Sample records for oja toivo jrime

  1. Modulated Hebb-Oja learning rule--a method for principal subspace analysis.


    Jankovic, Marko V; Ogawa, Hidemitsu


    This paper presents analysis of the recently proposed modulated Hebb-Oja (MHO) method that performs linear mapping to a lower-dimensional subspace. Principal component subspace is the method that will be analyzed. Comparing to some other well-known methods for yielding principal component subspace (e.g., Oja's Subspace Learning Algorithm), the proposed method has one feature that could be seen as desirable from the biological point of view--synaptic efficacy learning rule does not need the explicit information about the value of the other efficacies to make individual efficacy modification. Also, the simplicity of the "neural circuits" that perform global computations and a fact that their number does not depend on the number of input and output neurons, could be seen as good features of the proposed method.

  2. Stress, steroids, and "ojas": neuroendocrine mechanisms and current promise of ancient approaches to disease prevention.


    Walton, K G; Pugh, N D


    Recent research on causes of disease and aging has increasingly supported the importance of stress. One theory of the relationship between stress and disease is based on the concept of homeostasis, a term coined by Cannon over 50 years ago to signify those states and mechanisms responsible for the "staying power of the body". Bernard, Cannon, Selye and other leading researchers held that full, normal function of the self-regulating or homeostatic power of the body maintains the balanced, integrated condition we recognize as health. Failures in this capacity, such as those produced by frequent stressful experiences, can result in disease or death. Theories of health and disease surprisingly similar to this have existed since ancient times, and in widely different cultures. This review discusses both the fundamental elements of these theories and the current neuroendocrine research supporting their validity and immediate relevance. The connections between ancient and modern knowledge described herein were made possible largely by the work of Maharishi Mahesh Yogi, a scholar and teacher of the ancient vedic tradition of India. A key part of Ayurveda that has been obscure to modern science is the substance "ojas", which the classical texts say maintains balance of the physiology. In this article, specific steroids or steroid classes are proposed as likely candidates for both the "ordinary" and the "superior" types of ojas described in Ayurveda. Current evidence for the functions of these steroids, as well as their role in stress, disease and the maintenance of health, is reviewed. The knowledge of Ayurveda, as recently brought to light by Maharishi, includes methods for recovering and maintaining optimal function of steroidal systems. Such effects may help mediate the improvements in health and increased longevity attributed to Ayurveda and other ancient methods.

  3. The effect of Oja-titun market effluent on the chemical quality of receiving OPA reservoir in Ile-Ife, Nigeria.


    Eludoyin, A O; Ofoezie, I E; Ogunkoya, O O


    The effect of market effluent from the Oja-titun market in Ile-Ife, Nigeria on the chemical quality of the Opa Reservoir located 3.5 km downstream was investigated between February and November 2000. Water samples were collected in February, May, August and November from 16 sites, four along each of the market drainage channels (MDC), market stream, tributary stream and the Opa River and Reservoir. The peak level of each variable-biochemical oxygen demand, temperature, total alkalinity, Na(+), K(+), Ca(2+), Mg(2+), PO(4)(3+), SO(4)(2+), Cl(-), NO(3)(-), Pb and Zn-occurred at the MDC, and decreased significantly downstream, except pH, conductivity and dissolved oxygen, which increased. Seasonal fluctuation in most variables was pronounced. Generally, there were high values in the early dry and dry seasons and low values in the rainy and early rainy seasons. Comparison of the reservoir water with international limitation standards for drinking water supply showed that the quality of the reservoir water was very low and that treatment required to achieve minimum limitation standards for drinking water would be both intensive and expensive. The study concluded that the stream borne effluent from the market impacts significantly on the chemical quality of the reservoir water although other tributaries within the Reservoir's catchment are other possible sources of pollutants in the reservoir.

  4. Effects of heavy metals on antioxidants and stress-responsive gene expression in Javanese medaka (Oryzias javanicus).


    Woo, Seonock; Yum, Seungshic; Park, Hong-Seog; Lee, Taek-Kyun; Ryu, Jae-Chun


    The differential expression of eight genes encoding stressor biomarkers was investigated by real-time quantitative PCR in liver tissue extracted from Javanese medaka after exposure to six heavy metals for 24 h. OjaCAT transcription increased in a dose-dependent manner during exposure to Cd, Cu, and Zn, but significantly decreased after exposure to Ag, Cr, and Ni. OjaCYP1A transcription decreased drastically on exposure to all heavy metals tested. OjaG6PD transcription increased dramatically after exposure to low doses of Cu and Zn, but decreased at high concentrations of these elements. No prominent changes in OjaG6PD transcription were observed after exposure to Ag, Cd, Cr, or Ni. OjaGPx mRNA expression was induced in the liver following exposure to Ag, Cd, Cu, and Zn, but suppressed following exposure to Cr and Ni. Exposure to all heavy metals increased transcription of OjaGR and OjaGST in a dose-dependent manner. OjaSOD transcription increased during exposure to Ag, Cd, Zn, and Cr, but showed no change in response to Cu and Ni exposure. OjaUB expression was induced by all doses of exposure. The transcriptional responses of these genes to heavy metal exposure will provide the basis for a multi-biomarker system that can be used for the biomonitoring of aquatic environments.

  5. Global Realities: Celebrating Our Differences, Honoring Our Connections.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walz, Garry R., Ed.; Knowdell, Richard L., Ed.

