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Sample records for oilseeds boast feedstock

  1. New oilseeds boast feedstock potential

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1982-03-24

    Researchers in the United States are investigating the chemical potential of the Chinese tallow tree and the buffalo gourd. It is estimated that the Houston area of Texas could yield up to 70lb of seeds per tree per year. The oily component of the seed is recovered by solvent extraction and the product may some day compete with petroleum-based waxes or fats. In contrast to the Chinese tallow tree, which grows near swamps and marshes, the buffalo gourd is a desert plant. Experiments are underway aimed at improving the yield of the plant by hybridization and other genetic manipulations, and also to come up with an efficient harvesting technique.

  2. Biodiesel From Alternative Oilseed Feedstocks: Production and Properties

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Fatty acid methyl esters were prepared and evaluated as potential biodiesel fuels from several alternative oilseed feedstocks, which included camelina (Camelina sativa L.), coriander (Coriandrum sativum L.), field mustard (Brassica juncea L.), field pennycress (Thlaspi arvense L.), and meadowfoam (L...

  3. Dedicated Industrial Oilseed Crops as Metabolic Engineering Platforms for Sustainable Industrial Feedstock Production.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Li-Hua; Krens, Frans; Smith, Mark A; Li, Xueyuan; Qi, Weicong; van Loo, Eibertus N; Iven, Tim; Feussner, Ivo; Nazarenus, Tara J; Huai, Dongxin; Taylor, David C; Zhou, Xue-Rong; Green, Allan G; Shockey, Jay; Klasson, K Thomas; Mullen, Robert T; Huang, Bangquan; Dyer, John M; Cahoon, Edgar B

    2016-02-26

    Feedstocks for industrial applications ranging from polymers to lubricants are largely derived from petroleum, a non-renewable resource. Vegetable oils with fatty acid structures and storage forms tailored for specific industrial uses offer renewable and potentially sustainable sources of petrochemical-type functionalities. A wide array of industrial vegetable oils can be generated through biotechnology, but will likely require non-commodity oilseed platforms dedicated to specialty oil production for commercial acceptance. Here we show the feasibility of three Brassicaceae oilseeds crambe, camelina, and carinata, none of which are widely cultivated for food use, as hosts for complex metabolic engineering of wax esters for lubricant applications. Lines producing wax esters >20% of total seed oil were generated for each crop and further improved for high temperature oxidative stability by down-regulation of fatty acid polyunsaturation. Field cultivation of optimized wax ester-producing crambe demonstrated commercial utility of these engineered crops and a path for sustainable production of other industrial oils in dedicated specialty oilseeds.

  4. Dedicated Industrial Oilseed Crops as Metabolic Engineering Platforms for Sustainable Industrial Feedstock Production

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Li-Hua; Krens, Frans; Smith, Mark A.; Li, Xueyuan; Qi, Weicong; van Loo, Eibertus N.; Iven, Tim; Feussner, Ivo; Nazarenus, Tara J.; Huai, Dongxin; Taylor, David C.; Zhou, Xue-Rong; Green, Allan G.; Shockey, Jay; Klasson, K. Thomas; Mullen, Robert T.; Huang, Bangquan; Dyer, John M.; Cahoon, Edgar B.

    2016-01-01

    Feedstocks for industrial applications ranging from polymers to lubricants are largely derived from petroleum, a non-renewable resource. Vegetable oils with fatty acid structures and storage forms tailored for specific industrial uses offer renewable and potentially sustainable sources of petrochemical-type functionalities. A wide array of industrial vegetable oils can be generated through biotechnology, but will likely require non-commodity oilseed platforms dedicated to specialty oil production for commercial acceptance. Here we show the feasibility of three Brassicaceae oilseeds crambe, camelina, and carinata, none of which are widely cultivated for food use, as hosts for complex metabolic engineering of wax esters for lubricant applications. Lines producing wax esters >20% of total seed oil were generated for each crop and further improved for high temperature oxidative stability by down-regulation of fatty acid polyunsaturation. Field cultivation of optimized wax ester-producing crambe demonstrated commercial utility of these engineered crops and a path for sustainable production of other industrial oils in dedicated specialty oilseeds. PMID:26916792

  5. Dedicated Industrial Oilseed Crops as Metabolic Engineering Platforms for Sustainable Industrial Feedstock Production.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Li-Hua; Krens, Frans; Smith, Mark A; Li, Xueyuan; Qi, Weicong; van Loo, Eibertus N; Iven, Tim; Feussner, Ivo; Nazarenus, Tara J; Huai, Dongxin; Taylor, David C; Zhou, Xue-Rong; Green, Allan G; Shockey, Jay; Klasson, K Thomas; Mullen, Robert T; Huang, Bangquan; Dyer, John M; Cahoon, Edgar B

    2016-01-01

    Feedstocks for industrial applications ranging from polymers to lubricants are largely derived from petroleum, a non-renewable resource. Vegetable oils with fatty acid structures and storage forms tailored for specific industrial uses offer renewable and potentially sustainable sources of petrochemical-type functionalities. A wide array of industrial vegetable oils can be generated through biotechnology, but will likely require non-commodity oilseed platforms dedicated to specialty oil production for commercial acceptance. Here we show the feasibility of three Brassicaceae oilseeds crambe, camelina, and carinata, none of which are widely cultivated for food use, as hosts for complex metabolic engineering of wax esters for lubricant applications. Lines producing wax esters >20% of total seed oil were generated for each crop and further improved for high temperature oxidative stability by down-regulation of fatty acid polyunsaturation. Field cultivation of optimized wax ester-producing crambe demonstrated commercial utility of these engineered crops and a path for sustainable production of other industrial oils in dedicated specialty oilseeds. PMID:26916792

  6. Engineering oilseeds for sustainable production of industrial and nutritional feedstocks: solving bottlenecks in fatty acid flux.

    PubMed

    Cahoon, Edgar B; Shockey, Jay M; Dietrich, Charles R; Gidda, Satinder K; Mullen, Robert T; Dyer, John M

    2007-06-01

    Oilseeds provide a unique platform for the production of high-value fatty acids that can replace non-sustainable petroleum and oceanic sources of specialty chemicals and aquaculture feed. However, recent efforts to engineer the seeds of crop and model plant species to produce new types of fatty acids, including hydroxy and conjugated fatty acids for industrial uses and long-chain omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids for farmed fish feed, have met with only modest success. The collective results from these studies point to metabolic 'bottlenecks' in the engineered plant seeds that substantially limit the efficient or selective flux of unusual fatty acids between different substrate pools and ultimately into storage triacylglycerol. Evidence is emerging that diacylglycerol acyltransferase 2, which catalyzes the final step in triacylglycerol assembly, is an important contributor to the synthesis of unusual fatty acid-containing oils, and is likely to be a key target for future oilseed metabolic engineering efforts.

  7. Engineering oilseeds for sustainable production of industrial and nutritional feedstocks: solving bottlenecks in fatty acid flux.

    PubMed

    Cahoon, Edgar B; Shockey, Jay M; Dietrich, Charles R; Gidda, Satinder K; Mullen, Robert T; Dyer, John M

    2007-06-01

    Oilseeds provide a unique platform for the production of high-value fatty acids that can replace non-sustainable petroleum and oceanic sources of specialty chemicals and aquaculture feed. However, recent efforts to engineer the seeds of crop and model plant species to produce new types of fatty acids, including hydroxy and conjugated fatty acids for industrial uses and long-chain omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids for farmed fish feed, have met with only modest success. The collective results from these studies point to metabolic 'bottlenecks' in the engineered plant seeds that substantially limit the efficient or selective flux of unusual fatty acids between different substrate pools and ultimately into storage triacylglycerol. Evidence is emerging that diacylglycerol acyltransferase 2, which catalyzes the final step in triacylglycerol assembly, is an important contributor to the synthesis of unusual fatty acid-containing oils, and is likely to be a key target for future oilseed metabolic engineering efforts. PMID:17434788

  8. Dedicated industrial oilseed crops as metabolic engineering platforms for sustainable industrial feedstock production

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Feedstocks for industrial applications ranging from polymers to lubricants are largely derived from petroleum, a non-renewable resource. Vegetable oils with fatty acid structures and storage forms tailored for specific industrial uses offer renewable and potentially sustainable sources of petrochemi...

  9. BOAST 98-MC: A Probabilistic Simulation Module for BOAST 98

    SciTech Connect

    Aiysha Sultana; Anne Oudinot; Reynaldo Gonzalez; Scott Reeves

    2006-09-08

    This work was performed by Advanced Resources International (ARI) on behalf of the United States Department of Energy (DOE) in order to develop a user-friendly, PC-based interface that couples DOE's BOAST 98 software with the Monte Carlo simulation technique. The objectives of the work were to improve reservoir management and maximize oil recoveries by understanding and quantifying reservoir uncertainty as well as improving the capabilities of DOE's BOAST 98 software by incorporating a probabilistic module in the simulator. In this model, probability distributions can be assigned to unknown input parameters such as permeability, porosity, etc. Options have also been added to the input file to be able to vary relative permeability curves as well as well spacing. Hundreds of simulations can then automatically be run to explore the many combinations of uncertain reservoir parameters across their spectrum of uncertainty. Output data such as oil rate and water rate can then be plotted. When historical data are available, they can be uploaded and a least-square error-function run between the simulation data and the history data. The set of input parameters leading to the best match is thus determined. Sensitivity charts (Tornado plots) that rank the uncertain parameters according to the impact they have on the outputs can also be generated.

  10. Volume 1C. Modification of BOAST II-PC - BOAST III

    SciTech Connect

    Sawyer, Walter K.; Schenewerk, Philip A.; Kimbrell, W. Clay

    1995-12-31

    A readily available public reservoir simulation model BOAST II was modified to simulate accurately the conditions encountered in steeply dipping high permeability reservoirs. The modifications also involved the development and integration of post processing programs. The modified model was evaluated, modified, and validated against commercial reservoir models.

  11. Oilseeds for use in biodiesel and drop-in renewable jet fuel

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Oilseeds, primarily soybean and canola, are currently used as feedstocks for biodiesel production. Oilseeds can also be used to produce drop-in renewable jet fuel and diesel products. While soybean and canola are the most common oilseed crops used for renewable fuel production in the U.S., many othe...

  12. Windblown soil surface characteristics of a wheat-oilseed-fallow cropping system

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The production of biofuels is dependent upon oilseed feedstocks in the Pacific Northwest United States (PNW), but evidence suggests that wind erosion may be enhanced as a result of growing oilseeds in conventional wheat rotations. Little is known concerning the impact of growing oilseeds on soil cha...

  13. Ongoing development of dryland oilseed production systems in the northwestern region of the United States

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This report addresses the development of dryland oilseed crops to provide feedstock for production of biofuels in semiarid portions of the northwestern United States. Bioenergy feedstocks derived from Brassica oilseed crops have been considered for production of hydrotreated renewable jet fuel, but...

  14. BOAST II for the IBM 3090 and RISC 6000

    SciTech Connect

    Hebert, P.; Bourgoyne, A.T. Jr.; Tyler, J.

    1993-05-01

    BOAST II simulates isothermal, darcy flow in three dimensions. It assumes that reservoir liquids can be described in three fluid phases (oil, gas, and water) of constant composition, with physical properties that depend on pressure, only. These reservoir fluid approximations are acceptable for a large percentage of the world's oil and gas reservoirs. Consequently, BOAST II has a wide range of applicability. BOAST II can simulate oil and/or gas recovery by fluid expansion, displacement, gravity drainage, and capillary imbibition mechanisms. Typical field production problems that BOAST II can handle include primary depletion studies, pressure maintenance by water and/or gas injection, and evaluation of secondary recovery waterflooding and displacement operations. Technically, BOAST II is a finite, implicit pressure, explicit saturation (IMPES) numerical simulator. It applies both direct and iterative solution techniques for solving systems of algebraic equations. The well model allows specification of rate or pressure constraints on well performance, and the user is free to add or to recomplete wells during the simulation. In addition, the user can define multiple rock and PVT regions and can choose from three aquifer models. BOAST II also provides flexible initialization, a bubble-point tracking scheme, automatic time-step control, and a material balance check on solution stability. The user controls output, which includes a run summary and line-printer plots of fieldwide performance.

  15. Nitrogen use in durum and selected Brassicaceae oilseeds in two-year rotations

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Brassicaceae oilseeds can serve as potential feedstocks for renewable biofuels to offset demand for petroleum-based alternatives. However, little is known about oilseed crop yield potential and N use in semiarid, wheat (Triticum spp.)-based cropping systems that dominate the northern Great Plains (N...

  16. Life-Cycle Assessment of Oilseeds for Biojet Production Using Localized Cold-Press Extraction.

    PubMed

    Sieverding, Heidi L; Zhao, Xianhui; Wei, Lin; Stone, James J

    2016-05-01

    As nonfood oilseed varieties are being rapidly developed, new varieties may affect agricultural production efficiency and life-cycle assessment results. Current, detailed feedstock production information is necessary to accurately assess impacts of the biofuel life-cycle. The life-cycle impacts of four nonfood oilseeds (carinata [ L. Braun], camelina [ L. Crantz], canola or rapeseed [ L.], and sunflower [ L.]) were modeled using Argonne National Laboratory's GREET model to compare feedstocks for renewable biojet production using cold-press oil extraction. Only feedstock-related inputs were varied, allowing isolation of feedstock influence. Carinata and camelina performed slightly better than other oilseed crops at most product stages and impact categories as a result of current, low-input agricultural information and new feedstock varieties. Between 40 to 50% of SO and NO emissions, ∼25% of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, and ∼40% of total energy consumption for the biojet production impact occurred during feedstock production. Within the first standard deviation, total well-to-tank emissions varied between ∼13% (GHG) and ∼35% (SO) for all feedstocks emphasizing the importance of accurate agricultural production information. Nonfood oilseed feedstock properties (e.g., oil content, density) and agricultural management (e.g., fertilization, yield) affect life-cycle assessment results. Using biofuels in feedstock production and focusing on low-impact management would assist producers in improving overall product sustainability.

  17. Life-Cycle Assessment of Oilseeds for Biojet Production Using Localized Cold-Press Extraction.

    PubMed

    Sieverding, Heidi L; Zhao, Xianhui; Wei, Lin; Stone, James J

    2016-05-01

    As nonfood oilseed varieties are being rapidly developed, new varieties may affect agricultural production efficiency and life-cycle assessment results. Current, detailed feedstock production information is necessary to accurately assess impacts of the biofuel life-cycle. The life-cycle impacts of four nonfood oilseeds (carinata [ L. Braun], camelina [ L. Crantz], canola or rapeseed [ L.], and sunflower [ L.]) were modeled using Argonne National Laboratory's GREET model to compare feedstocks for renewable biojet production using cold-press oil extraction. Only feedstock-related inputs were varied, allowing isolation of feedstock influence. Carinata and camelina performed slightly better than other oilseed crops at most product stages and impact categories as a result of current, low-input agricultural information and new feedstock varieties. Between 40 to 50% of SO and NO emissions, ∼25% of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, and ∼40% of total energy consumption for the biojet production impact occurred during feedstock production. Within the first standard deviation, total well-to-tank emissions varied between ∼13% (GHG) and ∼35% (SO) for all feedstocks emphasizing the importance of accurate agricultural production information. Nonfood oilseed feedstock properties (e.g., oil content, density) and agricultural management (e.g., fertilization, yield) affect life-cycle assessment results. Using biofuels in feedstock production and focusing on low-impact management would assist producers in improving overall product sustainability. PMID:27136164

  18. Boasting and Bragging: "Black" and "White." Working Papers in Sociolinguistics, No. 58.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kochman, Thomas

    This paper draws from a number of sources, from Muhammad Ali to TV commercials, to demonstrate the quite different conceptions that black and white Americans have of the meaning of boasting and bragging. For blacks, boasting and bragging are two distinct ways of speaking and communication. Boasting is a joking, playful verbal bahavior, not to be…

  19. Crop yield and quality, weeds, insects, and water use of durum and selected brassicaceae oilseeds in two-year rotations

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Cool-season oilseeds are potential feedstock for biofuel production, but few studies have compared oilseed-durum (Triticum durum Desf.) rotations. We conducted a field trial under dryland conditions for 2007-2010 near Froid, Montana, comparing productivity, water balance, and key weed and arthropod...

  20. User's guide and documentation manual for BOAST-VHS for the PC''

    SciTech Connect

    Chang, Ming-Ming; Sarathi, P.; Heemstra, R.J.; Cheng, A.M.; Pautz, J.F.

    1992-01-01

    The recent advancement of computer technology makes reservoir simulations feasible in a personal computer (PC) environment. This manual provides a guide for running BOAST-VHS, a black oil reservoir simulator for vertical/horizontal/slant wells, using a PC. In addition to detailed explanations of input data file preparation for simulation runs, special features of BOAST-VHS are described and three sample problems are presented. BOAST-VHS is a cost-effective and easy-to-use reservoir simulation tool for the study of oil production from primary depletion and waterflooding in a black oil reservoir. The well model in BOAST-VHS permits specification of any combination of horizontal, slanted, and vertical wells in the reservoir. BOAST-VHS was designed for an IBM PC/AT, PS-2, or compatible computer with 640 K bytes of memory. BOAST-VHS can be used to model a three-dimensional reservoir of up to 810 grid blocks with any combination of rows, columns, and layers, depending on the input data supplied. This dynamic redimensioning feature facilitates simulation work by avoiding the need to recompiling the simulator for different reservoir models. Therefore the program is only supplied as executable code without any source code.

  1. User`s guide and documentation manual for ``BOAST-VHS for the PC``

    SciTech Connect

    Chang, Ming-Ming; Sarathi, P.; Heemstra, R.J.; Cheng, A.M.; Pautz, J.F.

    1992-01-01

    The recent advancement of computer technology makes reservoir simulations feasible in a personal computer (PC) environment. This manual provides a guide for running BOAST-VHS, a black oil reservoir simulator for vertical/horizontal/slant wells, using a PC. In addition to detailed explanations of input data file preparation for simulation runs, special features of BOAST-VHS are described and three sample problems are presented. BOAST-VHS is a cost-effective and easy-to-use reservoir simulation tool for the study of oil production from primary depletion and waterflooding in a black oil reservoir. The well model in BOAST-VHS permits specification of any combination of horizontal, slanted, and vertical wells in the reservoir. BOAST-VHS was designed for an IBM PC/AT, PS-2, or compatible computer with 640 K bytes of memory. BOAST-VHS can be used to model a three-dimensional reservoir of up to 810 grid blocks with any combination of rows, columns, and layers, depending on the input data supplied. This dynamic redimensioning feature facilitates simulation work by avoiding the need to recompiling the simulator for different reservoir models. Therefore the program is only supplied as executable code without any source code.

  2. BOAST II for the IBM 3090 and RISC 6000. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Hebert, P.; Bourgoyne, A.T. Jr.; Tyler, J.

    1993-05-01

    BOAST II simulates isothermal, darcy flow in three dimensions. It assumes that reservoir liquids can be described in three fluid phases (oil, gas, and water) of constant composition, with physical properties that depend on pressure, only. These reservoir fluid approximations are acceptable for a large percentage of the world`s oil and gas reservoirs. Consequently, BOAST II has a wide range of applicability. BOAST II can simulate oil and/or gas recovery by fluid expansion, displacement, gravity drainage, and capillary imbibition mechanisms. Typical field production problems that BOAST II can handle include primary depletion studies, pressure maintenance by water and/or gas injection, and evaluation of secondary recovery waterflooding and displacement operations. Technically, BOAST II is a finite, implicit pressure, explicit saturation (IMPES) numerical simulator. It applies both direct and iterative solution techniques for solving systems of algebraic equations. The well model allows specification of rate or pressure constraints on well performance, and the user is free to add or to recomplete wells during the simulation. In addition, the user can define multiple rock and PVT regions and can choose from three aquifer models. BOAST II also provides flexible initialization, a bubble-point tracking scheme, automatic time-step control, and a material balance check on solution stability. The user controls output, which includes a run summary and line-printer plots of fieldwide performance.

  3. Oilseeds for renewable jet fuel

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A multi-disciplinary research project was initiated to investigate the agronomic performance of different oilseed species under varying conditions across the western U.S. wheat belt, provide regionalized strategies to integrate sustainable oilseed production into existing land uses, and provide stra...

  4. The Anglo-Saxon Boast: A Study in the Archaeology of a Speech Genre.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Conquergood, Dwight

    Based on the premise that the examination of primordial and universal genres of utterance illuminates universal principles of speaking and meaning, this paper examines the Anglo-Saxon boast, a common form of speaking among Germanic warrior societies during the early middle ages. It tells how Old English literature provides evidence from which the…

  5. Seashore mallow (Kosteletzkya pentacarpos) as a salt-tolerant feedstock for production of biodiesel and ethanol

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Seashore mallow (Kosteletzkya pentacarpos) is a non-invasive perennial nonclonal halophytic oilseed-producing dicot that was investigated as a feedstock for production of biodiesel from seeds and ethanol from residual stem biomass. Seashore mallow seeds contained 19.3 mass % oil, which after extract...

  6. Analyzing hydrotreated renewable jet fuel (HRJ) feedstock availability using crop simulation modeling

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    While hydrotreated renewable jet fuel (HRJ) has been demonstrated for use in commercial and military aviation, a challenge to large-scale adoption is availability of cost competitive feedstocks. Brassica oilseed crops like Brassica napus, B. rapa, B. juncea, B. carinata, Sinapis alba, and Camelina s...

  7. Feedstock Supply System Logistics

    SciTech Connect

    2006-06-01

    Feedstock supply is a significant cost component in the production of biobased fuels, products, and power. The uncertainty of the biomass feedstock supply chain and associated risks are major barriers to procuring capital funding for start-up biorefineries.

  8. Lignocellulosic feedstock resource assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Rooney, T.

    1998-09-01

    This report provides overall state and national information on the quantity, availability, and costs of current and potential feedstocks for ethanol production in the United States. It characterizes end uses and physical characteristics of feedstocks, and presents relevant information that affects the economic and technical feasibility of ethanol production from these feedstocks. The data can help researchers focus ethanol conversion research efforts on feedstocks that are compatible with the resource base.

  9. Articulating feedstock delivery device

    DOEpatents

    Jordan, Kevin

    2013-11-05

    A fully articulable feedstock delivery device that is designed to operate at pressure and temperature extremes. The device incorporates an articulating ball assembly which allows for more accurate delivery of the feedstock to a target location. The device is suitable for a variety of applications including, but not limited to, delivery of feedstock to a high-pressure reaction chamber or process zone.

  10. Planting depth for oilseed calendula

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Calendula (Calendula officinalis L.) is not only a popular ornamental plant in temperate climates, but also a potential oilseed crop. Its seed oil has high levels of calendic acid, which makes it a highly valued drying oil with important industrial applications. Much basic agronomic information on c...

  11. Understanding Biomass Feedstock Variability

    SciTech Connect

    Kevin L. Kenney; William A. Smith; Garold L. Gresham; Tyler L. Westover

    2013-01-01

    If the singular goal of biomass logistics and the design of biomass feedstock supply systems is to reduce the per ton supply cost of biomass, these systems may very well develop with ultimate unintended consequences of highly variable and reduced quality biomass feedstocks. This paper demonstrates that due to inherent species variabilities, production conditions, and differing harvest, collection, and storage practices, this is a very real scenario that biomass producers and suppliers as well as conversion developers should be aware of. Biomass feedstock attributes of ash, carbohydrates, moisture, and particle morphology will be discussed. We will also discuss specifications for these attributes, inherent variability of these attributes in biomass feedstocks, and approaches and solutions for reducing variability for improving feedstock quality.

  12. Understanding Biomass Feedstock Variability

    SciTech Connect

    Kevin L. Kenney; Garold L. Gresham; William A. Smith; Tyler L. Westover

    2013-01-01

    If the singular goal of biomass logistics and the design of biomass feedstock supply systems is to reduce the per-ton supply cost of biomass, these systems may very well develop with ultimate unintended consequences of highly variable and reduced quality biomass feedstocks. This paper demonstrates that, due to inherent species variabilities, production conditions and differing harvest, collection and storage practices, this is a very real scenario that biomass producers and suppliers as well as conversion developers should be aware of. Biomass feedstock attributes of ash, carbohydrates, moisture and particle morphology will be discussed. We will also discuss specifications for these attributes, inherent variability of these attributes in biomass feedstocks, and approaches and solutions for reducing variability for improving feedstock quality.

  13. What are future petrochemical feedstocks?

    SciTech Connect

    Manning, T.J.

    1997-05-01

    Continuing growth in olefins and aromatics demand will require investment in production facilities worldwide. Feedstock selection for these new plants must take into account changing co-product demand patterns and production technology. Feedstock availability and logistics will be the most important considerations. Competition with fuel demand will encourage petrochemical producers to increase feedstock integration, to expand feedstock flexibility and to seek new feedstock sources. The paper discusses the following feedstocks: ethane, propane, butane, naphtha, gas oil, and condensate.

  14. Some functional properties of oilseed proteins.

    PubMed

    Khalil, M; Ragab, M; Hassanien, F R

    1985-01-01

    Oilseeds have potential food uses because of their high protein content. Besides, these proteins when added to a type of foods, supply desirable functional properties, such as whipping capacity and viscosity, emulsification and water and oil holding capacities. Rapeseed and soybean protein isolates were found to possess whipping capacity followed by those of sunflower, peanut, sesame, cottonseed and safflower. The addition of sugar improved the whipping properties of oilseed proteins. The whipping capacity of oilseed proteins decreased due to heating at 100 degrees C for time of 15 to 60 min. Soybean protein had the highest emulsifying capacity compared with the other oilseed proteins. The heated oilseed proteins had emulsification properties similar to or better than the control. Glandless cottonseed protein had high water and oil holding capacities. The water holding capacity of oilseed proteins decreased gradually as the duration of heating at 100 degrees C was increased. On the other hand the heated oilseed proteins had oil holding capacities similar to or better than unheated proteins. PMID:4000248

  15. Potential feedstock supply and costs for biodiesel production

    SciTech Connect

    Nelson, R.G.; Howell, S.A.; Weber, J.A.

    1994-12-31

    Without considering technology constraints, tallows and waste greases have definite potential as feedstocks for the production of biodiesel in the United States. These materials are less expensive than most oils produced from oilseed crops such as soybeans, sunflowers, canola and rapeseed. At current crude petroleum prices, biodiesel derived from any of these materials will be more expensive than diesel derived from petroleum. However, when compared to other clean burning alternate fuels, recent data suggest biodiesel blends produced from any of these feedstocks may be the lowest total cost alternative fuel in certain areas of the United States. Economic feasibility analyses were performed to investigate the cost of producing biodiesel ($/gallon) subject to variances in feedstock cost, by-product credit (glycerol and meal) and capital costs. Cost of production per gallon of esterified biodiesel from soybean, sunflower, tallow and yellow grease ranged from $0.96 to $3.39 subject to feedstock and chemical costs, by-product credit and system capital cost.

  16. Recycle plastics into feedstocks

    SciTech Connect

    Kastner, H.; Kaminsky, W.

    1995-05-01

    Thermal cracking of mixed-plastics wastes with a fluidized-bed reactor can be a viable and cost-effective means to meet mandatory recycling laws. Strict worldwide environmental statutes require the hydrocarbon processing industry (HPI) to develop and implement product applications and technologies that reuse post-consumer mixed-plastics waste. Recycling or reuse of plastics waste has a broad definition. Recycling entails more than mechanical regranulation and remelting of polymers for film and molding applications. A European consortium of academia and refiners have investigated if it is possible and profitable to thermally crack plastics into feedstocks for refining and petrochemical applications. Development and demonstration of pyrolysis methods show promising possibilities of converting landfill garbage into valuable feedstocks such as ethylene, propylene, BTX, etc. Fluidized-bed reactor technologies offer HPI operators a possible avenue to meet recycling laws, conserve raw materials and yield a profit. The paper describes thermal cracking for feedstocks and pyrolysis of polyolefins.

  17. Perennial Grain and Oilseed Crops.

    PubMed

    Kantar, Michael B; Tyl, Catrin E; Dorn, Kevin M; Zhang, Xiaofei; Jungers, Jacob M; Kaser, Joe M; Schendel, Rachel R; Eckberg, James O; Runck, Bryan C; Bunzel, Mirko; Jordan, Nick R; Stupar, Robert M; Marks, M David; Anderson, James A; Johnson, Gregg A; Sheaffer, Craig C; Schoenfuss, Tonya C; Ismail, Baraem; Heimpel, George E; Wyse, Donald L

    2016-04-29

    Historically, agroecosystems have been designed to produce food. Modern societies now demand more from food systems-not only food, fuel, and fiber, but also a variety of ecosystem services. And although today's farming practices are producing unprecedented yields, they are also contributing to ecosystem problems such as soil erosion, greenhouse gas emissions, and water pollution. This review highlights the potential benefits of perennial grains and oilseeds and discusses recent progress in their development. Because of perennials' extended growing season and deep root systems, they may require less fertilizer, help prevent runoff, and be more drought tolerant than annuals. Their production is expected to reduce tillage, which could positively affect biodiversity. End-use possibilities involve food, feed, fuel, and nonfood bioproducts. Fostering multidisciplinary collaborations will be essential for the successful integration of perennials into commercial cropping and food-processing systems. PMID:26789233

  18. Mycotoxin production on rice, pulses and oilseeds.

    PubMed

    Begum, F; Samajpati, N

    2000-06-01

    Mycotoxin-producing fungi were isolated from contaminated grains of rice, pulses and oilseeds sold in the local markets of Calcutta for human consumption. It was found that aflatoxin B1 was produced by Aspergillus flavus and Aspergillus parasiticus, aflatoxin G1 by A. flavus, ochratoxin by Aspergillus ochraceous, sterigmatocystin by Aspergillus japonicus and citrinin by Penicillium citrinum. Aflatoxin B1 (333-10,416 micrograms/kg) was produced by Aspergillus spp. in rice, pulses and oilseeds.

  19. Mycotoxin production on rice, pulses and oilseeds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Begum, Fouzia; Samajpati, N.

    Mycotoxin-producing fungi were isolated from contaminated grains of rice, pulses and oilseeds sold in the local markets of Calcutta for human consumption. It was found that aflatoxin B1 was produced by Aspergillus flavus and Aspergillus parasiticus, aflatoxin G1 by A. flavus, ochratoxin by Aspergillus ochraceous, sterigmatocystin by Aspergillus japonicus and citrinin by Penicillium citrinum. Aflatoxin B1 (333-10416μg/kg) was produced by Aspergillus spp. in rice, pulses and oilseeds.

  20. Alternative E ammonia feedstock

    SciTech Connect

    Lentz, M.J.; Wright, R.A.

    1999-07-01

    Power plants are using more Ammonia for increasing precipitator and baghouse efficiency, for SCR and SNCR processes, and for controlling acid stack plumes and dewpoint corrosion. These simple systems inject ammonia and air into the furnace or the precipitator or baghouse inlet ductwork. The common feedstocks in use today are Anhydrous ammonia [NH{sub 3}] and Aqueous ammonia [NH{sub 4}OH], both defined as poison gases by US authorities and most Western nations. Storage and handling procedures for these products are strictly regulated. Wilhelm Environmental Technologies Inc. is developing use of solid, formed or prilled Urea [CO(NH{sub 2}){sub 2}] as the feedstock. When heated in moist air, Urea sublimes to ammonia [NH{sub 3}] and carbon dioxide [CO{sub 2}]. Urea is stored and handled without restrictions or environmental concerns. Urea is a more expensive feedstock than NH{sub 3}, but much less expensive than [NH{sub 4}OH]. The design, and operating results, of a pilot system at Jacksonville Electric St. John's River Plant [Unit 2] are described. The pilot plant successfully sublimed Urea up to 100 pounds/hour. Further testing is planned. Very large ammonia use may favor NH{sub 3}, but smaller quantities can be produced at attractive prices with Urea based ammonia systems. Storage costs are far less. Many fluidized-bed boilers can use pastille or solid urea metered directly into the existing cyclones for NO{sub x} control. This is more economical than aqueous ammonia or aqueous urea based technology.

  1. Biohydrogen production from lignocellulosic feedstock.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Chieh-Lun; Lo, Yung-Chung; Lee, Kuo-Shing; Lee, Duu-Jong; Lin, Chiu-Yue; Chang, Jo-Shu

    2011-09-01

    Due to the recent energy crisis and rising concern over climate change, the development of clean alternative energy sources is of significant interest. Biohydrogen produced from cellulosic feedstock, such as second generation feedstock (lignocellulosic biomass) and third generation feedstock (carbohydrate-rich microalgae), is a promising candidate as a clean, CO2-neutral, non-polluting and high efficiency energy carrier to meet the future needs. This article reviews state-of-the-art technology on lignocellulosic biohydrogen production in terms of feedstock pretreatment, saccharification strategy, and fermentation technology. Future developments of integrated biohydrogen processes leading to efficient waste reduction, low CO2 emission and high overall hydrogen yield is discussed.

  2. A Distributed Model of Oilseed Biorefining, via Integrated Industrial Ecology Exchanges

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ferrell, Jeremy C.

    As the demand for direct petroleum substitutes increases, biorefineries are poised to become centers for conversion of biomass into fuels, energy, and biomaterials. A distributed model offers reduced transportation, tailored process technology to available feedstock, and increased local resilience. Oilseeds are capable of producing a wide variety of useful products additive to food, feed, and fuel needs. Biodiesel manufacturing technology lends itself to smaller-scale distributed facilities able to process diverse feedstocks and meet demand of critical diesel fuel for basic municipal services, safety, sanitation, infrastructure repair, and food production. Integrating biodiesel refining facilities as tenants of eco-industrial parks presents a novel approach for synergistic energy and material exchanges whereby environmental and economic metrics can be significantly improved upon compared to stand alone models. This research is based on the Catawba County NC EcoComplex and the oilseed crushing and biodiesel processing facilities (capacity-433 tons biodiesel per year) located within. Technical and environmental analyses of the biorefinery components as well as agronomic and economic models are presented. The life cycle assessment for the two optimal biodiesel feedstocks, soybeans and used cooking oil, resulted in fossil energy ratios of 7.19 and 12.1 with carbon intensity values of 12.51 gCO2-eq/MJ and 7.93 gCO2-eq/MJ, respectively within the industrial ecology system. Economic modeling resulted in a biodiesel conversion cost of 1.43 per liter of fuel produced with used cooking oil, requiring a subsidy of 0.58 per liter to reach the break-even point. As subsidies continue significant fluctuation, metrics other than operating costs are required to justify small-scale biofuel projects.

  3. Oilseed Productivity Under Varying Water Availability

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Oilseeds for biofuel production may serve as one of the alternative energy strategies that the United States will employ in the future. Biodiesel can be produced from oil extracted from canola, mustard, camelina, sunflower, safflower, and soybean. This paper compares soil water extraction and water ...

  4. Breeding oilseed crops for climate change

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Oilseed crops are the basis for biological systems that produce edible oils, contribute to renewable energy production, help stabilize greenhouse gases, and mitigate the risk of climate change. Their response to climate change will be dictated by reactions to temperature, carbon dioxide, solar radia...

  5. 7 CFR 1412.32 - Direct payment yield for designated oilseed and pulse crops.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Direct payment yield for designated oilseed and pulse... oilseed and pulse crops. (a) The direct payment yield for designated oilseeds for which a yield was not... designated oilseed for which a yield was not established by September 30, 2007, and for pulse crops on...

  6. Preparation of food supplements from oilseed cakes.

    PubMed

    Sunil, L; Appaiah, Prakruthi; Prasanth Kumar, P K; Gopala Krishna, A G

    2015-05-01

    Oilseed cakes have been in use for feed preparation. Being rich in proteins, antioxidants, fibers, vitamins and minerals, oilseed cakes have been considered ideal for food supplementation. These oilseed cakes can be processed and made more palatable and edible by suitable treatments and then incorporated as food supplements for human consumption. Rice bran pellets (RBP), stabilized rice bran (SRB), coconut cake (CC) and sesame cake (SC) were taken up for the study. These were mixed with distilled water and cooked in such a way to separate the cooked solid residue and liquid extract followed by freeze drying to get two products from each. The raw, cooked dried residue and extract were analyzed for various parameters such as moisture (0.9-27.4 %), fat (2.1-16.1 %), ash (3.3-9.0 %), minerals (2.6-633.2 mg/100 g), total dietary fiber (23.2-58.2 %), crude fiber (2.7-10.5 %), protein (3.2-34.0 %), and the fat further analyzed for fatty acid composition, oryzanol (138-258 mg/100 g) and lignan (99-113 mg/100 g) contents and also evaluated sensory evaluation. Nutritional composition of products as affected by cooking was studied. The cooked products (residue and extract) showed changes in nutrients content and composition from that of the starting cakes and raw materials, but retained more nutrients in cooked residue than in the extract. The sensory evaluation of cooked residue and extract showed overall higher acceptability by the panelists than the starting cakes and raw materials. On the basis of these findings it can be concluded that these cooked residue and extract products are highly valuable for food supplementation than the raw ones.

  7. Transgenic production of arachidonic acid in oilseeds.

    PubMed

    Petrie, James R; Shrestha, Pushkar; Belide, Srinivas; Mansour, Maged P; Liu, Qing; Horne, James; Nichols, Peter D; Singh, Surinder P

    2012-02-01

    We describe a transgenic microalgal Δ9-elongase pathway transformed in both Brassica napus and Arabidopsis thaliana seed resulting in the production of arachidonic acid (ARA). This pathway is noteworthy for both the production of ARA in seed tissue and the low levels of intermediate C20 fatty acids that accumulate. We also demonstrate that the arachidonic acid is naturally enriched at the sn2 position in triacylglycerol. This is the first report of ARA production by the Δ9-elongase pathway in an oilseed.

  8. Big bluestem and switchgrass feedstock harvest timing: Nitrous oxide response to feedstock harvest timing

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Switchgrass (Panicum virgatum L.) and big bluestem (Andropogon gerdardii Vitman) are potential bioenergy feedstocks. Feedstock storage limitations, labor constraints for harvest, and environmental benefits provided by perennials are rationales for developing localized perennial feedstock as an alter...

  9. Use desalting for FCC feedstocks

    SciTech Connect

    Harris, J.R.

    1996-08-01

    The heart of profitability in a modern refinery is the fluid catalytic cracking unit (FCCU). As a major process unit, the FCCU generates substantial profits from small improvements. One such improvement, desalting FCC feedstocks, increases refinery profits by over $25,000 per day after a two-month payout period. Desalting improves FCC feedstocks in three distinct ways: (1) reducing feed sodium content, (2) eliminating entrained water or slugs of water, and (3) reducing particulates and contaminants in both the water and hydrocarbon. Each of these improvements reduces or eliminates several problems in the typical FCCU. The paper discusses each of these mechanisms, the cost of desalting, and a typical case.

  10. Process for dewaxing hydrocarbon feedstock

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, N.Y.; Walsh, D.E.

    1989-02-28

    A process is described for hydroisomerizing a wax-containing hydrocarbon feedstock comprising: contacting the wax-containing hydrocarbon feedstock with a catalyst including a zeolite characterized by a Constraint Index of from about 1 to about 12, and an alpha value of from about 5 to about 50 based on zeolite, in combination with a Platinum metal hydrogenation-dehydrogenation component at a temperature of from about 400/sup 0/ to about 900/sup 0/F and at a pressure of from about 200 to 2000 psig.

  11. Engineering oilseeds to produce nutritional fatty acids.

    PubMed

    Damude, Howard G; Kinney, Anthony J

    2008-01-01

    There is a growing body of evidence suggesting that regular consumption of foods rich in omega-3 long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids has multiple positive health benefits. The fats and oils from marine fish contain high contents of these beneficial fatty acids but increased consumer demand has also increased strain on the ability of the world's fisheries to meet demand from wild capture. Many consumers are choosing fish oil supplements or are eating foods that have been complemented with fish oils instead of consuming fish directly. However, removing undesirable odors, flavors and contaminants is expensive. In contrast, oils derived from land plants such as soybean are inexpensive and contaminant free. Recent strides in plant molecular biology now allow the engineering of oilseeds for the production of novel fats and oils, including those synthesized by complex, multigene biosynthetic pathways such as the omega-3 long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids. Given the potential benefits to the environment with regards to overfishing and the health prospects of increased consumption of these healthy fatty acids, producing these fatty acids in oilseeds is a desirable and worthy goal. In this review, we will describe the recent advances in this field along with some of the technical hurdles encountered thus far.

  12. Cooperative involvement and opportunities in oilseeds

    SciTech Connect

    Dunn, J.R.; Reynolds, B.J.; Eversull, E.E.; Skinner, R.A.; Thurston, S.K.

    1982-01-01

    This report focuses on the opportunities for US cooperatives to improve their position in the oilseeds complex as they face increasing vertical integration and restructuring by large, competing noncooperative firms. Cooperatives operated 38 oilseed processing plants, 19 of them soybean plants, 17 cottonseed plants, 1 peanut plant, and 1 sunflower/flaxseed plant. Total cooperative soybean crushing capacity was 280 million bushels in 1979-1980, representing a 20.7% share of US crushing capacity and an 8.2% share of world crushing capacity. Cooperative soybean crushing capacity increased by 75% during the 1970's. The four largest soybean processing firms in terms of crushing capacity operated 54.5% of total US capacity. The top eight firms operated 75.1%, and the top 20 firms operated 96.4%. Eight of the top 20 soybean processing firms are cooperatives. Cooperatives operated 17 of the 78 cottonseed mills active in 1979. These mills had a total capacity of 6690 tons per day for a 35% share of total US cottonseed crushing capacity. 28 references, 11 figures, 44 tables.

  13. In vitro availability of iron from selected nuts and oilseeds.

    PubMed

    Reddy, N S; Hotwani, M S

    1993-05-01

    Availability of iron from sixteen varieties of selected nuts and oilseeds was assessed by in vitro method. Wide and significant variations were recorded in the contents of total and ionisable iron and in the bioavailability of iron of the nuts and oilseeds. The total iron content was the highest in nigre seeds and the lowest in linseed seeds. Bioavailability of iron was significantly high from pistachio nut and almond and markedly low from groundnut. Most of the nuts and oilseeds were found to have less than 10 percent of bioavailability of iron, hence, they were not considered as good sources of iron among plant foods.

  14. 2009 Feedstocks Platform Review Report

    SciTech Connect

    Ferrell, John

    2009-12-01

    This document summarizes the recommendations and evaluations provided by an independent external panel of experts at the U.S. Department of Energy Biomass Program‘s Feedstock platform review meeting, held on April 8–10, 2009, at the Grand Hyatt Washington, Washington, D.C.

  15. Survey of alternative feedstocks for biodiesel production

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Summarized will be results obtained from the production of biodiesel from several alternative feedstocks with promising agronomic characteristics. Such feedstocks include camelina (Camelina sativa L.), coriander (Coriandrum sativum L.), field pennycress (Thlaspi arvense L.), and meadowfoam (Limnanth...

  16. Wind erosion potential from oilseed cropping systems

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The United States Energy Independence and Security Act of 2007 mandates the use of 36 billion gallons of biofuel by 2022 with 21 billion gallons being derived from advanced biofuel feedstocks. To meet this goal, the United States Department of Agriculture developed a strategy entitled “A USDA region...

  17. Demand for NGL as olefin plant feedstock

    SciTech Connect

    Dodds, A.R.

    1997-12-31

    Olefin plant demand for natural gas liquids as feedstock constitutes a key market for the NGL industry. Feedstock flexibility and the price sensitive nature of petrochemical demand are described. Future trends are presented. The formation and objectives of the Petrochemical Feedstock Association of the Americas are discussed.

  18. Mycoflora and mycotoxin production in oilseed cakes during farm storage.

    PubMed

    Lanier, Caroline; Heutte, Natacha; Richard, Estelle; Bouchart, Valerie; Lebailly, Pierre; Garon, David

    2009-02-25

    Agricultural activities involve the use of oilseed cakes as a source of proteins for livestock. Because the storage of oilseed cakes could induce the development of molds and the production of mycotoxins, a survey was conducted during the 5 months of farm storage. Mycoflora was studied by microscopic examinations, and the presence of Aspergillus fumigatus was confirmed by polymerase chain reaction. A multimycotoxin method was developed to quantify seven mycotoxins (aflatoxin B(1), alternariol, fumonisin B(1), gliotoxin, ochratoxin A, T-2 toxin, and zearalenone) in oilseed cakes by high-performance liquid chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry. Among 34 fungal species identified, A. fumigatus and Aspergillus repens were observed during 5 and 4 months, respectively. Gliotoxin, an immunosuppressive mycotoxin, was quantified in oilseed cakes up to 45 microg/kg, which was associated with the presence of toxigenic isolates of A. fumigatus.

  19. Fatty acid profile of unconventional oilseeds.

    PubMed

    Sabikhi, Latha; Sathish Kumar, M H

    2012-01-01

    The continued increase in human population has resulted in the rise in the demand as well as the price of edible oils, leading to the search for alternative unconventional sources of oils, particularly in the developing countries. There are hundreds of un- or underexplored plant seeds rich in oil suitable for edible or industrial purposes. Many of them are rich in polyunsaturated essential fatty acids, which establish their utility as "healthy oils." Some agrowaste products such as rice bran have gained importance as a potential source of edible oil. Genetic modification has paved the way for increasing the oil yields and improving the fatty acid profiles of traditional as well as unconventional oilseeds. Single cell oils are also novel sources of edible oil. Some of these unconventional oils may have excellent potential for medicinal and therapeutic uses, even if their low oil contents do not promote commercial production as edible oils.

  20. Process for desulfurizing petroleum feedstocks

    DOEpatents

    Gordon, John Howard; Alvare, Javier

    2014-06-10

    A process for upgrading an oil feedstock includes reacting the oil feedstock with a quantity of an alkali metal, wherein the reaction produces solid materials and liquid materials. The solid materials are separated from the liquid materials. The solid materials may be washed and heat treated by heating the materials to a temperature above 400.degree. C. The heat treating occurs in an atmosphere that has low oxygen and water content. Once heat treated, the solid materials are added to a solution comprising a polar solvent, where sulfide, hydrogen sulfide or polysulfide anions dissolve. The solution comprising polar solvent is then added to an electrolytic cell, which during operation, produces alkali metal and sulfur.

  1. Engineered plant biomass feedstock particles

    DOEpatents

    Dooley, James H.; Lanning, David N.; Broderick, Thomas F.

    2011-10-18

    A novel class of flowable biomass feedstock particles with unusually large surface areas that can be manufactured in remarkably uniform sizes using low-energy comminution techniques. The feedstock particles are roughly parallelepiped in shape and characterized by a length dimension (L) aligned substantially with the grain direction and defining a substantially uniform distance along the grain, a width dimension (W) normal to L and aligned cross grain, and a height dimension (H) normal to W and L. The particles exhibit a disrupted grain structure with prominent end and surface checks that greatly enhances their skeletal surface area as compared to their envelope surface area. The L.times.H dimensions define a pair of substantially parallel side surfaces characterized by substantially intact longitudinally arrayed fibers. The W.times.H dimensions define a pair of substantially parallel end surfaces characterized by crosscut fibers and end checking between fibers. The L.times.W dimensions define a pair of substantially parallel top surfaces characterized by some surface checking between longitudinally arrayed fibers. At least 80% of the particles pass through a 1/4 inch screen having a 6.3 mm nominal sieve opening but are retained by a No. 10 screen having a 2 mm nominal sieve opening. The feedstock particles are manufactured from a variety of plant biomass materials including wood, crop residues, plantation grasses, hemp, bagasse, and bamboo.

  2. Engineered plant biomass feedstock particles

    DOEpatents

    Dooley, James H.; Lanning, David N.; Broderick, Thomas F.

    2011-10-11

    A novel class of flowable biomass feedstock particles with unusually large surface areas that can be manufactured in remarkably uniform sizes using low-energy comminution techniques. The feedstock particles are roughly parallelepiped in shape and characterized by a length dimension (L) aligned substantially with the grain direction and defining a substantially uniform distance along the grain, a width dimension (W) normal to L and aligned cross grain, and a height dimension (H) normal to W and L. The particles exhibit a disrupted grain structure with prominent end and surface checks that greatly enhances their skeletal surface area as compared to their envelope surface area. The L.times.H dimensions define a pair of substantially parallel side surfaces characterized by substantially intact longitudinally arrayed fibers. The W.times.H dimensions define a pair of substantially parallel end surfaces characterized by crosscut fibers and end checking between fibers. The L.times.W dimensions define a pair of substantially parallel top surfaces characterized by some surface checking between longitudinally arrayed fibers. The feedstock particles are manufactured from a variety of plant biomass materials including wood, crop residues, plantation grasses, hemp, bagasse, and bamboo.

  3. Review: Balancing Limiting Factors and Economic Drivers to Achieve Sustainable Midwestern US Agricultural Residue Feedstock Supplies

    SciTech Connect

    Wally W. Wilhelm; J. Richard Hess; Douglas L. Karlen; David J. Muth; Jane M. F. Johnson; John M. Baker; Hero T. Gollany; Jeff M. Novak; Diane E. Stott; Gary E. Varvel

    2010-10-01

    Advanced biofuels will be developed using cellulosic feedstock rather than grain or oilseed crops that can also be used for food and feed. To be sustainable, these new agronomic production systems must be economically viable without degrading soil resources. This review examines six agronomic factors that collectively define many of the limits and opportunities for harvesting crop residue for biofuel feedstock. These six “limiting factors” are discussed in relationship to economic drivers associated with harvesting corn (Zea mays L.) stover as a potential cellulosic feedstock. The limiting factors include soil organic carbon, wind and water erosion, plant nutrient balance, soil water and temperature dynamics, soil compaction, and off-site environmental impacts. Initial evaluations using the Revised Universal Soil Loss Equation 2.0 (RUSLE2) show that a single factor analysis based on simply meeting tolerable soil loss might indicate stover could be harvested sustainably, but the same analysis based on maintaining soil organic carbon shows the practice to be non-sustainable. Modifying agricultural management to include either annual or perennial cover crops is shown to meet both soil erosion and soil carbon requirements. The importance of achieving high yields and planning in a holistic manner at the landscape scale are also shown to be crucial for balancing limitations and drivers associated with renewable bioenergy production.

  4. Synthesizing Diamond from Liquid Feedstock

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tzeng, Yonhua

    2005-01-01

    A relatively economical method of chemical vapor deposition (CVD) has been developed for synthesizing diamond crystals and films. Unlike prior CVD methods for synthesizing diamond, this method does not require precisely proportioned flows of compressed gas feedstocks or the use of electrical discharges to decompose the feedstocks to obtain free radicals needed for deposition chemical reactions. Instead, the feedstocks used in this method are mixtures of common organic liquids that can be prepared in advance, and decomposition of feedstock vapors is effected simply by heating. The feedstock used in this method is a solution comprising between 90 and 99 weight percent of methanol and the balance of one or more other oxyhydrocarbons that could include ethanol, isopropanol, and/or acetone. This mixture of compounds is chosen so that dissociation of molecules results in the desired proportions of carbon-containing radicals (principally, CH3) and of OH, H, and O radicals. Undesirably, the CVD temperature and pressure conditions thermodynamically favor the growth of graphite over the growth of diamond. The H radicals are desirable because they help to stabilize the growing surface of diamond by shifting the thermodynamic balance toward favoring the growth of diamond. The OH and O radicals are desirable because they preferentially etch graphite and other non-diamond carbon, thereby helping to ensure the net deposition of pure diamond. The non-methanol compounds are included in the solution because (1) methanol contains equal numbers of C and O atoms; (2) an excess of C over O is needed to obtain net deposition of diamond; and (3) the non-methanol molecules contain multiple carbon atoms for each oxygen atom and thus supply the needed excess carbon A typical apparatus used in this method includes a reservoir containing the feedstock liquid and a partially evacuated stainless-steel reaction chamber. The reservoir is connected to the chamber via tubing and a needle valve or

  5. High light exposure on seed coat increases lipid accumulation in seeds of castor bean (Ricinus communis L.), a nongreen oilseed crop.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yang; Mulpuri, Sujatha; Liu, Aizhong

    2016-05-01

    Little was known on how sunlight affects the seed metabolism in nongreen seeds. Castor bean (Ricinus communis L.) is a typical nongreen oilseed crop and its seed oil is an important feedstock in industry. In this study, photosynthetic activity of seed coat tissues of castor bean in natural conditions was evaluated in comparison to shaded conditions. Our results indicate that exposure to high light enhances photosynthetic activity in seed coats and consequently increases oil accumulation. Consistent results were also reached using cultured seeds. High-throughput RNA-Seq analyses further revealed that genes involved in photosynthesis and carbon conversion in both the Calvin-Benson cycle and malate transport were differentially expressed between seeds cultured under light and dark conditions, implying several venues potentially contributing to light-enhanced lipid accumulation such as increased reducing power and CO2 refixation which underlie the overall lipid biosynthesis. This study demonstrated the effects of light exposure on oil accumulation in nongreen oilseeds and greatly expands our understanding of the physiological roles that light may play during seed development in nongreen oilseeds. Essentially, our studies suggest that potential exists to enhance castor oil yield through increasing exposure of the inflorescences to sunlight either by genetically changing the plant architecture (smart canopy) or its growing environment.

  6. COMPUTATIONAL RESOURCES FOR BIOFUEL FEEDSTOCK SPECIES

    SciTech Connect

    Buell, Carol Robin; Childs, Kevin L

    2013-05-07

    While current production of ethanol as a biofuel relies on starch and sugar inputs, it is anticipated that sustainable production of ethanol for biofuel use will utilize lignocellulosic feedstocks. Candidate plant species to be used for lignocellulosic ethanol production include a large number of species within the Grass, Pine and Birch plant families. For these biofuel feedstock species, there are variable amounts of genome sequence resources available, ranging from complete genome sequences (e.g. sorghum, poplar) to transcriptome data sets (e.g. switchgrass, pine). These data sets are not only dispersed in location but also disparate in content. It will be essential to leverage and improve these genomic data sets for the improvement of biofuel feedstock production. The objectives of this project were to provide computational tools and resources for data-mining genome sequence/annotation and large-scale functional genomic datasets available for biofuel feedstock species. We have created a Bioenergy Feedstock Genomics Resource that provides a web-based portal or clearing house for genomic data for plant species relevant to biofuel feedstock production. Sequence data from a total of 54 plant species are included in the Bioenergy Feedstock Genomics Resource including model plant species that permit leveraging of knowledge across taxa to biofuel feedstock species.We have generated additional computational analyses of these data, including uniform annotation, to facilitate genomic approaches to improved biofuel feedstock production. These data have been centralized in the publicly available Bioenergy Feedstock Genomics Resource (http://bfgr.plantbiology.msu.edu/).

  7. Synthetic carbonaceous fuels and feedstocks

    DOEpatents

    Steinberg, Meyer

    1980-01-01

    This invention relates to the use of a three compartment electrolytic cell in the production of synthetic carbonaceous fuels and chemical feedstocks such as gasoline, methane and methanol by electrolyzing an aqueous sodium carbonate/bicarbonate solution, obtained from scrubbing atmospheric carbon dioxide with an aqueous sodium hydroxide solution, whereby the hydrogen generated at the cathode and the carbon dioxide liberated in the center compartment are combined thermocatalytically into methanol and gasoline blends. The oxygen generated at the anode is preferably vented into the atmosphere, and the regenerated sodium hydroxide produced at the cathode is reused for scrubbing the CO.sub.2 from the atmosphere.

  8. Feedstock quality and growth of bioenergy crops fertilized with sewage sludge.

    PubMed

    Seleiman, Mahmoud F; Santanen, Arja; Stoddard, Frederick L; Mäkelä, Pirjo

    2012-11-01

    Sewage sludge is rich in essential plant nutrients, but its use is restricted for crop production due to the pollutants it contains, such as metalloids and heavy metals. Sludge is also very sticky and compact. Therefore, the objectives of this work were to evaluate (1) the impact of various amounts of sludge on bioenergy crop productivity and quality and (2) the use of peat as an adjuvant to reduce the stickiness, density and nutrient richness of the sludge. Three different applications of sludge were examined, high, low (50% of high) and low mixed with an equal volume of peat. The sludge-peat mix increased significantly leaf area and biomass accumulation of maize and hemp. High sludge and sludge-peat mix applications increased significantly the leaf area and biomass accumulation as well as the net photosynthesis of oilseed rape. High sludge application resulted in the highest heavy metal and metalloid accumulation in maize and hemp. Sludge-peat mix resulted in the highest heavy metal and metalloid accumulation in oilseed rape. However, the sludge-peat mix application provided the best feedstock quality in all three crops, since chloride, silicon and sulfur concentrations and ash content in plant material were the lowest of the three sludge treatments.

  9. 40 CFR 63.2855 - How do I determine the quantity of oilseed processed?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... oilseed processed? 63.2855 Section 63.2855 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... Production Compliance Requirements § 63.2855 How do I determine the quantity of oilseed processed? All oilseed measurements must be determined on an as received basis, as defined in § 63.2872. The as...

  10. 7 CFR 1412.35 - Incorrect or false production evidence of oilseeds and pulse crops.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Incorrect or false production evidence of oilseeds... false production evidence of oilseeds and pulse crops. (a) If production evidence submitted in... payments earned for the farm for the first year such payments were made; (ii) For designated oilseeds...

  11. Proteomics tools and resources for investigating protein allergens in oilseeds.

    PubMed

    Thelen, Jay J

    2009-08-01

    Oilseeds are important renewable sources of natural products including protein and oil which are produced during the maturation (or seed filling) phase of embryo development. My lab employed high-resolution, two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2-DE) and mass spectrometry to profile and identify over 500 proteins expressed during seed filling in various oilseeds including soybean, canola, castor, and Arabidopsis. The principal objective of these studies was to develop predictive models for carbon assimilation for comparison among the four oilseeds. Other uses for these large proteomic datasets have come to light including characterization of the diversity and expression of known and yet-to-be-discovered protein allergens as they accumulate during seed development. Legume oilseeds such as soybean and peanut present a human and animal health concern for a small percentage of the population that are allergic to one or more of the seed proteins. Information about the expression and diversity of 2-DE spots that map to individual genes or gene families of allergens can prove useful for breeding- or biotechnology-based approaches aimed at silencing allergen expression. We have begun releasing these proteomics datasets for public access on the Oilseed Proteomics web portal, www.oilseedproteomics.missouri.edu. I will present the status of these projects and the website with specific emphasis on soybean.

  12. Comparison of oilseed yields: a preliminary review

    SciTech Connect

    Duke, J.A.; Bagby, M.O.

    1982-01-01

    It was assumed that for most oilseed crops, 90% of the oil yield might be considered as profit. To compare oil seeds, pertinent portions of the yield and energy paragraphs from a summary published by Dr. Duke for DOE Grant No. 59-2246-1-6-054-0 with Dr. Bagby as ADODR were reproduced. The seed yields ranged from 200 to 14,000 kg/ha, the low one too low to consider and the high one suspiciously high. The yield of 14,000 kg oil per hectare is equivalent to more than 30 barrels of oil per hectare. The energy species included ambrette, tung-oil tree, cashew, wood-oil tree, mu-oil tree, peanut, mustard greens; rape, colza; black mustard, turnip, safflower, colocynth, coconut, crambe, African oil palm, soybean, cotton, sunflower, Eastern black walnut, Engligh walnut, meadow foam, flax, macadamia nuts, opium poppy, perilla, almond, castorbean, Chinese tallow tree, sesame, jojoba, yellow mustard, stokes' aster, and Zanzibar oilvine. 1 table. (DP)

  13. Biosynthesis of very-long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids in transgenic oilseeds: constraints on their accumulation.

    PubMed

    Abbadi, Amine; Domergue, Fréderic; Bauer, Jörg; Napier, Johnathan A; Welti, Ruth; Zähringer, Ulrich; Cirpus, Petra; Heinz, Ernst

    2004-10-01

    Omega6- and omega3-polyunsaturated C20 fatty acids represent important components of the human diet. A more regular consumption and an accordingly sustainable source of these compounds are highly desirable. In contrast with the very high levels to which industrial fatty acids have to be enriched in plant oils for competitive use as chemical feedstocks, much lower percentages of very-long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (VLCPUFA) in edible plant oils would satisfy nutritional requirements. Seed-specific expression in transgenic tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum) and linseed (Linum usitatissimum) of cDNAs encoding fatty acyl-desaturases and elongases, absent from all agronomically important plants, resulted in the very high accumulation of Delta6-desaturated C18 fatty acids and up to 5% of C20 polyunsaturated fatty acids, including arachidonic and eicosapentaenoic acid. Detailed lipid analyses of developing seeds from transgenic plants were interpretated as indicating that, after desaturation on phosphatidylcholine, Delta6-desaturated products are immediately channeled to the triacylglycerols and effectively bypass the acyl-CoA pool. Thus, the lack of available Delta6-desaturated acyl-CoA substrates in the acyl-CoA pool limits the synthesis of elongated C20 fatty acids and disrupts the alternating sequence of lipid-linked desaturations and acyl-CoA dependent elongations. As well as the successful production of VLCPUFA in transgenic oilseeds and the identification of constraints on their accumulation, our results indicate alternative strategies to circumvent this bottleneck.

  14. Dry reforming of hydrocarbon feedstocks

    SciTech Connect

    Shah, Yatish T.; Gardner, Todd H.

    2014-09-25

    Developments in catalyst technology for the dry reforming of hydrocarbon feedstocks are reviewed for methane, higher hydrocarbons and alcohols. Thermodynamics, mechanisms and the kinetics of dry reforming are also reviewed. The literature on Ni catalysts, bi-metallic Ni catalysts and the role of promoters on Ni catalysts is critically evaluated. The use of noble and transitional metal catalysts for dry reforming is discussed. The application of solid oxide and metal carbide catalysts to dry reforming is also evaluated. Finally, various mechanisms for catalyst deactivation are assessed. This review also examines the various process related issues associated with dry reforming such as its application and heat optimization. Novel approaches such as supercritical dry reforming and microwave assisted dry reforming are briefly expanded upon.

  15. Evolution and Development of Effective Feedstock Specifications

    SciTech Connect

    Garold Gresham; Rachel Emerson; Amber Hoover; Amber Miller; William Bauer; Kevin Kenney

    2013-09-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy promotes the production of a range of liquid fuels and fuel blend stocks from lignocellulosic biomass feedstocks by funding fundamental and applied research that advances the state of technology in biomass collection, conversion, and sustainability. As part of its involvement in this program, the Idaho National Laboratory (INL) investigates the feedstock logistics economics and sustainability of these fuels. The 2012 feedstock logistics milestone demonstrated that for high-yield areas that minimize the transportation distances of a low-density, unstable biomass, we could achieve a delivered cost of $35/ton. Based on current conventional equipment and processes, the 2012 logistics design is able to deliver the volume of biomass needed to fulfill the 2012 Renewable Fuel Standard’s targets for ethanol. However, the Renewable Fuel Standard’s volume targets are continuing to increase and are expected to peak in 2022 at 36 billion gallons. Meeting these volume targets and achieving a national-scale biofuels industry will require expansion of production capacity beyond the 2012 Conventional Feedstock Supply Design Case to access diverse available feedstocks, regardless of their inherent ability to meet preliminary biorefinery quality feedstock specifications. Implementation of quality specifications (specs), as outlined in the 2017 Design Case – “Feedstock Supply System Design and Economics for Conversion of Lignocellulosic Biomass to Hydrocarbon Fuels” (in progress), requires insertion of deliberate, active quality controls into the feedstock supply chain, whereas the 2012 Conventional Design only utilizes passive quality controls.

  16. Platform Chemicals from an Oilseed Biorefinery

    SciTech Connect

    Tupy, Mike; Schrodi Yann

    2006-11-06

    The US chemical industry is $460 billion in size where a $150 billion segment of which is non-oxygenated chemicals that is sourced today via petroleum but is addressable by a renewable feedstock if one considers a more chemically reduced feedstock such as vegetable oils. Vegetable oil, due to its chemical functionality, provides a largely untapped opportunity as a renewable chemical source to replace petroleum-derived chemicals and produce platform chemicals unavailable today. This project examined the fertile intersection between the rich building blocks provided by vegetable oils and the enhanced chemical modification capability provided by metathesis chemistry. The technology advanced in this study is the process of ethylene cross-metathesis (referred to as ethenolysis) with vegetable oil and vegetable oil derivatives to manufacture the platform-chemical 9-decenoic acid (or 9DA) and olefin co-products. The project team meet its goals of demonstrating improved catalyst efficiencies of several multiples, deepening the mechanistic understanding of metathesis, synthesis and screening of dozens of new catalysts, designing and modeling commercial processes, and estimating production costs. One demonstrable result of the study was a step change improvement in catalyst turnover number in the ethenolysis of methyl oleate as reported here. We met our key measurable of producing 100 lbs of 9DA at the pilot-scale, which demonstrated ability to scale-up ethenolysis. DOE Project funding had significant positive impact on development of metathetically modified vegetable oils more broadly as the Cargill/Materia partnership, that was able to initiate primarily due to DOE funding, has succeeded in commercializing products, validating metathesis as a platform technology, and expanding a diverse products portfolio in high value and in large volume markets. Opportunities have expanded and business development has gained considerable momentum and enabled further expansion of the

  17. Water Consumption for Biofuel Feedstock Cultivation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fingerman, K. R.; Torn, M. S.

    2008-12-01

    Water use may prove to be a central issue in the global and local development of the biofuel industry. While most literature on biofuel water use only considers the biorefinery phase, we studied water consumption for biofuel feedstock cultivation in major feedstock-producing regions of the United States. Using a spatially explicit Penman-Monteith model informed by field-level eddy covariance measurements, distributed climate data, and land use figures, we estimated water consumption and net water use for a number of scenarios of feedstock, location, and refining processes for biofuel development. We find that in California, for example, average water consumption for biofuels from different feedstocks ranges from about 900 to over 1500 gallons per gallon of fuel produced. Cellulosic feedstocks are found to be less water-intensive on average. Furthermore, we find feedstock cultivation to account for more than 99% of the life-cycle embedded water for fuels in California. In some regions and for some feedstock options, a shift to biofuel feedstock cultivation would reduce the strain on water resources, while in others we project it would greatly increase water demand. We are expanding this analysis to better capture both base-line ET from natural systems and ET of some of the less-studied cellulosic feedstocks, as well as to incorporate other regions in the U.S. and internationally. Thus far, we conclude that while water demand for processing is important for plant location and pollution, water consumption for feedstock growth may be (along with land resources) the limiting factor for bioenergy production in many regions.

  18. Impact of Mixed Feedstocks and Feedstock Densification on Ionic Liquid Pretreatment Efficiency

    SciTech Connect

    Jian Shi; Vicki S. Thompson; Neal A. Yancey; Vitalie Stavila; Blake A. Simmons; Seema Singh

    2013-01-01

    Background: Lignocellulosic biorefineries must be able to efficiently process the regional feedstocks that are available at cost-competitive prices year round. These feedstocks typically have low energy densities and vary significantly in composition. One potential solution to these issues is blending and/or densifying the feedstocks in order to create a uniform feedstock. Results/discussion: We have mixed four feedstocks - switchgrass, lodgepole pine, corn stover, and eucalyptus - in flour and pellet form and processed them using the ionic liquid 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium acetate. Sugar yields from both the mixed flour and pelletized feedstocks reach 90% within 24 hours of saccharification. Conclusions: Mixed feedstocks, in either flour or pellet form, are efficiently processed using this pretreatment process, and demonstrate that this approach has significant potential.

  19. Flowering dynamics and pollinator visitation of oilseed echium (Echium plantagineum)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Echium (Echium plantagineum L.) is an alternative oilseed crop in summer-wet temperate regions that provides floral resources to pollinators. Its seed oil is rich in omega-3 fatty acids, such as stearidonic acid, which is desired highly by the cosmetic industry. We examined flowering dynamics, polli...

  20. Industrial oilseeds bolster "hub" crop yields when used in rotation

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Lack of agroecosystem diversity across the U.S. agricultural landscape is linked to several environmental issues associated with air, water, and soil quality and biodiversity. Several new industrial oilseed crops with commercial potential, offer farmers new economic opportunities and a portfolio of ...

  1. Metabolic engineering of plant oils and waxes for use as industrial feedstocks.

    PubMed

    Vanhercke, Thomas; Wood, Craig C; Stymne, Sten; Singh, Surinder P; Green, Allan G

    2013-02-01

    Society has come to rely heavily on mineral oil for both energy and petrochemical needs. Plant lipids are uniquely suited to serve as a renewable source of high-value fatty acids for use as chemical feedstocks and as a substitute for current petrochemicals. Despite the broad variety of acyl structures encountered in nature and the cloning of many genes involved in their biosynthesis, attempts at engineering economic levels of specialty industrial fatty acids in major oilseed crops have so far met with only limited success. Much of the progress has been hampered by an incomplete knowledge of the fatty acid biosynthesis and accumulation pathways. This review covers new insights based on metabolic flux and reverse engineering studies that have changed our view of plant oil synthesis from a mostly linear process to instead an intricate network with acyl fluxes differing between plant species. These insights are leading to new strategies for high-level production of industrial fatty acids and waxes. Furthermore, progress in increasing the levels of oil and wax structures in storage and vegetative tissues has the potential to yield novel lipid production platforms. The challenge and opportunity for the next decade will be to marry these technologies when engineering current and new crops for the sustainable production of oil and wax feedstocks.

  2. Engineered plant biomass feedstock particles

    DOEpatents

    Dooley, James H.; Lanning, David N.; Broderick, Thomas F.

    2012-04-17

    A new class of plant biomass feedstock particles characterized by consistent piece size and shape uniformity, high skeletal surface area, and good flow properties. The particles of plant biomass material having fibers aligned in a grain are characterized by a length dimension (L) aligned substantially parallel to the grain and defining a substantially uniform distance along the grain, a width dimension (W) normal to L and aligned cross grain, and a height dimension (H) normal to W and L. In particular, the L.times.H dimensions define a pair of substantially parallel side surfaces characterized by substantially intact longitudinally arrayed fibers, the W.times.H dimensions define a pair of substantially parallel end surfaces characterized by crosscut fibers and end checking between fibers, and the L.times.W dimensions define a pair of substantially parallel top and bottom surfaces. The L.times.W surfaces of particles with L/H dimension ratios of 4:1 or less are further elaborated by surface checking between longitudinally arrayed fibers. The length dimension L is preferably aligned within 30.degree. parallel to the grain, and more preferably within 10.degree. parallel to the grain. The plant biomass material is preferably selected from among wood, agricultural crop residues, plantation grasses, hemp, bagasse, and bamboo.

  3. 2011 Biomass Program Platform Peer Review: Feedstock

    SciTech Connect

    McCann, Laura

    2012-02-01

    This document summarizes the recommendations and evaluations provided by an independent external panel of experts at the 2011 U.S. Department of Energy Biomass Program’s Feedstock Platform Review meeting.

