plots of intercropping combined with MeSA release. The population densities of aphid parasitoids reached a peak about 10 d in advance of the control, which could play a significant role in controlling S. avenae at the filling stage of wheat. Taking the biological control index (BCI) as a quantitative indicator, and with the ladybeetles and parasitoids as the dominant control factors in fields, it was observed that wheat-oilseed rape intercropping combined with MeSA release could suppress the population increase of S. avenae apterae effectively from the heading to filling stages of wheat.

  9. Interdisciplinary team communication among forensic nurses and rape victim advocates.

    PubMed

    Patterson, Debra

    2014-01-01

    Victim advocates and forensic nurses provide integrated care to address the complex legal, medical, and mental health needs of rape survivors. Research suggests that conflict exists between nurses and advocates, but it remains unknown how their communication patterns contribute to or resolve these conflicts. Utilizing a qualitative case study approach, the current study interviewed 24 nurses and advocates from a Midwest organization to better understand team communication patterns when addressing conflicts. The findings suggest that most nurses communicate concerns directly while advocates avoid direct communication. Factors that influenced direct and indirect communication and their implications for practice will be discussed.

  10. Explicating the role of sexual coercion and vulnerability alcohol expectancies in rape attributions.

    PubMed

    Starfelt, Louise C; Young, Ross McD; White, Katherine M; Palk, Gavan R M

    2015-07-01

    Despite evidence suggesting that alcohol expectancies may influence people's rape perceptions, no study to date has measured context-specific expectancies comprehensively. This study represents an initial investigation of the role of sexual coercion and vulnerability alcohol expectancies in young Australian adults' rape blame attributions. Using a vignette method, it was hypothesized that participants' stronger expectancy endorsement would predict lesser perpetrator blame and greater victim blame. Participants (n = 210; 34.9% males; 18-25 years) read a hypothetical rape scenario and rated dimensions of blameworthiness attributed to the intoxicated sexual perpetrator and victim. Participants completed the Sexual Coercion and Sexual Vulnerability subscales of the Drinking Expectancy Sexual Vulnerabilities Questionnaire for the targets self, men, and women in addition to measures of traditional gender role attitudes and rape myth acceptance. Hierarchical multiple regressions revealed that, as expected, stronger sexual coercion expectancy predicted lower perpetrator blame and greater victim blame. Self-oriented expectancy predicted evaluations of the perpetrator whereas other-oriented expectancy predicted victim evaluations. These effects were robust after controlling for gender role attitudes and rape myth acceptance. Alcohol expectancies appear to be part of a network of beliefs and attitudes which perpetuate biased rape attributions and may be useful to challenge in altering rape perceptions.

  11. Does knowledge about sexuality prevent adolescents from developing rape-supportive beliefs?

    PubMed

    Mallet, Pascal; Herbé, Dominique

    2011-07-01

    Believing that rape is acceptable in some situations may account for adolescent boys' perpetration of forced sex on girls. This study was intended to examine two hypothesized cognitive factors of adolescents' rape-supportive beliefs: general knowledge, measured with grade point average (GPA); and specific knowledge about sexuality, measured with a newly devised questionnaire. Fourteen-year-old adolescents (N = 248) participated in a short-term longitudinal study. They completed questionnaires designed to assess sexual knowledge and rape-supportive beliefs, and six months later completed them again. Sexual knowledge increased sharply between Time 1 and Time 2, whereas rape-supportive beliefs decreased during the same time. Boys obtained higher rape-supportive belief scores than girls. Regression analyses showed that sexual knowledge significantly predicted the level of rape-supportive beliefs six months later, independent of GPA and sex of participants. GPA accounted for a greater part of the variance in rape-supportive beliefs. This article discusses the importance of paying attention to the level of academic achievement of adolescents, as well as to their sexuality-specific knowledge, as a way of improving the efficiency of programs specializing in the prevention of adolescent sexual violence.

  12. Experimental Study of Reciprocating Friction between Rape Stalk and Bionic Nonsmooth Surface Units.

    PubMed

    Ma, Zheng; Li, Yaoming; Xu, Lizhang

    2015-01-01

    Background. China is the largest producer of rape oilseed in the world; however, the mechanization level of rape harvest is relatively low, because rape materials easily adhere to the cleaning screens of combine harvesters, resulting in significant cleaning losses. Previous studies have shown that bionic nonsmooth surface cleaning screens restrain the adhesion of rape materials, but the underlying mechanisms remain unclear. Objective. The reciprocating friction between rape stalk and bionic nonsmooth metal surface was examined. Methods. The short-time Fourier transform method was used to discriminate the stable phase of friction signals and the stick-lag distance was defined to analyze the stable reciprocating friction in a phase diagram. Results. The reciprocating friction between rape stalk and metal surface is a typical stick-slip friction, and the bionic nonsmooth metal surfaces with concave or convex units reduced friction force with increasing reciprocating frequency. The results also showed that the stick-lag distance of convex surface increased with reciprocating frequency, which indicated that convex surface reduces friction force more efficiently. Conclusions. We suggest that bionic nonsmooth surface cleaning screens, especially with convex units, restrain the adhesion of rape materials more efficiently compared to the smooth surface cleaning screens.

  13. Experimental Study of Reciprocating Friction between Rape Stalk and Bionic Nonsmooth Surface Units

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Zheng; Li, Yaoming; Xu, Lizhang

    2015-01-01

    Background. China is the largest producer of rape oilseed in the world; however, the mechanization level of rape harvest is relatively low, because rape materials easily adhere to the cleaning screens of combine harvesters, resulting in significant cleaning losses. Previous studies have shown that bionic nonsmooth surface cleaning screens restrain the adhesion of rape materials, but the underlying mechanisms remain unclear. Objective. The reciprocating friction between rape stalk and bionic nonsmooth metal surface was examined. Methods. The short-time Fourier transform method was used to discriminate the stable phase of friction signals and the stick-lag distance was defined to analyze the stable reciprocating friction in a phase diagram. Results. The reciprocating friction between rape stalk and metal surface is a typical stick-slip friction, and the bionic nonsmooth metal surfaces with concave or convex units reduced friction force with increasing reciprocating frequency. The results also showed that the stick-lag distance of convex surface increased with reciprocating frequency, which indicated that convex surface reduces friction force more efficiently. Conclusions. We suggest that bionic nonsmooth surface cleaning screens, especially with convex units, restrain the adhesion of rape materials more efficiently compared to the smooth surface cleaning screens. PMID:27034611

  14. [Effect of acid rain on seed germination of rice, wheat and rape].

    PubMed

    Zeng, Qing-ling; Huang, Xiao-hua; Zhou, Qing

    2005-01-01

    Rice, wheat and rape seeds were treated with simulated acid rain at pH 2.0, 2.5, 3.0, 3.5, 4.0 and 5.0 levels for 7 days in order to understand the effects of acid rain on seed germination of various acid-fast plant. The germination test showed that seed germination was absolutely inhibited at pH 2.0 for three species. Rice and wheat seeds germinated abnormally at pH 2.5. WhenpH values above 3.0, percentage germination, germination energy, germination index, vigor index of rice, wheat and rape seeds increased in relation with decreased acidity levels. In contrast, the percentage of abnormal germination of rice and wheat decreased. The experiment data about physiological aspect demonstrated that water absorption rate, respiratory rate and storage reserve transformation rate of rice, wheat and rape seeds also increased with increased pH values. The storage loss of rice and wheat increased with increased pH values but that of rape decreased. Inhibition index of shoot and root length of three kinds of seeds decreased in relation with increased pH values. The amplitude difference of index of rice was lower than that of wheat, and wheat was lower than that of rape. The experiment data showed that rice had stronger fastness than wheat and rape, wheat had stronger fastness than rape under acid rain stress.