    This publication contains papers based on program presentations from the 2003 International Career Development Conference. Chapters include: (1) How to Turn Your Passion into a Profit (S. Abbott); (2) Harnessing the Power of Career Transition Groups (M. Adoradio and A. Oja); (3) All the Worlds a Stage Using Theatre in Career Counseling (P.…

  6. Effects of Dose Frequency of Early Communication Intervention in Young Children with and without Down Syndrome

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yoder, Paul; Woynaroski, Tiffany; Fey, Marc; Warren, Steven


    Children with intellectual disability were randomly assigned to receive Milieu Communication Teaching (MCT) at one 1-hr session per week (low dose frequency, LDF) or five 1-hr sessions per week (high dose frequency, HDF) over 9 months (Fey, Yoder, Warren, & Bredin-Oja, 2013. Non-Down syndrome (NDS) and Down syndrome (DS) subgroups were matched…

  7. Effects of Dose Frequency of Early Communication Intervention in Young Children with and without Down Syndrome

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yoder, Paul; Woynaroski, Tiffany; Fey, Marc; Warren, Steven


    Children with intellectual disability were randomly assigned to receive Milieu Communication Teaching (MCT) at one 1-hr session per week (low dose frequency, LDF) or five 1-hr sessions per week (high dose frequency, HDF) over 9 months (Fey, Yoder, Warren, & Bredin-Oja, 2013. Non-Down syndrome (NDS) and Down syndrome (DS) subgroups were matched…

  8. Earth observations taken during STS-83 mission

    NASA Image and Video Library


    STS083-749-084 (4-8 April 1997) --- Laguna Oja De Liebre, Baja, gray whale breeding ground Laguna Oja De Liebre, Baja (Scammons Lagoon) is located on the west coast in the plains of the central Baja. This lagoon and others like it along the Baja coast are used for breeding grounds for the gray whale. One group of gray whales inhabits the Sea of Okhotsk in summer, migrating south in winter then breed off southern Korea. The other summers in the Bering and Chukchi seas and travels south to winter breeding grounds along the coast of Baja California. The gray whale was hunted almost to extinction by 1925 but was placed under complete international protection and since the 1940s has increased in numbers. The white grids seen in the photo are commercial salt ponds.

  9. Studies on the fungal infestation of five traditionally smoke-dried freshwater fish in Ago-Iwoye, Nigeria.


    Fafioye, O O; Efuntoye, M O; Osho, A


    Samples of traditionally smoke-dried Clarias gariepinus (Burchell), Chrysichthys nigrodigitatus (Lacepede), Sarotherodon galilaeus (Trewavas), Heterotis niloticus (Cuvier) and Heterobranchus bidorsalis (Geoffroy) were obtained from Oja Oba Market, Ago-Iwoye, Nigeria and examined for fungal infestation. The fish samples incubated on potato dextrose agar (PDA) for 7 days showed fungal infestation. Fungi isolated and identified included Mucor sp., Aspergillus sp., Rhizopus sp. and Fusarium sp. Six fungal species were isolated from C. nigrodigitatus, five each on C. gariepinus and H. niloticus.

  10. Recursive principal components analysis.


    Voegtlin, Thomas


    A recurrent linear network can be trained with Oja's constrained Hebbian learning rule. As a result, the network learns to represent the temporal context associated to its input sequence. The operation performed by the network is a generalization of Principal Components Analysis (PCA) to time-series, called Recursive PCA. The representations learned by the network are adapted to the temporal statistics of the input. Moreover, sequences stored in the network may be retrieved explicitly, in the reverse order of presentation, thus providing a straight-forward neural implementation of a logical stack.

  11. Mind in ayurveda.


    Rao, A Venkoba


    Ayurveda now among the alternative complementary systems of medicine is over 5000 years old. Its origin and the compilation of Caraka Samhita are noted. The nature of mind as a sensory and a motor organ, its structure and functions are discussed. The concept of Thdosha theory and Trigunas are explained besides the so-called master-forms of Doshas namely Prana, Tejas and Ojas. The constituional and tempermental types depending upon the doshas are described. These determine diagnoses and guide treatment. Ayurveda is highlighted as a holistic system with its concern for prevention of disease and promotion of health. Disease denotes failure of prophylaxis. Some methods of Ayurvedic therapy are mentioned.

  12. Conceptontwerp nieuwe slaapmatten (Concept Design of Sleeping Mattresses)

    DTIC Science & Technology


    gaven geen antwoord op deze vraag. Vraag 13) Is het slaapmatje ooit stuk gegaan tijdens operationeel gebruik? Aantal Ja 25 nee 13 Vraag 14) Hoe...matje stuk is, wordt deze geruild. valt weinig aan te repareren. - Kapot is inleveren en ruilen voor nieuw. Vraag 19) U mag de cijfers 1, 2, 3, 4 en TNO-rapport | TNO-DV 2008 A486 Bijlage B | 6/9 vraag 14) Is het slaapmatje ooit stuk gegaan tijdens operationeel gebruik? Oja O nee vraag 15

  13. SEAFARER Site Survey, Upper Michigan Region. Book 15. Subsurface Water Data

    DTIC Science & Technology


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  14. Spatio-temporal dynamics of nitrogen in river-alluvial aquifer systems affected by diffuse pollution from agricultural sources: Implications for the implementation of the Nitrates Directive

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arauzo, M.; Valladolid, M.; Martínez-Bastida, J. J.