  4. CARBONIZER TESTS WITH LAKELAND FEEDSTOCKS

    SciTech Connect

    C. Lu; Z. Fan; R. Froehlich; A. Robertson

    2003-09-01

    Research has been conducted under United States Department of Energy Contract (USDOE) DE-AC21-86MC21023 to develop a new type of coal-fired plant for electric power generation. This new type of plant, called a Second Generation Pressurized Fluidized Bed Combustion Plant (2nd Gen PFB), offers the promise of efficiencies greater than 48%, with both emissions and a cost of electricity that are significantly lower than those of conventional pulverized coal-fired (PC) plants with wet flue gas desulfurization/scrubbers. The 2nd Gen PFB plant incorporates the partial gasification of coal in a carbonizer, the combustion of carbonizer char in a pressurized circulating fluidized (PCFB) bed boiler, and the combustion of carbonizer syngas in a topping combustor to achieve gas turbine inlet temperatures of 2700 F and higher. Under the USDOE Clean Coal V Demonstration Plant Program, a nominal 260 MWe plant demonstrating 2nd Gen PFB technology has been proposed for construction at the McIntosh Power Plant of the City of Lakeland, Florida. In the September-December 1997 time period, four test runs were conducted in Foster Wheeler's 12-inch diameter carbonizer pilot plant in Livingston New Jersey to ascertain carbonizer performance characteristics with the Kentucky No. 9 coal and Florida limestone proposed for use in the Lakeland plant. The tests were of a short-term nature exploring carbonizer carbon conversions, sulfur capture efficiencies and syngas alkali levels. The tests were successful; observed carbonizer performance was in agreement with predictions and no operating problems, attributed to the planned feedstocks, were encountered. The results of the four test runs are reported herein.

  5. Sugarcane and other crops as fuel feedstocks

    SciTech Connect

    Irvine, J.E.

    1980-07-01

    The use of sugarcane as a feedstock for fuel alcohol production in Brazil, and in Zimbabwe Rhodesia and Panama stimulated tremendous interest in the potential of agricultural crops for renewable energy sources. The cost of the feedstock is important. Corn, the current major agricultural feedstock in US fuel alcohol production, costs 60 to 80% of the selling price of the alcohol produced from it. Production costs for sugarcane and sugarbeets are higher than for corn. Sugarcane and sugarbeets, yield more fermentable carbohydrates per acre than any other crop. Sugarcane has the distinct advantage of containing a large amount of fiber in the harvested portion. The feedstock cost of sugarcane can be reduced by producing more cane per acre. Sweet sorghum has been discussed as a fuel crop. Cassana, the tapioca source, is thought to be a fuel crop of major potential. Feedstock cost can also be reduced through management decisions that reduce costly practices. Cultivation and fertilizer costs can be reduced. The operating cost of the processing plant is affected by the choice of crops grown for feedstock, both by their cost and by availability. (DP)

  6. Economic feasibility of diesel fuel substitutes from oilseeds in New York State

    SciTech Connect

    Lazarus, W.F.; Pitt, R.E.

    1984-11-01

    The feasibility of producing oilseeds for feed and for a diesel fuel substitute has primarily been discussed in terms of the major oilseed producing areas. The Northeast region of the United States is a major agricultural producing area which imports large quantities of soybean meal for cattle feed. This paper considers the technical and economic feasibility of producing oilseeds for feed and fuel in New York State, which is selected as a case study for the region. The possible crops considered for expanded production are sunflowers, soybeans, and flax. It is found that if enough oilseeds are grown to replace 25% of the diesel fuel used on farms, then at most 5% of the cropland would have to be converted to oilseeds, and meal would not be produced in excess of the amount currently used. The cost of producing oil is calculated as the cost of producing the seed plus the cost of processing minus the value of the meal. Enterprise budgets are developed for estimating oilseed production costs in New York State. The cost of processing is estimated for both an industrial-size plant, which does not now exist in New York, and a small on-farm plant. It is found that the diesel fuel and vegetable oil prices would have to rise substantially before oilseeds were produced in the Northeast region for feed and fuel. Moreover, the construction of an oilseed processing facility would not necessarily stimulate production of oilseeds in the region. 22 references.

  7. Seed dressings to control slug damage in oilseed rape.

    PubMed

    Simms, Louise C; Mullins, Christopher E; Wilson, Michael J

    2002-07-01

    Slugs are major pests of oilseed rape that are poorly controlled by conventional bait pellets. A series of laboratory experiments investigated the potential of seed-dressings to control slug damage in this crop. Four compounds: metaldehyde, methiocarb, cinnamamide and 3,5-dimethoxycinnamic acid (DMCA) were tested at a range of doses for phytotoxicity and ability to reduce damage by Deroceras reticulatum (Müller). Metaldehyde and methiocarb were not phytotoxic at any doses, whereas all doses of cinnamamide and DMCA were. All compounds reduced slug damage, but metaldehyde and methiocarb consistently performed better than cinnamamide and DMCA. Metaldehyde and methiocarb seed-dressings were compared with baited pellets containing the same active ingredients at recommended field doses. The seed-dressings protected plants from damage by D reticulatum and Arion subfuscus (Draparnaud) as well as, or better than, baited pellets. We therefore recommend that metaldehyde and methiocarb should be field-tested as seed dressings to control slugs in oilseed rape.

  8. Antimicrobial polyphenols from small tropical fruits, tea and spice oilseeds.

    PubMed

    Aman, Sahar; Naim, Asma; Siddiqi, Rahmanullah; Naz, Shahina

    2014-06-01

    The polyphenolic fractions of fruits: Terminalia catappa, Carissa carandas, Ziziphus nummularia; spice oilseeds: thymol, mustard, fenugreek and poppy seeds; and herb: green and black teas were analyzed for their total phenolics, flavonoids and antimicrobial potential. All fractions from fruits, except anthocyanin of C. carandas, displayed substantial antibacterial activity in accordance to their phenolic contents, the difference in activity being quite significant (p < 0.05), highest for T. catappa (minimum inhibitory concentration, MIC: 7.8-1000 microg/mL) and lowest for C. carandas (MIC: 62.5-1000 microg/mL). With few exceptions, both green and black teas' fractions inhibited the tested strains, however, green tea fractions (MIC: 15.63-125 microg/mL) were more active than black (MIC: 31.25-1000 microg/mL) and neutral were more active than their corresponding acidic fractions. Oil fractions of all oilseeds were found to be more active than their polyphenolic fractions, their antibacterial action decreased in the order thymol > mustard > fenugreek > poppy seeds (p < 0.05). Though the fruits used for the study are underutilized and have been emphasized for processed products, they may potentially be important to fight against pathogenic bacteria in view of their MICs. The teas and oilseeds, though a small part of total food intake, are more functional and active against the tested bacterial species and may find potential applications in therapeutics and food preservation.

  9. Seed oils from non-conventional sources in north-east India: potential feedstock for production of biodiesel.

    PubMed

    Barua, Priyanka; Dutta, Kajal; Basumatary, Sanjay; Deka, Dinesh C; Deka, Dibakar C

    2014-01-01

    A total of nine oilseeds with more than 15 wt% oil have been investigated for evaluating them as feedstock for biodiesel industries. Fatty acid profiles of all the nine oil samples have been determined by GC-MS analysis. The saponification numbers, gross heats of combustion of the oils and those of corresponding fatty acid methyl esters (FAMEs) as well as cetane indices of the FAMEs have been calculated empirically. Iodine values have been determined experimentally. These values have been used for predicting the quality of the corresponding biodiesels. If prepared from these oils, biodiesels are likely to meet the major specification of biodiesel standards of the USA, Germany and European Standard Organisation. Seed oil from Cucumis sativus is found rich in linoleic acid which is considered an essential fatty acid of biological significance. PMID:24483850

  10. Development of an efficient regeneration and transformation method for the new potential oilseed crop Lepidium campestre

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Lepidium campestre is an undomesticated oilseed species with a great potential to become a new crop for both food and industrial feedstocks production. Genetic modification is needed for further improving the oil quantity and quality of Lepidium. Studies on in vitro shoot regeneration of Lepidium are very limited and there is no transformation protocol available. Results We have investigated the effects of different factors, especially the type, concentration and combination of plant growth regulators (PGRs) on in vitro shoot regeneration of Lepidium. The results showed that the 2,4-D treatment was crucial to shoot regeneration from different explants. The duration of 2,4-D exposure between 2-4 days did not show significant difference in shoot regeneration, while the effect of 2,4-D concentration varied greatly depending on the type of explants and cytokinins used, for example, the low concentration of 2,4-D combined with TDZ significantly increased the regeneration frequency of hypocotyls. Cotyledon and hypocotyl explants responded differently to cytokinin, for example, TDZ was more effective than zeatin in promoting shoot regeneration from hypocotyls, but did not affect the regeneration of cotyledons which was more affected by high concentration of zeatin. The results also showed that NAA was not effective for shoot regeneration. Germination in light increased the regeneration frequency compared to that in dark. After optimization of the different conditions, an efficient regeneration protocol was developed with the regeneration efficiency of 92.7%. Using this protocol, the transformation frequency of 6% in average was achieved. The presence of transgenes in the transgenic lines was confirmed by GUS staining, PCR and Southern blot analyses. Conclusion Through systematic investigation of important factors affecting in vitro shoot regeneration, we have developed an efficient regeneration and transformation protocol for the genetic modification of

  11. Quantitative Multilevel Analysis of Central Metabolism in Developing Oilseeds of Oilseed Rape during in Vitro Culture.

    PubMed

    Schwender, Jörg; Hebbelmann, Inga; Heinzel, Nicolas; Hildebrandt, Tatjana; Rogers, Alistair; Naik, Dhiraj; Klapperstück, Matthias; Braun, Hans-Peter; Schreiber, Falk; Denolf, Peter; Borisjuk, Ljudmilla; Rolletschek, Hardy

    2015-07-01

    Seeds provide the basis for many food, feed, and fuel products. Continued increases in seed yield, composition, and quality require an improved understanding of how the developing seed converts carbon and nitrogen supplies into storage. Current knowledge of this process is often based on the premise that transcriptional regulation directly translates via enzyme concentration into flux. In an attempt to highlight metabolic control, we explore genotypic differences in carbon partitioning for in vitro cultured developing embryos of oilseed rape (Brassica napus). We determined biomass composition as well as 79 net fluxes, the levels of 77 metabolites, and 26 enzyme activities with specific focus on central metabolism in nine selected germplasm accessions. Overall, we observed a tradeoff between the biomass component fractions of lipid and starch. With increasing lipid content over the spectrum of genotypes, plastidic fatty acid synthesis and glycolytic flux increased concomitantly, while glycolytic intermediates decreased. The lipid/starch tradeoff was not reflected at the proteome level, pointing to the significance of (posttranslational) metabolic control. Enzyme activity/flux and metabolite/flux correlations suggest that plastidic pyruvate kinase exerts flux control and that the lipid/starch tradeoff is most likely mediated by allosteric feedback regulation of phosphofructokinase and ADP-glucose pyrophosphorylase. Quantitative data were also used to calculate in vivo mass action ratios, reaction equilibria, and metabolite turnover times. Compounds like cyclic 3',5'-AMP and sucrose-6-phosphate were identified to potentially be involved in so far unknown mechanisms of metabolic control. This study provides a rich source of quantitative data for those studying central metabolism. PMID:25944824

  12. Quantitative Multilevel Analysis of Central Metabolism in Developing Oilseeds of Oilseed Rape during in Vitro Culture.

    PubMed

    Schwender, Jörg; Hebbelmann, Inga; Heinzel, Nicolas; Hildebrandt, Tatjana; Rogers, Alistair; Naik, Dhiraj; Klapperstück, Matthias; Braun, Hans-Peter; Schreiber, Falk; Denolf, Peter; Borisjuk, Ljudmilla; Rolletschek, Hardy

    2015-07-01

    Seeds provide the basis for many food, feed, and fuel products. Continued increases in seed yield, composition, and quality require an improved understanding of how the developing seed converts carbon and nitrogen supplies into storage. Current knowledge of this process is often based on the premise that transcriptional regulation directly translates via enzyme concentration into flux. In an attempt to highlight metabolic control, we explore genotypic differences in carbon partitioning for in vitro cultured developing embryos of oilseed rape (Brassica napus). We determined biomass composition as well as 79 net fluxes, the levels of 77 metabolites, and 26 enzyme activities with specific focus on central metabolism in nine selected germplasm accessions. Overall, we observed a tradeoff between the biomass component fractions of lipid and starch. With increasing lipid content over the spectrum of genotypes, plastidic fatty acid synthesis and glycolytic flux increased concomitantly, while glycolytic intermediates decreased. The lipid/starch tradeoff was not reflected at the proteome level, pointing to the significance of (posttranslational) metabolic control. Enzyme activity/flux and metabolite/flux correlations suggest that plastidic pyruvate kinase exerts flux control and that the lipid/starch tradeoff is most likely mediated by allosteric feedback regulation of phosphofructokinase and ADP-glucose pyrophosphorylase. Quantitative data were also used to calculate in vivo mass action ratios, reaction equilibria, and metabolite turnover times. Compounds like cyclic 3',5'-AMP and sucrose-6-phosphate were identified to potentially be involved in so far unknown mechanisms of metabolic control. This study provides a rich source of quantitative data for those studying central metabolism.

  13. Quantitative Multilevel Analysis of Central Metabolism in Developing Oilseeds of Oilseed Rape During In Vitro Culture

    SciTech Connect

    Schwender, Jorg; Hebbelmann, Inga; Heinzel, Nicholas; Hildebrandt, Tatjana; Rogers, Alistair; Naik, Dhiraj; Klapperstuck, Matthias; Braun, Hans -Peter; Schreiber, Falk; Denolf, Peter; Borisjuk, Ljudmilla; Rolletschek, Hardy

    2015-07-01

    Seeds provide the basis for many food, feed, and fuel products. Continued increases in seed yield, composition, and quality require an improved understanding of how the developing seed converts carbon and nitrogen supplies into storage. Current knowledge of this process is often based on the premise that transcriptional regulation directly translates via enzyme concentration into flux. In an attempt to highlight metabolic control, we explore genotypic differences in carbon partitioning for in vitro cultured developing embryos of oilseed rape (Brassica napus). We determined biomass composition as well as 79 net fluxes, the levels of 77 metabolites, and 26 enzyme activities with specific focus on central metabolism in nine selected germplasm accessions. We observed a tradeoff between the biomass component fractions of lipid and starch. With increasing lipid content over the spectrum of genotypes, plastidic fatty acid synthesis and glycolytic flux increased concomitantly, while glycolytic intermediates decreased. The lipid/starch tradeoff was not reflected at the proteome level, pointing to the significance of (posttranslational) metabolic control. Enzyme activity/flux and metabolite/flux correlations suggest that plastidic pyruvate kinase exerts flux control and that the lipid/starch tradeoff is most likely mediated by allosteric feedback regulation of phosphofructokinase and ADP-glucose pyrophosphorylase. Also, quantitative data were used to calculate in vivo mass action ratios, reaction equilibria, and metabolite turnover times. Compounds like cyclic 3',5'-AMP and sucrose-6-phosphate were identified to potentially be involved in so far unknown mechanisms of metabolic control. This study provides a rich source of quantitative data for those studying central metabolism..

  14. Bioenergy Feedstock Development Program Status Report

    SciTech Connect

    Kszos, L.A.

    2001-02-09

    The U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE's) Bioenergy Feedstock Development Program (BFDP) at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) is a mission-oriented program of research and analysis whose goal is to develop and demonstrate cropping systems for producing large quantities of low-cost, high-quality biomass feedstocks for use as liquid biofuels, biomass electric power, and/or bioproducts. The program specifically supports the missions and goals of DOE's Office of Fuels Development and DOE's Office of Power Technologies. ORNL has provided technical leadership and field management for the BFDP since DOE began energy crop research in 1978. The major components of the BFDP include energy crop selection and breeding; crop management research; environmental assessment and monitoring; crop production and supply logistics operational research; integrated resource analysis and assessment; and communications and outreach. Research into feedstock supply logistics has recently been added and will become an integral component of the program.

  15. Biofuel Feedstock Assessment For Selected Countries

    SciTech Connect

    Kline, Keith L; Oladosu, Gbadebo A; Wolfe, Amy K; Perlack, Robert D; Dale, Virginia H; McMahon, Matthew

    2008-02-01

    Findings from biofuel feedstock production assessments and projections of future supply are presented and discussed. The report aims to improve capabilities to assess the degree to which imported biofuel could contribute to meeting future U.S. targets to reduce dependence on imported oil. The study scope was focused to meet time and resource requirements. A screening process identified Argentina, Brazil, Canada, China, Colombia, India, Mexico, and the Caribbean Basin Initiative (CBI) region for initial analysis, given their likely role in future feedstock supply relevant to U.S. markets. Supply curves for selected feedstocks in these countries are projected for 2012, 2017 and 2027. The supply functions, along with calculations to reflect estimated supplies available for export and/or biofuel production, were provided to DOE for use in a broader energy market allocation study. Potential cellulosic supplies from crop and forestry residues and perennials were also estimated for 2017 and 2027. The analysis identified capacity to potentially double or triple feedstock production by 2017 in some cases. A majority of supply growth is derived from increasing the area cultivated (especially sugarcane in Brazil). This is supplemented by improving yields and farming practices. Most future supplies of corn and wheat are projected to be allocated to food and feed. Larger shares of future supplies of sugarcane, soybean and palm oil production will be available for export or biofuel. National policies are catalyzing investments in biofuel industries to meet targets for fuel blending that generally fall in the 5-10% range. Social and environmental concerns associated with rapid expansion of feedstock production are considered. If the 2017 projected feedstock supply calculated as 'available' for export or biofuel were converted to fuel, it would represent the equivalent of about 38 billion gallons of gasoline. Sugarcane and bagasse dominate the available supply, representing 64% of

  16. Biofuel Feedstock Assessment for Selected Countries

    SciTech Connect

    Kline, K.L.; Oladosu, G.A.; Wolfe, A.K.; Perlack, R.D.; Dale, V.H.

    2008-02-18

    Findings from biofuel feedstock production assessments and projections of future supply are presented and discussed. The report aims to improve capabilities to assess the degree to which imported biofuel could contribute to meeting future U.S. targets to reduce dependence on imported oil. The study scope was focused to meet time and resource requirements. A screening process identified Argentina, Brazil, Canada, China, Colombia, India, Mexico, and the Caribbean Basin Initiative (CBI) region for initial analysis, given their likely role in future feedstock supply relevant to U.S. markets. Supply curves for selected feedstocks in these countries are projected for 2012, 2017 and 2027. The supply functions, along with calculations to reflect estimated supplies available for export and/or biofuel production, were provided to DOE for use in a broader energy market allocation study. Potential cellulosic supplies from crop and forestry residues and perennials were also estimated for 2017 and 2027. The analysis identified capacity to potentially double or triple feedstock production by 2017 in some cases. A majority of supply growth is derived from increasing the area cultivated (especially sugarcane in Brazil). This is supplemented by improving yields and farming practices. Most future supplies of corn and wheat are projected to be allocated to food and feed. Larger shares of future supplies of sugarcane, soybean and palm oil production will be available for export or biofuel. National policies are catalyzing investments in biofuel industries to meet targets for fuel blending that generally fall in the 5-10% range. Social and environmental concerns associated with rapid expansion of feedstock production are considered. If the 2017 projected feedstock supply calculated as ‘available’ for export or biofuel were converted to fuel, it would represent the equivalent of about 38 billion gallons of gasoline. Sugarcane and bagasse dominate the available supply, representing 64

  17. 7 CFR 1412.34 - Submitting production evidence for establishing direct payment yields for oilseeds and pulse crops.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... direct payment yields for oilseeds and pulse crops. 1412.34 Section 1412.34 Agriculture Regulations of... oilseeds and pulse crops. (a)(1) Reports of production evidence must be submitted when the owner elects to establish a direct payment yield for designated oilseeds for which a yield was not established by...

  18. Engineering cyanobacteria as photosynthetic feedstock factories.

    PubMed

    Hays, Stephanie G; Ducat, Daniel C

    2015-03-01

    Carbohydrate feedstocks are at the root of bioindustrial production and are needed in greater quantities than ever due to increased prioritization of renewable fuels with reduced carbon footprints. Cyanobacteria possess a number of features that make them well suited as an alternative feedstock crop in comparison to traditional terrestrial plant species. Recent advances in genetic engineering, as well as promising preliminary investigations of cyanobacteria in a number of distinct production regimes have illustrated the potential of these aquatic phototrophs as biosynthetic chassis. Further improvements in strain productivities and design, along with enhanced understanding of photosynthetic metabolism in cyanobacteria may pave the way to translate cyanobacterial theoretical potential into realized application.

  19. Wastepaper as a feedstock for ethanol production

    SciTech Connect

    Bergeron, P.W.; Riley, C.J.

    1991-11-01

    The possibility of using wastepaper as a cheap feedstock for production of ethanol is discussed. As the single largest material category in the municipal solid waste (MSW) stream, wastepaper is the main target of efforts to reduce the volume of MSW. And in the process for producing ethanol from lignocellulosics, the feedstock represents the highest cost. If wastepaper could be obtained cheaply in large enough quantities and if conversion process cost and efficiency prove to be similar to those for wood, the cost of ethanol could be significantly reduced. At the same time, the volume of wastepaper that must be disposed of in landfills could be lessened. 13 refs., 3 figs., 7 tabs.

  20. 40 CFR 63.2855 - How do I determine the quantity of oilseed processed?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... basis refers to the oilseed chemical and physical characteristics as initially received by the source.... (b) Use Equation 1 of this section to determine the quantity of each oilseed type processed at your affected source during normal operating periods recorded within a calendar month. Equation 1 of...

  1. A normalized difference yellowness index for modeling yield of Brassica oilseeds

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Conspicuous yellow flowers that are present in a Brassica oilseed crop such as canola require careful consideration when selecting a spectral index for yield estimation. This study evaluated spectral indices for multispectral sensors that correlate with the seed yield of Brassica oilseed crops. A ...

  2. 7 CFR 93.15 - Fees for analytical testing of oilseeds.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... office as listed in 7 CFR 93.14(a). ... 7 Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Fees for analytical testing of oilseeds. 93.15 Section... LABORATORY TESTING PROGRAMS PROCESSED FRUITS AND VEGETABLES Peanuts, Tree Nuts, Corn and Other Oilseeds §...

  3. Windblown soil surface characteristics altered by oilseeds in a wheat-fallow cropping system

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Oilseeds are integral to the production of biofuels and diversifying rainfed cropping systems in the Pacific Northwest United States (PNW). However, there is evidence to suggest greater potential for wind erosion when growing oilseeds in wheat rotations. Little is known concerning the impact of grow...

  4. Windblown dust potential from oilseed cropping systems in the Pacific Northwest United States

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The volatility of petroleum reserves and prices coupled with concerns over greenhouse gas emissions and climate change has created a worldwide interest in renewable fuels. Although advances are being made in growing oilseeds for advanced biofuels, little is known about the impact of growing oilseed ...

  5. The effect of oilseeds in diets of lactating cows on milk production and methane emissions.

    PubMed

    Johnson, K A; Kincaid, R L; Westberg, H H; Gaskins, C T; Lamb, B K; Cronrath, J D

    2002-06-01

    Thirty-six lactating multiparous Holstein cows were assigned to diets that contained 2.3, 4.0, and 5.6% fat for an entire lactation to determine the effect of oilseeds on milk composition, production, and methane emissions. The diets were formulated so that whole cottonseeds and canola oilseeds provided equal amounts of added fat. Methane emissions were measured every 3 mo from two replicates of four cows per treatment using a room tracer approach. Dry matter intakes and yields of milk and FCM were greater for cows fed the diets containing oilseeds. Although the concentration of protein in milk was reduced, yields of both protein and fat tended to be increased by the addition of fat. Within the milk fat, the concentrations of C10, C12, C14:0, and C16:0 were reduced and concentrations of C18, C18:1, and trans-C18:1 were increased in response to dietary oilseeds. In serum, urea-N was increased by the dietary oilseeds. Supplementation of diets with oilseeds did not affect methane emissions but tended to increase the efficiency of milk produced per unit of methane emitted. A 1.7% addition of fat to the control diet from a combination of oilseed types increased yields of milk without reducing methane emission rates. The strategy of using unsaturated fats from oilseeds to substantially reduce methane emissions was ineffective, although yield of milk was increased.

  6. Soil characteristics and associated wind erosion potential altered by oilseeds in wheat-based cropping systems

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Oilseeds are integral to the production of biofuels and diversifying rainfed cropping systems in the Pacific Northwest. However, there is evidence to suggest greater potential for wind erosion when growing oilseeds in wheat-based rotations when tillage is used during fallow. Little is known concerni...

  7. Upgrading of petroleum oil feedstocks using alkali metals and hydrocarbons

    DOEpatents

    Gordon, John Howard

    2014-09-09

    A method of upgrading an oil feedstock by removing heteroatoms and/or one or more heavy metals from the oil feedstock composition. This method reacts the oil feedstock with an alkali metal and an upgradant hydrocarbon. The alkali metal reacts with a portion of the heteroatoms and/or one or more heavy metals to form an inorganic phase separable from the organic oil feedstock material. The upgradant hydrocarbon bonds to the oil feedstock material and increases the number of carbon atoms in the product. This increase in the number of carbon atoms of the product increases the energy value of the resulting oil feedstock.

  8. NMR metabolomics of ripened and developing oilseed rape (Brassica napus) and turnip rape (Brassica rapa).

    PubMed

    Kortesniemi, Maaria; Vuorinen, Anssi L; Sinkkonen, Jari; Yang, Baoru; Rajala, Ari; Kallio, Heikki

    2015-04-01

    The oilseeds of the commercially important oilseed rape (Brassica napus) and turnip rape (Brassica rapa) were investigated with (1)H NMR metabolomics. The compositions of ripened (cultivated in field trials) and developing seeds (cultivated in controlled conditions) were compared in multivariate models using principal component analysis (PCA), partial least squares discriminant analysis (PLS-DA), and orthogonal partial least squares discriminant analysis (OPLS-DA). Differences in the major lipids and the minor metabolites between the two species were found. A higher content of polyunsaturated fatty acids and sucrose were observed in turnip rape, while the overall oil content and sinapine levels were higher in oilseed rape. The genotype traits were negligible compared to the effect of the growing site and concomitant conditions on the oilseed metabolome. This study demonstrates the applicability of NMR-based analysis in determining the species, geographical origin, developmental stage, and quality of oilseed Brassicas.

  9. Preprocessing Moist Lignocellulosic Biomass for Biorefinery Feedstocks

    SciTech Connect

    Neal Yancey; Christopher T. Wright; Craig Conner; J. Richard Hess

    2009-06-01

    Biomass preprocessing is one of the primary operations in the feedstock assembly system of a lignocellulosic biorefinery. Preprocessing is generally accomplished using industrial grinders to format biomass materials into a suitable biorefinery feedstock for conversion to ethanol and other bioproducts. Many factors affect machine efficiency and the physical characteristics of preprocessed biomass. For example, moisture content of the biomass as received from the point of production has a significant impact on overall system efficiency and can significantly affect the characteristics (particle size distribution, flowability, storability, etc.) of the size-reduced biomass. Many different grinder configurations are available on the market, each with advantages under specific conditions. Ultimately, the capacity and/or efficiency of the grinding process can be enhanced by selecting the grinder configuration that optimizes grinder performance based on moisture content and screen size. This paper discusses the relationships of biomass moisture with respect to preprocessing system performance and product physical characteristics and compares data obtained on corn stover, switchgrass, and wheat straw as model feedstocks during Vermeer HG 200 grinder testing. During the tests, grinder screen configuration and biomass moisture content were varied and tested to provide a better understanding of their relative impact on machine performance and the resulting feedstock physical characteristics and uniformity relative to each crop tested.

  10. Halophytes Energy Feedstocks: Back to Our Roots

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hendricks, Robert C.; Bushnell, Dennis M.

    2008-01-01

    Of the Earth s landmass, approx.43% is arid or semi-arid, and 97% of the Earth s water is seawater. Halophytes are salt-tolerant plants (micro and macro) that can prosper in seawater or brackish waters and are common feedstocks for fuel and food (fuel-food feedstocks) in depressed countries. Two types, broadly classed as coastal and desert, can be found in marshes, coastal planes, inland lakes, and deserts. Major arid or semi-arid halophyte agriculture problems include pumping and draining the required high volumes of irrigation water from sea or ocean sources. Also, not all arid or semi-arid lands are suitable for crops. Benefits of halophyte agriculture include freeing up arable land and freshwater resources, cleansing the environment, decontaminating soils, desalinating brackish waters, and carbon sequestration. Sea and ocean halophyte agriculture problems include storms, transport, and diffuse harvesting. Benefits include available nutrients, ample water, and Sun. Careful attention to details and use of saline agriculture fuel feedstocks are required to prevent anthropogenic disasters. It is shown that the potential for fuel-food feedstock halophyte production is high; based on test plot data, it could supply 421.4 Quad, or 94% of the 2004 world energy consumption and sequester carbon, with major impact on the Triangle of Conflicts.

  11. Dedicated herbaceous biomass feedstock genetics and development

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Biofuels and bio-based products can be produced from a wide variety of plant feedstocks. To supply enough biomass to meet the proposed need for a bio-based economy a suite of dedicated biomass species must be developed to accommodate a range of growing environments throughout the United States. Re...

  12. Soil management implications of producing biofuel feedstock

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The demand for domestic, renewable energy resources and the need for more stable and higher commodity prices for farmers and rural communities are drivers for the developing bioenergy industry. First generation feedstocks focused on corn (Zea mays L) and soybean (Glycine max. L. [Merr.]) grain in t...

  13. Balancing feedstock economics and ecosystem services

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The purpose of this analysis is to examine the economic balance between production of cellulosic biofuel feedstocks and ecosystem services at the farm level. A literature review of the economics of ecosystem services, ecosystem service impacts of biofuel production, and economic factors influencing ...

  14. High Yields for Enhanced Sustainable Feedstock Production

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Globally, humankind is in the midst of one of the greatest technological, environmental, and social transitions since the industrial revolution as we strive to replace fossil energy with renewable sources. The Billion Ton Report established a target for U.S. bioenergy feedstock production and throug...

  15. Catalytic hydroprocessing of heavy oil feedstocks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Okunev, A. G.; Parkhomchuk, E. V.; Lysikov, A. I.; Parunin, P. D.; Semeikina, V. S.; Parmon, V. N.

    2015-09-01

    A grave problem of modern oil refining industry is continuous deterioration of the produced oil quality, on the one hand, and increase in the demand for motor fuels, on the other hand. This necessitates processing of heavy oil feedstock with high contents of sulfur, nitrogen and metals and the atmospheric residue. This feedstock is converted to light oil products via hydrogenation processes catalyzed by transition metal compounds, first of all, cobalt- or nickel-promoted molybdenum and tungsten compounds. The processing involves desulfurization, denitrogenation and demetallization reactions as well as reactions converting heavy hydrocarbons to lighter fuel components. The review discusses the mechanisms of reactions involved in the heavy feedstock hydroprocessing, the presumed structure and state of the catalytically active components and methods for the formation of supports with the desired texture. Practically used and prospective approaches to catalytic upgrading of heavy oil feedstock as well as examples of industrial processing of bitumen and vacuum residues in the presence of catalysts are briefly discussed. The bibliography includes 140 references.

  16. Components of a Rice-Oilseed Rape Production System Augmented with Trichoderma sp. Tri-1 Control Sclerotinia sclerotiorum on Oilseed Rape.

    PubMed

    Hu, Xiaojia; Roberts, Daniel P; Xie, Lihua; Maul, Jude E; Yu, Changbing; Li, Yinshui; Zhang, Yinbo; Qin, Lu; Liao, Xing

    2015-10-01

    Sclerotinia sclerotiorum causes serious yield losses on many crops throughout the world. A multicomponent treatment that consisted of the residual rice straw remaining after rice harvest and Trichoderma sp. Tri-1 (Tri-1) formulated with the oilseed rape seedcake fertilizer was used in field soil infested with S. sclerotiorum. This treatment resulted in oilseed rape seed yield that was significantly greater than the nontreated control or when the fungicide carbendizem was used in the presence of this pathogen in field trials. Yield data suggested that the rice straw, oilseed rape seedcake, and Tri-1 components of this treatment all contributed incrementally. Similar treatment results were obtained regarding reduction in disease incidence. Slight improvements in yield and disease incidence were detected when this multicomponent treatment was combined with a fungicide spray. Inhibition of sclerotial germination by this multicomponent treatment trended greater than the nontreated control at 90, 120, and 150 days in field studies but was not significantly different from this control. This multicomponent treatment resulted in increased yield relative to the nontreated control in the absence of pathogen in a greenhouse pot study, while the straw alone and the straw plus oilseed rape seedcake treatments did not; suggesting that Tri-1 was capable of promoting growth. Experiments reported here indicate that a treatment containing components of a rice-oilseed rape production system augmented with Tri-1 can control S. sclerotiorum on oilseed rape, be used in integrated strategies containing fungicide sprays for control of this pathogen, and promote plant growth.

  17. Components of a Rice-Oilseed Rape Production System Augmented with Trichoderma sp. Tri-1 Control Sclerotinia sclerotiorum on Oilseed Rape.

    PubMed

    Hu, Xiaojia; Roberts, Daniel P; Xie, Lihua; Maul, Jude E; Yu, Changbing; Li, Yinshui; Zhang, Yinbo; Qin, Lu; Liao, Xing

    2015-10-01

    Sclerotinia sclerotiorum causes serious yield losses on many crops throughout the world. A multicomponent treatment that consisted of the residual rice straw remaining after rice harvest and Trichoderma sp. Tri-1 (Tri-1) formulated with the oilseed rape seedcake fertilizer was used in field soil infested with S. sclerotiorum. This treatment resulted in oilseed rape seed yield that was significantly greater than the nontreated control or when the fungicide carbendizem was used in the presence of this pathogen in field trials. Yield data suggested that the rice straw, oilseed rape seedcake, and Tri-1 components of this treatment all contributed incrementally. Similar treatment results were obtained regarding reduction in disease incidence. Slight improvements in yield and disease incidence were detected when this multicomponent treatment was combined with a fungicide spray. Inhibition of sclerotial germination by this multicomponent treatment trended greater than the nontreated control at 90, 120, and 150 days in field studies but was not significantly different from this control. This multicomponent treatment resulted in increased yield relative to the nontreated control in the absence of pathogen in a greenhouse pot study, while the straw alone and the straw plus oilseed rape seedcake treatments did not; suggesting that Tri-1 was capable of promoting growth. Experiments reported here indicate that a treatment containing components of a rice-oilseed rape production system augmented with Tri-1 can control S. sclerotiorum on oilseed rape, be used in integrated strategies containing fungicide sprays for control of this pathogen, and promote plant growth. PMID:26390095

  18. Comparative deep transcriptional profiling of four developing oilseeds.

    PubMed

    Troncoso-Ponce, Manuel A; Kilaru, Aruna; Cao, Xia; Durrett, Timothy P; Fan, Jilian; Jensen, Jacob K; Thrower, Nick A; Pauly, Markus; Wilkerson, Curtis; Ohlrogge, John B

    2011-12-01

    Transcriptome analysis based on deep expressed sequence tag (EST) sequencing allows quantitative comparisons of gene expression across multiple species. Using pyrosequencing, we generated over 7 million ESTs from four stages of developing seeds of Ricinus communis, Brassica napus, Euonymus alatus and Tropaeolum majus, which differ in their storage tissue for oil, their ability to photosynthesize and in the structure and content of their triacylglycerols (TAG). The larger number of ESTs in these 16 datasets provided reliable estimates of the expression of acyltransferases and other enzymes expressed at low levels. Analysis of EST levels from these oilseeds revealed both conserved and distinct species-specific expression patterns for genes involved in the synthesis of glycerolipids and their precursors. Independent of the species and tissue type, ESTs for core fatty acid synthesis enzymes maintained a conserved stoichiometry and a strong correlation in temporal profiles throughout seed development. However, ESTs associated with non-plastid enzymes of oil biosynthesis displayed dissimilar temporal patterns indicative of different regulation. The EST levels for several genes potentially involved in accumulation of unusual TAG structures were distinct. Comparison of expression of members from multi-gene families allowed the identification of specific isoforms with conserved function in oil biosynthesis. In all four oilseeds, ESTs for Rubisco were present, suggesting its possible role in carbon metabolism, irrespective of light availability. Together, these data provide a resource for use in comparative and functional genomics of diverse oilseeds. Expression data for more than 350 genes encoding enzymes and proteins involved in lipid metabolism are available at the 'ARALIP' website (http://aralip.plantbiology.msu.edu/).

  19. Antioxidant activity of extracts obtained from residues of different oilseeds.

    PubMed

    Matthäus, B

    2002-06-01

    Residues of the oil-extracting process of oilseeds contain bioactive substances such as phenolic compounds, which could be used as natural antioxidants for the protection of fats and oils against oxidative deterioration. Thus, the extraction of such constituents from residual material can be considered to contribute to the added value of these residues, which could justify their isolation. In the present work the fat-free residues of eight different oilseeds whose oils are usable for nutritional applications, and also as renewable resources, were extracted with 70% methanol, 70% acetone, water, and ethyl acetate/water, respectively. The resulting extracts were investigated regarding their content of total phenolic compounds by the Folin-Ciocalteau assay, sinapine, flavanoids, and the UV-absorption spectra. Further, the antioxidant activity of the extracts was characterized by the DPPH method, the beta-carotene-linoleic acid assay, and ESR investigations. The fat-free residues of the different oilseeds contained considerable amounts of extractable substances. The yields decreased with decreasing polarity of the solvent in the order water, 70% methanol, 70% acetone, and ethyl acetate. The ratio of total phenolic compounds to the extractable compounds ranged from 3 to 19%. There was no significant correlation between the amount of total extractable compounds and the total phenolic compounds (p < 0.001). All extracts showed remarkable antioxidant activities determined with the different methods. The effects depended strongly on the solvent used for the extraction as well as on the extracted residue. A correlation between the methods used for the characterization of the antioxidant activity and the composition of the residues could not be shown.

  20. Comparative deep transcriptional profiling of four developing oilseeds

    PubMed Central

    Troncoso-Ponce, Manuel A; Kilaru, Aruna; Cao, Xia; Durrett, Timothy P; Fan, Jilian; Jensen, Jacob K; Thrower, Nick A; Pauly, Markus; Wilkerson, Curtis; Ohlrogge, John B

    2011-01-01

    Transcriptome analysis based on deep expressed sequence tag (EST) sequencing allows quantitative comparisons of gene expression across multiple species. Using pyrosequencing, we generated over 7 million ESTs from four stages of developing seeds of Ricinus communis, Brassica napus, Euonymus alatus and Tropaeolum majus, which differ in their storage tissue for oil, their ability to photosynthesize and in the structure and content of their triacylglycerols (TAG). The larger number of ESTs in these 16 datasets provided reliable estimates of the expression of acyltransferases and other enzymes expressed at low levels. Analysis of EST levels from these oilseeds revealed both conserved and distinct species-specific expression patterns for genes involved in the synthesis of glycerolipids and their precursors. Independent of the species and tissue type, ESTs for core fatty acid synthesis enzymes maintained a conserved stoichiometry and a strong correlation in temporal profiles throughout seed development. However, ESTs associated with non-plastid enzymes of oil biosynthesis displayed dissimilar temporal patterns indicative of different regulation. The EST levels for several genes potentially involved in accumulation of unusual TAG structures were distinct. Comparison of expression of members from multi-gene families allowed the identification of specific isoforms with conserved function in oil biosynthesis. In all four oilseeds, ESTs for Rubisco were present, suggesting its possible role in carbon metabolism, irrespective of light availability. Together, these data provide a resource for use in comparative and functional genomics of diverse oilseeds. Expression data for more than 350 genes encoding enzymes and proteins involved in lipid metabolism are available at the ‘ARALIP’ website (http://aralip.plantbiology.msu.edu/). PMID:21851431

  1. Sustainable Use of Biotechnology for Bioenergy Feedstocks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moon, Hong S.; Abercrombie, Jason M.; Kausch, Albert P.; Stewart, C. Neal

    2010-10-01

    Done correctly, cellulosic bioenergy should be both environmentally and economically beneficial. Carbon sequestration and decreased fossil fuel use are both worthy goals in developing next-generation biofuels. We believe that biotechnology will be needed to significantly improve yield and digestibility of dedicated perennial herbaceous biomass feedstocks, such as switchgrass and Miscanthus, which are native to the US and China, respectively. This Forum discusses the sustainability of herbaceous feedstocks relative to the regulation of biotechnology with regards to likely genetically engineered traits. The Forum focuses on two prominent countries wishing to develop their bioeconomies: the US and China. These two countries also share a political desire and regulatory frameworks to enable the commercialization and wide release of transgenic feedstocks with appropriate and safe new genetics. In recent years, regulators in both countries perform regular inspections of transgenic field releases and seriously consider compliance issues, even though the US framework is considered to be more mature and stringent. Transgene flow continues to be a pertinent environmental and regulatory issue with regards to transgenic plants. This concern is largely driven by consumer issues and ecological uncertainties. Regulators are concerned about large-scale releases of transgenic crops that have sexually compatible crops or wild relatives that can stably harbor transgenes via hybridization and introgression. Therefore, prior to the commercialization or extensive field testing of transgenic bioenergy feedstocks, we recommend that mechanisms that ensure biocontainment of transgenes be instituted, especially for perennial grasses. A cautionary case study will be presented in which a plant’s biology and ecology conspired against regulatory constraints in a non-biomass crop perennial grass (creeping bentgrass, Agrostis stolonifera), in which biocontainment was not attained. Appropriate

  2. Alternative, Renewable and Novel Feedstocks for Producing Chemicals

    SciTech Connect

    none,

    2007-07-01

    Vision2020 and ITP directed the Alternative, Renewable and Novel Feedstocks project to identify industrial options and to determine the work required to make alternative, renewable and novel feedstock options attractive to the U.S. chemicals industry. This report presents the Alternative, Renewable and Novel Feedstocks project findings which were based on a technology review and industry workshop.

  3. Critical period of weed control in oilseed rape in two Moroccan regions.

    PubMed

    Maataoui, A; Bouhache, M; Benbella, M; Talouizte, A

    2003-01-01

    The determination of critical period of weed control in oilseed rape is necessary to know the weed control period. To determine the critical period, two fields experiments were carried out during 1995-96 growth season in Loukkos and Saïs regions at two oilseed densities (D1 = 24 and D2 = 36 plants m(-2)). Ten treatments corresponding to plots left weed free or weeded plots until four leaves, flowers bud, flowering, puds formation, and maturity stages of oilseed rape were tested. Density and biomass of weeds were determined at each oilseed stages. Results showed that weed density and biomass were higher in Saïs than in Loukkos sites. For a 10% yield loss, critical period of weed control in Loukkos was from 458 to 720 degree days after emergence (D degrees AE) and from 480 to 720 D degrees AE in oilseed conducted at densities D1 and D2, respectively. In Saïs, critical period of weed control was from 474 to 738 D degrees AE and from 468 to 675 D degrees AE in oilseed conducted at D1 and D2, respectively. It was concluded that the length of the critical period of weed control in oilseed rape grain yield seems to be dependant of the level of the infestation.

  4. Annual dynamics of wild bee densities: attractiveness and productivity effects of oilseed rape.

    PubMed

    Riedinger, Verena; Mitesser, Oliver; Hovestadt, Thomas; Steffan-Dewenter, Ingolf; Holzschuh, Andrea

    2015-05-01

    Mass-flowering crops may affect long-term population dynamics, but effects on pollinators have never been studied across several years. We monitored wild bees in oilseed rape fields in 16 landscapes in Germany in two consecutive years. Effects on bee densities of landscape oilseed rape cover in the years of monitoring and in the previous years were evaluated with landscape data from three consecutive years. We fit empirical data to a mechanistic model to provide estimates for oilseed rape attractiveness and its effect on bee productivity in comparison to the rest of the landscape, and we evaluated consequences for pollinator densities in consecutive years. Our results show that high oilseed rape cover in the previous year enhances current densities of wild bees (except for bumble bees). Moreover, we show a strong attractiveness of and dilution on (i.e., decreasing bee densities with increasing landscape oilseed rape cover) oilseed rape for bees during flowering in the current year, modifying the effect of the previous year's oilseed rape cover in the case of wild bees (excluding Bombus). As long as other factors such as nesting sites or natural enemies do not limit bee reproduction, our findings suggest long-term positive effects of mass-flowering crops on bee populations, at least for non-Bombus generalists, which possibly help to maintain crop pollination services even when crop area increases. Similar effects are conceivable for other organisms providing ecosystem services in annual crops and should be considered in future studies. PMID:26236848

  5. Annual dynamics of wild bee densities: attractiveness and productivity effects of oilseed rape.

    PubMed

    Riedinger, Verena; Mitesser, Oliver; Hovestadt, Thomas; Steffan-Dewenter, Ingolf; Holzschuh, Andrea

    2015-05-01

    Mass-flowering crops may affect long-term population dynamics, but effects on pollinators have never been studied across several years. We monitored wild bees in oilseed rape fields in 16 landscapes in Germany in two consecutive years. Effects on bee densities of landscape oilseed rape cover in the years of monitoring and in the previous years were evaluated with landscape data from three consecutive years. We fit empirical data to a mechanistic model to provide estimates for oilseed rape attractiveness and its effect on bee productivity in comparison to the rest of the landscape, and we evaluated consequences for pollinator densities in consecutive years. Our results show that high oilseed rape cover in the previous year enhances current densities of wild bees (except for bumble bees). Moreover, we show a strong attractiveness of and dilution on (i.e., decreasing bee densities with increasing landscape oilseed rape cover) oilseed rape for bees during flowering in the current year, modifying the effect of the previous year's oilseed rape cover in the case of wild bees (excluding Bombus). As long as other factors such as nesting sites or natural enemies do not limit bee reproduction, our findings suggest long-term positive effects of mass-flowering crops on bee populations, at least for non-Bombus generalists, which possibly help to maintain crop pollination services even when crop area increases. Similar effects are conceivable for other organisms providing ecosystem services in annual crops and should be considered in future studies.

  6. Critical period of weed control in oilseed rape in two Moroccan regions.

    PubMed

    Maataoui, A; Bouhache, M; Benbella, M; Talouizte, A

    2003-01-01

    The determination of critical period of weed control in oilseed rape is necessary to know the weed control period. To determine the critical period, two fields experiments were carried out during 1995-96 growth season in Loukkos and Saïs regions at two oilseed densities (D1 = 24 and D2 = 36 plants m(-2)). Ten treatments corresponding to plots left weed free or weeded plots until four leaves, flowers bud, flowering, puds formation, and maturity stages of oilseed rape were tested. Density and biomass of weeds were determined at each oilseed stages. Results showed that weed density and biomass were higher in Saïs than in Loukkos sites. For a 10% yield loss, critical period of weed control in Loukkos was from 458 to 720 degree days after emergence (D degrees AE) and from 480 to 720 D degrees AE in oilseed conducted at densities D1 and D2, respectively. In Saïs, critical period of weed control was from 474 to 738 D degrees AE and from 468 to 675 D degrees AE in oilseed conducted at D1 and D2, respectively. It was concluded that the length of the critical period of weed control in oilseed rape grain yield seems to be dependant of the level of the infestation. PMID:15149131

  7. Competition affects gene flow from oilseed rape (female symbol) to Brassica rapa (male symbol).

    PubMed

    Johannessen, M M; Andersen, B A; Jørgensen, R B

    2006-05-01

    Unlike most studies on hybridisation between oilseed rape and Brassica rapa, this study focused on hybridisation with oilseed rape as the maternal parent. This is a key cross because, assuming that plastids are inherited maternally, F(1)-hybrid production with maternal oilseed rape (B. napus) is the only transgene escape route from transplastomic oilseed rape. We investigated such F(1)-hybrid production in winter oilseed rape co-cultivated with weedy B. rapa at three plant densities each with two proportions of the different species. The paternity of the progeny produced on oilseed rape was assessed, and several fitness parameters were determined in oilseed rape mother plants in order to correlate hybridisation and plant competition. At higher density, the vegetative fitness per mother plant decreased significantly, but the density only affected the frequency of F(1)-hybrids significantly (a decrease) in the treatment with equal proportions of each species. As to the proportions, at higher B. napus frequencies, there were fewer F(1)-hybrids per mother plant and a significant increase in most biomass components. Thus, B. rapa was the stronger competitor in its effect on both the vegetative and reproductive fitness in B. napus, and the hybridisation frequency. In conclusion, the relative frequency of the two species was a more influential parameter than the density. Hybridisation with B. napus as the female will be most likely at current field densities of B. napus and when B. rapa is an abundant weed.

  8. Competition affects gene flow from oilseed rape (female symbol) to Brassica rapa (male symbol).

    PubMed

    Johannessen, M M; Andersen, B A; Jørgensen, R B

    2006-05-01

    Unlike most studies on hybridisation between oilseed rape and Brassica rapa, this study focused on hybridisation with oilseed rape as the maternal parent. This is a key cross because, assuming that plastids are inherited maternally, F(1)-hybrid production with maternal oilseed rape (B. napus) is the only transgene escape route from transplastomic oilseed rape. We investigated such F(1)-hybrid production in winter oilseed rape co-cultivated with weedy B. rapa at three plant densities each with two proportions of the different species. The paternity of the progeny produced on oilseed rape was assessed, and several fitness parameters were determined in oilseed rape mother plants in order to correlate hybridisation and plant competition. At higher density, the vegetative fitness per mother plant decreased significantly, but the density only affected the frequency of F(1)-hybrids significantly (a decrease) in the treatment with equal proportions of each species. As to the proportions, at higher B. napus frequencies, there were fewer F(1)-hybrids per mother plant and a significant increase in most biomass components. Thus, B. rapa was the stronger competitor in its effect on both the vegetative and reproductive fitness in B. napus, and the hybridisation frequency. In conclusion, the relative frequency of the two species was a more influential parameter than the density. Hybridisation with B. napus as the female will be most likely at current field densities of B. napus and when B. rapa is an abundant weed. PMID:16508664

  9. Progressive introgression between Brassica napus (oilseed rape) and B. rapa.

    PubMed

    Hansen, L B; Siegismund, H R; Jørgensen, R B

    2003-09-01

    We have earlier shown extensive introgression between oilseed rape (Brassica napus) and B. rapa in a weedy population using AFLP markers specific for the nuclear genomes. In order to describe the progress of this introgression, we examined 117 offspring from 12 maternal plants from the introgressed population with the same AFLP-markers; AFLP data were supported by chromosome counting. We also analysed the offspring with a species-specific chloroplast marker and finally evaluated the reproductive system in selected maternal plants. Our results indicated a high outcrossing rate of the introgressed maternal plants. It seemed that B. rapa most often functioned as the maternal plant in the introgression process and that the amount of oilseed rape DNA was highly diminished in the offspring compared to their introgressed maternal plants. However, our analysis of plants from the weedy population indicated that introgression can lead to both (1) exchange of chloroplast DNA between species producing B. rapa-like plants with B. napus chloroplasts and (2) incorporation of B. napus C-genome DNA into the B. rapa genome. Therefore, we question whether it can be regarded as containment to position transgenes in the chloroplast or in specific parts of the nuclear genome of B. napus.

  10. Seed dressings to control slug damage in oilseed rape.

    PubMed

    Simms, Louise C; Mullins, Christopher E; Wilson, Michael J

    2002-07-01

    Slugs are major pests of oilseed rape that are poorly controlled by conventional bait pellets. A series of laboratory experiments investigated the potential of seed-dressings to control slug damage in this crop. Four compounds: metaldehyde, methiocarb, cinnamamide and 3,5-dimethoxycinnamic acid (DMCA) were tested at a range of doses for phytotoxicity and ability to reduce damage by Deroceras reticulatum (Müller). Metaldehyde and methiocarb were not phytotoxic at any doses, whereas all doses of cinnamamide and DMCA were. All compounds reduced slug damage, but metaldehyde and methiocarb consistently performed better than cinnamamide and DMCA. Metaldehyde and methiocarb seed-dressings were compared with baited pellets containing the same active ingredients at recommended field doses. The seed-dressings protected plants from damage by D reticulatum and Arion subfuscus (Draparnaud) as well as, or better than, baited pellets. We therefore recommend that metaldehyde and methiocarb should be field-tested as seed dressings to control slugs in oilseed rape. PMID:12146169

  11. Biotin carboxyl carrier protein isoforms in Brassicaceae oilseeds.

    PubMed

    Thelen, J J; Mekhedov, S; Ohlrogge, J B

    2000-12-01

    De novo fatty acid biosynthesis occurs predominantly in plastids. The committed step for this pathway is the production of malonyl-CoA catalysed by acetyl-CoA carboxylase (ACCase). In most plants, plastidial ACCase is a multisubunit complex minimally comprised of four polypeptides, which catalyse two reactions. In the simple oilseed plant, Arabidopsis thaliana, two cDNAs encoding biotin carboxyl carrier protein (BCCP) isoforms have been identified. The remaining three subunits of ACCase appear to be single gene members in A. thaliana [Mekhedov, Martinez de Ilarduya and Ohlrogge (2000) Plant Physiol. 122, 389-401]. Transcript and protein analyses indicate that BCCP isoform 1 is constitutively expressed while isoform 2 is predominantly expressed in developing seeds. The apparent masses of constitutive and seed-enriched BCCP isoforms agree with the apparent masses of recombinantly expressed isoforms 1 and 2, respectively. In a related oilseed, Brassica napus, multiple putative BCCP polypeptides were also observed in developing seeds. The presence of a divergent class of BCCP genes in A. thaliana and B. napus, coincident with appropriately sized biotin-containing proteins expressed specifically in developing seeds, suggests that these BCCPs play an evolutionarily conserved role in oil deposition.

  12. High-Oleate Oilseeds Fail to Develop at Low Temperature.

    PubMed

    Miquel, M. F.; Browse, J. A.

    1994-10-01

    The fad2 mutants of Arabidopsis thaliana are deficient in activity of the endoplasmic reticulum oleate desaturase that is the main enzyme responsible for polyunsaturated lipid synthesis in developing seeds of oil crops. A comparison of wild-type and fad2 seeds developing on heterozygous (FAD2/-) plants was used as a model for genetically engineered high-oleate oilseeds of species such as soybean and canola. When fad2 seeds developed at normal temperatures (22[deg]C), they showed high viability compared to wild-type seeds. When a portion of seed development took place at 6[deg]C, germination of the wild-type siblings remained high but germination of fad2 segregants declined considerably. This was true even when exposure to low temperature was limited to the final stages of seed filling and maturation. Compared to wild-type seeds, fully viable fad2 seeds produced at 22[deg]C had reduced lipid contents and were slower to germinate at 10 and 6[deg]C. Taken together, these results indicate that for some oilseed species at least, molecular genetic manipulation of oleate levels in the oil may result in plant lines with unacceptable performance in the field.

  13. Transgenic oilseed rape along transportation routes and port of Vancouver in western Canada.

    PubMed

    Yoshimura, Yasuyuki; Beckie, Hugh J; Matsuo, Kazuhito

    2006-01-01

    The occurrence of transgenic herbicide-resistant oilseed rape (Brassica napus) in ruderal (non-crop disturbed) areas has not been investigated previously in Canada. The primary objective of this study was to document their occurrence in two main ruderal areas (along railways and roads) in the province of Saskatchewan, where half of all oilseed rape is grown, and at the port of Vancouver, British Columbia on the west coast of Canada, where most oilseed rape destined for export is transported by rail. During the 2005 growing season, leaf samples of oilseed rape plants were collected at randomly-selected sites along railways and roads across Saskatchewan ecoregions and at Vancouver; infestation area, density, and plant height of oilseed rape were measured at each site. The presence of the glyphosate and glufosinate resistance traits was determined using test strips. The infestation area of oilseed rape, averaged across 155 sampled sites in the Saskatchewan survey, was markedly smaller in populations along railways than roads; in contrast, infestation area averaged across 54 sites in the Vancouver survey was greater for populations along railways than roads. In both surveys, mean plant density was greater for populations found along railways than roads. Two-thirds of oilseed rape plants sampled across Saskatchewan ecoregions and at Vancouver were transgenic, although the relative proportion of plants with the glyphosate or glufosinate resistance trait varied between surveys. Frequency of occurrence of transgenic plants in ruderal areas was similar to the proportion of the oilseed rape area planted with transgenic cultivars in the recent preceding years. A single transgenic B. rapa x B. napus hybrid was found along a road in Vancouver, confirming the relatively high probability of hybridization between these two Brassica species. With current control measures, transgenic oilseed rape populations may persist and spread in these ruderal areas.

  14. Processing Cost Analysis for Biomass Feedstocks

    SciTech Connect

    Badger, P.C.

    2002-11-20

    The receiving, handling, storing, and processing of woody biomass feedstocks is an overlooked component of biopower systems. The purpose of this study was twofold: (1) to identify and characterize all the receiving, handling, storing, and processing steps required to make woody biomass feedstocks suitable for use in direct combustion and gasification applications, including small modular biopower (SMB) systems, and (2) to estimate the capital and operating costs at each step. Since biopower applications can be varied, a number of conversion systems and feedstocks required evaluation. In addition to limiting this study to woody biomass feedstocks, the boundaries of this study were from the power plant gate to the feedstock entry point into the conversion device. Although some power plants are sited at a source of wood waste fuel, it was assumed for this study that all wood waste would be brought to the power plant site. This study was also confined to the following three feedstocks (1) forest residues, (2) industrial mill residues, and (3) urban wood residues. Additionally, the study was confined to grate, suspension, and fluidized bed direct combustion systems; gasification systems; and SMB conversion systems. Since scale can play an important role in types of equipment, operational requirements, and capital and operational costs, this study examined these factors for the following direct combustion and gasification system size ranges: 50, 20, 5, and 1 MWe. The scope of the study also included: Specific operational issues associated with specific feedstocks (e.g., bark and problems with bridging); Opportunities for reducing handling, storage, and processing costs; How environmental restrictions can affect handling and processing costs (e.g., noise, commingling of treated wood or non-wood materials, emissions, and runoff); and Feedstock quality issues and/or requirements (e.g., moisture, particle size, presence of non-wood materials). The study found that over the

  15. Biomass Feedstock Composition and Property Database

    DOE Data Explorer

    The Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy's Biomass Program works with industry, academia and national laboratory partners on a balanced portfolio of research in biomass feedstocks and conversion technologies. Through research, development, and demonstration efforts geared at the development of integrated biorefineries, the Biomass Program is helping transform the nation's renewable and abundant biomass resources into cost competitive, high performance biofuels, bioproducts, and biopower.(From the Biomass Program's home page at http://www1.eere.energy.gov/biomass/) The Biomass Feedstock Composition and Property Database allows the user to choose from more than 150 types of biomass samples. The specialized interface then guides the user through choices within the sample (such as "Ash" as a choice in the "Hardwood" sample and displays tables based on choice of composition properties, structure properties, elemental properties, extractive properties, etc.)

  16. Introduction: Integrative Approaches for Estimating Current and Future Feedstock Availability

    SciTech Connect

    West, Tristram O.

    2010-09-08

    Biomass that is used to generate energy, through conversion processes or direct combustion, is referred to as a bioenergy feedstock. Establishment of bioenergy feedstocks as an agricultural commodity has the potential to alter land management, carbon stocks, water quality, and greenhouse gas emissions over large geographic areas. Estimation of current and future feedstock availability is an essential step in assessing potential environmental and economic impacts of feedstock production. The purpose of this special issue is to communicate integrative approaches that combine data and modeling capabilities for estimation of current and future feedstock availability.

  17. Method and apparatus for treating a cellulosic feedstock

    SciTech Connect

    Nguyen, Quang A.; Burke, Murray J.; Hillier, Sunalie N.

    2015-09-08

    Methods and apparatus for treating, pre-treating, preparing and conveying a cellulosic feedstock, such as for ethanol production, are disclosed. More specifically, the invention relates to methods and apparatus for treating a cellulosic feedstock by mixing and heating the cellulosic feedstock and/or by moistening and heating the cellulosic feedstock. The invention also relates to a holding tank, and a method of utilizing the holding tank whereby bridging may be reduced or eliminated and may result in a product stream from autohydrolysis or hydrolysis having an improved yield. The invention further relates to methods and apparatus for obtaining and conveying a cellulosic feedstock, which may be used for the subsequent production of a fermentable sugar stream from the cellulose and hemicellulose in the cellulosic feedstock wherein the fermentable sugar stream may be used for subsequent ethanol production. The invention also relates to a method and apparatus for withdrawing one or more feedstock stream from a holding tank.

  18. pH-Metric determination of acid values in oilseeds without titration.

    PubMed

    Kuselman, I; Tur'yan, Y I; Burenko, T; Goldfeld, I; Anisimov, B

    1999-07-01

    A new pH-metric method for determination of acid values in oilseeds without titration has been developed in the range 0.6-10 and more mg KOH/g. The method is based on a rapid (1-2 min) selective and complete extraction of free fatty acids from an oilseed test portion into a special reagent A, separation of the solution from the solid oilseed material by centrifugation or filtration, transfer of an aliquot of the solution into a pH-metric cell with reagent B for measurement of conditional pH(1)' of the formed mixture, addition of standard acid (HCl or H(2)SO(4)) and pH(2)' measurement. The reagents are non-toxic, and the method is rapid. Its metrological parameters for Soybean, Canola and Sunflower oilseeds are satisfactory for practical purposes.

  19. Effect of oilseed cakes on alpha-amylase production by Bacillus licheniformis CUMC305.

    PubMed Central

    Krishnan, T; Chandra, A K

    1982-01-01

    The effects of oilseed cakes on extracellular thermostable alpha-amylase production by Bacillus licheniformis CUMC305 was investigated. Each oilseed cake was made of groundnut, mustard, sesame, linseed, coconut copra, madhuca, or cotton. alpha-Amylase production was considerably improved in all instances and varied with the oilseed cake concentration in basal medium containing peptone and beef extract. Maximum increases were effected by a low concentration (0.5 to 1.0%) of groundnut or coconut, a high concentration (3%) of linseed or mustard, and an Rintermediate concentration (2%) of cotton, madhuca, or sesame. The oilseed cakes made of groundnut or mustard could completely replace the conventional peptone-beef extract medium as the fermentation base for the production of alpha-amylase by B. licheniformis. The addition of corn steep liquor to cotton, linseed, sesame, or madhuca cake in the medium improved alpha-amylase production. PMID:6181738

  20. Antioxidant factors in plant foods and selected oilseeds.

    PubMed

    Shahidi, F

    2000-01-01

    The effect of dietary factors on health promotion and disease prevention has been an issue of interest since antiquity and has become a subject of renewed research activity in recent years. Many of the components involved are antioxidative in nature and include phenolic compounds. These phenolics exist in the free, esterified, glycosylated and polymeric forms. Scrutiny of the source materials, their subsequent extraction under optimized conditions and evaluation of activity, followed by fractionation and structure elucidation of active components is generally necessary. Meals obtained from oilseeds, such as canola, mustard, flax, borage, and evening primrose, after oil extraction, contained a variety of antioxidative factors. The antioxidative effect of source materials, their extracts or fractions thereof, depended on the seed type, the content and chemical nature of their active components. PMID:11237180

  1. Antioxidant factors in plant foods and selected oilseeds.

    PubMed

    Shahidi, F

    2000-01-01

    The effect of dietary factors on health promotion and disease prevention has been an issue of interest since antiquity and has become a subject of renewed research activity in recent years. Many of the components involved are antioxidative in nature and include phenolic compounds. These phenolics exist in the free, esterified, glycosylated and polymeric forms. Scrutiny of the source materials, their subsequent extraction under optimized conditions and evaluation of activity, followed by fractionation and structure elucidation of active components is generally necessary. Meals obtained from oilseeds, such as canola, mustard, flax, borage, and evening primrose, after oil extraction, contained a variety of antioxidative factors. The antioxidative effect of source materials, their extracts or fractions thereof, depended on the seed type, the content and chemical nature of their active components.

  2. Enhancing vitamin E in oilseeds: unraveling tocopherol and tocotrienol biosynthesis.

    PubMed

    Hunter, Sarah C; Cahoon, Edgar B

    2007-03-01

    Naturally occurring vitamin E, comprised of four forms each of tocopherols and tocotrienols, are synthesized solely by photosynthetic organisms and function primarily as antioxidants. These different forms vary in their biological availability and in their physiological and chemical activities. Tocopherols and tocotrienols play important roles in the oxidative stability of vegetable oils and in the nutritional quality of crop plants for human and livestock diets. The isolation of genes for nearly all the steps in tocopherol and tocotrienol biosynthesis has facilitated efforts to alter metabolic flux through these pathways in plant cells. Herein we review the recent work done in the field, focusing on branch points and metabolic engineering to enhance and alter vitamin E content and composition in oilseed crops.

  3. World oilseed situation and US export opportunities, November 1983. Foreign agriculture circular

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1983-11-01

    Tight supplies have continued to dominate the oilseeds and products situation since the October report, with estimated world oilseed production (including flaxseed) dropping by half a million tons. Increased projections of world soybean and peanut supplies were more than offset by reduced estimates of cottonseed output, as well as smaller reductions in prospective sunflower and rapeseed output. Forecast protein meal consumption dropped slightly from last month's level; forecast vegetable oil consumption also dropped slightly from last month's level.

  4. Feral genetically modified herbicide tolerant oilseed rape from seed import spills: are concerns scientifically justified?

    PubMed

    Devos, Yann; Hails, Rosemary S; Messéan, Antoine; Perry, Joe N; Squire, Geoffrey R

    2012-02-01

    One of the concerns surrounding the import (for food and feed uses or processing) of genetically modified herbicide tolerant (GMHT) oilseed rape is that, through seed spillage, the herbicide tolerance (HT) trait will escape into agricultural or semi-natural habitats, causing environmental or economic problems. Based on these concerns, three EU countries have invoked national safeguard clauses to ban the marketing of specific GMHT oilseed rape events on their territory. However, the scientific basis for the environmental and economic concerns posed by feral GMHT oilseed rape resulting from seed import spills is debatable. While oilseed rape has characteristics such as secondary dormancy and small seed size that enable it to persist and be redistributed in the landscape, the presence of ferals is not in itself an environmental or economic problem. Crucially, feral oilseed rape has not become invasive outside cultivated and ruderal habitats, and HT traits are not likely to result in increased invasiveness. Feral GMHT oilseed rape has the potential to introduce HT traits to volunteer weeds in agricultural fields, but would only be amplified if the herbicides to which HT volunteers are tolerant were used routinely in the field. However, this worst-case scenario is most unlikely, as seed import spills are mostly confined to port areas. Economic concerns revolve around the potential for feral GMHT oilseed rape to contribute to GM admixtures in non-GM crops. Since feral plants derived from cultivation (as distinct from import) occur at too low a frequency to affect the coexistence threshold of 0.9% in the EU, it can be concluded that feral GMHT plants resulting from seed import spills will have little relevance as a potential source of pollen or seed for GM admixture. This paper concludes that feral oilseed rape in Europe should not be routinely managed, and certainly not in semi-natural habitats, as the benefits of such action would not outweigh the negative effects of

  5. Survey of Alternative Feedstocks for Commodity Chemical Manufacturing

    SciTech Connect

    McFarlane, Joanna; Robinson, Sharon M

    2008-02-01

    The current high prices for petroleum and natural gas have spurred the chemical industry to examine alternative feedstocks for the production of commodity chemicals. High feedstock prices have driven methanol and ammonia production offshore. The U.S. Chemical Industry is the largest user of natural gas in the country. Over the last 30 years, alternatives to conventional petroleum and natural gas feedstocks have been developed, but have limited, if any, commercial implementation in the United States. Alternative feedstocks under consideration include coal from unconventional processing technologies, such as gasification and liquefaction, novel resources such as biomass, stranded natural gas from unconventional reserves, and heavy oil from tar sands or oil shale. These feedstock sources have been evaluated with respect to the feasibility and readiness for production of the highest volume commodity chemicals in the United States. Sources of organic compounds, such as ethanol from sugar fermentation and bitumen-derived heavy crude are now being primarily exploited for fuels, rather than for chemical feedstocks. Overall, government-sponsored research into the use of alternatives to petroleum feedstocks focuses on use for power and transportation fuels rather than for chemical feedstocks. Research is needed to reduce cost and technical risk. Use of alternative feedstocks is more common outside the United States R&D efforts are needed to make these processes more efficient and less risky before becoming more common domestically. The status of alternative feedstock technology is summarized.

  6. Antioxidant Activities and Oxidative Stabilities of Some Unconventional Oilseeds.

    PubMed

    Uluata, Sibel; Ozdemir, Nurhayat

    2012-04-01

    The oils of some unconventional oilseeds (hemp, radish, terebinth, stinging nettle, laurel) were obtained by a cold-press method in which the total oil content, fatty acids, tocopherol isomers, some metal contents (Ca, Mg, Fe, Cu), antioxidant activity and oxidative stability were determined. The total oil content was determined ranging between 30.68 and 43.12%, and the oil samples had large amounts of unsaturated fatty acids, with oleic acid and linoleic acid. Of all the oils, terebinth seed oil had the highest α-tocopherol content (102.21 ± 1.01 mg/kg oil). Laurel oilseed had the highest antiradical activity in both the DPPH and ABTS assays. The peroxide value of the non-oxidized oils ranged between 0.51 and 3.73 mequiv O(2)/kg oil. The TBARS value of the non-oxidized oils ranged between 0.68 ± 0.02 and 6.43 ± 0.48 mmol MA equiv/g oil. At 110 °C, the Rancimat induction period of the oils ranged between 1.32 and 43.44 h. The infrared spectra of the samples were recorded by FTIR spectroscopy. The absorbance values of the spectrum bands were observed and it was determined that some of the chemical groups of oxidized oils caused changes in absorbance. As a result of the present research, the analyzed oils could be evaluated as an alternative to traditionally consumed vegetable oils or as additives to them.

  7. In vitro Fermentation, Digestion Kinetics and Methane Production of Oilseed Press Cakes from Biodiesel Production

    PubMed Central

    Olivares-Palma, S. M.; Meale, S. J.; Pereira, L. G. R.; Machado, F. S.; Carneiro, H.; Lopes, F. C. F.; Maurício, R. M.; Chaves, A. V.