  15. Progressive introgression between Brassica napus (oilseed rape) and B. rapa.

    PubMed

    Hansen, L B; Siegismund, H R; Jørgensen, R B

    2003-09-01

    We have earlier shown extensive introgression between oilseed rape (Brassica napus) and B. rapa in a weedy population using AFLP markers specific for the nuclear genomes. In order to describe the progress of this introgression, we examined 117 offspring from 12 maternal plants from the introgressed population with the same AFLP-markers; AFLP data were supported by chromosome counting. We also analysed the offspring with a species-specific chloroplast marker and finally evaluated the reproductive system in selected maternal plants. Our results indicated a high outcrossing rate of the introgressed maternal plants. It seemed that B. rapa most often functioned as the maternal plant in the introgression process and that the amount of oilseed rape DNA was highly diminished in the offspring compared to their introgressed maternal plants. However, our analysis of plants from the weedy population indicated that introgression can lead to both (1) exchange of chloroplast DNA between species producing B. rapa-like plants with B. napus chloroplasts and (2) incorporation of B. napus C-genome DNA into the B. rapa genome. Therefore, we question whether it can be regarded as containment to position transgenes in the chloroplast or in specific parts of the nuclear genome of B. napus.

  16. Purification and characterization of polyphenol oxidase from rape flower.

    PubMed

    Sun, Han-Ju; Wang, Jing; Tao, Xue-Ming; Shi, Juan; Huang, Mei-Ying; Chen, Zhe

    2012-01-25

    The purification and partial enzymology characteristics of polyphenol oxidase (PPO) from rape flower were studied. After preliminary treatments, the crude enzyme solution was in turn purified with ammonium sulfate, dialysis, and Sephadex G-75 gel chromatography. The optimal conditions and stability of PPO were examined at different pH values and temperatures. Subsequently, PPO was also characterized by substrate (catechol) concentrations, inhibitors, kinetic parameters, and molecular weight. Results showed that the optimal pH for PPO activity was 5.5 in the presence of catechol and that PPO was relatively stable at pH 3.5-5.5. PPO was moderately stable at temperatures from 60 to 70 °C, whereas it was easily denatured at 80-90 °C. Ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid, sodium chloride, and calcium chloride had little inhibitive effects on PPO, whereas citric acid, sodium sulfite, and ascorbic acid had strongly inhibitive effects. The Michaelis-Menten constant (K(m)) and maximal reaction velocity (V(max)) of PPO were 0.767 mol/L and 0.519 Ab/min/mL of the crude PPO solution, respectively. PPO was finally purified to homogeneity with a purification factor of 4.41-fold and a recovery of 12.41%. Its molecular weight was 60.4 kDa, indicating that the PPO is a dimer. The data obtained in this research may help to prevent the enzymatic browning of rape flower during its storage and processing.

  17. Nudity as a Disinhibiting Cue in a Date Rape Analogue.

    PubMed

    Fairweather, Annabree; Kingston, Drew A; Lalumière, Martin L

    2016-05-01

    Situational factors likely play a role in date rape. The sexual inhibition hypothesis suggests that men are typically sexually inhibited by violence and non-consent, but that inhibition can also be disrupted. We attempted to determine if female nudity reduces inhibition of sexual arousal to non-consensual cues in sexually non-aggressive men. In two studies, heterosexual men (aged 18-25) were presented with six 2-min audiotaped narratives depicting consensual sexual interactions, non-consensual sexual interactions (rape), and non-sexual interactions (neutral) involving a man and a woman. In the first study, 20 participants saw pictures depicting nude or clothed women while listening to the stories. In the second study, 20 other participants saw videos depicting nude or clothed women exercising, also while listening to the stories. Genital responses and subjective sexual arousal were measured. Results suggested that nudity may have a disinhibitory effect on sexual arousal to non-consensual cues, but only when presented in the form of moving images. PMID:26566899

  18. Forensic sexology: paraphilic serial rape (biastophilia) and lust murder (erotophonophilia).

    PubMed

    Money, J

    1990-01-01

    Forensic sexology is not synonymous with either forensic psychiatry or forensic psychology. It is a specialty in its own right, and is needed in the courtroom. Paraphilic sex offenders on trial are misrepresented as being, by their own choice, psychopathic or sociopathic deviates. They are unable to explain their paraphilic criminality to either themselves or society. In a case of serial rape and serial lust murder here presented, the contributory causes are examined and differentiated as hereditary predisposition, hormonal functioning; pathological relationships, sexual abuse; and syndrome overlap with bipolar disorder, schizoid disorder, antisocial personality disorder, epilepsy, and multiple personality. The precipitating causes were differentiated as childhood head injuries, and adult head injury at age 20. Left impact trauma and sexological trauma were sequelae of the adult injury. The full range of diagnostic resources was not available for a prisoner on death row. Capital punishment has not prevented the reemergence in each new generation of serial rape and serial lust murder as an epidemiological, public health problem. Punishment is an ineffectual substitute for epidemiological research into cause, effect, and prevention.

  19. Transgenic oilseed rape along transportation routes and port of Vancouver in western Canada.

    PubMed

    Yoshimura, Yasuyuki; Beckie, Hugh J; Matsuo, Kazuhito

    2006-01-01

    The occurrence of transgenic herbicide-resistant oilseed rape (Brassica napus) in ruderal (non-crop disturbed) areas has not been investigated previously in Canada. The primary objective of this study was to document their occurrence in two main ruderal areas (along railways and roads) in the province of Saskatchewan, where half of all oilseed rape is grown, and at the port of Vancouver, British Columbia on the west coast of Canada, where most oilseed rape destined for export is transported by rail. During the 2005 growing season, leaf samples of oilseed rape plants were collected at randomly-selected sites along railways and roads across Saskatchewan ecoregions and at Vancouver; infestation area, density, and plant height of oilseed rape were measured at each site. The presence of the glyphosate and glufosinate resistance traits was determined using test strips. The infestation area of oilseed rape, averaged across 155 sampled sites in the Saskatchewan survey, was markedly smaller in populations along railways than roads; in contrast, infestation area averaged across 54 sites in the Vancouver survey was greater for populations along railways than roads. In both surveys, mean plant density was greater for populations found along railways than roads. Two-thirds of oilseed rape plants sampled across Saskatchewan ecoregions and at Vancouver were transgenic, although the relative proportion of plants with the glyphosate or glufosinate resistance trait varied between surveys. Frequency of occurrence of transgenic plants in ruderal areas was similar to the proportion of the oilseed rape area planted with transgenic cultivars in the recent preceding years. A single transgenic B. rapa x B. napus hybrid was found along a road in Vancouver, confirming the relatively high probability of hybridization between these two Brassica species. With current control measures, transgenic oilseed rape populations may persist and spread in these ruderal areas.

  20. Mature green waste compost enhances growth and nitrogen uptake in wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) and oilseed rape (Brassica napus L.) through the action of water-extractable factors.

    PubMed

    Keeling, A A; McCallum, K R; Beckwith, C P

    2003-11-01

    A series of field and pot trials were carried out to determine the effects of growing wheat and oilseed rape in soils supplemented with green waste composts and provided with additional fertilisers. It was shown consistently that the response of wheat and rape to compost and fertiliser applied together was greater than the responses to the individual additives, but only when very stable compost was used (>10 months processing). Experiments with 15N-labelled fertiliser showed that wheat was able to utilise the applied N more efficiently when cultivated in the stable compost. The enhanced growth was also demonstrated in hydroponic culture of oilseed rape with water extracts of green waste compost in the presence of compound fertiliser. However the effect was rapidly lost at higher dilutions of compost extract (>3). It was concluded that water-extractable growth promoters are present in stable green waste compost, but these only have measurable activity at high concentrations. The identity of the growth promoting factors remains to be found, but the literature suggests that water-extractable humic substances or cytokinins may be involved.

  1. [Impact of Cu and Zn pollution on rape growth and soil enzyme activity].

    PubMed

    Yang, Hong-Fei; Yan, Mi; Yao, Jing; Wang, You-Bao; Liu, Deng-Yi

    2007-07-01

    A pot experiment was conducted to study the impact of Cu and Zn pollution on soil enzyme activities and rape seedlings growth. The results showed that Cu had a stronger inhibitory effect than Zn on soil urease activity, while Zn had more obvious impact on soil calatase activity. The damage on the growth and dry mass of rape was more serious under Cu than under Zn pollution. The inhibition of rape seedlings growth was mainly due to the inhibition of root growth and its material accumulation. Factor analysis indicated that root dry mass was more sensitive than other indices, which could be adopted to monitor soil Cu and Zn pollution.