    SummaryReducing nitrate pollution from diffuse agricultural sources is the major environmental challenge in the two adjacent catchments of the Oja-Tirón and Zamaca rivers (La Rioja and Castilla y León, northern Spain). For this reason, part of their territory was designated a Nitrate Vulnerable Zone (NVZ) according to the Nitrates Directive. The Oja Alluvial Aquifer, the Tirón Alluvial Aquifer and their associated rivers are particularly vulnerable to nitrogen pollution due to the shallow water table, the high permeability of alluvial deposits, interconnections between the alluvial aquifers and surface waters and pressures from agriculture. To this end, nine sampling campaigns, organised on a semi-annual basis and focused on the rivers and alluvial aquifers of the two catchments, were carried out from April 2005 to April 2009. The main objectives of the study were: (1) to investigate the chemical forms of nitrogen in river-alluvial aquifer systems of the Oja-Tirón and Zamaca catchments, (2) to improve our understanding of the spatio-temporal patterns of nitrogen distribution in the alluvial aquifers and associated rivers by integrating hydrochemical data and hydrogeological and environmental parameters, (3) to estimate the amount of nitrogen exported from the rivers and alluvial aquifers to the River Ebro, and (4) to evaluate the suitability of the current method of designating NVZs in the area. High groundwater flow velocities in the upper alluvial zones favoured the advective transport of nitrate and generated a dilution effect. In these areas, inter-annual variations in nitrate concentrations were observed related to precipitation and N-input from agriculture. However, low flow velocities favoured processes of accumulation in the lower alluvial zones. Our results demonstrated that the entire alluvial surface was highly vulnerable, according to dynamics of the nitrogen in the river-alluvial aquifer systems being studied. The amount of nitrogen exported from

  15. An efficient learning algorithm for improving generalization performance of radial basis function neural networks.


    Wang, Z O; Zhu, T


    This paper presents an efficient recursive learning algorithm for improving generalization performance of radial basis function (RBF) neural networks. The approach combines the rival penalized competitive learning (PRCL) [Xu, L., Kizyzak, A. & Oja, E. (1993). Rival penalized competitive learning for clustering analysis, RBF net and curve detection, IEEE Transactions on Neural Networks, 4, 636-649] and the regularized least squares (RLS) to provide an efficient and powerful procedure for constructing a minimal RBF network that generalizes very well. The RPCL selects the number of hidden units of network and adjusts centers, while the RLS constructs the parsimonious network and estimates the connection weights. In the RLS we derived a simple recursive algorithm, which needs no matrix calculation, and so largely reduces the computational cost. This combined algorithm significantly enhances the generalization performance and the real-time capability of the RBF networks. Simulation results of three different problems demonstrate much better generalization performance of the present algorithm over other existing similar algorithms.

  16. Effects of dose frequency of early communication intervention in young children with and without Down syndrome.


    Yoder, Paul; Woynaroski, Tiffany; Fey, Marc; Warren, Steven


    Children with intellectual disability were randomly assigned to receive Milieu Communication Teaching (MCT) at one 1-hr session per week (low dose frequency, LDF) or five 1-hr sessions per week (high dose frequency, HDF) over 9 months ( Fey, Yoder, Warren, & Bredin-Oja, 2013 . Non-Down syndrome (NDS) and Down syndrome (DS) subgroups were matched on intelligence, mental age, and chronological age. The NDS group had significantly more growth in spoken vocabulary than the DS group. In the DS subgroup, the HDF group had more spoken vocabulary growth than the LDF group when IQ was controlled. In both etiological subgroups, the HDF group yielded greater vocabulary production outcomes than the LDF group for children who played functionally with a range of objects.


    PubMed Central

    Rao, A. Venkoba


    Ayurveda now among the alternative complementary systems of medicine is over 5000 years old. Its origin and the compilation of Caraka Samhita are noted. The nature of mind as a sensory and a motor organ, its structure and functions are discussed. The concept of Thdosha theory and Trigunas are explained besides the so-called master-forms of Doshas namely Prana, Tejas and Ojas. The constituional and tempermental types depending upon the doshas are described. These determine diagnoses and guide treatment. Ayurveda is highlighted as a holistic system with its concern for prevention of disease and promotion of health. Disease denotes failure of prophylaxis. Some methods of Ayurvedic therapy are mentioned. PMID:21206574

  18. A new modulated Hebbian learning rule--biologically plausible method for local computation of a principal subspace.


    Jankovic, Marko; Ogawa, Hidemitsu


    This paper presents one possible implementation of a transformation that performs linear mapping to a lower-dimensional subspace. Principal component subspace will be the one that will be analyzed. Idea implemented in this paper represents generalization of the recently proposed infinity OH neural method for principal component extraction. The calculations in the newly proposed method are performed locally--a feature which is usually considered as desirable from the biological point of view. Comparing to some other wellknown methods, proposed synaptic efficacy learning rule requires less information about the value of the other efficacies to make single efficacy modification. Synaptic efficacies are modified by implementation of Modulated Hebb-type (MH) learning rule. Slightly modified MH algorithm named Modulated Hebb Oja (MHO) algorithm, will be also introduced. Structural similarity of the proposed network with part of the retinal circuit will be presented, too.

  19. Earth observations taken from Space Shuttle Columbia during STS-93 mission

    NASA Image and Video Library


    STS093-704-087 (23-27 July 1999) --- This low angle, early morning shot over Chile was photographed from the Earth-orbiting Space Shuttle Columbia during the STS-93 mission. In the words of one of the scientists studying the STS-93 Earth imagery, Laguna Verde, in the Atacama Province of Chile (near the Argentine border), lies like a turquoise jewel among the stark black and white snow covered volcanic peaks of the High Andes. The ambient elevation in this part of the Andes is 16,000 feet (4,877 meters) with the highest local peak, Nevada Ojas de Salado (just to the right of the lake), reaching to 23,240 feet. (7084 meters.)