    2013-01-01

    Following the extraction of oil for biodiesel production, oilseed press cakes are high in fat. As the dietary supplementation of fat is currently considered the most promising strategy of consistently depressing methanogenesis, it follows that oilseed press cakes may have a similar potential for CH4 abatement. As such, this study aimed to characterise the nutritive value of several oilseed press cakes, glycerine and soybean meal (SBM) and to examine their effects on in vitro ruminal fermentation, digestion kinetics and CH4 production. Moringa press oil seeds exhibited the greatest in sacco effective degradability (ED) of DM and CP (p<0.05). In vitro gas production (ml/g digested DM) was not affected (p = 0.70) by supplement at 48 h of incubation. In vitro DMD was increased with the supplementation of glycerine and SBM at all levels of inclusion. Moringa oilseed press cakes produced the lowest CH4 (mg/g digested DM) at 6 and 12 h of incubation (p<0.05). The findings suggest that moringa oilseed press cake at 400 g/kg DM has the greatest potential of the oilseed press cakes examined in this study, to reduce CH4 production, without adversely affecting nutrient degradability. PMID:25049890

  8. In vitro Fermentation, Digestion Kinetics and Methane Production of Oilseed Press Cakes from Biodiesel Production.

    PubMed

    Olivares-Palma, S M; Meale, S J; Pereira, L G R; Machado, F S; Carneiro, H; Lopes, F C F; Maurício, R M; Chaves, A V

    2013-08-01

    Following the extraction of oil for biodiesel production, oilseed press cakes are high in fat. As the dietary supplementation of fat is currently considered the most promising strategy of consistently depressing methanogenesis, it follows that oilseed press cakes may have a similar potential for CH4 abatement. As such, this study aimed to characterise the nutritive value of several oilseed press cakes, glycerine and soybean meal (SBM) and to examine their effects on in vitro ruminal fermentation, digestion kinetics and CH4 production. Moringa press oil seeds exhibited the greatest in sacco effective degradability (ED) of DM and CP (p<0.05). In vitro gas production (ml/g digested DM) was not affected (p = 0.70) by supplement at 48 h of incubation. In vitro DMD was increased with the supplementation of glycerine and SBM at all levels of inclusion. Moringa oilseed press cakes produced the lowest CH4 (mg/g digested DM) at 6 and 12 h of incubation (p<0.05). The findings suggest that moringa oilseed press cake at 400 g/kg DM has the greatest potential of the oilseed press cakes examined in this study, to reduce CH4 production, without adversely affecting nutrient degradability. PMID:25049890

  9. In vitro Fermentation, Digestion Kinetics and Methane Production of Oilseed Press Cakes from Biodiesel Production.

    PubMed

    Olivares-Palma, S M; Meale, S J; Pereira, L G R; Machado, F S; Carneiro, H; Lopes, F C F; Maurício, R M; Chaves, A V

    2013-08-01

    Following the extraction of oil for biodiesel production, oilseed press cakes are high in fat. As the dietary supplementation of fat is currently considered the most promising strategy of consistently depressing methanogenesis, it follows that oilseed press cakes may have a similar potential for CH4 abatement. As such, this study aimed to characterise the nutritive value of several oilseed press cakes, glycerine and soybean meal (SBM) and to examine their effects on in vitro ruminal fermentation, digestion kinetics and CH4 production. Moringa press oil seeds exhibited the greatest in sacco effective degradability (ED) of DM and CP (p<0.05). In vitro gas production (ml/g digested DM) was not affected (p = 0.70) by supplement at 48 h of incubation. In vitro DMD was increased with the supplementation of glycerine and SBM at all levels of inclusion. Moringa oilseed press cakes produced the lowest CH4 (mg/g digested DM) at 6 and 12 h of incubation (p<0.05). The findings suggest that moringa oilseed press cake at 400 g/kg DM has the greatest potential of the oilseed press cakes examined in this study, to reduce CH4 production, without adversely affecting nutrient degradability.

  10. Production of Bacterial Cellulose from Alternate Feedstocks

    SciTech Connect

    Thompson, David Neil; Hamilton, Melinda Ann

    2000-05-01

    Production of bacterial cellulose by Acetobacter xylinum ATCC 10821 and 23770 in static cultures was tested from unamended food process effluents. Effluents included low- and high-solids potato effluents (LS & HS), cheese whey permeate (CW), and sugar beet raffinate (CSB). Strain 23770 produced 10% less cellulose from glucose than did 10821, and diverted more glucose to gluconate. Unamended HS, CW, and CSB were unsuitable for cellulose production by either strain, while LS was unsuitable for production by 10821. However, 23770 produced 17% more cellulose from LS than from glucose, indicating unamended LS could serve as a feedstock for bacterial cellulose.

  11. Production of bacterial cellulose from alternate feedstocks

    SciTech Connect

    D. N. Thompson; M. A. Hamilton

    2000-05-07

    Production of bacterial cellulose by Acetobacter xylinum ATCC 10821 and 23770 in static cultures was tested from unamended food process effluents. Effluents included low- and high-solids potato effluents (LS and HS), cheese whey permeate (CW), and sugar beet raffinate (CSB). Strain 23770 produced 10% less cellulose from glucose than did 10821, and diverted more glucose to gluconate. Unamended HS, CW, and CSB were unsuitable for cellulose production by either strain, while LS was unsuitable for production by 10821. However, 23770 produced 17% more cellulose from LS than from glucose, indicating unamended LS could serve as a feedstock for bacterial cellulose.

  12. New process hydrotreats metal-rich feedstocks

    SciTech Connect

    Langhout, W.C.V.Z.; Ouwerkerk, C.; Pronk, K.M.A.

    1980-01-01

    Shell Internationale Petroleum Maatschappij B.V. has developed a hydroprocessing procedure suitable for heavy residual feeds with metal contents of up to about 100 ppm, and Shell plans to introduce soon a process which will enable the catalytic hydrotreating of even the heaviest metal-rich feedstocks. This new process will be studied in an experimental unit expected to be on stream by the end of 1981 at a Venezuelan refinery. Also discussed are the catalytic hydroprocessing of residual material, including the roles of hydrodemetallization, h

  13. Polysilylether: A Degradable Polymer from Biorenewable Feedstocks.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Chen; Watts, Annabelle; Hillmyer, Marc A; Hartwig, John F

    2016-09-19

    The synthesis of polysilylethers (PSEs) using a monomer derived from a biorenewable feedstock is reported. The AB-type monomer was synthesized from undecenoic acid through hydrosilylation and reduction, and the polymerization was catalyzed by earth-abundant metal salts. High-molar-mass products were achieved, and the degree of polymerization was controlled by varying the amount of an AA-type monomer in the reaction. The PSEs possess good thermal stability and a low glass-transition temperature (Tg ≈-67 °C). To demonstrate the utility of the PSEs, polyurethanes were synthesized from low-molar-mass hydroxy-telechelic PSEs. PMID:27572134

  14. Development of feedstocks for cellulosic biofuels

    PubMed Central

    Somerville, Chris

    2012-01-01

    The inclusion of cellulosic ethanol in the Energy Independence and Security Act (EISA) of 2007 and the revised Renewable Fuel Standard (RFS2) has spurred development of the first commercial scale cellulosic ethanol biorefineries. These efforts have also revived interest in the development of dedicated energy crops selected for biomass productivity and for properties that facilitate conversion of biomass to liquid fuels. While many aspects of developing these feedstocks are compatible with current agricultural activities, improving biomass productivity may provide opportunities to expand the potential for biofuel production beyond the classical research objectives associated with improving traditional food and feed crops. PMID:22615716

  15. Invasive plants as feedstock for biochar and bioenergy production.

    PubMed

    Liao, Rui; Gao, Bin; Fang, June

    2013-07-01

    In this work, the potential of invasive plant species as feedstock for value-added products (biochar and bioenergy) through pyrolysis was investigated. The product yield rates of two major invasive species in the US, Brazilian Pepper (BP) and Air Potato (AP), were compared to that of two traditional feedstock materials, water oak and energy cane. Three pyrolysis temperatures (300, 450, and 600°C) and four feedstock masses (10, 15, 20, and 25 g) were tested for a total of 12 experimental conditions. AP had high biochar and low oil yields, while BP had a high oil yield. At lower temperatures, the minimum feedstock residence time for biochar and bioenergy production increased at a faster rate as feedstock weight increased than it did at higher temperatures. A simple mathematical model was successfully developed to describe the relationship between feedstock weight and the minimum residence time.

  16. Feedstock handling and processing effects on biochemical conversion to biofuels

    SciTech Connect

    Daniel Inman; Nick Nagle; Jacob Jacobson; Erin Searcy; Allison Ray

    2001-10-01

    Abating the dependence of the United States on foreign oil by reducing oil consumption and increasing biofuels usage will have far-reaching global effects. These include reduced greenhouse gas emissions and an increased demand for biofuel feedstocks. To support this increased demand, cellulosic feedstock production and conversion to biofuels (e.g. ethanol, butanol) is being aggressively researched. Thus far, research has primarily focused on optimizing feedstock production and ethanol conversion, with less attention given to the feedstock supply chain required to meet cost, quality, and quantity goals. This supply chain comprises a series of unit operations from feedstock harvest to feeding the conversion process. Our objectives in this review are (i) to summarize the peer-reviewed literature on harvest-to-reactor throat variables affecting feedstock composition and conversion to ethanol; (ii) to identify knowledge gaps; and (iii) to recommend future steps.

  17. CBTL Design Case Summary Conventional Feedstock Supply System - Herbaceous

    SciTech Connect

    Christopher T. Wright; Erin M. Searcy

    2012-02-01

    A conventional bale feedstock design has been established that represents supply system technologies, costs, and logistics that are achievable today for supplying herbaceous feedstocks as a blendstock with coal for energy production. Efforts are made to identify bottlenecks and optimize the efficiency and capacities of this supply system, within the constraints of existing local feedstock supplies, equipment, and permitting requirements. The feedstock supply system logistics operations encompass all of the activities necessary to move herbaceous biomass feedstock from the production location to the conversion reactor ready for blending and insertion. This supply system includes operations that are currently available such that costs and logistics are reasonable and reliable. The system modeled for this research project includes the uses of field-dried corn stover or switchgrass as a feedstock to annually supply an 800,000 DM ton conversion facility.

  18. Fuel alcohol production from agricultural lignocellulosic feedstocks

    SciTech Connect

    Farina, G.E.; Barrier, J.W.; Forsythe, M.L. )

    1988-01-01

    A two-stage, low-temperature, ambient pressure, acid hydrolysis process that utilizes separate unit operations to convert hemicellulose and cellulose in agricultural residues and crops to fermentable sugars is being developed and tested. Based on the results of the bench-scale tests, an acid hydrolysis experimental plant to demonstrate the concepts of low-temperature acid hydrolysis on a much larger scale was built. Plant tests using corn stover have been conducted for more that a year and conversion efficiences have equaled those achieved in the laboratory. Laboratory tests to determine the potential for low-temperature acid hydrolysis of other feedstocks - including red clover, alfalfa, kobe lespedeza, winter rape, and rye grass - are being conducted. Where applicable, process modifications to include extraction before or after hydrolysis also are being studied. This paper describes the experimental plant and process, results obtained in the plant, results of alternative feedstocks testing in the laboratory, and a plan for an integrated system that will produce other fuels, feed, and food from crops grown on marginal land.

  19. Preparation of gasification feedstock from leafy biomass.

    PubMed

    Shone, C M; Jothi, T J S

    2016-05-01

    Dried leaves are a potential source of energy although these are not commonly used beside to satisfy daily energy demands in rural areas. This paper aims at preparing a leafy biomass feedstock in the form of briquettes which can be directly used for combustion or to extract the combustible gas using a gasifier. Teak (Tectona grandis) and rubber (Hevea brasiliensis) leaves are considered for the present study. A binder-assisted briquetting technique with tapioca starch as binder is adopted. Properties of these leafy biomass briquettes such as moisture content, calorific value, compressive strength, and shatter index are determined. From the study, briquettes with biomass-to-binder ratio of 3:5 are found to be stable. Higher mass percentage of binder is considered for preparation of briquettes due to the fact that leafy biomasses do not adhere well on densification with lower binder content. Ultimate analysis test is conducted to analyze the gasification potential of the briquettes. Results show that the leafy biomass prepared from teak and rubber leaves has calorific values of 17.5 and 17.8 MJ/kg, respectively, which are comparable with those of existing biomass feedstock made of sawdust, rice husk, and rice straw. PMID:26289326

  20. Bibliography on Biomass Feedstock Research: 1978-2002

    SciTech Connect

    Cushman, J.H.

    2003-05-01

    This report provides bibliographic citations for more than 1400 reports on biomass feedstock development published by Oak Ridge National Laboratory and its collaborators from 1978 through 2002. Oak Ridge National Laboratory is engaged in analysis of biomass resource supplies, research on the sustainability of feedstock resources, and research on feedstock engineering and infrastructure. From 1978 until 2002, Oak Ridge National Laboratory also provided technical leadership for the U.S. Department of Energy's Bioenergy Feedstock Development Program (BFDP), which supported research to identify and develop promising energy crops. This bibliography lists reports published by Oak Ridge National Laboratory and by its collaborators in the BFDP, including graduate student theses and dissertations.

  1. Influence of feedstock chemical composition on product formation and characteristics derived from the hydrothermal carbonization of mixed feedstocks.

    PubMed

    Lu, Xiaowei; Berge, Nicole D

    2014-08-01

    As the exploration of the carbonization of mixed feedstocks continues, there is a distinct need to understand how feedstock chemical composition and structural complexity influence the composition of generated products. Laboratory experiments were conducted to evaluate the carbonization of pure compounds, mixtures of the pure compounds, and complex feedstocks comprised of the pure compounds (e.g., paper, wood). Results indicate that feedstock properties do influence carbonization product properties. Carbonization product characteristics were predicted using results from the carbonization of the pure compounds and indicate that recovered solids energy contents are more accurately predicted than solid yields and the carbon mass in each phase, while predictions associated with solids surface functional groups are more difficult to predict using this linear approach. To more accurately predict carbonization products, it may be necessary to account for feedstock structure and/or additional feedstock properties. PMID:24907571

  2. Bt-transgenic oilseed rape hybridization with its weedy relative, Brassica rapa.

    PubMed

    Halfhill, Matthew D; Millwood, Reginald J; Raymer, Paul L; Stewart, C Neal

    2002-10-01

    The movement of transgenes from crops to weeds and the resulting consequences are concerns of modern agriculture. The possible generation of "superweeds" from the escape of fitness-enhancing transgenes into wild populations is a risk that is often discussed, but rarely studied. Oilseed rape, Brassica napus (L.), is a crop with sexually compatible weedy relatives, such as birdseed rape (Brassica rapa (L.)). Hybridization of this crop with weedy relatives is an extant risk and an excellent interspecific gene flow model system. In laboratory crosses, T3 lines of seven independent transformation events of Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) oilseed rape were hybridized with two weedy accessions of B. rapa. Transgenic hybrids were generated from six of these oilseed rape lines, and the hybrids exhibited an intermediate morphology between the parental species. The Bt transgene was present in the hybrids, and the protein was synthesized at similar levels to the corresponding independent oilseed rape lines. Insect bioassays were performed and confirmed that the hybrid material was insecticidal. The hybrids were backcrossed with the weedy parent, and only half the oilseed rape lines were able to produce transgenic backcrosses. After two backcrosses, the ploidy level and morphology of the resultant plants were indistinguishable from B. rapa. Hybridization was monitored under field conditions (Tifton, GA, USA) with four independent lines of Bt oilseed rape with a crop to wild relative ratio of 1200:1. When B. rapa was used as the female parent, hybridization frequency varied among oilseed rape lines and ranged from 16.9% to 0.7%.

  3. Components of a rice-oilseed rape production system augmented with trichoderma sp. Tri-1 control sclerotinia sclerotiorum on oilseed rape

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Sclerotinia sclerotiorum causes serious yield losses on many crops throughout the world. In two field trials conducted at the same location in consecutive years, a treatment containing formulated Trichoderma harzianum-1 (Tri-1) resulted in oilseed rape seed yield that was significantly greater than...

  4. Low level impurities in imported wheat are a likely source of feral transgenic oilseed rape (Brassica napus L.) in Switzerland.

    PubMed

    Schulze, Juerg; Brodmann, Peter; Oehen, Bernadette; Bagutti, Claudia

    2015-11-01

    In Switzerland, the cultivation of genetically modified (GM) oilseed rape (Brassica napus L.) and the use of its seeds for food and feed are not permitted. Nevertheless, the GM oilseed rape events GT73, MS8×RF3, MS8 and RF3 have recently been found in the Rhine port of Basel, Switzerland. The sources of GM oilseed rape seeds have been unknown. The main agricultural good being imported at the Rhine port of Basel is wheat and from 2010 to 2013, 19% of all Swiss wheat imports originated from Canada. As over 90% of all oilseed rape grown in Canada is GM, we hypothesised that imports of Canadian wheat may contain low level impurities of GM oilseed rape. Therefore, waste fraction samples gathered during the mechanical cleaning of Canadian wheat from two Swiss grain mills were analysed by separating oilseed rape seeds from waste fraction samples and testing DNA of pooled seeds for the presence of transgenes by real-time PCR. Furthermore, oilseed rape seeds from each grain mill were sown in a germination experiment, and seedling DNA was tested for the presence of transgenes by real-time PCR. GT73, MS8×RF3, MS8 and RF3 oilseed rape was detected among seed samples and seedlings of both grain mills. Based on this data, we projected a mean proportion of 0.005% of oilseed rape in wheat imported from Canada. Besides Canadian wheat, the Rhine port of Basel does not import any other significant amounts of agricultural products from GM oilseed rape producing countries. We therefore conclude that Canadian wheat is the major source of unintended introduction of GM oilseed rape seeds into Switzerland. PMID:26109224

  5. Low level impurities in imported wheat are a likely source of feral transgenic oilseed rape (Brassica napus L.) in Switzerland.

    PubMed

    Schulze, Juerg; Brodmann, Peter; Oehen, Bernadette; Bagutti, Claudia

    2015-11-01

    In Switzerland, the cultivation of genetically modified (GM) oilseed rape (Brassica napus L.) and the use of its seeds for food and feed are not permitted. Nevertheless, the GM oilseed rape events GT73, MS8×RF3, MS8 and RF3 have recently been found in the Rhine port of Basel, Switzerland. The sources of GM oilseed rape seeds have been unknown. The main agricultural good being imported at the Rhine port of Basel is wheat and from 2010 to 2013, 19% of all Swiss wheat imports originated from Canada. As over 90% of all oilseed rape grown in Canada is GM, we hypothesised that imports of Canadian wheat may contain low level impurities of GM oilseed rape. Therefore, waste fraction samples gathered during the mechanical cleaning of Canadian wheat from two Swiss grain mills were analysed by separating oilseed rape seeds from waste fraction samples and testing DNA of pooled seeds for the presence of transgenes by real-time PCR. Furthermore, oilseed rape seeds from each grain mill were sown in a germination experiment, and seedling DNA was tested for the presence of transgenes by real-time PCR. GT73, MS8×RF3, MS8 and RF3 oilseed rape was detected among seed samples and seedlings of both grain mills. Based on this data, we projected a mean proportion of 0.005% of oilseed rape in wheat imported from Canada. Besides Canadian wheat, the Rhine port of Basel does not import any other significant amounts of agricultural products from GM oilseed rape producing countries. We therefore conclude that Canadian wheat is the major source of unintended introduction of GM oilseed rape seeds into Switzerland.

  6. Spatially structured population dynamics in feral oilseed rape.

    PubMed Central

    Crawley, Michael J.; Brown, Susan L.

    2004-01-01

    We studied the population dynamics of feral oilseed rape (Brassica napus) for 10 years (1993-2002) in 3658 adjacent permanent 100 m quadrats in the verges of the M25 motorway around London, UK. The aim was to determine the relative importance of different factors affecting the observed temporal patterns of population dynamics and their spatial correlations. A wide range of population dynamics was observed (downward or upward trends, cycles, local extinctions and recolonizations), but overall the populations were not self-replacing (lambda < 1). Many quadrats remained unoccupied throughout the study period, but a few were occupied at high densities for all 10 years. Most quadrats showed transient oilseed rape populations, lasting 1-4 years. There were strong spatial patterns in mean population density, associated with soil conditions and the successional age of the plant community dominating the verge, and these large-scale spatial patterns were highly consistent from year to year. The importance of seed spilled from trucks in transit to the processing plant at Erith in Kent was confirmed: rape populations were significantly higher on the 'to Erith' verge than the 'from Erith' verge (overall mean 2.83-fold greater stem density). Quadrats in which lambda > 1 were much more frequent in the 'to Erith' verge, indicating that seed immigration can give the spurious impression of self-replacing population dynamics in time-series analysis. There was little evidence of a pervasive Moran effect, and climatic forcing did not produce widespread large-scale synchrony in population dynamics for the motorway as a whole; just 23% of quadrats had significant rank correlations with the mean time-series. There was, however, significant local spatial synchrony of population dynamics, apparently associated with soil disturbance and seed input. This study draws attention to the possibility that different processes may impose population synchrony at different scales. We hypothesize that

  7. Developing alternative feedstocks for fuel alcohol

    SciTech Connect

    Verma, V.K.

    1982-06-01

    This paper briefly reviews recent research to examine the viability of energy sorghum as a feedstock for producing fuel alcohol. Energy sorghum is the name given to any sweet sorghum shown to be feasible for producing fuel alcohol. Energy sorghum can grow on a variety of soils, in 90 day cycles, with up to three crops a year. Crop rotation is rarely needed; most of the nitrogen and potassium returns to the soil. Harmon Engineering and Testing initiated an inhouse program to research sweet sorghum development. Equipment specifications and preliminary results are given. An ''energy farm'' process is explained step by step. Stalk juice, grain, and stalk fiber yields are listed. The use of bagasse and carbon dioxide is also considered.

  8. Assessment of coal liquids as refinery feedstocks

    SciTech Connect

    Zhou, P.

    1992-02-01

    The R D of direct coal liquefaction has reached such a stage that current two-stage processes can produce coal liquids with high yields and improved quality at a reasonable cost. To fully realize the potential value, these coal liquids should be refined into high-value liquid transportation fuels. The purpose of this study is to assess coal liquids as feedstocks to be processed by modern petroleum refining technologies. After the introduction, Section 2.0 summarizes ASTM specifications for major transportation fuels: gasoline, jet fuel, and diesel fuel, which serve as a target for coal-liquid refining. A concise description of modern refining processes follows with an emphasis on the requirements for the raw materials. These provide criteria to judge the quality of coal liquids as a refinery feedstock for the production of marketable liquid fuels. Section 3.0 surveys the properties of coal liquids produced by various liquefaction processes. Compared with typical petroleum oils, the current two-stage coal liquids are: Light in boiling range and free of resids and metals; very low in sulfur but relatively high in oxygen; relatively low in hydrogen and high in cyclics content; and essentially toxicologically inactive when end point is lower than 650[degrees]F, particularly after hydroprocessing. Despite these characteristics, the coal liquids are basically similar to petroleum. The modern refining technology is capable of processing coal liquids into transportation fuels meeting all specifications, and hydroprocessinq is obviously the major tool. The important point is the determination of a reasonable product slate and an appropriate refining scheme.

  9. Assessment of coal liquids as refinery feedstocks

    SciTech Connect

    Zhou, P.

    1992-02-01

    The R&D of direct coal liquefaction has reached such a stage that current two-stage processes can produce coal liquids with high yields and improved quality at a reasonable cost. To fully realize the potential value, these coal liquids should be refined into high-value liquid transportation fuels. The purpose of this study is to assess coal liquids as feedstocks to be processed by modern petroleum refining technologies. After the introduction, Section 2.0 summarizes ASTM specifications for major transportation fuels: gasoline, jet fuel, and diesel fuel, which serve as a target for coal-liquid refining. A concise description of modern refining processes follows with an emphasis on the requirements for the raw materials. These provide criteria to judge the quality of coal liquids as a refinery feedstock for the production of marketable liquid fuels. Section 3.0 surveys the properties of coal liquids produced by various liquefaction processes. Compared with typical petroleum oils, the current two-stage coal liquids are: Light in boiling range and free of resids and metals; very low in sulfur but relatively high in oxygen; relatively low in hydrogen and high in cyclics content; and essentially toxicologically inactive when end point is lower than 650{degrees}F, particularly after hydroprocessing. Despite these characteristics, the coal liquids are basically similar to petroleum. The modern refining technology is capable of processing coal liquids into transportation fuels meeting all specifications, and hydroprocessinq is obviously the major tool. The important point is the determination of a reasonable product slate and an appropriate refining scheme.

  10. Densification of Herbaceous Bioenergy Feedstocks for Transportation and Handling

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A vital component of a sustainable bioconversion industry that continues to be conceptualized and addressed by many is the supply, collection, and delivery of lignocellulosic feedstocks --- the feedstock supply system --- to bioconversion facilities. Lindley and Backer (1994) identified that low bul...

  11. Biodiesel from non-food alternative feed-stock

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    As a potential feedstock for biodiesel (BD) production, Jojoba oil was extracted from Jojoba (Simmondsia chinensis L.) plant seeds that contained around 50-60 wt.%, which were explored as non-food alternative feedstocks. Interestingly, Jojoba oil has long-chain wax esters and is not a typical trigly...

  12. Starch as a feedstock for bioproducts and packaging

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Much progress has been achieved in developing starch-based feedstocks as a partial replacement for petroleum-based feedstocks. Although starch remains a poor direct substitute for plastics, composite starch-based materials have useful functional properties and are in commercial production as a repla...

  13. Comparative proteomics of seed maturation in oilseeds reveals differences in intermediary metabolism.

    PubMed

    Hajduch, Martin; Matusova, Radoslava; Houston, Norma L; Thelen, Jay J

    2011-05-01

    Proteomics is increasingly being used to understand enzyme expression and regulatory mechanisms involved in the accumulation of storage reserves in crops with sequenced genomes. During the past six years, considerable progress has been made to characterize proteomes of both mature and developing seeds, particularly oilseeds - plants which accumulate principally oil and protein as storage reserves. This review summarizes the emerging proteomics data, with emphasis on seed filling in soy, rapeseed, castor and Arabidopsis as each of these oilseeds were analyzed using very similar proteomic strategies. These parallel studies provide a comprehensive view of source-sink relationships, specifically sucrose assimilation into organic acid intermediates for de novo amino acid and fatty acid synthesis. We map these biochemical processes for seed maturation and illustrate the differences and similarities among the four oilseeds. For example, while the four oilseeds appear capable of producing cytosolic phosphoenolpyruvate as the principal carbon intermediate, soybean and castor also express malic enzymes and malate dehydrogenase, together capable of producing malate that has been previously proposed to be the major intermediate for fatty acid synthesis in castor. We discuss these and other differences in the context of intermediary metabolism for developing oilseeds.

  14. Coking rates in a laboratory pyrolysis furnace: Liquid petroleum feedstocks

    SciTech Connect

    Leftin, H.P.; Newsome, D.S.

    1987-05-01

    Integral rates of coking for 14 feedstocks (light naphtha to vacuum gas oil) and mixtures of these were determined in a laboratory pyrolysis furnace between 815 and 943/sup 0/C and between 70 and 340 ms. These can be ranked as severe coking (S.C) and low coking (L.C.) feedstocks and are characterized by production of filamentous and amorphous (encapsulating) coke, respectively. Admixture of a L.C. feedstock in greater than a critical minimum amount of a S.C. feedstock imparts a natural inhibition on the coking rate of the S.C. feedstock, so that the coking rate of the mixture mimics that of the L.C. component.

  15. Cryogenic Homogenization and Sampling of Heterogeneous Multi-Phase Feedstock

    SciTech Connect

    Doyle, Glenn M.; Ideker, Virgene D.; Siegwarth, James D.

    1999-09-21

    An apparatus and process for producing a homogeneous analytical sample from a heterogeneous feedstock by: providing the mixed feedstock, reducing the temperature of the feedstock to a temperature below a critical temperature, reducing the size of the feedstock components, blending the reduced size feedstock to form a homogeneous mixture; and obtaining a representative sample of the homogeneous mixture. The size reduction and blending steps are performed at temperatures below the critical temperature in order to retain organic compounds in the form of solvents, oils, or liquids that may be adsorbed onto or absorbed into the solid components of the mixture, while also improving the efficiency of the size reduction. Preferably, the critical temperature is less than 77K (-196 C). Further, with the process of this invention the representative sample maybe maintained below the critical temperature until being analyzed.

  16. Feedstock Quality Factor Calibration and Data Model Development

    SciTech Connect

    Richard D. Boardman; Tyler L. Westover; Garold L. Gresham

    2010-05-01

    The goal of the feedstock assembly operation is to deliver uniform, quality-assured feedstock materials that will enhance downstream system performance by avoiding problems in the conversion equipment. In order to achieve this goal, there is a need for rapid screening tools and methodologies for assessing the thermochemical quality characteristics of biomass feedstock through the assembly process. Laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) has been identified as potential technique that could allow rapid elemental analyses of the inorganic content of biomass feedstocks; and consequently, would complement the carbohydrate data provided by near-infrared spectrometry (NIRS). These constituents, including Si, K, Ca, Na, S, P, Cl, Mg, Fe and Al, create a number of downstream problems in thermochemical processes. In particular, they reduce the energy content of the feedstock, influence reaction pathways, contribute to fouling and corrosion within systems, poison catalysts, and impact waste streams.

  17. Cryogenic homogenization and sampling of heterogeneous multi-phase feedstock

    DOEpatents

    Doyle, Glenn Michael; Ideker, Virgene Linda; Siegwarth, James David

    2002-01-01

    An apparatus and process for producing a homogeneous analytical sample from a heterogenous feedstock by: providing the mixed feedstock, reducing the temperature of the feedstock to a temperature below a critical temperature, reducing the size of the feedstock components, blending the reduced size feedstock to form a homogeneous mixture; and obtaining a representative sample of the homogeneous mixture. The size reduction and blending steps are performed at temperatures below the critical temperature in order to retain organic compounds in the form of solvents, oils, or liquids that may be adsorbed onto or absorbed into the solid components of the mixture, while also improving the efficiency of the size reduction. Preferably, the critical temperature is less than 77 K (-196.degree. C.). Further, with the process of this invention the representative sample may be maintained below the critical temperature until being analyzed.

  18. Hover flies are efficient pollinators of oilseed rape.

    PubMed

    Jauker, Frank; Wolters, Volkmar

    2008-07-01

    Understanding the consequences of declining diversity and abundance of pollinators for crops and floral biodiversity is a major challenge for current conservation ecology. However, most studies on this issue focus on bees, while other invertebrate taxa are largely ignored. We investigated the pollination efficiency of the globally abundant hover fly Episyrphus balteatus on the common crop, oilseed rape (Brassica napus). The study was conducted over a period of 2 consecutive years by means of enclosure experiments at an agricultural site located in Central Hesse (Germany). E. balteatus significantly increased both seed set and yield. This effect was very constant in the 2 years, despite considerable interannual differences in total seed numbers and seed mass. It highlights the important role of hover flies as pollinators of arable crops under varying environmental conditions. In contrast to bees, the effect of E. balteatus was lower at high pollinator densities than at low pollinator densities. This suggests adverse effects of density-dependent factors on pollination efficiency at high densities. Thus, models ignoring the modulating effect of biotic interactions by generally assuming a simple positive relationship between pollinator density and pollination efficiency might not apply to a vital component of the pollinator community.

  19. Hover flies are efficient pollinators of oilseed rape.

    PubMed

    Jauker, Frank; Wolters, Volkmar

    2008-07-01

    Understanding the consequences of declining diversity and abundance of pollinators for crops and floral biodiversity is a major challenge for current conservation ecology. However, most studies on this issue focus on bees, while other invertebrate taxa are largely ignored. We investigated the pollination efficiency of the globally abundant hover fly Episyrphus balteatus on the common crop, oilseed rape (Brassica napus). The study was conducted over a period of 2 consecutive years by means of enclosure experiments at an agricultural site located in Central Hesse (Germany). E. balteatus significantly increased both seed set and yield. This effect was very constant in the 2 years, despite considerable interannual differences in total seed numbers and seed mass. It highlights the important role of hover flies as pollinators of arable crops under varying environmental conditions. In contrast to bees, the effect of E. balteatus was lower at high pollinator densities than at low pollinator densities. This suggests adverse effects of density-dependent factors on pollination efficiency at high densities. Thus, models ignoring the modulating effect of biotic interactions by generally assuming a simple positive relationship between pollinator density and pollination efficiency might not apply to a vital component of the pollinator community. PMID:18438687

  20. Flowering Dynamics and Pollinator Visitation of Oilseed Echium (Echium plantagineum)

    PubMed Central

    Eberle, Carrie A.; Forcella, Frank; Gesch, Russ; Weyers, Sharon; Peterson, Dean; Eklund, James

    2014-01-01

    Echium (Echium plantagineum L.) is an alternative oilseed crop in summer-wet temperate regions that provides floral resources to pollinators. Its seed oil is rich in omega-3 fatty acids, such as stearidonic acid, which is desired highly by the cosmetic industry. Seeds were sown in field plots over three years in western Minnesota in spring (early-sown) or early summer (late-sown), and flower abundance, pollinator visitation, and seed yields were studied. Initial flowering commenced 41 to 55 d after sowing, and anthesis duration (first flowering to harvest) was 34 to 70 d. Late sowing dates delayed anthesis, but increased the intensity of visitation by pollinators. Cumulative flower densities ranged from 1 to 4.5 billion ha−1. Flowers attracted numerous honey bees (Apis mellifera L.), as many as 35 per minute of observation, which represented about 50% of all insect visitors. Early-sown echium produced seed yields up to 750 kg ha−1, which were 2–29 times higher than those of late-sown echium. Early sowing of echium in Minnesota provides abundant floral resources for pollinators for up to two months and simultaneously produces seed yields whose profits rival those of corn (Zea mays L.). PMID:25427071

  1. C4 plants as biofuel feedstocks: optimising biomass production and feedstock quality from a lignocellulosic perspective.

    PubMed

    Byrt, Caitlin S; Grof, Christopher P L; Furbank, Robert T

    2011-02-01

    The main feedstocks for bioethanol are sugarcane (Saccharum officinarum) and maize (Zea mays), both of which are C(4) grasses, highly efficient at converting solar energy into chemical energy, and both are food crops. As the systems for lignocellulosic bioethanol production become more efficient and cost effective, plant biomass from any source may be used as a feedstock for bioethanol production. Thus, a move away from using food plants to make fuel is possible, and sources of biomass such as wood from forestry and plant waste from cropping may be used. However, the bioethanol industry will need a continuous and reliable supply of biomass that can be produced at a low cost and with minimal use of water, fertilizer and arable land. As many C(4) plants have high light, water and nitrogen use efficiency, as compared with C(3) species, they are ideal as feedstock crops. We consider the productivity and resource use of a number of candidate plant species, and discuss biomass 'quality', that is, the composition of the plant cell wall. PMID:21205189

  2. Cadmium uptake and speciation changes in the rhizosphere of cadmium accumulator and non-accumulator oilseed rape varieties.

    PubMed

    Su, Dechun; Xing, Jianping; Jiao, Weiping; Wong, Woonchung

    2009-01-01

    Characteristics of cadmium (Cd) uptake kinetics and distribution of Cd speciation in the rhizosphere for Cd accumulator and non-accumulator oilseed rape varieties were investigated under nutrient solution and rhizobox soil culture conditions. The results showed that the maximal influx (V(max)) for Cd2+ and Km were significantly different for the two oilseed rape varieties. The value of V(max) for Cd accumulator oilseed rape Zhucang Huazi was two-fold greater than that for oilseed rape Chuan you II-93. The exchangeable Cd concentration in the rhizosphere was significantly lower than in non-rhizospheric soils supplemented with CdSO4 for both the varieties. Carbonate-bound Cd in the rhizosphere of Cd accumulator oilseed rape was significantly higher than that in the rhizosphere of non-accumulator oilseed rape and non-rhizospheric soil. Cd accumulator oilseed rape had a higher Cd2+ affinity and more ability to uptake insoluble Cd in the soil than the non-accumulator oilseed rape.

  3. Do yield and quality of big bluestem and switchgrass feedstock decline over winter?

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Switchgrass (Panicum virgatum L.) and big bluestem (Andropogon gerdardii Vitman) are potential bioenergy feedstocks for thermochemical platforms. Feedstock storage, fall harvest constraints, and environmental benefits provided by perennials are rationales for developing localized perennial feedstock...

  4. World oilseed situation and US export opportunities, June 1982. Foreign agriculture circular

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1982-06-01

    World oilseed output for 1982/83 is forecast at 175 million tons, unchanged from May, but up 2.2 million tons from 1981/82. World soybean production for 1981/82 remains unchanged from last month's estimate. Export estimates for soybeans for both Argentina and the United States were adjusted upward to reflect recent activity. U.S. exports of soybeans for 1981/82 are forecast at 24.5 million tons, 3 percent above the record in 1979/80. Spain has tendered for at least 20,000 tons of sunflowerseed oil and could possibly be in the market for sunflowerseed in the near future. Mexico's increasing use of oilseeds and reduced safflower and cottonseed production has also stimulated significant imports of U.S. sunflowerseed. Trade barriers and policies: Japan announced various measures to liberalize imports in May. These include tariff reductions on 4 oilseed products.

  5. Food potentials of some unconventional oilseeds grown in Nigeria--a brief review.

    PubMed

    Badifu, G I

    1993-05-01

    A brief review of literature on kernels of Citrullus and Cucumeropsis ('egusi' melon) species, Telfairia occidentalis (fluted pumpkin), Lagenaria (gourd) species of all of Cucurbitaceae family and other oilseeds such as Pentaclethra macrophylla (African oil bean), Parkia spp. (African locust bean) both of Mimosaceae family and Butyrospermum paradoxum (shea butter) of Sapotaceae family which are grown and widely used as food in Nigeria is presented. The kernels of species of Cucurbitaceae form the bulk of unconventional oilseeds used for food in Nigeria. The nutritional value of some of the kernels and the physicochemical properties and storage stability of the oils obtained from them are discussed. The various consumable forms in which they exist are also described. The problems and prospects of these neglected oilseeds in Nigeria are highlighted.

  6. Management of herbicide-tolerant oilseed rape in Europe: a case study on minimizing vertical gene flow.

    PubMed

    Devos, Yann; Reheul, Dirk; de Schrijver, Adinda; Cors, François; Moens, William

    2004-01-01

    The potential commercialization of genetically modified herbicide-tolerant (GMHT) oilseed rape in Europe raises various concerns about their potential environmental and agronomic impacts, especially those associated with the escape of transgenes. Pollen of oilseed rape can be dispersed in space, resulting in the fertilization of sympatric compatible wild relatives (e.g. Brassica rapa) and oilseed rape cultivars grown nearby (GM and/or non-GM Brassica napus). The spatial and temporal dispersal of seeds of oilseed rape may lead to feral oilseed rape populations outside the cropped areas and oilseed rape volunteers in subsequent crops in the rotation. The incorporation of a HT trait(s) may increase the fitness of the recipient plants, making them more abundant and persistent, and may result in weeds that are difficult to control by the herbicide(s) to which they are tolerant. Vertical gene flow from transgenic oilseed rape to non-GM counterparts may also have an impact on farming and supply chain management, depending on labelling thresholds for the adventitious presence of GM material in non-GM products. Given the extent of pollen and seed dispersal in oilseed rape, it is obvious that the safe and sound integration of GMHT oilseed rape in Europe may require significant on-farm and off-farm management efforts. Crucial practical measures that can reduce vertical gene flow include (1) isolating seed production of Brassica napus, (2) the use of certified seed, (3) isolating fields of GM oilseed rape, (4) harvesting at the correct crop development stage with properly adjusted combine settings, (5) ensuring maximum germination of shed seeds after harvest, (6) controlling volunteers in subsequent crops, and (7) keeping on-farm records. The implementation of the recommended practices may, however, be difficult, entailing various challenges.

  7. Quantifying the introgressive hybridisation propensity between transgenic oilseed rape and its wild/weedy relatives.

    PubMed

    Devos, Yann; De Schrijver, Adinda; Reheul, Dirk

    2009-02-01

    In order to estimate the introgressive hybridisation propensity (IHP) between genetically modified (GM) oilseed rape (Brassica napus) and certain of its cross-compatible wild/weedy relatives at the landscape level, a conceptual approach was developed. A gene flow index was established enclosing the successive steps to successfully achieve introgressive hybridisation: wild/weedy relatives and oilseed rape should co-occur, have overlapping flowering periods, be compatible, produce viable and fertile progeny, and the transgenes should persist in natural/weedy populations. Each step was described and scored, resulting in an IHP value for each cross-compatible oilseed rape wild/weedy relative. The gene flow index revealed that Brassica rapa has the highest introgressive hybridisation propensity (IHP value = 11.5), followed by Hirschfeldia incana and Raphanus raphanistrum (IHP = 6.7), Brassica juncea (IHP = 5.1), Diplotaxis tenuifolia and Sinapis arvensis (IHP = 4.5) in Flanders. Based on the IHP values, monitoring priorities can be defined within the pool of cross-compatible wild/weedy oilseed rape relatives. Moreover, the developed approach enables to select areas where case-specific monitoring of GM oilseed rape could be done in order to detect potential adverse effects on cross-compatible wild/weedy relatives resulting from vertical gene flow. The implementation of the proposed oilseed rape-wild relative gene flow index revealed that the survey design of existing botanical survey networks does not suit general surveillance needs of GM crops in Belgium. The encountered hurdles to implement the gene flow index and proposals to acquire the missing data are discussed.

  8. In-field frequencies and characteristics of oilseed rape with double herbicide resistance.

    PubMed

    Dietz-Pfeilstetter, Antje; Zwerger, Peter

    2009-01-01

    When growing different transgenic herbicide-resistant oilseed rape cultivars side by side, seeds with multiple herbicide resistance can arise, possibly causing problems for the management of volunteer plants. Large-scale field experiments were performed in the years 1999/2000 and 2000/2001 in order to investigate the frequencies and the consequences of the transfer of herbicide resistance genes from transgenic oilseed rape to cultivars grown on neighboring agricultural fields. Transgenic oilseed rape with resistance to glufosinate-ammonium (LibertyLink, LL) and with glyphosate resistance (RoundupReady, RR), respectively, was sown in adjacent 0.5 ha plots, surrounded by about 8 ha non-transgenic oilseed rape. The plots and the field were either in direct contact (0.5 m gap width) or they were separated by 10 m of fallow land. Seed samples taken during harvest in the transgenic plots at different distances were investigated for progeny with resistance to the respective other herbicide. It was found that outcrossing frequencies were reduced to different extents by a 10 m isolation distance. In addition to pollen-mediated transgene flow as a result of outcrossing, we found considerable seed-mediated gene flow by adventitious dispersal of transgenic seeds through the harvesting machine. Volunteer plants with double herbicide resistance emerging in the transgenic plots after harvest were selected by suitable applications of the complementary herbicides Basta and Roundup Ultra. In both years, double-resistant volunteers were largely restricted to the inner edges of the plots. Expression analysis under controlled laboratory conditions of double-resistant plants generated by manual crosses revealed stability of transgene expression even at elevated temperatures. Greenhouse tests with double-resistant oilseed rape plants gave no indication that the sensitivity to a range of different herbicides is changed as compared to non-transgenic oilseed rape.

  9. Nitrogen and fungicide applications against Erysiphe cruciferarum affect quality components of oilseed rape.

    PubMed

    Mert-Türk, Figen; Gül, M Kemal; Egesel, Cem O

    2008-01-01

    Oilseed rape (Brassica napus L.) is one of the most important oilseed crops in temperate climates. Erysiphe cruciferarum is an important disease of oilseed rape and causes crop loss in warmer areas of Europe. The research investigated the effect of nitrogen fertilizer and fungicidal treatment against powdery mildew infection caused by E. cruciferarum of oilseed rape on seed components, including protein, oil, oleic acid, linolenic acid and undesirable substances such as sinapic acid esters (SAE) and glucosinolates (GSL), using near infrared spectroscopy (NIRS). Five susceptible oilseed rape varieties were employed in this research using four treatment groups: no nitrogen fertilization and no fungicidal treatment (N(0)-F(0)); no nitrogen fertilization but fungicidal treatment (N(0)-F(1)); and nitrogen fertilization but no fungicidal treatment (N(1)-F(0)); nitrogen fertilization and fungicidal treatment (N(1)-F(1)). Nitrogen fertilization increased the protein, but lowered the oil content, of the seeds. Fungicidal treatments significantly increased oil contents in all varieties tested, however reduced protein levels in fertilized and non-fertilized plots. The level of linolenic acid did not change significantly in any plots of any treatment combinations; a similar result was observed in the level of oleic acid in most of the genotypes. Nitrogen fertilization increased GSL and SAE levels, whereas fungicidal treatment had no effect. Our findings demonstrated that nitrogen fertilization can markedly influence some quality parameters in oilseed rape; however, the application of fungicides reduced side effects of nitrogen fertilizer and resulted a reduction on GSL, SAE and protein contents but an increase on total oil and oleic acid contents.

  10. In-field frequencies and characteristics of oilseed rape with double herbicide resistance.

    PubMed

    Dietz-Pfeilstetter, Antje; Zwerger, Peter

    2009-01-01

    When growing different transgenic herbicide-resistant oilseed rape cultivars side by side, seeds with multiple herbicide resistance can arise, possibly causing problems for the management of volunteer plants. Large-scale field experiments were performed in the years 1999/2000 and 2000/2001 in order to investigate the frequencies and the consequences of the transfer of herbicide resistance genes from transgenic oilseed rape to cultivars grown on neighboring agricultural fields. Transgenic oilseed rape with resistance to glufosinate-ammonium (LibertyLink, LL) and with glyphosate resistance (RoundupReady, RR), respectively, was sown in adjacent 0.5 ha plots, surrounded by about 8 ha non-transgenic oilseed rape. The plots and the field were either in direct contact (0.5 m gap width) or they were separated by 10 m of fallow land. Seed samples taken during harvest in the transgenic plots at different distances were investigated for progeny with resistance to the respective other herbicide. It was found that outcrossing frequencies were reduced to different extents by a 10 m isolation distance. In addition to pollen-mediated transgene flow as a result of outcrossing, we found considerable seed-mediated gene flow by adventitious dispersal of transgenic seeds through the harvesting machine. Volunteer plants with double herbicide resistance emerging in the transgenic plots after harvest were selected by suitable applications of the complementary herbicides Basta and Roundup Ultra. In both years, double-resistant volunteers were largely restricted to the inner edges of the plots. Expression analysis under controlled laboratory conditions of double-resistant plants generated by manual crosses revealed stability of transgene expression even at elevated temperatures. Greenhouse tests with double-resistant oilseed rape plants gave no indication that the sensitivity to a range of different herbicides is changed as compared to non-transgenic oilseed rape. PMID:19833077

  11. Nitrogen and fungicide applications against Erysiphe cruciferarum affect quality components of oilseed rape.

    PubMed

    Mert-Türk, Figen; Gül, M Kemal; Egesel, Cem O

    2008-01-01

    Oilseed rape (Brassica napus L.) is one of the most important oilseed crops in temperate climates. Erysiphe cruciferarum is an important disease of oilseed rape and causes crop loss in warmer areas of Europe. The research investigated the effect of nitrogen fertilizer and fungicidal treatment against powdery mildew infection caused by E. cruciferarum of oilseed rape on seed components, including protein, oil, oleic acid, linolenic acid and undesirable substances such as sinapic acid esters (SAE) and glucosinolates (GSL), using near infrared spectroscopy (NIRS). Five susceptible oilseed rape varieties were employed in this research using four treatment groups: no nitrogen fertilization and no fungicidal treatment (N(0)-F(0)); no nitrogen fertilization but fungicidal treatment (N(0)-F(1)); and nitrogen fertilization but no fungicidal treatment (N(1)-F(0)); nitrogen fertilization and fungicidal treatment (N(1)-F(1)). Nitrogen fertilization increased the protein, but lowered the oil content, of the seeds. Fungicidal treatments significantly increased oil contents in all varieties tested, however reduced protein levels in fertilized and non-fertilized plots. The level of linolenic acid did not change significantly in any plots of any treatment combinations; a similar result was observed in the level of oleic acid in most of the genotypes. Nitrogen fertilization increased GSL and SAE levels, whereas fungicidal treatment had no effect. Our findings demonstrated that nitrogen fertilization can markedly influence some quality parameters in oilseed rape; however, the application of fungicides reduced side effects of nitrogen fertilizer and resulted a reduction on GSL, SAE and protein contents but an increase on total oil and oleic acid contents. PMID:17934794

  12. Interactions among bioenergy feedstock choices, landscape dynamics, and land use

    SciTech Connect

    Dale, Virginia H; Kline, Keith L; Wright, Lynn L; Perlack, Robert D; Downing, Mark; Graham, Robin Lambert

    2011-01-01

    Landscape implications of bioenergy feedstock choices are significant and depend on land-use practices and their environmental impacts. Although land-use changes and carbon emissions associated with bioenergy feedstock production are dynamic and complicated, lignocellulosic feedstocks may offer opportunities that enhance sustainability when compared to other transportation fuel alternatives. For bioenergy sustainability, major drivers and concerns revolve around energy security, food production, land productivity, soil carbon and erosion, greenhouse gas emissions, biodiversity, air quality, and water quantity and quality. The many implications of bioenergy feedstock choices require several indicators at multiple scales to provide a more complete accounting of effects. Ultimately, the long-term sustainability of bioenergy feedstock resources (as well as food supplies) throughout the world depends on land-use practices and landscape dynamics. Land-management decisions often invoke trade-offs among potential environmental effects and social and economic factors as well as future opportunities for resource use. The hypothesis being addressed in this paper is that sustainability of bioenergy feedstock production can be achieved via appropriately designed crop residue and perennial lignocellulosic systems. We find that decision makers need scientific advancements and adequate data that both provide quantitative and qualitative measures of the effects of bioenergy feedstock choices at different spatial and temporal scales and allow fair comparisons among available options for renewable liquid fuels.

  13. Functional properties, nutritional value, and industrial applications of Niger Oilseeds (Guizotia abyssinica Cass.).

    PubMed

    Ramadan, Mohamed Fawzy

    2012-01-01

    Non-conventional seeds are being considered as novel food because their constituents have unique chemical properties and may augment the supply of nutritional and functional products. Niger (Guizotia abyssinica Cass.) seed and its crude oil have been widely used in traditional nutritional and medicinal applications. Consequently, niger seed has been extensively studied for its nutritional value, biological activities, and antioxidative properties. In consideration of their potential utilization, detailed knowledge on the composition of niger oilseeds is of major importance. The diversity of applications to which niger seed can be put gives this oilseed great industrial importance. This review summarizes the nutritional value, functional properties, and industrical applications of niger seeds. PMID:21991986

  14. Functional properties, nutritional value, and industrial applications of Niger Oilseeds (Guizotia abyssinica Cass.).

    PubMed

    Ramadan, Mohamed Fawzy

    2012-01-01

    Non-conventional seeds are being considered as novel food because their constituents have unique chemical properties and may augment the supply of nutritional and functional products. Niger (Guizotia abyssinica Cass.) seed and its crude oil have been widely used in traditional nutritional and medicinal applications. Consequently, niger seed has been extensively studied for its nutritional value, biological activities, and antioxidative properties. In consideration of their potential utilization, detailed knowledge on the composition of niger oilseeds is of major importance. The diversity of applications to which niger seed can be put gives this oilseed great industrial importance. This review summarizes the nutritional value, functional properties, and industrical applications of niger seeds.

  15. World oilseed situation and U. S. export opportunities, March 1984. Foreign agriculture circular

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1984-03-01

    The world oilseed supply situation tightened in this month with estimated world oilseed, meal and oil production all down from the last month. Reduced peanut and sunflower seed output in drought-damaged areas in Africa more than offset an increase in Argentine soybean output. The protein meal sector remained quiet, with an adjustment in peanut meal production and a reduction in Soviet soybean meal imports. The situation for vegetable and marine oils also remained quiet during the month, with offsetting reductions of Singapore's palm oil imports and exports indicating that country's decline as a transshipper of palm oil.

  16. Specifics of soil temperature under winter oilseed rape canopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krčmářová, Jana; Středa, Tomáš; Pokorný, Radovan

    2014-09-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the course of soil temperature under the winter oilseed rape canopy and to determine relationships between soil temperature, air temperature and partly soil moisture. In addition, the aim was to describe the dependence by means of regression equations usable for pests and pathogens prediction, crop development, and yields models. The measurement of soil and near the ground air temperatures was performed at the experimental field Žabiče (South Moravia, the Czech Republic). The course of temperature was determined under or in the winter oilseed rape canopy during spring growth season in the course of four years (2010 - 2012 and 2014). In all years, the standard varieties (Petrol, Sherpa) were grown, in 2014 the semi-dwarf variety PX104 was added. Automatic soil sensors were positioned at three depths (0.05, 0.10 and 0.20 m) under soil surface, air temperature sensors in 0.05 m above soil surfaces. The course of soil temperature differs significantly between standard (Sherpa and Petrol) and semi-dwarf (PX104) varieties. Results of the cross correlation analysis showed, that the best interrelationships between air and soil temperature were achieved in 2 hours delay for the soil temperature in 0.05 m, 4 hour delay for 0.10 m and 7 hour delay for 0.20 m for standard varieties. For semi-dwarf variety, this delay reached 6 hour for the soil temperature in 0.05 m, 7 hour delay for 0.10 m and 11 hour for 0.20 m. After the time correction, the determination coefficient (R2) reached values from 0.67 to 0.95 for 0.05 m, 0.50 to 0.84 for 0.10 m in variety Sherpa during all experimental years. For variety PX104 this coefficient reached values from 0.51 to 0.72 in 0.05 m depth and from 0.39 to 0.67 in 0.10 m depth in the year 2014. The determination coefficient in the 0.20 m depth was lower for both varieties; its values were from 0.15 to 0.65 in variety Sherpa. In variety PX104 the values of R2 from 0.23 to 0.57 were determined. When using

  17. Genetic mapping of clubroot resistance genes in oilseed rape.

    PubMed

    Werner, S; Diederichsen, E; Frauen, M; Schondelmaier, J; Jung, C

    2008-02-01

    Clubroot caused by the obligate biotrophic protist Plasmodiophora brassicae is a major disease of Brassica species. Clubroot resistances introduced from B. oleracea var. 'Böhmerwaldkohl' and resistance from B. rapa ECD-04 were genetically mapped in oilseed rape (B. napus L.). A doubled haploid (DH) population of rape seed was developed by crossing a resistant DH-line derived from a resynthesized B. napus with the susceptible cultivar 'Express'. The DH population was tested in the greenhouse against seven P. brassicae isolates showing low and high virulence toward B. oleracea or/and B. rapa. DH-lines with highest or lowest disease scores were used in a bulked segregant analysis (BSA), and 43 polymorphic AFLPs were identified. A genetic map of the whole genome was constructed using 338 AFLP and 156 anchored SSR markers. Nineteen QTL were detected on chromosomes N02, N03, N08, N13, N15, N16 and N19 giving resistance to seven different isolates. Race-specific effects were observed for all QTL, none of the QTL conferred resistance to all isolates. The phenotypic variance explained by the respective QTL ranged between 10.3 and 67.5%. All QTL could be assigned to both ancestral genomes of B. napus. In contrast to previous reports, a clear differentiation into major QTL from B. rapa and minor QTL from B. oleracea could not be found. Composite interval mapping confirmed the linkage relationships determined by BSA, thus demonstrating that markers for oligogenic traits can be selected by merely testing the distributional extremes of a segregating population.

  18. Method for determining processability of a hydrocarbon containing feedstock

    SciTech Connect

    Schabron, John F.; Rovani, Jr., Joseph F.

    2013-09-10

    Disclosed herein is a method involving the steps of (a) precipitating an amount of asphaltenes from a liquid sample of a first hydrocarbon-containing feedstock having solvated asphaltenes therein with one or more first solvents in a column; (b) determining one or more solubility characteristics of the precipitated asphaltenes; (c) analyzing the one or more solubility characteristics of the precipitated asphaltenes; and (d) correlating a measurement of feedstock reactivity for the first hydrocarbon-containing feedstock sample with a mathematical parameter derived from the results of analyzing the one or more solubility characteristics of the precipitated asphaltenes.

  19. Measurement and Control of Glass Feedstocks

    SciTech Connect

    Arel Weisberg

    2007-04-26

    ERCo has developed a laser-based technology for rapid compositional measurements of batch, real-time sorting of cullet, and in-situ measurements of molten glass. This technology, termed LIBS (Laser Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy) can determine whether or not the batch was formulated accurately in order to control glass quality. It can also be used to determine if individual batch ingredients are within specifications. In the case of cullet feedstocks, the sensor can serve as part of a system to sort cullet by color and ensure that it is free of contaminants. In-situ compositional measurements of molten glass are achieved through immersing a LIBS probe directly into the melt in a glass furnace. This technology has been successfully demonstrated in ERCo’s LIBS laboratory for batch analysis, cullet sorting, and glass melt measurements. A commercial batch analyzer has been operating in a PPG fiberglass plant since August 2004. LIBS utilizes a highly concentrated laser pulse to rapidly vaporize and ionize nanograms of the material being studied. As this vapor cools, it radiates light at specific wavelengths corresponding to the elemental constituents (e.g. silicon, aluminum, iron) of the material. The strengths of the emissions correlate to the concentrations of each of the elemental constituents. By collecting the radiated light with a spectrometer capable of resolving and measuring these wavelengths, the elemental composition of the sample is found.

  20. Biomass Feedstock and Conversion Supply System Design and Analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Jacob J. Jacobson; Mohammad S. Roni; Patrick Lamers; Kara G. Cafferty

    2014-09-01

    Idaho National Laboratory (INL) supports the U.S. Department of Energy’s bioenergy research program. As part of the research program INL investigates the feedstock logistics economics and sustainability of these fuels. A series of reports were published between 2000 and 2013 to demonstrate the feedstock logistics cost. Those reports were tailored to specific feedstock and conversion process. Although those reports are different in terms of conversion, some of the process in the feedstock logistic are same for each conversion process. As a result, each report has similar information. A single report can be designed that could bring all commonality occurred in the feedstock logistics process while discussing the feedstock logistics cost for different conversion process. Therefore, this report is designed in such a way that it can capture different feedstock logistics cost while eliminating the need of writing a conversion specific design report. Previous work established the current costs based on conventional equipment and processes. The 2012 programmatic target was to demonstrate a delivered biomass logistics cost of $55/dry ton for woody biomass delivered to fast pyrolysis conversion facility. The goal was achieved by applying field and process demonstration unit-scale data from harvest, collection, storage, preprocessing, handling, and transportation operations into INL’s biomass logistics model. The goal of the 2017 Design Case is to enable expansion of biofuels production beyond highly productive resource areas by breaking the reliance of cost-competitive biofuel production on a single, low-cost feedstock. The 2017 programmatic target is to supply feedstock to the conversion facility that meets the in-feed conversion process quality specifications at a total logistics cost of $80/dry T. The $80/dry T. target encompasses total delivered feedstock cost, including both grower payment and logistics costs, while meeting all conversion in-feed quality targets

  1. Quantitative Multilevel Analysis of Central Metabolism in Developing Oilseeds of Oilseed Rape during in Vitro Culture1[OPEN

    PubMed Central

    Schwender, Jörg; Hebbelmann, Inga; Heinzel, Nicolas; Hildebrandt, Tatjana; Rogers, Alistair; Klapperstück, Matthias; Schreiber, Falk; Borisjuk, Ljudmilla; Rolletschek, Hardy

    2015-01-01

    Seeds provide the basis for many food, feed, and fuel products. Continued increases in seed yield, composition, and quality require an improved understanding of how the developing seed converts carbon and nitrogen supplies into storage. Current knowledge of this process is often based on the premise that transcriptional regulation directly translates via enzyme concentration into flux. In an attempt to highlight metabolic control, we explore genotypic differences in carbon partitioning for in vitro cultured developing embryos of oilseed rape (Brassica napus). We determined biomass composition as well as 79 net fluxes, the levels of 77 metabolites, and 26 enzyme activities with specific focus on central metabolism in nine selected germplasm accessions. Overall, we observed a tradeoff between the biomass component fractions of lipid and starch. With increasing lipid content over the spectrum of genotypes, plastidic fatty acid synthesis and glycolytic flux increased concomitantly, while glycolytic intermediates decreased. The lipid/starch tradeoff was not reflected at the proteome level, pointing to the significance of (posttranslational) metabolic control. Enzyme activity/flux and metabolite/flux correlations suggest that plastidic pyruvate kinase exerts flux control and that the lipid/starch tradeoff is most likely mediated by allosteric feedback regulation of phosphofructokinase and ADP-glucose pyrophosphorylase. Quantitative data were also used to calculate in vivo mass action ratios, reaction equilibria, and metabolite turnover times. Compounds like cyclic 3′,5′-AMP and sucrose-6-phosphate were identified to potentially be involved in so far unknown mechanisms of metabolic control. This study provides a rich source of quantitative data for those studying central metabolism. PMID:25944824

  2. Biodiesel production from low cost and renewable feedstock

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gude, Veera G.; Grant, Georgene E.; Patil, Prafulla D.; Deng, Shuguang

    2013-12-01

    Sustainable biodiesel production should: a) utilize low cost renewable feedstock; b) utilize energy-efficient, nonconventional heating and mixing techniques; c) increase net energy benefit of the process; and d) utilize renewable feedstock/energy sources where possible. In this paper, we discuss the merits of biodiesel production following these criteria supported by the experimental results obtained from the process optimization studies. Waste cooking oil, non-edible (low-cost) oils (Jatropha curcas and Camelina Sativa) and algae were used as feedstock for biodiesel process optimization. A comparison between conventional and non-conventional methods such as microwaves and ultrasound was reported. Finally, net energy scenarios for different biodiesel feedstock options and algae are presented.

  3. Trends in biotechnological production of fuel ethanol from different feedstocks.

    PubMed

    Sánchez, Oscar J; Cardona, Carlos A

    2008-09-01

    Present work deals with the biotechnological production of fuel ethanol from different raw materials. The different technologies for producing fuel ethanol from sucrose-containing feedstocks (mainly sugar cane), starchy materials and lignocellulosic biomass are described along with the major research trends for improving them. The complexity of the biomass processing is recognized through the analysis of the different stages involved in the conversion of lignocellulosic complex into fermentable sugars. The features of fermentation processes for the three groups of studied feedstocks are discussed. Comparative indexes for the three major types of feedstocks for fuel ethanol production are presented. Finally, some concluding considerations on current research and future tendencies in the production of fuel ethanol regarding the pretreatment and biological conversion of the feedstocks are presented.

  4. Comparison of feedstocks for optical glass and optical plastic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krevor, David

    2010-08-01

    The raw materials for optical glasses and optical plastics are very different. The plastic feedstocks are volatile liquids, petrochemicals, which are highly refined by industrial distillation. The feedstocks for inorganic glasses are minerals, purified by solid processing methods. The optical plastic resin is always virgin stock; "regrind" is never used for high-quality optical plastics. In contrast, the inorganic optical glass feedstock is improved by adding "cullet", which is the recovered waste from breakage and trim during glass part production. This paper discusses the sources and refinement of feedstocks for both glass and plastic, including consideration of cost, recycle and ramifications for optical part production, and anticipated future trends. A snapshot summary of current marketplace conditions is given.

  5. Feedstock and Conversion Supply System Design and Analysis

    SciTech Connect

    J. Jacobson; R. Mohammad; K. Cafferty; K. Kenney; E. Searcy; J. Hansen

    2014-09-01

    The success of the earlier logistic pathway designs (Biochemical and Thermochemical) from a feedstock perspective was that it demonstrated that through proper equipment selection and best management practices, conventional supply systems (referred to in this report as “conventional designs,” or specifically the 2012 Conventional Design) can be successfully implemented to address dry matter loss, quality issues, and enable feedstock cost reductions that help to reduce feedstock risk of variable supply and quality and enable industry to commercialize biomass feedstock supply chains. The caveat of this success is that conventional designs depend on high density, low-cost biomass with no disruption from incremental weather. In this respect, the success of conventional designs is tied to specific, highly productive regions such as the southeastern U.S. which has traditionally supported numerous pulp and paper industries or the Midwest U.S for corn stover.

  6. Feedstock Supply and Logistics: Biomass as a Commodity

    SciTech Connect

    2013-05-06

    The Bioenergy Technologies Office and its partners are developing the technologies and systems needed to sustainably and economically deliver a broad range of biomass in formats that enable their efficient use as feedstocks for biorefineries.

  7. Detection of feral GT73 transgenic oilseed rape (Brassica napus) along railway lines on entry routes to oilseed factories in Switzerland.

    PubMed

    Hecht, Mirco; Oehen, Bernadette; Schulze, Jürg; Brodmann, Peter; Bagutti, Claudia

    2014-01-01

    To obtain a reference status prior to cultivation of genetically modified oilseed rape (OSR, Brassica napus L.) in Switzerland, the occurrence of feral OSR was monitored along transportation routes and at processing sites. The focus was set on the detection of (transgenic) OSR along railway lines from the Swiss borders with Italy and France to the respective oilseed processing factories in Southern and Northern Switzerland (Ticino and region of Basel). A monitoring concept was developed to identify sites of largest risk of escape of genetically modified plants into the environment in Switzerland. Transport spillage of OSR seeds from railway goods cars particularly at risk hot spots such as switch yards and (un)loading points but also incidental and continuous spillage were considered. All OSR plants, including their hybridization partners which were collected at the respective monitoring sites were analyzed for the presence of transgenes by real-time PCR. On sampling lengths each of 4.2 and 5.7 km, respectively, 461 and 1,574 plants were sampled in Ticino and the region of Basel. OSR plants were found most frequently along the routes to the oilseed facilities, and in larger amounts on risk hot spots compared to sites of random sampling. At three locations in both monitored regions, transgenic B. napus line GT73 carrying the glyphosate resistance transgenes gox and CP4 epsps were detected (Ticino, 22 plants; in the region of Basel, 159).

  8. Fodder beets as a feedstock for alcohol production

    SciTech Connect

    Barney, W.

    1981-09-01

    Fodder beets have been shown to be an attractive feedstock for alcohol production, yielding sufficient sugar to produce approximately 1000 gallons of alcohol per acre. Resistance to diseases found in a given region would have to be evaluated. Storage tests have demonstrated that beets can be stored long enough to make them of interest as a feedstock for alcohol production. Further testing is required to evaluate techniques for reducing sugar losses due to sprouting, respiration, and molding.

  9. Horse manure as feedstock for anaerobic digestion.

    PubMed

    Hadin, Sa; Eriksson, Ola

    2016-10-01

    Horse keeping is of great economic, social and environmental benefit for society, but causes environmental impacts throughout the whole chain from feed production to manure treatment. According to national statistics, the number of horses in Sweden is continually increasing and is currently approximately 360,000. This in turn leads to increasing amounts of horse manure that have to be managed and treated. Current practices could cause local and global environmental impacts due to poor performance or lack of proper management. Horse manure with its content of nutrients and organic material can however contribute to fertilisation of arable land and recovery of renewable energy following anaerobic digestion. At present anaerobic digestion of horse manure is not a common treatment. In this paper the potential for producing biogas and biofertiliser from horse manure is analysed based on a thorough literature review in combination with mathematical modelling and simulations. Anaerobic digestion was chosen as it has a high degree of resource conservation, both in terms of energy (biogas) and nutrients (digestate). Important factors regarding manure characteristics and operating factors in the biogas plant are identified. Two crucial factors are the type and amount of bedding material used, which has strong implications for feedstock characteristics, and the type of digestion method applied (dry or wet process). Straw and waste paper are identified as the best materials in an energy point of view. While the specific methane yield decreases with a high amount of bedding, the bedding material still makes a positive contribution to the energy balance. Thermophilic digestion increases the methane generation rate and yield, compared with mesophilic digestion, but the total effect is negligible. PMID:27396682

  10. Horse manure as feedstock for anaerobic digestion.

    PubMed

    Hadin, Sa; Eriksson, Ola

    2016-10-01

    Horse keeping is of great economic, social and environmental benefit for society, but causes environmental impacts throughout the whole chain from feed production to manure treatment. According to national statistics, the number of horses in Sweden is continually increasing and is currently approximately 360,000. This in turn leads to increasing amounts of horse manure that have to be managed and treated. Current practices could cause local and global environmental impacts due to poor performance or lack of proper management. Horse manure with its content of nutrients and organic material can however contribute to fertilisation of arable land and recovery of renewable energy following anaerobic digestion. At present anaerobic digestion of horse manure is not a common treatment. In this paper the potential for producing biogas and biofertiliser from horse manure is analysed based on a thorough literature review in combination with mathematical modelling and simulations. Anaerobic digestion was chosen as it has a high degree of resource conservation, both in terms of energy (biogas) and nutrients (digestate). Important factors regarding manure characteristics and operating factors in the biogas plant are identified. Two crucial factors are the type and amount of bedding material used, which has strong implications for feedstock characteristics, and the type of digestion method applied (dry or wet process). Straw and waste paper are identified as the best materials in an energy point of view. While the specific methane yield decreases with a high amount of bedding, the bedding material still makes a positive contribution to the energy balance. Thermophilic digestion increases the methane generation rate and yield, compared with mesophilic digestion, but the total effect is negligible.

  11. Sophorolipid production from lignocellulosic biomass feedstocks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Samad, Abdul

    The present study investigated the feasibility of production of sophorolipids (SLs) using yeast Candida bombicola grown on hydrolysates derived lignocellulosic feedstock either with or without supplementing oil as extra carbon source. Several researchers have reported using pure sugars and various oil sources for producing SLs which makes them expensive for scale-up and commercial production. In order to make the production process truly sustainable and renewable, we used feedstocks such as sweet sorghum bagasse, corn fiber and corn stover. Without oil supplementation, the cell densities at the end of day-8 was recorded as 9.2, 9.8 and 10.8 g/L for hydrolysate derived from sorghum bagasse, corn fiber, and corn fiber with the addition of yeast extract (YE) during fermentation, respectively. At the end of fermentation, the SL concentration was 3.6 g/L for bagasse and 1.0 g/L for corn fiber hydrolysate. Among the three major sugars utilized by C. bombicola in the bagasse cultures, glucose was consumed at a rate of 9.1 g/L-day; xylose at 1.8 g/L-day; and arabinose at 0.98 g/L-day. With the addition of soybean oil at 100 g/L, cultures with bagasse hydrolysates, corn fiber hydrolysates and standard medium had a cell content of 7.7 g/L; 7.9 g/L; and 8.9 g/L, respectively after 10 days. The yield of SLs from bagasse hydrolysate was 84.6 g/L and corn fiber hydrolysate was15.6 g/L. In the same order, the residual oil in cultures with these two hydrolysates was 52.3 g/L and 41.0 g/L. For this set of experiment; in the cultures with bagasse hydrolysate; utilization rates for glucose, xylose and arabinose was recorded as 9.5, 1.04 and 0.08 g/L-day respectively. Surprisingly, C. bombicola consumed all monomeric sugars and non-sugar compounds in the hydrolysates and cultures with bagasse hydrolysates had higher yield of SLs than those from a standard medium which contained pure glucose at the same concentration. Based on the SL concentrations and considering all sugars consumed

  12. Selecting Metrics for Sustainable Bioenergy Feedstocks

    SciTech Connect

    Dale, Virginia H; Kline, Keith L; Mulholland, Patrick J; Downing, Mark; Graham, Robin Lambert; Wright, Lynn L

    2009-01-01

    Key decisions about land-use practices and dynamics in biofuel systems affect the long-term sustainability of biofuels. Choices about what crops are grown and how are they planted, fertilized, and harvested determine the effects of biofuels on native plant diversity, competition with food crops, and water and air quality. Those decisions also affect economic viability since the distance that biofuels must be transported has a large effect on the market cost of biofuels. The components of a landscape approach include environmental and socioeconomic conditions and the bioenergy features [type of fuel, plants species, management practices (e.g., fertilizer and pesticide applications), type and location of production facilities] and ecological and biogeochemical feedbacks. Significantly, while water (availability and quality) emerges as one of the most limiting factors to sustainability of bioenergy feedstocks, the linkage between water and bioenergy choices for land use and management on medium and large scales is poorly quantified. Metrics that quantify environmental and socioeconomic changes in land use and landscape dynamics provide a way to measure and communicate the influence of alternative bioenergy choices on water quality and other components of the environment. Cultivation of switchgrass could have both positive and negative environmental effects, depending on where it is planted and what vegetation it replaces. Among the most important environmental effects are changes in the flow regimes of streams (peak storm flows, base flows during the growing season) and changes in stream water quality (sediment, nutrients, and pesticides). Unfortunately, there have been few controlled studies that provide sufficient data to evaluate the hydrological and water quality impacts of conversion to switchgrass. In particular, there is a need for experimental studies that use the small watershed approach to evaluate the effects of growing a perennial plant as a biomass crop

  13. Differential impacts of brassicaceous and nonbrassicaceous oilseed meals on soil bacterial and fungal communities.

    PubMed

    Hollister, Emily B; Hu, Ping; Wang, Autumn S; Hons, Frank M; Gentry, Terry J

    2013-03-01

    Demand for alternative fuels has sparked renewed interest in the production of biodiesel from oil-rich seeds. Oilseed meals are a byproduct of this process, and given their relatively high nutrient content, land application represents a potential value-added use. In this microcosm-based study, soil microbial community responses to amendments of a glucosinolate-containing brassicaceous oilseed meal (Brassica juncea, mustard), a non-glucosinolate-containing, nonbrassicaceous oilseed meal (Linum usitatissimum, flax), and a nonoilseed biomass (Sorghum bicolor) were characterized using a 28-day time series of replicated 16S rRNA gene and fungal ITS gene sequence libraries. We hypothesized that biomass type and glucosinolate content would alter community composition but that effects would diminish over time. Distinct separation occurred by amendment type, with mustard inducing large increases in the abundance of bacterial taxa associated with fungal disease suppression (e.g. Bacillus, Pseudomonas, and Streptomyces spp.). Dramatic shifts were seen among the fungi, too, with phylotype richness decreasing by > 60% following mustard addition. Changes in bacterial and fungal community composition were rapid, and distinct community types persisted throughout the study. Oilseed amendment, and mustard in particular, has the potential to alter soil microbial community structure substantially, and such changes are likely to be important in the context of ecosystem health. PMID:23025785

  14. Echium as an oilseed crop in Minnesota: Flowering dates, pollinators, and seed yields

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Echium (Echium plantagineum) can be a serious winter annual weed in Mediterranean-type environments. However, it also can be an alternative oilseed crop in summer-wet temperate regions. It produces seed oils rich in omega-3 fatty acids. One of these is stearidonic acid, which is desired highly by th...