  2. Rape disclosure: the interplay of gender, culture and kinship in contemporary Vietnam.

    PubMed

    Huong, Nguyen Thu

    2012-01-01

    This paper examines the social management of rape within kin groups in contemporary Vietnam, with a particular focus on the decision whether or not to seek legal redress. Post-rape management entails negotiations among families on matters such as apology and compensation before a decision is made about whether to report the incident to the authorities. By drawing on an ethnographic study of a limited number of respondents, this paper highlights how rape disclosure is often bound up with notions of family honour, with assumptions about kinship, gender relations, social belonging and shared responsibility in a collective society such as Vietnam.

  3. The use of Pseudomonas fluorescens P13 to control sclerotinia stem rot (Sclerotinia sclerotiorum) of oilseed rape.

    PubMed

    Li, Hui; Li, Huaibo; Bai, Yan; Wang, Jing; Nie, Ming; Li, Bo; Xiao, Ming

    2011-12-01

    Sclerotinia stem rot (SSR) caused by the fungus Sclerotinia sclerotiorum has been an increasing threat to oilseed rape (Brassica napus L.) cultivation. Efficient and environment-friendly treatments are much needed. Here we focus on microbial control. The Pseudomonas fluorescens P13 that was isolated from oilseed rape cultivation soil, proved to be a useful biocontrol strain for application. Morphology, physiological and biochemical tests and 16S rDNA analysis demonstrated that it was P. fluorescens P13 and that it had a broad antagonistic spectrum, significantly lessening the mycelial growth of S. sclerotiorum by 84.4% and suppressing sclerotial formation by 95-100%. Scanning electron microscopy studies attested that P13 deformed S. sclerotiorum mycelia when they were cultured together. P13 did not produce chitinase but did produce hydrogen cyanide (HCN) which was likely one of the antagonistic mechanisms. The density of P13 remained at a high level (≥10(6) CFU/ml) during 5 weeks in the rhizosphere soil and roots. P13 reduced SSR severity at least by 59% in field studies and also promoted seedling growth (p<0.05) at the seedling stage. From these data, our work provided evidence that P13 could be a good alternative biological resource for biocontrol of S. sclerotiorum.

  4. The use of Pseudomonas fluorescens P13 to control sclerotinia stem rot (Sclerotinia sclerotiorum) of oilseed rape.

    PubMed

    Li, Hui; Li, Huaibo; Bai, Yan; Wang, Jing; Nie, Ming; Li, Bo; Xiao, Ming

    2011-12-01

    Sclerotinia stem rot (SSR) caused by the fungus Sclerotinia sclerotiorum has been an increasing threat to oilseed rape (Brassica napus L.) cultivation. Efficient and environment-friendly treatments are much needed. Here we focus on microbial control. The Pseudomonas fluorescens P13 that was isolated from oilseed rape cultivation soil, proved to be a useful biocontrol strain for application. Morphology, physiological and biochemical tests and 16S rDNA analysis demonstrated that it was P. fluorescens P13 and that it had a broad antagonistic spectrum, significantly lessening the mycelial growth of S. sclerotiorum by 84.4% and suppressing sclerotial formation by 95-100%. Scanning electron microscopy studies attested that P13 deformed S. sclerotiorum mycelia when they were cultured together. P13 did not produce chitinase but did produce hydrogen cyanide (HCN) which was likely one of the antagonistic mechanisms. The density of P13 remained at a high level (≥10(6) CFU/ml) during 5 weeks in the rhizosphere soil and roots. P13 reduced SSR severity at least by 59% in field studies and also promoted seedling growth (p<0.05) at the seedling stage. From these data, our work provided evidence that P13 could be a good alternative biological resource for biocontrol of S. sclerotiorum. PMID:22203550

  5. [Effects of wheat-oilseed rape intercropping and methyl salicylate application on the spatial distributions of Sitobion avenae and its main natural enemies].

    PubMed

    Dong, Jie; Liu, Ying-Jie; Wang, Guang; Liu, Yong

    2012-07-01

    A field investigation was conducted on the spatial distributions of Sitobion avenae and its main natural enemies under wheat-oilseed rape intercropping and methyl salicylate application. With the development of wheat plant, an alternation from aggregation to uniform was observed in the spatial distribution of S. avenae under the intercropping and methyl salicylate application, being more obvious under the interaction of the two practices. The spatial distribution of S. avenae natural enemies was in accordance with that of the aphid. These results could be used for the reference of sampling investigation and forecast of wheat aphid and its natural enemies in field.

  6. Antioxidant enzyme systems and the ascorbate-glutathione cycle as contributing factors to cadmium accumulation and tolerance in two oilseed rape cultivars (Brassica napus L.) under moderate cadmium stress.

    PubMed

    Wu, Zhichao; Zhao, Xiaohu; Sun, Xuecheng; Tan, Qiling; Tang, Yafang; Nie, Zhaojun; Qu, Chanjuan; Chen, Zuoxin; Hu, Chengxiao

    2015-11-01

    Oilseed rape (Brassica napus L.) with high tolerance to cadmium (Cd) may be used in the phytoremediation of Cd-contaminated fields. However, the mechanisms responsible for Cd accumulation and tolerance in oilseed rape are still poorly understood. Here, we investigated the physiological and molecular processes involved in Cd tolerance of two oilseed rape cultivars with different Cd accumulation abilities. The total Cd accumulation in cultivar L351 was higher than cultivar L338, particularly with increasing concentrations of Cd exposure. L338 was a more pronounced Cd-sensitive cultivar than L351, while higher activities of antioxidant enzymes (CAT, APX, GR, DHAR) as well as higher contents of GSH and AsA were all observed in L351 under Cd treatments, especially at high levels. No differences were found in SOD activities between the two cultivars under the same Cd treatments, suggesting that SOD was not the key factor in relation to the differences of Cd tolerance and accumulation between them. Gene expression levels of BnFe-SOD, BnCAT, BnAPX, BcGR and BoDHAR in roots of L351 were relatively higher than that in L338 under Cd exposure as well as BnCAT and BcGR in leaves. It is concluded that antioxidant enzymes and the ascorbate-glutathione cycle play important roles in oilseed rape Cd accumulation and tolerance.

  7. Antioxidant enzyme systems and the ascorbate-glutathione cycle as contributing factors to cadmium accumulation and tolerance in two oilseed rape cultivars (Brassica napus L.) under moderate cadmium stress.

    PubMed

    Wu, Zhichao; Zhao, Xiaohu; Sun, Xuecheng; Tan, Qiling; Tang, Yafang; Nie, Zhaojun; Qu, Chanjuan; Chen, Zuoxin; Hu, Chengxiao

    2015-11-01

    Oilseed rape (Brassica napus L.) with high tolerance to cadmium (Cd) may be used in the phytoremediation of Cd-contaminated fields. However, the mechanisms responsible for Cd accumulation and tolerance in oilseed rape are still poorly understood. Here, we investigated the physiological and molecular processes involved in Cd tolerance of two oilseed rape cultivars with different Cd accumulation abilities. The total Cd accumulation in cultivar L351 was higher than cultivar L338, particularly with increasing concentrations of Cd exposure. L338 was a more pronounced Cd-sensitive cultivar than L351, while higher activities of antioxidant enzymes (CAT, APX, GR, DHAR) as well as higher contents of GSH and AsA were all observed in L351 under Cd treatments, especially at high levels. No differences were found in SOD activities between the two cultivars under the same Cd treatments, suggesting that SOD was not the key factor in relation to the differences of Cd tolerance and accumulation between them. Gene expression levels of BnFe-SOD, BnCAT, BnAPX, BcGR and BoDHAR in roots of L351 were relatively higher than that in L338 under Cd exposure as well as BnCAT and BcGR in leaves. It is concluded that antioxidant enzymes and the ascorbate-glutathione cycle play important roles in oilseed rape Cd accumulation and tolerance. PMID:26207887

  8. Spatially structured population dynamics in feral oilseed rape.

    PubMed Central

    Crawley, Michael J.; Brown, Susan L.