  20. Feature Extraction Using Memristor Networks.


    Sheridan, Patrick M; Du, Chao; Lu, Wei D


    Crossbar arrays of memristive elements are investigated for the implementation of dictionary learning and sparse coding of natural images. A winner-take-all training algorithm, in conjunction with Oja's rule, is used to learn an overcomplete dictionary of feature primitives that resemble Gabor filters. The dictionary is then used in the locally competitive algorithm to form a sparse representation of input images. The impacts of device nonlinearity and parameter variations are evaluated and a compensating procedure is proposed to ensure the robustness of the sparsification. It is shown that, with proper compensation, the memristor crossbar architecture can effectively perform sparse coding with distortion comparable with ideal software implementations at high sparsity, even in the presence of large device-to-device variations in the excess of 100%.

  1. All Prime Contract Awards by State or Country, Place, and Contractor, FY83, Part 8 (Oologah, Oklahoma-Lone Star, Texas).

    DTIC Science & Technology


    A 3 6 J 1015 6 B J 1 D 131 3 I OFFO 6577 F410-8-:- CASOS B C A 5 2 2 2640 BTD AlS GAS TURBINES AND JET ENGINES S A 3 5 J 1015 5 B J 1 I 43 3 0 OFF30...A 6 3 0 0000 0 J 1 I 48 1 0 CASO ? 3997 DAAS07-82-CI166 B C A 5 2 2 a620 OPT A7 RADIO TV EQUIPMENT EXCEPT Al 8 A 8 3 J 0000 0 J 1 C 658 1 L OAB07 3293...108 IOC 11 DESCRIPTION OF CMDTY/SRVC 2 3 4 5 6 1717 S 9 A 0 1 3 24 9*SSSSS(00) SAN ANTONIO CITY OF FORT SAM HOUSTON TEXAS 756656 2830 44 3 K OJAE7 0140

  2. Independet Component Analyses of Ground-based Exoplanetary Transits

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Silva Martins-Filho, Walter; Griffith, Caitlin Ann; Pearson, Kyle; Waldmann, Ingo; Biddle, Lauren; Zellem, Robert Thomas; Alvarez-Candal, Alvaro


    Most observations of exoplanetary atmospheres are conducted when a "Hot Jupiter" exoplanet transits in front of its host star. These Jovian-sized planets have small orbital periods, on the order of days, and therefore a short transit time, making them more ameanable to observations. Measurements of Hot Jupiter transits must achieve a 10-4 level of accuracy in the flux to determine the spectral modulations of the exoplanetary atmosphere. In order to accomplish this level of precision, we need to extract systematic errors, and, for ground-based measurements, the effects of Earth's atmosphere, from the signal due to the exoplanet, which is several orders of magnitudes smaller. Currently, the effects of the terrestrial atmosphere and the some of the time-dependent systematic errors are treated by dividing the host star by a reference star at each wavelength and time step of the transit. More recently, Independent Component Analyses (ICA) have been used to remove systematic effects from the raw data of space-based observations (Waldmann 2014,2012; Morello et al.,2015,2016). ICA is a statistical method born from the ideas of the blind-source separation studies, which can be used to de-trend several independent source signals of a data set (Hyvarinen and Oja, 2000). One strength of this method is that it requires no additional prior knowledge of the system. Here, we present a study of the application of ICA to ground-based transit observations of extrasolar planets, which are affected by Earth's atmosphere. We analyze photometric data of two extrasolar planets, WASP-1b and GJ3470b, recorded by the 61" Kuiper Telescope at Stewart Observatory using the Harris B and U filters. The presentation will compare the light curve depths and their dispersions as derived from the ICA analysis to those derived by analyses that ratio of the host star to nearby reference stars.References: Waldmann, I.P. 2012 ApJ, 747, 12, Waldamann, I. P. 2014 ApJ, 780, 23; Morello G. 2015 ApJ, 806

  3. Control of cytochrome b6f at low and high light intensity and cyclic electron transport in leaves.


    Laisk, Agu; Eichelmann, Hillar; Oja, Vello; Peterson, Richard B


    The light-dependent control of photosynthetic electron transport from plastoquinol (PQH(2)) through the cytochrome b(6)f complex (Cyt b(6)f) to plastocyanin (PC) and P700 (the donor pigment of Photosystem I, PSI) was investigated in laboratory-grown Helianthus annuus L., Nicotiana tabaccum L., and naturally-grown Solidago virgaurea L., Betula pendula Roth, and Tilia cordata P. Mill. leaves. Steady-state illumination was interrupted (light-dark transient) or a high-intensity 10 ms light pulse was applied to reduce PQ and oxidise PC and P700 (pulse-dark transient) and the following re-reduction of P700(+) and PC(+) was recorded as leaf transmission measured differentially at 810-950 nm. The signal was deconvoluted into PC(+) and P700(+) components by oxidative (far-red) titration (V. Oja et al., Photosynth. Res. 78 (2003) 1-15) and the PSI density was determined by reductive titration using single-turnover flashes (V. Oja et al., Biochim. Biophys. Acta 1658 (2004) 225-234). These innovations allowed the definition of the full light response curves of electron transport rate through Cyt b(6)f to the PSI donors. A significant down-regulation of Cyt b(6)f maximum turnover rate was discovered at low light intensities, which relaxed at medium light intensities, and strengthened again at saturating irradiances. We explain the low-light regulation of Cyt b(6)f in terms of inactivation of carbon reduction cycle enzymes which increases flux resistance. Cyclic electron transport around PSI was measured as the difference between PSI electron transport (determined from the light-dark transient) and PSII electron transport determined from chlorophyll fluorescence. Cyclic e(-) transport was not detected at limiting light intensities. At saturating light the cyclic electron transport was present in some, but not all, leaves. We explain variations in the magnitude of cyclic electron flow around PSI as resulting from the variable rate of non-photosynthetic ATP-consuming processes in