  15. Low probability of chloroplast movement from oilseed rape (Brassica napus) into wild Brassica rapa.

    PubMed

    Scott, S E; Wilkinson, M J

    1999-04-01

    Pollen-mediated movement of transgenes from transplastomic oilseed rape (Brassica napus) into wild relatives will be avoided if chloroplasts are maternally transmitted. We assess the probability of chloroplast exchange between conventional oilseed rape and wild Brassica rapa to model the future behavior of transplastomic cultivars. Primers specific to cpDNA were used to demonstrate maternal inheritance of chloroplasts in 47 natural hybrids between cultivated B. napus and wild B. rapa. We conclude that there will be no or negligible pollen-mediated chloroplast dispersal from oilseed rape. Transgene introgression could still occur in mixed populations, however, if B. napus acted as the recurrent female parent. Rate of transfer would then depend on the abundance of mixed populations, their persistence as mixtures, and hybridization frequency within stands. A low incidence of sympatry (0.6-0.7%) between wild B. rapa and cultivated B. napus along the river Thames, UK, in 1997 and 1998, suggests mixed stands will form only rarely. Eighteen feral populations of B. napus also showed a strong tendency toward rapid decline in plant number, seed return, and ultimately, extinction within 3 years. Conversely, hybrid production is significant in mixed stands, and the absence of control practices means that oilseed rape will have slightly greater persistence. We infer that some introgression from transplastomic B. napus into B. rapa is inevitable in mixed populations even though such populations will occur infrequently and will tend to lose B. napus plants relatively quickly. Chloroplast exchange will be extremely rare and scattered.

  16. Management of Rhizoctonia Damping-off of Brassica Oilseed Crops in the PNW

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Rhizoctonia solani can cause pre and post-emergence damping off of Brassica oilseed species with adverse effects on stand establishment. In greenhouse experiments, we have examined resistance to two groups (AGs) of Rhizoctonia solani among various Brassica species and varieties. R. solani AG 2-1 is ...

  17. Material and interaction properties of selected grains and oilseeds for modeling discrete particles

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Experimental investigations of grain flow can be expensive and time-consuming, but computer simulations can reduce the large effort required to evaluate the flow of grain in handling operations. Published data on material and interaction properties of selected grains and oilseeds relevant to Discret...

  18. A rapid and automated low resolution NMR method to analyze oil quality in intact oilseeds.

    PubMed

    Prestes, Rosilene Aparecida; Colnago, Luiz Alberto; Forato, Lucimara Aparecida; Vizzotto, Lucinéia; Novotny, Etelvino Henrique; Carrilho, Emanuel

    2007-07-23

    Oilseeds with modified fatty acid profiles have been the genetic alternative for high quality vegetable oil for food and biodiesel applications. They can provide stable, functional oils for the food industry, without the hydrogenation process that produces trans-fatty acid, which has been linked to cardiovascular disease. High yield and high quality oilseeds are also necessary for the success of biodiesel programs, as polyunsaturated or saturated fatty acid oil produces biofuel with undesirable properties. In this paper, a rapid and automated low resolution NMR method to select intact oilseeds with a modified fatty acid profile is introduced, based on 1H transverse relaxation time (T2). The T2 weighted NMR signal, obtained by a CPMG pulse sequence and processed by chemometric methods was able to determine the oil quality in intact seeds by its fatty composition, cetane number, iodine value and kinematic viscosity with a correlation coefficient r > 0.9. The automated system has the potential to analyze more than 1000 samples per hour and is a powerful tool to speed up the selection of high quality oilseeds for food and biodiesel applications.

  19. 75 FR 41963 - Wheat and Oilseed Programs; Durum Wheat Quality Program

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-20

    ... (36 FR 13804) relating to notices of proposed rulemaking and public participation in rulemaking... 7 CFR part 3015, subpart V, published in the Federal Register on June 24, 1983 (48 FR 29115... Corporation 7 CFR Part 1413 RIN 0560-AH72 Wheat and Oilseed Programs; Durum Wheat Quality Program AGENCY:...

  20. 40 CFR 63.2855 - How do I determine the quantity of oilseed processed?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... oilseed processed? 63.2855 Section 63.2855 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... accounting month rather than a calendar month basis, and you have 12 complete accounting months of approximately equal duration in a calendar year, you may substitute the accounting month time interval for...

  1. Registration of an oilseed sunflower germplasm HA-DM1 resistant to sunflower downy mildew

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    HA-DM1 (Reg. No.xxx, PI 674793) sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) germplasm was developed and released cooperatively by the USDA-ARS, Sunflower and Plant Biology Research Unit and the North Dakota Agricultural Experiment Station in 2015. HA-DM1 is a BC2F4 derived oilseed maintainer line from the cros...

  2. 40 CFR 63.2855 - How do I determine the quantity of oilseed processed?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 13 2013-07-01 2012-07-01 true How do I determine the quantity of oilseed processed? 63.2855 Section 63.2855 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) NATIONAL EMISSION STANDARDS FOR HAZARDOUS AIR POLLUTANTS FOR SOURCE CATEGORIES (CONTINUED) National...

  3. Early osmotic adjustment responses in drought-resistant and drought-sensitive oilseed rape.

    PubMed

    Hatzig, Sarah; Zaharia, L Irina; Abrams, Suzanne; Hohmann, Marie; Legoahec, Laurie; Bouchereau, Alain; Nesi, Nathalie; Snowdon, Rod J

    2014-08-01

    The impact of osmotic stress on growth, physiology, and metabolism of winter oilseed rape (Brassica napus L.) was investigated by detailed analysis of biomass traits, hormone metabolites and osmolytes in two genetically unrelated drought-tolerant genotypes and two unrelated drought-sensitive genotypes. Seedlings were grown in vitro under controlled conditions and osmotic stress was simulated by applying a gradual treatment with polyethylene glycol (PEG 6000), followed by hypo-osmotic treatment of variants used for metabolite determination. The results provide a basis for the identification of reliable selection criteria for drought resistance in oilseed rape. The in vitro cultivation system established during this study enabled effective discrimination of early osmotic stress responses between drought-resistant and -susceptible oilseed rape genotypes that also show large differences in relative seed yield under drought conditions in the field. Clear physiological and metabolic differences were observed between the drought-resistant and drought-sensitive genotypes, suggesting that osmotic adjustment is a key component of drought response in oilseed rape. Unexpectedly, however, the drought-resistant genotypes did not show typical hormonal adjustment and osmolyte accumulation, suggesting that they possess alternative physiological mechanisms enabling avoidance of stress symptoms. PMID:24667002

  4. Heterogeneity in the distribution of genetically modified and conventional oilseed rape within fields and seed lots.

    PubMed

    Begg, Graham S; Elliott, Martin J; Cullen, Danny W; Iannetta, Pietro P M; Squire, Geoff R

    2008-10-01

    The implementation of co-existence in the commercialisation of GM crops requires GM and non-GM products to be segregated in production and supply. However, maintaining segregation in oilseed rape will be made difficult by the highly persistent nature of this species. An understanding of its population dynamics is needed to predict persistence and develop potential strategies for control, while to ensure segregation is being achieved, the production of GM oilseed rape must be accompanied by the monitoring of GM levels in crop or seed populations. Heterogeneity in the spatial distribution of oilseed rape has the potential to affect both control and monitoring and, although a universal phenomenon in arable weeds and harvested seed lots, spatial heterogeneity in oilseed rape populations remains to be demonstrated and quantified. Here we investigate the distribution of crop and volunteer populations in a commercial field before and during the cultivation of the first conventional oilseed rape (winter) crop since the cultivation of a GM glufosinate-tolerant oilseed rape crop (spring) three years previously. GM presence was detected by ELISA for the PAT protein in each of three morphologically distinguishable phenotypes: autumn germinating crop-type plants (3% GM), autumn-germinating 'regrowths' (72% GM) and spring germinating 'small-type' plants (17% GM). Statistical models (Poisson log-normal and binomial logit-normal) were used to describe the spatial distribution of these populations at multiple spatial scales in the field and of GM presence in the harvested seed lot. Heterogeneity was a consistent feature in the distribution of GM and conventional oilseed rape. Large trends across the field (50 x 400 m) and seed lot (4 x 1.5 x 1.5 m) were observed in addition to small-scale heterogeneity, less than 20 m in the field and 20 cm in the seed lot. The heterogeneity was greater for the 'regrowth' and 'small' phenotypes, which were likely to be volunteers and included most

  5. Biodiversity of nematofauna of oilseed rape (Brassica napus L.).

    PubMed

    Manachini, B; Landi, S; Tomasini, V

    2005-01-01

    Few data is available on the nematodes found in Brassicaceae, except for the most important plant parasite. However, studying the structure of nematofauna could be an important database for the soil quality and in order to assess the effects of future disturbance. This is particularly important considering that the diffusion of the canola crop in the world is increasing because of its use as a bio-diesel. Very diffused is also the Bt variety of oil seed rape, and, in this case, the study of the impact on the soil health and on bio-diversity is essential. In this research we have analyzed the nematode community, used as a bio-indicator of the soil condition. The nematofauna found in canola (Brassica napus var. oleifera) fields located in Southern Italy (Metaponto - MT) was investigated. The nematode community was studied considering its abundance, genus composition and trophic structure. Maturity and biodiversity indices were also calculated. A total of 5286 nematodes were extracted. They belong to 14 families and 24 genera. Bacterial and fungal feeders, 50.18% and 42.90% of the total respectively, dominated the trophic structure. Aphelencus is the most abundant genus (23.71%) followed by Acrobeloides (20.49%) and Aphelencoides (19.18%). Among plant feeders (6.59%), Pratylenchus is the dominant genus (2.20%) and Tylenchidae the main family (3.54%). No infestation of Meloidogyne, Heterodera or Naboccus, important plant-parasitic nematodes of canola crops, was recorded. Other important phytophagous were Helycotylenchus (0.5%), Trichotylenchus (0.5%) and Filenchus (0.9%). All of them had an abundance level below injury level. The indices of biodiversity are rather low (H'=0.93, J'=0.67), as is typical for agro ecosystems. However, the nematofauna community is quite well structured (N2=6.31, D=0.16) and the maturity index rather high (EMI=1.94). These values demonstrate that oilseed rape has a lower impact on the soil compared to other crop systems and that it could be

  6. Multi range spectral feature fitting for hyperspectral imagery in extracting oilseed rape planting area

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pan, Zhuokun; Huang, Jingfeng; Wang, Fumin

    2013-12-01

    Spectral feature fitting (SFF) is a commonly used strategy for hyperspectral imagery analysis to discriminate ground targets. Compared to other image analysis techniques, SFF does not secure higher accuracy in extracting image information in all circumstances. Multi range spectral feature fitting (MRSFF) from ENVI software allows user to focus on those interesting spectral features to yield better performance. Thus spectral wavelength ranges and their corresponding weights must be determined. The purpose of this article is to demonstrate the performance of MRSFF in oilseed rape planting area extraction. A practical method for defining the weighted values, the variance coefficient weight method, was proposed to set up criterion. Oilseed rape field canopy spectra from the whole growth stage were collected prior to investigating its phenological varieties; oilseed rape endmember spectra were extracted from the Hyperion image as identifying samples to be used in analyzing the oilseed rape field. Wavelength range divisions were determined by the difference between field-measured spectra and image spectra, and image spectral variance coefficient weights for each wavelength range were calculated corresponding to field-measured spectra from the closest date. By using MRSFF, wavelength ranges were classified to characterize the target's spectral features without compromising spectral profile's entirety. The analysis was substantially successful in extracting oilseed rape planting areas (RMSE ≤ 0.06), and the RMSE histogram indicated a superior result compared to a conventional SFF. Accuracy assessment was based on the mapping result compared with spectral angle mapping (SAM) and the normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI). The MRSFF yielded a robust, convincible result and, therefore, may further the use of hyperspectral imagery in precision agriculture.

  7. Assessing winter oilseed rape freeze injury based on Chinese HJ remote sensing data.

    PubMed

    She, Bao; Huang, Jing-feng; Guo, Rui-fang; Wang, Hong-bin; Wang, Jing

    2015-02-01

    The winter oilseed rape (Brassica napus L.) accounts for about 90% of the total acreage of oilseed rape in China. However, it suffers the risk of freeze injury during the winter. In this study, we used Chinese HJ-1A/1B CCD sensors, which have a revisit frequency of 2 d as well as 30 m spatial resolution, to monitor the freeze injury of oilseed rape. Mahalanobis distance-derived growing regions in a normal year were taken as the benchmark, and a mask method was applied to obtain the growing regions in the 2010-2011 growing season. The normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) was chosen as the indicator of the degree of damage. The amount of crop damage was determined from the difference in the NDVI before and after the freeze. There was spatial variability in the amount of crop damage, so we examined three factors that may affect the degree of freeze injury: terrain, soil moisture, and crop growth before the freeze. The results showed that all these factors were significantly correlated with freeze injury degree (P<0.01, two-tailed). The damage was generally more serious in low-lying and drought-prone areas; in addition, oilseed rape planted on south- and west-oriented facing slopes and those with luxuriant growth status tended to be more susceptible to freeze injury. Furthermore, land surface temperature (LST) of the coldest day, soil moisture, pre-freeze growth and altitude were in descending order of importance in determining the degree of damage. The findings proposed in this paper would be helpful in understanding the occurrence and severity distribution of oilseed rape freeze injury under certain natural or vegetation conditions, and thus help in mitigation of this kind of meteorological disaster in southern China.

  8. [Application of successive projections algorithm to nondestructive determination of total amino acids in oilseed rape leaves].

    PubMed

    Liu, Fei; Zhang, Fan; Fang, Hui; Jin, Zong-Lai; Zhou, Wei-Jun; He, Yong

    2009-11-01

    Near infrared (NIR) spectroscopy combined with successive projections algorithm (SPA) was investigated for the fast and nondestructive determination of total amino acids (TAA) in oilseed rape leaves. Total amino acids are important indices of the growing status of oilseed rape. A total of 150 leave samples were scanned, the calibration set was composed of 80 samples, the validation set was composed of 40 samples and the prediction set was composed of 30 samples. The optimal partial least squares (PLS) model was developed for the prediction of total amino acids in oilseed rape leaves after the performance comparison of different pretreatments, including smoothing method, standard normal variate (SNV), the first derivative and second derivative. Simultaneously, successive projections algorithm was applied for the extraction of effective wavelengths (EWs), which were thought to have least collinearity and redundancies in the spectral data. The selected effective wavelengths were used as the inputs of multiple linear regression (MLR), partial least squares (PLS) and least square-support vector machine (LS-SVM). Then the SPA-MLR, SPA-PLS and SPA-LS-SVM models were developed for performance comparison. The determination coefficient (R2) and root mean square error (RMSE) were used as the model evaluation indices. The results indicated that both SPA-MLR and SPA-PLS models were better than full-spectrum PLS model, and the best performance was achieved by SPA-LS-SVM model with R2 = 0.983 0 and RMSEP = 0.396 4. An excellent prediction precision was achieved. In conclusion, successive projections algorithm is a powerful way for effective wavelength selection, and it is feasible to determine the total amino acids in oil-seed rape leaves using near infrared spectroscopy and SPA-LS-SVM, and an excellent prediction precision was obtained. This study supplied a new and alternative approach to the further application of near infrared spectroscopy in the response of stress and on

  9. Short communication: effect of oilseed supplementation of an herbage diet on ruminal fermentation in continuous culture.

    PubMed

    Soder, K J; Brito, A F; Rubano, M D

    2013-04-01

    A 4-unit continuous culture fermentor system was used to evaluate the effects of oilseed supplementation of an herbage-based diet on nutrient digestibility, fermentation profile, and bacterial nitrogen (N) synthesis. Treatments were randomly assigned to fermentors in a 4×4 Latin square design with 7d for diet adaptation and 3d for data and sample collection. Dietary treatments were an herbage-only diet (HERB), or the following ground oilseeds supplemented to an herbage-based diet at 10% of total dry matter (DM) fed: flaxseed (FLAX), canola (CAN), or sunflower (SUN). Apparent DM, organic matter, and neutral detergent fiber digestibility were not affected by diet, averaging 62, 68, and 78%, respectively. True DM and organic matter digestibility were not affected by diet, averaging 78 and 82%, respectively. Fermentor pH and total volatile fatty acids were not affected by diet. Branched-chain volatile fatty acids tended to be lower for HERB compared with the 3 oilseed diets. Ammonia N concentrations were lowest for the HERB diet. Crude protein digestibility was not affected by diet. Flow of NH3-N was lowest for the HERB diet reflecting the lowest culture concentration of NH3-N. Bacterial N flows were lowest for HERB and SUN diets, intermediate for FLAX, and greatest for CAN. Flows of total N, non-NH3-N, and dietary N were not affected by diet. Likewise, efficiency of bacterial N synthesis was not affected by diet. Supplementation with FLAX, CAN, or SUN at 10% of total DM fed did not affect nutrient digestibility or ruminal fermentation compared with an all-herbage diet. The oilseeds tested herein may be considered as alternative energy supplements for grazing dairy cows, particularly during times of low availability of corn. However, in vivo studies are needed to further evaluate the effects of oilseeds supplementation of an herbage-based diet on milk production and composition (specifically human-beneficial fatty acids).

  10. Assessing winter oilseed rape freeze injury based on Chinese HJ remote sensing data*

    PubMed Central

    She, Bao; Huang, Jing-feng; Guo, Rui-fang; Wang, Hong-bin; Wang, Jing

    2015-01-01

    The winter oilseed rape (Brassica napus L.) accounts for about 90% of the total acreage of oilseed rape in China. However, it suffers the risk of freeze injury during the winter. In this study, we used Chinese HJ-1A/1B CCD sensors, which have a revisit frequency of 2 d as well as 30 m spatial resolution, to monitor the freeze injury of oilseed rape. Mahalanobis distance-derived growing regions in a normal year were taken as the benchmark, and a mask method was applied to obtain the growing regions in the 2010–2011 growing season. The normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) was chosen as the indicator of the degree of damage. The amount of crop damage was determined from the difference in the NDVI before and after the freeze. There was spatial variability in the amount of crop damage, so we examined three factors that may affect the degree of freeze injury: terrain, soil moisture, and crop growth before the freeze. The results showed that all these factors were significantly correlated with freeze injury degree (P<0.01, two-tailed). The damage was generally more serious in low-lying and drought-prone areas; in addition, oilseed rape planted on south- and west-oriented facing slopes and those with luxuriant growth status tended to be more susceptible to freeze injury. Furthermore, land surface temperature (LST) of the coldest day, soil moisture, pre-freeze growth and altitude were in descending order of importance in determining the degree of damage. The findings proposed in this paper would be helpful in understanding the occurrence and severity distribution of oilseed rape freeze injury under certain natural or vegetation conditions, and thus help in mitigation of this kind of meteorological disaster in southern China. PMID:25644468

  11. Assessing winter oilseed rape freeze injury based on Chinese HJ remote sensing data.

    PubMed

    She, Bao; Huang, Jing-feng; Guo, Rui-fang; Wang, Hong-bin; Wang, Jing

    2015-02-01

    The winter oilseed rape (Brassica napus L.) accounts for about 90% of the total acreage of oilseed rape in China. However, it suffers the risk of freeze injury during the winter. In this study, we used Chinese HJ-1A/1B CCD sensors, which have a revisit frequency of 2 d as well as 30 m spatial resolution, to monitor the freeze injury of oilseed rape. Mahalanobis distance-derived growing regions in a normal year were taken as the benchmark, and a mask method was applied to obtain the growing regions in the 2010-2011 growing season. The normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) was chosen as the indicator of the degree of damage. The amount of crop damage was determined from the difference in the NDVI before and after the freeze. There was spatial variability in the amount of crop damage, so we examined three factors that may affect the degree of freeze injury: terrain, soil moisture, and crop growth before the freeze. The results showed that all these factors were significantly correlated with freeze injury degree (P<0.01, two-tailed). The damage was generally more serious in low-lying and drought-prone areas; in addition, oilseed rape planted on south- and west-oriented facing slopes and those with luxuriant growth status tended to be more susceptible to freeze injury. Furthermore, land surface temperature (LST) of the coldest day, soil moisture, pre-freeze growth and altitude were in descending order of importance in determining the degree of damage. The findings proposed in this paper would be helpful in understanding the occurrence and severity distribution of oilseed rape freeze injury under certain natural or vegetation conditions, and thus help in mitigation of this kind of meteorological disaster in southern China. PMID:25644468

  12. Roadmap for Agriculture Biomass Feedstock Supply in the United States

    SciTech Connect

    J. Richard Hess; Thomas D. Foust; Reed Hoskinson; David Thompson

    2003-11-01

    The Biomass Research and Development Technical Advisory Committee established a goal that biomass will supply 5% of the nation’s power, 20% of its transportation fuels, and 25% of its chemicals by 2030. These combined goals are approximately equivalent to 30% of the country’s current petroleum consumption. The benefits of a robust biorefinery industry supplying this amount of domestically produced power, fuels, and products are considerable, including decreased demand for imported oil, revenue to the depressed agricultural industry, and revitalized rural economies. A consistent supply of highquality, low-cost feedstock is vital to achieving this goal. This biomass roadmap defines the research and development (R&D) path to supplying the feedstock needs of the biorefinery and to achieving the important national goals set for biomass. To meet these goals, the biorefinery industry must be more sustainable than the systems it will replace. Sustainability hinges on the economic profitability of all participants, on environmental impact of every step in the process, and on social impact of the product and its production. In early 2003, a series of colloquies were held to define and prioritize the R&D needs for supplying feedstock to the biorefinery in a sustainable manner. These colloquies involved participants and stakeholders in the feedstock supply chain, including growers, transporters, equipment manufacturers, and processors as well as environmental groups and others with a vested interest in ensuring the sustainability of the biorefinery. From this series of colloquies, four high-level strategic goals were set for the feedstock area: • Biomass Availability – By 2030, 1 billion dry tons of lignocellulosic feedstock is needed annually to achieve the power, fuel, and chemical production goals set by the Biomass Research and Development Technology Advisory Production Committee • Sustainability – Production and use of the 1 billion dry tons annually must be

  13. Development of Improved Chemicals and Plastics from Oilseeds

    SciTech Connect

    Nugent, Patricia A.; Lysenko, Zenon

    2006-11-09

    The overall objective of this program was to develop technology that can be applied to the production of various chemicals and plastics from seed oils. This research and development program included activities in all four key barrier areas identified in the US DOE Technology Roadmap for Plant/Crop-Based Renewable Resources, namely Plant Science, Production, Processing, and Utilization. Participants in the project included The Dow Chemical Company, Castor Oil, Inc., and the USDA Western Regional Research Center (WRRC). The objective of this production task was to evaluate and develop metathesis catalyst technology as a means of utilizing seed oils as feedstocks for the chemical industry. Specifically, ethenolysis of fatty acid methyl esters, FAME’s, leads to functionalized derivatives. These serve as valuable starting points for materials which cascade into a variety of applications, many of which have a current market presence. The relatively recent discovery and commercial availability of a family of metathesis catalysts which are tolerant of polar functional groups and the acquisition and implementation of high throughput synthesis and screening infrastructure led to a prime opportunity to investigate this project area.

  14. Tailoring plant lipid composition: designer oilseeds come of age.

    PubMed

    Napier, Johnathan A; Graham, Ian A

    2010-06-01

    Plant neutral lipids such as seed oil triacylglycerols play a key role in many aspects of human life, ranging from providing essential nutrition to acting as biolubricants. There is also growing interest in using plant oils as a replacement for petrochemicals, either for fuel or as a chemical feedstock. Considerable effort has been focused on modifying the fatty acid composition of seed oils and/or increasing the levels of storage triacylglycerol. Certainly, it is now possible to successfully modify the profile of plant oils via transgenic metabolic engineering to generate something approaching a 'designer oil'. This is specifically true for the accumulation of omega-3 long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids that now stand at levels equivalent to those found in native marine organisms. However, it is equally clear that a holistic understanding of plant lipid metabolism is still lacking, mainly owing to the continually emerging complexity and interplay between pathways, recently exemplified by the identification of the ROD1 phosphatidylcholine:diacylglycerol cholinephosphotransferase involved in the channelling of unsaturated fatty acids into storage oil. The new approaches and outcomes described here will inform new paradigms and hasten the arrival of truly predictive biology in this vital field.

  15. Widespread occurrence of phthalic acid esters in raw oilseeds in China used for edible vegetable oil production.

    PubMed

    Hu, Ai-Peng; Liu, Yu-Lan; Shi, Long-Kai

    2016-09-01

    Seven different phthalic acid esters (PAEs) were quantified in 124 samples of 16 types of oilseeds from China using a simplified GC-MS method. Di-2-ethylhexyl phthalate and di-n-butyl phthalate were found in all tested oilseed samples. Each made a high contribution to the summed total PAEs. Total PAE concentrations in 124 oilseeds ranged from 0.14 to 3.05 mg kg(-1), and the mean was 0.99 mg kg(-1). Mandulapalka (Cyperus esculentus) samples were the most severely contaminated among all the tested specimens; maize germ samples were least contaminated. Di-n-octyl phthalate and butylbenzyl phthalate were not detected in 12 and five types of oilseeds, respectively. Only eight samples contained all seven analytes. No difference was observed between woody oil-bearing plant and herbaceous oil-bearing plant in terms of PAEs content.

  16. Widespread occurrence of phthalic acid esters in raw oilseeds in China used for edible vegetable oil production.

    PubMed

    Hu, Ai-Peng; Liu, Yu-Lan; Shi, Long-Kai

    2016-09-01

    Seven different phthalic acid esters (PAEs) were quantified in 124 samples of 16 types of oilseeds from China using a simplified GC-MS method. Di-2-ethylhexyl phthalate and di-n-butyl phthalate were found in all tested oilseed samples. Each made a high contribution to the summed total PAEs. Total PAE concentrations in 124 oilseeds ranged from 0.14 to 3.05 mg kg(-1), and the mean was 0.99 mg kg(-1). Mandulapalka (Cyperus esculentus) samples were the most severely contaminated among all the tested specimens; maize germ samples were least contaminated. Di-n-octyl phthalate and butylbenzyl phthalate were not detected in 12 and five types of oilseeds, respectively. Only eight samples contained all seven analytes. No difference was observed between woody oil-bearing plant and herbaceous oil-bearing plant in terms of PAEs content. PMID:27603777

  17. Sensitization to turnip rape and oilseed rape in children with atopic dermatitis: a case-control study.

    PubMed

    Poikonen, Sanna; Puumalainen, Tuija J; Kautiainen, Hannu; Palosuo, Timo; Reunala, Timo; Turjanmaa, Kristiina

    2008-08-01

    Turnip rape and oilseed rape 2S albumins are new allergens in children with atopic dermatitis suspected for food allergy. We recently found that 11% (206/1887) of these children had a positive skin prick test to seeds of oilseed rape (Brassica napus) and/or turnip rape (Brassica rapa). In the present case-control study we examined how the children with atopic dermatitis sensitized to turnip rape and oilseed rape had been breast-fed and whether they had some common sensitization pattern to certain foods or pollens. A total of 64 children with atopic dermatitis and a positive skin prick test to turnip rape and/or oilseed rape (>or=5 mm) were examined. Sixty-four age- and sex-matched children with atopic dermatitis but negative skin prick tests to turnip rape and oilseed rape served as case controls. The turnip rape and/or oilseed rape sensitized children with atopic dermatitis had significantly more often positive skin prick tests reactions and IgE antibodies to various foods (cow's milk, egg, wheat, mustard; p < 0.01) and pollens (birch, timothy, mugwort; p < 0.01) than the control children. They had been exclusively breast-fed for a longer period (median 4 months; p < 0.05) and had more often associated asthma (36%) and allergic rhinitis (44%). Children with atopic dermatitis sensitized to oilseed rape and turnip rape had high frequency of associated sensitizations to all foods and pollens tested showing that oilseed plant sensitization affects especially atopic children who have been sensitized to multiple allergens.

  18. Unexpected Diversity of Feral Genetically Modified Oilseed Rape (Brassica napus L.) Despite a Cultivation and Import Ban in Switzerland

    PubMed Central

    Schulze, Juerg; Frauenknecht, Tina; Brodmann, Peter; Bagutti, Claudia

    2014-01-01

    Despite cultivation and seed import bans of genetically modified (GM) oilseed rape (Brassica napus L.), feral GM plants were found growing along railway lines and in port areas at four sites in Switzerland in 2011 and 2012. All GM plants were identified as glyphosate-resistant GM event GT73 (Roundup Ready, Monsanto). The most affected sites were the Rhine port of Basel and the St. Johann freight railway station in Basel. To assess the distribution and intra- and interspecific outcrossing of GM oilseed rape in more detail, we monitored these two sites in 2013. Leaves and seed pods of feral oilseed rape plants, their possible hybridization partners and putative hybrid plants were sampled in monthly intervals and analysed for the presence of transgenes by real-time PCR. Using flow cytometry, we measured DNA contents of cell nuclei to confirm putative hybrids. In total, 2787 plants were sampled. The presence of GT73 oilseed rape could be confirmed at all previously documented sampling locations and was additionally detected at one new sampling location within the Rhine port. Furthermore, we found the glufosinate-resistant GM events MS8xRF3, MS8 and RF3 (all traded as InVigor, Bayer) at five sampling locations in the Rhine port. To our knowledge, this is the first time that feral MS8xRF3, MS8 or RF3 plants were detected in Europe. Real-time PCR analyses of seeds showed outcrossing of GT73 into two non-GM oilseed rape plants, but no outcrossing of transgenes into related wild species was observed. We found no hybrids between oilseed rape and related species. GM plants most frequently occurred at unloading sites for ships, indicating that ship cargo traffic is the main entry pathway for GM oilseed rape. In the future, it will be of major interest to determine the source of GM oilseed rape seeds. PMID:25464509

  19. Unexpected diversity of feral genetically modified oilseed rape (Brassica napus L.) despite a cultivation and import ban in Switzerland.

    PubMed

    Schulze, Juerg; Frauenknecht, Tina; Brodmann, Peter; Bagutti, Claudia

    2014-01-01

    Despite cultivation and seed import bans of genetically modified (GM) oilseed rape (Brassica napus L.), feral GM plants were found growing along railway lines and in port areas at four sites in Switzerland in 2011 and 2012. All GM plants were identified as glyphosate-resistant GM event GT73 (Roundup Ready, Monsanto). The most affected sites were the Rhine port of Basel and the St. Johann freight railway station in Basel. To assess the distribution and intra- and interspecific outcrossing of GM oilseed rape in more detail, we monitored these two sites in 2013. Leaves and seed pods of feral oilseed rape plants, their possible hybridization partners and putative hybrid plants were sampled in monthly intervals and analysed for the presence of transgenes by real-time PCR. Using flow cytometry, we measured DNA contents of cell nuclei to confirm putative hybrids. In total, 2787 plants were sampled. The presence of GT73 oilseed rape could be confirmed at all previously documented sampling locations and was additionally detected at one new sampling location within the Rhine port. Furthermore, we found the glufosinate-resistant GM events MS8xRF3, MS8 and RF3 (all traded as InVigor, Bayer) at five sampling locations in the Rhine port. To our knowledge, this is the first time that feral MS8xRF3, MS8 or RF3 plants were detected in Europe. Real-time PCR analyses of seeds showed outcrossing of GT73 into two non-GM oilseed rape plants, but no outcrossing of transgenes into related wild species was observed. We found no hybrids between oilseed rape and related species. GM plants most frequently occurred at unloading sites for ships, indicating that ship cargo traffic is the main entry pathway for GM oilseed rape. In the future, it will be of major interest to determine the source of GM oilseed rape seeds. PMID:25464509

  20. Unexpected diversity of feral genetically modified oilseed rape (Brassica napus L.) despite a cultivation and import ban in Switzerland.

    PubMed

    Schulze, Juerg; Frauenknecht, Tina; Brodmann, Peter; Bagutti, Claudia

    2014-01-01

    Despite cultivation and seed import bans of genetically modified (GM) oilseed rape (Brassica napus L.), feral GM plants were found growing along railway lines and in port areas at four sites in Switzerland in 2011 and 2012. All GM plants were identified as glyphosate-resistant GM event GT73 (Roundup Ready, Monsanto). The most affected sites were the Rhine port of Basel and the St. Johann freight railway station in Basel. To assess the distribution and intra- and interspecific outcrossing of GM oilseed rape in more detail, we monitored these two sites in 2013. Leaves and seed pods of feral oilseed rape plants, their possible hybridization partners and putative hybrid plants were sampled in monthly intervals and analysed for the presence of transgenes by real-time PCR. Using flow cytometry, we measured DNA contents of cell nuclei to confirm putative hybrids. In total, 2787 plants were sampled. The presence of GT73 oilseed rape could be confirmed at all previously documented sampling locations and was additionally detected at one new sampling location within the Rhine port. Furthermore, we found the glufosinate-resistant GM events MS8xRF3, MS8 and RF3 (all traded as InVigor, Bayer) at five sampling locations in the Rhine port. To our knowledge, this is the first time that feral MS8xRF3, MS8 or RF3 plants were detected in Europe. Real-time PCR analyses of seeds showed outcrossing of GT73 into two non-GM oilseed rape plants, but no outcrossing of transgenes into related wild species was observed. We found no hybrids between oilseed rape and related species. GM plants most frequently occurred at unloading sites for ships, indicating that ship cargo traffic is the main entry pathway for GM oilseed rape. In the future, it will be of major interest to determine the source of GM oilseed rape seeds.

  1. Vermicompost derived from different feedstocks as a plant growth medium.

    PubMed

    Warman, P R; Anglopez, M J

    2010-06-01

    This study determined feedstock effects on earthworm populations and the quality of resulting vermicomposts produced from different types of feedstocks using different vermicomposting durations. Feedstock combinations (Kitchen Paper Waste (KPW), Kitchen Yard Waste (KYW), Cattle Manure Yard Waste (CMY)), three durations of vermicomposting (45, 68 or 90 days), and two seed germination methods (with two concentrations of vermicompost) for radish, marigold and upland cress, served as the independent variables. The worms (Eisenia fetida) doubled their weight by day 68 in KPW and CMY vermicomposts and day 90 KPW vermicompost produced the greatest weight of worms. The direct seed germination method (seeding into soil or vermicompost-soil mixtures) indicated that KPW and KYW feedstocks decreased germination compared to the control, even in mature vermicompost. Seed germination was greater in the water extract method; however, most of the vermicompost extracts suppressed germination of the three seed species compared to the water controls. Vermicomposts from all three feedstocks increased leaf area and biomass compared to the control, especially in the 10% vermicompost:soil mix. Thus, seed germination and leaf area or plant biomass for these three species are contrasting vermicompost quality indicators.

  2. Conversion of agricultural feedstock and coproducts into poly(hydroxyalkanoates).

    PubMed

    Solaiman, Daniel K Y; Ashby, Richard D; Foglia, Thomas A; Marmer, William N

    2006-08-01

    Aside from their importance to the survival and general welfare of mankind, agriculture and its related industries produce large quantities of feedstocks and coproducts that can be used as inexpensive substrates for fermentative processes. Successful adoption of these materials into commercial processes could further the realization of a biorefinery industry based on agriculturally derived feedstocks. One potential concept is the production of poly(hydroxyalkanoate) (PHA) polymers, a family of microbial biopolyesters with a myriad of possible monomeric compositions and performance properties. The economics for the fermentative production of PHA could benefit from the use of low-cost agricultural feedstocks and coproducts. This mini-review provides a brief survey of research performed in this area, with specific emphasis on studies describing the utilization of intact triacylglycerols (vegetable oils and animal fats), dairy whey, molasses, and meat-and-bone meal as substrates in the microbial synthesis of PHA polymers.

  3. Cost Methodology for Biomass Feedstocks: Herbaceous Crops and Agricultural Residues

    SciTech Connect

    Turhollow Jr, Anthony F; Webb, Erin; Sokhansanj, Shahabaddine

    2009-12-01

    This report describes a set of procedures and assumptions used to estimate production and logistics costs of bioenergy feedstocks from herbaceous crops and agricultural residues. The engineering-economic analysis discussed here is based on methodologies developed by the American Society of Agricultural and Biological Engineers (ASABE) and the American Agricultural Economics Association (AAEA). An engineering-economic analysis approach was chosen due to lack of historical cost data for bioenergy feedstocks. Instead, costs are calculated using assumptions for equipment performance, input prices, and yield data derived from equipment manufacturers, research literature, and/or standards. Cost estimates account for fixed and variable costs. Several examples of this costing methodology used to estimate feedstock logistics costs are included at the end of this report.

  4. Processes prevent detrimental effects from As and Hg in feedstocks

    SciTech Connect

    Sarrazin, P.; Cameron, C.J.; Barthel, Y. , 92 - Rueil-Malmaison ); Morrison, M.E. )

    1993-01-25

    The wide range of mercury and arsenic species sometimes present in raw condensates or crude oils can cause major problems such as corrosion and reduced catalyst life. This paper reports on simple, low-investment, feedstock treatment procedures which have been developed that eliminate both As and Hg impurities with very high efficiencies. During the past 20 years, refiners and petrochemical producers have experienced a serious increase in catalyst poisoning caused by mercury and arsenic. This phenomenon may be partically explained by the diversification of the feedstock supply resulting from the need to optimize the profitability of refining and petrochemical operations. The utilization of a more diverse feedstock supply containing metal impurities has led to operating problems such as corrosion of aluminum alloys in steam cracker cold boxes.

  5. CBTL Design Case Summary Conventional Feedstock Supply System - Woody

    SciTech Connect

    Christopher T. Wright; Erin M. Searcy

    2012-02-01

    A conventional woody feedstock design has been developed that represents supply system technologies, costs, and logistics that are achievable today for supplying woody biomass as a blendstock with coal for energy production. Efforts are made to identify bottlenecks and optimize the efficiency and capacities of this supply system, within the constraints and consideration of existing local feedstock supplies, equipment, and permitting requirements. The feedstock supply system logistics operations encompass all of the activities necessary to move woody biomass from the production location to the conversion reactor ready for blending and insertion. This supply system includes operations that are currently available such that costs and logistics are reasonable and reliable. The system modeled for this research project includes the use of the slash stream since it is a more conservative analysis and represents the material actually used in the experimental part of the project.

  6. Macroalgae as a Biomass Feedstock: A Preliminary Analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Roesijadi, Guritno; Jones, Susanne B.; Snowden-Swan, Lesley J.; Zhu, Yunhua

    2010-09-26

    A thorough of macroalgae analysis as a biofuels feedstock is warranted due to the size of this biomass resource and the need to consider all potential sources of feedstock to meet current biomass production goals. Understanding how to harness this untapped biomass resource will require additional research and development. A detailed assessment of environmental resources, cultivation and harvesting technology, conversion to fuels, connectivity with existing energy supply chains, and the associated economic and life cycle analyses will facilitate evaluation of this potentially important biomass resource.

  7. Uncommon associations in target resistance among French populations of Myzus persicae from oilseed rape crops.

    PubMed

    Fontaine, Séverine; Caddoux, Laëtitia; Brazier, Christine; Bertho, Corentin; Bertolla, Paul; Micoud, Annie; Roy, Lise

    2011-08-01

    Within the framework of a molecular exploration of target resistance in populations of Myzus persicae on oilseed rapes in France, (1) the S431F mutation (coding gene ace2), although previously reckoned to be rare, revealed to be frequent, (2) M918L (phenotypically characterised) and L932F (both on para) were found for the first time in M. persicae, and (3) a linkage was revealed between M918L and S431F. While until recently populations developing on French oilseed rapes were dominated by genotypes possessing pyrethroid target resistance and esterase overproduction, to date a different type of dominating genotype, equipped with carbamate and pyrethroid target resistance, seems to be invading such fields.

  8. Comparative analysis of Cucurbita pepo metabolism throughout fruit development in acorn squash and oilseed pumpkin

    PubMed Central

    Wyatt, Lindsay E; Strickler, Susan R; Mueller, Lukas A; Mazourek, Michael

    2016-01-01

    Both the fruit mesocarp and the seeds of winter squash can be used for consumption, although the focus of breeding efforts varies by cultivar. Cultivars bred for fruit consumption are selected for fruit mesocarp quality traits such as carotenoid content, percent dry matter, and percent soluble solids, while these traits are essentially ignored in oilseed pumpkins. To compare fruit development in these two types of squash, we sequenced the fruit transcriptome of two cultivars bred for different purposes: an acorn squash, ‘Sweet REBA’, and an oilseed pumpkin, ‘Lady Godiva’. Putative metabolic pathways were developed for carotenoid, starch, and sucrose synthesis in winter squash fruit and squash homologs were identified for each of the structural genes in the pathways. Gene expression, especially of known rate-limiting and branch point genes, corresponded with metabolite accumulation both across development and between the two cultivars. Thus, developmental regulation of metabolite genes is an important factor in winter squash fruit quality.

  9. Comparative analysis of Cucurbita pepo metabolism throughout fruit development in acorn squash and oilseed pumpkin.

    PubMed

    Wyatt, Lindsay E; Strickler, Susan R; Mueller, Lukas A; Mazourek, Michael

    2016-01-01

    Both the fruit mesocarp and the seeds of winter squash can be used for consumption, although the focus of breeding efforts varies by cultivar. Cultivars bred for fruit consumption are selected for fruit mesocarp quality traits such as carotenoid content, percent dry matter, and percent soluble solids, while these traits are essentially ignored in oilseed pumpkins. To compare fruit development in these two types of squash, we sequenced the fruit transcriptome of two cultivars bred for different purposes: an acorn squash, 'Sweet REBA', and an oilseed pumpkin, 'Lady Godiva'. Putative metabolic pathways were developed for carotenoid, starch, and sucrose synthesis in winter squash fruit and squash homologs were identified for each of the structural genes in the pathways. Gene expression, especially of known rate-limiting and branch point genes, corresponded with metabolite accumulation both across development and between the two cultivars. Thus, developmental regulation of metabolite genes is an important factor in winter squash fruit quality. PMID:27688889

  10. Plant genetics. Early allopolyploid evolution in the post-Neolithic Brassica napus oilseed genome.

    PubMed

    Chalhoub, Boulos; Denoeud, France; Liu, Shengyi; Parkin, Isobel A P; Tang, Haibao; Wang, Xiyin; Chiquet, Julien; Belcram, Harry; Tong, Chaobo; Samans, Birgit; Corréa, Margot; Da Silva, Corinne; Just, Jérémy; Falentin, Cyril; Koh, Chu Shin; Le Clainche, Isabelle; Bernard, Maria; Bento, Pascal; Noel, Benjamin; Labadie, Karine; Alberti, Adriana; Charles, Mathieu; Arnaud, Dominique; Guo, Hui; Daviaud, Christian; Alamery, Salman; Jabbari, Kamel; Zhao, Meixia; Edger, Patrick P; Chelaifa, Houda; Tack, David; Lassalle, Gilles; Mestiri, Imen; Schnel, Nicolas; Le Paslier, Marie-Christine; Fan, Guangyi; Renault, Victor; Bayer, Philippe E; Golicz, Agnieszka A; Manoli, Sahana; Lee, Tae-Ho; Thi, Vinh Ha Dinh; Chalabi, Smahane; Hu, Qiong; Fan, Chuchuan; Tollenaere, Reece; Lu, Yunhai; Battail, Christophe; Shen, Jinxiong; Sidebottom, Christine H D; Wang, Xinfa; Canaguier, Aurélie; Chauveau, Aurélie; Bérard, Aurélie; Deniot, Gwenaëlle; Guan, Mei; Liu, Zhongsong; Sun, Fengming; Lim, Yong Pyo; Lyons, Eric; Town, Christopher D; Bancroft, Ian; Wang, Xiaowu; Meng, Jinling; Ma, Jianxin; Pires, J Chris; King, Graham J; Brunel, Dominique; Delourme, Régine; Renard, Michel; Aury, Jean-Marc; Adams, Keith L; Batley, Jacqueline; Snowdon, Rod J; Tost, Jorg; Edwards, David; Zhou, Yongming; Hua, Wei; Sharpe, Andrew G; Paterson, Andrew H; Guan, Chunyun; Wincker, Patrick

    2014-08-22

    Oilseed rape (Brassica napus L.) was formed ~7500 years ago by hybridization between B. rapa and B. oleracea, followed by chromosome doubling, a process known as allopolyploidy. Together with more ancient polyploidizations, this conferred an aggregate 72× genome multiplication since the origin of angiosperms and high gene content. We examined the B. napus genome and the consequences of its recent duplication. The constituent An and Cn subgenomes are engaged in subtle structural, functional, and epigenetic cross-talk, with abundant homeologous exchanges. Incipient gene loss and expression divergence have begun. Selection in B. napus oilseed types has accelerated the loss of glucosinolate genes, while preserving expansion of oil biosynthesis genes. These processes provide insights into allopolyploid evolution and its relationship with crop domestication and improvement.

  11. Comparative analysis of Cucurbita pepo metabolism throughout fruit development in acorn squash and oilseed pumpkin.

    PubMed

    Wyatt, Lindsay E; Strickler, Susan R; Mueller, Lukas A; Mazourek, Michael

    2016-01-01

    Both the fruit mesocarp and the seeds of winter squash can be used for consumption, although the focus of breeding efforts varies by cultivar. Cultivars bred for fruit consumption are selected for fruit mesocarp quality traits such as carotenoid content, percent dry matter, and percent soluble solids, while these traits are essentially ignored in oilseed pumpkins. To compare fruit development in these two types of squash, we sequenced the fruit transcriptome of two cultivars bred for different purposes: an acorn squash, 'Sweet REBA', and an oilseed pumpkin, 'Lady Godiva'. Putative metabolic pathways were developed for carotenoid, starch, and sucrose synthesis in winter squash fruit and squash homologs were identified for each of the structural genes in the pathways. Gene expression, especially of known rate-limiting and branch point genes, corresponded with metabolite accumulation both across development and between the two cultivars. Thus, developmental regulation of metabolite genes is an important factor in winter squash fruit quality.

  12. Use of reverse micelles for the simultaneous extraction of oil, proteins, and glucosinolates from cruciferous oilseeds.

    PubMed

    Ugolini, Luisa; De Nicola, Gina; Palmieri, Sandro

    2008-03-12

    Cruciferous oilseeds are important sources of oil, proteins, and glucosinolates (GLs), potentially available when biorefinery processes are used. The proposed extraction technology is based on the use of reverse micelles (RMs) made with cetyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB) dispersed in organic solvent. The physicochemical properties of this extraction system and the good water solubility of many high value compounds, such as GLs and some proteins, permit the simultaneous extraction of oil, and these products from cruciferous oilseed meals. This procedure is based on three main steps: (i) seed conditioning; (ii) solid-liquid extraction by RM solution; and (iii) back-transfer of the RM solution for recovery of the extracted compounds. The method makes it possible to simultaneously extract almost the same amount of oil as with pure organic solvents used in the current extraction plants and more than 90% of soluble proteins and GLs. It is a promising biorefinery technology alternative to traditional oil extraction processes.

  13. Recent developments in the localization of oil body-associated signaling molecules during lipolysis in oilseeds.

    PubMed

    Bhatla, Satish C; Vandana, Shweta; Kaushik, Vibha

    2009-03-01

    Prior to and/or accompanying lipolytic degradation of triacylglycerols (TAGs) during seed germination in oilseeds, certain enzymatic and non-enzymatic signaling molecules are expressed on the oil body membranes. These include certain proteases, lipoxygenase, phospholipase A(2) and lipase. Although enough biochemical investigations have demonstrated their activities, recent developments in the in situ localization of these signaling molecules in germinating oilseeds, have enhanced our understanding in this field. This is evident from the temporal and spatial changes observed in the expression pattern of some of these molecules. Present review aims at providing an up-to-date account of these recent developments in the author's and other laboratories, which are largely based on fluorescence microscopic and confocal laser scanning microscopic (CLSM) imaging of the molecular changes using specific fluorescent probes. A model for the molecular events associated with oil body mobilization is also being presented.

  14. Storage reserve mobilization in germinating oilseeds: Arabidopsis as a model system.

    PubMed

    Penfield, S; Graham, S; Graham, I A

    2005-04-01

    Germinating oilseeds break down fatty acids through peroxisomal beta-oxidation and convert the carbon into soluble carbohydrates through the glyoxylate cycle and gluconeogenesis. This interconversion is unique among higher eukaryotes. Using a combination of forward and reverse genetic screens, we have isolated mutants that compromise fatty acid breakdown at each step. These mutants exhibit characteristic, yet nonidentical, seedling establishment phenotypes that can be rescued by the provision of an alternative carbon source. In addition, we have recently shown that Arabidopsis seed's lipid breakdown occurs in two distinct tissues, the embryo and endosperm. The utilization of endospermic lipid reserves requires gluconeogenesis and transport of the resulting sugars to the germinating embryo. We discuss the potential of the Arabidopsis endosperm tissue as a simplified model system for the study of germination and lipid breakdown in germinating oilseeds.

  15. Comparative analysis of Cucurbita pepo metabolism throughout fruit development in acorn squash and oilseed pumpkin

    PubMed Central

    Wyatt, Lindsay E; Strickler, Susan R; Mueller, Lukas A; Mazourek, Michael

    2016-01-01

    Both the fruit mesocarp and the seeds of winter squash can be used for consumption, although the focus of breeding efforts varies by cultivar. Cultivars bred for fruit consumption are selected for fruit mesocarp quality traits such as carotenoid content, percent dry matter, and percent soluble solids, while these traits are essentially ignored in oilseed pumpkins. To compare fruit development in these two types of squash, we sequenced the fruit transcriptome of two cultivars bred for different purposes: an acorn squash, ‘Sweet REBA’, and an oilseed pumpkin, ‘Lady Godiva’. Putative metabolic pathways were developed for carotenoid, starch, and sucrose synthesis in winter squash fruit and squash homologs were identified for each of the structural genes in the pathways. Gene expression, especially of known rate-limiting and branch point genes, corresponded with metabolite accumulation both across development and between the two cultivars. Thus, developmental regulation of metabolite genes is an important factor in winter squash fruit quality. PMID:27688889

  16. Recent developments in the localization of oil body-associated signaling molecules during lipolysis in oilseeds

    PubMed Central

    Vandana, Shweta; Kaushik, Vibha

    2009-01-01

    Prior to and/or accompanying lipolytic degradation of triacylglycerols (TAGs) during seed germination in oilseeds, certain enzymatic and non-enzymatic signaling molecules are expressed on the oil body membranes. These include certain proteases, lipoxygenase, phospholipase A2 and lipase. Although enough biochemical investigations have demonstrated their activities, recent developments in the in situ localization of these signaling molecules in germinating oilseeds, have enhanced our understanding in this field. This is evident from the temporal and spatial changes observed in the expression pattern of some of these molecules. Present review aims at providing an up-to-date account of these recent developments in the author's and other laboratories, which are largely based on fluorescence microscopic and confocal laser scanning microscopic (CLSM) imaging of the molecular changes using specific fluorescent probes. A model for the molecular events associated with oil body mobilization is also being presented. PMID:19721744

  17. Plant genetics. Early allopolyploid evolution in the post-Neolithic Brassica napus oilseed genome.

    PubMed

    Chalhoub, Boulos; Denoeud, France; Liu, Shengyi; Parkin, Isobel A P; Tang, Haibao; Wang, Xiyin; Chiquet, Julien; Belcram, Harry; Tong, Chaobo; Samans, Birgit; Corréa, Margot; Da Silva, Corinne; Just, Jérémy; Falentin, Cyril; Koh, Chu Shin; Le Clainche, Isabelle; Bernard, Maria; Bento, Pascal; Noel, Benjamin; Labadie, Karine; Alberti, Adriana; Charles, Mathieu; Arnaud, Dominique; Guo, Hui; Daviaud, Christian; Alamery, Salman; Jabbari, Kamel; Zhao, Meixia; Edger, Patrick P; Chelaifa, Houda; Tack, David; Lassalle, Gilles; Mestiri, Imen; Schnel, Nicolas; Le Paslier, Marie-Christine; Fan, Guangyi; Renault, Victor; Bayer, Philippe E; Golicz, Agnieszka A; Manoli, Sahana; Lee, Tae-Ho; Thi, Vinh Ha Dinh; Chalabi, Smahane; Hu, Qiong; Fan, Chuchuan; Tollenaere, Reece; Lu, Yunhai; Battail, Christophe; Shen, Jinxiong; Sidebottom, Christine H D; Wang, Xinfa; Canaguier, Aurélie; Chauveau, Aurélie; Bérard, Aurélie; Deniot, Gwenaëlle; Guan, Mei; Liu, Zhongsong; Sun, Fengming; Lim, Yong Pyo; Lyons, Eric; Town, Christopher D; Bancroft, Ian; Wang, Xiaowu; Meng, Jinling; Ma, Jianxin; Pires, J Chris; King, Graham J; Brunel, Dominique; Delourme, Régine; Renard, Michel; Aury, Jean-Marc; Adams, Keith L; Batley, Jacqueline; Snowdon, Rod J; Tost, Jorg; Edwards, David; Zhou, Yongming; Hua, Wei; Sharpe, Andrew G; Paterson, Andrew H; Guan, Chunyun; Wincker, Patrick

    2014-08-22

    Oilseed rape (Brassica napus L.) was formed ~7500 years ago by hybridization between B. rapa and B. oleracea, followed by chromosome doubling, a process known as allopolyploidy. Together with more ancient polyploidizations, this conferred an aggregate 72× genome multiplication since the origin of angiosperms and high gene content. We examined the B. napus genome and the consequences of its recent duplication. The constituent An and Cn subgenomes are engaged in subtle structural, functional, and epigenetic cross-talk, with abundant homeologous exchanges. Incipient gene loss and expression divergence have begun. Selection in B. napus oilseed types has accelerated the loss of glucosinolate genes, while preserving expansion of oil biosynthesis genes. These processes provide insights into allopolyploid evolution and its relationship with crop domestication and improvement. PMID:25146293

  18. Large-scale pollination experiment demonstrates the importance of insect pollination in winter oilseed rape.

    PubMed

    Lindström, Sandra A M; Herbertsson, Lina; Rundlöf, Maj; Smith, Henrik G; Bommarco, Riccardo

    2016-03-01

    Insect pollination, despite its potential to contribute substantially to crop production, is not an integrated part of agronomic planning. A major reason for this are knowledge gaps in the contribution of pollinators to yield, which partly result from difficulties in determining area-based estimates of yield effects from insect pollination under field conditions. We have experimentally manipulated honey bee Apis mellifera densities at 43 oilseed rape Brassica napus fields over 2 years in Scandinavia. Honey bee hives were placed in 22 fields; an additional 21 fields without large apiaries in the surrounding landscape were selected as controls. Depending on the pollination system in the parental generation, the B. napus cultivars in the crop fields are classified as either open-pollinated or first-generation hybrids, with both types being open-pollinated in the generation of plants cultivated in the fields. Three cultivars of each type were grown. We measured the activity of flower-visiting insects during flowering and estimated yields by harvesting with small combine harvesters. The addition of honey bee hives to the fields dramatically increased abundance of flower-visiting honey bees in those fields. Honey bees affected yield, but the effect depended on cultivar type (p = 0.04). Post-hoc analysis revealed that open-pollinated cultivars, but not hybrid cultivars, had 11% higher yields in fields with added honey bees than those grown in the control fields (p = 0.07). To our knowledge, this is the first whole-field study in replicated landscapes to assess the benefit of insect pollination in oilseed rape. Our results demonstrate that honey bees have the potential to increase oilseed rape yields, thereby emphasizing the importance of pollinator management for optimal cultivation of oilseed rape. PMID:26650584

  19. Survey of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons of vegetable oils and oilseeds by GC-MS in China.

    PubMed

    Shi, Long-Kai; Zhang, Dong-Dong; Liu, Yu-Lan

    2016-01-01

    There is a lack of information regarding the occurrence and content of contamination of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) in edible vegetable oils and oilseeds used for oil production in China. By combining the advantages of ultrasound-assisted extraction, low temperature separation and silica SPE purification, a method for the determination of the USEPA, 16 PAHs was developed based on GC-MS to fill this gap. The method recoveries for oils and oilseeds were 84.4-113.8% and 84.3-115.3%, respectively. The LODs and LOQs for 16 PAHs were ranged from 0.06-0.17 and 0.19-0.56 μg kg(-1), respectively. Based on the established method, PAH concentrations in 21 edible oils and 17 oilseeds were determined. Almost all the PAHs were found in all the samples tested, especially the light PAHs (LPAHs). Three oil samples exceeded the maximum level of 10 μg kg(-1) for BaP set by China. However, five and six oil samples, respectively, exceeded the maximum limits of 2 and 10 μg kg(-1) set for BaP and PAH4 by the European Union. The concentrations of PAH16 in oilseed samples were 1.5 times higher than corresponding oil samples. The relationships between PAH4 and PAH8, PAH4 and PAH16 as well as PAH8 and PAH16 indicates that PAH4 is a sufficient surrogate for the contamination level of PAHs in edible oils when compared with PAH8.

  20. Large-scale pollination experiment demonstrates the importance of insect pollination in winter oilseed rape.

    PubMed

    Lindström, Sandra A M; Herbertsson, Lina; Rundlöf, Maj; Smith, Henrik G; Bommarco, Riccardo

    2016-03-01

    Insect pollination, despite its potential to contribute substantially to crop production, is not an integrated part of agronomic planning. A major reason for this are knowledge gaps in the contribution of pollinators to yield, which partly result from difficulties in determining area-based estimates of yield effects from insect pollination under field conditions. We have experimentally manipulated honey bee Apis mellifera densities at 43 oilseed rape Brassica napus fields over 2 years in Scandinavia. Honey bee hives were placed in 22 fields; an additional 21 fields without large apiaries in the surrounding landscape were selected as controls. Depending on the pollination system in the parental generation, the B. napus cultivars in the crop fields are classified as either open-pollinated or first-generation hybrids, with both types being open-pollinated in the generation of plants cultivated in the fields. Three cultivars of each type were grown. We measured the activity of flower-visiting insects during flowering and estimated yields by harvesting with small combine harvesters. The addition of honey bee hives to the fields dramatically increased abundance of flower-visiting honey bees in those fields. Honey bees affected yield, but the effect depended on cultivar type (p = 0.04). Post-hoc analysis revealed that open-pollinated cultivars, but not hybrid cultivars, had 11% higher yields in fields with added honey bees than those grown in the control fields (p = 0.07). To our knowledge, this is the first whole-field study in replicated landscapes to assess the benefit of insect pollination in oilseed rape. Our results demonstrate that honey bees have the potential to increase oilseed rape yields, thereby emphasizing the importance of pollinator management for optimal cultivation of oilseed rape.

  1. Survey of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons of vegetable oils and oilseeds by GC-MS in China.

    PubMed

    Shi, Long-Kai; Zhang, Dong-Dong; Liu, Yu-Lan

    2016-01-01

    There is a lack of information regarding the occurrence and content of contamination of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) in edible vegetable oils and oilseeds used for oil production in China. By combining the advantages of ultrasound-assisted extraction, low temperature separation and silica SPE purification, a method for the determination of the USEPA, 16 PAHs was developed based on GC-MS to fill this gap. The method recoveries for oils and oilseeds were 84.4-113.8% and 84.3-115.3%, respectively. The LODs and LOQs for 16 PAHs were ranged from 0.06-0.17 and 0.19-0.56 μg kg(-1), respectively. Based on the established method, PAH concentrations in 21 edible oils and 17 oilseeds were determined. Almost all the PAHs were found in all the samples tested, especially the light PAHs (LPAHs). Three oil samples exceeded the maximum level of 10 μg kg(-1) for BaP set by China. However, five and six oil samples, respectively, exceeded the maximum limits of 2 and 10 μg kg(-1) set for BaP and PAH4 by the European Union. The concentrations of PAH16 in oilseed samples were 1.5 times higher than corresponding oil samples. The relationships between PAH4 and PAH8, PAH4 and PAH16 as well as PAH8 and PAH16 indicates that PAH4 is a sufficient surrogate for the contamination level of PAHs in edible oils when compared with PAH8. PMID:26836028

  2. Cold plasma treatment enhances oilseed rape seed germination under drought stress.

    PubMed

    Ling, Li; Jiangang, Li; Minchong, Shen; Chunlei, Zhang; Yuanhua, Dong

    2015-01-01

    Effects of cold plasma treatment on seed germination, seedling growth, antioxidant enzymes, lipid peroxidation levels and osmotic-adjustment products of oilseed rape under drought stress were investigated in a drought-sensitive (Zhongshuang 7) and drought-tolerant cultivar (Zhongshuang 11). Results showed that, under drought stress, cold plasma treatment significantly improved the germination rate by 6.25% in Zhongshuang 7, and 4.44% in Zhongshuang 11. Seedling growth characteristics, including shoot and root dry weights, shoot and root lengths, and lateral root number, significantly increased after cold plasma treatment. The apparent contact angle was reduced by 30.38% in Zhongshuang 7 and 16.91% in Zhongshuang 11. Cold plasma treatment markedly raised superoxide dismutase and catalase activities by 17.71% and 16.52% in Zhongshuang 7, and by 13.00% and 13.21% in Zhongshuang 11. Moreover, cold plasma treatment significantly increased the soluble sugar and protein contents, but reduced the malondialdehyde content in seedlings. Our results suggested that cold plasma treatment improved oilseed rape drought tolerance by improving antioxidant enzyme activities, increasing osmotic-adjustment products, and reducing lipid peroxidation, especially in the drought-sensitive cultivar (Zhongshuang 7). Thus, cold plasma treatment can be used in an ameliorative way to improve germination and protect oilseed rape seedlings against damage caused by drought stress.

  3. Fluorescence-based AFLPs occur as the most suitable marker system for oilseed rape cultivar identification.

    PubMed

    Sobotka, Roman; Dolanská, Lenka; Curn, Vladislav; Ovesná, Jaroslava

    2004-01-01

    Three different types of molecular markers, RAPD, SSR and fluorescence-based AFLP, were evaluated and compared for their ability to identify oilseed rape cultivars. The direct comparison of RAPD, SSR and AFLP approaches in cultivar identification showed that the AFLP methodology detected polymorphisms more efficiently than either RAPD or SSR methods. For the characterisation of six oilseed rape cultivars, 60 RAPD primers were tested and only eight of them (14%) detected sufficient levels of polymorphism. Five microsatellites out of fifteen tested were polymorphic, but in all loci, except one, only two different alleles were detected. This result indicated the limited degree of polymorphism found in Brassica napus. Each of the six tested AFLP combinations detected polymorphisms, the best combination (M-CAA/E-ACT) had 26% polymorphic peaks from a total of 90 peaks and could distinguish the analysed cultivars and 4 out of 5 core lines of cultivars. The results presented show that florescence-based AFLP is, for the purposes of oilseed rape cultivar fingerprinting, a more suitable approach than either RAPD or SSR.

  4. Monitoring the escape of transgenic oilseed rape around Japanese ports and roadsides.

    PubMed

    Saji, Hikaru; Nakajima, Nobuyoshi; Aono, Mitsuko; Tamaoki, Masanori; Kubo, Akihiro; Wakiyama, Seiji; Hatase, Yoriko; Nagatsu, Masato

    2005-01-01

    An investigation was carried out to monitor the escape and spread of oilseed rape (Brassica napus) transgenic plants and the introgression of transgenes to its closely related feral species in Japan. We screened a total of about 7500 feral B. napus, 300 B. rapa, and 5800 B. juncea seedlings from maternal plants in 143 locations at several ports, roadsides, and riverbanks. The presence of glufosinate-resistance or glyphosate-resistance transgenes in these seedlings was confirmed by means of herbicide treatments and also immunochemical and DNA analyses. B. napus plants with herbicide-resistant transgenic seeds were found at five of six major ports and along two of four sampled roadsides in the Kanto District. Transgenic oilseed rape plants have not been commercially cultivated in Japan, suggesting that the transgenes would probably have come from imported transgenic seeds that were spilled during transportation to oilseed processing facilities. No transgenes were detected in seeds collected from B. napus plants growing along riverbanks in the Kanto District or in seeds from closely related species (B. rapa and B. juncea). To our knowledge, this is the first published example of feral, transgenic populations occurring in a nation where the transgenic crop has not been cultivated commercially.

  5. Overexpression of Brassica napus MPK4 enhances resistance to Sclerotinia sclerotiorum in oilseed rape.

    PubMed

    Wang, Zheng; Mao, Han; Dong, Caihua; Ji, Ruiqin; Cai, Li; Fu, Hao; Liu, Shengyi

    2009-03-01

    Sclerotinia sclerotiorum causes a highly destructive disease in oilseed rape (Brassica napus) resulting in significant economic losses. Studies on the Arabidopsis thaliana MPK4 loss-of-function mutant have implicated that AtMPK4 is involved in plant defense regulation, and its effect on disease resistance varies in different plant-pathogen interactions. In this study, we isolated a B. napus mitogen-activated protein kinase, BnMPK4, and found that BnMPK4 along with PDF1.2 are inducible in resistant line Zhongshuang9 but both are consistently suppressed in susceptible line 84039 after inoculation with S. sclerotiorum. Transgenic oilseed rape overexpressing BnMPK4 markedly enhances resistance to S. sclerotiorum and Botrytis cinerea. Further experiments showed that transgenic plants inhibited growth of S. sclerotiorum and constitutively activated PDF1.2 but decreased H2O2 production and constitutively suppressed PR-1 expression. Treatment of roots of the transgenic plants with H2O2 solution resulted in enhanced susceptibility to the two pathogens. Our results support the idea that MPK4 positively regulates jasmonic acid-mediated defense response, which might play an important role in resistance to S. sclerotiorum in oilseed rape.

  6. Detection of feral transgenic oilseed rape with multiple-herbicide resistance in Japan.

    PubMed

    Aono, Mitsuko; Wakiyama, Seiji; Nagatsu, Masato; Nakajima, Nobuyoshi; Tamaoki, Masanori; Kubo, Akihiro; Saji, Hikaru

    2006-01-01

    Repeated monitoring for escaped transgenic crop plants is sometimes necessary, especially in cases when the crop has not been approved for release into the environment. Transgenic oilseed rape (Brassica napus) was detected along roadsides in central Japan in a previous study. The goal of the current study was to monitor the distribution of transgenic oilseed rape and occurrence of hybridization of transgenic B. napus with feral populations of its closely related species (B. rapa and B. juncea) in the west of Japan in 2005. The progenies of 50 B. napus, 82 B. rapa and 283 B. juncea maternal plants from 95 sampling sites in seven port areas were screened for herbicide-resistance. Transgenic herbicide-resistant seeds were detected from 12 B. napus maternal plants growing at seven sampling sites in two port areas. A portion of the progeny from two transgenic B. napus plants had both glyphosate-resistance and glufosinate-resistance transgenes. Therefore, two types of transgenic B. napus plants are likely to have outcrossed with each other, since the double-herbicide-resistant transgenic strain of oilseed rape has not been developed intentionally for commercial purposes. As found in the previous study, no transgenic seeds were detected from B. rapa or B. juncea, and more extensive sampling is needed to determine whether introgression into these wild species has occurred.

  7. Overexpression of Brassica napus MPK4 enhances resistance to Sclerotinia sclerotiorum in oilseed rape.

    PubMed

    Wang, Zheng; Mao, Han; Dong, Caihua; Ji, Ruiqin; Cai, Li; Fu, Hao; Liu, Shengyi

    2009-03-01

    Sclerotinia sclerotiorum causes a highly destructive disease in oilseed rape (Brassica napus) resulting in significant economic losses. Studies on the Arabidopsis thaliana MPK4 loss-of-function mutant have implicated that AtMPK4 is involved in plant defense regulation, and its effect on disease resistance varies in different plant-pathogen interactions. In this study, we isolated a B. napus mitogen-activated protein kinase, BnMPK4, and found that BnMPK4 along with PDF1.2 are inducible in resistant line Zhongshuang9 but both are consistently suppressed in susceptible line 84039 after inoculation with S. sclerotiorum. Transgenic oilseed rape overexpressing BnMPK4 markedly enhances resistance to S. sclerotiorum and Botrytis cinerea. Further experiments showed that transgenic plants inhibited growth of S. sclerotiorum and constitutively activated PDF1.2 but decreased H2O2 production and constitutively suppressed PR-1 expression. Treatment of roots of the transgenic plants with H2O2 solution resulted in enhanced susceptibility to the two pathogens. Our results support the idea that MPK4 positively regulates jasmonic acid-mediated defense response, which might play an important role in resistance to S. sclerotiorum in oilseed rape. PMID:19245318

  8. Malate synthase activity in cotton and other ungerminated oilseeds: a survey.

    PubMed

    Miernyk, J A; Trelease, R N; Choinski, J S

    1979-06-01

    Extracts from several species and varieties of ungerminated cotton seeds plus homogenates from 18 other oilseeds (representing 11 different families) were examined for malate synthase and isocitrate lyase activity. Malate synthase activities in the various cotton seeds ranged from 35 to 129% of the units per dry seed weight found in Deltapine 16 cotton. For other oilseeds, the range was from 0.3 to 58% of Deltapine 16 cotton. Castor bean (Ricinus communis L.) had the least activity per mg dry weight (12-fold lower than the next lowest species), while Pima cotton (Gossypium barbadense L.) had the highest level (8.53 units). On a per seed basis, these values were 15 and 747 nanomoles per minute.Malate synthase activity was measurable in all seed types examined, whereas isocitrate lyase could not be detected in any of the seeds. We suggest that synthesis of malate synthase during seed development is universal among oilseeds in the absence of glyoxylate-cycle-associated isocitrate lyase activity.