    2004-01-01

    We studied the population dynamics of feral oilseed rape (Brassica napus) for 10 years (1993-2002) in 3658 adjacent permanent 100 m quadrats in the verges of the M25 motorway around London, UK. The aim was to determine the relative importance of different factors affecting the observed temporal patterns of population dynamics and their spatial correlations. A wide range of population dynamics was observed (downward or upward trends, cycles, local extinctions and recolonizations), but overall the populations were not self-replacing (lambda < 1). Many quadrats remained unoccupied throughout the study period, but a few were occupied at high densities for all 10 years. Most quadrats showed transient oilseed rape populations, lasting 1-4 years. There were strong spatial patterns in mean population density, associated with soil conditions and the successional age of the plant community dominating the verge, and these large-scale spatial patterns were highly consistent from year to year. The importance of seed spilled from trucks in transit to the processing plant at Erith in Kent was confirmed: rape populations were significantly higher on the 'to Erith' verge than the 'from Erith' verge (overall mean 2.83-fold greater stem density). Quadrats in which lambda > 1 were much more frequent in the 'to Erith' verge, indicating that seed immigration can give the spurious impression of self-replacing population dynamics in time-series analysis. There was little evidence of a pervasive Moran effect, and climatic forcing did not produce widespread large-scale synchrony in population dynamics for the motorway as a whole; just 23% of quadrats had significant rank correlations with the mean time-series. There was, however, significant local spatial synchrony of population dynamics, apparently associated with soil disturbance and seed input. This study draws attention to the possibility that different processes may impose population synchrony at different scales. We hypothesize that

  9. In situ dynamics of microbial communities during decomposition of wheat, rape, and alfalfa residues.

    PubMed

    Pascault, Noémie; Cécillon, Lauric; Mathieu, Olivier; Hénault, Catherine; Sarr, Amadou; Lévêque, Jean; Farcy, Pascal; Ranjard, Lionel; Maron, Pierre-Alain

    2010-11-01

    Microbial communities are of major importance in the decomposition of soil organic matter. However, the identities and dynamics of the populations involved are still poorly documented. We investigated, in an 11-month field experiment, how the initial biochemical quality of crop residues could lead to specific decomposition patterns, linking biochemical changes undergone by the crop residues to the respiration, biomass, and genetic structure of the soil microbial communities. Wheat, alfalfa, and rape residues were incorporated into the 0-15 cm layer of the soil of field plots by tilling. Biochemical changes in the residues occurring during degradation were assessed by near-infrared spectroscopy. Qualitative modifications in the genetic structure of the bacterial communities were determined by bacterial-automated ribosomal intergenic spacer analysis. Bacterial diversity in the three crop residues at early and late stages of decomposition process was further analyzed from a molecular inventory of the 16S rDNA. The decomposition of plant residues in croplands was shown to involve specific biochemical characteristics and microbial community dynamics which were clearly related to the quality of the organic inputs. Decay stage and seasonal shifts occurred by replacement of copiotrophic bacterial groups such as proteobacteria successful on younger residues with those successful on more extensively decayed material such as Actinobacteria. However, relative abundance of proteobacteria depended greatly on the composition of the residues, with a gradient observed from alfalfa to wheat, suggesting that this bacterial group may represent a good indicator of crop residues degradability and modifications during the decomposition process.

  10. Implicit and explicit attitudes toward rape are associated with sexual aggression.

    PubMed

    Nunes, Kevin L; Hermann, Chantal A; Ratcliffe, Katie

    2013-09-01

    We examined the relationship between self-reported sexual aggression and implicit and explicit attitudes towards rape in a sample of 86 male heterosexual university students. Large, significant group differences were found between the most sexually aggressive participants and the nonaggressive participants, with the most sexually aggressive group showing less negative implicit and explicit attitudes towards rape (Cohen's d=0.76-1.20). Implicit and explicit attitudes provided complementary information such that together they were more strongly associated with sexual aggression than on their own. The current findings suggest that implicit and explicit attitudes towards rape are associated with sexual aggression. In addition to the broader set of cognitions that appear to be assessed by most self-report measures, the narrower construct of attitudes towards rape may be a fruitful avenue of further exploration for research, assessment, and treatment of sexual aggression.

  11. Gender differences and socioeconomic status biases in judgments about blame in date rape scenarios.

    PubMed

    Black, Katherine A; Gold, David J

    2008-01-01

    Participants (80 men, 80 women) read hypothetical date rape scenarios, wherein the perpetrator's socioeconomic status (bus driver versus doctor) and the victim's level of resistance (verbal versus verbal and physical) were varied, and made judgments about who was at fault and what the consequences should be. In general, men assigned more blame to the victim and less blame to the perpetrator than did women. However, men assigned more blame to the bus driver than to the doctor. Women, on the other hand, assigned more blame to the victim who was raped by the bus driver than to the victim who was raped by the doctor. The results also indicated that participants recommended harsher punishments for the perpetrator when the victim resisted verbally than when she resisted verbally and physically. Future research on the role of the perpetrator's, the victim's, and the participants' socioeconomic status in judgments about date rape is suggested.

  12. Mock Juror Perceptions of Rape Victims: Impact of Case Characteristics and Individual Differences.

    PubMed

    Sommer, Shannon; Reynolds, Joshua J; Kehn, Andre

    2016-10-01

    The purpose of the present study was to examine mock juror perceptions of rape victims based on the sex of the offender and victim (male offender/female victim vs. female offender/male victim), relationship to the offender (stranger vs. acquaintance vs. intimate partner), revictimization (no revictimization vs. revictimization), and individual differences in rape myth acceptance (RMA) and life history strategy (LHS). Participants (N = 332) read a vignette describing a forcible rape scenario and completed victim and perpetrator blame scales, the Mini-K, and a gender-neutral Rape Myth Acceptance Scale. Results indicated increased victim blame in revictimization conditions, as well as female offender/male victim conditions. A significant mediation effect of LHS on victim blame through the indirect effect of RMA was found, which is predicted from life history theory. Implications of these findings are discussed. PMID:25900913

  13. Study on weevil pests of oilseed rape at Keszthely, Hungary.

    PubMed

    Marczali, Zs; Keszthelyi, S; Nádasy, M; Budai, P; Lehoczky, E

    2010-01-01

    One of the most important pests of rape in early spring are weevils (Ceutorhynchus spp.). The aim of our studies was to identify the occurring weevil species and to study their emergence, swarming, mating and damage. Our observations were performed on an experimental plot at Keszthely (Hungary, Zala County) in early spring of four consecutive years. Following species were collected and identified: Ceutorhynchus pallidactylus MARSHAM, Ceutorhynchus obstrictus MARSHAM, Ceutorhynchus napi GYLLENHAL, Ceutorhynchus pleurostigma MARSHAM. The obvious dominance of C. pallidactylus and C. obstrictus was detected. Their frequency of occurrence was 88-90% among the identified adults. We found that C. obstrictus was the last species to settle. Complete developmental period was 68 +/- 7 days in case of C. pallidactylus and 70 +/- 7 days in case of C. obstrictus. Average number of eggs laid by one female was 176 +/- 23 in case of C. obstrictus and 21 +/- 6 in case of C. pallidactylus.

  14. Confidentiality and the rape victim: ethical intent versus political reality.

    PubMed

    Nass, Deanna

    1991-01-01

    ... The clinician who works with the victim of rape, either in hospital emergency departments, community mental health settings, college environments, or private practice, should consider ways that would effect the many overdue reforms for which this specialty cries out. The need for sensitivity in the area of record keeping, particularly as to how such records might be used, can hardly be debated. Beyond this, there is the role of patient advocate, calling upon the clinician to serve an educative function with reference to the members of his profession and of the larger society. Confidentiality of patient records can be preserved only to the extent that the cultural context in which they exist values such privacy. PMID:11642917

  15. Levonorgestrel in cases of rape: How does it work?

    PubMed

    Raviele, Kathleen Mary

    2014-05-01

    The Ethical and Religious Directives for Catholic Health Care Services allows the use of an emergency contraceptive for a woman who has been raped, as a defense against her attacker's sperm, provided the drug prevents fertilization and does not act against a conceived human life. Catholic emergency rooms around the country have been pressured to provide Plan B (LNG-EC) to patients seeking help after a sexual assault. Catholic bioethicists have supported the use of this drug based on their interpretation of the scientific literature regarding its mechanism of action. This paper presents a review of the mechanisms of action of LNG-EC when given during the fertile window, showing a high probability that it acts against human life rather than preventing fertilization, and proposes another class of drugs as a possible alternative.