  4. Molecular approach to ayurveda.


    Tripathi, Y B


    In ayurvedic system of medicine, it is considered that a living system is made of panch-mahabuta, in the form of Vata, pitta and kapha at the physical level and satwa, raja and tama at the mental level. This covers the psychosomatic constitution and commonly known as the Tridosh theory. The imbalance in these body humours is the basic cause of any type of disease manifestation. Till date, several objective parameters have been proposed to monitor the level of these basic humours but none of them is complete. In this exercise, now it is proposed to consider free radical theory of diseases as one of the objective parameters. To be more specific, vata can be monitored in terms of membrane bound signal transduction, pitta as the process of phosphorylation and de-phosphorylation of different proteins (signalling moieties and enzymes) and kapha can be viewed as the degree of gene expression as protein synthesis. This can be correlated with the ojas of the body or total body defence mechanism.

  5. Input statistics and Hebbian cross-talk effects.


    Rădulescu, Anca


    As an extension of prior work, we studied inspecific Hebbian learning using the classical Oja model. We used a combination of analytical tools and numerical simulations to investigate how the effects of synaptic cross talk (which we also refer to as synaptic inspecificity) depend on the input statistics. We investigated a variety of patterns that appear in dimensions higher than two (and classified them based on covariance type and input bias). We found that the effects of cross talk on learning dynamics and outcome is highly dependent on the input statistics and that cross talk may lead in some cases to catastrophic effects on learning or development. Arbitrarily small levels of cross talk are able to trigger bifurcations in learning dynamics, or bring the system in close enough proximity to a critical state, to make the effects indistinguishable from a real bifurcation. We also investigated how cross talk behaves toward unbiased ("competitive") inputs and in which circumstances it can help the system productively resolve the competition. Finally, we discuss the idea that sophisticated neocortical learning requires accurate synaptic updates (similar to polynucleotide copying, which requires highly accurate replication). Since it is unlikely that the brain can completely eliminate cross talk, we support the proposal that is uses a neural mechanism that "proofreads" the accuracy of the updates, much as DNA proofreading lowers copying error rate.

  6. A critical review of concept of aging in Ayurveda

    PubMed Central

    Devi, Durgawati; Srivastava, Rajeev; Dwivedi, B. K.


    Ayurveda has a holistic approach toward all the miseries of man and aging is one of these. It is classified as one of the natural and Yapya (palliative) diseases. It is the process of becoming old and decaying. As age advances, several changes take place in the body, in the external appearance, in the condition of Dosha, Dhatu, Mala, Agni, Oja, and so on, as well as in the mental and cognitive functions. Elderly people are susceptible to several chronic diseases also. The problems of the elderly are becoming a matter of great concern as increased life expectancy due to better medical services and improved technology is resulting in an increasing population of the aged. By the year 2020, the World will have more than one billion people aged 60 and over, and more than two-thirds of them will be living in the developing countries. A major concern related to the rapid increase in the population of the aged is that there will be an increase in the prevalence of chronic diseases and disabilities, both being conditions that tend to accompany the aging process. This burden is increasing day by day. In the Ayurvedic texts, a comprehensive description has been given of aging. The aim of this conceptual article is to compile and re-evaluate the various principles related to different aspects of aging. PMID:22048551

  7. Effects of Dose Frequency of Early Communication Intervention in Young Children With and Without Down Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Yoder, Paul J.; Woynaroski, Tiffany G.; Fey, Marc E.; Warren, Steven F.


    This study involves a re-analysis of spoken vocabulary outcomes of children with intellectual disabilities who were randomly assigned to receive Milieu Communication Teaching (MCT) at low (one 1-hour session per week) or high (five 1-hour sessions per week) dose frequency over nine months (Fey, Yoder, Warren, & Bredin-Oja, in press). Non-Down syndrome (NDS) and Down syndrome (DS) subgroups were matched on intelligence, mental age, and chronological age. A growth model including intercept, slope, and quadratic revealed that children in the NDS group had significantly more growth in spoken vocabulary than children in the DS group independent of dose frequency manipulations. Subsequent etiological subgroup analyses demonstrated that in the DS subgroup, children receiving MCT at the higher dose frequency had more spoken vocabulary growth than children receiving MCT at the lower dose frequency. Subgroup analyses also supported our previous findings that high dose frequency of MCT yielded greater vocabulary production outcomes than low dose frequency for children who played functionally with a range of objects, regardless of etiology. PMID:24450319

  8. PA01.32. Critical analysis of Varnya Dashemani - An ayurvedic approach to cosmetology

    PubMed Central

    Ketkar, Pushkar M; Nayak, Shraddha U


    Purpose: Cosmetology is the branch, which deals with the Beauty treatment, and Skin care is a part of it. Due to the social cosmetic awareness in the society, there is increase in the demand and utilization of the cosmetic products. Most of these products contain chemicals such as dibutyl phthalate, formaldehyde, lye (sodium hydroxide), ammonia, and coal tar which are known to cause hazardous side effects to the skin like Allergies, photosensitivity and also Malignancies. This is a matter of concern in the society and alternatives have to be thought off in the form of safe and effective cosmetic agents. Method: Amongst the Fifty Dashemanis told in Charak samhita, Varnya Dashemani is one. Chakrapani in his commentary says Varnaaya hitam Varnyam, meaning that the one which enhances the colour complexion of the body is varnya. According to Ayurveda the health of the skin is dependent on Rakta dhatu, Ojas, and Pitta dosha. Any derangement in these factors leads to a cosmetic ill health. References regarding the drugs of ‘varnya dashemani’ are been found in many of the Nighantus where the authors have clearly mentioned about the detail pharmacology and pharmacothereupetics. Taking these factors into consideration critical analysis of these drugs has been done. Result: After screening the pharmacology of the drugs told in this dashemani we find all these drugs are rakta prasadakara, Ojo vardhak and pitta shamak. Also recent researches have proven them to be possessing Anti Glycation, Anti oxidant, Anti microbial properties which are essential in cosmetic health and skin care. Conclusion: Hence this study has been intended to critically analyse the drugs of ‘Varnya dasheman’, with an aim to provide an alternative to the harmful synthetic cosmetic products.