  9. Antioxidant Potential of the Extracts, Fractions and Oils Derived from Oilseeds.

    PubMed

    Ishtiaque, Shagufta; Khan, Nasir; Siddiqui, Muhammad A; Siddiqi, Rahmanullah; Naz, Shahina

    2013-10-15

    The polyphenolic extracts and oils were obtained from ajwain, mustard, fenugreek and poppy seeds. The extracts were partitioned into acidic and neutral polyphenolic fractions and following estimation of total phenolics in the crude extract, acidic and neutral fractions and oil, all were analyzed for their DPPH (2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl) scavenging potential, ferric reducing ability and chelating power. The highest amount of polyphenols was found in ajwain (8330 ± 107), then in mustard seeds (2844 ± 56.00) and in fenugreek (1130 ± 29.00), and least in poppy seeds (937 ± 18.52). The higher amounts of polyphenols were estimated in neutral fraction compared to acidic (p < 0.05). % Inhibition of DPPH by the crude extract and fractions of all oilseeds was quite significant, being higher for acidic than neutral. The highest % DPPH inhibition was shown by ajwain extract than mustard > fenugreek and least by poppy seed extracts (p < 0.05). The reducing power and the chelating effect of the oilseeds followed the same order as DPPH, but higher % chelation was shown by neutral than acidic fraction (p < 0.05). Though low in polyphenols, the oil fractions were as strong antioxidants as the acidic one. Though oilseeds are used in very small quantity in food, they are potential sources of natural antioxidants and may replace synthetic ones.

  10. Cold plasma treatment enhances oilseed rape seed germination under drought stress.

    PubMed

    Ling, Li; Jiangang, Li; Minchong, Shen; Chunlei, Zhang; Yuanhua, Dong

    2015-01-01

    Effects of cold plasma treatment on seed germination, seedling growth, antioxidant enzymes, lipid peroxidation levels and osmotic-adjustment products of oilseed rape under drought stress were investigated in a drought-sensitive (Zhongshuang 7) and drought-tolerant cultivar (Zhongshuang 11). Results showed that, under drought stress, cold plasma treatment significantly improved the germination rate by 6.25% in Zhongshuang 7, and 4.44% in Zhongshuang 11. Seedling growth characteristics, including shoot and root dry weights, shoot and root lengths, and lateral root number, significantly increased after cold plasma treatment. The apparent contact angle was reduced by 30.38% in Zhongshuang 7 and 16.91% in Zhongshuang 11. Cold plasma treatment markedly raised superoxide dismutase and catalase activities by 17.71% and 16.52% in Zhongshuang 7, and by 13.00% and 13.21% in Zhongshuang 11. Moreover, cold plasma treatment significantly increased the soluble sugar and protein contents, but reduced the malondialdehyde content in seedlings. Our results suggested that cold plasma treatment improved oilseed rape drought tolerance by improving antioxidant enzyme activities, increasing osmotic-adjustment products, and reducing lipid peroxidation, especially in the drought-sensitive cultivar (Zhongshuang 7). Thus, cold plasma treatment can be used in an ameliorative way to improve germination and protect oilseed rape seedlings against damage caused by drought stress. PMID:26264651

  11. Response of seed tocopherols in oilseed rape to nitrogen fertilizer sources and application rates.

    PubMed

    Hussain, Nazim; Li, Hui; Jiang, Yu-xiao; Jabeen, Zahra; Shamsi, Imran Haider; Ali, Essa; Jiang, Li-xi

    2014-02-01

    Tocopherols (Tocs) are vital scavengers of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and important seed oil quality indicators. Nitrogen (N) is one of the most important fertilizers in promoting biomass and grain yield in crop production. However, the effect of different sources and application rates of N on seed Toc contents in oilseed rape is poorly understood. In this study, pot trials were conducted to evaluate the effect of two sources of N fertilizer (urea and ammonium nitrate). Each source was applied to five oilseed rape genotypes (Zheshuang 72, Jiu-Er-1358, Zheshuang 758, Shiralee, and Pakola) at three different application rates (0.41 g/pot (N1), 0.81 g/pot (N2), and 1.20 g/pot (N3)). Results indicated that urea increased α-, γ-, and total Toc (T-Toc) more than did ammonium nitrate. N3 was proven as the most efficient application rate, which yielded high contents of γ-Toc and T-Toc. Highly significant correlations were observed between Toc isomers, T-Toc, and α-/γ-Toc ratio. These results clearly demonstrate that N sources and application rates significantly affect seed Toc contents in oilseed rape. PMID:24510711

  12. Cold plasma treatment enhances oilseed rape seed germination under drought stress

    PubMed Central

    Ling, Li; Jiangang, Li; Minchong, Shen; Chunlei, Zhang; Yuanhua, Dong

    2015-01-01

    Effects of cold plasma treatment on seed germination, seedling growth, antioxidant enzymes, lipid peroxidation levels and osmotic-adjustment products of oilseed rape under drought stress were investigated in a drought-sensitive (Zhongshuang 7) and drought-tolerant cultivar (Zhongshuang 11). Results showed that, under drought stress, cold plasma treatment significantly improved the germination rate by 6.25% in Zhongshuang 7, and 4.44% in Zhongshuang 11. Seedling growth characteristics, including shoot and root dry weights, shoot and root lengths, and lateral root number, significantly increased after cold plasma treatment. The apparent contact angle was reduced by 30.38% in Zhongshuang 7 and 16.91% in Zhongshuang 11. Cold plasma treatment markedly raised superoxide dismutase and catalase activities by 17.71% and 16.52% in Zhongshuang 7, and by 13.00% and 13.21% in Zhongshuang 11. Moreover, cold plasma treatment significantly increased the soluble sugar and protein contents, but reduced the malondialdehyde content in seedlings. Our results suggested that cold plasma treatment improved oilseed rape drought tolerance by improving antioxidant enzyme activities, increasing osmotic-adjustment products, and reducing lipid peroxidation, especially in the drought-sensitive cultivar (Zhongshuang 7). Thus, cold plasma treatment can be used in an ameliorative way to improve germination and protect oilseed rape seedlings against damage caused by drought stress. PMID:26264651

  13. Transgenic perennial biofuel feedstocks and strategies for bioconfinement

    EPA Science Inventory

    The use of transgenic tools for the improvement of plant feedstocks will be required to realize the full economic and environmental benefits of cellulosic and other biofuels, particularly from perennial plants. Traits that are targets for improvement of biofuels crops include he...

  14. Fatty acid profile of 25 alternative lipid feedstocks

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This study reports the fatty acid profiles of 25 alternative lipid feedstocks for the production of bio-based fuels and chemicals. Lipids were extracted using hexane from oil-bearing seeds using a standard Soxhlet apparatus. Fatty acid profiles were measured using gas chromatography-flame ionization...

  15. Next-generation biomass feedstocks for biofuel production

    PubMed Central

    Simmons, Blake A; Loque, Dominique; Blanch, Harvey W

    2008-01-01

    The development of second-generation biofuels - those that do not rely on grain crops as inputs - will require a diverse set of feedstocks that can be grown sustainably and processed cost-effectively. Here we review the outlook and challenges for meeting hoped-for production targets for such biofuels in the United States. PMID:19133109

  16. A bioenergy feedstock/vegetable double-cropping system

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Certain warm-season vegetable crops may lend themselves to bioenergy double-cropping systems, which involve growing a winter annual bioenergy feedstock crop followed by a summer annual crop. The objective of the study was to compare crop productivity and weed communities in different pumpkin product...

  17. Chemical composition of lignocellulosic feedstock from Pacific Northwest conservation buffers

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Bioethanol has been considered as an important alternative to liquid transportation fuels because of its compatibility with current infrastructure, comparable energy values and less net green house gas emissions during its life cycle. There is continuous need to find sustainable feedstocks that can ...

  18. Biomass Program 2007 Program Peer Review - Feedstock Platform Summary

    SciTech Connect

    none,

    2009-10-27

    This document discloses the comments provided by a review panel at the U.S. Department of Energy Office of the Biomass Program Peer Review held on November 15-16, 2007 in Baltimore, MD and the Feedstock Platform Portfolio Peer Review held on August 21st through 23rd in Washington D.C.

  19. Elemental concentrations in Triticale straw, a potential bioenergy feedstock

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Triticale (X Triticosecale Wittmack) is produced on more than three million ha world wide including 344,000 ha in the USA. Straw resulting from triticale production could provide feedstock for bioenergy production in many regions of the world, but high concentrations of certain elements, including s...

  20. Bioenergy grass feedstock production in the southern Coastal Plain

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Renewable Fuels Standard within the Energy Independence and Security Act of 2007 (EISA)(Pub L.) requires that by the year 2022, 36 billion gallons of biofuels be added to gasoline and that 21 billion gallons would come from non-cornstarch products such as sugar or cellulosic feedstock. The Sout...

  1. Microbial renewable feedstock utilization: a substrate-oriented approach.

    PubMed

    Rumbold, Karl; van Buijsen, Hugo J J; Gray, Vincent M; van Groenestijn, Johan W; Overkamp, Karin M; Slomp, Ronald S; van der Werf, Mariët J; Punt, Peter J

    2010-01-01

    Increasingly lignocellulosic biomass hydrolysates are used as the feedstock for industrial fermentations. These biomass hydrolysates consist of complex mixtures of different fermentable sugars, but also contain inhibitors and salts that affect the performance of the product-generating microbes. The performance of six industrially relevant microorganisms, i.e., two bacteria (Escherichia coli and Corynebacterium glutamicum), two yeasts (Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Pichia stipitis) and two fungi (Aspergillus niger and Trichoderma reesei) were compared for their ability to utilize and grow on different feedstock hydrolysates (corn stover, wheat straw, sugar cane bagasse and willow wood). Moreover, the ability of the selected hosts to utilize waste glycerol from the biodiesel industry was evaluated. P. stipitis and A. niger were found to be the most versatile and C. glutamicum, and S. cerevisiae were shown to be the least adapted to renewable feedstocks. Clear differences in the utilization of the more abundant carbon sources in these feedstocks were observed between the different species. Moreover, in a species-specific way the production of various metabolites, in particular polyols, alcohols and organic acids was observed during fermentation. Based on the results obtained we conclude that a substrate-oriented instead of the more commonly used product oriented approach towards the selection of a microbial production host will avoid the requirement for extensive metabolic engineering. Instead of introducing multiple substrate utilization and detoxification routes to efficiently utilize lignocellulosic hydrolysates only one biosynthesis route forming the product of interest has to be engineered.

  2. Utilizing LEAF to increase biomass feedstock supplies from agricultural land

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The start-up of three full-scale corn stover bioenergy conversion facilities in 2014 will require a substantial increase in sustainable biomass feedstock. Supplying crop residues without having a negative impact on ecosystem services is indeed a “grand challenge” associated with sustainable food and...

  3. Irrigated Corn Cob Production and Quality: Potential Cellulosic Feedstock

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Escalating fossil fuel cost and concern over global climate change have accelerated interest in cellulosic feedstocks, such as corn cobs, for liquid fuel production. Little information is available about corn cob yield and its N and C content. Available cob data was compiled and summarized from seve...

  4. Ozone dose-response relationships for spring oilseed rape and broccoli

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    De Bock, Maarten; Op de Beeck, Maarten; De Temmerman, Ludwig; Guisez, Yves; Ceulemans, Reinhart; Vandermeiren, Karine

    2011-03-01

    Tropospheric ozone is an important air pollutant with known detrimental effects for several crops. Ozone effects on seed yield, oil percentage, oil yield and 1000 seed weight were examined for spring oilseed rape ( Brassica napus cv. Ability). For broccoli ( Brassica oleracea L. cv. Italica cv. Monaco) the effects on fresh marketable weight and total dry weight were studied. Current ozone levels were compared with an increase of 20 and 40 ppb during 8 h per day, over the entire growing season. Oilseed rape seed yield was negatively correlated with ozone dose indices calculated from emergence until harvest. This resulted in an R2 of 0.24 and 0.26 ( p < 0.001) for the accumulated hourly O 3 exposure over a threshold of 40 ppb (AOT40) and the phytotoxic ozone dose above a threshold of 6 nmol m -2 s -1 (POD 6) respectively. Estimated critical levels, above which 5% yield reduction is expected, were 3.7 ppm h and 4.4 mmol m -2 respectively. Our results also confirm that a threshold value of 6 nmol s -1 m -2 projected leaf area, as recommended for agricultural crops (UNECE, Mills, 2004), can indeed be applied for spring oilseed rape. The reduction of oilseed rape yield showed the highest correlation with the ozone uptake during the vegetative growth stage: when only the first 47 days after emergence were used to calculate POD 6, R2 values increased up to 0.476 or even 0.545 when the first 23 days were excluded. The highest ozone treatments, corresponding to the future ambient level by 2100 (IPCC, Meehl et al., 2007), led to a reduction of approximately 30% in oilseed rape seed yield in comparison to the current ozone concentrations. Oil percentage was also significantly reduced in response to ozone ( p < 0.001). As a consequence oil yield was even more severely affected by elevated ozone exposure compared to seed yield: critical levels for oil yield dropped to 3.2 ppm h and 3.9 mmol m -2. For broccoli the applied ozone doses had no effect on yield.

  5. a Novel Framework for Incorporating Sustainability Into Biomass Feedstock Design

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gopalakrishnan, G.; Negri, C.

    2012-12-01

    There is a strong society need to evaluate and understand the sustainability of biofuels, especially due to the significant increases in production mandated by many countries, including the United States. Biomass feedstock production is an important contributor to environmental, social and economic impacts from biofuels. We present a systems approach where the agricultural, urban, energy and environmental sectors are considered as components of a single system and environmental liabilities are used as recoverable resources for biomass feedstock production. A geospatial analysis evaluating marginal land and degraded water resources to improve feedstock productivity with concomitant environmental restoration was conducted for the major corn producing states in the US. The extent and availability of these resources was assessed and geospatial techniques used to identify promising opportunities to implement this approach. Utilizing different sources of marginal land (roadway buffers, contaminated land) could result in a 7-fold increase in land availability for feedstock production and provide ecosystem services such as water quality improvement and carbon sequestration. Spatial overlap between degraded water and marginal land resources was found to be as high as 98% and could maintain sustainable feedstock production on marginal lands through the supply of water and nutrients. Multi-objective optimization was used to quantify the tradeoffs between net revenue, improvements in water quality and carbon sequestration at the farm scale using this design. Results indicated that there is an initial opportunity where land that is marginally productive for row crops and of marginal value for conservation purposes could be used to grow bioenergy crops such that that water quality and carbon sequestration benefits are obtained.

  6. Fatty acid profile as a basis for screening feedstocks for biodiesel production

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Fatty acid (FA) profile was used as a screening tool for the selection of feedstocks high in monounsaturated content for evaluation as biodiesel. The feedstocks were ailanthus (Ailanthus altissima), anise (Pimpinella anisum), arugula (Eruca vesicaria), camelina (Camelina sativa), coriander (Coriandr...

  7. Fatty acid composition as a tool for screening alternative feedstocks for production of biodiesel

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Fatty acid (FA) composition was used as a screening tool for the selection of feedstocks high in monounsaturated content for evaluation as biodiesel. The feedstocks were ailanthus (Ailanthus altissima), anise (Pimpinella anisum), arugula (Eruca vesicaria), camelina (Camelina sativa), coriander (Cori...

  8. Soil C storage and greenhouse gas emission perennial grasses managed for bio energy feedstock

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Perennial grasses like switchgrass or big bluestem when managed as bioenergy feedstock require nitrogenous inputs. Nitrogen fertilizer frequently cause nitrous oxide emission. Therefore, managing grasses as feedstock may reduce the greenhouse gas (GHG) mitigation potential expected from perennial. ...

  9. Chemical changes induced by methyl jasmonate in oilseed rape grown in the laboratory and in the field.

    PubMed

    Loivamäki, Maaria; Holopainen, Jarmo K; Nerg, Anne-Marja

    2004-12-15

    The effect of methyl jasmonate (MJ) spraying on the chemistry of Brassica plants was investigated. Glucosinolates (GLS) in the leaves, stems, and roots of laboratory-grown oilseed rape (Brassica rapa subsp. oleifera cv. Tuli and Valo) 3 and 7 days after MJ treatment were analyzed. Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) from whole oilseed rape plants were collected 3 days after MJ treatment. GLS were also analyzed from field-grown oilseed rape (cv. Valo) treated with MJ. The production of indolyl GLS in laboratory-grown oilseed rape, especially the concentration of 4-hydroxy-3-indolylmethyl (4-OH-glucobrassicin) in leaves, stems, and roots, 3-indolylmethyl (glucobrassicin) in stems, and 4-methoxy-3-indolylmethyl (4-methoxyglucobrassicin) in roots, was induced after MJ treatment. The VOC emission profile changed after MJ treatment, and homoterpene (E)-4,8-dimethyl-1,3,7-nonatriene (DMNT) was detected only in MJ-treated plants. The GLS concentration in the field-grown plants was significantly higher in MJ-treated plants than in control plants. These results suggest that spraying with MJ induces the production of secondary compounds, that is, GLS and VOCs, in Brassica plants. The induction of VOC emissions in oilseed rape is comparable to that caused by insect feeding damage. Thus, MJ-treated crop plants may become less palatable to insect herbivores and more attractive to natural enemies of herbivores.

  10. Development of new restorer lines for CMS ogura system with the use of resynthesized oilseed rape (Brassica napus L.)

    PubMed Central

    Szała, Laurencja; Sosnowska, Katarzyna; Popławska, Wiesława; Liersch, Alina; Olejnik, Anna; Kozłowska, Katarzyna; Bocianowski, Jan; Cegielska-Taras, Teresa

    2016-01-01

    Resynthesized (RS) oilseed rape (Brassica napus L.) is potentially of great interest for hybrid breeding. However, a major problem with the direct use of RS B. napus is the quality of seed oil (high level of erucic acid) and seed meal (high glucosinolate content), which does not comply with double-low quality oilseed rape. Thus, additional developments are needed before RS B. napus can be introduced into breeding practice. In this study, RS oilseed rape was obtained through crosses between B. rapa ssp. chinensis var. chinensis and B. oleracea ssp. acephala var. sabellica. RS plant was then crossed with double-low (00) winter oilseed rape lines containing the Rfo gene for Ogura cytoplasmic male sterility (CMS ogu) system. Populations of doubled haploids (DH) were developed from these F1 hybrids using the microspore in vitro culture method. The seeds of semi-RS DH lines were analyzed for erucic acid and glucosinolate content. Among the populations of semi-RS DHs four 00-quality lines with the Rfo gene were selected. Using 344 AFLP markers to estimate genetic relatedness, we showed that the RS lines and semi-RS lines formed clusters that were clearly distinct from 96 winter oilseed rape parental lines of F1 hybrids. PMID:27795676

  11. Development of a biologically based fertilizer, incorporating Bacillus megaterium A6, for improved phosphorus nutrition of oilseed rape.

    PubMed

    Hu, Xiaojia; Roberts, Daniel P; Xie, Lihua; Maul, Jude E; Yu, Changbing; Li, Yinshui; Zhang, Shujie; Liao, Xing

    2013-04-01

    Sustainable methods with diminished impact on the environment need to be developed for the production of oilseed rape in China and other regions of the world. A biological fertilizer consisting of Bacillus megaterium A6 cultured on oilseed rape meal improved oilseed rape seed yield (P < 0.0001) relative to the nontreated control in 2 greenhouse pot experiments using natural soil. This treatment resulted in slightly greater yield than oilseed rape meal without strain A6 in 1 of 2 experiments, suggesting a role for strain A6 in improving yield. Strain A6 was capable of solubilizing phosphorus from rock phosphate in liquid culture and produced enzymes capable of mineralizing organic phosphorus (acid phosphatase, phytase) in liquid culture and in the biological fertilizer. The biologically based fertilizer, containing strain A6, improved plant phosphorus nutrition in greenhouse pot experiments resulting in significantly greater available phosphorus in natural soil and in significantly greater plant phosphorus content relative to the nontreated control. Seed yield and available phosphorus in natural soil were significantly greater with a synthetic chemical fertilizer treatment, reduced in phosphorus content, than the biological fertilizer treatment, but a treatment containing the biological fertilizer combined with the synthetic fertilizer provided the significantly greatest seed yield, available phosphorus in natural soil, and plant phosphorus content. These results suggest that the biological fertilizer was capable of improving oilseed rape seed yield, at least in part, through the phosphorus-solubilizing activity of B. megaterium A6. PMID:23586746

  12. In vivo measurements of changes in pH triggered by oxalic acid in leaf tissue of transgenic oilseed rape.

    PubMed

    Zou, Qiu-Ju; Liu, Sheng-Yi; Dong, Xu-Yan; Bi, Yan-Hua; Cao, Yuan-Cheng; Xu, Qiao; Zhao, Yuan-Di; Chen, Hong

    2007-01-01

    Oxalic acid (OA), a non-host-specific toxin secreted by Sclerotinia sclerotiorum during pathogenesis, has been demonstrated to be a major phytotoxic and pathogenic factor. Oxalate oxidase (OXO) is an enzyme associated with the detoxification of OA, and hence the introduction of an OXO gene into oilseed rape (Brassica napus L.) to break down OA may be an alternative way of increasing the resistance of the plant to Sclerotinia sclerotiorum. In order to investigate the activation of OXO in transgenic oilseed rape, a convenient and accessible method was used to monitor changes in pH in response to stress induced by OA. The pH sensor, a platinum microcylinder electrode modified using polyaniline film, exhibited a linear response within the pH range from 3 to 7, with a Nernst response slope of 70 mV/pH at room temperature. The linear correlation coefficient was 0.9979. Changes induced by OA in the pH values of leaf tissue of different oilseed rape species from Brassica napus L. were monitored in real time in vivo using this electrode. The results clearly showed that the transgenic oilseed rape was more resistant to OA than non-transgenic oilseed rape.

  13. Development of a biologically based fertilizer, incorporating Bacillus megaterium A6, for improved phosphorus nutrition of oilseed rape.

    PubMed

    Hu, Xiaojia; Roberts, Daniel P; Xie, Lihua; Maul, Jude E; Yu, Changbing; Li, Yinshui; Zhang, Shujie; Liao, Xing

    2013-04-01

    Sustainable methods with diminished impact on the environment need to be developed for the production of oilseed rape in China and other regions of the world. A biological fertilizer consisting of Bacillus megaterium A6 cultured on oilseed rape meal improved oilseed rape seed yield (P < 0.0001) relative to the nontreated control in 2 greenhouse pot experiments using natural soil. This treatment resulted in slightly greater yield than oilseed rape meal without strain A6 in 1 of 2 experiments, suggesting a role for strain A6 in improving yield. Strain A6 was capable of solubilizing phosphorus from rock phosphate in liquid culture and produced enzymes capable of mineralizing organic phosphorus (acid phosphatase, phytase) in liquid culture and in the biological fertilizer. The biologically based fertilizer, containing strain A6, improved plant phosphorus nutrition in greenhouse pot experiments resulting in significantly greater available phosphorus in natural soil and in significantly greater plant phosphorus content relative to the nontreated control. Seed yield and available phosphorus in natural soil were significantly greater with a synthetic chemical fertilizer treatment, reduced in phosphorus content, than the biological fertilizer treatment, but a treatment containing the biological fertilizer combined with the synthetic fertilizer provided the significantly greatest seed yield, available phosphorus in natural soil, and plant phosphorus content. These results suggest that the biological fertilizer was capable of improving oilseed rape seed yield, at least in part, through the phosphorus-solubilizing activity of B. megaterium A6.

  14. Hydrodeoxygenation of fast-pyrolysis bio-oils from various feedstocks using carbon-supported catalysts

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    While much work has been accomplished in developing hydrodeoxygenation technologies for bio-oil upgrading, very little translation has occurred to other biomass feedstocks and feedstock processing technologies. In this paper, we sought to elucidate the relationships between the feedstock type and th...

  15. A ROADMAP FOR SUSTAINABLE ADVANCED BIOFUEL FEEDSTOCK PRODUCTION IN THE MID-SOUTH

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Although various studies exist that deal with the production of bioenergy crops, a number of aspects of bioenergy feedstock production (feedstock choice, natural resource availability, available infrastructure, etc.) are strongly influenced by the region in which the feedstock is produced and proces...

  16. Use of formulated Trichoderma sp. Tri-1 in combination with reduced rates of chemical pesticide for control of Sclerotinia sclerotiorium on oilseed rape

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Sustainable strategies for control of Sclerotinia sclerotiorum on oilseed rape are needed. Here we tested combinations of Trichoderma sp. Tri-1, formulated with oilseed rape seedcake and straw, with reduced application rates of the chemical pesticide Carbendazim for control of this pathogen on oils...

  17. One-Card Programs Boast Endless Options.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pearcey, Kevin

    2003-01-01

    Discusses how all-campus ID cards are easy to manage, enhance overall campus security, lower operating expenses, and provide a chance to build lasting relationships with the community by taking the card to off-campus businesses. (EV)

  18. Imagine: Texas Boasts Net Zero School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Layne, Scott

    2010-01-01

    Just imagine...a school designed and constructed to produce as much energy on site as that which is consumed from the electric grid. The electricity and gas bills would be 10% or less of that of a typical building; there would be no water bills for site and landscaping irrigation. What was merely a conceptual thought as little as five years ago is…

  19. Modeling Sustainable Bioenergy Feedstock Production in the Alps

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kraxner, Florian; Leduc, Sylvain; Kindermann, Georg; Fuss, Sabine; Pietsch, Stephan; Lakyda, Ivan; Serrano Leon, Hernan; Shchepashchenko, Dmitry; Shvidenko, Anatoly

    2016-04-01

    Sustainability of bioenergy is often indicated by the neutrality of emissions at the conversion site while the feedstock production site is assumed to be carbon neutral. Recent research shows that sustainability of bioenergy systems starts with feedstock management. Even if sustainable forest management is applied, different management types can impact ecosystem services substantially. This study examines different sustainable forest management systems together with an optimal planning of green-field bioenergy plants in the Alps. Two models - the biophysical global forest model (G4M) and a techno-economic engineering model for optimizing renewable energy systems (BeWhere) are implemented. G4M is applied in a forward looking manner in order to provide information on the forest under different management scenarios: (1) managing the forest for maximizing the carbon sequestration; or (2) managing the forest for maximizing the harvestable wood amount for bioenergy production. The results from the forest modelling are then picked up by the engineering model BeWhere, which optimizes the bioenergy production in terms of energy demand (power and heat demand by population) and supply (wood harvesting potentials), feedstock harvesting and transport costs, the location and capacity of the bioenergy plant as well as the energy distribution logistics with respect to heat and electricity (e.g. considering existing grids for electricity or district heating etc.). First results highlight the importance of considering ecosystem services under different scenarios and in a geographically explicit manner. While aiming at producing the same amount of bioenergy under both forest management scenarios, it turns out that in scenario (1) a substantially larger area (distributed across the Alps) will need to be used for producing (and harvesting) the necessary amount of feedstock than under scenario (2). This result clearly shows that scenario (2) has to be seen as an "intensification

  20. De novo assembly of the pennycress (Thlaspi arvense) transcriptome provides tools for the development of a winter cover crop and biodiesel feedstock.

    PubMed

    Dorn, Kevin M; Fankhauser, Johnathon D; Wyse, Donald L; Marks, M David

    2013-09-01

    Field pennycress (Thlaspi arvense L.) has potential as an oilseed crop that may be grown during fall (autumn) and winter months in the Midwestern United States and harvested in the early spring as a biodiesel feedstock. There has been little agronomic improvement in pennycress through traditional breeding. Recent advances in genomic technologies allow for the development of genomic tools to enable rapid improvements to be made through genomic assisted breeding. Here we report an annotated transcriptome assembly for pennycress. RNA was isolated from representative plant tissues, and 203 million unique Illumina RNA-seq reads were produced and used in the transcriptome assembly. The draft transcriptome assembly consists of 33 873 contigs with a mean length of 1242 bp. A global comparison of homology between the pennycress and Arabidopsis transcriptomes, along with four other Brassicaceae species, revealed a high level of global sequence conservation within the family. The final assembly was functionally annotated, allowing for the identification of putative genes controlling important agronomic traits such as flowering and glucosinolate metabolism. Identification of these genes leads to testable hypotheses concerning their conserved function and to rational strategies to improve agronomic properties in pennycress. Future work to characterize isoform variation between diverse pennycress lines and develop a draft genome sequence for pennycress will further direct trait improvement.

  1. De novo assembly of the pennycress (Thlaspi arvense) transcriptome provides tools for the development of a winter cover crop and biodiesel feedstock

    PubMed Central

    Dorn, Kevin M; Fankhauser, Johnathon D; Wyse, Donald L; Marks, M David

    2013-01-01

    Field pennycress (Thlaspi arvense L.) has potential as an oilseed crop that may be grown during fall (autumn) and winter months in the Midwestern United States and harvested in the early spring as a biodiesel feedstock. There has been little agronomic improvement in pennycress through traditional breeding. Recent advances in genomic technologies allow for the development of genomic tools to enable rapid improvements to be made through genomic assisted breeding. Here we report an annotated transcriptome assembly for pennycress. RNA was isolated from representative plant tissues, and 203 million unique Illumina RNA-seq reads were produced and used in the transcriptome assembly. The draft transcriptome assembly consists of 33 873 contigs with a mean length of 1242 bp. A global comparison of homology between the pennycress and Arabidopsis transcriptomes, along with four other Brassicaceae species, revealed a high level of global sequence conservation within the family. The final assembly was functionally annotated, allowing for the identification of putative genes controlling important agronomic traits such as flowering and glucosinolate metabolism. Identification of these genes leads to testable hypotheses concerning their conserved function and to rational strategies to improve agronomic properties in pennycress. Future work to characterize isoform variation between diverse pennycress lines and develop a draft genome sequence for pennycress will further direct trait improvement. PMID:23786378

  2. Unintended consequences of bioethanol feedstock choice in China.

    PubMed

    Liang, Sai; Xu, Ming; Zhang, Tianzhu

    2012-12-01

    Economic, energy, and environmental impacts of 11 types of bioethanol feedstock in China were evaluated using a mixed-unit input-output life cycle assessment model. Corn grain and wheat grain had higher negative economic, energy, and environmental impacts. Sweet sorghum, cassava, sugar beet, and sugarcane showed better economic performance but increasing negative energy and environmental impacts. Cellulose-based feedstocks in general showed positive economic, energy, and environmental performance; but may lead to increasing negative impacts on freshwater use, global warming, toxicity, and aquatic ecotoxicity. Sugarcane-based bioethanol had the potential to provide positive economic, energy, and environmental impacts in China. Scrap paper-derived ethanol could also become promising under significant government support.

  3. Demand and supply of hydrogen as chemical feedstock in USA

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Huang, C. J.; Tang, K.; Kelley, J. H.; Berger, B. J.

    1979-01-01

    Projections are made for the demand and supply of hydrogen as chemical feedstock in USA. Industrial sectors considered are petroleum refining, ammonia synthesis, methanol production, isocyanate manufacture, edible oil processing, coal liquefaction, fuel cell electricity generation, and direct iron reduction. Presently, almost all the hydrogen required is produced by reforming of natural gas or petroleum fractions. Specific needs and emphases are recommended for future research and development to produce hydrogen from other sources to meet the requirements of these industrial sectors. The data and the recommendations summarized in this paper are based on the Workshop 'Supply and Demand of Hydrogen as Chemical Feedstock' held at the University of Houston on December 12-14, 1977.

  4. Evaluating possible cap and trade legislation on cellulosic feedstock availability

    SciTech Connect

    Hellwinckel, Chad; de la Torre Ugarte, Daniel; Perlack, Robert D; West, T. O.

    2010-11-01

    An integrated, socioeconomic biogeophysical model is used to analyze the interactions of cap-and-trade legislation and the Renewable Fuels Standard. Five alternative policy scenarios were considered with the purpose of identifying policies that act in a synergistic manner to reduce carbon emissions, increase economic returns to agriculture, and adequately meet ethanol mandates. We conclude that climate and energy policies can best be implemented together by offering carbon offset payments to conservation tillage, herbaceous grasses for biomass, and by constraining crop residue removal for ethanol feedstocks to carbon neutral level. When comparing this scenario to the Baseline scenario, the agricultural sector realizes an economic benefit of US$156 billion by 2030 and emissions are reduced by 135 Tg C-equivalent (Eq) yr 1. Results also indicate that geographic location of cellulosic feedstocks could shift significantly depending on the final policies implemented in cap and trade legislation. Placement of cellulosic ethanol facilities should consider these possible shifts when determining site location.

  5. Application of SGFM technology to alternate feedstocks. Phase III

    SciTech Connect

    Beck, S. R.; Bartsch, R. A.; Mann, U.; Hightower, J. A.

    1980-01-01

    The Synthesis Gas From Manure (SGFM) pilot plant was constructed at Texas Tech University to evaluate the gasification of cattle feedlot manure. A study of gas yield and composition as a function of operating conditions was performed. This report presents the results of a comparison of feedstocks other than manure in the pilot plant. Oak sawdust was the superior feedstock tested in terms of both gas yield and operability. Corn stover and mesquite were comparable and presented some handling problems. Cotton gin trash was unacceptable due to low-temperature ash fusion in the reactor. The gas yield from oak sawdust varied from 0.8 to 1.7 1/gm DAF feed at average temperatures of 650 to 770/sup 0/C. The gas contained approximately 15% hydrogen and 40% carbon monoxide by volume. It also contained 5 to 8% methane and 2 to 5% ethylene. All of these results were obtained using steam and air as the gasifying medium.

  6. Altered lignin biosynthesis using biotechnology to improve lignocellulosic biofuel feedstocks.

    PubMed

    Poovaiah, Charleson R; Nageswara-Rao, Madhugiri; Soneji, Jaya R; Baxter, Holly L; Stewart, Charles N

    2014-12-01

    Lignocellulosic feedstocks can be converted to biofuels, which can conceivably replace a large fraction of fossil fuels currently used for transformation. However, lignin, a prominent constituent of secondary cell walls, is an impediment to the conversion of cell walls to fuel: the recalcitrance problem. Biomass pretreatment for removing lignin is the most expensive step in the production of lignocellulosic biofuels. Even though we have learned a great deal about the biosynthesis of lignin, we do not fully understand its role in plant biology, which is needed for the rational design of engineered cell walls for lignocellulosic feedstocks. This review will recapitulate our knowledge of lignin biosynthesis and discuss how lignin has been modified and the consequences for the host plant.

  7. Native Silk Feedstock as a Model Biopolymer: A Rheological Perspective.

    PubMed

    Laity, Peter R; Holland, Chris

    2016-08-01

    Variability in silk's rheology is often regarded as an impediment to understanding or successfully copying the natural spinning process. We have previously reported such variability in unspun native silk extracted straight from the gland of the domesticated silkworm Bombyx mori and discounted classical explanations such as differences in molecular weight and concentration. We now report that variability in oscillatory measurements can be reduced onto a simple master-curve through normalizing with respect to the crossover. This remarkable result suggests that differences between silk feedstocks are rheologically simple and not as complex as originally thought. By comparison, solutions of poly(ethylene-oxide) and hydroxypropyl-methyl-cellulose showed similar normalization behavior; however, the resulting curves were broader than for silk, suggesting greater polydispersity in the (semi)synthetic materials. Thus, we conclude Nature may in fact produce polymer feedstocks that are more consistent than typical man-made counterparts as a model for future rheological investigations. PMID:27315508

  8. Developing a sustainable bioprocessing strategy based on a generic feedstock.

    PubMed

    Webb, C; Koutinas, Wang R; Wang, R

    2004-01-01

    Based on current average yields of wheat per hectare and the saccharide content of wheat grain, it is feasible to produce wheat-based alternatives to many petrochemicals. However, the requirements in terms of wheat utilization would be equivalent to 82% of current production if intermediates and primary building blocks such as ethylene, propylene, and butadiene were to be produced in addition to conventional bioproducts. If only intermediates and bioproducts were produced this requirement would fall to just 11%, while bioproducts alone would require only 7%. These requirements would be easily met if the global wheat yield per hectare of cultivated land was increased from the current average of 2.7 to 5.5 tonnes ha(-1) (well below the current maximum). Preliminary economic evaluation taking into account only raw material costs demonstrated that the use of wheat as a generic feedstock could be advantageous in the case of bioproducts and specific intermediate petrochemicals. Gluten plays a significant role considering the revenue occurring when it is sold as a by-product. A process leading to the production of a generic fermentation feedstock from wheat has been devised and evaluated in terms of efficiency and economics. This feedstock aims at providing a replacement for conventional fermentation media and petrochemical feedstocks. The process can be divided into four major stages--wheat milling; fermentation of whole wheat flour by A. awamori leading to the production of enzymes and fungal cells; glucose enhancement via enzymatic hydrolysis of flour suspensions; and nitrogen/micronutrient enhancement via fungal cell autolysis. Preliminary costings show that the operating cost of the process depends on plant capacity, cereal market price, presence and market value of added-value by-products, labour costs, and mode of processing (batch or continuous). PMID:15217108

  9. Woody Plant Research of the Biofuels Feedstock Development Program

    SciTech Connect

    Tschaplinski, T.J.; Wright, L.L.

    1994-12-31

    This article describes some of the research of the Biofuels Feedstock Development Program at ORNL. The focus of the research is to produce wood crops that are highly productive under short rotations with minimal inputs. The research combines the disciplines of forestry and traditional genetics, with the new techniques of molecular biology and plant physiology to develop high yield, stress, insect and disease resistant tree crops adaptable to large scale field trials. 4 figs.

  10. Quantitative determination of oil content in small quantity of oilseed rape by ultrasound-assisted extraction combined with gas chromatography.

    PubMed

    Wei, Fang; Gao, Gui-Zhen; Wang, Xin-Fa; Dong, Xu-Yan; Li, Ping-Ping; Hua, Wei; Wang, Xu; Wu, Xiao-Ming; Chen, Hong

    2008-09-01

    Accurately quantitative determination of oil content in oilseed rape plays an important role in varieties breeding for improving oil content in seeds. However, large quantity of oilseeds were needed in order to obtain accuracy and precision results by using standard Soxhlet extraction method, which may be a handicap in analysis of small, rare and precious samples in plant breeding. In the present work, ultrasound-assisted extraction was evaluated as a simpler and more effective alternative to conventional extraction method for the isolation of oil from small quantity of oilseed rape (<20 mg). The oil of oilseed rape samples was extracted by ultrasound-assisted method, and then the fatty acids and total oil content of the seeds were qualitatively and quantitatively determined by gas chromatography (GC). Extraction efficiency of total oil obtained by ultrasound-assisted extraction through an orthogonal experiment (L(9) (3(4))) were investigated to get the best extraction conditions. Statistical analysis showed that the variable with the largest effect was the ultrasound-assisted extraction time which was followed by the ultrasound-assisted extraction power, and the liquid:solid ratio. A liquid:solid ratio of 1:4 (L:g), an ultrasound-assisted extraction time of 60 min and an ultrasound-assisted extraction power of 500 W were found to be optimal for oil extraction from oilseed rape. By comparing with the conventional method, it was found that the ultrasound-assisted extraction of oil from oilseed rape was about five times faster than the traditional extraction method. By the use of ultrasound-assisted extraction combined with GC analysis, the fatty acids and total oil content in small quantity of seeds (<20 mg) were successfully qualitatively determined and the results are in agreement with that obtained by traditional standard method.

  11. Using Populus as a lignocellulosic feedstock for bioethanol.

    PubMed

    Porth, Ilga; El-Kassaby, Yousry A

    2015-04-01

    Populus species along with species from the sister genus Salix will provide valuable feedstock resources for advanced second-generation biofuels. Their inherent fast growth characteristics can particularly be exploited for short rotation management, a time and energy saving cultivation alternative for lignocellulosic feedstock supply. Salicaceae possess inherent cell wall characteristics with favorable cellulose to lignin ratios for utilization as bioethanol crop. We review economically important traits relevant for intensively managed biofuel crop plantations, genomic and phenotypic resources available for Populus, breeding strategies for forest trees dedicated to bioenergy provision, and bioprocesses and downstream applications related to opportunities using Salicaceae as a renewable resource. Challenges need to be resolved for every single step of the conversion process chain, i.e., starting from tree domestication for improved performance as a bioenergy crop, bioconversion process, policy development for land use changes associated with advanced biofuels, and harvest and supply logistics associated with industrial-scale biorefinery plants using Populus as feedstock. Significant hurdles towards cost and energy efficiency, environmental friendliness, and yield maximization with regards to biomass pretreatment, saccharification, and fermentation of celluloses and the sustainability of biorefineries as a whole still need to be overcome. PMID:25676392

  12. Improved sustainability of feedstock production with sludge and interacting mycorrhiza.

    PubMed

    Seleiman, Mahmoud F; Santanen, Arja; Kleemola, Jouko; Stoddard, Frederick L; Mäkelä, Pirjo S A

    2013-05-01

    Recycling nutrients saves energy and improves agricultural sustainability. Sewage sludge contains 2.6% P and 3.1% N, so the availability of these nutrients was investigated using four crops grown in either soil or sand. Further attention was paid to the role of mycorrhiza in improvement of nutrient availability. The content of heavy metals and metalloids in the feedstock was analyzed. Sewage sludge application resulted in greater biomass accumulation in ryegrass than comparable single applications of either synthetic fertilizer or digested sludge. Sewage sludge application resulted in more numerous mycorrhizal spores in soil and increased root colonization in comparison to synthetic fertilizer. All plants studied had mycorrhizal colonized roots, with the highest colonization rate in maize, followed by hemp. Sewage sludge application resulted in the highest P uptake in all soil-grown plants. In conclusion, sewage sludge application increased feedstock yield, provided beneficial use for organic wastes, and contributed to the sustainability of bioenergy feedstock production systems. It also improves the soil conditions and plant nutrition through colonization by mycorrhizal fungi as well as reducing leaching and need of synthetic fertilizers.

  13. Compositional analysis of lignocellulosic feedstocks. 2. Method uncertainties.

    PubMed

    Templeton, David W; Scarlata, Christopher J; Sluiter, Justin B; Wolfrum, Edward J

    2010-08-25

    The most common procedures for characterizing the chemical components of lignocellulosic feedstocks use a two-stage sulfuric acid hydrolysis to fractionate biomass for gravimetric and instrumental analyses. The uncertainty (i.e., dispersion of values from repeated measurement) in the primary data is of general interest to those with technical or financial interests in biomass conversion technology. The composition of a homogenized corn stover feedstock (154 replicate samples in 13 batches, by 7 analysts in 2 laboratories) was measured along with a National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) reference sugar cane bagasse, as a control, using this laboratory's suite of laboratory analytical procedures (LAPs). The uncertainty was evaluated by the statistical analysis of these data and is reported as the standard deviation of each component measurement. Censored and uncensored versions of these data sets are reported, as evidence was found for intermittent instrumental and equipment problems. The censored data are believed to represent the "best case" results of these analyses, whereas the uncensored data show how small method changes can strongly affect the uncertainties of these empirical methods. Relative standard deviations (RSD) of 1-3% are reported for glucan, xylan, lignin, extractives, and total component closure with the other minor components showing 4-10% RSD. The standard deviations seen with the corn stover and NIST bagasse materials were similar, which suggests that the uncertainties reported here are due more to the analytical method used than to the specific feedstock type being analyzed.

  14. Expected international demand for woody and herbaceous feedstock

    SciTech Connect

    Lamers, Patrick; Jacobson, Jacob; Mohammad, Roni; Wright, Christopher

    2015-03-01

    The development of a U.S. bioenergy market and ultimately ‘bioeconomy’ has primarily been investigated with a national focus. Limited attention has been given to the potential impacts of international market developments. The goal of this project is to advance the current State of Technology of a single biorefinery to the global level providing quantitative estimates on how international markets may influence the domestic feedstock supply costs. The scope of the project is limited to feedstock that is currently available and new crops being developed to be used in a future U.S. bioeconomy including herbaceous residues (e.g., corn stover), woody biomass (e.g., pulpwood), and energy crops (e.g., switchgrass). The timeframe is set to the periods of 2022, 2030, and 2040 to align with current policy targets (e.g., the RFS2) and future updates of the Billion Ton data. This particular milestone delivers demand volumes for generic woody and herbaceous feedstocks for the main (net) importing regions along the above timeframes. The regional focus of the study is the European Union (EU), currently the largest demand region for U.S. pellets made from pulpwood and forest residues. The pellets are predominantly used in large-scale power plants (>5MWel) in the United Kingdom (UK), the Netherlands (NL), Belgium (BE), and Denmark (DK).

  15. Using Populus as a lignocellulosic feedstock for bioethanol.

    PubMed

    Porth, Ilga; El-Kassaby, Yousry A

    2015-04-01

    Populus species along with species from the sister genus Salix will provide valuable feedstock resources for advanced second-generation biofuels. Their inherent fast growth characteristics can particularly be exploited for short rotation management, a time and energy saving cultivation alternative for lignocellulosic feedstock supply. Salicaceae possess inherent cell wall characteristics with favorable cellulose to lignin ratios for utilization as bioethanol crop. We review economically important traits relevant for intensively managed biofuel crop plantations, genomic and phenotypic resources available for Populus, breeding strategies for forest trees dedicated to bioenergy provision, and bioprocesses and downstream applications related to opportunities using Salicaceae as a renewable resource. Challenges need to be resolved for every single step of the conversion process chain, i.e., starting from tree domestication for improved performance as a bioenergy crop, bioconversion process, policy development for land use changes associated with advanced biofuels, and harvest and supply logistics associated with industrial-scale biorefinery plants using Populus as feedstock. Significant hurdles towards cost and energy efficiency, environmental friendliness, and yield maximization with regards to biomass pretreatment, saccharification, and fermentation of celluloses and the sustainability of biorefineries as a whole still need to be overcome.

  16. Physiochemical Characterization of Briquettes Made from Different Feedstocks

    PubMed Central

    Karunanithy, C.; Wang, Y.; Muthukumarappan, K.; Pugalendhi, S.

    2012-01-01

    Densification of biomass can address handling, transportation, and storage problems and also lend itself to an automated loading and unloading of transport vehicles and storage systems. The purpose of this study is to compare the physicochemical properties of briquettes made from different feedstocks. Feedstocks such as corn stover, switchgrass, prairie cord grass, sawdust, pigeon pea grass, and cotton stalk were densified using a briquetting system. Physical characterization includes particle size distribution, geometrical mean diameter (GMD), densities (bulk and true), porosity, and glass transition temperature. The compositional analysis of control and briquettes was also performed. Statistical analyses confirmed the existence of significant differences in these physical properties and chemical composition of control and briquettes. Correlation analysis confirms the contribution of lignin to bulk density and durability. Among the feedstocks tested, cotton stalk had the highest bulk density of 964 kg/m3 which is an elevenfold increase compared to control cotton stalk. Corn stover and pigeon pea grass had the highest (96.6%) and lowest (61%) durability. PMID:22792471

  17. Nitrous oxide emissions from crop rotations including wheat, oilseed rape and dry peas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jeuffroy, M. H.; Baranger, E.; Carrouée, B.; de Chezelles, E.; Gosme, M.; Hénault, C.; Schneider, A.; Cellier, P.

    2013-03-01

    Approximately 65% of anthropogenic emissions of N2O, a potent greenhouse gas (GHG), originate from soils at a global scale, and particularly after N fertilisation of the main crops in Europe. Thanks to their capacity to fix atmospheric N2 through biological fixation, legumes can reduce N fertilizer use, and possibly N2O emissions. Nevertheless, the decomposition of crop organic matter during the crop cycle and residue decomposition, and possibly the N fixation process itself, could lead to N2O emissions. The objective of this study was to quantify N2O emissions from a dry pea crop (Pisum sativum, harvested at maturity) and from the subsequent crops in comparison with N2O emissions from wheat and oilseed rape crops, fertilized or not, in various rotations. A field experiment was conducted over 4 consecutive years to compare the emissions during the pea crop, in comparison with those during the wheat (fertilized or not) or oilseed rape crops, and after the pea crop, in comparison with other preceding crops. N2O fluxes were measured using static chambers. In spite of low N2O fluxes, mainly due to the site's soil characteristics, fluxes during the crop were significantly lower for pea and unfertilized wheat than for fertilized wheat and oilseed rape. The effect of the preceding crop was not significant, while soil mineral N at harvest was higher after the pea crop. These results should be confirmed over a wider range of soil types. Nevertheless, they demonstrate the absence of N2O emissions linked to the symbiotic N fixation process, and allow us to estimate the decrease in N2O emissions by 20-25% through including one pea crop in a three-year rotation. On a larger scale, this reduction of GHG emissions at field level has to be added to the decrease due to the reduced production and transport of the N fertilizer not applied to the pea crop.

  18. Insect pollination enhances seed yield, quality, and market value in oilseed rape.

    PubMed

    Bommarco, Riccardo; Marini, Lorenzo; Vaissière, Bernard E

    2012-08-01

    The relationships between landscape intensification, the abundance and diversity of pollinating insects, and their contributions to crop yield, quality, and market value are poorly studied, despite observed declines in wild and domesticated pollinators. Abundance and species richness of pollinating insects were estimated in ten fields of spring oilseed rape, Brassica napus var. SW Stratos™, located along a gradient of landscape compositions ranging from simple landscapes dominated by arable land to heterogeneous landscapes with extensive cover of semi-natural habitats. In each field, we assessed the contribution of wind and insect pollination to seed yield, seed quality (individual seed weight and oil and chlorophyll contents), and market value in a block experiment with four replicates and two treatments: (1) all flowers were accessible to insects, self and wind pollination, and (2) flowers enclosed in tulle net bags (mesh: 1 × 1 mm) were accessible only to wind and self pollination. Complex landscapes enhanced the overall abundance of wild insects as well as the abundance and species richness of hoverflies. This did not translate to a higher yield, probably due to consistent pollination by honey bees across all fields. However, the pollination experiment showed that insects increased seed weight per plant by 18% and market value by 20%. Seed quality was enhanced by insect pollination, rendering heavier seeds as well as higher oil and lower chlorophyll contents, clearly showing that insect pollination is required to reach high seed yield and quality in oilseed rape. Our study demonstrates considerable and previously underestimated contributions from pollinating insects to both the yield and the market value of oilseed rape.

  19. Insect pollination enhances seed yield, quality, and market value in oilseed rape.

    PubMed

    Bommarco, Riccardo; Marini, Lorenzo; Vaissière, Bernard E

    2012-08-01

    The relationships between landscape intensification, the abundance and diversity of pollinating insects, and their contributions to crop yield, quality, and market value are poorly studied, despite observed declines in wild and domesticated pollinators. Abundance and species richness of pollinating insects were estimated in ten fields of spring oilseed rape, Brassica napus var. SW Stratos™, located along a gradient of landscape compositions ranging from simple landscapes dominated by arable land to heterogeneous landscapes with extensive cover of semi-natural habitats. In each field, we assessed the contribution of wind and insect pollination to seed yield, seed quality (individual seed weight and oil and chlorophyll contents), and market value in a block experiment with four replicates and two treatments: (1) all flowers were accessible to insects, self and wind pollination, and (2) flowers enclosed in tulle net bags (mesh: 1 × 1 mm) were accessible only to wind and self pollination. Complex landscapes enhanced the overall abundance of wild insects as well as the abundance and species richness of hoverflies. This did not translate to a higher yield, probably due to consistent pollination by honey bees across all fields. However, the pollination experiment showed that insects increased seed weight per plant by 18% and market value by 20%. Seed quality was enhanced by insect pollination, rendering heavier seeds as well as higher oil and lower chlorophyll contents, clearly showing that insect pollination is required to reach high seed yield and quality in oilseed rape. Our study demonstrates considerable and previously underestimated contributions from pollinating insects to both the yield and the market value of oilseed rape. PMID:22311256

  20. Partial characterization, antioxidative properties and hypolipidemic effects of oilseed cake of Allanblackia floribunda and Jatropha curcas

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background High fat diet is known to induce oxidative stress and abnormal changes in lipid metabolism. Many traditional plants have been shown to possess antioxidant and lipid-lowering activities, improving on oxidative status and lipid profile. In this paper, we characterized and examined the antioxidative properties of the oilseed cake of A. floribunda and J. curcas. We also evaluated their effect on lipid profile in the plasma and liver of experimental rats placed on a high fat diet. Methods For a partial characterization, the qualitative and quantitative analyses of storage proteins, dietary fibre and polyphenol content were evaluated. Four extracts (aqueous, ethanolic, methanolic and 0.1 N HCl) were evaluated for their antioxidant properties and scavenging activities. The effect on lipid profile was evaluated after the administration of the crude extracts to albino rats placed on a high fat diet. Results Our results showed that J. curcas contains 10 times more storage proteins than A. floribunda while A. floribunda contains twice as much total dietary fibre than J. curcas. An evaluation of the different families of storage proteins showed that J. curcas has glutelins as the major storage proteins in its seeds (61.65 mg/g d.m), followed by globulins (25.30 mg/g d.m) and albumins (18.30 mg/g d.m). The electrophoretic analyses revealed a diversity of bands at the level of the different families and for both species. The evaluation of the in vitro antioxidant activities showed that A. floribunda extracts had higher antioxidant properties. Although the composition of A. floribunda and J. curcas oilseed cake are different, they lowered serum triglycerides (TG), total cholesterol (TC) and blood glucose level. Conclusion These results show that the oilseed cake of A. floribunda and J. curcas possess antioxidant properties with an effect on blood glucose level and lipid profile. PMID:24330337

  1. Cross-pollination between genetically modified and conventional oilseed rape fields.

    PubMed

    Degrieck, I; Van Bockstaele, E; De Loose, M

    2003-01-01

    Since the introduction of genetically modified crops in Europe, gene flow from those crops to conventional crops and wild relatives has been a key element in the safety assessment. In this experiment cross-pollination frequencies from a genetically modified herbicide tolerant oilseed rape crop to a conventional one were measured at six defined distances from the GM crop by taking seed samples in the conventional crop and analysing the progeny for presence of the herbicide tolerance gene. Levels of cross-pollination tend to decrease with increasing distance from the pollen source. Transgenic volunteers emerging in the subsequent crop can however be readily controlled with normal agricultural practices.

  2. Ozone effects on yield quality of spring oilseed rape and broccoli

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vandermeiren, Karine; De Bock, Maarten; Horemans, Nele; Guisez, Yves; Ceulemans, Reinhart; De Temmerman, Ludwig

    2012-02-01

    The impact of elevated tropospheric ozone (O 3) on the quality of spring oilseed rape ( Brassica napus cv Ability) and broccoli ( Brassica oleracea L. cv Italic cv Monaco) was assessed during a three year Open - Top Chamber (OTC) experiment. Current ambient O 3 levels were compared to an increase of 20 and 40 ppb during 8 h per day over the entire growing season. The qualitative responses were expressed as a function of the accumulated hourly O 3 concentrations over a threshold of 40 ppb (AOT40) and the phytotoxic O 3 dose above a threshold of 6 nmol s -1 m -2 projected leaf area (POD 6). Our results provide clear evidence that O 3 has an influence on the qualitative attributes of the harvested products of these Brassica species. The responses were comparable whether they were expressed as a function of the accumulated O 3 concentrations or of the modelled O 3 uptake. The protein concentration of oilseed rape seeds and broccoli heads was significantly increased in response to O 3. There was also a shift in the fatty acid composition of the vegetable oil derived from seeds of oilseed rape. Oleic acid (18:1) declined significantly ( p < 0.05) in favour of linoleic acid (18:2) ( p < 0.01). There was no change in the relative proportion of linolenic acid (18:3). The suppression of monounsaturated fatty acids ( p < 0.05) coincided with a positive response of the % saturated fatty acids ( p < 0.05). In rapeseed oil the observed decrease in vitamin E content was due to a reduction of γ-tocopherol (TOC, p < 0.001). α-TOC, the most active form of vitamin E in humans, was not influenced by O 3. There was no change in the glucosinolate (GSL) content of oilseed rape seeds. In broccoli an important shift occurred from indolic to aliphatic GSLs although the total GSL concentration was not changed. The increase in the aliphatic/indolic GSL ratio ( p < 0.001) may be important in relation to the anticarcinogenic properties of these vegetables. The vitamin C (ascorbate - ASC) and

  3. Re-examining the role of the glyoxylate cycle in oilseeds.

    PubMed

    Eastmond, P J; Graham, I A

    2001-02-01

    Oil is the primary seed storage reserve in many higher plants. After germination, this reserve is mobilized in order to support growth during early seedling development. The glyoxylate cycle is instrumental in this metabolic process. It allows acetyl-CoA derived from the breakdown of storage lipids to be used for the synthesis of carbohydrate. Recently, Arabidopsis mutants have been isolated that lack key glyoxylate cycle enzymes. An isocitrate lyase mutant has provided the first opportunity to test the biochemical and physiological functions of the glyoxylate cycle in vivo in an oilseed species.

  4. Fixed-route monitoring and a comparative study of the occurrence of herbicide-resistant oilseed rape (Brassica napus L.) along a Japanese roadside.

    PubMed

    Nishizawa, Toru; Nakajima, Nobuyoshi; Tamaoki, Masanori; Aono, Mitsuko; Kubo, Akihiro; Saji, Hikaru

    2016-01-01

    Previously, we conducted a roadside survey to reveal the occurrence of genetically modified (GM) oilseed rape along a Japanese roadside (Route 51). In this study, we performed successive and thorough fixed-route monitoring in 5 sections along another road (Route 23). Oilseed rape plants were detected on both sides of the road in each section between autumn 2009 and winter 2013, which included 3 flowering seasons. In four sections, more plants were found on the side of the road leading from the Yokkaichi port than on the opposite side. In the fifth section, the presence of clogged drains on the roadside, where juvenile plants concentrated, caused the opposite distribution: oilseed rape predominantly occurred along the inbound lanes (leading to the Yokkaichi port) in 2010 and 2012. Unlike in our previous survey, glyphosate- or glufosinate-resistant oilseed rape plants were abundant (>75% of analyzed plants over 3 years). Moreover, a few individuals bearing both herbicide resistance traits were also detected in some sections. The spillage of imported seeds may explain the occurrence of oilseed rape on the roadside. The abundance of herbicide-resistant oilseed rape plants may reflect the extent of contamination with GM oilseed rape seed within imports. PMID:26838503

  5. Fixed-route monitoring and a comparative study of the occurrence of herbicide-resistant oilseed rape (Brassica napus L.) along a Japanese roadside.

    PubMed

    Nishizawa, Toru; Nakajima, Nobuyoshi; Tamaoki, Masanori; Aono, Mitsuko; Kubo, Akihiro; Saji, Hikaru

    2016-01-01

    Previously, we conducted a roadside survey to reveal the occurrence of genetically modified (GM) oilseed rape along a Japanese roadside (Route 51). In this study, we performed successive and thorough fixed-route monitoring in 5 sections along another road (Route 23). Oilseed rape plants were detected on both sides of the road in each section between autumn 2009 and winter 2013, which included 3 flowering seasons. In four sections, more plants were found on the side of the road leading from the Yokkaichi port than on the opposite side. In the fifth section, the presence of clogged drains on the roadside, where juvenile plants concentrated, caused the opposite distribution: oilseed rape predominantly occurred along the inbound lanes (leading to the Yokkaichi port) in 2010 and 2012. Unlike in our previous survey, glyphosate- or glufosinate-resistant oilseed rape plants were abundant (>75% of analyzed plants over 3 years). Moreover, a few individuals bearing both herbicide resistance traits were also detected in some sections. The spillage of imported seeds may explain the occurrence of oilseed rape on the roadside. The abundance of herbicide-resistant oilseed rape plants may reflect the extent of contamination with GM oilseed rape seed within imports.

  6. Extraction procedures for oilseeds and related high fat-low moisture products.

    PubMed

    Sawyer, L D

    1982-09-01

    A combined sample preparation/extraction procedure is presented for pesticide residue analysis of oilseeds and related high fat-low moisture products. The procedure utilizes high-speed milling to prepare the sample and high-speed homogenization in the extraction step to achieve what is apparently quantitative isolation of both incurred residues and natural oils. A separate, simple, oil determination step allows findings to be reported on either the fat or whole product basis. Petroleum ether, ethyl ether-petroleum ether (1 + 1), and ethanol are used serially as the extractants. Usual fatty food cleanup procedures and multiresidue gas chromatographic detection techniques are utilized. The procedure presented in this paper is a refinement of earlier work which used a homogenizer both to grind and to extract samples of unground seeds and which demonstrated essentially complete extraction of endrin residues in soybeans and DDT residues in mustard seed. Identical samples analyzed by the currently recommended shakeout procedure, 29.012, gave recoveries of approximately 50% of the total residues. The procedure presented in this paper was satisfactorily tested on 13 different oilseed types and one sample of soda crackers. Oil content for these samples ranged from 5 to 69%. PMID:6890060

  7. Regional association analysis delineates a sequenced chromosome region influencing antinutritive seed meal compounds in oilseed rape.

    PubMed

    Snowdon, R J; Wittkop, B; Rezaidad, A; Hasan, M; Lipsa, F; Stein, A; Friedt, W

    2010-11-01

    This study describes the use of regional association analyses to delineate a sequenced region of a Brassica napus chromosome with a significant effect on antinutritive seed meal compounds in oilseed rape. A major quantitative trait locus (QTL) influencing seed colour, fibre content, and phenolic compounds was mapped to the same position on B. napus chromosome A9 in biparental mapping populations from two different yellow-seeded × black-seeded B. napus crosses. Sequences of markers spanning the QTL region identified synteny to a sequence contig from the corresponding chromosome A9 in Brassica rapa. Remapping of sequence-derived markers originating from the B. rapa sequence contig confirmed their position within the QTL. One of these markers also mapped to a seed colour and fibre QTL on the same chromosome in a black-seeded × black-seeded B. napus cross. Consequently, regional association analysis was performed in a genetically diverse panel of dark-seeded, winter-type oilseed rape accessions. For this we used closely spaced simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers spanning the sequence contig covering the QTL region. Correction for population structure was performed using a set of genome-wide SSR markers. The identification of QTL-derived markers with significant associations to seed colour, fibre content, and phenolic compounds in the association panel enabled the identification of positional and functional candidate genes for B. napus seed meal quality within a small segment of the B. rapa genome sequence.

  8. Biological and molecular characterization of a crucifer Tobamovirus infecting oilseed rape.

    PubMed

    Cai, Li; Chen, Kunrong; Zhang, Xuejiang; Yan, Liying; Hou, Mingsheng; Xu, Zeyong

    2009-08-01

    In China, the tobamovirus that infects oilseed rape has been misdiagnosed as Tobacco mosaic virus (TMV) based on its morphological similarity and serological relatedness. Recently, a tobamovirus has been isolated from oilseed rape in China, which we named Youcai mosaic virus Br (YoMV-Br), according to its biological and molecular characteristics. It had strong infectivity to Cruciferae but less to Solanaceae, Leguminosae, and Cucurbitaceae, and its virion morphology was consistent with that of the tobamoviruses. At high concentrations, it serologically cross reacted with TMV antiserum. The 3' terminal sequence (2,283 nucleotides) of YoMV-Br was determined, including the 3' noncoding region, the CP and MP genes, and the C-terminal part of the replicase gene. Between the MP and CP genes, 77 nucleotides overlapped. Compared with homologous regions of 21 recognized species of Tobamovirus, YoMV-Br had a much higher identity to crucifer species than to other tobamoviruses. Phylogenetic analysis demonstrated that YoMV-Br was closely related to the YoMV cluster of tobamoviruses and distantly to TMV, so that they likely belong to different strains of the same species.

  9. Transgene expression and fitness of hybrids between GM oilseed rape and Brassica rapa.

    PubMed

    Ammitzbøll, Henriette; Mikkelsen, Teis Nørgaard; Jørgensen, Rikke Bagger

    2005-01-01

    Oilseed rape (Brassica napus) is sexually compatible with its wild and weedy relative B. rapa, and introgression of genes from B. napus has been found to occur over a few generations. We simulated the early stages of transgene escape by producing F1 hybrids and the first backcross generation between two lines of transgenic B. napus and two populations of weedy B. rapa. Transgene expression and the fitness of the hybrids were examined under different environmental conditions. Expression of the transgenes was analyzed at the mRNA level by quantitative PCR and found to be stable in the hybrids, regardless of the genetic background and the environment, and equal to the level of transcription in the parental B. napus lines. Vigor of the hybrids was measured as the photosynthetic capability; pollen viability and seed set per silique. Photosynthetic capability of first generation hybrids was found to be at the same level, or higher, than that of the parental species, whereas the reproductive fitness was significantly lower. The first backcross generation had a significantly lower photosynthetic capability and reproductive fitness compared to the parental species. This is the first study that examines transgene expression at the mRNA level in transgenic hybrids of B. napus of different genetic background exposed to different environmental conditions. The data presented clarify important details of the overall risk assessment of growing transgenic oilseed rape.

  10. Airborne molds and mycotoxins associated with handling of corn silage and oilseed cakes in agricultural environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lanier, Caroline; Richard, Estelle; Heutte, Natacha; Picquet, Rachel; Bouchart, Valérie; Garon, David

    2010-05-01

    In agricultural areas, the contamination of feedstuffs with molds and mycotoxins presents major environmental and health concerns. During cattle feeding, fungi and mycotoxins were monitored in corn silage, oilseed cakes and bioaerosols collected in Normandy. Most of the corn silages were found to be contaminated by deoxynivalenol (mean concentration: 1883 μg kg -1) while a few of oilseed cakes were contaminated by alternariol, fumonisin B 1 or gliotoxin. In ambient bioaerosols, the values for fungi per cubic meter of air varied from 4.3 × 10 2 to 6.2 × 10 5 cfu m -3. Seasonal variations were observed with some species like Aspergillus fumigatus which significantly decreased between the 2 seasons ( P = 0.0186) while the Penicillium roqueforti group significantly increased during the second season ( P = 0.0156). In the personal bioaerosols, the values for fungi per cubic meter of air varied from 3.3 10 3 to 1.7 10 6 cfu m -3 and the number of A. fumigatus spores significantly decreased between the 2 seasons ( P = 0.0488). Gliotoxin, an immunosuppressive mycotoxin, was quantified in 3 personal filters at 3.73 μg m -3, 1.09 μg m -3 and 2.97 μg m -3.

  11. Postgerminative growth and lipid catabolism in oilseeds lacking the glyoxylate cycle.

    PubMed

    Eastmond, P J; Germain, V; Lange, P R; Bryce, J H; Smith, S M; Graham, I A

    2000-05-01

    The glyoxylate cycle is regarded as essential for postgerminative growth and seedling establishment in oilseed plants. We have identified two allelic Arabidopsis mutants, icl-1 and icl-2, which lack the glyoxylate cycle because of the absence of the key enzyme isocitrate lyase. These mutants demonstrate that the glyoxylate cycle is not essential for germination. Furthermore, photosynthesis can compensate for the absence of the glyoxylate cycle during postgerminative growth, and only when light intensity or day length is decreased does seedling establishment become compromised. The provision of exogenous sugars can overcome this growth deficiency. The icl mutants also demonstrate that the glyoxylate cycle is important for seedling survival and recovery after prolonged dark conditions that approximate growth in nature. Surprisingly, despite their inability to catalyze the net conversion of acetate to carbohydrate, mutant seedlings are able to break down storage lipids. Results suggest that lipids can be used as a source of carbon for respiration in germinating oilseeds and that products of fatty acid catabolism can pass from the peroxisome to the mitochondrion independently of the glyoxylate cycle. However, an additional anaplerotic source of carbon is required for lipid breakdown and seedling establishment. This source can be provided by the glyoxylate cycle or, in its absence, by exogenous sucrose or photosynthesis.

  12. Cadmium stress alters the redox reaction and hormone balance in oilseed rape (Brassica napus L.) leaves.

    PubMed

    Yan, Hui; Filardo, Fiona; Hu, Xiaotao; Zhao, Xiaomin; Fu, DongHui

    2016-02-01

    In order to understand the physiological response of oilseed rape (Brassica napus L.) leaves to cadmium (Cd) stress and exploit the physiological mechanisms involved in Cd tolerance, macro-mineral and chlorophyll concentrations, reactive oxygen species (ROS) accumulation, activities of enzymatic antioxidants, nonenzymatic compounds metabolism, endogenous hormonal changes, and balance in leaves of oilseed rape exposed to 0, 100, or 200 μM CdSO4 were investigated. The results showed that under Cd exposure, Cd concentrations in the leaves continually increased while macro-minerals and chlorophyll concentrations decreased significantly. Meanwhile, with increased Cd stress, superoxide anion (O2(• -)) production rate and hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) concentrations in the leaves increased significantly, which caused malondialdehyde (MDA) accumulation and oxidative stress. For scavenging excess accumulated ROS and alleviating oxidative injury in the leaves, the activity of enzymatic antioxidants, such as superoxide dismutase (SOD), peroxidase (POD), and catalase (CAT), was increased significantly at certain stress levels. However, with increased Cd stress, the antioxidant enzyme activities all showed a trend towards reduction. The nonenzymatic antioxidative compounds, such as proline and total soluble sugars, accumulated continuously with increased Cd stress to play a long-term role in scavenging ROS. In addition, ABA levels also increased continuously with Cd stress while ZR decreased and the ABA/ZR ratio increased, which might also be providing a protective role against Cd toxicity. PMID:26498815

  13. Molecular mechanism of manipulating seed coat coloration in oilseed Brassica species.

    PubMed

    Yu, Cheng-Yu

    2013-05-01

    Yellow seed is a desirable characteristic for the breeding of oilseed Brassica crops, but the manifestation of seed coat color is very intricate due to the involvement of various pigments, the main components of which are flavonols, proanthocyanidin (condensed tannin), and maybe some other phenolic relatives, like lignin and melanin. The focus of this review is to examine the genetics mechanism regarding the biosynthesis and regulation of these pigments in the seed coat of oilseed Brassica. This knowledge came largely from recent researches on the molecular mechanism of TRANSPARENT TESTA (tt) and similar mutations in the ancestry model plant of Brassica, Arabidopsis. Some key enzymes in the flavonoid (flavonols and proanthocyanidin) biosynthetic pathway have been characterized in tt mutants. Some orthologs to these TRANSPARENT TESTA genes have also been cloned in Brassica species. However, it is suggested that some alterative metabolism pathways, including lignin and melanin, might also be involved in seed color manifestation. Polyphenol oxidases, such as laccase, tyrosinase, or even peroxidase, participate in the oxidation step in proanthocyanidin, lignin, and melanin biosynthesis. Moreover, some researches also suggested that melanic pigment in black-seeded Brassica was several fold higher than in yellow-seeded Brassica. Although more experiments are required to evaluate the importance of lignin and melanin in seed coat browning, the current results suggest that the flavonols and proanthocyanidin are not the only roles affecting seed color. PMID:23329015

  14. Cadmium stress alters the redox reaction and hormone balance in oilseed rape (Brassica napus L.) leaves.

    PubMed

    Yan, Hui; Filardo, Fiona; Hu, Xiaotao; Zhao, Xiaomin; Fu, DongHui

    2016-02-01

    In order to understand the physiological response of oilseed rape (Brassica napus L.) leaves to cadmium (Cd) stress and exploit the physiological mechanisms involved in Cd tolerance, macro-mineral and chlorophyll concentrations, reactive oxygen species (ROS) accumulation, activities of enzymatic antioxidants, nonenzymatic compounds metabolism, endogenous hormonal changes, and balance in leaves of oilseed rape exposed to 0, 100, or 200 μM CdSO4 were investigated. The results showed that under Cd exposure, Cd concentrations in the leaves continually increased while macro-minerals and chlorophyll concentrations decreased significantly. Meanwhile, with increased Cd stress, superoxide anion (O2(• -)) production rate and hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) concentrations in the leaves increased significantly, which caused malondialdehyde (MDA) accumulation and oxidative stress. For scavenging excess accumulated ROS and alleviating oxidative injury in the leaves, the activity of enzymatic antioxidants, such as superoxide dismutase (SOD), peroxidase (POD), and catalase (CAT), was increased significantly at certain stress levels. However, with increased Cd stress, the antioxidant enzyme activities all showed a trend towards reduction. The nonenzymatic antioxidative compounds, such as proline and total soluble sugars, accumulated continuously with increased Cd stress to play a long-term role in scavenging ROS. In addition, ABA levels also increased continuously with Cd stress while ZR decreased and the ABA/ZR ratio increased, which might also be providing a protective role against Cd toxicity.