  16. Oklahoma adopts testing laws for inmates, rape suspects.

    PubMed

    1998-05-15

    Oklahoma Senate Bill 886 requires inmates to undergo HIV and hepatitis B testing if they expose other people to body fluids. The definition of exposure to body fluids is broad and the Department of Corrections sought a narrower definition that reflects actual transmission risk. The bill requires the Department of Corrections to provide the results to the person who was potentially exposed. If the prison already knows that the inmate is HIV-positive, the testing requirement is waived. Existing law requires officers to be notified before contact if the inmate has HIV or AIDS. Prompted by a case involving a Tulsa County rape victim, a second bill, House Bill 2570, was passed to expedite HIV testing of defendants charged with sex offenses. PMID:11365329

  17. Confidentiality and the rape victim: ethical intent versus political reality.

    PubMed

    Nass, Deanna

    1991-01-01

    ... The clinician who works with the victim of rape, either in hospital emergency departments, community mental health settings, college environments, or private practice, should consider ways that would effect the many overdue reforms for which this specialty cries out. The need for sensitivity in the area of record keeping, particularly as to how such records might be used, can hardly be debated. Beyond this, there is the role of patient advocate, calling upon the clinician to serve an educative function with reference to the members of his profession and of the larger society. Confidentiality of patient records can be preserved only to the extent that the cultural context in which they exist values such privacy.

  18. Coordinate changes in gene expression and triacylglycerol composition in the developing seeds of oilseed rape (Brassica napus) and turnip rape (Brassica rapa).

    PubMed

    Vuorinen, Anssi L; Kalpio, Marika; Linderborg, Kaisa M; Kortesniemi, Maaria; Lehto, Kirsi; Niemi, Jarmo; Yang, Baoru; Kallio, Heikki P

    2014-02-15

    Crop production for vegetable oil in the northern latitudes utilises oilseed rape (Brassica napus subsp. oleifera) and turnip rape (B. rapa subsp. oleifera), having similar oil compositions. The oil consists mostly of triacylglycerols, which are synthesised during seed development. In this study, we characterised the oil composition and the expression levels of genes involved in triacylglycerol biosynthesis in the developing seeds in optimal, low temperature (15 °C) and short day (12-h day length) conditions. Gene expression levels of several genes were altered during seed development. Low temperature and short day treatments increased the level of 9,12,15-octadecatrienoic acid (18:3n-3) in turnip rape and short day treatment decreased the total oil content in both species. This study gives a novel view on seed oil biosynthesis under different growth conditions, bringing together gene expression levels of the triacylglycerol biosynthesis pathway and oil composition over a time series in two related oilseed species.

  19. Schema effects of rape myth acceptance on judgments of guilt and blame in rape cases: the role of perceived entitlement to judge.

    PubMed

    Eyssel, Friederike; Bohner, Gerd

    2011-05-01

    Two experiments (N = 330) examined conditions that facilitate biasing effects of rape myth acceptance (RMA) on judgments of blame in rape cases. In both experiments, participants read a short vignette depicting a rape case. In Experiment 1, the amount of case-irrelevant information about defendant and plaintiff was varied. As predicted, high-RMA (vs. low-RMA) participants were less likely to blame the defendant the more irrelevant information they had read. In Experiment 2, participants in a social judgeability condition were made to believe that they had been subliminally exposed to additional case information although in fact no additional information had been presented. As predicted, compared to a control condition, participants' blame judgments were more biased by their RMA under social judgeability. Our findings reveal that the mechanism underlying the biasing effects of RMA may be the subjective feeling of entitlement to judge.

  20. Genetic mapping of clubroot resistance genes in oilseed rape.

    PubMed

    Werner, S; Diederichsen, E; Frauen, M; Schondelmaier, J; Jung, C

    2008-02-01

    Clubroot caused by the obligate biotrophic protist Plasmodiophora brassicae is a major disease of Brassica species. Clubroot resistances introduced from B. oleracea var. 'Böhmerwaldkohl' and resistance from B. rapa ECD-04 were genetically mapped in oilseed rape (B. napus L.). A doubled haploid (DH) population of rape seed was developed by crossing a resistant DH-line derived from a resynthesized B. napus with the susceptible cultivar 'Express'. The DH population was tested in the greenhouse against seven P. brassicae isolates showing low and high virulence toward B. oleracea or/and B. rapa. DH-lines with highest or lowest disease scores were used in a bulked segregant analysis (BSA), and 43 polymorphic AFLPs were identified. A genetic map of the whole genome was constructed using 338 AFLP and 156 anchored SSR markers. Nineteen QTL were detected on chromosomes N02, N03, N08, N13, N15, N16 and N19 giving resistance to seven different isolates. Race-specific effects were observed for all QTL, none of the QTL conferred resistance to all isolates. The phenotypic variance explained by the respective QTL ranged between 10.3 and 67.5%. All QTL could be assigned to both ancestral genomes of B. napus. In contrast to previous reports, a clear differentiation into major QTL from B. rapa and minor QTL from B. oleracea could not be found. Composite interval mapping confirmed the linkage relationships determined by BSA, thus demonstrating that markers for oligogenic traits can be selected by merely testing the distributional extremes of a segregating population.

  1. 3-Oxoacyl-[ACP] reductase from oilseed rape (Brassica napus).

    PubMed

    Sheldon, P S; Kekwick, R G; Smith, C G; Sidebottom, C; Slabas, A R

    1992-04-01

    3-Oxoacyl-[ACP] reductase (E.C. 1.1.1.100, alternatively known as beta-ketoacyl-[ACP] reductase), a component of fatty acid synthetase has been purified from seeds of rape by ammonium sulphate fractionation, Procion Red H-E3B chromatography, FPLC gel filtration and high performance hydroxyapatite chromatography. The purified enzyme appears on SDS-PAGE as a number of 20-30 kDa components and has a strong tendency to exist in a dimeric form, particularly when dithiothreitol is not present to reduce disulphide bonds. Cleveland mapping and cross-reactivity with antiserum raised against avocado 3-oxoacyl-[ACP] reductase both indicate that the multiple components have similar primary structures. On gel filtration the enzyme appears to have a molecular mass of 120 kDa suggesting that the native structure is tetrameric. The enzyme has a strong preference for the acetoacetyl ester of acyl carrier protein (Km = 3 microM) over the corresponding esters of the model substrates N-acetyl cysteamine (Km = 35 mM) and CoA (Km = 261 microM). It is inactivated by dilution but this can be partly prevented by the inclusion of NADPH. Using an antiserum prepared against avocado 3-oxoacyl-[ACP] reductase, the enzyme has been visualised inside the plastids of rape embryo and leaf tissues by immunoelectron microscopy. Amino acid sequencing of two peptides prepared by digestion of the purified enzyme with trypsin showed strong similarities with 3-oxoacyl-[ACP] reductase from avocado pear and the Nod G gene product from Rhizobium meliloti.

  2. Same-Sex and Race-Based Disparities in Statutory Rape Arrests.

    PubMed

    Chaffin, Mark; Chenoweth, Stephanie; Letourneau, Elizabeth J

    2016-01-01

    This study tests a liberation hypothesis for statutory rape incidents, specifically that there may be same-sex and race/ethnicity arrest disparities among statutory rape incidents and that these will be greater among statutory rape than among forcible sex crime incidents. 26,726 reported incidents of statutory rape as defined under state statutes and 96,474 forcible sex crime incidents were extracted from National Incident-Based Reporting System data sets. Arrest outcomes were tested using multilevel modeling. Same-sex statutory rape pairings were rare but had much higher arrest odds. A victim-offender romantic relationship amplified arrest odds for same-sex pairings, but damped arrest odds for male-on-female pairings. Same-sex disparities were larger among statutory than among forcible incidents. Female-on-male incidents had uniformly lower arrest odds. Race/ethnicity effects were smaller than gender effects and more complexly patterned. The findings support the liberation hypothesis for same-sex statutory rape arrest disparities, particularly among same-sex romantic pairings. Support for race/ethnicity-based arrest disparities was limited and mixed.