  9. Toward a theory of the general-anesthetic-induced phase transition of the cerebral cortex. II. Numerical simulations, spectral entropy, and correlation times.


    Steyn-Ross, D A; Steyn-Ross, M L; Wilcocks, L C; Sleigh, J W


    In our two recent papers [M.L. Steyn-Ross et al., Phys. Rev. E 60, 7299 (1999); 64, 011917 (2001)] we presented clinical evidence for a general anesthetic-induced phase change in the cerebral cortex, and showed how the significant features of the cortical phase change (biphasic power surge, spectral energy redistribution, "heat capacity" divergence), could be explained using a stochastic single-macrocolumn model of the cortex. The model predictions were based on rather strong "adiabatic" assumptions which assert that the mean-field excitatory and inhibitory macrocolumn voltages are "slow" variables whose equilibration times are much longer than those of the input "currents" that drive the macrocolumn. In the present paper we test the adiabatic assumption by running numerical simulations of the stochastic differential equations. These simulations confirm the number and nature of the steady-state solutions, the growth of fluctuation power at transition, and the redistribution of spectral energy towards lower frequencies. We use spectral entropy to quantify these changes in the power spectral density, and to show that the spectral entropy should decrease markedly at the point of transition. This prediction agrees with recent clinical findings by Viertiö-Oja and colleagues [J. Clinical Monitoring Computing 16, 60 (2000)]. Our modeling work shows that there is an inverse relationship between spectral entropy H and correlation time T of the soma-voltage fluctuations: H inversely proportional to (ln T). In a theoretical analysis we prove that this proportionality becomes exact for an ideal Lorentzian process. These findings suggest that by monitoring the changes in EEG correlation time, it should be possible to track changes in the state of patient consciousness.

  10. Action spectra of photosystems II and I and quantum yield of photosynthesis in leaves in State 1.


    Laisk, Agu; Oja, Vello; Eichelmann, Hillar; Dall'Osto, Luca


    The spectral global quantum yield (YII, electrons/photons absorbed) of photosystem II (PSII) was measured in sunflower leaves in State 1 using monochromatic light. The global quantum yield of PSI (YI) was measured using low-intensity monochromatic light flashes and the associated transmittance change at 810nm. The 810-nm signal change was calibrated based on the number of electrons generated by PSII during the flash (4·O2 evolution) which arrived at the PSI donor side after a delay of 2ms. The intrinsic quantum yield of PSI (yI, electrons per photon absorbed by PSI) was measured at 712nm, where photon absorption by PSII was small. The results were used to resolve the individual spectra of the excitation partitioning coefficients between PSI (aI) and PSII (aII) in leaves. For comparison, pigment-protein complexes for PSII and PSI were isolated, separated by sucrose density ultracentrifugation, and their optical density was measured. A good correlation was obtained for the spectral excitation partitioning coefficients measured by these different methods. The intrinsic yield of PSI was high (yI=0.88), but it absorbed only about 1/3 of quanta; consequently, about 2/3 of quanta were absorbed by PSII, but processed with the low intrinsic yield yII=0.63. In PSII, the quantum yield of charge separation was 0.89 as detected by variable fluorescence Fv/Fm, but 29% of separated charges recombined (Laisk A, Eichelmann H and Oja V, Photosynth. Res. 113, 145-155). At wavelengths less than 580nm about 30% of excitation is absorbed by pigments poorly connected to either photosystem, most likely carotenoids bound in pigment-protein complexes.

  11. Bias Properties of Extragalactic Distance Indicators. XI. Methods to Correct for Observational Selection Bias for RR Lyrae Absolute Magnitudes from Trigonometric Parallaxes Expected from the Full-Sky Astrometric Mapping Explorer Satellite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sandage, Allan; Saha, A.


    A short history is given of the development of the correction for observation selection bias inherent in the calibration of absolute magnitudes using trigonometric parallaxes. The developments have been due to Eddington, Jeffreys, Trumpler & Weaver, Wallerstein, Ljunggren & Oja, West, Lutz & Kelker, after whom the bias is named, Turon Lacarrieu & Crézé, Hanson, Smith, and many others. As a tutorial to gain an intuitive understanding of several complicated trigonometric bias problems, we study a toy bias model of a parallax catalog that incorporates assumed parallax measuring errors of various severities. The two effects of bias errors on the derived absolute magnitudes are (1) the Lutz-Kelker correction itself, which depends on the relative parallax error δπ/π and the spatial distribution, and (2) a Malmquist-like ``incompleteness'' correction of opposite sign due to various apparent magnitude cutoffs as they are progressively imposed on the catalog. We calculate the bias properties using simulations involving 3×106 stars of fixed absolute magnitude using Mv=+0.6 to imitate RR Lyrae variables in the mean. These stars are spread over a spherical volume bounded by a radius 50,000 pc with different spatial density distributions. The bias is demonstrated by first using a fixed rms parallax uncertainty per star of 50 μas and then using a variable rms accuracy that ranges from 50 μas at apparent magnitude V=9 to 500 μas at V=15 according to the specifications for the Full-Sky Astrometric Mapping Explorer (FAME) satellite to be launched in 2004. The effects of imposing magnitude limits and limits on the ``observer's'' error, δπ/π, are displayed. We contrast the method of calculating mean absolute magnitude directly from the parallaxes where bias corrections are mandatory, with an inverse method using maximum likelihood that is free of the Lutz-Kelker bias, although a Malmquist bias is present. Simulations show the power of the inverse method. Nevertheless, we