  15. Field pennycress: A new oilseed crop for the production of biofuels, lubricants, and high-quality proteins

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Field pennycress (Thlaspi arvense L.) has numerous positive attributes that make it a very promising industrial oilseed crop. Its short growing season makes it suitable as an off-season crop between corn and soybean production in most of the upper Midwestern U.S. Fall planting of pennycress may also...

  16. Measurement of aspartic acid in oilseed rape leaves under herbicide stress using near infrared spectroscopy and chemometrics.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Chu; Kong, Wenwen; Liu, Fei; He, Yong

    2016-01-01

    Oilseed rape is used as both food and a renewable energy resource. Physiological parameters, such as the amino acid aspartic acid, can indicate the growth status of oilseed rape. Traditional detection methods are laborious, time consuming, costly, and not usable in the field. Here, we investigate near infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) as a fast and non-destructive detection method of aspartic acid in oilseed rape leaves under herbicide stress. Different spectral pre-processing methods were compared for optimal prediction performance. The variable selection methods were applied for relevant variable selection, including successive projections algorithm (SPA), Monte Carlo-uninformative variable elimination (MC-UVE) and random frog (RF). The selected effective wavelengths (EWs) were used as input by multiple linear regression (MLR), partial least squares (PLS) and least-square support vector machine (LS-SVM). The best predictive performance was achieved by SPA-LS-SVM (Raw) model using 22 EWs, and the prediction results were Rp = 0.9962 and RMSEP = 0.0339 for the prediction set. The result indicated that NIR combined with LS-SVM is a powerful new method to detect aspartic acid in oilseed rape leaves under herbicide stress. PMID:27441244

  17. Biofuel production from microalgae as feedstock: current status and potential.

    PubMed

    Han, Song-Fang; Jin, Wen-Biao; Tu, Ren-Jie; Wu, Wei-Min

    2015-06-01

    Algal biofuel has become an attractive alternative of petroleum-based fuels in the past decade. Microalgae have been proposed as a feedstock to produce biodiesel, since they are capable of mitigating CO2 emission and accumulating lipids with high productivity. This article is an overview of the updated status of biofuels, especially biodiesel production from microalgae including fundamental research, culture selection and engineering process development; it summarizes research on mathematical and life cycle modeling on algae growth and biomass production; and it updates global efforts of research and development and commercialization attempts. The major challenges are also discussed.

  18. Biofuels Feedstock Development Program annual progress report for 1991

    SciTech Connect

    Wright, L.L.; Cushman, J.H.; Ehrenshaft, A.R.; McLaughlin, S.B.; McNabb, W.A.; Ranney, J.W.; Tuskan, G.A.; Turhollow, A.F.

    1992-12-01

    This report provides an overview of the ongoing research funded in 1991 by the Department of Energy`s Biofuels Feedstock Development Program (BFDP). The BFDP is managed by the Environmental Sciences Division of the Oak Ridge National Laboratory and encompasses the work formerly funded by the Short Rotation Woody Crops Program and the Herbaceous Energy Crops Program. The combined program includes crop development research on both woody and herbaceous energy crop species, cross-cutting energy and environmental analysis and integration, and information management activities. Brief summaries of 26 different program activities are included in the report.

  19. Biofuels Feedstock Development Program annual progress report for 1991

    SciTech Connect

    Wright, L.L.; Cushman, J.H.; Ehrenshaft, A.R.; McLaughlin, S.B.; McNabb, W.A.; Ranney, J.W.; Tuskan, G.A.; Turhollow, A.F.

    1992-12-01

    This report provides an overview of the ongoing research funded in 1991 by the Department of Energy's Biofuels Feedstock Development Program (BFDP). The BFDP is managed by the Environmental Sciences Division of the Oak Ridge National Laboratory and encompasses the work formerly funded by the Short Rotation Woody Crops Program and the Herbaceous Energy Crops Program. The combined program includes crop development research on both woody and herbaceous energy crop species, cross-cutting energy and environmental analysis and integration, and information management activities. Brief summaries of 26 different program activities are included in the report.

  20. Evaluating possible cap and trade legislation on cellulosic feedstock availability

    SciTech Connect

    Hellwinckel, C.M.; West, Tristram O.; De La Torre Ugarte, D. G.; Perlack, Robert D.

    2010-09-08

    An integrated, socioeconomic biogeophysical model is used to analyze the interactions of cap-and-trade legislation and the Renewable Fuels Standard. Five alternative policy scenarios were considered with the purpose of identifying policies that act in a synergistic manner to reduce carbon emissions, increase economic returns to agriculture, and adequately meet ethanol mandates.We conclude that climate and energy policies can best be implemented together by offering carbon offset payments to conservation tillage, herbaceous grasses for biomass, and by constraining crop residue removal for ethanol feedstocks to carbon neutral level.

  1. Post-harvest N2O emissions were not affected by various types of oilseed straw incorporated into soil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Köbke, Sarah; Senbayram, Mehmet; Hegewald, Hannes; Christen, Olaf; Dittert, Klaus

    2015-04-01

    Oilseed rape post-harvest N2O emissions are seen highly critical as so far they are considered as one of the most crucial drawbacks in climate-saving bioenergy production systems. N2O emissions may substantially counterbalance the intended savings in CO2 emissions. Carbon-rich crop residues in conjunction with residual soil nitrate are seen as a key driver since they may serve as energy source for denitrification and, they may alter soil-borne N2O emissions. As oilseed rape straw is known to have high N/C ratio compared to other crop residues, its soil incorporation may specifically trigger post-harvest N2O emissions. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to determine post-harvest N2O emissions in soils amended with various types of oilseed rape straw (with different N/C ratio) and barley straw in field and incubation experiments. In the incubation experiment, oilseed rape or 15N labelled barley straw were mixed with soil at a rate of 1.3 t DM ha-1 and studied for 43 days. Treatments consisted of non-treated control soil (CK), 15N labelled barley straw (BST), oilseed rape straw (RST), 15N labelled barley straw + N (BST+N), or oilseed rape straw + N (RST+N). N fertilizer was applied to the soil surface as ammonium-nitrate at a rate of 100 kg N ha-1 and soil moisture was adjusted to 80% water-holding capacity. In the field experiment, during the vegetation period 15N labelled fertilizer (15NH415NO3) was used to generate 15N labelled oilseed rape straw (up to 5 at%). Here, the three fertilizer treatments consisted of 5 kg N ha-1 (RST-5), 150 kg N ha-1 (RST-150) and 180 kg N ha-1 (RST-180). Post-harvest N2O emissions were determined during the period of August 2013 to February 2014 by using static flux chambers. In the incubation trial, cumulative N2O emissions were 5, 29, 40 g N2O-N ha-1 148 days-1 in non-fertilized control, BST and RST treatments, respectively. Here, emissions were slightly higher in RST than BST (p

  2. Effect of biomass feedstock chemical and physical properties on energy conversion processes: Volume 1, Overview

    SciTech Connect

    Butner, R.S.; Elliott, D.C.; Sealock, L.J. Jr.; Pyne, J.W.

    1988-12-01

    Pacific Northwest Laboratory has completed an initial investigation of the effects of physical and chemical properties of biomass feedstocks relative to their performance in biomass energy conversion systems. Both biochemical conversion routes (anaerobic digestion and ethanol fermentation) and thermochemical routes (combustion, pyrolysis, and gasification) were included in the study. Related processes including chemical and physical pretreatment to improve digestibility, and size and density modification processes such as milling and pelletizing were also examined. This overview report provides background and discussion of feedstock and conversion relationships, along with recommendations for future research. The recommendations include (1) coordinate production and conversion research programs; (2) quantify the relationship between feedstock properties and conversion priorities; (3) develop a common framework for evaluating and characterizing biomass feedstocks; (4) include conversion effects as part of the criteria for selecting feedstock breeding programs; and (5) continue emphasis on multiple feedstock/conversion options for biomass energy systems. 9 refs., 3 figs., 2 tabs.

  3. Short communication: Effects of prepartum diets supplemented with rolled oilseeds on Brix values and fatty acid profile of colostrum.

    PubMed

    Salehi, R; Ambrose, D J; Oba, M

    2016-05-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate effects of oilseeds supplemented in prepartum diets on colostrum quality. Thirty-nine dry pregnant Holstein cows (14 primiparous and 25 multiparous cows) were blocked by body condition score and parity and assigned to 1 of 3 experimental diets containing rolled oilseeds at 8% of dietary dry matter (canola seed or sunflower seed) or no oilseed (control) at 35 d before the expected calving date. Canola seed is high in oleic acid and sunflower seed is high in linoleic acid content. Colostrum samples were collected at the first milking after calving, and concentrations of nutrient composition, fatty acid profile, and Brix value (an indicator IgG concentration) were determined. Cows fed sunflower seeds before calving produced colostrum with greater crude protein content (15.0 vs. 12.9%), colostral Brix values (24.3 vs. 20.3%), and conjugated linoleic acid concentration (18:2 cis-9,trans-11; 0.64 vs. 0.48%) compared with those fed canola seed. Positive effects of feeding sunflower seed might be mediated by ruminal metabolism of linoleic acid and subsequent enhanced production of conjugated linoleic acid. Oilseed supplementation in prepartum diets of dairy cows also altered fatty acid profile of colostrum in a way to reflect fatty acid profile of the supplemented oilseeds except for oleic acid. In conclusion, prepartum feeding of sunflower seed increased colostral Brix value, an indicator of colostral IgG concentration, compared with that of canola seed, but its mode of action and effects on health and productivity of calves need to be investigated.

  4. BnSGS3 Has Differential Effects on the Accumulation of CMV, ORMV and TuMV in Oilseed Rape.

    PubMed

    Chen, Quan; Wang, Jie; Hou, Mingsheng; Liu, Shengyi; Huang, Junyan; Cai, Li

    2015-08-01

    Virus diseases greatly affect oilseed rape (Brassica napus) production. Investigating antiviral genes may lead to the development of disease-resistant varieties of oilseed rape. In this study, we examined the effects of the suppressor of gene silencing 3 in Brassica napus (BnSGS3, a putative antiviral gene) with different genus viruses by constructing BnSGS3-overexpressing (BnSGS3-Ov) and BnSGS3-silenced (BnSGS3-Si) oilseed rape (cv. Zhongshuang No. 6) plants. These three viruses are Oilseed rape mosaic virus (ORMV), Turnip mosaic virus (TuMV) and Cucumber mosaic virus (CMV). The native BnSGS3 expressed in all examined tissues with the highest expression in siliques. All three viruses induced BnSGS3 expression, but ORMV induced a dramatic increase in the BnSGS3-Ov plants, followed by TuMV and CMV. Upon inoculation with three different viruses, transcript abundance of BnSGS3 gene follows: BnSGS3-Ov > non-transgenic plants > BnSGS3-Si. The accumulation quantities of ORMV and TuMV exhibited a similar trend. However, CMV accumulation showed an opposite trend where virus accumulations were negatively correlated with BnSGS3 expression. The results suggest that BnSGS3 selectively inhibits CMV accumulation but promotes ORMV and TuMV accumulation. BnSGS3 should be used in different ways (up- and down-regulation) for breeding virus-resistant oilseed rape varieties. PMID:26225990

  5. Development of crop-specific transposable element (SINE) markers for studying gene flow from oilseed rape to wild radish.

    PubMed

    Prieto, J L; Pouilly, N; Jenczewski, E; Deragon, J M; Chèvre, A M

    2005-08-01

    The screening of wild populations for evidence of gene flow from a crop to a wild related species requires the unambiguous detection of crop genes within the genome of the wild species, taking into account the intraspecific variability of each species. If the crop and wild relatives share a common ancestor, as is the case for the Brassica crops and their wild relatives (subtribe Brassiceae), the species-specific markers needed to make this unambiguous detection are difficult to identify. In the model oilseed rape (Brassica napus, AACC, 2n = 38)-wild radish (Raphanus raphanistrum, RrRr, 2n = 18) system, we utilized the presence or absence of a short-interspersed element (SINE) at a given locus to develop oilseed rape-specific markers, as SINE insertions are irreversible. By means of sequence-specific amplified polymorphism (SINE-SSAP) reactions, we identified and cloned 67 bands specific to the oilseed rape genome and absent from that of wild radish. Forty-seven PCR-specific markers were developed from three combinations of primers anchored either in (1) the 5'- and 3'-genomic sequences flanking the SINE, (2) the 5'-flanking and SINE internal sequences or (3) the SINE internal and flanking 3'-sequences. Seventeen markers were monomorphic whatever the oilseed rape varieties tested, whereas 30 revealed polymorphism and behaved either as dominant (17) or co-dominant (13) markers. Polymorphic markers were mapped on 19 genomic regions assigned to ten linkage groups. The markers developed will be efficient tools to trace the occurrence and frequency of introgressions of oilseed rape genomic region within wild radish populations. PMID:15942756

  6. Alternative Feedstocks Program Technical and Economic Assessment: Thermal/Chemical and Bioprocessing Components

    SciTech Connect

    Bozell, J. J.; Landucci, R.

    1993-07-01

    This resource document on biomass to chemicals opportunities describes the development of a technical and market rationale for incorporating renewable feedstocks into the chemical industry in both a qualitative and quantitative sense. The term "renewable feedstock?s" can be defined to include a huge number of materials such as agricultural crops rich in starch, lignocellulosic materials (biomass), or biomass material recovered from a variety of processing wastes.

  7. Increasing Feedstock Production for Biofuels: Economic Drivers, Environmental Implications, and the Role of Research

    SciTech Connect

    none,

    2009-10-27

    The Biomass Research and Development Board (Board) commissioned an economic analysis of feedstocks to produce biofuels. The Board seeks to inform investments in research and development needed to expand biofuel production. This analysis focuses on feedstocks; other interagency teams have projects underway for other parts of the biofuel sector (e.g., logistics). The analysis encompasses feedstocks for both conventional and advanced biofuels from agriculture and forestry sources.

  8. Switchgrass Production in Washington – Part II of Biofuel Feedstocks in Washington

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Integrated Cropping Systems group at Prosser, WA made up of WSU and USDA-ARS personnel have been evaluating production aspects of a number of irrigated biofuel crops that can be planted in rotation with high value vegetables: oilseeds for biodiesel (safflower, soybeans, mustard, canola/rapeseed...

  9. Seashore mallow (Kosteletzkya pentacarpos) stems as a feedstock for biodegradable absorbents

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Seashore mallow [Kosteletzkya pentacarpos (L.) Ledebour] is a perennial dicot native to coastal marshes in eastern North America, Europe and Asia. Seashore mallow is tolerant of saline soil and brackish water, and is being examined as a potential oilseed crop. Seashore mallow plants produce multip...

  10. Carbon-catalyzed gasification of organic feedstocks in supercritical water

    SciTech Connect

    Xu, X.; Matsumura, Y.; Stenberg, J.; Antal, M.J. Jr.

    1996-08-01

    Spruce wood charcoal, macadamia shell charcoal, coal activated carbon, and coconut shell activated carbon catalyze the gasification of organic compounds in supercritical water. Feedstocks studied in this paper include glycerol, glucose, cellobiose, whole biomass feedstocks (depithed bagasse liquid extract and sewage sludge), and representative Department of Defense (DoD) wastes (methanol, methyl ethyl ketone, ethylene glycol, acetic acid, and phenol). The effects of temperature, pressure, reactant concentration, weight hourly space velocity, and the type of catalyst on the gasification of glucose are reported. Complete conversion of glucose (22% by weight in water) to a hydrogen-rich synthesis gas was realized at a weight hourly space velocity (WHSV) of 22.2 h{sup {minus}1} in supercritical water at 600 C, 34.5 MPa. Complete conversions of the whole biomass feeds were also achieved at the same temperature and pressure. The destruction efficiencies for the representative DoD wastes were also high. Deactivation of the carbon catalyst was observed after 4 h of operation without swirl in the entrance region of the reactor, but the carbon gasification efficiency remained near 100% for more than 6 h when a swirl generator was employed in the entrance of the reactor.

  11. The production of herbaceous feedstocks for renewable energy

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1986-09-01

    This document describes the use of a selected group of herbaceous plants as energy feedstocks. Twelve herbaceous crops were selected for study based on their above average yields; their composition, which can increase their value for fuel and other applications; and their ability to produce in a variety of soils and climates. Six of the twelve are carbohydrate crops (sugarcane, sweet sorghum, sweet-stemmed grain sorghum, Jerusalem artichoke, sugar beet, and fodder beet), and six are lignocellulosic crops (kenaf, napiergrass, alfalfa, reed canarygrass, common reed, and water hyacinth). The contribution that herbaceous crops can make to the total US energy supply is discussed. Each candidate crop is characterized in terms of chemical composition, storage, processing, products, and uses. Growth characteristics and production practices in terms of geographic range, yield potential, and cultural requirements are described. Barriers to private sector development of herbaceous energy crops are listed and how R and D programs could be directed to overcome these roadblocks. The areas considered are feedstock selection and production, harvesting and transport, and processing and conversion.

  12. Thermochemical gasification of high-moisture biomass feedstocks

    SciTech Connect

    Butner, R.S.; Sealock, L.J. Jr.; Elliott, D.C.

    1985-02-14

    A significant energy resource base exists in the Midwest in the form of crop residues and wastes. Estimates have been made that this resource is on the magnitude of 1.5 Quads (1 Quad = 10/sup 15/ Btu's). One obstacle to the full utilization of this resource is the high moisture content of many crop residues. A DOE-funded research program being conducted by Pacific Northwest Laboratory is investigating a low-temperature, mixed catalyst thermochemical system which efficiently converts high-moisture biomass to a medium Btu gas consisting of methane and hydrogen. Experimental data indicates that carbon conversions in excess of 90% may be obtained. Feedstock slurries containing up to 95% moisture have been used successfully in the batch reactor. Feedstocks used in the system include sorghum, sunflowers, napier grass, aquatic plants and food processing wastes. The ability to convert high-moisture biomass to fuels via this thermochemical process may allow greater utilization of the significant biomass resource base which exists in the Mdwest. 6 references, 6 figures, 2 tables.

  13. Introduction to Session 1A: Feedstock Genomics and Development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vermerris, Wilfred

    Genomics research aimed at improving bioconversion properties of feedstocks received a major impetus as a result of the Feedstock Genomics program jointly operated by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and the U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA). In addition, oil company BP established the Energy Biosciences Institute in collaboration with the University of California-Berkeley, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, and the University of Illinois in Urbana-Champaign. This was followed later on in the year by the establishment of three DOE-funded bioenergy centers. The need to switch from petroleum-based duels to biofuels was underscored by the report of Working Group II of the United Nations-sponsored International Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), in which the wide-spread effects of greenhouse gas emissions on the global climate were presented. IPCC and former U.S. vice-president Al Gore received the 2007 Nobel Peace Prize for their efforts to quantify and disseminate the effects of global warming.

  14. Ligncellulosic feedstock supply systems with intermodal and overseas transportation

    SciTech Connect

    Ric Hoefnagels; Kara Cafferty; Erin Searcy; Jacob J. Jacobson; Martin Junginger; Thijs Cornelissen; Andre Faaij

    2014-12-01

    With growing demand for biomass from industrial uses and international trade, the logistic operations required to economically move the biomass from the field or forest to the end users have become increasingly complex. In addition to economics, understanding energy and GHG emissions is required to design cost effective, sustainable logistic process operations; in order to improve international supply chains it is also important to understate their interdependencies and related uncertainties. This article presents an approach to assess lignocellulosic feedstock supply systems at the operational level. For this purpose, the Biomass Logistic Model (BLM) has been linked with the Geographic Information Systems based Biomass Intermodal Transportation model (BIT-UU) and extended with inter-continental transport routes. Case studies of herbaceous and woody biomass, produced in the U.S. Midwest and U.S. Southeast, respectively, and shipped to Europe for conversion to Fischer-Tropsch (FT) diesel are included to demonstrate how intermodal transportation and, in particular, overseas shipping integrates with the bioenergy supply chains. For the cases demonstrated, biomass can be supplied at 99 € Mg-1 to 117 € Mg-1 (dry) and converted to FT-diesel at 19 € GJ-1 to 24 € GJ-1 depending on the feedstock type and location, intermediate (chips or pellets) and size of the FT-diesel production plant. With the flexibility to change the design of supply chains as well as input variables, many alternative supply chain cases can be assessed.

  15. Biofuels feedstock development program. Annual progress report for 1992

    SciTech Connect

    Wright, L.L.; Cushman, J.H.; Ehrenshaft, A.R.; McLaughlin, S.B.; McNabb, W.A.; Martin, S.A.; Ranney, J.W.; Tuskan, G.A.; Turhollow, A.F.

    1993-11-01

    The Department of Energy`s (DOE`s) Biofuels Feedstock Development Program (BFDP) leads the nation in the research, development, and demonstration of environmentally acceptable and commercially viable dedicated feedstock supply systems (DFSS). The purpose of this report is to highlight the status and accomplishments of the research that is currently being funded by the BFDP. Highlights summarized here and additional accomplishments are described in more detail in the sections associated with each major program task. A few key accomplishments include (1) development of a methodology for doing a cost-supply analysis for energy crops and the application of that methodology to looking at possible land use changes around a specific energy facility in East Tennessee; (2) preliminary documentation of the relationship between woody crop plantation locations and bird diversity at sites in the Midwest, Canada, and the pacific Northwest supplied indications that woody crop plantations could be beneficial to biodiversity; (3) the initiation of integrated switchgrass variety trials, breeding research, and biotechnology research for the south/southeast region; (4) development of a data base management system for documenting the results of herbaceous energy crop field trials; (5) publication of three issues of Energy Crops Forum and development of a readership of over 2,300 individuals or organizations as determined by positive responses on questionnaires.

  16. Impact of feedstock quality and variation on biochemical and thermochemical conversion

    DOE PAGES

    Li, Chenlin; Aston, John E.; Lacey, Jeffrey A.; Thompson, Vicki S.; Thompson, David N.

    2016-07-21

    The production of biofuels from lignocellulosic feedstock is attracting considerable attention in the United States and globally as a strategy to diversify energy resources, spur regional economic development and reduce greenhouse gas emissions. Because of the wide variation in feedstock types, compositions and content of convertible organics, there is a growing need to better understand correlations among feedstock quality attributes and conversion performance. Knowledge of the feedstock impact on conversion is essential to supply quality controlled, uniform and on-spec feedstocks to biorefineries. This review paper informs the development of meaningful feedstock quality specifications for different conversion processes. Discussions are focusedmore » on how compositional properties of feedstocks affect various unit operations in biochemical conversion processes, fast pyrolysis and hydrothermal liquefaction. In addition, future perspectives are discussed that focus on the challenges and prospects of addressing compositionally intrinsic inhibitors through feedstock preprocessing at regionally distributed depots. As a result, such preprocessing depots may allow for the commoditization of lignocellulosic feedstock and realization of stable, cost-effective and quality controlled biomass supply systems.« less

  17. Pollen-mediated intraspecific gene flow from herbicide resistant oilseed rape (Brassica napus L.).

    PubMed

    Hüsken, Alexandra; Dietz-Pfeilstetter, Antje

    2007-10-01

    The cultivation of genetically modified (GM) herbicide resistant oilseed rape (Brassica napus) has increased over the past few years. The transfer of herbicide resistance genes via pollen (gene flow) from GM crops to non-GM crops is of relevance for the realisation of co-existence of different agricultural cultivation forms as well as for weed management. Therefore the likelihood of pollen-mediated gene flow has been investigated in numerous studies. Despite the difficulty to compare different experiments with varying levels of outcrossing, we performed a literature search for world-wide studies on cross-fertilisation in fully fertile oilseed rape. The occurrence and frequency of pollen-mediated intraspecific gene flow (outcrossing rate) can vary according to cultivar, experimental design, local topography and environmental conditions. The outcrossing rate from one field to another depends also on the size and arrangement of donor and recipient populations and on the ratio between donor and recipient plot size. The outcrossing levels specified in the presented studies are derived mostly from experiments where the recipient field is either surrounding the donor field (continuous design) or is located as a patch at different distances from the donor field (discontinuous design). Reports of gene flow in Brassica napus generally show that the amount of cross-fertilisation decreases as the distance from the pollen source increases. The evidence given in various studies reveals that the bulk of GM cross-fertilisation occurs within the first 10 m of the recipient field. The removal of the first 10 m of a non-transgenic field facing a GM crop might therefore be more efficient for reducing the total level of cross-fertilisation in a recipient sink population than to recommend separation distances. Future experiments should investigate cross-fertilisation with multiple adjacent donor fields at the landscape level under different spatial distributions of rapeseed cultivars

  18. Device and method for upgrading petroleum feedstocks and petroleum refinery streams using an alkali metal conductive membrane

    DOEpatents

    Gordon, John Howard; Alvare, Javier

    2016-09-13

    A reactor has two chambers, namely an oil feedstock chamber and a source chamber. An ion separator separates the oil feedstock chamber from the source chamber, wherein the ion separator allows alkali metal ions to pass from the source chamber, through the ion separator, and into the oil feedstock chamber. A cathode is at least partially housed within the oil feedstock chamber and an anode is at least partially housed within the source chamber. A quantity of an oil feedstock is within the oil feedstock chamber, the oil feedstock comprising at least one carbon atom and a heteroatom and/or one or more heavy metals, the oil feedstock further comprising naphthenic acid. When the alkali metal ion enters the oil feedstock chamber, the alkali metal reacts with the heteroatom, the heavy metals and/or the naphthenic acid, wherein the reaction with the alkali metal forms inorganic products.

  19. Effects of prepartum diets supplemented with rolled oilseeds on calf birth weight, postpartum health, feed intake, milk yield, and reproductive performance of dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Salehi, R; Colazo, M G; Oba, M; Ambrose, D J

    2016-05-01

    The objectives were to determine the effects of supplemental fat (no oilseed vs. oilseed) during late gestation and the source of fat (canola vs. sunflower seed), on dry matter intake (DMI), plasma metabolite concentrations, milk production and composition, calf birth weight, postpartum health disorders, ovarian function and reproductive performance in dairy cows. Pregnant Holstein cows, blocked by body condition and parity, were assigned to 1 of 3 diets containing rolled canola seed (high in oleic acid; n=43) or sunflower (high in linoleic acid; n=45) at 8% of dry matter, or no oilseed (control; n=43), for the last 35±2 d of pregnancy. After calving, all cows received a common lactation diet. Blood samples were collected at wk -3 (i.e., 2 wk after initiation of prepartum diets) and at wk +1, +2, +3, +4 and +5 postpartum to determine the concentration of fatty acids (mEq/dL), β-hydroxybutyrate (mg/dL), and glucose (mg/dL). Ovarian ultrasonography was performed twice weekly to determine the first appearance of dominant (10mm) and preovulatory-size (≥16mm) follicles, and ovulation. Uterine inflammatory status based on the proportion of polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMN; subclinical endometritis: >8% PMN) was assessed at d 25±1 postpartum. Significant parity by treatment interactions were observed for DMI and milk yield. Prepartum oilseed supplementation, more specifically sunflower seed supplementation, increased postpartum DMI in primiparous cows without affecting prepartum DMI or milk yield. Contrarily, in multiparous cows, prepartum oilseed supplementation decreased both prepartum and postpartum DMI and milk yield during the first 2 wk. Regardless of parity, prepartum feeding of canola reduced postpartum DMI compared with those fed sunflower. Mean fatty acids concentrations at wk -3 were greater in cows given supplemental oilseed than those fed no oilseeds. Gestation length and calf birth weight were increased in cows given supplemental oilseed prepartum

  20. Effects of prepartum diets supplemented with rolled oilseeds on calf birth weight, postpartum health, feed intake, milk yield, and reproductive performance of dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Salehi, R; Colazo, M G; Oba, M; Ambrose, D J

    2016-05-01

    The objectives were to determine the effects of supplemental fat (no oilseed vs. oilseed) during late gestation and the source of fat (canola vs. sunflower seed), on dry matter intake (DMI), plasma metabolite concentrations, milk production and composition, calf birth weight, postpartum health disorders, ovarian function and reproductive performance in dairy cows. Pregnant Holstein cows, blocked by body condition and parity, were assigned to 1 of 3 diets containing rolled canola seed (high in oleic acid; n=43) or sunflower (high in linoleic acid; n=45) at 8% of dry matter, or no oilseed (control; n=43), for the last 35±2 d of pregnancy. After calving, all cows received a common lactation diet. Blood samples were collected at wk -3 (i.e., 2 wk after initiation of prepartum diets) and at wk +1, +2, +3, +4 and +5 postpartum to determine the concentration of fatty acids (mEq/dL), β-hydroxybutyrate (mg/dL), and glucose (mg/dL). Ovarian ultrasonography was performed twice weekly to determine the first appearance of dominant (10mm) and preovulatory-size (≥16mm) follicles, and ovulation. Uterine inflammatory status based on the proportion of polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMN; subclinical endometritis: >8% PMN) was assessed at d 25±1 postpartum. Significant parity by treatment interactions were observed for DMI and milk yield. Prepartum oilseed supplementation, more specifically sunflower seed supplementation, increased postpartum DMI in primiparous cows without affecting prepartum DMI or milk yield. Contrarily, in multiparous cows, prepartum oilseed supplementation decreased both prepartum and postpartum DMI and milk yield during the first 2 wk. Regardless of parity, prepartum feeding of canola reduced postpartum DMI compared with those fed sunflower. Mean fatty acids concentrations at wk -3 were greater in cows given supplemental oilseed than those fed no oilseeds. Gestation length and calf birth weight were increased in cows given supplemental oilseed prepartum

  1. Application of a rotation system to oilseed rape and rice fields in Cd-contaminated agricultural land to ensure food safety.

    PubMed

    Yu, Lingling; Zhu, Junyan; Huang, Qingqing; Su, Dechun; Jiang, Rongfeng; Li, Huafen

    2014-10-01

    This field experiment analyzed the phytoremediation effects of oilseed rape in moderately cadmium (Cd)-contaminated farmland and the food safety of successive rice in an oilseed rape-rice rotation system. Two oilseed rape cultivars accumulated Cd at different rates. The rapeseed cultivar Zhucang Huazi exhibited high Cd accumulation rates, higher than the legal limit for human consumption (0.2mgkg(-1)); Cd concentrations in the cultivar Chuanyou II-93 were all below the maximum allowed level. Planting oilseed rape increased the uptake of Cd by the successive rice crop compared with a previous fallow treatment. Most Cd concentrations of brown rice were below the maximum allowed level. The phytoextraction efficiency was lower in the moderately Cd-contaminated soil in field experiments. The results suggest screening rice cultivars with lower Cd accumulation can assure the food safety; the mobilization of heavy metals by roots of different plant species should be considered during crop rotation to assure food safety.

  2. Dissecting the genome of the polyploid crop oilseed rape by transcriptome sequencing.

    PubMed

    Bancroft, Ian; Morgan, Colin; Fraser, Fiona; Higgins, Janet; Wells, Rachel; Clissold, Leah; Baker, David; Long, Yan; Meng, Jinling; Wang, Xiaowu; Liu, Shengyi; Trick, Martin

    2011-08-01

    Polyploidy complicates genomics-based breeding of many crops, including wheat, potato, cotton, oat and sugarcane. To address this challenge, we sequenced leaf transcriptomes across a mapping population of the polyploid crop oilseed rape (Brassica napus) and representative ancestors of the parents of the population. Analysis of sequence variation and transcript abundance enabled us to construct twin single nucleotide polymorphism linkage maps of B. napus, comprising 23,037 markers. We used these to align the B. napus genome with that of a related species, Arabidopsis thaliana, and to genome sequence assemblies of its progenitor species, Brassica rapa and Brassica oleracea. We also developed methods to detect genome rearrangements and track inheritance of genomic segments, including the outcome of an interspecific cross. By revealing the genetic consequences of breeding, cost-effective, high-resolution dissection of crop genomes by transcriptome sequencing will increase the efficiency of predictive breeding even in the absence of a complete genome sequence.

  3. The presence of Bt-transgenic oilseed rape in wild mustard populations affects plant growth.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yongbo; Stewart, C Neal; Li, Junsheng; Huang, Hai; Zhang, Xitao

    2015-12-01

    The adventitious presence of transgenic plants in wild plant populations is of ecological and regulatory concern, but the consequences of adventitious presence are not well understood. Here, we introduced Bacillus thuringiensis Cry1Ac (Bt)-transgenic oilseed rape (Bt OSR, Brassica napus) with various frequencies into wild mustard (Brassica juncea) populations. We sought to better understand the adventitious presence of this transgenic insecticidal crop in a wild-relative plant population. We assessed the factors of competition, resource availability and diamondback moth (Plutella xylostella) infestation on plant population dynamics. As expected, Bt OSR performed better than wild mustard in mixed populations under herbivore attack in habitats with enough resources, whereas wild mustard had higher fitness when Bt OSR was rarer in habitats with limited resources. Results suggest that the presence of insect-resistant transgenic plants could decrease the growth of wild mustard and Bt OSR plants and their populations, especially under high herbivore pressure.

  4. Quantification of a broad spectrum of lignans in cereals, oilseeds, and nuts.

    PubMed

    Smeds, Annika I; Eklund, Patrik C; Sjöholm, Rainer E; Willför, Stefan M; Nishibe, Sansei; Deyama, Takeshi; Holmbom, Bjarne R

    2007-02-21

    Twenty-four plant lignans were analyzed by high-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry in bran extracts of 16 cereal species, in four nut species, and in two oilseed species (sesame seeds and linseeds). Eighteen of these were lignans previously unidentified in these species, and of these, 16 were identified in the analyzed samples. Four different extraction methods were applied as follows: alkaline extraction, mild acid extraction, a combination of alkaline and mild acid extraction, or accelerated solvent extraction. The extraction method was of great importance for the lignan yield. 7-Hydroxymatairesinol, which has not previously been detected in cereals because of destructive extraction methods, was the dominant lignan in wheat, triticale, oat, barley, millet, corn bran, and amaranth whole grain. Syringaresinol was the other dominant cereal lignan. Wheat and rye bran had the highest lignan content of all cereals; however, linseeds and sesame seeds were by far the most lignan-rich of the studied species.

  5. Expression of a Streptomyces 3-hydroxysteroid oxidase gene in oilseeds for converting phytosterols to phytostanols.

    PubMed

    Venkatramesh, Mylavarapu; Karunanandaa, Balasulojini; Sun, Bin; Gunter, Catharine A; Boddupalli, Sekhar; Kishore, Ganesh M

    2003-01-01

    Plant sterols and their hydrogenated forms, stanols, have attracted much attention because of their benefits to human health in reducing serum and LDL cholesterol levels, with vegetable oil processing being their major source in several food products currently sold. The predominant forms of plant sterol end products are sitosterol, stigmasterol, campesterol and brassicasterol (in brassica). In this study, 3-hydroxysteroid oxidase from Streptomyces hygroscopicus was utilized to engineer oilseeds from rapeseed (Brassica napus) and soybean (Glycine max), respectively, to modify the relative amounts of specific sterols to stanols. Each of the major phytosterols had its C-5 double bond selectively reduced to the corresponding phytostanol without affecting other functionalities, such as the C-22 double bond of stigmasterol in soybean seed and of brassicasterol in rapeseed. Additionally, several novel phytostanols were obtained that are not produced by chemical hydrogenation of phytosterols normally present in plants.

  6. The presence of Bt-transgenic oilseed rape in wild mustard populations affects plant growth.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yongbo; Stewart, C Neal; Li, Junsheng; Huang, Hai; Zhang, Xitao

    2015-12-01

    The adventitious presence of transgenic plants in wild plant populations is of ecological and regulatory concern, but the consequences of adventitious presence are not well understood. Here, we introduced Bacillus thuringiensis Cry1Ac (Bt)-transgenic oilseed rape (Bt OSR, Brassica napus) with various frequencies into wild mustard (Brassica juncea) populations. We sought to better understand the adventitious presence of this transgenic insecticidal crop in a wild-relative plant population. We assessed the factors of competition, resource availability and diamondback moth (Plutella xylostella) infestation on plant population dynamics. As expected, Bt OSR performed better than wild mustard in mixed populations under herbivore attack in habitats with enough resources, whereas wild mustard had higher fitness when Bt OSR was rarer in habitats with limited resources. Results suggest that the presence of insect-resistant transgenic plants could decrease the growth of wild mustard and Bt OSR plants and their populations, especially under high herbivore pressure. PMID:26338267

  7. Steam explosion of oilseed rape straw: establishing key determinants of saccharification efficiency.

    PubMed

    Wood, Ian P; Elliston, Adam; Collins, Sam R A; Wilson, David; Bancroft, Ian; Waldron, Keith W

    2014-06-01

    Oilseed rape straw was steam exploded into hot water at a range of severities. The residues were fractionated into solid and liquid phases and chemically characterised. The effect of steam explosion on enzymatic hydrolysis of the water-insoluble fractions was investigated by studying initial cellulase binding and hydrolysis yields for different cellulase doses. Time-course data was modelled to establish rate-dependent differences in saccharification as a function of pretreatment severity and associated chemical composition. The study concluded: (1) the initial hydrolysis rate was limited by the amount of (pectic) uronic acid remaining in the substrate; (2) the proportion of rapidly hydrolysable carbohydrate was most closely and positively related to lignin abundance and (3) the final sugar yield most closely related to xylan removal from the substrate. Comparisons between milled and un-milled steam exploded straw highlighted the influence that physical structure has on hydrolysis rates and yields, particularly at low severities.

  8. Prediction of microalgae hydrothermal liquefaction products from feedstock biochemical composition

    SciTech Connect

    Leow, Shijie; Witter, John R.; Vardon, Derek R.; Sharma, Brajendra K.; Guest, Jeremy S.; Strathmann, Timothy J.

    2015-05-11

    Hydrothermal liquefaction (HTL) uses water under elevated temperatures and pressures (200–350 °C, 5–20 MPa) to convert biomass into liquid “biocrude” oil. Despite extensive reports on factors influencing microalgae cell composition during cultivation and separate reports on HTL products linked to cell composition, the field still lacks a quantitative model to predict HTL conversion product yield and qualities from feedstock biochemical composition; the tailoring of microalgae feedstock for downstream conversion is a unique and critical aspect of microalgae biofuels that must be leveraged upon for optimization of the whole process. This study developed predictive relationships for HTL biocrude yield and other conversion product characteristics based on HTL of Nannochloropsis oculata batches harvested with a wide range of compositions (23–59% dw lipids, 58–17% dw proteins, 12–22% dw carbohydrates) and a defatted batch (0% dw lipids, 75% dw proteins, 19% dw carbohydrates). HTL biocrude yield (33–68% dw) and carbon distribution (49–83%) increased in proportion to the fatty acid (FA) content. A component additivity model (predicting biocrude yield from lipid, protein, and carbohydrates) was more accurate predicting literature yields for diverse microalgae species than previous additivity models derived from model compounds. FA profiling of the biocrude product showed strong links to the initial feedstock FA profile of the lipid component, demonstrating that HTL acts as a water-based extraction process for FAs; the remainder non-FA structural components could be represented using the defatted batch. These findings were used to introduce a new FA-based model that predicts biocrude oil yields along with other critical parameters, and is capable of adjusting for the wide variations in HTL methodology and microalgae species through the defatted batch. Lastly, the FA model was linked to an upstream cultivation model (Phototrophic Process Model

  9. Prediction of microalgae hydrothermal liquefaction products from feedstock biochemical composition

    DOE PAGES

    Leow, Shijie; Witter, John R.; Vardon, Derek R.; Sharma, Brajendra K.; Guest, Jeremy S.; Strathmann, Timothy J.

    2015-05-11

    Hydrothermal liquefaction (HTL) uses water under elevated temperatures and pressures (200–350 °C, 5–20 MPa) to convert biomass into liquid “biocrude” oil. Despite extensive reports on factors influencing microalgae cell composition during cultivation and separate reports on HTL products linked to cell composition, the field still lacks a quantitative model to predict HTL conversion product yield and qualities from feedstock biochemical composition; the tailoring of microalgae feedstock for downstream conversion is a unique and critical aspect of microalgae biofuels that must be leveraged upon for optimization of the whole process. This study developed predictive relationships for HTL biocrude yield and othermore » conversion product characteristics based on HTL of Nannochloropsis oculata batches harvested with a wide range of compositions (23–59% dw lipids, 58–17% dw proteins, 12–22% dw carbohydrates) and a defatted batch (0% dw lipids, 75% dw proteins, 19% dw carbohydrates). HTL biocrude yield (33–68% dw) and carbon distribution (49–83%) increased in proportion to the fatty acid (FA) content. A component additivity model (predicting biocrude yield from lipid, protein, and carbohydrates) was more accurate predicting literature yields for diverse microalgae species than previous additivity models derived from model compounds. FA profiling of the biocrude product showed strong links to the initial feedstock FA profile of the lipid component, demonstrating that HTL acts as a water-based extraction process for FAs; the remainder non-FA structural components could be represented using the defatted batch. These findings were used to introduce a new FA-based model that predicts biocrude oil yields along with other critical parameters, and is capable of adjusting for the wide variations in HTL methodology and microalgae species through the defatted batch. Lastly, the FA model was linked to an upstream cultivation model (Phototrophic Process Model

  10. Production and fuel characteristics of vegetable oil from oilseed crops in the Pacific Northwest

    SciTech Connect

    Auld, D.L.; Bettis, B.L.; Peterson, C.L.

    1982-01-01

    The purpose of this research was to evaluate the potential yield and fuel quality of various oilseed crops adapted to the Pacific Northwest as a source of liquid fuel for diesel engines. The seed yield and oil production of three cultivars of winter rape (Brassica napus L.), two cultivars of safflower (Carthamus tinctorius L.) and two cultivars of sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) were evaluated in replicated plots at Moscow. Additional trials were conducted at several locations in Idaho, Oregon and Washington. Sunflower, oleic and linoleic safflower, and low and high erucic acid rapeseed were evaluated for fatty acid composition, energy content, viscosity and engine performance in short term tests. During 20 minute engine tests power output, fuel economy and thermal efficiency were compared to diesel fuel. Winter rape produced over twice as much farm extractable oil as either safflower or sunflower. The winter rape cultivars, Norde and Jet Neuf had oil yields which averaged 1740 and 1540 L/ha, respectively. Vegetable oils contained 94 to 95% of the KJ/L of diesel fuel, but were 11.1 to 17.6 times more viscous. Viscosity of the vegetable oils was closely related to fatty acid chain length and number of unsaturated bonds (R/sup 2/=.99). During short term engine tests all vegetable oils produced power outputs equivalent to diesel, and had thermal efficiencies 1.8 to 2.8% higher than diesel. Based on these results it appears that species and cultivars of oilseed crops to be utilized as a source of fuel should be selected on the basis of oil yield. 1 figure, 5 tables.

  11. Overexpression of BnWRKY33 in oilseed rape enhances resistance to Sclerotinia sclerotiorum.

    PubMed

    Wang, Zheng; Fang, Hedi; Chen, Yu; Chen, Keping; Li, Guanying; Gu, Shoulai; Tan, Xiaoli

    2014-09-01

    Sclerotinia sclerotiorum causes a devastating disease in oilseed rape (Brassica napus) resulting in a tremendous yield loss worldwide. Studies on various host-pathogen interactions have shown that plant WRKY transcription factors are essential for defence. For the B. napus-S. sclerotiorum interaction, little direct evidence has been found with regard to the biological roles of specific WRKY genes in host resistance. In this study, we isolated a B. napus WRKY gene, BnWRKY33, and found that the gene is highly responsive to S. sclerotiorum infection. Transgenic B. napus plants overexpressing BnWRKY33 showed markedly enhanced resistance to S. sclerotiorum, constitutive activation of the expression of BnPR1 and BnPDF1.2, and inhibition of H2 O2 accumulation in response to pathogen infection. Further, we isolated a mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinase substrate gene, BnMKS1, and found that not only can BnWRKY33 interact with BnMKS1, which can also interact with BnMPK4, using the yeast two-hybrid assay, consistent with their collective nuclear localization, but also BnWRKY33, BnMKS1 and BnMPK4 are substantially and synergistically expressed in response to S. sclerotiorum infection. In contrast, the three genes showed differential expression in response to phytohormone treatments. Together, these results suggest that BnWRKY33 plays an important role in B. napus defence to S. sclerotiorum, which is most probably associated with the activation of the salicylic acid (SA)- and jasmonic acid (JA)-mediated defence response and inhibition of H2 O2 accumulation, and we propose a potential mechanism in which BnMPK4-BnMKS1-BnWRKY33 exist in a nuclear localized complex to regulate resistance to S. sclerotiorum in oilseed rape.

  12. Modelling gene flow between oilseed rape and wild radish. I. Evolution of chromosome structure.

    PubMed

    Chèvre, A M; Adamczyk, K; Eber, F; Huteau, V; Coriton, O; Letanneur, J C; Laredo, C; Jenczewski, E; Monod, H

    2007-01-01

    The assessment of gene flow from crop species to weeds has found a new emphasis over the last years because of the marketing of transgenic crops and the possible selective advantage that crop (trans)gene may confer to the weeds. Several studies focused on the F1 interspecific hybrid production but few data are available on the factors affecting the genetic structure of advanced generations. It depends on the genomic structure of the species concerned as well as on the degree of their genome homology that affect the occurrence of intergenomic recombination. Oilseed rape (Brassica napus, AACC, 2n = 38)-wild radish (Raphanus raphanistrum, RrRr, 2n = 18), a distantly related weed, is a good model to address such questions. From seven male sterile oilseed rape lines carrying an herbicide tolerance transgene, F1 interspecific hybrids and four advanced generations were produced under field conditions with wild radish as pollinator. Observation of hybrid chromosome numbers across four generations revealed a high variability, especially in the "BC1" generation. A regression model was fitted in order to describe the relationship between parent and offspring chromosome numbers. The effects of generation, transgenic line and selection pressure on the mean relationship were investigated. The first two factors had an influence on the rate of decrease of chromosome numbers, whereas selection pressure resulted in the presence of an additional chromosome in the herbicide treated plants. The model provided a convenient framework for analysing how chromosome numbers evolve over successive hybridization events and it may prove useful as a basis for simulation-based approaches. PMID:17091264

  13. Thiamethoxam: Assessing flight activity of honeybees foraging on treated oilseed rape using radio frequency identification technology.

    PubMed

    Thompson, Helen; Coulson, Mike; Ruddle, Natalie; Wilkins, Selwyn; Harkin, Sarah

    2016-02-01

    The present study was designed to assess homing behavior of bees foraging on winter oilseed rape grown from seed treated with thiamethoxam (as Cruiser OSR), with 1 field drilled with thiamethoxam-treated seed and 2 control fields drilled with fungicide-only-treated seed. Twelve honeybee colonies were used per treatment group, 4 each located at the field edge (on-field site), at approximately 500 m and 1000 m from the field. A total of nearly 300 newly emerged bees per colony were fitted (tagged) with Mic3 radio frequency identification (RFID) transponders and introduced into each of the 36 study hives. The RFID readers fitted to the entrances of the test colonies were used to monitor the activity of the tagged bees for the duration of the 5-wk flowering period of the crop. These activity data were analyzed to assess any impact on flight activity of bees foraging on the treated compared with untreated crops. Honeybees were seen to be actively foraging within all 3 treatment groups during the exposure period. The data for the more than 3000 RFID-tagged bees and more than 90 000 foraging flights monitored throughout the exposure phase for the study follow the same trends across the treatment and controls and at each of the 3 apiary distances, indicating that there were no effects from foraging on the treated crop. Under the experimental conditions, there was no effect of foraging on thiamethoxam-treated oilseed rape on honeybee flight activity or on their ability to return to the hive.

  14. Elicitation of expert judgments of uncertainty in the risk assessment of herbicide-tolerant oilseed crops.

    PubMed

    Krayer von Krauss, Martin P; Casman, Elizabeth A; Small, Mitchell J

    2004-12-01

    One of the lay public's concerns about genetically modified (GM) organisms (GMO) and related emerging technologies is that not all the important risks are evaluated or even identified yet--and that ignorance of the unanticipated risks could lead to severe environmental or public health consequences. To some degree, even the scientists who participated in the analysis of the risks from GMOs (arguably the people most qualified to critique these analyses) share some of this concern. To formally explore the uncertainty in the risk assessment of a GM crop, we conducted detailed interviews of seven leading experts on GM oilseed crops to obtain qualitative and quantitative information on their understanding of the uncertainties associated with the risks to agriculture from GM oilseed crops (canola or rapeseed). The results of these elicitations revealed three issues of potential concern that are currently left outside the scope of risk assessments. These are (1) the potential loss of the agronomic and environmental benefits of glyphosate (a herbicide widely used in no-till agriculture) due to the combined problems of glyphosate-tolerant canola and wheat volunteer plants, (2) the growing problem of seed lot contamination, and (3) the potential market impacts. The elicitations also identified two areas where knowledge is insufficient. These are: the occurrence of hybridization between canola and wild relatives and the ability of the hybrids to perpetuate themselves in nature, and the fate of the herbicide-tolerance genes in soil and their interaction with soil microfauna and -flora. The methodological contribution of this work is a formal approach to analyzing the uncertainty surrounding complex problems.

  15. Evaluation of filamentous green algae as feedstocks for biofuel production.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Wei; Zhao, Yonggang; Cui, Binjie; Wang, Hui; Liu, Tianzhong

    2016-11-01

    Compared with unicellular microalgae, filamentous algae have high resistance to grazer-predation and low-cost recovery in large-scale production. Green algae, as the most diverse group of algae, included numerous filamentous genera and species. In this study, records of filamentous genera and species in green algae were firstly censused and classified. Then, seven filamentous strains subordinated in different genera were cultivated in bubbled-column to investigate their growth rate and energy molecular (lipid and starch) capacity. Four strains including Stigeoclonium sp., Oedogonium nodulosum, Hormidium sp. and Zygnema extenue were screened out due to their robust growth. And they all could accumulate triacylglycerols and starch in their biomass, but with different capacity. After nitrogen starvation, Hormidium sp. and Oedogonium nodulosum respectively exhibited high capacity of lipid (45.38% in dry weight) and starch (46.19% in dry weight) accumulation, which could be of high potential as feedstocks for biodiesel and bioethanol production. PMID:27598569

  16. Feedstock Production Datasets from the Bioenergy Knowledge Discovery Framework

    DOE Data Explorer

    The Bioenergy Knowledge Discovery Framework invites users to discover the power of bioenergy through an interface that provides extensive access to research data and literature, GIS mapping tools, and collaborative networks. The Bioenergy KDF supports efforts to develop a robust and sustainable bioenergy industry. The KDF facilitates informed decision making by providing a means to synthesize, analyze, and visualize vast amounts of information in a relevant and succinct manner. It harnesses Web 2.0 and social networking technologies to build a collective knowledge system that can better examine the economic and environmental impacts of development options for biomass feedstock production, biorefineries, and related infrastructure. [copied from https://www.bioenergykdf.net/content/about] Holdings include datasets, models, and maps and the collections are growing due to both DOE contributions and data uploads from individuals.

  17. Feedstock Logistics Datasets from DOE's Bioenergy Knowledge Discovery Framework (KDF)

    DOE Data Explorer

    The Bioenergy Knowledge Discovery Framework invites users to discover the power of bioenergy through an interface that provides extensive access to research data and literature, GIS mapping tools, and collaborative networks. The Bioenergy KDF supports efforts to develop a robust and sustainable bioenergy industry. The KDF facilitates informed decision making by providing a means to synthesize, analyze, and visualize vast amounts of information in a relevant and succinct manner. It harnesses Web 2.0 and social networking technologies to build a collective knowledge system that can better examine the economic and environmental impacts of development options for biomass feedstock production, biorefineries, and related infrastructure. Holdings include datasets, models, and maps. [from https://www.bioenergykdf.net/content/about

  18. Renewable Feedstocks: The Problem of Catalyst Deactivation and its Mitigation.

    PubMed

    Lange, Jean-Paul

    2015-11-01

    Much research has been carried out in the last decade to convert bio-based feedstock into fuels and chemicals. Most of the research focuses on developing active and selective catalysts, with much less attention devoted to their long-term stability. This Review considers the main challenges in long-term catalyst stability, discusses some fundamentals, and presents options for their mitigation. Three main challenges are discussed: catalyst fouling, catalyst poisoning, and catalyst destruction. Fouling is generally related to the deposition of insoluble components present in the feed or formed by degradation of the feed or intermediates. Poisoning is related to the deposition of electropositive contaminants (e.g. alkali and alkaline earth metals) on acid sites or of electronegative contaminants (e.g. N and S) at hydrogenation sites. Catalyst destruction results from the thermodynamic instability of most oxidic supports, solid acids/bases, and hydrogenation functions under hydrothermal conditions. PMID:26457585

  19. Semisolid Metal Processing Techniques for Nondendritic Feedstock Production

    PubMed Central

    Mohammed, M. N.; Omar, M. Z.; Salleh, M. S.; Alhawari, K. S.; Kapranos, P.

    2013-01-01

    Semisolid metal (SSM) processing or thixoforming is widely known as a technology that involves the formation of metal alloys between solidus and liquidus temperatures. For the procedure to operate successfully, the microstructure of the starting material must consist of solid near-globular grains surrounded by a liquid matrix and a wide solidus-to-liquidus transition area. Currently, this process is industrially successful, generating a variety of products with high quality parts in various industrial sectors. Throughout the years since its inception, a number of technologies to produce the appropriate globular microstructure have been developed and applied worldwide. The main aim of this paper is to classify the presently available SSM technologies and present a comprehensive review of the potential mechanisms that lead to microstructural alterations during the preparation of feedstock materials for SSM processing. PMID:24194689

  20. Evaluation of filamentous green algae as feedstocks for biofuel production.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Wei; Zhao, Yonggang; Cui, Binjie; Wang, Hui; Liu, Tianzhong

    2016-11-01

    Compared with unicellular microalgae, filamentous algae have high resistance to grazer-predation and low-cost recovery in large-scale production. Green algae, as the most diverse group of algae, included numerous filamentous genera and species. In this study, records of filamentous genera and species in green algae were firstly censused and classified. Then, seven filamentous strains subordinated in different genera were cultivated in bubbled-column to investigate their growth rate and energy molecular (lipid and starch) capacity. Four strains including Stigeoclonium sp., Oedogonium nodulosum, Hormidium sp. and Zygnema extenue were screened out due to their robust growth. And they all could accumulate triacylglycerols and starch in their biomass, but with different capacity. After nitrogen starvation, Hormidium sp. and Oedogonium nodulosum respectively exhibited high capacity of lipid (45.38% in dry weight) and starch (46.19% in dry weight) accumulation, which could be of high potential as feedstocks for biodiesel and bioethanol production.

  1. Upgrading of coal liquefaction feedstock by selective agglomeration

    SciTech Connect

    Lai, R.; Sinha, K.; Richardson, A.; Killmeyer, R.; Utz, B.; Hickey, R.; Cillo, D.

    1994-03-01

    The technical feasibility study of using selective agglomeration (with coal-derived oil) to upgrade Illinois No. 6 coal for a liquefaction feedstock was completed. Effects of coal particle size, slurry pH, oil-to-coal ratio, and operating temperature on mineral matter reduction, clean coal weight recovery, and clean coal moisture content were studied. The addition of coal-derived naphtha or kerosene as conditioners to increase hydrophobicity and recovery of coal was also investigated. Results showed that approximately 70% of the mineral matter could be removed from this coal at a clean coal weight recovery of over 85% by grinding the coal to a mean volume diameter of about 10 microns and properly selecting of the operation variables.

  2. Biorefining of lignocellulosic feedstock--Technical, economic and environmental considerations.

    PubMed

    Luo, Lin; van der Voet, Ester; Huppes, Gjalt

    2010-07-01

    Biorefinery, an example of a multiple products system, integrates biomass conversion processes and equipment to produce fuels, power and chemicals from biomass. This study focuses on technical design, economic and environmental analysis of a lignocellulosic feedstock (LCF) biorefinery producing ethanol, succinic acid, acetic acid and electricity. As the potential worldwide demand of succinic acid and its derivatives can reach 30 million tons per year, succinic acid is a promising high-value product if production cost and market price are substantially lowered. The results of the economic analysis show that the designed refinery has great potentials compared to the single-output ethanol plant; even when the price of succinic acid is lowered or the capital investment doubled. In terms of eco-efficiency, the LCF biorefinery shows better environmental performances mainly in global warming potential due to CO(2) fixation during acid fermentation. The overall evaluation of the eco-efficiency depends on the importance attached to each impact category.

  3. A national research & development strategy for biomass crop feedstocks

    SciTech Connect

    Wright, L.L.; Cushman, J.H.

    1997-07-01

    Planning was initiated in 1996 with the objective of reevaluating current biomass feedstock research and development strategies to: (1) assure that by 2005, one or more commercial lignocellulosic to ethanol projects will be able to acquire a dependable supply of biomass crop feedstocks; (2) assure that recently initiated demonstrations of crops to electricity will be successful and; (3) assure that the research base needed to support future biomass industry expansion is being developed. Multiple trends and analyses indicate that biomass energy research and development strategies must take into account the fact that competition for land will define the upper limits of available biomass energy crop supplies and will largely dictate the price of those supplies. Only crop production and utilization strategies which contribute profit to the farmer or landowner and to energy producers will be used commercially for biomass energy production. Strategies for developing biomass {open_quotes}energy{close_quotes} crop supplies must take into consideration all of the methods by which biomass crops will enter biomass energy markets. The lignocellulosic materials derived from crops can be available as primary residues or crop by-products; secondary residues or processing by-products; co-products (at both the crop production and processing stages); or, as dedicated energy crops. Basic research and development (R&D) leading to yield improvement continues to be recommended as a major long-term focus for dedicated energy crops. Many additional near term topics need attention, some of which are also applicable to by-products and co-products. Switchgrass R&D should be expanded and developed with greater collaboration of USDA and state extension groups. Woody crop research should continue with significant cost-share from industries developing the crops for other commercial products. Co-product options need more investigation.

  4. Thermo-chemical and biological conversion potential of various biomass feedstocks to ethanol

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The goal of this study is to evaluate the potential and the economy of producing ethanol from gasification-fermentation of various biomass feedstocks. The biomass feedstocks include winter cover crops (wheat, rye, clover, hairy betch), summer cover crop (sunhemp), chicken litter, and woody biomass. ...

  5. N2O emission and soil C sequestration from herbaceous perennial biofuel feedstocks

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Greenhouse gas (GHG) mitigation and renewable, domestic fuels are needed in the United States. Switchgrass (Panicum virgatum L.) and big bluestem (Andropogon gerdardii Vitman) are potential bioenergy feedstocks that may meet this need. However, managing perennial grasses for feedstock requires nitro...

  6. Mitigation opportunities for life cycle greenhouse gas emissions during feedstock production across heterogeneous landscapes

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Feedstock production can contribute greater than or equal to 50% of the lifecycle global warming intensity (GWI) of a biofuel. Variability exists within and among high-leverage components of the biomass production phase. GWI variability within feedstocks has gone unrecognized by regulatory agencies....

  7. Method for estimating processability of a hydrocarbon-containing feedstock for hydroprocessing

    SciTech Connect

    Schabron, John F; Rovani, Jr., Joseph F

    2014-01-14

    Disclosed herein is a method involving the steps of (a) precipitating an amount of asphaltenes from a liquid sample of a first hydrocarbon-containing feedstock having solvated asphaltenes therein with one or more first solvents in a column; (b) determining one or more solubility characteristics of the precipitated asphaltenes; (c) analyzing the one or more solubility characteristics of the precipitated asphaltenes; and (d) correlating a measurement of feedstock reactivity for the first hydrocarbon-containing feedstock sample with a mathematical parameter derived from the results of analyzing the one or more solubility characteristics of the precipitates asphaltenes. Determined parameters and processabilities for a plurality of feedstocks can be used to generate a mathematical relationship between parameter and processability; this relationship can be used to estimate the processability for hydroprocessing for a feedstock of unknown processability.

  8. An alternative feedstock of corn meal for industrial fuel ethanol production: delignified corncob residue.

    PubMed

    Lei, Cheng; Zhang, Jian; Xiao, Lin; Bao, Jie

    2014-09-01

    Delignified corncob residue is an industrial solid waste from xylose production using corncob as feedstock. In this study, delignified corncob residue was used as the feedstock of ethanol production by simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (SSF) and the optimal fermentation performance was investigated under various operation conditions. The ethanol titer and yield reached 75.07 g/L and 89.38%, respectively, using a regular industrial yeast strain at moderate cellulase dosage and high solids loading. A uniform SSF temperature of 37°C at both prehydrolysis and SSF stages was tested. The fermentation performance and cost of delignified corncob residue and corn meal was compared as feedstock of ethanol fermentation. The result shows that the delignified corncob residue is competitive to corn meal as ethanol production feedstock. The study gives a typical case to demonstrate the potential of intensively processed lignocellulose as the alternative feedstock of corn meal for industrial fuel ethanol production.

  9. Chemical Preconversion: Application of Low-Severity Pretreatment Chemistries for Commoditization of Lignocellulosic Feedstock

    SciTech Connect

    David N. Thompson; Timothy Campbell; Bryan Bals; Troy Runge; Farzaneh Teymouri

    2013-05-01

    Securing biofuels project financing is challenging, in part because of risks in feedstock supply. Commoditization of the feedstock and decoupling its supply from the biorefinery will promote greater economies of scale, reduce feedstock supply risk and reduce the need for overdesign of biorefinery pretreatment technologies. We present benefits and detractions of applying low-severity chemical treatments or ‘chemical preconversion treatments’ to enable this approach through feedstock modification and densification early in the supply chain. General structural modifications to biomass that support cost-effective densification and transportation are presented, followed by available chemistries to achieve these modifications with minimal yield loss and the potential for harvesting value in local economies. A brief review of existing biomass pretreatment technologies for cellulolytic hydrolysis at biorefineries is presented, followed by a discussion toward economically applying the underlying chemistries at reduced severity in light of capital and operational limitations of small-scale feedstock depots.

  10. An alternative feedstock of corn meal for industrial fuel ethanol production: delignified corncob residue.

    PubMed

    Lei, Cheng; Zhang, Jian; Xiao, Lin; Bao, Jie

    2014-09-01

    Delignified corncob residue is an industrial solid waste from xylose production using corncob as feedstock. In this study, delignified corncob residue was used as the feedstock of ethanol production by simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (SSF) and the optimal fermentation performance was investigated under various operation conditions. The ethanol titer and yield reached 75.07 g/L and 89.38%, respectively, using a regular industrial yeast strain at moderate cellulase dosage and high solids loading. A uniform SSF temperature of 37°C at both prehydrolysis and SSF stages was tested. The fermentation performance and cost of delignified corncob residue and corn meal was compared as feedstock of ethanol fermentation. The result shows that the delignified corncob residue is competitive to corn meal as ethanol production feedstock. The study gives a typical case to demonstrate the potential of intensively processed lignocellulose as the alternative feedstock of corn meal for industrial fuel ethanol production. PMID:25027810

  11. The California Biomass Crop Adoption Model estimates biofuel feedstock crop production across diverse agro-ecological zones within the state, under different future climates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaffka, S.; Jenner, M.; Bucaram, S.; George, N.

    2012-12-01

    Both regulators and businesses need realistic estimates for the potential production of biomass feedstocks for biofuels and bioproducts. This includes the need to understand how climate change will affect mid-tem and longer-term crop performance and relative advantage. The California Biomass Crop Adoption Model is a partial mathematical programming optimization model that estimates the profit level needed for new crop adoption, and the crop(s) displaced when a biomass feedstock crop is added to the state's diverse set of cropping systems, in diverse regions of the state. Both yield and crop price, as elements of profit, can be varied. Crop adoption is tested against current farmer preferences derived from analysis of 10 years crop production data for all crops produced in California, collected by the California Department of Pesticide Regulation. Analysis of this extensive data set resulted in 45 distinctive, representative farming systems distributed across the state's diverse agro-ecological regions. Estimated yields and water use are derived from field trials combined with crop simulation, reported elsewhere. Crop simulation is carried out under different weather and climate assumptions. Besides crop adoption and displacement, crop resource use is also accounted, derived from partial budgets used for each crop's cost of production. Systematically increasing biofuel crop price identified areas of the state where different types of crops were most likely to be adopted. Oilseed crops like canola that can be used for biodiesel production had the greatest potential to be grown in the Sacramento Valley and other northern regions, while sugar beets (for ethanol) had the greatest potential in the northern San Joaquin Valley region, and sweet sorghum in the southern San Joaquin Valley. Up to approximately 10% of existing annual cropland in California was available for new crop adoption. New crops are adopted if the entire cropping system becomes more profitable. In

  12. Rapeseed species and environmental concerns related to loss of seeds of genetically modified oilseed rape in Japan.

    PubMed

    Nishizawa, Toru; Tamaoki, Masanori; Aono, Mitsuko; Kubo, Akihiro; Saji, Hikaru; Nakajima, Nobuyoshi

    2010-01-01

    Feral rapeseed in Japan consists of Brassica rapa, B. juncea and B. napus, mostly produced by escape from crops. Brassica rapa and B. juncea were introduced from abroad long ago as leaf and root vegetables and as an oil crop and breeders have developed various cultivars. Brassica napus was introduced in the late 1800s, mainly as an oil crop. Rapeseed production in Japan is low, and most demand is met by imports from Canada (94.4% of the 2009 trade volume). Recently, spontaneous B. napus, including genetically modified (GM) herbicide-resistant individuals, has been detected along Japanese roads, probably originating from seeds lost during transportation of imports. As GM oilseed production increases abroad, the probability of escape of GM oilseed rape in Japan will increase, raising environmental biosafety concerns related to the impact of feral rapeseed on heirloom brassicaceous crops. In this paper, we review the history of rapeseed introduction in Japan and future concerns.

  13. The effect of oilseed consumption on appetite and on the risk of developing type 2 diabetes mellitus.

    PubMed

    Neves Ribeiro, Daniela; Gonçalves Alfenas, Rita de Cássia; Bressan, Josefina; Brunoro Costa, Neuza Maria

    2013-01-01

    The prevalence of diabetes mellitus (DM) has rapidly increased worldwide. Excess body fat is an important risk factor for the disease. Strategies have been indicated for the prevention and treatment of DM. Recent studies have associated the consumption of oilseeds resulting in a lower risk of developing obesity and diabetes. It is believed that this effect is associated with low glycemic index and the high fiber content, the unsaturated fatty acids and the magnesium oilseeds. However, the mechanisms involved in appetite and type 2 diabetes control have not been fully elucidated among researchers yet. Thus, the objective of the present article was to critically analyze the articles published on this subject aiming at identifying strategies which may be used in the dietary treatment of diabetes.

  14. Effect of organic matter and liming on the reduction of cadmium uptake from soil by triticale and spring oilseed rape.

    PubMed

    Ciecko, Z; Wyszkowski, M; Krajewski, W; Zabielska, J

    2001-12-17

    The aim of the study conducted on triticale and spring oilseed rape was to determine the role of liming, brown coal and compost medium in reducing the effect of cadmium contamination (at the rates of 0, 7.5, 15 and 22.5 mg Cd kg(-1) of soil) on yield and chemical composition of the crop. In the series of experiments without liming, a considerable decline in the yield of spring triticale grain, straw, root weight and green mass yield of rape was observed in response to the soil contamination with cadmium. Brown coal and especially compost medium added to soil neutralised the negative effect of cadmium on the grain yield and reduced a decrease in the yield of straw and roots of triticale. Soil liming proved to reduce the yield drop in oilseed rape caused by the contamination of soil with cadmium. The content of cadmium in roots and grain of spring triticale far exceeded that determined in triticale straw. The pollution of soil with cadmium caused a 26-fold increase in the content of this metal in grain, a 10-fold increase in roots of triticale and a twofold in oil-seed rape. Application of compost medium, brown coal and, to a smaller extent, liming reduced the level of cadmium in the parts of triticale brought to investigation. The soil contamination with cadmium caused certain modifications in the content of nitrogen, potassium, magnesium, calcium and sodium in spring triticale and in the content of N-total, potassium and magnesium in spring oilseed rape.

  15. Determination of As(III) and As(V) in oilseeds by chronopotentiometric stripping analysis: development of a method.

    PubMed

    Svarc-Gajić, Jaroslava V; Suturović, Zvonimir J; Marjanović, Nikola J; Kravić, Snezana Z

    2005-04-01

    Chronopotentiometric stripping analysis (CSA) was used for selective determination of As(III) and As(V) in different oilseeds. After the optimization of experimental parameters an appropriate procedure for sample pretreatment was developed. A detection limit of 2 microg/dm3 for As(III) was obtained with an electrolysis time of 600 s. This method was used for arsenic determination in sunflower, pumpkin, and flax seed, as well as for soy flakes and almond.