  3. Randomized controlled evaluation of an early intervention to prevent post-rape psychopathology.

    PubMed

    Resnick, Heidi; Acierno, Ron; Waldrop, Angela E; King, Lynda; King, Daniel; Danielson, Carla; Ruggiero, Kenneth J; Kilpatrick, Dean

    2007-10-01

    A randomized between-group design was used to evaluate the efficacy of a video intervention to reduce post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and other mental health problems, implemented prior to the forensic medical examination conducted within 72 h post-sexual assault. Participants were 140 female victims of sexual assault (68 video/72 nonvideo) aged 15 years or older. Assessments were targeted for 6 weeks (Time 1) and 6 months (Time 2) post-assault. At Time 1, the intervention was associated with lower scores on measures of PTSD and depression among women with a prior rape history relative to scores among women with a prior rape history in the standard care condition. At Time 2, depression scores were also lower among those with a prior rape history who were in the video relative to the standard care condition. Small effects indicating higher PTSD and Beck Anxiety Inventory (BAI) scores among women without a prior rape history in the video condition were observed at Time 1. Accelerated longitudinal growth curve analysis indicated a videoxprior rape history interaction for PTSD, yielding four patterns of symptom trajectory over time. Women with a prior rape history in the video condition generally maintained the lowest level of symptoms.

  4. Predictors of delayed disclosure of rape in female adolescents and young adults

    PubMed Central

    Bicanic, Iva A. E.; Hehenkamp, Lieve M.; van de Putte, Elise M.; van Wijk, Arjen J.; de Jongh, Ad

    2015-01-01

    Background Delayed disclosure of rape has been associated with impaired mental health; it is, therefore, important to understand which factors are associated with disclosure latency. The purpose of this study was to compare various demographics, post-rape characteristics, and psychological functioning of early and delayed disclosers (i.e., more than 1-week post-rape) among rape victims, and to determine predictors for delayed disclosure. Methods Data were collected using a structured interview and validated questionnaires in a sample of 323 help-seeking female adolescents and young adults (12–25 years), who were victimized by rape, but had no reported prior chronic child sexual abuse. Results In 59% of the cases, disclosure occurred within 1 week. Delayed disclosers were less likely to use medical services and to report to the police than early disclosers. No significant differences were found between delayed and early disclosers in psychological functioning and time to seek professional help. The combination of age category 12–17 years [odds ratio (OR) 2.05, confidence intervals (CI) 1.13–3.73], penetration (OR 2.36, CI 1.25–4.46), and closeness to assailant (OR 2.64, CI 1.52–4.60) contributed significantly to the prediction of delayed disclosure. Conclusion The results point to the need of targeted interventions that specifically encourage rape victims to disclose early, thereby increasing options for access to health and police services. PMID:25967381

  5. Caught between teens and the law: family planning programs and statutory rape reporting.

    PubMed

    Donovan, P

    1998-06-01

    In the US, policy-makers and legislators have considered using statutory rape prosecutions of males to reduce the incidence of adolescent pregnancy or the incidence of minors being exploited sexually by much older males. However, health care professionals fear that mandatory reporting of such cases will discourage young women from seeking health care. Statutory rape laws vary from state to state, but every state has an age below which a minor may not legally consent to sexual intercourse. Reporting laws are more complicated because they are tied to child abuse statutes instead of statutory rape laws. In about half of the states, the definition of child abuse includes some cases of statutory rape. Thus, agencies created to deal with intrafamilial abuse have no mechanism for responding to reports of extrafamilial statutory rape, so some case reports are simply filed while others result in the man being charged with a crime. Such a response simply breaches the confidentiality of the victim and has other unintended negative consequences. Many service providers edit the questions they ask their clients so that they can avoid mandatory reporting. Others tell their clients not to divulge the age of their sexual partner, but such a warning can make young women afraid to confide in service providers. To shed light on this dilemma, the American Bar Association is doing research to identify the "best practice" adopted by communities seeking a more vigorous response to statutory rape laws, and lawmakers should wait for this report before taking action. PMID:12348585

  6. From Survivor to Thriver: A Pilot Study of an Online Program for Rape Victims

    PubMed Central

    Littleton, Heather; Buck, Katherine; Rosman, Lindsey; Grills-Taquechel, Amie

    2013-01-01

    Approximately 15% to 20% of women have been victims of rape and close to a third report current rape-related PTSD or clinically significant depression or anxiety. Unfortunately, very few distressed rape victims seek formal help. This suggests a need to develop alternative ways to assist the many distressed victims of sexual violence. Online treatment programs represent a potentially important alternative strategy for reaching such individuals. The current paper describes a pilot evaluation of an online, therapist-facilitated, self-paced cognitive behavioral program for rape victims. Five college women with current rape-related PTSD were recruited to complete the From Survivor to Thriver (S to T) program in a lab setting over the course of 7 weeks. After completing the program, 4 participants reported clinically significant reductions in PTSD symptoms and no longer met criteria for PTSD. All participants reported clinically significant reductions in vulnerability fears and 4 reported significant reductions in negative trauma-related cognitions. Implications of the results for further development of the S to T program and how clinicians could utilize this program in treating rape-related PTSD are discussed. PMID:24009410

  7. Seed Spillage from Grain Trailers on Road Verges during Oilseed Rape Harvest: An Experimental Survey

    PubMed Central

    Bailleul, Diane; Ollier, Sébastien; Huet, Sylvie; Gardarin, Antoine; Lecomte, Jane

    2012-01-01

    Context Anthropogenic vectors enhance the natural dispersal capacity of plant seeds significantly in terms of quantity and distance. Human-mediated seed dispersal (i.e. anthropochory) greatly increases the dispersal of crop species across agroecosystems. In the case of oilseed rape (OSR), spillage of seeds from grain trailers during harvest has never been quantified. Methods Our experimental approach involved establishing 85 seed trap-sites on the road verges of an agricultural area around the grain silo of Selommes (Loir-et-Cher, France). We recorded OSR spillage during harvest and applied a linear model to the data. Results The amount of seed spilled was related positively to the area of the OSR fields served by the road, whereas the amount of seed spilled decreased with other variables, such as distance from the trap-site to the verge of the road and to the nearest field. The distance to the grain silo, through local and regional effects, affected seed loss. Local effects from fields adjacent to the road resulted in a cumulative spillage on one-lane roads. On two-lane roads, spillage was nearly constant whatever the distance to the silo due to a mixture of these local effects and of grain trailers that joined the road from more distant fields. From the data, we predicted the number of seeds lost from grain trailers on one road verge in the study area. We predicted a total spillage of 2.05×106 seeds (±4.76×105) along the road length, which represented a mean of 404±94 seeds per m2. Conclusion Containment of OSR seeds will always be challenging. However, seed spillage could be reduced if grain trailers were covered and filled with less seed. Reducing distances travelled between fields and silos could also limit seed loss. PMID:22427873

  8. Correlates of reasons for not reporting rape to police: results from a national telephone household probability sample of women with forcible or drug-or-alcohol facilitated/incapacitated rape.

    PubMed

    Cohn, Amy M; Zinzow, Heidi M; Resnick, Heidi S; Kilpatrick, Dean G

    2013-02-01

    Rape tactics, rape incident characteristics, and mental health problems (lifetime depression, PTSD, and substance abuse) were investigated as correlates of eight different reasons for not reporting a rape to police among women who had experienced but did not report a rape to police (n = 441) within a national telephone household probability sample. Rape tactics (nonmutually exclusive) included drug or alcohol-facilitated or incapacitated rape (DAFR/IR; n = 119) and forcible rape (FR; n = 376). Principal Components Analysis (PCA) was conducted to extract a dominant set of patterns among the eight reasons for not reporting, and to reduce the set of dependent variables. PCA results indicated three unique factors: Not Wanting Others to Know, Nonacknowledgment of Rape, and Criminal Justice Concerns. Hierarchical regression analyses showed DAFR/IR and FR were both positively and significantly associated with Criminal Justice Concerns, whereas DAFR/IR, but not FR, was associated with Nonacknowledgment as a reason for not reporting to police. Neither DAFR/IR nor FR emerged as significant predictors of Others Knowing after controlling for fear of death or injury at the time of the incident. Correlations among variables showed that the Criminal Justice Concerns factor was positively related to lifetime depression and PTSD and the Nonacknowledgement factor was negatively related to lifetime PTSD. Findings suggest prevention programs should educate women about the definition of rape, which may include incapacitation due to alcohol or drugs, to increase acknowledgement and decrease barriers to police reporting.

  9. Quantification of Plasmodiophora brassicae Using a DNA-Based Soil Test Facilitates Sustainable Oilseed Rape Production.