  12. Application of blind source separation to gamma ray spectra acquired by GRaND around Vesta

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mizzon, H.; Toplis, M. J.; Forni, O.; Prettyman, T. H.; Raymond, C. A.; Russell, C. T.


    of elements present in the spacecraft, of energy in the range 1 to 3.5 MeV. At energy >3.5 MeV, the dominant independent component highlighted by this method has no significant peaks, suggesting that it is not influenced by Vesta itself which is known to have a strong signal associated with iron at 7.6 MeV. Our method therefore represents a first step in retrieving the contribution of the spacecraft that could be used in conjunction with the mixing equation (1) to determine the contribution from the planet itself. 1 : Prettyman, T. H., Mcsween, Jr., H. Y., Feldman, W. C., JUN 2010. Dawn's GRaND to map the chemical composition of asteroids Vesta and Ceres. Geochimica and Cosmochimica Acta 74 (12, 1), A832, Con- ference on Goldschmidt 2010 - Earth, Energy, and the Environment, Knoxville, TN, JUN 13-18, 2010. 2 : Hyvarinen, A., Oja, E., May-Jun 2000. Independent component analysis: algorithms and applications. Neural Networks 13 (4-5), 411-430.

  13. PREFACE: International Conference on the Applications of the Mössbauer Effect (ICAME 2009)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Müller, Herbert; Reissner, Michael; Steiner, Walter; Wiesinger, Günter


    . The positive atmosphere, the high attendance in the sessions and the lively discussions made the conference a great success and a memorable event. It was pointed out, that Mössbauer spectroscopy is still an interesting and powerful method with great opportunities in the future. Herbert Müller (Secretary) Michael Reissner (Chairman) This book is dedicated to our colleagues Nicol Malcom, who could not come, because he suddenly died a few weeks in advance to the conference and Hercilio Rechenberg, who died on his way home from Vienna. Conference photograph Conference Organisation Local Organizing Committee Reissner Michael (Chairman)Müller Herbert (Conference Secretary) Amthauer Georg Lottermoser WernerSteiner Walter Bauer Ernst Michor Herwig Vogl Gero Bühler-Paschen Silke Müller Martin Waas Monika Grodzicki Michael Redhammer Günther Wiesinger Günter Grössinger Roland Sassik Herbert Hilscher Gerfried Sepiol Bogdan International Programme Committee Amthauer Georg Gütlich Philipp Steiner Walter Baggio-Saitovich Elisa Litterst Fred Jochen Trautwein Alfred Xaver Berry Frank Long Gary Vogl Gero Felner Israel Nagy Denes Lajos Yoshida Yutaka Greneche Jean-Marc Rüffer Rudolf International Advisory Board Alp E ErcanGénin Jean-Marie Baggio-Saitovitch Elisa Greneche Jean-Marc Miglierini Marcel Balogh Judit Grodzicki Michael Musić Svetozar Bender Koch Christian Gütlich Philipp Nagy Dénes Lajos Berry Frank Häggström Lennart Nishida Tetsuaki Brown Dennis Hanzel Darko Pérez Alcázar German Campbell Stewart Hassaan Mohamed Yousri Rüffer Rudolf Carbucicchio Massimo Jumas Jean-Claude Ryan Dominic H Croci Simonetta Kadyrzhanov Kariat Sanchez Francisco Di Naili Katila Toivo Schünemann Volker Elzain Mohamed Kim Chul Sung Stanek Jan Fabris José Domingos Klingelhöfer Göstar Stevens John Felner Israel Langouche Guido Suzdalev Igor P Fern George R Lyubutin Igor S Szymanski Krzysztof Forder Sue D Marco Jose F Waanders Frans Gajbhiye Nandeo Mašlaň Miroslav Yoshida Yutaka

  14. Titanium (IV) sol-gel chemistry in varied gravity environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hales, Matthew; Martens, Wayde; Steinberg, Theodore