  16. Potential gene flow of two herbicide-tolerant transgenes from oilseed rape to wild B. juncea var. gracilis.

    PubMed

    Song, Xiaoling; Wang, Zhou; Zuo, Jiao; Huangfu, Chaohe; Qiang, Sheng

    2010-05-01

    Four successive reciprocal backcrosses between F(1) (obtained from wild Brassica juncea as maternal plants and transgenic glyphosate- or glufosinate-tolerant oilseed rape, B. napus, as paternal plants) or subsequent herbicide-tolerant backcross progenies and wild B. juncea were achieved by hand pollination to assess potential transgene flow. The third and forth reciprocal backcrosses produced a number of seeds per silique similar to that of self-pollinated wild B. juncea, except in plants with glufosinate-tolerant backcross progeny used as maternal plants and wild B. juncea as paternal plants, which produced fewer seeds per silique than did self-pollinated wild B. juncea. Germination percentages of reciprocal backcross progenies were high and equivalent to those of wild B. juncea. The herbicide-tolerant first reciprocal backcross progenies produced fewer siliques per plant than did wild B. juncea, but the herbicide-tolerant second or third reciprocal backcross progenies did not differ from the wild B. juncea in siliques per plant. The herbicide-tolerant second and third reciprocal backcross progenies produced an amount of seeds per silique similar to that of wild B. juncea except for with the glufosinate-tolerant first and second backcross progeny used as maternal plants and wild B. juncea as paternal plants. In the presence of herbicide selection pressure, inheritance of the glyphosate-tolerant transgene was stable across the second and third backcross generation, whereas the glufosinate-tolerant transgene was maintained, despite a lack of stabilized introgression. The occurrence of fertile, transgenic weed-like plants after only three crosses (F(1), first backcross, second backcross) suggests a potential rapid spread of transgenes from oilseed rape into its wild relative wild B. juncea. Transgene flow from glyphosate-tolerant oilseed rape might be easier than that from glufosinate-tolerant oilseed rape to wild B. juncea. The original insertion site of the

  17. Potential gene flow of two herbicide-tolerant transgenes from oilseed rape to wild B. juncea var. gracilis.

    PubMed

    Song, Xiaoling; Wang, Zhou; Zuo, Jiao; Huangfu, Chaohe; Qiang, Sheng

    2010-05-01

    Four successive reciprocal backcrosses between F(1) (obtained from wild Brassica juncea as maternal plants and transgenic glyphosate- or glufosinate-tolerant oilseed rape, B. napus, as paternal plants) or subsequent herbicide-tolerant backcross progenies and wild B. juncea were achieved by hand pollination to assess potential transgene flow. The third and forth reciprocal backcrosses produced a number of seeds per silique similar to that of self-pollinated wild B. juncea, except in plants with glufosinate-tolerant backcross progeny used as maternal plants and wild B. juncea as paternal plants, which produced fewer seeds per silique than did self-pollinated wild B. juncea. Germination percentages of reciprocal backcross progenies were high and equivalent to those of wild B. juncea. The herbicide-tolerant first reciprocal backcross progenies produced fewer siliques per plant than did wild B. juncea, but the herbicide-tolerant second or third reciprocal backcross progenies did not differ from the wild B. juncea in siliques per plant. The herbicide-tolerant second and third reciprocal backcross progenies produced an amount of seeds per silique similar to that of wild B. juncea except for with the glufosinate-tolerant first and second backcross progeny used as maternal plants and wild B. juncea as paternal plants. In the presence of herbicide selection pressure, inheritance of the glyphosate-tolerant transgene was stable across the second and third backcross generation, whereas the glufosinate-tolerant transgene was maintained, despite a lack of stabilized introgression. The occurrence of fertile, transgenic weed-like plants after only three crosses (F(1), first backcross, second backcross) suggests a potential rapid spread of transgenes from oilseed rape into its wild relative wild B. juncea. Transgene flow from glyphosate-tolerant oilseed rape might be easier than that from glufosinate-tolerant oilseed rape to wild B. juncea. The original insertion site of the

  18. Nitrogen availability impacts oilseed rape (Brassica napus L.) plant water status and proline production efficiency under water-limited conditions.

    PubMed

    Albert, Benjamin; Le Cahérec, Françoise; Niogret, Marie-Françoise; Faes, Pascal; Avice, Jean-Christophe; Leport, Laurent; Bouchereau, Alain

    2012-08-01

    Large amounts of nitrogen (N) fertilizers are used in the production of oilseed rape. However, as low-input methods of crop management are introduced crops will need to withstand temporary N deficiency. In temperate areas, oilseed rape will also be affected by frequent drought periods. Here we evaluated the physiological and metabolic impact of nitrate limitation on the oilseed rape response to water deprivation. Different amounts of N fertilizer were applied to plants at the vegetative stage, which were then deprived of water and rehydrated. Both water and N depletion accelerated leaf senescence and reduced leaf development. N-deprived plants exhibited less pronounced symptoms of wilting during drought, probably because leaves were smaller and stomata were partially closed. Efficiency of proline production, a major stress-induced diversion of nitrogen metabolism, was assessed at different positions along the whole plant axis and related to leaf developmental stage and water status indices. Proline accumulation, preferentially in younger leaves, accounted for 25-85% of the free amino acid pool. This was mainly due to a better capacity for proline synthesis in fully N-supplied plants whether they were subjected to drought or not, as deduced from the expression patterns of the proline metabolism BnP5CS and BnPDH genes. Although less proline accumulated in the oldest leaves, a significant amount was transported from senescing to emerging leaves. Moreover, during rehydration proline was readily recycled. Our results therefore suggest that proline plays a significant role in leaf N remobilization and in N use efficiency in oilseed rape. PMID:22526495

  19. [Effects of sowing date and planting density on the seed yield and oil content of winter oilseed rape].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Shu-Jie; Li, Ling; Zhang, Chun-Lei

    2012-05-01

    A field experiment was conducted to investigate the effects of different sowing date and planting density on the seed yield and seed oil content of winter oilseed rape (Brassica napus). Sowing date mainly affected the seed yield of branch raceme, while planting density affected the seed yields of both branch raceme and main raceme. The seed oil content was less affected by sowing date. The proportion of the seed yield of main raceme to the seed yield per plant increased with increasing planting density, and the seed oil content of main raceme was about 1% higher than that of branch raceme. Consequently, the seed oil production per plot increased significantly with increasing planting density. In the experimental region, the sowing date of winter oilseed rape should be earlier than mid-October. When sowing in late October, the seed yield would be decreased significantly. A planting density of 36-48 plants x m(-2) could improve the seed yield and oil content of winter oilseed rape.

  20. Detection of glutamic acid in oilseed rape leaves using near infrared spectroscopy and the least squares-support vector machine.

    PubMed

    Bao, Yidan; Kong, Wenwen; Liu, Fei; Qiu, Zhengjun; He, Yong

    2012-01-01

    Amino acids are quite important indices to indicate the growth status of oilseed rape under herbicide stress. Near infrared (NIR) spectroscopy combined with chemometrics was applied for fast determination of glutamic acid in oilseed rape leaves. The optimal spectral preprocessing method was obtained after comparing Savitzky-Golay smoothing, standard normal variate, multiplicative scatter correction, first and second derivatives, detrending and direct orthogonal signal correction. Linear and nonlinear calibration methods were developed, including partial least squares (PLS) and least squares-support vector machine (LS-SVM). The most effective wavelengths (EWs) were determined by the successive projections algorithm (SPA), and these wavelengths were used as the inputs of PLS and LS-SVM model. The best prediction results were achieved by SPA-LS-SVM (Raw) model with correlation coefficient r = 0.9943 and root mean squares error of prediction (RMSEP) = 0.0569 for prediction set. These results indicated that NIR spectroscopy combined with SPA-LS-SVM was feasible for the fast and effective detection of glutamic acid in oilseed rape leaves. The selected EWs could be used to develop spectral sensors, and the important and basic amino acid data were helpful to study the function mechanism of herbicide.

  1. Evaluating the Role of Seed Treatments in Canola/Oilseed Rape Production: Integrated Pest Management, Pollinator Health, and Biodiversity

    PubMed Central

    Sekulic, Gregory; Rempel, Curtis B.

    2016-01-01

    The use patterns and role of insecticide seed treatments, with focus on neonicotinoid insecticides, were examined for canola/oilseed rape production in Canada and the EU. Since nearly all planted canola acres in Western Canada and, historically, a majority of planted oilseed acres in the EU, use seed treatments, it is worth examining whether broad use of insecticidal seed treatments (IST) is compatible with principles of integrated pest management (IPM). The neonicotinoid insecticide (NNI) seed treatment (NNI ST) use pattern has risen due to effective control of several early season insect pests, the most destructive being flea beetles (Phyllotreta sp.). Negative environmental impact and poor efficacy of foliar applied insecticides on flea beetles led growers to look for better alternatives. Due to their biology, predictive models have been difficult to develop for flea beetles, and, therefore, targeted application of seed treatments, as part of an IPM program, has contributed to grower profitability and overall pollinator success for canola production in Western Canada. Early evidence suggests that the recent restriction on NNI may negatively impact grower profitability and does not appear to be having positive impact on pollinator health. Further investigation on impact of NNI on individual bee vs. hive health need to be conducted. Predictive models for flea beetle emergence/feeding activity in canola/oilseed rape need to be developed, as broad acre deployment of NNI seed treatments may not be sustainable due to concerns about resistance/tolerance in flea beetles and other pest species. PMID:27527233

  2. [Effect of NPK and B supply levels on boron uptake and biological properties of different genotypic oilseed rape].

    PubMed

    Lou, Y; Yang, Y

    2001-04-01

    Pot experiment was conducted to study the boron absorption by oilseed rape(Brassica napus), the mechanism of its resistance to boron deficiency, and the effect of boron deficiency on its biological properties under different NPK supply levels. The results indicated that under boron deficiency, increasing NPK supply aggravated boron deficiency symptoms, which led to the decrease of leaf area and its growth rate and nitrate reductase activity(NRA) and the increase of chlorophyll(a + b) content at seedling stage, and the decrease of the number of productive branches and pods of each plant and seed yield at maturity. It was suggested that the ratio of boron concentration in youngest open leaves(YOL) to youngest mature leaves(YML) at seedling stage could be an index to judge the boron mobility in plants of different genotypic oilseed rape. Boron mobility and its utilization efficiency were one of the important nutritional mechanisms responsible for the difference in response of different genotypic oilseed rapes to boron deficiency. PMID:11757364

  3. Rumen fermentation and microbial population in lactating dairy cows receiving diets containing oilseeds rich in C-18 fatty acids.

    PubMed

    Ivan, M; Petit, H V; Chiquette, J; Wright, A-D G

    2013-04-14

    Sixteen Holstein rumen-cannulated primiparous milking dairy cows were fed a control diet (CN) based on maize silage and soyabean meal during a 4-week period before the start of a 21-d experiment with oilseeds containing high concentration of linoleic acid (Linola™) or linolenic acid (NuLin™). Thereafter, four cows received ad libitum one of each of four dietary treatments comprising of CN, Linola (LN), NuLin (NL) and LN/NL (50/50 % combination). Each LN, NL and LN/NL treatment contained 6 % oil of DM. Rumen digesta samples were collected on days 6, 11, 16 and 21 and milk samples on days 13, 15 and 17. There were no effects (P>0.05) of the oilseeds on pH and concentrations of NH3-N and total volatile fatty acids, while the acetate:propionate ratio was decreased (P< 0.05). The oilseeds also decreased (P< 0.05) protozoa and increased (P< 0.1) total cellulolytic bacteria in rumen fluid, especially when containing high dietary linoleic acid (P< 0.05). The milk protein concentration was increased (P< 0.1) by the dietary linoleic acid, which produced most beneficial results. It was concluded that supplements of linoleic acid in diets of ruminants might contribute to better digestion of dietary fibre and increased quality of milk.

  4. Evaluating the Role of Seed Treatments in Canola/Oilseed Rape Production: Integrated Pest Management, Pollinator Health, and Biodiversity.

    PubMed

    Sekulic, Gregory; Rempel, Curtis B

    2016-01-01

    The use patterns and role of insecticide seed treatments, with focus on neonicotinoid insecticides, were examined for canola/oilseed rape production in Canada and the EU. Since nearly all planted canola acres in Western Canada and, historically, a majority of planted oilseed acres in the EU, use seed treatments, it is worth examining whether broad use of insecticidal seed treatments (IST) is compatible with principles of integrated pest management (IPM). The neonicotinoid insecticide (NNI) seed treatment (NNI ST) use pattern has risen due to effective control of several early season insect pests, the most destructive being flea beetles (Phyllotreta sp.). Negative environmental impact and poor efficacy of foliar applied insecticides on flea beetles led growers to look for better alternatives. Due to their biology, predictive models have been difficult to develop for flea beetles, and, therefore, targeted application of seed treatments, as part of an IPM program, has contributed to grower profitability and overall pollinator success for canola production in Western Canada. Early evidence suggests that the recent restriction on NNI may negatively impact grower profitability and does not appear to be having positive impact on pollinator health. Further investigation on impact of NNI on individual bee vs. hive health need to be conducted. Predictive models for flea beetle emergence/feeding activity in canola/oilseed rape need to be developed, as broad acre deployment of NNI seed treatments may not be sustainable due to concerns about resistance/tolerance in flea beetles and other pest species. PMID:27527233

  5. CdTe Feedstock Development and Validation: Cooperative Research and Development Final Report, CRADA Number CRD-08-00280

    SciTech Connect

    Albin, D.

    2011-05-01

    The goal of this work was to evaluate different CdTe feedstock formulations (feedstock provided by Redlen) to determine if they would significantly improve CdTe performance with ancillary benefits associated with whether changes in feedstock would affect CdTe cell processing and possibly reliability of cells. Feedstock also included attempts to intentionally dope the CdTe with pre-selected elements.

  6. Differential scanning fluorimetry illuminates silk feedstock stability and processability.

    PubMed

    Dicko, C; Kasoju, N; Hawkins, N; Vollrath, F

    2016-01-01

    The ability to design and implement silk feedstock formulations for tailored spinning has so far eluded the bioengineers. Recently, the high throughput screening technique of differential scanning fluorimetry (DSF) demonstrated the link between the instability transition temperature (Ti) and the processability of the silk feedstock. Using DSF we screened a large set of chemicals known to affect solvent quality. A multivariate analysis of the results shows that, regardless of the diversity of chemicals, three groupings are significantly distinguishable: G1 = similar to native silk; G2 = largely dominated by electrostatic interactions; and G3 = dominated by chelating interactions. We propose a thermodynamic analysis based on a pre- and post-transition fit to estimate the van't Hoff enthalpies (ΔHv) and the instability temperature (Ti). Our analysis shows that the ΔTi and ΔHv values were distinct: G1 (ΔTi = 0.23 ± 0.2; ΔHv = -159.1 ± 5.6 kcal mol(-1)), G2 (ΔTi = -7.3 ± 0.7; ΔHv = -191.4 ± 5.5 kcal mol(-1)), and G3 (ΔTi = -19.9 ± 3.3; ΔHv = -68.8 ± 6.0 kcal mol(-1)). Our analysis further combined the ΔTi value and the ΔHv value using stability ΔΔG to find that G1 only marginally stabilizes native silks (ΔΔG = -0.15 ± 0.04 kcal mol(-1)), whereas G2 and G3 destabilize native silk (ΔΔG = 3.8 ± 0.11 and ΔΔG = 3.8 ± 0.3 kcal mol(-1), respectively). Here our analysis shows that native silk has a complex multistep transition that is possibly non-cooperative. However, all three groupings also show a direct and cooperative transition with varied stabilization effects. This analysis suggests that native silks are able to sample multiple substates prior to undergoing (or to delay) the final transition. We conclude by hypothesizing that the observed energetic plasticity may be mediated by a fragile packaging of the silk tertiary structure that is readily lost when the solvent quality changes. PMID:26457973

  7. Differential scanning fluorimetry illuminates silk feedstock stability and processability.

    PubMed

    Dicko, C; Kasoju, N; Hawkins, N; Vollrath, F

    2016-01-01

    The ability to design and implement silk feedstock formulations for tailored spinning has so far eluded the bioengineers. Recently, the high throughput screening technique of differential scanning fluorimetry (DSF) demonstrated the link between the instability transition temperature (Ti) and the processability of the silk feedstock. Using DSF we screened a large set of chemicals known to affect solvent quality. A multivariate analysis of the results shows that, regardless of the diversity of chemicals, three groupings are significantly distinguishable: G1 = similar to native silk; G2 = largely dominated by electrostatic interactions; and G3 = dominated by chelating interactions. We propose a thermodynamic analysis based on a pre- and post-transition fit to estimate the van't Hoff enthalpies (ΔHv) and the instability temperature (Ti). Our analysis shows that the ΔTi and ΔHv values were distinct: G1 (ΔTi = 0.23 ± 0.2; ΔHv = -159.1 ± 5.6 kcal mol(-1)), G2 (ΔTi = -7.3 ± 0.7; ΔHv = -191.4 ± 5.5 kcal mol(-1)), and G3 (ΔTi = -19.9 ± 3.3; ΔHv = -68.8 ± 6.0 kcal mol(-1)). Our analysis further combined the ΔTi value and the ΔHv value using stability ΔΔG to find that G1 only marginally stabilizes native silks (ΔΔG = -0.15 ± 0.04 kcal mol(-1)), whereas G2 and G3 destabilize native silk (ΔΔG = 3.8 ± 0.11 and ΔΔG = 3.8 ± 0.3 kcal mol(-1), respectively). Here our analysis shows that native silk has a complex multistep transition that is possibly non-cooperative. However, all three groupings also show a direct and cooperative transition with varied stabilization effects. This analysis suggests that native silks are able to sample multiple substates prior to undergoing (or to delay) the final transition. We conclude by hypothesizing that the observed energetic plasticity may be mediated by a fragile packaging of the silk tertiary structure that is readily lost when the solvent quality changes.

  8. Use of Chemical and Physical Characteristics To Investigate Trends in Biochar Feedstocks

    PubMed Central

    Mukome, Fungai N. D.; Zhang, Xiaoming; Silva, Lucas C. R.; Six, Johan; Parikh, Sanjai J.

    2014-01-01

    Studies have shown that pyrolysis method and temperature are the key factors influencing biochar chemical and physical properties; however, information on the nature of biochar feedstocks is more accessible to consumers, making feedstock a better measure for selecting biochars. This study characterizes physical and chemical properties of commercially available biochars and investigates trends in biochar properties related to feedstock material to develop guidelines for biochar use. Twelve biochars were analyzed for physical and chemical properties. Compiled data from this study and from the literature (n = 85) were used to investigate trends in biochar characteristics related to feedstock. Analysis of compiled data reveals that despite clear differences in biochar properties from feedstocks of algae, grass, manure, nutshells, pomace, and wood (hard- and softwoods), characteristic generalizations can be made. Feedstock was a better predictor of biochar ash content and C/N ratio, but surface area was also temperature dependent for wood-derived biochar. Significant differences in ash content (grass and manure > wood) and C/N ratio (softwoods > grass and manure) enabled the first presentation of guidelines for biochar use based on feedstock material. PMID:23343098

  9. Liquid hot water pretreatment of multi feedstocks and enzymatic hydrolysis of solids obtained thereof.

    PubMed

    Michelin, Michele; Teixeira, José António

    2016-09-01

    Agricultural feedstocks (brewers' spent grain - BSG, corncob - CC, corn husk - CH, wheat straw - WS and Luffa sponge - LS) were pretreated by liquid hot water (LHW) in order to increase cellulose recovery and enzymatic saccharification. LHW-pretreatment resulted in hemicellulose solubilization, and solids enriched in cellulose. Chemical analysis showed different susceptibilities of the feedstocks to LHW-pretreatment and enzymatic hydrolysis. Pretreated feedstocks presented higher crystallinity (determined through X-ray diffraction) and thermal stability (determined through thermogravimetric analysis) than untreated feedstocks. SEM images confirmed the effect of LHW-pretreatment on structural changes. Moreover, enzymatic hydrolysis and cellulose conversion to glucose (CCG) were improved for pretreated feedstocks, with exception of LS. CCG (in relation to glucose potential on solids) followed the order: BSG>CH>WS>CC>LS. LHW-pretreatment showed to be a good technology to pretreat multi feedstocks and for improving the enzymatic hydrolysis of recalcitrant agricultural feedstocks to sugars, which can be further converted to ethanol-fuel and other value-added chemicals. PMID:27318165

  10. Reactive Atmospheric Plasma Spraying of AlN Coatings: Influence of Aluminum Feedstock Particle Size

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shahien, Mohammed; Yamada, Motohiro; Yasui, Toshiaki; Fukumoto, Masahiro

    2011-03-01

    Feedstock powder characteristics (size distribution, morphology, shape, specific mass, and injection rate) are considered to be one of the key factors in controlling plasma-sprayed coatings microstructure and properties. The influence of feedstock powder characteristics to control the reaction and coatings microstructure in reactive plasma spraying process (RPS) is still unclear. This study, investigated the influence of feedstock particle size in RPS of aluminum nitride (AlN) coatings, through plasma nitriding of aluminum (Al) feedstock powders. It was possible to fabricate AlN-based coatings through plasma nitriding of all kinds of Al powders in atmospheric plasma spray (APS) process. The nitriding ratio was improved with decreasing the particle size of feedstock powder, due to improving the nitriding reaction during flight. However, decreasing the particle size of feedstock powder suppressed the coatings thickness. Due to the loss of the powder during the injection, the excessive vaporization of fine Al particles and the completing nitriding reaction of some fine Al particles during flight. The feedstock particle size directly affects on the nitriding, melting, flowability, and the vaporization behaviors of Al powders during spraying. It concluded that using smaller particle size powders is useful for improving the nitriding ratio and not suitable for fabrication thick AlN coatings in reactive plasma spray process. To fabricate thick AlN coatings through RPS, enhancing the nitriding reaction of Al powders with large particle size during spraying is required.

  11. Influence of development stage of spring oilseed rape and spring wheat on interception of wet-deposited radiocaesium and radiostrontium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bengtsson, S. B.; Eriksson, J.; Gärdenäs, A. I.; Rosén, K.

    2012-12-01

    The dry and wet deposition of radionuclides released into the atmosphere can be intercepted by vegetation in terrestrial ecosystems. The aim of this study was to quantify the interception of wet deposited 134Cs and 85Sr by spring oilseed rape (Brassíca napus L.) and spring wheat (Tríticum aestívum L.). The dependency of the intercepted fraction (f) on total above ground plant biomass, growing stage and the Leaf Area Index (LAI) was quantified. A trial was established in Uppsala (east central Sweden), with land management in accordance to common agricultural practices. The field trial was a randomised block design of 1 × 1 m2 parcels with three replicates. During the growing season of 2010, a rainfall simulator deposited 134Cs and 85Sr during six different growth stages. Two to 3 h after deposition, the biomass of the centre 25 × 25 cm2 area of each parcel was sampled and above ground biomass and LAI were measured. The radioactivity concentration and radioactivity of samples were measured by High Purity Germanium (HPGe)-detectors. For 134Cs, there was a correlation between f and LAI (r2 = 0.55, p < 0.05) for spring wheat, but not for spring oilseed rape (r2 = 0.28, p > 0.05). For 85Sr, there was a correlation between f and LAI for both crops (r2 = 0.41, p < 0.05 for spring oilseed rape and r2 = 0.48 p, <0.05 for spring wheat). There was no correlation between f and above ground plant biomass in spring oilseed rape for either 134Cs (r2 = 0.01, p > 0.05) or for 85Sr (r2 = 0.11, p > 0.05). For spring wheat, there was a correlation for both 134Cs (r2 = 0.36, p < 0.05) and 85Sr (r2 = 0.32, p < 0.05). For spring oilseed rape, f was highest at growth stage 'stem elongation' for 134Cs (0.32 ± 0.22) and 85Sr (0.41 ± 0.29). For spring wheat, f was highest at growth stage 'ripening' for both radionuclides (134Cs was 0.36 ± 0.14 and 85Sr was 0.48 ± 0.18). Thus, LAI can be used to quantify interception of both radionuclides for both crops, whereas, above ground plant

  12. [Prediction of SPAD value in oilseed rape leaves using hyperspectral imaging technique].

    PubMed

    Ding, Xi-bin; Liu, Fei; Zhang, Chu; He, Yong

    2015-02-01

    In the present work, prediction models of SPAD value (Soil and Plant Analyzer Development, often used as a parameter to indicate chlorophyll content) in oilseed rape leaves were successfully built using hyperspectral imaging technique. The hy perspectral images of 160 oilseed rape leaf samples in the spectral range of 380-1030 nm were acquired. Average spectrum was extracted from the region of interest (ROI) of each sample. We chose spectral data in the spectral range of 500-900 nm for analysis. Using Monte Carlo partial least squares(MC-PLS) algorithm, 13 samples were identified as outliers and eliminated. Based on the spectral information and measured SPAD values of the rest 147 samples, several estimation models have been built based on different parameters using different algorithms for comparison, including: (1) a SPAD value estimation model based on partial least squares(PLS) in the whole wavelength region of 500-900 nm; (2) a SPAD value estimation model based on successive projections algorithmcombined with PLS(SPA-PLS); (3) 4 kind of simple experience SPAD value estimation models in which red edge position was used as an argument; (4) 4 kind of simple experience SPAD value estimation models in which three vegetation indexes R710/R760, (R750-R705)/(R750-R705) and R860/(R550 x R708), which all have been proved to have a good relevance with chlorophyll content, were used as an argument respectively; (5) a SPAD value estimation model based on PLS using the 3 vegetation indexes mentioned above. The results indicate that the optimal prediction performance is achieved by PLS model in the whole wavelength region of 500-900 nm, which has a correlation coefficient(r(p)) of 0.8339 and a root mean squares error of predicted (RMSEP) of 1.52. The SPA-PLS model can provide avery close prediction result while the calibration computation has been significantly reduced and the calibration speed has been accelerated sharply. For simple experience models based on red edge

  13. Quantification of Plasmodiophora brassicae Using a DNA-Based Soil Test Facilitates Sustainable Oilseed Rape Production.

    PubMed

    Wallenhammar, Ann-Charlotte; Gunnarson, Albin; Hansson, Fredrik; Jonsson, Anders

    2016-01-01

    Outbreaks of clubroot disease caused by the soil-borne obligate parasite Plasmodiophora brassicae are common in oilseed rape (OSR) in Sweden. A DNA-based soil testing service that identifies fields where P. brassicae poses a significant risk of clubroot infection is now commercially available. It was applied here in field surveys to monitor the prevalence of P. brassicae DNA in field soils intended for winter OSR production and winter OSR field experiments. In 2013 in Scania, prior to planting, P. brassicae DNA was detected in 60% of 45 fields on 10 of 18 farms. In 2014, P. brassicae DNA was detected in 44% of 59 fields in 14 of 36 farms, in the main winter OSR producing region in southern Sweden. P. brassicae was present indicative of a risk for >10% yield loss with susceptible cultivars (>1300 DNA copies g soil(-1)) in 47% and 44% of fields in 2013 and 2014 respectively. Furthermore, P. brassicae DNA was indicative of sites at risk of complete crop failure if susceptible cultivars were grown (>50 000 copies g(-1) soil) in 14% and 8% of fields in 2013 and 2014, respectively. A survey of all fields at Lanna research station in western Sweden showed that P. brassicae was spread throughout the farm, as only three of the fields (20%) showed infection levels below the detection limit for P.brassicae DNA, while the level was >50,000 DNA copies g(-1) soil in 20% of the fields. Soil-borne spread is of critical importance and soil scraped off footwear showed levels of up to 682 million spores g(-1) soil. Soil testing is an important tool for determining the presence of P. brassicae and providing an indication of potential yield loss, e.g., in advisory work on planning for a sustainable OSR crop rotation. This soil test is gaining acceptance as a tool that increases the likelihood of success in precision agriculture and in applied research conducted in commercial oilseed fields and at research stations. The present application highlights the importance of prevention of

  14. [Prediction of SPAD value in oilseed rape leaves using hyperspectral imaging technique].

    PubMed

    Ding, Xi-bin; Liu, Fei; Zhang, Chu; He, Yong

    2015-02-01

    In the present work, prediction models of SPAD value (Soil and Plant Analyzer Development, often used as a parameter to indicate chlorophyll content) in oilseed rape leaves were successfully built using hyperspectral imaging technique. The hy perspectral images of 160 oilseed rape leaf samples in the spectral range of 380-1030 nm were acquired. Average spectrum was extracted from the region of interest (ROI) of each sample. We chose spectral data in the spectral range of 500-900 nm for analysis. Using Monte Carlo partial least squares(MC-PLS) algorithm, 13 samples were identified as outliers and eliminated. Based on the spectral information and measured SPAD values of the rest 147 samples, several estimation models have been built based on different parameters using different algorithms for comparison, including: (1) a SPAD value estimation model based on partial least squares(PLS) in the whole wavelength region of 500-900 nm; (2) a SPAD value estimation model based on successive projections algorithmcombined with PLS(SPA-PLS); (3) 4 kind of simple experience SPAD value estimation models in which red edge position was used as an argument; (4) 4 kind of simple experience SPAD value estimation models in which three vegetation indexes R710/R760, (R750-R705)/(R750-R705) and R860/(R550 x R708), which all have been proved to have a good relevance with chlorophyll content, were used as an argument respectively; (5) a SPAD value estimation model based on PLS using the 3 vegetation indexes mentioned above. The results indicate that the optimal prediction performance is achieved by PLS model in the whole wavelength region of 500-900 nm, which has a correlation coefficient(r(p)) of 0.8339 and a root mean squares error of predicted (RMSEP) of 1.52. The SPA-PLS model can provide avery close prediction result while the calibration computation has been significantly reduced and the calibration speed has been accelerated sharply. For simple experience models based on red edge

  15. Rumen dry matter and crude protein degradability of extracted or untreated oilseeds and Leucaena leucocephala leaves.

    PubMed

    Gralak, M A; Kamalu, T; von Keyserlingk, M A; Kulasek, G W

    1997-01-01

    A study was undertaken to determine the rumen DM and CP degradability characteristics of soyabean, canola seed, peanut, palm kernel and Leucaena leucocephala leaves. The oilseeds were either treated with n-hexane to extract the fat or left untreated. Nylon bags were incubated in each of four rumen cannulated sheep for 0, 2, 4, 6, 12, 24 and 48 h. Animals were fed on a diet consisting of meadow hay (ad libitum) and 150 g of concentrate twice daily. Fat extraction caused a decrease (P < or = 0.05) in DM disappearance of soyabean at 0, 2, 4, 6 and 12 h and of peanuts at all incubation times. CP disappearance from peanuts was reduced (P < or = 0.05) as a result of fat extraction at 0, 2, 4, 6 and 12 h. Fat extraction of canola seed increased CP disappearance at 0, 2, 4, 6 and 24 h (P < or = 0.05). However, in the case of defatted canola seed, an increase in DM disappearance (P < or = 0.05) was observed in the first 4 incubation times and a decrease (P < or = 0.05) in the later times. Fat extraction increased (P < or = 0.05) DM disappearance of palm kernel at 0 and 48 h, but reduced it at 4, 6 and 24 h. CP disappearance of palm kernel was improved by treatment (P < or = 0.05) at 0, 4, 24 and 48 h and decreased at 12 h. In the case of palm kernel the largest differences in DM and CP disappearance occurred between the 24 and 48 h incubation times. Degradability characteristics for DM and CP of full-fat soyabean, canola seed and peanut were comparable to those of the full fat samples. Effective DM degradability of soyabean, canola seed and peanuts was 72.2 and 71.9; 74.1 and 66.8; and 85.9 and 70.8 for full fat and extracted feeds, respectively. Effective CP degradability was similar in all oilseeds with the exception of the extracted canola seed. Therefore, the incorporation of full-fat soyabean, canola seed and peanut into ruminant rations can be considered as a means of increasing the energy balance. Both palm kernel DM and CP degradabilities were characterized by slow

  16. Fatty acid profile and qualitative characteristics of meat from zebu steers fed with different oilseeds.

    PubMed

    Oliveira, D M; Ladeira, M M; Chizzotti, M L; Machado Neto, O R; Ramos, E M; Gonçalves, T M; Bassi, M S; Lanna, D P D; Ribeiro, J S

    2011-08-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of dietary addition of ground oilseed sources on the quality, fatty acid profile, and CLA content of meat from zebu steers. Thirty-one zebu steers with an initial average age of 23 mo and an initial BW of 365 kg were used in this study. The experimental period was 84 d, which was preceded by an adaption period of 28 d. The diet was provided ad libitum with a forage:concentrate ratio of 40:60. Corn silage was used as the forage source. Four different concentrates were formulated for each treatment: without additional lipids (control) or with ground soybeans (SB), ground cottonseed (CS), or ground linseed (LS). The SB, CS, and LS diets were formulated to have 6.5% ether extract on a total dietary DM basis. The experiment was set up as a completely randomized design. After slaughter, samples were taken from the longissimus thoracis muscle for the measurement of fatty acid concentration and the evaluation of meat quality. The luminosity index was greater in the control and LS diets (P < 0.01). The greatest percentages of myristic acid (C14:0), palmitic acid (C16:0), trans octadecenoic acid (C18:1 trans-10, trans-11, or trans-12), and SFA in the subcutaneous fat were observed in the CS treatment (P < 0.01). Moreover, the least percentages of oleic acid (C18:1 cis-9) and total unsaturated fatty acids in the subcutaneous fat were observed in the CS diet (P < 0.01). The meat linoleic acid and α-linolenic acid percentages were greatest in the SB and LS treatments, respectively (P < 0.001). The unsaturated fatty acid:SFA ratio was smallest for the CS diet (P < 0.01). A gradual increase in oxidation was observed as a function of storage time; however, the diets did not affect the rancidity of the meat (P > 0.05). The fatty acid profile of subcutaneous fat was impaired by the addition of CS. Supplying ground oilseeds did not increase the content of CLA in the meat.

  17. [Rapid detection of nitrogen content and distribution in oilseed rape leaves based on hyperspectral imaging].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xiao-Lei; Liu, Fei; Nie, Peng-Cheng; He, Yong; Bao, Yi-Dan

    2014-09-01

    Visible and near infrared (Vis-NIR) hyperspectral imaging system was carried out to rapidly determinate the content and estimate the distribution of nitrogen (N) in oilseed rape leaves. Hyperspectral images of 420 leaf samples were acquired at seedling, flowering and pod stages. The spectral data of rape leaves were extracted from the region of interest (ROI) in the wave- length range of 380-1,030 nm. Different spectra preprocessing including Savitzky-Golay smoothing (SG), standard normal variate (SNV), multiplicative scatter correction (MSC), first and second derivatives were applied to improve the signal to noise ratio. Among 471 wavelengths, only twelve wavelengths (467, 557, 665, 686, 706, 752, 874, 879, 886, 900, 978 and 995 nm) were selected by successive projections algorithm(SPA) as the effective wavelengths for N prediction. Based on these effective wavelengths, partial least squares(PLS) and least-squares support vector machines (LS-SVM) calibration models were established for the determination of N content. Reasonable estimation accuracy was obtained, with Rp of 0.807 and RMSEP of 0.387 by PLS and Rp of 0.836 and RMSEP of 0.358 by LS-SVM, respectively. Considering the simple structure and satisfying results of PLS model, SPA-PLS model was used to generate the distribution maps of N content in rape leaves. The concentrations of N were calculated at each pixel of hyperspectral images at the selected effective wavelengths by inputting its correspond- ing spectrum into the established SPA-PLS model. Different colour represented the change in N content in the rape leaves under different fertilizer treatments. By including all pixels within the selected ROI, the average N status can be displayed in more detail and visualised. The visualization of N distribution could be helpful to understanding the change in N content in rape leaves during rape growth period and facilitate discovering the difference of N content within one sample as well as among the samples

  18. [Rapid detection of nitrogen content and distribution in oilseed rape leaves based on hyperspectral imaging].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xiao-Lei; Liu, Fei; Nie, Peng-Cheng; He, Yong; Bao, Yi-Dan

    2014-09-01

    Visible and near infrared (Vis-NIR) hyperspectral imaging system was carried out to rapidly determinate the content and estimate the distribution of nitrogen (N) in oilseed rape leaves. Hyperspectral images of 420 leaf samples were acquired at seedling, flowering and pod stages. The spectral data of rape leaves were extracted from the region of interest (ROI) in the wave- length range of 380-1,030 nm. Different spectra preprocessing including Savitzky-Golay smoothing (SG), standard normal variate (SNV), multiplicative scatter correction (MSC), first and second derivatives were applied to improve the signal to noise ratio. Among 471 wavelengths, only twelve wavelengths (467, 557, 665, 686, 706, 752, 874, 879, 886, 900, 978 and 995 nm) were selected by successive projections algorithm(SPA) as the effective wavelengths for N prediction. Based on these effective wavelengths, partial least squares(PLS) and least-squares support vector machines (LS-SVM) calibration models were established for the determination of N content. Reasonable estimation accuracy was obtained, with Rp of 0.807 and RMSEP of 0.387 by PLS and Rp of 0.836 and RMSEP of 0.358 by LS-SVM, respectively. Considering the simple structure and satisfying results of PLS model, SPA-PLS model was used to generate the distribution maps of N content in rape leaves. The concentrations of N were calculated at each pixel of hyperspectral images at the selected effective wavelengths by inputting its correspond- ing spectrum into the established SPA-PLS model. Different colour represented the change in N content in the rape leaves under different fertilizer treatments. By including all pixels within the selected ROI, the average N status can be displayed in more detail and visualised. The visualization of N distribution could be helpful to understanding the change in N content in rape leaves during rape growth period and facilitate discovering the difference of N content within one sample as well as among the samples

  19. Do Yield and Quality of Big Bluestem and Switchgrass Feedstock Decline over Winter?

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, Jane M. F.; Gresham, Garold L.

    2013-06-28

    Switchgrass (Panicum virgatum L.) and big bluestem (Andropogon gerdardii Vitman) are potential perennial bioenergy feedstocks. Feedstock storage limitations, labor constraints for harvest, and environmental benefits provided by perennials are rationales for developing localized perennial feedstock as an alternative or in conjunction with annual feedstocks (i.e., crop residues). Little information is available on yield, mineral, and thermochemical properties of native species as related to harvest time. The study’s objectives were to compare the feedstock quantity and quality between grasses harvested in the fall or the following spring. It was hypothesized that biomass yield may decline, but translocation and/or leaching of minerals from the feedstock would improve feedstock quality. Feedstock yield did not differ by crop, harvest time, or their interactions. Both grasses averaged 6.0 Mg ha-1 (fall) and 5.4 Mg ha-1 (spring) with similar high heating value (17.7 MJ kg-1). The K/(Ca + Mg) ratio, used as a quality indicator declined to below a 0.5 threshold, but energy yield (Megajoule per kilogram) decreased 13% by delaying harvest until spring. Only once during the four study-years were conditions ideal for early spring harvest, in contrast during another spring, very muddy conditions resulted in excessive soil contamination. Early spring harvest may be hampered by late snow, lodging, and muddy conditions that may delay or prevent harvest, and result in soil contamination of the feedstock. However, reducing slagging/fouling potential and the mass of mineral nutrients removed from the field without a dramatic loss in biomass or caloric content are reasons to delay harvest until spring.

  20. The Biofuel Feedstock Genomics Resource: a web-based portal and database to enable functional genomics of plant biofuel feedstock species.

    PubMed

    Childs, Kevin L; Konganti, Kranti; Buell, C Robin

    2012-01-01

    Major feedstock sources for future biofuel production are likely to be high biomass producing plant species such as poplar, pine, switchgrass, sorghum and maize. One active area of research in these species is genome-enabled improvement of lignocellulosic biofuel feedstock quality and yield. To facilitate genomic-based investigations in these species, we developed the Biofuel Feedstock Genomic Resource (BFGR), a database and web-portal that provides high-quality, uniform and integrated functional annotation of gene and transcript assembly sequences from species of interest to lignocellulosic biofuel feedstock researchers. The BFGR includes sequence data from 54 species and permits researchers to view, analyze and obtain annotation at the gene, transcript, protein and genome level. Annotation of biochemical pathways permits the identification of key genes and transcripts central to the improvement of lignocellulosic properties in these species. The integrated nature of the BFGR in terms of annotation methods, orthologous/paralogous relationships and linkage to seven species with complete genome sequences allows comparative analyses for biofuel feedstock species with limited sequence resources. Database URL: http://bfgr.plantbiology.msu.edu.

  1. Method for predicting fouling tendency of a hydrocarbon-containing feedstock

    SciTech Connect

    Schabron, John F; Rovani, Jr., Joseph F

    2013-07-23

    Disclosed herein is a method involving the steps of (a) precipitating an amount of asphaltenes from a liquid sample of a first hydrocarbon-containing feedstock having solvated asphaltenes therein with one or more first solvents in a column; (b) determining one or more solubility characteristics of the precipitated asphaltenes; (c) analyzing the one or more solubility characteristics of the precipitated asphaltenes; and (d) correlating a measurement of feedstock fouling tendency for the first hydrocarbon-containing feedstock sample with a mathematical parameter derived from the results of analyzing the one or more solubility characteristics of the precipitated asphaltenes.

  2. Feedstock selection for small- and intermediate-scale fuel ethanol distilleries

    SciTech Connect

    Meo, M.

    1985-07-01

    A variety of commercial and experimental starch- and sugar-rich crops were evaluated for their suitability as feedstocks for both small-scale, on-farm and intermediate-scale, off-farm fuel ethanol production in California's Sacramento Valley. Solutions of linear programming models indicated that sweet sorghum is the least-cost feedstock for on-farm production of 50,000 gallons of fuel ethanol per year. Fodder beet proved to be the least-cost feedstock for off-farm production of 1 million gallons of fuel ethanol per year.

  3. Methods of refining and producing dibasic esters and acids from natural oil feedstocks

    DOEpatents

    Snead, Thomas E.; Cohen, Steven A.; Gildon, Demond L.

    2016-06-14

    Methods and systems for making dibasic esters and/or dibasic acids using metathesis are generally disclosed. In some embodiments, the methods comprise reacting a terminal olefin ester with an internal olefin ester in the presence of a metathesis catalyst to form a dibasic ester and/or dibasic acid. In some embodiments, the terminal olefin ester or the internal olefin ester are derived from a renewable feedstock, such as a natural oil feedstock. In some such embodiments, the natural oil feedstock, or a transesterified derivative thereof, is metathesized to make the terminal olefin ester or the internal olefin ester.

  4. Bioplastic production using wood mill effluents as feedstock.

    PubMed

    Ben, M; Mato, T; Lopez, A; Vila, M; Kennes, C; Veiga, M C

    2011-01-01

    Fibreboard production is one of the most important industrial activities in Galicia (Spain). Great amounts of wastewater are generated, with properties depending on the type of wood, treatment process, final product and water reusing, among others. These effluents are characterized by a high chemical oxygen demand, low pH and nutrients limitation. Although anaerobic digestion is one of the most suitable processes for the treatment, lately bioplastics production (mainly polyhydroxyalkanoates) from wastewaters with mixed cultures is being evaluated. Substrate requirements for these processes consist of high organic matter content and low nutrient concentration. Therefore, wood mill effluents could be a suitable feedstock. In this work, the possibility of producing bioplastics from to wood mill effluents is evaluated. First, wood mill effluent was converted to volatile fatty acids in an acidogenic reactor operated at two different hydraulic retention times of 1 and 1.5 d. The acidification percentage obtained was 37% and 42%, respectively. Then, aerobic batch assays were performed using fermented wood mill effluents obtained at different hydraulic retention times. Assays were developed using different cultures as inoculums. The maximum storage yield of 0.57 Cmmol/Cmmol was obtained when when the culture was enriched on a synthetic media.

  5. Corn-based feedstock for biofuels: Implications for agricultural sustainability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tan, Z.

    2010-12-01

    Crop residue as a source of feedstock for biofuels production must retain ecosystem services and be sustainable. The challenge is to develop cropping system management strategies that balance the demand for increasing biofuel needs with ecosystem sustainability. This study was designed to evaluate impacts of changes in land use and management caused by corn-based biofuel production (grain, cob, stover) on soil fertility and ecosystem sustainability. Our specific goal was to investigate how the levels of corn residue removal influence current soil carbon and nutrient budgets and how these budgets are maintained under proposed production scenarios. Soil organic carbon (SOC), an important carbon component in the life cycle of biofuel production, is a sensitive indicator of cropping system sustainability. We used a soil carbon and nutrient balance approach developed from published field observations and a validated mechanistic model to analyze historical corn grain yields and fertilizer usage associated with various management practices at the county scale across the United States. Our analyses show that ecosystem carbon flux demonstrates significant spatial variability, relying heavily on the total biomass production level and residue harvest intensity; SOC budgets depend mainly on the proportion of residue removal, tillage type, and previous SOC stock level. Our results also indicate that corn cob removal for biofuel has little effect on soil carbon and nutrient balances under conventional management practices, while necessary irrigation can contribute greatly to corn-based biofuel production and ecosystem sustainability in the western side of the Great Plains and the eastern foothills of the Rocky Mountains.

  6. Stability of system against aggregation in coking a compounded feedstock

    SciTech Connect

    Mimun, K.; Smidovich, E.V.; Zaitseva, N.P.

    1984-05-01

    This article examines a vacuum resid from West Siberian crude and a 250/sup 0/C+ fraction of pyrolysis tar. The pyrolysis tar consists of heavy aromatic hydrocarbons and asphaltenes in approximately equal amounts of 46-48%. The vacuum resid is a conventional straight-run feedstock with a predominance of light and medium aromatic hydrocarbons (37.6%) and a moderate content of asphaltenes (10.2%). The vacuum resid and the pyrolysis tar were subjected to coking in a laboratory still, being coked separately and also in blends with a paraffin wax having a density of 739 kg/m/sup 3/ at 68/sup 0/C, melting point of 54/sup 0/C, and molecular weight of 356. The stability factor was determined for each blend. It is concluded that paraffin wax, like highly aromatic additives, when it is blended with residual stocks with low contents of paraffinic/naphthenic hydrocarbons or none of these hydrocarbons at all (such stocks have a low stability factor), may increase the stability of these residual stocks against phase separation to a significant degree.

  7. Demonstration plant for pressurized gasification of biomass feedstocks

    SciTech Connect

    Trenka, A.R. ); Kinoshita, C.M.; Takahashi, P.K.; Phillips, V.D. ); Caldwell, C. Co., Pasadena, CA ); Kwok, R. ); Onischak, M.; Babu, S.P. (Institute of Gas Technology

    1991-01-01

    A project to design, construct, and operate a pressurized biomass gasification plant in Hawaii will begin in 1991. Negotiations are underway with the United States Department of Energy (DOE) which is co-funding the project with the state of Hawaii and industry. The gasifier is a scale-up of the pressurized fluidized-bed RENUGAS process developed by the Institute of Gas Technology (IGT). The project team consists of Pacific International Center for High Technology Research (PICHTR), Hawaii Natural Energy Institute (HNEI) of the University of Hawaii, Hawaiian Commercial and Sugar Company (HC S), The Ralph M. Parsons Company, and IGT. The gasifier will be designed for 70 tons per day of sugarcane fiber (bagasse) and will be located at the Paia factory of HC S on the island of Maui. In addition to bagasse, other feedstocks such as wood, biomass wastes, and refuse-derived-fuel may be evaluated. The demonstration plant will ultimately supply part of the process energy needs for the sugar factory. The operation and testing phase will provide process information for both air- and oxygen-blown gasification, and at both low and high pressures. The process will be evaluated for both fuel gas and synthesis gas production, and for electrical power production with advanced power generation schemes. 6 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab.

  8. Assessing Pinyon Juniper Feedstock Properties and Utilization Options

    SciTech Connect

    Gresham, Garold Linn; Kenney, Kevin Louis

    2015-08-01

    Pinyon-juniper woodlands are a major ecosystem type found in the Southwest and the Intermountain West regions of the United States. These ecosystems are characterized by the presence of several different species of pinyon pine and juniper as the dominant plant cover. Since the 1800s, pinyon-juniper woodlands have rapidly expanded their range at the expense of existing ecosystems. Additionally, existing woodlands have become more dense, potentially increasing fire hazards. Land managers responsible for these areas often desire to reduce pinyonjuniper coverage on their lands for a variety of reasons, including restoration to previous vegetative cover, mitigation of fire risk, and improvement in wildlife habitat. However, the cost of clearing or thinning pinyon-juniper stands can be prohibitive. One reason for this is the lack of utilization options for the resulting biomass that could help recover some of the cost of pinyonjuniper stand management. The goal of this project was to assess the feedstock characteristics of biomass from a pinyon-juniper harvest so that potential applications for the biomass may be evaluated.

  9. Mitigate FCC feedstock contaminants to improve yield slates and quality

    SciTech Connect

    1997-03-01

    The fluid catalytic cracking (FCC) unit`s value as a fuel and olefins producer continues to grow in proportion to demand in developing markets. However, because of free market dynamics, many refiners processing imported crudes are challenged by the variability in crude slates. Depending on the crude processed, contaminants such as nickel, vanadium sulfur and nitrogen will affect the refiner`s pre-determined objective of extending run lengths in order to maximize their margins differential. The refiners` crude traders must endeavor to find the most economical and {open_quotes}processable{close_quotes} crude (hopefully low in sulfur, nitrogen and heavy metals), while refinery operators and process engineers must design enough flexibility into major units such as the FCC, to process a variety of crudes available on the market. Just as importantly, refiners with {open_quotes}captive{close_quotes} crude sources, are challenged by the high level of feedstock contaminants (i.e., catalyst deactivators) contained in their low API gravity crudes. In either case, the common denominator affecting FCC process flexibility (at any refinery) is the extent of FCC catalyst deactivation by contaminants present in the crude oil.

  10. Practical Considerations of Moisture in Baled Biomass Feedstocks

    SciTech Connect

    William A. Smith; Ian J. Bonner; Kevin L. Kenney; Lynn M. Wendt

    2013-01-01

    Agricultural residues make up a large portion of the immediately available biomass feedstock for renewable energy markets. Current collection and storage methods rely on existing feed and forage practices designed to preserve nutrients and properties of digestibility. Low-cost collection and storage practices that preserve carbohydrates across a range of inbound moisture contents are needed to assure the economic and technical success of the emerging biomass industry. This study examines the movement of moisture in storage and identifies patterns of migration resulting from several on-farm storage systems and their impacts on moisture measurement and dry matter recovery. Baled corn stover and energy sorghum were stored outdoors in uncovered, tarp-covered, or wrapped stacks and sampled periodically to measure moisture and dry matter losses. Interpolation between discrete sampling locations in the stack improved bulk moisture content estimates and showed clear patterns of accumulation and re-deposition. Atmospheric exposure, orientation, and contact with barriers (i.e., soil, tarp, and wrap surfaces) were found to cause the greatest amount of moisture heterogeneity within stacks. Although the bulk moisture content of many stacks remained in the range suitable for aerobic stability, regions of high moisture were sufficient to support microbial activity, thus support dry matter loss. Stack configuration, orientation, and coverage methods are discussed relative to impact on moisture management and dry matter preservation. Additionally, sample collection and data analysis are discussed relative to assessment at the biorefinery as it pertains to stability in storage, queuing, and moisture carried into processing.

  11. Decoloring hemoglobin as a feedstock for second-generation bioplastics.

    PubMed

    Low, Aaron; Lay, Mark; Verbeek, Johan; Swan, Janis

    2012-01-01

    The color of red blood cell concentrate (RBCC) limits its application in human food, but there is potential to use it for second-generation bioplastics. Several methods have been developed to remove color from RBCC, but they are expensive or may produce difficult-to-remove toxic residues. Hydrogen peroxide treatment is a cheaper alternative. The effects of RBCC concentration, pH, and reaction temperature were the most important factors influencing the decolorizing process. They were investigated with the aim of developing a method that could be scaled to commercial level for producing a bioplastic feedstock. Initial trials showed pH was an important factor for decolorization and foaming. At pH 15 there was a 96% reduction in solution color and 8.4% solids were lost due to foaming. There was a 76% reduction in solution color at pH 2 and only 2.6% solids were lost due to foaming. The optimal reaction conditions were to centrifuge 9% w/w, pH 2 aqueous RBCC solution to remove aggregates. The solution was reacted at 30°C with 7.5 g of 30% (w/w) hydrogen peroxide. These conditions achieved a 93% reduction in solution color after 3 hr and the molecular weight of the decolored protein was not significantly reduced. PMID:22239706

  12. Mixed food waste as renewable feedstock in succinic acid fermentation.

    PubMed

    Sun, Zheng; Li, Mingji; Qi, Qingsheng; Gao, Cuijuan; Lin, Carol Sze Ki

    2014-11-01

    Mixed food waste, which was directly collected from restaurants without pretreatments, was used as a valuable feedstock in succinic acid (SA) fermentation in the present study. Commercial enzymes and crude enzymes produced from Aspergillus awamori and Aspergillus oryzae were separately used in hydrolysis of food waste, and their resultant hydrolysates were evaluated. For hydrolysis using the fungal mixture comprising A. awamori and A. oryzae, a nutrient-complete food waste hydrolysate was generated, which contained 31.9 g L(-1) glucose and 280 mg L(-1) free amino nitrogen. Approximately 80-90 % of the solid food waste was also diminished. In a 2.5 L fermentor, 29.9 g L(-1) SA was produced with an overall yield of 0.224 g g(-1) substrate using food waste hydrolysate and recombinant Escherichia coli. This is comparable to many similar studies using various wastes or by-products as substrates. Results of this study demonstrated the enormous potential of food waste as renewable resource in the production of bio-based chemicals and materials via microbial bioconversion.

  13. Hydrothermal Processing of Macroalgal Feedstocks in Continuous-Flow Reactors

    SciTech Connect

    Elliott, Douglas C.; Hart, Todd R.; Neuenschwander, Gary G.; Rotness, Leslie J.; Roesijadi, Guri; Zacher, Alan H.; Magnuson, Jon K.

    2014-02-03

    Wet macroalgal slurries have been converted into a biocrude by hydrothermal liquefaction (HTL) in a bench-scale continuous-flow reactor system. Carbon conversion to a gravity-separable oil product of 58.8% was accomplished at relatively low temperature (350 °C) in a pressurized (subcritical liquid water) environment (20 MPa) when using feedstock slurries with a 21.7% concentration of dry solids. As opposed to earlier work in batch reactors reported by others, direct oil recovery was achieved without the use of a solvent, and biomass trace mineral components were removed by processing steps so that they did not cause processing difficulties. In addition, catalytic hydrothermal gasification (CHG) was effectively applied for HTL byproduct water cleanup and fuel gas production from water-soluble organics. Conversion of 99.2% of the carbon left in the aqueous phase was demonstrated. Finally, as a result, high conversion of macroalgae to liquid and gas fuel products was found with low levels of residual organic contamination in byproduct water. Both process steps were accomplished in continuous-flow reactor systems such that design data for process scale-up was generated.

  14. Microalgal Triacylglycerols as Feedstocks for Biofuel Production: Perspectives and Advances

    SciTech Connect

    Hu, Q.; Sommerfeld, M.; Jarvis, E.; Ghirardi, M.; Posewitz, M; Seibert, M.; Darzins, A.

    2008-01-01

    Microalgae represent an exceptionally diverse but highly specialized group of micro-organisms adapted to various ecological habitats. Many microalgae have the ability to produce substantial amounts (e.g. 20-50% dry cell weight) of triacylglycerols (TAG) as a storage lipid under photo-oxidative stress or other adverse environmental conditions. Fatty acids, the building blocks for TAGs and all other cellular lipids, are synthesized in the chloroplast using a single set of enzymes, of which acetyl CoA carboxylase (ACCase) is key in regulating fatty acid synthesis rates. However, the expression of genes involved in fatty acid synthesis is poorly understood in microalgae. Synthesis and sequestration of TAG into cytosolic lipid bodies appear to be a protective mechanism by which algal cells cope with stress conditions, but little is known about regulation of TAG formation at the molecular and cellular level. While the concept of using microalgae as an alternative and renewable source of lipid-rich biomass feedstock for biofuels has been explored over the past few decades, a scalable, commercially viable system has yet to emerge. Today, the production of algal oil is primarily confined to high-value specialty oils with nutritional value, rather than commodity oils for biofuel. This review provides a brief summary of the current knowledge on oleaginous algae and their fatty acid and TAG biosynthesis, algal model systems and genomic approaches to a better understanding of TAG production, and a historical perspective and path forward for microalgae-based biofuel research and commercialization.

  15. Feedstock preparation and conversion of oxygenates to olefins

    SciTech Connect

    Harandi, M.N.; Owen, H.; Smyth, S.C.

    1988-10-11

    This patent describes a continuous process for converting crude methanol to olefinic hydrocarbons in a catalytic reaction zone with a crystalline acid zeolite catalyst at elevated temperature comprising the steps of: (a) contacting a crude methanol feedstock containing a minor amount of water with a liquid hydrocarbon extraction stream rich in propane and lighter hydrocarbons under extraction conditions favorable to selective extraction of the methanol, thereby providing an extract liquid stream rich in methanol and an aqueous raffinate stream lean in methanol; (b) charging the extracted methanol substantially free of water to the catalytic reaction zone under process conditions for converting methanol to predominantly C/sub 2/-C/sub 5/ olefinic hydrocarbons; (c) cooling reaction effluent to recover aqueous liquid byproduct, gas rich in C/sub 3//sup -/ hydrocarbons, and product comprising C/sub 4//sup +/ hydrocarbons; and (d) condensing and recycling at least a portion of the C/sub 3-/ liquid phase to step (a) for use as propane-rich extraction liquid.

  16. Improved phytoremediation of oilseed rape (Brassica napus) by Trichoderma mutant constructed by restriction enzyme-mediated integration (REMI) in cadmium polluted soil.

    PubMed

    Wang, Bing; Liu, Lixing; Gao, Yongdong; Chen, Jie

    2009-03-01

    In this study, oilseed rape (Brassica napus) was exploited in remediation of Cd-contaminated soil in combination of Trichodermakoningii. To improve its phytoextracting efficiency, restriction enzyme-mediated integration was used to construct Trichoderma mutants with higher Cd resistance. Of 200 mutants, 10 mutants were shown with higher Cd tolerance and enhanced ability of removing Cd from growth medium. In pot experiment, mutant P6 significantly alleviated the negative impacts of Cd on oilseed rape growth, and improved the Cd uptake ability of oilseed rape shoot in Cd contaminated soil (p<0.05). Based on the dry weight, the amounts of Cd in shoots of mutant P6 treated oilseed rape were increased by 23% and 38% per pot compared with wild type Trichoderma treatment; 53% and 107% against non-inoculated treatment, respectively, at 20 and 50mgCdkg(-1) soil. The results suggested the Trichoderma mutant-oilseed rape symbiosis system could be used in remediation of soil contaminated with heavy metal Cd.

  17. Frequency-dependent fitness of hybrids between oilseed rape (Brassica napus) and weedy B. rapa (Brassicaceae).

    PubMed

    Hauser, Thure P; Damgaard, Christian; Jørgensen, Rikke B

    2003-04-01

    Fitness of interspecific hybrids is sometimes high relative to their parents, despite the conventional belief that they are mostly unfit. F(1) hybrids between oilseed rape (Brassica napus) and weedy B. rapa can be significantly more fit than their weedy parents under some conditions; however, under other conditions they are less fit. To understand the reasons, we measured the seed production of B. napus, B. rapa, and different generations of hybrid plants at three different densities and in mixtures of different frequencies (including pure stands). Brassica napus, B. rapa, and backcross plants (F(1) ♀ × B. rapa) produced many more seeds per plant in pure plots than in mixtures and more seeds in plots when each was present at high frequency. The opposite was true for F(1) plants that produced many more seeds than B. rapa in mixtures, but fewer in pure stands. Both vegetative and reproductive interactions may be responsible for these effects. Our results show that the fitness of both parents and hybrids is strongly frequency-dependent and that the likelihood of introgression of genes between the species thus may depend on the numbers and densities of parents and their various hybrid offspring in the population.

  18. Lack of stable inheritance of introgressed transgene from oilseed rape in wild radish.

    PubMed

    Al Mouemar, Anoir; Darmency, Henri

    2004-01-01

    Hybridization of Brassica napus L. (oilseed rape) and Raphanus raphanistrum L. (wild radish) has been demonstrated, and may be the first step towards introgression of transgenes in this wild relative. If wild radish were to display a new adaptive advantage by expressing the transgene, this could modify the ecological balance of species within the agro-ecosystem. To determine if transgenes remained stable in the hybrid, the frequency of herbicide resistance was studied over four advanced generations of hybrid progeny (G8 to G11) that were subjected to herbicide selection pressure. It is expected that hemizygous resistant plants containing an herbicide resistance transgene back-crossed to wild radish would have 50% resistant progeny. In each of the G8 to G11 generations, only 18% of the progeny from resistant plants were resistant. The chromosome complement of herbicide-susceptible progenies, analyzed at G9, was not different from that of wild populations of wild radish. Herbicide-resistant G9 progeny showed higher chromosome instability, and one third of the progeny contained a supernumerary chromosome. These results suggest that in the presence of herbicide selection pressure, the transgene for herbicide resistance would be maintained despite a lack of stabilized introgression. In the absence of selection, the frequency of resistance in the population is expected to decline.

  19. Identification of the A and C genomes of amphidiploid Brassica napus (oilseed rape).

    PubMed

    Parkin, I A; Sharpe, A G; Keith, D J; Lydiate, D J

    1995-12-01

    A genetic linkage map consisting of 399 RFLP-defined loci was generated from a cross between resynthesized Brassica napus (an interspecific B. rapa x B. oleracea hybrid) and "natural" oilseed rape. The majority of loci exhibited disomic inheritance of parental alleles demonstrating that B. rapa chromosomes were each pairing exclusively with recognisable A-genome homologues in B. napus and that B. oleracea chromosomes were pairing similarly with C-genome homologues. This behaviour identified the 10 A genome and 9 C genome linkage groups of B. napus and demonstrated that the nuclear genomes of B. napus, B. rapa, and B. oleracea have remained essentially unaltered since the formation of the amphidiploid species, B. napus. A range of unusual marker patterns, which could be explained by aneuploidy and nonreciprocal translocations, were observed in the mapping population. These chromosome abnormalities were probably caused by associations between homoeologous chromosomes at meiosis in the resynthesized parent and the F1 plant leading to nondisjunction and homoeologous recombination.

  20. [Study on the relationship between spectral properties of oilseed rape leaves and their chlorophyll content].

    PubMed

    Fang, Hui; Song, Hai-Yan; Cao, Fang; He, Yong; Qiu, Zheng-Jun

    2007-09-01

    Chlorophyll is the important factors of the crop in its growth stage, and it is the favorable indicator of nutrition stress and photosynthesis. Site-specific crop nutrition diagnosis is the basics of the scientific fertilizer management, and it is essential for the practice of precision agriculture. Spectral properties of the oilseed rape leaves in different nitrogenous fertilizer levels were measured using visible-near infrared reflectance spectroscopy (Vis-NIRS) with natural illumination in the present study. According to the unique spectral properties of the crop, multiple stepwise regression technique was used to find the relationships between chlorophyll content and red edge, green edge. The result shows that the model with two independent variables (red edge, green edge) was better than with the one independeot variable (red edge). The correlation coefficient was 0.863, 0.848, and SEC was 5.273, 5.459, respectively. It can be seen the combination of the red edge and green edge can accurately predict chlorophyll content.

  1. Poly(beta-hydroxybutyrate) production in oilseed leukoplasts of brassica napus

    PubMed

    Houmiel; Slater; Broyles; Casagrande; Colburn; Gonzalez; Mitsky; Reiser; Shah; Taylor; Tran; Valentin; Gruys

    1999-10-01

    Polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHAs) comprise a class of biodegradable polymers which offer an environmentally sustainable alternative to petroleum-based plastics. Production of PHAs in plants is attractive since current fermentation technology is prohibitively expensive. The PHA homopolymer poly(beta-hydroxybutyrate) (PHB) has previously been produced in leaves of Arabidopsis thaliana (Nawrath et al., 1994, Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 91: 12760-12764). However, Brassica napus oilseed may provide a better system for PHB production because acetyl-CoA, the substrate required in the first step of PHB biosynthesis, is prevalent during fatty acid biosynthesis. Three enzymatic activities are needed to synthesize PHB: a beta-ketothiolase, an acetoacetyl-CoA reductase and a PHB synthase. Genes from the bacterium Ralstonia eutropha encoding these enzymes were independently engineered behind the seed-specific Lesquerella fendleri oleate 12-hydroxylase promoter in a modular fashion. The gene cassettes were sequentially transferred into a single, multi-gene vector which was used to transform B. napus. Poly(beta-hydroxybutyrate) accumulated in leukoplasts to levels as high as 7.7% fresh seed weight of mature seeds. Electron-microscopy analyses indicated that leukoplasts from these plants were distorted, yet intact, and appeared to expand in response to polymer accumulation.

  2. Evidence for pollinator cost and farming benefits of neonicotinoid seed coatings on oilseed rape

    PubMed Central

    Budge, G. E.; Garthwaite, D.; Crowe, A.; Boatman, N. D.; Delaplane, K. S.; Brown, M. A.; Thygesen, H. H.; Pietravalle, S.

    2015-01-01

    Chronic exposure to neonicotinoid insecticides has been linked to reduced survival of pollinating insects at both the individual and colony level, but so far only experimentally. Analyses of large-scale datasets to investigate the real-world links between the use of neonicotinoids and pollinator mortality are lacking. Moreover, the impacts of neonicotinoid seed coatings in reducing subsequent applications of foliar insecticide sprays and increasing crop yield are not known, despite the supposed benefits of this practice driving widespread use. Here, we combine large-scale pesticide usage and yield observations from oilseed rape with those detailing honey bee colony losses over an 11 year period, and reveal a correlation between honey bee colony losses and national-scale imidacloprid (a neonicotinoid) usage patterns across England and Wales. We also provide the first evidence that farmers who use neonicotinoid seed coatings reduce the number of subsequent applications of foliar insecticide sprays and may derive an economic return. Our results inform the societal discussion on the pollinator costs and farming benefits of prophylactic neonicotinoid usage on a mass flowering crop. PMID:26270806

  3. Copper phytoextraction in tandem with oilseed production using commercial cultivars and mutant lines of sunflower.

    PubMed

    Kolbas, A; Mench, M; Herzig, R; Nehnevajova, E; Bes, C M

    2011-01-01

    Use of sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) for Cu phytoextraction and oilseed production on Cu-contaminated topsoils was investigated in afield trial at a former wood preservation site. Six commercial cultivars and two mutant lines were cultivated in plots with and without the addition of compost (5% w/w) and dolomitic limestone (0.2% w/w). Total soil Cu ranged from 163 to 1170 mg kg(-1). In soil solutions, Cu concentration varied between 0.16-0.93 mg L(-1). The amendment increased soil pH, reduced Cu exposure and promoted sunflower growth. Stem length, shoot and capitulum biomasses, seed yield, and shoot and leaf Cu concentrations were measured. At low total soil Cu, shoot Cu mineralomass was higher in commercial cultivars, Le., Salut, Energic, and Countri, whereas competition and shading affected morphological traits of mutants. Based on shoot yield (7 Mg DW ha(-1)) and Cu concentration, the highest removal was 59 g Cu ha(-1). At high total soil Cu, shoot Cu mineralomass peaked for mutants (e.g., 52 g Cu ha(-1) for Mutant 1 line) and cultivars Energic and Countri. Energic seed yield (3.9 Mg air-DW ha(-1)) would be sufficient to produce oil Phenotype traits and shoot Cu removal depended on sunflower types and Cu exposure.

  4. Evidence for pollinator cost and farming benefits of neonicotinoid seed coatings on oilseed rape

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Budge, G. E.; Garthwaite, D.; Crowe, A.; Boatman, N. D.; Delaplane, K. S.; Brown, M. A.; Thygesen, H. H.; Pietravalle, S.

    2015-08-01

    Chronic exposure to neonicotinoid insecticides has been linked to reduced survival of pollinating insects at both the individual and colony level, but so far only experimentally. Analyses of large-scale datasets to investigate the real-world links between the use of neonicotinoids and pollinator mortality are lacking. Moreover, the impacts of neonicotinoid seed coatings in reducing subsequent applications of foliar insecticide sprays and increasing crop yield are not known, despite the supposed benefits of this practice driving widespread use. Here, we combine large-scale pesticide usage and yield observations from oilseed rape with those detailing honey bee colony losses over an 11 year period, and reveal a correlation between honey bee colony losses and national-scale imidacloprid (a neonicotinoid) usage patterns across England and Wales. We also provide the first evidence that farmers who use neonicotinoid seed coatings reduce the number of subsequent applications of foliar insecticide sprays and may derive an economic return. Our results inform the societal discussion on the pollinator costs and farming benefits of prophylactic neonicotinoid usage on a mass flowering crop.

  5. Effect of additives on the tensile performance and protein solubility of industrial oilseed residual based plastics.

    PubMed

    Newson, William R; Kuktaite, Ramune; Hedenqvist, Mikael S; Gällstedt, Mikael; Johansson, Eva

    2014-07-16

    Ten chemical additives were selected from the literature for their proposed modifying activity in protein-protein interactions. These consisted of acids, bases, reducing agents, and denaturants and were added to residual deoiled meals of Crambe abyssinica (crambe) and Brassica carinata (carinata) to modify the properties of plastics produced through hot compression molding at 130 °C. The films produced were examined for tensile properties, protein solubility, molecular weight distribution, and water absorption. Of the additives tested, NaOH had the greatest positive effect on tensile properties, with increases of 105% in maximum stress and 200% in strain at maximum stress for crambe and a 70% increase in strain at maximum stress for carinata. Stiffness was not increased by any of the applied additives. Changes in tensile strength and elongation for crambe and elongation for carinata were related to changes in protein solubility. Increased pH was the most successful in improving the protein aggregation and mechanical properties within the complex chemistry of residual oilseed meals.

  6. Loss of lipid material during the dehulling of oilseeds with different structural characteristics.

    PubMed

    de Figueiredo, A K; Rodríguez, L M; Fernández, M; Riccobene, I C; Nolasco, S M

    2015-12-01

    The loss of lipid material by migration to the hull during the dehulling of oilseeds with different structural characteristics was evaluated. The samples selected -three sunflower hybrids and a safflower cultivar- were processed under optimal dehulling operating conditions and with two passes through a dehuller. From the SEM micrographs of the samples it was possible to observe structural differences which affect the mechanical properties of the pericarps and, consequently, the dehulling process. The black-hull sunflower hybrid exhibited residual hull percentages lightly above those recommended by the industry after one pass through the dehuller, therefore, this hybrid should not be further processed to avoid oil losses due to migration to the hull. On the other hand, the safflower cultivar and the high stearic high oleic sunflower hybrid and the traditional striped-hull sunflower require two passes through the dehuller, but this resulted in an oil loss due to migration to the hull of over 0.9 % per gram of grains processed. These results suggest the need to reach 'compromise' decisions based on economic impact studies in the face of the variables that originate simultaneously both positive and negative effects. PMID:26604365

  7. Effect of additives on the tensile performance and protein solubility of industrial oilseed residual based plastics.

    PubMed

    Newson, William R; Kuktaite, Ramune; Hedenqvist, Mikael S; Gällstedt, Mikael; Johansson, Eva

    2014-07-16

    Ten chemical additives were selected from the literature for their proposed modifying activity in protein-protein interactions. These consisted of acids, bases, reducing agents, and denaturants and were added to residual deoiled meals of Crambe abyssinica (crambe) and Brassica carinata (carinata) to modify the properties of plastics produced through hot compression molding at 130 °C. The films produced were examined for tensile properties, protein solubility, molecular weight distribution, and water absorption. Of the additives tested, NaOH had the greatest positive effect on tensile properties, with increases of 105% in maximum stress and 200% in strain at maximum stress for crambe and a 70% increase in strain at maximum stress for carinata. Stiffness was not increased by any of the applied additives. Changes in tensile strength and elongation for crambe and elongation for carinata were related to changes in protein solubility. Increased pH was the most successful in improving the protein aggregation and mechanical properties within the complex chemistry of residual oilseed meals. PMID:24971658

  8. Expellor extracted rape and safflower oilseed meals for poultry and sheep

    SciTech Connect

    Thomas, V.M.; Katz, R.J.; Auld, D.A.; Petersen, C.F.; Sauter, E.A.

    1982-01-01

    The objective of these studies was to evaluate the feeding value of on-the-farm expellor extracted rape (RSM) and safflower (SM) oilseed meals for poultry and sheep. Rapeseed meal and SM contained 30.7 and 25.8% crude protein (CP) and 21.7 and 8.7% fat, respectively. Rapeseed meal contained a total glucosinolate concentration of 78.3 ..mu..moles/g. A 22-day feeding trial was conducted with 6-day-old chicks. Rapeseed meal and SM replaced 25 or 50% of the soybean meal (SBM) protein in isonitrogenous (23% CP), isocaloric (3250 kcal ME/kg) diets. Birds fed SBM and 25 or 50% SM consumed more (P < .01) daily feed and gained more (P < .01) per day than those fed 25 or 50% RSM. Birds fed RSM had enlarged thyroid glands in comparison to those fed SMB. Two lamb digestion trials were conducted to evaluate the effect of replacing cottonseed meal (CSM) protein with either RSM or SM on nitrogen utilization and DM digestibility. Replacing 100% of the CSM protein with RSM had no effect (P > .05) on dry matter digestibility and N utilization. Nitrogen balance studies indicate that expellor extracted SM may replace up to 75% of the CSM protein in diets for wethers. 8 tables.