    PubMed

    Wallenhammar, Ann-Charlotte; Gunnarson, Albin; Hansson, Fredrik; Jonsson, Anders

    2016-01-01

    Outbreaks of clubroot disease caused by the soil-borne obligate parasite Plasmodiophora brassicae are common in oilseed rape (OSR) in Sweden. A DNA-based soil testing service that identifies fields where P. brassicae poses a significant risk of clubroot infection is now commercially available. It was applied here in field surveys to monitor the prevalence of P. brassicae DNA in field soils intended for winter OSR production and winter OSR field experiments. In 2013 in Scania, prior to planting, P. brassicae DNA was detected in 60% of 45 fields on 10 of 18 farms. In 2014, P. brassicae DNA was detected in 44% of 59 fields in 14 of 36 farms, in the main winter OSR producing region in southern Sweden. P. brassicae was present indicative of a risk for >10% yield loss with susceptible cultivars (>1300 DNA copies g soil(-1)) in 47% and 44% of fields in 2013 and 2014 respectively. Furthermore, P. brassicae DNA was indicative of sites at risk of complete crop failure if susceptible cultivars were grown (>50 000 copies g(-1) soil) in 14% and 8% of fields in 2013 and 2014, respectively. A survey of all fields at Lanna research station in western Sweden showed that P. brassicae was spread throughout the farm, as only three of the fields (20%) showed infection levels below the detection limit for P.brassicae DNA, while the level was >50,000 DNA copies g(-1) soil in 20% of the fields. Soil-borne spread is of critical importance and soil scraped off footwear showed levels of up to 682 million spores g(-1) soil. Soil testing is an important tool for determining the presence of P. brassicae and providing an indication of potential yield loss, e.g., in advisory work on planning for a sustainable OSR crop rotation. This soil test is gaining acceptance as a tool that increases the likelihood of success in precision agriculture and in applied research conducted in commercial oilseed fields and at research stations. The present application highlights the importance of prevention of

  10. Gender Inequitable Masculinity and Sexual Entitlement in Rape Perpetration South Africa: Findings of a Cross-Sectional Study

    PubMed Central

    Jewkes, Rachel; Sikweyiya, Yandisa; Morrell, Robert; Dunkle, Kristin

    2011-01-01

    Objective To describe the prevalence and patterns of rape perpetration in a randomly selected sample of men from the general adult population, to explore factors associated with rape and to describe how men explained their acts of rape. Design Cross-sectional household study with a two- stage randomly selected sample of men. Methods 1737 South African men aged 18–49 completed a questionnaire administered using an Audio-enhanced Personal Digital Assistant. Multivariable logistic regression models were built to identify factors associated with rape perpetration. Results In all 27.6% (466/1686) of men had raped a woman, whether an intimate partner, stranger or acquaintance, and whether perpetrated alone or with accomplices, and 4.7% had raped in the last 12 months. First rapes for 75% were perpetrated before age 20, and 53.9% (251) of those raping, did so on multiple occasions. The logistic regression model showed that having raped was associated with greater adversity in childhood, having been raped by a man and higher maternal education. It was associated with less equitable views on gender relations, having had more partners, and many more gender inequitable practices including transactional sex and physical partner violence. Also drug use, gang membership and a higher score on the dimensions of psychopathic personality, namely blame externalisation and Machiavellian egocentricity. Asked about why they did it, the most common motivations stemmed from ideas of sexual entitlement. Conclusions Perpetration of rape is so prevalent that population-based measures of prevention are essential to complement criminal justice system responses. Our findings show the importance of measures to build gender equity and change dominant ideas of masculinity and gender relations as part of rape prevention. Reducing men's exposure to trauma in childhood is also critically important. PMID:22216324

  11. Self-defense or undermining the self? Exploring the possibilities and limitations of a novel anti-rape technology.

    PubMed

    White, Deborah; Rees, Gethin

    2014-03-01

    Despite decades of feminist-inspired law reforms, rape remains highly prevalent. While many continue to fight for broad cultural and institutional changes, some argue that more immediate interventions are required. Self-defense techniques represent a key strategy of resistance to rape, and empirical evidence suggests that women's active resistance may hold a number of positive benefits. In this essay, we compare the aims and objectives of a novel anti-rape technology, known as the Rape-aXe, with traditional self-defense techniques, focusing upon the potential for both to resist individual acts of sexual aggression and, more broadly, end gendered sexual violence.

  12. Self-rated health in relation to rape and mental health disorders in a national sample of women.

    PubMed

    Amstadter, Ananda B; McCauley, Jenna L; Ruggiero, Kenneth J; Resnick, Heidi S; Kilpatrick, Dean G

    2011-04-01

    Overall health status is associated with long-term physical morbidity and mortality. Existing research on the correlates of mental health effects of rape suggests that rape victims are at higher risk for poor overall health status. Little is known, however, about how different rape tactics may relate to health status in rape victims. Our aim was to examine prevalence and correlates of self-rated health in a community sample of women, with particular emphasis on lifetime rape history (distinguishing between rape tactics), psychopathology, and substance use outcomes. A nationally representative sample of 3,001 U.S. women (age range: 18-86 years) residing in households with a telephone participated in a structured telephone interview. Poor self-rated health was endorsed by 11.4% of the sample. Final multivariable models showed that poor self-rated health was associated with older age (p<.001), lower educational attainment (p=.01), African American ethnicity (p=.03), lifetime posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD; p<.001), lifetime major depressive episode (MDE; p=.01), and history of forcible rape (p=.01). Self-rated health was associated with three potentially modifiable variables (forcible rape, PTSD, and MDE). Therefore, trauma-focused interventions for rape victims should include collaboration on treatment or prevention modules that specifically address both mental and physical health.

  13. Barriers to gene flow from oilseed rape (Brassica napus) into populations of Sinapis arvensis.

    PubMed

    Moyes, C L; Lilley, J M; Casais, C A; Cole, S G; Haeger, P D; Dale, P J

    2002-01-01

    One concern over growing herbicide-tolerant crops is that herbicide-tolerance genes may be transferred into the weeds they are designed to control. Brassica napus (oilseed rape) has a number of wild relatives that cause weed problems and the most widespread of these is Sinapis arvensis (charlock). Sinapis arvensis seed was collected from 102 populations across the UK, within and outside B. napus-growing areas. These populations were tested for sexual compatibility with B. napus and it was found that none of them hybridized readily in the glasshouse. In contrast to previous studies, we have found that hybrids can be formed naturally with S. arvensis as the maternal parent. Six diverse B. napus cultivars (Capricorn, Drakkar, Falcon, Galaxy, Hobson and Regent) were tested for their compatibility with S. arvensis but no cultivar hybridized readily in the glasshouse. We were unable to detect gene transfer from B. napus to S. arvensis in the field, confirming the extremely low probability of hybridization predicted from the glasshouse work. PMID:11903908

  14. Impunity or immunity: wartime male rape and sexual torture as a crime against humanity.

    PubMed

    Zawati, Hilmi M

    2007-01-01

    This paper seeks to analyze the phenomenon of wartime rape and sexual torture of Croatian and Iraqi men and to explore the avenues for its prosecution under international humanitarian and human rights law. Male rape, in time of war, is predominantly an assertion of power and aggression rather than an attempt on the part of the perpetrator to satisfy sexual desire. The effect of such a horrible attack is to damage the victim's psyche, rob him of his pride, and intimidate him. In Bosnia- Herzegovina, Croatia, and Iraq, therefore, male rape and sexual torture has been used as a weapon of war with dire consequences for the victim's mental, physical, and sexual health. Testimonies collected at the Medical Centre for Human Rights in Zagreb and reports received from Iraq make it clear that prisoners in these conflicts have been exposed to sexual humiliation, as well as to systematic and systemic sexual torture. This paper calls upon the international community to combat the culture of impunity in both dictator-ruled and democratic countries by bringing the crime of wartime rape into the international arena, and by removing all barriers to justice facing the victims. Moreover, it emphasizes the fact that wartime rape is the ultimate humiliation that can be inflicted on a human being, and it must be regarded as one of the most grievous crimes against humanity. The international community has to consider wartime rape a crime of war and a threat to peace and security. It is in this respect that civilian community associations can fulfill their duties by encouraging victims of male rape to break their silence and address their socio-medical needs, including reparations and rehabilitation.