    . The test systems and experimental results obtained will be presented. 1. Okubo, T., Tsuchida, A., Okuda, T., Fujitsuna, K., Ishikawa, M., Morita, T., Tada, T. , Kinetic Analyses of Colloidal Crystallization in Microgravity -Aircraft Experiments. . Colloids and Surfaces A: Physicochemical and Engineering Aspects, 1999. 153: p. 515-524. 2. Okubo, T., Tsuchida, A., Kobayashi, K., Kuno, A., Morita, T., Fujishima, M., Kohno, Y., Kinetic Study of the Formation Reaction of Colloidal Silica Spheres in Microgravity Using Aircraft. Colloid Polymer Science, 1999. 277(5): p. 474-478. 3. Pienaar, C.L., Chiffoleau, G. J. A., Follens, L. R. A., Martens, J. A., Kirschhock, C. E. A., Steinberg, T. A., Effect of Gravity on the Gelation of Silica Sols. Chem. Mater., 2007. 19(4): p. 660-664. 4. Smith, D.D., et al., Effect of Microgravity on the Growth of Silica Nanostructures. Langmuir, 2000. 16(26): p. 10055-10060. 5. Zhang, X., Johnson, D.P., Manerbino, A.R., Moore, J.J., Schowengerdt, F. , Recent Mi-crogravity Results in the Synthesis of Porous Materials. AIP Conference Proceedings (Space Technology and Applications International Forum-1999, Pt. 1), 1999. 458: p. 88-93. 6. Dunbar, P.B., Bendzko, N.J.,, 1H and 13C NMR observation of the reaction of acetic acid with titanium isopropoxide. Materials Chemistry and Physics, 1999. 59: p. 26-35. 7. Krunks, M., Oja, I., T˜nsuaadu, K., Es-Souni, M., Gruselle, M., Niinistü,. L, Thermoanalytical study of acetylacetonate-modified titanium (iv) isopropoxide as precursor for TiO2 films. Journal of Thermal Analysis and Calorimetry, 2005: p. 483-488. 8. Moran, P.D., Bowmaker, G. A., Cooney, R. P., Vibrational Spectra and Molecular Associa-tion of Titanium Tetraisopropoxide. Inorg. Chem., 1998. 37(1): p. 2741-2748. 9. Somogyvari, A., Serpone, N.,, Evidence for five-coordination in titanium(1V) complexes. A nuclear magnetic resonance investigation. Canadian Journal of Chemistry, 1977. 56: p. 316-319.

  15. Recent progresses of neural network unsupervised learning: I. Independent component analyses generalizing PCA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Szu, Harold H.


    The early vision principle of redundancy reduction of 108 sensor excitations is understandable from computer vision viewpoint toward sparse edge maps. It is only recently derived using a truly unsupervised learning paradigm of artificial neural networks (ANN). In fact, the biological vision, Hubel- Wiesel edge maps, is reproduced seeking the underlying independent components analyses (ICA) among 102 image samples by maximizing the ANN output entropy (partial)H(V)/(partial)[W] equals (partial)[W]/(partial)t. When a pair of newborn eyes or ears meet the bustling and hustling world without supervision, they seek ICA by comparing 2 sensory measurements (x1(t), x2(t))T equalsV X(t). Assuming a linear and instantaneous mixture model of the external world X(t) equals [A] S(t), where both the mixing matrix ([A] equalsV [a1, a2] of ICA vectors and the source percentages (s1(t), s2(t))T equalsV S(t) are unknown, we seek the independent sources approximately equals [I] where the approximated sign indicates that higher order statistics (HOS) may not be trivial. Without a teacher, the ANN weight matrix [W] equalsV [w1, w2] adjusts the outputs V(t) equals tanh([W]X(t)) approximately equals [W]X(t) until no desired outputs except the (Gaussian) 'garbage' (neither YES '1' nor NO '-1' but at linear may-be range 'origin 0') defined by Gaussian covariance G equals [I] equals [W][A] Oja, Bell-Sejnowski, Amari-Cichocki, Cardoso), the LYAPONOV function L(v1,...,vn, w1,...wn,) equals E(v1,...,vn) - H(w1,...wn) is constructed as the HELMHOTZ free energy to prove both convergences of supervised energy E and unsupervised entropy H learning. Consequently, rather

  16. Preliminary observations of the SELENE Gamma Ray Spectrometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Forni, O.; Diez, B.; Gasnault, O.; Munoz, B.; D'Uston, C.; Reedy, R. C.; Hasebe, N.


    model, the data variables are assumed to be linear mixtures of some unknown latent variables, and the mixing system is also unknown. The latent variables are assumed non- Gaussian and mutually independent and they are called the independent components of the observed data. These independent components, also called sources or factors, can be found by ICA. This is done by maximising a non-gaussianity criterion of the sources. As in [8], we have used the JADE algorithm developed and described in [9] for our analysis that we focused in the energy range from 750 to 3000 keV. We identify at least three meaningful components. The first one is correlated to the Thorium map (Fig. 4). The corresponding correlation coefficient spectrum exhibits the lines of Thorium, Potassium and Uranium (Fig. 5). The second component (Fig. 6) is clearly correlated with the Iron as shown on its corresponding spectrum (Fig. 5). A third component, identified at lower resolution, seems to be partly correlated with the altitude of the spacecraft (not shown). Further improvement in the data reduction, like corrections for altitude, cosmic ray, and neutron current variations should allow a better interpretation of the data. Acknowledgement. The SELENE GRS team members are: N. Hasebe, O. Okudaira, N. Yamashita, S. Kobayashi, Y. Karouji, M. Hareyama, S. Kodaira, S. Komatsu, K. Hayatsu, K. Iwabuchi, S. Nemoto, E. Shibamura, M.-N. Kobayashi, R.C. Reedy, K.J. Kim, C. d'Uston, S. Maurice, O. Gasnault, O. Forni, B. Diez. References. [1] Hasebe, N. et al. (2008) Earth, Planets and Space, 60, 299-312.. [2] Lawrence, D.J. et al. (1999) Geophys. Res. Lett., 26 (17), 2681-2684. [3] Evans, L.E. et al. (2006) J. Geophys. Res., 111, E03S04. [4] Prettyman, T.H. et al. (2006) J. Geophys. Res., 111, E12007. [5] Gillis, J.J. et al. (2004) Geo. et Cosmo. Acta, 68 (18), 3791-3805. [6] Comon P. (1994) Signal Processing, 36, 287-314. [7] Hyvärinen, A. and E. Oja (2000) Neural Networks, 13(4-5), 411-430. [8] Forni O. et al