  9. Effect of exogenous gibberellin on reserve accumulation during the seed filling stage of oilseed rape.

    PubMed

    Huang, X Q; He, R Q; Liao, X Y; Zhou, B; Peng, W S; Lin, J Z; Tang, D Y; Zhu, Y H; Zhao, X Y; Liu, X M

    2014-01-01

    Exogenous gibberellins (GAs) are widely applied to increase crop yields, with knowledge about the physiological functioning and biochemistry mechanisms of these phytohormones improving; however, information remains limited about the effect of GAs on seed filling. In this study, the siliques (containing the seeds) of oilseed rape (Brassica napus L.) were treated with GA3 at 3 stages of seed filling. We confirmed that GA3 regulates the deposition of storage reserves in developing seeds. The percentage of crude fat in the seeds increased during the early stage, but remained stable during the middle and late stages. In comparison, the percentage of total protein decreased during the early and middle stages, but significantly increased during the late stage. In addition, Q-PCR was employed to analyze the expression level of related genes in response to GA3. It was found that the expression of WRI and ABI3 transcription factors corresponded to crude fat content and total protein content, respectively. The expression of storage reserve related genes DGAT, MCAT, SUC2, and GPT was consistent with crude fat content, whereas the expression of Napin corresponded to total protein content. The results of this study indicate that exogenous GA3 has a different effect on storage reserve deposition in seed during different stages of seed filling, and the effect might be achieved via changing the expression of related genes. PMID:24535906

  10. Storage stability of screwpress-extracted oils and residual meals from CELSS candidate oilseed crops.

    PubMed

    Stephens, S D; Watkins, B A; Nielsen, S S

    1997-01-01

    The efficacy of using screwpress extraction for oil was studied with three Controlled Ecological Life-Support System (CELSS) candidate oilseed crops (soybean, peanut, and canola), since use of volatile organic solvents for oil extraction likely would be impractical in a closed system. Low oil yields from initial work indicated that a modification of the process is necessary to increase extraction efficiency. The extracted oil from each crop was tested for stability and sensory characteristics. When stored at 23 degrees C, canola oil and meal were least stable to oxidative rancidity, whereas peanut oil and meal were least stable to hydrolytic rancidity. When stored at 65 degrees C, soybean oil and canola meal were least stable to oxidative rancidity, whereas peanut oil and meal were least stable to hydrolytic rancidity. Sensory evaluation of the extracted oils used in bread and salad dressing indicated that flavor, odor intensity, acceptability, and overall preference may be of concern for screwpress-extracted canola oil when it is used in an unrefined form. Overall results with screwpress-extracted crude oils indicated that soybean oil may be more stable and acceptable than canola or peanut under typical storage conditions.

  11. Patterns of domestication in the Ethiopian oil-seed crop noug (Guizotia abyssinica).

    PubMed

    Dempewolf, Hannes; Tesfaye, Misteru; Teshome, Abel; Bjorkman, Anne D; Andrew, Rose L; Scascitelli, Moira; Black, Scott; Bekele, Endashaw; Engels, Johannes M M; Cronk, Quentin C B; Rieseberg, Loren H

    2015-06-01

    Noug (Guizotia abyssinica) is a semidomesticated oil-seed crop, which is primarily cultivated in Ethiopia. Unlike its closest crop relative, sunflower, noug has small seeds, small flowering heads, many branches, many flowering heads, and indeterminate flowering, and it shatters in the field. Here, we conducted common garden studies and microsatellite analyses of genetic variation to test whether high levels of crop-wild gene flow and/or unfavorable phenotypic correlations have hindered noug domestication. With the exception of one population, analyses of microsatellite variation failed to detect substantial recent admixture between noug and its wild progenitor. Likewise, only very weak correlations were found between seed mass and the number or size of flowering heads. Thus, noug's 'atypical' domestication syndrome does not seem to be a consequence of recent introgression or unfavorable phenotypic correlations. Nonetheless, our data do reveal evidence of local adaptation of noug cultivars to different precipitation regimes, as well as high levels of phenotypic plasticity, which may permit reasonable yields under diverse environmental conditions. Why noug has not been fully domesticated remains a mystery, but perhaps early farmers selected for resilience to episodic drought or untended environments rather than larger seeds. Domestication may also have been slowed by noug's outcrossing mating system.

  12. Storage stability of screwpress-extracted oils and residual meals from CELSS candidate oilseed crops

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stephens, S. D.; Watkins, B. A.; Nielsen, S. S.

    1997-01-01

    The efficacy of using screwpress extraction for oil was studied with three Controlled Ecological Life-Support System (CELSS) candidate oilseed crops (soybean, peanut, and canola), since use of volatile organic solvents for oil extraction likely would be impractical in a closed system. Low oil yields from initial work indicated that a modification of the process is necessary to increase extraction efficiency. The extracted oil from each crop was tested for stability and sensory characteristics. When stored at 23 degC, canola oil and meal were least stable to oxidative rancidity, whereas peanut oil and meal were least stable to hydrolytic rancidity. When stored at 65 degC, soybean oil and canola meal were least stable to oxidative rancidity, whereas peanut oil and meal were least stable to hydrolytic rancidity. Sensory evaluation of the extracted oils used in bread and salad dressing indicated that flavor, odor intensity, acceptability, and overall preference may be of concern for screwpress-extracted canola oil when it is used in an unrefined form. Overall results with screwpress-extracted crude oils indicated that soybean oil may be more stable and acceptable than canola or peanut under typical storage conditions.

  13. Application of glutathione to roots selectively inhibits cadmium transport from roots to shoots in oilseed rape

    PubMed Central

    Nakamura, Shin-ichi

    2013-01-01

    Glutathione is a tripeptide involved in various aspects of plant metabolism. This study investigated the effects of the reduced form of glutathione (GSH) applied to specific organs (source leaves, sink leaves, and roots) on cadmium (Cd) distribution and behaviour in the roots of oilseed rape plants (Brassica napus) cultured hydroponically. The translocation ratio of Cd from roots to shoots was significantly lower in plants that had root treatment of GSH than in control plants. GSH applied to roots reduced the Cd concentration in the symplast sap of root cells and inhibited root-to-shoot Cd translocation via xylem vessels significantly. GSH applied to roots also activated Cd efflux from root cells to the hydroponic solution. Inhibition of root-to-shoot translocation of Cd was visualized, and the activation of Cd efflux from root cells was also shown by using a positron-emitting tracer imaging system (PETIS). This study investigated a similar inhibitory effect on root-to-shoot translocation of Cd by the oxidized form of glutathione, GSSG. Inhibition of Cd accumulation by GSH was abolished by a low-temperature treatment. Root cells of plants exposed to GSH in the root zone had less Cd available for xylem loading by actively excluding Cd from the roots. Consequently, root-to-shoot translocation of Cd was suppressed and Cd accumulation in the shoot decreased. PMID:23364937

  14. Evidence for pollinator cost and farming benefits of neonicotinoid seed coatings on oilseed rape.

    PubMed

    Budge, G E; Garthwaite, D; Crowe, A; Boatman, N D; Delaplane, K S; Brown, M A; Thygesen, H H; Pietravalle, S

    2015-01-01

    Chronic exposure to neonicotinoid insecticides has been linked to reduced survival of pollinating insects at both the individual and colony level, but so far only experimentally. Analyses of large-scale datasets to investigate the real-world links between the use of neonicotinoids and pollinator mortality are lacking. Moreover, the impacts of neonicotinoid seed coatings in reducing subsequent applications of foliar insecticide sprays and increasing crop yield are not known, despite the supposed benefits of this practice driving widespread use. Here, we combine large-scale pesticide usage and yield observations from oilseed rape with those detailing honey bee colony losses over an 11 year period, and reveal a correlation between honey bee colony losses and national-scale imidacloprid (a neonicotinoid) usage patterns across England and Wales. We also provide the first evidence that farmers who use neonicotinoid seed coatings reduce the number of subsequent applications of foliar insecticide sprays and may derive an economic return. Our results inform the societal discussion on the pollinator costs and farming benefits of prophylactic neonicotinoid usage on a mass flowering crop. PMID:26270806

  15. Does pea lectin expressed transgenically in oilseed rape (Brassica napus) influence honey bee (Apis mellifera) larvae?

    PubMed

    Lehrman, Anna

    2007-01-01

    The European honey bee (Apis mellifera) is important both for pollination and for honey production. Pollen is the major protein source for bees, which exposes them directly to changes in pollen quality e.g. through genetic engineering. In order to create a worst case scenario regarding pea lectin (PSL) expressed transgenically in oilseed rape anthers and pollen, the maximum amount of dried pollen that could be mixed in an artificial diet without negatively affecting larval performance (1.5% w/w) was fed to bee larvae. Pollen from two transgenic plant lines expressing PSL up to 1.2% of total soluble protein and pollen from one non-transgenic line was added to the same diet and used as a pollen control. When these three pollen diets and the control diet (without added pollen) were compared, no negative effect from the pollen of the transgenic plants could be detected on larval mortality, weight, or development time. An increased weight and a reduced developmental time were recorded for larvae on all diets containing pollen when compared to the diet without pollen. PMID:18289502

  16. FAD2-DGAT2 genes coexpressed in endophytic Aspergillus fumigatus derived from tung oilseeds.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yi-Cun; Wang, Yang-Dong; Cui, Qin-Qin; Zhan, Zhi-Yong

    2012-01-01

    Recent efforts to genetically engineer plants that contain fatty acid desaturases to produce valuable fatty acids have made only modest progress. Diacylglycerol acyltransferase 2 (DGAT2), which catalyzes the final step in triacylglycerol (TAG) assembly, might potentially regulate the biosynthesis of desired fatty acids in TAGs. To study the effects of tung tree (Vernicia fordii) vfDGAT2 in channeling the desired fatty acids into TAG, vfDGAT2 combined with the tung tree fatty acid desaturase-2 (vfFAD2) gene was co-introduced into Aspergillus fumigatus, an endophytic fungus isolated from healthy tung oilseed. Two transformants coexpressing vfFAD2 and vfDGAT2 showed a more than 6-fold increase in linoleic acid production compared to the original A. fumigatus strain, while a nearly 2-fold increase was found in the transformant expressing only vfFAD2. Our data suggest that vfDGAT2 plays a pivotal role in promoting linoleic acid accumulation in TAGs. This holds great promise for further genetic engineering aimed at producing valuable fatty acids.

  17. The capacity of green oilseeds to utilize photosynthesis to drive biosynthetic processes.

    PubMed

    Ruuska, Sari A; Schwender, Jörg; Ohlrogge, John B

    2004-09-01

    Seeds of many plant species are green during embryogenesis. To directly assess the influence of light on the physiological status of green oilseeds in planta, Brassica napus and soybean (Glycine max) seeds were rapidly dissected from plants growing in the light or dark. The activation state of malate dehydrogenase, which reflects reduced thioredoxin and NADP/NADPH ratios, was found to be as high in seeds exposed to light as in leaves and to decrease in the dark. Rubisco was highly activated (carbamylated) in both light and dark, most likely reflecting high seed CO(2) concentrations. Activities of Rubisco and phosphoribulokinase were sufficient to account for significant refixation of CO(2) produced during B. napus oil biosynthesis. To determine the influence of light on oil synthesis in planta, siliques on intact plants in full sunlight or detached siliques fed (3)H(2)O were partly covered with aluminum foil. Seeds from light and dark sections were analyzed, and fatty acid accumulation was found to be higher in seeds exposed to light than seeds from dark sections. The spectrum of light filtering through silique walls and the pigment composition of developing B. napus embryos were determined. In addition to a low chlorophyll a/b ratio, the carotenoid pigments of seeds can provide additional capture of the green light that filters through siliques. Together, these results demonstrate that even the low level of light reaching seeds plays a substantial role in activating light-regulated enzymes, increasing fatty acid synthesis, and potentially powering refixation of CO(2).

  18. Loss of lipid material during the dehulling of oilseeds with different structural characteristics.

    PubMed

    de Figueiredo, A K; Rodríguez, L M; Fernández, M; Riccobene, I C; Nolasco, S M

    2015-12-01

    The loss of lipid material by migration to the hull during the dehulling of oilseeds with different structural characteristics was evaluated. The samples selected -three sunflower hybrids and a safflower cultivar- were processed under optimal dehulling operating conditions and with two passes through a dehuller. From the SEM micrographs of the samples it was possible to observe structural differences which affect the mechanical properties of the pericarps and, consequently, the dehulling process. The black-hull sunflower hybrid exhibited residual hull percentages lightly above those recommended by the industry after one pass through the dehuller, therefore, this hybrid should not be further processed to avoid oil losses due to migration to the hull. On the other hand, the safflower cultivar and the high stearic high oleic sunflower hybrid and the traditional striped-hull sunflower require two passes through the dehuller, but this resulted in an oil loss due to migration to the hull of over 0.9 % per gram of grains processed. These results suggest the need to reach 'compromise' decisions based on economic impact studies in the face of the variables that originate simultaneously both positive and negative effects.

  19. Bio-sorption of atrazine in the press-cake from oilseeds.

    PubMed

    Boucher, J; Steiner, L; Marison, I W

    2007-08-01

    Oilseed press-cake (PC) is proposed as a novel material for the removal of hydrophobic organic pollutants (HOPs) from water. Sorption of the pesticides carbaryl, atrazine and parathion, with log K(ow) being, respectively, 1.59, 2.55 and 3.83, was demonstrated using cold-pressed rapeseed (Brassica napus), moringa (Moringa oleifera) and soybean (Glycine max) PCs. Linear sorption isotherms have been observed. The partition coefficient of carbaryl, atrazine and parathion using rapeseed PC were determined to be 0.028+/-0.003, 0.144+/-0.003 and 2.52+/-0.24 L/g, respectively. Partition studies of atrazine in PC-extracted oil and defatted PC showed that the sorption mechanism is mainly through absorption in the residual oil in the PC, whereas adsorption on the PC matrix is quantitatively much less significant. It was also shown that the oil content of the PC is not the only parameter determining the partitioning of pesticides. Indeed, sorption using ground seeds was very weak, as demonstrated by the low partition and mass transfer coefficients. This may be due to cell structures blocking the pesticide diffusion to the oil-containing structures within the seeds, while for PC oil they are present in the form of small (10 microm) droplets trapped within the hydrophilic PC matrix, thus presenting less resistance for mass transfer.

  20. A model of pollen-mediated gene flow for oilseed rape.

    PubMed

    Walklate, P J; Hunt, J C R; Higson, H L; Sweet, J B

    2004-03-01

    The development of genetically modified (GM) crops has precipitated the need for risk assessment and regulation of pollen-mediated gene flow. In response to this need we present a mathematical model to predict the spatial distribution of outcrossing between progenitor populations of oilseed rape. The model combines the processes of pollen dispersal and pollination, resulting from wind and insect activity. It includes the effects of post-pollination reproductive processes by relating the number of progeny to both pollen deposition and competition at the stigma. Predictions compare well with a range of experimental results for different-sized GM source crops (i.e. 0.0064-0.8 ha) and non-GM target crops with different fertilities (i.e. self-fertile to 80% male-sterile). For these comparisons, we represent the variation caused by wind and insect exposure as a constrained set of random functions and limit the range of insect transport to typical plant-scale distances. In addition, the model is used to examine the relative sensitivity to the factors that determine gene flow. Target-crop fertility and source-crop size are shown to be more important than other factors, including background pollen and the natural range of insect activity. The concept of isolation distance to regulate gene flow is most effective for self-fertile target crops, but is ineffective for male-sterile target crops with low background pollen.

  1. Evidence for pollinator cost and farming benefits of neonicotinoid seed coatings on oilseed rape.

    PubMed

    Budge, G E; Garthwaite, D; Crowe, A; Boatman, N D; Delaplane, K S; Brown, M A; Thygesen, H H; Pietravalle, S

    2015-08-13

    Chronic exposure to neonicotinoid insecticides has been linked to reduced survival of pollinating insects at both the individual and colony level, but so far only experimentally. Analyses of large-scale datasets to investigate the real-world links between the use of neonicotinoids and pollinator mortality are lacking. Moreover, the impacts of neonicotinoid seed coatings in reducing subsequent applications of foliar insecticide sprays and increasing crop yield are not known, despite the supposed benefits of this practice driving widespread use. Here, we combine large-scale pesticide usage and yield observations from oilseed rape with those detailing honey bee colony losses over an 11 year period, and reveal a correlation between honey bee colony losses and national-scale imidacloprid (a neonicotinoid) usage patterns across England and Wales. We also provide the first evidence that farmers who use neonicotinoid seed coatings reduce the number of subsequent applications of foliar insecticide sprays and may derive an economic return. Our results inform the societal discussion on the pollinator costs and farming benefits of prophylactic neonicotinoid usage on a mass flowering crop.

  2. Sources of uncertainty in the quantification of genetically modified oilseed rape contamination in seed lots.

    PubMed

    Begg, Graham S; Cullen, Danny W; Iannetta, Pietro P M; Squire, Geoff R

    2007-02-01

    Testing of seed and grain lots is essential in the enforcement of GM labelling legislation and needs reliable procedures for which associated errors have been identified and minimised. In this paper we consider the testing of oilseed rape seed lots obtained from the harvest of a non-GM crop known to be contaminated by volunteer plants from a GM herbicide tolerant variety. The objective was to identify and quantify the error associated with the testing of these lots from the initial sampling to completion of the real-time PCR assay with which the level of GM contamination was quantified. The results showed that, under the controlled conditions of a single laboratory, the error associated with the real-time PCR assay to be negligible in comparison with sampling error, which was exacerbated by heterogeneity in the distribution of GM seeds, most notably at a small scale, i.e. 25 cm3. Sampling error was reduced by one to two thirds on the application of appropriate homogenisation procedures.

  3. Profiling of phenylpropanoids in transgenic low-sinapine oilseed rape (Brassica napus).

    PubMed

    Wolfram, Karina; Schmidt, Jürgen; Wray, Victor; Milkowski, Carsten; Schliemann, Willibald; Strack, Dieter

    2010-07-01

    A dsRNAi approach silencing a key enzyme of sinapate ester biosynthesis (UDP-glucose:sinapate glucosyltransferase, encoded by the UGT84A9 gene) in oilseed rape (Brassica napus) seeds was performed to reduce the anti-nutritive properties of the seeds by lowering the content of the major seed component sinapine (sinapoylcholine) and various minor sinapate esters. The transgenic seeds have been produced so far to the T6 generation and revealed a steady suppression of sinapate ester accumulation. HPLC analysis of the wild-type and transgenic seeds revealed, as in the previous generations, marked alterations of the sinapate ester pattern of the transformed seeds. Besides strong reduction of the amount of the known sinapate esters, HPLC analysis revealed unexpectedly the appearance of several minor hitherto unknown rapeseed constituents. These compounds were isolated and identified by mass spectrometric and NMR spectroscopic analyses. Structures of 11 components were elucidated to be 4-O-glucosides of syringate, caffeyl alcohol and its 7,8-dihydro derivative as well as of sinapate and sinapine, along with sinapoylated kaempferol glycosides, a hexoside of a cyclic spermidine alkaloid and a sinapine derivative with an ether-bridge to a C(6)-C(3)-unit. These results indicate a strong impact of the transgenic approach on the metabolic network of phenylpropanoids in B. napus seeds. Silencing of UGT84A9 gene expression disrupt the metabolic flow through sinapoylglucose and alters the amounts and nature of the phenylpropanoid endproducts. PMID:20451226

  4. Patterns of domestication in the Ethiopian oil-seed crop noug (Guizotia abyssinica)

    PubMed Central

    Dempewolf, Hannes; Tesfaye, Misteru; Teshome, Abel; Bjorkman, Anne D; Andrew, Rose L; Scascitelli, Moira; Black, Scott; Bekele, Endashaw; Engels, Johannes M M; Cronk, Quentin C B; Rieseberg, Loren H

    2015-01-01

    Noug (Guizotia abyssinica) is a semidomesticated oil-seed crop, which is primarily cultivated in Ethiopia. Unlike its closest crop relative, sunflower, noug has small seeds, small flowering heads, many branches, many flowering heads, and indeterminate flowering, and it shatters in the field. Here, we conducted common garden studies and microsatellite analyses of genetic variation to test whether high levels of crop–wild gene flow and/or unfavorable phenotypic correlations have hindered noug domestication. With the exception of one population, analyses of microsatellite variation failed to detect substantial recent admixture between noug and its wild progenitor. Likewise, only very weak correlations were found between seed mass and the number or size of flowering heads. Thus, noug's ‘atypical’ domestication syndrome does not seem to be a consequence of recent introgression or unfavorable phenotypic correlations. Nonetheless, our data do reveal evidence of local adaptation of noug cultivars to different precipitation regimes, as well as high levels of phenotypic plasticity, which may permit reasonable yields under diverse environmental conditions. Why noug has not been fully domesticated remains a mystery, but perhaps early farmers selected for resilience to episodic drought or untended environments rather than larger seeds. Domestication may also have been slowed by noug's outcrossing mating system. PMID:26029260

  5. Metabolic engineering of biomass for high energy density: oilseed-like triacylglycerol yields from plant leaves.

    PubMed

    Vanhercke, Thomas; El Tahchy, Anna; Liu, Qing; Zhou, Xue-Rong; Shrestha, Pushkar; Divi, Uday K; Ral, Jean-Philippe; Mansour, Maged P; Nichols, Peter D; James, Christopher N; Horn, Patrick J; Chapman, Kent D; Beaudoin, Frederic; Ruiz-López, Noemi; Larkin, Philip J; de Feyter, Robert C; Singh, Surinder P; Petrie, James R

    2014-02-01

    High biomass crops have recently attracted significant attention as an alternative platform for the renewable production of high energy storage lipids such as triacylglycerol (TAG). While TAG typically accumulates in seeds as storage compounds fuelling subsequent germination, levels in vegetative tissues are generally low. Here, we report the accumulation of more than 15% TAG (17.7% total lipids) by dry weight in Nicotiana tabacum (tobacco) leaves by the co-expression of three genes involved in different aspects of TAG production without severely impacting plant development. These yields far exceed the levels found in wild-type leaf tissue as well as previously reported engineered TAG yields in vegetative tissues of Arabidopsis thaliana and N. tabacum. When translated to a high biomass crop, the current levels would translate to an oil yield per hectare that exceeds those of most cultivated oilseed crops. Confocal fluorescence microscopy and mass spectrometry imaging confirmed the accumulation of TAG within leaf mesophyll cells. In addition, we explored the applicability of several existing oil-processing methods using fresh leaf tissue. Our results demonstrate the technical feasibility of a vegetative plant oil production platform and provide for a step change in the bioenergy landscape, opening new prospects for sustainable food, high energy forage, biofuel and biomaterial applications.

  6. Barriers to gene flow from oilseed rape (Brassica napus) into populations of Sinapis arvensis.

    PubMed

    Moyes, C L; Lilley, J M; Casais, C A; Cole, S G; Haeger, P D; Dale, P J

    2002-01-01

    One concern over growing herbicide-tolerant crops is that herbicide-tolerance genes may be transferred into the weeds they are designed to control. Brassica napus (oilseed rape) has a number of wild relatives that cause weed problems and the most widespread of these is Sinapis arvensis (charlock). Sinapis arvensis seed was collected from 102 populations across the UK, within and outside B. napus-growing areas. These populations were tested for sexual compatibility with B. napus and it was found that none of them hybridized readily in the glasshouse. In contrast to previous studies, we have found that hybrids can be formed naturally with S. arvensis as the maternal parent. Six diverse B. napus cultivars (Capricorn, Drakkar, Falcon, Galaxy, Hobson and Regent) were tested for their compatibility with S. arvensis but no cultivar hybridized readily in the glasshouse. We were unable to detect gene transfer from B. napus to S. arvensis in the field, confirming the extremely low probability of hybridization predicted from the glasshouse work. PMID:11903908

  7. Carbon supply for storage-product synthesis in developing seeds of oilseed rape.

    PubMed

    Hill, L M; Rawsthorne, S

    2000-12-01

    The aim of this work was to find out how the sugars in the endosperm of oilseed rape contribute to the flux of oil synthesis. While the hexose content of the liquid endosperm decreased during development the sucrose content increased. It is important to understand the relative rates of use of the endosperm sugars for two reasons. Firstly we need to know which sugars are used, and at what stages in development, in order to understand the roles of enzymes involved in their metabolism. Secondly, changes in sugar concentration have been implicated in the regulation of expression of genes determining storage-product synthesis [see Weber, Borisjuk and Wobus (1997) Trends Plant Sci. 2, 169-174, for review]. The rate of consumption of sugar is one factor governing its concentration. We present data showing both the concentration-dependence of conversion of sugar to oil, and the in vivo concentrations of sugars; we relate these data sets to each other and discuss the effects of the intracellular pool of sucrose. Glucose, fructose and sucrose are all substrates for oil synthesis, but the rates of their use (particularly sucrose) are underestimated because of dilution by sucrose from the intracellular pool.

  8. Continuous bioethanol production from oilseed rape straw hydrosylate using immobilised Saccharomyces cerevisiae cells.

    PubMed

    Mathew, Anil Kuruvilla; Crook, Mitch; Chaney, Keith; Humphries, Andrea Clare

    2014-02-01

    The aim of the study was to evaluate continuous bioethanol production from oilseed rape (OSR) straw hydrolysate using Saccharomyces cerevisiae cells immobilised in Lentikat® discs. The study evaluated the effect of dilution rate (0.25, 0.50, 0.75 and 1.00 h(-1)), substrate concentration (15, 22, 40 and 60 g L(-1)) and cell loading (0.03, 0.16 and 0.24 g d.c.w.mL(-1) Lentikat®) on bioethanol production. Volumetric productivity was found to increase with increasing substrate concentration from 15 g L(-1) to 60 g L(-1). A maximum volumetric productivity of 12.88 g L(-1)h(-1) was achieved at a substrate concentration of 60 g L(-1) and at a dilution rate of 0.5h(-1). An overall mass balance for bioethanol production was created to determine the energy recovery from bioethanol and concluded that a biorefinery approach might be the most appropriate option for maximising the energy recovery from OSR straw.

  9. Metabolism of Sugars in the Endosperm of Developing Seeds of Oilseed Rape1

    PubMed Central

    Hill, Lionel M.; Morley-Smith, Edward R.; Rawsthorne, Stephen

    2003-01-01

    The sugars in the endosperm of a developing seed have many potential roles, including the supply of carbon to the developing embryo and controlling gene expression in it. Our understanding of their metabolism is, however, fragmentary and is confined to a very few species (especially Vicia spp.). To develop a quantitative understanding of the regulation of sugars in seeds of oilseed rape (Brassica napus), we measured relevant enzyme activities, the sizes of the pools of sugars in the liquid endosperm, and the flux of sugars from the endosperm into the embryo. The concentrations of hexose sugars in the liquid endosperm decreased, and sucrose (Suc) increased through development. The overall osmotic potential also fell. The timing of the changes was not precise enough to determine whether they signaled the onset of rapid accumulation of storage products. Changes in endosperm invertase activity were complex and quantitatively do not explain the changes in sugars. The embryo can metabolize hexose sugars in addition to Suc, and possibly at higher rates. Therefore, in addition to invertase, the growing embryo itself has a potential to influence the balance of sugars in the endosperm. The activity of Suc synthase in the embryo was greater than that of invertase during development. This observation and a higher activity of fructokinase than glucokinase in the embryo are both consistent with the embryo using Suc as a carbon source. PMID:12529530

  10. Bio-sorption of atrazine in the press-cake from oilseeds.

    PubMed

    Boucher, J; Steiner, L; Marison, I W

    2007-08-01

    Oilseed press-cake (PC) is proposed as a novel material for the removal of hydrophobic organic pollutants (HOPs) from water. Sorption of the pesticides carbaryl, atrazine and parathion, with log K(ow) being, respectively, 1.59, 2.55 and 3.83, was demonstrated using cold-pressed rapeseed (Brassica napus), moringa (Moringa oleifera) and soybean (Glycine max) PCs. Linear sorption isotherms have been observed. The partition coefficient of carbaryl, atrazine and parathion using rapeseed PC were determined to be 0.028+/-0.003, 0.144+/-0.003 and 2.52+/-0.24 L/g, respectively. Partition studies of atrazine in PC-extracted oil and defatted PC showed that the sorption mechanism is mainly through absorption in the residual oil in the PC, whereas adsorption on the PC matrix is quantitatively much less significant. It was also shown that the oil content of the PC is not the only parameter determining the partitioning of pesticides. Indeed, sorption using ground seeds was very weak, as demonstrated by the low partition and mass transfer coefficients. This may be due to cell structures blocking the pesticide diffusion to the oil-containing structures within the seeds, while for PC oil they are present in the form of small (10 microm) droplets trapped within the hydrophilic PC matrix, thus presenting less resistance for mass transfer. PMID:17575996

  11. Investigation of sample preparation on the moldability of ceramic injection molding feedstocks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ide, Jared

    Ceramic injection molding is a desirable option for those who are looking to make ceramic parts with complex geometries. Formulating the feedstock needed to produce ideal parts is a difficult process. In this research a series of feedstock blends will be evaluated for moldability. This was done by investigating their viscosity, and how certain components affect the overall ability to flow. These feedstocks varied waxes, surfactants, and solids loading. A capillary rheometer was used to characterize some of the materials, which led to one batch being selected for molding trials. The parts were sintered and further refinements were made to the feedstock. Solids loading was increased from 77.5% to 82%, which required different ratios of organics to flow. Finally, the ceramic powders were treated to lower their specific surface area before being compounded, which resulted in materials that would process easily through an extruder and exhibit properties suitable for CIM.

  12. Biodiesel production from various feedstocks and their effects on the fuel properties.

    PubMed

    Canakci, M; Sanli, H

    2008-05-01

    Biodiesel, which is a new, renewable and biological origin alternative diesel fuel, has been receiving more attention all over the world due to the energy needs and environmental consciousness. Biodiesel is usually produced from food-grade vegetable oils using transesterification process. Using food-grade vegetable oils is not economically feasible since they are more expensive than diesel fuel. Therefore, it is said that the main obstacle for commercialization of biodiesel is its high cost. Waste cooking oils, restaurant greases, soapstocks and animal fats are potential feedstocks for biodiesel production to lower the cost of biodiesel. However, to produce fuel-grade biodiesel, the characteristics of feedstock are very important during the initial research and production stage since the fuel properties mainly depend on the feedstock properties. This review paper presents both biodiesel productions from various feedstocks and their effects on the fuel properties.

  13. Biomass, extracted liquid yields, sugar content or seed yields of biofuel feedstocks as affected by fertilizer

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Harvesting products from plants for conversion into renewable resources is increasing in importance. Determination of nutrition requirements for the applicable crops is necessary, especially in regions where the biofuel feedstock crops have not been grown historically. Sunflower (Helianthus annuus...

  14. Process for generation of hydrogen gas from various feedstocks using thermophilic bacteria

    DOEpatents

    Ooteghem, Suellen Van

    2005-09-13

    A method for producing hydrogen gas is provided comprising selecting a bacteria from the Order Thermotogales, subjecting the bacteria to a feedstock and to a suitable growth environment having an oxygen concentration below the oxygen concentration of water in equilibrium with air; and maintaining the environment at a predetermined pH and at a temperature of at least approximately 45.degree. C. for a time sufficient to allow the bacteria to metabolize the feedstock.

  15. Process for Generation of Hydrogen Gas from Various Feedstocks Using Thermophilic Bacteria

    SciTech Connect

    Ooteghem Van, Suellen

    2005-09-13

    A method for producing hydrogen gas is provided comprising selecting a bacteria from the Order Thermotogales, subjecting the bacteria to a feedstock and to a suitable growth environment having an oxygen concentration below the oxygen concentration of water in equilibrium with air; and maintaining the environment at a predetermined pH and at a temperature of at least approximately 45 degrees C. for a time sufficient to allow the bacteria to metabolize the feedstock.

  16. Pectin-rich biomass as feedstock for fuel ethanol production.

    PubMed

    Edwards, Meredith C; Doran-Peterson, Joy

    2012-08-01

    The USA has proposed that 30 % of liquid transportation fuel be produced from renewable resources by 2030 (Perlack and Stokes 2011). It will be impossible to reach this goal using corn kernel-based ethanol alone. Pectin-rich biomass, an under-utilized waste product of the sugar and juice industry, can augment US ethanol supplies by capitalizing on this already established feedstock. Currently, pectin-rich biomass is sold (at low value) as animal feed. This review focuses on the three most studied types of pectin-rich biomass: sugar beet pulp, citrus waste and apple pomace. Fermentations of these materials have been conducted with a variety of ethanologens, including yeasts and bacteria. Escherichia coli can ferment a wide range of sugars including galacturonic acid, the primary component of pectin. However, the mixed acid metabolism of E. coli can produce unwanted side products. Saccharomyces cerevisiae cannot naturally ferment galacturonic acid nor pentose sugars but has a homoethanol pathway. Erwinia chrysanthemi is capable of degrading many of the cell wall components of pectin-rich materials, including pectin. Klebsiella oxytoca can metabolize a diverse array of sugars including cellobiose, one degradation product of cellulose. However, both E. chrysanthemi and K. oxytoca produce side products during fermentation, similar to E. coli. Using pectin-rich residues from industrial processes is beneficial because the material is already collected and partially pretreated to facilitate enzymatic deconstruction of the plant cell walls. Using biomass already produced for other purposes is an attractive practice because fewer greenhouse gases (GHG) will be anticipated from land-use changes.

  17. Pectin-rich biomass as feedstock for fuel ethanol production.

    PubMed

    Edwards, Meredith C; Doran-Peterson, Joy

    2012-08-01

    The USA has proposed that 30 % of liquid transportation fuel be produced from renewable resources by 2030 (Perlack and Stokes 2011). It will be impossible to reach this goal using corn kernel-based ethanol alone. Pectin-rich biomass, an under-utilized waste product of the sugar and juice industry, can augment US ethanol supplies by capitalizing on this already established feedstock. Currently, pectin-rich biomass is sold (at low value) as animal feed. This review focuses on the three most studied types of pectin-rich biomass: sugar beet pulp, citrus waste and apple pomace. Fermentations of these materials have been conducted with a variety of ethanologens, including yeasts and bacteria. Escherichia coli can ferment a wide range of sugars including galacturonic acid, the primary component of pectin. However, the mixed acid metabolism of E. coli can produce unwanted side products. Saccharomyces cerevisiae cannot naturally ferment galacturonic acid nor pentose sugars but has a homoethanol pathway. Erwinia chrysanthemi is capable of degrading many of the cell wall components of pectin-rich materials, including pectin. Klebsiella oxytoca can metabolize a diverse array of sugars including cellobiose, one degradation product of cellulose. However, both E. chrysanthemi and K. oxytoca produce side products during fermentation, similar to E. coli. Using pectin-rich residues from industrial processes is beneficial because the material is already collected and partially pretreated to facilitate enzymatic deconstruction of the plant cell walls. Using biomass already produced for other purposes is an attractive practice because fewer greenhouse gases (GHG) will be anticipated from land-use changes. PMID:22695801

  18. Integration of Feedstock Assembly System and Cellulosic Ethanol Conversion Models to Analyze Bioenergy System Performance

    SciTech Connect

    Jared M. Abodeely; Douglas S. McCorkle; Kenneth M. Bryden; David J. Muth; Daniel Wendt; Kevin Kenney

    2010-09-01

    Research barriers continue to exist in all phases of the emerging cellulosic ethanol biorefining industry. These barriers include the identification and development of a sustainable and abundant biomass feedstock, the assembly of viable assembly systems formatting the feedstock and moving it from the field (e.g., the forest) to the biorefinery, and improving conversion technologies. Each of these phases of cellulosic ethanol production are fundamentally connected, but computational tools used to support and inform analysis within each phase remain largely disparate. This paper discusses the integration of a feedstock assembly system modeling toolkit and an Aspen Plus® conversion process model. Many important biomass feedstock characteristics, such as composition, moisture, particle size and distribution, ash content, etc. are impacted and most effectively managed within the assembly system, but generally come at an economic cost. This integration of the assembly system and the conversion process modeling tools will facilitate a seamless investigation of the assembly system conversion process interface. Through the integrated framework, the user can design the assembly system for a particular biorefinery by specifying location, feedstock, equipment, and unit operation specifications. The assembly system modeling toolkit then provides economic valuation, and detailed biomass feedstock composition and formatting information. This data is seamlessly and dynamically used to run the Aspen Plus® conversion process model. The model can then be used to investigate the design of systems for cellulosic ethanol production from field to final product.

  19. Impact of Various Biofuel Feedstock Production Scenarios on Water Quality in the Upper Mississippi River Basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, M.; Demissie, Y.; Yan, E.

    2010-12-01

    The impact of increased biofuel feedstock production on regional water quality was examined. This study focused on the Upper Mississippi River Basin, from which a majority of U.S. biofuel is currently produced. The production of biofuel from both conventional feedstock and cellulosic feedstock will potentially increase in the near future. Historically, this water basin generates the largest nitrogen loading to the waterway in the United States and is often cited as a main contributor to the anoxic zone in the Gulf of Mexico. To obtain a quantitative and spatial estimate of nutrient burdens at the river basin, a SWAT (Soil and Water Assessment Tool) model application was developed. The model was equipped with an updated nutrient cycle feature and modified model parameters to represent current crop and perennial grass yield as a result of advancements in breeding and biotechnology. Various biofuel feedstock production scenarios were developed to assess the potential environmental implications of increased biofuel production through corn, agriculture residue, and perennial cellulosic feedstock (such as Switchgrass). Major factors were analyzed, including land use changes, feedstock types, fertilizer inputs, soil property, and yield. This tool can be used to identify specific regional factors affecting water quality and examine options to meet the requirement for environmental sustainability, thereby mitigating undesirable environmental consequences while strengthening energy security.

  20. Effect of biomass feedstock chemical and physical properties on energy conversion processes: Volume 2, Appendices

    SciTech Connect

    Butner, R.S.; Elliott, D.C.; Sealock, L.J., Jr.; Pyne, J.W.

    1988-12-01

    This report presents an exploration of the relationships between biomass feedstocks and the conversion processes that utilize them. Specifically, it discusses the effect of the physical and chemical structure of biomass on conversion yields, rates, and efficiencies in a wide variety of available or experimental conversion processes. A greater understanding of the complex relationships between these conversion systems and the production of biomass for energy uses is required to help optimize the complex network of biomass production, collection, transportation, and conversion to useful energy products. The review of the literature confirmed the scarcity of research aimed specifically at identifying the effect of feedstock properties on conversion. In most cases, any mention of feedstock-related effects was limited to a few brief remarks (usually in qualitative terms) in the conclusions, or as a topic for further research. Attempts to determine the importance of feedstock parameters from published data were further hampered by the lack of consistent feedstock characterization and the difficulty of comparing results between different experimental systems. Further research will be required to establish quantitative relationships between feedstocks and performance criteria in conversion. 127 refs., 4 figs., 7 tabs.

  1. Nitrogen Fertilizer Management for Enhancing Crop Productivity and Nitrogen Use Efficiency in a Rice-Oilseed Rape Rotation System in China

    PubMed Central

    Yousaf, Muhammad; Li, Xiaokun; Zhang, Zhi; Ren, Tao; Cong, Rihuan; Ata-Ul-Karim, Syed Tahir; Fahad, Shah; Shah, Adnan N.; Lu, Jianwei

    2016-01-01

    The use of efficient rates of nitrogen (N) fertilizer application is important with regard to increasing crop productivity and maintaining environmental sustainability. Rice-oilseed rape rotations are a mainstay of the economy and food security of China. Therefore, a field experiment was carried out during 2011–2013 in Honghu to identify the most appropriate N application rates for enhancing crop productivity and N use efficiency for rice (Oryza sativa L.)-oilseed rape (Brassica napus L.) rotations. Six N fertilizer treatments (RO1, RO2, RO3, RO4, RO5, and RO6) were laid out in a randomized complete block design with three replicates. ROx represented the N fertilizer application rates (kg ha−1) for rice and oilseed rape, respectively. Grain yields from plots receiving N fertilizer were significantly increased by 59–71% (rice) and 109–160% (oilseed rape) during the total rotation (2011–2013), as compared to RO1 (control; no application). Furthermore, a similar trend was observed for N accumulation, ranging from 88 to 125% and 134 to 200% in aerial parts of rice and oilseed rape, respectively. Nitrogen use efficiency (NUE) was significantly higher (38.5%) under RO2 and lower (34.2%) under RO6 while apparent N balance (ANB) was positively lowest under R05 (183.4 kg ha−1) followed by R02 (234.2 kg ha−1) and highest under R06 (344.5 kg ha−1) during the total rotation. The results of grain yield, NUE, and ANB indicated that the R02 rate of N application was superior. This information should help to develop a cost-effective and environment-friendly N management strategy for rice-oilseed rape rotation systems of central China. PMID:27746809

  2. Effects of different forms and origins of oilseeds on dynamics of ruminal biohydrogenation of long-chain fatty acids in vitro.

    PubMed

    Hoffmann, A; Steingass, H; Schollenberger, M; Terry, H; Hartung, K; Weiss, E; Mosenthin, R

    2015-12-01

    Dietary unsaturated fatty acids (FA) are intensively hydrogenated in the rumen, resulting in reduced amount of poly-unsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) and accumulation of several biohydrogenation (BH) products. In this study, BH of PUFA originating from different oilseeds (linseed, soya beans, sunflower seed and rapeseed) present in crushed oilseeds or their free oils were assessed in vitro. The assay substrates were incubated in buffered rumen fluid for 0, 6, 12 and 24 h. After incubation, the FA pattern of the incubated samples was analysed using gas chromatography. Biohydrogenation is defined as disappearance of double bonds (DB) calculated from the contents of unsaturated FA. After 24-h incubation, the DB contents of all oilseeds were reduced (p < 0.001) by 40-60%. The reduction was higher (p < 0.001) for the crushed form compared with the oil form. In addition, linseed and sunflower seed known as oilseeds with high contents of linolenic acid C18:3 c9,12,15 (LNA) and linoleic acid C18:2 c9,12 (LA), respectively, showed a higher (p < 0.001) accumulation of the BH intermediates conjugated linoleic acid (CLA, isomer C18:2 c9t11) and vaccenic acid (C18:1 t11) for the crushed form, when compared with the oil. These results suggest an inherent effect of the physical form of the assay oilseeds on in vitro BH. Changes in FA pattern during BH in vitro can be attributed to both source and physical form of the assay oilseeds. However, further investigations are warranted to ensure whether the observed in vitro effects on ruminal BH can be confirmed in vivo.

  3. Targeted silencing of BjMYB28 transcription factor gene directs development of low glucosinolate lines in oilseed Brassica juncea.

    PubMed

    Augustine, Rehna; Mukhopadhyay, Arundhati; Bisht, Naveen C

    2013-09-01

    Brassica juncea (Indian mustard), a globally important oilseed crop, contains relatively high amount of seed glucosinolates ranging from 80 to 120 μmol/g dry weight (DW). One of the major breeding objectives in oilseed Brassicas is to improve the seed-meal quality through the development of low-seed-glucosinolate lines (<30 μmol/g DW), as high amounts of certain seed glucosinolates are known to be anti-nutritional and reduce the meal palatability. Here, we report the development of transgenic B. juncea lines having seed glucosinolates as low as 11.26 μmol/g DW, through RNAi-based targeted suppression of BjMYB28, a R2R3-MYB transcription factor family gene involved in aliphatic glucosinolate biosynthesis. Targeted silencing of BjMYB28 homologs provided significant reduction in the anti-nutritional aliphatic glucosinolates fractions, without altering the desirable nonaliphatic glucosinolate pool, both in leaves and seeds of transgenic plants. Molecular characterization of single-copy, low glucosinolate homozygous lines confirmed significant down-regulation of BjMYB28 homologs vis-à-vis enhanced accumulation of BjMYB28-specific siRNA pool. Consequently, these low glucosinolate lines also showed significant suppression of genes involved in aliphatic glucosinolate biosynthesis. The low glucosinolate trait was stable in subsequent generations of the transgenic lines with no visible off-target effects on plant growth and development. Various seed quality parameters including fatty acid composition, oil content, protein content and seed weight of the low glucosinolate lines also remained unaltered, when tested under containment conditions in the field. Our results indicate that targeted silencing of a key glucosinolate transcriptional regulator MYB28 has huge potential for reducing the glucosinolates content and improving the seed-meal quality of oilseed Brassica crops. PMID:23721233

  4. Consequences of gene flow between oilseed rape (Brassica napus) and its relatives.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yongbo; Wei, Wei; Ma, Keping; Li, Junsheng; Liang, Yuyong; Darmency, Henri

    2013-10-01

    Numerous studies have focused on the probability of occurrence of gene flow between transgenic crops and their wild relatives and the likelihood of transgene escape, which should be assessed before the commercial release of transgenic crops. This review paper focuses on this issue for oilseed rape, Brassica napus L., a species that produces huge numbers of pollen grains and seeds. We analyze separately the distinct steps of gene flow: (1) pollen and seeds as vectors of gene flow; (2) spontaneous hybridization; (3) hybrid behavior, fitness cost due to hybridization and mechanisms of introgression; (4) and fitness benefit due to transgenes (e.g. herbicide resistance and Bt toxin). Some physical, biological and molecular means of transgene containment are also described. Although hybrids and first generation progeny are difficult to identify in fields and non-crop habitats, the literature shows that transgenes could readily introgress into Brassica rapa, Brassica juncea and Brassica oleracea, while introgression is expected to be rare with Brassica nigra, Hirschfeldia incana and Raphanus raphanistrum. The hybrids grow well but produce less seed than their wild parent. The difference declines with increasing generations. However, there is large uncertainty about the evolution of chromosome numbers and recombination, and many parameters of life history traits of hybrids and progeny are not determined with satisfactory confidence to build generic models capable to really cover the wide diversity of situations. We show that more studies are needed to strengthen and organize biological knowledge, which is a necessary prerequisite for model simulations to assess the practical and evolutionary outputs of introgression, and to provide guidelines for gene flow management. PMID:23987810

  5. Distance from forest edge affects bee pollinators in oilseed rape fields

    PubMed Central

    Bailey, Samantha; Requier, Fabrice; Nusillard, Benoît; Roberts, Stuart P M; Potts, Simon G; Bouget, Christophe

    2014-01-01

    Wild pollinators have been shown to enhance the pollination of Brassica napus (oilseed rape) and thus increase its market value. Several studies have previously shown that pollination services are greater in crops adjoining forest patches or other seminatural habitats than in crops completely surrounded by other crops. In this study, we investigated the specific importance of forest edges in providing potential pollinators in B. napus fields in two areas in France. Bees were caught with yellow pan traps at increasing distances from both warm and cold forest edges into B. napus fields during the blooming period. A total of 4594 individual bees, representing six families and 83 taxa, were collected. We found that both bee abundance and taxa richness were negatively affected by the distance from forest edge. However, responses varied between bee groups and edge orientations. The ITD (Inter-Tegular distance) of the species, a good proxy for bee foraging range, seems to limit how far the bees can travel from the forest edge. We found a greater abundance of cuckoo bees (Nomada spp.) of Andrena spp. and Andrena spp. males at forest edges, which we assume indicate suitable nesting sites, or at least mating sites, for some abundant Andrena species and their parasites (Fig. 1). Synthesis and Applications. This study provides one of the first examples in temperate ecosystems of how forest edges may actually act as a reservoir of potential pollinators and directly benefit agricultural crops by providing nesting or mating sites for important early spring pollinators. Policy-makers and land managers should take forest edges into account and encourage their protection in the agricultural matrix to promote wild bees and their pollination services. PMID:24634722

  6. Distance from forest edge affects bee pollinators in oilseed rape fields.

    PubMed

    Bailey, Samantha; Requier, Fabrice; Nusillard, Benoît; Roberts, Stuart P M; Potts, Simon G; Bouget, Christophe

    2014-02-01

    Wild pollinators have been shown to enhance the pollination of Brassica napus (oilseed rape) and thus increase its market value. Several studies have previously shown that pollination services are greater in crops adjoining forest patches or other seminatural habitats than in crops completely surrounded by other crops. In this study, we investigated the specific importance of forest edges in providing potential pollinators in B. napus fields in two areas in France. Bees were caught with yellow pan traps at increasing distances from both warm and cold forest edges into B. napus fields during the blooming period. A total of 4594 individual bees, representing six families and 83 taxa, were collected. We found that both bee abundance and taxa richness were negatively affected by the distance from forest edge. However, responses varied between bee groups and edge orientations. The ITD (Inter-Tegular distance) of the species, a good proxy for bee foraging range, seems to limit how far the bees can travel from the forest edge. We found a greater abundance of cuckoo bees (Nomada spp.) of Andrena spp. and Andrena spp. males at forest edges, which we assume indicate suitable nesting sites, or at least mating sites, for some abundant Andrena species and their parasites (Fig. 1). Synthesis and Applications. This study provides one of the first examples in temperate ecosystems of how forest edges may actually act as a reservoir of potential pollinators and directly benefit agricultural crops by providing nesting or mating sites for important early spring pollinators. Policy-makers and land managers should take forest edges into account and encourage their protection in the agricultural matrix to promote wild bees and their pollination services.

  7. Distance from forest edge affects bee pollinators in oilseed rape fields.

    PubMed

    Bailey, Samantha; Requier, Fabrice; Nusillard, Benoît; Roberts, Stuart P M; Potts, Simon G; Bouget, Christophe

    2014-02-01

    Wild pollinators have been shown to enhance the pollination of Brassica napus (oilseed rape) and thus increase its market value. Several studies have previously shown that pollination services are greater in crops adjoining forest patches or other seminatural habitats than in crops completely surrounded by other crops. In this study, we investigated the specific importance of forest edges in providing potential pollinators in B. napus fields in two areas in France. Bees were caught with yellow pan traps at increasing distances from both warm and cold forest edges into B. napus fields during the blooming period. A total of 4594 individual bees, representing six families and 83 taxa, were collected. We found that both bee abundance and taxa richness were negatively affected by the distance from forest edge. However, responses varied between bee groups and edge orientations. The ITD (Inter-Tegular distance) of the species, a good proxy for bee foraging range, seems to limit how far the bees can travel from the forest edge. We found a greater abundance of cuckoo bees (Nomada spp.) of Andrena spp. and Andrena spp. males at forest edges, which we assume indicate suitable nesting sites, or at least mating sites, for some abundant Andrena species and their parasites (Fig. 1). Synthesis and Applications. This study provides one of the first examples in temperate ecosystems of how forest edges may actually act as a reservoir of potential pollinators and directly benefit agricultural crops by providing nesting or mating sites for important early spring pollinators. Policy-makers and land managers should take forest edges into account and encourage their protection in the agricultural matrix to promote wild bees and their pollination services. PMID:24634722

  8. Consequences of gene flow between oilseed rape (Brassica napus) and its relatives.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yongbo; Wei, Wei; Ma, Keping; Li, Junsheng; Liang, Yuyong; Darmency, Henri

    2013-10-01

    Numerous studies have focused on the probability of occurrence of gene flow between transgenic crops and their wild relatives and the likelihood of transgene escape, which should be assessed before the commercial release of transgenic crops. This review paper focuses on this issue for oilseed rape, Brassica napus L., a species that produces huge numbers of pollen grains and seeds. We analyze separately the distinct steps of gene flow: (1) pollen and seeds as vectors of gene flow; (2) spontaneous hybridization; (3) hybrid behavior, fitness cost due to hybridization and mechanisms of introgression; (4) and fitness benefit due to transgenes (e.g. herbicide resistance and Bt toxin). Some physical, biological and molecular means of transgene containment are also described. Although hybrids and first generation progeny are difficult to identify in fields and non-crop habitats, the literature shows that transgenes could readily introgress into Brassica rapa, Brassica juncea and Brassica oleracea, while introgression is expected to be rare with Brassica nigra, Hirschfeldia incana and Raphanus raphanistrum. The hybrids grow well but produce less seed than their wild parent. The difference declines with increasing generations. However, there is large uncertainty about the evolution of chromosome numbers and recombination, and many parameters of life history traits of hybrids and progeny are not determined with satisfactory confidence to build generic models capable to really cover the wide diversity of situations. We show that more studies are needed to strengthen and organize biological knowledge, which is a necessary prerequisite for model simulations to assess the practical and evolutionary outputs of introgression, and to provide guidelines for gene flow management.

  9. Meta-analysis of the amino acid digestibility of oilseed meal in growing pigs.

    PubMed

    Messad, F; Létourneau-Montminy, M P; Charbonneau, E; Sauvant, D; Guay, F

    2016-10-01

    Oilseed meal is an important source of essential amino acids (EAA) for livestock production. It is the second most important ingredient in pig feed after grains. Optimal use of these ingredients requires precise knowledge of amino acid standardized ileal digestibility (SID), which may vary depending on several factors including botanical variety or processing treatments. A meta-analysis was performed in order to derive models for predicting the SID of soybean, cotton and rapeseed meal EAA, based on chemical composition data such as CP, total concentration of each EAA and fibre (crude fibre, ADF and NDF) content. A database of 47 references (224 experimental treatments) was built. A model incorporating processing method of the meals (e.g. cold pressed, expeller pressed, solvent extracted), experimental surgical procedure (T-cannula, re-entrant cannula, post valve T-cannula and ileo-rectal anastomosis) and pig growth stage (BW⩽ or ⩾25 kg) was tested. Results indicated that neither processing nor BW affected EAA SID. NDF was the best predictor of SID (R 2=0.944, 0.836, 0.779, 0.899 and 0.814, respectively, for Lys, Met, Thr, Trp and Val). The total EAA content was the best predictor of digestible content (g/kg diet) for each EAA (R 2=0.990, 0.985, 0.977, 0.985 and 0.978, respectively, for Lys, Met, Thr, Trp and Val). This study shows that routine chemical analyses may be used to predict EAA digestibility with satisfactory accuracy.

  10. Conjugated linoleic acid content of milk and cheese from cows fed extruded oilseeds.

    PubMed

    Dhiman, T R; Helmink, E D; McMahon, D J; Fife, R L; Pariza, M W

    1999-02-01

    Extruded oilseeds were fed to 24 dairy cows to study the influence on the conjugated linoleic acid content of milk and cheese. Cows were fed one of three diets that contained forage and grain in a ratio of 47:53. A control diet containing 13.5% soybean meal was compared with diets containing 12% full fat extruded soybeans or 12% full fat extruded cottonseed. The control, extruded soybean, and extruded cottonseed diets contained 2.73, 4.89, and 4.56% fatty acids, respectively. Measurements were made during the last 5 wk of the 8-wk experiment. The DM intakes and 3.5% fat-corrected milk yields were higher for cows fed the extruded soybean and extruded cottonseed diets than for cows fed the control diet. A tendency for lower fat and protein contents in the milk of cows fed the extruded soybean and extruded cottonseed diets was detected. Most of the C18 fatty acids were increased in the milk and cheese when extruded soybeans and cottonseeds were fed. The conjugated linoleic acid content in milk and cheese increased a mean of 109% when full fat extruded soybeans were fed and increased 77% when cottonseeds were fed compared with the conjugated linoleic acid content when the control diet was fed. Processing the milk into cheese did not alter the conjugated linoleic acid content. The conjugated linoleic acid content of milk and cheese can be increased by the inclusion of full fat extruded soybeans and full fat extruded cottonseeds in the diets of dairy cows.

  11. Bioinformatics study of delta-12 fatty acid desaturase 2 (FAD2) gene in oilseeds.

    PubMed

    Dehghan Nayeri, Fatemeh; Yarizade, Kazem

    2014-08-01

    Fatty acid desaturases constitute a group of enzymes that introduce double bonds into the hydrocarbon chains of fatty acids to produce unsaturated fatty acids. In plants, seed-specific delta-12 fatty acid desaturase 2 (FAD2) is responsible for the high content of linoleic acid by inserting a double bond at the delta-12 (omega-6) position of oleic acid. In this study, sixteen FAD2 and FAD2-2 protein sequences from oilseeds were analyzed by computational tools including two databases of the NCBI and EXPASY and data management tools such as SignalP, TMHMM, Psort, ProtParam, TargetP, PLACE and PlantCARE. These services were used to predict the protein properties such as molecular mass, pI, signal peptide, transmembrane and conserved domains, secondary and spatial structures. The polypeptide sequences were aligned and a neighbour-joining tree was constructed using MEGA5.1 to elucidate phylogenetic relationships among FAD2 genes. Based on the phylogenetic analysis species with high similarity in FAD2 sequence grouped together. FAD2 proteins include highly conserved histidine-rich motifs (HECGHH, HRRHH and HV[A/C/T]HH) that are located by three to five transmembrane anchors. For further investigations Sesamum indicum FAD2 was selected and analyzed by bioinformatics tools. Analysis showed no N-terminal signal peptide for probable localization of FAD2 protein in cytoplasmic organelles such as chloroplast, mitochondria and Golgi. Instead the C-terminal signaling motif YNNKL, Y(K/N)NKF or YRNKI allows FAD2 protein to selectively bind to and embed in the endoplasmic reticulum. FAD2 promoter contains different cis-regulatory elements involve in the biotic and abiotic stresses response or control of gene expression specifically in seeds.

  12. Cytosolic triacylglycerol biosynthetic pathway in oilseeds. Molecular cloning and expression of peanut cytosolic diacylglycerol acyltransferase.

    PubMed

    Saha, Saikat; Enugutti, Balaji; Rajakumari, Sona; Rajasekharan, Ram

    2006-08-01

    Triacylglycerols (TAGs) are the most important storage form of energy for eukaryotic cells. TAG biosynthetic activity was identified in the cytosolic fraction of developing peanut (Arachis hypogaea) cotyledons. This activity was NaF insensitive and acyl-coenzyme A (CoA) dependent. Acyl-CoA:diacylglycerol acyltransferase (DGAT) catalyzes the final step in TAG biosynthesis that acylates diacylglycerol to TAG. Soluble DGAT was identified from immature peanuts and purified by conventional column chromatographic procedures. The enzyme has a molecular mass of 41 +/- 1.0 kD. Based on the partial peptide sequence, a degenerate probe was used to obtain the full-length cDNA. The isolated gene shared less than 10% identity with the previously identified DGAT1 and 2 families, but has 13% identity with the bacterial bifunctional wax ester/DGAT. To differentiate the unrelated families, we designate the peanut gene as AhDGAT. Expression of peanut cDNA in Escherichia coli resulted in the formation of labeled TAG and wax ester from [14C]acetate. The recombinant E. coli showed high levels of DGAT activity but no wax ester synthase activity. TAGs were localized in transformed cells with Nile blue A and oil red O staining. The recombinant and native DGAT was specific for 1,2-diacylglycerol and did not utilize hexadecanol, glycerol-3-phosphate, monoacylglycerol, lysophosphatidic acid, and lysophosphatidylcholine. Oleoyl-CoA was the preferred acyl donor as compared to palmitoyl- and stearoyl-CoAs. These data suggest that the cytosol is one of the sites for TAG biosynthesis in oilseeds. The identified pathway may present opportunities of bioengineering oil-yielding plants for increased oil production.

  13. Effects of experimental warming on fungal disease progress in oilseed rape.

    PubMed

    Siebold, Magdalena; von Tiedemann, Andreas

    2013-06-01

    Global warming will influence the growth and development of both crops and pathogens. The aims of this study were to investigate potential effects of future warming on oilseed rape growth and the epidemiology of the three economically important pathogens Verticillium longisporum, Sclerotinia sclerotiorum, and Leptosphaeria maculans (anamorph: Phoma lingam). We utilized climate chambers and a soil warming facility, where treatments represented regional warming scenarios for Lower Saxony, Germany, by 2050 and 2100, and compared results of both approaches on a thermal time scale by calculating degree-days (dd) from day of sowing, December 1st and March 1st until sampling, the latter correlating best with disease progress. Regression analysis showed that plant growth and growth stages in spring responded almost linearly to increasing thermal time until 1000-1500 dd. Colonization of plant tissue by V. longisporum showed an exponential increase when exceeding 1300-1500 dd and reaching plant growth stage BBCH 74/75 (pod development). V. longisporum colonization of plants may be advanced, potentially leading to higher inoculum densities after harvest and increased economic importance of this pathogen under future warming. Sclerotia germination of S. sclerotiorum reached its maximum at 600-900 dd. Advance of these critical degree-days may lead to earlier apothecia production, potentially advancing the infection window, whereas the future importance of S. sclerotiorum may remain constant. Severity of phoma crown canker increased linearly with increasing thermal time, but showed also large variation in response to the warming scenarios, suggesting that factors such as canopy microclimate in fall or leaf shedding over winter may play a bigger role for L. maculans infection and disease severity than higher soil temperatures. Thermal time was a suitable tool to combine and integrate data on biological responses to soil and air temperature increases from climate chamber and field

  14. Meta-analysis of the amino acid digestibility of oilseed meal in growing pigs.

    PubMed

    Messad, F; Létourneau-Montminy, M P; Charbonneau, E; Sauvant, D; Guay, F

    2016-10-01

    Oilseed meal is an important source of essential amino acids (EAA) for livestock production. It is the second most important ingredient in pig feed after grains. Optimal use of these ingredients requires precise knowledge of amino acid standardized ileal digestibility (SID), which may vary depending on several factors including botanical variety or processing treatments. A meta-analysis was performed in order to derive models for predicting the SID of soybean, cotton and rapeseed meal EAA, based on chemical composition data such as CP, total concentration of each EAA and fibre (crude fibre, ADF and NDF) content. A database of 47 references (224 experimental treatments) was built. A model incorporating processing method of the meals (e.g. cold pressed, expeller pressed, solvent extracted), experimental surgical procedure (T-cannula, re-entrant cannula, post valve T-cannula and ileo-rectal anastomosis) and pig growth stage (BW⩽ or ⩾25 kg) was tested. Results indicated that neither processing nor BW affected EAA SID. NDF was the best predictor of SID (R 2=0.944, 0.836, 0.779, 0.899 and 0.814, respectively, for Lys, Met, Thr, Trp and Val). The total EAA content was the best predictor of digestible content (g/kg diet) for each EAA (R 2=0.990, 0.985, 0.977, 0.985 and 0.978, respectively, for Lys, Met, Thr, Trp and Val). This study shows that routine chemical analyses may be used to predict EAA digestibility with satisfactory accuracy. PMID:27137351

  15. Seed Spillage from Grain Trailers on Road Verges during Oilseed Rape Harvest: An Experimental Survey

    PubMed Central

    Bailleul, Diane; Ollier, Sébastien; Huet, Sylvie; Gardarin, Antoine; Lecomte, Jane

    2012-01-01

    Context Anthropogenic vectors enhance the natural dispersal capacity of plant seeds significantly in terms of quantity and distance. Human-mediated seed dispersal (i.e. anthropochory) greatly increases the dispersal of crop species across agroecosystems. In the case of oilseed rape (OSR), spillage of seeds from grain trailers during harvest has never been quantified. Methods Our experimental approach involved establishing 85 seed trap-sites on the road verges of an agricultural area around the grain silo of Selommes (Loir-et-Cher, France). We recorded OSR spillage during harvest and applied a linear model to the data. Results The amount of seed spilled was related positively to the area of the OSR fields served by the road, whereas the amount of seed spilled decreased with other variables, such as distance from the trap-site to the verge of the road and to the nearest field. The distance to the grain silo, through local and regional effects, affected seed loss. Local effects from fields adjacent to the road resulted in a cumulative spillage on one-lane roads. On two-lane roads, spillage was nearly constant whatever the distance to the silo due to a mixture of these local effects and of grain trailers that joined the road from more distant fields. From the data, we predicted the number of seeds lost from grain trailers on one road verge in the study area. We predicted a total spillage of 2.05×106 seeds (±4.76×105) along the road length, which represented a mean of 404±94 seeds per m2. Conclusion Containment of OSR seeds will always be challenging. However, seed spillage could be reduced if grain trailers were covered and filled with less seed. Reducing distances travelled between fields and silos could also limit seed loss. PMID:22427873

  16. Effects of experimental warming on fungal disease progress in oilseed rape.

    PubMed

    Siebold, Magdalena; von Tiedemann, Andreas

    2013-06-01

    Global warming will influence the growth and development of both crops and pathogens. The aims of this study were to investigate potential effects of future warming on oilseed rape growth and the epidemiology of the three economically important pathogens Verticillium longisporum, Sclerotinia sclerotiorum, and Leptosphaeria maculans (anamorph: Phoma lingam). We utilized climate chambers and a soil warming facility, where treatments represented regional warming scenarios for Lower Saxony, Germany, by 2050 and 2100, and compared results of both approaches on a thermal time scale by calculating degree-days (dd) from day of sowing, December 1st and March 1st until sampling, the latter correlating best with disease progress. Regression analysis showed that plant growth and growth stages in spring responded almost linearly to increasing thermal time until 1000-1500 dd. Colonization of plant tissue by V. longisporum showed an exponential increase when exceeding 1300-1500 dd and reaching plant growth stage BBCH 74/75 (pod development). V. longisporum colonization of plants may be advanced, potentially leading to higher inoculum densities after harvest and increased economic importance of this pathogen under future warming. Sclerotia germination of S. sclerotiorum reached its maximum at 600-900 dd. Advance of these critical degree-days may lead to earlier apothecia production, potentially advancing the infection window, whereas the future importance of S. sclerotiorum may remain constant. Severity of phoma crown canker increased linearly with increasing thermal time, but showed also large variation in response to the warming scenarios, suggesting that factors such as canopy microclimate in fall or leaf shedding over winter may play a bigger role for L. maculans infection and disease severity than higher soil temperatures. Thermal time was a suitable tool to combine and integrate data on biological responses to soil and air temperature increases from climate chamber and field

  17. Value of Distributed Preprocessing of Biomass Feedstocks to a Bioenergy Industry

    SciTech Connect

    Christopher T Wright

    2006-07-01

    Biomass preprocessing is one of the primary operations in the feedstock assembly system and the front-end of a biorefinery. Its purpose is to chop, grind, or otherwise format the biomass into a suitable feedstock for conversion to ethanol and other bioproducts. Many variables such as equipment cost and efficiency, and feedstock moisture content, particle size, bulk density, compressibility, and flowability affect the location and implementation of this unit operation. Previous conceptual designs show this operation to be located at the front-end of the biorefinery. However, data are presented that show distributed preprocessing at the field-side or in a fixed preprocessing facility can provide significant cost benefits by producing a higher value feedstock with improved handling, transporting, and merchandising potential. In addition, data supporting the preferential deconstruction of feedstock materials due to their bio-composite structure identifies the potential for significant improvements in equipment efficiencies and compositional quality upgrades. Theses data are collected from full-scale low and high capacity hammermill grinders with various screen sizes. Multiple feedstock varieties with a range of moisture values were used in the preprocessing tests. The comparative values of the different grinding configurations, feedstock varieties, and moisture levels are assessed through post-grinding analysis of the different particle fractions separated with a medium-scale forage particle separator and a Rototap separator. The results show that distributed preprocessing produces a material that has bulk flowable properties and fractionation benefits that can improve the ease of transporting, handling and conveying the material to the biorefinery and improve the biochemical and thermochemical conversion processes.

  18. Cellulose solvent- and organic solvent-based lignocellulose fractionation enabled efficient sugar release from a variety of lignocellulosic feedstocks.

    PubMed

    Sathitsuksanoh, Noppadon; Zhu, Zhiguang; Zhang, Y-H Percival

    2012-08-01

    Developing feedstock-independent biomass pretreatment would be vital to second generation biorefineries that would fully utilize diverse non-food lignocellulosic biomass resources, decrease transportation costs of low energy density feedstock, and conserve natural biodiversity. Cellulose solvent- and organic solvent-based lignocellulose fractionation (COSLIF) was applied to a variety of feedstocks, including Miscanthus, poplar, their mixture, bagasse, wheat straw, and rice straw. Although non-pretreated biomass samples exhibited a large variation in enzymatic digestibility, the COSLIF-pretreated biomass samples exhibited similar high enzymatic glucan digestibilities and fast hydrolysis rates. Glucan digestibilities of most pretreated feedstocks were ∼93% at five filter paper units per gram of glucan. The overall glucose and xylose yields for the Miscanthus:poplar mixture at a weight ratio of 1:2 were 93% and 85%, respectively. These results suggested that COSLIF could be regarded as a feedstock-independent pretreatment suitable for processing diverse feedstocks by adjusting pretreatment residence time only. PMID:22613899

  19. Low-temperature thermochemical conversion of high-moisture biomass feedstocks

    SciTech Connect

    Butner, R.S.; Sealock, L.J. Jr.; Elliott, D.C.

    1985-11-01

    Pacific Northwest Laboratory is carrying out a research project to investigate the thermochemical conversion of high-moisture biomass feedstocks to methane, hydrogen, and liquids. Experimental results obtained in FY 1985 indicate that good yields of methane-rich gas (exceeding 40% methane) can be produced. The reaction system utilizes low tempreatures (400 to 450/sup 0/C), high pressures, and a nickel/alkali carbonate catalyst mixture to effect the gasification of biomass slurries containing up to 95% water. Carbon conversions after 15 minutes have exceeded 90%. Methane yields in excess of 6 scf/dry ash-free pound of biomass have been obtained. Most of the feedstocks selected for investigation are not conventionally used in thermochemical conversion. Feedstocks which have been used to data include napier grass, sorghum stover, sunflower stalks, water hyacinths, and macrocystis kelp. Waste biomass from the food and beverage industries has also been used, as has the unconverted residue from an anaerobic digestor. In addition to gasification performance data obtained for each of these feedstocks, elemental analyses, ash contents, and moisture contents of the raw feedstocks were determined. 5 refs., 8 figs., 2 tabs.

  20. Xylem transport and gene expression play decisive roles in cadmium accumulation in shoots of two oilseed rape cultivars (Brassica napus).

    PubMed

    Wu, Zhichao; Zhao, Xiaohu; Sun, Xuecheng; Tan, Qiling; Tang, Yafang; Nie, Zhaojun; Hu, Chengxiao

    2015-01-01

    Cadmium (Cd) is a toxic metal which harms human health through food chains. The mechanisms underlying Cd accumulation in oilseed rape are still poorly understood. Here, we investigated the physiological and genetic processes involved in Cd uptake and transport of two oilseed rape cultivars (Brassica napus). L351 accumulates more Cd in shoots but less in roots than L338. A scanning ion-selective electrode technique (SIET) and uptake kinetics of Cd showed that roots were not responsible for the different Cd accumulation in shoots since L351 showed a lower Cd uptake ability. However, concentration-dependent and time-dependent dynamics of Cd transport by xylem showed L351 exhibited a superordinate capacity of Cd translocation to shoots. Additionally, the Cd concentrations of shoots and xylem sap showed a great correlation in both cultivars. Furthermore, gene expression levels related to Cd uptake by roots (IRT1) and Cd transport by xylem (HMA2 and HMA4) were consistent with the tendencies of Cd absorption and transport at the physiological level respectively. In other words, L351 had stronger gene expression for Cd transport but lower for Cd uptake. Overall, results revealed that the process of Cd translocation to shoots is a determinative factor for Cd accumulation in shoots, both at physiological and genetic levels. PMID:25460764