  15. Impunity or immunity: wartime male rape and sexual torture as a crime against humanity.

    PubMed

    Zawati, Hilmi M

    2007-01-01

    This paper seeks to analyze the phenomenon of wartime rape and sexual torture of Croatian and Iraqi men and to explore the avenues for its prosecution under international humanitarian and human rights law. Male rape, in time of war, is predominantly an assertion of power and aggression rather than an attempt on the part of the perpetrator to satisfy sexual desire. The effect of such a horrible attack is to damage the victim's psyche, rob him of his pride, and intimidate him. In Bosnia- Herzegovina, Croatia, and Iraq, therefore, male rape and sexual torture has been used as a weapon of war with dire consequences for the victim's mental, physical, and sexual health. Testimonies collected at the Medical Centre for Human Rights in Zagreb and reports received from Iraq make it clear that prisoners in these conflicts have been exposed to sexual humiliation, as well as to systematic and systemic sexual torture. This paper calls upon the international community to combat the culture of impunity in both dictator-ruled and democratic countries by bringing the crime of wartime rape into the international arena, and by removing all barriers to justice facing the victims. Moreover, it emphasizes the fact that wartime rape is the ultimate humiliation that can be inflicted on a human being, and it must be regarded as one of the most grievous crimes against humanity. The international community has to consider wartime rape a crime of war and a threat to peace and security. It is in this respect that civilian community associations can fulfill their duties by encouraging victims of male rape to break their silence and address their socio-medical needs, including reparations and rehabilitation. PMID:17456904

  16. Community perceptions of rape and child sexual abuse: a qualitative study in rural Tanzania

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Rape of women and children is recognized as a health and human rights issue in Tanzania and internationally. Exploration of the prevailing perceptions in rural areas is needed in order to expand the understanding of sexual violence in the diversity of Tanzania’s contexts. The aim of this study therefore was to explore and understand perceptions of rape of women and children at the community level in a rural district in Tanzania with the added objective of exploring those perceptions that may contribute to perpetuating and/or hindering the disclosure of rape incidences. Methods A qualitative design was employed using focus group discussions with male and female community members including religious leaders, professionals, and other community members. The discussions centered on causes of rape, survivors of rape, help-seeking and reporting, and gathered suggestions on measures for improvement. Six focus group discussions (four of single gender and two of mixed gender) were conducted. The focus group discussions were recorded, transcribed verbatim, and analyzed using manifest qualitative content analysis. Results The participants perceived rape of women and children to be a frequent and hidden phenomenon. A number of factors were singled out as contributing to rape, such as erosion of social norms, globalization, poverty, vulnerability of children, alcohol/drug abuse and poor parental care. Participants perceived the need for educating the community to raise their knowledge of sexual violence and its consequences, and their roles as preventive agents. Conclusions In this rural context, social norms reinforce sexual violence against women and children, and hinder them from seeking help from support services. Addressing the identified challenges may promote help-seeking behavior and improve care of survivors of sexual violence, while changes in social and cultural norms are needed for the prevention of sexual violence. PMID:25132543

  17. Examining the Associations Between Sex Trade Involvement, Rape, and Symptomatology of Sexual Abuse Trauma

    PubMed Central

    Lutnick, Alexandra; Harris, Jennie; Lorvick, Jennifer; Cheng, Helen; Wenger, Lynn D.; Bourgois, Philippe; Kral, Alex H.

    2015-01-01

    The high prevalence of rape and sexual trauma symptomatology among women involved in street-based sex trades is well-established. Because prior research has lacked appropriate, non-sex trade involved comparison groups, it is unknown whether differences exist among similarly situated women who do and do not trade sex. This article explores experiences of childhood and adult rape and symptomatology of sexual abuse trauma among a community-based sample of 322 women who use methamphetamine in San Francisco, California, 61% of whom were involved in the sex trade. Study participants were recruited via respondent-driven sampling and eligible if they were cisgender women, aged 18 or older, current methamphetamine users, and sexually active with at least one cisgender man in the past 6 months. The dependent variable was sexual abuse trauma symptomatology, as measured by the Sexual Abuse Trauma Index (SATI) subscale of the Trauma Symptom Checklist–40 (TSC-40), and the explanatory variable was sex trade involvement. Potential covariates were age, current homelessness, methamphetamine dependence, and experiences of childhood and adult rape. Sixty-one percent of participants had a SATI subscale score suggestive of sexual abuse trauma. The overall prevalence of rape in childhood and adulthood was 52% and 73%, respectively. In bivariate analysis, sex trade involvement and all of the potential covariates except for homelessness and age were associated with a SATI score suggestive of sexual abuse trauma. In multivariate models controlling for significant covariates, there was no longer a statistically significant association between sex trade involvement or childhood rape and an elevated SATI score. Elevated levels of psychological dependence on methamphetamine and experiences of rape as an adult were still associated with a high SATI score. These findings highlight that urban poor women, regardless of sex trade involvement, suffer high levels of rape and related trauma

  18. Examining the associations between sex trade involvement, rape, and symptomatology of sexual abuse trauma.

    PubMed

    Lutnick, Alexandra; Harris, Jennie; Lorvick, Jennifer; Cheng, Helen; Wenger, Lynn D; Bourgois, Philippe; Kral, Alex H

    2015-07-01

    The high prevalence of rape and sexual trauma symptomatology among women involved in street-based sex trades is well-established. Because prior research has lacked appropriate, non-sex trade involved comparison groups, it is unknown whether differences exist among similarly situated women who do and do not trade sex. This article explores experiences of childhood and adult rape and symptomatology of sexual abuse trauma among a community-based sample of 322 women who use methamphetamine in San Francisco, California, 61% of whom were involved in the sex trade. Study participants were recruited via respondent-driven sampling and eligible if they were cisgender women, aged 18 or older, current methamphetamine users, and sexually active with at least one cisgender man in the past 6 months. The dependent variable was sexual abuse trauma symptomatology, as measured by the Sexual Abuse Trauma Index (SATI) subscale of the Trauma Symptom Checklist-40 (TSC-40), and the explanatory variable was sex trade involvement. Potential covariates were age, current homelessness, methamphetamine dependence, and experiences of childhood and adult rape. Sixty-one percent of participants had a SATI subscale score suggestive of sexual abuse trauma. The overall prevalence of rape in childhood and adulthood was 52% and 73%, respectively. In bivariate analysis, sex trade involvement and all of the potential covariates except for homelessness and age were associated with a SATI score suggestive of sexual abuse trauma. In multivariate models controlling for significant covariates, there was no longer a statistically significant association between sex trade involvement or childhood rape and an elevated SATI score. Elevated levels of psychological dependence on methamphetamine and experiences of rape as an adult were still associated with a high SATI score. These findings highlight that urban poor women, regardless of sex trade involvement, suffer high levels of rape and related trauma

  19. Is Rape in the Eye or in the Mind of the Offender? A Survey of Rape Perception among Nigerian University Stakeholders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Elegbeleye, O. S.

    2006-01-01

    The issue of the escalating incidents of rape in Nigerian higher institutions has, not unexpectedly, agitated the minds of both students and university workers on the one hand, and the general public, on the other. This development has forced the hands of the authorities in some of the Nigerian universities to give priority to finding a solution…

  20. Characterization of heavy metal-resistant endophytic bacteria from rape (Brassica napus) roots and their potential in promoting the growth and lead accumulation of rape.

    PubMed

    Sheng, Xia-Fang; Xia, Juan-Juan; Jiang, Chun-Yu; He, Lin-Yan; Qian, Meng

    2008-12-01

    Two lead (Pb)-resistant endophytic bacteria were isolated from rape roots grown in heavy metal-contaminated soils and characterized. A pot experiment was conducted for investigating the capability of the two isolates to promote the growth and Pb uptake of rape from Pb-amended soil. The two isolates were identified as Pseudomonas fluorescens G10 and Microbacterium sp. G16 based on the 16S rDNA gene sequence analysis. Strains G10 and G16 exhibited different multiple heavy metal and antibiotic resistance characteristics and increased water-soluble Pb in solution and in Pb-added soil. Root elongation assays demonstrated increases in root elongation of inoculated rape seedlings compared to the control plants. Strain G16 produced indole acetic acid, siderophores and 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate deaminase. Increases in biomass production and total Pb uptake in the bacteria-inoculated plants were obtained compared to the control. The two strains could colonize the root interior and rhizosphere soil of rape after root inoculation. PMID:18490091